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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Parent-involved career exploration : the experience of adolescents and parents Penner, Kurt S. 1997

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PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF ADOLESCENTS AND PARENTS  by KURT S. PENNER .A.(Honours), The U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba, 1987 M.T.S., Regent C o l l e g e , 1990  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1997 (c)Kurt Steven Penner, 1997  In  presenting  requirements British freely that  this  thesis  f o r an  Columbia, available  I  in  advanced agree  partial degree  that  the  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  permission  f o r extensive  fulfillment  at  the  Library study.  copying  of  of  the  University shall  make i t  I further this  of  thesis  agree for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or  by  h i s or  her  representatives.  It  i s understood  that  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department of  0  , 0 0 KVbILLL-10  Co  ^S^CtTOU)<bV  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  ^  30  ,  lWf  ii  Abstract The  purpose of t h i s study was  of students  and parents who  b r i e f technique students Parent  t o e x p l o r e the  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an  i n career counselling.  i n grades 10 and  Involved Career  11 who  experience  innovative,  Eight high  r e c e i v e d one  s e s s i o n of a  E x p l o r a t i o n (PICE) i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h  a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r were interviewed; s i x i n v o l v e d were i n t e r v i e w e d as w e l l .  parents  T h i s study u t i l i z e d a  phenomenological approach t o i n v e s t i g a t e s t u d e n t s ' p a r e n t s ' experience  school  of the PICE s e s s i o n and  and  their  p e r s p e c t i v e s on i t s impact on student c a r e e r development over the ensuing  s i x months.  Participants' interpretations  were grouped i n t o e i g h t themes: Goals, process  and content,  e v a l u a t i o n of s e s s i o n  impact on c a r e e r p e r s p e c t i v e  and  a c t i o n s , impact on f a m i l y dynamics, a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r change, and d i r e c t suggestions  f o r improvement of PICE.  Results  i n d i c a t e d most p a r t i c i p a n t s r e l a t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the PICE s e s s i o n t o s m a l l , but p r a c t i c a l , g a i n s i n c a r e e r development; g a i n s were o f t e n r e l a t e d t o b e l i e f s  and  p e r s p e c t i v e s p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t were more p r o d u c t i v e . t h i s approach appears t o m e r i t f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h discussed.  are  Since  Table o f Contents Abstract  ii  T a b l e o f Contents  i i i  Acknowledgements  v  Chapter I  1  INTRODUCTION  Context  1  Purpose o f the Study  5  Research Approach  6  Chapter I I  LITERATURE REVIEW  8  A d o l e s c e n t Career Development  8  P a r e n t a l I n f l u e n c e i n Adolescent Career Development  11  Career I n t e r v e n t i o n I n v o l v i n g Parents  20  Parent Involved Career E x p l o r a t i o n  29  Chapter I I I METHODOLOGY  (PICE)  35  Method  35  Participants  39  Re c r u itment  41  Data C o l l e c t i o n  41  R a t i o n a l e f o r Interview Questions  43  I n t e r v i e w Guide  44  Data A n a l y s i s  46  Researcher Role  47  Chapter IV  RESULTS  50  Emergent Themes  50  Thematic Data  51  T a b l e 1: Summary o f PICE Experience  95  iv Chapter V  DISCUSSION  97  Convergence and divergence  i n PICE experience  ....97  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Further Development of PICE  .... 104  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Future Research  105  Theoretical Implications  106  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Career I n t e r v e n t i o n  107  Limitations  107  Conclusion  Ill  References Appendix A  113 Pattern I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Exercise  (PIE)  D e s c r i p t i o n by Amundson (1995)  ....121  Appendix B  PICE: Steps i n the C o u n s e l l i n g Process  ..123  Appendix C  L e t t e r of I n i t i a l Contact  Appendix D  P a r t i c i p a n t Informed Consent Form  Appendix E  P a r e n t a l Consent f o r Minor  129  Appendix F  Interview  Introduction Script  130  Appendix G  Interview  Transcripts  131  Appendix H  Interview  Summaries  189  Appendix I  Participant Validations  127 ..128  ....219  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank my w i f e Rosemarie f o r p a t i e n t l y enduring t h i s p r o c e s s , f o r encouraging me  along the way  and  f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t the end r e a l l y would come (and f o r l e t t i n g me h i d e away a t my desk when n e c e s s a r y ) .  I look  forward t o r o l e r e v e r s a l i n the near f u t u r e . Thank you t o my  a d v i s o r , Dr. Norm Amundson, f o r your  i n v a l u a b l e h e l p , encouragement and r e l a x e d nature a t every s t e p a l o n g the way.  F u r t h e r thanks t o my  committee members,  Drs. Marv Westwood and Robert Chester, f o r i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h i s work t o complete the process. I would l i k e t o express a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r my f r i e n d s who  have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d i n the background.  s a y i n g goes, " I f i t weren't f o r you.... Komet, who  f a m i l y and  11  As  the  Thank you a l s o t o  gave me many hours of a f f e c t i o n a t e and  playful  distraction. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s who  g r a c i o u s l y gave of t h e i r time and shared t h e i r  thoughts  about what the PICE experience had meant f o r them. a l l t h e b e s t f o r each student and your f a m i l y as c o n t i n u e your path of c a r e e r development.  you  I wish  1 Chapter I Introduction Context Young people today face an a r r a y o f l i t e r a l l y of occupations  thousands  t o choose from ( B o l l e s , 1996), many o f which  they w i l l not have easy access t o i n terms o f e x p l o r a t i o n . Given t h i s overwhelming number o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s , along the d e c r e a s i n g  s t a b i l i t y of t h e work/job world  with  (Bridges,  1994), young people's need f o r c a r e e r development a s s i s t a n c e has never been g r e a t e r . Two decades ago, P r e d i g e r , Roth, and Noeth (1974) concluded  t h a t students  a t t h a t time were e x p r e s s i n g a  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r need f o r h e l p i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g they f e l t they were r e c e i v i n g .  In a f u r t h e r study t e n years  l a t e r , P r e d i g e r and Sawyer (1985) argued t h a t ,  although  c a r e e r a s s i s t a n c e had i n c r e a s e d , students were s t i l l of more; over 70% of j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h surveyed  still  requested  than  i n need  students  more h e l p than they were r e c e i v i n g .  Moving t o an o l d e r sample, Otto  (1984) sampled a group o f  30-year o l d s i n t h e community r e g a r d i n g t h e i r  biggest  problems i n t r a n s i t i o n from high s c h o o l t o a d u l t r o l e s . Two-thirds o f t h e sample r e p o r t e d problems w i t h choice or career preparation.  career  Most f e l t unprepared t o f a c e  the work world, and many t r a c e d t h e l a c k t o a l a c k o f preparation i n high school. The  North American e d u c a t i o n a l system prepares  students  2 not f o r work per se, but f o r the next l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g (Aubrey, 1986).  Herr and Cramer (1988) argued t h a t most  c h i l d r e n i n the U.S.  are g i v e n very l i t t l e  systematic  a s s i s t a n c e i n p l a n n i n g f o r c a r e e r development.  Worse y e t ,  the i n c r e a s e d commitment t o a c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y model has meant t h e r e may  be l i t t l e hope f o r reform i n the near  f u t u r e ; "Parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n are l e f t t o c a r r y the bulk of the l o a d f o r t r a i n i n g and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making" (Downing & D'Andrea, 1994,  p.  115).  A r e c e n t study of over 700  american c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s '  and t h e i r needs r e v e a l e d n e a r l y 40% of them i n d i c a t i n g a t l e a s t a moderate need f o r more a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c a r e e r c h o i c e ( G a l l a g h e r , G o l i n , & K e l l e h e r , 1992;  p. 304).  Younger  a d o l e s c e n t s are a l l the more i n need of h e l p as they for in  post-high school l i f e .  prepare  Although t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s  t h e Canadian context, t h e r e are l i k e l y some s i m i l a r i t i e s  as w e l l . Due  t o i n c r e a s i n g economic c h a l l e n g e s and  potentially  d e c r e a s i n g r e s o u r c e s , the need f o r more c o s t - e f f e c t i v e career counselling interventions i s r i s i n g . employment concerns  are primary,  Though  c o u n s e l l i n g (even c a r e e r  c o u n s e l l i n g ) s e r v i c e s are i n constant danger of b e i n g underfunded  (Stone & Archer, 1990).  Government-imposed time  and  f u n d i n g l i m i t a t i o n s are f u e l l i n g a growing d e s i r e t o be e f f i c i e n t i n a growing t r e n d f o r new in  general  ( E c k e r t , 1993)  methods of c o u n s e l l i n g  and c a r e e r assessment i n  3 particular  (Amundson, 1995).  F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s a heightened of  need t o p r o v i d e  evidence  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n Canada.  A r e c e n t review  Canadian Labour Force Development Board H o n g - F a r r e l l , 1993)  sponsored by  the  (Conger, H i e b e r t , &  found t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s were l a r g e l y  e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r s e r v i c e s .  not  Kellett  (1994) warned: In the absence of some d e f i n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t c a r e e r and employment c o u n s e l l i n g can make and i s making, t h e r e i s a r e a l danger t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g ... w i l l be pushed f u r t h e r a s i d e , w i t h even fewer r e s o u r c e s g i v e n t o i t " (p. 351). The warning i s w e l l taken, yet c h a l l e n g e s i n doing  such  v a l i d a t i o n r e s e a r c h abound as w e l l — c h a l l e n g e s due  t o the  same s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , as w e l l as i n the p o l i t i c a l nature evaluation  of  (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1993).  Some of the avenues a v a i l a b l e t o c o u n s e l l o r s i n response t o these c h a l l e n g e s are p o l i t i c a l  advocacy,  i n c r e a s i n g needs a n a l y s i s , outcome r e s e a r c h ,  developing  c a r e e r p l a n n i n g c u r r i c u l u m f o r use i n s c h o o l classrooms, experimenting  with b r i e f , but p o t e n t i a l l y  interventions.  powerful  The p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e (PIE),  used e f f e c t i v e l y i n both i n d i v i d u a l and group (Amundson & Cochran, 1984;  contexts  Amundson & Stone, 1992)  i s an  example of a b r i e f technique used o u t s i d e the s c h o o l to  facilitate  facilitating  and  c a r e e r development. a c l i e n t s ' own  The technique  context  involves  a n a l y s i s of t h e i r p a t t e r n s of  4  s t y l e , preferences,  and v a l u e s u s i n g t h e i r own  experiences  as r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l (See Appendix A f o r a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n v i a Amundson, 1995).  Though not l i m i t e d t o a  c a r e e r development context, the technique  has been used i n  t h i s domain with some success. B r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n s can be u s e f u l not o n l y from a c o s t b e n e f i t p e r s p e c t i v e , but a l s o from other p o i n t s of view as well.  I f c l i e n t s most o f t e n stay i n therapy  sessions  f o r only a  (whether planned or unplanned), outcomes may  enhanced i f i n t e r v e n t i o n s are c o n c e p t u a l l y planned as ( G a r f i e l d , 1989).  One  few  be brief  o b s t a c l e t o b r i e f approaches,  however, i s the f a c t t h a t some t h e r a p i s t s have d i s p l a y e d r e s i s t a n c e t o b r i e f models, even i n the f a c e of  research  showing i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Steenbarger,  1992).  Another avenue of approach i n enhancing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t o i n v o l v e i n ways t h a t heighten t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o a s s i s t c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development.  parents  their  T h i s can be viewed as both a  u t i l i z a t i o n of p a r e n t a l a v a i l a b i l i t y , and a l s o p o t e n t i a l l y remediating  or enhancing f a m i l y s k i l l s and dynamics, s i n c e  the p a r e n t a l r o l e i s a l r e a d y i n f l u e n t a l 1992).  (Young & F r i e s e n ,  However, few programs have been developed i n v o l v i n g  t h i s untapped r e s o u r c e ,  and even l e s s t h a t have r e p o r t e d  measures of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Recently  a b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n has been developed which  i n c o r p o r a t e s both p a r e n t a l involvement w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s ,  and  5 p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n (Amundson, 1996).  I t remains t o be seen, however, what e f f e c t s a b r i e f  (1 s e s s i o n ) c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v o l v i n g a d o l e s c e n t s  and  t h e i r p a r e n t s can have on adolescent c a r e e r development over t h e ensuing months.  The q u e s t i o n i s whether the  i n t e r v e n t i o n c o u l d have a p o s i t i v e ,  ' c a t a l y t i c ' e f f e c t on  an  a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , promoting g r e a t e r m o t i v a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n , mature c h o i c e s , and progress toward d e c i s i o n s . Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s t o p r o v i d e an e v a l u a t i o n of the impact Exploration  of the Parent I n v o l v e d  (PICE) technique.  The  p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and involvement  initial Career  l i t e r a t u r e related to i n adolescent career  development w i l l be surveyed as a backdrop f o r the p r e s e n t investigation.  H o p e f u l l y t h i s study w i l l o f f e r a  p r e l i m i n a r y understanding  of the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s , r i s k s ,  and parameters of the PICE technique.  R e s u l t s of the  study  w i l l be used t o continue development of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a u s e f u l resource f o r d e s i g n i n g evaluation research.  later  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the q u e s t i o n i s  based on the s i g n i f i c a n t need f o r improved c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g d e l i v e r y , both i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and S i n c e the PICE technique  efficiency.  i s a b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n , any  p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t s on c a r e e r development w i l l examined.  be  6  Research Approach A l l r e s e a r c h can be c o n s i d e r e d e v a l u a t i v e , and t h i s study i s no e x c e p t i o n t o the r u l e .  Since I hope t o o f f e r an  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n , it  i s u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n o f who should  such e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  Guba and L i n c o l n  judge  (1993) have argued  that evaluation i s inherently a p o l i t i c a l process; therefore the views and v a l u e s of as many s t a k e h o l d e r s as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be, c o n s i d e r e d . service recipients.  A good s t a r t i n g p o i n t would be t h e The i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n then becomes what  do they f e e l t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n has done f o r them; how s u c c e s s f u l was i t from t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a q u a l i t a t i v e case study approach  was  u t i l i z e d , w i t h t h e primary data source being t h e s t u d e n t s themselves.  Since parents a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e  s e s s i o n s , and s i n c e they have a c r i t i c a l concern f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r development, parents were a secondary  source  of d a t a .  study.  No q u a n t i t a t i v e measures were used i n t h i s  Students and p a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o draw out t h e i r own s t o r i e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s on the r o l e o f t h e PICE program i n c a r e e r development/planning involvement.  over t h e s i x months p o s t -  A q u a l i t a t i v e approach  seemed most s u i t a b l e  f o r such a p r e l i m i n a r y , formative e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s innovation.  Future i n v e s t i g a t i o n of PICE may w e l l i n v o l v e a  combined q u a l i t a t i v e / q u a n t i t a t i v e approach,  and t h e  e x p l o r a t o r y data unearthed by t h i s study w i l l p r o v i d e some  7  of the b a s i s f o r such f u t u r e work.  Although I w i l l  discuss  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' views on the PICE  impact,  i t w i l l be l e f t t o readers t o a r r i v e a t t h e i r  own  c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the success or p o t e n t i a l of t h i s technique for  counselling practice.  8 Chapter  II  L i t e r a t u r e Review Adolescent c a r e e r Development Adolescence  may  be seen as one of the most c h a l l e n g i n g  t r a n s i t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s f a c e over the l i f e span. to  E r i k s o n (1963; 1968), the primary t a s k of  i n v o l v e s the development of ego i d e n t i t y , or formation.  According  adolescence identity  Healthy r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t s i n a c l e a r sense  s e l f , w h i l e u n s u c c e s s f u l youth are expected t o s e l f - d o u b t and c o n f u s i o n .  experience  The t r a n s i t i o n from s c h o o l  towards work v i a a c a r e e r p l a n i s c e n t r a l t o such i d e n t i t y ; the worker r o l e i t s e l f development.  an  i s i n t e g r a l t o such  I d e n t i t y formation i n v o l v e s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  ' s e p a r a t i o n ' from one's f a m i l y ( e s p e c i a l l y parents) to  of  i n order  e x p e r i e n c e o n e s e l f as capable of managing the t a s k s of  life. Attachment t h e o r i s t s  (eg., Bowlby, 1982)  have e x p l o r e d  t h i s concept of s e p a r a t i o n as complemented by a secure attachment t o parents, r a t h e r than r e p l a c i n g i t .  Attachment  r e f e r s t o a s t a b l e , a f f e c t i v e bond between parent and and the t h e o r y proposes  child,  t h a t such a bond i s n e c e s s a r y t o  p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y f o r the c h i l d t o separate and e x p l o r e ; secure attachment a l l o w s f o r h e a l t h y s e p a r a t i o n and formation.  Contemporary t h e o r i s t s have proposed  identity  that t h i s  framework be allowed t o organize r e l a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on c a r e e r development, r a t h e r than competing w i t h them  9 ( B l u s t e i n & P r e z i o s o , 1995). suggest  What t h i s approach would  i s t h a t adolescence may  be viewed as a movement away  from p a r e n t s w i t h i n a context of more or l e s s f u n c t i o n a l / d y s f u n c t i o n a l bonding Bios  and i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s .  (1979), a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i s t , viewed the  stage as a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of e a r l i e r attachment s e p a r a t i o n from p a r e n t s .  and  Family systems t h e o r y has  d e s c r i b e d the time as a key s e p a r a t i o n phase.  also  For example,  i n the work of Murray Bowen (1978) the key i s s u e i n development i s i n d i v i d u a t i o n , or emotional from one's f a m i l y .  The key i s not simple  'disentanglement' emotional  d i s t a n c i n g , but autonomous f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of relationship.  What heightens the s e r i o u s n e s s of the  a d o l e s c e n t stage i s t h a t i t i s a c r u c i a l one f o r both p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n and c a r e e r development t a s k s . K i n n i e r , Brigman, and Noble (1990) t e s t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y enmeshment and c a r e e r i n d e c i s i o n w i t h u n i v e r s i t y students.  Students  i n t h e i r sample who  were  more d e c i d e d r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r s were indeed more ' i n d i v i d u a t e d ' than those l e s s decided, however t h e measures p r o v i d e d o n l y weak support f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p . individuation  (versus enmeshment) o n l y accounted  the v a r i a n c e , w i t h age,  In f a c t , f o r 3% of  f o r example a c c o u n t i n g f o r 6%.  The  authors argue t h a t enmeshment (a g r o w t h - i n h i b i t o r ) does not e q u a l emotional c l o s e n e s s (a growth enhancer).  In f a c t ,  emotional c l o s e n e s s can promote s e l f - e s t e e m , a s s e r t i v e n e s s ,  10 and a sense o f w e l l - b e i n g .  In any event,  c o n t a i n t h e bulk o f the most observable  adolescence  does  s e p a r a t i n g between  c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s ; Wechter (1983) advised p a r e n t s t o encourage such autonomy i n c h i l d r e n ' s  decision-making,  i n c l u d i n g career decisions. One process  popular way t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e c a r e e r development i s simply t h e degree t o which a person has made  r e q u i s i t e d e c i s i o n s i n t h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n through s c h o o l towards work.  Graef, Wells, Hyland, and Muchinsky  (1985)  s t u d i e d s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such p r o g r e s s i o n i n h i g h s c h o o l students, and found t h a t t h e best p r e d i c t o r s o f c a r e e r decidedness  i n adolescent females was academic,  w h i l e f o r males i t was s o c i a l - i n t e r p e r s o n a l . suggested  Graef  the differences related to s o c i a l i z a t i o n ,  et a l . with  g r e a t e r and e a r l i e r pressure on young men t o make c a r e e r decisions.  Whether o r not such gender d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  widespread, t h e g e n e r a l importance of t h e f a m i l y i n c a r e e r education  i s implied.  I n t e r e s t i n f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r c h o i c e may be t r a c e d t o t h e work of Ann Roe (eg., Roe & Seigelman, 1964). While i n i t i a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n v o l v e d more c o n c r e t e  v a r i a b l e s such as gender and socioeconomic  status, the trend  has moved towards acknowledgment of i n t e r a c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s as w e l l .  Owens (1992), f o r example,  looked a t m u l t i p l e  p r e d i c t o r s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n a study i n v o l v i n g over 2,000 U.S. h i g h s c h o o l students.  R e s u l t s suggested  t h e best  11 p r e d i c t o r s were f a m i l y c o n t i n g e n c i e s , s c h o o l performance/expectations,  f a m i l y and peer  influences.  P a r e n t a l I n f l u e n c e i n Adolescent Career Development There has been a widely h e l d myth i n s o c i e t y t h a t p a r e n t s do not matter  i n young people's c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ,  t h a t they are not l i s t e n e d t o (Otto, 1989).  and  There i s , i n  f a c t , a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t i n g the c o n t r a r y , t h a t parents do matter a g r e a t d e a l i n i n f o r m i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s career decisions. and C r o u t e r ' s  two  of f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e on c a r e e r development:  c o n c r e t e v a r i a b l e s such as education, f i n a n c e s , and  modeling,  and second,  f a m i l y dynamics p r o c e s s e s of  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Lesser  Vondracek,  (1984) comprehensive review suggested  major dimensions first,  Schulenberg,  Two  decades ago L e i f e r  and  (1976) d i d a comprehensive review of c a r e e r  l i t e r a t u r e and concluded t h a t parents were, i n f a c t ,  the  primary determiners of c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r c h o i c e s , both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y .  More r e c e n t l y , i n the Canadian  c o n t e x t , the survey work work of Bibby and P o s t e r s k i (1992) supported a s i m i l a r l y h i g h e v a l u a t i o n of p a r e n t s ' c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and p l a n s of teenage children. P r o b i n g somewhat deeper, S a l t i e l terms ' d e f i n e r i n f l u e n c e ' and  (1985) c o i n e d the  'model i n f l u e n c e ' i n an  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the process of s t a t u s - a t t a i n m e n t .  'Models'  12 impact p r i m a r i l y on p e r i p h e r a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o behaviour and  a t t i t u d e s , w h i l e ' d e f i n e r s ' p r o v i d e t h e substance f o r  deeper, i d e n t i t y - c e n t r a l b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . S a l t i e l ' s f i n d i n g s , f o r the adolescent, providing the majority persons most l i k e l y  According to  p a r e n t s were  still  of d e f i n e r i n f l u e n c e , and were the  to i n t e r a c t with adolescents  t h e i r own c a r e e r development.  regarding  T r i c e (1991) used a  r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n a l y s i s t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parental  occupations and e a r l y career  adolescents.  One c o n c l u s i o n  a s p i r a t i o n s of  T r i c e drew was t h a t  fathers'  i n f l u e n c e d e c l i n e d w i t h age, due t o the f a c t t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s were l e s s l i k e l y  to aspire to t h e i r fathers'  o c c u p a t i o n s than c h i l d r e n were.  However, i t appears t h i s  argument r e s t s on a shallow n o t i o n of i n f l u e n c e . c h i l d may evince  being i n f l u e n c e d by s t r i c t  a d o l e s c e n t has perhaps moved past following  imitation t o advice-  (1986), u s i n g an A u s t r a l i a n sample, concluded  that f o r the majority  advice  i m i t a t i o n , an  (or r e j e c t i n g ) .  Wilks  followed  While the  of adolesencents, p a r e n t a l  advice  was  f o r longer-term, d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s , w h i l e peer  was f o l l o w e d  decisions.  f o r short-term, l e s s important  Brown and Mann (1991) p r o v i d e d  another  e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent and adolescent s t y l e s .  Expressly  s t a t i n g they were t e s t i n g  Bandura's (1986) m o d e l l i n g theory, these i n v e s t i g a t o r s addressed p a r e n t / c h i l d decision-making competence and  13 confidence.  They concluded t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s p a r t i a l l y  supported Bandura's theory,  though t h e i r methodology d i d  address d i f f e r e n c e s between i n t a c t versus blended or families.  Further,  t h e r e was  T h i s f a c t o r would seem an  for future exploration.  Looking from the p a r e n t s ' Friesen  vantage p o i n t , Young  (1992) examined parents'  critical  split  no c o n t r o l f o r the q u a l i t y of  relationship within families. extremely important one  not  and  intentions associated  with  i n c i d e n t s they had undertaken i n f o s t e r i n g the  c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Explanations  supported the n o t i o n t h a t parents are q u i t e a c t i v e i n attempting to influence t h e i r c h i l d ' s career defined broadly.  Intentions  i n c l u d e d c a t e g o r i e s such as  s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n , values a c q u i s i t i o n , and responsibility.  development,  increased  Although the authors d i d not  target  c h i l d r e n ' s response t o p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s Young and  F r i e s e n suggested t h a t making i n t e n t i o n s more  e x p l i c i t would b e n e f i t both adolescents Recently, and  study,  and  parents.  i t appears t h a t the dynamics of attachment  s e p a r a t i o n have r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n r e l a t i v e  c a r e e r development. Goldsmith  For example, Hoffman, Hofacker,  and  (1992) s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  adolescents' perceptions  f e e l i n g s of closeness of being  to parents with t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e d by parents.  P a r e n t s were  l a r g e l y seen as the primary i n f l u e n c e r s of c a r e e r , males and  to  and  both  females r a t e d t h e i r f a t h e r as more i n f l u e n t i a l  14 than t h e i r mother.  There was  e f f e c t noted f o r c l o s e n e s s adolescents'  unclear  independence and own  significant, their influence  (1991) claimed  the  previous  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between emotional Their  c l a r i t y found t h a t , f o r women, attachment  c o n f l i c t u a l independence (freedom from  excessive  c o n f l i c t ) from both parents was  p o s i t i v e l y related to  p r o g r e s s i n c a r e e r commitment.  For men,  dependence on  on  B l u s t e i n , Waldbridge,  c a r e e r development of a d o l e s c e n t s .  attempt t o add  t o and  t o f a t h e r s and  career decisions.  F r i e d l a n d e r , and P a l l a d i n o r e s e a r c h was  a s m a l l , but  (having  attitudinal  s i m i l a r b e l i e f s ) and  conflictual  independence from f a t h e r p r e d i c t e d p r o g r e s s i n c a r e e r commitment.  However, support was  not found f o r the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n and  expected  career  d e c i s i o n making. The  complex r e l a t i o n s h i p of attachment and  v a r i a b l e s may  separation  throw l i g h t on the d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g  i n d e c i s i o n t o f a m i l y problems.  For example, the  family  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by overdependence and r e s i s t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l i t y may  adolescent  not n e c e s s a r i l y produce undecided or  indecisive patterns.  Eigen,  study of f a m i l y systems and  Hartman, and Hartman's (1987) career d e c i s i o n making f a i l e d  f i n d c o n n e c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g broad dimensions of cohesion,  career  but some negative  family  e f f e c t s were noted r e l a t e d t o  f a m i l y systems w i t h s t r i c t r u l e s and h i g h  attachment.  K i n n i e r , Brigman, and Noble (1990) r e l a t e d g r e a t e r  career  to  15 decidedness w i t h higher l e v e l s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n and c o n f l i c t u a l a l l i a n c e formation Jepsen (1992), who study,  i n the f a m i l y .  less  Penick  and  i n c l u d e d the most v a r i a b l e s i n t h e i r  found student p e r c e p t i o n s of f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g were  more p r e d i c t i v e of c a r e e r c h o i c e behaviour than gender, socioeconomic s t a t u s , and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement.  Although  not a l l r e s e a r c h has shown c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c a r e e r development measures and  f a m i l y systems v a r i a b l e s ,  the m a j o r i t y of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown f a m i l y systems f a c t o r s such as overinvolvement, enmeshment, i n t i m i d a t i o n , disengagement and r i g i d i t y t o have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making i n adolescents  (Larson,  on  1995).  A r e c e n t study by Ryan, Solberg, and Brown (1996) investigated parent-child relationships, parental attachment, and c a r e e r search s e l f - e f f i c a c y b e l i e f s . women, the combination of f a m i l y d y s f u n c t i o n and  For  l e v e l of  attachment t o mothers accounted f o r 17% of the v a r i a n c e i n c a r e e r search s e l f - e f f i c a c y ; f o r men, accounted f o r 9% of s i m i l a r v a r i a n c e . the complexity  attachment t o mothers These r e s u l t s  support  of the phenomena, y e t do p r o v i d e some  support  f o r the premise t h a t a secure attachment base a l l o w s f o r h e a l t h i e r confidence development.  i n one's own  a b i l i t i e s and hence c a r e e r  B l u s t e i n e t a l . (1991) t h e o r i z e d t h a t  the  r e l a t i v e l y simple v a r i a b l e of c a r e e r decidedness i s not p r e d i c t e d by f a m i l y i n h i b i t i o n of s e p a r a t i o n because such s t u n t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s may  f o s t e r i n d e c i s i v e n e s s i n some,  16 premature d e c i s i o n s i n o t h e r s . capable  I n t e r v e n t i o n s which are  of a s c e r t a i n i n g which tendency i s more l i k e l y i n a  g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l are more l i k e l y t o prove h e l p f u l . Leung, Wright, and F o s t e r  (1987) decided t o t e s t  one  aspect of the p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i s s u e with an urban  and  m u l t i - r a c i a l sample i n a l a r g e Canadian c i t y .  In t h e i r  study,  as more  a d o l e s c e n t s who  p e r c e i v e d t h e i r parents  concerned and encouraging r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l performance were more l i k e l y t o go on t o post-secondary e d u c a t i o n ; e f f e c t s were found.  no gender  Although the scope of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s  q u i t e r e s t r i c t e d , i t does provide l i m i t e d support  f o r the  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e r e s e a r c h t o the Canadian  context.  P e r s p e c t i v e s of p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on  adolescents'  c a r e e r s has grown i n c r e a s i n g l y complex as r e c o g n i t i o n of a more dynamic process has s u r f a c e d . process  I t i s t h i s dynamic  between parent and c h i l d , as w e l l as changing  of what h e a l t h i s , t h a t has helped us t o understand greater career maturity  ideas  why  i s not simply c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  g r e a t e r independence from the f a m i l y (Thomason and Winer, 1994) .  Whiston's (1996) e x p l o r a t i o n of f a m i l y systems  v a r i a b l e s , c a r e e r i n d e c i s i o n , and c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making s e l f - e f f i c a c y h i g h l i g h t e d the need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , s i n c e her f i n d i n g s were not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h other  research  showing r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a m i l y c o n f l i c t , cohesion, career variables.  and  There i s simply too much ambiguity i n the  17 area of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g healthy/congruent c a r e e r  decision  making and premature/dissonant d e c i s i o n making. Young, F r i e s e n , and  Borycki  (1994) examined  the  n a r r a t i v e s of 50 young a d u l t s , i n order t o determine ways they make sense of p a r e n t s ' i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r One  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r data was  forward c a r e e r p r o g r e s s i o n p o s i t i v e evaluations  that narratives  d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y  of p a r e n t a l  influence.  The  the careers.  involving  include pattern  of  n a r r a t i v e s d i d not, however, p r o v i d e any means by which t o p r e d i c t a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r development on the b a s i s parental The  of  influence. Young e t a l . (1994) study a l s o sheds l i g h t on  dynamic nature of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n , i n t h a t metaphor of ' s t r u g g l e ' with p a r e n t a l wishes was used by t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the  the  frequently  There i s , however, v e r y  little  research  on the processes i n v o l v i n g i n f l u e n c e s p e r c e i v e d  negative  (Middleton & Loughead, 1993), and  as  not much more  i n v o l v i n g the p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c i n g of p a r e n t s i n a d o l e s c e n t career.  Another p e r s p e c t i v e  r e l a t e d to p a r e n t / c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t of f a m i l y r o l e enactment. MacGregor and  Cochran (1988) t e s t e d the p r o p o s i t i o n  f a m i l y f i g u r e s c o u l d be observed when a n a l y z i n g work r o l e c o n t e x t s .  people's  They found support f o r the n o t i o n ,  the v a r i a b i l i t y of responses was workers may  that  high.  but  In o t h e r words,  attempt t o r e s o l v e f a m i l y r o l e i s s u e s ,  continue  t o enact them, or even r e j e c t contexts w i t h r e c o g n i z a b l e  and  18 undesirable  roles.  These observations  do not l e n d  a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e d i c t i n g how s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n w i l l but they do add another dimension t o the evidence  develop, supporting  the deep i n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y on c a r e e r development as w e l l as ideas f o r c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h a f a m i l y systems perspective. While the o r i g i n a l research  had a more one-sided  look  t o i t ( i e . , i n terms of i n f l u e n c e and movement), i n the past decade t h e r e has been a s h i f t t o a more dynamic view. Grotevant and Cooper's (1985; 1988) r e s e a r c h n o t i o n t h a t adolescents connection  supports the  must balance i n d i v i d u a t i o n and  t o make healthy  adjustment.  They argue t h a t more  a t t e n t i o n needs t o be p a i d t o the t o t a l context nature o f c a r e e r development.  and dynamic  B l u s t e i n e t a l . (1991)  suggest t h a t some degree of attachment may  f a c i l i t a t e the  s o r t of r i s k - t a k i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the developmental tasks of l a t e adolescence.  As f a r as  p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e i r words resonate here: ...[a] p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l s t r a t e g y would be t o o f f e r p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r adolescents and t h e i r parents t h a t would enhance open communication, n u r t u r i n g , and autonomous r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Such p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s may a l s o b o l s t e r the n a t u r a l support systems of many f a m i l i e s (p. 48). Downing and D'Andrea  (1994) r e p o r t e d  the r e s u l t s o f a  survey i n v o l v i n g American, B r i t i s h , and Swiss p a r e n t s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a s s o c i a t e d with h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n career planning. and F r i e s e n  The work was prompted i n p a r t by the Young  (1992) work e x p l o r i n g parents'  intentions for  19 i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r children's career d e c i s i o n s .  Parents were  asked q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , degree of involvement  i n c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s , and  f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r involvement.  Results  i n d i c a t e d c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s between the U.S./U.K. and Swiss p a r e n t a l c o n t e x t .  the  While Swiss parents were more  l i k e l y t o l e a v e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s t o the c h i l d whether the d i r e c t i o n was  u n i v e r s i t y or working c l a s s , the U.S.  and  U.K.  p a r e n t s were more l i k e l y t o encourage u n i v e r s i t y - r e l a t e d c a r e e r s and d i s c o u r a g e working c l a s s c a r e e r p l a n s . Swiss p a r e n t s saw  themselves  t r u s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , U.S. p e r c e i v e d themselves expectations.  While  as p r i m a r i l y encouraging and U.K.  parents  and  mainly  as g i v i n g a d v i c e or s e t t i n g  F i n a l l y , while the Swiss parents  c o n f i d e n t or i n v o l v e d i n the process, the U.S. p a r e n t s f e l t uninformed  and i n v o l v e d ; many U.S.  felt and  U.K.  parents  a c t u a l l y r e p o r t e d primary f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s i n the process.  W i t h i n t h i s context the authors q u e s t i o n e d whether  the outcomes of p a r e n t a l involvement  can be v e r y p r o d u c t i v e  without f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e : School c o u n s e l o r s have focused the bulk of t h e i r e f f o r t s d i r e c t l y on students. I t may w e l l be time f o r these p r o f e s s i o n a l t o o f f e r some of t h e i r e f f o r t s t o the p a r e n t s of the students they c o u n s e l . Other c a r e e r development p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d serve as v a l u a b l e teammates t o s c h o o l personnel i n p r o v i d i n g the a s s i s t a n c e needed by parents (p. 125). Downing and D'Andrea (1994) concluded t h a t Swiss p a r e n t s don't see themselves  as a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r  20 c h i l d r e n ' s career d e c i s i o n process.  However, t h i s i s  u n c l e a r from t h e i r r e p o r t i n g ; i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t the l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e Swiss parents f e e l may  simply c a s t a  'shadow' over s i m i l a r l y h i g h f e e l i n g s of being i n v o l v e d . f a c t , a g r e a t e r percentage involvement U.S.  of Swiss parents  In  (31.8%) r a t e d  as t h e i r dominant f e e l i n g , as compared t o the  parents  (22.0%).  I t would be very i n t e r e s t i n g t o  r e p l i c a t e t h i s survey with a Canadian sample t o compare/contrast  n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s .  In  any  event, the p o i n t i s w e l l taken t h a t our e d u c a t i o n a l system i s not changing  soon; t h e r e f o r e i n t e r v e n t i o n which  f a c i l i t a t e s both student and parent competency i n the c a r e e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s would be most welcome. Career I n t e r v e n t i o n I n v o l v i n g Parents Given the above evidence f o r the importance  of f a m i l y  on a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r development, we might expect a h o s t of programs and r e s e a r c h on the same. years, family  Certainly, i n recent  systems a p p l i c a t i o n s have grown i n the area  of c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n .  For example, a number of  p r a c t i t i o n e r s have drawn on Bowen's (1978) f a m i l y t h e o r y t o d e s i g n programs t a k i n g f a m i l y dynamics i n t o account B r a t c h e r , 1982; 1983;  C a s t r i c o n e , Finan & Gumble, 1982;  Otto & C a l l ,  Mims, 1992).  1985;  Lopez and Andrews, 1987;  (eg.,  Zingaro, Bradley &  Most i n t e r v e n t i o n s were not intended t o  i n v o l v e parents i n person, but t o h e l p the young person become more aware of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e and r o l e f u n c t i o n i n g ,  21 i n order t o make more a c t i v e c h o i c e s .  Reports of the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such programs, however, has been r a r e . Though t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound, the systems approach t o c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n may  be c o n s i d e r e d as y e t u n t e s t e d  (Larson,  1995) . There now  seems t o be a growing c a l l f o r more  p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t e n t i o n t o programming which may i n t e g r a t e the a c t i o n s of both adolescents and t h e i r p a r e n t s B l i m l i n e , 1984;  Middleton & Loughead,1993).  (Birk &  Until quite  r e c e n t l y , t h e r e has been almost nothing i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o support the success of programs h e l p i n g p a r e n t s a s s i s t  their  c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r c h o i c e (Palmer and Cochran, 1988).  These  authors argued t h a t e x c l u s i o n of parents by c a r e e r programs happens a t t h e i r p e r i l , due both t o p a r e n t s ' s t r a t e g i c i n f l u e n c e , and a l s o t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o devote time t o t h e i r c h i l d ' s  intensive  situation.  T h i s n e g l e c t of p a r e n t a l involvement  programs i s  n o t a b l y an i n t e r n a t i o n a l phenomenon as w e l l .  Poole  (1983)  s t u d i e d A u s t r a l i a n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r development and noted,  i r o n i c a l l y , a s u b s t a n t i a l l a c k of programming  i n v o l v i n g parents: T h i s s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s even though s t u d i e s a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e ... have i n v a r i a b l y p l a c e d f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s ahead of the formal s c h o o l s t r u c t u r e s s e t up t o p r o v i d e v o c a t i o n a l guidance (p. 24). Poole's own s t u d e n t s who  data supported the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t those spoke f r e q u e n t l y with t h e i r p a r e n t s about  c a r e e r i s s u e s had f a r more d e f i n i t e i d e a s on both j o b c h o i c e  22  and  education  plans,  as compared t o those whose i n t e r a c t i o n s  were more i n f r e q u e n t . Some have o f f e r e d s e r v i c e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t a r g e t i n g parents,  such as c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making courses  workshops i n c a r e e r development (Osguthorpe, Greenough, 1976;  1976;  D a n i e l s , Karmos, & P r e s l e y ,  Rubinton, 1985;), u s u a l l y focused  and  1983;  on h e l p i n g p a r e n t s become  aware of the many f a c e t s of career decision-making. of such i n t e r v e n t i o n s have not provided e v a l u a t i o n data, however. example, d e s c r i b e d  Otto and  an eight-hour  Call  much i n the way  seminar f o r p a r e n t s of  awareness e x c e r c i s e s , and home a c t i v i t i e s .  authors r e p o r t e d ,  of  (1985), f o r  teens which t a r g e t e d c a r e e r a s s i s t a n c e s k i l l s ,  a l s o g i v e n a booklet  Reports  information,  Parents were  t o work through w i t h t h e i r c h i l d .  The  "...our experience i n d i c a t e s t h a t  i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t s works," and t h a t s c h o o l s  implementing such  an approach would a l s o b e n e f i t from the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . These a s s e r t i o n s , however, would have been b o l s t e r e d they been o f f e r e d i n the context  had  of the p r o v i s i o n of  e v a l u a t i v e data, whether q u a l i t a t i v e or q u a n t i t a t i v e .  One  avenue f o r p o t e n t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n , then, would be a more d e t a i l e d look a t the r e s u l t s of a f a m i l y involvement approach t o c a r e e r  intervention.  Whiston (1989) u t i l i z e d a f a m i l y systems approach t o suggest c a r e e r education  a c t i v i t i e s f o r parents,  h e l p them a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  The  i n order  emphasis i n c l u d e d  to  both  23 e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours,  and g o a l s i n c l u d e d t h e  strengthening of i n t e r a c t i o n s within the family.  Whiston  r e p o r t e d t h a t parents f r e q u e n t l y a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h  career  growth stages, and have u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s o f when c h o i c e s need t o be made.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as u s u a l , no  i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d as t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e interventions. I n t e r v e n t i o n s may need t o aim a t h e l p i n g p a r e n t s see t h e i r v i t a l and i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e , such as through communication o f r e s e a r c h evidence t o parents Loughead, 1993).  (Middleton &  These authors present some u s e f u l i d e a s  f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n (eg., p r o v i d i n g parents w i t h  suggestions  f o r u t i l i z i n g n a t u r a l f a m i l y times t o h e l p one c h i l d a s p i r a t i o n s ) , but again t h e r e has been very documentation o f the e f f e c t s o f such While parents  explore  little  attempts.  i n g e n e r a l may b e n e f i t from i n c r e a s e d  a t t e n t i o n , r u r a l parents i n p a r t i c u l a r l i k e l y have s i g n i f i c a n t needs f o r a s s i s t a n c e . Campbell  J e f f e r y , Lehr, Hache, and  (1992) r e p o r t e d a developing program aimed a t  empowering r u r a l parents  i n a Canadian r e g i o n t o a s s i s t  t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n career planning.  Understandably,  p a r e n t s a r e i n a more c h a l l e n g i n g p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e s o u r c e s than t h e i r urban c o u n t e r p a r t s .  rural career  In many r u r a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , not only i s t h e r e a l a c k o f access t o c a r e e r and c o u n s e l l i n g r e s o u r c e s , but economic/job market r e a l i t i e s may be more harsh.  The development o f such programs i s a  24 welcome s i g h t , however, i t was premature f o r t h e authors t o p r o v i d e evidence o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n s a t t h a t time.  Further e f f o r t s t o provide career  i n t e r v e n t i o n approaches u s e f u l i n both urban and r u r a l environments a r e c l e a r l y i n order, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Canadian context. Palmer and Cochran (1988) r e p r e s e n t an e x c e p t i o n t o most r e p o r t s o f programs i n v o l v i n g parents i n t h a t they p r o v i d e d some measured e v a l u a t i o n o f success.  They p r o v i d e d  m a t e r i a l s f o r a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d program of c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g f o r parents and a d o l e s c e n t s t o work on t o g e t h e r a t home.  On measures of c a r e e r development and  p a r e n t - c h i l d bonding, t h e experimental group improved markedly i n c o n t r a s t with the c o n t r o l group.  Interview  data  r e v e a l e d p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d b e n e f i t s i n such a s p e c t s as s e l f awareness, power s h a r i n g , and decision-making.  The  r e s u l t s may l e a d one t o q u e s t i o n whether e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h parents and a d o l e s c e n t s c o u l d be designed t o u t i l i z e a b r i e f s e s s i o n with a c o u n s e l l o r . I n t e r v e n t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a d o l e s c e n t s and p a r e n t s t o g e t h e r have been very few.  Knecht (1976) r e p o r t e d u s i n g a  workshop i n which c a r e e r awareness i s s u e s were t a r g e t e d f o r both p a r e n t s and students.  C a s t r i c o n e , Finan, and Gumble  (1982) d e s c r i b e d a one-day program (Focus on Career  Search)  f o r a d o l e s c e n t s and parents a t a community c o l l e g e . Parents were present f o r p o r t i o n s o f the day; g o a l s i n c l u d e d  25  the encouragement of a c t i v e f a m i l y d i a l o g u e , and a s s i s t a n c e by c o u n s e l l o r s t o h e l p parents and c h i l d r e n r a i s e and l i s t e n t o each other.  concerns  Reportedly, p a r t i c i p a n t s have  been v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s e s s i o n s , although n o t much was p r o v i d e d i n t h e way o f d e t a i l on e v a l u a t i o n measures o r i n t e r v i e w data.  A follow-up of unknown d u r a t i o n r e v e a l e d  t h a t "many" c i t e d i n c r e a s e d parent-student communication as a primary b e n e f i t o f t h e i r involvement. of  While t h e l o n g e v i t y  t h e change was u n c l e a r , the program d i d appear t o be a  step i n a very p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . The v a l u e of c o u n s e l l o r s a c t u a l l y spending  some time  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a d o l e s c e n t and parent t o g e t h e r i s apparent. Such time would h e l p the c o u n s e l l o r i n a number o f ways, n o t a b l y a s s e s s i n g the s t y l e of p a r e n t a l involvement and a d o l e s c e n t response,  as w e l l as m o d e l l i n g a  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t . Dillabough  facilitative  Young, F r i e s e n , and  (1991) i n v e s t i g a t e d the ways i n which p a r e n t s and  t h e i r c h i l d r e n view p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and r e v e a l e d t h a t such i n f l u e n c e w i l l vary i n the kinds o f i n t e n t i o n s , and outcomes.  styles,  A systemic approach may be u s e f u l i n  r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e complexity o f p a r e n t - c h i l d and t h e c o u n s e l l o r does need t o understand  interactions,  the s p e c i f i c  c o n t e x t o f p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n which programs o p e r a t e . One obvious p i t f a l l which c o u n s e l l o r s would do w e l l t o a m e l i o r a t e would be t h e tendency  o f some p a r e n t s t o be  overly directive i n their efforts at assistance.  