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Regrouping at the parental home : a grounded theory of female adult children's experiences of returning.. Paseluikho, Michele A. 2000-12-31

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Regrouping  a t the P a r e n t a l Home: A Grounded Theory o f Female  A d u l t C h i l d r e n ' s Experiences o f Returning Home t o L i v e by Michele A. Paseluikho B.A. (Honours) The U n i v e r s i t y o f Winnipeg (1989) M.Sc. The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y (1992) A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l and C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  and S p e c i a l  Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH 2000 © Michele A. Paseluikho, 2000  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  fr^^/frM  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  A  /  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^ /^y.  Z  ^  ^  ^ ^ / ^  11  ABSTRACT R E G R O U P I N G A T T H E P A R E N T A L HOME: ADULT C H I L D R E N ' S  The describe  EXPERIENCES  A GROUNDED T H E O R Y O F F E M A L E OF R E T U R N I N G HOME T O L I V E  purpose o f t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h  study was t o  female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experiences when they r e t u r n  t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e , and t o develop theory  to explain  the p r o c e s s e s and consequences i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e t u r n t o t h e p a r e n t a l home. Primary data sources i n c l u d e d audiotaped, s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d c h i l d r e n who had returned  1 1/2 hour  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 15 female a d u l t  t o the p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e .  sources o f data i n c l u d e d i n d i v i d u a l and c o n j o i n t  Other  interviews  w i t h p a r e n t s and daughters from a subset o f f o u r f a m i l i e s , and f i e l d notes about the i n t e r v i e w s . Grounded theory methodology (Strauss & C o r b i n , 1990, 1998) was used. T r a n s c r i b e d analyzed  i n t e r v i e w s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  t o develop a t h e o r e t i c a l model, i n which t h e c o r e  s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l process was l a b e l l e d "regrouping." response t o l i f e events and personal  choices,  the p a r e n t a l home t o regroup--to recuperate,  In  women r e t u r n t o reenergize,  contemplate and pursue l i f e p l a n s . T h e i r i n t e n t i o n i s t o enhance p e r s o n a l  well-being  and t o secure a b e t t e r q u a l i t y  l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e . Regrouping i s embedded i n t h e l i f e  context  of female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s s p e c i f i c l i f e - e v e n t s and c h o i c e s , l i v i n g environments, f a m i l y and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s - - a l l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t can h i n d e r o r f a c i l i t a t e t h e process.  Regrouping i s a c y c l i c a l r a t h e r than a  1X1  l i n e a r process.  Female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who had r e t u r n e d  p a r e n t a l home d i d not experience  a simple,  uncomplicated  l i n e a r forward movement towards a t t a i n i n g valued g o a l s . Rather, they experienced  to the  personal  an o s c i l l a t i n g p a t t e r n o f  " f a l t e r i n g " and "advancing" i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e a l i z e g o a l s . T h i s experience  has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e development o f  a f l u c t u a t i n g sense o f s e l f o r self-image, personal  The  the f u l f i l m e n t o f  g o a l s , t h e q u a l i t y o f the experience  negative,  valued  as p o s i t i v e o r  and f o r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l model t o t h e  l i t e r a t u r e i s t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t r e t u r n i n g home i n adulthood may be a s t r a t e g y f o r managing change and t r a n s i t i o n i n one's l i f e and f o r a t t a i n i n g c e r t a i n l i f e s p a n development (e.g.,  i n d i v i d u a t i n g from parents,  tasks  e s t a b l i s h i n g a c a r e e r , and  a t t a i n i n g f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y ) . Implications f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e , and the s e l f - h e l p needs o f a d u l t s who have  returned  home t o l i v e a r e noted. Suggestions f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g  returning  a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s personal development ( i . e . , personal  g o a l s , weighing the pros and cons o f r e t u r n i n g and  remaining a t t h e p a r e n t a l home, m a i n t a i n i n g seeking (i.e,  clarifying  self-esteem,  s o c i a l support) and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s .  having  r e a l i s t i c expectations  o f parents,  being  s e n s i t i v e t o mothers, n e g o t i a t i n g p r i v a c y and boundaries, managing c r o s s - c u l t u r a l dynamics) a r e d i s c u s s e d .  It i s  suggested t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h extend the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e theory  t o men, as w e l l as more d i v e r s e e t h n i c groups.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  T a b l e o f Contents  iv  Acknowledgements  ix  CHAPTER I :  INTRODUCTION  1  R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i n g t h i s Research Topic Purpose and S p e c i f i c Aims Researcher's M e t a t h e o r e t i c a l Framework and Worldview Constructionism Contextualism Researcher' s Background  1 4 4 6 9 10  CHAPTER I I :  12  LITERATURE REVIEW  P a t t e r n s o f Parent-Adult C h i l d Coresidence Reasons f o r A d u l t C h i l d r e n Returning Home  13 15  Predominant Conceptual Frameworks S o c i a l Exchange L i f e - S p a n Development and T r a n s i t i o n t o Adulthood I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Parent-Adult C h i l d Coresidence  16 16 19 21  Consequences o f Parent-Adult C h i l d Coresidence Impact on Family R e l a t i o n s Expected V a r i a t i o n i n Coresidence Outcomes  25 25 36  C r i t i c i s m o f t h e Research on Parent-Adult C h i l d Coresidence What about I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the A d u l t C h i l d ' s Career Development? What about I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the A d u l t C h i l d ' s Sense o f S e l f ?  39 40 44  C o n c l u d i n g Comments  45  CHAPTER I I I :  48  METHOD  R a t i o n a l e f o r a Grounded Theory Approach  48  Overview o f t h e Grounded Theory Method The Emergent Design  51 53  Sampling I n i t i a l Sample S e l e c t i o n T h e o r e t i c a l Sampling  57 57 59  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Study Sample  ..60  Procedure Data C o l l e c t i o n I n t e r v i e w i n g Format E t h i c a l Considerations  64 64 65 66  Data A n a l y s i s Memoing The A n a l y t i c Group  67 72 72  C r i t e r i a f o r Judging Rigor  73  L i m i t a t i o n s o f Grounded Theory Method  74  CHAPTER IV:  79  STUDY FINDINGS  Regrouping a t t h e P a r e n t a l Home: A Grounded Theory o f Female A d u l t C h i l d r e n ' s Experiences o f R e t u r n i n g Home t o L i v e  80  Regrouping  84  a t t h e P a r e n t a l Home Defined  Regrouping's L i f e - S p a n Developmental O b j e c t i v e s S t r i v i n g for Financial Security P u r s u i n g C a r e e r - E d u c a t i o n a l Plans R e l a t i o n a l - I n d i v i d u a t i o n with Parents The C y c l i c a l and Dynamic Regrouping Process The Subprocesses o f F a l t e r i n g and Advancing Faltering Advancing The T r a j e c t o r y C o n d i t i o n s t h a t I n f l u e n c e the Regrouping Process Context o f P r e c i p i t a t i n g L i f e - E v e n t s P e r s o n a l Set-backs and C r i s e s T r a v e l and Work Abroad D e c i s i o n t o Change Aspects o f One's L i f e Context o f I n d i v i d u a l and Family Background Context o f Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s Context o f the Living-Environment Context o f S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s and F r i e n d s h i p s S o c i e t a l Context Consequences o f Regrouping a t the P a r e n t a l Home The S t a t u s o f A t t a i n i n g Regrouping O b j e c t i v e s Attaining Financial Security Pursuing C a r e e r - E d u c a t i o n a l Plans Individuating i n Parent-Child Relationship Q u a l i t y o f t h e Regrouping a t Home Experience Impact on Sense o f S e l f  87 87 90 94 96 99 99 103 .104 I l l I l l I l l 113 115 116 120 127 131 133 136 137 138 138 140 141 146  vi Impact on R e l a t i o n s h i p s with Parents  149  Summary o f Study F i n d i n g s  156  CHAPTER V:  161  DISCUSSION.  C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Extant L i t e r a t u r e About t h e Female A d u l t C h i l d r e n i n t h i s Study R e v i s i t i n g Reasons f o r A d u l t C h i l d r e n Returning Home Regrouping a t the P a r e n t a l Home and L i f e - S p a n Development Managing T r a n s i t i o n s i n Adulthood S t r i v i n g f o r a B e t t e r L i f e and Future Regrouping Goals and Success Regrouping and Change P o s s i b l e Selves The Enduring P a r e n t - C h i l d Connection Help Exchange  161 162  Study L i m i t a t i o n s  191  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e and S e l f - H e l p F a c i l i t a t i n g Personal Development C l a r i f y i n g Personal Goals Weighing t h e Pros and Cons M a i n t a i n i n g One's Self-Esteem Seeking S o c i a l Support Shaping One's Environment F a c i l i t a t i n g Family R e l a t i o n s Having R e a l i s t i c Expectations o f Parents Being S e n s i t i v e t o Mothers P r i v a c y and Boundaries C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Dynamics Implications  for Social Policy  Recommendations f o r Future Concluding REFERENCES  Remarks  Research..  164 167 175 179 179 185 188 190 191  198 199 199 200 201 201 202 202 ...202 203 204 204 205 208 210 212  vii APPENDICES Appendix A: Appendix B: Appendix C: Appendix D:  Sample Advertisements i n F l y e r s and Media  223  Research Sample's Characteristics  224  Demographic '.  Research P a r t i c i p a n t ' s Consent: Family Form  228  Research P a r t i c i p a n t ' s Consent: I n d i v i d u a l Form  230  Appendix E:  Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  232  Appendix F:  I n i t i a l Interview Guide  235  Appendix G:  Revised Interview Guide f o r Daughters as the Study Progressed R e f e r r a l s f o r Research P a r t i c i p a n t s  236 238  Appendix H:  i  V l l l  LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1:  T h e o r e t i c a l Schematic of Daughters' Regrouping at the P a r e n t a l Home  239  ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e many people who made t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e . I am g r a t e f u l t o the women and parents who were w i l l i n g to  come forward  and share t h e i r innermost thoughts about  p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e experiences d i s c l o s u r e s helped  with a " s t r a n g e r . "  their  Their  c r e a t e a r e l e v a n t theory o f female a d u l t  c h i l d r e n ' s experiences  o f r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o  l i v e ; one t h a t may a s s i s t other  "boomerang k i d s " i n t h e  future. S p e c i a l thanks t o the c h a i r p e r s o n o f my s u p e r v i s o r y d i s s e r t a t i o n committee, Dr. Richard Young, and t o committee members, Dr. Katharyn May and Dr. John F r i e s e n f o r t h e i r wisdom, support,  and t i m e l y feedback throughout t h e  d i s s e r t a t i o n process. T h e i r words o f p r a i s e and encouragement, "Looks good. Keep going!"  still  r i n g s i n my e a r s .  Moreover, I f e l t t r u l y f o r t u n a t e t o have t h e i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e o f the grounded theory a n a l y t i c group: Karen Flood, Dr. Amandah Hoogbruin, Dr. A l a r d Malek, and K a m a l j i t led  by Dr. Katharyn May. The a n a l y t i c group was a welcome  source o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional and  Sidhu,  support  that  energized  i n s p i r e d me d u r i n g every step o f the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s . I  a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d M i l d a Kazlauskaz f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g some o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , Diana K e n d a l l f o r f o r m a t t i n g my t a b l e , and B r i a n Guanzon f o r f o r m a t t i n g my f i g u r e . At the beginning  o f the p r o j e c t , I was very a p p r e c i a t i v e  t h a t Dr. Barbara M i t c h e l l was  so w i l l i n g t o share i n f o r m a t i o n  about the work t h a t she and her c o l l e a g u e s , Dr. E l l e n Gee, Jean Veevers,  and Dr. Andrew Wister, were doing on  the  boomerang k i d phenomenon at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . She m a i l e d me  Dr.  had  s e v e r a l papers t h a t she and her c o l l e a g u e s had  p r e s e n t e d a t conferences. At t h a t time, i t was  my  first  glimpse of r e s e a r c h on the Canadian f r o n t . I would be remiss i f I d i d not acknowledge the sources of f u n d i n g t h a t enabled my d o c t o r a l e d u c a t i o n . U.B.C. awarded  me  s e v e r a l U n i v e r s i t y Graduate F e l l o w s h i p s , and the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology to  Department provided o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e s e a r c h and  teach. Most of a l l , my  and encouraging  husband Michael Parsons,  was  a patient  f r i e n d t o me d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e c t . He  f a i l e d t o b e l i e v e i n me,  e s p e c i a l l y when I thought  p r o j e c t would never end.  I also appreciated h i s  r e a c t i o n t o the theory being generated  never  this  initial  s i n c e he had been a  "boomerang k i d " h i m s e l f f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . H i s r e a c t i o n , coupled w i t h the feedback May,  of Dr. R i c h a r d Young, Dr.  and the a n a l y t i c group were encouraging  Katharyn  i n the e a r l y  stages of t h e o r y development. Moreover, i n a p i n c h , he to  proved  be a v e r y a b l e p r o o f - r e a d e r . F i n a l l y , my parents, Bernie and Cindy P a s e l u i k h o have  been h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e of my  academic c a r e e r over the y e a r s . I  hope t o c o n t i n u e t o make them proud i n my  future  endeavors.  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i n g t h i s Research T o p i c A r e c e n t s o c i a l t r e n d , the phenomenon o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e , has captured t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e popular media and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . I n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s young a d u l t s a r e remaining a t home w i t h t h e i r parents, others postpone l e a v i n g , and many o t h e r s a r e r e t u r n i n g home t o c o r e s i d e with t h e i r  parents  (Aquilano, 1 9 9 0 ; Boyd & Pryor, 1 9 8 9 ; DaVanzo & G o l d s c h e i d e r , 1990;  F o r s y t h & Eddington,  1 9 8 9 ; Gee, M i t c h e l l ,  1995;  G l i c k & L i n , 1 9 8 6 ; Goldscheider & DaVanzo,  & Wister, 1985;  G o l d s c h e i d e r & Goldscheider, 1 9 9 4 ; G o l d s c h e i d e r & LeBourdais, 1986;  G r i g s b y & McGowan, 1 9 8 6 ; Heer, Hodge, & F e l s o n ,  Ward & S p i t z e , 1 9 9 6 ) . Norris (1999)  Using Canadian census data, Boyd and  have documented t h a t i n 1 9 9 6 , 47% o f unmarried  women and 56% o f unmarried with t h e i r  1986;  men, ages 2 0 t o 3 4 , l i v e d a t home  parents.  D e s p i t e t h i s important  demographic t r e n d , t h e r e i s a  p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c a l l y examining a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e focuses on studying t h e impact  of adult  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a t home on parents. Parents' p e r c e p t i o n s o f f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s as s a t i s f a c t o r y o r c o n f l i c t u a l , on t h e i r marriages,  t h e impact  and the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e such  outcomes have been e m p i r i c a l l y documented (Aquilano, 1 9 9 0 ,  2 1991;  A q u i l a n o & Supple, 1991; Clemens & Axelson, 1985;  M i t c h e l l & Gee, 1996; P i l l e m a r & S u i t o r , 1991; S u i t o r & P i l l e m a r 1987, 1988, 1991; Umberson, 1992). The extant l i t e r a t u r e on p a r e n t - a d u l t  c h i l d coresidence  has n e g l e c t e d t o  examine how r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home has impacted  adult  c h i l d r e n ' s views o f themselves, t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , and t h e i r futures  ( i . e . , c a r e e r development; r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) .  Moreover, t h e extant  l i t e r a t u r e seldom d i s t i n g u i s h e s between  c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have never l e f t home from those who have l e f t home and then have "returned"  ( i . e . , Boyd &  N o r r i s , 1999). Researchers have c o l l o q u i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a t t e r as "boomerang k i d s " (Gee, M i t c h e l l , & Wister, 1995; M i t c h e l l & Gee, 1996) and " r e n e s t e r s "  (Johnson & W i l k i n s o n ,  1995). S i m i l a r t o Veevers and M i t c h e l l (1998), i t i s a s s e r t e d t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home r e p r e s e n t s of coresidence or  "delayed  a distinct  form  t h a t i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from l a t e home-leaving  launching."  I chose t o study the phenomenon o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home because i t s i g n i f i e s an important area o f e x p l o r a t i o n i n i t s own r i g h t . The p e r c e i v e d r e v e r s a l i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o adulthood, designated  normatively  by t h e maintenance o f an independent household, may  have meaningful i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s Moreover, d u r i n g my academic c a r e e r compelling for  lives.  I had been exposed t o t h e  s t o r i e s o f f r i e n d s who had returned  home t o l i v e  v a r i o u s reasons ( i . e . , going back t o s c h o o l ,  divorce,  l o o k i n g f o r work a f t e r graduate school, was  f i n a n c i a l duress). I  o f t e n s t r u c k by how i n t e n s e and consuming t h e e x p e r i e n c e  seemed t o be f o r them, and how i t o f t e n l e f t them f e e l i n g demoralized—despite  t h e i r f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l and emotional  support. It  can be speculated  t h a t the experience o f r e t u r n i n g  home t o l i v e can be p e r s o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t  for adult c h i l d r e n  s i n c e i t may s i g n a l a t a c i t admission t h a t w e l l i n my l i f e " .  "not a l l i s going  L i t t l e i s known about a d u l t  children's  i  perceptions  o f the r e t u r n i n g home experience, how i t f i t s  their l i f e overall,  and how they manage t h e e x p e r i e n c e .  i s known about how t h i s experience i n f l u e n c e s a d u l t perceptions pervasive considered  with  Little  children's  o f themselves--which may be exacerbated by  and i m p l i c i t s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f what i s s u c c e s s f u l o r normative i n a c h i e v i n g  adulthood i n  North American c u l t u r e ; namely, l i v i n g independently o f one's p a r e n t s and s u c c e s s f u l l y launching  one's c a r e e r  i n order t o  m a i n t a i n t h i s independent s t a t u s . I t seemed t o me t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s had something t o o f f e r ; y e t t h e actual research  l i t e r a t u r e i s dominated by s o c i o l o g i s t s and  demographers, w i t h sparse c o n t r i b u t i o n from c o u n s e l l i n g psychologists. I chose a q u a l i t a t i v e l i n e o f i n q u i r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e phenomenon o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . I t s r e l i a n c e on i n t e r v i e w s  permits the e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e f u l l  e x p e r i e n c e from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own p o i n t s o f views and t h e i r  4  i I  own  words. Hoshmand (1994) has observed t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e  methods a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o uncovering how people make sense o f t h e i r experience. Moreover, t h e grounded t h e o r y approach has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o produce c o n c e p t u a l models and •i  t h e o r i e s t h a t enhance p r o x i m i t y t o t h e a c t u a l  lived  e x p e r i e n c e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ; a form o f i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y  that  i s a s t r e n g t h o f the grounded theory method. Purpose and S p e c i f i c Aims The purpose and s p e c i f i c aims o f t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e research  study were: l  1.  To generate a theory t h a t e x p l a i n s  female  adult  c h i l d r e n ' s experiences ( p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e ) o f r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e . 2.  To d e s c r i b e t h e core s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  processes  t h a t female a d u l t c h i l d r e n experience when they r e t u r n t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e . 3.  To i d e n t i f y t h e f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a l i t y o f female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experience when they  return  t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e . These q u e s t i o n s a r e r e l e v a n t t o i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g women's personal,  relational,  and c a r e e r development i n t h e f a m i l y  c o n t e x t . These i s s u e s a r e meaningful researchers,  to theorists,  and p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n c o u n s e l l i n g  Researcher's  Metatheoretical  psychology.  Framework and Worldview  T h i s s e c t i o n e x p l i c a t e s some o f the primary t h e o r e t i c a l conceptualizations  !  and assumptions t h a t have guided my review  of the l i t e r a t u r e , c u l m i n a t i n g  i n the d e c i s i o n t o pursue a  q u a l i t a t i v e l i n e of i n q u i r y . There i s a movement i n p r o f e s s i o n a l psychology t h a t advocates t h a t a s e l f - r e f l e x i v e stance t o r e s e a r c h  and  practice i s invaluable i n  rendering  t a c i t assumptions and b e l i e f s v i s i b l e (Hoshmand, 1994). advantage of s e l f - r e f l e x i v i t y i s the enhanced c a p a c i t y r e v e a l p o t e n t i a l b i a s e s and research,  ideas t h a t can i n f l u e n c e one's  dichotomy" i n s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y does not  (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1994). The  e x p e r i e n c e , and research "created"  to  p a r t i c u l a r l y given the post-modern a s s e r t i o n t h a t a  "subject-object exist  The  researcher's  theoretical conceptualizations  p r o c e s s and outcome.  assumptions, influence  F i n d i n g s are q u i t e  i n i n t e r a c t i o n among r e s e a r c h e r  and  the  literally  respondents  (Hoshmand, 1994). Strauss  and  Corbin  (1990, 1998)  also assert that  assumptions can i n a d v e r t e n t l y reduce one's c a p a c i t y c r e a t i v i t y and  discovery  become s e n s i t i z e d to how,  i n the r e s e a r c h  such  for  process and  one  must  unrecognized, they can a f f e c t one's  i  a n a l y s i s of data.  This implies that r e f l e x i v i t y plays  c e n t r a l r o l e i n the grounded theory  approach. Indeed, u n l i k e  the phenomenologist, the grounded theory expected toi "bracket" frameworks and  a  researcher  i s not  or set a s i d e e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l  assumptions, r a t h e r the s e n s i t i z i n g n a t u r e of  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  previous  education  and p r a c t i c e "forms  I  g u i d e l i n e s and  reference  p o i n t s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r  d e d u c t i v e l y ' formulate questions  t h a t may  uses t o  then e l i c i t d a t a t h a t  6 l e a d s t o i n d u c t i v e concepts being formulated 1978,  later"  (Glaser,  p. 3 9 ) . Constructionism Engaging i n the process o f s e l f - r e f l e x i v i t y has r e v e a l e d  s e v e r a l c o r e aspects o f myself... both a " m e t a t h e o r e t i c a l framework" and a "world-view" t h a t have guided questions  the k i n d s o f  I ask and how I choose t o address them. F i r s t ,  constructionism,  as a m e t a t h e o r e t i c a l framework subsumes  v a r i o u s s i g n i f i c a n t o n t o l o g i c a l , e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l , and methodological considered  assumptions. O n t o l o g i c a l l y , " r e a l i t i e s " a r e  t o be m u l t i p l e , i n t a n g i b l e mental c o n s t r u c t i o n s  t h a t a r e s o c i a l l y and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y based, l o c a l and s p e c i f i c i n nature  and dependent f o r t h e i r form and content  on t h e  i n d i v i d u a l people o r groups h o l d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n s (Guba & Lincoln,  1994). I m p l i c i t i s the n o t i o n t h a t words, a c t i o n s ,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena d e r i v e meaning w i t h i n a c o n t e x t ; to analyze  language o r behaviour i n i s o l a t i o n o f i t s c o n t e x t  i s t h e r e f o r e meaningless. Gergen (1985) i s e x p l i c i t i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t knowledge i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , terms by which the world products  such t h a t "the  i s understood a r e s o c i a l  o f h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d interchanges  artifacts,  among  people"  (p. 267). Schwandt (1994) e l a b o r a t e s upon t h i s n o t i o n , suggesting  t h a t i f knowledge i s one o f the many  coordinated  a c t i v i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t t o t h e same pr oc es ses  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e any human i n t e r a c t i o n  communication, n e g o t i a t i o n , c o n f l i c t ,  (e.g.,  r h e t o r i c ) . The focus i n  7 s o c i a l constructionism  i s on the c o l l e c t i v e g e n e r a t i o n  meaning as shaped by conventions of language and processes.  Hence, the c o o p e r a t i v e  of  other  social  e n t e r p r i s e of persons i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c e n t r a l (Gergen, 1985). T h i s i s d i s t i n c t r a d i c a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s m t h a t focuses  from  on the meaning making  a c t i v i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l mind. The  i m p l i c a t i o n s of such t h i n k i n g are f a r - r e a c h i n g .  instance,  For  Hoshmand (1994) notes t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e o r i z i n g i n psychology views p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s as the products of c o n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t are and  c u l t u r a l l y l o c a t e d . Strauss  and C o r b i n  socially  (1994) concur t h a t  o n t o l o g i c a l l y , t h e o r e t i c a l concepts are not taken t o p r e e x i s t i n g , n a t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s . Such t h i n k i n g may considered  be  be  r a d i c a l because i t eschews the n o t i o n of  an  " u l t i m a t e t r u t h " s i n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n s are not c o n s i d e r e d more or l e s s " t r u e " i n an absolute considered  sense, r a t h e r they  to  be  are  t o be more or l e s s informed or s o p h i s t i c a t e d  ( L i n c o l n & Guba, 1994). Nonetheless, t h i s does not mean t h a t I c o n s i d e r myself t o be an a n t i r e a l i s t . and  I t i s reasonable to presume t h a t concepts  i d e a s are invented  (as opposed to d i s c o v e r e d ) ,  m a i n t a i n t h a t such " i n v e n t i o n s " are intended something ( i . e . ,  yet  to correspond t o  t a n g i b l e e n t i t i e s — e v e n t s , persons,  objects)  i n the world. L i n c o l n and Guba draw the d i s t i n c t i o n between experiential reality  ( c o n s t r u c t i o n s ) and  ( t a n g i b l e e n t i t i e s ) (Schwandt, 1994).  