Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The transition experiences of life partners of police recruits during the recruit training process Sinclair, Robyn Myfanwy 1998

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1998-0183.pdf [ 5.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0053970.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0053970-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0053970-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0053970-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0053970-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0053970-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0053970-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0053970-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0053970.ris

Full Text

THE TRANSITION EXPERIENCES OF LIFE PARTNERS OF POLICE RECRUITS DURING THE RECRUIT TRAINING PROCESS by ROBYN MYFANWY SINCLAIR B.H.E., The University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1998 © Robyn Myfanwy Sinclair, 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Current research indicates that policing is one of the most stressful occupations. To date, there has been little research on the police recruit training process and the subsequent impact of that process not only on the recruit, but on the recruit's life partner. The life partner of the police constable has been identified as a significant factor in the constable's success, yet there is virtually no research describing the life partner's perception or experience of the recruit training process. The literature indicates that work can spillover negatively into the home environment, thus, impacting upon the life partner and hence the relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the transition experiences of the life partner over the 30 weeks of the recruit training process using Sinclair's (1990) modification of Chamer and Schlossberg's (1986) theoretical framework in order to determine the nature and outcomes of this transition process. Specifically, the study investigated the characteristics of the individual, the environment, and the transition that may have had an impact on the life partner's adjustment process. Police recruit life partners (n = 16) were asked to complete three questionnaires that were developed for this study, based on Sinclair's (1990) work with elite athletes' retirement from high performance sport. The participants completed a questionnaire at the end of each of the three blocks of recruit training. The results of the study indicated that (a) this transition process was not classified as stressful to the life partners, (b) that the impact of the training process was only slight and, (c) the general outlook on the transition and life for the majority of the participants was positive to very positive. This exploratory, longitudinal study was intended to gain a better understanding of the experiences of a crucial, yet neglected, component in the law enforcement community. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A B S T R A C T ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S iii L I S T O F T A B L E S v L I S T O F F I G U R E S vi A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S vii I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E 4 Stress and Coping Theory 4 • Law Enforcement Stressors 6 • Stresses on the Relationship of Law Enforcement Couples 8 • Consequences of Increased Stress 8 • Work-Family Conflict and Work Spillover 8 • Coping "11 Couples Research 12 • The Couple Relationship 12 • Communication 14 • Conflict 14 • Dual-Career Couples 15 Police Life Partner Research 16 • The Role of the Police Wife 16 • Police Marriages 1 7 • Communication 17 • Shift Work 18 • Couple Coping Strategies 1 8 Adult Development Literature 21 • Age and Stage Theories 23 • Theories Based on Age 23 • Theories Based on Stage 23 • Theories Based on Moral or Ego Development 23 • Life Event and Transition Theories 24 • Individual Timing and Variability Theories 25 The Theoretical Model: Transition and Adaptation 26 • Transition 26 • Adaptation 27 • The Conceptual Model for Exploring Transitions 29 Factors Affecting the Adaptation to Transition 31 iii The Transition Process: Coping Assets and Liabilities 31 • Transition Characteristics 31 • Individual Characteristics 33 • Environmental Characteristics 35 • Outcomes 37 Modification of the Model 37 Statement of the Problem 40 METHOD 41 Participants 41 Design 42 Procedure 43 Instruments 44 • Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaire 44 • Dyadic Adjustment Scale 45 Data Analysis 47 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 52 Does the Recruit Training Process Have an Impact on the Life Partner of the Recruit? 52 Ancilliary Data 61 What Strategies Does the Life Partner Utilize to Cope With the Transition Process?.. 63 What Support Systems Does the Life Partner Access in Order to Cope With the Transition? 63 Does the Type of Transition Influenc How the Life Partner Moves Through the Transition Process? 64 Does the Balance or Ratio of Each Individual's Coping Assets and Liabilities Relate to the Outcome of the Transition? 66 CONCLUSION 69 • Limitations 70 • Future Recommendations 70 REFERENCES 72 APPENDIX A: Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaires I, II, III and Cover Letters 80 APPENDIX B: Dyadic Adjustment Scale 102 APPENDIX C: Letter Explaining the Study 105 APPENDIX D: Informed Consent Form 107 iv LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Recruit Training and Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaire (RLPTQ) Assessment Time Line 42 2 Dependent Variables Used in the Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance — Question 1, 2, 3 48 3 Dependent Variables Used in Determining Total Asset/ Liability Score — Question 5 51 4 Means, Standard Deviations, and Repeated Measures (T, T 2 T3) Analysis of Variance for Transition Process Variables 53 5 Changes as a Result of Recruit Training as Identified by Life Partners Over the Three Training Periods (T^ T 2 T3) 57 6 Stressful Situations Identified by Life Partners 58 v LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 The Individual in Transition 30 2 A Modified Model of the Individual in Transition 39 3 Modified Model Related Variables 46 4 Role in Decision Making and Life Satisfaction 65 5 Asset and Liability Ratings 67 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Bonita Long for the support, encouragement and amount of time she has spent with me during the past year of study. I would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Beth Havercamp and Dr. Fiona Kay for their support and input. To Dr. David Sanderson, who kept me sane during the Systat® fiasco, thank you. And thank you to Inspector Carolyn Daley without whom I could not have begun this study. I would not have managed through this process had it not been for the love, support and encouragement from my parents, Dr. Gary and Myfanwy Sinclair and my sister, Dr. Dana Sinclair for without them I would feel lost. To my dear friend lean Cessna Mickelson, I thank you for your energy, sense of humour, support and caring. Finally, I could not have accomplished this somewhat arduous task had it not been for the love, support and strength of my two, soon to be three boys — my life partner, Laurence Rankin and my sons Finlay and Declan...thank you, I love you. vii THE TRANSITION EXPERIENCES OF LIFE PARTNERS OF POLICE RECRUITS DURING THE RECRUIT TRAINING PROCESS Introduction The stressful transition that police recruits undergo during academy training has not been addressed in the literature. During the academy training period, civilians are developed into qualified police constables. For many recruits, it is a time of great change and consequently great stress. Although studies have addressed stress and coping behaviours in high stress academy settings (Violanti, 1992), they have not examined the impact of the transition process on the recruit or their life partners. Most of the recruits undergo the transition of leaving a civilian setting and entering a paramilitary organization. The academy training is comprised of three phases or blocks of training: (a) basic training (classroom experience), (b) practical, "on the road" experience, and (c) completion of basic training (more classroom experience). During the practical component, the recruits are involved in "real police work" and are faced with a variety of stressful situations. It is assumed that these stresses will have some impact on their lives, as well as the lives of their life partners. Work spillover and work-family conflict has been a focus of attention for researchers in the past two decades and has ramifications for police recruits and their life partners. It has been hypothesized that work interferes negatively with home life (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985; Small & Riley, 1990). Moreover, when examining police constables specifically, it has been concluded that work setting characteristics (e.g., shift work), less social support, and a greater number of stressful events experienced by the constable in non-work events in the preceding year, increase the amount of work-family conflict (Burke, 1988). Although, the impact of work and non-work events on police constables has been the subject of investigation, the impact of similar events on the constables' life partner has been virtually ignored. Several researchers have alluded to the 1 necessity of focusing research on the life partners of people in stressful occupations as they often play an important role in the reduction of work-related stress (Beehr, Johnson, & Nieva, 1995). The specific interest of this research project is the impact that the recruit training process has on the life partners. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of empirical research examining the impact of this process on the recruit constables' themselves and even less dealing specifically with the impact on their life partners (Elliott et al., 1986; Graf, 1986; Stenmark, DePiano, Wackwitz, Cannon, & Walfish, 1982; Stratton, 1975). The life partner of the police constable has only recendy become regarded as a significant factor in the success of the constable's career (Reiser, 1978; Saper, 1980; Stratton, Tracy-Stratton, & Alldredge, 1982; Webber, 1976) and it is assumed that this would also be the case for the recruit in training. However, the information presented in these articles is incomplete and conceptually limited as not only are the reports anecdotal in nature but the role of the life partner is described primarily in such superficial terms of creating and maintaining a good home life in order that the constable will perform effectively on the job. In order to examine transitions, Schlossberg and Charner (1986) developed a model that proposes that the outcome of any transition is determined by the balance between a person's coping assets and liabilities. This balance results from the interaction of three groups of variables: (a) the characteristics of the transition itself, (b) the characteristics of the person experiencing the transition, and (c) the characteristics of the environment. The interaction of these variables determine the outcome of the transition process, that is, whether the adaptation (i.e., being able to integrate the transition into one's life; Schlossberg, 1981) was successful or not. Sinclair (1990) introduced a modification to Chamer and Schlossberg's (1986) model, in her work with the transitional experiences of former high performance athletes who had undergone retirement from sport. Sinclair's modifications are a reassignment of specific variables to alternate categories that in her 2 estimation lead to a more precise model. This modified model was used to examine the transition that the life partners of recruits underwent during the recruit training process. Several gaps exist in the current literature. Of prime importance is the absence of meaningful data from the perspective of the police life partner. The majority of the available information is presented as the constable's interpretation of his/her life partner's perspective. The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe and analyze the transition experience of life partners of police constables over the 30 weeks of recruit academy training using Sinclair's (1990) modification of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model of adaptation to transitions, and to examine the effects of this transition on both the life partner and the relationship. More specifically the expectations, coping strategies, support systems, and other variables that may have an impact upon the life partner's adjustment process were investigated. 3 Review of Literature Policing has been described as a very stressful occupation (Burke, 1994; Kroes & Hurrell, 1974; Reiser, 1974). Although the research has identified the stressors inherent in policing and their impact on the officer, very few studies have focused on the perspective of the police spouse (life partner). For police recruits, a major transition to be faced is the change from civilian to police officer. For many, it can be a time of great stress that has an impact on many aspects of the recruit's life. Of great concern at this time is the impact of the Gaining process on the relationship with the life partner. Research on the impact of work spillover and work-family conflict has been conducted on the life partner relationship in a number of vocations, however, there is very little information with respect to policing, and even less with respect to recruits. When examining transition and adaptation, it is appropriate to consider the literature on adult development. According to Chamer and Schlossberg (1986), not only is adaptation dependent upon the transition and the environment but upon the characteristics of the individual, such as, life stage. Knowing where an individual is in the life span developmental process will provide some understanding as to the sources and nature of stress, as well as the ratio of coping assets and liabilities. This review is structured to look first at stress and coping theory and specific stressors associated with police work, and then the work spillover literature. Following this, literature relating to couples in general, then the police life partner specifically is examined. This leads to theories of adult development. Finally, the model used to examine transition and adaptation is discussed and provides the backdrop for the examination and exploration of the transition experience of the life partners of police constables over the 30 weeks of recruit academy training. Stress and Coping Theory Over a number of years, Lazarus and his colleagues, have developed a theory of psychological stress and coping and have defined stress as "a relationship between the 4 person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and as endangering well-being" (Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen, & DeLongis, 1986, p. 572). This theory identifies two processes defined as critical mediators of stressful person-environment relations: (a) cognitive appraisal, and (b) coping. Cognitive appraisal is a process used by an individual to assess whether a particular situation is relevant to his/her well-being and how it may or may not be relevant. The process is comprised of primary appraisal; an individual's assessment of whether anything is at stake in this situation and secondary appraisal; an individual's assessment if anything can be done to prevent or overcome harm or to improve the situation (Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-Schetter, DeLongis, & Gruen, 1986). Coping is defined as "the person's cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage (reduce, minimize, master or tolerate) the internal and external demands of the person-environment transaction that is appraised as taxing or exceeding the person's resources" (Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen et al., 1986, p. 572). Folkman et al. (1986) stress that there are three important features of this definition. First, coping is process oriented and focuses on what the individual actually thinks and how he/she behaves in a specific stressful situation, as well as how these thoughts and behaviours change as the situation unfolds. Second, coping is contextual, that is, it is influenced by the individual's appraisal of the actual demands of the situation and the resources he/she has for managing them. Third, coping is defined simply as the individual's efforts to manage demands regardless of the success or lack of success of these efforts. There are no assumptions concerning the definition of "good" or "bad" coping (Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-Schetter et al., 1986). The two primary functions of coping are to: (a) alter the problem that is causing the distress — problem-focused coping, and (b) regulate the stressful emotion — emotion-focused coping. Previous research supports the notion that coping generally includes both functions in almost every type of stressful encounter (Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-Schetter et al., 1986; Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen et al., 1986). 5 In contrast, Pearlin and Schooler (1978) identify three areas that coping strategies can be divided into: (a) strategies or responses used to modify the stressful situation (problem-focused), (b) strategies or responses to control or modify the meaning of the stressful situation (emotion-focused), and (c) strategies or responses to control or manage the stressful situation. In this study, the type of stressors, as well as their perceived impact on the police recruit couple is explored. Strategies that the individual employs in coping with the resultant stresses that the police recruit brings from the training situation are identified and discussed. Law Enforcement Stressors Police work has been identified as a very shessful occupation (Burke, 1994; Kroes & Hurrell, 1974; Reiser, 1974; Violanti, 1993) and the literature reveals four main categories of stressors that are identified by the majority of police officers: (a) external stressors, (b) organizational stressors, (c) task-related stressors, and (d) personal stressors (Anson & Bloom, 1988; Burke, 1994; Kaufmann & Beehr; 1989; Violanti & Aron, 1993; Wexler & Logan, 1983). A fifth, and very important category; "stressors peculiar to being a woman" is also identified (Goolkasian & Geddes, 1985; Pendergrass & Ostrove, 1984; Wexler & Logan, 1983). External stressors can be defined as frustration with the judicial system and the media, as well as the negative attitudes of the public towards the police. This categoiy of stressors is one of the most troublesome for police officers (Graf, 1986; Reiser, 1974; Violanti & Aron, 1993; Wexler & Logan 1983). Organizational stressors are such items as poor pay, excessive paperwork, inadequate training and equipment, shift work, limited promotional opportunities, and lack of administrative support (Anson & Bloom, 1988; Besner & Robinson, 1982; Burke, 1994; Kaufmann & Beehr, 1989; Violanti & Aron, 1994). It is important to note that the research is primarily American, therefore some of the stressors may not accurately reflect 6 the Canadian police milieu. For example, in general a police constable in Canada is better paid than their counterpart in the United States, therefore concerns regarding taking on a second job and the inherent stressors associated with it are not as relevant in a Canadian environment. Task-related stiessors are assumed by the public to be the most stressful for police, for example, fear, danger and boredom associated with the job, as well as stress from continual exposure to tragedy (Besner & Robinson, 1982; Burke, 1994; Pendergrass & Ostrove, 1984; Wexler & Logan 1983; Violanti & Marshall, 1983). The police constables themselves rarely mention danger as a stressor. The literature offers several explanations for this, for example, repression (Kroes, Margolis, & Hurrell, 1974), denial (Wexler & Logan, 1983), or that danger is not viewed as stressful because it is an everyday aspect of the job (Terry, 1981). Personal stressors include such factors as individual success and safety, peer group pressure, health, marital problems, and alcoholism (Goolkasian & Geddes, 1985; Wexler & Logan 1983). Stressors peculiar to being a woman (Goolkasian & Geddes, 1985; Pendergrass & Ostrove, 1984; Wexler & Logan, 1983), although rarely discussed is a category that is becoming increasingly more important as more and more women are joining police forces. Wexler and Logan's (1983) study on stress and women police officers it was found that for female police officers, organizational stressors and stressors peculiar to being a woman were mentioned most often. The sources of stress peculiar to being a woman are: (a) the negative attitudes of male officers, (b) training (that was overtly hostile as the trainers did not seem to know what to do with women), (c) group blame, that is the feeling that the women were not only affected by their own actions, but by the actions of all the other women in the department, (d) responses of other men, in that if the female officer is in a social situation unrelated to "the job," men may be reluctant to become involved because they may feel intimidated, and (e) lack of role models. 7 Not only do these types of stressors impact upon the police recruit, they also have a concommitant effect on the life partner. As there is limited research on the life partner's interpretation of the impact of these stressors, this study endeavours to contribute to the literature in this regard. Stresses on the Relationship of Law Enforcement Couples Stratton (1975), in his article on pressures in law enforcement marriages, has identified six major stressors faced by police couples. They are: (a) suppression of emotion, (b) over protection of family members, (c) displaced frustration and anger, (d) ineffective coping sttategies, (e) unspoken fears (the police officer does not want to increase life partner's anxiety level), and (f) the need for both the life partner and the police officer to be looked after by each other. For example, the officer may feel that he/she looks after everyone all day, and when he/she gets home it is his/her turn to be looked after. The life partner may have similar feelings. Those feelings coupled with resentment at the availability of the officer to the public but not to his/her own family may increase the stress experienced in the relationship. Consequences of Increased Stress There are many consequences of increased stress in the work place that are outlined in the literature. Not only do these consequences affect the police officer, but they also have an impact on both the life partner and the relationship. Some of the consequences are: (a) anger, (b) emotional detachment, (c) use of alcohol and drugs, (d) job dissatisfaction, (e) suicide, (f) psychological burnout, and (g) work-family conflict (Besner & Robinson, 1982; Burke, 1988; Burke, 1994; Violanti, Marshall, & Howe, 1985; Wexler & Logan, 1983). An area that needs to be examined in more detail is work-family conflict and work spillover. Work-Family Conflict and Work Spillover Work-family conflict and work spillover has proven to be a topic of interest to researchers in the past 20 years. Work-family conflict, as defined by Greenhaus and 8 Beutell (1985), is "a form of interrole conflict in which role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect. That is, participation in the work (family) role is made more difficult by participation in the family (work) role" (p. 77). Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) identified three types of work-family conflict: (a) time-based — excessive work time, role overload, schedule conflicts, inflexibility of schedules, marital status, presence of children and family size; (b) strain-based — work and family stress, negative emotional spillover and supportiveness of life partner; and (c) behaviour-based — incompatibilities between the role behaviours required in one sphere and behaviours in another sphere. Small and Riley (1990) examined numerous processes proposed by researchers who hypothesize that work interferes negatively with home life. They have condensed these processes into three distinct categories: (a) time spent at work, thus away from home, (b) psychological absorption, or being mentally preoccupied with work even when not at work, and (c) energy, that is, the physical and psychological challenges of work that can fatigue an individual. They also suggested four nonwork role contexts (i.e., marital relationship, parent-child relationship, involvement in leisure activities, and household responsibilities) that could potentially be affected by work spillover. In their study on the assessment of work spillover into family life, Small and Riley mailed questionnaires to 130 male bank executives and their spouses who had at least one child under the age of 18 living at home. They developed the Work Spillover Scale in order to measure if, and how these role contexts may be affected by work spillover, and if spillover was selective or affected each role context differently. They concluded that the participants could distinguish between the three spillover processes however, they could not distinguish between the four different role contexts. In addition, the authors found that when work spillover affected one role context, it was perceived to affect the other role contexts in equal proportion. 9 Burke's (1988) study examined antecedents and consequences of work-family conflict using 828 participants (738 men and 62 women) employed in police work who were attending classes at the Ontario Police College. The cross-sectional survey study focused only on the interference or conflict of work on the family. The results of the study indicated that: (a) demographic characteristics were generally unrelated to work-family conflict except that married individuals and individuals with greater Type A characteristics reported more work-family conflict, (b) police constables with less social support reported greater work-family conflict, (c) work setting characteristics such as shift work and a negative work setting were significandy related to work-family conflict, and (d) increased work-family conflict was reported by police constables who experienced a greater number of stressful non-work events or demands in the preceding year. Burke also found that constables reporting greater work-family conflict were: (a) less satisfied with their jobs, (b) reported greater psychological burnout, (c) had more psychosomatic symptoms and negative feeling states, and (d) were more likely to engage in negative lifestyle behaviours. In summary, Burke (1988) found that work-family conflict: (a) leads to lower job satisfaction and greater psychosomatic syptomatology, (b) results from events in both work and family arenas, (c) has negative consequences, and (d) has stronger effects on the individual than work and non-work stressors. Burke (1988) and Crouter (1984) suggest that an important direction for further research is to examine the neglected side of work-family conflict, the spillover from the family to work. Work spillover is bi-directional and can also be positive, however much of the research focuses solely on the negative influences of work on the family. Though interesting, the impact of family on work is beyond the scope of this study. The impact of the work stresses on the police constable and the subsequent conflicts that arise in the family have been documented, there is however, very little research on the impact of these stressors on, and the potential conflicts that may arise for the life partner. The need to focus research on the spouses or life partners of people in stressful occupations 10 has been alluded to by researchers. As the primary focus of this study was to examine the impact of the recruit ttaining process on the life partner, some insight into this underresearched area was gained. Coping Although occupational stress has become a major focus for researchers over the past decade, there is a paucity of research on coping with stress in this area. This pattern is replicated in the field of police research as well (Beehr, Johnson, & Nieva, 1995; Fain & McCormick, 1988). In one of the few studies examining issues related to coping in police officers, Beehr, Johnson, and Nieva (1995) concluded that life partners can play an important role in police work-related stress. In the research examining coping mechanisms used by police officers, two categories have been delineated, adaptive and maladaptive. In terms of adaptive mechanisms, Violanti (1992) found that among police recruits in a high stress academy experience, problem solving and emotional coping were significant strategies in helping the recruit decrease distress. Repetti (1989) reported that social withdrawal can represent an effective short-term response to certain job stressors as it facilitates relaxation and recovery from elevated arousal levels. Several other researchers indicate that spousal support is an effective coping strategy (Kaufmann & Beehr, 1989; Repetti, 1989; Violanti & Aron, 1994). Finally, Beehr et al. (1995) identified religiosity as a potential coping strategy. Religion has been overlooked in the past as it is "a somewhat taboo topic for research and even discussion in a scientific forum" (p. 5). Maladaptive coping behaviours that have been outlined in several studies include the use of drugs and alcohol (Violanti, Marshall, & Howe, 1985; Wexler & Logan, 1983), cynicism (Violanti & Marshall, 1983), deviant behaviour (Violanti & Marshall, 1983), detachment (Wexler & Logan, 1983), and rugged individualism (Beehr et al., 1995). The coping behaviours/mechanisms outlined above are perceived to be effective in reducing stress for the police constable and appear to be used frequently. Though 11 perceived as having a positive effect, the life partner may perceive the effects differently, as a result, the perceptions and impact of the coping behaviours on the life partner were examined in this study. Couples Research The transition experience of the police recruit's life partner through the recruit training process is the focus of this study. Though the primary concern is the individual, it is important to look at the life partner as a component of the couple system. As the couple relationship is unique, background with respect to its unique nature is important to examine. The Couple Relationship The literature on couples examines the couple as a system that has its own set of dynamics, challenges, and characteristics separate from the individual and the family. Bubenzer and West (as cited in Young & Long, 1998) suggest there are six characteristics that set the couple relationship apart from other relationships: (a) it is voluntary, (b) it contains a balance of stability and growth, (c) it has a past, a present, and a future, (d) it is a merging of two perspectives and histories often with different values and world views, (e) it is reciprocal, and (f) each person must maintain a separate identity within the couple. Joining as a couple or entering a marriage is often thought of as one of the easiest stages in the lifecycle. In fact, it is a time of transition to a new stage of life. This new stage requires the couple to form a new set of rules, goals, and a different structure of the family (Carter & McGoldrick, 1980). The couple system must be maintained as a separate system in order to remain healthy (Young & Long, 1998). Some of the tasks and challenges include (a) establishing and maintaining boundaries, (b) couple versus individual needs, (c) individual as well as family of origin expectations, (d) changing and incorporating children, (e) need for intimacy, and (f) dealing with competition and power within the relationship (Young & Long, 1998). 12 Healthy couples allow for and accept differences, assume each other's motivations are good, believe that their differences will be resolved, believe in something larger than the relationship, and practice healthy behaviours (e.g., open communication, acceptance, encouragement, etc.) (Beavers, 1985; Sperry & Carlson, 1991; Young & Long, 1998). Stressors in couple relationships can be classified into three categories: (a) Vertical Stressors, (b) Horizontal Stressors, and (c) System-Level Stressors (Carter & McGoldrick, 1980). Vertical stressors are those that are passed down from earlier generations of one's family tree such as family patterns, myths, legacies, and secrets. Horizontal stressors can be predictable life cycle transition stresses such as, the birth of a child, dealing with adolescents, and the children leaving home. They can also be unpredictable life events such as, accidents, chronic health problems, and unexpected deaths. System-level stressors include social, cultural, religious, economic and political influences (Carter & McGoldrick, 1980; Young & Long, 1998). Both horizontal stressors such as the transition from civilian life partner to life partner of a police constable, and system-level stressors such as social, institutional, and economic stressors were evident in this study. Finally, the couple goes through developmental stages and has its own set of tasks to complete. Wallerstein (as cited in Young & Long, 1998) has adapted or extended Erikson's theory of ego development as a way to describe, in a more useful manner, the life cycle of healthy couples. It takes such things as marrying, having children later in life, and divorce and remarriage into account. The seven tasks are: 1. Consolidating psychological separation and establishing new connections with the family of origin. 2. Building the marital identity for the couple and for the individuals — togetherness versus autonomy. 3. Establishing the couple's sexual identity. 4. Establishing the marriage as a zone of safety and nurturance. 5. Parenthood. 13 6. Building a relationship that is fun and interesting. 7. Maintaining a dual vision of one's partner that combines early idealization with reality perception. (Young & Long, 1998, pp. 15 - 17) The developmental stage of the recruit couple is documented in this study by the presence or absence of children, as well as by the number of years of marriage or cohabitation. Communication Good communication in the couple relationship is essential in order to solve problems, share information, and support each other. Often communication is misunderstood because people are indirect, play games, manipulate, or set up smoke screens. Gottman (as cited in Young & Long, 1998) has identified different communication patterns in marriages that succeed and those that fail. He states that couples that are successful maintain a 5 tol ratio of positive to negative interactions. If the negative interactions increase beyond 5:1, then the relationship begins to destabilize. This theory also accounts for the volatile couples who fight a great deal but stay together. These couples counter balance the fighting with passion and positive interactions. Gottman (as cited in Young & Long, 1998) has also identfied common communication problems. Most negative communication patterns fall under four broad categories that he calls the "Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse." They are (a) criticism versus complaint (i.e., attacking the person not the problem), (b) contempt, (c) defensiveness, and (d) stonewalling. Although communication problems are not specifically identified in this study, the effects of the training process on the communication between the recruits and their life partners, as well as the recruits and their children is examined. Conflict Conflict is viewed as the single most powerful force in dampening marital satisfaction, if not the most prominent cause of failed marriages (Baruth & Huber, 1984). 14 Conflict in couples is a natural part of the relationship. It cannot be avoided but it can be managed in order to have positive, negotiated outcomes. Some researchers suggest that couples need to have a set of well rehearsed strategies for conflict management (Barath & Huber, 1984; Young & Long, 1998). Sources of conflict can result from (a) social context, (b) situational stress, and (c) perceptual differences. In the social context, conflict can result from dual careers, shared parental responsibilities, and economic su'esses. Situational stressors includes both forseen and unforseen events, such as chronic illness, unexpected death, financial problems, and aging parents. The anxiety produced does not stem from the relationship itself, however it can trigger conflict. Finally, conflict can develop because the two individuals have differing views of the same situation. Conflict is expressed in emotions and behaviours (Young & Long, 1998) and may be a source of stress for the life partner. In this study marital satisfaction was assessed. Dual-Career Couples Dual-career couples were first defined by Rapoport and Rapoport (1971) as an arrangement where both individuals pursue jobs that are personally fulfilling, have a developmental sequence, and require a high degree of commitment. Yogev (1983) added that both people are highly qualified and work in jobs that require responsibility. Finally, Hertz (1991) suggested that decisions are based on what is best for both careers. Dual-job couples also exist. Typically, they are defined as lower in social economic status than the professionals categorized as dual-career couples, however they experience similar conflicts regardless of the amount of commitment required by their jobs (Young & Long, 1998). Dual-career couples have a life style that is stressful, energetic, and demanding, often leaving them isolated and lacking social support. Sources of conflict in the dual-career life style can be classified as external or internal stressors. External stressors include role overload, role conflict, work-family spillover, family-work spillover, and division of housework and childcare. Internal stressors are early gender-role socialization, high 15 achievement needs, and no time for intimacy or special issues for both partners (Young & Long, 1998). However, dual-career couples do have benefits. Partners with many interests are more exciting, the quality of conversations and personal support regarding career issues will likely enhance the relationship, and dual-career couples are often better off financially. Police Life Partner Research When reviewing the literature for "police life partner" research, the terms "wife" and "spouse" were the only descriptors found. The use of these terms makes two inaccurate assumptions regarding the "police family": (a) that all police officers are male, and (b) that they are married. Because there is a paucity of research that includes same sex life partners, cohabiting life partners, and male life partners of police and police recruits, all are included in this study. The Role of the Police Wife Much of the research that examined the role of the police wife is from the perspective of either a male observer and/or an "outside" observer. Of the 11 articles relating to the role of the police wife, 5 were authored by women and of those 5 authors, only 3 had actually experienced the role of "police wife." In general, the authors concur that the most important responsibilities of the police wife were those of: (a) facilitator of communication, (b) creator of a stable home environment, and (c) provider of emotional support (Golesh, 1980; Green Hall, 1982; Reiser, 1978; Saper, 1980; Webber, 1976). Minton (1980) felt that the "most important role is that special partnership we share with a man who happens to be a police officer" (p. 17). Al l of these researchers, with the sole exception of Green Hall (1982), propose that the responsibility for a stable home life, open communication, and recognition and reduction of stress lies solely with the wife. Perhaps the most succinct and all-encompassing definition of the role is presented by both Miller and Miller (1980) and Maynard and Maynard (1982), that is, that of "an adaptor." This 16 may reflect the mode of thought with respect to perceptions and expectations of men and women that were popular during the late 70s and early 80s. Police Marriages Researchers such as Green Hall (1982), Saper (1980), and Stratton et al. (1982), indicate that the wife is an important component in a successful police constable's career. Although many wives are told how important they are to the police department (Panyard, 1982; Reiser, 1978; Saper, 1980; Webber, 1976), the evidence suggests that few departments actually reinforce and support this view. As a result, feelings of isolation, alienation, and disillusionment are harboured by many wives (Reiser, 1978; Ricks & Munger, 1988; Saper, 1980; Webber, 1976). Marriage, in general, can be difficult regardless of the occupation of the marriage partner. However, police marriages must cope with stresses that are not encountered by most people, and thus can make the relationship more difficult to maintain (Stratton et al., 1982). The current research with respect to police marriages primarily focuses on two issues — communication and shift work Communication. The main concern in many police marriages is poor interspousal communication. As a result of the exposure to traumatic situations, the "seamy side of life," and constantly dealing with criminals, the constable is conditioned to control his emotions (Panyard, 1982; Price, 1980; Reiser, 1978; Stratton, 1975). Consequently, these controlled or repressed feelings and the resultant behaviours may often inhibit or impair the lines of communication at home. Therefore, many constables may not communicate with their wives in order to protect them from "the trauma and degradation they observe each day" (Stratton, 1975, p. 45). Aside from the impact these pent-up feelings have on interspousal communication, Maynard and Maynard (1982), Panyard (1982), and Reiser (1978) report that they are also manifested in high rates of alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. This lack of communication frequently forces the wife to live with the unknown. She may feel isolated and alienated, as well as terrified for the safety of her husband 17 (Panyard, 1982; Reiser, 1978; Ricks & Munger, 1988; Webber, 1976). As a result of poor communication, the constable may be unaware of the concomitant stresses his wife may be facing. Shift work. A second factor that has tremendous impact upon police marriages is shift work and its resultant effect, not only on the couple's daily routine but on their social life as well. With respect to daily routine, as shifts change so do sleeping/waking schedules of the couple. For example, the wife's day may start at her regular time, but the length of her day often changes to accommodate her husband's shift. If the constable is working a late afternoon shift (16:00 — 02:00) the wife's sleeping routine is affected as she may either wait up, wake up, or even get up when he gets home in order to catch up on the day's events. For some couples this may be the only time they have together. Consequently, such interruptions of the wife's regular routine cause her to become a shift worker as well. Panyard (1982), Price (1980), Stenmark et al. (1982), and Stratton (1975) have observed that it is often easier for the couple to socialize with other police couples who are on the same shift. Such a pattern may lead to either a narrowing of the couples' interests and activities, especially when the constable's time off is, for example, Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday evenings, or that the wife will end up spending a great deal of her time alone, whether it be going out or staying at home. Couple Coping Strategies In Maynard and Maynard's (1982) study on stress and police families, information was gathered on sources of sttess for, and coping strategies utilized by police officers and their families. Two instruments were used; The Occupational Demands and Family Life Scale (McCubbin, Maynard, & Maynard, 1978), and the Inventory of Coping Strategies (Department of Family Social Science, 1978). The first instrument measured stress factors, from the wife's perspective, using a 50 item true/false questionnaire. This scale was developed from a 3 hour group interview of five police officers' wives. No information regarding the demographics or the selection of these participants was given. 