26 T h i s b r i n g s up again the i s s u e of measuring c a r e e r development.  What needs t o be avoided i s a simple approach  f a v o u r i n g decidedness;  a more a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l would be  movement toward mature d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r than d e c i s i o n s i n themselves.  simply  Kush and Cochran (1993) used  an  agency framework i n l o o k i n g a t the success of a program aimed a t h e l p i n g parents a s s i s t t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n (grade 12) w i t h c a r e e r p l a n n i n g .  Those e n r o l l e d i n the  program showed improvement i n c a r e e r c e r t a i n t y ,  less  i n d e c i s i o n , more c a r e e r s a l i e n c e , and a s t r o n g e r ego identity.  The authors argued  c o n d i t i o n s which may  f o r programmers t o i n c o r p o r a t e  enhance the sense of student agency i n  the p l a n n i n g process without d i s r u p t i n g the aim of matching person t o work. to  Another way  t o put t h i s , perhaps,  would be  say t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s need t o be c a r e f u l t o encourage  facilitation,  r a t h e r than d i r e c t i o n .  T h i s may  be  accomplished  p a r t l y by being very p a t i e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s  they attempt  t o work out t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s p r i o r t o the  as  matching work (Kush & Cochran, 1993): ...the s e t t i n g of p r i o r i t i e s should not be rushed or cheapened t o proceed with the matching, but s h o u l d be done c a r e f u l l y (p. 438). Of course another very important v a r i a b l e i n enhancing c o n d i t i o n s would be i n the c o u n s e l l o r ' s own facilitation.  such  m o d e l l i n g of  T h i s approach r e f l e c t s a more c l i e n t - c e n t r e d  type of c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n , encouraging proper  self-  a p p r a i s a l b e f o r e moving i n t o p o t e n t i a l l y premature d e c i s i o n  27 making ( M i l l e r ,  1996).  Parents are a l a r g e l y untapped r e s o u r c e as f a r as career  i n t e r v e n t i o n s go,  yet research  t h a t p a r e n t s are the number one Blimline  has  c o n s i s t e n t l y shown  influence.  Birk  (1984) advocated f o r more i n t e r v e n t i o n  p a r e n t s and  reported  work they had  elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  and involving  done w i t h p a r e n t s of  Some of the e x e r c i s e s  had  p a r e n t s e x p l o r i n g the f o l l o w i n g : what jobs they'd l i k e t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o choose, what they thought t h e i r c h i l d a c t u a l l y wanted t o be, what i n f l u e n c e s parents saw,  and  what  i n f l u e n c e they wished f o r i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s development.  Results  career  indicated that parents c o n s i s t e n t l y  f e l t the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r s i n the c h i l d ' s d e c i s i o n s should be i n order of: parents, c h i l d , r e l a t i v e s , church, media, and  friends.  school,  There are  several  i n t e r e s t i n g r e v e l a t i o n s here, not the l e a s t of which i s the p a r e n t s ' w i s h i n g peers would be bottom on the  list.  Another i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t i s the placement of p a r e n t s and  the c h i l d ahead of school a s s i s t a n c e .  T h i s may  support the North American d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r career preparation i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than the e d u c a t i o n a l D'Andrea, 1994).  conclusions  system  that  fathers  influence;  the same p l a c e f o r themselves. Blimline  the  (Downing &  I t i s also i r o n i c to discover  B i r k and  the  being p r i m a r i l y on  g e n e r a l l y thought they should be the primary mothers r e s e r v e d  further  The  (1984) drew from the more  28 d e t a i l e d data l e d them t o h i g h l i g h t the p o t e n t i a l l y r e s t r i c t i v e view of c a r e e r s parents may r e i n f o r c i n g stereotypical choices.  foster, frequently  The o p p o s i t e of t h i s  r e s t r i c t i v e r o l e has been documented by o t h e r s such A u s t e r and Auster  (1981), who  as  showed the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e of  f a m i l y , peers and c o u n s e l l o r s i n d e c i s i o n s of females  who  chose n o n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s .  C l e a r l y parents have  g r e a t power, f o r good and f o r bad,  in their children's  a t t i t u d e s and c h o i c e s . argued,  T h e r e f o r e , B i r k and B l i m l i n e  these dangers together with the importance  (1984)  of  parents i n the process means they should not be i g n o r e d i n career counselling: I f parents are t o f a c i l i t a t e expansive t h i n k i n g about c a r e e r o p t i o n s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e i r own i m a g i n a t i o n s might need t o be s t i m u l a t e d , and t h e i r concept of a p p r o p r i a t e o p t i o n s broadened (p. 314). They proposed  t h a t the (school) c o u n s e l l o r i s i n  p o s i t i o n t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t c a t a l y s t , i n i t i a l l y c o n f r o n t i n g and broadening  the parents' a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g a c c e p t a b l e  alternatives.  I n t e r v e n t i o n s should be planned i n c o r p o r a t i n g  c h i l d r e n and parents, r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on the haphazard [or n o n e x i s t e n t ] process of p a r e n t - c o u n s e l l o r c o n f e r e n c e s . Given the amount of r e s e a r c h supporting the primary p l a c e of parents i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r development, B i r k and Blimline's  (1984) f i n a l e does r i n g t r u e : "Parents are the  primary i n f l u e n c e on c a r e e r development" (p. 316); c o u n s e l l o r s can and should f i n d ways t o j o i n i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h them.  A r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of such  positive  29 c o o p e r a t i o n as w e l l as the importance of p a r e n t s i n c a r e e r development has been r e p o r t e d r e c e n t l y by K e i l  (1996) .  He  examined t h e c a r e e r development of the c h i l d r e n of a German f a m i l y and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l support i n t h e process, h i g h l i g h t i n g perceived healthy aspects of f a m i l y s y s t e m / i n t e r a c t i o n dynamics and i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r c h o i c e . One e x c i t i n g aspect of work w i t h parents and c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r development appears t o be the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s e d enjoyment of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , even i n t h e c o n t e x t of r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I t would c e r t a i n l y be n o t a b l e i f C a s t r i c o n e e t a l . ' s (1982) support f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r e n t / c h i l d communication v i a b r i e f c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n were t o be borne out.  As Middleton and Lougheed  (1993)  remarked, "...the enhancement of p a r e n t - a d o l e s c e n t  relations  c o u l d v e r y w e l l be a s e r e n d i p i t o u s e f f e c t of such a cooperative, j o i n t e f f o r t " involvement  (p. 170).  C e r t a i n l y the  of parents i n adolescent c a r e e r development  programs deserves much more a t t e n t i o n than i t has r e c e i v e d t o date. Parent Involved Career E x p l o r a t i o n (PICE) Amundson (1996) r e p o r t e d a new technique i n c a r e e r development which u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a o n e - s e s s i o n  interaction  between a c o u n s e l l o r and two a d o l e s c e n t s , w i t h p a r e n t s p r e s e n t t o observe and o f f e r input when prompted. approach was developed  The  over s e v e r a l years, and has been  r e p o r t e d t o be, " w e l l r e c e i v e d by both p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s "  30 (p. 5 ) . The  intervention  i s very b r i e f , and i t was hoped t h a t a  type o f c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t might be i n s t i g a t e d i n terms o f t h e adolescent's career  development, complementing r a t h e r  r e p l a c i n g more comprehensive career programming.  than  intervention  The b r i e f nature of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n would  make i t u s e f u l a c r o s s urban and r u r a l s i t u a t i o n s , should i t prove t o have s i g n i f i c a n t promise.  This  iscritical,  since  i t has been s t r o n g l y argued t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l programs c a r r y a s o r t o f "urban assumption"  ( J e f f e r y e t a l . , 1992).  Some o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s g u i d i n g  t h e development o f PICE  were as f o l l o w s : The importance o f p a r e n t s i n c a r e e r development, t h e r o l e o f the c o u n s e l l o r ways p a r e n t s c o u l d be i n v o l v e d ,  i n finding positive  t h e i n t e r e s t o f many p a r e n t s  i n l e a r n i n g t o help t h e i r c h i l d r e n with career, perspective  on f a c i l i t a t i n g change, and t h e p r a c t i c a l  d i f f i c u l t i e s associated family  a systems  involvement  with scheduling  longer programs f o r  (Amundson, 1996).  I f the point of a l l successful  i n t e r v e n t i o n can be  b o i l e d down t o g e t t i n g t h e c l i e n t t o do o r t o view something differently  (O'Hanlon, 1990), then t h e p o t e n t i a l c e r t a i n l y  e x i s t s f o r a one-session change c a t a l y s t . perspective  Eckert's  (1993)  on b r i e f therapy seems very p o w e r f u l — t h e  a c c e l e r a t i o n o f change through t h e s p e c i f i c  therapeutic  c a t a l y s t s o f p l a n n i n g , c o l l a b o r a t i o n , t i m i n g , and empowerment.  Career i n t e r v e n t i o n may o f t e n lend  i t s e l f to  31 such an approach because these f a c t o r s are more l i k e l y t o be p r e s e n t or a c h i e v a b l e .  The PICE approach makes i n t e n t i o n a l  use of the above f a c t o r s with the g o a l of  facilitating  g r e a t e r student c l a r i t y and empowerment i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . T h i s approach a l s o r e f l e c t s Burlinghame and  Fuhriman's  (1987) c h a l l e n g e t o c o n c e p t u a l l y p l a n b r i e f work, r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g i t t o simply occur as a r e s u l t of administrative  limits.  R e s u l t s have not been f o r m a l l y e v a l u a t e d t o date, though i n f o r m a l feedback has been q u i t e p o s i t i v e .  Amundson  r e p o r t e d comments from a focus group s e s s i o n which c e n t r e d i n t h r e e areas: I n t e r p e r s o n a l dynamics, s e s s i o n and  long-term  benefits.  termed, "...dramatic i n i t i a l expectations" the approach may  He expressed  activities,  a s u r p r i s e a t what he  r e s u l t s which have gone beyond (p. 12).  Though Amundson  my  suggested  only be a p p r o p r i a t e where t h e r e i s a  t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of p a r e n t / c h i l d m o t i v a t i o n and some q u a l i t y of  r e l a t i o n s h i p , these parameters have not been t e s t e d .  To  a l a r g e extent, they are not t e s t e d i n the scope of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n e i t h e r , though t h e r e w i l l be some s p e c u l a t i o n offered. The  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v o l v e s r e g u l a t i n g i n p u t from the  parent, w h i l e p u t t i n g the student on " c e n t r e s t a g e " t o e x p l o r e p o t e n t i a l paths.  T h i s dynamic may  allow  the  c o u n s e l l o r t o model f a c i l i t a t i o n , as w e l l as h e l p i n g the p a r e n t s t o withdraw when a p p r o p r i a t e , a l l o w i n g the  adolescent  more room t o take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  (Whiston,  1989). B r i e f l y , the procedure c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g phases: i)  Introduction, including parental observation  ii)  D i s c u s s i o n of student  iii)  Pattern i d e n t i f i c a t i o n exercise  career  role;  ideas; (PIE)  leisure  activity; [For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n see Appendix Invitation for parental iv)  A]  input;  P a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e with  school  subjects; Invitation for parental v)  Discussion regarding  input;  labour market and how  to  plan; Invitation for parental vi)  A c t i o n planning,  v i i ) Review and  input;  next s t e p s ;  encouragement.  For a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the steps see Appendix P a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e s have been u t i l i z e d a b r i e f technique f o r use support  for i t s efficacy  B. as  i n c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n , w i t h some (Amundson & Cochran, 1984;  Amundson  & Stone, 1992). Regarding the use of l e i s u r e p a t t e r n s t o inform work c h o i c e s , Super (1984) and McDaniels (1984) claimed  leisure  a c t i v i t i e s can be v a l u a b l e e x p l o r a t o r y experiences  for  33 c a r e e r development and urged c o u n s e l l o r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s arena of a s s i s t a n c e .  Hong, Milgram, and Whiston  (1993) have  noted t h a t l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s as a t o o l i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g have been l a r g e l y ignored. flows from the premise t h a t how area of t h e i r l i f e  The PIE  a person behaves i n each  (eg., l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s )  reflects  p a t t e r n s i n m o t i v a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s 1995).  technique  (Amundson,  I n s i g h t s i n t o these p a t t e r n s has d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o  career planning. Given the l a c k of p r e v i o u s programming i n v o l v i n g parents  i n c a r e e r development, as w e l l as the l a c k of  e v a l u a t i o n , i t seems t i m e l y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  the c u r r e n t p a r e n t - i n v o l v e d p i l o t p r o j e c t .  As a u s e f u l  b e g i n n i n g p o i n t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d a sample of the initial  student and parent cohort some s i x months a f t e r  r e c e i v e d the PICE i n t e r v e n t i o n . r e l a t e t h e i r experience  How  would each of them  i n the PICE s e s s i o n t o t h e i r  development over the ensuing months? changes i n t h e i r b e l i e f s about how  t o do c a r e e r  or decrease  increase i n motivation  planning? Would  (or s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e )  i n a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d with c a r e e r ?  be any changes i n p a r e n t - c h i l d communication?  Would t h e r e Would t h e r e  appear t o be any suggestion of gender d i f f e r e n c e s or cultural differences in this  career  Would they r e p o r t  Would they r e p o r t progress toward c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s ? they r e l a t e any  they  experience?  Behind every q u e s t i o n of r e p o r t e d changes or  34 development w i l l l i e the q u e s t i o n of how  the p a r e n t s  a d o l e s c e n t s r e l a t e t h e i r development t o having i n the PICE s e s s i o n .  and  participated  The answers w i l l o b v i o u s l y not p r o v i d e  data t o argue c a u s a l l i n k s , but they l i k e l y would g i v e an initial  i n d i c a t i o n of the promise of the technique f o r  f u r t h e r development and more r i g o r o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the future. any  As Young and Valach  (1994) argued, e v a l u a t i o n of  i n t e r v e n t i o n needs t o c e n t r e i n the experience of the  client.  T h i s stream of thought  and v a l u e has come a c r o s s i n  the b r i e f therapy l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l .  The primary d e c i s i o n  as t o whether therapy has been s u c c e s s f u l needs t o r e s t the c l i e n t  with  (O'Hanlon, 1990).  The p r e s e n t study, then, i s a q u a l i t a t i v e  study  p r o v i d i n g an i n i t i a l e v a l u a t i o n of a b r i e f c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v o l v i n g adolescents and t h e i r p a r e n t s . demonstrated e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the PICE i n t e r v e n t i o n may of  c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r the p r a c t i c e of c a r e e r  c o u n s e l l i n g , whether i n s c h o o l s or i n the community.  Any be  35 Chapter I I I Methodology T h i s chapter w i l l d e s c r i b e the r a t i o n a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s e a r c h method used.  and Participants  (and s e l e c t i o n ) w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , as w i l l r e c r u i t m e n t and the d e t a i l s of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s .  Considerations  r e g a r d i n g data r e p o r t i n g and the r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d .  Method "A  'case study' i s the a n a l y s i s of a s i n g l e case, or of  m u l t i p l e i n s t a n c e s of the same process, as i t i s embodied i n the l i f e experiences of a community, a group, or a person" (Denzin, 1994;  p. 539).  An " e v a l u a t i v e case study" i s one  which i n v o l v e s e v l u a t i o n of programs and where o f t e n condensed f i e l d w o r k r e p l a c e s the more lengthy ethnographic approach (Stenhouse,  1985).  In the p r e s e n t study a  q u a l i t a t i v e , case study approach was impact of the PICE p i l o t p r o j e c t . q u e s t i o n i n g was,  taken i n a d d r e s s i n g the  The c e n t r a l theme of  "what has i t meant t o the a d o l e s c e n t s and  t h e i r p a r e n t s t o have taken p a r t i n the PICE program." t a s k of the r e s e a r c h e r was  The  t o r e v e a l through i n t e r v i e w s the  s t r u c t u r e of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e r p r e t e d e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g and i n the months a f t e r PICE.  Rather than attempting t o  c r e a t e s t r u c t u r e and f i t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' data i n t o i t , t h i s method i n v o l v e s a l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w data t o c r e a t e the  36 structure.  I t i s based on a form of "grounded t h e o r y "  (Glaser & S t r a u s s , 1968) i n which t h e r e s e a r c h e r attempts t o generate hypotheses by i n d u c t i o n from data, r a t h e r than deducing from assumptions. for to  For example, i n s t e a d o f l o o k i n g  s p e c i f i c changes i n s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r p l a n n i n g i n o r d e r support t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h i s study was  i n t e r e s t e d i n how t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves have c o n s t r u c t e d t h e meaning of t h e i r PICE involvement.  I t was  expected t h a t common p a t t e r n s and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n w i l l appear.  These p a t t e r n s and p r o f i l e s  reveal  the impact o f t h e PICE p r o j e c t from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own p o i n t s of  view. The d e c i s i o n t o u t i l i z e a q u a l i t a t i v e methodology  r e s t e d on my b e l i e f t h a t t h e most important source o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l i n a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n o f PICE's impact would be p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Hence,  my i n t e n t was t o f o r m a l l y r e c o r d and analyze these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of experience and impact.  As D i e s i n g (1972)  argued, case study methods do address both p a r t i c u l a r s and u n i v e r s a l s , uniqueness and r e g u l a r i t i e s .  I t i s incumbent on  the r e s e a r c h e r t o document c a r e f u l l y t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f a case so as t o a l l o w comparison  t o other s i t u a t i o n s .  I t i s a l s o my b e l i e f t h a t an i n t e r v e n t i o n guided, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , by systems theory (Amundson, 1996) s h o u l d most a p p r o p r i a t e l y be i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e approach.  T h i s f i t s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n made by Salomon (1991)  37 regarding  a n a l y t i c a l and  research,  and  systemic approaches t o  educational  the b r i e f therapy models i n which c l i e n t  judgments of success are primary (eg., O'Hanlon, 1990).  The  approach i s a l s o supported by a p o l i t i c a l l y - c o n s c i o u s view of e v a l u a t i o n such as t h a t of Guba and  L i n c o l n (1993).  i s of primary i n t e r e s t t o p a r t i c i p a n t s are t h e i r own and  values.  my  character  hope t o a c c u r a t e l y represent  of the p r o c e s s .  the p e r s p e c t i v e s  ' c l i e n t s ' of t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n , t o r e v e a l any t o view i n a h o l i s t i c The  goals  A more q u a n t i t a t i v e approach can miss much of  the s o c i a l and v a l u e - o r i e n t e d was  What  It  of  the  i n s i g h t s , and  fashion.  d e c i s i o n not t o i n c l u d e q u a n t i t a t i v e measures such  as c a r e e r maturity,  v o c a t i o n a l decidedness, or  vocational  congruence r e s t e d on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : 1) the a v a i l a b l e population  of students having r e c e i v e d the i n t e r v e n t i o n a t  the time was  s m a l l ; 2) n e i t h e r the p o p u l a t i o n  nor the sample interviewed  r e c e i v i n g PICE  were randomly s e l e c t e d , due  a c c e s s l o g i s t i c s ; 3) no p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n measures had used; and  4) l i m i t s on access t o the student  negated the p o s s i b i l i t y of a matched group.  to been  population Therefore,  although the case study method does not d i c t a t e a s o l e l y q u a l i t a t i v e method, such was r e s e a r c h was  the approach taken.  This  undertaken with the understanding t h a t some of  i t s p o t e n t i a l f r u i t f u l n e s s would be i n l a y i n g the groundwork f o r f u t u r e work u s i n g both q u a l i t a t i v e and measures.  One  quantitative  avenue f o r such complementarity w i l l be  for  38 the p r e s e n t approach t o produce p r o p o s i t i o n s which may be t e s t e d w i t h a, l a r g e r sample. S i n c e t h e q u a l i t a t i v e approach i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e immediate experience King,  of i n d i v i d u a l s (eg., V a l l e &  1978), p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e s e a r c h e r s a r e engaged i n a  j o i n t e f f o r t , co-researchers  after a fashion.  r e s e a r c h e r attempts t o b u i l d r a p p o r t and t r u s t  The with  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e a f r e e r s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n on i n t e r v i e w i n g . present  Although t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e  study were b r i e f , I attempted t o approach  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a manner which would p l a c e them a t ease as much as p o s s i b l e , c r e a t i n g a human i n t e r a c t i o n r a t h e r than a s t e r i l e , The  i n t e r r o g a t o r y atmosphere.  u s e f u l n e s s of case study methods depends on i t s own  form o f p r e c i s i o n . 1977)  feeling,  Such " d i s c i p l i n e d s u b j e c t i v i t y "  r e q u i r e s t h a t evidence  (Wilson,  be open t o s c r u t i n y , and t h a t  the r e s e a r c h be r e p o r t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l so as t o convey c r e d i b i l i t y  (Glaser & Strauss, 1968).  Credibility,  or t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , i n t h i s context, may be seen as analogous t o t h e i s s u e s of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y i n q u a n t i t a t i v e approaches (eg., D i e s i n g , 1972). study  The p r e s e n t  i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r a c h i e v i n g such  trustworthiness: a) E x p l a n a t i o n of data c o l l e c t i o n procedures. letters,  Approach  i n t e r v i e w i n t r o d u c t i o n s , and i n t e r v i e w guides a r e  appended t o complement t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n below.  39 b) Data i s d i s p l a y e d f o r p o t e n t i a l r e - a n a l y s i s . T r a n s c r i p t s are appended, though r e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n s a r e a b b r e v i a t e d . c) Negative  instances are reported.  d) B i a s e s a r e acknowledged. e) A n a l y s i s procedures d i s p l a y o f secondary f) Primary  evidence  a r e documented, v i a e x p l a n a t i o n and evidence.  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from secondary, and  interpretation. g) Q u a l i t y o f data i s checked by p a r t i c i p a n t v a l i d a t i o n s , and by t r i a n g u l a t i o n .  " T r i a n g u l a t i o n " (Tawney, 1975)  i n v o l v e s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t sources o f data, such as both parent and student p e r c e p t i o n s o f c a r e e r development impact.  Participants P a r t i c i p a n t s were not s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f demographics, but on the b a s i s of a v a i l a b i l i t y .  One aspect  of t h e PICE p i l o t p r o j e c t took p l a c e i n a l a r g e m u l t i - e t h n i c secondary s c h o o l i n a moderately l a r g e Canadian c i t y . P a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the PICE p r o j e c t were v o l u n t e e r s , w i t h some of t h e students becoming a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s e s s i o n s a f t e r h e a r i n g good r e p o r t s by t h e i r classmates. were videotaped with p a r t i c i p a n t consent, were observed  Some s e s s i o n s and some s e s s i o n s  by c o u n s e l l o r s from the h i g h s c h o o l .  time o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , approximately  twenty  At the  students  had r e c e i v e d t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s i x months p r e v i o u s l y . Students  were contacted f o r p o t e n t i a l involvement,  and t h e  40 first  t e n who  interviews.  responded were s e l e c t e d and scheduled f o r The s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had g i v e n a time  l i m i t on a v a i l a b i l i t y of students due t o the  year-end  approaching. Students were i n grades 10 and 11, r a n g i n g from 15 t o 17 y e a r s of age.  They a l l a t t e n d the same secondary s c h o o l ,  and are of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c o r i g i n s , t h r e e Chinese, f o u r Caucasian, and one of East Indian descent. i n t e r v i e w e d s t u d e n t s ' e n g l i s h language  All  s k i l l s were q u i t e  h i g h , as judged by t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f r e e l y converse i n the interviews.  Though more females than males p a r t i c i p a t e d ,  we  hoped t o have s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of both genders i n t h i s study.  Two  students d i d not show up f o r t h e i r  i n t e r v i e w s , b r i n g i n g the t o t a l number down t o e i g h t . were female, one male. initial  The two students who  missed  Seven an  and a rescheduled i n t e r v i e w date were both males.  P a r t i c i p a n t s were l a r g e l y from a s c h o o l stream the ' I n c e n t i v e ' program, f o r students d i s p l a y i n g an i n more i n t e r a c t i v e modes of l e a r n i n g .  While  called interest  not  n e c e s s a r i l y the a c a d e m i c a l l y e l i t e of the s c h o o l , t h e s e s t u d e n t s would l i k e l y be p l a c e d i n the upper p e r c e n t i l e s . The p a r t i c u l a r s e l e c t i o n of these students f o r PICE i n t e r v e n t i o n had been an a r t i f a c t of the  first-come-first-  s e r v e d recuitment which the s c h o o l f a c i l i t a t e d ; word of mouth a t t r a c t e d the f r i e n d s / a s s o c i a t e s of those 'clients.'  In terms of socioeconomic  first  s t a t u s , although the  41 i n t e r v e n t i o n has i n c l u d e d students who were c o n s i d e r i n g t r a d e s type occupations, the students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study tended t o be c o n s i d e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l type occupations.  Recruitment A f t e r r e c e i v i n g approval from the s c h o o l board and e t h i c a l review, students and parents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e PICE p r o j e c t i n t h e f a l l of 1995 were c o n t a c t e d by l e t t e r (see  Appendix C) and telephone c a l l t o s o l i c i t  i n t h i s study.  participation  Those parents who agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e (and  those s t u d e n t s whose parents signed consent forms) were f u r t h e r c o n t a c t e d f o r s c h e d u l i n g of i n t e r v i e w s (see Appendix D and E ) .  Students were c a l l e d by telephone a g a i n t h e n i g h t  b e f o r e t h e i r i n t e r v i e w as a reminder; even so, some r e s c h e d u l i n g was necessary due t o f o r g o t t e n appointments. Two s t u d e n t s who missed t h e i r f i r s t and second were dropped  appointments  from the study.  Data  Collection  Students were i n t e r v i e w e d i n a conference room a t t h e s c h o o l , d u r i n g a b l o c k normally r e s e r v e d f o r a Career and P e r s o n a l P l a n n i n g (CAPP) course.  Interviews were scheduled  w i t h two students a t a time, with the i n t e n t i o n o f a l l o w i n g them t o f e e l more a t ease with t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s and i n c r e a s i n g t h e l i k e l i h o o d of more candid s h a r i n g .  Although  42 all  i n t e r v i e w s were thus scheduled,  one-on-one for  their  some went ahead on a  b a s i s , due t o one of the students not showing up interview.  Interviews were recorded  on audiotape,  i n order t o  enhance the r e l i a b i l i t y of r e c o r d i n g and t o f a c i l i t a t e more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e of d i s c u s s i o n .  a  Since some of t h e  i n t e r v i e w s i n v o l v e d p a i r s , the i n t e r v i e w i n t r o d u c t i o n s c r i p t i n c l u d e d an emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , r a t h e r than "majority opinions"  (see Appendix F ) .  Although t a p i n g of  i n t e r v i e w s may p l a c e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a p o s i t i o n of " h o l d i n g back" comments, t h i s danger was weighed a g a i n s t p o t e n t i a l advantages o f such a r e c o r d .  Students and parents were  i n t e r v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y i n order t o i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t c a n d i d comments would be more l i k e l y .  Both  students  and p a r e n t s were assured t h a t t h e i r comments would be confidential.  In order t o enhance the l i k e l i h o o d o f  o b t a i n i n g r e a l i s t i c views ( i n c l u d i n g n e g a t i v e d a t a ) , I i n d i c a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t I would not be d i s t r i b u t i n g a r e p o r t which would analyze p a r t i c i p a n t s ' views case-by-case, r a t h e r the a n a l y s i s would be s e c t i o n - b y - s e c t i o n ; comments made would be as anonymous as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n each s e c t i o n . I a l s o assured them they would have a chance t o t e l l  me  l a t e r i f t h e r e were anything they wished t o change, o r which they d i d not want p u b l i s h e d . Interviews  of parents took p l a c e one-on-one  own homes, d u r i n g weekday evenings.  in their  These i n t e r v i e w s were  43 a l s o audio-recorded.  A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were approached on  the b a s i s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r s were wanting p e r s o n a l feedback from p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n order t o improve the PICE approach.  In t h i s way,  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own  what became important  experience  was  of the s e s s i o n and  not t h e i r a n a l y s i s of the technique  the  i t s impact,  i n general.  All  i n t e r v i e w i n g took p l a c e w i t h i n a six-week time frame.  R a t i o n a l e f o r Interview The  Questions  i n t e r v i e w s f o l l o w e d an " i n t e r v i e w guide"  format  (McMillan & Schumacher, 1993), i n which t o p i c s are o u t l i n e d i n advance with prepared q u e s t i o n s were expected Although  q u e s t i o n s , however, f u r t h e r p r o b i n g t o a r i s e out of the  interaction.  the s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w has not been used  e x t e n s i v e l y i n c a r e e r development, i t has seen an i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n i n r e c e n t years Questions  (Savickas & Lent,  ranged from t h e i r experience  1992).  of the PICE s e s s i o n  t o t h e i r b e l i e f s about i t s impact, t o t h e i r a c t i o n s s i n c e PICE.  F i n a l l y I concluded with d i r e c t s o l i c i t a t i o n  suggestions  f o r improving  of  the PICE approach, i n a d d i t i o n t o  any they had a l r e a d y o f f e r e d .  In some i n s t a n c e s I probed  f u r t h e r f o r e l a b o r a t i o n on answers g i v e n , u s i n g such q u e s t i o n s as, "Can  you t e l l me more about t h a t ? " and  does t h a t mean f o r you?" h a l f hour and one  hour.  Interviews r e q u i r e d between  "What one-  44  Interview Guide Experience 1.  of the Session  Why d i d you v o l u n t e e r f o r the s e s s i o n ?  initial  What were your  expectations?  2.  D e s c r i b e your experience  3.  What was i t l i k e f o r you t o have your parent  4.  What was i t l i k e t o have other people  5.  What was i t l i k e t o have another  of the s e s s i o n . present?  i n t h e room?  student/parent  pair  there? Thoughts on Impact o f PICE Session 1.  What a r e your o v e r a l l impressions  o f how t h e s e s s i o n  worked f o r you? 2.  What e f f e c t s  ( i f any) do you t h i n k the s e s s i o n may have  had on your own c a r e e r 3.  planning?\  Do you t h i n k t h e s e s s i o n had any impact on your  r e l a t i o n s h i p with your p a r e n t ( s ) ? Eg.,  -Them understanding -You  understanding  you b e t t e r ? them b e t t e r ?  - T a l k i n g about c a r e e r i s s u e s more often/more openly? -Any  changes i n how your parent(s) a d v i s e you?  A c t i o n Steps 1.  What have you been doing i n your c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and  p l a n n i n g s i n c e the PICE s e s s i o n ? Eg.,  - I n terms of t h i n k i n g about c a r e e r ? -In terms of CAPP p a r t i c i p a t i o n ?  45 -Talked t o anyone i n p a r t i c u l a r  occupations?  -Any use of the Career Pathways book? D e s c r i b e . - I d e a s / p l a n s / a c t i o n s i n work or v o l u n t e e r experience? 2.  Do you r e l a t e any development i n what you a r e d o i n g o r  have done t o your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the PICE s e s s i o n ? Direct 1.  Suggestions  Do you have any suggestions  experience  f o r improving  or c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n general?  the PICE Please  explain.  The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n guide owed i t s g e n e s i s t o two main sources, the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , and p r e l i m i n a r y feedback from PICE p a r t i c i p a n t s a l r e a d y obtained.  We have seen above t h a t c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n which  i n v o l v e s f a m i l y members i n a j o i n t e f f o r t may  actually  enhance f a m i l y communication and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Another  dimension of c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n g e n e r a l i s t h e importance of a c t i o n s and a c t i o n p l a n n i n g .  Further, a  number of students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n PICE s e s s i o n s i n t h e f a l l of 1995 shared t h e i r impressions d i s c u s s i o n approximately a t t h a t time helped  i n a focus group  two months l a t e r .  T h e i r comments  l e a d t o the present i n t e r v i e w guide,  w e l l as t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' d e s i r e t o c o l l e c t the p r e s e n t i n a more s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n .  as  data  46 Data A n a l y s i s Audiotapes G).  of i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d (see Appendix  T r a n s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r v i e w s were read and r e - r e a d t o  become f a m i l i a r with the o v e r a l l communication of each participant.  Summary notes were c o n s t r u c t e d from each  i n t e r v i e w , w i t h examples u s i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own  language t o  i l l u s t r a t e p o i n t s made. The r e s e a r c h e r then l i s t e d the meaning u n i t s  and  c a t e g o r i e s used by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e , and summarized the themes p r e s e n t i n each interview.  Copies of the i n t e r v i e w summary and themes were  sent t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s  (see Appendix H), and they were  c o n t a c t e d by telephone t o d i s c u s s any d i s c r e p a n c i e s , l e a d i n g to potential revisions.  One parent d i d request a r e v i s i o n  i n one s e c t i o n , and such r e v i s i o n was  made.  Another parent  had made some p o t e n t i a l l y s e n s i t i v e comments about h i s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and he was summary was  s p e c i f i c a l l y asked whether the  a c c e p t a b l e as presented  (which i t was).  See  Appendix I f o r p a r t i c i p a n t v a l i d a t i o n comments. Convergent and d i v e r g e n t data was  grouped a c c o r d i n g t o  theme, and a summary document of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' condensed data by theme was  produced.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e quotes were  s e l e c t e d as each t r a n s c r i p t was  analyzed and  i n c l u d e d i n the  summary of thematic data. M i l e s and Huberman (1984) have i d e n t i f i e d common sources of e r r o r f o r q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s , and I have  47  attempted t o keep i n mind and work a g a i n s t  each o f t h e  following: a) The h o l i s t i c f a l l a c y , i n which o u t l i e r cases a r e ignored and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s appear a l l the more  b) E l i t e b i a s , i n which g r e a t e r  patterned.  credence i s g i v e n t o h i g h e r  s t a t u s o r more a r t i c u l a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s . c)  "Going n a t i v e , " or a c c e p t i n g  without question  the opinions  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  o r researched thought.  I n i t i a l l y a procedure of evidence w e i g h t i n g was considered,  i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t nonverbals and s t r e n g t h -  of-presentation,  but i t was deemed t o c a r r y t o o much  p o t e n t i a l danger o f skewing t o be worth t h e attempt. presenting  data p a t t e r n s ,  In  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and p r o p o s i t i o n s ,  my purpose has been t o keep i n mind t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o produce both u n i v e r s a l s and p a r t i c u l a r s ; r e p o r t i n g of f i n d i n g s h e r e i n should r e f l e c t both the r i c h of i n d i v i d u a l s , and p o t e n t i a l p a t t e r n s the group.  Propositions  experiences  of experience w i t h i n  f o r further t e s t i n g the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between PICE i n t e r v e n t i o n , parameters, and outcome v a r i a b l e s are provided  i n the d i s c u s s i o n .  Researcher Role S i n c e my r o l e as researcher  has a b e a r i n g  on t h i s  study, I w i l l o f f e r a few comments about my p e r s o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l background.  and  I am a graduate student i n  c o u n s e l l i n g psychology with past experience i n t h e d i v e r s e  48 f i e l d s o f law, youth work, and employment c o u n s e l l i n g .  My  i n t e r e s t i n t h e area of c a r e e r development developed, i n l a r g e measure, due t o my own p e r s o n a l  experience o f  f r u s t r a t e d c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n adolescence.  A lack of  q u a l i t y c a r e e r a s s i s t a n c e i n my own case, as w e l l as observations  o f many other young people's need f o r c a r e e r  a s s i s t a n c e l e d me t o focus i n t h i s area w i t h i n psychology.  I t i s my hope and i n t e n t i o n t o d i s c o v e r and  u t i l i z e t h e most p r o d u c t i v e ,  h o l i s t i c , and r e s p e c t f u l means  of c a r e e r development a s s i s t a n c e with As  counselling  others.  i s common i n both u n i v e r s i t y and community  research,  my r o l e i n t h i s study i s not as o b j e c t i v e as d e s i r e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were aware t h a t I was f o l l o w i n g up on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e PICE c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n and t h a t my s u p e r v i s o r was t h e o r i g i n a l f a c i l i t a t o r . t o minimize t h a t connection  research  Though I attempted  by s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioning our  d e s i r e t o o b t a i n honest answers (thus t h e o r i g i n a l f a c i l i t a t o r was n o t doing t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g ) , t h e f a c t remains t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s may y e t have had a ' p l e a s i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' motive  operating.  My own e x p e c t a t i o n  b i a s e s were p a r t l y due t o p r i o r  knowledge o f t h e PICE f a c i l i t a t o r ' s r e p o r t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t feedback, and p a r t l y due t o t h e simple f a c t t h a t research  this  comprises m a t e r i a l f o r my master's t h e s i s .  P r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " f i l e drawer problem," i t would be remiss not t o mention a s p e c i f i c m o t i v a t i o n  to find  49  something meaningful use the " f i l e  t o r e p o r t , as w e l l as the i n a b i l i t y t o  drawer" i n a case such as t h i s .  attempted t o monitor my  own  I have  r o l e i n the p r o c e s s of data  c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s , and t o minimize the e f f e c t s of biases.  T h e r e f o r e , I attempted t o minimize r e s e a r c h e r  e f f e c t s by emphasizing facilitator, impact  such  my  d i s t a n c e from the  original  i n t e r v i e w s were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d , and  q u e s t i o n s were asked with a tone intended t o convey  an e x p e c t a t i o n of p o s s i b l y l i t t l e or no impact. not d i f f i c u l t , i n my  This  was  view, s i n c e I a l s o had e x p e c t a t i o n s  and  f e a r s t h a t such a b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n would indeed produce no r e s u l t s of consequence.  As a f u r t h e r check on  data  a n a l y s i s , i n t e r v i e w summaries were p r o v i d e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s for  v a l i d a t i o n or c o r r e c t i o n s , and student p e r c e p t i o n s of  impact were compared with p a r e n t s ' data. Although of  s e v e r a l means of reducing the b i a s i n g impact  t h i s r e s e a r c h e r were used, i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  cannot t r u l y a v o i d some p o t e n t i a l l y contaminating  one  effects  when p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e any connection whatsoever between the i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o v i d e r ( s ) and the e v a l u a t o r ( s ) .  It is  l e f t t o the reader t o decide whether the c h a i n of r e a s o n i n g between q u e s t i o n formation, data c o l l e c t i o n , and has communicated a phenomenon with  integrity.  analyses  50 Chapter IV Results T h i s chapter w i l l d e s c r i b e and summarize p a r t i c i p a n t data.  F i r s t , t h e emergent themes w i l l be b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d ,  f o l l o w e d by thematic  p r e s e n t a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o i n t s o f  view, along with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e quotes. experience presented  F i n a l l y , the  o f PICE p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n w i l l be i n the form o f a summary t a b l e .  Emergent Themes 1.  Goals: The g o a l s , hopes, e x p e c t a t i o n s o f students,  p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s g o a l s , and p a r e n t s ' own g o a l s ; 2.  E v a l u a t i o n o f Process: Comments p a r t i c i p a n t s made about  the i n t e r a c t i o n a l dynamics o f the PICE s e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t a t o r s t y l e , p a r e n t a l involvement, and other  families'  presence; 3.  E v a l u a t i o n o f Content: Comments p a r t i c i p a n t s made about  the a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the s e s s i o n , such as t h e p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n exercise using l e i s u r e 4.  activities;  Impact on Career P e r s p e c t i v e : Comments p a r t i c i p a n t s made  about any change (or non-change) i n c a r e e r b e l i e f s o r a t t i t u d e s which they a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r PICE involvement; 5.  Impact on Career A c t i o n s : Comments p a r t i c i p a n t s made  about any changes (or non-change) i n c a r e e r development a c t i v i t i e s which they a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r PICE involvement;  51 6.  Impact on Family I n t e r a c t i o n : Comments p a r t i c i p a n t s made  about any changes (or non-change) i n f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n o r communication which they r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n PICE; 7.  A t t r i b u t i o n s f o r Change: Comments p a r t i c i p a n t s made  regarding  t h e i r t h e o r i e s about what i n PICE was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r any changes; and 8.  Suggestions f o r Improvement: D i r e c t s u g g e s t i o n s  p a r t i c i p a n t s made f o r improving the PICE approach. Below i s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' data, p r e s e n t e d by theme area, and i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own words.  Thematic Data 1.  GOALS  STUDENTS Many students d i d not have s p e c i f i c g o a l s o r expectations  f o r the PICE s e s s i o n ; they were simply  f o r g e n e r a l h e l p i n c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making. due  T h i s was p a r t l y  t o t h e f a c t t h a t they were given o n l y b r i e f  ahead o f time.  looking  information  In f a c t , some students r e c a l l e d v o l u n t e e r i n g  f o r t h e s e s s i o n i n q u i t e a spontaneous manner: "They came around t o c l a s s t h e same day and I wasn't busy, so I agreed t o do i t , "  o r " I d i d n ' t have a s p e c i f i c g o a l f o r t h e  s e s s i o n , but I l e a r n e d a l o t . what t h e s e s s i o n was before The  I d i d n ' t t o t a l l y understand  I did i t . "  f a c t o r t h a t seemed t o appeal t o them most was t h e  52  promise of a more p e r s o n a l approach than they had been exposed  t o thus f a r a t s c h o o l .  The i d e a of a ' r e a l  live'  person g i v i n g them one-on-one a t t e n t i o n and guidance seemed q u i t e a t t r a c t i v e , even 'fun'. the spoken word, was  T h i s p e r s o n a l approach, v i a  a p p e a l i n g t o s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s as  compared t o paper/pen  methods:  I thought i t would probably be more i n t e r e s t i n g and more r e l e v a n t t o me than anything e l s e has been, because the program i n p l a c e now i s r e a l l y g e n e r i c and time-wasting. So I j u s t rushed down here and s i g n e d up...I r e a l l y wanted t o s o r t of see what e l s e would be r e l e v a n t t o me more than f i l l i n g out a l i t t l e form. . . t a l k i n g t o a person i n s t e a d of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One  student s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned  the spoken word was paper.  11  t h a t , i n her mind,  l e s s ' f i n a l ' than the b l a c k and white  on  T h i s made the s e s s i o n more a t t r a c t i v e than t h e  normal c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t s c h o o l .  Another  student r e c a l l e d being a b i t d i s a p p o i n t e d because  she had  hoped t o make i t t o the p o i n t of having a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e made.  T h i s was  not a c l e a r l y  a r t i c u l a t e d g o a l p r i o r t o the s e s s i o n , but she became aware of  i t when she d i d not make the k i n d of p r o g r e s s she had  been s u b c o n s c i o u s l y hoping f o r : I k i n d of expected i t t o be a b i t more s p e c i f i c , l i k e , 'OK, w e ' l l f i n d a c a r e e r f o r you,' or something l i k e that. Many simply s a i d they were out f o r whatever p r o g r e s s  Note: Quotations from one participant are continued with single spacing; quotes from multiple participants are separated by l i n e space. Quotations have been modified s l i g h t l y , such as verb tense agreement, to enhance readability.  53 and  i d e a s they c o u l d get.  venture,  I t was seen as a very  something t h a t could h e l p but not h u r t .  low-risk A few  mentioned they were l o o k i n g f o r e i t h e r a c h a l l e n g e o r a support having  o f g o a l s they already had i n p l a c e .  The i d e a o f  t o a c t u a l l y speak of t h e i r plans out loud seemed t o  be a good t e s t o f t h e i r soundness. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y go i n with any e x p e c t a t i o n s . j u s t t o s o r t of examine my c a r e e r g o a l s .  I guess  I t j u s t sounded l i k e something i n t e r e s t i n g . There wasn't any r i s k . . . I j u s t f i g u r e d I'd t r y i t , see what i t was l i k e . . . s o who knows what t h e s e s s i o n would do. So I s a i d I might as w e l l take i t . I f i t h e l p s me, i t h e l p s me. I f i t doesn't, I'm not l o s i n g a n y t h i n g . PARENTS Some parents n o t i c e d t h a t t h e i r son o r daughter was q u i t e e x c i t e d about the chance t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n PICE.  In  f a c t , t h e son o r daughter's eagerness t o be i n v o l v e d with t h e i r parent present was the b i g draw f o r many p a r e n t s . She was very e x c i t e d when she phoned...so she went b a r r e l l i n g down t o s i g n up. I t h i n k she i s v e r y concerned with what she i s going t o do, perhaps even unduly so... The  parents had even l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s e s s i o n  ahead o f time than the students d i d , s i n c e t h e student was t h e i r o n l y source.  Parents  and t h e i r sons/daughters d i d not  t a l k much about the coming s e s s i o n between v o l u n t e e r i n g and participating.  Most were not aware o f t h e i r son o r  daughter's g o a l s f o r the s e s s i o n ; some were aware o f t h e i r son o r daughter's c a r e e r p l a n s , others were not aware o f t h e  54  specifics. G e n e r a l l y I know what she wants, but I don't r e a l l y know i n d e t a i l what she i s going t o do. I knew her g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s , but as f a r as g o a l s go, no, not r e a l l y . I t was j u s t presented as b e i n g an i n t e r v i e w r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r s and c a r e e r c h o i c e . As f a r as g o a l s f o r t h e i r son o r daughter, many  parents  r e l a t e d a g e n e r a l d e s i r e t o support t h e i r c h i l d i n something they wanted t o do (students c o u l d not p a r t i c i p a t e without a parent  present).  I had no i d e a what t h i s was; I j u s t showed my t o h e r and went with h e r .  support  I j u s t went because she needed me t o go. S e v e r a l shared t h e i r hopes t h a t t h e s e s s i o n would p r o v i d e some s o r t o f general help i n p r o g r e s s i n g towards c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s and p l a n s ; f o r some, any h e l p was seen as b e t t e r than t h e s t a t u s quo. I'm not sure. I thought she might g e t some b e n e f i t i n making c a r e e r c h o i c e s . W e l l , anything would be a b e n e f i t , don't you t h i n k ? I j u s t went i n t o i t with an open mind. I had no p r e c o n c e p t i o n s because I wasn't g i v e n any i n f o r m a t i o n about i t . So we j u s t went i n and hoped our o p i n i o n s counted.... Obviously,  a number of parents were not aware o f any  s p e c i f i c g o a l s or e x p e c t a t i o n s they had f o r t h e s e s s i o n , though d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e s s i o n ' s impact brought one o r two to l i g h t  (see below).  One parent r e l a t e d how he thought h i s daughter d i d n ' t  55  need t o be as concerned about her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g as was;  she  he hoped i t would decrease her worry about c a r e e r  decisions: I was hoping i t would give her a sense of d i r e c t i o n , or perhaps even give her a sense of maybe not w o r r y i n g about i t q u i t e as much...I guess I thought t h a t perhaps p a r t of i t might give the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i f you have your i n t e r e s t s and s t r e n g t h s . . . i t w i l l work o u t . . . .  2.  EVALUATION OF SESSION PROCESS A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s (students & parents)  expressed  p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the s e s s i o n o v e r a l l . was  The  a very  facilitator  r e c a l l e d as being very encouraging, the atmosphere  r e l a x e d and  interactive.  