ontological reality  8 E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m c o n s i d e r s the of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the knower and t o be  " t r a n s a c t i o n a l " and  the would-be-knower  " s u b j e c t i v i s t . " T h i s means t h a t  i n v e s t i g a t o r and the o b j e c t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are considered  "separate"  nature  but i n t r i n s i c a l l y and  not  interactively  l i n k e d so t h a t " f i n d i n g s " are q u i t e l i t e r a l l y c r e a t e d as i n v e s t i g a t i o n proceeds (Guba & L i n c o l n , 1994). Who human being i s s i g n i f i c a n t , process  i n terms of my  the  I am  f o r what I b r i n g t o the  background, v a l u e s , gender,  c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g as a t h e r a p i s t w i l l shape the  the as a  research and  research  product... p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l respond not o n l y to the I pose t o them, but to me i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y . Thus my  questions clinical  t r a i n i n g i s e x p l i c i t l y acknowledged because I b e l i e v e t h a t i t w i l l have a meaningful i n f l u e n c e on how i n t e r v i e w s and how  I analyze my  i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y and  I conduct  my  data; h o p e f u l l y w i t h more  s k i l l than a r e s e a r c h e r  without  such t r a i n i n g . In my "voice"  mind t h i s suggests t h a t both v a l u e s , e t h i c s , and  (both my  own  and the m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s of  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s ) have a more prominent p o s i t i o n i n both the process  and product  viewpoint  of one's r e s e a r c h endeavors. T h i s  lends to a p e r s o n a l investment, even an o b l i g a t i o n  as a s c i e n t i s t - p r a c t i t i o n e r , to c r e a t e a "moral space" f o r r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s to share t h e i r s t o r i e s i n c o n f i d e n c e , and without Corbin  apprehension of being judged. As S t r a u s s  and  (1994) state..."we have o b l i g a t i o n s to the a c t o r s  we  9 have s t u d i e d t o " t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s " to them and t o o t h e r s - - t o g i v e them v o i c e - - a l b e i t i n the context of t h e i r own interpretations"  (p.  inevitable  281).  U l t i m a t e l y , the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t a s s e r t i o n t h a t s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s tend t o be e l i c i t e d and r e f i n e d  through  human i n t e r a c t i o n lends i t s e l f to methodology t h a t i s hermeneutical  and d i a l e c t i c a l . V a r y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e  i n t e r p r e t e d and compared and c o n t r a s t e d through d i a l o g u e w i t h the purpose o f a r r i v i n g a t consensual  more informed,  c o n s t r u c t i o n s than any of the  s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and  preceding  c o n s t r u c t i o n s ; i n c l u d i n g those of the r e s e a r c h e r (Guba & Lincoln,  1994). In grounded theory such d i a l o g u e or  c o n v e r s a t i o n i s c e n t r e d on t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s where "concepts  are formulated and a n a l y t i c a l l y  developed,  c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p o s i t e d - - b u t we are  emphasizing  t h a t they are i n c l u s i v e of the m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s of the actors"  ( S t r a u s s & Corbin, 1994,  p.  280).  Contextualism Pepper (1942) has d e s c r i b e d c o n t e x t u a l i s m as one o f f o u r m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e world hypotheses or t h e o r e t i c a l (the o t h e r s i n c l u d e organicism, mechanism, and  frameworks  formism).  The  r o o t metaphor of c o n t e x t u a l i s m i s n e i t h e r the machine nor organism, i t i s the " h i s t o r i c event." behaviour  In c o n t e x t u a l i s m ,  and i n c i d e n t i n the world i s an h i s t o r i c  the  every  event.  T h e r e f o r e , change and n o v e l t y are accepted as fundamental i n all  l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s and t h a t such change i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  10 as "embedded" with change i n other l e v e l s ; changes i n one promote changes i n a l l .  Therefore, phenomena are not  c o n s i d e r e d s t a t i c , but dynamic. Phenomena are a l s o  understood  as being " i n r e l a t i o n " or " i n t r a n s a c t i o n " w i t h t h e i r c o n t e x t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the world suggests a complexity  and  m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t are i r r e d u c i b l e . Moreover, development i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n c o n t e x t u a l , p r o c e s s u a l , and r e l a t i o n a l terms r a t h e r than i n terms of uniform l i n e a r sequences (Steenbarger,  1991). C o n t e x t u a l i s m  o f f e r s a h o l i s t i c view t h a t s t r e s s e s the dynamic i n t e r p l a y of f o r c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d event i n the c o n t e x t o f i t s b i o s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and  ecological  environment. W i t h i n t h i s worldview t h e r e are e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s as w e l l , knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be  co-  c o n s t i t u t e d by the a c t of knowing and i t s c o n t e x t . Thus, human i n q u i r y must be s e n s i t i v e t o people's c o n t e x t s i n o r d e r t o be meaningful  (Hoshmand, 1994). Researcher's  Background  The r e s e a r c h e r i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h process, and a few b i o g r a p h i c a l notes seem i n o r d e r . I am a t h i r t y - s o m e t h i n g , white female who  has been born  and  r a i s e d i n Canada. I am a c l i n i c a l l y t r a i n e d t h e r a p i s t who  has  worked p r i m a r i l y i n u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s w i t h a d u l t s . In f a c t , over the years, a number of my c l i e n t s ' p r e s e n t i n g i s s u e s had t o do w i t h the c o m p l i c a t i o n s they experienced i n t h e i r  lives  when r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e with parents. C u r r e n t l y , I am  a  11 p r i v a t e t h e r a p i s t who works p r i m a r i l y with women. I acknowledge t h a t my ongoing involvement  i n Dr. R i c h a r d Young's  q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h programme, on parent and a d o l e s c e n t s ' c o n s t r u c t i o n s of c a r e e r development, has i n s p i r e d a f i n e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methodology.  12 CHAPTER LITERATURE  II REVIEW  T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e review o f t h e literature,  r e l e v a n t t o the experience o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n  r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home, t h a t was conducted  prior to  e n t e r i n g the f i e l d o f study. The u t i l i z a t i o n o f the e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e p r i o r t o beginning a grounded theory r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the use o f t h e e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n the q u a n t i t a t i v e paradigm t h a t some i n f o r m a t i v e words a r e i n o r d e r . Strauss and C o r b i n (1990, 1998) acknowledge t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l come t o the grounded t h e o r y p r o j e c t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e t o s e n s i t i z e the r e s e a r c h e r t o core themes, c a t e g o r i e s , and ideas t h a t r e c u r i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  without  s t i f l i n g c r e a t i v i t y and d i s c o v e r y . The i n t e n t o f t h e grounded t h e o r y method i s d i s c o v e r y , not t o rework " r e c e i v e d " t h e o r i e s o r v a r i a b l e s ( c a t e g o r i e s ) . They c a u t i o n t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r be wary o f how unrecognized  assumptions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e ' s theory and f i n d i n g s can i n f l u e n c e one's a n a l y s i s . S t r a u s s and C o r b i n (1990) w r i t e : There i s no need t o review a l l the l i t e r a t u r e  beforehand  (as i s f r e q u e n t l y done by r e s e a r c h e r s t r a i n e d i n o t h e r approaches),  because i f we a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e  i n our a n a l y s i s , then new c a t e g o r i e s w i l l emerge t h a t we, nor anyone e l s e , had thought  about  p r e v i o u s l y . We do not want t o be so steeped  i n the  13 l i t e r a t u r e as t o be c o n s t r a i n e d and even s t i f l e d i n terms o f c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s by our knowledge o f i t ! ! S i n c e d i s c o v e r y i s our purpose, we do not have beforehand  knowledge o f a l l the c a t e g o r i e s r e l e v a n t  t o our theory (p. 50). Adhering  t o S t r a u s s and Corbin's  (1990, 1998)  recommendations f o r how t o use the extant l i t e r a t u r e i n a grounded theory approach, an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l frameworks and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t h a t f o l l o w s was i n t e n d e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y by i d e n t i f y i n g  potential  c a t e g o r i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s around c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e experience, experience,  f o r how one manages t h e  and the consequences o f what t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s  l i k e . Such i n f o r m a t i o n s e n s i t i z e d me t o what seemed  important  about t h e phenomenon being e x p l o r e d . P a t t e r n s o f Parent-Adult C h i l d  Coresidence  The phenomenon o f i n c r e a s e d p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e has been documented i n Canada (Boyd & Pryor, 1989; Boyd & N o r r i s , 1999; Gee, M i t c h e l l , & Wister, the U n i t e d S t a t e s (DaVanzo & Goldscheider, Eddington,  1995), and i n  1990; F o r s y t h &  1989; G l i c k & L i n , 1986; G o l d s c h e i d e r &  Goldscheider,  1994; Grigsby & McGowan, 1986). Boyd and N o r r i s '  (1999) r e c e n t a n a l y s i s o f Canadian census data i n d i c a t e t h a t young a d u l t s c o r e s i d e n c e with parents has i n c r e a s e d s i n c e 1981.  In 1996, c l o s e t o h a l f (47%) o f unmarried  t o 34 l i v e d w i t h parents, up from 44% i n 1981.  women aged 20 More than  half  14 (56%)  o f unmarried men r e s i d e d i n the p a r e n t a l home, about t h e  same as i n 1981 (55%). U n f o r t u n a t e l y Boyd and N o r r i s ' (1999) p o p u l a t i o n census data was unable t o i d e n t i f y whether  these  young a d u l t s have c o n t i n u a l l y l i v e d with t h e i r p a r e n t s o r have r e t u r n e d a f t e r l i v i n g elsewhere f o r a p e r i o d o f time. Boyd and N o r r i s (1999) i n d i c a t e t h a t prolonged  post-  secondary e d u c a t i o n enrolments, f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e l a b o u r market, and remaining  unmarried longer a r e a t work here.  Indeed, most o f the i n c r e a s e s i n c o r e s i d e n c e took p l a c e from 1981  t o 1986 and 1991 t o 1996, both p e r i o d s o f economic  r e c e s s i o n and slow recovery. Although  economic downturns do  not mean t h a t young a d u l t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y e i t h e r s t a y i n t h e p a r e n t a l home o r move back i n , they suggest  that c o r e s i d i n g i s  a s t r a t e g i c way i n which young a d u l t s respond t o unemployment, r e l a t i v e l y low wages, o r low incomes while a t t e n d i n g  school  (Boyd & N o r r i s , 1999). I t a l s o should be noted  t h a t the young a d u l t s l i v i n g a t  home a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y o l d e r and the m a j o r i t y a r e men. I n 1981, o n l y about a q u a r t e r o f unmarried women and men l i v i n g  with  t h e i r p a r e n t s were aged 25 o r over; by 1996, t h e percentages had  r i s e n t o 33% and 40%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a  c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g i n many other s t u d i e s i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h a t s m a l l e r percentages at  o f young women l i v e  home (Boyd & Pryor, 1989; DaVanzo & G o l d s c h e i d e r , 1990;  Ward & S p i t z e , 1992). The aforementioned  researchers  speculate  t h i s may be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by gender r o l e s ; such t h a t  15 daughters are more c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d a t home and may they would have more independence  feel  l i v i n g elsewhere. S i n c e they  have a l s o been more i n v o l v e d i n household chores they may  also  be b e t t e r a b l e t o take c a r e o f themselves. Reasons f o r A d u l t C h i l d r e n R e t u r n i n g Home The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs of c h i l d r e n account f o r c o r e s i d e n c e w i t h both middle-aged and o l d e r p a r e n t s (Ward, Logan, & S p i t z e , 1992). Returns t o the p a r e n t a l home a r e more f r e q u e n t among a d u l t c h i l d r e n with lower incomes (Boyd & Pryor, 1989). F a c t o r s such as housing c o s t s , unemployment, and d i v o r c e are a l s o c i t e d  ( G l i c k & L i n , 1986;  Heer e t a l . ,  With r e s p e c t t o economic-related f a c t o r s , M i t c h e l l and (1995) document 81% o f t h e i r Canadian sample of 218  1985). Gee  "boomerang  k i d s " s t a t e d economic reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home. A break-down o f these reasons demonstrated problems",  19.3%  t h a t 26.1%  reported " f i n a n c i a l  i n d i c a t e d that they r e t u r n e d t o "save money",  and 13.3%  s t a t e d t h a t they had r e t u r n e d due t o t r a n s i t i o n a l o r  temporary  reasons ( i . e . ,  f i n i s h e d t r a v e l l i n g ) . Some had  r e t u r n e d f o r s c h o o l - r e l a t e d reasons (12.8%), and a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n had r e t u r n e d due t o the ending o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p (5%) o r because housing c o s t s are too h i g h (4.6%). of reasons f a l l i n g i n t o a non-economic category,  Of the 17%  9.2%  i n d i c a t e d they r e t u r n e d f o r s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s such as companionship, l i v e on t h e i r own; and 3.7%  the comforts of home, o r not b e i n g ready t o 4.15%  r e t u r n e d because they needed h e l p ,  s t a t e d a h e a l t h problem such as i l l n e s s o r  16 disability. F i n a l l y , Aquilano's (1991) survey data suggest t h e importance  o f "congenial" parent-child r e l a t i o n s i n p r e d i c t i n g  c o r e s i d e n c e . A d u l t c h i l d r e n w i l l c o r e s i d e i n t h e p a r e n t a l home when (a) l i v i n g a t home does not i n v o l v e l i v i n g w i t h a stepparent,  (b) when r e l a t i o n s h i p q u a l i t y between p a r e n t s and  c h i l d r e n i s h i g h , and (c) when parents h o l d p o s i t i v e  attitudes  toward t h e c o n t i n u e d support o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n and have o f f e r e d housing t o r e l a t i v e s o r n o n r e l a t i v e s . A q u i l a n o ' s (1991) f i n d i n g s a r e perhaps s u g g e s t i v e t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n who choose t o r e t u r n home p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r parents w i l l  "always  keep t h e door open." O v e r a l l , a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home have been documented as s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d r e n c o r e s i d i n g p a t t e r n s . However, t h e extant  literature  has not e x p l o r e d o r e x p l a i n e d how a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home may p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home i n adulthood. Predominant Conceptual  Frameworks  T h i s s e c t i o n reviews two conceptual frameworks,  social  exchange and l i f e span development, t h a t have been used i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o guide r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s about t h e b e n e f i t s and problems a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e (Ward & S p i t z e , 1992). S o c i a l Exchange C o r e s i d e n t p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be  17 understood as a s o c i a l exchange process; e n t a i l i n g negotiations  and  S p i t z e , 1992;  an exchange of h e l p i n g behaviours (Ward &  White & Rogers, 1997;  Veevers & M i t c h e l l , 1998).  A c e n t r a l t e n e t of the s o c i a l exchange t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t p a r e n t s and  adult c h i l d r e n evaluate  b e n e f i t s of c o r e s i d i n g , and  the c o s t s  and  that t h i s a p p r a i s a l a f f e c t s family  members' s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l with c o r e s i d i n g . Indeed, a exchange t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e instrumental  and  social  a s s e r t s t h a t exchanges of  emotional support between p a r e n t s and  their  a d u l t c h i l d r e n are more s a t i s f y i n g i f there i s r e c i p r o c i t y and equity. However, parents'  and  adult children's perceptions  amount of a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n and  received during c o r e s i d i n g  not be the same. Indeed, coresidence needs o f c h i l d r e n (Aquilano, 1992), and resources  of  1990;  typically reflects  Ward, Logan, & S p i t z e ,  parents are o f t e n presumed t o have access t o more ( i . e . , housing, food, money, c a r ) t o share w i t h  t h e i r parents'  to  a s s i s t a n c e , thereby minimizing the magnitude of  c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Rossi and  the p a t t e r n s  Rossi's  (1990) r e s e a r c h  of h e l p i n g behaviours between p a r e n t s and  c h i l d r e n over the l i f e s p a n g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t of h e l p  may  the  t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Perhaps these a d u l t c h i l d r e n f e e l e n t i t l e d  parents'  the  their  "donors"  (be i t parents or c h i l d r e n ) g e n e r a l l y c l a i m t o  g i v i n g more help than r e c i p i e n t s acknowledge having  on  be  received.  In the case of the boomerang f a m i l y phenomenon, i t seems t h a t the l a r g e s s e of i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l support flows t o the  adult  18 c h i l d r e n , w i t h parents l i k e l y t o be i n the p o s i t i o n o f p e r c e i v i n g an "imbalance"  and perhaps  feeling  "taken f o r  g r a n t e d . " A l t e r n a t i v e l y , parents may accept t h i s exchange imbalance  as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r p a r e n t i n g r o l e - - t h a t  e n t a i l s a sense o f o b l i g a t i o n t o a s s i s t c h i l d r e n ( d e s p i t e a l a c k o f mutual r e c i p r o c i t y ) and a sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g t o c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f mothers, r e l a t i v e t o f a t h e r s , who a r e s o c i a l i z e d to believe that t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s to provide domestic and emotional support t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e p r a c t i c a l l y without l i m i t s (Berman, 1987). U t i l i z i n g a s o c i a l exchange p e r s p e c t i v e t o guide r e s e a r c h , Veevers and M i t c h e l l  (1998) document t h a t  their  although  c o r e s i d i n g p a r e n t s and a d u l t c h i l d r e n exchange s e v e r a l  types  of h e l p , r e t u r n e e c h i l d r e n appear t o r e c e i v e more f r e q u e n t i n s t r u m e n t a l ( i . e . , meal p r e p a r a t i o n , g r o c e r y  shopping,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , laundry) and a f f e c t i v e support from  parents  than p a r e n t s appear t o r e c e i v e from c h i l d r e n . In comparing parent and r e t u r n e e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f g i v i n g , , congruence on a l l types o f i n f o r m a l support was h i g h (50% o r h i g h e r ) , w i t h the n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n o f emotional support. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , almost 34% more f a m i l i e s have a parent t h a t they r e c e i v e more emotional support from t h e i r  stating  coresiding  c h i l d than s/he r e p o r t s p r o v i d i n g . Veevers and M i t c h e l l  (1998)  observe t h a t t h i s a l e r t s us t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t exchanges are seldom q u i d pro quo, and t h a t love, companionship,  and  19 emotional/physical  closeness  may make up f o r e v e r y t h i n g  that  p a r e n t s g i v e t o t h e i r c o r e s i d i n g c h i l d r e n , thereby m i t i g a t i n g perceived  exchange imbalances.  T h e i r f i n d i n g s h i n t a t the l i m i t a t i o n s o f a straightforward  a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l exchange i n p a r e n t - c h i l d  c o r e s i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s . Notions o f love, o b l i g a t i o n , s a c r i f i c e , entitlement, f u t u r e r a t h e r than the present s t r i c t notions  appreciation,  and r e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e  complicate  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  o f e q u i t a b l e exchanges i n p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s . Regardless, t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework s e n s i t i z e s future research  t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n e q u i t a b l e exchanges  of h e l p between parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n a r e p o t e n t i a l l y problematic  when c o r e s i d i n g .  Life-Span Fassinger  Development and T r a n s i t i o n t o Adulthood  and Schlossberg  (1992) observe t h a t a range o f  terms have been used t o r e f e r t o the sequence o f events comprising  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e experience. " L i f e span" i s  o f t e n used by p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,  and " l i f e course" i s used among  s o c i o l o g i s t s ; t h e former tend t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e r n a l , s u b j e c t i v e events, and the l a t t e r tend t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i a l l y created, Generally,  shared events (Hagestad & Neugarten, 1985).  a l l s o c i e t i e s d i v i d e the l i f e course i n t o two o r  more p h a s e s - - o f t e n age provides and  resources  the b a s i s f o r a s s i g n i n g  ( F a s s i n g e r & Schlossberg,  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n provides  1992). Age  a normal, p r e d i c t a b l e l i f e  w i t h i n a c u l t u r e (Hagestad & Neugarten, 1985).  cycle  roles  20 With r e g a r d t o t h i s , adolescence i n i t i a t e s a c r i t i c a l r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which p a r e n t s "disengage"  ( R o s s i & R o s s i , 1990) and c h i l d r e n  ( E r i k s o n , 1959). Relevant t o development  "individuate"  being s o c i a l l y  s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the f a m i l y , C a r t e r and McGoldrick (1989, p. 15) p o s i t a f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e theory with s i x developmental s t a g e s : (a) l e a v i n g home: s i n g l e young a d u l t s , of  (b) t h e j o i n i n g  f a m i l i e s through marriage: the new couple, ( c ) f a m i l i e s  w i t h young c h i l d r e n ,  (d) f a m i l i e s with a d o l e s c e n t s , (e)  l a u n c h i n g c h i l d r e n and moving on, and ( f ) f a m i l i e s i n l a t e r life. C a r t e r and McGoldrick (1989) suggest t h a t a t each stage c e r t a i n t a s k s must be accomplished t o a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t o proceed developmentally. The expected and normative developmental t a s k s f o r unattached young a d u l t s r e v o l v e around g a i n i n g independence  from t h e i r p a r e n t s  (Aylmer, 1989). C a r t e r and McGoldrick (1989) suggest t h a t t h e t a s k s o f "the l e a v i n g home/single young a d u l t stage" e n t a i l s t h a t young a d u l t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e from t h e i r f a m i l i e s o f o r i g i n , develop i n t i m a t e peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and e s t a b l i s h w i t h r e g a r d t o work and f i n a n c i a l independence.  themselves  Successful  r e s o l u t i o n o f these t a s k s occurs when young a d u l t s develop t h e i r own views and separate i d e n t i t i e s without s e v e r i n g t i e s from t h e i r f a m i l i e s (Bowen, 1978). the  reactively Paralleling  developmental needs and g o a l s o f young a d u l t s , t h i s model  suggests t h a t parents "disengage" by p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r  adult  21 c h i l d r e n t o develop t h e i r own l i v e s and i d e n t i t i e s . P a r e n t s ease a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s development  a t t h i s stage i n l i f e by (a)  t o l e r a t i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s s e p a r a t i o n and independence w h i l e remaining connected, (b) t o l e r a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s and ambiguity in  t h e c a r e e r i d e n t i t y o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n , and ( c ) a c c e p t i n g a  range o f emotional attachments and l i f e s t y l e s o u t s i d e t h e immediate  f a m i l y (Aylmer,  1989).  U l t i m a t e l y , such l i f e span developmental models assume that  " l e a v i n g home" i s a p a r t o f h e a l t h y development  i n early  adulthood. Indeed, the normative s t a t u s o f home l e a v i n g as an i n d i c a t o r o f adulthood seems q u i t e p e r v a s i v e and grounded i n North American contemporary "For  s o c i e t y . Parsons (1949) a s s e r t e d ,  young people not t o break away from t h e i r  parental  f a m i l i e s a t the proper time i s a f a i l u r e t o l i v e up t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , an unwarranted e x p r e s s i o n o f dependency" (p. 200). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , although age norms a r e g e n e r a l l y weak and not  o f t e n e n f o r c e d , both parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n seem t o  h o l d onto i m p l i c i t b e l i e f s about the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f independent l i v i n g and the speed with which t h i s can be accomplished  ( G o l d s c h e i d e r & G o l d s c h e i d e r , 1993).  