18 The second instrument consisted of 58 items intended to measure "the styles of coping behaviors that a person might employ in adapting to life in the police department" (p. 303). Two different forms were used, one for the police officers and one for wives and the responses were rated on a Likert-type scale. The sample used in the study consisted of 42 police couples from a large, Midwestern, metropolitan police department. Of the 42 couples, 33 were selected randomly and 9 volunteered. Only male police officers were used as participants, which may have reflected the current staffing in that department. The findings of The Occupational Demands and Family Life Scale indicated that the "traditional and patriarchal" perspective with respect to attitudes toward marriage and family life, as well as adaptation by the wife to the demands of "the job," is prevalent for both the department and the husbands. For example, a majority of the wives had to give up personal plans or job opportunities to adapt to the work schedule of their husbands. The Inventory of Coping Strategies indicated that both the police officers and their wives used the same four coping patterns: Doing Things Together as a Family Unit, Adapting, Interpersonal Relationships, and Self-Reliance, however they were ranked in a different order. For the police officers, "Doing Things Together as a Family Unit" was the coping strategy rated most highly. For the wives, "Adapting" was the most highly rated coping strategy. With respect to limitations of the study, the researchers refer to impact on the family, but there was little input from other family members. As well, the study sampled only male police officers which, as stated previously, may reflect the current (1982) staffing, however it overlooks an important and rich source of information. Beehr et al. (1995) conducted a study of occupational sttess and coping of police and their spouses. Voluntary participants from a large city police department in the Eastern United States as well as a suburban county department in the same state completed a questionnaire identifying coping activities of police officers and their spouses. Seven 19 hundred and twenty-five police officers and 479 spouses agreed to participate, however, the study focused on a unique subset of married police officers and their spouses. In order to maintain security, all questionnaires were anonymous, thus matching each officer with his/her respective spouse was virtually impossible. Responses to key demographic questions on both the officer and spouse questionnaires were examined and matches for 177 couples was possible. Two versions of the police officer questionnaire were randomly assigned, the only difference being in the short stressor stimuli vignette lead-in to the questions regarding potential coping activities. One vignette dealt with a potentially stressful work situation, the second was a combination of work and home stressors. The spouse questionnaire was virtually identical or closely parallelled the police officer questionnaire with the vignette being similar to the second vignette. Factor analysis of coping activities of the police officers and their spouses were done to form four coping factors: (a) problem-focused coping, (b) emotion-focused coping, (c) rugged individualism, and (d) religiosity. It was found that at least some of the participants report engaging in these four coping activities. Correlations and multiple regressions were conducted on the data and it was concluded that: (a) police and their spouses use more that one coping technique, (b) religiosity had no effect on the police officers strains but it might be useful for the spouse, (c) spouses' coping activities and police officers' coping activities have different effects on their respective strains, and (d) the structure of coping techniques used by the spouses was very similar to the structure used by the police officers. The fact that the life partner's perspective has been considered in several studies is encouraging, however, it would be interesting for future research to examine this perspective in more detail. The present study adds further to the research by examining the coping strategies used specifically by the life partner of police recruits in an effort to cope with and adapt to the recruit training process. 20 Summary The hterature suggests the added stresses of "the job" contribute to added stresses in the police couple relationship, thus the role of the police wife is paramount to ensure stability at home through effective communication and emotional support. In order to cope with these stresses, the hterature indicates that both the police constables and their life partners use more that one coping pattern and that the patterns they do use are often veiy similar. However, the literature does not address the role of the life partner of the police recruit. Because the changes and transitions occurring for the recruit are immense, the impact on the life partner will be of a similar magnitude. Most recruits are leaving a civilian setting where in most instances they are able to make, as well as question decisions on their own. Upon entering the police force they are now entering an organization with a paramilitary structure where assignments and instructions are given and are expected to be carried out without question. To disagree with, discuss the soundness of, or refuse to cany out an instruction is not tolerated (Stratton, 1975). Often this transition can be a tremendous source of stress for both the police recruit and the life partner. Therefore, to understand the theoretical framework underlying transition, it is important to examine the adult development literature. This will provide a context from which to study transition and adaptation. Adult Development Literature Until recently, adult development has been neglected by researchers and theorists. This is, in part, due to the assumption that adulthood is a period of stasis or stability, where no growth or development occurs (Schlossberg, Troll, & Leibowitz, 1978). In fact adulthood is a period of change and individual development. The changes that occur in adulthood have no absolute time or sequential order to them, unlike child or adolescent development. Although, certain events are linked to certain ages by probability and social expectation (e.g., getting married in your 20s, retiring in your 60s), people may experience these changes or transitions at different times or they may not experience them at all. In 21 sum, adulthood is characterized by periods of relative stability connected by transitions in all areas of one's life, whether it be work, interpersonal relationships, leisure time, or physical condition. These changes will often involve new relationships, expectations, and altered self-evaluations (Schlossberg et al., 1978). Many theories and models for adult development have been proposed, the most simple are stage theories. Stage theories are easy to understand and may be useful for some in order to categorize, label, and evaluate their ongoing experiences. Almost all stage theories assume that: 1. Everybody goes through life in the same way {universality}. 2. Eveiybody goes through the stages in the same order {sequentially}. 3. There is a predetermining end point to the sequence {teleology}. 4. There is a good way, as well as a bad way, to go through the sequence {adaptation}. Many of these theories make a fifth assumption: 5. The good way is in tune with current middle-class values {class bias}. (Troll, 1982, p. 15) Troll (1982) has categorized the current stage theories of adult development according to what they are based on: Structure (biologically or cognitively oriented), Life Situations (developmental tasks), or Issues (involving choice between two opposites — good and bad). Schlossberg (1981) has categorized the theories in terms of a continuum that includes: Individual, Life Span, Transition, Stage, and Age theories. She has further refined and simplified her categorization to: Age and Stage Theories, Life Events and Transition Theories, and Individual Timing and Variability Theories (Schlossberg, 1984). Schlossberg's categories will be used to organize the following review. 22 Age and Stage Theories Theories based on age. One of the most renown studies linking transition to chronological age is that conducted by Levinson (1978) that focused on the relatively universal, age-linked periods in the lives of adult men. He identified five stages that men experience from their 20s on. Some of the key issues are developing independence, life structure, the importance of a mentor, and polarities of masculine-feminine, young-old (Schlossberg, 1981; Schlossberg et al., 1978). Theories based on Stage. These theories assert that individuals pass through a similar sequence of stages that may or may not be linked to chronological age. It is possible that some people move through the stages at a faster rate than others, or people may not even move on past a certain stage. Erikson's (1950) theory of ego development is probably the most well known of the stage theories. He has developed an eight stage progression that covers the life span wherein, each stage is characterized by a crucial issue that must be resolved successfully if the individual is to progress to the next stage. Failure to resolve the issue successfully will hinder all further development (Schlossberg, 1981; Schlossberg et al., 1978). Another stage theorist focusing on adult ttansition is Gould (1978) who envisions adult development as the struggle for freedom from the constraints of childhood. In contrast to Erikson, Gould feels that each stage is not separated from or unaffected by, any other stage. He feels that at any given time most adults are working on some part of themselves (i.e., one's inadequacies) which acts as an impetus for further growth (Schlossberg, 1981). Theories based on moral or ego development. In terms of moral development, Kohlberg (1970) proposed that people move through various stages of moral judgment based on the understanding that there is a right way to behave towards society generally and towards people specifically. He outlines three stages of moral judgment in 23 which the behaviour at all three stages is virtually the same, it is the motivation behind the behaviour that differs (Schlossberg et al., 1978; Troll, 1982). Gilligan, in her research on moral development, has challenged the norms that are based solely on research of men's lives. From listening to women's discussions of moral conflicts, she recognized that these conceptions of morality were not represented in Kohlberg's work, thus, she hypothesized that there are two distinct modes of moral judgment (justice versus care) that are gender related and that these modes may be related to modes of self-definition (Gilligan, 1982; Lyons, 1988). Loevinger's theory emphasizes ego control and includes the areas of inteipersonal relations, moral judgment, and conceptual complexity. As a stage theory, movement occurs from the lower levels of impulsivity, self-protection, and conformity to the higher levels of conscience, autonomy, and integration. Loevinger, unlike most stage theorists, cautions against idealizing any one stage, as the assumption that one person is better than another because they are at a higher developmental level is clearly wrong (Schlossberg et al., 1978). Life Events and Transition Theories In conttast, the life event and transition theories view adult development as a continual process that is not limited by any particular life stage. Change occurs in a variety of domains (e.g., social, psychological, biological) of human functioning and behaviour, and in order to understand a particular life stage, it must be placed in the context of the developmental changes, as well as within its historical context (Schlossberg, 1981). Lowenthal, Thumher, and Chiriboga's (1975) approach in the San Francisco study is an excellent example of life course or life stage theories. In this study, four groups of men and women each facing a major life transition: high school seniors, newlyweds, middle-aged parents, and preretirement couples, were followed over time. The researchers found that the four groups were considerably different in their general outlook on life, the stresses they had to deal with, and their attitudes toward the stresses. That an individual 24 was 40-years old was not as meaningful as an individual who was 40-years old going through a divorce, or who was 40-years old and was unemployed. It was concluded that life stage is more important than chronological age (Schlossberg, 1981). Other researchers subscribing to the life event or life course perspective are Brim and Kagan (1980), the Dohrenwends (1978), and Danish (1980). According to Danish, life events are pivotal in individual development. Life events are defined as either markers or processes where the marker does just that, marks a significant event. It is the process that provides the context (Schlossberg, 1981). Brim and Kagan (1980) view human nature as having the capacity for change across the entire lifespan. Their view questions the notion that childhood experiences constrain adolescence and adulthood characteristics because human development is more open than many people have believed (Schlossberg, 1981). Individual Timing and Variability Theories Neugarten (1979), a life cycle theorist, focused her research on individual development. Her emphasis is on variability or "fanning out," and the notion of the "social clock." Neugarten (1979) argues that a group of 10-year olds are more similar than a group of 60- year olds because they have had less time, and fewer experiences to influence the direction their lives have taken. The concept of the "social clock" is one in which three different kinds of time: historical (calendar) time, social (expectations) time, and life (chronological) time interact to produce an individual's life cycle according to the perceived social ordering of age-appropriate behaviour. Although the notion of age-appropriate behaviour is slowly being dismissed, the reality is that this "on-time — off-time" stance still exists (Schlossberg, 1981; Schlossberg et al., 1978). Schlossberg (1981), in examining adult development, transition, and adaptation draws heavily from the works of those researchers with a life-course perspective. This brief overview of the major stage theories of adult development presents a number of differing views of the lifecycle with respect to predictability and variability. 25 Adulthood is the longest stage of the lifecycle and, until recently, has been viewed as a period of stability. It is now considered a time where many changes or transitions in all aspects of the lifecycle occur. These changes do not follow a particular sequence, nor does everyone experience the same transitions in the same manner (Schlossberg, 1981). No single perspective or theory can explain all adult behaviour especially in times of transition. In the context of the police recruit's life partner undergoing transition simultaneously with the police recruit in training, very little information is available. In order to examine the transition and adaptation process of an individual, Chamer and Schlossberg's (1986) model is used as a framework for this study. The Theoretical Model: Transition and Adaptation Transition Traditionally, adulthood has been viewed as a period of relative stability because it has been assumed that all the major decisions have been made and life is to continue in a steady, secure fashion (Schlossberg, Troll, & Leibowitz, 1978). In reality, adulthood is a period of change, for example, leaving school, getting married, getting a job, having children, or getting a house are all changes that occur in this life stage. Many of these changes are and can be planned for, yet others are unplanned or controlled by such factors as other people (e.g., the life partner who decides to leave), or are beyond human control (e.g., deterioration of one's health or death of a parent) (Lowenthal, Thurnher, & Chiriboga, 1975; Schlossberg, 1981; Schlossberg et al., 1978). As one moves through adulthood, concerns about how people change and how change is dealt with begin to emerge. It appears that adulthood is a series of transitions that result in new networks of relationships, new behaviours, and new self-perceptions. Every person deals with change or transition in their own way and their mode of coping may differ with different types of change or even to the same or similar type of change experienced at a different point in their life (Schlossberg, 1981). 26 Schlossberg (1981) states transition is "said to occur if an event or non-event results in a change in assumptions about oneself and the world and thus requires a corresponding change in one's behaviour and relationships" (p. 5). This definition is meant to be broad in its scope, to include not only such obvious life changes as graduation, first job, and marriage, for example, but also to include subde changes such as the non-occurrence of anticipated events or even, the non-events. Further, Beeson and Lowenthal (1975) include (a) "general absence of change or new life events, (b) the failure of an expectable event or change to occur, or (c) the mitigation of events or circumstances formerly considered stressful" (p. 173), as subtle factors influencing the transition process. Weiss' (1976) definition of transition involves the concept of crisis. If the crisis results in a change, then the individual proceeds into a "transition state," a time marked by relational and personal changes that includes attempts to cope with upset, tension, or fatigue, and, as well, attempts to search out new or alternate sources of support. The culmination of this "ttansition state" is usually marked by "a new stable life organization and by a new stable identity" (p. 215). A transition can be positive or negative. It is neither always one nor the other. Many times it can have both positive and negative aspects for the same individual. In summary, "a transition is a transition if it is so defined by the person experiencing it" (Schlossberg, 1981, p. 7). It is an occurrence or non-occurrence that evokes change in one's perception of self and the world that calls for new ways of being that may or may not be effective. A transition is more the individual's perception of change rather than the change itself (Schlossberg, 1981). Adaptation According to Schlossberg (1981), "adaptation to transition is a process during which an individual moves from being totally preoccupied with the transition to integrating the transition into his or her life" (p. 7). In order to move to a state of adaptation, White (1976) oudines three strategies: (a) to secure adequate information, (b) to maintain 27 satisfactory internal conditions, and (c) to maintain some autonomy. He also adds a time dimension to these strategies, in that strategies are not created instantaneously but develop and are modified over time. A second component is added to this definition of adaptation as not only does each type of transition have its own pattern for adaptation, but each individual varies with respect to how quickly they adapt and, in some cases, their ability to adapt over the lifespan may vary (Schlossberg, 1981). This second component is that the "Ease of adaptation to a ttansition depends on one's perceived and/or actual balance of resources to deficits in terms of the transition itself, the pre-post environment, and the individual's sense of competency, well-being, and health" (Schlossberg, 1981, p. 7-8). Therefore, when assessing one's ability to adapt, the ratio of resources to deficits at a given time is examined. As situations change, the ratio may also change, and as a result, the question of why the same person reacts differently to the same type of transition at a different time in their life can be addressed (Schlossberg, 1981). In the present study, I examine changes in the ratio of resources (e.g., employment, social support, coping skills) to deficits (e.g., unemployed, lack of social support, poor health) over three time periods, hence whether or not the life partner reacts differently to the different phases of the transition is addressed. A complete definition of adaptation, involves a third component: "Adaptation depends in part on the degree of similarity or difference in one's assumptions about self and in one's environment (especially the interpersonal support system network of relationships) before and after the transition" (Schlossberg, 1981, p. 8). One method for examining transition involves the assessment of the differences between the pre-transition, and the post-transition environments. Some researchers conclude that the intensity of stress experienced depends upon the degree to which one is required to make new adaptations associated with environmental change, not the individual's subjective experience of the change (Lieberman, 1975). Schlossberg (1981) argues that the degree of difference between the pre- and post-transition environments is only significant if that 28 difference affects one's assumptions of self and the world, and subsequently one's relationships in family, work, and community. The Conceptual Model for Exploring Transitions A great deal of research has focused on an individual's ability to adapt to specific life events, including normal life transitions, such as, marriage and having children as well as situations of extteme hardship such as, incarceration in concenu-ation camps (Schlossberg, 1981). As stated previously, research indicates that not only do individuals differ in their adaptability to change but that the same individual may react differently to different types of changes or even the same kind of change occurring at different times in his/her life. The determining factors in the outcome of any transition is the balance between an individual's coping assets and liabilities. This balance is a result of the interaction of three major groups of variables. These variables are: (a) the characteristics of the transition itself, (b) the characteristics of the individual experiencing the transition, and (c) the characteristics of the environment (see Figure 1). It is the interaction of these variables that determines the outcome of the transition process, that is, whether the adaptation was successful or not (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986; Schlossberg, 1981). 29 THE TRANSITION PROCESS TRANSITION •Type •Context Transition Characteristics • Impact Individual Characteristics • Personal & OUTCOMES Demographic Info. • Outlook • Coping Strategies.. •Evaluation •Assessment Environmental Characteristics • Support systems • Options IS Figure 1. The Individual in Transition. Adapted from Charner, I., & Schlossberg, N. (1986, June). Variations by theme: The life transitions of clerical workers. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly. 212-224. Charner and Schlossberg (1986), in their study examining the life transitions of clerical workers, proposed the model, The Individual in Transition (see Figure 1), as an adaptation of Schlossberg's (1984) model. The goals of the study were "(a) to describe the life transitions and the ways clerical workers cope with their life transitions, and (b) to explore any differences among transitions and coping styles that may be attributable to the type of transition of the context in which the transition occurred" (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986, p. 215). Fifty clerical and support workers at the University of Maryland participated in the study. Seventy-five percent were women and 98% were White. Each participant was interviewed by an interviewer trained in the conceptual model and the transition instrument. Content areas outlined in the model were measured using a structured survey instrument. Each participant was asked to identify a transition in their life and then discussed each aspect of the transition and the ways in which they coped. The information was all self-30 report and the questions were framed in a forced-choice format. It was found that the individuals used different strategies and visualized different options depending on the context of the transition. Factors Affecting Adaptation to Transition Transitions consist of two components — type and context (see Figure 1). With respect to type, transitions can be planned (e.g., your life partner being accepted to the police department after several years of preparation and successfully meeting the criteria for hiring) or unplanned (e.g., being told that your life partner has just quit his/her job and has put his/her application in to the police department). Planned transitions are considered to be an asset in the coping process (Chamer & Schlossberg, 1986). Transitions may occur in a variety of contexts, for example, the family or the workplace. Transitions may also include such things as educational changes (e.g., returning to school) or geographical relocation (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986). In this study, the transition being examined is in the context of the life partner's experience of the police recruit training process. The Transition Process: Coping Assets and Liabilities Transition Characteristics According to Schlossberg (1981), all transitions, regardless of type and context can be described in terms of the following set of common variables: Trigger, Timing, Source, Role Change, Duration, and Degree of Stress. A trigger is the specific event that initiated the transition. It can be a sudden event or something that has evolved. Triggers differ for each individual. In terms of this study, the event(s) that precipitated the decision to become a recruit and their impact on the life partner is examined. Transitions can occur on-time or off-time. There is a socially prescribed time frame for the order in which major life events "ought" to occur. Going to university, getting a job, getting married, having children, buying a home, and then retiring are linked, in 31 peoples' minds, with age. As adults, we often judge whether we are "on" or "off-time" with respect to these events. If we find that we are not adhering to the socially prescribed norms then often we feel deviant or abnormal (Schlossberg, 1981). The source of the transition can be internal or external. Perceived control over one's own life is an issue with which individuals are constantly struggling. Some life changes are a result of a deliberate decision made by the individual (voluntary), whereas others are forced upon the individual by other people or by circumstances (involuntary). Schlossberg (1981) hypothesized that an individual adapts to transitions more easily when the source is internal. For example, the decision to become a police constable, and all associated ramifications of that decision is much easier to adapt to if the life partner is an integral part of the decision-making process. Many transitions involve a change in role. Some changes are viewed as positive, a role gain (e.g., getting married, getting promoted); whereas others are viewed more negatively, a role loss (e.g., getting a divorce, being widowed). In this study, the life partner's role may change from life partner of " X " to life partner of a police recruit. This change may have a positive or negative impact depending upon one's perceptions of what it means to associated with the law. Most role changes have both positive and negative elements or affect associated with them. According to Schlossberg (1981), regardless of whether the transition is viewed as a role gain or loss, some degree of stress will accompany it. The expected duration is another factor related to the adaptation of change. A change that is viewed as temporary will be perceived much differently than one that is viewed as permanent. Just as a painful or unpleasant transition will be more easily accepted if the individual knows it will only last for a short time (Schlossberg, 1981). For example, a person who finds it difficult to be separated from his/her life partner for a prolonged period of time may be dreading the time he/she will be spending away from home while enrolled in the academy. This individual will more likely be able to endure the 32 separation better, knowing that he/she will be able to return home on the weekends, rather than being sequestered away for the entire 12 weeks of the first block of training. The greatest degree of stress and negative affect is connected with uncertainty (Schlossberg, 1981). An example of this is the person whose life partner is a police recruit just entering the second block of training and is "on the road" for the first time. The uncertainty in the life partner's mind concerning the safety of the recruit may cause him/her a great degree of stress. It is important to note that previous success in adapting to a transition is an indicator of future success when facing a transition of a similar nature. Conversely, an individual who has not adapted successfully to a transition may become more vulnerable and less able to cope in a future situation. Schlossberg (1981) adds that, to some extent, past experience is a determinant of an individual's mental set, and if the past experience was unfavorable, then the mental set could become somewhat of a self-fulfilling prophesy. The degree of stress is the final characteristic of transition, and is somewhat dependent on the previously described characteristics. As mentioned, any transition, whether it is viewed as a gain or a loss, or as positive or negative in affect, will cause some degree of stress. However, Schlossberg (1981) states that "the stressfulness of a particular event depends not so much on the event itself,..., as on the balance between a person's deficits and resources at the time the event occurs" (p. 10). Individual Characteristics The second major determinant of an individual's ability to adapt to transition is the individual him/herself. There are several components to be considered: (a) the individual's personal and demographic characteristics (e.g., age, life stage, health, socioeconomic status), (b) the individual's general outlook on life, and (c) the coping strategies the individual uses when facing transition (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986). When studying transitions, Lieberman (1975) states that "the processes for adequate coping...may be life-stage specific" (p. 155). Schlossberg (1981) concurs with 33 Lieberman and suggests that life stage rather than chronological age is a more useful concept. In Lowenthal, Thurnher, and Chiriboga's (1975) research, a number of stage differences with respect to the sources and nature of stress, the number of significant life events (e.g., marriage, children, divorce, death), and the ratio of positive to negative experiences have been identified. It was also found that in the later stages of life, that more subde factors cause changes in self-perception and satisfaction (Schlossberg, 1981). Data on the relationship between adaptation to transition and socioeconomic status is inconsistent. This may be due to the fact that different measures of socioeconomic status (e.g., income, education, occupation, or a combination) have been used (Schlossberg, 1981). Socioeconomic differences may have an impact upon the amount of stress associated with different transitions. Thus, the notion that lower-income/lower class families, as a result of their limited resources, may have more stress is supported (Hill, 1965; Levine, 1976). For example, should a recruit's family face a decrease in income, the inherent stress associated with career adaptation may be exacerbated. In addition to the personal and demographic information outlined by Charner and Schlossberg (1986), information regarding the life situation of the life partners would be helpful in interpreting the ttansition/adaptation data in a more meaningful way. Knowledge of such variables as level of education, type and status (e.g., full or part time) of employment, number of children (if any), experience with law enforcement, and experience with shift work, is critical when examining the transition experiences of the recruits' life partners. The basic values and beliefs of an individual are a factor in his/her ability to adapt to transitions. It has also been found that the general outlook or value system that contributes to adaptation at one life stage may be dysfunctional at another. Thus, different values are emphasized by individuals at different stages in their lives (Schlossberg, 1981). As stated earlier, coping is defined as "the person's cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage (reduce, minimize, master or tolerate) the internal and external demands of the 34 person-environment transaction that is appraised as taxing or exceeding the person's resources" (Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen, & DeLongis, 1986, p.572). The two primary functions of coping are to: (a) alter the problem that is causing the distress — problem-focused coping, and (b) regulate the stressful emotion — emotion-focused coping. People usually use both types of coping, however emotion-focused coping is used primarily in situations that the individual has no control over. In this study, because the life partners do not have any control over the training process, many of the coping strategies identified were emotion-focused. Chanter and Schlossberg (1986) found that individuals who coped "well" used multiple coping strategies and it appeared that the strategies employed were context specific. Therefore, if the life partner of a police recruit can employ multiple sttategies (e.g., eat well, exercise, seek advice of others, use resources, embrace the change, and not worry about things that are beyond his/her conttol) then the transition process is likely to proceed much more smoothly than for the life partner who chooses to employ only one strategy such as, ignoring the situation and hope it will disappear (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986). Environmental Characteristics This third major determinant of an individual's ability to adapt to transition has three characteristics: (a) interpersonal support systems, (b) institutional support systems, and (c) perceived options (Chamer & Schlossberg, 1986; Schlossberg, 1981). Support systems vary with respect to types and sources of support (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986). Research supports the idea that interpersonal support is imperative to the successful adaptation to transition. Schlossberg (1981) identifies three types of interpersonal support: (a) intimate relationships, (b) the family unit, and (c) the network of friends. Intimate relationships involve trust, support, and understanding and are extremely important resources during stressful events or transitions. It has also been found that just 35 knowing that one is capable of having an intimate relationship can be nearly as important a resource in times of crisis as actually having the relationship (Schlossberg, 1981). Several researchers have documented the importance of the family unit as a support system in times of transition (Levine, 1976; Lowenthal & Chiriboga, 1975). Finally, one's network of friends is veiy important as a source of support. The loss of the network as a result of geographical relocation for example, may exacerbate the difficulties associated with the transition. Whereas, the presence of friends during the transition have a cushioning effect (Schlossberg, 1981). Institutional support systems can be defined as "occupational organizations, religious institutions, political groups, social welfare or other community support groups" (Lipman-Blumen, 1976). Institutional supports can be more or less formal outside agencies that a person may access for assistance (Schlossberg, 1981). These agencies may provide support in terms of seminars, workshops, lecture series, support groups, or individual counselling aimed at assisting people who are experiencing different types of transitions. For life partners of police recruits, the individual police departments may have services available to aid in transitional difficulties. As well, the training institute may support an orientation evening to provide information to the life partners regarding the realities and myths of policing and living the police life style. Perceived options are the ways and means, perceived by the individual, to deal with a particular transition (Chamer & Schlossberg, 1981). The type and use of options appears to be dependent on the context of the transition itself. Options can also be created by the individual. For example, the life partner can become very informed about the police milieu. Most individuals assume that the sources of sttess for police constables are the inherent stressors of police work (e.g., violence, danger, and crime). In actuality, the most stress is caused by organizational stressors such as boredom, lack of respect from the public, shiftwork, excessive paperwork, and the bureaucratic structure of policing (Burke, 1994; Campbell & Brown, 1990; Kaufmann & Beehr, 1989; Violanti & Aron, 1993). 36 Individuals who have multiple options will be able to adapt to transitions far more successfully than those who perceive they no or very few options. Outcomes Outcomes refer to how the individual evaluates their own transition and the entire transition process. One way to assess how an individual adapted to a transition is to assess their subjective interpretation of the transition. The responses will range from satisfaction with the consequences and a feeling of personal growth, to the change being entirely for the worse (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986). A second way to assess the transition is through process assessment, which is intended to determine whether the individual felt that they had used the best combination of options, strategies, and resources available in order to adapt to their transition. In summary, Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model is comprised of two phases that examine the individual in transition (see Figure 1). During the first or Transition phase the type and context of the transition is examined in order to determine what if any impact these factors may have on the transition or adaptation process. In this study, the transition phase describes the characteristics of the recruit training process. The second phase examines the interactions and responses arising from the transition. It also examines the impact, if any, of these interactions and the outcome of the individual's adjustment. This Transition process phase describes the impact of the recruit training process. Modification of the Model Another researcher examining athletes' retirement from high performance sport proposed two modifications to Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model. Sinclair (1990) administered the 34 item Athlete Retirement Questionnaire (ARQ) (Sinclair, 1990) to 199 (100 females and 99 males) retired high performance athletes who had represented Canada in international competition. The ARQ was developed to address the transitional experience 37 of former high performance athletes who had undergone retirement from sport, as well as to obtain the athletes' perception of this transition experience. Sinclair (1990) found upon thorough examination of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model that the factors labelled "Transition characteristics" included variables that actually described the circumstances surrounding the transition itself rather than the transition process. Thus, trigger, timing, and source variables should be considered in the Transition phase. Second, Charner and Schlossberg (1986) include demographic and personal variables (e.g., age, gender, marital status) in the set of factors labelled "Individual characteristics." In this location, the model suggests that these particular variables can be and are influenced by every other variable in the Transition Process phase. Sinclair (1990) argues that "...although these demographic and personal variables have the potential to influence other variables, they are not influenced by the ttansition itself or the transition process" (p. 35). For example, the number of children in the police family may influence the amount of support they receive, but the amount of support received will not affect the number of children existing in the family. Sinclair suggests that the demographic and personal characteristics are a backdrop for the individual in transition. Figure 2 incorporates her modification of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model of The Individual in Transition. The modifications are simply a reassignment of specific variables to alternate categories, thus leading to what Sinclair defines as a more precise model. 38 Figure 2: A Modified Model of the Individual in Transition. Adapted from Sinclair, D.A. (1990). The dynamics of transition from high performance sport. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1990). 39 Statement of the Problem Much of the police research focuses on the constable with respect to everyday experiences, stressors, and coping behaviours. There is very little research on police recruits in general and virtually nothing has been written about the transition process during training for the recruits. Minimal research has been conducted on police "wives," and the importance of their role in the career of the constable has just recently been recognized. What information there is regarding the experiences of the police life partner is usually obtained through an outside observer or through the constable's interpretation of the experience. There is virtually no information regarding the impact of the recruit training process on the life partner from the life partner's perspective. To examine this transition from the life partner's perspective, Sinclair's (1990) modification of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model of the individual in transition was used as a framework. Questions 1. Does the Police Recruit Training Process have a negative, positive, or no impact on the life partner of the recruit? 2. What strategies does the life partner utilize to cope with the ttansition process? 3. What support systems does the life partner access in order to cope with the transition process? 4. Is the type of transition (voluntary/involuntary, planned/unplanned) related to how satisfied the life partner is with the transition process? 5. Does the ratio or balance of each individual's coping assets and liabilities relate to the outcome of the transition? 40 Method Participants For the puiposes of this study, the term life partner was used. Life partner is defined as an individual in a cohabiting relationship with the police recruit. This term was chosen for two reasons: (a) to differentiate between the partner "on the job" and the partner in the relationship, and (b) to include non-married couples, as well as gay and lesbian couples. The participants for this study were the life partners (n =16) of police recruits. Sixteen life partners completed the first questionnaire (assessed prior to Block II), 15 completed the second questionnaire (assessed prior to Block III), and 14 completed the third questionnaire (assessed on completion of Block III). The life partners ranged in age from 22 to 41 years (M = 29.00, SD = 5.69) and included 10 females and 6 males. The recruits ranged in age from 22 to 36 years (M = 27.69, SD = 3.79). Ten of the 16 couples (63%) were married, the remaining 6 (38%) were cohabiting. The time the couples had been together ranged from 1 month to 12 years (M = 4.51, SD = 3.53). Though one of the couples had been married for only one month, they had been together as a couple for a longer period of time. Of the 16 couples, only 3 had children. Two couples had 2 children each and one couple had 3 children. Al l the life partners had graduated from high school, 2 (13%) had high school graduation only, 3 (19%) had some college education, 2 (13%) had graduated from college, 2 (13%) had some university, and 7 (44%) had graduated from university. With respect to recruit education, all had graduated from high school, 1 (6%) had some college education, 3 (19%) had graduated from college, 3 (19%) had some university, and 9 (56%) had graduated from university. Ten of the life partners had experience with shift work and its effects as one or more of their immediate family had been shift workers. The recruit's decision to become a police officer was a major event for 81% of the couples and this was a first career for 53% of the recruits. In all cases, the life partners were involved in some type of paid work whether it be part or full time. The 41 hours involved in this form of paid work ranged from 5 to 70 hours per week (M = 41.39, SD = 13.99). Design The recruit training process consists of enrollment in a 30 week police recruit training program at a major provincial training institute. Here, the recruits undergo three blocks of training. Block I consists of 12 weeks of basic training; classroom instruction in Investigation and Patrol, Legal Studies, Firearms Training, Arrest and Control Techniques, Traffic Studies, Community Relations, and Drill. The second block of training (Block II) is the practicum phase. The recruits return to their respective departments for 9 weeks in order to get "on the road" experience. The final block of training (Block III) consists of 9 more weeks at the academy for the completion of basic training. While at the academy, the recruits attend classes from Monday to Friday. Those recruits who do not reside in the Lower Mainland remain in town for the work week, but are able to return home for the weekends. At the end of Block HI the recruits graduate and become Qualified Municipal Constables, they then return to their departments to begin working as Police Constables. As shown in Table 1, questionnaires were distributed and assessment was completed after each block of training. Table 1 Recruit Training and Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaire (RLPTO) Assessment Time Line Block I Assessment Block II Assessment Block III Assessment 12 weeks 9 weeks 9 weeks 42 Procedure Ten of the life partners were accessed during the Police Academy's "Police Life Orientation Evening" offered to recruits and their spouses and/or significant others. It was held at the end of the first block of training. The Program Director of Recruit Training provided an overview of the recruit training process, as well as the various areas of instruction (e.g., Investigation and Patrol, Legal Studies, etc.). At that point in the program, I presented my study and the participants completed the Informed Consent Form, as well as the first of the three instruments (Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaire). This process took approximately 20 minutes. Upon completion of the questionnaire, the group was instructed to go to another room in order to watch a 30 minute video on Shift Work, then three of the instructors described their experiences of policing and answered any questions the recruits and/or their life partners had. Two of the life partners of the instructors were present and participated in the question and answer session as well. I accessed the six remaining life partners through a presentation to the entire recruit class during one of the classroom lectures the following week. I made a very brief presentation explaining the purpose of the study and what was involved. Of the 30 recruits in the entire class, only 20 (67 %) met the participation criteria. Of the 20 "recruit couples" 16 (80%) completed the first questionnaire 15 (75%) completed the second questionnaire, and 14 (70%) completed the third and final questionnaire. I was unable to contact the two participants who dropped out so it was not possible to determine why they were not able to complete the questionnaires. In examining the demographics of those who chose to complete all three questionnaires and those who did not, there were no significant differences, thus I was unable to draw any conclusions regarding their failure to complete the study. Near the end of the second and third blocks of training the remaining questionnaires were mailed to the participants. A follow-up letter with a second copy of the questionnaire was sent, as a reminder, approximately 3 weeks after the distribution of each questionnaire. 