I thought he d i d a r e a l l y good j o b . encouraging and e v e r y t h i n g .  He was  really  . . . i t was a format t h a t worked w e l l , and everybody was dressed c a s u a l l y , which I t h i n k r e a l l y h e l p s . There's nothing t h a t would k i l l i t more than white s h i r t s and t i e s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . . . . I remember the p r o f e s s o r at the time j u s t not speaking any of the technojargon, j u s t being very down-to-earth. I t was very c a s u a l , and everybody was made t o f e e l at ease. A couple of students mentioned t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r being  'put on the spot', having t o g i v e spontaneous  d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s or g o a l s . come t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the s e s s i o n was  One  student  more u s e f u l than  w r i t t e n work because the spoken word seemed l e s s of a thing.  had  final  Another student valued the sense of a t t e n t i v e n e s s i n  the group, as compared t o classroom  experiences  she'd  had.  And the f a c t t h a t i t was spoken was a l s o important, because with the CAPP program when you w r i t e i t down i t seems very f i n a l , t h a t t h i s i s what you want t o do.  56  But because t h i s i s j u s t spoken word, i t ' s more of a t h i n k i n g process. About h a l f were p o s i t i v e  about having t h e i r p a r e n t s i n  the s e s s i o n , w i t h the r e s t having mixed f e e l i n g s . only negative feelings  None had  about t h e i r parent being p r e s e n t .  Some students f e l t more l i s t e n e d t o than u s u a l by  their  p a r e n t s , w h i l e some saw t h a t having them p r e s e n t gave common m a t e r i a l t o t a l k about l a t e r .  Some gained new  l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i r parent i n the s e s s i o n .  One  insight  from  student  looked back on the s e s s i o n as a more focused and c o n v e r s a t i o n than they would normally have w i t h  specific their  parents. I t was good t o have my parents around and another student and t h e i r parent. Because a l o t of times I t h i n k t h a t i t ' s o n l y me t h a t ' s doing a l l these hard things. [To have my mom t h e r e was]...not a b i g d i f f e r e n c e . mom d i d n ' t r e a l l y say t h a t much e i t h e r .  My  I enjoyed i t more, because i t ' s the k i n d of s t u f f we don't r e a l l y t a l k about. We t a l k l i k e , "Oh yeah, I want t o go i n t o human k i n e t i c s , " but she doesn't say, "Maybe you should do t h i s , or you should do t h a t t o get t h e r e . " And t h a t was what she was maybe t r y i n g t o say more.... I t was neat. Some s t u f f she s a i d , I never knew she thought t h a t b e f o r e . I don't know, j u s t something about how you had t o be focused on your c a r e e r , and she's never r e a l l y t a l k e d t o me about the o p t i o n s before. H a l f of the parents i n t e r v i e w e d expressed h a v i n g a g r e a t e r understanding of t h e i r son or daughter of the s e s s i o n . about such  gained  as a r e s u l t  These parents seemed t o f e e l q u i t e p o s i t i v e  insights.  57  Yes, I q u i t e enjoyed i t . And I know, a t l e a s t I know what she's thought o f something. I t ' s more c l e a r . . . She s a i d she wants t o be a teacher, and she l i k e s r e a d i n g a l o t , and then she expressed h e r s e l f t h e k i n d of f e e l i n g she got a f t e r r e a d i n g . We had t a l k e d about i t b e f o r e , but p r o b a b l y not as much i n as focused a way. So i t very much h e l p e d t o g i v e that perspective. I t k i n d o f c l a r i f i e d t h i n g s f o r me. I was g l a d t o s i t i n and l i s t e n t o h i s o p i n i o n s and thoughts, because they were k i n d of new t o me. How some o f t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s he had been through...how t h a t a f f e c t e d him. Students w i t h mixed f e e l i n g s had a few d i f f e r e n t reasons f o r f e e l i n g t h e way they d i d .  One student, f o r  example, c i t e d her p a r e n t s ' language b a r r i e r and h e r own shyness as f a c t o r s c a u s i n g her t o be r e t i c e n t . a l s o echoed t h e language  The p a r e n t  i s s u e on independent i n t e r v i e w .  Student: For me, p e r s o n a l l y , i t was l i k e h a l f and half. I want her t h e r e , but I don't want h e r there...She gave t h e input, 'cause she knows me b e t t e r than I know myself k i n d of t h i n g . But i f she wasn't t h e r e maybe I can f o r g e t about what I say and j u s t say what I want t o say. Because I don't want t o o f f e n d my mom o r whatever... So i t was good t o have h e r t h e r e , but i t wasn't e x c e l l e n t t o have her t h e r e . Next time, I'd p r o b a b l y go without my mom.... Parent: I t ' s good f o r a l l t h e k i d s i f they can express themselves. But...maybe my e n g l i s h i s not r e a l l y good, so I can't r e a l l y express myself. But I guess f o r people who r e a l l y t a l k t h i s language, and they don't mind speaking out, I t h i n k i t ' s a good e x p e r i e n c e f o r them. Some f e l t t h e parents d i d not have much t o say i n t h e i r s e s s i o n , so t h e i r presence d i d not seem necessary.  One f e l t  he had a l r e a d y t a l k e d about e v e r y t h i n g w i t h h i s mother, so i t was n o t h i n g new; another f e l t her f a t h e r went overboard w i t h f o l l o w i n g up afterward.  58  I t was normal. I mean, everyone t a l k s i n f r o n t of t h e i r mom. But i t was k i n d of the same s t u f f t h a t normally t a l k about.  we  I t wasn't bad [having my f a t h e r there] except f o r a f t e r he had t h i s obsession, l i k e we should t a l k about t h i s . . . e v e r y s i n g l e day...so i t was d r i v i n g me insane. But a s i d e from t h a t , I d i d n ' t r e a l l y n o t i c e he was there. A l l but one regarding  of the students were very p o s i t i v e  the other  ' f a m i l y ' being  p a r t i c u l a r l y the other student.  i n the s e s s i o n , most  The  student had  a peer t o  i d e n t i f y w i t h i n a room with s e v e r a l a d u l t s , as v o i c e d the student who t h a t I had  s a i d , "That's p a r t of what I l i k e d about i t ,  someone e l s e t o r e l a t e t o . . . i n s t e a d of a room  f u l l of a d u l t s " .  The  commonalities between students were  a l s o v a l i d a t i n g , sometimes even s u r p r i s i n g . s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s were r e p o r t e d and  by'  the second student provided  as  Both insightful,  a c o n t r a s t i n g example of  the  a n a l y s i s technique i n a c t i o n . Student: She was i n grade 10 a l s o , and i n the I n c e n t i v e program too. So there was a k i n d of a bond between us...So the problems she has, I have t o o . It's n i c e t o know I'm not the only one. I thought i t was g r e a t . One of the t h i n g s t h a t r e a l l y h e l p e d me was h e a r i n g another student, what they f e l t , because I t h i n k t h a t students r i g h t now are q u i t e i s o l a t e d . . . T h e other student i n my s e s s i o n was a guy, not i n the I n c e n t i v e program. But a c t u a l l y I found t h a t I had a l o t of common ground w i t h him. I t was p r e t t y amazing. I wouldn't have expected t o f i n d t h a t . I t was e n l i g h t e n i n g . I was more i n t o the a t h l e t i c s i d e of t h i n g s and she more i n t o the a r t s s i d e so I had a chance t o see i t from both p e r s p e c t i v e s .  was  Before the s e s s i o n I a c t u a l l y thought t h a t working on my own was b e t t e r than i n a group. But then I found  59 out, I thought a f t e r the s e s s i o n t h a t i t ' s good t o communicate with people, and t h a t you can get more ideas. Parents were almost as g r a t e f u l f o r the presence  o f the  o t h e r p a i r , though some valued i t more f o r t h e i r son o r daughter  than f o r themselves.  One parent d i d express  a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the other f a m i l y ' s presence  f o r the reason  t h a t they would a u t o m a t i c a l l y possess more c r e d i b i l i t y  than  a student's own p a r e n t s . Yes, t h a t was good f o r them t o have a chance t o express their feelings. E s p e c i a l l y what I remember t h a t the o t h e r student was a guy, and he and my daughter c o u l d look a t the same t h i n g from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view, d i f f e r e n t angles. ...and I thought the i d e a of k i d s l i s t e n i n g t o o t h e r k i d s ' v a l u e s probably would c a r r y much more weight. A t t h i s age i n p a r t i c u l a r , parents are t o t a l l y u n c o o l . No c r e d i b i l i t y whatsoever. I t might a l s o be good h e a r i n g other p a r e n t s . Because ...hearing other parents and t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s probably c a r r i e s a l i t t l e more c r e d i b i l i t y . Having emphasized t o both our k i d s i n d i v i d u a l l y the importance o f s t u d y i n g and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , i t was k i n d of r e f r e s h i n g t o hear t h a t we're both on the same t r a c k , s a y i n g the same t h i n g s . We're not t h e o n l y people b e a t i n g the drum! One other reason the students may have b e n e f i t t e d  from  having a c o u n t e r p a r t i n the same s e s s i o n was r a i s e d by a few: T h i s way, even though put on the spot, one student was not the c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n the whole time, which might have been more s t r e s s f u l . I t was e a s i e r t o t a l k because i t wasn't l i k e e v e r y t h i n g was focused on you...You're not t o o much on the spot.... A couple o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n d i f f e r e n t about having  the o t h e r student-parent p a i r .  They c o u l d r e c a l l n o t h i n g  added as a r e s u l t of t h e i r presence. raised  The o n l y n e g a t i v e  about having the other f a m i l y was  language-related;  one parent f e l t her language d i f f i c u l t i e s would have been l e s s of a problem without others i n the room. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y mind, because I k i n d of knew her. I f i t was someone I d i d n ' t know a t a l l i t would be harder. I t was k i n d of n i c e because we're r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t and i t ' s n i c e h e a r i n g d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s and views on things. I k i n d of knew the other student so i t was ok. It d i d n ' t r e a l l y matter; i f she hadn't been t h e r e i t would have been the same. A f i n a l i s s u e of concern f o r a few p a r t i c i p a n t s was presence  of observers, and v i d e o t a p i n g of s e s s i o n s .  the  Though  the m a j o r i t y d i d not f e e l i t a f f e c t e d t h e i r s e s s i o n , f o r some t h i s was  a source of minor d i s t r a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d  tension. There was a l s o a couple of other c o u n s e l l o r s o b s e r v i n g . I t wasn't bad, but i t made e v e r y t h i n g a l i t t l e more uncomfortable. When I heard i t was going t o be videotaped I was k i n d of s c a r e d . I t ' s k i n d of hard t o t a l k when you have a camera focused on you. I thought maybe i f i t had been t h e r e my answers would have been d i f f e r e n t [ T h i s s e s s i o n was not taped a t h i s mother's r e q u e s t ] . 3.  EVALUATION OF SESSION CONTENT STUDENTS Comments about s e s s i o n content were l a r g e l y  Students v a l u e d the way  positive.  the approach allowed them t o s t a r t  by s h a r i n g a c t i v i t i e s of g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o them, then the m a t e r i a l as data f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e i r s t y l e  and  used  61 preferences.  Some students r e f e r r e d t o t h i s p r o c e s s as much  more r e l e v a n t than s c h o o l c a r e e r e x e r c i s e s .  One  s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned g a i n i n g i n s i g h t through f a c i l i t a t o r ' s use of metaphors from t h e i r own  student  the experiences to  i l l u s t r a t e a p o i n t about c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . He gave me a chance t o express my o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s . . . t h e s t u f f j u s t came t o my head and I had t o say i t . The method he used was so u n i q u e . . . i t r e a l l y helped you c l a r i f y what you want and how you behave i n c e r t a i n situations. He used s p o r t s l i k e a metaphor, 'cause I l i k e s p o r t s . . . s o I understood more. I enjoyed t h a t he was d e a l i n g w i t h what r e l a t e s t o me, not j u s t a p i e c e of paper....I experienced i t , I can r e l a t e i t t o my l i f e ; i t connects. I k i n d of expected i t t o be a b i t more s p e c i f i c , . . . but i t wasn't r e a l l y . I t was l i k e , 'Let's f i n d out who you are f i r s t , ' which i s , I t h i n k , more important, but i s overlooked a l o t . One  student mentioned t h a t she f e l t the s e s s i o n ' s  t e c h n i q u e allowed her more freedom t o e x p l o r e dimensions h e r s e l f as w e l l as a l t e r n a t i v e p o t e n t i a l c a r e e r paths. was  l a r g e l y a comparison between PICE and o t h e r ,  paper/pencil career t o o l s .  of This  impersonal,  With the l a t t e r , she had  ' s l o t t e d ' , and f o r c e d t o make c h o i c e s prematurely.  felt The  PICE  e x p e r i e n c e f e l t more l i k e the beginning of a p r o c e s s , not the  end. I t a c t e d as a beginning p o i n t , whereas a l o t of programs a c t as an end. I t d i d n ' t say, 'What do you want t o be?' i t j u s t got the b a l l r o l l i n g and s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g . I t h i n k t h a t was r e a l l y important. Some expressed t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the way  the  p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process helped o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n  62  about themselves and c a r e e r s , as w e l l as t e a c h i n g them the technique  of a n a l y s i s .  [The f a c i l i t a t o r ] ...helped me t o analyze...my p e r s o n a l i t y , my g o a l s , my weaknesses, my s t r e n g t h s . t h i n k i t was a good t h i n g , because sometimes I j u s t c o u l d n ' t get i t untangled i n my head.... Though very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was Pathways b o o k l e t , most f e l t i t was  g i v e n t o the  u s e f u l as a  not e s s e n t i a l , but a good e x t r a . A couple f e l t t o o l r e q u i r e d a higher l e v e l of experience date,  l i m i t i n g i t s usefulness  gain experience!).  I  Career  follow-up— felt  this  than they had  to  (but enhancing m o t i v a t i o n t o  Though n o t a l l students a c t u a l l y went  through and used the booklet, those who  d i d had r e f l e c t e d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e s s i o n and  on  booklet.  The s e s s i o n i n t r o d u c e d s t r a t e g i e s , and the book k i n d of was more s p e c i f i c . I went through i t and I d i d a l o t of the a c t i v i t i e s . . . a n d I found i t was f o r people who a l r e a d y had e x p e r i e n c e i . . T h e book k i n d of made i t more c l e a r about what he was t a l k i n g about experience-wise. I d i d n ' t do every a c t i v i t y , but I looked through i t . I t seemed even the w r i t t e n s t u f f i n the PICE program seemed more u s e f u l than the CAPP s t u f f , because i t ' s more open. I t doesn't focus as much on c a r e e r s as on what you want. I t wasn't extremely t h r i l l i n g , but i t wasn't d u l l boring either. I went through most of i t .  and  PARENTS In g e n e r a l , parents were a l s o p o s i t i v e about the c o n t e n t of the PICE s e s s i o n , though not many comments were made s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s area. broadening  Some a p p r e c i a t e d  approach of both the technique  and  the  the  f a c i l i t a t o r ' s i n p u t , not d i r e c t i n g the students, but h e l p i n g  63  them t h i n k about t h e impact of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and personalities.  T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n helped them r e l a t e  themselves t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , but d i d not l i m i t them to  standard types o f occupations.  addressing  The emphasis on  i n t e r e s t s and s t y l e s f i r s t  seemed r e l e v a n t and  a l s o encouraging f o r t h e i r son o r daughter. I thought t h e s e s s i o n k i n d of gave enough breadth t h a t i t d i d n ' t channel us o f f i n t o t h e very t r a d i t i o n a l s o r t s o f l i m i t e d l i s t s of t h i n g s you o b v i o u s l y t h i n k of....The d i s c u s s i o n s o r t of broadened t h a t up a l i t t l e b i t . . . . Rather than t h e standard s o r t o f c a r e e r counselling...[where] you f i l l i n a l i t t l e sheet of your i n t e r e s t s and t h e computer says you should be Si • • • •  He never t o l d them what t o do, which i s what he can't do....which i s what they do now, they g i v e you these s t u p i d t e s t s and t e l l them t h a t they should be.... And I t h i n k t h e way he d i d i t was r e a l l y good, i f you can g e t them t o t h i n k about what i t i s t h a t they want to do, and make sure t h a t i t matches what t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y i s , t h a t ' s r e a l l y good. Some o f t h e parents were very emphatic t h a t t h e technique  would not have worked as w e l l i f p r e p a r a t i o n had  been expected.  Spontaneity  was seen as p a r t - a n d - p a r c e l o f  the c o - a n a l y s i s , enhancing t h e candidness o f responses. These parents  a l s o r e l a t e d t h e i r own g r e a t e r  understanding  of t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e unexpected nature o f t h e s e s s i o n ' s questions. I t was r e a l l y n i c e t o go i n t h e r e t o t a l l y c o l d and f r e s h , not a n t i c i p a t i n g any q u e s t i o n s . I think i f people can a n t i c i p a t e questions o r they a n t i c i p a t e s o r t of what d i r e c t i o n t h i n g s a r e going t o go...they t a i l o r t h e i r answers a c c o r d i n g l y . . . . I know t h a t from my own business.... Because I saw t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w b e i n g a s t r u c t u r e a p p l i e d t o what I t h i n k were j u s t random  64 thoughts and f e e l i n g s and i n t e r e s t s , and j u s t a g e n e r a l p o t p o u r r i . What the i n t e r v i e w d i d was i t s t r u c t u r e d a l o t of t h a t and I t h i n k i t ' s important t o go i n w i t h no preconceptions on s t r u c t u r e . ...so I f e l t , as d i d my daughter, 'Gee, some c o n c l u s i o n s d i d evolve out of t h i s t h a t maybe we even knew of, but hadn't f a c e d , or hadn't r e a l l y thought o f . '  4.  IMPACT  ON  CAREER  PERSPECTIVE  STUDENTS By f a r the most-cited  impact had t o do with  b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s about c a r e e r .  modified  Nearly a l l students  s a i d t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e had changed somewhat as a r e s u l t PICE involvement. t o understanding  For some, t h i s meant t a k i n g a step back and analyze themselves b e f o r e l o o k i n g t o  choose occupations.  One  student  f e l t more focused by  emphasis, l e s s overwhelmed, having a p l a c e t o begin search.  of  this  her  At l e a s t h a l f of those i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d PICE had  broadened t h e i r t h i n k i n g on c a r e e r o p t i o n s , showing them that similar ways.  interests  .This was  c o u l d be expressed  i n many d i f f e r e n t  a change they f e l t p o s i t i v e  about, with more  of a sense of freedom, and perhaps l e s s p o s s i b i l i t y of making  'mistakes'.  I t h i n k i t helped me, because I began t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e were s p e c i f i c g o a l s I would have t o s e t , and t h e r e were more broad ways t h a t I c o u l d take t o a c e r t a i n path. I t h i n k i t b a s i c a l l y gave me more o p t i o n s . . . . I t j u s t took what I was i n t e r e s t e d i n and he showed me d i f f e r e n t routes t h a t I c o u l d take i n s t e a d of j u s t one s p e c i f i c thing. Before I d i d n ' t r e a l l y have somewhere where I c o u l d f o c u s , but now I have a l i t t l e b i t of a focus happening  65 and a d i r e c t i o n t o go. That focus i s t o look f o r something t h a t would r e a l l y spark my i n t e r e s t . . . . There's a l o t more p o s s i b i l i t i e s . L i k e i t opened i t up. L i k e I j u s t wanted t o be a t e a c h e r then i t s o r t of opened i t up t h a t i t c o u l d be maybe open a t u t o r i n g business or whatever.... Perhaps r e l a t e d t o t h i s impact was an i n c r e a s e r e p o r t e d by some, o f c u r i o s i t y about p o s s i b l e paths and about c a r e e r planning a c t i v i t i e s i n general. I was i n t e r e s t e d [ i n CAPP] before but now I'm more c u r i o u s , and I want t o l e a r n more t h i n g s about i t . However, not a l l students  shared t h i s o p i n i o n o f s c h o o l  c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , before or a f t e r PICE involvement: I thought CAPP was a waste o f time b e f o r e and I s t i l l t h i n k i t ' s a waste of time, and I ' l l stand by t h a t opinion. I hated [CAPP] even more afterward even....They g i v e you a l l these t e s t s . . . j u s t t o c a t e g o r i z e you...and i t ' s not always t r u e f o r me, sometimes i t ' s t o t a l l y not true. Some students helped  looked back on t h e s e s s i o n as having  g i v e them a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of themselves, and an  o r g a n i z e d way t o look a t t h e i r o p t i o n s .  One student r e l a t e d  a change i n her s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l based on t h e PICE session.  Through l o o k i n g a t her p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s i n  activities,  she saw a b e t t e r f i t than her p r e v i o u s  and  a d j u s t e d her p l a n a c c o r d i n g l y .  had  been encouraged through the s e s s i o n t o take aim f o r a  c a r e e r t h a t would be e n j o y a b l e — t h a t  Another student  choice, s a i d she  t h i s was p o s s i b l e and  valid. Being  i n emergency i s k i n d o f s t r e s s f u l , and maybe  66  sometimes I'm not up t o the s t r e s s . And maybe he k i n d of brought t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t maybe t h a t c a r e e r wasn't f o r me, and helped me r e a l i z e maybe something e l s e was b e t t e r . So t h a t ' s good. And he made me r e a l i z e t h a t being i n s p o r t s r e a l l y i s something t h a t I l i k e t o o , and combining those two t o g e t h e r would be a r e a l l y b i g t h i n g f o r me. So t h a t was a r e a l l y good help. I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e i t was a l l connected, l i k e s p o r t s and career....Yeah, i t d i d n ' t say, 'Play t e n n i s f o r a c a r e e r , ' i t j u s t s a i d t h i s i s your p e r s o n a l i t y i n s p o r t s and t h i s i s a l s o going t o be your p e r s o n a l i t y i n your c a r e e r . And t h a t t i e I had never made b e f o r e . Yeah, i t g i v e s you a whole new p e r s p e c t i v e on t h i n g s . Some students b e n e f i t t e d i n unexpected ways. example, one student student's  For  f e l t encouraged by h e a r i n g t h e other  s t r u g g l e s , l e s s e n i n g her own sense o f i s o l a t i o n .  Another gained confidence through speaking  i n the session i n  her a b i l i t y t o speak i n p u b l i c , l e a d i n g her t o c o n s i d e r c a r e e r o p t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y thought out o f reach.  She a l s o  f e l t more c o n f i d e n t t h a t she c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y n e g o t i a t e her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g t a s k s . importance o f short-term planning,  One student had r e a l i z e d t h e  g o a l s i n the process  of career  and f e l t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more motivated  a l o n g t h e way  t o work hard  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y now i n s c h o o l ) .  A c t u a l l y , I'm more w i l l i n g t o work f o r t h i n g s , knowing t h a t I ' l l be able t o achieve t h a t g o a l afterwards...more w i l l i n g t o get t o what I wanted. While some students  seemed t o take c a r e e r i s s u e s more  s e r i o u s l y a f t e r PICE involvement, one student r e p o r t e d a more r e l a x e d a t t i t u d e .  While she had been worrying,  w i t h her f r i e n d s , about making enough p r o g r e s s , she f e l t f r e e r t o take i t more slowly, i n a  along  a f t e r PICE  step-by-step  67  fashion.  She l e a r n e d t h a t the process would l i k e l y i n v o l v e  p r o v i s i o n a l p l a n s along t h e way t h a t she would change as she progressed.  T h i s was such a s t r o n g and p o s i t i v e adjustment  f o r her t h a t she was s h a r i n g her i n s i g h t s w i t h f r i e n d s i n o r d e r t o h e l p them as w e l l . Before I was j u s t k i n d of t h i n k i n g . . . , I've g o t t o g e t t h e r e r i g h t now, because grade 12's coming f a s t and I have t o apply o r whatever. But he made me r e a l i z e t h a t when I g e t t o the end of grade 12 I might not want t o do what I want t o do now, and...I can slow down and t h i n k about i t and p l a n i t out and take each s t e p a t a time i n s t e a d of r u s h i n g i n t o i t a l l a t once. I t k i n d o f helped me r e l a t e t o my f r i e n d s . They're always t a l k i n g about how we've got t o do ' t h i s ' now, because I want t o be doing ' t h i s ' by next year. And I c o u l d k i n d o f say, 'You don't have t o do t h a t , because you've got a l o t of time s t i l l . . . y o u can take your time a t t h i n g s you want t o do.' PARENTAL VALIDATION Although  parents were not s p e c i f i c a l l y asked t o comment  on t h e p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s of impact  r a i s e d by t h e i r  children,  we may view t h e p a r e n t s ' v o l u n t e e r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s as a l i m i t e d s o r t o f v a l i d a t i o n data.  Since each i n t e r v i e w was  c o n s i d e r e d c o n f i d e n t i a l , parents d i d not have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make such d i r e c t e d comments. A l l but one parent had some o b s e r v a t i o n s t o o f f e r i n terms o f a p o s i t i v e impact  on t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  p a r e n t without o b s e r v a t i o n s o f impact experience  still  The one  f e l t the  i t s e l f was very v a l u a b l e f o r both her daughter  and h e r s e l f .  She thought  i t was a very good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  her daughter t o review and c l a r i f y her t h i n k i n g about c a r e e r p l a n s , as w e l l as g a i n i n g something from t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  68  w i t h o t h e r students and a d u l t s . how,  She wasn't e x a c t l y sure  but f e l t sure i t must have helped her daughter  i n some  way. Not anything very obvious, but I t h i n k i t was good t o have a chance g i v e n t o her so t h a t she can speak out and...to review herself...what her g o a l and c a r e e r i s . . . a n d have a chance t o share w i t h the o p i n i o n s of o t h e r young people. And a t the same time the p a r e n t s can s i t with her and speak openly and f a n k l y ; I t h i n k t h i s i s very good too. Some parents s p e c i f i c a l l y noted t h a t the impact d i d not seem l a r g e , but t h a t t h e i r son or daughter p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r p l a n n i n g .  d i d have a  new  Nearly a l l of the p a r e n t s '  comments were r e f l e c t i v e of comments which had been made by students.  A parent who  h i s daughter had,  had d e s i r e d a ' l i g h t e n i n g up' f o r  around the i s s u e of c a r e e r was  i n f a c t , l i g h t e n e d up a t a l l .  not sure  she  However, he d i d r e p o r t  t h a t she seemed more comfortable afterward w i t h the i d e a of p u r s u i n g a c a r e e r she might enjoy and i n spending time i n p e r s o n a l l y v a l u e d a c t i v i t i t i e s , e x p e c t i n g t h a t t h e r e would be a way /  t o u t i l i z e them i n c a r e e r p a t h i n g .  [Did she l i g h t e n up?] I don't know. That's a tough c a l l t o make. I t h i n k she's a l i t t l e more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h her i n t e r e s t s and that...more comfortable d o i n g her performing a r t s s t u f f . . . . T h a t ' s good f o r her and something i s going t o work out. P a r a l l e l t o one of the students' main themes, some of  the p a r e n t s noted t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g t o have broadened out somewhat, even i f they were encouraged i n a specific direction. p a r e n t s who  T h i s was  a l s o seen i n a p o s i t i v e  observed t h i s impact  light;  seemed t o a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h  69  a more balanced and healthy  a t t i t u d e towards  career.  I t ' s hard t o say, because she a l r e a d y had a f a i r l y good i d e a of what she wanted t o do and i t d i d n ' t change her i d e a a t a l l . . . . T h e process showed t h a t she was probably on the r i g h t t r a c k . ...I guess she's t h i n k i n g about other o p t i o n s now too. L i k e she's s o r t of broadened her outlook a b i t . . . . A couple of parents a l s o echoed an o b s e r v a t i o n minority  of the students,  of the s e s s i o n had  experience/participation  i n c r e a s e d a sense of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n  their child—confidence and  t h a t the  i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o speak i n p u b l i c ,  t o competently p l a n f o r t h e i r c a r e e r .  a l s o t y p i c a l l y reported regarding  from a  These p a r e n t s  f e e l i n g more c o n f i d e n t  their child's abilities.  One  themselves  parent i n p a r t i c u l a r  expressed a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the encouragement her  son  r e c e i v e d from the experience of having t o express h i s thoughts and  own  f e e l i n g s about h i s career p l a n s w i t h a d u l t s .  In her o p i n i o n , the a b i l i t y t o communicate and such confidence  i n t e r a c t with  i s c r u c i a l t o success i n the world of work.  I don't see any impact. But s i n c e then I know my daughter has her own ideas. I t g i v e s me more c o n f i d e n c e t h a t I know what she wants....I guess one t h i n g i s she can t a l k t o a s t r a n g e r and then she has more confidence f o r h e r s e l f . Because she expressed h e r s e l f i n f r o n t of a couple of people....At home she t a l k s too, but i t ' s not l i k e t h a t , and then she r e a l l y got confidence, and she knows what she's doing, she knows what she wants i n the f u t u r e and she expressed herself. . . . j u s t t h a t he's k i n d of maturing, so he c o u l d c a r r y on a c o n v e r s a t i o n , recount h i s f e e l i n g s on t h i n g s , and not be embarrassed or too shy or t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . The working world i s a rough, tough p l a c e , and i f you can't c a r r y y o u r s e l f i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n or meeting people...sometimes i t ' s r e a l l y rough on people. Some p a r e n t s looked  ahead t o f u t u r e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  70 t h e i r c h i l d r e n would be faced with and suggested  that the  PICE s e s s i o n had taught them a method of a n a l y s i s which would l i k e l y prove u s e f u l f o r other d e c i s i o n s a l o n g t h e way. One o f these parents f e l t t h a t , although her daughter fairly  was  secure i n her c u r r e n t p l a n , she had been l o o k i n g i n t o  o t h e r o p t i o n s a b i t more and seemed t o accept t h e l i k e l i h o o d of  c a r e e r changes down the road.  Having  a t o o l such as t h e  p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n technique would be u s e f u l not o n l y a t t h i s stage of c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , but i n the f u t u r e as w e l l . S h e ' l l use what he showed her how t o do t o d e c i d e , I t h i n k , f o r sure. I t was good, I thought. F i n a l l y , one parent n o t i c e d a heightened m o t i v a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e i n h i s daughter: I b e l i e v e i t c r y s t a l l i z e d one t h i n g f o r her i n her mind. And t h a t i s t h a t working today may not have i t s rewards, say, tomorrow. Passing today's exams i s n ' t going t o g i v e you some dramatic r e s u l t o r change i n your l i f e tomorrow. But t h a t i t i s extremely important as a s t e p p i n g stone t o what might happen i n your life....  5.  IMPACT  ON  CAREER  PLANS.  ACTIONS  STUDENTS The most common impact on c a r e e r a c t i o n s noted by s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d an i n c r e a s e i n r e s e a r c h and e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i o n s , such as r e a d i n g about occupations o r i n t e r v i e w i n g people i n p o t e n t i a l occupations.  In f a c t , h a l f o f t h e  student p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h i s e f f e c t .  One student,  however, was unsure of the r e l a t i o n s h i p was between PICE and these a c t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Though i t made sense f o r her  71 t o t h i n k the i n c r e a s e d e x p l o r a t i o n had been s t i m u l a t e d PICE, she a l s o knew t h i s may  by  have been c o i n c i d e n t a l .  ...the s e s s i o n a c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t e d me t o . . . i t a c t u a l l y got me more motivated t o f i n d out more. Because I t a l k e d t o d i f f e r e n t lawyers and asked f o r a d v i c e and what i t ' s l i k e t o be a lawyer, and the e d u c a t i o n required. I've done q u i t e a b i t of r e s e a r c h i n t o what i t i s . the i n t e r n e t t h e r e ' s q u i t e a b i t on human k i n e t i c s . Some students who  had not i n c r e a s e d t h e i r  exploratory  a c t i o n s r e p o r t e d n o t i c i n g t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o do p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t o explore occupations a f t e r PICE incolvement. planning, had  career  had  increased  They d i d spend more time i n  and expected a l s o t o do more e x p l o r a t i o n ,  not done so t o date.  On  One  of these students  simply  felt  her  m o t i v a t i o n had been enhanced d r a m a t i c a l l y a f t e r the s e s s i o n , but the e f f e c t faded a f t e r a few weeks (though not completely). W e l l , a t f i r s t I was r e a l l y m o t i v a t e d . . . l i k e , 'OK I'm going t o do something f i n a l l y ! ' but i t k i n d of wore o f f because t h e r e r e a l l y wasn't a chance f o r a secondary d i s c u s s i o n or whatever. Another common impact noted by students was s c h o o l course  r e l a t e d to  s e l e c t i o n , which had taken p l a c e not  a f t e r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n PICE.  long  Nearly h a l f noted  remembering a c l e a r sense t h a t t h e i r approach i n course s e l e c t i o n had been i n f l u e n c e d by the c a r e e r s e s s i o n .  Some  got more s e r i o u s , some were more r e l a x e d about i t , and o t h e r s had taken a more p o i n t e d l y broad approach t o t h e i r selection.  72 I t was j u s t b e f o r e I So then I a l s o chose I'm not j u s t l o o k i n g a l s o l o o k i n g towards  chose my courses f o r next y e a r . law 12 f o r next year. toward the t e a c h i n g d i r e c t i o n ; I'm being a lawyer and e v e r y t h i n g .  ...course s e l e c t i o n was i n February and I based a l o t of i t on h i s philosophy of t a k i n g your time t o get t h e r e . And I was k i n d of working out the s t e p s t h a t I was going t o take... I took i t more s e r i o u s l y when I was choosing courses f o r next year. And I thought about i t c a r e f u l l y . S e v e r a l students r e p o r t e d a l a c k of impact on  their  a c t i o n s , though they f e l t they were t h i n k i n g d i f f e r e n t l y about the process of c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ; they were t h i n k i n g of new  o p t i o n s , u s i n g a new  way  t o make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s , even  though i n terms of a c t i o n s they were going along,  "pretty  much the same." W e l l , I t h i n k i t ' s more the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s t h a t ' s changed more than anything I've done. S e v e r a l of the students came i n t o the PICE s e s s i o n h a v i n g f a i r l y w e l l - d e f i n e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s i n mind, hoping f o r e i t h e r a c h a l l e n g e or an encouragement (or h e l p i n s u c c e s s f u l l y n e g o t i a t i n g the p a t h ) .  As mentioned above,  t h e s e students were l a r g e l y encouraged i n t h e i r  direction,  even i f they a l s o gained a sense of freedom t o e x p l o r e other possibilities.  One  student d i d f i n d h e r s e l f a d j u s t i n g a  s p e c i f i c c a r e e r p l a n as a r e s u l t of the PICE s e s s i o n .  While  she had been aiming f o r an occupation i n v o l v i n g emergency medicine,  the p a t t e r n s which emerged from her  encouraged her t o r e - t h i n k the d i r e c t i o n .  self-analysis  Given her  dislike  of p r e s s u r e / s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s , she s t a r t e d t o c o n s i d e r  how  she might combine her s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r e s t her medical reflected,  ideas.' T h i s was  a direct result,  so she  of the c o u n s e l l o r u t i l i z i n g her l e i s u r e  p a t t e r n s t o h e l p her analyze her own s t y l e and  i n sports with  interests,  has  interest  strengths,  values.  [...and i t helped me] r e a l i z e t h a t i t was something t h a t I r e a l l y , r e a l l y , r e a l l y want t o do, and I ' l l do almost anything t o t r y t o achieve t h a t . And he made me r e a l i z e t h a t being i n s p o r t s r e a l l y i s something t h a t I l i k e too, and combining those two [with i n t e r e s t i n medicine] would be a r e a l l y b i g t h i n g f o r me. So t h a t was a r e a l l y good h e l p . Yes, I have s p e c i f i c ideas on combining my i n t e r e s t s , perhaps team doctor or team t r a i n e r I really like b e i n g around organized s p o r t s and o r g a n i z e d teamwork. Two  students r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t h e i g h t e n i n g  t h e i r d e s i r e t o a c q u i r e work experience, volunteer. process  T h i s was  apparently  whether p a i d or  a r e s u l t of both the  and the workbook q u e s t i o n s .  career analysis.  Some r e l a t e d  session  Work experience  seen not o n l y as a s u c c e s s f u l b r i d g e between s c h o o l c a r e e r , but a l s o as necessary  of  was and  t o do the work of s e l f f e e l i n g t h a t the  asked showed them t h a t g a i n i n g experience understand what they l i k e d / d i s l i k e d  and  questions  would h e l p them  and what t h e i r  strengths/weaknesses were t o a g r e a t e r degree. I t made me more motivated t o get a p a r t - t i m e j o b . I guess I k i n d of f i g u r e d t h a t my a t h l e t i c s were experiences, but only i n one area. I thought [ a f t e r PICE] maybe a part-time job would broaden i t . So I started applying i n A p r i l . PARENTAL VALIDATION Again,  parents were not asked t o comment on t h e i r  or daughter's s p e c i f i c i n t e r v i e w comments, due  to  the  son  74  c o n d i t i o n of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . perceptions  However, p a r e n t s '  of the impact PICE had on t h e i r  a c t i o n s / p l a n s may  own  child's  serve as an a d d i t i o n a l source of  data,  a d d i t i v e and/or comparative. Parents,  i n g e n e r a l , n o t i c e d l e s s of an impact  c a r e e r a c t i o n s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  on  Two-thirds of the  parents  s a i d they d i d not observe any concrete changes i n t h e i r or daughter's behaviour,  though they thought he or  seemed more encouraged, organized, planning.  she  about c a r e e r  A couple of parents p o i n t e d out t h a t a t the time  of the p r e s e n t s c h o o l had  or motivated  son  i n t e r v i e w s f i n a l exams were looming,  so  e c l i p s e d c a r e e r thoughts f o r a w h i l e .  I mean, I can't t e l l . She t h i n k s about a l l these t h i n g s h e r s e l f , so I don't know. And she always does a r e a l l y good job of t h i n k i n g t h i n g s through h e r s e l f . . . No, I don't t h i n k any e f f e c t on her. I t j u s t helped her review h e r s e l f , t o organize her thoughts, put her head t o g e t h e r . . . . No, she has no time. Because of exams and e v e r y t h i n g . Some parents who  n o t i c e d s p e c i f i c changes i n behaviour  r e l a t e d t o PICE involvement commented on i t s e f f e c t s t h e i r c h i l d ' s m o t i v a t i o n t o get work experience better i n school.  on  and t o  do  Others observed t h e i r son or daughter  e x p l o r i n g a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l  options  afterward. She's done some s o r t of c a r e e r mentoring...she was very e x c i t e d about t h a t and i t was neat. She c e r t a i n l y had a whole l o t of i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g t h i n g s t h a t were completely 'out t h e r e ' t h a t I don't t h i n k she would have had q u i t e the i n t e r e s t i n [before PICE]. School-wise, yeah.  I t seems t h a t i t ' s more  important.  75  For a w h i l e t h e r e he was very concerned about g e t t i n g a job and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . I t was soon a f t e r [the session]. I s a i d as long as h i s marks were up he d i d n ' t have t o worry about t h a t . [And m o t i v a t i o n t o get good grades...] Yeah, i t d i d . I t t u r n e d him around. I t h i n k I've even w r i t t e n t h a t down. F i n a l l y , one parent n o t i c e d h i s daughter  working  • a p p r e c i a b l y harder a t an e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r p r o j e c t a f t e r her involvement w i t h PICE.  He thought  i t was  the f i r s t time  had observed her r e a l l y working hard towards a g o a l t h a t meaningful  f o r her.  he was  Though he wasn't sure the change  stemmed from her experience i n PICE, he wondered whether such was  the case.  I don't know i f t h i s f i t s i n t o the p i c t u r e . She's been a v e r y a v i d swimmer f o r years and years...and she's going t o wrap up her i n s t r u c t o r ' s [ q u a l i f i c a t i o n ] t h i s August. But she's been r e a l l y gung ho on i t , v e r y a g g r e s s i v e . Although she's i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n t s and space and e v e r y t h i n g , t h i s may be the f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a c t u a l l y going out, d r i v i n g home and g e t t i n g t h a t g o a l and doing i t .  6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY INTERACTION Although not a primary aim of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , a  systems o r i e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t f a m i l y dynamics be c o n s i d e r e d when a d d r e s s i n g any i n d i v i d u a l member's experience.  Since p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has suggested  p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on f a m i l y communication, we might some movement i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n here. the i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t was would be  a expect  Given the d u r a t i o n of  not expected t h a t f a m i l y  impact  significant. The most common impact  J  i n t h i s area was  noted  by  76  h a l f of the students.  These students f e l t t h a t PICE  had  h e l p e d t h e i r parents understand them b e t t e r , t h e i r p l a n s d e s i r e s , t h e i r values,  t h e i r commitment, or  weaknesses.  a definite positive feeling  There was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s enhanced understanding. one  student f e l t her mother had  their  For example,  become more t o l e r a n t of  tendency f o r g i v i n g up on t h i n g s too e a s i l y .  i n the s e s s i o n as w e l l as the other student s h a r i n g  the same o b s e r v a t i o n ,  t h a t she had  her  This  understanding came about as a r e s u l t of both her own  s i m i l a r weakness i n the same s e s s i o n .  and  sharing a  Her mother expressed  become more understanding  of her daughter's weakness, and has  become more motivated t o  f i n d ways t o encourage her daughter. Daughter: ...because I am a person who g i v e s up e a s i l y , and i t ' s good t o see t h a t I'm not the o n l y one. ...I t a l k e d t o [my mom] a b i t before t h a t about me being a person who g i v e s up too e a s i l y . And i t j u s t happened the student i n the s e s s i o n w i t h me g i v e s up e a s i l y too! And my mom always t h i n k s t h a t I'm the o n l y one who's doing these s t u p i d t h i n g s . A f t e r the s e s s i o n , w e l l , she found out t h a t i t ' s not o n l y me. So i t got b e t t e r , the a t t i t u d e . Mother: I always f e e l t h a t young people are v e r y a g g r e s s i v e , they have t h e i r g o a l s and they work hard f o r i t , but t h e i r weakness very o f t e n i s they don't know how t o s o l v e the problems and they g i v e up. This i s what I am concerned about f o r my daughter. But from t h a t i n t e r v i e w I heard...I d i d n ' t r a i s e up t h i s i s s u e , but the other boy shard t h i s f e e l i n g ! . . . t h e n I f e l t l i k e , t h i s i s not a problem w i t h j u s t my daughter; i t ' s very common. We have t o l e a r n t o encourage them.... I'm s t i l l i n the l e a r n i n g process. R i g h t a f t e r the s e s s i o n i t was r e a l l y good because you c o u l d t a l k about what you wanted t o do i n l i f e . But as the days went by you j u s t k i n d of stopped t a l k i n g about i t . . . . [ I t i s ] maybe a l i t t l e b e t t e r , because they know what I want.  77  Three students expressed f e e l i n g they had n o t i c e d a p o s i t i v e change f o r a w h i l e i n t h e i r f a m i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s about c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , but t h a t i t faded a f t e r a few weeks or months.  U s u a l l y the most concrete aspect of the  impact  r e l a t e d t o having more frequent t a l k s about t h e i r c a r e e r planning.  Some of the 'fade f a c t o r ' may  w e l l have had t o do  w i t h the approaching year-end and f i n a l exams, but  clearly  some p a r t i c i p a n t s experienced a short-term b u r s t i n communication as a r e s u l t of PICE e x p e r i e n c e . At f i r s t i t d i d , but I t h i n k i t ' s k i n d of been f o r g o t t e n . But w h i l e i t l a s t e d i t was p r e t t y good because we s o r t of came t o an understanding, so i t was easier to just s t a r t t a l k i n g . . . We haven't done a l o t of t a l k i n g a t home. W e l l , r i g h t a f t e r the s e s s i o n my mom was t a l k i n g a l o t about c a r e e r s and s t u f f , but now i t ' s back t o normal. We don't r e a l l y t a l k about c a r e e r s too much now. t a l k e d about i t i n the s p r i n g more. One  We  of the ways PICE appears t o have been a b l e t o  i n c r e a s e communication about c a r e e r was  simply t h a t i t  p r o v i d e d an opening f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n s t o begin l a t e r .  A  few  students and parents noted t h i s dynamic, as w e l l as having a p o s i t i v e shared experience t o r e f l e c t back on.  This l a t t e r  e f f e c t seemed r e l a t e d t o both the i n c r e a s e d communication and a l s o a simple s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the p a r e n t - c h i l d relationship. Student: A c t u a l l y , p e r s o n a l l y , I l i k e d having my dad there. I t s o r t of gave us a common ground when we t a l k e d aobut s t u f f l a t e r , l i k e we were on the same wavelength. Because he had t o l i s t e n t o what I had t o say and I had t o l i s t e n t o what he had t o say. So we j u s t b a s i c a l l y came t o more of an u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  78  Parent: Again, i t r a i s e s the i s s u e and g i v e s you a p o s i t i v e experience t o r e f l e c t back and t a l k about as a f o c a l p o i n t . Something more than the run of the m i l l standard s o r t of c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g you get i n h i g h school. So the father-daughter t h i n g , and the peer t h i n g as well. Another e f f e c t of the s e s s i o n n o t i c e d by p a r t i c i p a n t was  one  an enhancement of the communication between  parent and c h i l d d u r i n g the s e s s i o n i t s e l f .  Although  a  number of students r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g more ' l i s t e n e d t o ' by t h e i r parents i n the s e s s i o n than normally, one p a r t i c u l a r r e c a l l e d l e a r n i n g new  student i n  i n f o r m a t i o n from  mother's c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the PICE s e s s i o n and  her  afterward.  While her mother normally had kept many of her o p i n i o n s and a d v i c e about c a r e e r planning t o h e r s e l f , the s e s s i o n prompted her t o be more forthcoming w i t h these t h i n g s . daughter  v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d the i n p u t , seemingly  Her  from  both a c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and a r e l a t i o n s h i p p e r s p e c t i v e . A daughter: I t helped me more t o hear what she had t o say, i n s t e a d of j u s t on-and-off t a l k i n g about i t . A mother: A c t u a l l y , my daughter and I are v e r y c l o s e , and she always exchanges her thoughts w i t h me, but t h i s was the f i r s t time we s a t together i n f r o n t o f people so t h a t we can t a l k . T h i s was a very good e x p e r i e n c e . P a r e n t s , by and l a r g e , n o t i c e d l i t t l e  change i n f a m i l y  dynamics s i n c e the PICE s e s s i o n — i n f a c t , l e s s so than children.  However, most parents d i d p e r c e i v e some e f f e c t s ,  a l l of which were p o s i t i v e .  The  n o t i c e any impact whatsoever f e l l who  thought  the  few parents who  d i d not  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : Those  any changes observed were l i k e l y a r e s u l t of  79  t h e i r c h i l d ' s maturation process, a l r e a d y had  a very c l o s e and  and  felt  they  communicative r e l a t i o n s h i p .  These d i s t i n c t i o n s were a l s o present r e f l e c t i o n s , t h a t they e i t h e r saw or they a l r e a d y had  those who  i n a few  students'  no e f f e c t i n t h e i r  a very open r e l a t i o n s h i p so the  family, session  had  not n e c e s s s a r i l y enhanced t h e i r communication.  one  of these students d i d f e e l more understood by her mother  as a r e s u l t of the  However,  session.  No, i t d i d n ' t make much of a d i f f e r e n c e . What she s a i d i n the s e s s i o n was p r e t t y much the same as what she s a i d t o me a l l the time...afterwards i t j u s t stayed about the same. There's not r e a l l y any change i n how we i n t e r a c t about it. ...I t h i n k my mom r e a l l y knows me i n s i d e out, so she knew most e v e r y t h i n g . Not much [changed]. But I have a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my mom. We t a l k e d about t h i s b e f o r e , so i t d i d n ' t change much between us. Parent: I don't t h i n k t h e r e ' s any d i f f e r e n c e i n the way we t a l k about i t . Maybe she t a l k s about i t a l i t t l e more because she's g e t t i n g o l d e r . One  f a t h e r very much valued  of PICE f o r both h i m s e l f  and  enjoyed the  experience  and h i s daughter, but thought h i s  a d v i s i n g r o l e and t h e i r p a r e n t / c h i l d communication would much the same as i t had  been p r e v i o u s l y .  He  f e l t they were  l i k e l y an unusual f a m i l y , t a l k i n g about the i s s u e s of s c h o o l day  and  c a r e e r plans on a frequent  be  the  or d a i l y b a s i s .  I t h i n k we're a c t u a l l y very open i n t a l k i n g about t h a t s o r t of t h i n g i n our f a m i l y . And we may be r e a l l y unique t h a t way....so we're very s u p p o r t i v e and we do have ongoing d i a l o g u e . We review every t e s t t o g e t h e r , and we review every day. We make a p o i n t of h a v i n g  80  supper t o g e t h e r , d i s c u s s i n g what [she does] i n c l a s s — not j u s t t h e s u b j e c t s [she] l e a r n s , but t h e k i d s , t h e t e a c h e r s , how [she] f e e l s about t h i n g s . One o f t h e e f f e c t s noted by some parents was a v a l i d a t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f g r e a t e r p a r e n t a l understanding.  These parents expressed  c o n f i d e n c e t h a t they understood b e t t e r , t h e i r d e s i r e s , thoughts, process.  heightened  t h e i r son o r daughter f e e l i n g s , and p l a n n i n g  They a l s o f e l t more c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r  child's  competence as a r e s u l t . I f e e l I l e a r n e d about my. daughter more, I know about her some c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t I d i d n ' t know b e f o r e . And i t was q u i t e a good experience t o o . . . . I guess I know her b e t t e r , t h a t I know what she wants. L i k e , I g o t more c o n f i d e n c e and t r u s t i n her. W e l l , i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g t o know t h a t he would much r a t h e r work with a grouping o f people than s o l i t a r y . . . One o f t h e students experienced what she p e r c e i v e d as n e g a t i v e ' f a l l o u t ' from the s e s s i o n .  While most s t u d e n t s  were i n t e r p r e t i n g i n c r e a s e d f a m i l y communication about c a r e e r as something o f an improvement, t h i s daughter  felt  her f a t h e r became t o o concerned with f o l l o w i n g up on t h e session.  