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Parent-Adult C h i l d C o r e s i d e n c e Because development  through the l i f e course has been  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a sequence o f age-graded r o l e  transitions  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by norms o f t i m i n g and order (Hagestad, it  i s o f t e n presumed that a d e v i a t i o n from t h i s  1990),  theorized  t i m e t a b l e i s d i s r u p t i v e ; weakening p r e p a r a t i o n and support f o r  22 r o l e t r a n s i t i o n s . Normative and o r d e r l y t r a n s i t i o n s i n t o adulthood, encompassing the launching departing  o f one's c a r e e r and  from t h e p a r e n t a l household, a r e v i o l a t e d when a d u l t  c h i l d r e n r e t u r n home t o l i v e . L i f e - s p a n t h e o r i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s a s s e r t t h a t breaks c u l t u r a l norms and a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s p a r e n t s and a d u l t c h i l d r e n ( i . e . , Goldsheider  &  this  o f both  Goldsheider,  1989; White & Edwards, 1990). Ward and S p i t z e (1992, p.558) have a s s e r t e d ,  "coresidence  i s i t s e l f nonnormative, and i t  a l s o d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n v o l v e s c h i l d r e n who have not made o r have been u n s u c c e s s f u l  i n other normative t r a n s i t i o n s (e.g.,  marriage and employment)". In keeping with t h i s l i n e o f t h i n k i n g , Schnaiberg and Goldenberg (1989) had formulated  the model o f t h e " r e t u r n i n g  young a d u l t " (RYA) o r "incompletely  launched young a d u l t "  (ILYA) syndrome. In t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e ILYA syndrome, young a d u l t s ' u n a n t i c i p a t e d parents,  economic dependence on  due t o f a i l u r e t o launch c a r e e r s , v i o l a t e s p a r e n t a l  expectations  f o r s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d r e a r i n g . Parents a s s e s s  t h e i r c h i l d - r e a r i n g success by a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s independence and  economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . They t h e o r i z e t h a t  home a f t e r f a i l i n g t o f u l f i l p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s  returning fosters  anger on t h e p a r t o f both c h i l d and parent and h e i g h t e n s parent-child c o n f l i c t . Their perspective on t h e m a t u r i t y  p l a c e s more emphasis  than age o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n . The c r i t i c a l  dimension i s c h i l d r e n ' s autonomy versus dependency i n  23 r e l a t i o n s h i p to the parent. Given t h i s model, i m p l i c i t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of f a m i l y dynamics as enmeshed conflictual,  and  and  f a m i l y members as dependent or needy.  I have s e v e r a l o b j e c t i o n s (1989) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ,  conceptualizations  to Schnaiberg and  Goldenberg's  based on i m p l i c i t assumptions which  I w i l l render e x p l i c i t . F i r s t ,  and  is a  such l i f e s p a n  seem to assume t h a t development i s l i n e a r  p r e d i c t a b l e . In c o n t r a s t ,  s i m i l a r to C o h l e r (1982), I  b e l i e v e t h a t l i v e s change over time i n ways not  necessarily  l i n e a r or p r e d i c t a b l e . Recent f i n d i n g s from l o n g i t u d i n a l studies,  and  increased  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s i n determining p a r t i c u l a r l i v e s , c l e a r l y demonstrate t h a t l i v e s are much l e s s ordered  and  p r e d i c t a b l e than formerly  An  a l e a t o r i c perspective  recognized  (Gergen, 1980).  on change suggests t h a t the study of  l i v e s should be concerned with the impact of  unanticipated  changes, such as a d u l t c h i l d r e n c o r e s i d i n g w i t h p a r e n t s . p a r t i c u l a r , how than s e a r c h i n g  persons make sense of these changes r a t h e r f o r e l u s i v e evidence of s t a b i l i t y a c r o s s  l i f e c o u r s e should be emphasized (Brim & R i f f , Cohler,  In  1980;  the  cited in  1982).  Second, the predominant c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  of development  as f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l l y designated normative timeframes f o r t r a n s i t i o n s and  l i f e - r o l e s has  lent i t s e l f to a d i s t u r b i n g  n e g a t i v e b i a s i n the l i t e r a t u r e : t o p a t h o l o g i z e d i f f e r e n t as  "abnormal" or "deviant."  what i s  Descriptors  and  phrases  24  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d u l t c o r e s i d e n t c h i l d r e n and t h e i r i n c l u d e : s t r e s s f u l , c o n f l i c t u a l , problematic, i n a d e q u a t e l y launched  non-normative,  young a d u l t syndrome, o f f - t i m e , t h e  American dream runout,  crowded nest, c l u t t e r e d nest, t h e n o t -  so-empty-nest, enmeshed, dependent, m a t u r a t i o n a l and  immature.  parents  difficulty,  I n t i m a t i o n s o f f a i l u r e , h e l p l e s s n e s s , and  d e s p a i r f o r parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n i n t h i s  "unenviable"  p o s i t i o n are pervasive. I have t r i e d t o understand  how t h i s n e g a t i v e b i a s arose  s i n c e , t o my c h a g r i n , I have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I am not completely  f r e e o f i t myself. The u b i q u i t y o f t h i s b i a s may  stem from our most fundamental n o t i o n s o f t i m e / t i m i n g i n our culture. etched  "Time, o r a t l e a s t a sense o f time,  i n t o our s o c i a l consciousness  i s indelibly  t o the degree t h a t i t not  o n l y pervades even the most minute aspects o f everyday  life,  but i s a t e l l t a l e s i g n o f s o c i a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l competence" (Reese & K a t o v i c h , 1989, p. 161). Furthermore, Reese and K a t o v i c h (1989) advocate  t h a t time and temporal  dimensions a r e  employed by competent members o f s o c i e t y and agents f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l t o "document" and " t y p i f y " a c t i o n , as e i t h e r t i m e l y and t h e r e f o r e "perceived normal" o r untimely and t h e r e f o r e " p e r c e i v e d d e v i a n t . " Perhaps i n c r e a s e d understanding even our most b a s i c n o t i o n s o f time a r e i m p l i c i t  o f how  i n social  c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f "competence" and "success" i n our l i f e - s p a n development t h e o r i e s w i l l make me wary o f i g n o r a n t l y e v a l u a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t l i f e path as the d e v i a n t one!  25 Third, current conceptualizations  of  parent-child  r e l a t i o n s h i p s over the l i f e s p a n i m p l i c i t l y suggest t h a t young a d u l t s who are no  are working and  longer  have set up independent households  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s . The  implication i s  t h a t o n l y younger c h i l d r e n need t h e i r parents to a s s i s t them i n making sense of the world and Hence, a d u l t c h i l d r e n who and  their l i f e  experiences.  do r e l y on t h e i r p a r e n t s ' r e s o u r c e s  support are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  as c h i l d l i k e ,  immature,  and  dependent. I t h i n k t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s based on an u n r e a l i s t i c dichotomy of dependence-independence of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s over the l i f e - s p a n . In c o n t r a s t , North American c o n s t r u c t ephemeral and  I am  suggesting t h a t  the  of "independence/autonomy" i s  e l u s i v e i n r e a l l i v i n g . Parents and  their  c h i l d r e n m a i n t a i n t h e i r bond and  i n f l u e n c e on one  the l i f e course; i t does not end  once the c h i l d r e n become  adults  ( i . e . , Cooney & Uhlenberg, 1992;  1993;  Rossi  & Rossi,  1990;  Macoby (1992) a s s e r t s , involve coregulation  M i d d l e t o n & Lougheed,  & Freeman-Howard, 1985).  "at every stage of l i f e ,  and  f r e e o f the r e g u l a t o r y  Splete  relationships  i n d i v i d u a l s never graduate t o being  requirements of i n t i m a t e  others  they become s o c i a l i s o l a t e s " (p. 1014). Thus, any parental  i n f l u e n c e stems from the nature of the  t h a t p a r e n t s have coconstructed with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  another over  and  unless  enduring  relationships  reconstructed  continually  26  Consequences of Parent-Adult C h i l d  Coresidence  Impact on Family R e l a t i o n s Given r e c e n t a t t e n t i o n t o p a t t e r n s and p r e d i c t o r s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e , there has been i n c r e a s e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of how impacts  parent and a d u l t c h i l d  coresidence  the q u a l i t y of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . The  predominant  e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s seem t o share i s t h a t c o r e s i d e n c e i n p a r e n t a l households  w i l l be d e t r i m e n t a l , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t and reducing one's sense of w e l l - b e i n g (Menaghan, 1991;  Schnaiberg & Goldenberg,  1989).  Negative c o r e s i d e n t i a l outcomes are a n t i c i p a t e d f o r numerous reasons. I t i s a s s e r t e d t h a t parents and  children  would p r o b a b l y experience c o n f l i c t over the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : r e n e g o t i a t i n g r o l e s ; a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s attempts  to maintain  independence w h i l e l i v i n g i n t h e i r p a r e n t s ' homes; p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n e q u i t y i n the exchange of i n s t r u m e n t a l support between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n ; and parent's disappointment c h i l d r e n had at  that t h e i r  f a i l e d t o achieve economic independence o r  failed  marriage. Moreover, the l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e - s t y l e v a r i a t i o n s i n  m a r i t a l q u a l i t y has documented t h a t the departure of c h i l d r e n has a s a l u t a r y e f f e c t on c o u p l e s ' ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s (e.g., White & Edwards, 1990). Given t h a t the "empty nest" i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n m a r i t a l happiness  f o r a l l parents,  r e g a r d l e s s of p a r e n t s ' or c h i l d r e n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  i t seems  l o g i c a l t o presume t h a t the r e t u r n of these c h i l d r e n would  27 n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Indeed, Aldous (1987) r e p o r t e d  t h a t empty-nest stage parents enjoyed  their  independence from t h e i r c h i l d r e n and would not be happy a t prospect  o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home. Only about  f o u r t h o f p a r e n t s expressed u n q u a l i f i e d approval how  they would f e e l i f an a d u l t c h i l d returned  the  one-  when asked  t o the  nest.  There i s s c a t t e r e d evidence t o support t h a t t h i s i s the case, a t l e a s t under some circumstances. Clemens and (1985), u t i l i z i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Axelson  methodology, r e p o r t e d  a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s r e t u r n t o t h e i r middle-aged p a r e n t s ' often placed 42%  s t r a i n on couples'  o f p a r e n t s had  homes  marital relationships ( i . e . ,  s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t s with at l e a s t one  t h e i r r e s i d e n t a d u l t c h i l d r e n ) . However, t h e i r s m a l l unrepresentative  that  of  (39)  sample g r e a t l y l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of  t h e i r f i n d i n g s to e i t h e r middle-aged or o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n s parents.  and  Indeed, t h e i r sample was  of  p r i m a r i l y composed o f  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a workshop i n "parenting  the young a d u l t . "  Somehow i t does not seem very s u r p r i s i n g t h a t p a r e n t s attending  such a workshop would be r e p o r t i n g t h a t  they  e x p e r i e n c e problems with t h e i r r e s i d e n t a d u l t c h i l d r e n ! In s p i t e o f t h i s flaw, which remained unacknowledged, a u t h o r s ' d i s c u s s i o n goes onto make broad s p e c u l a t i o n s  the  and  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the p r o c l i v i t y f o r problems i n c o r e s i d e n t i a l f a m i l y circumstances (e.g., young a d u l t s encouraged to a c t immature, dependent and caretaking  parents i n  r o l e ; s t r e s s ; g u i l t ; enmeshment, and  so on).  Biased  28 statements  such as, " i t would appear,  i n some cases, t h a t  this  f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e or o f f - b a l a n c e " (p. 263), were even more s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h a t the authors' r e s e a r c h  was  not guided by f a m i l y theory. In s p i t e of the problems with Clemens and  Axelson's  (1985) study, i t does suggest t h a t some parents may  experience  problems when a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n home t o c o r e s i d e , and o t h e r s have a l s o demonstrated  n e g a t i v e consequences o f  i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o r e s i d e n c e . For i n s t a n c e , A q u i l a n o Supple  (1991) demonstrated  t h a t although p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s were not dominated by c o n f l i c t , remained  and  that  conflict  the s t r o n g e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r of p a r e n t s '  s a t i s f a c t i o n with having t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a t home. For mothers, the frequency of disagreements  was  less  important  than t h e i r i n t e n s i t y . Heated arguments and s h o u t i n g were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mothers' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the a d u l t c h i l d ' s presence with lowered l e v e l s of shared l e i s u r e  time  and e n j o y a b l e time. For f a t h e r s , the occurrence of disagreements  exerted a strong negative e f f e c t  on  s a t i s f a c t i o n , whether or not they l e d t o open h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h the a d u l t c h i l d . Fathers experience the themselves  disagreements  as " s u f f i c i e n t l y burdensome or onerous,"  r e s e a r c h e r s s p e c u l a t e t h a t f a t h e r s may  and  take a more  a u t h o r i t a t i v e stance than mothers towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h e r e f o r e are more l i k e l y t o experience disagreements a f f r o n t to t h e i r parental status.  the  F i n a l l y , Aquilano  and  as an and  29 Supple (1991) found t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s f i n a n c i a l dependency and  unemployment were a s s o c i a t e d with i n c r e a s e d  parent-child  c o n f l i c t . The r e t u r n home o f d i v o r c e d o r separated and  t h e presence o f g r a n d c h i l d r e n  parents'  children  i n the home a l s o decreased  s a t i s f a c t i o n with the c o r e s i d e n t  living  arrangement.  More r e c e n t l y , t h e r e s u l t s o f Umberson's (1992) study i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o r e s i d e n t parents r e p o r t e d  more s t r a i n e d  r e l a t i o n s , w i t h 54% r e p o r t i n g t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not a t all  critical  but 37% i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were  somewhat o r a l i t t l e c r i t i c a l o f them. When asked how much t h e i r c o r e s i d i n g c h i l d r e n make too many demands o f them, 36% s a i d somewhat o r a l i t t l e .  They a l s o r e p o r t e d  greater  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e ( i . e . , based on a p a r e n t a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n index d e r i v e d "At t h i s p o i n t i n your l i f e , a parent?" parent?" turned  from these  questions:  how s a t i s f i e d a r e you w i t h  being  "How o f t e n do you f e e l bothered o r upset as a  And, "how happy a r e you with the way your c h i l d ( r e n )  o u t ? " ) . T h e i r r e s u l t s suggest t h a t a s t r a i n e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d u l t c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s and a h i g h p a r e n t a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n index i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h elevated  parents'  psychological distress.  Umberson (1992) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h the c r i t i c i s m t h a t the study o f l a t e r l i f e infrequently considers  p o t e n t i a l l y negative  redresses  families aspects o f parent-  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Her r e s e a r c h demonstrates t h e importance o f measuring negative  aspects o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s g i v e n t h e  30 f i n d i n g t h a t when i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s t r a i n e d t h a t t h i s s t r a i n i s the most s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p p a r e n t s ' and a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s  psychological  functioning. However, o t h e r r e s e a r c h  has i n d i c a t e d t h a t  coresidence  w i t h a d u l t c h i l d r e n does not g e n e r a l l y appear t o produce d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r c o n f l i c t . For i n s t a n c e , Pillemer's  S u i t o r and  (1987) a n a l y s i s o f 677 e l d e r l y p a r e n t s ' survey  responses i n d i c a t e d , c o n t r a r y  to expectations,  that the  presence o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n had no e f f e c t on e l d e r l y p a r e n t s ' m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t , even when age, e d u c a t i o n a l health,  attainment,  and gender were c o n t r o l l e d . However, f u r t h e r  o f d a t a on respondents s h a r i n g a r e s i d e n c e  analysis  w i t h an a d u l t  child  showed t h a t m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e frequency o f parent-child  conflict.  In a s i m i l a r study, S u i t o r and P i l l e m e r  (1988) s e t out t o  i n v e s t i g a t e i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t when p a r e n t s share t h e i r home w i t h an a d u l t c h i l d . A s t r a t i f i e d random sample o f 372  e l d e r l y p a r e n t s reported  " s u r p r i s i n g l y " low l e v e l s o f  c o n f l i c t with t h e i r resident adult c h i l d r e n . M u l t i p l e regression  a n a l y s i s provided  hypotheses r e g a r d i n g  support f o r two o f t h r e e  the e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s  on i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t : c o n f l i c t was lower i n dyads i n which t h e r e s i d e n t c h i l d was o l d e r , and i n which the parent and  c h i l d occupied the same o r s i m i l a r m a r i t a l  Contrary t o expectations,  status.  the a n a l y s i s d i d not support  31 hypotheses w i t h r e s p e c t t o exchange r e l a t i o n s : c o n f l i c t was not r e l a t e d t o t h e parent's adult  h e a l t h o r dependency upon t h e  child. O v e r a l l , these l a t t e r f i n d i n g s a r e promising  t h a t they r e p r e s e n t  a t r e n d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ;  does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply  i n t h e sense  coresidency  a d i r e c t , causal r e l a t i o n s h i p with  c o n f l i c t i n f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s ( i n s p i t e of the f a c t researchers  still  that  expect t o f i n d t h i s ) , even with  correlational statistics!  Unfortunately,  many s t u d i e s do n o t  adequately d e s c r i b e the c o r e s i d e n t a d u l t c h i l d r e n ( i . e . , S u i t o r & P i l l e m e r , 1987, 1988; 1991). Parent-respondents were not asked why t h e i r c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g a t home o r whether they have always been there o r whether they r e c e n t l y  returned.  T h i s i s an o v e r s i g h t given the f a c t t h a t not knowing why t h e c h i l d r e n a r e t h e r e may make a d i f f e r e n c e i n understanding t h e r e s u l t s . C o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s may a l s o be impacted by whether a c o r e s i d e n t a d u l t c h i l d i s continuous versus  r e t u r n e d . The  l a t t e r case may r e f l e c t temporary t r a n s i t i o n a l r e t u r n s students),  (i.e.,  and a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have f a i l e d i n marriage o r  employment. T h i s may y i e l d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h e b e h a l f o f both a d u l t c h i l d r e n (who resent not being parents  independent) and  (who worry about t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s problems).  Thus r e t u r n c o r e s i d e n c e  seems p o t e n t i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c .  In response t o t h i s i s s u e , Ward and S p i t z e (1996) attempted t o determine how c o n t i n u i n g and r e t u r n i n g  coresident  a d u l t c h i l d r e n d i f f e r . T h e i r sample was drawn from t h e  32 N a t i o n a l Survey o f F a m i l i e s and Households and c o n s i s t e d o f 716  a d u l t c h i l d r e n (58% c o n t i n u i n g ;  42% r e t u r n i n g ) , 60% o f  whom were sons and 71% o f non-Hispanic White background. First,  i t was found t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s g e n e r a l l y  expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with c o r e s i d e n c e .  A d u l t c h i l d r e n had a  mean r a t i n g o f 5.6 (out o f 7), with 34% a t 7, however t h e continuing  a d u l t c h i l d r e n had a somewhat h i g h e r mean  s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g (5.8) (5.3).  than the r e t u r n i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n  I n c o n t r a s t , parent mean r a t i n g was h i g h e r  (6.1)  than  a d u l t c h i l d r e n , w i t h 58% a t 7. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a d u l t c h i l d and parent s a t i s f a c t i o n were o n l y modestly c o r r e l a t e d (.34). T h i s suggests t h a t parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n were responding t o d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s i n a p p r a i s i n g the coresidence Although r e t u r n c o r e s i d e n t s continuing before  coresidents,  experience.  and t h e i r parents were o l d e r than  73% had made t h e i r most r e c e n t  t h e age o f 25; o n l y 12% returned  return  a t 30 o r o l d e r and 3%  a t 40 o r o l d e r . Three-quarter had l e f t t h e p a r e n t a l home and had  returned  o n l y once, such t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l  home does not t y p i c a l l y appear t o be a " r e v o l v i n g door." Moreover, about two-thirds plans  of adult c h i l d r e n reported d e f i n i t e  t o l e a v e . Most expected t o stay a year o r l e s s (though  t h e i r p a r e n t s appear t o be s c e p t i c a l o f t h i s ) . of c u r r e n t c o r e s i d e n c e  Indeed,  length  was g e n e r a l l y s h o r t f o r r e t u r n e e s (53%  f o r a year o r l e s s vs. 32% more than 2 y e a r s ) . Relevant t o this,  school  (29%)  and f i n a n c i a l reasons (26%)  were common  c i t e d i n r e t u r n i n g home, e s p e c i a l l y amongst younger a d u l t s .  Divorce  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s r u p t i o n s (17%)  were a l s o c i t e d  reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home, which i n c r e a s e s w i t h age  as  as  a  reason f o r r e t u r n s . Perhaps r e l e v a n t to t h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between gender and  age  among r e t u r n  coresidents,  i n which o l d e r daughters r e p o r t longer expected s t a y s . seems t o r e f l e c t f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and needs, because a f t e r age divorced,  and  Ward and  some had  other  This  assistance  30 most of these daughters were  c h i l d r e n of t h e i r  own.  S p i t z e (1996) conclude t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o  the  p a r e n t a l home i s a more temporary or t r a n s i t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t may  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more t e n s i o n because r e t u r n  coresidents  expressed l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o r e s i d i n g  planned t o l e a v e i n the near f u t u r e . In c o n t r a s t , c h i l d r e n who  had  and  adult  never l e f t home seem to be s t a b l e , long-term  coresidents. Another one  of the few  children's perspectives  s t u d i e s to document a d u l t  compared r e s i d e n t and  nonresident  a d u l t c h i l d r e n (Flanagan, Schulenberg, & F u i g n i , 1993). Using r e p o r t s from 404  undergraduates (approximately h a l f of whom  were l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s ) , nonresident  a f f e c t i o n and  decision-making autonomy,  support, acceptance of p a r e n t s as r o l e  models, a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s , and  and  young a d u l t s on s i x dimensions of p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s (mutual respect, perceived  they compared r e s i d e n t  understood). Net  and  f e e l i n g appreciated  of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s ( i n c l u d i n g  they found s i g n i f i c a n t negative  e f f e c t s of c o r e s i d e n c e  age), on each  34 item  taken s e p a r a t e l y and  concluded t h a t may  on the e n t i r e s e t . The  researchers  "the r e d e f i n i t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s  be more problematic  c h i l d r e n are l i v i n g  when parents and  under the same r o o f "  their (p.  late-adolescent  183).  In another study i n t e r e s t e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , Umberson (1992) examined  impact  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n and  t h e i r parents.  frequency o f s o c i a l contact, f e e l i n g loved and l i s t e n t o my critical  cared  worries),  Using measures of  s o c i a l support ( i . e . ,  degree of  f o r ; degree of other being w i l l i n g and  relationship strain (i.e.,  a person i s of you or what you do;  too many demands of me)  the  i t was  to  how  degree o t h e r makes  found t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  mothers were a s s o c i a t e d with d i s t r e s s amongst c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n . More frequent  contact  and  support from mothers  was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s d i s t r e s s among a d u l t c h i l d r e n , w h i l e s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a s s o c i a t e d with more d i s t r e s s . Indeed, 43%  of a d u l t c h i l d r e n reported  somewhat or a l i t t l e c r i t i c a l and  13%  t h a t t h e i r mothers are reported  that  mothers are c r i t i c a l q u i t e a b i t o r a great d e a l . percent  a l s o reported  of them. In c o n t r a s t , less c r i t i c a l ,  and  their Thirty-two  t h a t t h e i r mothers made too many demands f a t h e r s were r e p o r t e d  l e s s demanding (only 29%  too many demands). U l t i m a t e l y ,  t o be somewhat felt  f a t h e r s made  strained r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  f a t h e r s were a s s o c i a t e d with g r e a t e r d i s t r e s s whereas s o c i a l support and  c o n t a c t with f a t h e r s d i d not seem t o have  strong  35 e f f e c t s on a d u l t c h i l d r e n . In a s c e r t a i n i n g which r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more important t o d e t e r m i n i n g respondent's  psychological functioning, r e s u l t s  show t h a t s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s with both mothers and a d u l t c h i l d r e n a r e a s s o c i a t e d with e l e v a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . Once t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with mothers and a d u l t c h i l d r e n a r e taken i n t o account,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f a t h e r s do not  measurably a f f e c t respondents'  p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g . Such  r e s u l t s s e n s i t i z e us t o the d i f f e r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l  impact  r e l a t i o n s w i t h mothers versus f a t h e r s has on c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t children. F i n a l l y , White and Rogers (1997) demonstrated t h a t c o r e s i d e n t young a d u l t s g i v e , r e c e i v e , and p e r c e i v e more support from t h e i r parents than nonresident c h i l d r e n , but t h a t they a l s o r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r parents. Coresident adult c h i l d r e n report r e c e i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s r e s p e c t and l e s s f a i r n e s s from  their  mothers, and they a l s o express l e s s t r u s t i n t h e i r mothers compared t o n o n r e s i d e n t a d u l t c h i l d r e n . Yet c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those  living  i n d e p e n d e n t l y on items t h a t measure f e e l i n g understood by mothers, f e e l i n g loved by mothers, and f e e l i n g c l o s e t o mothers. The authors surmise that the lower r e l a t i o n s h i p q u a l i t y may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s t r a i n s o f s h a r i n g a household  on a d a i l y b a s i s .  