43 For the third questionnaire, follow-up letters with a second copy of the questionnaire were sent out twice. This was necessary due to a postal strike immediately after the completion of the third block of training just as the questionnaire was mailed out. Instruments Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaire. The Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaires (RLPTQ I, II, and III) were created in order to address the transitional experiences of the life partners of police recruits at the end of each block of the recruit training process. Each questionnaire is slightly different in order to reflect some of the differences between training blocks. RLPTQ I obtains demographic information, as well as information to explore Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model for analyzing an individual's adaptation to transition in this particular context. RLPTQ II obtains more model information but under slightly different conditions, that is, actual police work (e.g., "on the road," back at home for some, and shift work). RLPTQ III obtains information at the end of the academy experience, as well as having an evaluative component regarding the life partner's perception of his/her ability to adapt to the transition. The RLPTQ test items consist of, (a) short answer, open and closed questions, (b) checklists, and (c) Likert scale-type questions. The test items were developed specifically for the RLPTQ or were adapted from two other sources, (a) Niederhoffer and Niederhoffer's (1978) survey on the police family, and (b) Sinclair's (1990) Athlete Retirement Questionnaire. The source for each RLPTQ question, as well as the component of the modified transition model addressed and the frequencies of responses are indicated directly on the questionnaires in Appendix A. The questionnaires were pilot tested with three police life partners and one police constable in order to clarify any ambiguity in the phrasing of items or in the items themselves, as well as to test for relevancy. Several modifications were made with respect to the phrasing of the questions in order to make them more succinct, as well as to simplify some of the wording of the questions. 44 The variables used in the RLPTQs to obtain the life partner's perceptions of their own transition experiences were grouped according to Sinclair's (1990) modification of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model: The Transition, The Transition Process, Background Information and Outcomes (see Figure 3). The Dyadic Adjustment Scale. A second component was added to the second and third questionnaires in order to supplement the RLPTQ in terms of information regarding marital satisfaction. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS)(Spanier, 1976) was used to assess the quality of the relationship from the perception of the married or cohabiting couple. The instrument was designed to provide a general measure of satisfaction in an intimate relationship. It is a 32-item, self report instrument with Likert-type scales that provides a total score for marital satisfaction, as well as four subscores: Dyadic Satisfaction, Dyadic Cohesion, Dyadic Concensus and Affectional Expression. Total scores are produced from the sum of the four subscales. The total scores range from 0 to 151, higher scores reflect a better relationship. Scores one standard deviation below the mean indicate marital distress (Hunsley, Pinsent, Lefebvre, James-Tanner, & Vito, 1995). Spanier (1988) reported that the DAS had been used in over 1,000 studies and is recommended by researchers because of its brevity, applicability to married and non-married couples, and its strong psychometric properties (Carey, Spector, Lantinga & Krauss, 1993). 45 The Transfer, -recess Type Description Transition Characteristics Backgrcurd information Outcome irrfvicua'.Characteristics EnvironrrentaiCnaracteristics Planned • Trigger • : :::Tirning;: < •1 Outlook • Support Unplanned • Timing - Role Change • Options • Source - Stressor Personal Evaluation 1 Process Assessment Adaptation Figure 3. Modified Model Related Variables. Adapted from Sinclair, D.A. (1990). The dynamics of transition from high performance sport. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1990). 46 Data Analysis. The goals of this study are to: (a) describe the life partner's experience of the police recruit training process and its impact, (b) examine the coping strategies used by the life partners, and (c) explore the life partners' sources of support, over time. The strategies selected for data analysis were basic descriptive statistics (e.g., frequencies, means, standard deviations). Where appropriate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess changes over the two blocks of training. The Systat® SPSS statistical package's General Linear Model was used to examine the dependent variables over the three time periods (end of Block I, Block II, and Block III). The dependent variables for questions 1, 2, and 3 are presented in Table 2, and question 5 is presented on Table 3. A l l of the variables were selected according to the categories presented in the modified theoretical model. 1. Transition Characteristics: 1. Does the Police Recruit Training Process have a negative, positive, or no impact on the life partner of the recruit? 2. Individual Characterisitics: 2. What strategies does the lifeparmer utilize to cope with the transition process? 3. Environmental Characterisitics: 3. What support systems does the life partner access in order to cope with the transition process? Al Table 2 Dependent Variables Used in the Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance — Question 1.2.3 The Transition Process Variables and Items Question 1: Transition Characteristics Role Change Image (1-3 summed scale) (QI # 25-27, QII # 7-9, QUI # 6-8) Changed life (1-5 scale) (QI # 28, QII # 10, QUI # 9) Rate change (1-5 scale) (QI#29, QII# 11, QUI # 10) Stressor Rate stressful situations (1-5 scale) (QI # 23) Effects of training block (1-5 summed scale) (QI # 24, QII # 6, QIH # 5) Combined Degree (1-5 summed scale) Recruit safety Time together changes Opposite sex partner Friends change Shift work affects relationship Shift work affects family Negative emotional and/or psychological effects (QI#34, QII# 16,QIH# 16) Adaptation (1-5 scale) Perceived adjustment (QI# 31, QII #13, QUI #12) Note. QI# = Questionnaire number one, question..., QII# = Questionnaire number two, question..., QIII# = Questionnaire number three, question... 48 Table 2 (cont'd) The Transition Process Variables and Items Question 2: Individual Characteristics Outlook (1-5 scale) General outlook (QI # 33, QII # 15, QUI # 15) Combined Coping (1-5 summed scale) Laugh Cry Ignore feelings Use of alcohol and/or drugs Ignore the stress Read Counselling Another focus Keeping busy Talking to friend (QI#34,QII# 16. QIH# 16) Question 3: Environmental Characteristics Support Interpersonal Supports (1-5 summed scale) Life partner Other family members Friends Colleagues (QI # 35, QII # 17, QUI # 17) Institutional Supports (1-5 summed scale) Other recruit life partners Counsellor/Therapist The Police Department The Police Academy Clergy (QI # 35, QII # 17, QIH # 17) Note. QI# = Questionnaire number one, question..., QII# = Questionnaire number two, question..., QIU# = Questionnaire number three, question... 4. The Transition: 4. Is the type of transition (voluntary/involuntary, planned/unplanned) related to how satisfied the life partner is with the transition process? Descriptive statistics were obtained for the participants. Each participant indicated their role in the recruit's decision to become a police officer and these responses were compared to their perception of life satisfaction. 49 5. Outcomes. 5. Does the ratio or balance of each individual's coping assets and liabilities relate to the outcome of the transition? Variables representing the Transition Process were categorized as assets or liabilities based on Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model of ttansition, as well as on Schlossberg's research and are presented on Table 3. Assets were defined as (a) a positive life change, (b) little stress, (c) few problems, (d) a positive oudook, (e) the combined coping strategies used, and (f) received much support. Variables considered to be liabilities were (a) a negative life change, (b) a great deal of stress, (c) many problems, (d) a negative outlook, (e) the combined coping strategies used, and (f) received little support. A total asset/liability score was calculated for each participant by calculating the mean scores for all of the variables and items listed above. The scores were then categorized as an asset group (i.e., one or more standard deviations above the mean) and a liability group (i.e., one or more standard deviations below the mean). These scores were then compared with the life partners' perception of life satisfaction and satisfaction with the transition at each time period. 50 Table 3 Dependent Variables Used in DeteiTtiining Total Asset/Liability Score — Question 5 Category Variable and Item Life change Has training block changed life (1-5 scale) (QI#28, QII # 10, QUI #9) Stressors and Recruit safety (1-5 summed scale) Combined Degree Time together changes Opposite sex partner Friends change Shift work affects relationship Shift work affects family Negative emotional and/or psychological effects (QI # 22, QII # 5, QUI # 6) Outlook General outlook at the end of training block (1-5 scale) (QI#33,QH# 15, QUI # 15) Coping Strategies Combined coping strategies (1-5 summed scale) (QI#34, QII #16, QUI #16) Support Interpersonal support (1-5 summed scale) (QI # 35, QII # 17, QUI # 17) Institutional support (1-5 summed scale) (QI # 35, QII # 17, Qin # 17) Note. QI# = Questionnaire number one, question..., QII# = Questionnaire number two, question..., QIII# = Questionnaire number three, question... Because certain variables (i.e., effects of training, interpersonal support and combined coping) had a great deal of missing data it was impossible to use a summed score for all of the asset/liability variables. As a result, the mean scores of each variable were summed. The means and standard deviations for the mean scores were calculated over the three time periods. 51 Results and Discussion This investigation was designed to examine the transition experiences of the life partners of police recruits over the recruit training process using Sinclair's (1990) modification of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) conceptual model of adaptation to transition. The Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaires (RLPTQ) were developed to examine the transitional experiences of the life partner at the end of each block of training. The first of the three questionnaires was disuibuted direcdy to the life partners at the Police Life Orientation evening sponsored by the training institution, the second and third questionnaires were mailed out at the completion of the second and third blocks of training. The responses were then analyzed to determine if variables such as expectations, coping strategies, and support systems were related to the life partners' adjustment process. There were 16 participants for time period 1,15 participants for time period 2, and 14 participants for time period 3. Several attempts were made to get the outstanding questionnaires but were unsuccessful. The results are reported in five sections. The first section examines the impact of the training process on the recruit's life partner. In section two, the coping strategies used by the life partner during the transition process are examined. Section three examines the support systems available to and utilized by the life partner. The type of transition and its influence on the life partner's life satisfaction is discussed in section four. The final section examines the balance of each individual's coping assets and liabilities in relation to the outcome of the transition. 1. Does the Recruit Training Process have a negative, positive, or no impact on the life partner of the recruit? The seven variables used to assess this question are presented in Table 2. They are categoized according to the variables presented in the modified theoretical model. For each of the variables, the means, standard deviations, and frequencies, as well as repeated measures ANOVAs were calculated. 52 Table 4 Means. Standard Deviations, and Repeated Measures (TL. T^. T^) Analysis of Variance for Transition Process Variables Vaiiable na T T 3 Question 1 Transition Characteristics Role Change Summed image score M SD 13 1.93 0.18 1.87 0.29 1.85 0.22 Changed life M SD 13 2.69 1.32 2.84 1.34 2.62 1.26 Rate Change M SD 13 3.56 0.89 3.30 0.84 3.43 1.22 Vaiiable df F Within Subjects Role Change Summed image score error 2 24 0.44 (0.01) Changed life error 2 24 0.19 (0.96) Rate change error 2 24 0.62 (0.29) Variable na T, T 1 2 T 3 Question 1 (cont'd) Transition Characteristics Stressor Rate stressful situationsb 13 M 2.54 SD 1.05 continued 53 Table 4 (cont'd) Variable na Tl T 2 T 3 Question 1 (cont'd) Transition Characteristics Stressor Effects of training block Without children0 M SD 3 3.33 0.35 3.67 0.58 3.77 0.68 With children' M SD 3 3.20 0.53 2.87 0.31 3.40 0.53 Degree of Stress Summed degree0 M SD 11 4.00 0.56 4.07 0.65 4.20 0.61 Adaptation Perceived adjustment M SD 13 4.00 0.82 3.96 1.05 3.77 1.30 Vaiiable df F Question 1 (cont'd) Within Subjects Degree of stress Summed degree error 2 24 0.75 (0.19) Adaptation Perceived adjustment error 2 24 0.52 (0.38) continued 54 Table 4 (cont'd) Variable na T, T 2 T 3 Question 2 Individual Characteristics Outlook General outlook 13 M 4.15 4.23 4.38 SD 0.69 0.83 0.96c Combined coping0 11 M 2.93 2.83 2.94 SD 0.45 0.44 0.51 Variable df F Oudook Within Subjects General outlook 2 0.39 error 24 (0.46) Coping Combined coping 2 0.90 error 20 (0.01) Variable n3 TJ f Question 3 Support Interpersonal support0 M SD Institutional support M SD Environmental Characteristics 4.35 0.65 4.40 0.84 4.10 0.63 continued 55 Table 4 (cont'd) Variable df F Within Subjects Support Interpersonal support 2 0.55 error 8 (0.23) Note. a one case of missing data.b only measured at time 1.0 missing data.d only three couples had children. * insufficient data. In examining the results for the Transition Characteristic category Role Change, the life partners were asked whether as a result of recruit training they felt they (a) had to cope with more, same, or fewer problems than the average couple or family, (b) had to keep more, same, or less of a particular image in the community than the average couple or family, and (c) ought to have kept more, same or less of a particular image in the community than the average couple or family (where 1 was "more", 2 was "same" and 3 was "fewer"). The responses were summed at all three time periods and appeared to indicate that they felt the "same" in terms of numbers of problems and image prior to and after the recruit training process. The repeated measures A N O V A was non-significant which indicates that there was no change over the three time periods, F (2,24) <1. The life partners described how they felt their lives had changed as a result of training, and rated the change over the three time periods. The results of the repeated measures A N O V A conducted on the life change were non-significant indicating there was no change over time periods one, two and three, F (2,24) <1. The means indicated that the responses ranged from "little" to "moderate" change (M = 2.69, SD = 1.32; M = 2.84, SD = 1.34; M = 2.61, SD = 1.26 on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is "very little" and 5 is "a great deal") over the three time periods. In terms of rating the change, the repeated measures A N O V A was non-significant indicating that there was no change over time, F (2,24) <1. Though there was 56 a slight fluctuation in the means over time, the life partners' rating of the change was in the "neutral" range (M = 3.38, SD = 0.77; M = 3.15, SD = 0.90; M = 3.30, SD = 1.18 on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is "very negative" and 5 is "very positive"). The life partners wrote brief descriptions of the nature of change that occurred. The frequencies of responses over the three time periods are presented in Table 5. Though no pattern is evident with respect to changes at specific time periods, a number of the life partners indicated that "time" was the most frequently cited change. Table 5 Changes as a Result of Recruit Training as Identified by Life Partners Over the Three Training Periods (Tv To. T^) Changes Frequency Frequency Frequency Ti T 3 n=7 n=9 n=8 1. Time together has increased 3 2 1 2. Time together has decreased 1 2 3 3. Financial or job situation has 2 3 1 changed (t or i) 4. Moved/ in process of moving 1 5. Stress ( t o r i ) 1 1 1 6. Added family responsibility 1 1 7. Negative impact on relationship 1 2 8. Positive impact on relationship 2 2 9. Feeling like an outsider 1 1 10. Negative family reaction 11. Quality time has increased 3 1 12. Recruit is happy to start career Note. Individuals responded more than once, therefore total responses do not match the n. With regard to Stressors and more specifically, the variable representing how often the life partner sees the recruit, it was assumed that there would be an increase in time spent together during the second time period. It is during this block of training that the recruit, if not from a lower mainland department, would return home. However, the results did not support this assumption. The data indicated that there was a slight decrease in amount of time spent together. This could be due in part to shift work. For example, if the recruit was working an 11 hour shift, and was working early afternoons (14:00 — 01:00) or late 57 afternnoons (17:00 — 03:00) for four shifts in a row, the likelihood of seeing the life partner on a daily basis is reduced, unless the life partner is able to adjust his/her schedule to match. At time period one only, the life partners were asked to describe any other stressful situations that had arisen but were not listed in the previous question regarding stressors and degree. Through content analysis it was found that the situation/event that was quoted most often was "time away" and "feeling out of touch." The situation ranked second was "lack of sleep" or "changing sleeping patterns." Two events were ranked third in terms of being stressful, they were (a) "the recruit being stressed out, overworked and moody," and (b) "too much time spent on studying and exam preparation." Table 6 presents the stressful situations in rank order and the frequency of responses for each situation. Though the life partners were only asked to identify "other" stressful situations during the first assessment, again the factor "time" was identified most frequently. Table 6 Stressful Situations Identified by Life Partners Stressful Situations Frequency n=13 1. Time away from life partner and/or 6 family/feeling out of touch 2. Lack of sleep/changing sleeping 4 patterns/exhaustion 3. Stressed out/overworked/moody 3 4. Studying and exam preparation 3 5. Firearms and driver training 2 6. Increased personal workload 2 (e.g., household chores) 7. Concern regarding the recruit's safety 2 8. Move — having to or have had to 1 9. Unable to make plans 1 10. Financial concerns 1 11 . Illness 1 Note. Individuals responded more than once, therefore total responses do not match the n. In order to examine the effects that the blocks of training had on such factors as communication between life partners and with children, financial and social status, as well as the children's behaviour, the data were divided into two groups: (a) Effects on Couples 58 without Children (n = 3), and (b) Effects on Couples with Children (n = 3). There were only three couples without children included due to incomplete data from the remaining seven couples. The scores were summed for each group and the total mean score was analyzed. Because the sample is so small, it is virtually impossible to conduct any statistical tests and to have any meaningful results. The data indicated that for the group "without children," the effect of the ttaining blocks fell within the "neutral" to "positive effect" range (M = 3.33, SD = 0.35; M = 3.67, SD = 0.58; M = 3.77, SD = 0.68). The scores increased slighdy over the three time periods. For the group "with children," the effect of the ttaining blocks, though still in the "neutral" to "positive effect" range (M = 3.20, SD = 0.53; M = 2.86, SD = 2.00; M = 3.40, SD = 0.53), scores decreased slightly at time period two. This could possibly be attributed to the increased number of hours spent studying or that the training process had begun to have an impact on the life partner. A second factor may be the potential for increased responsibilities and increased work load over time as a result of having children in the home. The category Degree is comprised of seven variables used to examine the degree of stress felt by the life partner. Scored on a 1 to 5 scale where 1 is "very stressful" and 5 is "not at all stressful," the seven variables are: (a) concern regarding the recruit's personal safety, (b) the amount of time together has changed, (c) working with the opposite sex partner, (d) circle of friends may change, (e) shiftwork will affect the life partner relationship, (f) shiftwork will affect family life, and (g) the job will have a negative effect emotionally and/or psychologically on the recruit. The items were summed to produce a total degree of stress score. The repeated measures A N O V A was non-significant indicating that no change had occurred over the three time periods, F (2,24) <1. The means of the summed scores indicated that the degree of stress experienced by the life partners was rated as "not very stressful" (M = 4.00, SD = 0.56; M = 4.07, SD = 0.65; M - 4.20, SD = 0.61). 59 In terms of the Transition Characteristic Adaptation, the variable "perceived adjustment" was analyzed. Again, the repeated measures A N O V A was not significant, which indicated that there was no change over time, F (2,24) <1. However, the means showed a very slight decrease over the three time periods but remained within the "adjusting well" category ( M = 4.00, SD = 0.82; M = 3.96, S = 1.05; M = 3.77, SD = 1.30 on a scale of 1 to 5). The second Transition Process variable is Individual Characteristics. Under this heading the variables of Outlook and Coping were examined. In terms of "general outlook," the life partners all appeared to have a "positive" outlook on life. The scores increased slightly within the "positive" range over the three time (M = 4.15, SD = 0.69; M = 4.23, SD = 0.83; M = 4.38, SD = 0.96 on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is "very negative" and 5 is "very positive"). However, the results of the repeated measures A N O V A were not significant, indicating no change over the three time periods, F (2,24) <1. For the Coping variable, 10 coping strategies were identified (see Table 2). The scores for all of the strategies were summed. As the items only partially represent a number of specific factors of coping they were summed and a combined coping variable was created. The mean score was used and interpreted as "more" or "less" coping during a given time period. A mean score of 5 would indicate that these combine coping strategies were "used a great deal," whereas a mean score of 1 would indicate that they were "not used at all." Reverse scoring was used on three coping items (i.e., ignoring your feelings, use of alcohol and/or drugs, and ignoring the stress) because a high score would indicate that these strategies were used frequently, which was the opposite to actual use. Although the repeated measures A N O V A was not significant indicating that there was no change over time, F (2,20) <1, the means indicated the life partners used the combined coping strategies "occasionally" (M= 2.93, SD = 0.45; M = 2.84, SD = 0.44; M = 2.94, SD = 0.51). 