Apparently he i n i t i a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h her  every day afterward, f o r about a month, u n t i l she f i n a l l y protested.  While she d i d see t h i s as a n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e ,  she a l s o f e l t her f a t h e r grew t o understand a f t e r the session.  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e p e r t a i n i n g t o  her i n t e r e s t s and l e v e l o f commitment. had  her more c l e a r l y  l i s t e n e d more a t t e n t i v e l y  i n t h e i r usual conversations.  She f e l t her f a t h e r  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s e s s i o n ) than  81 I t wasn't bad, except f o r a f t e r [my dad] had t h i s obsession, l i k e we should t a l k about t h i s , t h i s i s such a wonderful t h i n g , l e t ' s go through the b o o k l e t together, and every s i n g l e day...so i t was d r i v i n g me i n s a n e . . . . I t only l a s t e d u n t i l I screamed a t him t o leave i t alone....So i t k i n d of went back t o normal. I t h i n k my dad...I t h i n k he learned more about me and what I r e a l l y am i n t e r e s t e d i n as compared t o what I j u s t t a l k about. L i k e I can say I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g i n t o a career i n a c t i n g , but I don't t h i n k he ever r e a l l y l i s t e n s . Over h a l f of the parents commented on t h e i r own parenting who  and  d i d had  role in  communication a f t e r the s e s s i o n , though each  a unique r e f l e c t i o n t o o f f e r .  One  mother  felt  she understood her daughter's p e r s o n a l i t y b e t t e r , and now  p u t t i n g more e f f o r t i n t o t r y i n g t o encourage her  than push so much.  Another parent m o d i f i e d  her own  was rather  career  a d v i s i n g somewhat, r e a l i z i n g i t would be b e t t e r t o encourage broader e x p l o r a t i o n r a t h e r than i n f l u e n c i n g her towards having one  choice  daughter  alone.  I guess a t t h i s stage i t ' s maybe p r e t t y much the same...Sometimes we t a l k about i t . A l l I can do i s encourage her t o do more, or d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . . . I was r e a l l y s t r i c t , f o r one way [one c a r e e r c h o i c e ] . But a f t e r the s e s s i o n , i t broadened my mind too. And then I asked her t o look a t d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . One  f a t h e r expressed disappointment a t not  f o l l o w e d up more w i t h h i s daughter afterward. l i k e d t o have had career planning,  d i r e c t e d conversations  having He would have  w i t h her about  her  but f e l t t h e i r f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g  the  months post-PICE made t h a t very  difficult.  I was hoping t h a t I would be able t o f o l l o w up w i t h her directly. And we do t h a t i n snatches, but I f i n d i t ' s very...you can't s i t down f o r an hour and say, 'Let's work through t h i s . ' The environment wasn't t h e r e .  82  T h i s same f a t h e r r e l a t e d being encouraged i n h i s t h i n k i n g about t r y i n g t o have a 'coaching' r o l e as a parent i n h i s daughter's  career planning process.  I guess s e e i n g t h a t work i n t h a t [ s e s s i o n ] , i t r e i n f o r c e s what I t h i n k , i s t h a t your r o l e as a p a r e n t i s more of a coach. L i k e any coach, you h e l p someone w i t h t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and c u l t i v a t i n g those, and d o i n g some support of the n o t - a s - s t r o n g areas, t o h e l p them t o t h e g o a l they want t o achieve... 7. ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES The  i s s u e of a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r change was not addressed  by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  A few p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d have i d e a s  about t h e l i n k s between s p e c i f i c aspects of t h e p r o c e s s of t h e i r PICE s e s s i o n and r e s u l t s they observed. r e f l e c t i o n s were sought, t o time r e s t r i c t i o n s .  they were not probed  these  i n depth due  I t should be noted as w e l l t h a t these  thoughts were o f f e r e d 'on-the-spot', prepared  While  not as p r o d u c t s of a  assignment.  One a t t r i b u t i o n f o r how students p e r c e i v e d t h e PICE s e s s i o n achieved what i t d i d f o r them r e l a t e d t o h e a r i n g o t h e r student's problems and i s s u e s .  This opportunity  seemed t o l e s s e n t h e i r sense of i s o l a t i o n ; perhaps i t a l s o changed t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l 'problems' t o g e n e r a l ' o b s t a c l e s ' i n a n o r m a l i z i n g sense. M o s t l y what helped was n o t i c i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s [between my i s s u e s and the other s t u d e n t ' s ] . I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e t h a t other people are having problems w i t h t h e same t h i n g s t h a t I was. As an example, b e i n g d i l i g e n t about homework. Being w i l l i n g t o work r e a l l y hard t o r e a c h short-term g o a l s . Another e x p l a n a t i o n of a s i g n i f i c a n t mechanism o f  83  impact had t o do with g a i n i n g i n s i g h t about c a r e e r d u r i n g the s e s s i o n .  For some, t h i s came about through p a t t e r n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e , e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e d t o t h e i r extracurricular activities.  For o t h e r s , a p a r t i c u l a r  c o n t r i b u t i o n from another p a r t i c i p a n t seemed t o s t r i k e a chord and become an important planning.  way t o view t h e i r  career  Seeing t h e i r own p a t t e r n s of p r e f e r e n c e o r s t y l e  i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s analyzed a l o n g s i d e t h e i r thoughts about occupations together  and c a r e e r p l a n n i n g helped them p u t t h i n g s  i n a new w a y — t o see themselves i n a new way.  Some  students gained a g r e a t e r awareness of these dimensions o f themselves and were a b l e t o then r e l a t e them t o s p e c i f i c ideas f o r career  paths.  With t h e other student and h i s mom p u t t i n g t h e i r i n p u t in...some of t h e s t u f f l i k e t h e r e ' s more a range o f pathways t o c a r e e r s and t h i n g s . . . l i k e i t never o c c u r r e d t o me t o be a lawyer. Another type o f i n s i g h t gained had t o do w i t h versus narrow o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s .  broad  Some students saw v i a  the p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e s (and heard t h e message r e i n f o r c e d by t h e f a c i l i t a t o r ) t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of i n t e r e s t s , s k i l l s , p r e f e r e n c e s e t c e t e r a , c o u l d be pursued i n many d i f f e r e n t ways.  T h i s seemed t o be a f r e e i n g  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a few of t h e students, even i f they were still  encouraged i n t h e general d i r e c t i o n they had had p r i o r  t o t h e PICE s e s s i o n . One  student was q u i t e v o c a l about t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n  b e i n g spoken r a t h e r than w r i t t e n .  I n her o p i n i o n , h a v i n g t o  84  t h i n k spontaneously  and speak of her ideas and g o a l s  c l a r i f i e d her t h i n k i n g more than w r i t t e n work would have done. One o t h e r t h i n g t h a t w r i t t e n ] was you had mind b e f o r e you s a i d y o u r s e l f j u s t having someone e l s e .  I l i k e d how i t was spoken [versus t o t h i n k t h i n g s through i n your them, so i t a c t u a l l y c l a r i f i e d t o e x p l a i n your c a r e e r g o a l s t o  T h i s q u i c k t h i n k i n g f o r c e d students t o be more c a n d i d than they might have been with more time t o prepare answers. Students may have a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d the spoken nature o f t h e s e s s i o n due t o t h e advantage of feedback. feedback  f o r w r i t t e n work would p o t e n t i a l l y s t a r t a t zero  (no feedback at  The range o f  a t a l l ) , while spoken i n t e r a c t i o n would c o n t a i n  t h e v e r y l e a s t the feedback  of nonverbal r e a c t i o n s ,  l i k e l y more (encouragement and/or c h a l l e n g e ) .  In any event,  t h i s student f e l t t h i s format had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g i v i n g her g r e a t e r c l a r i t y . F u r t h e r along s i m i l a r l i n e s , the s e s s i o n d i d enhance the c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l of a couple of s t u d e n t s .  One i n  p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t e d t h i s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o being p u t i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f having t o 'think on her f e e t ' and speak t o a group o f people.  A f t e r being s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e s e s s i o n she  f e l t b e t t e r about her speaking a b i l i t y , and a l s o began t o f e e l she c o u l d c o n s i d e r new c a r e e r o p t i o n s i n v o l v i n g p u b l i c speaking.  The conducive atmosphere of t h e s e s s i o n as  compared w i t h classroom speechmaking l i k e l y has t o do w i t h the a t t e n t i v e n e s s and p o l i t e n e s s of t h e audience  (and s i z e  8 5  of t h e group).  This explanation f o r a gain i n confidence  was echoed by a couple of parents as w e l l  (eg., "...because  she expressed h e r s e l f i n f r o n t of a couple o f p e o p l e . . . " ) . F i n a l l y , t h e power of a metaphor used by t h e f a c i l i t a t o r was mentioned by some students as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r own a l t e r e d p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r paths.  For  example, one student was s t r u c k by a metaphor u s i n g a stone thrown i n t o a pond t o symbolize the movement through l i f e o f a unique  i n d i v i d u a l ; d i f f e r e n t r i p p l e s i n the water  symbolized d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , values, etcetera.  With another student, t h e  f a c i l i t a t o r ' s use of metaphors from her own p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s helped her see h e r s e l f i n a new l i g h t with regard t o career options. He t o l d me i t was l i k e , i n a pond when you drop [a s t o n e ] , t h e r e ' s d i f f e r e n t r i p p l e s . . . o n e r i p p l e c o u l d be t e a c h i n g , and another one c o u l d even l e a d i n t o e n g l i s h or something. Because you have t o know some e n g l i s h and s t u f f t o run computers.  8. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT As i n d i c a t e d above, p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked d i r e c t l y a t the end o f t h e i n t e r v i e w f o r any suggestions they may have had f o r improving t h e PICE technique.  No p r e p a r a t i o n was  i n v o l v e d , so these comments were, again, very offered.  spontaneously  O b v i o u s l y t h e suggestions were o f f e r e d as a r e s u l t  of b e i n g t h e most a c c e s s i b l e i d e a s ; whether t h e i d e a s would a l s o be judged t h e most c r i t i c a l ones upon f u r t h e r  86  r e f l e c t i o n i s open t o q u e s t i o n .  The reader w i l l note below  t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s had a range of o p i n i o n s on the b e s t ways t o enhance the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the PICE  approach.  STUDENTS N e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of the students mentioned some d e s i r e f o r a follow-up session.  Some expressed the r e c o l l e c t i o n  t h a t they had q u e s t i o n s a r i s e i n the days or weeks a f t e r PICE which perhaps c o u l d have been addressed meeting.  at a follow-up  Others f e l t they needed a b i t more h e l p i n terms  of p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r an a c t i o n p l a n t o make use of t h e i r i n s i g h t s afterward.  Some students thought the f o l l o w - u p  c o u l d be an o p t i o n a l e x t r a f o r those who thought  desired i t ;  others  i t might be good t o have the same student p a i r s meet  a g a i n w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r . suggested  One  student  specifically  t h a t the follow-up be e i t h e r one-on-one w i t h the  c o u n s e l l o r , or w i t h another student as w e l l , but not w i t h parents present.  The g e n e r a l consensus seemed t o be t h a t  p a r e n t s would not need t o be present f o r a second s e s s i o n . Next time maybe you should have a f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n so you can ask any q u e s t i o n s you might have a f t e r w a r d s . . . . [ f o r q u e s t i o n s ] or t h i n g s you wanted t o add about y o u r s e l f t h a t you d i d n ' t t h i n k of before....Yeah, j u s t a follow-up would be h e l p f u l a couple of days l a t e r t o l e t the i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c o l a t e . I know I came up w i t h a l o t of s t u f f t h a t j u s t came t o mind. I t h i n k another s e s s i o n a f t e r the i n i t i a l one...so you have k i n d of time t o s i n k i n what happened and have i d e a s about how you want t o i n c o r p o r a t e your i d e a s i n t o the step-by-step p l a n . I t h i n k a n o t h e r . . . h a l f - h o u r or 45 minute s e s s i o n j u s t t o s i t down and p l a n i t a l l out, t h a t would be b e s t .  87 R e l a t e d t o the above, one student suggested  that  whether or not t h e r e were a follow-up s e s s i o n , perhaps more emphasis c o u l d be p l a c e d on working out some g o a l s and a c t i o n p l a n s t o walk away w i t h . I t h i n k I would l i k e i t more i f he would have s a t down and s t a r t e d working out g o a l s and some p l a n s w i t h me....I would have a p p r e c i a t e d i t more i f I had a s t e p by-step p l a n t h a t I c o u l d or c o u l d not have f o l l o w e d depending on how I f e l t a f t e r i t . I would have l i k e d that. Two  students r e c a l l e d g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r i n a group t o  t a l k about what they had gotten out of the PICE s e s s i o n . These students f e l t  i t had been a p o s i t i v e ,  e x p e r i e n c e and suggested o p p o r t u n i t y ; t h i s was out of i t was what we In  f u t u r e students have t h a t  the case even though e x a c t l y what came  not c l e a r i n t h e i r minds ("I don't  s a i d , but i t was  remember  a good t h i n g t o t a l k about i t " ) .  terms of some of the l o g i s t i c s , most f e l t the  frame and context was for  useful  about r i g h t .  One  time  student had wished  a s h o r t e r time l e n g t h , while one other student  thought  her s e s s i o n c o u l d have been longer t o accomodate f u r t h e r progression. s t u d e n t s who  I t should be p o i n t e d out here t h a t not a l l expressed a d e s i r e f o r e x t r a work i n the  s e s s i o n s a i d anything about having a longer s e s s i o n ; o b v i o u s l y t h e r e would be a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the adding of s e s s i o n content and the need f o r f u r t h e r session(s). The whole s e s s i o n was a b i t long...probably about of t h a t time would be good.  3/4  88  I k i n d of f e l t l i k e i t wasn't long enough because I was s o r t o f g e t t i n g i n t o i t and s t a r t i n g t o r e a l l y t h i n k and then i t ' s over. Three students mentioned concerns about t h e sense o f b e i n g observed i n the s e s s i o n , recommending fewer and no v i d e o t a p i n g . videotape,  Most were not bothered  observers  by t h e  but f o r these few i t was a hindrance.  I d i d n ' t l i k e so many bystanders p e r s o n a l l y . I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e they a l l had a r i g h t t o be t h e r e . I t was quite claustrophobic... Yeah, I d i d n ' t r e a l l y care. They were a l l k i n d o f d i s t r a c t i o n s , because there were a l o t o f people going i n and out. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y mind t h a t they were t h e r e i f they had j u s t stayed and s a t q u i e t l y and watched. But they were having t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e back q u i e t l y but you c o u l d s t i l l hear them. F i n a l l y , some students  suggested p r o v i s i o n f o r f u r t h e r  p r a c t i c a l h e l p with t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n . wishing  she had gained  occupational options.  One student  recalled  some c o n t a c t s t o f o l l o w up s p e c i f i c Another student wanted t o go f u r t h e r  i n t h e s e s s i o n towards s p e c i f i c ideas f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l o p t i o n s f o r her, as w e l l as g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on particular  occupations  and e d u c a t i o n a l  requirements.  L i k e maybe we c o u l d have a c o n t a c t o r two, l i k e a phone number t h a t you c o u l d c o n t a c t and s t a r t working your way through... Maybe a b i t more, careers...putting an e n g l i s h degree journalism...like courses I have t o  l i k e , suggestions f o r p a r t i c u l a r l i n k s between e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e , w i t h you can do t e a c h i n g , o r how do I get t h e r e , what k i n d o f take.  PARENTS In terms o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the s e s s i o n , a few p a r e n t s would have l i k e d more advance knowledge, perhaps u s i n g t h e  89  Career Pathways b o o k l e t as a primer. p r e p a r a t i o n may to  They f e l t more advance  have helped both them and t h e i r  get the most out of the s e s s i o n p o s s i b l e .  son/daughter  Others,  however, expressed an o p p o s i t e view, t h a t the v e r y 'unpreparedness'  of the s e s s i o n was  key^to having the  student g i v e c a n d i d responses i n s t e a d of coming prepared t o g i v e the 'standard answers'. Because i t was my f i r s t time I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what i t was about,...I guess maybe i t would be a good i d e a i f they knew what the q u e s t i o n s would be about. No, I don't t h i n k so. With other people, perhaps. But I l i k e d the way i t went, because, l i k e I say, I d i s c o v e r e d t h i n g s about my son t h a t I wasn't r e a l l y cognizant of. I t h i n k i t might not be a bad i d e a t o send the k i t out beforehand. T h i s saves you doing two s e s s i o n s . ...So have a l i t t l e homework f o r p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . Then you come t o the s e s s i o n ; t h a t becomes s o r t of a reinforcement exercise. H a l f of the parents agreed follow-up of some k i n d would be an e x c e l l e n t a d d i t i o n .  Most f e l t such a f u r t h e r s e s s i o n  would be perhaps more u s e f u l with j u s t the students and c o u n s e l l o r meeting.  One parent suggested an a v a i l a b l e but  o p t i o n a l follow-up format; another suggested appointments  yearly  i f d e s i r e d , t o help prepare f o r course  selection better.  Two  parents expressed o p i n i o n s t h a t a  f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n would not be u s e f u l , one h a v i n g f e l t  the  same i n f o r m a t i o n would l i k e l y have come up; the o t h e r parent thought the students c o u l d simply c a l l the f a c i l i t a t o r  later  w i t h q u e s t i o n s i f they so d e s i r e d , s i n c e he had g i v e n out his  number.  90 Why not j u s t have t h e students themselves, a couple more [ s e s s i o n s ] , and they can express themselves. And then they l e a r n from o t h e r s ' i d e a s t o o . I guess f o r me, one time f o r parents i s good enough too. Maybe next year I would l i k e t o do t h a t again, but e a r l i e r i n t h e year. So p o s s i b l y [my son] can have a t a s t e o f t h e courses he's t a k i n g and how he's progressing... I t h i n k t h a t was enough. . . . I f a second i n t e r v i e w was arranged two weeks l a t e r , i t would be t h e same. No, I d i d n ' t have any q u e s t i o n s . He s a i d you c o u l d c a l l him i f you had q u e s t i o n s . He wrote out h i s phone number and e v e r y t h i n g . Note t h a t , although p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o l d they c o u l d c a l l the f a c i l i t a t o r afterward i f they had f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s , they d i d not a v a i l themselves  of t h e o p p o r t u n i t y d e s p i t e  s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s ' expressed d e s i r e f o r f o l l o w - u p . a d o l e s c e n t developmental  Given t h e  position, this contrast i s l i k e l y  t o be expected. One  parent added an a d d i t i o n a l r a t i o n a l e f o r f o l l o w - u p :  I f p a r e n t s and t h e i r son/daughter  know they w i l l be going t o  a f u r t h e r s e s s i o n i n 'x' weeks, t h e r e would be a heightened sense o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r them t o d i s c u s s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g t o g e t h e r and make progress i n the i n t e r i m .  At l e a s t i t  would make t a n g i b l e a time p e r i o d and those who wanted t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s would be f u r t h e r prompted t o do so, r a t h e r than a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e t t i n g i t s l i d e as another important, but not urgent, t h i n g t o do i n l i f e . I t would probably be good t o a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e a t t h e s e s s i o n t h a t you would be doing a f o l l o w - u p v i s i t . Because i t a l s o tends t o focus you on s a y i n g , 'Let's t a l k about t h i s . ' So I t h i n k those t h i n g s would g e t  91 more v a l u e out of the a c t u a l time spent. One  parent suggested probing  students'  t o f u r t h e r depths w i t h  f e e l i n g s about t h e i r c a r e e r i s s u e s .  o p i n i o n , t h i s was  In h i s  s t a r t i n g t o be a p o t e n t i a l towards the  of t h e i r s e s s i o n .  end  Of course, a longer s e s s i o n would then  r e q u i r e d , which may  present  l o g i s t i c a l challenges.  c o n t r a s t i n g o p i n i o n s were h e l d by parents, the s e s s i o n shouldn't go any  be  However,  those t h i n k i n g  deeper, others t h i n k i n g i t  would have been b e n e f i c i a l t o do  so.  I thought i t was perhaps a l i t t l e s h o r t . I t c o u l d have gone a b i t longer. I t s t r u c k me t h a t i t d i d n ' t get a chance t o get enough i n t o the meaty i s s u e s k i n d of thing. Because t h e r e ' s a c e r t a i n amount of i c e breaking involved... They were s t a r t i n g t o express f e e l i n g s and t h a t . I t h i n k i t ' s good f o r them t o f e e l what they say i s v a l u e d by t h e i r parents [and o t h e r s ] . I think that p a r t i s v a l u a b l e and you do need t h a t a d d i t i o n a l length. However, one  parent recommended t h a t the PICE  sessions  be kept t o p a i r s of students r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l sessions.  As she r e f l e c t e d on the s e s s i o n she  h a v i n g two  students kept the focus o f f one  thought  person i n a  way  t h a t made i t a more p o s i t i v e experience ( i e . , prevented c o n t e n t from g e t t i n g 'too deep' f o r I t h i n k i f i t were too l i t t l e too deep.  the  comfort).  'one-on-one-ish' i t might get  Judging by p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e f l e c t i o n s on  a  their  e x p e r i e n c e of the s e s s i o n , i t appears a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s would agree w i t h the words of one parent who "Keep i t i n f o r m a l ! "  The  exuberantly  said,  i n f o r m a l i t y of the s e s s i o n i n terms  92 of atmosphere, language,  a t t i r e , and a t t i t u d e seemed w e l l -  a p p r e c i a t e d by a l l i n v o l v e d . Some o f t h e parents ( i n a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n as students) recommended t h a t s e s s i o n s not be v i d e o t a p e d i n t h e future.  Not o n l y some students, but p a r e n t s as w e l l , can be  a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by such a 'presence'.  These p a r e n t s were  not simply h a l f h e a r t e d l y 'suggesting' t h i s be t h e case; one i n d i c a t e d she would not have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s e s s i o n a t a l l had she not been a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e t h a t . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e o r i g i n a l s e s s i o n she was i n v o l v e d i n was not videotaped, a t her request.  Audiotapes were p u t forward  as a p o t e n t i a l compromise by one o f these p a r e n t s .  I f taped  r e c o r d s were d e s i r e d f o r some reason they c o u l d a l s o as a r e c o r d f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e i r s e s s i o n .  T h i s would  a l l o w f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n by both student and parent enhancing  double  later,  t h e impact of PICE.  I t would r e a l l y , r e a l l y bother me i f they had a camera or v i d e o . . . . q u i t e h o n e s t l y , i f [my son] had a d v i s e d me t h a t i t was going t o be videotaped when [he] o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d , I don't know i f I would have p a r t i c i p a t e d . One parent f e l t c o n f i n e d , and suggested t h e s e s s i o n s be h e l d i n a l a r g e r space, with freedom t o move around.  This  would l i k e l y be more of an i s s u e with p a r e n t s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t they a r e l i s t e n i n g f o r most o f t h e s e s s i o n . The room was very hot. We were sequestered i n t h i s l i t t l e room. I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e I c o u l d g e t up and walk around, which I tend t o do. Another  suggestion r e l a t e d t o t h e dynamics and  93 procedure  o f t h e s e s s i o n was t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r p a r e n t s  and t h e i r sons/daughters afterward. of  t o have some time t o g e t h e r  The parent suggesting t h i s had taken h e r son out  s c h o o l f o r lunch afterward and f e l t  i t was a good way t o  end o f f — k i n d o f a f u r t h e r way of s a y i n g , 'I t h i n k you and your p l a n s a r e important, and I'm wanting t o t r e a t you as a young a d u l t ' [author's paraphrase]. In  terms o f t h e student p a i r i n g s , a few p a r e n t s  thought  d i v e r s i t y i n student p a i r i n g was important f o r maximum learning They f e l t  (eg., boy with g i r l ,  new immigrant w i t h o t h e r ) .  i f students were t o o s i m i l a r they would n o t l e a r n  n e a r l y as much as seeing t h i n g s from another's p o i n t of view and  personality. ...I have an idea t h a t most o f the time t h e g i r l s w i l l chat a l o t , r i g h t . They a r e buddies, they t a l k , exchange i d e a s , but i t ' s very good f o r a boy and g i r l t o s i t t o g e t h e r and exchange i d e a s . Because maybe they don't have much chance t o d i s c u s s these k i n d s o f t o p i c s officiallly. ...they would not s i t down and p u t t h e i r thoughts t o g e t h e r on t h i s t o p i c . I f two new immigrants come together, they have t h e same feeling. I f t h e young people from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds, a f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n they can understand more. One parent r a i s e d an i s s u e which i s not s p e c i f i c t o  PICE, but deserves note nonetheless.  In h i s view, what  s t u d e n t s r e a l l y need i s more r e a l - l i f e p e o p l e ) , not more theory. real-life  Granted,  i n f o r m a t i o n (and  PICE u t i l i z e s  students'  experiences t o analyze t h e i r p a t t e r n s and  p e r s o n a l i t y , but f o r c a r e e r guidance  i n g e n e r a l he f e l t t h a t  the r e a l - p e r s o n r e s o u r c e was s a d l y u n d e r u t i l i z e d .  There may  94  or may not be a way t o address t h i s i n PICE beyond u s i n g t h e r e a l - l i f e experiences, but i t i s c e r t a i n l y a n o t a b l e i s s u e f o r c a r e e r programming i n g e n e r a l . What I t h i n k i s r e a l l y important i s [ t o have p a r e n t s ] come i n and t a l k about t h e i r c a r e e r s . What do they do, what motivates them, why d i d they choose t h a t c a r e e r themselves, and then i t ' s r e a l , i t ' s t a n g i b l e . . . . That's my s t r o n g e s t recommendation on c a r e e r p l a n n i n g : Less t h e o r y and get a r e a l , l i v e person i n t h e r e . F i n a l l y , one mother of two very d i f f e r e n t r a i s e d t h e i s s u e o f how PICE would work w i t h populations.  children  different  She wondered how i t c o u l d work i f s t u d e n t s  were n o t very v e r b a l , or were very shy, f o r example.  This  p i l o t p r o j e c t u t i l i z e d p a r t i c i p a n t s who were, f o r t h e most p a r t , motivated, v e r b a l , and s o c i a l .  Her s u g g e s t i o n was t o  t r y PICE w i t h a d i v e r s e group o f students t o determine  who  i t might be most a p p r o p r i a t e (and i n a p p r o p r i a t e ) f o r — a n e x c e l l e n t s u g g e s t i o n indeed. I t would depend on the k i d though. These k i d s i n I n c e n t i v e a r e d i f f e r e n t than other k i d s . ...they're q u i t e w i l l i n g t o t r y new things...and t h e y ' r e q u i t e outgoing, a l o t of them. I t h i n k i t ' s important t o t r y with k i d s who don't v o l u n t e e r . . . A l o t of k i d s s o r t o f d r i f t around and don't r e a l l y have any idea what they want t o do, and don't r e a l l y t h i n k about i t . A l o t o f people don't want t o t a l k about t h i n g s as much e i t h e r . . . b u t i t would s t i l l be b e t t e r than what they're g e t t i n g now. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d some g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e r i e n c e and impact o f t h e PICE i n t e r v e n t i o n . r e s u l t s a r e summarized below i n Table 1.  The  95 Table 1 KummarY of PICE  Experience  CATEGORY  RESPONSE TYPE  REPRESENTATIVE COMMENTS  Goals  Examine goals  . . . j u s t to s o r t of examine my  Come to a career decision  I kind of expected i t t o be a b i t more specific, l i k e , l e t ' s f i n d a career...  Make any progress  . . . i f i t helps me, i t helps me; i f i t doesn't, I'm not l o s i n g anything.  Positive— general  I thought he d i d a r e a l l y good job. r e a l l y encouraging and e v e r y t h i n g .  Positive— parents  I enjoyed i t more, because i t ' s the kind of s t u f f we don't r e a l l y t a l k about.  Neutral—parents  I t was l i k e h a l f and h a l f . I want her there, but I don't want her t h e r e .  Pos i t i v e — o t h e r student  ...I found that I had a l o t of common ground with him. I t was p r e t t y amazing...enlightening.  Positive— a n a l y s i s method  I didn't r e a l i z e i t was a l l connected, l i k e sports and career...Yeah, i t d i d n ' t say, "Play tennis f o r a c a r e e r , " i t j u s t s a i d , "This i s your p e r s o n a l i t y i n sports and ... also . . . i n your career.  Evaluation of Process  Evaluation of Content  career goals  He  was  It acted as a beginning p o i n t , whereas a l o t of programs act as an end. I t d i d n ' t say, "What do you want t o be?" I t j u s t got the b a l l r o l l i n g and s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g . Parent: ...I saw the r e s u l t s of the interview being a s t r u c t u r e a p p l i e d t o what I t h i n k were j u s t random thoughts and f e e l i n g s . . . Impact on Career Perspective  Broadened options  . . . i t j u s t took what I was i n t e r e s t e d i n and showed me d i f f e r e n t routes t h a t I could take instead of j u s t one s p e c i f i c t h i n g .  Increased motivation f o r school & experience  1. I took i t more s e r i o u s l y when I was choosing courses f o r next year. 2. I t made me more motivated t o get a p a r t time job...'experiences'. 3. Parent: I t turned him around. I t h i n k I've even w r i t t e n that down.  Decreased worry  Before I was j u s t kind of t h i n k i n g . . . I ' v e got to get there r i g h t now, ...But...I can slow down and t h i n k about i t . . .  Provided a focus  ...now I have a l i t t l e b i t of a focus happening and a d i r e c t i o n t o g o — . . . t o look f o r something that would r e a l l y spark my interest.  Positive—school career planning  I was i n t e r e s t e d [ i n career planning] but now I'm more c u r i o u s . . .  Negative—school career planning  I hated [my career planning c l a s s ] even more afterward even....They g i v e you a l l these t e s t s . . . j u s t t o c a t e g o r i z e you...  before,  96 Impact on Career Actions  Impact on Family Interaction  Attribution f o r Changes  Suggestions for Improvement  Increased exploration activity  . . . i t a c t u a l l y got me more motivated t o f i n d out more. Because I t a l k e d t o d i f f e r e n t lawyers and asked f o r advice...  Modified occupat i o n a l goal  ...he kind of brought the r e a l i z a t i o n that maybe that career wasn't f o r me, and helped me r e a l i z e maybe something e l s e was b e t t e r . . .  No change  I think i t ' s more the t h i n k i n g process t h a t ' s changed more than anything I've done.  Increased communication  Right a f t e r the s e s s i o n i t was r e a l l y good because you could t a l k about what you wanted t o do i n l i f e . But as the days went by you j u s t kind of stopped t a l k i n g about i t . . .  Greater understanding  I l i k e d having my dad there. I t s o r t of gave us a common ground when we t a l k e d about s t u f f l a t e r , l i k e we were on the same wavelength. Because he had t o l i s t e n t o what I had to say and I had to l i s t e n . . .  Change i n parent's r o l e  I was r e a l l y s t r i c t . . . b u t a f t e r the s e s s i o n i t broadened my mind too. And then I asked her to look at d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s .  No change  No, i t didn't make much of a d i f f e r e n c e . What she s a i d i n the s e s s i o n was p r e t t y much the same...  Negative f a l l o u t  It wasn't bad, except f o r a f t e r [my dadj had t h i s obsession, l i k e we should t a l k about t h i s . . . e v e r y s i n g l e day...  I n s i g h t s about connections between career and hobbies  ** See Content comments above **  I n s i g h t s from other student  I didn't r e a l i z e that other people were having problems with the same t h i n g s that I was.  Clarification v i a t h i n k i n g onthe-spot  ...you had to t h i n k things through i n your mind before you s a i d them, so i t a c t u a l l y c l a r i f i e d y o u r s e l f j u s t having t o e x p l a i n your career goals t o someone e l s e .  Follow-up f o r action-planning  I think another session...so you have kind of time to sink i n what happened... I would have appreciated i t more i f I had a step-by-step plan...  More privacy-  I didn't l i k e so many bystanders p e r s o n a l l y . I didn't f e e l l i k e they a l l had a r i g h t t o be there.  Advance preparation  I think i t might not be a bad idea to send the k i t out beforehand. T h i s saves you doing two sessions.  Pair diverse students  ...very good f o r a boy and g i r l to...exchange ideas. Because maybe they don't have much chance to discuss these kinds of t o p i c s . . .  97 Chapter V Discussion The  r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggest a p o t e n t i a l l y  c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t of the PICE i n n o v a t i o n . r e p o r t e d impact was  Although the  modest, the gains seem s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n  the d u r a t i o n of the i n t e r v e n t i o n as w e l l as the s m a l l group approach.  In t h i s f i n a l chapter some of the main convergent  and d i v e r g e n t experiences  are d i s c u s s e d , along  s p e c u l a t i o n as t o p o t e n t i a l reasons f o r  with  divergence.  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r development of PICE w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d , as w e l l as i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h , theory, practice. noted and  F i n a l l y , l i m i t a t i o n s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n are f o l l o w e d by c o n c l u d i n g remarks.  Convergence and Divergence i n PICE  experience  With the present p a r t i c i p a n t s , g o a l s and for  and  expectations  the PICE s e s s i o n were i n i t i a l l y u n c l e a r , made more  conscious  through r e f l e c t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of impact.  There was  a g e n e r a l d e s i r e f o r progress toward  specific  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , o f t e n as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . the impression  t h a t some l e v e l of unexpressed  e x i s t e d t h a t one choice/direction.  s e s s i o n would produce an  gets  expectation  occupational  C e r t a i n l y p a r t i c i p a n t s were l o o k i n g f o r  encouragement, i n s p i r a t i o n and progress toward planning  One  occupational  choices.  Students and parents  shared  a p o s i t i v e experience  of  98 the PICE s e s s i o n , r e l a t i n g t h i s e v a l u a t i o n t o both i n t e r p e r s o n a l dynamics and the content o f t h e s e s s i o n .  The  f a c i l i a t o r ' s approachable and r e l a x e d s t y l e , t h e s e s s i o n ' s i n f o r m a l i t y , and the i n t e r a c t i o n with t h e other f a m i l y were nearly u n i v e r s a l l y appreciated. P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o expressed  a h i g h v a l u e on t h e  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t approach o f the PICE technique, on t h e student's uniqueness, as compared w i t h c a r e e r p l a n n i n g experiences. the emotional  focussing  previous  These o b s e r v a t i o n s , a l o n g  nature o f t h e comments support M i l l e r ' s  with  (1996)  argument f o r a l e s s d e c i s i o n - f o c u s e d c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n strategy: F r e q u e n t l y , t r a d i t i o n a l , s t a n d a r d i z e d instruments i n a d v e r t e n l y hurry c l i e n t s through t h e c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g process by o f f e r i n g them, t o o e a r l y , a h o s t of s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s as s c o r e s f o r t h e c l i e n t t o c o n s i d e r " (p. 44) . There was a l s o a h i g h v a l u a t i o n o f other f a m i l y ' s presence i n t h e s e s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the student  pairing.  T h i s may be seen as r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs o f a d o l e s c e n t s i n a d u l t company, as w e l l as combining some o f the b e n e f i t s o f group process with i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . A number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d g a i n i n g s p e c i f i c due  insights  t o t h e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the other student, a  p a t t e r n which was somewhat supported change process  by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f  attributions.  Another common experience r e p o r t e d was t h e g a i n i n g o f c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l i n s i g h t through t h e p a t t e r n  99 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e and, leisure activities.  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the f o c u s on  Again, t h i s i n s i g h t process was  also  r e f l e c t e d i n suggestions r e l a t e d t o a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r change. As d i s c u s s e d above, the b e n e f i t s of anchoring p a t t e r n s of s e l f - a n a l y s i s i n a c t u a l c l i e n t experience has much m e r i t . In a d d i t i o n t o the b e n e f i t s of u s i n g c l i e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a n a l y s i s , t h e r e i s the f u r t h e r of drawing  on t h e i r experiences t o c r e a t e meaningful  i n s i g h t - g e n e r a t i n g metaphors. was  possibility and  For example, the student  v e r y a c t i v e i n s p o r t s gained new  i n s i g h t s about  who  her  c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a t l e a s t i n p a r t due t o the use of s p o r t s metaphor i n the c a r e e r realm.  The use of mataphor i n  c o u n s e l l i n g does have a p p l i c a t i o n i n a wide v a r i e t y of ways ( C i r i l l o & C r i d e r , 1995). The most common impact p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d was a broader p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r c h o i c e o p t i o n s .  This  having was  seen as a p o s i t i v e step, a motivation-enhancing change which allowed more freedom t o e x p l o r e and a c t . impact was  Parallelling  this  the r e l a t i v e l y common experience of a heightened  desire f o r career exploration.  Granted,  some s t u d e n t s  c l a i m e d heightened m o t i v a t i o n admitted they had not  who  actually  done what they expected t o do as y e t , but they d i d see the change as an increment i n the r i g h t  direction.  Some i n c r e a s e i n f a m i l y communication r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r was  a l s o a common experience, though t h i s e f f e c t d i d not  c a r r y on p a s t a matter of weeks or months.  Both  students  100 and p a r e n t s r e f l e c t e d back on t h e s e s s i o n as having been a p o s i t i v e experience t o r e f l e c t back on o r a common r e f e r e n c e point t o i n i t i a t e conversation l a t e r . Students shared s u b s t a n t i a l agreement i n a d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r follow-up and/or p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , whether i n a l o n g e r s e s s i o n , o r a f u r t h e r meeting, without needing t h e p a r e n t s ' attendance.  These r e f l e c t i o n s suggest.not  only the  u n f u l f i l l e d nature o f student s e r v i c e needs, but a l s o t h e p o t e n t i a l they observed  i n t h e PICE i n t e r v e n t i o n —  "just a  l i t t l e b i t more t o g e t me over t h e next hump". F i n a l l y , t h e i n t e r p r e t i o n s o f impact o f f e r e d by s t u d e n t s were somewhat supported by p a r e n t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s . Though p a r e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were l e s s marked than s t u d e n t s ' r e p o r t s , i t may be expected t h a t t h e o b s e r v i n g d i s t a n c e accounts  f o r such d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  Note a g a i n t h a t p a r e n t s  were not g i v e n t h e i r c h i l d ' s i n t e r v i e w comments and asked t o v a l i d a t e them; both s e t s of r e f l e c t i o n s were on a r e c a l l basis.  F u r t h e r , no c o n c r e t e l y d i s c r e p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f  impact were v o i c e d by student/parent  pairs.  S i n c e students a r e a t somewhat d i f f e r i n g c a r e e r developmental  stages, i t would be l i k e l y u n r e a l i s t i c t o  expect s i m i l a r progress with students who a l r e a d y have s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l ideas or g o a l s , as opposed t o s t u d e n t s who have not progressed t o t h a t p o i n t as y e t .  Thus, some  s t u d e n t s who came t o t h e PICE s e s s i o n w i t h c o n c r e t e c a r e e r p l a n s t o c o n s i d e r l e f t with s i m i l a r l y c o n c r e t e encouragement  101 or m o d i f i c a t i o n .  Others who came with no c l e a r  direction,  l e f t f e e l i n g they had a f o c a l p o i n t t o use i n e x p l o r a t i o n (eg., being more observant towards what she r e a l l y doing).  enjoys  Career i n t e r v e n t i o n s do need t o address each c l i e n t  where they a r e and a s s i s t them t o progress from t h a t p o i n t ; an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s not l i k e l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a number o f a d o l e s c e n t s , g i v e n t h e i r need f o r f u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e and r e f l e c t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r preferences f o r m u l t i p l e s t u d e n t / f a m i l y presence, barrier issues.  r e l a t i n g l a r g e l y t o language  S i m i l a r l y , although n e a r l y a l l s t u d e n t s  were p o s i t i v e about t h e i r own parent's presence,  some were  more n e u t r a l due t o drawbacks o f language, i n h i b i t i o n , o r lack of input.  Some p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not seem t o l e a r n  a n y t h i n g new about t h e i r p a t t e r n s , or t h e i r son/daughter's patterns.  P o s s i b l e reasons  f o r t h i s l a c k o f new i n f o r m a t i o n  may i n c l u d e t h e PICE s e s s i o n being t o o b r i e f and/or d i l l u t e d i n a n a l y s i s , or a f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n a l dynamic i n v o l v i n g unreflective  distancing.  Divergent experiences were r e p o r t e d i n t h e area o f c a r e e r c h o i c e focus as w e l l as concern.  Some s t u d e n t s  increased i n seriousness of career a t t i t u d e s , decreased  i n concern  level.  others  Most broadened t h e i r c a r e e r  p r o s p e c t s , though a few f e l t they should become narrower. While these c o n t r a s t s may appear u b i q u i t o u s a t f i r s t , i t s h o u l d be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f u s e f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t they  102 address i n d i v i d u a l s ' unique needs, r a t h e r than a p p l y i n g a 'Procrustean bed' framework. those students who " l i g h t e n up",  For example, we may  had been o v e r l y concerned  while those who  needed t o  had been l a x i n c a r e e r  p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s needed t o "get s e r i o u s . " s t u d e n t s who  argue t h a t  Similarly,  are p l a n n i n g e x c l u s i v e l y f o r one narrow  o c c u p a t i o n need t o know t h a t plans may r e v i s i o n , w h i l e students who  r e g u l a r l y need  have no focus a t a l l need  encouragement t o have p r o v i s i o n a l plans i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e action.  The main f a c e t here i s t h a t each student  r e p o r t i n g such a s h i f t d i d r e p o r t i t i n a manner t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e i r own  p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the change.  Though most students r e p o r t e d a n o t i c e a b l e impact t h e i r thoughts  on  and a t t i t u d e s about c a r e e r , some d i d observe  i n c r e a s e s i n t h e i r c a r e e r a c t i v i t y or s p e c i f i c c a r e e r choices.  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t those students who  f u r t h e r stage of developmental who  e x h i b i t e d these  " r e a d i n e s s " were the  students  bahaviours.  Impact on f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n dynamics was though t h e r e was  were a t a  not  uniform,  a u n i f o r m l y p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of having  p a r t i c i p a t e d t o g e t h e r i n the experience.  With such a b r i e f  i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y u n r e a l i s t i c t o expect measurable e f f e c t s on f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n , though the l i m i t e d i n c r e a s e s r e p o r t e d i n f a m i l y c a r e e r communication d i d p a r a l l e l  the  e a r l i e r r e p o r t s of Whiston (1989) and C a s t r i c o n e e t a l (1982).  Students were more l i k e l y than p a r e n t s t o r e p o r t an  103 i n c r e a s e i n f a m i l y communication about t h e i r c a r e e r planning.  T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y may  c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n the  s t u d e n t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s , however i t may g r e a t e r investment  a l s o stem from a  on the p a r t of parents t o p r o j e c t a  p o s i t i v e f a m i l y image t o the i n t e r v i e w e r .  While  adolescents  are i n the process of s e p a r a t i n g (and p o t e n t i a l l y d e v a l u i n g ) , they a l s o do not have the same a s s o c i a t i o n between f a m i l y r e p u t a t i o n and the image of p a r e n t a l s u c c e s s . F i n a l l y , w h i l e most f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d n e u t r a l or p o s i t i v e impacts, one student r e l a t e d a somewhat n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of the parent becoming " o b s e s s i v e " about f o l l o w up a f t e r PICE.  Such a s i t u a t i o n may  p r o v i d e data t o  address  p o t e n t i a l parameters f o r the optimal u t i l i t y of the PICE approach.  However, the example may  a l s o simply h i g h l i g h t a  need f o r f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n t o parents r e g a r d i n g f a c i l i t a t i v e follow-up  (and p o t e n t i a l  dangers).  In terms of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t appears  from p a r t i c i p a n t r e p o r t s t h a t the PICE p r o j e c t  judged a s u c c e s s f u l p i l o t f o r t h e i r own purposes,  was  c a r e e r development  though t h e r e were concrete suggestions f o r  improvement.  As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , e v a l u a t i o n p r o p e r l y  c e n t r e s i n the experience of the c l i e n t s ; a t t h i s stage, the b r i e f PICE technique seems judged a "success" worthy of f u r t h e r refinement and  testing.  104 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Development o f PICE The experience of p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e s support f o r c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n which, although b r i e f , moves a t a pace, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e x p l o r a t o r y s t a g e s . resonates with M i l l e r ' s  The  slower  approach  (1996) r e c e n t comments about  appropriate career counselling: Thus, a r e f o c u s on the c l i e n t - c e n t r e d aspect of c a r e e r c o u n s e l i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y slows down the p r o c e s s by s t i m u l a t i n g c l i e n t s t o look inward t o d e s c r i b e themselves b e f o r e proceeding w i t h decision-making b e h a v i o r s " (p. 44). M o d i f i c a t i o n s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d i n c l u d e adding a planned  either  follow-up component, or l e n g t h e n i n g the s e s s i o n t o  allow f o r progression into action planning.  Follow-up  not r e q u i r e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of parents, through  would  i t is  u n c l e a r whether students would b e n e f i t from the same student-dyad  context.  Some students appear t o have  b e n e f i t t e d from a l a t e r group feedback s e s s i o n , which may b u i l t i n t o the approach w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s . o r i g i n a l f a c i l i t a t o r may  be The  not n e c e s s a r i l y need t o l e a d such a  group d i s c u s s i o n , l e a v i n g room f o r e i t h e r peer l e a d e r s h i p or other para-professionals.  F a c i l i a t a t o r s may  need t o g i v e  more d i r e c t i o n t o parents and students r e g a r d i n g the dynamics and p o t e n t i a l p a t t e r n s i n follow-up afterward.  T h i s may  of n e g a t i v e f a l l o u t .  together  s i g n i f i c a n t l y decrease the Although  likelihood  some r e q u e s t s f o r p r e p a r a t o r y  m a t e r i a l were made, the arguments f o r a " c l e a n s l a t e " approach t o the s e s s i o n are compelling.  105 As  f a r as l i m i t a t i o n s and parameters f o r the PICE  approach, i t seems reasonably obvious t h a t a c e r t a i n l e v e l of language p r o f i c i e n c y i s r e q u i r e d f o r u s e f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (both speaking and  listening).  The  l e v e l of n e c e s s s a r y  v e r b a l a b i l i t y on the p a r t of students i s unknown; although the approach has been u t i l i z e d with a range of volunteers oriented Due  students,  f o r t h i s study were l a r g e l y from the  academically  population. t o the r e p o r t e d  a p p r e c i a t i o n of student p a i r i n g  dynamics, i t would be wise t o r e t a i n such a f e a t u r e . However, some n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e s or h e s i t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p a r e n t a l involvement suggest t h a t t h e r e may  be  p a t t e r n s which would d e l i m i t the b e n e f i t of  parental  involvement.  t h e s e parameters  I t would be u s e f u l t o e x p l o r e  w i t h v a r y i n g f a m i l y and p a r e n t i n g  family  s t y l e s , although  the  p o s s i b i l i t y does a l s o e x i s t t h a t the PICE approach c o u l d modified  to s u i t p a r t i c u l a r family s t y l e s .  Implications The pursuing and  present and  f o r Future Research  study supports the v a l u e of f u r t h e r  e x p l o r i n g the p o t e n t i a l of the PICE approach  i t s variations.  Future e v a l u a t i o n would do w e l l  to  u t i l i z e both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e methods of assessment.  Longitudinal research,  combining s e l f - r e p o r t  measures and  o b s e r v a t i o n a l data would be b e n e f i c i a l i n  promoting f u r t h e r refinement of e f f e c t i v e and  catalytic  be  106 intervention.  The r e s u l t s a l s o support  e x p l o r a t i o n of  PICE technique  with d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l and  the  family  i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t y l e s , i n order t o d e l i m i t i t s most u s e f u l parameters.  Theoretical The present  study  Implications  lends support  f o r the e f f i c a c y of  b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g field.  The  i n c r e a s e i n student's  m o t i v a t i o n and behaviour supports  career e x p l o r a t i o n the e f f i c a c y of  i n t e r v e n t i o n , as w e l l as an attachment theory and approach.  