Ultimately,  the r e s e a r c h on the consequences o f t h e  36 p a r e n t - c h i l d c o r e s i d e n t i a l experience s t i l l  focuses  e x c l u s i v e l y on the parent's p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i r  almost  relationship  w i t h t h e i r spouse, c h i l d , or on t h e i r sense of w e l l - b e i n g . T h i s i s an o v e r s i g h t s i n c e d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s of r e l a t i o n s are l i k e l y t o be s a l i e n t f o r parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n , and p e r c e p t i o n s are l i k e l y t o be determined ( R o s s i & R o s s i , 1990). Researchers  by d i f f e r e n t  their  factors  should be more s e n s i t i v e t o  e l i c i t i n g the p e r c e p t i o n s of c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n , thereby uncovering what i s problematic and advantageous about coresiding. Expected V a r i a t i o n i n Coresidence Outcomes Researchers  have sought  t o e x p l a i n the mixed  findings  t h a t i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o - r e s i d e n c e seems t o have on r e l a t i o n s . Why  familial  do some c o r e s i d i n g parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n  seem t o experience c o n f l i c t ,  strained relations,  and/or  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with p a r e n t a l r o l e ( i . e . , Clemens & Axelson, 1985;  A q u i l a n o , 1991;  Aquilano & Supple,  1992), w h i l e o t h e r s do not ( i . e . , 1988,  1991)?  Umberson,  Suitor & Pillemar,  I t has been suggested  s e n s i t i z e d t o how  1991;  1987,  t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s be  the nature and outcomes of c o r e s i d e n c e are  l i k e l y t o v a r y w i t h parent and c h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s . Ward and S p i t z e (1992) advocate age, may  that  gender, and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s ( i . e . , r a c e / e t h n i c i t y ) have p a r t i c u l a r First,  salience.  a r e s e a r c h e r should be s e n s i t i z e d t o how  the  p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s w h i l e c o r e s i d i n g  37 may d i f f e r by gender o f parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n . Daughters g e n e r a l l y have g r e a t e r s o l i d a r i t y with t h e i r p a r e n t s than sons ( R o s s i & R o s s i , 1990). Antonucci (1990) demonstrates  that  women a r e more i n v o l v e d i n f a m i l y networks and w h i l e t h i s may l e a d them t o experience more b e n e f i t s , they a l s o r u n t h e r i s k of e x p e r i e n c i n g more emotional c o s t s . Aquilano and Supple (1991) found more enjoyable i n t e r a c t i o n s with c o r e s i d e n t daughters  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r mothers),  and t h a t  shared  a c t i v i t i e s were more important t o c o r e s i d e n c e s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r mothers. Such p a t t e r n s are s u g g e s t i v e t h a t t h e r e a r e g r e a t e r consequences o f c o r e s i d e n c e , both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , f o r mothers and daughters. Others are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t c o r e s i d e n t a d u l t daughters  f a r e l e s s w e l l than sons because  they a r e more h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d (Boyd & Pryor, 1989) and a r e asked t o undertake  a l a r g e r share o f the housework; a l t h o u g h  c o r e s i d e n t p a r e n t s continue t o do 74% t o 79% o f household t a s k s , daughters do twice as many t a s k s as sons (Ward e t a l . , 1992). G o l d s h e i d e r and Waite (1991) conclude t h a t  "staying  home a f t e r age 18 seems t o p r o v i d e much l e s s b e n e f i t f o r daughters  than sons"  (p. 149).  Second, age has been found c o n s i s t e n t l y t o be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y c o n f l i c t and v i o l e n c e ( S u i t o r & P i l l e m e r , 1991), such t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g younger p a r t i e s would be expected t o y i e l d higher r e p o r t s o f c o n f l i c t . Moreover, the l i t e r a t u r e on a d u l t development and i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s suggests t h a t middle-aged  parents and t h e i r  children  . are more l i k e l y t o experience higher l e v e l s of c o n f l i c t o l d e r p a r e n t - c h i l d dyads (Hagestad, 1987). Relevant t o S u i t o r and  Pillemer  (1987, 1988)  c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t t h e i r age.  this,  their  Moreover, because  the data were c o l l e c t e d from the o l d e r p a r e n t s ' i s suggested t h a t there may  than  suggest t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s  of l a c k of c o n f l i c t between e l d e r l y parents and  it  38  perspectives,  be a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y  bias--  a tendency t o present o v e r l y harmonious p i c t u r e s of t h e i r family r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Suitor & Pillemer, that greater  c o n f l i c t may  1991). They  have been r e p o r t e d  speculate  i f the d a t a  had  been c o l l e c t e d from the a d u l t c h i l d r e n c o r e s i d i n g r a t h e r  than  t h e i r e l d e r l y parents. T h i r d , Ward and  Spitze  must be s e n s i t i z e d t o how i n f l u e n c e the nature and coresidence.  I t has  (1992) a s s e r t t h a t  racial/ethnic differences outcomes of p a r e n t - a d u l t  been suggested that the  p r a c t i c e s o f f a m i l i e s may  researchers may  child  coresiding  r e f l e c t economic need. Indeed,  A q u i l a n o (1990) a s s e r t s t h a t extended-family households among B l a c k s and  Hispanics  r e f l e c t economic needs and  d i f f e r e n c e s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may  marital  a l s o be contended  status  that  r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n extended-family households r e f l e c t c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s p e r t i n e n t t o f a m i l y v a l u e s and (Choi,  1991;  perspective,  Tienda & Angel, 1982). I f one then i t may  norms  subscribes  to t h i s  f o l l o w t h a t some c u l t u r a l groups  be more r e c e p t i v e to c o r e s i d e n c e and p o s i t i v e l y , with l e s s c o n f l i c t  may  would e x p e r i e n c e i t more  (Ward & S p i t z e ,  1992).  39 At t h i s time, r e s e a r c h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has c e n t r e d i t s a t t e n t i o n on e t h n i c / r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o r e s i d i n g amongst B l a c k s , H i s p a n i c s , and Whites (Ward & S p i t z e , 1992). However, no c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i s a v a i l a b l e on how e t h n i c / r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e Canadians'  c o r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s and experiences--where  the  demographics a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t . For i n s t a n c e , Vancouver, Canada i s made up o f d i v e r s e e t h n i c i n c l u d i n g groups o f B r i t i s h , I n d i a n h e r i t a g e . Research  European, Chinese,  groups-and E a s t  should be s e n s i t i v e t o how these  d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c / r a c i a l groups' norms, v a l u e s , and p r a c t i c e s may i n f l u e n c e t h e nature and outcomes o f p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d r e n c o r e s i d e n t i a l experiences. C r i t i c i s m o f the Research  on Parent-Adult C h i l d  Coresidence  Extant l i f e course and exchange c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d and t h e p o s i t i v i s t methodology used t o r e s e a r c h t h e phenomenon o f " r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e " i s r e d u c t i o n i s t . Indeed, t h e "whole" experience o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e i s o f t e n reduced  t o a narrow focus on p a r e n t -  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s ; whether r e l a t i o n s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y , c o n f l i c t u a l , o r exchange i s e q u i t a b l e . In f o c u s i n g so narrowly, dimensions  one has t o wonder what other c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s and i n h e r e n t t o the experience a r e being o v e r l o o k e d . To  r e d r e s s t h i s concern, t h i s phenomenon demands a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach t h a t i s not r e d u c t i o n i s t i c and i s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e m u l t i p l e l a y e r s o f context t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f  40 r e t u r n i n g home i n adulthood; s i g n i f i c a n t l y impacting r e l a t i o n s h i p s and confluence  i n t e n t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e .  of temporal, c o n t e x t u a l ,  and  one's  Events as  psychological  p r o c e s s e s must be s t u d i e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l terms and n a t u r a l i s t i c contexts Research was  from p a r e n t s '  l a r g e l y n e g l e c t f u l of what a d u l t c h i l d r e n  on how  1987,  survey  impacted p a r e n t s '  ( i . e . , Aquilano & Supple,  P i l l e m a r & S u i t o r , 1991;  lives  1991;  Suitor &  1988). I t c e r t a i n l y would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o  know what a d u l t c h i l d r e n who how  home. G e n e r a l l y ,  c o r e s i d i n g had  perspectives  Clemens & Axelson, 1985; Pillemar,  in  (Bronfenbrenner, 1979).  e x p e r i e n c e when they have returned s t u d i e s focused  the  have returned  home e x p e r i e n c e  they make sense o f the e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e f o r e ,  a  and  specific  t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experience i s lacking. What about I m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r the A d u l t C h i l d ' s C a r e e r  Development? Given the narrow focus of the extant  l i t e r a t u r e on  the  impact of c o r e s i d i n g on p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a l l the concepts p e r t a i n i n g to the phenomenon of  adult  c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g to the nest have not been i d e n t i f i e d .  At  t h i s time, t h e r e are no s t u d i e s t h a t d i r e c t l y i n v e s t i g a t e a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home to r e s i d e may  how  affect their  c o n s t r u c t i o n of c a r e e r . T h i s i s a s t o n i s h i n g g i v e n the  fact  t h a t f a i l u r e s t o adequately launch c a r e e r s , poor economy, l i m i t e d opportunity  s t r u c t u r e , and extended e d u c a t i o n a l  needs  41 of today's workers a r e c i t e d as some o f t h e primary reasons f o r a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home (Boyd & Norris,  1999)!  Having s a i d t h i s , understanding "career" straightforward. discovered  i t i s a l s o recognized i n t h i s context  For i n s t a n c e ,  that  i s not t h a t  Hartung and Sweeney (1991)  t h a t although a d u l t c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s a t t r i b u t e  the poor economy as t h e key reason why a d u l t s a r e r e t u r n i n g home, i t seemed t h a t the "meaning" o f economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s vary.  Parents and c h i l d r e n sometimes p e r c e i v e d  d e p r i v a t i o n and  a f f l u e n c e very d i f f e r e n t l y from the a c t u a l economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s they d e s c r i b e d .  Decreasing economic  o p p o r t u n i t i e s must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n t h e context  of class-  bound, e c o n o m i c a l l y - s p e c i f i c n o t i o n s o f e n t i t l e m e n t ,  and o f  how being  a successful adult i s defined.  Some c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n home do so out o f a b j e c t economic n e c e s s i t y ; having f a i l e d by t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n as a d u l t s due t o d i v o r c e o r j o b l o s s (Hartung & Sweeney, 1991). They a r e expected t o resume the r o l e o f " c h i l d " as l o n g as they l i v e w i t h t h e i r parents. (usually middle-class)  And there a r e other  children  who r e t u r n home because home can be a  c o m f o r t a b l e r e t r e a t from adulthood. Although p a r e n t s i n middle c l a s s households a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i l d was home f o r economic reasons, a t " l e s s guarded moments" t h e c h i l d ' s maturity launching  was c a l l e d i n t o question.  The i s s u e o f having  failed  a c a r e e r i s a l l u d e d to, although p a r e n t s and a d u l t  42 c h i l d r e n d e f e r from d i s c u s s i n g t h i s p e r c e i v e d has  f a i l u r e . Y e t one  t o wonder what does t h i s a l l mean? Are these boomerang  c h i l d r e n perceived  by themselves and others  adult c h i l d r e n consider to t h e i r career  as " l o s e r s " ? Do  r e t u r n i n g home as h e l p f u l o r u n h e l p f u l  development?  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , r e s e a r c h on the important i s s u e o f how t h e f a m i l y context  i n f l u e n c e s c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s and c a r e e r s  over  the l i f e s p a n has sought i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f environmental v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with the f a m i l y ( i . e . ,  socioeconomic  s t a t u s ) and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t can be g e n e r a l i z e d  t o the population  ( S p l e t e & Freeman-George,  1985). I m p l i c i t i n t h i s was the suggestion passive  that c h i l d r e n are  r e c i p i e n t s o f such s t a t i c i n f l u e n c e v a r i a b l e s . A  disadvantage o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l , e m p i r i c a l approach t o studying  i n f l u e n c e was i t s tendency t o d i s t o r t t h e way t h e  dynamic p r o c e s s o f i n f l u e n c e a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n s i n persons' d a i l y l i v e s . The a c t i v e , v o l i t i o n a l , character  of influence i s lost  Recent i n n o v a t i v e r e s e a r c h and  and g o a l - d i r e c t e d  ( C o l l i n & Young, 1986). u t i l i z e s hermeneutical i n q u i r y  n a r r a t i v e t o r e d r e s s t h i s s i t u a t i o n and c a p t u r e t h e  complex manner i n which the f a m i l y context  influences  career  development. Young, F r i e s e n , and B o r y c k i ' s  (1994) study was  chosen f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n because i t s f i n d i n g s may be s u g g e s t i v e  t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n home (and t h e i r  parents) are e x h i b i t i n g i n t e n t i o n a l , goal-directed designed t o a s s i s t i n the returnee's  activities  l i f e and c a r e e r  43 development. In a two-part s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d  interview  50 young a d u l t s (22 men; 28 women) were f i r s t about t h e i r l i v e s ; where they were i n t h e i r  invited  to talk  career  development, what was important t o them, what t h e i r were, and the i n f l u e n c e they p e r c e i v e d  format,  goals  t h e i r p a r e n t s had on  both t h e i r l i v e s and c a r e e r s . The second p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w sought out s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s , f o l l o w i n g Flanagan's  critical  i n c i d e n t procedure, i n which these young a d u l t s had  perceived  t h a t t h e i r parents had i n f l u e n c e d them. The a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t a n t n a r r a t i v e s , both the l a r g e l i f e n a r r a t i v e s and the critical  i n c i d e n t narratives that r e f l e c t parental  influence,  was based on the means-end sequences d e l i n e a t e d by Alexander. I t was found t h a t p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i s an important i n g r e d i e n t i n the g o a l - o r i e n t e d adults.  l i f e n a r r a t i v e s o f young  Based on i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f e i g h t  interviews,  transcribed  f o u r n a r r a t i v e types were i d e n t i f i e d :  n a r r a t i v e s w i t h a dramatic t u r n i n g p o i n t ;  progressive  progressive  n a r r a t i v e s w i t h i n a p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n frame; a n t i c i p a t e d r e g r e s s i v e n a r r a t i v e ; and p r o g r e s s i v e negatively evaluated The  narrative with  stages.  authors note t h a t the predominance o f p r o g r e s s i v e  n a r r a t i v e s , w i t h the n a r r a t o r p r o g r e s s i n g suggest a need t o present  toward a g o a l ,  one's l i f e as a success s t o r y .  need i s i n t e n s i f i e d by s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d  developmental  t a s k s o f young a d u l t s e n t e r i n g occupations,  living  i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f parents,  and choosing l i f e p a r t n e r s .  This  Notions  44 a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n c l u d e d success, d e s t i n y , s t r u g g l e , optimism, and f a t a l i s m . T h i s approach p r o v i d e d  failure,  methodological  an a l t e r n a t i v e means o f understanding  how  young a d u l t s c o n s t r u c t t h e i r c a r e e r and l i f e d i r e c t i o n , and t h e i r parents' The  role i n this  process.  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s study may be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e  f o l l o w i n g reasons:  (a) c u r r e n t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f a d u l t  c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g t o the nest p r e d i c t n e g a t i v e (i.e.,  immaturity,  depressed"),  dependency, i n c o m p l e t e l y  y e t g i v e n the need t o present  outcomes  launched,  "career-  l i v e s as "success  s t o r i e s " , perhaps a d u l t c h i l d r e n e x p l a i n r e t u r n i n g home as a " p o s i t i v e career plan" ( i . e . , money f o r education,  a r e s p o n s i b l e d e c i s i o n t o save  and so on; a d e s i r e t o promote t h e best  p o s s i b l e outcome f o r the a d u l t c h i l d t o achieve c a r e e r g o a l s ) ; and  (b) a l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s t o respond  generating  freely,  t h e i r own meanings t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s g e n e r a l  area  o f i n q u i r y , empowers p a r t i c i p a n t s t o " t e l l t h e i r own s t o r y . " Discovery  i s promoted i n the r e s e a r c h endeavour.  What about I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the A d u l t C h i l d ' s Sense o f S e l f ? Given t h a t North American c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f adulthood comprise o f l i v i n g independently financially self-sufficient,  from one's parents  and being  i t seems s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e i s  no r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b i n g how the phenomenon o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e a f f e c t s a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f themselves and t h e i r self-esteem.  The l a c k o f r e s e a r c h g i v i n g v o i c e t o t h e  a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on r e t u r n i n g home i n adulthood  45 omits an understanding  o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and f e e l i n g s about  themselves. Concluding Comments A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e review o f the l i t e r a t u r e i s i n t e n d e d t o promote t h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y by p r o v i d i n g a s e n s i t i z i n g framework f o r t h i s grounded theory study. The e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r be p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e t o c e r t a i n aspects o f the experience. The impact o f p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e on p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i s a r e c u r r i n g focus o f a t t e n t i o n . L i f e - s p a n development theory and s o c i a l exchange theory attempt t o p r e d i c t and e x p l a i n how negative outcomes ( i . e . , c o n f l i c t , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with s i t u a t i o n , reduced  parent-child well-being)  may a r i s e . S i n c e a c t u a l outcomes i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s a r e mixed, the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the nature o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i s expected and  t o be i n f l u e n c e d by c o n d i t i o n s such as gender, age,  ethnicity/race. T h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h e r i s s e n s i t i z e d t o t h e  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t managing one's f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and m a i n t a i n i n g one's w e l l - b e i n g may be prominent f e a t u r e s o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experiences when r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home. Although the e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks h i n t a t what may be the p o t e n t i a l l y problematic aspects o f t h e phenomenon ( i . e . , v i o l a t e d normative  expectations, inequity i n  h e l p exchange between parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n ) , which may diminish personal well-being or parent-child r e l a t i o n s , the  46 r e s e a r c h e r must be open t o a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s . However, p a r e n t s ' experiences with a d u l t c h i l d r e n who coresiding  are  (because they have delayed home-leaving or have  r e t u r n e d home) has r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n by  social  s c i e n t i s t s . There i s an assumption i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c o r e s i d e n c e w i l l be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t  f o r parents,  who  should be basking i n the golden years of an empty-nest. In c o n t r a s t , l e s s i s known about the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n who  have r e t u r n e d t o the p a r e n t a l home. Perhaps t h i s  i s because of an assumption t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o c o r e s i d e i s c o n s i d e r e d l e s s d e t r i m e n t a l f o r a d u l t c h i l d r e n who who  are having t h e i r needs met,  are p e r c e i v e d as being unexpectedly  r e l a t i v e to parents burdened.  Making an e f f o r t t o e x p l o r e and e x p l i c a t e a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experiences of r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e seems important t o r e d r e s s . D i s c o v e r i n g what i s s a l i e n t , c o r e ,  and  p r o b l e m a t i c t o r e t u r n i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n i s needed. What makes f o r a good or bad experience f o r a d u l t c h i l d r e n w h i l e c o r e s i d i n g w i t h parents? The extant l i t e r a t u r e has the r e s e a r c h e r t o how  sensitized  r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home has  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and w e l l - b e i n g . However i t may  a l s o be the case t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e has  overlooked  concepts t h a t are a l s o h i g h l y s a l i e n t t o r e t u r n i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n ( i . e . , c a r e e r development; s e l f and s e l f - e s t e e m ; view o f the f u t u r e ) . Thus, the extant l i t e r a t u r e o n l y p r o v i d e s a " s t a r t i n g p o i n t " f o r i n i t i a l data c o l l e c t i o n .  Initial  47 q u e s t i o n s posed t o p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d encompass how  returning  home t o l i v e has a f f e c t e d f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , one's sense of self,  and one's view of the f u t u r e . Such q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d  broad  and open-ended i n order to ensure t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r  d i s c o v e r s what i s of importance to the study p a r t i c i p a n t s , not r e i f y what has a l r e a d y been designated as important social  scientists.  by  be  and  48 CHAPTER I I I METHOD Rationale  f o r a Grounded Theory Approach  In order t o advance knowledge around the unique i s s u e of understanding and  e x p l a i n i n g the core s o c i a l and  psychological  e x p e r i e n c e of female a d u l t c h i l d r e n when r e t u r n i n g home t o c o r e s i d e w i t h parents, deemed  a q u a l i t a t i v e research  design  was  appropriate.  The  grounded theory  many reasons. F i r s t ,  approach was  considered  i t i s "discovery-oriented"  ideal for and  intended  t o be a c o r r e c t i v e to a s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n which a l l the concepts p e r t a i n i n g to a g i v e n phenomenon have not y e t been identified,  and  where r e l a t i o n s h i p s between concepts are  adequately understood or are c o n c e p t u a l l y 1990,  underdeveloped  (Strauss  & Corbin,  Spitze's  (1992) a s s e r t i o n t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e  1998). I concur w i t h Ward  and  gaps i n our  u n d e r s t a n d i n g the experience of r e t u r n i n g home t o  live,  p a r t i c u l a r l y from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the a d u l t c h i l d . over a decade ago, research  on p a r e n t - a d u l t  adequate conceptual research devoid  Mancini and  not  Just  B l i e s z n e r (1989) observed t h a t  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i s seldom guided  frameworks. They observed t h a t ,  by  although  d r i v e n by problem s o l v i n g i s honourable, when i t i s  of a t h e o r e t i c a l context  l a r g e r p i c t u r e i s stunted.  The  the understanding of  the  r e s u l t a n t danger i s an  s e r i e s of d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s , with l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y  unlinked of  e s t a b l i s h i n g c a u s a l a s s o c i a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s or p r e d i c t i n g  49 f u t u r e outcomes. T h e i r a p p r a i s a l of the l i t e r a t u r e then seems to s t i l l  h o l d t r u e of the l i t e r a t u r e  today:  In our p e r u s a l of the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d h e r e i n , we v e r y few  i n s t a n c e s where e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l  and  b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e theory d i r e c t e d the r e s e a r c h . when theory was  used t o generate  q u e s t i o n s and method, i t was s o c i a l exchange. Although  noted  And  the r e s e a r c h  l i k e l y t o be a brand  of  a s o c i a l exchange approach  i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n some i n s t a n c e s , i t i s s h o r t s i g h t e d t o assume t h a t s o c i a l exchange theory  can  s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l a i n the m u l t i p l e f a c e t s o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p (p.  284).  