60 The final Transition Process variable is Environmental Characteristics. Listed under this category is the variable Support. Two categories: Interpersonal Supports and Institutional Supports consisting of a total of nine support items are presented in Table 2. Interpersonal Supports include intimate relationships, the family and network of friends. Institutional Supports include such variables as support from occupational organizations, religious institutions, and other community support groups (Schlossberg, 1981). The scores were summed for the components of each category. In terms of Interpersonal Supports, the repeated measures A N O V A was not significant indicating that there was no change from time periods one to three, F (2,8) <1, and the range of scores fell between "moderately satisfied" and "satisfied" but were closer to "satisfied" over the three time periods (M = 4.35, SD = 0.65; M = 4.40, SD = 0.84; M = 4.10, SD = 0.63; on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is "not at all satisfied" and 5 is "completely satisfied"). With respect to Institutional Supports, there was an insufficient amount of data to analyze this variable. Virtually all of the participants left the item out or indicated that these supports were not applicable to their specific case. This would indicate that the life partners appeared to prefer to use their recruits, families, friends, and collegues as sources of support rather than more instituitionalized sources of support, such as the police department, the police academy, clergy, etc. Ancilliary Data On the whole, the life partners indicated that there had been "a little" to "moderate" change in their lives, and that the change was rated as "neutral" to "positive." In two cases, life partners indicated that the training had a "negative" impact on the relationship and attributed this in part to the increased workload at home and the decreased amount of time spent with the recruit. One of the couples who felt the training had a negative impact was in the process of separating, the other couple had a young child and both partners' careers are very demanding. This is supported by Greenhaus and Beutell's (1985) research on work-family conflict. They report that the time-based conflict mentioned by these life 61 partners, such as role overload, excessive time at work, and schedule conflict have a negative impact on the relationship. The life partners did not feel that because their life partners are police recruits soon to be police constables that they have had to face different problems than the average couple of family, nor do they have to keep or felt they ought to keep a certain image than the average couple or family. Interestingly, according to Schlossberg (1981) whether the role change is regarded as positive or negative, there is still some degree of stress associated with it. When asked to identify and rate stressful situations, it was found that the situations identified by the life partners were rated as more stressful than those presented in the questionnaire. Though both the questionnaire and life partner situations could be categorized as "organizational" and "personal" stressors (Burke, 1994; Kroes & Hurrell, 1974; Reiser, 1974; Violanti, 1993) as defined in the law enforcement stressors literature, the questionnaire did not address as many of the personal stressors (e.g., recruit's success, safety, and health issues) that were identified as pertinent to the life partners. The effects of training process on such things as communication between partners and with the children, as well as on financial and social status were rated as "neuhal" to "somewhat positive" for both couples with and without children. This is encouraging as, according to the literature, one of the primary concerns in police marriages is poor or lack of communication. Regardless of the quality of the existing communication in the relationship, the recruit training process appeared not to have had a negative effect. In general, the life partners used coping strategies only "occasionally," which indicated that the environment may not have been viewed as taxing or exceeding their resources (Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen, & DeLongis, 1986). The life partners felt they had adjusted well over the the training process and they had a positive outlook on life throughout. 62 The results of the repeated measures ANOVAs and the means have indicated that the recruit training process had only a slight impact on the life partners and on the relationship. Though facets were rated somewhat negatively, overall the experience was positive. 2. What strategies does the life partner utilize to cope with the transition process? Although a combined coping score was calculated, I considered the individual items in summarizing the findings. In Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) work, it was concluded that those who coped well used a number of different strategies that were context specific, such as eating well, exercising, not using alcohol and/or drugs, and using resources available to them. In terms of the individual items being used more than "occasionally" by the life partners, such strategies as exercise, talking to a friend, keeping busy and laughing were reported. Ignoring the stress, as well as ignoring their feelings and not using alcohol and/or drugs were also rated highly. Though using many coping strategies may also indicate an inability to cope effectively, the life partners appeared to score halfway between "more" or "less" coping. With respect to the occasional use of coping strategies, whether the life partners felt the training process was not stressful, or that they were able to adapt well because they had (a) a positive outlook, and (b) a number of supports in place, requires further research. However, it appears that the training process was not stressful enough to warrant the use of "more" coping. 3. What support systems does the life partner access in order to cope with the transition ? One of the major determinants of an individual's ability to adapt is the characteristics of the environment. This includes support systems and perceived options (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986; Schlossberg, 1981). Support systems include both inteipersonal and institutional supports. Interpersonal supports such as intimate relationships, the family, and network of friends have all been documented as being very important in times of transition, often providing a cushioning effect (Schlossberg, 1981). 63 Institutional supports often provide information, counselling and education as a means of support. In examining the items in the Interpersonal supports, the life partners reported that they were more than "moderately" satisfied with the amount of support they received. In terms of Institutional supports, some of the life partners were pleased that the Academy had provided them with the "Police Life Orientation Evening" but felt that the support they could have received from the other items was not applicable to them. Most of the life partners did not rate the items in this category. One may conclude from these results that (a) the life partners did not feel comfortable in going outside their relationship, families, friends or colleagues for support for any number of reasons and/or (b) the training process was not stressful enough in their estimation to warrant "outside" help. 4. Is the type of transition (voluntary/involuntary; planned/unplanned) related to how satisfied the life partner is with the transition process? For this question there was veiy little variablity in responses. The variable Role in Decision Making was only presented at assessment period one. The question asked the life partner to describe their role in the recruit's decision to begin a career in policing. Thirteen couples (81%) discussed the decision thoroughly, 2 couples (13%) discussed it briefly, and one couple (6%) indicated that the decision to become a police constable was not discussed, but location of work was discussed. Of the two couples that discussed the decision briefly, the life partners both indicated that they felt "satisfied" in terms of being satisfied with their lives. The couple that discussed "where it would be preferable to work," the life partner indicated that he/she was very satisfied with his/her life. Except for one, the remaining life partners had all discussed the decision thoroughly and were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their lives. Unfortunately, one couple was in the process of separating, this life partner discussed the decision thoroughly but rated life satisfaction as "neutral" (see Figure 4). 64 • v . d i s s a t i s f i e d 0 d i s s a t i s f i e d • n e u t r a l • s a t i s f i e d i v . s a t i s f i e d T h o r o M o d B r i e f N o n e O t h e r Discussed Decision Figure 4. Role in Decision Making and Life Satisfaction The type of transition (i.e., planned or unplanned) is one factor that was expected to affect adaptation to the transition, and planned transitions were considered an asset in the coping process (Charner & Schlossberg, 1986). On the whole, those participants who played a role in the decision making were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their lives. Another measure was used to examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and life satisfaction. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) was used to determine the life partner's perceived satisfaction with the relationship during time periods two and three. The DAS is comprised of four subscales that when summed produce a total score that indicates degree of martial satisfaction. The total score means and standard deviations for the life partners were calculated for the two time periods (M = 119.93, £D = 12.21; M = 120.31, SD = 11.43). These results are supported by the means and standard deviations originally reported in Spanier's (1976) research using 218 married couples (M = 114.8, SD = 17.8). Marital distress is defined as one standard deviation below the mean in Spanier's (1976) community sample. If using this as a marker in the sample of life partners of police recruits, it was found that two couples were classified as maritally distressed at both time periods. A third life partner's relationship was classified as 65 distressed in the third time period only. When comparing these results to the life partners' perceived life satisfaction, one participant indicated that he/she was "dissatisfied" in both time periods, another participant indicated that he/she was "satisfied" in both time periods, and the third participant indicated that he/she was "very satisfied" during that particular time period. The results of the repeated measures A N O V A was not significant indicating there was no change over time, F (1,11) <1. 5. Does the ratio or balance of each individual's coping assets and liabilities relate to the outcome of the transition? A total asset/liability score was calculated for each participant by calculating the mean scores for all of the variables. The variables used in the calculation are presented in Table 3. The scores were then categorized as an asset group and a liability group for both couples with children (n=3) and couples without children (n=10). These scores were then compared with the life partners' perception of life satisfaction and satisfaction with the transition at the end of each time period. The means and standard deviations were calculated for both groups (with children: M = 3.51, SD = 0.43; M = 3.60, SD = 0.26; M = 3.75, SD = 0.47; without children: M = 3.37, SD = 0.21; M = 3.45, SD = 0.47; M = 3.27, SD = 0.37). Only life partners without children were analyzed further due to the fact that different items went into calculating the asset and liability scores. The results of the repeated measures A N O V A for life partners without children were not significant, indicating there was no change over the three time periods, F (2.18) = 1.53, p>. 10). In order to determine who had more coping assets and more liabilities, the cut off point was one standard deviation above the mean and one standard deviation below the mean respectively. Those within the first standard deviation were considered to be balanced in terms of coping assets and liabilities (see Figure 5). 66 Numbers of Life P a r t n e r s T1 w it h { Ei A s s e t s • Ba lanced • L iabi l It ies 12 w / o T i m e T 2 w ith Per iods T 3 w / o T 3 w i th Figure 5. Asset and Liability Ratings When relating the coping assets and coping liabilites to (a) satisfaction with life, and (b) satisfaction with the transition the results reflected what was expected. Charner and Schlossberg (1986) state that it is the balance between coping assets and liabilities that is the determining factor in the outcome of the transition. It would be expected that those participants classified as balanced or have more coping assets would be "satisfied" to "very satisfied" and those with fewer coping assets would be "dissatisfied" or "very dissatisfied". For the couples with children, the results indicated that one life partner who had a balance of coping assets and liabilities became progressively more dissatisfied with life and with the transition. This is a reasonable result as the couple were in the process of separating. For the couples without children, during time period one, 2 (20%) life partners had more coping assets and 6 (60%) were balanced in terms of assets and liabilities, and 2 (20%) had fewer coping assets. During time period two, again 2 (20%) life partners had more coping assets, 8 (80%) were balanced. Finally, during time period three, only one life partner had more coping assets, and 9 (90%) were balanced. Only 2 life partners in time period one and one life partner in time period 3 reported "neutral" in terms of satisfaction with the transition (2 balanced, and 1 with fewer coping assets). The remainder of life partners, regardless of the number of coping assets or liabilities reported being "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with both their lives and the transition. Perhaps the fact that some of the life partners with fewer assets, have very strong assets and possibly outweigh, in their minds the liabilities. In Charner and Schlossberg's 67 Perhaps the fact that some of the life partners with fewer assets, have very strong assets and possibly outweigh, in their minds the liabilities. In Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) study, they attempted to identify each participant's assets and liabilities by having the individual rate each variable of the transition process in terms of "plus", "minus," or "mixed." This may provide a more clear understanding of the life partners' coping asset/liability ratio and its relationship to life satisfaction, as well as their satisfaction with the transition. 68 Conclusion The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the transition experience of life partners of police recruits during the recruit training process using Sinclair's (1990) modification of Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) model of adaptation to transition as a framework. As well, the impact of the transition on the life partner and the relationship was examined. Overall, the results indicate that (a) this transition process was not classified as stressful to the life partners, (b) the impact was only slight, and (c) the general outlook at the end of training (i.e., life satisfaction and satisfaction with the transition from civilian life partners to life partner of a police constable) for the majority was "positive" to "very positive." As the majority of the couples in the study were dual-career couples, it is likely that there were more resources for managing stressors available to them than single-career couples thus decreasing the amount of stress experienced throughout the training process. The specific goals of the study also included examining the coping sttategies used by the life partners, as well as to explore their sources of support. Overall, coping strategies were rated as "used occasionally "which could indicate that the transition process was not stressful or that there were other supports in place. Sources of support accessed were generally interpersonal. According to Schlossberg (1981), these types of supports are important in times of ttansition as they often provide a cushioning effect. Whereas institutional supports were not accessed, again suggesting that the training process was not stressful enough to warrant the need for institutional support. Because the aim of the study was not to test Sinclair's (1990) modified model of the transition process, but to use it as a framework for examining the transition process, no conclusion can be made in terms of support for the model. It was an effective way to catagorize and classify data in order to get a good overview of the transition process. 69 This exploratory, theoretically grounded, longitudinal study assessed a wide range of variables related to the transition process. It helped explore and give a voice to the experiences of a crucial, yet neglected component of the law enforcement community. Limitat ions There are several limitations present in this study. The sample size was small and may not be representative of the population of recruit life partners. This was complicated by the fact that 19% of the sample had dropped out by the end of the study. Second, it is an exploratory study and therefore not generalizable to the population of police recruit life partners. Third, in terms of the insu'ument itself, because it was developed specifically for this study, psychometric properties have not been established or researched. Fourth, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) was only used during assessment periods two and three as it was not available for assessment period one. This limits the ability to assess the changes in marital satisfaction throughout the entire training process. Finally, due to the sensitive nature of some of the questions at a potentially vulnerable time for the life partners, social desirability may have played a role in the way some of the questions were answered (e.g., the use of alcohol and/or drugs as a coping strategy, and concern regarding the recruit working with the opposite sex partner). Future Recommenda t ions Several recommendations are evident. First, in terms of the instrument, further testing and subsequent establishment of psychometric properties needs to occur. As well, the depth and subjectivity of the survey should be reconsidered in order to obtain more i detailed data. Second, despite findings that the process was not a stressful one, from a preventative standpoint, it would be helpful for the various police departments to provide more support to the recruits and their life partners in terms of providing orientation evenings or literature regarding training or policing to the life partners in order to assist them in the transition process. Third, due to the sensitive nature of some of the questions, and in an effort to reduce the influence of social desirability, more of a trusting relationship 70 needs to be developed between researcher and participant. Fourth, a more comprehensive look at the balance of coping assets and liabilities, and developing better methods to assess the assets and liabilities to include subjective ratings is recommended. Finally, periodic checks during the training process, as to its effects and how the Academy may assist may be helpful to the recruit couple, especially those whose relationships are in distress. 71 R E F E R E N C E S Anson, R. H., & Bloom, M. E. (1988). Police stress in an occupational context. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 16(4). 229-235. Baruth, L. G., & Huber, C. H. (1984). An introduction to marital theory and therapy. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. Beavers, W. R. (1985). Successful marriage: A family systems approach to couples therapy. New York: Norton. Beehr, T. A., Johnson, L. B., & Nieva, R. (1995). Occupation stress: Coping of police and their spouses. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 16. 3-25. Besner, H. F., & Robinson, S. J. (1982).Understanding and supporting your police marriage problems. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Brim, O. G., Jr., & Kagan, J. (1980) Constancy and change: A view of the issues. In O.G. Brim, Jr. & J. Kagan (Eds.), Constancy and change in human development. Cambridge, M A : Harvard University Press. Brinegar, J. L. (1979, Spring). The family connection. Police Stress. L 19. Brown, J. M., & Campbell, E. A. (1990). Sources of occupational stress in the police. Work & Stress. 4(4). 305-318. Bubenzer, D. L., & West, J. D. (1992). Counseling couples. London: Sage. Burke, R. J. (1988). Some antecedents and consequences of work-family conflict. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 3(4). 287-302. Burke, R. J. (1994). Stressful events, work-family conflict, coping, psychological burnout, and well-being among police officers. Psychological Reports. 75. 787-800. Carey, M. P., Spector, I. P., Lantinga, L. J., & Krauss, D. J. (1993). Reliability of the dyadic adjustment scale. Psychological Assessment. 5(2). 238-240. Carter, E., & McGoldrick, M. (1980). The family life cycle: A framework for family therapy. New York: Gardiner. 72 Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 56(2), 267-283. Charner, I., & Schlossberg, N. K. (1986, June). Variations by theme: The life transitions of clerical workers. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly. 212-224. Colson, D. (1979, Spring). A wife's way of coping. Police Stress. 1. 15-16. Crouter, A. C. (1984). Spillover from family to work: The neglected side of the work-family interface. Human Relations. 37(6). 425-442. Danish, S.J., Smyer, M.A., & Nowak, C A . (1980). Developmental intervention: Enhancing life event processes. In P.B. Baltes& O.G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span Development and Behavior (Vol.3). New York: Academic Press. Dohrenwend, B. S., Krasnoff, L., Askenasy, A. R., & Dohrenwend, B.P. (1978). Exemplification of a method for scaling life events: The Peri Life Events Scale. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 19. 205 - 229. Durner, J. A., Kroeker, M. A., Miller, C. R., & Reynolds, W. R. (1975, November). Divorce — Another occupational hazard. The Police Chief. 48-53. Elliott, M. L., Bingham, R. D., Nielsen, S . 'C , & Warner, P. D. (1986). Marital intimacy and satisfaction as a support system for coping with police officer stress. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 14(1). 40-44. Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton. Eyler, G. M. (1982, July-August). Stress and the police family: Some exploratory variables. Police Stress. 32. Fain, D. B., & McCormick, G. M., II. (1988). Use of coping mechanisms as a means of stress reduction in north louisana. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 16(1), 21-28. 73 Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C , DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 50(5). 992-1003. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Gruen, R. J., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 50(3). 571-579. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Goolkasian, G. A., & Geddes, R. W. (1985). Coping with Police Stress. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Justice. Golesh, R. (1979, Spring). Thank god for a wife who cares. Police Stress. 1. 17-18. Gottman, J. M. (1994). Why marriages succeed or fail...and how you can make yours last. New York: Simon & Schuster. Gould, R. (1978). Transformations. New York: Simon & Schuster. Graf, F. A. (1986). The relationship between social support and occupational stress among police officers. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 14(3). 178-186. Green Hall, B. (1982, February). Prescription for police stress: Talk to your wife. Police Stress. 34-35. Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review. 10. 76-88. Hertz, R. (1991). Dual-career couples and the American dream. Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 22. 247-253. Howard, K. (1991).The police family: a contemporary view of an old problem. In J. W. Bizzack (Ed.), Issues in policing: New perspectives (pp.260-267). Lexington, K Y : Autumn House Publishing. 74 Hunsley, J., Pinsent, C , Lefebvre, M., James-Tanner, S., & Vito, D. (1995). Construct validity of the short forms of the dyadic adjustment scale. Family Relations. 44(3), 231-237 Kannady, G. (1993, August). Developing stress-resistant police families. The Police Chief. 92-95. Kaufmann, G. M., & Beehr, T. A. (1989). Occupation stressors, individual strains, and social supports among police officers. Human Relations. 42.(2). 185-197. Kohlberg, L. (1970). Stages of moral development as a basis for moral education. In C. Beck & E. Sullivan (Eds.), Moral education. Toronto: University of Toronto. Kroes, W. H., Margolis, B. L., & Hurrell, J. J. (1974). Job stress in policemen. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 2(2). 145-154. Lad Burgin, A. (1978, April). The management of stress in policing. The Police Chief. 53-54. Lester, D., & Guerin, T. W. (1982). Further explorations of police officers' satisfaction with their marriages. Psychological Reports. 50. 608. Lipman-Blumen, J. A. (1976). A crisis perspective on divorce and role change. In J. R. Chapman & M. Gates (Eds.), Women into wives: The legal and economic impact of marriage (pp. 233-258). Beverly Hills, CA : Sage Publishers. Lyons, N. P. (1988). Two perspectives: On self, relationships and morality. In C. Gilligan (Ed.), Mapping the moral domain: A contribution of women's thinking to psychology and education (pp. 21-47). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Maynard, P. E., & Maynard, N. E. (1982). Stress in police families: Some policy implications. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 10(3). 302-314. Megerson, J. S. (1976, January). The officer's lady: A follow up. The Police Chief. 50-52. Miller, C , & Miller J. (1980, Spring). Escape from stress: One couple's remedy. Police Stress. 37-38,41. 75 Minton, D. (1980,)- A training program for the police officer's spouse. Police Stress. 14-16. Minton, P. (1980). A few thoughts from a spouse. Police Stress. 17 Niederhoffer, A., & Niederhoffer, E. (1978). The police family: From station house to ranch house. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company. Panyard, C. M. (1992, July-August). Police marriages: How to live with a cop. Police Stress. 6-8. Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978, March). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 19. 2-21. Pendergrass, V. E., & Ostrove, N. M. (1984). A survey of stress in women in policing. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 12.(3). 303-309. Price, A. A. (1980, Spring). Police marriages: Theoretical concepts for selecting spouses. Police Stress. 1. 31-36. Rapoport, R., & Rapoport R. (1971). Dual-career families. Middlesex. England: Penguin Books. Reese, J. T. (1982, September). Family therapy in law enforcement: A new approach to an old problem. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 7-11. Reiser, M. (1976, January). Stress, distress, and adaptation in police work. The Police Chief. 24-27. Reiser, M. (1978, April). The problems of police officers' wives. The Police Chief. 38,40,42. Ricks, P. C , & Munger, J. D. (1988, November). The forgotten recruit — Training the police spouse. The Police Chief. 20-22. Saper, M . B. (1980, February). Police wives: The hidden resource. The Police Chief. 28-29. Schlossberg, N. K. (1981). A model for analyzing human adaptation to transition. The Counseling Psychologist. 9(2). 2-18. 76 Schlossberg, N. K. (1984). Counseling adults in transition: Linking ractic with theory. New York, NY: Springer. Schlossberg, N. K., Troll, L. E., & Leibowitz, Z. (1978). Perspectives in counseling adults: Issues and skills. Monterey. CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Sharpley, C. F., & Cross, D. G. (1982). A psychometric evaluation of the Spanier dyadic adjustment scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 44. (3), 739-741. Sinclair, D. A. (1990). The dynamics of transition from high performance sport. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1990). Small, S. A., & Riley, D. (1990, February). Toward a multidimensional assessment of work spillover into family life. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 52. 51-61. Spanier, G. B. (1976, February). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 38(1), 15-28. Spanier, G. B. (1988). Assessing the strengths of the dyadic adjustment scale. Journal of Family Psychology. 2. 92-94. Sperry, L., & Carlson, J. (1991). Marital therapy: Integrating theory and technique. Denver, CO: Love Publishing. Stenmark, D. E., DePiano, L. C , Wackwitz, J. H., Cannon, C. D., & Walfish, S. (1982). Wives of police officers: Issues related to family-job satisfaction and job longevity. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 10(2). 229-234. Stratton, J. G. (1975, November). Pressures in law enforcement marriages: Some considerations. The Police Chief. 44-47. Stratton, J. G. (1978, April). Police stress: An overview. The Police Chief. 58-62. Stratton, J. G., & Tracy Stratton, B. (1982, May). Law enforcement marital relationships: A positive approach. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 6-11. 77 Stratton, J. G., Tracy Stratton, B., & Alldredge, G. (1982). The effects of a spouses' training program: A longitudinal study. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 10(3). 297-301. Terry, III., W. C. (1981). Police stress: The empirical evidence. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 9(1). 61-75. Troll, L. E. (1982). Continuations: Adult development and aging. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. Violanti, J. M. (1992). Coping sttategies among police recruits in a high-stress training environment. The Journal of Social Psychology. 132(6). 717-729. Violanti, J. M. (1993). What does high stress police training teach recruits? An analysis of coping. Journal of Criminal Justice. 21. 411-417. Violanti, J. M. , & Aron, F. (1993). Sources of police stressors, job attitudes and psycholgical distress. Psychological Reports. 72. 899-904. Violanti, J. M., & Aron, F. (1994). Ranking police stressors. Psychological Reports. 75. 824-826. Violanti, J. M., & Marshall, J. R. (1983). The police stress process. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 11.(4). 389-394. Violanti, J. M., Marshall, J. R., & Howe, B. (1985). Stress, coping and alcohol use: The police connection. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 13(2). 106-110. Webber, B. (1976, January). The police wife. The Police Chief. 48-49. Weiss, R. S. (1976). Transition states and other stressful situations:Their nature and programs for their management. In G. Caplan & M. Killilea (Eds.), Support Systems and Mutual Help: Multidisciplinary Explorations (pp. 17-32). New York, NY : Grune & Stratton. Wexler, J. G., & Logan, D. D. (1983). Sources of stress among women police officers. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 11.(1). 46-53. 78 White, R. (1976). Strategies of adaptation: An attempt a systematic description. In R. Moos (Ed.), Human adaptation: Coping with life crises (pp.213-232). Lexington, M A : Heath. Yogev, S. (1983). Dual-career couples: Conflicts and treatment. The American Journal of Family Therapy. 11. 38-44. Young, M. E., & Long, L. L. (1998). Counseling and therapy for couples. Pacific Grove, C A : Brooks/Cole. 79 Appendix A Recruit Life Partner Transition Questionnaires I, II, and Cover Letters 80 RECRUIT LIFE PARTNER TRANSITION QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the transition experiences of life partners of police recruits during the academy training process, and to examine the effects of this transition on the life partner and the relationship. The term "life partner" has been used in order to distinguish between partner "at home" and partner "on the job", and is defined as an individual cohabiting with the police recruit. All responses to the survey are confidential and anonymous. If you have any concerns regarding this study, please contact Dr. Bonita Long, Faculty Research Supervisor, Department of Counselling Psychology, Unversity of British Columbia [(604) 822-5259] or the researcher, Robyn Sinclair, Graduate Student, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, [(604)822-5259]. Thank you for your cooperation, it will provide valuable information and insight in researching this important, yet neglected component of the law enforcement population. 1. What is your age? (demographics) 2. Sex: L~J female (10) O male (6) (demographics) 3. What is your life partner's age? (demographics) 4. Marital Status: L~J single (3) • married (10) L~J divorced (0) L~J cohabiting (3) (demographics) • other (please describe) 5. How long have you been married to, or cohabiting with, your life partner? (demographics) 6. Are there children residing with you? • yes (3) • no (11) (demographics) If yes, please indicate the number of children, their sex and their age. • Not applicable Child 1: female male Age: Child 2: • female • male Age: Child 3: • female • male Age: Child 4: • female • male Age: Child 5: • female • male Age: Child 6: female male Age: 7. What level of education do you have? (demographics) • Some High School (0) • High School Graduation (2) • Some College (3) • College Graduation (2) • Some University (2) • University Graduation (7) Other (please describe) 82 8. What level of education does your life partner have? (demographics) • Some High School • High school Graduation • Some College (1) • College Graduation (3) • Some University (3) • University Graduation (9) Other (please describe) 9. Are any of your immediate family members currendy involved or have they previously been involved in Law Enforcement (e.g., Policing, Sheriffs, Corrections, Fisheries)? If so, please indicate the number of years of involvement. (demographics) • not applicable ( N & N , 1978) • father • mother • sister(s) ; • brother(s) ; , O other (please describe) ( 1 ) _ 10. Are any of your immediate family members currendy involved or have they previously (demographics) been involved in shift work? If so, please indicate the number of years of involvement. • not applicable O life partner (3) • father (4) • mother (2) • sister(s) (1) . • brother(s) • other (please describe) 11. In what type of area do you currently reside? (demographics) • urban (7) (a city) L~J suburban (8) (a residential area on the outskirts of the city) • rural (1) (in a country/residential environment) 12. What is the proximity of your residence to your life partner's work? (demographics) • 0 — 10km (5) • 11 — 2 0 k m (5) • 21 — 30 km (3) • more than 30 km (3) 13. Why did your life partner choose a career in policing? (trigger) 14. Were you a couple prior to your life partner entering policing? • yes (16) O no (demographics) 83 15. How would you describe your role in your life partner's decision to begin a career in (type,P/U) (source, V/I) policing? • we discussed it thoroughly (9) • we discussed it moderately (0) • we discussed it briefly (2) • we did not discuss it at all (0) other (please describe) (1) 16. Do you consider the decision to become a police officer to be a major event? (transition) • yes (13) • no (3) 17. Does enrollment in the Police Academy represent: (timing) • his/her first career? (8) • a career change? (7) 18. If the Police Academy represents a career change, what was your life partner's most (timing) recent previous career and what was its duration in years and months? Previous career: ; Duration (years/months): : 19. While your life partner was enrolled at the Police Academy, how often did you see him/her? • daily (10) • weekly (1) • monthly (3) L~J other (please describe) (1) 20. What shift does your life partner currently work? (stressor) (role change) (stressor) 21. Are you involved in paid work? (check all that apply) (demographics) • yes (16) • no • full-time (13) • part-time (3) Hours per week: Occupation: , 84 22. When reflecting on the past 12 weeks of training, please rate the following on a scale (stressor) from 1 to 5 where 1 is very stressful and 5 is not at al l stressful to you as a life (degree) partner. (Stressful being upsetting, anxiety provoking, cause for concern, etc.) (N&N, 1978) very somewhat not at all stressful stressful a) Recruit's personal safety as a result of the job 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (2) 5 (6) b) Amount of time spent together has changed 1 (0) 2 (5) 3 (3) 4 (1) 5 (2) c) Recruit working with the opposite sex partner 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (4) 5 (7) d) Circle of friends may change 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (0) 4 (3) 5 (7) e) Shift work will affect life partner relationship 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (4) 4 (1) 5 (6) f) Shift work will affect family life 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (3) 4 (2) 5 (6) g) The job will have a negative effect emotionally 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (5) 4 (0) 5 (5) n=ll and/or psychologically on the recruit 23. Please describe brief ly, the stressful situations that have arisen due to your (stressor) life par tner ' s involvment i n B lock I at the Pol ice Academy . Please circle the stressfulness of these situations on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is most stressful and 5 is least stressful. example: sleepless nights (a) (b) (c) most stressful 2 2 2 2 moderately 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 least stressful 5 5 5 5 24. W h a t effects has B l o c k I t ra in ing had on the fo l lowing ' Please rate the following on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is has a negative effect and 5 is has a positive effect. If any of the following do not apply, please circle N/A. has a has a (stressor) (N&N, 1978) negative effect neutral effect positive effect a) Communication between life partners b) Communication with the children c) Financial status d) The children's behaviour e) Social status f) Communciation with other family members 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (3) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (2)N/A 1 (1) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (2)N/A n=3 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (5) 4 (1 ) 5 (0)N/A 1 (0) 2 (3) 3 (3) 4 (0) 5 (0)N/A 85 25. As a result of your life partner completing Block I training, have you had to cope with (role change) more O (3), same O (9), or fewer O (1) problems than the average couple or family? 26. As a result of your life partner completing Block I training, have you had to keep (role change) more L~J (1), same fj (12), or less O of a particular image in the community (N&N, 1978) than the average couple or family? 27. As a result of your life partner completing Block I training, have you felt you ought (role change) to have more • (1), same L~J (11), or less L~J (1) of a particular image in the community than the average couple or family? very little moderate a great deal 28. Thus far, how has Block I training changed your life? 1 (3) 2 (3) 3 (3) 4 (3) 5 (1) (role change) (S, 1990) very negative neutral very positive 29. How would you rate this change? 30. If there have been changes, please describe them. 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (7) 4 (4) 5 (1) (role change) (S, 1990) (role change) (S, 1990) not moderately very well well well 31. How well do you feel you are adjusting to your 1 (0)2 (0) 3 (4) 4 (5) 5 (4) (adaptation) new lifestyle? (S, 1990) a great moderate very deal litde 32. How much stress did you feel while your 1 (2) 2 (2) 3 (5) 4 (2) 5 (2) (stressor) life partner was completing Block I training? (S, 1990) very neutral very negative positive 33. At the end of Block I, how would you classify 1 ( 0 ) 2 ( 0 ) 3 (2) 4 (7 ) 5 (4) (outlook) your general outlook on life? (S, 1990) 86 34. Have you used any of the following strategies to deal with stress of Block I (coping) training? (S, 1990) If so, please rate the ones you have used on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is not used at all and 5 is used a great deal. not used used a great at all OR occasionally deal N/A a) Laughing about it 1 (2) 2 (0) 3 (4) 4 (3) 5 (2) b) Having a good cry 1 (7) 2 (3) 3 (0) 4 (1) 5 (0) c) Ignoring your feelings in response to it 5 (7) 4 (2) 3 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0) d) Exercising 1 (3) 2 (2) 3 (0) 4 (4) 5 (2) e) Use of alcohol and/or drugs 5 (11)4 (0) 3 (0) 2 (0) 1 (0) f) Ignoring the stress 5 (6) 4 (2) 3 (2) 2 (1) 1 (0) g) Reading articles on police life partners 1 (9) 2 (1) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (1) h) Counselling 1 (11)2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) i) Finding another focus 1 (4) 2 (0) 3 (4) 4 (1) 5 (2) j) Keeping busy 1 (3) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (2) 5 (3) k) Talking with a friend 1 (2) 2 (4) 3 (1) 4 (3) 5 (1) 1) Other (please describe) 1 2 3 4 5 m) 1 2 3 4 5 n) 1 2 3 4 5 o) 1 2 3 4 5 35. During the time your life partner has been in Block I at the Police Academy, (support how satisfied are you with the support you have received from the following?(S, 199C Please rate the following on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is not at all satisfied and 5 is completely satisfied. not at all moderately completely not satisfied satisfied satisfied applic. a) Life partner 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (4) N/A b) Other family members 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (0) 5 (3) N/A c) Other friends 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (1) 5 (4) N/A d) Other Police Constables' life partners 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A e) Colleagues 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (0) 4 (2) 5 (2) N/A n=5 f) Counsellor/Therapist 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A g) The Police Department 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A h) The Police Academy 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A i) Clergy 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A j) Other (please describe) 1 2 3 4 5 N/A 87 36. As a result of your life partner completing Block I training, did you get involved in any (options) new activities/pursuits (e.g., job, school, hobbies)? O yes (2) G no (11) (S, 1990) Describe these activities.. very dissatisfied neutral very satisfied 37. At this point, how satisfied do you feel with your life? 38. How satisfied are you with the way you handled the transition from civilian life partner to life partner of a police constable thus far? 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (5) 5(7) (personal evaT) (S, 1990) 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (4) 5 (6) (proc. assess.) (S, 1990) 39. Are there other comments you would like to raise with regard to the topic of this survey? Thank you for participating in the study on the transition experiences of life partners of police recruits during the recruit training process. 88 RECRUIT LIFE PARTNER TRANSITION QUESTIONNAIRE II The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the transition experiences of life partners of police recruits during the academy training process, and to examine the effects of this ttansition on the life partner and the relationship. The term "life partner" has been used in order to distinguish between partner "at home" and partner "on the job", and is defined as an individual cohabiting with the police recruit. All responses to the survey are confidential and anonymous. If you have any concerns regarding this study, please contact Dr. Bonita Long, Faculty Research Supervisor, Department of Counselling Psychology, Unversity of British Columbia [(604) 822-5259] or the researcher, Robyn Sinclair, Graduate Student, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, [(604)822-5259]. Thank you for your cooperation, it will provide valuable information and insight in researching this important, yet neglected component of the law enforcement population. 1. What type of area do you currently reside in? (demographics) • urban (7) (a city) O suburban (7) (a residential area on the outskirts of the city) • rural (1) (in a country/agricultural environment) 2. What is the proximity of your residence to your life partner's work? (demographics) • 0 — 10km (6) • 11 — 2 0 k m (3) • 2 1 — 3 0 km (3) • more than 30 km (3) 3. While your life partner was on practicum with his/her department, how often did you (stressor) see him/her? • daily (9) • weekly (0) • monthly (1) • other (please describe) (5) 4. What shifts did your life partner work during Block II? (stressor) 4 on 4 off: 11 hour shifts; days, afternoons, nights (6) 4 on 4 off: 12 hour shifts: 2 days. 2 nights (8) 90 5. When reflecting on the last 9 weeks of training, please rate the following on a scale from (stressor) 1 to 5 where 1 is very stressful and 5 is not at all stressful to you as a life partner, (degree) (Stressful being upsetting, anxiety provoking, cause for concern, etc.) (N&N, 1978; very somewhat not at all stressful stressful a) Recruit's personal safety as a result of the job 1 (0) 2 (2) 3 (4) 4 (3) 5 (1) b) Amount of time spent together has changed. 