the systems  T h i s r e s u l t i s r e f l e c t i v e of B l u s t e i n ' s (1989)  work r e l a t i n g c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making s e l f - e f f i c a c y p o s i t i v e e x p l o r a t o r y behaviour. support  Additionally, results  the n o t i o n t h a t parents may  much more than simply planning  to  be seen as p r o v i d i n g  instrumental assistance i n career  ( B l u s t e i n , P r e z i o s o , & S c h u l t h e i s s , 1995):  ...an a c t i v e approach on the p a r t of one's p a r e n t s may p r o v i d e more than i n s t r u m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c a r e e r development t a s k s . From an attachment p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i n v o l v e d parents, by b e i n g a v a i l a b l e and responsive i n the n e g o t i a t i o n of impending c a r e e r and e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n s , enhance the a d o l e s c e n t ' s experience of f e l t s e c u r i t y " (p. 421). The  PICE technique  i s an example of an approach which  f a c i l i t a t e s and empowers students t o understand themselves b e t t e r , and act.  The  f o s t e r s g r e a t e r freedom t o e x p l o r e , p l a n  p o s i t i v e experience  and  of p a r t i c i p a n t s i l l u s t r a t e s  the u s e f u l n e s s of approaches which have the aim of f o s t e r i n g  107 agency i n c l i e n t s , r a t h e r i n g than g u i d i n g them i n s p e c i f i c directions  (eg., Kush & Cochran, 1993).  Implications The  f o r Career  Intervention  PICE approach a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the p o s s i b l i t y  b r i e f , but powerful c a r e e r which may  intervention f o r adolescents  i n v o l v e parents i n a s t r u c t u r e d  f a c i l i t a t i n g movement t o the next step of development.  The  format, career  approach seems t o a p p r o p r i a t e l y  resist  pushing c l i e n t s t o d e c i s i o n making b e f o r e they are (Miller,  1996).  of  ready  I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a means of g i v i n g c l i e n t s  e x p e r i e n t i a l l y a l e s s o n i n viewing c a r e e r development not  as  a s i n g l e d e c i s i o n task, but as a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s of a d a p t i n g t o a l i f e of work. Career c o u n s e l l o r s may  take note a t the  reported  b e n e f i t s of student p a i r i n g s , as w e l l as the  parental  involvement.  There may  indeed be other i n t e r v e n t i o n arenas  where such s t r u c t u r i n g may t e c h n i q u e and  prove u s e f u l .  others l i k e i t may  F i n a l l y , the  prove a p o t e n t i a l c a t a l y s t  f o r u s e f u l f a m i l y process communication, a l o n g w i t h development  PICE  career  facilitation.  Limitations F i r s t , the sample used was not a l l who interviewed.  not randomly s e l e c t e d ,  and  i n i t i a l l y agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e were S e l e c t i o n b i a s i s always a f a c t o r when s e l f -  108 s e l e c t i o n methods are used, aggrevated by p a r t i c i p a n t out r a t e s .  Although t h i s study may  drop-  s u f f e r c r i t i c i s m on the  b a s i s of being another s m a l l , nonrandom sample of s e l f s e l e c t e d , homogeneous p a r t i c i p a n t s  (Larson, 1995), i t s  purpose has been t o p r o v i d e q u a l i t a t i v e data on the impact of an i n n o v a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n .  Future i n v e s t i g a t i o n would  do w e l l t o broaden the sampling methods used here. Another p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n i s the non-anonymous s e l f r e p o r t method f o r impact assessment.  There may  indeed be  p e r s o n a l i t y i n f l u e n c e s , l e t alone c u l t u r a l b i a s e s not t o say a n y t h i n g n e g a t i v e about a supposed s e r v i c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s received.  The f a c t t h a t one-half of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were  of A s i a n decent a l s o argues f o r c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t negative data, as does the a d o l e s c e n t a d u l t s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l i n the i n t e r v i e w .  Although  attempts were made t o e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t and g i v e d i r e c t p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p o r t n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s , t h i s i s s u e remains a p o t e n t i a l contaminant with f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w s . M a t u r a t i o n e f f e c t s are always a p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r c a r e e r development  over time.  competing  We may  expect  s t u d e n t s t o get more s e r i o u s about c a r e e r , more wise i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g and p e r s p e c t i v e .  A l l f o l l o w - u p and  l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e s such d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h p o t e n t i a l maturation or h i s t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n s .  Although  c a u t i o n must be urged, i t i s noted t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e f l e c t i o n s of the impact of PICE on t h e i r c a r e e r  own  109 development have t a c i t l y taken i n t o account  their  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f peers who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e project. Though i t i s not o f t e n addressed as a l i m i t a t i o n , t h e use o f one f a c i l i t a t o r with t h e PICE i n t r e r v e n t i o n f o r c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e impact.  argues  S i n c e r e s e a r c h on  c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s has o f t e n p o i n t e d t o t h e importance  o f t h e person of t h e c o u n s e l l o r , t h e impact o f  the PICE technique may vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h f a c i l i t a t o r u s i n g t h e approach.  each  The p r e s e n t f a c i l i t a t o r was  a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r with many years of e x p e r i e n c e i n r e s e a r c h , t e a c h i n g , t r a i n i n g , and i n c o u n s e l l i n g intervention.  S i m i l a r l y , the effectiveness of p a r t i c u l a r  t e c h n i q u e s i s p a r t l y dependent on t h e uniqueness  brought by  the c l i e n t ( s ) , as supported by t h e process and outcome study of K i r s c h n e r , Hoffman, and H i l l  (1994).  With t h i s d e s i g n we a r e not i n a p o s i t i o n t o argue f o r c a u s a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s , such as PICE l e a d i n g t o s p e c i f i c g a i n s i n self-awareness o r agency.  Obviously there are a  myriad o f events and other processes going on i n f a m i l i e s and s c h o o l s over t h e course of a s c h o o l y e a r . t o do was t o probe,  What I hoped  i n depth, t h e meanings which v a r i o u s  p a r t i c i p a n t s have made o f t h e i r PICE experience i n l i g h t o f the ensuing s c h o o l year.  A t t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y stage I am  most i n t e r e s t e d i n what impact students and t h e i r p a r e n t s b e l i e v e t h e i r involvement  i n PICE had on t h e i r c a r e e r  110 development.  I t w i l l be l e f t f o r f u t u r e study t o examine  o t h e r t e s t s of any c l a i m s , no doubt expanding on the p r e s e n t d e s i g n by adding multi-method assessment of v a r i a b l e s ,  both  p r e - and p o s t - t e s t . Another i s s u e r e l a t e s t o the long time d e l a y between t h e i n i t i a l PICE s e s s i o n s u n t i l i n t e r v i e w s i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked about t h e i r experience of the sessions.  However, t h i s time d e l a y may  a l s o be seen as a  p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n the sense t h a t any immediate "halo e f f e c t s " would be minimized. i n t e r e s t was  F u r t h e r , what was  of most  not an accurate r e c o l l e c t i o n of s e s s i o n s , but  students'  (and parents') ensuing b e l i e f s and  interpretations  about how  the s e s s i o n s a f f e c t e d and f i t i n t o the flow of  t h e i r l i v e s around i s s u e s of c a r e e r development. e v a l u a t i o n s may keeping  Future  wish t o i n v o l v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n j o u r n a l -  as p a r t of process  investigation.  The p r e v i o u s group feedback s e s s i o n may  be expected  have had some e f f e c t on the c a r e e r p l a n n i n g thoughts s t u d e n t s who  participated i n e a r l i e r sessions.  view such an event as a p o t e n t i a l contamination r e l a t i n g simple involvement Another way  One  to  of might  of data  i n PICE t o c a r e e r development.  t o d e a l with t h i s s i t u a t i o n , however, i s t o  c o n s i d e r the focus group as a p a r t of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r PICE intervention.  Interview q u e s t i o n i n g of students s h o u l d  t h i s i n t o account  take  and probe f o r the p l a c e of the f o c u s group  d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e i r development process as w e l l .  Thus f o r  Ill t h i s s p e c i f i c group, what has happened over the p a s t s i x months i s not simply t h a t students r e c e i v e d a c a r e e r s e s s i o n ; they a l s o continued t o be s t i m u l a t e d by r e c e i v i n g the s e s s i o n s (and t a l k i n g about i t ) , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a group d i s c u s s i o n about i t .  others  and We  they  may  expect  the p r o c e s s t o have augmented t h e i r e f f o r t s a t r e f l e c t i o n PICE impact. monitor  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should attempt t o c o n t r o l  on and  the e f f e c t s of such focus group d i s c u s s i o n i n an  i n t e n t i o n a l manner. A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n r e l a t e s t o the r e s e a r c h e r ' s own i n t h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n .  role  As d i s c u s s e d under methodology  above, q u a l i t a t i v e data c o l l e c t i o n methods n e a r l y always i n v o l v e a p o t e n t i a l l y skewing e f f e c t of the data b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r agenda.  collector  Although  efforts  were made t o l i m i t the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r was  l o o k i n g f o r only p o s i t i v e data, f u t u r e  r e s e a r c h should i n c l u d e an i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t more 'arm's l e n g t h ' through  anonymous surveys, f o r example.  Conclusion T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the p e r c e p t i o n s of p r o c e s s  and  impact which a p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n (PICE) had upon the c a r e e r development of a d o l e s c e n t s .  The  one-session  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v o l v e d p a i r s of students and p a r e n t s . major component of the i n t e r v e n t i o n was  The  the u t i l i z a t i o n of a  p a t t e r n - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n technique f o r s e l f a n a l y s i s ,  then  112 a p p l y i n g the a n a l y s i s t o f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g about the world work.  of  E i g h t students and s i x parents were i n t e r v i e w e d  r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r experience the impact i t had on t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and interaction.  i n PICE and family  Results indicated p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t  had made s m a l l , but meaningful gains i n t h e i r  students  career  p l a n n i n g process as a r e s u l t of PICE p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Gains  u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t i v e changes i n p e r s p e c t i v e or a t t i t u d e towards c a r e e r planning, l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t o observed  career actions.  These r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d i n  terms of support  f o r the promise of the PICE approach  o t h e r s which may  i n c o r p o r a t e both students and t h e i r  and parents  i n c a r e e r i n t e r v e n t i o n programming. C l e a r l y , the f a m i l y of o r i g i n i s c r u c i a l t o c a r e e r development.  The PICE approach has shown c o n s i d e r a b l e  promise i n addressing adolescent c a r e e r development w i t h a b r i e f systems-oriented proposed as a  approach.  Although  PICE has not been  replacement f o r more comprehensive c a r e e r  development programming, i t b r i n g s t o mind the importance of empowering c l i e n t s t o take charge of t h e i r own  change, as  w e l l as the f a c t t h a t c l i e n t s have, under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , been measurably more s a t i s f i e d with i n t e r v e n t i o n than t h e r a p i s t s are  (Steenbarger,  brief 1992).  Such  b r i e f approaches do m e r i t f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and investigation.  113 References Amundson, N. E. (1995). P a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e . ( E r i c Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. EDO CG 95 69). Amundson, N.E. (1996). Parent i n v o l v e d c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n . Paper presented a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g Congress (ICC), Vancouver, BC. Amundson, N. E., & Cochran, L. (1984). 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Canadian J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l l i n g . 28(4), 299-307. Zingaro, J . (1983). A f a m i l y systems approach f o r the c a r e e r c o u n s e l o r . The Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l . 62. 2427.  121 Appendix A  CLEARINGHOUSE O N Counseling  JZjJlS ERIC DIGEST  Student Services  1995  EDO-CG-95-69  Pattern Identification Exercise Norm Amundson Overview Career exploration typically involves the investigation of personal factors: interests, aptitudes, values, and personal style.(Amundson, 1989). This investigation along with labor-market considerations, can require considerable time, particularly if counselors use qualitative or standardized measures to investigate each factor. Given the time limitations of most counseling situations, and the desire to be efficient and comprehensive; there is a growing need for new methods of career assessment (Amundson, in press; Eckert, 1993). One such approachthe pattern identification exercise (PIE)-has been used effectively in both individual and group career counseling (Amundson & Cochran, 1984; Amundson & Stone, 1992). PIE starts with past experiences and, through an in-depth questioning process, seeks to identify personal patterns which are of relevance in establishing career pathways. Discussion The guided inquiry procedure, developed in the field of rhetoric by Young, Becker, and Pike (1970), served as a starting point to develop the PIE method. These authors used a wide range of perspectives and questions to explore and understand new languages and situations. This was the stimulus for a structured questioning method (PIE) which could be utilized in career exploration. A premise underlying PIE is that the experiences which form the basis for career exploration can come from any aspect of life. The experiences of each person are unique and a detailed and careful examination of these experiences will reveal some common life patterns. To illustrate, a leisure activity, such as playing tennis, can be appreciated for its social elements, the physical activity, the opportunity for competition, or some other reason. The way in which a person plays (during good times and during challenges) may reflect patterns about motivation, planning, attitude, and self-concept. Uncovering these patterns can reveal important personal insights which have direct relevance to career choice, job search, and job satisfaction. This process of exploring experiences is as important as the questions which are used to stimulate discussion. The client is actively involved in the generation of information, the interpretation of meaning, and the application of new insights. A collaborative working relationship between counselor and client must be maintained  throughout (Gelso & Carter, 1985). The client is respected as the final authority in the identification of patterns. The counselor has an opportunity to provide input, but this is always done in a tentative manner, after the client has had a full opportunity to identify patterns. The number of experiences to be analyzed varies, depending on motivation level and the amount oftimeavailable. Typically, the analysis would not extend beyond two or three experiences. Each analysts has the potential to add new patterns, but there also will be considerable overlap. The counselor plays an important role in introducing the exercise, but the expectation is that the client will be able to work independently or with other people in a group to conduct further analyses. The client is learning a method of inquiry in addition to learning how to identify particular patterns. Steps In Conducting PIE PIE involves client and counselor in a defined exploration sequence. A considerable amount of information is generated prior to identifying patterns. It is often helpful for the counselor to take notes. If note-taking is used, it should be discussed with the client who should have full access to the information. The steps of inquiry which characterize PIE are as follows: 1. Ask the client to think about some activity from leisure, education, or work which is particularly enjoyable. Ask the client to think about a time when this activity was very enjoyable and a time when the activity was less enjoyable. 2. Have the client sequentially describe in detail the positive and negative experiences. Some open-ended questions can be asked at this point to facilitate a full description. Some of the issues to explore include the people involved, feelings, thoughts, challenges, successes, and motivations. Also, what are the dynamics that differentiate the positive and negative dynamics? Depending on the situation, it may be helpful to question some of the contextual issues. Questions in this regard focus on how the client's interest developed over time and what the client projects for the future. 3. After a full discussion, have the client consider what types of patterns are suggested by the information. Give the client every opportunity to make connections and pro-  122  vide him or her ongoing support and encouragement Ask how each specific piece of information reflects something about the client (i.e., goals, values, aptitudes, personal style, interests).  for analysis. Exploration is client-centered, with the counselor assuming a facultative rather than an "expert" stance. Through this mode of inquiry the client identifies patterns of, action which relate to goals, values, interests, aptitudes, and personal style.  4. At this point, the counselor can provide some input. There are several advantages to using the PIE approach. Counselor statements should be tentative and linked positively with client comments. While this can be an opportu- The most obvious advantage is that PIE offers one procedure nity forreframing,it is important not to lose sight of the to evaluate the client's interests and values. The inquiry has credibility since it is based on life experiences, which are inclient's contribution. terpreted and validated by the client Through this approach, 5. Connecting the above information and analysis to speclients engage in an activity which not only provides insights, cific career themes can now be addressed. As above, the client speaks first, followed by the counselor. The question here but also teaches a procedure for ongoing self-analysis.  is how personal information relates to career choice and acReferences tion planning. Amundson, N. E. (1989). A model for individual career counseling. Journal of Employment Counseling, 26,132-138. The above sequence of inquiry can be repeated for several activities. The counselor serves as a guide for the analy- Amundson, N. E. (in press). Perspectives on career assesssis, but at some point clients should be encouraged to conment journal of Employment Counseling. duct their own independent inquiry (perhaps as a homework Amundson, N. E., & Cochran, L. (1984). Analyzing experiassignment). ences using an adaptation of an heuristic model. CanaIn group counseling, the counselor starts by demonstratdian Counsellor. 18,183-186. ing the inquiry process with a member of the group. Participants are men paired off and instructed to follow the steps of Amundson, N. E., & Stone, D. (1992). Vancity career development program. Vancouver, BC: Vancity Credit Union. analysis with one another. The counselor serves as a consultant while the members discuss and analyze their experiences. Eckert, P.A. (1993). Acceleration of change: Catalysts in brief After a designated period of time, the group comes together therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 13,241-253. for debriefing. Gelso, CJ.,& Carter, J. A. (1985). The relationship in counselPositive reports have been obtained from a wide range ing and psychotherapy: Components, consequences and of clients. Comments often refer to the surprisingly potent theoretical antecedents. The Counseling Psychologist, 13. nature of the activity, particularly when focusing on leisure 155-204. activities which initially seemed of little consequence. When Young, R. E , Becker, A. L., & Pike, K. L. (1970). Rhetoric: Disteaching the PIE method to counselors, it has been important covery and change. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. to illustate the activity through experiential exercises. As with clients, the counselors have been impressed with the quality and quantity of information that con be generated through the intensive examination of relatively innocuous experiences. Norm Amundson, Ph.D. is a professor in the Department of Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of British Conclusion Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. PIE represents a comprehensive method for exploring career themes in that is uses experiences as the raw material  HUC Digests are in the public domain and may be freely reproduced and disseminated. This publication was funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Of fice of Educational Research and Improvement, Contract No. RR93O0MO4. Opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the positions of the US. Department of Education, OERI, or ERIC/CASS. For information on other ERIC/CASS products and services, please call toll-free (800) 414-9769 or (910) 334-4114 or fax (910) 334-4116 or write ERIC/CASS, School of Education, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412.  123 Appendix B Parent  Involved Career  Exploration:  Steps i n the C o u n s e l l i n g Process (Amundson, 1996; pp. 6-9) 1.  Introduction.  process  The f i r s t step i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g  i n v o l v e s an i n v i t a t i o n t o students  and p a r e n t s t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n n o v a t i v e c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n a c i t i t y . o f f e r i n g t h i s i n v i t a t i o n i t i s important  to indicate that  t h i s i s only a s t a r t i n g point f o r career e x p l o r a t i o n . i s t h e assumption t h a t some follow-up  There  a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be  undertaken depending on the s i t u a t i o n . a l s o t o be p r o v i d e d t o students  In  An e x p l a n a t i o n needs  and parents w i t h regards t o  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n the c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n i . e . t h i s i s t h e s t u d e n t s ' c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n , parents a r e i n v i t e d as observers. together  When the students  and parents  (two students and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e parents)  come there  i s a need f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n s and t o review t h e g o a l s f o r t h e session. 2.  Pattern I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Exercise.  c o u n s e l l i n g process  i s designed  w i t h i n t h e " l i v e d experience" Identification  The next step i n t h e  t o imbed c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n  of the students.  A Pattern  E x e r c i s e (PIE) h e l p s students t o i d e n t i f y  p e r s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n (strengths as w e l l as weaknesses) which have relevance t o c a r e e r development (Amundson, 1995).  As a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y , t h e  analogy between p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s and p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n s  124 (DNA)  may be put forward.  The f o l l o w i n g procedure i s  f o l l o w e d f o r t h e PIE e x e r c i s e : a.  The student t h i n k s about a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y and  g i v e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of a s p e c i f i c time when i t went v e r y w e l l and a time when i t was l e s s p o s i t i v e .  The  c o n t r a s t here allows students t o see p a t t e r n s of weakness as w e l l as s t r e n g t h .  Depending on t h e f u l l n e s s o f t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l l o r may need t o ask some supplementary q u e s t i o n s .  Some of t h e elements t o be  e l a b o r a t e d i n c l u d e t h e people i n v o l v e d , f e e l i n g s ,  thoughts,  c h a l l e n g e s , successes, and m o t i v a t i o n . b.  A f t e r a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n i s o u t l i n e d t h e student  i s encouraged t o c o n s i d e r what types of p a t t e r n s a r e suggested  by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been p r o v i d e d .  How  does t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e f l e c t v a r i o u s g o a l s , v a l u e s , a p t i t u d e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and i n t e r e s t s ? important  It is  i n making these connections t h a t t h e student be  p r o v i d e d w i t h support and encouragement t o make t h e c o n n e c t i o n s by h i m / h e r s e l f .  T e n t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s can be used  by t h e c o u n s e l l o r as long as they a r e l i n k e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the s t u d e n t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s . c.  The f i n a l step i n t h i s process focuses on how t h e  p a t t e r n s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d r e l a t e t o t h e c a r e e r c h o i c e s t h a t t h e student i s f a c i n g .  Again, t h e student  t a k e s t h e l e a d i n making these connections and t h e c o u n s e l l o r o f f e r s support, encouragement and some t e n t a t i v e  125 ideas. Upon c o n c l u d i n g t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n process t h e c o u n s e l l o r t u r n s t o t h e parent(s) and asks f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments. T h i s p r o v i d e s a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p a r e n t ( s ) t o c o n f i r m what has been d i s c u s s e d thus f a r and t o add any other perspectives.  Each student completes t h e PIE a c t i v i t y  p r i o r t o moving ahead t o t h e next 3.  step.  School Preferences and Performance.  At t h i s point the  d i s c u s s i o n t u r n s t o what t h e students l i k e about t h e courses they a r e t a k i n g and how they a r e performing  i n the courses.  Some o f these p r e f e r e n c e s may r e l a t e t o t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r .  In p r o v i d i n g t h i s  information  the studetns a r e encouraged t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r p o i n t s w i t h concrete i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  As before, a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e  d i s c u s s i o n with each student t h e r e i s time f o r p a r e n t a l feedback. 4.  P e r s p e c t i v e s on E d u c a t i o n a l and Labour market  Opportunities.  As students c o n s i d e r t h e i r o p t i o n s  with  r e s p e c t t o f u r t h e r education or t h e labour market they need an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . the i s s u e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e : the need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y ; experience,  Some o f  labour market t r e n d s ;  b r i d g i n g a c t i v i t i e s i . e . work  i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r v i e w i n g ; a n x i e t y about t h e  f u t u r e ; admissions  procedures  and standards,  and so on.  Parents a r e asked t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n and t o s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s about changes i n t h e  126 labour market and any coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t they would recommend. 5.  S e t t i n g the Next Step  (Action Planning).  Prior to  c o n c l u d i n g t h e s e s s i o n , students and parents a r e g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n about some o f the r e s o u r c e s i n t h e s c h o o l and community  (people and m a t e r i a l s ) and a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e  Career Pathways e x p l o r a t i o n workbook (Amundson & P o e h n e l l , 1995)  t h a t they may want t o complete l a t e r .  A f t e r a short  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , students a r e asked t o s p e c i f y what they need t o do next i n order t o a c t upon some of t h e i d e a s t h a t came up i n the c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n . Some o f these p l a n s may i n v o l v e parents working a l o n g s i d e them as p a r t n e r s , where t h i s i s the case t h e r e may be a need t o c l a r i f y r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  130 Appendix F Interview I n t r o d u c t i o n S c r i p t Thank you f o r agreeing t o meet today. I j u s t want t o g i v e you a chance before we begin t o read and s i g n t h i s consent form i f you are i n agreement. I want t o h i g h l i g h t t h a t your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y , and t h e r e are no consequences whatsoever should you d e c i d e you want t o withdraw a t any time. I'd l i k e t o remind you t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n you p r o v i d e today w i l l be t r e a t e d as c o n f i d e n t i a l , and no i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d i n the r e p o r t i n g of r e s u l t s . You a l s o have the o p t i o n d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w of choosing not t o answer any s p e c i f i c questions you may f e e l uncomfortable with. For students, w r i t t e n p a r e n t a l consent and v e r b a l consent from the student i s r e q u i r e d . Any student whose parent has not p r o v i d e d consent simply w i l l not be interviewed. P l e a s e take time t o read the i n f o r m a t i o n and consent now. I f you s t i l l would l i k e t o proceed, you may s i g n one copy and keep the other f o r your r e c o r d s . L e t me j u s t h i g h l i g h t t h a t what we are i n t e r e s t e d i n i s not a m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n , but each i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on how t h e i r involvement i n t h i s program has a f f e c t e d them. We expect t h e r e w i l l be some s i m i l a r i t i e s and some d i f f e r e n c e s i n people's s t o r i e s . Please f e e l f r e e t o speak c a n d i d l y from your own p o i n t of view.  131 Appendix 6 Interview  Transcripts  PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 101 Why  2 STUDENTS, AT SCHOOL volunteer?  1 I d i d n ' t know about the s e s s i o n . The c o u n s e l l o r came and she asked i f I was i n t e r e s t e d i n doing t h i s as an experience. I thought, w e l l , i t would be f u n t o t r y out, 'cause some o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s t h a t I've had before weren't as good, not as responsive t o my o p i n i o n s and s t u f f , so I thought maybe a one-on-one t h i n g would be b e t t e r than having you j u s t go and ask f o r help, cause they have so many s t u d e n t s going t o them, so I thought i t would be f u n and worthwhile. Some o f the previous c o u n s e l l o r s were a t s c h o o l , some outside of school. Some o f them were not t o o good. 2 I heard about i t on the P.A., and I thought i t would p r o b a b l y be more i n t e r e s t i n g and more r e l e v a n t t o me than a n y t h i n g e l s e has been, because the program i n p l a c e now (CAPP) i s r e a l l y g e n e r i c and time-wasting. So I j u s t rushed down here and signed up. Goals? 2 Not r e a l l y , I r e a l l y wanted t o s o r t o f see what e l s e would be r e l e v a n t t o me than f i l l i n g out a l i t t l e form — Oh, w e l l these a r e your i n t e r e s t s — I wanted t o f i n d out more. [A more f l e x i b l e approach] eh, t a l k i n g t o a person r a t h e r than a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 1 Eh, I was t h i n k i n g of being an emergency room d o c t o r when I went i n t o t h e s e s s i o n . And through what he t a l k e d about and how he ????????????? i t t u r n e d out t h a t maybe I ' l l be b e t t e r o f f w i t h s p e c i a l i z i n g i n s p o r t s i n s t e a d , because I l o v e s p o r t s , I l i k e doing them and I enjoy being around people who l i k e sports. And being i n emergency k i n d o f i s , l i k e , s t r e s s f u l , and maybe sometimes I'm not up t o t h e s t r e s s . And maybe he k i n d o f brought t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t maybe t h a t c a r e e r wasn't f o r me, and helped me r e a l i z e maybe something e l s e  132 was b e t t e r .  So t h a t ' s good.  [Did t h i n k you might get t h a t challenged?] what I wanted. What was t h e s e s s i o n  Eh, t h a t ' s  like?  1 I thought i t went r e a l l y w e l l , because t h e method he used was so unique, l i k e I'd never seen t h a t happen b e f o r e , and i t r e a l l y helped you c l a r i f y what you want and how you behave i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , and he used s p o r t s l i k e a metaphor k i n d of t h i n g . Cause I l i k e s p o r t s and he understands t h a t , and he used t h a t and so I understand more, better. So t h a t ' s good. Except my parents don't r e a l l y understand what was going on because they don't understand e n g l i s h t h a t w e l l . So t h a t ' s k i n d o f c o n f u s i n g f o r them, but i t was very good f o r me. Yeah, I enjoyed t h a t he was d e a l i n g with what r e l a t e s t o me, not j u s t a p i e c e of paper saying, "What do you l i k e ? T h i s i s what you l i k e " and s t u f f . So I l i k e b a s k e t b a l l , and he used, l i k e , "What do you f e e l when you're s t i c k i n g your shot, what do you f e e l when you are d r i b b l i n g down t h e c o u r t s " And I experienced i t , I can r e l a t e i t t o my l i f e , i t connects. 2 I thought i t was g r e a t . One of the t h i n g s t h a t r e a l l y helped me was h e a r i n g another student, what they f e l t , because I t h i n k t h a t students r i g h t now a r e q u i t e i s o l a t e d . They're not t a l k i n g t o each other. Yeah, j u s t s o r t o f h e a r i n g from somebody e l s e , not j u s t my g o a l s and s t u f f , but t h e i r g o a l s , and how they f e e l . . . [ i t address t h a t f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n , f e e l i n g less alone]. [Mostly what helped was n o t i c i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s . ] Some o f t h e c h a l l e n g e s were the same. I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e t h a t o t h e r people are having problems with the same t h i n g s t h a t I was. As an example, being d i l i g e n t about homework. Being w i l l i n g t o work r e a l l y hard t o reach short-term g o a l s . What was i t l i k e t o have your parents  there?  1 She d i d n ' t q u i t e understand. For me, p e r s o n a l l y , i t was l i k e h a l f and h a l f . I want her t h e r e , but I don't want her t h e r e . I don't know what meaning i t was f o r her, because she doesn't understand what was going on. ... So she g i v e s t h e i n p u t , cause she knows me b e t t e r than I know myself k i n d of t h i n g . But i f she wasn't t h e r e maybe I can  133 f o r g e t about what I say and j u s t say what I want t o say. Because I don't want t o o f f e n d my mom o r whatever. I t ' s j u s t a f e e l i n g t h a t , "Don't say something wrong, o r e l s e I might g e t i n t o t r o u b l e l a t e r on." So i t was good t o have her t h e r e , but i t wasn't e x c e l l e n t t o have her t h e r e . [ I f I were t o go again] I'd p r o b a b l y go without my mom, because she even t o l d me t h a t she d i d n ' t understand the s e s s i o n t h a t w e l l . And she s a i d t h a t i f she had t o again, she won't go. So maybe i t ' s b e t t e r i f I were t o go myself. 2 A c t u a l l y , p e r s o n a l l y , I l i k e d having my dad t h e r e . I t s o r t o f gave us a common ground when we t a l k e d about s t u f f l a t e r , l i k e we were on the same wavelength. Because he had t o l i s t e n t o what I had t o say and I had t o l i s t e n t o what he had t o say. So we j u s t b e s i c a l l y came t o more o f an understanding. [So I enjoyed the c o n t r o l l e d communication.] Other people observing  i n the room?  1 I don't t h i n k i t mattered t o o much. They're c o u n s e l l o r s , so they're q u a l i f i e d t o be t h e r e . So i t wasn't a big factor. 2 I d i d n ' t l i k e so many bystanders p e r s o n a l l y . I felt r e a l l y l i k e t h e r e was a l o t of people watching. I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e they a l l had a r i g h t t o be t h e r e . Because t h e r e wasn't j u s t t h e one c o u n s e l l o r , there was a whole bunch o f other people standing there watching. There was a couple other c o u n s e l l o r s , p l u s the v i c e p r i n c i p a l o r something. I t was q u i t e c l a u s t r o p h o b i c , q u i t e s m a l l . 1 With me t h e r e was only one c o u n s e l l o r watching, so I guess t h a t was d i f f e r e n t .  What was i t l i k e t o have another student  there?  1 She was i n grade 10 a l s o , and i n i n c e n t i v e program t o o . So k i n d o f a bond between us. So I knew h e r p e r s o n a l l y beforehand, so ...maybe because she's a female too, and I guess females bond b e t t e r than males. And so t h e t h i n g s she t a l k s about I can r e l a t e t o my l i f e , and s t u f f t h a t I t a l k about she can r e l a t e t o her l i f e , so i t ' s l i k e an i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n going on. So the problems she has, I have too. I t ' s n i c e t o know I'm not t h e o n l y one.  134 2 The other student i n my s e s s i o n was a guy, not i n i n c e n t i v e program. But a c t u a l l y I found t h a t I had a l o t of common ground w i t h him. I t was p r e t t y amazing. I wouldn't have expected t o f i n d t h a t . I t was e n l i g h t e n i n g . Impressions of what the s e s s i o n d i d f o r you? 2 I t was r e a l l y good. I t s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g a b i t more. I k i n d of expected i t t o be a b i t more s p e c i f i c , l i k e , "OK, w e ' l l f i n d a c a r e e r f o r you," or something l i k e t h a t . But i t wasn't r e a l l y . I t was l i k e , " l e t ' s f i n d out who you are f i r s t , " which i s , I t h i n k , more important, but i s overlooked a lot. So i t s o r t of handed i t over f o r me t o d e c i d e what I wanted s t i l l . [ I t d i d h e l p me put together a b i t of who I am and what I might l i k e t o do.] I t ' s s o r t of l i k e I had a p o i n t t o s t a r t on. Before I d i d n ' t r e a l l y have somewhere where I c o u l d focus, but now I have a l i t t l e b i t of a focus happening and a d i r e c t i o n t o go. That focus i s j u s t t o look f o r something t h a t would r e a l l y spark my i n t e r e s t , because i f I'm not i n t e r e s t e d then I don't r e a l l y care a t a l l , and I won't do i t . 1 What she s a i d i s r e a l l y r e l e v a n t t o me too. But I a l s o found t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r k i n d of helped me narrow my c a r e e r c h o i c e s down t o j u s t one and make me r e a l i z e t h a t i t was something t h a t I r e a l l y , r e a l l y , r e a l l y want t o do, and I ' l l do almost anything t o t r y t o achieve t h a t . And so s i n c e t h a t s e s s i o n I've been g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about f i n a n c i a l a i d , about g e t t i n g i n t o u n i v e r s i t y , seminars about how t o get i n t o u n i v e r s i t y . I t was k i n d of l i k e a r o l l e r c o a s t e r , k i n d o f , and t h a t was the s t a r t i n g p o i n t and j u s t on my way t o my ending p o i n t , j u s t a c a r e e r . So t h a t r e a l l y h e l p e d me r e a l i z e t h a t i f I wanted t o do something I had t o focus on one t h i n g and j u s t go f o r i t , not have f i v e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s and t r y t o f i n d out a l l about those. Too much time and not worth your w h i l e . 2 I k i n d of f e l t l i k e i t wasn't q u i t e long enough because I was s o r t of g e t t i n g i n t o i t and s t a r t i n g t o r e a l l y t h i n k and then i t ' s over. 1  Questions you t h i n k of afterward  and you want t o ask...  2 Yeah, or t h i n g s you wanted t o add about y o u r s e l f t h a t you d i d n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k of before but would be r e a l l y relevant. The  time was  about 70 minutes.  135 E f f e c t on c a r e e r  planning?  1 W e l l , i t was r e a l l y r e a l l y good f o r me, cause b e f o r e I was t h i n k i n g emergency room doctor, and t h a t was where I was p l a n n i n g on going t o , but now t h a t I t h i n k about i t a f t e r the s e s s i o n we k i n d of thought t h a t , "emergency room = s t r e s s " and I don't handle s t r e s s t o o w e l l a t times, so maybe t h a t wasn't such a good occupation f o r me. So I'm t h i n k i n g . . . c a u s e I r e a l l y want t o be a doctor, cause I r e a l l y l i k e h e l p i n g people and being around people. And he made me r e a l i z e t h a t being i n s p o r t s r e a l l y i s something t h a t I l i k e too, and combining those two t o g e t h e r would be a r e a l l y b i g t h i n g f o r me. So t h a t was a r e a l l y good h e l p . And a l s o I thought t h a t next time maybe you should have a follow-up s e s s i o n so you can ask any q u e s t i o n s you might have afterwards. And maybe not have so many people i n t h e room, maybe j u s t the c o u n s e l l o r and another student. Because w i t h t h e student there you don't f e e l as s e l f c o n s c i o u s o f your answers as you would one-on-one. So t h a t would be good. Yes I have s p e c i f i c ideas on combining my i n t e r e s t s , perhaps team doctor or team t r a i n e r , cause I l o v e watching s p o r t s and I f e l t t h a t i f I c o u l d h e l p a t h l e t e s t o perform b e t t e r then i t would be b e t t e r s p o r t s t o watch. I r e a l l y l i k e b e i n g around organized s p o r t s and organized teamwork. 2 W e l l , a t f i r s t I was r e a l l y motivated and I was l i k e , "OK, I'm going t o do something f i n a l l y , " but i t k i n d o f wore o f f because t h e r e r e a l l y wasn't a chance f o r a secondary d i s c u s s i o n o r whatever. I'm s o r t o f t h i n k i n g , I'm l o o k i n g a t my i n t e r e s t s and what I l i k e doing, and I'm k i n d o f l e a n i n g towards a t e a c h i n g c a r e e r because I l i k e t o be a b l e t o be c r e a t i v e and express myself i n a l o t o f d i f f e r e n t ways. And a l s o I l i k e ... when you're around younger c h i l d r e n when you're t r y i n g t o teach them something you s o r t of g e t a sense o f f u l f i l l m e n t or whatever, and you r e a l i z e t h a t you've s o r t o f enriched t h e i r l i v e s i n some s o r t o f way. 1 I guess I k i n d of f o l l o w e d up on myself because I'm i n the c a r e e r prep program here i n school and one o f t h e requirements i s t o have 100 hours o f v o l u n t e e r work i n your chosen k i n d o f occupation t h i n g . And so I've been t r y i n g t o c o n t a c t Dr. Ross Davidson f o r the Canucks and t r y i n g t o g e t a p o s i t i o n h e l p i n g him. I wrote two l e t t e r s , made two phone c a l l s , I'm s t i l l w a i t i n g f o r answers back. So t h a t ' s k i n d of l i k e a b i g follow-up f o r me. And I know he's a l s o  136 working a t UBC,  and  I'm  t r y i n g t o get an address t h e r e . . .  Any impact of r e l a t i o n s h i p with parents about c a r e e r ?  i n terms of t a l k i n g  2 At f i r s t i t d i d , but I t h i n k i t ' s k i n d of been f o r g o t t e n . But while i t l a s t e d i t was p r e t t y good because we s o r t of came t o an understanding so i t was e a s i e r t o j u s t s t a r t t a l k i n g i n s t e a d of ... t r y i n g t o understand, we c o u l d keep going, we c o u l d j u s t go s t r a i g h t t o what we wanted t o t a l k about. So t h i n g s got a l i t t l e b i t more c i v i l on everything. [ S o r t of l i k e the s t u f f we t a l k e d about i n the s e s s i o n p r o v i d e d a background f o r c o n t i n u i n g t o t a l k ] , but we haven't been t a l k i n g about t h a t l a t e l y , i t ' s been " l e t ' s j u s t f i n i s h grade 11 f i r s t " type t h i n g . T h i s e f f e c t l a s t e d about 2-3 months, I'd say. 1 Right a f t e r the s e s s i o n i t was r e a l l y good because you c o u l d t a l k about what you wanted t o do i n l i f e . But as the days went by you j u s t k i n d of stopped t a l k i n g about i t and then... we don't t a l k about i t any more. Now i t ' s b a s i c a l l y the same as i t was before. I t h i n k i t ' s k i n d of the same, maybe a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r , because they know what I want. But b a s i c a l l y the same as b e f o r e . Any  changes i n experience  of CAPP program?  1 Before the s e s s i o n I thought the CAPP was k i n d of h e l p f u l , because the teacher I had was r e a l l y i n t o i t and he r e a l l y t r i e d t o make us aware t h a t t h i s was important t o our life. He gave us t h i n g s t h a t were r e a l l y r e l e v a n t t o us. But t h e r e was too much paperwork, not enough i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h people. That was k i n d of not too good. Afterward I t h i n k i t was about the same, because he gave us work as a result. We t a l k e d about resume w r i t i n g and cover l e t t e r , which was k i n d of i r r e l e v a n t because we a l r e a d y knew t h a t from l a s t year. Now we're not doing anything, j u s t r e a d i n g , k i n d of t a i l e d o f f at the end of the year. So I thought i t was h e l p f u l b e f o r e . A f t e r the s e s s i o n I k i n d of looked a t i t and thought i t was k i n d of h e l p f u l but not r e l e v a n t t o me; i t was r e l e v a n t t o the g e n e r a l public. 2 I thought CAPP was a waste of time b e f o r e and I s t i l l t h i n k i t ' s a waste of time and I ' l l stand by t h a t o p i n i o n .  137 A n y t h i n g e l s e you've done? 2 I was i n a mentorship program. Everyone came back knowing more and I came back knowing I r e a l l y r e a l l y don't want t o be an a r c h i t e c t . That was l a s t year, though. So t h e p l a c e I'm a t i s t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out what would r e a l l y i n t e r e s t me. [My focus r i g h t now i s t r y i n g t o f i n i s h s c h o o l and g e t my grades up.] Any o t h e r suggestions? 1 I was hoping t h a t i n the s e s s i o n i f I f i g u r e d out which c a r e e r I wanted I was hoping t h a t he would g i v e us some c o n t a c t t o s t a r t making progress i n t o the c a r e e r . Like maybe he would have a c o n t a c t or two, l i k e a phone number t h a t you c o u l d c o n t a c t and s t a r t working your way through, t h a t would be r e a l l y good. 2 Yeah, j u s t a follow-up would be h e l p f u l a couple o f days l a t e r t o l e t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c o l a t e . I know I came up w i t h a l o t of s t u f f t h a t j u s t came t o mind type t h i n g .  138 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 102  1 Student,  Why  volunteer?  at school  I d i d n ' t r e a l l y v o l u n t e e r . They came around t o c l a s s the same day and I wasn't busy, so I agreed t o do i t . I c a l l e d my mother and f a t h e r and they were j u s t g o i n g t o l e a v e so I j u s t caught them. Goals? I o n l y had about an hour t o decide, so I d i d n ' t have much time t o t h i n k about i t . What was i t l i k e ? I t was i n t e r e s t i n g . There was another student t h e r e , a guy. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o see what k i n d o f t h i n g s he was i n t e r e s t e d i n compared t o me and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . What was i t l i k e t o have a parent Not a b i g d i f f e r e n c e . much e i t h e r . Other people  there?  My mom d i d n ' t r e a l l y say t h a t  i n t h e room?  The c o u n s e l l o r , another student & parent, c o u n s e l l o r . A l s o another i n t e r v i e w e r .  and a s c h o o l  Did i t do anything f o r you? There's a l o t more p o s s i b i l i t i e s . L i k e i t opened i t up. L i k e I j u s t wanted t o be a teacher then i t s o r t o f opened i t up t h a t i t c o u l d be maybe open l i k e a t u t o r i n g b u s i n e s s o r whatever. L i k e i t s o r t o f opened i t . And t h e r e was another c a r e e r c h o i c e l i k e a lawyer o r something. Any  e f f e c t on c a r e e r  planning?  139 I guess you c o u l d say t h a t I'm doing more ... l i k e I used t o be r e a l l y nervous when I'm speaking i n f r o n t o f a whole group. But then because I want t o become a t e a c h e r o r p o s s i b l y a lawyer, I don't know, i t ' s a l o t e a s i e r f o r me now. So I don't s t u t t e r , or shake, o r anything l i k e t h a t . I t comes a b i t n a t u r a l l y . I t might be r e l a t e d t o being i n t h e s e s s i o n , because I d i d n ' t know anybody t h e r e except my mom. I t s o r t of, l i k e , helped me overcome t h a t f e a r . How d i d t h e s e s s i o n help  that?  W e l l , I guess because i t was a l s o because i t was a s m a l l group, not a huge group and i t was l i k e they were a c t u a l l y s i t t i n g there l i s t e n i n g , instead of l i k e a c l a s s p r e s e n t a t i o n where some people always t a l k , r i g h t . I don't know... i t was more comfortable. D i d i t h e l p you t o see y o u r s e l f doing t h a t more i n t h e future? A c t u a l l y , yeah, i t d i d . He gave me a chance t o express my o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s and s t u f f without having t o , l i k e , I don't know. The s t u f f j u s t s o r t o f came t o my head and I had t o say i t . I d i d n ' t know what k i n d of q u e s t i o n s he was going t o ask i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . [kind o f on the s p o t ] , you got t o t h i n k f a s t . I wasn't r e a l l y nervous, because I d i d n ' t know what t o expect. L i k e i f I know what was coming, I'd be s o r t o f nervous and I'd g e t a b i t scared. Any  i n f l u e n c e on r e l a t i n g with  parents?  No, d i d n ' t make much o f a d i f f e r e n c e . What she s a i d i n the s e s s i o n was p r e t t y much the same as what she s a i d t o me a l l t h e time. [I d i d n ' t r e a l l y l e a r n from her i n p u t i n t h e s e s s i o n . ] Afterwards, i t j u s t stayed about the same. With t h e other student and h i s mom p u t t i n g t h e i r i n p u t i n , I was l i k e , some of the s t u f f we a l r e a d y knew, but then some o f t h e s t u f f l i k e , t h e r e ' s more a range o f pathways t o c a r e e r s and t h i n g s . I t ' s more wide. L i k e , i t never o c c u r r e d t o me t o be a lawyer. I t never o c c u r r e d t o me l i k e that. How d i d t h a t come out?  140 I don't know. I'm more of a humanities person than a s c i e n c e person. So then with being a lawyer then I can a c t u a l l y f i t i t i n with having an e n g l i s h degree p l u s a law degree. I t was j u s t before I chose my courses f o r next year. So then I a l s o chose law 12 f o r next y e a r . Career pathways booklet? used Any  I s o r t of browsed i t . I haven't r e a l l y s a t down and i t because I've been r e a l l y busy. change i n how  your parents advise?  Not r e a l l y , cause my mom u s u a l l y l e a v e s a l l the s t u f f l i k e homework t o me. I t ' s only when when my marks drop t h a t she a c t u a l l y pushes me. Parents'  occupations?  My dad's a draughtsman, and my mom's...I don't know what she i s . She j u s t h i d e s around the house sometimes and goes shopping. Sometimes s h e ' l l do o c c a s i o n a l work because she used t o own a business, a grocery s t o r e . Anything you've done about your c a r e e r s i n c e the s e s s i o n ? A c t u a l l y I've been doing my work experience. I was a t an elementary s c h o o l l a s t F r i d a y , spent the day t h e r e g e t t i n g the f e e l f o r t e a c h i n g . I r e a l l y l i k e i t , I r e a l l y like kids a l o t . T h i s i s a l s o f o r my Career Prep requirements, and t h a t was my f i r s t day. Any  d i f f e r e n c e i n CAPP experience?  I was i n t e r e s t e d i n i t before but now I'm more c u r i o u s , and l i k e I want t o l e a r n more t h i n g s about i t . I'm not j u s t l o o k i n g toward the t e a c h i n g d i r e c t i o n , I'm a l s o l o o k i n g towards b e i n g a lawyer and e v e r y t h i n g . I t ' s an i n t e r e s t , r i g h t , but I'm not n e c e s s a r i l y going t o go through t h a t path. I went i n t o the s e s s i o n without a c l u e of what t o expect, but i t s o r t of opened my mind a b i t more. Suggestions  f o r improving i t ?  141 Maybe a b i t more, l i k e , suggestions f o r p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r s . We t a l k e d about my hobby — r e a d i n g — and he s o r t of d i r e c t e d i t towards reading, but i t d i d n ' t e x a c t l y connect i t t o any of the c a r e e r s . So, ...I don't know how t o say i t , but...more i n f o r m a t i o n on the c a r e e r . P u t t i n g l i n k s between e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e , w i t h an e n g l i s h degree you can do t e a c h i n g , or j o u r n a l i s m , or working f o r a magazine, . . . l i n k i n g i t together somehow. [Information on occupations r e l a t e d t o your i n t e r e s t s . ] [And even more s p e c i f i c ] L i k e what k i n d of j o u r n a l i s t , and how do I get t h e r e . What k i n d of courses I have t o take. [Hope t o get j u s t a b i t f u r t h e r towards knowing how t o check i t out, yeah.] What l e d t o you d e c i d i n g t o v o l u n t e e r with the community c e n t r e t h i s summer? I took a l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g course and we needed a c e r t a i n number of hours. I l i k e d i t and so I s i g n e d up a g a i n f o r the summer. Anything  e l s e you'd r e l a t e t o having been i n the  Not r e a l l y . Anything  That's a l o t of time  of short-term  session?  