T h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a t i n g grounded theory may  assist in  c l a r i f y i n g c o n c e p t u a l a m b i g u i t i e s due t o i t s s e n s i t i v i t y t o c o n t e x t , process, v a r i a t i o n i n p e r s o n a l and  f a m i l i a l dynamics,  and d i v e r s i t y of experiences. Rennie, P h i l l i p s , (1988) s t r o n g l y endorse the power of t h i s  and  Quartaro  qualitative  methodology t o develop theory, suggesting t h a t having  this  method i n hand i s l i k e c a r r y i n g a f l a s h l i g h t t h a t can  be  beamed on any aspect of a c l u t t e r e d  attic.  Second, the predominance of p o s i t i v i s t i c r e s e a r c h  designs  i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the phenomenon of r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e i n adulthood,  has meant t h a t experience, meaning, and  context  have been i n a d e q u a t e l y attended t o . A d u l t s r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e w i t h parents i s a phenomenon t h a t touches i n t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s of experience,  and y e t the  upon many  50 postpositivistic reductionistic  approach t o s t u d y i n g t h i s has been  r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g on the whole e x p e r i e n c e .  Grounded t h e o r y ' s appeal i s i t s p o t e n t i a l t o c o n c i s e l y i n t e g r a t e d i v e r s e aspects o f the phenomenon o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e with t h e i r  parents.  Another p r o b l e m a t i c aspect o f the modal survey methodology used t o study t h i s phenomenon, which a grounded t h e o r y approach can r e d r e s s , i s i t s tendency  t o obscure  "process," r e n d e r i n g i t i n v i s i b l e . One i s g i v e n t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l experience i s s t a t i c , f r o z e n i n time.  For i n s t a n c e , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are dichotomized as  "satisfactory"  or "non-satisfactory," " c o n f l i c t u a l , "  o r "non-  conflictual". S t r a u s s and C o r b i n (1990) a s s e r t t h a t grounded t h e o r y makes a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o answer q u e s t i o n s about p r o c e s s , which i s d e s c r i b e d as "the a n a l y s t ' s way o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r o r e x p l a i n i n g change" (p. 148). There are two main ways o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g process: p r o g r e s s i v e process i s viewed as stages and phases o f a passage along with an e x p l a n a t i o n o f what makes the passage move forward, h a l t ,  o r take a downward  t u r n , and because not a l l phenomenon l e n d themselves t o c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n as o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s i v e steps and phases, p r o c e s s can a l s o be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e where a c t i o n / i n t e r a c t i o n i s f l e x i b l e , i n f l u x , r e s p o n s i v e and changeable (p.  i n response  movement  t e n d i n g t o be  t o changing c o n d i t i o n s  157). Although i t remains i m p l i c i t i n S t r a u s s and C o r b i n ' s  51 (1990) two  d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of process,  t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e process  i t seems  i s a s s o c i a t e d with a l i n e a r  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n or e x p l a n a t i o n of change, whereas nonp r o g r e s s i v e process  i s a s s o c i a t e d with a n o n - l i n e a r  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n or e x p l a n a t i o n of change. Charmaz (1983) notes t h a t when l o o k i n g f o r processes r e s e a r c h e r may here? How  a l s o ask,  the grounded  theory  "What k i n d of events are at i s s u e  are they constructed?  What do these events mean? By  l o o k i n g f o r major process,  r e s e a r c h e r s d e l i n e a t e how  are r e l a t e d t o each other"  (p.  Finally, words, and  events  113).  a q u a l i t a t i v e focus on the respondent's  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i s s u e s has  own  practical  i m p l i c a t i o n s , perhaps suggestive of what c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c e "good" o r "bad"  outcomes. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may  c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Relevant r e s e a r c h aim,  to t h i s  facilitate  idealistic  G l a s e r (1992) e n v i s i o n e d the grounded  theory  approach as a v e h i c l e f o r change: " I t g i v e s a c o n c e p t u a l by a c c o u n t i n g  f o r and  i n t e r p r e t i n g substantive patterns  grasp of  a c t i o n which p r o v i d e a sense of understanding  and c o n t r o l , and  an access  14).  f o r a c t i o n and modicum changes" (p.  Overview of the Grounded Theory Method The  t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings  of grounded t h e o r y  d e r i v e d from Pragmatism and Symbolic I n t e r a c t i o n i s m . and  Strauss  (1990, 1998)  observe t h a t although  s u b s c r i b e t o these p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t o use the method, t h a t two  one  are Corbin  need not  sociological orientations  c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s drawn from  52 them are b u i l t i n t o i t . F i r s t , phenomena are not c o n c e i v e d as s t a t i c , but as c o n t i n u a l l y changing i n response t o  of  evolving  c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, i n c l u s i o n of change processes i s i n t e g r a l t o the method. Second, the notions of "agency" and are i n t r o d u c e d  "determinism"  v i a the stance t h a t people are viewed  having, though not always u t i l i z i n g ,  as  the means of c o n t r o l l i n g  t h e i r d e s t i n i e s by t h e i r responses to c o n d i t i o n s . People a c t i v e c r e a t o r s i n t h e i r world, with the a b i l i t y t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and  are  define  shape t h e i r a c t i o n s . There i s a  r e c o g n i t i o n of people's i n t e n t i o n a l i t y and  conscious  c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning. Hence, grounded theory method not o n l y seek t o uncover r e l e v a n t c o n d i t i o n s , but a l s o determine how  people respond to changing c o n d i t i o n s and  of t h e i r  the consequences  actions.  These u n d e r l y i n g are congruent w i t h my  assumptions of grounded theory own  c o n t e x t u a l i s t worldview  method  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t assumptions t h a t people a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t knowledge about the world and  act on t h i s  knowledge. Moreover, given my  counsellor training, I  appreciate  Wuest's (1995) c o n t e n t i o n  constructed  t h a t the  symbolic  i n t e r a c t i o n i s t underpinnings of the grounded theory r e f l e c t an i n h e r e n t  respect  f o r people's s u b j e c t i v e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o c i a l experience. She aspect  of grounded theory  epistemological experts  approach  i s supportive  of  notes t h a t  this  feminist  underpinnings i n t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s are  of t h e i r own  experience and  the  that subjective experience  53 i s v a l i d d a t a . T h i s i s a value stance I r e s p e c t , and grounded t h e o r y was  not developed  although  simply t o g i v e r e s e a r c h  p a r t i c i p a n t s a v o i c e , i t i s r e a s s u r i n g t h a t t h i s method p r o v i d e s a l e g i t i m a t e means f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o i n t e r p r e t the p e r s p e c t i v e s and v o i c e s of the people s t u d i e d . T h i s makes me  f e e l c l o s e r t o the world experienced by people out t h e r e ,  r a t h e r than the a b s t r a c t one c o n s t r u c t e d by the academic community. The Emergent Design Grounded theory has an "emergent" r a t h e r than  fixed  d e s i g n t h a t begins with a broad purpose of d e t e r m i n i n g what i s going on w i t h i n a phenomenon of i n t e r e s t , i n t h i s case " a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e " 1993;  May,  1986;  Sandelowski,  (Becker,  Davis, & H a r r i s , 1989;  Wuest,  1995). The emergent d e s i g n i s a key aspect of n a t u r a l i s t i n q u i r y , and Sandelowski crucial  and her c o l l e a g u e s observe t h a t "a  ( i f not the most c r u c i a l ) aspect of any i n q u i r y i s t o  f i n d the r i g h t q u e s t i o n , and n a t u r a l i s t i n v e s t i g a t o r s look f o r it  a f t e r they begin the study.  initially  Because n a t u r a l i s t i c aims are  more i n c l u s i v e than they e v e n t u a l l y w i l l become, the  r e s e a r c h e r t y p i c a l l y asks an i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n " (Sandelowski al.,  1989,  p. 78). T h e r e a f t e r , t h i s i n i t i a l  r e f i n e d and c l a r i f i e d  question w i l l  et  be  i n the f i e l d .  Given the emphasis on d i s c o v e r y and theory development i n the grounded theory method, i n c o n t r a s t t o l o g i c a l  deductive  r e a s o n i n g r e l y i n g on p r i o r t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks, i t l e n d s  54 i t s e l f t o being open to the unexpected. The r e s e a r c h e r should respond  w i t h f l e x i b i l i t y to what i s d i s c o v e r e d as the r e s e a r c h  ensues. of  S t r a u s s and C o r b i n (1998) a s s e r t t h a t the " a c i d  paying a t t e n t i o n t o respondent's  concerns  i s the key  where the focus of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t should be" G l a s e r (1992) a l s o i n s i s t s t h a t , "The  to  (p. 38).  research question i n a  grounded theory study i s not a statement phenomenon t o be s t u d i e d .  test  that i d e n t i f i e s  The problem emerges and  r e g a r d i n g the problem emerge by which to guide  the  questions  theoretical  sampling.  Out of open coding, data c o l l e c t i o n by  theoretical  sampling,  and a n a l y z i n g by constant comparison emerge the  focus f o r the r e s e a r c h e r " (p. 25). He makes i t c l e a r t h a t what you  "a p r i o r i "  assume may  be the "problem" of  interest  c o n c e r n i n g the phenomenon, when you e n t e r the f i e l d , be the case... you to  the informants My  may  not  " d i s c o v e r " what i s a c t u a l l y of importance from the informants  ( G l a s e r , 1978).  r e s e a r c h experience c o r r o b o r a t e s the "emergent d e s i g n "  i n grounded theory method as i n h e r e n t l y f l e x i b l e and open t o r e v i s i o n and refinement once one e n t e r s the f i e l d . when I i n i t i a l l y proposed my grounded theory study, presumed t h a t a f a m i l y focus may  Indeed, I had  be s a l i e n t , and t h a t i t would  be i n t e r e s t i n g to uncover a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s , and t h e i r p a r e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s , both i n d i v i d u a l l y and on the e x p e r i e n c e of r e t u r n i n g home to l i v e . response  t o my  conjointly,  Interestingly, i n  i n i t i a l a d v e r t i s i n g d r i v e , o n l y female a d u l t  c h i l d r e n and o n l y one  "boomerang mother" c o n t a c t e d me  about  55  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. I p a i n f u l l y d i s c o v e r e d  that the  m a j o r i t y o f t h e female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who c o n t a c t e d not mind being  interviewed  i n my study, but only  c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t was without t h e i r parents'  me would  on t h e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n ! In  w r i t i n g f i e l d notes and memos, I noted t h a t they s t a t e d i t was c o n s i d e r e d simply  "too r i s k y , " "unworkable," "too much," and  "inconvenient"  parents.  that  t o d i s c u s s the experience w i t h  Some s t a t e d t h a t there was apprehension t h a t  t h i n g s would come up i n a j o i n t i n t e r v i e w ,  their negative  t h a t they would be  misconstrued, t h a t t h e i r words would be twisted--making  things  worse a t home. Some d i s c l o s e d a f e a r o f r e p r i s a l s (being k i c k e d out,  r i s k i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from parents,  r e l a t i o n s with parents).  risking  I t was conveyed t o me t h a t t h e r e was  a concern t h a t a j o i n t parent and a d u l t c h i l d i n t e r v i e w , and even having t h e parents i n v o l v e d s e p a r a t e l y because i t i m p l i e s awareness o f t h e daughter's p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o u l d  adversely  a f f e c t t h e l i v e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f these a d u l t c h i l d r e n . This pervasive  concern was something I had not a n t i c i p a t e d  entering the f i e l d ,  and i t was u n s e t t l i n g . Nothing i n t h e  l i t e r a t u r e had prepared me f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t my d e s i r e t o h o l d i n d i v i d u a l and c o n j o i n t i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a d u l t c h i l d r e n and  t h e i r p a r e n t s c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d  as p u t t i n g anyone a t  risk! Moreover, i n my f i e l d notes and memos o f i n i t i a l interviews  and c o n t a c t s ,  I observed t h e dynamic o f " s t r i v i n g  t o l e a d independent and p r i v a t e l i v e s . " These female a d u l t  56 c h i l d r e n were working hard t o " p r o t e c t t h e i r p r i v a c y " by u s i n g time and space i n the home t o extend p r i v a t e time, and t o be busy w i t h a c t i v i t i e s away from the home and one's p a r e n t s . P e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the d e t a i l s o f t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r t r u e o p i n i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r own b u s i n e s s . T h i s d i s c o v e r y f u r t h e r undermined t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n d u c t i n g a j o i n t i n t e r v i e w with parents on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . The urge f o r female a d u l t c h i l d r e n t o " p r o t e c t p r i v a c y " seemed sacred. Quite simply, most  female  a d u l t c h i l d r e n (with the e x c e p t i o n o f f o u r women) d i d not want t o share t h e i r innermost  thoughts  about t h e i r  experience,  t h e i r meaning-making, and t h e i r a c t i o n s with t h e i r p a r e n t s . They were s e c r e t i v e with t h e i r parents about what was r e a l l y going on w i t h them while they were l i v i n g a t home. In o r d e r t o pursue t h i s t a n t a l i z i n g and guarded i n f o r m a t i o n , i t n e c e s s i t a t e d agreeing with these female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s wishes t o be i n t e r v i e w e d p r i v a t e l y , without any c o n s u l t a t i o n o r d i s c u s s i o n with t h e i r parents i n any form. Moreover, i t was important t o note t h a t women, not men, were e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e t o share t h e i r s t o r i e s w i t h me. They suggested  t h a t an i n t e r v i e w with me was an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  c o n f i d e n t i a l l y "process" o r "make sense" o f t h e i r  experience  w i t h a " c o u n s e l l i n g psychology p r o f e s s i o n a l , " o f wanting t o l e a r n about o t h e r s i n order t o "normalize" t h e i r  experience,  and o f wanting t o o f f e r something t o other a d u l t c h i l d r e n who had r e t u r n e d home. I t seemed t h a t the female a d u l t c h i l d r e n  57  who had r e t u r n e d experiencing intense  home t o l i v e ,  personal  i n p a r t i c u l a r , were  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l dynamics s u f f i c i e n t l y  and s i g n i f i c a n t t o them t h a t i t warranted c l o s e r  examination. U l t i m a t e l y ,  the e t h i c a l o b l i g a t i o n t o not  compromise t h e a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s sense o f s a f e t y , s e c u r i t y , and well-being  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r parents a l s o was  considered  paramount. Research should i n c l u d e w i l l i n g and a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s who do not have t o be coerced o r c a j o l e d i n t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Research should not put p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a p o s i t i o n i n which they p e r c e i v e  any r i s k s t o themselves,  whether t h a t i s p h y s i c a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y ,  or  intellectually. As emergent d e s i g n advocates, I decided t o f o c u s my research  e f f o r t s on the female informants t h a t had s e l f -  i d e n t i f i e d themselves as having c r u c i a l , p r i v a t e , and s u b j e c t i v e l y meaningful experiences o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . T h i s a n a l y t i c d e c i s i o n was c o n s e n s u a l l y  a r r i v e d at with the  c o n s u l t a t i o n o f an a n a l y t i c grounded theory group o f colleagues,  headed by the d o c t o r a l methodologist, and approved  of by t h e d o c t o r a l  committee. Sampling I n i t i a l Sample S e l e c t i o n  The  use o f n o n - p r o b a b i l i t y  convenience sampling  procedures was i n i t i a l l y i n d i c a t e d . Female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who had  returned  home t o l i v e ,  and i f w i l l i n g , t h e i r p a r e n t ( s ) ,  were r e c r u i t e d from the Greater Vancouver area through  58 advertisements posted on campuses at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  and Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and at community c e n t r e s  and neighbourhood  l o c a l e s . The best response came from  c o n t i n u e d advertisements i n a u n i v e r s i t y newspaper  (UBC  R e p o r t s ) , which i s a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d through a l o c a l newspaper (see Appendix A f o r sample of advertisements i n f l y e r s w r i t t e n media).  There was  and  i n t e r e s t i n the r e s e a r c h study by  the media, however no one responded  t o the appeal f o r  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a C o u r i e r newspaper a r t i c l e  (January 28,  or a community-oriented  by V a n C i t y  n e w s l e t t e r produced  1998)  (October 1997). P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d a l s o s e l f - s e l e c t t o the study i f they should hear about  i t from a f r i e n d , f a m i l y  member, and so on. C r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n were t h a t female a d u l t c h i l d r e n  be  (a) a minimum of 24 years o l d ( s i n c e these i n d i v i d u a l s  may  have had more experience l i v i n g independently of t h e i r  parents  than younger a d u l t s ) ;  (b) t h a t female a d u l t c h i l d r e n had been  l i v i n g away from the p a r e n t a l home f o r more than a y e a r b e f o r e t h e i r r e t u r n (so t h a t those who  were " v i s i t i n g " • f o r the summer  u n t i l r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l were not i n c l u d e d ) ; speaking  (c) and  English-  ( i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o c e d u r e ) .  Given the d i s c o v e r y - o r i e n t e d nature of the grounded t h e o r y method and the concern not t o impose a p r i o r i l i m i t a t i o n s on the study, one's reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home and the d u r a t i o n of c o r e s i d e n c e were l e f t open-ended. As the study evolved, daughters who  were no longer c o r e s i d i n g a t home and  59 had been on t h e i r own again f o r not more than a year were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d . They o f t e n promised t h a t I j u s t had t o hear s t o r i e s because  their  they were so "amazing" ( i . e . , dramatic and  d i f f i c u l t ) . Moreover, i t was determined t h a t  their  r e t r o s p e c t i v e accounts may r e v e a l a p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e over time t h a t daughters who were c u r r e n t l y c o r e s i d i n g c o u l d not a r t i c u l a t e because  they were  engaged i n the c o r e process t h a t was being  still  uncovered.  I t was a n t i c i p a t e d that some d i f f i c u l t y would be e x p e r i e n c e d i n o b t a i n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , so a monetary i n c e n t i v e was o f f e r e d i n the form of a "research honorarium  draw." In  r e t u r n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study, advertisements o f f e r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c e i v e t h r e e $100.00 honorariums  t o be drawn a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the study. Theoretical  Sampling  In grounded theory, data c o l l e c t i o n and data a n a l y s i s a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a r r i e d out and sampling i s c o n t i n u a l due t o the f a c t t h a t the e v o l v i n g data a n a l y s i s d i r e c t s t h e need f o r p u r p o s i v e sampling t o d i s c o v e r v a r i a t i o n s i n the phenomenon under study ( G l a s e r , 1978). T h i s unique f e a t u r e o f t h e grounded theory method i s c a l l e d t h e o r e t i c a l sampling. S t r a u s s (1987) w r i t e s : T h e o r e t i c a l sampling i s a means whereby the a n a l y s t d e c i d e s on a n a l y t i c grounds what data t o c o l l e c t next and where t o f i n d them. The b a s i c q u e s t i o n i n t h e o r e t i c a l sampling i s : What groups o r subgroups o f  60 p o p u l a t i o n s , events, a c t i v i t i e s dimensions,  (to f i n d varying  s t r a t e g i e s , e t c . ) does one t u r n t o next  i n data c o l l e c t i o n . And  f o r what t h e o r e t i c a l  purpose? So, t h i s process of data c o l l e c t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by the emerging theory (pp. 38-39). Subsequently,  t h e o r e t i c a l sampling c o n t i n u e s  until  s a t u r a t i o n of a l l l e v e l s of codes i s complete and no c o n c e p t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e new  new codes or  the p o s s i b l e expansion of e s t a b l i s h e d codes. Once s a t u r a t i o n of each c a t e g o r y i s obtained, a conceptual framework developed  was  and v e r i f i e d by f u r t h e r data c o l l e c t i o n .  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of concepts, not persons,  is crucial  because the aim of grounded theory i s t o generate  a  t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . Theory i s generated by s p e c i f y i n g a phenomenon i n terms of c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o i t , i s expressed  through a c t i o n or i n t e r a c t i o n , and by  consequences t h a t r e s u l t from i t .  Baker, Wuest, and  how i t  the Stern  (1992) c o n c i s e l y s t a t e t h a t "the s e l e c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s data sources i s t h e r e f o r e , a f u n c t i o n of emerging and the sample s i z e , a f u n c t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l  and  hypotheses  completeness"  (p. 1358). D e s c r i p t i o n of Study Sample In t o t a l ,  15 female a d u l t c h i l d r e n and f o u r s e t s of  p a r e n t s v o l u n t e e r e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . Of the female a d u l t c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study, 13 were White (European one was  E a s t - I n d i a n , and one was  ethnicity),  F i l i p i n o . The average  age  of  61 the daughters was 2 9 . 5 years,  ranging  from 24 t o 44 y e a r s o l d .  A l l daughters were s i n g l e (two were d i v o r c e d ) . While l i v i n g a t home, daughters' incomes ranged from l i v i n g on w e l f a r e , student  loans,  savings  to salaries of $4,000  to $40,000  earned  as a u n i v e r s i t y s e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r , banker, manager, b i o l o g y technician, secretary/administrators, o n - c a l l healthcare supervisor, occupational  t h e r a p i s t , and c o l l e g e c o u n s e l l o r .  F i v e o f these p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o were a t t e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s as students  post-secondary  (see Appendix B f o r sample's  characteristics). On t h e demographic forms, reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home were f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " f i n a n c i a l . " At one extreme, f i n a n c i a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y was a s s o c i a t e d with  disability,  m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n , underemployment o r j o b l o s s , and having depleted  funds a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g . With the e x c e p t i o n  o f one  woman who had been i n j u r e d i n an automobile a c c i d e n t and s u f f e r e d from c h r o n i c pain, thereby a f f e c t i n g her a b i l i t y t o be employed, t h e m a j o r i t y o f the women were  able-bodied.  Indeed, a t t h e other extreme, some daughters were doing f i n a n c i a l l y , but s t r i v i n g t o pay o f f debts and student and  well loans,  t o save money f o r t u i t i o n s and downpayments f o r t h e i r own  homes. S e v e r a l daughters a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r parents'  homes was convenient f o r t h e i r work. During t h e  i n t e r v i e w s , more i n v o l v e d and i n t i m a t e reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home were e l a b o r a t e d upon. On the demographic forms daughters were a l s o asked t o r a t e from 1 (very d i s s a t i s f i e d ) t o 7 (very  62 s a t i s f i e d ) how s a t i s f i e d they were with t h e i r circumstances Daughters'  living  (while c o r e s i d i n g with t h e i r p a r e n t s ) .  r a t i n g s ranged  from 1 t o 6, with an average  rating  of 4.35. At t h e time o f the i n t e r v i e w s , nine o f t h e daughters  were  l i v i n g a t t h e i r parents' home, ranging from 1 month t o 3.5 y e a r s , w i t h an average d u r a t i o n o f 1.4 y e a r s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t one o f these c o r e s i d i n g daughters  was on t h e verge  of moving out o f the p a r e n t a l home and had a l r e a d y made arrangements t o l e a v e . S i x daughters  who were no l o n g e r  living  at t h e i r p a r e n t s ' home a l s o were i n t e r v i e w e d . They had l i v e d at t h e i r p a r e n t s ' home f o r 6 months t o 3 1/2 y e a r s , w i t h an average  c o r e s i d e n c e o f 19.2 months. One daughter  had o n l y j u s t  moved out and had been on her own f o r j u s t one day, whereas the o t h e r s had been on t h e i r own f o r up t o 12 months. Another daughter  ( t h e o n l y s i n g l e mother with 2 young c h i l d r e n , ages 6  y e a r s and 22 months) had c o r e s i d e d with her parents f o r a t o t a l o f 2 y e a r s - - t h e f i r s t year and a h a l f i n h e r p a r e n t s home' and i n t h e most r e c e n t 6 months her r e t i r e d p a r e n t s had been c o r e s i d i n g with her and her c h i l d r e n i n her t i n y basement s u i t e . F o r t h e t o t a l sample o f daughters,  the average  length  of c o r e s i d e n c y i n t h e p a r e n t a l home was 1.5 y e a r s . With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one daughter  whose p a r e n t s were  d i v o r c e d and t h e mother remarried, and another daughter mother was r e c e n t l y widowed, a l l the daughters w i t h i n t a c t marriages. Parents ranged  whose  had p a r e n t s  i n age from 50 t o 74  63 y e a r s o l d . Measures of occupation, utilized  education  and  i n the demographic forms t o p r o v i d e  r e g a r d i n g the parents' education  income were  information  socioeconomic background. The  parents'  l e v e l ranged from elementary s c h o o l i n one  instance  where the parents were immigrants, t o high s c h o o l , and u n i v e r s i t y undergraduate and graduate degrees. occupations  Parents'  i n c l u d e d a range of p r o f e s s i o n s . The m a j o r i t y of  p a r e n t s worked i n p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations  such as  banking, accounting,  consulting,  nur s i n g , engineering,  pharmacy ( r e t i r e d ) , j o u r n a l i s m , and a l s o worked i n occupations retail,  to  teaching,  academia. A few  parents  such as the lumber i n d u s t r y ,  s a l e s , and c l e a n i n g . A few mothers were homemakers.  