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (3) 4 (1) 5 (5) c) Recruit working with the opposite sex partner. 1 (0) 2 (0). 3 (0) 4 (2) 5 (9) d) Circle of friends may change. 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (1) 5 (8) e) Shift work has affected relationship. 1 (1) 2 (2) 3 (0) 4 (1) 5 (7) f) Shift work has affected family life. 1 (0) 2 (2) 3 (0) 4 (2) 5 (7) g) The job will have a negative effect emotionally 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (4) 4 (1) 5 (6) negative effect n=ll and psychologically on the recruit. What effect(s) has Block II training had on the following? Please rate the following on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is has a negative effect and 5 is has a positive effect. If any of the following do not apply, please circle N/A. has a has a (stressor) (N&N, 1978! a) Communication between life partners b) Communication with the children c) Financial status d) The children's behaviour e) Social status 1 (0) 2 (1) 1 (0) 2 (0) 1 (0) 2 (1) 1 (0) 2 (0) neutral positive effect effect 3 (4) 4 (1 ) 5 (0)N/A 3 (2) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A 3 (2) 4 (1 ) 5 (2)N/A 3 (2) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A n=3 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (5) 4 (1 ) 5 (0)N/A 7. As a result of your life partner completing Block II training, have you had to cope with (role change) more G (2) , same G (11), or fewer G problems than the average couple or family? 8. As a result of your life partner completing Block II training, have you had to keep (role change) more G (2) , same G (10) , or less G of a particular image in the community tha (N&N, 1978) the average couple or family? 9. As a result of your life partner completing Block II training, have you felt you ought (role change) to keep more G (2), same G (10), or less G (1) of a particular image in the community than the average couple or family? very moderate a great little deal 10. Thus far, how has Block II training changed your life? 1 (3) 2 (4) 3 (3) 4 (3) 5 (0) (role change) (S, 1990) 91 very neutral very negative positive 11. How would you rate this change? 1 (0)2 (3) 3 (6) 4 (3) 5 (1) (role change) (S, 1990) 12. If there have been changes, please describe them. (role change) (S, 1990) not moderately very well well well 13. How well do you feel you are adjusting to your 1 (0) 2 (2) 3 (2) 4 (4) 5 (5) (adaptation) new lifestyle? (S, 1990) a great moderate very deal little 14. How much stress did you feel while your 1 (0) 2 (3) 3 (3) 4 (3) 5 (4) (stressor) life partner was completing Block II training? (S, 1990) very neutral very negative positive 15. At the end of Block II, how would you classify 1 (0)2 (0) 3 (3) 4 (4) 5 (6) (outlook) your general outlook on life? (S, 1990) 16. Have you used any of the following strategies in dealing with the stress of (coping) Block II training? (S, 1990) If so, please rate the ones you have used on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is not used at all and 5 is used a great deal. not used used used a at all OR somewhat great deal N/A a) Laughing about it 1 (3) 2 (0) 3 (7) 4 (1) 5 (0) b) Having a good cry 1 (7) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (2) 5 (0) c) Ignoring your feelings in response to it 5 (7) 4 (0) 3 (1) 2 (0) 1 (3) d) Exercising 1 (2) 2 (1) 3 (4) 4 (3) 5 (1) e) Use of alcohol and/or drugs 5 (13)4 (0) 3 (0) 2 (0) 1 (0) f) Ignoring it 5 (8) 4 (0) 3 (1) 2 (1) 1 (1) g) Reading articles on police life partner's 1 (9) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (0) h) Counselling 1 (10)2 (1) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) i) Finding another focus 1 (4) 2 (2) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (2) j) Keeping busy 1 (3) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (4) 5 (2) k) Talking with a friend 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (2) 4 (2) 5 (2) continued 92 16. (continued) 1) Other (please describe) _ _ 1 2 3 4 5 m) : 1 2 3 4 5 n) 1 2 3 4 5 o) . 1 2 3 4 5 17. During the time your life partner had been in the Block II practicum, how (support) satisfied are you with the support you have received from the following? (S, 1990) Please rate the following on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is not at all satisfied and 5 is completely satisfied. If any of the following do not apply, please circle N/A. not at all satisfied moderate completely not satisfied applic. a) Life partner b) Other family members c) Other friends d) Other Police Constables' life partner's e) Colleagues f) Counsellor/Therapist g) The Police Department h) The Police Academy i) Clergy j) Other (please describe) 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (2) 5 (3) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (4) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (1) 5 (4) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (1) 5 (3) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A n=5 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) N/A 1 2 3 4 5 N/A 18. As a result of your life partner completing Block II Gaining, did you get involved in (options) any new activities/pursuits (e.g., job, school, hobbies)? O yes (1) L~) no (12) (S, 1990) Describe these activities. 19. At this point, how satisfied do you feel with your life? 20. How satisfied are you with the way you handled the transition from civilian life partner to life partner of a police constable thus far? very neutral very dissatisfied satisfied 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (0) 4 (6) 5(6) (personal eval") (S, 1990) 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (6) 5(5) (proc. assess) (S, 1990) 93 21. Are there other comments you would like to raise with regard to the topic of this survey? An additional component has been added to the second and third questionnaires. It should only take a few extra minutes of your time. Again, thank you for participating in the study on the transition experiences of life partners of police recruits during the recruit training process. 94 RECRUIT LIFE PARTNER TRANSITION QUESTIONNAIRE III The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the transition experiences of life partners of police recruits during the academy training process, and to examine the effects of this transition on the life partner and the relationship. The term "life partner" has been used in order to distinguish between partner "at home" and partner "on the job", and is defined as an individual cohabiting with the police recruit. A l l responses to the survey are confidential a n d anonymous. If you have any concerns regarding this study, please contact Dr. Bonita Long, Faculty Research Supervisor, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia [(604) 822-5259] or the researcher, Robyn Sinclair, Graduate Student, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, [(604)822-5259]. Thank you for your cooperation, it will provide valuable information and insight in researching this important, yet neglected component of the law enforcement population. 1. What type of area do you currently reside in? (demographics; O urban (7) (a city) • suburban (7) (a residential area on the outskirts of the city) L~J rural (0) (in a country/agricultural environment) 2. What is the proximity of your residence to your life partner's work? (demographics; • 0 — 10 km (6) CP 11 — 20 km (2) • 21 — 30 km (3) • more than 30 km (3) 3. While your life partner was enrolled at the academy, how often did you see him/her? (stressor) • daily (11) • weekly (1) • monthly (0) L~J other (please describe) (2) 4. When reflecting on the past 9 weeks of training, please rate the following on a scale (stressor) from 1 to 5 where 1 is very stressful and 5 is not at al l stressful to you as a life (degree) partner. (Stressful being upsetting, anxiety provoking, cause for concern, etc.) (N&N, 1978) very somewhat not at all stressful stressful a) Recruit's personal safety as a result of the job. 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (8) b) Amount of time spent together has changed. 1 (1) 2 (2) 3 (4) 4 (2) 5 (2) c) Recruit working with the opposite sex partner. 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (3) 5 (8) d) Circle of friends may change. 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (2) 5 (7) e) Shift work has affected relationship. 1 (1) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (7) f) Shift work has affected family life. 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (1) 5 (7) g) The job will have a negative effect emotionally 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (2) 5 (7) and/or psychologically on the recruit. n=ll 96 5. What effect(s) has Block III training had on the following? Please rate the following on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is has a negative effect and 5 is has a positive effect. If any of the following do not apply, please circle N/A. has a has a negative neutral positive effect effect effect (stressor) (N&N, 1978) a) Communication between life partners b) Communication with the children c) Financial status d) The children's behaviour e) Social status 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (1)N/A 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A 1 (1) 2 (0) 3 (2) 4 (1) 5 (2)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (3) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (5) 4 (0) 5 (1)N/A n=3 6. As a result of your life partner completing Block in training, have you had to cope with (role change) more • (4), same O (9), or fewer • (0) problems than the average couple or family? 7. As a result of your life partner completing Block HI training, have you had to keep (role change) more • (1), same L~J (12), or less L~J (0) of a particular image in the community (N&N, 1978) than the average couple or family? 8. As a result of your life partner completing Block III training, have you felt you ought to (role change) keep more L~J (1), same L~J (12), or less • (0) of a particular image in the community than the average couple or family? very little moderate a great deal 9. Thus far, how has Block III training changed your life? 1 (3) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 (2) 5 (1) (role change) (S, 1990) 10. How would you rate this change? very negative neutral very positive 1 (1) 2 (2) 3 (4) 4 (4) 5 (2) (role change) (S, 1990) 11. If there have been changes, please describe them. (role change) (S, 1990) 97 >8 months 3-4 months <1 month (not adapted) (immediately) 12. How long did it take for you to adjust to your 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (3) 4 (3) 5 (5) (adaptation) new lifestyle? (S, 1990) a great moderate very deal little 13. How much stress did you generally feel in your 1 (0) 2 (2) 3 (1 ) 4 (5) 5 (5) (stressor) life PRIOR to your life partner beginning (degree) Block III training? (S, 1990) a great moderate very deal little 14. How much stress did you generally feel 1 (2) 2 (1) 3 (5) 4 (3) 5 (2) (stressor) WHILE your life partner was completing (degree) Block HI training? (S, 1990) very neutral very negative positive 15. At this point, how would you classify your 1 (0)2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (3) 5(8) (outlook) general oudook on life? (S, 1990) 16. Have you used any of the following strategies in dealing with the stress (coping) of Block III training? (S, 1990) If so, please rate the ones you have used on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is not used at all and 5 is used a great deal. not used used used a great at all OR somewhat deal N/A a) Laughing about it b) Having a good cry c) Ignoring your feelings in response to it d) Exercising e) Use of alcohol and/or drugs f) Ignoring it g) Reading articles on police life partners h) Counselling i) Finding another focus j) Keeping busy k) Talking with a friend 1) Other (please describe) 1 (3) 2 (0) 3 (6) 4 (2) 5 (0) 1 (7) 2 (2) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (1) 5 (7) 4 (1) 3 (1) 2 (2) 1 (0) 1 (2) 2 (0) 3 (6) 4 (2) 5 (1) 5 (11)4 (0) 3 (0) 2 (0) 1 (0) 5 (7) 4 (2) 3 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0) 1(10)2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (0) 1(11)2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0) 1 (3) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (5) 5 (0) 1 (2) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (5) 5 (3) 1 (3) 2 (1) 3 (3) 4 (3) 5 (1) 1 2 3 4 5 n=ll m) n) o) 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 98 17. During the time your life partner had been in Block III at the academy, (supports) how satisfied are you with the support you have received from the (S, 1990) following? Please rate the following on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is not at all satisfied and 5 is completely satisfied. If any of the following do not apply, please circle N/A. not at all satisfied moderate completely satisfied a) Life partner b) Other family members c) Other friends d) Other Police Constables' life partners e) Colleagues f) Counsellor/Therapist g) The Police Department h) The Police Academy i) Clergy j) Other (please describe) 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (2) 5 (3)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (0) 5 (4)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (1) 5 (4)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (1) 5 (3)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0)N/A n=5 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0)N/A 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (0)N/A 1 2 3 4 5 N/A 18. As a result of your life partner completing Block in training, did you get involved in (options) any new activities/pursuits (e.g., job, school, hobbies)? • yes (6) L~J no (7) (S, 1990) Describe these activities. 19. At this point, how satisfied do you feel with your life? 20. How do you feel about your life since you have taken on the role of "life partner of a police constable?" 21. How satisfied are you with the way you handled the ttansition from civilian life partner to life partner of a police constable? very neutral very dissatisfied satisfied 1 (0) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (4) 5(7) (personal eval"; (S, 1990) 1 (1) 2 (0) 3 (1) 4 (5) 5(6) (personal eval" (S, 1990) 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (2) 4 (4) 5(5) (proc. assess) (S, 1990) 99 Appendix B Dyadic Adjustment Scale 101 — DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE — MOST PEOPLE HAVE DISAGREEMENTS IN THEIR RELATIONSHIPS. PLEASE INDICATE BELOW THE APPROXIMATE EXTENT OF AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND YOUR PARTNER FOR EACH ITEM ON THE FOLLOWING LIST (PLEASE CIRCLE THE NUMBER THAT CORRESPONDS TO YOUR ANSWER ). Always Agree Almost Always Agree Occasion ally Disagree Frequent disagree Almost Always Disagree Always Disagree 1. Handling family finances 5 4 3 2 1 0 2. Matters of recreation 5 4 3 2 1 0 3. Religious matters 5 4 3 2 1 0 4. Demonstrations of affection 5 4 3 2 1 0 5. Friends . 5 4 3 2 1 0 6. Sex relations 5 4 3 2 1 0 7. Conventionality (correct or proper behaviour) 5 4 3 2 1 0 8. Philosophy of life 5 4 3 2 1 0 9. Ways of dealing with parents or in-laws 5 4 3 2 1 0 10. Aims, goals, and things believed important 5 4 3 2 1 0 11. Amount of time spent together 5 4 3 , 2 1 0 12. Making major decisions 5 4 3 2 1 0 13. Household tasks 5 4 3 2 1 0 14. Leisure time interests and activities 5 4 3 2 1 0 15. Career Decisions 5 4 3 2 1 0 All The Time Most Of The Time More Often Than Not Occasion ally Rarely Never 16. How often do you discuss or have you considered divorce, separation, or termination of your relationship? 0 1 2 3 4 5 17. How often do you or your partner leave the house after a fight? 0 1 2 3 4 5 18. In general, how often do you think that things between you and your partner are going well? 5 4 3 2 1 0 19. Do you confide in your partner? 5 4 3 2 1 0 20. Do you ever regret that you married (or lived together)? 0 1 2 3 4 5 21. How often do you and your partner quarrel? 0 1 2 3 4 5 22. How often do you and your partner get on each others' nerves? 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 bvery Day Almost bvery Day Occasionally |§air^ly!||| Never 1 | 23. Do you kiss your partner? 4 3 2 1 o 1 102 Allot Them Most Of Them Some Of Them Very Few Of Them None Of Them 24. Do you and your partner engage in outside interests together? 4 3 2 1 0 How often do the following occur between you and your partner? Never Less Than Once A Month Once Ot Twice A Month Once Or Twice A Week Once A Day More Often 25. Have a stimulating exchange of ideas 0 1 2 3 4 5 26. Laugh together 0 1 2 3 4 5 27. Calmly discuss something 0 1 . 2 3 4 5 28. Work together on a project 0 1 2 3 4 5 These are some things about which couples sometimes agree or disagree. Indicate if either item caused differences of opinions or were problems in the past few weeks. Yes No 29. Being too tired for sex 0 1 30. Not showing love 0 1 31. The numbers on the following line represent different degrees of happiness in your relationship. The middle point, "happy" , represents the degree of happiness of most relationships. Please circle the number that best describes the degree of happiness, all things considered, of your relationship. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Extremely Fairly A Little Happy Very Happy Extremely Perfect Unhappy Unhappy Happy Happy 32. Which of the following statements best describes how you feel about the future of your relationship? Circle the number for one statement. I want desperately for my relationship to succeed, and would go to almost any length to see that it does I want very much for my relationship to succeed, and will do all I can to see that it does. I want very much for my relationship to succeed, and will do my fair share to see that it does. It would be nice if my relationship succeeded, but I can't do much more than I am doing now to keep the relationship going. It would be nice if it succeeded, but I refuse to do any more than l a m doing now to keep the relationship going. My relationship can never succeed, and there is no more that I can do to keep the relationship going 33. How confident are you that your relationship will succeed? Not at all Confident 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 34. How critical do you think you are of your partner? Never Critical 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 34. How critical do you think your partner is of you? Never Critical Completely Confident It Will Succeed 9 10 Very Critical 9 10 Very Critical 8 9 10 103 Appendix C Letter Explaining the Study 104 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328 T H E TRANSITION EXPERIENCES OF LIFE PARTNERS OF RECRUIT P O L I C E CONSTABLES DURING THE RECRUIT TRAINING P R O C E S S June 1997 Dear Participant; I would like to thank you for agreeing to participate in this study and for completing the series of questionnaires or profiles. Approximately 90 minutes of your time will be required over the 30 weeks of Basic Peace Officer's Training. The purpose of this study is to examine and explore the transition experiences of life partners of Recruit Police Constables over the 30 weeks of the Basic Peace Officer's Training Program and to examine the effects of this transition on the life partner and the relationship. Extensive research has focused on the transition experiences of the constables themselves however, there is a paucity of information from the perspective of the life partner. There are no correct or incorrect responses for these profiles. Rather, your responses will express the feelings, issues and coping strategies that are pertinent in your life. This study is completely confidential and please note that you are free to withdraw from the study at anytime. If you have any concerns regarding this study, please contact Dr. Bonita Long, Faculty Research Supervisor, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia [(604) 822-5259], or the researcher, Robyn Sinclair, Graduate Student, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia [(604) 822-5259]. Thank you, Robyn Sinclair 105 Appendix D Informed Consent Form 106 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A June 1997 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328' Informed Consent Form T H E TRANSITION EXPERIENCES OF LIFE PARTNERS OF RECRUIT P O L I C E CONSTABLES DURING THE RECRUIT TRAINING P R O C E S S PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Bonita Long, Professor, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, (604) 822-5259 CO-INVESTIGATOR: Robyn Sinclair, Candidate: Masters of Arts in Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, (604) 822-5259 Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and explore the transition experiences of life partners of recruit police constables over the 30 weeks of the Basic Peace Officer's Training Program using Charner and Schlossberg's (1986) theoretical model, and to examine the effects of this transition on the life partner and the relationship. This study is the primary source of data required for the completion of my master's thesis at the University of British Columbia in the Department of Counselling Psychology. Study Procedures: As a participant, I will be asked to complete three questionnaires; one during the "Police Life Orientation Evening" offered by the Police Academy and a questionnaire at the end of each of the subsequent blocks of training. The initial questionnaire will take approximately 30 minutes, the remaining two, approximately 15 minutes each. Confidentiality: Any information resulting from this study will be kept strictiy confidential. A l l documents and computer disks will be identified by a code number only and will be stored in a locked filing cabinet. Raw data and the master list of participant information will be stored separately. Participants will not be identified by name in any reports of the completed study. A l l hard copies of the data will be shredded and the disk storing the data will be erased, in accordance with the American Psychological Association's standards. 107 Contact: If I have any questions or desire further information with respect to this study, I may contact Dr. Bonita Long, Faculty Research Supervisor, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia at (604) 822-5259 If I have any concerns about my treatment or rights as a research participant I may contact the Director of Research Services at the University of British Columbia, Dr. Richard Spratley at (604) 822-8598. Consent: This is to certify that I, , hereby agree to voluntarily participate in this study on the transition experiences of life partners of police recruits. I have been told that I do not have to participate in this study, that I am free to withdraw my consent and may terminate my participation at any time without jeopardizing my life partner's present employment status. I have received a copy of this consent form for my own records. I consent to participate in this study. Participant's Signature Date Investigator's Signature: Robyn Sinclair [(604) 822-5259] 108 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0053970/manifest

Comment

Related Items