ago.  effect?  A c t u a l l y , I'm more w i l l i n g t o work f o r t h i n g s , knowing t h a t I ' l l be a b l e t o achieve t h a t g o a l a f t e r w a r d s . It's s o r t of up and down, up and down. I s o r t of l e a r n e d some t h i n g s , and some t h i n g s I a l r e a d y knew. I wanted t o l e a r n more t h i n g s , and do more t h i n g s . More w i l l i n g t o get t o what I wanted. Any  example? The f a c t t h a t I l i k e reading, and i f I l i k e r e a d i n g I can always read up on t h i n g s . I f I l i k e r e a d i n g I l i k e l e a r n i n g ... they go together.  142 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 103  1 Student, a t school  Expectations? We heard t h a t t h i s p r o f e s s o r from UBC t h a t was coming would t a l k about jobs and what we want t o do i n the f u t u r e , and a p p a r e n t l y he was going t o g i v e us s t r a t e g i e s or i d e a s about how t o go about a c h i e v i n g g o a l s t o get t h a t j o b . That sounded good t o me. Afterwards...he gave us t h a t workbook [Career Pathways], t h a t we c o u l d work through, and k i n d of s e t objectives. I t h i n k i t helped me, because I began t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e were s p e c i f i c g o a l s I would have t o s e t , and t h e r e were more broad ways t h a t I c o u l d take t o a c e r t a i n path. Yeah. I t opened my eyes t o s t u f f t h a t I would have t o do t o get t h e r e . was  The s e s s i o n introduced s t r a t e g i e s , and the book k i n d of more s p e c i f i c . I t h i n k t h a t was the way i t was.  What was  your experience  of the  session?  I guess i t was i n t e r e s t i n g , because I got t o hear what the o t h e r student had t o say. I enjoyed i t , because I l e a r n e d s t u f f about myself, I learned what my mom had t o say about me t h a t we normally don't r e a l l y b r i n g up. Yeah. I liked i t . Other people i n the room? The two s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . I'm of people, so i t d i d n ' t r e a l l y bother Your mother being  fine talking i n front me.  there?  [ I t was neat t o hear some t h i n g s she had t o say] — B a s i c a l l y sums i t up, but I enjoyed i t more, because i t ' s the k i n d of s t u f f we don't r e a l l y t a l k about. We t a l k l i k e , "Oh yeah, I want t o go i n t o human k i n e t i c s , " but she doesn't say, "Maybe you should do t h i s , or maybe you should do t h a t t o get t h e r e . " And t h a t was what she was maybe t r y i n g t o say more... t h a t maybe you should t h i n k about doing t h i s  143 b e f o r e you do t h a t and s t u f f . So, yeah. I t h e l p e d me more t o hear what she had t o say, i n s t e a d of j u s t on-and - o f f t a l k about i t . Her l i s t e n i n g t o you? I don't know, I guess from her p e r s p e c t i v e i t was p r o b a b l y p r e t t y good because l i k e I s a i d b e f o r e , we don't r e a l l y t a l k about i t , so she was p r o b a b l y p r e t t y i n t e r e s t e d i n what I had t o say too, I would assume. She's my mom. A p p r e c i a t e d h e a r i n g another student? Yeah. Because i t turned out t h a t I was more i n t o the a t h l e t i c s i d e of t h i n g s and she was more i n t o the a r t s s i d e so I had a chance t o see i t from both p e r s p e c t i v e s . And i f I was t h e only one t h e r e I would have o n l y been a b l e t o look a t i t from my eyes, but she gave me the chance t o see how i t might be f o r another r o u t e too. O v e r a l l e f f e c t on c a r e e r planning? I don't know. Before I was j u s t k i n d of t h i n k i n g , " I ' d b e t t e r s t a r t doing t h i s now," and "I've got t o get t h e r e r i g h t now," because grade 12's coming f a s t and I have t o apply or whatever. But he made me r e a l i z e t h a t when I get t o t h e end of grade 12 I might not want t o do what I want t o do now, and he made me see t h a t I can slow down and t h i n k about i t and p l a n i t out and take each s t e p a t a time i n s t e a d of r u s h i n g i n t o i t a l l a t once. You k i n d of thought you had t o get t o a d e c i s i o n sooner. Yeah. Impact on how you t a l k w i t h your p a r e n t s about c a r e e r ? Not r e a l l y . I don't know. I guess, t h a t n i g h t we t a l k e d about i t . We s a i d , yeah he's r i g h t , I can slow down and t h i n k about i t ; I don't have t o r u s h i n t o i t , and we d i d n ' t r e a l l y t a l k about steps t o be taken. I mean, I thought about i t myself, but not a l o t . [So t h e r e was k i n d of a d i f f e r e n c e i n how you i n t e r a c t e d w i t h your mother d u r i n g the s e s s i o n and immediately afterwards, but a f t e r t h a t ] , yeah, i t went back. They don't r e a l l y care what I go i n t o as long as  I'm  144 happy w i t h i t , and I guess they t h i n k t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s up t o me. They do care t h a t you've got t o g e t moving i n t h i s s u b j e c t and g e t your mark up so t h a t i t w i l l be ok t o g e t you i n . And maybe you should focus on t h i s course more now, but i t ' s n o t h i n g r e a l l y d i r e c t with what I want t o g e t i n t o a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l , i t ' s more what I'm d e a l i n g w i t h now t o g e t me t h e r e . We don't r e a l l y t a l k about c a r e e r s t o o much now. We t a l k e d about i t i n t h e s p r i n g more. I guess i n A p r i l we were t a l k i n g about what i f your marks a r e n ' t good enough f o r t h i s , what a r e you going t o do i f you c a n ' t g e t i n here, as an a l t e r n a t i v e . I d i d n ' t r e a l l y have any answers, I had never r e a l l y thought about i t . So i t g o t me t h i n k i n g along those l i n e s . But now t h e focus i s p r e t t y much on s c h o o l and f i n a l s . Anything you've been doing t h a t you r e l a t e t o t h e s e s s i o n ? Yeah, a c t u a l l y course s e l e c t i o n was i n February and I based a l o t o f i t on h i s philosophy of t a k i n g your time t o get t h e r e . And I was k i n d of working out t h e s t e p s t h a t I was going t o take because I had t o f i g u r e out t h e courses t h a t I c o u l d use t o g e t i n t o human k i n e t i c s , and i f not, courses t h a t I c o u l d a l s o use t o get i n t o something e l s e . And h i s time frame t h a t he k i n d o f e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h i s s t e p and then t h i s step, and t h i s step...made me t h i n k t h a t I can do these courses now and then when I g e t through them I can see what marks I get and then I can go i n t o t h i s or t h i s , maybe i n s t e a d of j u s t t h i s . T a l k e d t o anybody about t h e f i e l d ? Not r e a l l y . I've done q u i t e a b i t o f r e s e a r c h i n t o what i t i s . On t h e i n t e r n e t t h e r e ' s q u i t e a b i t on human kinetics. I read a l o t about i t , about what i t i s , and what you can do, and c a r e e r s t h a t branch o f f a degree i n human kinetics. But I don't know. I'd probably o n l y be l o o k i n g f o r a b a c h e l o r s i n human k i n e t i c s t h e r e and then go i n t o p h y s i o t h e r a p y a f t e r t h a t . Yeah, I'm l o o k i n g i n t o i t . Anything e l s e you r e l a t e t o t h a t s e s s i o n ? I t made me more motivated t o get a p a r t - t i m e j o b . He k i n d o f t a l k e d about experience, and i f e x p e r i e n c e s a r e going t o h e l p you l a t e r on, and i f you g e t e x p e r i e n c e a t a younger age you can c a r r y i t with you and j u s t add on. And, I guess I k i n d of f i g u r e d t h a t my a t h l e t i c s were e x p e r i e n c e s , but o n l y i n one area. I thought maybe a p a r t time j o b would broaden i t . So I s t a r t e d a p p l y i n g i n A p r i l  145 and  stuff.  Career Pathways h e l p f u l , used? I went through i t and I d i d a l o t of the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were i n t h e r e and I found i t was f o r people who a l r e a d y had e x p e r i e n c e . And t h a t ' s how I came t o understand more of what he was t a l k i n g about a f t e r going through t h e r e . Because he was t a l k i n g about what have you done, and what would you l i k e t o do, and how are these t h i n g s going t o go t o g e t h e r t o get you what you want and s t u f f . The book k i n d of made i t more c l e a r about what he was t a l k i n g about experience-wise. [I went through t h a t on my own, not w i t h my mom.] Parents'  occupations?  Dad i s a p r o f e s s o r of food s c i e n c e , mom t e c h n i c i a n i n food s c i e n c e . Anything e l s e you r e l a t e t o the s e s s i o n or  a food  January?  Yeah. I t k i n d of helped me r e l a t e t o my f r i e n d s . They're always t a l k i n g about how we've got t o do t h i s now, because I want t o be doing t h i s by t h i s time next y e a r . And I c o u l d k i n d of say a f t e r t h a t , "you don't have t o do t h a t , " because you've got a l o t of time s t i l l . And I don't know, i t k i n d of helped me t o t e l l them t h a t j u s t wait here, you don't have t o keep going j u s t a l l the time. You can s t o p and take your time a t t h i n g s you want t o do. And i t gave me a b e t t e r understanding of how t o t e l l them t h a t and e v e r y t h i n g , because t h a t ' s what he was t a l k i n g about. [So k i n d of a slowing down aspect i n terms of d e c i s i o n making, or the s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n , but a t h i n k i n g f a r t h e r ahead i n terms of g e t t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . . . p u t t i n g those two t o g e t h e r . ] Yeah. Any  suggestions?  I t h i n k I would l i k e i t more i f he would have s a t down and s t a r t e d working out g o a l s and some p l a n s w i t h me. He k i n d of t o l d me how I can go about doing i t and s t u f f . But I t h i n k I would have g o t t e n a l o t more out of i t i f I had some m a t e r i a l t o come out with. I mean, I had the book and s t u f f , but, I would have a p p r e c i a t e d i t more i f I had a s t e p - b y - s t e p p l a n t h a t I c o u l d or c o u l d not f o l l o w depending on how I f e l t a f t e r i t . I would have l i k e d t h a t .  146 Length was f i n e . I t gave me p l e n t y of time t o d i s c u s s how I f e l t and what I thought, and I l i k e d t h a t because I d i d n ' t have any time c o n s t r a i n t s on what I c o u l d say and s t u f f , so t h a t was good. Keep the other  student i n there?  Yeah. Oh yeah. That's p a r t of what I l i k e d about i t , t h a t I had someone e l s e t o r e l a t e t o t h a t was t h e r e , i n s t e a d of a room f u l l of a d u l t s . Would you keep the parents in? Yeah. Because you c o u l d k i n d of t a l k about s t u f f t h a t n o r m a l l y doesn't come up anyways. And you got t o hear what your p a r e n t s thought. And they were t a l k i n g t o other a d u l t s so they c o u l d r e l a t e t o other a d u l t s . I t was k i n d of l i k e you were i n on a c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t you wouldn't normally hear anyways. Yeah, I l i k e d t h a t . Counsellors Yeah. More  i n the back? I t d i d n ' t r e a l l y bother me  t h a t they were t h e r e .  sessions?  Yeah. I t h i n k an e x t r a s e s s i o n a f e r the i n i t i a l one, but i n a c l o s e amount of time a f t e r i t , l i k e a week. So you have k i n d of time t o s i n k i n what happened and have ideas about how you want t o i n c o r p o r a t e your ideas i n t o the s t e p by-step p l a n . I t h i n k , another, I don't know, about a h a l f hour or 45 minute s e s s i o n j u s t t o s i t down and p l a n i t a l l out, t h a t would be best. How  long a f t e r ?  A few days would be ok, anything p a s t seven days i s k i n d of too long past the i n t e r v i e w and d i s c u s s i o n . You s t a r t to forget.  147 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 104  1 Student, a t s c h o o l  Remember why you volunteered? Not e x a c t l y , i t j u s t sounded l i k e a unique o p p o r t u n i t y . Nothing l i k e t h a t has ever come t o our s c h o o l b e f o r e . Mr. B o i s v e r t t o l d me about i t . He came t o our I n c e n t i v e s c l a s s and announced i t . He s a i d t h e f i r s t person t o g e t t h e r e w i l l g e t t o . He took a l i s t o f a l l t h e o t h e r people who wanted t o and we got a chance t o do i t l i k e t h a t . Expectations? I d i d n ' t r e a l l y go i n w i t h any e x p e c t a t i o n s . t o s o r t o f examine my c a r e e r g o a l s and ...yeah.  I guess  What was i t l i k e ? I t was k i n d o f i n t e r e s t i n g , because i t was v e r y i n t e r a c t i v e , i t wasn't l i k e . . . w e l l , i n t h e f a c t t h a t he l e t everybody speak and we s a t i n s o r t of a group, so i t wasn't as i f he was, l i k e d r i l l i n g us. [ I t was me, and another student and t h e i r p a r e n t , and a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r watching some of t h e time.] What was i t l i k e t o have your mother t h e r e ? I t was neat. Some s t u f f she s a i d , I never knew she thought t h a t b e f o r e . L i k e what? I don't know, j u s t something about how you had t o be focused on your c a r e e r , and she's never r e a l l y t a l k e d t o me about t h e o p t i o n s b e f o r e . So you enjoyed having her t h e r e , and i t f e l t Oh, yeah.  useful?  Did you t h i n k she had a chance t o hear new t h i n g s from you? Yeah. Probably. What about having another student there?  148 I t was i n t e r e s t i n g , because then you'd hear t h e i r comments and i t would, l i k e , spark ideas i n y o u r s e l f . I t was e a s i e r t o t a l k because i t wasn't l i k e e v e r y t h i n g was focused on you. There was, l i k e , two people t a l k i n g . How  the s e s s i o n worked f o r you?  I t a c t e d as a beginning p o i n t , whereas a l o t of programs a c t as an end. I t d i d n ' t say, "What do you want t o be?" I t j u s t got the b a l l r o l l i n g and s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g . I t h i n k t h a t was r e a l l y important. I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e i t was a l l connected, l i k e , s p o r t s and career. I l i k e tennis. [So i t brought together the t h i n g s I l i k e t o do w i t h t h i n g s I c o u l d do as occupations.] Yeah. I t d i d n ' t say, "Play t e n n i s f o r a c a r e e r . " It j u s t s a i d t h i s i s your p e r s o n a l i t y i n s p o r t s and t h i s i s a l s o going t o be your p e r s o n a l i t y i n your c a r e e r . And t h a t t i e I had never made before, t h a t connection. So i t was interesting. A n y t h i n g you've been doing  i n career planning  s i n c e then?  We d i d t h i s t h i n g c a l l e d Choices on the computer, but i t i s n ' t very u s e f u l . T h i s PICE, i t s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g , whereas the s t u f f we do a t t h i s s c h o o l , i t ' s r e a l l y , i t ' s not u s e f u l . I t ' s l i k e , "Are you c h e e r f u l ? You are going t o be a f l i g h t attendant." [ I t s l o t s you i n t o a box, t e l l s you what t o do.] The PICE s t u f f was a c t u a l l y r e l e v a n t . And the f a c t t h a t i t was spoken was a l s o important, because w i t h the CAPP program when you w r i t e i t down i t seems v e r y f i n a l , t h a t t h i s i s what you want t o do. But because t h i s i s j u s t spoken word, i t ' s more of a t h i n k i n g process. A n y t h i n g you've done s i n c e r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r t h a t you r e l a t e t o PICE? W e l l , through I n c e n t i v e we do t h i s mentoring program. And the mentor I worked with was the c a r e e r I want, or I t h i n k I'd l i k e t o do at t h i s p o i n t . That was a psychiatrist. (The I n c e n t i v e program i s a c l a s s which i s taught differently. The same group of students gets math, s c i e n c e , e n g l i s h , s o c i a l s together. I t ' s d i f f e r e n t than our r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , i t ' s more i n t e r a c t i v e . I t h i n k the m a t e r i a l i s a  149 b i t more advanced, but we don't take notes much. more by doing. Any  impact  on how  We  learn  you t a l k w i t h your parents about c a r e e r ?  Probably not. We haven't done a l o t of t a l k i n g a t home. W e l l , r i g h t a f t e r the s e s s i o n my mom was t a l k i n g a l o t about c a r e e r s and s t u f f , but now i t ' s back t o normal. [That l a s t e d probably about a week.] Overall... [Rather than g e t t i n g sent o f f t o do t h i s and t h a t , the s e s s i o n gave me a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e on l i f e and careers.] Yeah, i t g i v e s you a whole new p e r s p e c t i v e on t h i n g s . Suggestions  f o r improving i t ?  No, I t h i n k i t was good the way i t was. Having two s t u d e n t s t h e r e and t h e i r parents. We had a follow-up s e s s i o n afterwards, and I t h i n k t h a t was r e a l l y u s e f u l . We got t o hear everyone's o p i n i o n . There were e i g h t or ten people i n t h a t group. Any now.  d i f f e r e n c e i n how W e l l , my  you approach CAPP now?  teacher dropped i t , and we  j u s t read books  I don't t h i n k the teachers take CAPP v e r y s e r i o u s l y . Some choose not t o , some choose t o g i v e everybody A's.  Career Pathways u s e f u l ? I Yeah. w i t h my It seemed open. want.  d i d n ' t do every a c t i v i t y , but I looked through i t . [I d i d t h a t w i t h i n the week a f t e r the s e s s i o n , not parents.] seemed, even the w r i t t e n s t u f f i n the PICE program more u s e u l than the CAPP s t u f f , because i t ' s more I t doesn't focus as much on c a r e e r s as on what you  We d i d n ' t do very much CAPP, but i t was l i k e , "What are your t h r e e g o a l s i n l i f e , what are your s k i l l s , what are your p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s ? " There was no t h i n k i n g i n v o l v e d , j u s t f i l l i n g i n forms.  150 [ I t ' s hard t o look a t a p i e c e of paper and choose those things.] Anything you've been doing s i n c e November t h a t you r e l a t e t o PICE? W e l l , I t h i n k i t ' s more the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s t h a t ' s changed, more than anything I've done. I t opens you up t o new p e r s p e c t i v e s . I d i d n ' t look i t t h a t way. Parent's  occupations?  Mom's a pharmacist,  and dad's a mechanical  engineer.  Compared t o o t h e r s ' suggestions... I f e l t i t was p r e t t y good. But one other t h i n g t h a t I l i k e d how i t was spoken, was you had t o t h i n k t h i n g s through i n your mind b e f o r e you s a i d them, so i t a c t u a l l y c l a r i f i e d y o u r s e l f j u s t having t o e x p l a i n your c a r e e r g o a l s t o someone else. You're not too much on the spot because the o t h e r student was t h e r e . So i t ' s not l i k e the s p o t l i g h t was on you. And the parents t a l k too. [I t h i n k the t i m i n g was about r i g h t , i n terms of p r o p o r t i o n between students and parents.]  151 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 105  2 Students,  at school.  Why v o l u n t e e r ? 1 I t j u s t sounded l i k e something i n t e r e s t i n g . There wasn't any r i s k , t h e r e was nothing I c o u l d l o s e by doing i t . I f i g u r e d I'd j u s t t r y i t , see what i t was l i k e . Mr B o i s v e r t t o l d me about i t , our I n c e n t i v e 10 c l a s s . The f i r s t person with p a r e n t a l consent c o u l d do i t . What were your c a r e e r ideas l i k e a t t h a t p o i n t ? 1  A c t i n g and t e a c h i n g . S t i l l not p r e t t y sure, but t h a t ' s the g e n e r a l f i e l d . So who knows what the s e s s i o n would do. I a l s o wanted t o see d i f f e r e n t paths I c o u l d take. 2 I d i d i t because i t was f o r c a r e e r , and r i g h t now people^ a l l need t h e i r c a r e e r s and s t u f f . So I s a i d I might as w e l l take i t . I f i t helps me, i t h e l p s me. If i t doesn't, I'm not l o s i n g anything. Other e x p e c t a t i o n s ? 2 When I found out i t was going t o be v i d e o t a p e d I was kind of scared. I t ' s k i n d of hard t o t a l k when you have a camera focused on you. I thought maybe i f i t was t h e r e my answers would have been d i f f e r e n t . 1 to  I wasn't r e a l l y expecting anything. expect.  I d i d n ' t know what  What was i t l i k e t o be i n the session? 1 I t was a good formation. They d i d t h e i n n e r c i r c l e / o u t e r c i r c l e t h i n g . I t was a good f o r m a t i o n , but t h e camera was very nerve-wracking. 1 There was a l s o a couple of other c o u n s e l l o r s o b s e r v i n g . I t wasn't bad, but i t made e v e r y t h i n g a l i t t l e more uncomfortable. The o t h e r  student?  152 1 I d i d n ' t r e a l l y mind, because I k i n d of know her. If i t was someone I d i d n ' t know at a l l i t would be h a r d e r . I don't r e a l l y know her very w e l l , but I know her t o say h i t o and s t u f f . I t was k i n d of n i c e because we're r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t and i t ' s n i c e hearing d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s and views on t h i n g s . 2 One other c o u n s e l l o r was t h e r e , as w e l l as the s c h o o l counsellor. I t d i d n ' t bother me. 2 I k i n d of knew the other student so i t was ok. It d i d n ' t r e a l l y matter; i f she hadn't been t h e r e i t would have been the same. What about your parent being  there?  2 I t was normal. I mean, everyone t a l k s i n f r o n t of t h e i r mom. But i t was k i n d of the same s t u f f t h a t we n o r m a l l y t a l k about. 1 I t wasn't bad, except f o r a f t e r he has t h i s obsession, l i k e we should t a l k about t h i s , t h i s i s such wonderful t h i n g , l e t ' s go through the booklet together, and every s i n g l e day he'd ... oh, i t went on and on, so i t was d r i v i n g me insane. But a s i d e from t h a t , I d i d n ' t r e a l l y n o t i c e he was t h e r e . They d i d n ' t r e a l l y say much, the p a r e n t s . Career Pathways... 1 Only l a s t e d u n t i l I screamed at him t o leave i t alone. I went through the book on my own. I didn't p a r t i c u l a r l y f e e l t h a t he needed t o ... t h a t I needed h i s h e l p t o go through i t . 1 I t was ok. I t wasn't extremely t h r i l l i n g , but i t wasn't d u l l and b o r i n g e i t h e r . I went through most of i t . I went t h r o u g h - i t whenever I had the time, over a couple of weeks. O v e r a l l what the s e s s i o n d i d f o r you? 2 I t showed me what other c a r e e r s I c o u l d take, i n s t e a d of t a k i n g the one I want, which was computers. He s a i d t h a t I c o u l d probably even get i n t o a career i n t e a c h i n g , or even some other s t u f f . [ I t d i d n ' t take away the idea of computers], j u s t broadened i t out a b i t . I t showed me t h a t you c o u l d do a whole bunch of  153 d i f f e r e n t s t u f f i n s t e a d of j u s t c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e one thing. How  d i d t h a t come about?  2 He t o l d me t h a t i t was l i k e , i n a pond when you drop water, t h e r e ' s d i f f e r e n t r i p p l e s . So each r i p p l e i s something d i f f e r e n t . So he s a i d one r i p p l e c o u l d be t e a c h i n g , and another one c o u l d even l e a d i n t o e n g l i s h o r something. Because you have t o know some e n g l i s h and s t u f f t o run computers. What t h e s e s s i o n d i d f o r you? 1 I t h i n k i t b a s i c a l l y gave me more o p t i o n s , s i m i l a r t o what he s a i d . I t j u s t took what I was i n t e r e s t e d i n and he showed me d i f f e r e n t routes t h a t I c o u l d take i n s t e a d of j u s t one s p e c i f i c t h i n g . A c t i n g , t e a c h i n g and psychology are the t h i n g s I've been t h i n k i n g o f . Anything  e l s e you've done d i f f e r e n t l y s i n c e then?  1  Not r e a l l y . [My p e r s p e c t i v e i s a b i t broader], but I've been a l o n g p r e t t y much the same, normal l i f e . 2  going  P r e t t y much the same.  So f o r you, with your dad, there was a b i t of a impact...  negative  1 Yeah. I t l a s t e d f o r about a month. We never r e a l l y t a l k e d about i t s i n c e then. But i t ' s not l i k e we u s u a l l y do t a l k about t h a t , though. So i t l a s t e d f o r about a month, and we haven't r e a l l y t a l k e d about i t s i n c e . So i t k i n d of went back t o normal. 2 We s t i l l sometimes t a l k about i t but i t ' s not l i k e she's t e l l i n g me I have t o get a c a r e e r , but I know I do. Not r e a l l y any change i n how we i n t e r a c t about i t . [Nothing r e a l l y came up i n the s e s s i o n t h a t we hadn't t a l k e d about a l r e a d y . ] \ I t h i n k my mom r e a l l y knows me i n s i d e out, so she knew most e v e r y t h i n g . 1 I t h i n k my dad... I t h i n k he l e a r n e d more about me and what I r e a l l y am i n t e r e s t e d i n as compared t o what I j u s t  154 t a l k about. L i k e I can say I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g i n t o a c a r e e r i n a c t i n g , but I don't t h i n k he ever r e a l l y l i s t e n s . Any 2  change i n how  you f e e l about CAPP or your  approach?  Well, I s t i l l think i t ' s a load; i t ' s useless.  1 Yeah. I s t i l l haven't changed. CAPP hasn't changed. I t h i n k i t ' s b o r i n g and i t ' s a waste of time. Use of Career Pathways book? 2 it.  Now and then I'd p i c k i t up and read b i t s and p a r t s of Probably over a month or so. I t h i n k they should leave i t i n .  1 I don't r e a l l y t h i n k i t ' s e s s e n t i a l , but I t h i n k i t ' s there. I t ' s a good e x t r a t o have. But I don't t h i n k i t ' s a d e f i n i t e l y important t h i n g . P a r e n t s ' occupations? 1 Dad's a computer systems manager, mom's a d e n t a l receptionist. 2  Mom  works f o r Ikea and dad's a bus  Suggestions f o r improving the 1,2  t  S c r a  P  driver.  approach.  the v i d e o t a p i n g . ]  Time length? 1  The l e n g t h was was  fine.  2  I t d i d n ' t drag on or anything.  I t was  fine.  One-shot deal...more s e s s i o n s ? 2 I t h i n k t h a t i f a person wants t o do i t more, they can, but i f they can, they don't have t o . [For myself, I d i d n ' t f e e l I needed more.] Bystanders?  155 1 Yeah, I d i d n ' t r e a l l y c a r e . They were a l l k i n d o f d i s t r a c t i n g , because t h e r e were a l o t of people going i n and out. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y mind,that they were t h e r e i f they had just stayed and s a t q u i e t l y and watched. But they were having t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n i n the back q u i e t l y but you c o u l d s t i l l hear them.  156 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 106 How  1 Student,  at school  d i d you f i n d out about the s e s s i o n ?  School c o u n s e l l o r came t o e n g l i s h c l a s s , then t h e o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r came t o me p e r s o n a l l y and asked. I'm not sure why me, s p e c i f i c a l l y . Any g o a l s or e x p e c t a t i o n s ? Not r e a l l y . I d i d n ' t have a s p e c i f i c g o a l f o r the s e s s i o n , but I l e a r n e d a l o t . I d i d n ' t t o t a l l y understand what the s e s s i o n was b e f o r e I did i t . Career p l a n s b e f o r e t h a t ? W e l l , I planned t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y and g e t my of A r t s . Then I want t o go t o law s c h o o l .  Bachelor  What was i t l i k e i n the s e s s i o n ? I t was good t o have my parents around and another student and t h e i r parent. Because a l o t of times I t h i n k t h a t i t ' s o n l y me t h a t ' s doing a l l these hard t h i n g s . But i t ' s good t o have another student t o express themselves. I t ' s good t o have a r e f l e c t i o n , t o t h i n k , t o see t h a t ... I don't know... [Part of i t i s r e l a t i n g t o what the other student says,] and and because I am a person who g i v e s up e a s i l y , and i t ' s good t o see t h a t I'm not the o n l y one. Before the s e s s i o n I a c t u a l l y thought t h a t working on my own was b e t t e r than i n a group. But then I found out, I thought a f t e r the s e s s i o n t h a t i t ' s good t o communicate w i t h people, and t h a t you can get more i d e a s . Enjoyed having the other student there? Yeah.  And the p a r e n t s .  [That was  good.]  157 The whole s e s s i o n was a b i t long, but other than t h a t i t was good.  Other people watching? C o u n s e l l o r s , i n and out. the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s .  I d i d n ' t mind.  I knew them,  Length? I thought i t was a b i t long. I can't remember e x a c t l y how long i t was, but probably 3 / 4 of t h a t time would be good. Overall  impressions?  Mr. Amundson helped me t o analyze very d e t a i l e d . He analyzed my p e r s o n a l i t y , my g o a l s , my weaknesses, my strengths. I t h i n k i t ' s a good t h i n g , because somethimes I j u s t c o u l d n ' t g e t i t untangled i n my head, and i t ' s good t o have someone t e l l me. [Things got a l i t t l e more c l e a r f o r me.] What t h i n g s d i d you t a l k about i n the s e s s i o n t h a t you l i k e t o do? I l i k e t o s i n g , I l i k e t o w r i t e , I l i k e t o draw. E f f e c t s o f t h e s e s s i o n on career plannning? Not a g r e a t ... because i t d i d n ' t change much. Mr. Amundson j u s t c l e a r e d something f o r me. He t a l k e d about universities... He presented me with more f a c t s so I am more informed. . . . j u s t about going t o u n i v e r s i t i e s . . . I can't remember s p e c i f i c a l l y . . . t h e s e s s i o n turned i n t o a group d i s c u s s i o n for a b i t . Broader c a r e e r  plans?  Yeah, he s a i d t h a t . My g o a l s , . . . I d i d n ' t have much i n f o r m a t i o n about other t h i n g s . So he helped a l o t i n t h a t .  158 A n y t h i n g you've done d i f f e r e n t l y s i n c e then t h a t you t o the s e s s i o n ?  relate  I took i t more s e r i o u s l y when I was choosing courses f o r next y e a r . And I thought about i t c a r e f u l l y . Because he s t r e s s e d t h a t we have t o have a broader p r e p a r a t i o n . So I took t h a t advice and i t helped me. Yeah, a c t u a l l y the s e s s i o n a c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t e d me t o ... i t a c t u a l l y got me more motivated t o f i n d out more. Because I t a l k e d t o d i f f e r e n t lawyers and asked f o r a d v i c e and what i t ' s l i k e t o be a lawyer, and the education required. So i t got me s t i m u l a t e d t o motivate myself t o f i n d out more. [The lawyers were people my f a m i l y knew.] Any  changes i n f a m i l y t a l k about  career?  Not much. But I have a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my We t a l k e d about t h i s before, so i t d i d n ' t change much between us, no.  mom.  Temporarily? Not r e a l l y . But one t h i n g with my mom, i s I talked to her a b i t before t h a t about me being a person who g i v e s up easily. And i t j u s t happened the student i n the s e s s i o n w i t h me g i v e s up e a s i l y too! And my mom always t h i n k s t h a t I'm the o n l y one who's doing these s t u p i d t h i n g s . A f t e r the s e s s i o n , w e l l , she found out t h a t i t ' s not o n l y me. So, i t got b e t t e r , the a t t i t u d e . [She seems more understanding, more t o l e r a n t of i t . ] Differences  i n how  she advises you?  I remember she s a i d something about my c a r e e r , and she r e f e r r e d t o what Mr. Amundson s a i d , but I can't remember what i t was. Any  changes i n your experience of CAPP?  Oh, I hate i t . I hated i t more afterward even. I t h i n k the CAPP program i s u s e l e s s . They g i v e you a l l these t e s t s , p e r s o n a l i t y and s t u f f . J u s t t e s t s t o c a t e g o r i z e you into. And i t ' s always not t r u e f o r me, sometimes i t ' s t o t a l l y not true. I t h i n k t h a t students,  not every student, but a l l  159 students t h a t want h e l p with c a r e e r p l a n n i n g should have a chance t o do t h i s , the s e s s i o n ... would be a p e r f e c t i d e a . I t ' s more p e r s o n a l , and w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . With you and Mr. Amundson. We would have more f a i t h . Any  use of Carer Pathways?  I looked through i t a b i t . Not a l l of i t , but some. Probably over about a month. I d i d i t by myself. Parents' And  occupations?  Father i s i n Hong Kong, an entrepeneur, my mom i s a r e a l t o r .  a businessman.  Suggestions? I l i k e d e v e r y t h i n g . Maybe shortened a b i t . Career Pathways was good too. The a c t i v i t i e s were more realistic. Follow  up?  I t would be n i c e too. We d i d have a s e s s i o n w i t h a l l the s t u d e n t s . I don't remember what we s a i d , but i t was a good t h i n g t o t a l k about i t . I t ' s r e a s u r r i n g t o know t h a t everyone hates CAPP.  160 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 107  1 Parent,  a t her home.  Circumstances o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? My daughter asked me about i t , asked me i f she c o u l d go t o t h e i n t e r v i e w , and asked i f I would come t o o . Any  hopes, g o a l s , e x p e c t a t i o n s a t t h e time?  I'm not sure. I thought she might g e t some b e n e f i t i n making c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Your daughter's c a r e e r plans a t t h a t p o i n t ? I guess she knows what she wants i n t h e f u t u r e , and she p l a n s i t out l i k e she wants. I t h i n k i t ' s q u i t e ok so f a r . She doesn't know r e a l l y i f i t ' s r i g h t o r not, so I guess i t ' s ok. G e n e r a l l y I know what she wants, but I don't r e a l l y know i n d e t a i l what she i s going t o do. [Before t h e s e s s i o n I d i d n ' t know s p e c i f i c a l l y what she was t h i n k i n g . ] D i d you hear anything  from your daughter t h a t was new?  Yeah. She s a i d she wants t o be a teacher, and she l i k e s r e a d i n g a l o t , and then she expressed h e r s e l f t h e k i n d of f e e l i n g she got a f t e r reading. Some o f them I can't r e a l l y remember, but I got t h e f e e l i n g o f i t . What was i t l i k e f o r you t o be there?  Enjoyable, o r . . .  Yes, I q u i t e enjoyed i t . And I know, a t l e a s t I know what she's thought o f something. I t ' s more c l e a r , j u s t t e l l i n g me d i r e c t l y . I f e e l I l e a r n e d about my daughter more, I know about her some c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t I d i d n ' t know b e f o r e . And i t was q u i t e a good experience t o o . Another student  and parent t h e r e too?  161 I t h i n k i t ' s good, l i k e , a group of people, a discussion. I t ' s good f o r a l l the k i d s i f they can express themselves. But too me, my p e r s o n a l i t y i s l i k e , w e l l , maybe my e n g l i s h i s not r e a l l y good, so I can't r e a l l y express myself. But I guess f o r people who r e a l l y t a l k t h i s language, and they don't mind speaking out, I t h i n k i t ' s a good experience f o r them too. [For me, i t probably would have been b e t t e r w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r , my daughter and me.]  just  Other observers there? Another teacher, and another c o u n s e l l o r with Dr. Amundson. She was from Calgary or something l i k e t h a t . [ I t d i d n ' t matter t h a t they were t h e r e . ] I t was q u i t e a good experience f o r me. I had never been i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n before. Anything s a i d by other parent or student  significant?  Not r e a l l y . But the other k i d expressed what he wanted and I thought i t was q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g . O v e r a l l impressions of impact  f o r your  daughter?  I don't see any impact. But s i n c e then I know my daughter has her own i d e a . I t g i v e s me more c o n f i d e n c e t h a t I know what she wants, what her g o a l i s . Did  she g a i n anything from i t ?  I guess so. Yeah, because she d i d n ' t r e a l l y t a l k v e r y much t o me. But I guess she knows. I guess, f o r example, the i d e a was t o be a d o c t o r , I mean, t o be a t e a c h e r . And then other people t a l k e d about l i k e , you've got a b i g g e r f i e l d ; you can go i n d i f f e r e n t directions. And I know she got the idea t h a t , oh, maybe I w i l l go t h a t d i r e c t i o n , or the other d i r e c t i o n t o o . [So she was very s p e c i f i c , and she broadened out.] Any  e f f e c t s on how  you t a l k about c a r e e r p l a n n i n g w i t h her?  I guess a t t h i s stage i t ' s maybe p r e t t y much the same. She's o n l y i n grade 11 now. Sometimes we t a l k about i t . A l l I can do i s encourage her t o do more, or d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . To me, I don't  162 t h i n k I can do anything r i g h t now, because she has t o graduate f i r s t . She has t o do w e l l i n s c h o o l f i r s t . [That's t h e number one p r i o r i t y now.] Does she understand you a b i t b e t t e r ? her. do.  I don't know. The only t h i n g I can do i s encourage Look more i n the f u t u r e t o what she r e a l l y wants t o We d i d n ' t r e a l l y t a l k much about i t .  Any change i n how you t h i n k about h e l p i n g her? To me, I was r e a l l y s t r i c t , f o r one way. But a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n , i t broadened my mind too. And then I asked h e r t o look d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . But I don't r e a l l y mention t h a t often. You know young k i d s , they don't want you t o nag them. They don't l i k e i t when you t a l k t o o much, push them too much. I guess I know her b e t t e r , t h a t I know what she wants. L i k e , I g e t more c o n f i d e n c e , and t r u s t h e r . Any o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h i n g s she's been doing because o f t h e session? I guess more of a framework. I guess one t h i n g i s she can t a l k t o a s t r a n g e r and then she has more c o n f i d e n c e f o r herself. You f e e l l i k e she gained some o f t h a t through t h e s e s s i o n ? Yes. Because she expressed h e r s e l f i n f r o n t o f a c o u p l e o f people who she knows. I don't know. I f e l t i t a t t h a t time t o o . I thought, "Gee, i n f r o n t o f a s t r a n g e r , " and then she r e a l l y , r e a l l y can t a l k , you know. A t home she t a l k s too, but i t ' s n o t l i k e t h a t , and then she r e a l l y got c o n f i d e n c e , and she knows what she's doing, she knows what she wants i n t h e f u t u r e and she expressed h e r s e l f . And I guess she gained c o n f i d e n c e too, when she knew she t a l k e d . Any o b s e r v a t i o n s o f how your daughter i s approaching CAPP class? No, i t seems t h e same.  163 Any  use of the Career Pathways booklet? No.  Any  Maybe she has i t ,  but I don't remember s e e i n g i t .  suggestions?  [Seemed about r i g h t , f o r l e n g t h , w i t h other student/parent there.] I guess i t ' s up t o , l i k e , time c o n s t r a i n t s . I f you want an hour, then two students, but i f you wanted more s t u d e n t s , then more time. [The few observers d i d n ' t bother me.] But i t would r e a l l y , r e a l l y , r e a l l y bother me had a camera or v i d e o .  i f they  D e s i r e f o r follow-up? Because i t was my f i r s t time I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what i t was about, and t h a t I guess maybe i t would be a good i d e a i f they knew what the q u e s t i o n s would be about. [Or maybe meet once i f there were q u e s t i o n s a f t e r . ] Anything else? Why not j u s t have the students themelves, a couple more, and they can express themselves. And then they l e a r n from o t h e r s ' ideas too. The main t h i n g i s f o r the students t o know more about this stuff. The parents ... I guess f o r me, I got more understanding of what she thought. But f o r the k i d s ' b e n e f i t maybe more people, and they can express themselves, and then what they t h i n k . . . So maybe one week with parents, and a f t e r t h a t students?  just  Yeah, urn humm. I guess f o r me, one time f o r p a r e n t s i s good enough t o o . And a f t e r t h a t f o r the s t u d e n t s , i f they t a l k about i t they can know more about other s t u d e n t s , what they t h i n k .  164 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 108  1 Parent, at h i s home.  Circumstances of  volunteering?  She volunteered...I'm not sure. She was very e x c i t e d when she phoned. She needed a parent t o go and i t was a q u i c k rush t o s i g n up. So she went b a r r e l i n g down t o s i g n up. I t h i n k she i s very concerned w i t h what she's going t o do, perhaps even unduly so. And so i t seemed q u i t e an important focus f o r her t o s o r t of f i g u r e out what she wants t o do. She's i n the I n c e n t i v e program. She's doing w e l l , but not...works hard i n math and s c i e n c e s as w e l l , but i s v e r y much i n t o the e n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . She l i k e s her t h e a t r e and drama so. I t h i n k she j u s t wanted t o get a sense of how t h a t would p u l l together f o r her p o s s i b l e career. I t was d u r i n g the day, so i t was k i n d of awkward f o r p a r e n t s t o get t h e r e , ...[but I wanted t o support her.] We had about a week's n o t i c e before the s e s s i o n . Your  goals?  I was hoping i t would g i v e her a sense of d i r e c t i o n , or perhaps even g i v e her a sense of maybe not w o r r y i n g about i t q u i t e as much. In a sense I f e e l w i t h k i d s these days, because of tough economic times, k i d s are concerned w i t h what they are going t o do when they're i n grade 10. And f r a n k l y , when I was i n grade 10, l i k e , i t never o c c u r r e d t o me t o even worry or care. I was busy having f u n . . . I t was r e a l l y o n l y the end of grade 12 t h a t I k i n d of put any thought t o i t and I had some vague idea t h a t I wanted t o be i n s c i e n c e s somewhere, and t h a t was about i t . But k i d s now, i t seems l i k e they have t o know what they're going t o do. I guess I thought t h a t perhaps p a r t of i t might g i v e the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i f you have your i n t e r e s t s and s t r e n g t h s and t h a t , i t w i l l work out, but you don't have t o get y o u r s e l f i r o n - c l a d or l o s e a l o t of s l e e p over i t a t t h i s point. What was  i t l i k e being  i n the  session?  I found i t very e d u c a t i o n a l . I was impressed w i t h the k i d s t h a t were i n t h e r e . They a c t u a l l y , a number of them  165 had very, very s p e c i f i c g o a l s , and they were p u r s u i n g e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r t h i n g s t o help them get t h e i r g o a l s . They t a l k e d about t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and I was impressed w i t h j u s t how sharp they were. Mind you, a number of these k i d s were from the I n c e n t i v e program, so you probably had a s e l e c t group t h e r e . And I thought the idea of k i d s l i s t e n i n g t o o t h e r k i d s ' v a l u e s probably would c a r r y much more weight. At t h i s age i n p a r t i c u l a r , parents are t o t a l l y uncool. No c r e d i b i l i t y whatsoever. I don't know whether i t ' s f o r everyone, but c e r t a i n l y . . . my son perhaps wasn't as much so, but my daughter i s d e f i n i t e l y . . . s h e wants t o make her own mind up. But i f she sees i t i n her own peer group, or hears a f f i r m a t i o n of her own thoughts from a peer, then ... What about having the parents  an  there?  I t might a l s o be good h e a r i n g other p a r e n t s . Because the o t h e r p a r t i s , of course, the b i o l o g i c a l parent has low c r e d i b i l i t y , and y e t h e a r i n g other parents and t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s probably c a r r i e s a l i t t l e more c r e d i b i l i t y . Anything you appreciated/not f o r y o u r s e l f ? I t was  fine.  Would you do i t again? Sure. How  Absolutely.  about the time  length?  I thought i t was perhaps a l i t t l e s h o r t . I t c o u l d have gone a b i t l o n g e r . I t s t r u c k me t h a t i t d i d n ' t get a chance t o g e t enough i n t o the meaty i s s u e s k i n d of t h i n g . Because t h e r e ' s a c e r t a i n amount of i c e - b r e a k i n g i n v o l v e d , and g e t t i n g a role... How  do you f e e l the s e s s i o n worked f o r her?  That's hard t o say, because we t a l k e d about i t , a f t e r w a r d s , and, she's going through a p e r s o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t time because she's s o r t of got two houses and I don't t h i n k she's r e a l l y happy i n e i t h e r one, so she s o r t of has t h i s , ... here i t s ' s o r t of a blended f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e ' s some problems t h e r e and y e t back a t home, her mom i s a l i t t l e more, s o r t o f , a u t h o r i t a r i a n / r u l e s - b a s e d and her  166 older brother i s , frankly, a jerk. I t ' s not j u s t t h e b r o t h e r - s i s t e r s t u f f ; he's r e a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e , and Laura i s q u i t e s e n s i t i v e , so she's r e a l l y l o s t r i g h t now. She's a c t u a l l y coming over f o r the summer and w e ' l l see how i t goes. But coming over, perhaps, r e l u c t a n t l y , i f n o t . . . t h i s i s t h e l e s s e r o f two e v i l s . So I'm hoping w e ' l l have time over t h e summer t o g i v e her a comfort l e v e l i n some form. So i n t h a t sense, I don't t h i n k t h e follow-up i s what I wanted i t t o be. Career s t u f f overshadowed? W e l l , I t h i n k she's got enough on her p l a t e . We've t a l k e d about i t , she's r e a l l y t h r i l l e d , she's t a k i n g h e r e n g l i s h l i t s and w r i t i n g next year. I t ' s a l l focused towards some k i n d of c a r e e r t h a t w i l l have something t o do w i t h drama o r performing a r t s . Perhaps t e a c h i n g o r something and doing t h a t . So i n t h a t sense, i t i s working. She i s f e e l i n g a l i t t l e more comfortable, but... The p r o c e s s . . . i n t h e f a l l she wasn't r e a l l y a b l e t o focus on i t very w e l l . You were hoping t o follow-up with her? I was hoping t h a t I would be a b l e t o f o l l o w up w i t h her directly. And we do t h a t i n snatches, but I f i n d i t ' s very...you can't s i t down f o r an hour and say, " L e t ' s work through t h i s . " That environment wasn't t h e r e . What about your hope t h a t she would l i g h t e n up a b i t ? I don't know. That's a tough c a l l t o make. I t h i n k she's a l i t t l e more comfortable with h e r i n t e r e s t s and t h a t . In h e r mother's house she has much more focus on g e t t i n g a job and e a r n i n g money s o r t of t h i n g . She d w e l l s on t h a t q u i t e a b i t . L i k e , she's l o o k i n g f o r a summer j o b k i n d o f t h i n g . And I guess t h a t c o l o u r s her t o some e x t e n t . My own v a l u e s a r e more...I t h i n k a s m a l l p a r t - t i m e j o b i s ok, but your f i r s t j o b i s being a student, and doing a good j o b a t that. You know, working a n i g h t a week a t McDonalds o r something, t h a t ' s ok, but t h a t ' s a l l i t should be. Enough to have some pocket money, and not s o r t o f b e g i n n i n g t o s a v i n g now f o r u n i v e r s i t y s o r t of t h i n g , o r p u t t i n g t h a t s o r t o f p r e s s u r e on. ...I know I put myself through u n i v e r s i t y t o t a l l y . . . but nowadays, e s p e c i a l l y f o r a g i r l , I don't t h i n k t h e r e ' s t h a t many jobs t h a t a r e p l e n t i f u l , u n l e s s you g e t a union j o b o r industrial. So I t h i n k t h e r e ' s t h a t aspect as w e l l as l i k e , i f I have a c a r e e r I want, w i l l I ever have a j o b i n i t ? I p e r s o n a l l y have a l l k i n d s of people ask me about t h e i r k i d s ,  167 w e l l should they go i n t o computers? My s t o c k answer i s they s h o u l d go i n t o what they want t o do. You know they hear t h e r e ' s good money i n computers and t h a t , b u t . . . g i v e me a break, t h a t ' s j u s t not how you do i t . You want t o go t o work and have fun. I f you r e a l l y enjoy what you're doing, your enthusiasm w i l l f i n d you something. You won't a c t u a l l y be working; y o u ' l l be having fun and t h e y ' l l be paying you f o r i t . Any d i f f e r e n c e s i n how daughter?  you t a l k about c a r e e r w i t h  your  W e l l the e x i s t e n c e of the s e s s i o n i t s e l f , of course, was a v e r y good spot t o s o r t of open t h i n g s up, i n discussion. Did  you hear anything new  from your  daughter?  I thought the s e s s i o n k i n d of gave enough breadth t h a t i t d i d n ' t channel us o f f i n t o the very t r a d i t i o n a l s o r t s of l i m i t e d l i s t s of t h i n g s you o b v i o u s l y t h i n k o f . There are o t h e r ways of g e t t i n g t h e r e . The d i s c u s s i o n s o r t of broadened t h a t up a l i t t l e b i t . I thought t h a t was u s e f u l . Rather than the standard s o r t of c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g see a c o u n s e l l o r , and you f i l l i n a l i t t l e sheet of your i n t e r e s t s and the computer says you should be a ... So g i v i n g them the idea t h a t i t i s n ' t a s t a n d a r d formula; t h e r e are a number of ways they can t u r n . Because I don't t h i n k you can g i v e anyone the answer. And i t ' s not something you have t o get o v e r l y concerned about. Did  you have a chance t o express y o u r s e l f ?  Yeah. There were a couple of rounds where they had some comments from parents. And I d i d make a comment the e f f e c t t h a t I t h i n k t h a t because of the economy, k i d s get r e a l l y o v e r l y focused on i t , and they don't have the time t o enjoy b e i n g a student without c a r r y i n g the weight of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a job, as w e l l as, i n t h a t grade area t h e y ' r e going through ... a l l kinds of t h i n g s are happening f o r them. We had t a l k e d about i t before, but p r o b a b l y not as much i n as focused a way. So i t very much helped t o g i v e t h a t perspective. I t h i n k t h a t l e f t her f e e l i n g a l o t more c o m f o r t a b l e doing her performing a r t s s t u f f which she does extracurricularly. That's good f o r her and something i s g o i n g t o work out.  168 Any changes i n how planning?  you t h i n k about your p a r t i n her  I t ' s hard, I guess i t depends... change from what? I guess s e e i n g t h a t work i n t h a t [ s e s s i o n ] , i t r e i n f o r c e s what I t h i n k , i s t h a t your r o l e as a parent i s more of a coach. L i k e any coach, you help someone with t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and c u l t i v a t i n g those, and doing some support of the n o t - a s s t r o n g areas, t o h e l p them t o the goal they want t o a c h i e v e , as opposed t o being more d i r e c t e d , which perhaps might be the way someone might look at i t more. So I found t h a t coaching approach works a whole l o t b e t t e r . S o r t of a lowkey r o l e and i t ' s a dialogue, and the way i t [the s e s s i o n ] was c a r r i e d out r e i n f o r c e d t h a t . I tend t o be t h a t way anyway. Yeah. You s o r t of have t o step i n . . . t h e o n l y p l a c e where I t r y t o s o r t of be a l i t t l e more s t r u c t u r e d i s where t h e r e are c h o i c e s t h a t would g r e a t l y l i m i t a f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n t h a t she might make. Then you t r y t o be t h e r e and say you want t o cover o f f your math or whatever k i n d of thing. J u s t because i t may l e a d t o a c l o s e d door. Because some t h i n g s , o b s c u r e l y enough, r e q u i r e i t . I t may o n l y be grade 10 l e v e l , i t ' s not a b i g d e a l . C e r t a i n t h i n g s you do c u t c h o i c e s o f f . Other than t h a t , t h a t ' s the o n l y p l a c e I t h i n k "that you want t o be t h e r e . Kids w i l l not t h i n k l o n g term enough, or t h e y ' l l be very sure a t the moment. And t h e y ' l l change t h e i r minds 10 times between now and grade 12, or maybe r e - f o c u s e d . A n y t h i n g you've observed her doing t h a t you session?  r e l a t e to  the  I can't t h i n k of anything. Now she's been a t her mom's p r e t t y much t h a t whole time. I do see her o c c a s i o n a l l y , ...but I more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l times. She's done some s o r t of c a r e e r mentoring...she was very e x c i t e d about t h a t and i t was neat. She c e r t a i n l y had a whole l o t of i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g t h i n g s t h a t were completely out t h e r e , t h a t I don't t h i n k she would have had q u i t e the i n t e r e s t i n . So you f e e l t h e r e was some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her e x p l o r i n g wider v a r i e t y of t h i n g s . . .  a  Yeah. She was r e a l l y q u i t e keen. She's s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r k i n d of whatever i t i s t h a t w i l l g i v e her some comfort, the h o l y g r a i l or whatever. I don't t h i n k t h e r e i s one, or i t c l i c k s some time l a t e r , f o r some people not f o r w e l l a f t e r they've graduated, they r e a l i z e t h e y ' r e i n the  169 wrong  field.  Do you know anything of the Career Pathways b o o k l e t ? Yeah, I have i t . I photocopied i t f o r her, and kept a c l e a n copy, cause i t ' s a c t u a l l y u s e f u l f o r o t h e r purposes. She d i d n ' t want t o do t h a t r i g h t now, so I l e f t i t w i t h her, but I don't t h i n k I ' l l f o l l o w up on i t . I, t h i n k the way i t i s s t r u c t u r e d , i t does walk you through a l o t of the s t u f f about where you're a t , your v a l u e s , and i t takes you... I thought the v a l u e s p a r t i s u s e f u l , because a l o t of p r o f e s s i o n s a l i g n themselves w i t h c e r t a i n v a l u e s . C e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n s t h a t might d e a l w i t h b i o l o g y , f o r e s t r y , ... c e r t a i n v a l u e s go w i t h t h a t . I f t h e y ' r e v e r y much i n harmony with your own, t h a t ' s a v e r y p o s i t i v e t h i n g . On the other hand, you may have the same s o r t of s k i l l s e t , say i n promotional s a l e s , i f t h a t i s n ' t you, you're not going t o be very happy. I thought t h a t was an i n t e r e s t i n g t w i s t , because I haven't seen t h a t show up before. Anything e l s e you can t h i n k of i n terms of  impact?  