Daughters seldom knew what t h e i r parents'  income was  were unable t o r e p o r t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , however d u r i n g  and  the  i n t e r v i e w s , the daughters d e s c r i b e d the p a r e n t a l homes i n which they c o r e s i d e d . Housing arrangements ranged from s h a r i n g a basement s u i t e i n one the suburbs, and  s i t u a t i o n , to townhomes and houses i n  to spacious homes i n a f f l u e n t neighbourhoods.  W i t h i n the i n t e r v i e w s daughters o f t e n p r o v i d e d about the l o c a t i o n and the a m e n i t i e s  information  s i z e or l a y o u t of the p a r e n t a l home,  w i t h i n the p a r e n t a l home, and the  a v a i l a b l e t o them ( i . e . ,  resources  c a r s , computers, i n t e r n e t , money).  Based on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n s  (i.e., fieldnotes  o f i n t e r v i e w s h e l d i n four f a m i l y households),  i t was  inferred  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of daughters' parents were m i d d l e - c l a s s .  64  Procedure In t h e grounded theory method data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s proceed  simultaneously. A s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f  t h i s i t e r a t i v e process i s t h a t the ongoing a n a l y s i s i n f l u e n c e s and  shapes t h e e v o l v i n g data c o l l e c t i o n ,  such t h a t each  i n t e r v i e w becomes a source o f data f o r the q u e s t i o n s t o be posed i n t h e subsequent i n t e r v i e w s . One i s c o n s t a n t l y comparing each i n t e r v i e w as a "case" t o be compared w i t h a l l other  "cases." Data C o l l e c t i o n Before s t a r t i n g an i n t e r v i e w , consent  forms d e s c r i b i n g  the r e s e a r c h focus and process were o r a l l y reviewed and p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o ask any q u e s t i o n s they had b e f o r e s i g n i n g the consent  form (see Appendix C &  Appendix D). The p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n a copy f o r t h e i r own r e c o r d s , and t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o p i e s o f the signed  consents  were s t o r e d i n a locked f i l i n g c a b i n e t t o p r o t e c t t h e i d e n t i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Data c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a t o t a l o f 15 female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who had r e t u r n e d home t o l i v e . A subset o f f o u r daughters  had consented  t o be  i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h t h e i r parents, and t h e i r parents a l s o were i n t e r v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y . The i n t e r v i e w s , which were 90 minutes l o n g , were conducted  i n a s e t t i n g t h a t was d e s i g n a t e d by t h e  p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e i r convenience  and comfort.  c o n j o i n t and p a r e n t a l i n t e r v i e w s were conducted  The f o u r i n t h e home  65 s e t t i n g , but i n t e r e s t i n g l y , daughters  requested t h a t t h e i r  i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s be h e l d elsewhere t o p r e s e r v e  their  p r i v a c y . They s t r o n g l y f e l t t h a t the p a r e n t a l home was not t h e i r space t o use f r e e l y and p r i v a t e l y without  intrusion.  F i e l d notes recorded o b s e r v a t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  setting  d e s c r i p t i o n , and the tone o f the i n t e r v i e w s . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o l i c i t i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n such as age, e t h n i c i t y , education, occupation, d u r a t i o n o f a d u l t c h i l d ' s c o r e s i d e n c e , and reason f o r r e t u r n i n g home were a l s o f i l l e d out by p a r t i c i p a n t s (see Appendix E ) . The m a j o r i t y o f the audiotaped and  i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  i n t e r r u p t i o n s , l a u g h t e r , t e a r s , s i g h s , tone o f v o i c e , and  l e n g t h y pauses were noted.  I t a l i c s , b o l d - f a c e , and e x c l a m a t i o n  p o i n t s a l s o were used t o convey a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s emphasis on c e r t a i n words, as w e l l as emotional  tone. In t o t a l ,  including  f i e l d notes and t r a n s c r i p t s , the r e s e a r c h e r had approximately 500 pages o f o r i g i n a l data t o analyze. I n t e r v i e w i n g Format S e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were guided by an i n i t i a l s e t of  open-ended q u e s t i o n s t h a t were c o n t i n u a l l y expanded upon  and r e f i n e d as t h e study's data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s e s progressed.  The wording o f questions attempted t o minimize  any response  b i a s i n favour o f c o n s t r u c t s a l r e a d y i n t h e  psychological literature (i.e.,  the use o f terms such as  " h a n d l i n g " o r "managing" the experience o f being a t home i n s t e a d o f "coping" with the experience o f being a t home).  66 Questions and probes were open-ended i n order t o enhance e x p l o r a t i o n and t o minimize responses--"I'd  shaping the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  l i k e you t o t e l l me what the e x p e r i e n c e of  r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e has been l i k e f o r you" F).  (see Appendix  As the study evolved, and c a t e g o r i e s were b e g i n n i n g t o  emerge, more and more r e f i n e d and focused q u e s t i o n s were posed to  p a r t i c i p a n t s (see Appendix G). At the c o n c l u s i o n of each i n t e r v i e w , p a r t i c i p a n t s were  informed t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d t h a t I may  need t o do  some f o l l o w - u p on another o c c a s i o n by telephone.  In subsequent  c o n t a c t s p a r t i c i p a n t s were u s u a l l y asked more d i r e c t  questions  i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the development of e x p l i c i t c a t e g o r i e s and c o n s t r u c t s t h a t were emerging i n the data a n a l y s i s (e.g., me  i n your own  Tell  words what your d e f i n i t i o n of r e g r o u p i n g i s ?  What does your regrouping process c o n s i s t o f ) ? The  telephone  f o l l o w - u p s were u s e f u l f o r c l a r i f y i n g understanding, p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a t may  and  have been overlooked p r e v i o u s l y .  T h i s p r o c e s s ensures t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the data and the f i t between coding c a t e g o r i e s and data were c o n t i n u a l l y checked  with p a r t i c i p a n t s throughout  the l i f e  of  the p r o j e c t , l e n d i n g t o the a u t h e n t i c i t y and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s of  the  findings. E t h i c a l Considerations  The i n t e r a c t i o n s between the r e s e a r c h e r and  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h study were m u t u a l l y meaningful  and compelling, both e m o t i o n a l l y and  67 i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . Yet i t a l s o posed c e r t a i n e t h i c a l considerations.  Researchers conducting q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s  are o f t e n p e r c e i v e d  as t h e r a p i s t s , the process being  w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g assessment i n t e r v i e w s . perception  congruent  Of course t h i s  was heightened by the f a c t I a c t u a l l y am a t r a i n e d  t h e r a p i s t , and p a r t i c i p a n t s d e f i n i t e l y knew I was from Counselling  Psychology. Given t h i s ,  i s s u e s and emotions t h a t s u r f a c e d  I was prepared t o manage  as p a r t i c i p a n t s t o l d  s t o r i e s t o me. I o f f e r e d r e f e r r a l s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g on one o c c a s i o n  their  assistance  when appeals f o r help were made t o me  p e r s o n a l l y by the parents o f one daughter (see Appendix H). Indeed, i t was o f t e n o f great  i n t e r e s t to p a r t i c i p a n t s that I  was from the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology f i e l d ,  and I suspected  t h a t t h i s encouraged a w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c l o s e " i s s u e s " more r e a d i l y t o a perceived  p r o f e s s i o n a l who ensured  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . I suspect empathy, and posing  that my t r a i n i n g -in  questions  paraphrasing,  a l s o enhanced r a p p o r t  w i t h the  p a r t i c i p a n t s , such t h a t the i n t e r v i e w was o f t e n r e p o r t e d  t o be  a p o s i t i v e experience that was b e n e f i c i a l t o p e r s o n a l processing  o f emotions and i n s i g h t s around the e x p e r i e n c e o f  returning. Data a n a l y s i s First,  i t should  notes d e r i v e d  be noted t h a t the t r a n s c r i p t s and f i e l d  from the 15 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h female a d u l t  c h i l d r e n were considered i n t e n s i v e l y analyzed  the primary data source t o be  by the r e s e a r c h e r .  The subset o f f o u r  68 parent and f o u r c o n j o i n t i n t e r v i e w s were c o n s i d e r e d c o l l a t e r a l data sources t h a t c o u l d c l a r i f y and extend understanding o f female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experience o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . A n a l y s i s began with "open coding," the i n i t i a l procedure  analytic  i n which data were broken i n t o d i s c r e t e p a r t s  words, phrases,  and sentences  (i.e.,  from t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w t e x t )  and l a b e l l e d i n order t o i d e n t i f y  "codes" which were used t o  develop c a t e g o r i e s . An e f f o r t was made t o s t a y c l o s e t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own language.  Some examples o f codes t h a t  emerged d u r i n g t h e study are: "going i n c i r c l e s , " "a headache/struggle,"  "gathering o f d i f f e r e n t  " t a k i n g time f o r s e l f , "  "stumbling,"  forces,"  " t h i n k i n g about where I'm g o i n g , "  " g e t t i n g i t t o g e t h e r , " and " f o l l o w i n g t h e threads o f my  life."  Such codes were compared with one another f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and then were a b s t r a c t e d and grouped together i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g categories:  "Faltering"  "stumbling";  "a headache/struggle"),  Reenergizing" ( i . e . ,  (i.e.,  "going i n c i r c l e s " ; "Recuperating-  "gathering o f d i f f e r e n t f o r c e s " ; " t a k i n g  time f o r s e l f " ) and "Contemplating/Pursuing  L i f e Plans"  (i.e.,  " t h i n k i n g about where I'm going; " f i g u r i n g t h i n g s out"; " g e t t i n g i t t o g e t h e r " ; and " f o l l o w i n g t h e threads o f my  life).  Summative c o d e l i s t s f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s i n t e r v i e w were generated  t o enable comparisons o f codes and c a t e g o r i e s a c r o s s  c a s e s . Through memoing, p r o p e r t i e s ( v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c a t e g o r i e s ) , and dimensions  (aspects o f each p r o p e r t y p l a c e d  on a continuum) f o r emerging c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d .  69 As data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s progressed, my memos became more s u b s t a n t i v e as I began t o see common themes o r p r o c e s s e s shared i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' experiences o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e .  New c a t e g o r i e s were b u i l t by combining and  r e c o d i n g them as more encompassing, a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i e s . Relevant t o t h i s , something s t r i k i n g happened t o "jumpstart" t h i s p r o c e s s . While  I was coding data from an i n t e r v i e w w i t h  the s i x t h daughter,  she mentioned the words  "regroup,"  "regrouping," and "regrouping time" on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t o d e s c r i b e h e r experience o f r e t u r n i n g home i n r e l a t i o n t o " r a l l y i n g the forces,"  "working t h i n g s out," and p e r m i t t i n g  h e r s e l f a "downtime." Being immersed i n my data, I was s t r u c k by t h e c o m p e l l i n g "grab and f i t " and  I immediately  the code "regrouping" had,  i n t u i t e d the resonance  i t may have w i t h  o t h e r data t h a t had been coded. I e x c i t e d l y memoed--Could i t be t h a t a l l daughters were "regrouping" i n one form o r another?  I memoed about the p r o p e r t i e s and dimensions o f  "regrouping", and posed questions t o myself and t h e d a t a . I was  prompted t o r e t u r n t o the nine o r i g i n a l  a v a i l a b l e t o me a t t h a t time t o determine comprehensively  how a c c u r a t e l y and  "regrouping" f i t the e x p e r i e n c e s o f each  p a r t i c i p a n t . T h i s culminated i n combining "Contemplating"  transcripts  and r e c o d i n g  and "Pursuing" ( c a r e e r / f u t u r e p l a n s , f a m i l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and p e r s o n a l w e l l b e i n g ) , and "RecuperatingR e e n e r g i z i n g " as p a r t o f the broader, more a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r y of "Regrouping."  " F a l t e r i n g " and then "Advancing,"  relative to  70 "Regrouping", were determined  to be subprocesses  or  subcategories. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was who  posed q u e s t i o n s t o me  i n c i d e n t s i n my enthusiasm  d i s c u s s e d w i t h the a n a l y t i c group about c o n f i r m i n g and d i s c o n f i r m i n g  data. T h i s " r e f u t a t i o n a l work" balanced  my  f o r "regrouping," and s e a r c h i n g f o r d i s c o n f i r m i n g  o r n e g a t i v e cases i n the data permitted me  to further c l a r i f y  and d e f i n e what "regrouping" i s and i s n o t - - t o c l a r i f y  the  parameters o f "regrouping." For i n s t a n c e , " c a r i n g f o r o n e s e l f " r a t h e r than " c a r i n g f o r one's parents" i s a dimension  of  r e g r o u p i n g . More p a r t i c i p a n t s were then i n t e r v i e w e d , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s posed to sample f o r "regrouping." wanted t o know i f regrouping much as p o s s i b l e about  "fit"  I  f o r them, and t o l e a r n  as  "regrouping".  The p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g l i n k a g e s between emerging c a t e g o r i e s and l o o k i n g f o r c a u s a l l i n k s between concepts  that  emerged from the c a t e g o r i e s i s r e f e r r e d t o as " t h e o r e t i c a l o r a x i a l coding"  ( S t r a u s s , 1987,  t o g e t h e r i n new and  p. 34). Here one  "puts d a t a back  ways by making connections between a c a t e g o r y  i t s s u b c a t e g o r i e s . . . the focus i s on s p e c i f y i n g a c a t e g o r y  (phenomenon) i n terms o f c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o i t ; context  the  ( i t s s p e c i f i c s e t of p r o p e r t i e s ) i n which i t i s  embedded; the a c t i o n / i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s by which i t i s handled,  managed, c a r r i e d out; and the consequences of  strategies" coding,  ( S t r a u s s & Corbin, 1990,  those  p. 97). At t h i s l e v e l o f  I focused on c a t e g o r i e s t h a t f i t w e l l and connected  in  71 a way t h a t suggested  a c r e d i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n about  daughters'  v a r y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e i n adulthood. At t h i s l e v e l o f coding, one i s f o c u s i n g on c a t e g o r i e s t h a t seem "core" t o t h e experience. As advocated  by Strauss (1987),  the d e c i s i o n r u l e s f o r  d e t e r m i n i n g c o r e category s t a t u s i n c l u d e : (a) a c a t e g o r y ' s c e n t r a l i t y r e l a t i v e t o other c a t e g o r i e s ; (b) a c a t e g o r y ' s frequency o f occurrence i n the data; ( c ) i t s i n c l u s i v e n e s s and the ease w i t h which i t can be r e l a t e d t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s ; (d) c l a r i t y o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a more g e n e r a l theory;  (e) i t s  i n c r e a s e d t h e o r e t i c a l power as d e t a i l s o f t h e c a t e g o r y a r e worked out; and ( f ) i t s allowance terms o f p r o p e r t i e s , dimensions,  f o r maximum v a r i a t i o n i n c o n d i t i o n s , consequences, and  strategies. In  t h e a n a l y t i c process, i t was a l s o important t o  determine  whether the core category i s saturated--meaning  that  a c o n t i n u e d review o f t h e data does not p r o v i d e new i n f o r m a t i o n . When such s a t u r a t i o n occurred, t h e c o r e c o n s t r u c t of  "regrouping" was accepted as c e n t r a l t o t h e emerging  t h e o r y . T h i s enabled me t o i n t e g r a t e the i n t e r p r e t i v e work done over t h e course o f the study i n order t o e x p l i c a t e an a n a l y t i c s t o r y o f female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e . T h i s w r i t t e n account was s c r u t i n i z e d by the a n a l y t i c group, who a s s i s t e d i n a p p r a i s i n g comprehensiveness, explanatory power, and suggesting  refinement.  72 Memoinq A unique  aspect o f the a n a l y t i c process o f grounded  t h e o r y method i s the w r i t i n g o f a n a l y t i c and s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e memos throughout  t h e l i f e o f the p r o j e c t . Memos a r e s p e c i a l  w r i t t e n r e c o r d s t h a t document the ongoing process o f t h e o r y development from the i n c e p t i o n o f the p r o j e c t ;  including  q u e s t i o n s o f t h e data, o b s e r v a t i o n s , moments o f c o n f u s i o n , reactions to participant's narratives, insights, speculations, e a r l y c o n n e c t i o n s , r e c o r d s o f a n a l y t i c meetings,  and so on.  Such w r i t t e n memos a r e c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e a n a l y t i c process; e n r i c h i n g one's data corpus. The A n a l y t i c Group P e r s o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and s t r i v i n g t o . m a i n t a i n t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e a n a l y t i c process and i t s r e s u l t i n g  product  were achieved through ongoing c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h a group o f f i v e d o c t o r a l candidates f a m i l i a r with the grounded t h e o r y method. T h i s a n a l y t i c group was headed by a knowledgable methodologist,  who i s an expert o f t h e grounded t h e o r y method,  w i t h 25 years o f p e r s o n a l experience i n conducting, p u b l i s h i n g , and reviewing grounded theory r e s e a r c h . The meetings were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n exposing the a n a l y s i s and w r i t i n g t o d e t a i l e d s c r u t i n y . T h i s was an important  aspect o f  the r e s e a r c h process as i t enabled the t e s t i n g o f concepts and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with c o l l e a g u e s i n an ongoing c o l l a b o r a t i v e , team-work s e t t i n g . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s i n t e r a c t i v e process was  73 b e n e f i c i a l since:  (a) i t exposes one's a n a l y s i s t o  s c r u t i n y , guarding a g a i n s t  p o t e n t i a l biases  and  selective  i n a t t e n t i o n ; and  (b) i t can c r e a t e  new  enhanced t h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y  i n s i g h t s and  others'  opportunities  t o develop (Strauss  &  C o r b i n , 1990). Leninger (1992) a l s o supports t h i s p o s i t i o n . She  p a r t i c u l a r l y notes that c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h mentors i s  e s s e n t i a l t o a study's outcome; i n c r e a s i n g credibility, The  accuracy, and  general q u a l i t y .  t h a t o u t l i n e s the r e s e a r c h  e v o l u t i o n o f codes, c a t e g o r i e s ,  and  activities,  i n t o the  transcriptions, and  field,  initial  the Audit  narrative entries  including pre-entry interviews,  p r o c e s s and  t h e o r y development.  t r a i l s t y p i c a l l y include chronological  entry  findings'  a n a l y t i c meetings were a l s o i n t e g r a l t o documenting  an a u d i t t r a i l  research  the  group  of  conceptualizations, consultations,  coding e f f o r t s , a n a l y t i c  activities,  the e v o l u t i o n of theory development. C r i t e r i a f o r Judging Rigor It  should be made e x p l i c i t t h a t i n q u a l i t a t i v e  the means used to ensure r e l i a b i l i t y and and  d i f f e r from those d e f i n e d  Denzin (1994) observes that,  v a l i d i t y are  i n quantitative  methodology.  (theoretical)  sampling, a grounded theory, i n d u c t i v e data a n a l y s i s , (contextual)  unique  "a good c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( t e x t ) i s based on purposive  idiographic  research  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The  and  foundation for  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e s t s on t r i a n g u l a t e d e m p i r i c a l m a t e r i a l s are t r u s t w o r t h y " (p. 508).  L i n c o l n and  Guba (1985) a s s e r t  that that  74 trustworthiness  c o n s i s t s o f four components: c r e d i b i l i t y ,  t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y , dependability,  and c o n f i r m a b i l i t y ( t h e s e a r e  the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t e q u i v a l e n t s  o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  validity,  reliability,  and o b j e c t i v i t y (p. 300).  C r e d i b i l i t y i s t h e c o n f i d e n c e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and the r e s e a r c h e r have i n the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the f i n d i n g s . C r e d i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g s can be assured v i a (a) t h e " v e r i f i c a t i o n " process o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r peer d e b r i e f i n g w i t h t h e s i s committee members and c o l l e a g u e s a n a l y s i s , and (b) e l i c i t i n g research  i n ongoing data  participants'  t o t h e ongoing data a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . v a l i d a t e d the evolving representation  substantive  reactions Participants  theory as an a c c u r a t e  o f t h e i r experience o f r e t u r n i n g  home t o l i v e  i n adulthood. T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y can be achieved by p r o v i d i n g enough " d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l " o r enough " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " f o r o t h e r s t o a s c e r t a i n whether the r e s u l t s o f t h i s grounded t h e o r y study " t r a n s f e r " t o t h e i r s e t t i n g s . The  dependability  of t h e f i n d i n g s and the c o n f i r m a b i l i t y o f the data were reviewed by s e l e c t e d members o f the t h e s i s committee. L i m i t a t i o n s o f Grounded Theory Method In t h i s s e c t i o n I d i s c u s s p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s associated  w i t h the grounded theory method. F i r s t ,  t h e o r y method i s a r e s e a r c h substantive  strategy  t h e o r y from i n t e r v i e w  grounded  intended t o generate  and f i e l d w o r k  data. A  middle-range theory i s b u i l t around the s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s explain behavioral  v a r i a t i o n i n a g i v e n c o n t e x t . A good  that  75 grounded t h e o r y i s c o n c e p t u a l l y dense, and parsimonious c o n t r a s t t o the r i c h ,  " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " and d e t a i l of  phenomenology or hermeneutics (Becker, 1994). May  in  (1986) observes  Strauss & Corbin,  t h a t i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the  grounded theory r e s e a r c h e r may d e s c r i p t i v e data (e.g., how  1993;  have a wealth of d e t a i l e d  f r e q u e n t l y a p a r t i c u l a r theme  arose i n i n t e r v i e w s , recorded o b s e r v a t i o n s or behaviours  that  are c l i n i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g but p l a y a minor r o l e i n one's t h e o r e t i c a l scheme), t h a t one must r e s i s t the urge t o l a p s e i n t o pure d e s c r i p t i o n and present these data i n g r e a t  detail  because they are "too good to throw away." S t r a u s s and (1990) a l s o encourage " w r i t i n g on a conceptual l e v e l , d e s c r i p t i o n kept secondary"  Corbin with  (p. 229). Theory g e n e r a t i o n i s the  grounded theory r e s e a r c h e r ' s p r i o r i t y , " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " should be  and e x t e n s i v e use of  avoided.  Second, grounded theory r e s e a r c h e r s must a l s o be wary t h a t i f they do not f o l l o w a s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f grounded theory a n a l y t i c methods, they can end up  with  " d e s c r i p t i v e n a r r a t i v e s " i n s t e a d of a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the phenomenon being s t u d i e d . Indeed, Becker (1993) has observed  t h a t many p u b l i s h e d grounded  theory  r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s l a c k conceptual depth and are, i n f a c t , d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s . One  must a l s o take c a r e not t o undermine  the grounded theory method's tenet to d i s c o v e r and t o " s t a y c l o s e t o the data" by imposing  one's own  most s i g n i f i c a n t . Charmaz (1983) observes  n o t i o n s o f what i s that "researchers  76 who pour t h e i r data i n t o someone e l s e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l  framework  or s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s add l i t t l e i n n o v a t i o n and a l s o may perpetuate  i d e a s t h a t c o u l d be f u r t h e r r e f i n e d , transcended o r  discarded"  (pp. 110-111).  