Again, i t r a i s e s the i s s u e , and g i v e s you a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e t o r e f l e c t back and t a l k about as a f o c a l p o i n t . Something more than the run of the m i l l standard s o r t of c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g you get i n h i g h s c h o o l . So the f a t h e r daughter experience, and a l s o the peer t h i n g as w e l l . I t j u s t i s a very d i f f e r e n t way of approaching. I a p p r e c i a t e i t probably i s v e r y l a b o u r intensive.  Any  s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improving i t ?  The b o o k l e t was k i n d of an add-on a t the end. I think i t might not be a bad idea t o send the k i t out beforehand. T h i s saves you doing two s e s s i o n s . Now the b o o k l e t i s n ' t s t u d e n t - s p e c i f i c ; you may want t o t a i l o r i t so i t i s n ' t overwhelming or whatever. So have a l i t t l e homework f o r p a r e n t s and students. Then you come t o the s e s s i o n ; t h a t becomes s o r t of a reinforcement e x e r c i s e . And I would do the f o l l o w - u p sooner than you're doing i t now. Probably not more than a couple of months from the a c t u a l time; I t h i n k you'd get b e t t e r feedback, more a c c u r a t e feedback. I t would probably be good t o a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e a t t h e s e s s i o n t h a t you would be doing a follow-up v i s i t . Because i t a l s o tends t o focus you on saying, " L e t ' s t a l k about  170 this." So I t h i n k those t h i n g s would g e t more v a l u e out o f t h e a c t u a l time spent. You'd keep t h e parents i n there? Yeah, I would.  The k i d s t h e r e seemed v e r y much ok w i t h  that: Bystanders? Yeah, t h e r e was q u i t e a c o l l e c t i o n back t h e r e . There may have been as many as s i x back t h e r e , but they were f a r enough back t h a t i t wasn't a problem. Video? I don't t h i n k i t matters. Now t h a t you've got t h e video, what good i s i t ? (Aside from research) I don't see t h e help o f i t . Was t h e r e anything you wished had been i n t h e s e s s i o n ? I guess t h e l e n g t h . There were so many areas t o touch on. They were s t a r t i n g t o express f e e l i n g s and t h a t . I t h i n k i t ' s good f o r them t o f e e l what they say i s v a l u e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e people. I think that part i s valuable and you do need t o have t h e a d d i t i o n a l l e n g t h . And I guess I would always want t o emphasize t h e r e ' s no magic b u l l e t . I t ' s a process of e x p l o r i n g and t h e r e i s n ' t a r i g h t and t h e r e doesn't have t o be an answer. I t j u s t has t o g i v e you a sense of how you might o r i e n t your own compass. You don't have t o go away t h i n k i n g i f I s t i l l f e e l unsure then maybe I won't do anything. Some people know r i g h t from grade 8 or something, but some people a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a l o t of t h i n g s , but nothing s o r t o f has a magical c l i c k t o i t . And t h a t ' s ok.  171 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 109  1 Parent, a t her home.  Circumstances  of v o l u n t e e r i n g ?  They a p p a r e n t l y asked some k i d s , o n l y i n the I n c e n t i v e c l a s s I t h i n k , which I t h i n k was a mistake, j u s t f o r v o l u n t e e r s . My daughter phoned me a t work and wanted t o do i t and she needed me t o go too, and I s a i d f i n e . She s a i d they needed somebody r i g h t then, a t l e a s t f o r permission. I t was a while before we a c t u a l l y d i d i t . Daughter's g o a l s ? She j u s t thought i t would be fun t o do. I don't t h i n k she planned t o get anything out of i t . Because she a l r e a d y had a f a i r l y good idea of what she wanted t o do. That's all. Did  you have any No.  What was  I j u s t went because she needed me  t o go.  i t l i k e t o be i n i t ?  I t was What was there?  goals?  fine.  I t h i n k he d i d a r e a l l y good j o b .  i t l i k e t o have t h a t other parent and  student  I t was ok. I mean, i t ' s no b i g s e c r e t , the t h i n g s you're t a l k i n g about. I t would depend on the k i d , though. These k i d s i n I n c e n t i v e are d i f f e r e n t than o t h e r k i d s . I t ' s not so much an a c c e l e r a t e d program, but t h e y ' r e q u i t e w i l l i n g t o t r y new t h i n g s , and t h e y ' r e not any smarter than o t h e r k i d s , but they're w i l l i n g t o t r y new t h i n g s , and t h e y ' r e q u i t e outgoing, a l o t of them. They're j u s t w i l l i n g t o put more e f f o r t i n t o t h i n g s , t h a t ' s a l l . My son, he's a l o t more shy, he doesn't have much t o say about anything, l e t alone what he wants t o do, t o somebody e l s e . I c o u l d see some of the q u e s t i o n s , l i k e , what was some good experience i n your l i f e , I'm sure he wouldn't l i k e t o answer questions l i k e t h a t . So I'm sure i t depends on the k i d .  172 What about t h e people watching? I t h i n k t h e r e were three people t h e r e .  I t wasn't a b i g  deal. What d i d t h e s e s s i o n do f o r your daughter? I t ' s hard t o say, because she a l r e a d y had a f a i r l y good i d e a o f what she wanted t o do and i t d i d n ' t change h e r i d e a at a l l . She wanted t o go i n t o human k i n e t i c s and t h a t ' s s t i l l what she wants. He was r e a l l y encouraging and e v e r y t h i n g . I t was good, he t o l d them j u s t t o go f o r i t . . . The other g i r l d i d n ' t have such a c l e a r i d e a and he s o r t o f helped her t h i n k about what i t was. I t was good. What was i t t h a t was encouraging f o r her? [Both t h e process of t a l k i n g about h e r i n t e r e s t s and t h i n g s he s a i d were encouraging.] The p r o c e s s showed t h a t she was probably on t h e r i g h t t r a c k . She's j u s t k i n d of a performer; she j u s t l i k e s t o do these things. I don't know t h a t she had any purpose i n mind. She j u s t thought i t would be f u n t o do i t . Any  impact on how she's planning?  Maybe. I don't know. She's s t i l l t h i n k i n g about other t h i n g s , and I guess she's t h i n k i n g about other o p t i o n s now too. L i k e , she's s o r t o f broadened her o u t l o o k a b i t , l i k e she doesn't have t o get i n t o t h i s , she's t h i n k i n g o f other things. S h e ' l l use what he showed her how t o do t o d e c i d e , I t h i n k , f o r sure. I t was good, I thought. I'm not sure t h a t i t would work w i t h a l l k i d s , but i t might. I'd l i k e t o see i t done with a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f k i d . L i k e I don't know why they s a i d t h a t . . . a t t h a t s c h o o l I don't t h i n k they should have s a i d t h a t they had t o be I n c e n t i v e k i d s . L i k e , they j u s t went i n t o an I n c e n t i v e c l a s s and ...I don't t h i n k t h a t ' s a very r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling o f k i d s , because those k i d s have gone through i n t e r v i e w s and a l l , t h a t ' s why they're i n t h e r e . How d i d you t a l k about her career p l a n n i n g  before/after?  173 We don't t a l k about i t a l o t . I mean, she's t h e one who's going t o d e c i d e t h a t , not me. Unless she was t h i n k i n g of something t h a t I thought she was t o t a l l y u n s u i t e d f o r , I would not say a n y t h i n g . So, i t i s n ' t up t o me t o d e c i d e what she's going t o do, so... I don't t h i n k t h e r e ' s any d i f f e r e n c e i n the way we t a l k about i t . Maybe she t a l k s about i t a l i t t l e more because she's g e t t i n g o l d e r . A n y t h i n g she's been doing d i f f e r e n t l y s i n c e then? I don't t h i n k so. [ J u s t f e e l i n g more encouraged, and p o s s i b l y more b r o a d l y . ]  considering  Any use of Career Pathways? It's  I looked a t i t some, but she took i t and she r e a d i t . i n her room and ... i t w i l l never come out, p r o b a b l y !  Anything else? I mean, I can't t e l l . She t h i n k s about a l l t h e s e t h i n g s h e r s e l f , so I don't know. And she always does a r e a l l y good j o b of t h i n k i n g t h i n g s through h e r s e l f and, I mean, she's c a r e f u l enough about t h i n k i n g about t h i n g s , so whether she's changed the way she looks a t t h i n g s , I don't know. I l e t her do t h a t . Any s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improving the approach? I don't know. I thought i t was r e a l l y good. He never t o l d them what t o do, which i s what he can't do. He c a n ' t do t h a t , and I thought t h a t was good. Which i s what they do now, they g i v e you these s t u p i d t e s t s , and t e l l them t h a t they s h o u l d be...they t o l d her she should be a f o r e s t r y worker o r something, and t h a t ' s t o t a l l y not s u i t a b l e f o r her. And so I t h i n k t h a t ' s a l l a waste of time. And I t h i n k t h e way he d i d i t was r e a l l y good, i f you can get them to t h i n k about what i t i s t h a t they want t o do, and make sure t h a t i t matches what t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y i s , t h a t ' s r e a l l y good. I mean, I thought i t was r e a l l y good. I'm not sure t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s i n s c h o o l would do t h a t , though. I don't know. I f they'd do t h a t i n s t e a d of the CAPPs program, i t would be much b e t t e r . I don't t h i n k t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g a n y t h i n g out of the CAPP program. I t ' s j u s t a waste of  174 time. The t e a c h e r s don't l i k e i t e i t h e r , because they don't know what t h e y ' r e supposed t o be doing. I f they c o u l d do t h a t i n s t e a d o f t h e CAPP program, they would have t h e same man-hours t h e r e , I'm sure they'd have enough time t o do that. They should be a b l e t o get through a l l t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h those hours. D i d t h e v i d e o t a p e bother you? No, and I'm sure i t d i d n ' t bother her e i t h e r . F o l l o w up? No, I d i d n ' t have any q u e s t i o n s . He s a i d you c o u l d c a l l him i f you had q u e s t i o n s . He wrote out h i s phone number and e v e r y t h i n g . I t h i n k you c o u l d have c a l l e d him i f you had any q u e s t i o n s . Anything else? I t h i n k i t ' s important t o t r y i t w i t h k i d s who don't v o l u n t e e r , l i k e k i d s t h a t r e a l l y need... My daughter i s a r e a l l y c l e a r t h i n k e r and she'd a l r e a d y thought out a l l t h i s s t u f f h e r s e l f . A l o t of k i d s s o r t of d r i f t around and don't r e a l l y have any i d e a what they want t o do, and don't r e a l l y t h i n k about i t . A l o t o f people don't want t o t a l k about t h i n g s as much either. I f you asked them questions about themselves, they wouldn't be a b l e t o answer i t as c l e a r l y as some k i d s . I think i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g . You know, my son w i l l go t o s c h o o l and come home and nothing happened a t a l l ! And he h a s . . . i t ' s a l o t harder t o g e t t h i n g s out o f him; I don't know how i t would work with k i d s l i k e t h a t . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see. But i t would s t i l l be b e t t e r than what t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g now.  175 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 110  1 Parent, a t her home.  How much n o t i c e d i d you have? Not Any  even t h r e e days, s i n c e I had t o change my schedule.  sense o f your son's hopes or goals f o r t h e s e s s i o n ?  I t h i n k he would do something l i k e t h a t . He's i n t e r e s t e d i n a f i e l d t h a t , f r a n k l y , I don't know a l o t about — computer. I t h i n k . . . but he's m u l t i - t a l e n t e d . He's d i s c o v e r i n g i t now. Was he hoping f o r something i n p a r t i c u l a r ? He d i d n ' t t a l k about i t . D i d you have any hopes? W e l l , anything would be a b e n e f i t , don't you t h i n k ? I t k i n d o f c l a r i f i e d t h i n g s f o r me. I was g l a d t o s i t i n and l i s t e n t o h i s opinions and thoughts, because they were k i n d o f new t o me. Although some o f t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s he had been through, say, being on a team, and h a v i n g some o f h i s f r i e n d s go t o another minor hockey a s s o c i a t i o n , how t h a t a f f e c t e d him — t h a t was v e r y interesting. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y see t h a t i n him a t t h e time I guess. I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e i t had upset him. Yeah, i t was very good, i n f o r m a t i v e . How about t h e other parent and student being  there?  She was very proud of her daughter, and when you read a p a r e n t ' s p r i d e i n a c h i l d , i t ' s very r e c o g n i z a b l e . And  you r e l a t e d t o t h a t because you f e e l proud o f your son? Of course.  Any  Of course.  o b s e r v e r s there?  Always have, always w i l l .  How was t h a t ?  One o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . That wasn't a problem f o r me.  176 Did t h e v i d e o t a p e bother you? Yeah, i t d i d . My son k i n d o f sprung i t on me a t t h e l a s t minute, and q u i t e honestly, i f he'd advised me t h a t i t was going t o be videotaped when he o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d , I don't know i f I would have p a r t i c i p a t e d , because I'm t h a t type* j u s t l i k e I say. I don't l i k e having my p i c t u r e taken. O v e r a l l impressions of t h e u s e f u l n e s s  of the session?  I t ' s always good t o hear a d u l t s speak. hope t h e y ' r e t e l l i n g the t r u t h .  You k i n d o f  Did you t h i n k i t was o f some b e n e f i t f o r him? I t h i n k so. I r e a l l y do. J u s t t h a t he's k i n d of maturing, so he c o u l d c a r r y on a c o n v e r s a t i o n , recount h i s f e e l i n g s on t h i n g s , and n o t be embarrassed o r t o o shy o r t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . The working world i s a rough, tough p l a c e , and i f you can't c a r r y y o u r s e l f i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n or meeting people o r s o c i a l t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , sometimes i t s r e a l l y rough on people. E s p e c i a l l y i f they're i n c r e d i b l y shy. I don't t h i n k my k i d s are shy. Has  h i s p l a n f o r c a r e e r changed a t a l l ?  We haven't spoken about i t . W e l l i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g t o know t h a t i n t h e p r e v i o u s i n t e r v i e w t h a t he would much r a t h e r work w i t h a grouping of people than s o l i t a r y , on h i s own. L i k e a l o t o f times you have t o have t h a t comraderie between people t o make i t work. L i k e I've had my share o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . . . Any s o r t o f impact on how you might t a l k w i t h him about c a r e e r plans? I mean, he c o u l d do a complete turnaround and be i n t o something e l s e . Although he doesn't have a language, and h e ' l l graduate without 12 math. But then t h a t ' s c o o l . So i t t a k e s him a year longer. B i g d e a l . As f a r as t h e language i s concerned, i f he chooses something t h a t r e q u i r e s i t , I'm sure t h e d e s i r e w i l l be t h e r e t o l e a r n i t and master i t , r a t h e r than being prodded i n t o doing i t . He's t h a t type of k i d . A n y t h i n g he's been doing t h a t you r e l a t e t o t h e s e s s i o n ?  177 School-wise, yeah. I t seems t h a t i t ' s more important. For a w h i l e t h e r e he was very concerned about g e t t i n g a job and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . I t was soon a f t e r t h a t . I s a i d as long as h i s marks were up he d i d n ' t have t o worry about that. So he seemed t o be a l i t t l e more s e r i o u s about g e t t i n g good gades... Yeah, i t d i d . w r i t t e n t h a t down. Any  use  I t turned  him  around.  I t h i n k I've  even  of Career Pathways?  He took i t . A n y t h i n g he's  I'm  not sure what's i n i t .  been doing about  career?  I know he wants t o make a l o t of money. So I guess t h a t ' s what he's shooting f o r , but I s t i l l t h i n k he's k i n d of young, ... he hasn't r e a l l y had t h a t t a s t e of having the summer job and the cash. And once t h a t comes, i t ' s "who wants t o go t o s c h o o l , who wants t o do t h i s , I j u s t want t o make money, have a c a r and d r i v e . " But he's k i n d of had a t a s t e of t h a t through h i s c o u s i n , who went t o BCIT, d i d very w e l l , now he's a moving man. Any  s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improving the approach?  Keep i t i n f o r m a l . [ I t was n i c e t o have the other student and p a r e n t i n there.] I t was k i n d of n i c e t o hear someone e l s e ' s ... j u s t t o l e t you know... I t h i n k i f i t were too one-on-one-ish i t might get a l i t t l e too deep. Do you  t h i n k homework beforehand would have helped?  No I don't t h i n k so. With other people, perhaps. But I l i k e d the way i t went because, l i k e I say, I d i s c o v e r e d t h i n g s about my son t h a t I wasn't r e a l l y c o g n i z a n t o f . Time f o r students versus parents? I t h i n k i t was f i n e . I t ' s easy f o r someone t o hog c o n v e r s a t i o n , so I'd l i k e t o hear the k i d s t a l k .  the  178 Length? The room was very hot. We were sequestered i n t h i s l i t t l e room. I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e I c o u l d get up and walk around, which I tend t o do. Follow  up?  W e l l , follow-up would r e q u i r e more thought. Maybe next year I would l i k e t o do t h a t again, but e a r l i e r i n the year. So p o s s i b l y he can have a t a s t e of the courses he's t a k i n g and how he's p r o g r e s s i n g with t h a t , because t h a t d r a f t i n g t h i n g was a waste of time. U s u a l l y i f he l i k e s what he's doing, he e x c e l s . Anything else? L o c a t i o n , probably good f o r k i d s t o be a t s c h o o l , but you're s t i l l i n t h a t s c h o o l environment, and when t h i s t h i n g i s over, you're going back t o s c h o o l . That's why, i t was v e r y c l o s e t o lunch, and I took my son out t o lunch and we c a r r i e d on our c o n v e r s a t i o n . I t was l i k e a l i t t l e window opening. I t k i n d of made him f e e l a l i t t l e more grown up. That was neat. Now I k i n d of r e g r e t i t not being audioed. Because I would l i k e t o l i s t e n t o i t again. But l i k e I say, I d i d w r i t e i t down i n a l e t t e r , l i k e my impressions and t h i n g s . So I c o u l d r e f e r t o i t i f I wanted t o . But i t ' s l i k e , h i s life.  179 PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER-EXPLORATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND PARENTS INTERVIEW SUMMARY 111  1 Parent, a t her home.  Circumstances  of v o l u n t e e r i n g ?  When I was together with my daughter, she t o l d me t h a t I was b e i n g i n v i t e d t o an i n t e r v i e w w i t h her. I had no i d e a what i s was, I j u s t showed my support t o her and went w i t h her. I j u s t knew one day ahead. I d i d n ' t know what was going on. [I d i d n ' t know what t o expect t h e r e , or have any s p e c i f i c goals f o r i t . ] Do you remember what your daughter's  g o a l s were?  She d i d n ' t d i s c u s s i t . What was  i t like?  She seemed t o enjoy i t very much. Another student and parent? What was  Me  too.  that like?  Yes. Two young people can share t h e i r o p i n i o n s as w e l l as from the parent. I t i s a good idea t o exchange... [I don't remember any other observers.] Yes, t h a t was good [ f o r the others t o be t h e r e . ] And  the other parent?  Yes, t h a t was good f o r them t o have a chance t o express their feelings. E s p e c i a l l y what I remember t h a t the other student was a boy, and he and my daughter c o u l d look a t the same t h i n g from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view, d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . [Some t h i n g s they saw d i f f e r e n t l y , some the same.] Yes, e x a c t l y . Did  the s e s s i o n do anything f o r your  daughter?  Not anything very obvious, but I t h i n k i t was good t o have a chance g i v e n t o her so t h a t she can speak out and  180 then b e f o r e she i s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d she has t o take some time t o review h e r s e l f , and t h i n k over again, what her g o a l and c a r e e r i s . . . and have a chance t o share w i t h the o p i n i o n s w i t h other young people. And a t the same time the p a r e n t s can s i t w i t h her and speak openly and f r a n k l y ; I t h i n k t h i s i s very good too. A chance t o be put on the spot, t o speak out loud her p l a n s ? E x a c t l y . A c t u a l l y , my daughter and I are v e r y c l o s e , and she always exchange her thoughts w i t h me, but t h i s was the f i r s t time we s a t together i n f r o n t of people so t h a t we can t a l k . T h i s was a very good experience. Did the other parent say anything good f o r your daughter hear?  to  Yes, t h a t ' s good. Sometimes she always g e t s the o p i n i o n s from her parents, but she maybe gets used t o i t . To have a chance t o l i s t e n t o other parents or k i d s , t h a t ' s good. Anything you enjoyed  hearing?  Because I always f e e l t h a t young people are v e r y a g g r e s s i v e , they have t h e i r g o a l s and they work hard f o r i t , but t h e i r weakness very o f t e n i s they very o f t e n don't know how t o s o l v e the problems and they g i v e up. T h i s i s what I am concerned about f o r my daughter. But from t h a t i n t e r v i e w I heard...I d i d n ' t r a i s e up t h i s i s s u e , but the o t h e r boy shared t h i s f e e l i n g ! Yes, he t o l d us t h a t , the worst of a l l i s i f you t r y hard t o do something, f o r a long p e r i o d of time, and you can't handle i t t o the p o i n t you l i k e , then I g i v e up; I cannot c o n t r o l . Then I f e l t , l i k e , t h i s i s not the problem w i t h j u s t my daughter; i t ' s very common. We have t o l e a r n t o encourage them, how t o s o l v e t h e i r problems. Any e f f e c t on how planning?  your daughter  t h i n k s about c a r e e r  No, I. don't t h i n k any e f f e c t on her. I t j u s t helped her review h e r s e l f , t o organize her thoughts, put her head t o g e t h e r b e f o r e she t a l k e d , or before she was i n t e r v i e w e d . Probably no change i n how her? The same.  We  you t a l k about her c a r e e r w i t h  t a l k once i n a while, because we  are v e r y  181 close. She w i l l share with me what her g o a l , h e r t h i n k i n g or h e r f e e l i n g i s . Any  new i d e a s a f t e r t h a t about how t o encourage her?  Yeah. I t h i n k t h a t I have t o do something, but s t i l l I don't know how t o encourage t h e young people. I'm s t i l l i n the l e a r n i n g process. Even o u r s e l v e s , not only young people. A n y t h i n g she's been doing with c a r e e r p l a n n i n g afterwards? No. She has no time. Because of exams, and everything. [She t h i n k s about i t , but t h a t ' s about i t . ] Any use o f Career Pathways? I'm not sure. Any  o t h e r thoughts about impact with your Not  Any  daughter?  really.  d i r e c t suggestions f o r improving t h i s method?  Because c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i s very new t o me, i t ' s d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o g i v e any very good s u g g e s t i o n s . Length? I t wasnft t o o long. Because t h e people i n v o l v e d were w i l l i n g t o share t h e i r o p i n i o n , I t h i n k i t was good. Having t h e other student/parent there? Yeah, I t h i n k so. You see, I have an i d e a t h a t most o f t h e time t h e g i r l s w i l l chat a l o t , r i g h t . They a r e buddies, they t a l k , exchange i d e a s , b u t . . . i t ' s very good f o r a boy and g i r l t o s i t t o g e t h e r and exchange i d e a s . Because maybe they don't have much chance t o d i s c u s s these k i n d s of t o p i c s officially. Even when they a r e a t s c h o o l , maybe they p l a y , they have a good time, but they would not s i t down and p u t t h e i r thoughts t o g e t h e r on t h i s t o p i c . Yeah. E s p e c i a l l y , l a s t time t h e arrangement was good. We a r e new immigrants, we've been i n Vancouver f o r j u s t s i x years, and t h e o t h e r boy has  182 been here f o r long, and then the two young people can share t h e i r p o i n t o f view from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . I f two new immigrants come t o g e t h e r , they have the same f e e l i n g . I f the young people a r e from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds, a f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n they can understand more. Did  you wish f o r a f u r t h e r s e s s i o n ?  I t h i n k t h a t was enough. An hour's i n t e r v i e w i s good enough. At l e a s t , t h e time i s enough f o r f o u r o f us t o v o i c e our o p i n i o n . I f a second i n t e r v i e w was arranged two weeks l a t e r , i t would be the same. I t ' s on the same t o p i c . Did  t h e v i d e o t a p i n g matter? Not t o me, no.  183 THE  PARENT-INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND THEIR PARENTS  INTERVIEW SUMMARY 112  1 Parent, a t h i s home.  Remember the circumstances about g e t t i n g i n t o the s e s s i o n ? Yeah. My daughter asked me i f I wanted t o p a r t i c i p a t e in i t . Someone had asked f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n some classroom setting. Beyond t h a t I don't know who asked... I t was, Any  l i k e , days before going t h e r e .  sense of what her g o a l s were?  I know her g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s , but as f a r as g o a l s go, no, not r e a l l y . I t was j u s t presented as being an i n t e r v i e w r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r s and c a r e e r c h o i c e . And  your own  sense of goals?  Yeah. I j u s t went i n t o i t with an open mind. I had no p r e c o n c e p t i o n s because I wasn't g i v e n any i n f o r m a t i o n about it. So we j u s t went i n and hoped t h a t our o p i n i o n s counted towards o r g a n i z i n g something... What was  i t l i k e t o be i n the s e s s i o n ?  I thought i t was f i n e . Cordial, relaxed, informal. There was another student and parent t h e r e . I'm sure j u s t one o t h e r one. I t was very busy i n the background, people coming and going, f a i r l y busy, a changeover time. That wasn't a d i s t u r b a n c e or anything. What was  i t l i k e t o have t h a t other student/parent  there?  I d i d n ' t f e e l any ambivalence, I d i d n ' t f e e l r e s t r i c t i v e , or t h a t I was worried about what I was s a y i n g or a n y t h i n g . In f a c t , I b e l i e v e we had q u i t e a good d i a l o g u e between us. Both the students t a l k i n g t o each o t h e r , and myself and the other f a t h e r . We both t a l k e d between us and so d i d the k i d s , so I ... i f a n y t h i n g , i t drew out more d i s c u s s i o n .  184 O v e r a l l sense o f what i t may have done f o r your daughter? I b e l i e v e i t c r y s t a l l i z e d one t h i n g f o r h e r i n h e r mind. And t h a t i s t h a t working today may not have i t s rewards, say, tomorrow. P a s s i n g today's exams i s n ' t g o i n g to g i v e you some dramatic r e s u l t or change i n your l i f e tomorrow. But t h a t i t i s extremely important as a s t e p p i n g stone t o what might happen i n your l i f e i n 2 y e a r s o r 5 y e a r s o r 10 y e a r s down t h e l i n e . I don't know i t i t ' s p a r t of our i n s t a n t g r a t i f i c a t i o n s o c i e t y , but I b e l i e v e i t ' s r e a l l y , r e a l l y hard f o r these k i d s t o see t h a t . I n r e t r o s p e c t as a parent, i t ' s c r y s t a l c l e a r t o me, because I know where I should have done b e t t e r , and where I d i d w e l l , how i t p a i d o f f . I r e a l l y empathize w i t h k i d s i n e s p e c i a l l y grades 11 and 12, I r e a l l y do. Any sense o f more s p e c i f i c s on how t h a t ' s a f f e c t i n g h e r career planning? Again, i t ' s v e r y hard, because i t ' s so long ago. I remember e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case of the o t h e r c h i l d and t h e o t h e r p a r e n t t h a t was t h e r e , t h e c h i l d l i k e d e l e c t r o n i c s . And w h i l e t h e c h i l d may not have pursued e l e c t r o n i c s i f t h a t was something he was i n t e r e s t e d i n , or my daughter i n space, ... t h a t i f i t ' s something you l i k e , pursue i t . You're u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l a t something you enjoy. Maybe t h a t was brought t o a head, t o o . I t was a secondary p o i n t . I f you l i k e i t , how does t h a t apply t o t h e r e a l world out t h e r e , t o g e t t i n g a job, t o choosing a c a r e e r . I f you r e a l l y l i k e p l a n t s , maybe i t doesn't make a l o t o f sense t o be an accountant. I f you l i k e numbers and c r u n c h i n g numbers, then maybe i t does make sense. I n t h e one person's case, he l i k e d e l e c t r o n i c s . That may mean working i n an e l e c t r o n i c s s t o r e , i t may mean being an e l e c t r o n i c s engineer, but t h a t t h e r e would be some a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s interests. Any change i n how you and your daughter r e l a t e a f t e r w a r d s ? I t h i n k we're a c t u a l l y very open i n t a l k i n g about t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g i n our f a m i l y . And we may be r e a l l y unique t h a t way. For example, she i s i n t e r e s t e d i n space, so we sent h e r t o a space t r a i n i n g camp, a NASA t r a i n i n g camp i n Alabama so she c o u l d experience i t f i r s t - h a n d . So we're v e r y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h a t and we do have ongoing d i a l o g u e . We review every t e s t t o g e t h e r , and we review every day. We make a p o i n t o f having supper t o g e t h e r , d i s c u s s i n g what you do i n c l a s s . Not j u s t t h e s u b j e c t s you l e a r n , but t h e k i d s , the t e a c h e r s , how you f e e l about t h i n g s . So we may be a b i t  185 unique i n t h a t manner. I j u s t p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e , my w i f e and I, t h a t i t ' s r e a l y important t o maintain the d i a l o g u e . Because then you can know what i s going on. You can support where support i s needed, a d v i s e when i t ' s needed, and j u s t p l a i n shut up when t h a t ' s needed. I f you don't t a l k about i t you're going t o miss a l l the cues. I t h i n k t h i n g s can block the wheels p r e t t y f a s t t h i s time of l i f e . So p r e t t y much the same as b e f o r e . I b e l i e v e as the year has progressed out here and t h i n g s havew become more d i f f i c u l t and t h e r e ' s become more p r e s s u r e s on her, generally...exams and t e s t i n g and c a r e e r s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . . . t h a t I t h i n k , I know she f e e l s under pressure. Every one of her f r i e n d s f e e l s under p r e s s u r e . And I t h i n k f a r more than they need t o . I t h i n k when I read the paper sometimes and I look a t job p r o s p e c t s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , maybe i t ' s j u s t i f i e d . I t ' s hard t o say. But I t a l k t o a l l her f r i e n d s , and i t ' s r e a l l y tough on t h e s e guys. Any t h i n g s she's been doing i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g you r e l a t e t o the s e s s i o n ? I t ' s hard t o say. She a l s o enjoys swimming. I don't know t h i s f i t s i n t o the p i c t u r e . She's been a v e r y a v i d swimmer f o r years and y e a r s . She a c t u a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o get her l i f e s a v i n g c e r t i f i c a t e . She was 14 or 15, and you have t o be 16 t o get i t . So she was k i n d of marking time on t h a t and she's j u s t gone r i g h t back i n t o swimming, and she's g o i n g t o wrap up her i n s t r u c t o r ' s t h i s August. But she's been r e a l l y gung ho on i t , very a g g r e s s i v e . Although she's i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n t s and space and e v e r y t h i n g , t h i s may be the f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a c t u a l l y going out, d r i v i n g home and g e t t i n g t h a t g o a l and doing i t . That too has taken a l o t of work...long, long days...but she's been v e r y d i l i g e n t about i t , worked very hard, kept her nose t o the g r i n d s t o n e . Yeah. I t w i l l be r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how t h i s a l l manifests i t s e l f . And we're j u s t encouraging her t h a t i f , you know, i f t h a t ' s what you want t o do r i g h t now, then go for i t . You're going with our b l e s s i n g . You enjoy i t , you're i n t e r e s t e d i n i t . I t ' s not something t h a t ' s whimsical. She's not a t a l l a whimsical person; she f i n d s what she l i k e s and s t i c k s with i t . Any use of Career Pathways together? I remember thumbing through the book.  I d i d n ' t read  186 it. To be honest, I can't even remember whether we took i t home or not. I don't know. I h o n e s t l y don't know... Any  suggestions  f o r improving  the approach?  Length? I t h i n k i t was f i n e . I t was very... i t was a format t h a t worked w e l l , and everybody was dressed c a s u a l l y , which I t h i n k r e a l l y h e l p s . There's nothing t h a t would k i l l i t more than white s h i r t s and t i e s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . I remember the p r o f e s s o r at the time j u s t not speaking any of the technojargon, j u s t being very down-to-earth. I t was very c a s u a l , and everybody was made t o f e e l a t ease. There was no pressure, t h e r e was j u s t ... I'm l o o k i n g f o r your o p i n i o n and t h a t k i n d of t h i n g . I t h i n k the l e n g t h was f i n e . Seemed a p p r o p r i a t e . If i t had t o e r r a l i t t l e b i t , I t h i n k maybe i t was a t i n y b i t on the s h o r t s i d e . I t h i n k i t may j u s t have had t o do w i t h the c y c l e of the c l a s s e s , but i t was f i n e . Other student  and parent  in?  Yeah, t h a t was g r e a t , because I b e l i e v e i t opened up some d i a l o g u e t h a t was u s e f u l t o both parents and both students. And I t h i n k there was a r e a l i z a t i o n . . . p a r t of the c o n v e r s a t i o n was a l o t d i f f e r e n t than j u s t being a t h i r d p a r t y t o i t and r e c o r d i n g i t . I f e l t t h e r e was a l o t of commonality between the students, who r e a l l y b a r e l y knew each other but f o r the f i r s t time c o u l d t a l k about c a r e e r s and t h i n g s . And the same t h i n g with myself t a l k i n g t o the other parent. Having emphasized t o both our k i d s i n d i v i d u a l l y the importance of s t u d y i n g and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , i t was k i n d of r e f r e s h i n g t o hear t h a t we're both on the same t r a c k , s a y i n g the same t h i n g s . We're not o n l y people b e a t i n g the drum! What about  follow-up?  I t h i n k i f t h e r e ' s going t o be some follow-up, i t should be done q u i c k e r . I t should have been done i n about 30 days. Now t h a t may be too quick f o r y o u r s e l v e s t o a s s i m i l a t e a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n and t r y t o make sense of what's been s a i d . But i d e a l l y , from our p o i n t of view, the i n t e r v i e w e e , I t h i n k i f i t was done i n about 30 days t h a t would have r e a l l y helped. I f e e l I've f o r g o t t e n a l o t of t h i n g s t h a t were brought up t h a t were q u i t e r e l e v a n t . Maybe 30-45 days, we'd remember more of the h i g h l i g h t s and more of t h i n g s t h a t were important t h a t came up.  187 I t h i n k we're f a i r l y unique, compared w i t h most parents. We r e a l l y do have a l o t of d i a l o g u e . Since that i n t e r v i e w , and t a l k i n g about the importance of s t u d y i n g ... the o n l y t h i n g . . . I t h i n k i t ' s p r e t t y important a c t u a l l y . . . In t a l k i n g t o her r e c e n t l y , she was one of 12 students i n the e n t i r e s c h o o l t h a t ' s been on the honour r o l l every term of every year s i n c e grade e i g h t . So she's p r e t t y good. But one of her complaints when she brought home her r e p o r t card...she i s j u s t bored... I f she's c h a l l e n g e d she does really well... So t h a t ' s the only f l y i n the ointment r i g h t now. They d i d something e l s e r i g h t , and t h a t was they p o s i t i o n e d the camera a long way away from the people, so i t was not o b t r u s i v e . The microphone was up c l o s e but i t d i d n ' t i n t r u d e i n t o t h e i r space... Do you t h i n k i t would have been b e t t e r with homework?  preparation  I t h i n k the answer t o t h a t , i t r e a l l y , e m p h a t i c a l l y , i n my o p i n i o n , i s NO. I t was r e a l l y n i c e t o go i n t h e r e t o t a l l y c o l d and f r e s h , not a n t i c i p a t i n g any q u e s t i o n s . I t h i n k i f people can a n t i c i p a t e questions or they a n t i c i p a t e s o r t of what d i r e c t i o n t h i n g s are going t o go, and they t a i l o r t h e i r answers a c c o r d i n g l y . Subconsciously, i t ' s s u b l i m i n a l l y done. I know t h a t from my own b u s i n e s s , i f you say, " T h i s i s the agenda", and you fax them the agenda, boy, they've come up with the answers they don't even b e l i e v e i n , but they know t h a t ' s the one you want t o hear. And I t h i n k t o h i t i t c o l d l i k e t h i s . . . . t h a t ' s a l l t h a t needs t o be said. I t h i n k the fewer ways you p r e j u d i c e , p o s s i b l y p r e j u d i c e the c o n v e r s a t i o n , the b e t t e r o f f you a r e . I think y o u ' l l get more candid answers. More s p o n t a n e i t y . What about 'readiness' of the student? I see the c o l d s e s s i o n as b e t t e r . Because I saw the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w being a s t r u c t u r e a p p l i e d t o what I t h i n k were j u s t a random thoughts and f e e l i n g s and i n t e r e s t s , and j u s t a g e n e r a l p o t p o u r r i . What the i n t e r v i e w d i d was i t s t r u c t u r e d a l o t of t h a t and I t h i n k i t ' s important t o go i n with no preconceptions on s t r u c t u r e . To go i n and ask y o u r s e l f those hard, c o l d q u e s t i o n s and then put i t t o g e t h e r . So I f e l t , as d i d my daughter, Gee, some c o n c l u s i o n s d i d evolve out of t h i s t h a t maybe we even knew o f , but hadn't faced, or hadn't r e a l l y thought o f . I like the c o l d approach. I t ' s one I use i n marketing and s a l e s too. You ask q u e s t i o n s , you don't t e l l them anything, you j u s t keep a s k i n g questions and the person w i l l e v e n t u a l l y  188 come t o t h e i r  own c o n c l u s i o n s .  Which i s t h e only advice t h e y ' l l take anyway... Exactly! I f you g i v e them t o o much i n f o r m a t i o n up f r o n t t o be primed on, I don't t h i n k you're going t o end up w i t h t r u l y unbiased, candid, spontaneous answers. Anything  e l s e you wished I'd asked?  I t h i n k i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see what happens w i t h these guys say, a year, two years, t h r e e y e a r s from now... I t h i n k t h e r e should a l s o be...I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y , r e a l l y important when you t a l k about t h i s a t a h i g h s c h o o l , a l l o f t h i s i s j u s t theory, r e a l l y . And what I t h i n k i s r e a l l y important, i s parents a r e a huge r e s o u r c e p o o l . . . t o come i n and t a l k about t h e i r c a r e e r s . What do they do, what motivates them, why d i d they choose t h a t c a r e e r themselves, and then i t ' s r e a l , i t ' s t a n g i b l e , something you can touch and f e e l . . . Words on paper don't have h a l f the impact as a c t u a l l y f e e l i n g , t e l l i n g , touching, seeing how i t a l l works out... That's my s t r o n g e s t recommendation on c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . . . L e s s theory, and get a r e a l , l i v e person t h e r e .  189 Appendix H Interview Data Summaries STUDENT # 1 1.  INTERVIEW SUMMARY PRE-SESSION  EXPECTATIONS She had been p l a n n i n g on being an emergency room d o c t o r up t o t h i s p o i n t . She was r e c r u i t e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e the day, and d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what t o expect. She thought i t would be fun t o t r y , and seemed t o be a t t r a c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the p e r s o n a l approach she a n t i c i p a t e d . Her experience w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g i n the p a s t had l e f t her w i t h the impression t h a t some c o u n s e l l o r s e i t h e r weren't open t o her own i d e a s , or simply had too many students t o d e a l w i t h t o g i v e much attention. IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She f e l t q u i t e p o s i t i v e about the i n t e r a c t i o n o v e r a l l . Her mother d i d n ' t r e a l l y understand some of what was g o i n g on, due t o her l e v e l of e n g l i s h comprehension. She had mixed f e e l i n g s about her mother being t h e r e , and s a i d she would probably go alone another time. P a r t l y she a p p r e c i a t e d the chance t o have the i n p u t , but a l s o f e l t shy t o say what she r e a l l y thought. She l i k e d the other student being a p a r t of the s e s s i o n , and remembered t h i n g s they had i n common helped her f e e l more comfortable. 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES She a p p r e c i a t e d the f a c i l i t a t o r l e t t i n g her t a l k about t h i n g s she r e a l l y l i k e d , then u s i n g metaphors from her own experience (sports). She thought the e x e r c i s e s h e l p e d c l a r i f y her own p a t t e r n s of p r e f e r e n c e and b e h a v i o r . The a c t i v i t i e s seemed more p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t than the c a r e e r p l a n n i n g i n s c h o o l (CAPP). 4.  POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES F e l t encouraged t o r e a l l y t r y f o r a c a r e e r she  may  like.  R e a l i z e d more c l e a r l y t h a t she wanted t o combine her l o v e of s p o r t s ( e s p e c i a l l y team sports) and her i n t e r e s t i n medicine. A l s o came t o a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the s t r e s s of the emergency room may not be the best f i t w i t h her p e r s o n a l i t y . F e l t encouraged t h a t she was not the o n l y one w i t h problems, due t o the input of the other student. 5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS She was t h i n k i n g about emergency room medicine,  and  190 emerged t h i n k i n g t h a t a medical c a r e e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p o r t s would be more a p p r o p r i a t e . In f a c t , i n r e f l e c t i n g on the experience, she f e l t i t helped her see how much she r e a l l y wanted t o go i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n , i n a v e r y f o c u s s e d manner. F e l t more motivated afterwards, went about g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about u n i v e r s i t y and f i n a n c i a l a i d , t r y i n g t o c o n t a c t the Canucks' team doctor f o r p o s s i b l e v o l u n t e e r work. 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, R i g h t afterward i t was good because she found i t easy t o t a l k about her c a r e e r ideas, but a f t e r a w h i l e i t went back t o the u s u a l , where they don't t a l k about i t much anymore. I t might be a b i t b e t t e r , s i n c e they know what she wants now. 7.  ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES & INSIGHTS Hearing the other student share problems helped her f e e l more comfortable with her own. She r e l a t e s most of the impact t o the e x e r c i s e of o b s e r v i n g her own p a t t e r n s i n her enjoyed a c t i v i t i e s — making her more aware of her s t r e n g t h s , weaknesses, p r e f e r e n c e s , and r e l a t i n g t h a t t o c a r e e r . 8.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Would have l i k e d a follow-up s e s s i o n , perhaps e i t h e r one-on-one, or w i t h only the f a c i l i t a t o r and other student, f o r q u e s t i o n s which came up subsequently. She would a l s o have l i k e d some s o r t of c o n t a c t ( s ) t o f o l l o w up on i n e x p l o r i n g c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s .  191 STUDENT # 2 INTERVIEW SUMMARY 1. EXPECTATIONS She heard about i t on the school p.a., and thought i t would perhaps be more r e l e v a n t than her s c h o o l c a r e e r planning. She e s p e c i a l l y remembers wanting t o t a l k t o a person r a t h e r than do the paper-and-pencil t h i n g , and was quite interested i n taking part. She d i d expect t h a t the s e s s i n o would b r i n g her f u r t h e r i n terms of h a v i n g a s p e c i f i c c a r e e r path. IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She very much a p p r e c i a t e d the i n t e r a c t i o n , and the s t y l e , as w e l l as the makeup of the group. The most memorable t h i n g f o r her was having another student i n the session. Even though she may have thought they wouldn't have much i n common, she was s u r p r i s e d a t how s i m i l a r t h e i r t h i n k i n g and s i t u a t i o n s were. T h i s was so s t r o n g a memory t h a t her words i n c l u d e d , 'amazing' and ' e n l i g h t e n i n g ' . She f e e l s t h a t g e n e r a l l y students are not r e a l l y t a l k i n g t o one another much (thus i s o l a t e d ) and thought the PICE s e s s i o n eased her sense of i s o l a t i o n a b i t . She r e a l l y enjoyed h a v i n g her f a t h e r t h e r e , s i n c e she f e l t more ' l i s t e n e d t o ' i n the r e g u l a t e d format. The s e s s i o n a l s o p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l f o r them t o r e f e r t o i n l a t e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s . 2.  POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES While she had expected more s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n i n terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , she found a new p e r s p e c t i v e : Backing up and t a k i n g a good look a t who she i s and what she r e a l l y enjoys as her s t a r t i n g p o i n t . She f e l t somewhat overwhelmed by the s i z e of the task before, but found t h a t the PICE s e s s i o n helped g i v e her a focus ( l o o k i n g f o r what would r e a l l y be i n t e r e s t i n g f o r h e r ) . At the time of follow-up, focus had s h i f t e d t o f i n i s h i n g the s c h o o l year, g e t t i n g good grades. She f e l t t h a t her school c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were i r r e l e v a n t before and a f t e r her involvement i n the PICE session. 3.  4.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS A f t e r the PICE s e s s i o n , she f e l t more motivated t o work on c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and planning, but t h i s faded a f t e r a few weeks. She t h i n k s t h a t a follow-up s e s s i o n may have h e l p e d keep up the m o t i v a t i o n and g i v e a d d i t i o n a l guidance i n terms of steps she c o u l d take. She i s now o c c a s i o n a l l y examining her i n t e r e s t s , and has been t h i n k i n g of some career r e l a t e d to teaching. 5.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She f e l t very good about having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  192 s e s s i o n w i t h her f a t h e r . She f e l t more understood by him afterward, and a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e gave m a t e r i a l and an e a s i e r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o c a r r y on c a r e e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s l a t e r a t home. I t was l i k e being 'on the same wavelength'. Though her focus has s h i f t e d t o f i n i s h i n g the s c h o o l year and they're not t a l k i n g much about c a r e e r these days, they d i d t a l k w i t h g r e a t e r understanding and frequency f o r about 2-3 months a f t e r the s e s s i o n . 6.  ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES & INSIGHTS She had some observations r e g a r d i n g what h e l p e d her i n the s e s s i o n , most notably l e a r n i n g the other student s t r u g g l e d w i t h s i m i l a r i s s u e s , such as the d i f f i c u l t y i n working hard t o reach her g o a l s . Presumably t h i s l e s s e n i n g of her i s o l a t i o n f r e e d her a l i t t l e b i t more t o keep working on t h a t s t r u g g l e . 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She would have l i k e d l e s s o b s e r v a t i o n of the s e s s i o n , more of a sense of p r i v a c y . She d i d n ' t f e e l the o b s e r v e r s "had a r i g h t t o be t h e r e " , and t h i s made her a b i t s e l f c o n s c i o u s about what she was s a y i n g . She would a l s o have l i k e d the s e s s i o n t o be a b i t longer, s i n c e she f e l t she was, " g e t t i n g i n t o i t and s t a r t i n g t o r e a l l y t h i n k , " and then i t was over. A follow-up s e s s i o n would have been good i n her o p i n i o n , s i n c e she had questions afterward and other t h i n g s she thought of adding t o the d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s . Perhaps a couple of days l a t e r t o g i v e the i n f o r m a t i o n a chance t o ' p e r c o l a t e ' .  193 STUDENT # 3 INTERVIEW SUMMARY 1. EXPECTATIONS She d i d n ' t f e e l she r e a l l y had any g o a l s f o r the s e s s i o n , s i n c e i t was such a last-minute and c a s u a l d e c i s i o n f o r her. She a l s o f e l t t h a t i f she had known more of what t o expect, she l i k e l y would have been more nervous about i t . IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She enjoyed the small group s e t t i n g , and the a t t e n t i v e n e s s when she was speaking (compared t o her c l a s s e s ! ) and d e s c r i b e d the atmosphere as 'more comfortable'. She found the other student's i n p u t i n t e r e s t i n g , both the s i m i l a r i t i e s and the d i f f e r e n c e s between them and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . She a l s o valued the opportunity and c h a l l e n g e t o be put 'on the spot' i n answering questions o f f the top of her head, and f e l t i t was q u i t e a confidence boost f o r her t o be a b l e t o do t h a t . Her mother d i d n ' t say much i n the group, and i t d i d n ' t seem c r i t i c a l t h a t she be i n the s e s s i o n , as f a r as t h i s student was concerned. 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES She a p p r e c i a t e d the type of e x e r c i s e s i n the s e s s i o n , and f e l t t h a t she had a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n her own thoughts before the e x e r c i s e moved onward. Not knowing what q u e s t i o n s would be asked may have helped her answer more r e a l i s t i c a l l y , spontaneously and see what p a t t e r n would come out of i t . The Career Pathways booklet wasn't r e a l l y a major p a r t of the s e s s i o n f o r her, and she j u s t browsed through i t a bit later. POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She f e l t the s e s s i o n opened up her t h i n k i n g i n terms of career options. While p r e v i o u s l y she had been t h i n k i n g of t e a c h i n g , she saw t h a t t e a c h i n g c o u l d be done i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways and s e t t i n g s . The s e s s i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e d her s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e f o r speaking i n p u b l i c , encouraging her t o c o n s i d e r c a r e e r options l i k e teacher and lawyer which r e q u i r e p u b l i c speaking. She was i n t e r e s t e d i n her s c h o o l c a r e e r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , but f e e l s t h a t the PICE s e s s i o n i n c r e a s e d her sense of c u r i o s i t y about c a r e e r s and p l a n n i n g . She a l s o c r e d i t s the s e s s i o n with i n c r e a s i n g her w i l l i n g n e s s t o work hard t o reach her c a r e e r g o a l s . 4.  5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS She remembers t h a t she chose her courses s h o r t l y a f t e r  194 her involvement i n t h e PICE s e s s i o n , and t h a t h e r s e l e c t i o n s were d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d by i t (Eg., choosing Law 12). A l s o , she f e e l s her options broadened out, from simply t e a c h i n g t o a wider f i e l d , i n c l u d i n g law, and she has f e l t p o s i t i v e about t h a t change. 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She d i d n ' t t h i n k the s e s s i o n was d i f f e r e n t i n terms o f how she and her mother i n t e r a c t r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , and has not n o t i c e d any d i f f e r e n c e s afterwards e i t h e r . 7.  ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES & INSIGHTS She a t t r i b u t e s her own expansion o f o p t i o n s t o d i s c o v e r i n g i n the s e s s i o n t h a t there a r e many d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r paths, r a t h e r than the s e t standard ones. P a r t o f t h i s came from the s t y l e of p a t t e r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n u s i n g her i n t e r e s t s , but a b i g p a r t of i t a l s o came from h e a r i n g t h e i n p u t o f t h e other student and parent. 8.