T h i r d , t h e q u e s t i o n o f the extent t o which f i n d i n g s from a p a r t i c u l a r study can be s a i d t o have a more g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s important  i n s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . In  q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h where sampling  d e c i s i o n s have not been  made on s t a t i s t i c a l grounds, L i n c o l n and Guba (1985) have recommended t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s speak i n terms o f " t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y , " r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g s . T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s o f a study i n c o n t e x t s s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n t e x t i n which they were f i r s t d e r i v e d . C l a r i f y i n g t h i s  linguistic  p o i n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o me because i t has been t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f many r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t a f r u s t r a t i n g aspect o f t h e grounded theory methodology i s i t s continued use o f terminology  that i s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p o s i t i v i s t t r a d i t i o n . T h i s lends t o a c o n f u s i o n with, misunderstanding,  o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  grounded theory methodology (Charmaz, 1983). I t has been suggested  t h a t the i s s u e o f " t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y  v e r s u s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y " o f q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s may be deeper than a matter o f the grounded theory method c a t c h i n g up w i t h postmodern language and s e n s i b i l i t i e s . Moving beyond l i n g u i s t i c s , May ( p e r s o n a l communication) d e v i a t e s from L i n c o l n and Guba's (1985) p o s i t i o n on the " t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f  77 q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s " as i t a p p l i e s to grounded t h e o r y .  She  argues t h a t grounded theory should be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from " q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s " ( i . e . , hermeneutics, phenomenology), g i v e n the b a s i c assumption t h a t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t r i n s i c t o theory and theory development. Theory i s an i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t product scientific  than r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n  i n q u i r y , such t h a t grounded theory may  c o n s i d e r e d a s p e c i a l subset of q u a l i t a t i v e work. C o r b i n and S t r a u s s  be Indeed,  (1990) i n d i c a t e t h a t a grounded t h e o r y i s  g e n e r a l i z a b l e i n s o f a r as i t s p e c i f i e s c o n d i t i o n s t h a t are l i n k e d through a c t i o n / i n t e r a c t i o n with d e f i n i t e consequences. T h i s means t h a t t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l onus on the r e s e a r c h e r t o d e s c r i b e or s p e c i f y the range of s i t u a t i o n s t o which the theory a p p l i e s ; e s s e n t i a l l y the c o n t e x t u a l f e a t u r e s of study  (Henwood & Pidgeon, 1992;  the  L i n c o l n & Guba, 1985).  G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d to the range of c o n t e x t s by the r e s e a r c h e r . U l t i m a t e l y , the more s y s t e m a t i c widespread the t h e o r e t i c a l sampling,  described  and  the more c o m p l e t e l y  the  c o n d i t i o n s and v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d , p e r m i t t i n g much g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of concepts,  generalizability,  p r e c i s i o n , and p r e d i c t i v e c a p a c i t y ( C o r b i n & S t r a u s s , Finally,  1990).  a d i s c u s s i o n of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the grounded  t h e o r y method would be remiss without  acknowledging  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n r e f l e c t s  the  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a s s e r t i o n t h a t a " s u b j e c t - o b j e c t " dichotomy does not e x i s t i n s c i e n t i f i c  i n q u i r y , whereby the  researcher  78 shapes both the r e s e a r c h process and outcome. C o r b i n (1986) concedes t h a t a grounded theory's d e n s i t y , complexity,  scope,  and the degree t o which the concepts are i n t e g r a t e d v a r i e s w i t h the l e v e l o f s k i l l ,  training,  c o n f i d e n c e of the r e s e a r c h e r .  experience, and  self-  79 CHAPTER IV STUDY FINDINGS In t h i s chapter I present the theory t h a t was  developed  r e g a r d i n g the experiences of female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n e d t o the p a r e n t a l home to l i v e . An overview t h e o r y i s f i r s t presented,  have  o f the  f o l l o w e d by a more d e t a i l e d  p r e s e n t a t i o n of each component of the theory, which i s embedded i n the context of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and the f a m i l y l i v i n g environment. Quotes from the study p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  who  are i d e n t i f i e d by pseudonyms, i l l u s t r a t e a s p e c t s of the theory, note v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n the theory, and the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and concerns  communicate  i n t h e i r own  P a r t i c i p a n t quotes i n the t e x t are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by q u o t a t i o n marks or indented. The concepts  double  and p r o c e s s e s  the a n a l y s i s of i n t e r v i e w data are f i r s t presented  words.  from  i n double  q u o t a t i o n marks and then simply i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t e x t . S i m i l a r t o the p r a c t i c e s of other grounded theory r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., R i c h i e , F a s s i n g e r , Linn, Johnson, P r o s s e r , & Robinson, 1997), d e s c r i p t o r s such as "the m a j o r i t y , " "most," or "many" of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s were u t i l i z e d to s i g n i f y the  response  thematic  of the sample (10 or more of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ) ;  "some," " s e v e r a l , " or "a number" designated responses 9 of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , a "few"  of 4 t o  s i g n i f i e s 3 or fewer  p a r t i c i p a n t s , and more s p e c i f i c wording i s used on o c c a s i o n (e.g., " a l l " ,  "one", a " c o u p l e " ) . For the sake of  simplicity  and c o n c i s e n e s s , the "female a d u l t c h i l d r e n " w i l l p r i m a r i l y  be  80 r e f e r r e d t o as "daughters"  from t h i s p o i n t onward. Although i t  i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t these p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e women, t h e term daughters (i.e.,  serves t o remind one o f t h e r e l a t i o n a l  context  t h e p a r e n t a l home) i n which the women a r e s i t u a t e d .  Regrouping a t t h e P a r e n t a l Home: A Grounded Theory o f Female A d u l t C h i l d r e n ' s Experiences o f Returning Home t o L i v e In t h i s theory, r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r daughters  t o "regroup  a t t h e p a r e n t a l home"  a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g / w o r k i n g abroad, and/or i n response t o p e r s o n a l s e t b a c k s / c r i s e s , and/or d e c i s i o n s t o change an aspect of  one's l i f e  (i.e.,  s a v i n g money, becoming  educated,  r e a p p r a i s i n g c a r e e r pathway, r e s o l v i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s u e s ) . Regrouping a t home i s intended t o be a r e e n e r g i z i n g and r e c u p e r a t i v e time i n which one contemplates  one's l i f e and  immediate p l a n s i n order t o get a f r e s h s t a r t i n some aspect of The of  one's l i f e and, u l t i m a t e l y , t o move out on one's own a g a i n . i n t e n t i o n i s t o pursue,  even a c c e l e r a t e , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  p e r s o n a l g o a l s and plans without having t h e o b s t a c l e o r  d i s t r a c t i o n o f having t o spend time, energy, and worry i n meeting b a s i c s u r v i v a l needs ( i . e . , housing,  f o o d ) . Regrouping  seems t o be a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e process t h a t i s t i e d to  i n d i v i d u a l and/or f a m i l i a l i s s u e s . As t h e core p r o c e s s and  i m p e r a t i v e , t h e focus o f daughters' encompass contemplating  regrouping e f f o r t s can  and pursuing c a r e e r - e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s ,  s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , and i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i n t e n t i o n i s t o enhance  81 one's p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and assure the l i k e l i h o o d o f having a q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e . Regrouping  a t the p a r e n t a l home i s embedded o r nested  w i t h i n t h e immediate context o f a daughter's  i n d i v i d u a l and  f a m i l y background, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , l i v i n g environment, and the i n t e r r e l a t e d but more p e r i p h e r a l context o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and f r i e n d s h i p s , and s o c i e t y ' s s o c i o c u l t u r a l  scripts  ( F i g u r e 1 ) . These c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , the nature o f t h e l i f e - e v e n t s t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d regrouping, and the daughters' a c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e the tone o r q u a l i t y o f r e g r o u p i n g a t home-i t s d u r a t i o n , l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y and emotional i n t e n s i t y , and complexity. Therefore, daughters'  l i f e - c o n t e x t mediates and  i n f l u e n c e s the regrouping process i n both f a c i l i t a t i v e and h i n d e r i n g ways. Daughters do not experience a simple,  uncomplicated  l i n e a r forward movement towards a t t a i n i n g g o a l s ; r a t h e r they e x p e r i e n c e an o s c i l l a t i n g p a t t e r n between " f a l t e r i n g " and "advancing"  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e a l i z e v a l u e d g o a l s . The  r e g r o u p i n g process may s h i f t from f a l t e r i n g t o advancing and from advancing  t o f a l t e r i n g as a r e s u l t o f p o s i t i v e and  n e g a t i v e t u r n i n g p o i n t s ( i . e . , c l a r i f y i n g one's p l a n , making a s o l i d d e c i s i o n , g e t t i n g a job, having a f i g h t w i t h a p a r e n t ) . The o s c i l l a t i o n back and f o r t h w i t h i n the r e g r o u p i n g  process  has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a f l u c t u a t i n g sense o f s e l f o r s e l f image. Advancing  with a t t a i n i n g p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and  g o a l s i s a s s o c i a t e d with moving forward and f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t ,  82  optimistic, regrouping  secure, and focused; whereas f a l t e r i n g i n t h e process  i s a s s o c i a t e d with not moving forward and  f e e l i n g f r u s t r a t i o n , anxiety, i n s e c u r i t y , and d e p r e s s i o n . The  i d e a l outcomes o f regrouping  i n c l u d e enhancing  p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g ( i . e . , becoming s t r o n g e r ) and enhancing the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n the f u t u r e by s t r i v i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , becoming educated, c l a r i f y i n g one's c a r e e r n i c h e , and  r e s o l v i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s u e s . I d e a l l y , when  one's p e r s o n a l g o a l s a r e w e l l underway o r a t t a i n e d , one l e a v e s the p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e independently.  Yet one may a l s o  d e c i d e t o c o n t i n u e t o regroup a t the p a r e n t a l home by s e t t i n g new p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o achieve a f t e r i n i t i a l g o a l s have been r e a l i z e d . In t h i s sense, the regrouping  process may be  c o n s i d e r e d c y c l i c a l because one i s beginning process anew with another  the regrouping  goal.  However, some daughters have negative e x p e r i e n c e s o f r e g r o u p i n g a t home because they s t r u g g l e with i n t e r n a l  (i.e.,  n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s ; a n x i e t y ; i n d e c i s i o n ) and e x t e r n a l o b s t a c l e s ( i . e . , p a r e n t a l c r i t i c i s m and l a c k o f emotional  support;  lack  of  money) t h a t exacerbate  f a l t e r i n g and make i t more d i f f i c u l t  to  a t t a i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l goals a t the pace they would l i k e t o ,  p o s s i b l y p r o l o n g i n g t h e i r s t a y a t the p a r e n t a l home. Moreover, daughters'  optimal regrouping  experience  may be  d i m i n i s h e d by t h e v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f c o m p r o m i s e s / s a c r i f i c e s and c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t may accompany r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o regroup.  Some o f these compromises may be a n t i c i p a t e d  83 i n advance by daughters,  and other compromises o r  c o m p l i c a t i o n s may a r i s e unexpectedly  while one i s l i v i n g a t  the p a r e n t a l home. The extent and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such compromises ( i . e . , g i v i n g up one's independence, freedom, p r i v a c y , a b i l i t y t o be o n e s e l f , s o c i a l l i f e and i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s , and p e r s e v e r i n g i n an unhealthy  f a m i l y ) , and t h e  e x t e n t t o which such compromises a r e c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e , t o l e r a b l e , temporary, and worthwhile w i l l a l s o determine whether l i v i n g a t home and regrouping a t home i s c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y or not. The amount and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the compromises made i n daughters'  everyday  l i v i n g contexts, r e l a t i v e t o one's  i d e a l i z e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l s , may culminate i n t h e degree to which t h e regrouping process and l i v i n g a t t h e p a r e n t a l home i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " p o s i t i v e " o r "negative" by daughters.  I f daughters  who make g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l  c o m p r o m i s e s / s a c r i f i c e s while a t home experience a h i g h degree of  faltering,  then they may experience a d i m i n i s h e d c a p a c i t y  t o enhance t h e i r p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and t h e i r q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e r e l a t i v e t o those who had more p o s i t i v e experiences.  In such a negative case, these daughters  l e a v e home because remaining  may  i s considered too detrimental t o  t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . However, some daughters  may remain i n t h i s  n e g a t i v e s i t u a t i o n as they may p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e r e a r e no other acceptable  alternatives.  84 Regrouping  a t the P a r e n t a l Home D e f i n e d  Although Webster's D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s r e g r o u p i n g as "becoming r e o r g a n i z e d i n order t o make a f r e s h s t a r t , "  female  a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s experiences e n r i c h and expand upon t h e meaning o f regrouping w i t h i n the s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . F o r these daughters,  "regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l  home" e n t a i l s r e c u p e r a t i n g , r e e n e r g i z i n g , contemplating, and p u r s u i n g one's l i f e p l a n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of  enhancing  personal well-being ( i . e . ,  becoming s t r o n g e r ) and  s e c u r i n g a q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , t h e i d e a l outcome o f Maria's regrouping e f f o r t s a r e , t h a t I am g e t t i n g stronger, and t h a t I can stand my ground w i t h whatever o r whomever e n t e r s my l i f e - and j u s t having t h a t c a p a b i l i t y o f h a n d l i n g i t . Being a b l e t o know t h a t a t home, o r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r a t work t h a t I can stand my ground and f e e l whole. I t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t "regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l home" a l s o i m p l i e s a d i s c r e t e time p e r i o d , d u r i n g which one i n t e n t i o n a l l y takes time f o r o n e s e l f t o g a t h e r one's energy  and t o take c a r e o f o n e s e l f , o f t e n i n response  c r i s i s / p e r s o n a l setback  (i.e.,  r e l a t i o n s h i p breakup,  unemployment) o r a t r a n s i t i o n a l time i n one's l i f e p o s t - t r a v e l l i n g / w o r k i n g abroad;  to a  (i.e.,  contemplating c a r e e r change)  t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d the r e t u r n home. F a r r a h v o l u n t e e r s t h a t she e x p e r i e n c e s r e t u r n i n g home as "a regrouping t i m e . . . l i k e  this  y e a r ' s going t o be f o r myself t o regroup and r a l l y t h e f o r c e s and c o n t i n u e on." In c o n t r a s t t o times o f o v e r s t i m u l a t i o n and s t r e s s i n her r e c e n t l i f e working i n Japan, she observes t h a t  85 one  needs t o enjoy a "down time" i n one's l i f e .  analogy, she  Using  an  elaborates:  My l i f e i s l i k e an opera, and r i g h t now i s the i n t e r m i s s i o n , and I know I'm j u s t working through s t u f f , j u s t g e t t i n g s t u f f p i l e d away and s o r t e d through, and then the next act w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g as w e l l . The one  i d e a l expectation  i s planning  personal  around regrouping  at home i s t h a t  a "temporary stay at home," o f t e n  g o a l s and plans are underway o r f u l l y r e a l i z e d .  Female a d u l t c h i l d r e n , and  t h e i r parents,  prefer to think  the r e t u r n home as a temporary s i t u a t i o n t h a t w i l l rectified  until  of  be  as soon as daughters are back on t h e i r f e e t .  C a r o l i n e observes: I t h i n k t h a t we a l l knew i t was temporary. And t h a t something- I went i n t o i t with the i d e a t h a t i t was temporary- they d i d too. I had i n my mind, the i d e a of something l i k e 5 to 6 months when I f i r s t moved back-- t h a t I wouldn't be able t o handle i t l o n g e r than t h a t . And now I've passed t h a t p o i n t , and I'm q u i t e happy t h e r e r i g h t now. And-- but I do see the end i n s i g h t , and I do t h i n k t h a t by the time I f i n i s h , h o p e f u l l y , by the time I f i n i s h s c h o o l next May, then I ' l l probably work a couple of months and save up enough to be able to move out, and I t h i n k t h a t ' s the a n t i c i p a t i o n - by next s p r i n g . While l i v i n g at home, regrouping the n a t u r e of one's l i f e p l a n s and i n t e n t i o n of enhancing personal  e n t a i l s contemplating  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  well-being  q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e . For i n s t a n c e ,  and  context, gathering  securing  a  to r e e s t a b l i s h  s o c i a l l y i n Canada. In  J e n n i f e r frames r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e as and  the  after travelling,  s e v e r a l daughters were i n t e n t on r e s o l v i n g how themselves p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and  was  a b u i l d i n g of a small p o r t i o n of my  this  "a k i n d life."  of  After  86 d i v o r c i n g an e m o t i o n a l l y abusive husband, and r e t u r n i n g home to  Wales f o r a year t o regroup,  Lorraine r e f l e c t e d :  I t allowed me t o t h i n k about what I wanted t o do; where I wanted t o go i n my l i f e , and how I wanted t o s t r u c t u r e my l i f e i n the f u t u r e - and whether I wanted t o have t h a t s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e someone e l s e or j u s t me. In  the d r i v e t o take care of o n e s e l f and one's f u t u r e ,  t h e r e i s a s t r o n g sense of d i r e c t i o n and movement i m p l i c i t r e g r o u p i n g . One  i s s t r i v i n g t o "move ahead" w i t h one's  attempting t o "get back on-track," or  "to get on the r i g h t  to  life-path,"  t o move i n "the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . " Maria, a c o l l e g e has been home f o r 4 months observes  c o u n s e l l o r , who  "there's a  need f o r a d i r e c t i o n , or e l s e you f a l t e r . . . t o get away from the i d e a of being stuck or r e g r e s s i n g - - l i k e t h e r e ' s a d i r e c t i o n and you're moving the r i g h t way."  She  further  elaborates: Regrouping i s i n t e r e s t i n g , i n terms of i t does p r o v i d e w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o regroup i n my own way and t o move ahead, uhm, and i t a l s o allows me a r e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h my mom t h a t d i d n ' t happen b e f o r e . And, uh, t o move ahead...so i t a l l k i n d o f l e a d s me, more i n terms of f i n d i n g a d i r e c t i o n of whatever path I take. Regrouping  me  i s experienced as a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and  p r i v a t e endeavour t h a t i s o f t e n engaged i n through q u i e t , s o l i t a r y i n t r o s p e c t i o n and contemplation. When they are to,  daughters'  ready  regrouping can a l s o be pursued " i n  c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . " L o r r a i n e notes t h a t r e g r o u p i n g w i t h o t h e r s i s h e l p f u l "because how t h i n g s i f no one  i s around t o ask?"  can you judge f o r c e r t a i n  87 At f i r s t  glance,  r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e may seem l i k e a  "step backwards," but upon c l o s e r examination, r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o regroup can be seen more as a s t r a t e g y "to  g e t ahead," "to s t a r t over,"  o r "to s t a r t f r e s h " i n some  aspect o f one's l i f e . Glenda o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s i g h t : Sometimes you've got t o back-up once i n a w h i l e and accept t h e f a c t t h a t you have t o put t h e gear i n r e v e r s e i n order t o move forward again; j u s t t o g e t y o u r s e l f out o f t h a t r u t . Regrouping's L i f e - S p a n Developmental O b j e c t i v e s Regrouping a t home e n t a i l s r e c u p e r a t i n g , r e e n e r g i z i n g , and contemplating  and pursuing one's l i f e p l a n s and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the i n t e n t i o n o f enhancing p e r s o n a l w e l l being and s e c u r i n g a q u a l i t y l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e . Such regrouping  p a r a l l e l s l i f e - s p a n developmental t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h young adulthood; pursuing  striving forfinancial security,  c a r e e r - e d u c a t i o n a l plans, and d e v e l o p i n g  sense o f s e l f by i n d i v i d u a t i n g from one's p a r e n t s . daughters' regrouping  a stronger Hence,  c o n s i s t s o f pursuing m u l t i p l e g o a l s t h a t  o v e r l a p and a r e i n t e r t w i n e d , although  a t p a r t i c u l a r times some  g o a l s may seem more s a l i e n t than o t h e r s . Striving for Financial Security All  daughters were s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n o r m a i n t a i n  f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i n a p e r c e i v e d context o f extended e d u c a t i o n a l needs, c o m p e t i t i v e housing  j o b markets, and expensive  markets. Although many female a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d  t h a t they had f i n a n c i a l reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home, t h e degree o f f e e l i n g f i n a n c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e v a r i e d . Some daughters  88 c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o be s t r u g g l i n g with poverty,  others  had good jobs and s a l a r i e s . Regardless o f the p e r c e p t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y , a l l r e p o r t e d t h a t being a b l e t o l i v e at  home r e n t - f r e e o r r e l a t i v e l y r e n t - f r e e was advantageous,  and enabled them t o focus on other g o a l s (such as p u r s u i n g an e d u c a t i o n ) without worry o r d i s t r a c t i o n . The v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l need i s important of  i n s e t t i n g the "tone" o f regrouping a t home as one  m i s e r a b l e dependence o r f i n a n c i a l freedom. Some female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have l e s s money and  r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . , being on welfare, having no income, having debts, p a r e n t s who a r e r e t i r e d and have l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s ) , have modest f i n a n c i a l g o a l s — s u b s i s t i n g a t home w h i l e attempting t o f i g u r e out and put t h e i r l i v e s back i n o r d e r . These daughters  a r e conscious o f being i n "a h o l d i n g p a t t e r n "  i n which i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o enhance one's w e l l - b e i n g and secure a q u a l i t y l i f e when one i s simply s t r i v i n g t o s u r v i v e . They r e p o r t t h a t they f e e l l i k e t h e i r l i f e i s "on-hold." daughters impact needing  These  were worried about money and preoccupied w i t h i t s  on t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g  ( i . e . , having s t r i c t  budgets,  t o borrow money from others f o r c o f f e e ) , as w e l l as  the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t i t had on t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( i . e . , o t h e r s ' l a c k o f empathy and understanding,  being viewed as a " l e e c h " t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ,  being unable t o r e c i p r o c a t e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) . The emotional tone o f f i n a n c i a l regrouping a t t h i s l e v e l i s t h a t o f  89 frustration, welfare  shame, and worry. Anne, who i s on d i s a b i l i t y  a t age 44, acknowledges that she f e e l s enormously  f r u s t r a t e d w i t h being  i n a p o s i t i o n o f dependence:  I t ' s h u m i l i a t i n g ! There's shame around i t ! There's g u i l t , and I j u s t t r y t o t h i n k how can I p o s s i b l y ever change i t ? But I couldn't make i t on the money I l i v e on because I don't want t o ask my f a m i l y f o r anymore money, r i g h t . In c o n t r a s t ,  s e v e r a l female a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have more  money and resources  (i.e.,  jobs; s a l a r i e s ,  savings,  working  p a r e n t s w i t h s a v i n g s ) can a c t u a l l y endeavour t o advance themselves i n l i f e by paying o f f student loans more q u i c k l y , being in  a b l e t o save f o r t u i t i o n s and purchase t h e i r own homes  the near f u t u r e . These daughters view themselves as  " g e t t i n g ahead" i n l i f e because they a r e a b l e t o a c c e l e r a t e the r e a l i z a t i o n o f valued  goals, with t h e i r  parents'  a s s i s t a n c e . The emotional tone o f f i n a n c i a l regrouping  at this  l e v e l i s one o f g r a t i t u d e , optimism, fewer w o r r i e s , and accomplishment. In speaking about the b e n e f i t s o f being a t home, C a r o l i n e observes: F i n a n c i a l l y , I had a l a r g e student loan, so t h a t was p a i d o f f , and I'm now paying t h a t back t o my f a t h e r . . . and t h a t ' s something t h a t would have been a b i g burden on me i f I had t h a t student l o a n and I was paying f o r r e n t and paying f o r u t i l i t i e s and a l l t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g . That would have been a r e a l l y l a r g e concern on my behalf t h a t I would have spent a l o t o f time t h i n k i n g about, but I don't have t h a t worry now because I'm here. Her  parents corroborate  t h a t : "We're g i v i n g her an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o get on w i t h her l i f e and t o pay o f f the l o a n r e a l Ultimately,  i t should  quick."  