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She would have l i k e d t o go f u r t h e r w i t h s p e c i f i c ideas f o r occupations r e l a t i n g t o d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l paths, such as an e n g l i s h degree. She a l s o would look f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c occupations and steps towards them i n terms o f coursework, f o r example.  195 STUDENT # 4 INTERVIEW SUMMARY 1. EXPECTATIONS She heard t h a t a p r o f e s s o r was going t o be i n t e r v i e w i n g s t u d e n t s and g i v i n g them h e l p i n making p l a n s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r c a r e e r g o a l s . Having a keen i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c and c h a l l e n g i n g c a r e e r ( i n human k i n e t i c s ) , she was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n anything t h a t would h e l p her get t h e r e . 2.  EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She enjoyed the s e s s i o n , and a p p r e c i a t e d the presence of both the other student and her own mother. She found t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between h e r s e l f and the other s t u d e n t added an e x t r a dimension t o her l e a r n i n g . With her i n t e r e s t i n a t h l e t i c s and the other student's i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s , she had the chance t o l i s t e n t o the same c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n technique with a d i f f e r e n t s l a n t . She a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d having another f e l l o w student present, so she d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e she was alone i n a room f u l l of a d u l t s . There i s something c o m f o r t i n g about having t h a t other student t h e r e , s i n c e you can r e l a t e t o them i n ways you cannot r e l a t e t o the a d u l t s . She a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d her own mother being t h e r e , because the dynamics and content of the s e s s i o n f o r c e d a more s p e c i f i c c o n v e r s a t i o n about her c a r e e r p l a n s — m o r e room f o r d e t a i l on her p a r t , more room f o r her mother t o g i v e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t she might not normally g i v e . At o t h e r times i n the s e s s i o n , she a p p r e c i a t e d being a b l e t o ' l i s t e n i n on' c o n v e r s a t i o n between the a d u l t s . 3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES She f e l t the s e s s i o n served as a k i n d of i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s t r a t e g i e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g her i n t e r e s t s and p r e f e r e n c e s , and t h a t the Career Pathways c o u l d serve as a f o l l o w - u p w i t h more s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n . However, she f e l t t h a t the e x e r c i s e s i n the b o o k l e t seem t o r e q u i r e a h i g h e r l e v e l of e x p e r i e n c e than she has a t present. She emphasized a g a i n t h a t she enjoyed h e a r i n g what the other student had t o say as a p a r t of the s e s s i o n . 4.  IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She f e e l s the s e s s i o n helped her broaden her p e r s p e c t i v e , t o see t h a t t h e r e would be many ways i n which she c o u l d f i n d an enjoyable c a r e e r . I t a l s o showed her the importance of short-term steps along the way. She had been q u i t e rushed about the p r o c e s s b e f o r e the PICE s e s s i o n , worrying about making quick d e c i s i o n s and p l a n s ; a f t e r w a r d she f e l t she c o u l d a f f o r d t o r e l a x a b i t i n her mind and take t h i n g s a b i t more s l o w l y . She f e l t t h a t the s e s s i o n not o n l y helped her see her own c a r e e r p l a n n i n g i n a more 'step-by-step' way, but a l s o t o be a b l e t o share t h i s c o n f i d e n t l y with her f r i e n d s .  196 5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s e s s i o n d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t e d her course s e l e c t i o n . She remembers a p p l y i n g the p h i l o s o p h y she gained from PICE and t a k i n g a more r e l a x e d approach, g i v i n g h e r s e l f time t o t r y t h i n g s and work out her a c t i o n s t e p s . She f e l t more f r e e t o have a p r o v i s i o n a l p l a n , then expect t o a d j u s t along the way (Eg., a f t e r s e e i n g how the courses go). She has a l s o done q u i t e a b i t of r e s e a r c h i n t o human k i n e t i c s on the i n t e r n e t , though she may w e l l have done t h a t i n the absence of PICE involvement. She does c r e d i t the PICE s e s s i o n with i n c r e a s i n g her m o t i v a t i o n t o g a i n work experience. Both the s e s s i o n content and the workbook showed her how important work e x p e r i e n c e would be i n the c a r e e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She t a l k e d about her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f u r t h e r w i t h her mother the n i g h t a f t e r the s e s s i o n , and the c o n v e r s a t i o n r e i n f o r c e d what came out of the s e s s i o n ( i e . , slowing down and t a k i n g t h i n g s a step at a t i m e ) . The focused c o n v e r s a t i o n s seemed t o b r i n g more out of her mother, as compared w i t h the normal ' o n - a n d - o f f t a l k i n g about i t they would u s u a l l y do. She f e l t i t helped her t o hear what her mother d i d have t o say. Her parents seem t o be most concerned t h a t she would choose a c a r e e r t h a t she would be happy with, and they d i d t a l k more about c a r e e r plans i n the months t h a t f o l l o w e d the session. However, as the year end drew c l o s e r , the focus had t o be on s c h o o l , i n order t o f i n i s h w e l l . 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She would have l i k e d t o a c t u a l l y work t o g e t h e r t o put down some g o a l s and p l a n s , something concrete t o walk away with. Not n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t she would be t i e d t o the p l a n , but t h a t i t would be something t o work from and a d j u s t . She suggested an e x t r a s e s s i o n not too long a f t e r w a r d i n o r d e r t o work on such a concrete a c t i o n p l a n would be a good i d e a . That way a person would have time t o l e t t h i n g s s i n k i n and generate some ideas f o r steps t o take.  197 STUDENT # 5  INTERVIEW SUMMARY  1.  EXPECTATIONS She thought i t sounded l i k e a unique o p p o r t u n i t y , t o meet w i t h a r e a l l i v e person who c o u l d h e l p her examine her career goals. Since she d i d n ' t know e x a c t l y what would happen i n the s e s s i o n , she f e e l s she d i d n ' t have much i n the way of e x p e c t a t i o n s . 2.  EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She enjoyed having her mother t h e r e , and f e l t t h a t her presence had been very worthwhile. Some of what she heard from her mother i n the s e s s i o n was new, f o r example, her b e l i e f t h a t one needed t o be focused i n a c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . T h i s student a p p r e c i a t e d having the chance t o hear her mother t a l k about her b e l i e f s and d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r o p t i o n s . She enjoyed the i n t e r a c t i v e nature of the s e s s i o n , the chance t o be l i s t e n e d t o as w e l l as hear o t h e r s ' p o i n t s of view. She found the other student's ideas s t i m u l a t e d her own thought process, and a l s o f e l t t h a t the other student's presence took some pressure o f f her i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n . In r e f l e c t i n g back on the s e s s i o n , she t h i n k s i t a l s o helped t h a t i t was o r a l , r a t h e r than a w r i t t e n a n a l y s i s . Not o n l y d i d the spoken nature make i t more spontaneous, but i t a l s o decreased the sense t h a t c a r e e r p l a n n i n g was a ' f i n a l ' d e c i s i o n process (as compared with CAPP e x e r c i s e s ) . 3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES She has f e l t as though previous c a r e e r a c t i v i t i e s have tended t o prematurely s l o t her i n t o occupations based on a few c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , while PICE acted i n a more f r e e i n g manner. While her experience of other programs was t h a t they were 'end' o r i e n t e d , she f e l t t h a t PICE was more of a proper beginning f o r her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The look at her enjoyed a c t i v i t i e s (to observe p a t t e r n s ) seemed more r e l e v a n t t o her, and s t a r t e d her t h i n k i n g more. She looked through the Career Pathways b o o k l e t l a t e r , and a l s o f e l t i t t o be more r e l e v a n t and u s e f u l t o her than what she'd experienced p r e v i o u s l y . The e x e r c i s e s seemed t o a l l o w her more freedom t o explore her own i n t e r e s t s , p r e f e r e n c e s and v a l u e s , r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g prematurely on occupational choice. 4.  IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She looks back on the PICE s e s s i o n as having g i v e n her a 'whole new p e r s p e c t i v e on t h i n g s . ' The process they went through i n c o n v e r s a t i o n helped her t o see the c o n n e c t i o n between her i n t e r e s t and s t y l e i n s p o r t s and her p e r s o n a l i t y a p p l i e d t o occupations. She had not made t h a t c o n n e c t i o n b e f o r e PICE, and seemed e n t h u s i a s t i c about i t s u s e f u l n e s s .  198 5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS She c o u l d n ' t i d e n t i f y anything t h a t she has been doing d i f f e r e n t l y s i n c e PICE, but c r e d i t s t h e s e s s i o n w i t h changing her t h i n k i n g process somewhat. She f e e l s she has opened up t o more o p t i o n s and a new way of decision-making, due t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f her s t y l e i n s p o r t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She doesn't t a l k much with her parents about c a r e e r p l a n s , and t h a t has remained t r u e a f t e r PICE p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s e s s i o n d i d p r o v i d e a push (mostly a t her mother's i n i t i a t i o n ) t o t a l k about c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d immediately afterward, but t h a t faded back t o normal w i t h i n a matter o f days o r weeks. 7.  ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES & INSIGHTS She made t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the spoken nature o f t h e s e s s i o n ' s work seemed t o help her c l a r i f y her own t h i n k i n g more than a w r i t t e n format. She thought t h i s r e l a t e d t o b e i n g f o r c e d t o q u i c k l y t h i n k t h i n g s through and p r e s e n t them t o another person. (Perhaps t h i s a l s o r e l a t e s t o t h e l a c k o f feedback i n most w r i t t e n c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n exercises.) 8.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She d i d not have any suggestions f o r changing t h e s e s s i o n content o r format, and f e l t i t was ' r e a l l y u s e f u l ' the way i t was s e t up. T h i s i n c l u d e d having t h e o t h e r student and t h e i r parent i n the s e s s i o n as w e l l . She d i d meet w i t h a group o f students a f t e r w a r d f o r a f o l l o w - u p d i s c u s s i o n , and thought i t was v e r y u s e f u l t o hear what o t h e r students got out of the s e s s i o n , so perhaps t h a t c o u l d be a p a r t of everyone's experience.  199 STUDENT # 6 1.  INTERVIEW SUMMARY PRE-SESSION  EXPECTATIONS She was i n t r i g u e d by the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e and, although she d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what t o expect, f e l t t h e r e wasn't any r i s k i n v o l v e d . She had been i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t i n g and t e a c h i n g , and thought she might get some new i d e a s f o r c a r e e r paths she c o u l d take. IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She enjoyed the i n t e r a c t i o n and thought the ' i n n e r c i r c l e ' w i t h students and c o u n s e l l o r was p o s i t i v e , w i t h the p a r e n t s on the 'outer c i r c l e . ' However, she found the presence of other c o u n s e l l o r s and the video camera t o be somewhat d i s t r a c t i n g and d i s c o m f o r t i n g ("a l i t t l e more uncomfortable"). She f e l t t h a t i f she hadn't known the other student a t a l l she would have been more uncomfortable, but s i n c e she 'kind of knew' the other student, she d i d n ' t mind her presence. In f a c t , t h i s student d i d express a p p r e c i a t i o n a t h e a r i n g the other's p o i n t of view on v a r i o u s t h i n g s , s i n c e they d i d have some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . She d i d n ' t r e c a l l t h a t the parents i n her s e s s i o n had much t o say, and i t d i d n ' t seem t o r e a l l y be c r i t i c a l t h a t her f a t h e r be t h e r e . She d i d f e e l t h a t he had a chance t o l i s t e n and understand more of what she i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , but thought he went a b i t overboard i n t r y i n g t o pursue more c a r e e r p l a n n i n g together afterward. 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES No s p e c i f i c comments about the a c t u a l e x p l o r a t i o n p r o c e s s of the s e s s i o n . She d i d go through the Career Pathways b o o k l e t on her own l a t e r , and f e l t i t was a good supplement t o the s e s s i o n (though not e s s e n t i a l ) . POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She f e e l s the s e s s i o n expanded her c a r e e r o p t i o n s , t h a t i t showed her t h e r e would be many d i f f e r e n t r o u t e s t o c a r e e r s i n v o l v i n g her i n t e r e s t s , those of a c t i n g , t e a c h i n g , and psychology. She seemed t o a p p r e c i a t e the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t her c a r e e r c h o i c e s do not have t o send her along one l i m i t i n g pathway. 4.  5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS Other than the broader p e r s p e c t i v e , she d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t she has been doing anything d i f f e r e n t l y as a r e s u l t of the PICE s e s s i o n . 6.  IMPACT ON  FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP,  200  T h i s student d i d experience some n e g a t i v e f a l l o u t as a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n PICE. Afterward, her f a t h e r seemed t o become 'obsessed' with doing c a r e e r p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h her every day, w h i l e she f e l t pushed i n t o i t . T h i s l a s t e d about a month, u n t i l she had had enough, and she 'screamed a t him t o leave i t a l o n e . ' A f t e r t h a t they d i d n ' t t a l k about her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g much anymore, which was more or l e s s , 'back t o normal.' She d i d seem t o f e e l t h a t her f a t h e r had gained more o f an understanding o f her r e a l i n t e r e s t s and how s e r i o u s she i s , s i n c e he had l i s t e n e d t o her more f u l l y i n t h e s e s s i o n than i n t h e i r normal i n t e r a c t i o n s . 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She would not recommend v i d e o t a p i n g s e s s i o n s , s i n c e she f e l t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and i n h i b i t e d by t h e presence o f t h e camera. She a l s o would recommend m i n i m i z i n g any o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e s e s s i o n s , s i n c e she found the background people distracting.  201 STUDENT # 7 1.  .  INTERVIEW SUMMARY PRE-SESSION  EXPECTATIONS He f e l t a t the time t h a t whatever he c o u l d do t o h e l p h i m s e l f i n terms of c a r e e r p l a n n i n g would be the smart t h i n g t o do. He d i d n ' t have any sense t h a t t h e r e would be a r i s k i n v o l v e d , so he took a, " I f i t h e l p s me, i t h e l p s me" approach—nothing to lose. IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS He was nervous by the i d e a of a camera, and was g l a d h i s s e s s i o n d i d n ' t get videotaped. In r e t r o s p e c t he f e e l s h i s responses may w e l l have been c o l o u r e d by the s e l f consciousness he would have with a camera r e c o r d i n g . He d i d n ' t f e e l s t r o n g l y about e i t h e r h i s mother being t h e r e or the other student. Since he 'kind of knew' the o t h e r student, i t was an ok t h i n g , but t h i n k s he l i k e l y would have been more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s with someone he d i d n ' t know a t a l l . He d i d n ' t t h i n k the presence of the other student r e a l l y added anything t o h i s own experience or l e a r n i n g i n the s e s s i o n . With r e s p e c t t o h i s mother, he thought the i n f o r m a t i o n was nothing they hadn't a l r e a d y t a l k e d about, so i t seemed very normal f o r her t o be i n on the c o n v e r s a t i o n . Nothing new seemed t o have s u r f a c e d as a r e s u l t of them being there together, from h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES No s p e c i f i c comments r e g a r d i n g the e x e r c i s e s i n the session. He d i d go through most of the Career Pathways b o o k l e t l a t e r over a few weeks' time, and found i t n e i t h e r "extremely t h r i l l i n g " , nor " d u l l and b o r i n g " . He d i d f i n d i t u s e f u l i n promoting f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g , and would recommend l e a v i n g i t i n the program. POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES He has been i n t e r e s t e d i n computer-related c a r e e r s , and f e e l s t h a t the PICE s e s s i o n broadened out h i s p e r s p e c t i v e of career choice. Instead of j u s t l o o k i n g a t d i r e c t l y computer o c c u p a t i o n s , he saw then t h a t there were many ways t o use h i s computer i n t e r e s t s i n a c a r e e r path. For example, he c o u l d get i n t o t e a c h i n g , which he hadn't r e a l l y been considering previously. 4.  5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS Other than having a broader p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r o p t i o n s , he doesn't f e e l he has done anything d i f f e r e n t l y a r e s u l t of the PICE s e s s i o n . He has been going along, " p r e t t y much the same."  as  202 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, He doesn't t h i n k there r e a l l y has been a change i n how they i n t e r a c t about h i s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . Since he i s q u i t e c l o s e w i t h h i s mom, he f e l t she knew "most e v e r y t h i n g " beforehand, and they do t a l k o c c a s i o n a l l y about the s u b j e c t . They do sometimes s t i l l r e f e r back t o the s e s s i o n , but h i s mom i s q u i t e c a r e f u l not t o t e l l him what t o do. 7.  ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES & INSIGHTS He r e l a t e d w e l l t o a metaphor used by the c o u n s e l l o r , t h a t of d i f f e r e n t r i p p l e s i n a pond being compared t o d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r paths from the same source. For example, he 'saw' i n t h a t g r a p h i c way t h a t h i s computer i n t e r e s t s c o u l d l e a d t o something so unexpected as t e a c h i n g or e n g l i s h , s i n c e t h e r e would be a connection a f t e r a l l . 8.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT He would d e f i n i t e l y recommend v i d e o t a p i n g o n l y i f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were ok with i t . He d i d n ' t f e e l he needed f u r t h e r s e s s i o n s a t the time, but thought i t might be good t o have i t a v a i l a b l e f o r those who wanted i t .  203 STUDENT # 8 1.  INTERVIEW SUMMARY PRE-SESSION  EXPECTATIONS She d i d n ' t r e a l l y have a c l e a r i d e a of what the program would i n v o l v e , so she d i d n ' t have a s p e c i f i c g o a l f o r the session. She was i n t e r e s t e d i n whatever h e l p she c o u l d get f o r her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , but had no e x p e c t a t i o n s o t h e r than t h a t g e n e r a l one. IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS She enjoyed having her parents t h e r e , as w e l l as the other student and parent. She a p p r e c i a t e d the chance t o hear the s t r u g g l e s of the other student, t o see t h a t she wasn't the o n l y one with problems. In her s e s s i o n she got t o hear the other student t a l k about how they had a hard time p e r s e v e r i n g when problems developed; s i n c e t h a t was a b i g problem f o r her as w e l l , she f e l t b e t t e r about h e r s e l f after that. Before the PICE s e s s i o n , she b e l i e v e d t h a t working out her problems and p l a n n i n g on her own was p r e f e r a b l e , but through the i n t e r a c t i o n and i n s i g h t s of the s e s s i o n , she came t o b e l i e v e t h a t working at p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n a group format was a l s o h e l p f u l , perhaps p r o v i d i n g more u s e f u l ideas. 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES She a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the way the c o u n s e l l o r looked a t her a c t i v i t y s t y l e s and p r e f e r e n c e s , he was a b l e t o h e l p her o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n about her p e r s o n a l i t y , g o a l s , and s t r e n g t h s i n a u s e f u l way. She f e l t i t had been more c o n f u s i n g b e f o r e , and t h a t the e x e r c i s e helped her see h e r s e l f i n a way t h a t made sense. She enjoyed the Career Pathways b o o k l e t as w e l l , d e s c r i b i n g the a c t i v i t i e s as "more r e a l i s t i c " than what she'd done b e f o r e at s c h o o l . POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES Though not a huge change, she f e e l s t h a t she emerged w i t h a somewhat c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of h e r s e l f and how t o look at c a r e e r o p t i o n s i n a more organized way. She a l s o f e l t she gained some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o c e s s of u n i v e r s i t y admission and p l a n n i n g . She f e l t even worse about her s c h o o l c a r e e r p l a n n i n g (CAPP) a c t i v i t i e s afterward, f e e l i n g more s e n s i t i v e t o the p o t e n t i a l of the t e s t s t o f u n n e l her i n t o some d i r e c t i o n which may not t r u l y f i t . 4.  5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS She d i d remember t a k i n g her course c h o i c e more  204 s e r i o u s l y a f t e r t a k i n g p a r t i n PICE. She remembered the i d e a of a broad p r e p a r a t i o n and thought about her c h o i c e s very c a r e f u l l y , f e e l i n g t h a t i t helped her s e l e c t i o n s . She a l s o f e l t more motivated a f t e r PICE t o do r e s e a r c h on something she i s i n t e r e s t e d i n . She ended up c o n t a c t i n g some lawyers and t a l k i n g t o them about what the p r o f e s s i o n i s l i k e , and what education was r e q u i r e d . 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She d i d n ' t t h i n k t h a t the s e s s i o n had much impact on t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n about her c a r e e r p l a n s . She f e e l s she has a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with her mother, and t h a t they have always t a l k e d about t h i s type of t h i n g . However, her mother d i d seem more understanding afterwards, more t o l e r a n t of her weakness i n g i v i n g up too e a s i l y , due t o the presence of the other student (with the same problem) i n the s e s s i o n . She t h i n k s both of them f e l t b e t t e r about i t , seeing t h a t she wasn't the o n l y one s t r u g g l i n g there. 7. to, did and  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She f e l t the s e s s i o n went a b i t longer than i t needed perhaps i t c o u l d have been 3/4 of what i t was. A f o l l o w up probably would be good f o r everyone. She get together with a group t o t a l k about the e x p e r i e n c e , f e l t good about having t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y .  205 PARENT # 1  INTERVIEW SUMMARY  PRE-SESSION EXPECTATIONS Before the s e s s i o n she d i d n ' t r e a l l y know e x a c t l y what her daughter was t h i n k i n g i n terms of c a r e e r p l a n s . She f e l t she knew her daughter's g e n e r a l i d e a s , but thought perhaps she would g a i n some h e l p i n making her c a r e e r choices. 1.  IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS Though she r a t e d the experience as anjoyable and u s e f u l one, she thought the s e s s i o n probably would have been b e t t e r w i t h j u s t the f a c i l i t a t o r , h e r s e l f and her daughter, due t o language c h a l l e n g e s . She d i d f e e l t h a t she l e a r n e d some new t h i n g s by h e a r i n g what her daughter had t o say i n the session. For example, she learned more about her daughter's i n t e r e s t i n being a teacher, as w e l l as her depth of enjoyment i n r e a d i n g . What the other student shared seemed i n t e r e s t i n g , though nothing s a i d by the other f a m i l y seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r her own s i t u a t i o n . She d i d f e e l t h a t i t was good f o r the students t o share the experience t o g e t h e r . 2.  POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t the impact was g r e a t , but d i d n o t i c e t h a t her daughter had a new p e r s p e c t i v e on her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g than before the s e s s i o n . While her daughter was t h i n k i n g of t e a c h i n g p r i o r t o the s e s s i o n , she gained a broader p e r s p e c t i v e on c a r e e r o p t i o n s t h a t would f i t w i t h some type of t e a c h i n g . She was a l s o impressed with her daughter's a b i l i t y t o express h e r s e l f i n the s e s s i o n , and saw her daughter's c o n f i d e n c e grow as a r e s u l t . She f e e l s her daughter f e l t more c o n f i d e n t about her a b i l i t y t o p l a n her c a r e e r and. t o communicate as w e l l . 3.  4.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, Again, the impact d i d n ' t seem g r e a t ; they do t a l k about her daughter's c a r e e r plans sometimes, and she encourages her daughter t o t r y t h i n g s and c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , but she t r i e s not t o 'nag' about i t . However, t h e r e were some p o s i t i v e changes i n her own p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t she n o t i c e d a f t e r the s e s s i o n . She f e l t more c o n f i d e n t t h a t she knew her daughter b e t t e r — w h a t she wanted, and t h a t her daughter knew what she was doing i n her e x p l o r i n g and p l a n n i n g . She saw h e r s e l f as s t r i c t l y encouraging her daughter t o pursue one t h i n g before the s e s s i o n , but afterwards she was  206 a b l e t o a l s o have a broader p e r s p e c t i v e i n what she encourages her daughter t o check out. 5.  ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CHANGES & INSIGHTS She a t t r i b u t e d her daughter's g a i n s i n c o n f i d e n c e t o the f a c t t h a t she was put i n a p o s i t i o n where she had t o t h i n k and express h e r s e l f i n f r o n t o f a s m a l l group, and she did well. She was then more a b l e t o see h e r s e l f as a good communicator and t o c o n s i d e r c a r e e r s r e q u i r i n g t h a t . 6.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Keep t h e s e s s i o n without video c a m e r a — t o o much nervousness would r e s u l t . She thought she may have p r e f e r r e d knowing more ahead of time, such as the types of q u e s t i o n s t h a t would be asked. In terms of follow-up, she suggests t h a t having j u s t the students meet t o g e t h e r l a t e r would probably meet t h e i r needs; p a r e n t s wouldn't need t o be t h e r e a g a i n . T h i s would a l l o w t h e students the chance t o l e a r n from what o t h e r s t u d e n t s thought as w e l l as from t h e i r own s e s s i o n .  207 PARENT # 2  INTERVIEW SUMMARY  1.  EXPECTATIONS He r e c a l l s t h a t h i s daughter was q u i t e e x c i t e d about the o p p o r t u n i t y , and he has f e l t t h a t she has been v e r y concerned about her c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s , perhaps too much so. He thought she was wondering how t h i s might h e l p , what type of o c c u p a t i o n s her i n t e r e s t s might l e a d her towards. H i s own hope was t h a t the s e s s i o n would h e l p g i v e her a sense of c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n , but t h a t i t would a l s o encourage her t h a t she d i d n ' t need t o worry about i t so much. IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS He enjoyed the s e s s i o n and found i t a l e a r n i n g experience as w e l l . He was impressed with the i d e a s , a c t i o n s and g o a l s of both students. He f e l t the p a r e n t s had adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o express themselves, and a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t both the other parent and student can have g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y i n the eyes of one's own c h i l d ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h i s age). He a l s o found the i n t e r a c t i o n t o p r o v i d e more of an i n t e n s e focus on c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g than t h e i r normal modes of c o n v e r s a t i o n . That seemed h e l p f u l i n g a i n i n g a g r e a t e r understanding of her t h i n k i n g and interests. 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES He was p l e a s e d i n g e n e r a l with the.content of the s e s s i o n , and was q u i t e emphatic t h a t he would " a b s o l u t e l y " do i t a g a i n . He a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d the 'broadening' e f f e c t of the approach; the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a t t e r n s i n l e i s u r e and s u b j e c t i n t e r e s t s d i d not "...channel us o f f i n t o the v e r y l i m i t e d s o r t of t r a d i t i o n a l . . . " occupations. The e x e r c i s e s r a t h e r seemed t o allow f o r m u l t i p l e pathways which she c o u l d e x p l o r e without being s l o t t e d i n t o what she 'should' be. H i s daughter d i d n ' t seem i n t e r e s t e d i n going through the Career Pathways booklet r i g h t away, so he l e f t i t w i t h her t o pursue on her own. He d i d look through i t and a p p r e c i a t e d the format, which i n c l u d e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a person's v a l u e s . T h i s was something he thought was m i s s i n g i n c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n m a t e r i a l s he had seen b e f o r e . POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES He found i t d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w up with her, or t o judge any s o r t of impact, s i n c e he hasn't had c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h h i s daughter. He f e e l s the year has been a tough one f o r h i s daughter p r i m a r i l y concerning f a m i l y i s s u e s , so c a r e e r p l a n n i n g hasn't been a v e r y p r e s e n t concern or t o p i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n . H i s daughter was going 4.  to  208  be l i v i n g w i t h him (and new family) f o r the summer; he hoped t h i n g s would s e t t l e down and they c o u l d have some good t a l k s then. He d i d t h i n k she l e f t the s e s s i o n f e e l i n g more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h spending time on performing a r t s which she enjoys, perhaps because the s e s s i o n r e a l l y encouraged f o l l o w i n g one's i n t e r e s t s . A s i d e from becoming more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h her i n t e r e s t s , he wasn't sure i f she had l i g h t e n e d up a t a l l on the i s s u e of c a r e e r . He seemed h o p e f u l t h a t the g r e a t e r comfort would be a step i n t h a t direction. 5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS He c o u l d n ' t t h i n k of s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the s e s s i o n , but thought perhaps her growing i n t e r e s t i n e n g l i s h courses was encouraged t h e r e . She has done some career mentoring t h a t she was e x c i t e d about and d i d appear t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g a wider range of o p t i o n s than before. He d i d r e l a t e t h i s expanded i n t e r e s t t o having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s e s s i o n , a t l e a s t as a conjecture. She seemed " r e a l l y q u i t e keen," s t i l l s e a r c h i n g for^something t h a t w i l l r e a l l y i n t e r e s t her. 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, Although he had been hoping t o f o l l o w up w i t h h i s daughter afterward t h a t d i d n ' t m a t e r i a l i z e , due t o her concerns w i t h other i s s u e s as w e l l as l e s s - t h a n - i d e a l contact. When they would have time together, i t was d i f f i c u l t t o b r i n g up the s u b j e c t with what time they had. I t d i d p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e experience together t o r e f l e c t back on, and he valued the s e s s i o n i t s e l f f o r the shared, focused e x p e r i e n c e . The dynamics of the s e s s i o n a l s o r e i n f o r c e d h i s own b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g the p a r e n t a l r o l e as 'coach' f i g u r e s — s u p p o r t i n g s t r e n g t h s , h e l p i n g with weak areas, a s s i s t i n g them i n r e a c h i n g t h e i r own g o a l s . 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT He thought the s e s s i o n c o u l d have probed t o a f u r t h e r depth, however g i v e n the need f o r i c e - b r e a k i n g a t the s t a r t , the s e s s i o n would have t o be lengthened. I t seemed t h a t the s t u d e n t s were s t a r t i n g t o express deeper i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s , but the s e s s i o n ended s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d . The Career Pathways booklet might be u s e f u l as a primer b e f o r e the s e s s i o n , f o r both students and p a r e n t s t o work through. That might a l s o e l i m i n a t e the need f o r a second session. The booklet might a l s o be re-worked t o be s p e c i f i c t o the student p o p u l a t i o n , s i n c e i t was more g e n e r a l . F i n a l l y , he suggested t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s be e x p e c t i n g a follow-up s e s s i o n a f t e r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d . That would add a b i t more i n c e n t i v e f o r the student (and parent) t o t a l k and work through f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g — k n o w i n g the  f o l l o w - u p meeting was  coming.  210 PARENT # 3  INTERVIEW  SUMMARY  PRE-SESSION EXPECTATIONS She d i d not r e c a l l any s p e c i f i c g o a l s o r hopes f o r t h e s e s s i o n , n e i t h e r her own nor her daughter. She f e l t her daughter l i k e l y v o l u n t e e r e d more f o r t h e f u n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r than f o r any s p e c i f i c a s s i s t a n c e w i t h her career planning. 1.  IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS O v e r a l l , she thought the f a c i l i t a t o r d i d a " r e a l l y good j o b " and she seemed t o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t h i s manner was v e r y encouraging f o r the students. 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES The way her i n t e r e s t s were t a l k e d about, as w e l l as t h e f a c i l i t a t o r ' s a t t i t u d e and comments, were v e r y encouraging f o r h e r daughter. She a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t t h e f a c i l i t a t o r was not o v e r l y d i r e c t i v e , as may be the case w i t h t e s t s t h a t seem t o t e l l people what they should be. Instead, t h e t e c h n i q u e focused more on h e l p i n g them t h i n k about what they l i k e d doing, and t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y i n those a c t i v i t i e s . POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES Her daughter a l r e a d y had a f a i r l y good i d e a o f a c a r e e r path, and she seemed t o be more encouraged i n her d i r e c t i o n , however, she a l s o seemed t o s t a r t c o n s i d e r i n g o t h e r o p t i o n s as w e l l . She seems more comfortable t h a t i f h e r o r i g i n a l p l a n doesn't work out t h a t there are other c h o i c e s she can make. Her daughter a l s o l e a r n e d t h e g e n e r a l t e c h n i q u e o f the s e s s i o n and w i l l use i t i n making her c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e other student i n t h e s e s s i o n d i d n ' t have a v e r y c l e a r i d e a o f what she wanted and t h e e x e r c i s e seemed t o h e l p her make some progress i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . 4.  5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS Her daughter has not seemed t o be doing a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t l y as a r e s u l t of the s e s s i o n , j u s t perhaps f e e l i n g more encouraged and c o n s i d e r i n g broader c a r e e r o p t i o n s . 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP There doesn't appear t o have been any change i n how they i n t e r a c t around c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . They do not t a l k about t h e s u b j e c t much, and she f e e l s her daughter needs space t o make her own d e c i s i o n s . Only i f her daugher needed some d r a s t i c feedback about a " t o t a l l y " u n s u i t a b l e c a r e e r would she c o n s i d e r speaking t o her about i t . Her daughter has seemed t o g r a d u a l l y t a l k about c a r e e r p l a n s more, but  211 t h i s mother r e l a t e s t h a t more t o maturation. 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT She suggested t r y i n g the approach w i t h a more d i v e r s e group of k i d s . Most of the k i d s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s program were i n the I n c e n t i v e program, so they are more o u t g o i n g and w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s . She'd l i k e t o see how i t would work w i t h some students who don't v o l u n t e e r f o r t h i n g s , have a harder time communicating, or who don't r e a l l y have any i d e a what they want t o do. She d i d not f e e l a formal follow-up s e s s i o n was necessary, s i n c e the f a c i l i t a t o r had g i v e n out h i s number f o r anyone who wanted t o ask f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s .  212 PARENT # 4  INTERVIEW SUMMARY  PRE-SESSION EXPECTATIONS She d i d not have much p r i o r knowledge o f t h e program, so t h e r e was not much i n the way o f e x p e c t a t i o n s . She f e l t t h a t any a s s i s t a n c e i n the s u b j e c t would be u s e f u l . Her son had not r e a l l y t a l k e d about any g o a l s o r e x p e c t a t i o n s he may have had. 1.  IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS The s e s s i o n seemed t o be a p o s i t i v e experience f o r h e r . She was o b v i o u s l y very proud of her own son, and r e l a t e d s t r o n g l y t o t h e other parent's p r i d e i n her daughter. She f e e l s she gained a g r e a t e r understanding o f her son because of t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i s t e n t o him speaking i n a focused c o n v e r s a t i o n about h i s own thoughts and o p i n i o n s , and h i s f e e l i n g s about s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the p a s t . She added her own c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e experience o f t h e s e s s i o n by t a k i n g her son out t o lunch a f t e r w a r d away from the s c h o o l . She thought he had a p p r e c i a t e d t h e time and f e l t t r e a t e d more l i k e an a d u l t i n the p r o c e s s . 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES One comment she made r e l a t i n g t o a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the s p o n t a n e i t y o f the s e s s i o n , with no homework ahead o f time. She thought t h a t w h i l e some may b e n e f i t from such an arrangement, her l e a r n i n g of new i n f o r m a t i o n about her son may have a c t u a l l y been aided by t h e f a c t t h a t they hadn't worked through a b o o k l e t ahead of time and prepared answers. POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She was q u i t e sure the s e s s i o n p r o v i d e d some b e n e f i t t o her son. What seemed evident t o her was a k i n d o f encouragement he r e c e i v e d from being a b l e t o express h i m s e l f i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n , t o share h i s c a r e e r thoughts and f e e l i n g s with a d u l t s and s t r a n g e r s without b e i n g t o o nervous. She thought t h a t confidence and s k i l l i n t h i s area was v e r y e s s e n t i a l t o success i n t h e working world. 4.  5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS They have not spoken much about t h e s e s s i o n o r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g s i n c e , but she has observed t h a t he seemed more motivated t o g e t some work experience a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n . He a l s o s t a r t e d t o g e t more s e r i o u s about doing w e l l i n s c h o o l , and she had s p e c i f i c a l l y noted t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n a l e t t e r afterward.  213 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She d i d n ' t t h i n k the s e s s i o n a f f e c t e d how they i n t e r a c t and communicate about h i s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , though she d i d l e a r n more about h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s , as r e l a t e d above. A couple of examples she r e l a t e d were l e a r n i n g about h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r working i n a group r a t h e r than on h i s own, and h e a r i n g how a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n w i t h one of h i s s p o r t s teams had a f f e c t e d him more s i g n i f i c a n t l y than she knew b e f o r e . She takes a r e l a x e d approach t o her son's c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s , because she f e e l s t h a t h i s i d e a s c o u l d l i k e l y grow and change much i n the next y e a r s . He may end up needing t o p i c k up c e r t a i n types of courses l a t e r , but she i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t he w i l l have the s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n t o do whatever w i l l be necessary t o get where he chooses t o go. 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT The i n f o r m a l nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n was e x c e l l e n t and she would h i g h l y recommend t h a t i t s t a y t h a t way. She a l s o doubted whether she would have p a r t i c i p a t e d had the s e s s i o n been videotaped, although she now wishes she had an audiotape of the s e s s i o n t o r e f l e c t back on and r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t portions. The room seemed q u i t e s m a l l and very hot; she would have l i k e d a b i t more space and freedom t o move around as well. She recommended keeping the other s t u d e n t - p a r e n t p a i r i n the s e s s i o n , f e e l i n g t h a t the content of the s e s s i o n might s t a r t t o go deeper than some people's comfort zone i f the i n t e r a c t i o n were more i n t e n s e l y one-on-one. A f o l l o w - u p wouldn't be s t r i c t l y necessary, but thought such a s e s s i o n each year might be good i f i t c o u l d be timed t o g i v e students a chance t o make the most out of a n a l y z i n g t h e i r course experiences and making t h e i r next s e l e c t i o n s . I t might be an i d e a f o r other parents t o c o n s i d e r 'doing l u n c h ' afterward with t h e i r teen.  214 PARENT # 5  INTERVIEW SUMMARY  PRE-SESSION EXPECTATIONS She had no s p e c i f i c g o a l s , s i n c e she d i d n ' t know what t o expect. Her daughter hadn't t o l d her much about the program, and she simply went along t o be of support f o r her daughter i n something she wanted t o do. 1.  IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS They both enjoyed the s e s s i o n very much, having the o p p o r t u n i t y t o share t h e i r own thoughts as w e l l as hear those of the other student and parent. She f e l t i t was very important i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r the two students t o have a chance t o hear each o t h e r ' s p o i n t s of view. S i n c e the o t h e r student was a boy, t h a t added an e x t r a dimension t o the l e a r n i n g , s i n c e boys and g i r l s probably do not t a l k t o g e t h e r i n the same way t h a t g i r l s might with other g i r l s . Having another parent i n the s e s s i o n a l s o c o u l d r e i n f o r c e what they might say t o t h e i r own daughter, but i t was n i c e f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o hear i t from a d i f f e r e n t source t h i s time. 2.  POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES She has not observed any p a r t i c u l a r changes, but s t i l l v e r y much v a l u e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r her daughter t o review and express her c a r e e r thoughts and g o a l s , both w i t h s t r a n g e r s and a l s o with her own parent t h e r e . She f e e l s her daughter must have gained something p o s i t i v e from the experience. 3.  4.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS Again, she f e l t t h a t the e f f e c t was not v e r y c o n c r e t e , but t h a t the s e s s i o n helped her review and o r g a n i z e her thoughts about her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . Her daughter has been most focused on doing w e l l i n s c h o o l , so she hasn't seemed t o have the time a t t h i s p o i n t to t h i n k much about c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . 5.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP, She hasn't f e l t t h a t they communicate any d i f f e r e n t l y now, but t h a t they have always been very c l o s e . Her daughter would normally share her thoughts, f e e l i n g s , and g o a l s w i t h her. T a l k i n g i n the group was a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r them t o have together though. She d i d f e e l she understood her daughter a b i t b e t t e r and was more t o l e r a n t of her weakness f o r g i v i n g up on things. T h i s came about because the other student shared a s u r p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r weakness and i t helped t h i s mom r e a l i z e  215 t h a t her daughter wasn't so unusual a f t e r a l l . Now she i s t r y i n g t o focus more on l e a r n i n g how t o encourage her daughter, t o h e l p her become b e t t e r i n her problem s o l v i n g . 6.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT The i d e a of c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i s a new concept f o r her, so she i s s t i l l g e t t i n g used t o i t . She d e f i n i t e l y thought the p a i r i n g of a boy and g i r l was u s e f u l f o r them, as s t a t e d above. She a l s o would suggest t h a t new immigrants be p a i r e d w i t h a f a m i l y who had been her longer, s i n c e t h a t would a l s o add t o the d i v e r s i t y of viewpoints. She hadn't thought a follow-up s e s s i o n was n e c e s s a r y f o r them, r a t h e r t h a t i t had done what was p o s s i b l e a t t h a t time; another s e s s i o n too soon afterward would have j u s t brought up the same t h i n g s .  216 PARENT # 6  INTERVIEW SUMMARY  PRE-SESSION EXPECTATIONS Before the s e s s i o n he f e l t he knew h i s daughter's g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s , but not n e c e s s a r i l y her s p e c i f i c g o a l s f o r the program. He wasn't sure what the s e s s i o n would i n v o l v e , but went i n t o i t simply hoping t h a t i t would be of some b e n e f i t i n terms of her c a r e e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 1.  IN-SESSION EVALUATION OF PROCESS/DYNAMICS He a p p r e c i a t e d the i n f o r m a l atmosphere, and d i d n ' t f e e l i n h i b i t e d by the presence of any of the p a r t i c i p a n t s or o b s e r v e r s . He f e l t the students had some good c o n v e r s a t i o n between them, and he ended up with some good i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the other parent as w e l l . The f a c i l i t a t o r helped make everyone f e e l a t ease, and was very "down-to-earth". The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s e s s i o n made i t u s e f u l f o r both t h e p a r e n t s and the students, e s p e c i a l l y becoming more aware of the t h i n g s they shared i n common with t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s . As a parent, i t was good t o hear t h a t the other p a r e n t was a l s o encouraging t h e i r k i d s t o take t h e i r s t u d i e s s e r i o u s l y and l e a r n t o work hard: "We're not the o n l y people b e a t i n g t h e drum!" 2.  3.  EVALUATION OF CONTENT/ACTIVITIES He f e l t most emphatic t h a t homework ahead of time would have d e t e r r e d from the s e s s i o n ' s g o a l s , r a t h e r than enhanced them. Without the p r i o r warning, p a r t i c i p a n t s had t o be much more c a n d i d and spontaneous; they c o u l d n ' t prepare what might be c o n s i d e r e d ' r i g h t ' answers, so they had t o g i v e t h e i r own on the spot. T h i s i s what he's observed i n h i s b u s i n e s s experience, and i t seemed t o work here as w e l l . The s e s s i o n worked t o apply a s t r u c t u r e onto what a t f i r s t may have seemed t o be a random c o l l e c t i o n of thoughts, f e e l i n g s and i n t e r e s t s , and i t worked w e l l . I t d i d lead to some new ways of l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s t h a t we hadn't f u l l y seen before. POST-SESSION IMPACT ON CAREER PERSPECTIVE/ATTITUDES One t h i n g he observed was t h a t i t c r y s t a l i z e d the i d e a i n h i s daughter's mind t h a t working f o r s h o r t - t e r m g o a l s today ( l i k e exams) w i l l have i t s rewards f u r t h e r down the road, even i f i t i s hard t o see t h a t f a r ahead. I t i s hard f o r k i d s t o see the longer-term p e r s p e c t i v e and the s e s s i o n h e l p e d her make t h a t connection b e t t e r . He has n o t i c e d a l s o t h a t as the year p r o g r e s s e d she had t o devote more time and energy t o s c h o o l work and t h e p r e s s u r e has been mounting i n terms of g e t t i n g good grades 4.  217 and t h i n k i n g about t h e f u t u r e . 5.  IMPACT ON CAREER PLANS & ACTIONS I t was d i f f i c u l t t o say what impact t h e s e s s i o n has had on h e r s p e c i f i c c a r e e r p l a n s , but he suspected t h a t she may be more encouraged t o pursue something she would r e a l l y l i k e , as opposed t o making other v a l u e s more predominant. The o t h e r student i n the s e s s i o n had a f a i r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e area of e l e c t r o n i c s , and through t h e a n a l y s i s o f what he c o u l d do with t h a t , i t a l s o emphasized choosing t o make t h e most out of what you l i k e d doing. Although i t i s hard t o say how much t h i s r e l a t e s t o t h e PICE s e s s i o n , she has gotten more s e r i o u s about completing her swimming t r a i n i n g , which has been a l o t o f hard work. She has shown i n t e r e s t i n t h i n g s before, but t h i s i s t h e f i r s t example o f her r e a l l y working long and hard t o achieve a goal. 6.  IMPACT ON FAMILY COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIP He c o u l d n ' t see any s o r t of impact on t h e i r communication as a r e s u l t of the s e s s i o n involvement. They are a v e r y u n i q u e l y c l o s e and communicative f a m i l y as a r u l e , t a l k i n g d a i l y with t h e i r daughter about s c h o o l happenings and her f e e l i n g s about them.  218 7.  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT The s e s s i o n c o u l d have gone a b i t longer, but i t was a l s o f i n e the way i t was. I f there were t o be any f o l l o w up, probably the i d e a l t i m i n g would be w i t h i n about a month a f t e r w a r d s , g i v i n g time t o a s s i m i l a t e the s e s s i o n ' s information. One t h i n g t h a t the students may r e a l l y b e n e f i t from i n the s c h o o l would be t o have a program where parents come i n and t a l k about t h e i r own c a r e e r s — w h a t l e d the parent i n t o the c a r e e r , what motivates them, what i t i s l i k e , e t c e t e r a . Students need more t a n g i b l e , ' r e a l l i f e ' i n f o r m a t i o n , l e s s t h e o r e t i c a l words on paper i n f o r m a t i o n .  219 Appendix I Participant Validations PARENT INVOLVED CAREER EXPLORATION: Responses t o Interview Summaries STUDENT #1 I t was f i n e .  E v e r y t h i n g was t h e r e .  STUDENT #2 I t was f i n e . . . n o problems. STUDENT #3 I t was f i n e . STUDENT #4 I can't t h i n k of any changes.  I t looks f i n e t o me.  STUDENT #5 I t looks p r e t t y a c c u r a t e ; i t looks  fine.  STUDENT #6 I t was f i n e . STUDENT #7 F i n e as i t i s . o t h e r students?  Are you going t o keep doing i t w i t h  STUDENT #8 I t ' s ok; i t ' s p e r f e c t . PARENT #1 I t was f i n e . PARENT #2 I t was p r e t t y a c c u r a t e . You've captured t h e essence q u i t e w e l l . PARENT #3 I t looks f i n e . The only t h i n g was I d i d n ' t mean t o say we don't t a l k about p l a n s , j u s t t h a t I don't t r y t o i n f l u e n c e her. We do t a l k about i t q u i t e a l o t . The r e s t of i t i s f i n e . PARENT #4 That was f i n e . I was g l a d t o see i t ; i t was v e r y positive. I t r e l a y e d what I was k i n d o f heading f o r . I f e e l a l i t t l e more i n tune now and I see t h a t he's capable of conducting h i m s e l f .  220 PARENT #5 I t ' s ok; i t ' s very good. I t was a very good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r my r e l a t i o n s h i p with my daughter. PARENT #6 I t was f i n e — n o problems. to the point.  I thought i t was p r e t t y much  

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