be acknowledged t h a t i m p l i c i t t o  90  most daughters'  regrouping a t home i s the n o t i o n t h a t p a r e n t s  are f i n a n c i a l l y a s s i s t i n g t h e i r daughters,  e n a b l i n g them t o  secure b e t t e r l i v e s . As daughters  they g e n e r a l l y a r e  regroup,  the r e c i p i e n t s o f a i d i n the p a r e n t a l home--often l i v i n g a t home r e n t - f r e e o r a t a reduced  r e n t , and having  immediate  a c c e s s t o p a r e n t a l resources ( i . e . , house, c a r , computer, food, l a u n d r y ) . There seems t o be a p e r c e p t i o n amongst both p a r e n t s and daughters  t h a t parents a r e f u l f i l l i n g a r o l e t o  p r o v i d e , w i t h i n reason, whatever they can t o h e l p t h e i r daughters.  T h i s seems t o be a normative  d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e o f most daughters'  e x p e c t a t i o n and a  regrouping a t home--that  they a r e p e r c e i v e d t o have needs t h a t should be tended t o , r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r parents, and t h a t they " m a t e r i a l l y " be taken c a r e o f . In c o n t r a s t , a few daughters  suggest t h a t moving back  i n t o p a r e n t s ' homes t o take c a r e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ' needs ( i . e . , h o u s e s i t t i n g , h e a l t h c a r e ) i s not c o n s i d e r e d r e g r o u p i n g . Moreover, i n one case ( i . e . , Barbara), the parents moving i n t o the daughter's  home t o c o r e s i d e because they needed  financial  a s s i s t a n c e i s a l s o not c o n s i d e r e d regrouping from t h e daughter's  p e r s p e c t i v e . These exceptions i l l u s t r a t e how t h e  m a j o r i t y o f daughters  c o n s i d e r regrouping t o be a s e l f - c a r e  s t r a t e g y i n which t h e i r immediate f i n a n c i a l needs, among o t h e r s , a r e met. Pursuing C a r e e r - E d u c a t i o n a l Plans In t h e d e s i r e t o promote p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and a q u a l i t y l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e , many female a d u l t c h i l d r e n were  91 a l s o i n t e n t on contemplating  the nature o f t h e i r c a r e e r -  e d u c a t i o n a l pathways while they r e s i d e d a t home. Most daughters  a l r e a d y had post-secondary  education, had t r a v e l l e d ,  and were e i t h e r working p a r t - t i m e o r f u l l - t i m e i n j o b s o r p u r s u i n g graduate degrees. Some planned t o go back t o u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e i n t h e i r immediate f u t u r e s . These daughters  were i n t e n t on shaping t h e i r c a r e e r pathways and  p u r s u i n g them i n t h e q u i c k e s t manner p o s s i b l e . Some  daughters  were v e r y focused and p l a n f u l i n t h i s endeavour, and had the a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n and support o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . Indeed, many p a r e n t s hope t o be i n c l u d e d and i n v o l v e d , t o some e x t e n t , i n t h e i r daughters'  c a r e e r regrouping. G e n e r a l l y , they f e e l an  o b l i g a t i o n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l l y "launch" t h e i r daughters world, and t o be s u p p o r t i v e and p r o v i d e guidance.  i n t o the  Barbara's  dad i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s sense o f p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n : We have t o be here f o r her-- t o r e l e a s e h e r t o g e t on w i t h her s t u d i e s and f o r her t o g e t her n u r s i n g degree. J u s t when she gets her n u r s i n g degree h o p e f u l l y then she can carve a decent c a r e e r f o r h e r s e l f . And we're doing our b i t t o h e l p her do t h a t . So we f e e l o b l i g e d t o do t h a t . R e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e t o make a "change" i n one's c a r e e r pathway, and t o i n v e s t more time and e f f o r t i n t o one's f u t u r e . Indeed, C a r o l i n e , who had l e f t her p a r t n e r o f 5 years i n H a l i f a x , r e t u r n e d home t o f o l l o w her own c a r e e r pathway a f t e r  having  d e f e r r e d h e r own c a r e e r p l a n s i n favour o f s u p p o r t i n g h e r former p a r t n e r ' s c a r e e r i n i t i a t i v e s : I t h i n k another s o r t o f impetus t o r e t u r n back home was  92 t h a t I had been i n t h a t job f o r about a year and a h a l f o r two years, and I got to the p o i n t where t h e r e was not a l o t more I c o u l d l e a r n from i t and i t was time f o r a change t h e r e as w e l l . With r e g a r d to C a r o l i n e ' s c a r e e r regrouping, observes  her mother  t h a t she and her husband are aware of  their  daughter's c a r e e r g o a l s and t h a t they i n t e n d t o be as as p o s s i b l e . She  helpful  states that:  She has a c a r e e r path i n mind and we want t o h e l p her achieve her goals, and she's a v e r y g o a l o r i e n t e d person and now t h a t she's f i g u r e d out what she wants t o do, we want to help her do t h a t . We're a b l e t o h e l p her f i n a n c i a l l y . As a parent  she takes great p r i d e i n w i t n e s s i n g C a r o l i n e ' s  e f f o r t s i n g e t t i n g her l i f e and c a r e e r r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n Vancouver: I t ' s been i n t e r e s t i n g s e e i n g C a r o l i n e , l i v i n g w i t h C a r o l i n e as an a d u l t , and we were very w o r r i e d about her moving back and we were worried about resentment... and you know, i t hasn't been t h e r e . And j u s t how she's handled e v e r y t h i n g , you know, I j u s t r e a l l y respected her. Uhm, she's j u s t v e r y v e r y s t r o n g , and we've n o t i c e d t h a t l i v i n g w i t h her. Uhm, and j u s t watching her r e e s t a b l i s h her l i f e and t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a c a r e e r and a l s o t h i n k i n g i n terms of going back to s c h o o l . Some daughters s t r u g g l e with c o n f u s i o n and how  i n d e c i s i o n on  t o best shape t h e i r c a r e e r pathways. When done from the  s e c u r i t y of the p a r e n t a l home-base, daughters take s o l a c e i n the f a c t t h a t the d e c i s i o n making process can be more thorough and c o n s i d e r e d . T h e i r process i s not rushed by the to  make any c h o i c e and  pay with  pressures  " s e t t l e " i n order t o make a l i v i n g  f o r r e n t , food, and u t i l i t i e s . " g e t t i n g organized" and  J e n n i f e r , who  to  i s struggling  "getting i t together"  after  93  t r a v e l l i n g and w r i t i n g i n Europe, speaks about t h e d i f f i c u l t process  o f r e s o l v i n g what c a r e e r ( w r i t i n g v s . cooking) t o  s e t t l e on. She i s s t r i v i n g t o make t h e " r i g h t c h o i c e s "  rather  than "urgent  Being  c h o i c e s , " while  " s t a y i n g t r u e t o myself."  at home a l l o w s her "to s t a y i n t h a t p l a c e o f u n c e r t a i n t y l o n g enough t o f e e l those t h i n g s out"-- without o l d j o b a t a telephone  running  back t o h e r  company, which would be t h e " e a s i e s t  way t h a t I c o u l d l i v e on my own again." Rather than r e t u r n i n g t o an u n s a t i s f y i n g job, she chose t o s a c r i f i c e h e r independence t e m p o r a r i l y , and returned home t o contemplate how t o pursue a more s a t i s f a c t o r y c a r e e r pathway. S e v e r a l other daughters, who have worked f o r a t l e a s t a decade i n s o l v e n t but u n s a t i s f a c t o r y occupations, seeking  t o make an i n t e n t i o n a l change i n t h e i r  speak o f  career  pathways. T h i s seems t o be a time o f r e e v a l u a t i o n / r e a p p r a i s a l . Being  a t home allows one t o take  r e s e a r c h , take courses, activities  "time out" t o r e c o n s i d e r ,  experiment with d i f f e r e n t j o b - r e l a t e d  (e.g., v o l u n t e e r i n g ) and network with o t h e r s i n  occupational  f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t — w i t h o u t apprehension o f going  i n t o debt. Although, they a r e o f t e n c a u t i o u s i n s e t t l i n g on a new d i r e c t i o n , because they p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i n i t i a l pathway was i n c o r r e c t o r were " f a l s e s t a r t s , " they pressure  career  also  themselves t o make the d e c i s i o n t o embark onto a new  c a r e e r pathway. Not making the d e c i s i o n prolongs  one's  c o n f u s i o n and i n d e c i s i o n , and one may remain i n a c u r r e n t u n s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r by d e f a u l t . Kathleen  emphasizes t h a t ,  94  a l t h o u g h being a t home has allowed her the s e c u r i t y t o e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e e r pathways, t h i s i s a s t r e s s f u l endeavour: I t ' s a s a f e t y net where i t g i v e s me the o p t i o n s t o look i n t o s t u f f t h a t I wouldn't have been a b l e t o do. L i k e l a s t summer I took t h r e e months o f f , because the r e n t was so low...I t a l k e d t o people who had j o b s t h a t I l i k e d , and I d i d some r e s e a r c h f o r a f r i e n d who was w r i t i n g a movie. I j u s t - - i f I d i d n ' t do one t h i n g each day then I got r e a l l y s t r e s s e d . So i t was a r e - e v a l u a t i o n time and then I ended up back at my job, which was a l s o k i n d o f hard, cause what am I doing back here? But, t h a t was my time t o r e f i g u r e out what I was going t o do next. And o b v i o u s l y I s t i l l haven't q u i t e f i g u r e d i t out, but sometimes I t h i n k I push i t a l i t t l e b i t t o o much-l i k e "I've got t o decide! I've got t o d e c i d e ! And then you end up f e e l i n g f r a n t i c and you don't end up n e c e s s a r i l y making a d e c i s i o n , o r l e t t i n g i t come naturally. R e l a t i o n a l - I n d i v i d u a t i o n with In r e g r o u p i n g a t home, some daughters  Parents were contemplating  how t o enhance t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g and sense o f s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o the p a r e n t - c h i l d bond. By attempting t o r e s o l v e o r a c h i e v e some c l o s u r e o r understanding o f unresolved i s s u e s i n t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , these daughters  b e l i e v e t h a t they  can s t r e n g t h e n who they a r e as unique persons, d i f f e r e n t and y e t s i m i l a r t o t h e i r parents. Daughters a r e anxious t o r e s o l v e p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s u e s t h a t they p e r c e i v e as being " b l o c k s " t o moving forward, b l o c k s t o "developing i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s " w i t h o t h e r s , and b l o c k s t o "becoming-closer  with  their  p a r e n t s . " Maria, who grew up i n a f a m i l y fragmented by her deceased  f a t h e r ' s a l c o h o l i s m , observes:  I f e e l l i k e now would be a good time t o a i r i t out, and t o f i g u r e out my r o l e i n the past and t h e dynamics, because i t was r e a l l y c o n f u s i n g f o r me, i n a household l i k e t h i s . So i t ' s r e a l l y h e a l i n g , I  95  t h i n k , i n a l o t o f ways. I'm j u s t t r y i n g t o s o r t out the c o n f u s i o n . R e t u r n i n g home t o i n d i v i d u a t e may seem c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e , but t h e r e a s o n i n g i s t h a t i n r e t u r n i n g home t o i n d i v i d u a t e from p a r e n t s , one can preserve a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p a r e n t s , w h i l e e n a b l i n g one t o become a s t r o n g e r and more a s s e r t i v e person.  In response  t o her f r i e n d s ' s c e p t i c i s m o f  the wisdom o f " r e t u r n i n g home t o separate", E l a i n e e x p l a i n s : Well none o f my f r i e n d s r e a l l y - - w e l l t h e r e were a few who s a i d , "I don't know. Should you r e a l l y be doing this? Cause they knew, they knew, I was t r y i n g t o b a s i c a l l y separate myself from my p a r e n t s - - i t ' s t h e word we used. They were l i k e , i s t h i s a good t h i n g f o r you t o be doing i f you're t r y i n g t o separate? I thought, w e l l I knew i t c o u l d go e i t h e r way, but I thought t h a t probably i t was a good t h i n g . I t would p r o b a b l y enable me t o separate with t h e i r a p p r o v a l i n a sense, which was important t o me. I want t h e i r a p p r o v a l . I r e s p e c t them. They're good. T h i s i s t r i c k y business, s i n c e daughters  are s t r i v i n g to  r e s o l v e s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s t h a t a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d taboo o r conflictual,  and t h e r e f o r e not v o l u n t a r i l y open f o r d i s c u s s i o n  w i t h p a r e n t s . In order t o preserve p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s and reduce c o n f l i c t ,  some daughters  spoke o f attempting t o r e s o l v e  i s s u e s on t h e i r own r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y with p a r e n t s . T h e i r i n t e n t i o n s go underground, and they note t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r parents know what they a r e doing o r even have any i d e a how important  i t i s t o them.  In c o n t r a s t , a few others ( E l a i n e , Deborah, Glenda) spoke of t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e s o l v i n g i s s u e s d i r e c t l y w i t h p a r e n t s , through c o n f r o n t a t i o n o r argument, s i n c e " s i l e n c i n g s e l f " and "seeking a p p r o v a l " i n the past were the core p e r c e i v e d  96 problems t o be overcome i n order t o become a s t r o n g e r person. Indeed, Deborah's parents are aware t h a t Deborah wanted t o r e s o l v e some c h i l d h o o d i s s u e s around f e e l i n g abandoned when her younger s i s t e r b a t t l e d cancer as a t o d d l e r . Due  t o the  e a r l y c h i l d h o o d experience, Deborah notes t h a t she had worked e x t r a hard at being a good daughter  always  i n order to please  her parents and ensure t h a t they would approve of her.  She  wants t o l e t go of t h i s . Her mother acknowledges t h a t they have attempted  t o r e d r e s s t h i s i s s u e with t h e i r daughter,  but  a s s e r t s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y i t i s up t o her: P a r t of coming back was t o reconnect, t o be r e a s s u r e d and t o get r i d of t h i s f e e l i n g of abandonment--she was so angry. We hadn't suspected the degree t o which the c h i l d h o o d experience impacted her. We haven't asked her i f she's r e s o l v e d t h i s i s s u e , but we can't wind the c l o c k back. She has t o r e s o l v e i t i n her own mind. The C y c l i c a l and Dynamic Regrouping  Process  I d e a l l y , regrouping at home would e n t a i l a s t r a i g h t forward p r o g r e s s i o n i n c l a r i f y i n g and a t t a i n i n g one's p e r s o n a l g o a l s , thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g the attainment of p e r s o n a l w e l l b e i n g and a q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e . However, the a c t u a l r e g r o u p i n g process i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by stops and  starts,  and  "going back and f o r t h " between g e t t i n g somewhere and g o i n g  no  where t h a t were i n f l u e n c e d by female a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s l i f e c o n t e x t and a c t i o n s . Maria observed  t h a t her r e g r o u p i n g was  a  dichotomous process t h a t i s "easy sometimes" and a t o t h e r times she's " s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t the stream."  She  indicates  t h a t she i s " l e a r n i n g t o be okay with going back and  forth  and  97  t r y i n g t o t r u s t t h a t t h i n g s w i l l be okay." She summarizes h e r regrouping  experience:  Oh sometimes i t ' s wonderful and I g e t t o have g r e a t c o n v e r s a t i o n s ( i . e . , i n t e r v i e w ) , and sometimes i t ' s a headache and I wish t h a t i t would a l l go away. Uhm, i t ' s t i r i n g . I t ' s exhausting. And y e t i t ' s a b i r t h experience. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , she notes t h a t t h i n g s have not been so d i f f i c u l t r e c e n t l y , such t h a t she tends t o search f o r something t o s t r u g g l e with--a new c h a l l e n g e i s sought out, so the back and f o r t h c y c l e s t a r t s anew. Moreover, daughters simultaneously  (i.e.,  may be regrouping a t d i f f e r e n t  levels  financial, occupational/educational,  r e l a t i o n a l , e m o t i o n a l / p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) . Although  t h e r e may be an  o v e r a l l f e l t sense t h a t "I'm doing okay" o r t h a t "I'm not doing okay," upon c l o s e r examination,  one can a s c e r t a i n t h a t  i n some areas one may be e x p e r i e n c i n g progress, whereas i n o t h e r areas one may be f a l t e r i n g . T h i s i s a complex dynamic t h a t e v o l v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s and a c t i o n s i n daughters'  l i f e c o n t e x t s . Moreover, the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f  r e g r o u p i n g i n t e r a c t , such t h a t a setback  i n one area can have  a r i p p l e e f f e c t i n other areas o f one's o v e r a l l  regrouping  p r o c e s s . Irene's experience i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s dynamic.  Irene  a n t i c i p a t e d being a t home o n l y 6 months t o f i n i s h her Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , and 3 years l a t e r she remains a t home a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e completion o f her degree. While l i v i n g a t home w i t h h e r East Indian parents, she notes t h a t she has " s a c r i f i c e d parts of herself"  ( i . e . , her c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s ,  98 her fun or t r i v i a l s i d e , her l o v e of d e c o r a t i n g her space) t h a t she v a l u e s i n order t o "please her p a r e n t s " and  ease  c o r e s i d i n g . Although  enjoys  she i s pursuing her degree,  and  f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y at home her s a c r i f i c e s seem t o have impeded her p r o g r e s s and her d e s i r e "to become a more s o l i d  person."  She e x p e r i e n c e s her s t r u g g l e t o enhance her w e l l - b e i n g as " a l t e r n a t i n g between s t a g n a t i o n and being i n a r u t t o p e r i o d s of  growth and examination."  There i s not a u n i f i e d sense of  growth i n a l l areas of her l i f e , growing and another p a r t may  such t h a t "one p a r t may  be  f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a r u t or  stagnant. So i t ' s hard t o separate the threads sometimes." emotional for  life  Her  and i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s have a l s o been f o r s a k e n  the moment: I t h i n k one of the reasons I'm f a i r l y g r a t e f u l f o r having some time now without r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t h a t time t o r e d e f i n e f o r myself what i s important--uhm, I know t h a t I f e e l very shaky about my own judgement i n my l a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , and so I need a l o t of time t o ask myself what i s i t t h a t I want? And who am I? Because u n l e s s I'm a s o l i d person and know, I c a n ' t expect a p a r t n e r or p a r t n e r s h i p t h a t ' s a s o l i d one. So, uhm, I'm t r y i n g t o ask myself these q u e s t i o n s . Consequently,  i t seems t h a t regrouping a t home may  not  be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a simple or s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d process because many daughters  do not experience completely  satisfying  e x p e r i e n c e s and r e s u l t s i n a l l areas of t h e i r l i v e s ;  rather a  mixture of highs and lows seems more apt. The c u l m i n a t i o n of highs or lows may  l e n d i t s e l f t o an experience t h a t i s  c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y p o s i t i v e or negative by  daughters.  99 The Subprocesses  o f F a l t e r i n g and Advancing  More d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n i s now g i v e n t o t h e subprocesses of " f a l t e r i n g " and "advancing,"  i n r e l a t i o n to the core  p r o c e s s o f regrouping a t the p a r e n t a l home. These concepts a r e h e l p f u l i n understanding daughters'  and e x p l a i n i n g what d i s t i n g u i s h e s  p o s i t i v e and negative experiences w h i l e r e g r o u p i n g  a t home. Daughters' v e r s u s advancing  p e r c e p t i o n o f themselves  as f a l t e r i n g  i n the regrouping process stems from  i n t e r n a l a p p r a i s a l s o f themselves--of  their  how they a r e d o i n g i n  the r e g r o u p i n g process. They engage i n an i n t u i t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e i r regrouping process and determine whether they a r e f a l t e r i n g o r advancing  through attunement t o  t h e i r i n n e r emotional s t a t e s , and a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r s u b j e c t i v e l y defined "signs" of progress/lack of progress, a c t i o n / i n a c t i o n , and planning/worrying. Regarding  the l a t t e r ,  a t t e n t i o n t o more observable b e h a v i o r a l cues l i k e " w a v e r i n g / w a f f l i n g " versus "making key d e c i s i o n s , " "not doing much and f e e l i n g bored with a r o u t i n e - r u t " versus  "being  s t i m u l a t e d w i t h v a r i e d and i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , " and "being r e c l u s i v e " v e r s u s "being s o c i a l l y a c t i v e " a r e a l s o of f a l t e r i n g versus  indicative  advancing.  Faltering Regrouping  a t t h e p a r e n t a l home e n t a i l s r e c u p e r a t i n g ,  r e e n e r g i z i n g , and contemplating and pursuing one's l i f e p l a n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the i n t e n t i o n o f enhancing  personal  w e l l - b e i n g and s e c u r i n g a q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e .  To  100 " f a l t e r " w h i l e regrouping i s t o h e s i t a t e , waver, o r f a i l i n a c t i o n , i n t e n t , o r perseverance. The m a j o r i t y o f daughters c o n s i d e r themselves  t o be f a l t e r i n g a t one time o r another  w h i l e l i v i n g a t home, e x p e r i e n c i n g themselves  as " f e e l i n g  l o s t " and "not knowing where I'm going." J e n n i f e r d e s c r i b e s her r e g r o u p i n g process o f p i c k i n g up and g a t h e r i n g the d i f f e r e n t threads o f her l i f e  i n order t o become  s t r o n g e r / i n t e g r a t e d , and o f f e r s how she p e r c e i v e s h e r s e l f t o be f a l t e r i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s : I guess the d i f f e r e n t threads I'm f o l l o w i n g i s Spanish, language, p o s s i b l y cooking, my w r i t i n g , and I guess some s o r t o f church a f f i l i a t i o n o r something... I've gone t o d i f f e r e n t churches a few times but n o t h i n g s f e l t r i g h t . . a n d I guess s o r t o f the i n n e r s p i r i t u a l i t y t h a t I haven't got a g r i p on...and uh, f r i e n d s h i p s . . . and uhm (pause) and a r e l a t i o n s h i p would be n i c e . I t f e e l s overwhelming a t times because I don't know where I'm going- t h a t ' s t h e t h i n g . I f e e l l i k e I'm doing a whole bunch o f l i t t l e b i t t y t h i n g s but not r e a l l y (mumbling much s o f t e r ) . . . A n d sometimes I f e e l r e a l l y c e r t a i n about t h i n g s , and t h e n . . . ( d r i f t s o f f , s i l e n t ) . L i k e J e n n i f e r , when movement o r attempts d e s i r e d g o a l s i s unsteady  then daughters  r e g r o u p i n g e f f o r t s . Daughters' s e e i n g themselves the stream,"  t o move towards  "stumble"  i n their  metaphors o f f a l t e r i n g i n c l u d e  as "going i n c i r c l e s , "  "struggling against  " s i t t i n g and s p i n n i n g , " o r maneuvering through an  " o b s t a c l e course" where t h e r e a r e many "stumbling b l o c k s t o overcome." F a l t e r i n g can be exacerbated by a l a c k o f p a r e n t a l support and understanding. L o r r a i n e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i n her s u b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f h e r s e l f by s e e i n g h e r s e l f as f a l t e r i n g  101 at o c c u p a t i o n a l regrouping: I don't t h i n k I was doing a good job of i t ( s i c : r e g r o u p i n g ) . Uhm, every time I turned around t o do something t h a t was d i f f e r e n t , uhm, I stumbled. I seemed t o s o r t of be t u r n i n g around i n c i r c l e s and, uhm, I would apply t o jobs t h a t I knew I was q u a l i f i e d f o r , or apply f o r jobs hoping t h a t someone would n o t i c e my q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , uhm, I had e x p e r i e n c e i n o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . E v e n t u a l l y my dad turned around t o me and s a i d , "You know, you r e a l l y should s t i c k t o t y p i n g " , (laughs) Oh no! What i s t h i s ! (laughs) And I s a i d , "I've got a l l these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s " . He j u s t s a i d , "You're l y i n g . " In f a l t e r i n g , daughters  f e l t t h a t they were not moving  forward, or accomplishing t h e i r g o a l s . Oneida says t h i n g s seem to be  " s t a t i c , " and Nancy i n d i c a t e s t h a t "I'm  not going  anywhere." Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  daughters  may  of f r u s t r a t i o n , s e l f - d o u b t ,  be s i g n a l l e d  by f e e l i n g s  convey t h a t f a l t e r i n g  d e p r e s s i o n , and a n x i e t y . Maria a l l u d e s t o "the a n x i e t y o f not knowing" how  t h i n g s w i l l t u r n out and  " f e e l i n g l o s t . " Nancy  mentions t h a t she knows she i s f a l t e r i n g by her  "internal  s t r e s s l e v e l s . " A l s o a s s o c i a t e d with f a l t e r i n g i s the e x p e r i e n c e of f e e l i n g alone or i s o l a t e d ,  compounded by  p e r c e p t i o n t h a t many others cannot understand going  the  what one i s  through. Relevant t o t h i s , the daughters  c r i s i s or setback may  who  are r e c o v e r i n g from a  most s t r o n g l y experience f a l t e r i n g i n  t h e i r r e g r o u p i n g because they seem t o f e e l "overwhelmed" w i t h the enormity of " s t a r t i n g over" or " r e b u i l d i n g a p o r t i o n o f one's l i f e " - - p a r a l y s i n g them from immediately  making d e c i s i o n s  or t a k i n g a c t i o n s t h a t w i l l change t h e i r l i v e s . Such n e g a t i v e emotions a l s o s i g n a l  the dissonance  between  102 what one i s c u r r e n t l y doing and where one i s i n l i f e  with  where one would l i k e t o be. T h i s dissonance i s exacerbated one's age;  the o l d e r one i s , the more l i k e l y t h a t one i s  unhappy about one's s i t u a t i o n  i n l i f e and t o be n e g a t i v e l y  comparing o n e s e l f t o peers who  seem t o be moving forward w i t h  l i f e by s e c u r i n g good jobs, f i n d i n g even h a v i n g  by  homes and p a r t n e r s , and  children.  Embedded w i t h i n the f a l t e r i n g experience, i s an existential  angst concerning the l a r g e r meaning of h a r d s h i p or  s t r u g g l e i n one's l i f e . Nancy wonders, Why can't i t be easy? I wonder what i s i t i n me. I t ' s l i k e I p o i n t my f i n g e r at having a c a r e e r . But I t h i n k t h a t i f I were happy and i f I were s e t t l e d i n myself then I wouldn't be having t h i s s t r u g g l e . So I wonder what i t i s i n me. L i k e why I am the way I am. In response t o t h i s , some daughters become more s p i r i t u a l and take a l e a p of f a i t h t h a t e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be okay, and  that  one i s meant t o go through t h i s hardship or s t r u g g l e f o r some unknown but meaningful  reason. In c o n t r a s t , a few noted  that  t h e i r s p i r i t u a l i t y was  "reduced" or " c o n f i n e d / c o n t a i n e d " when  they were a t home, and a few o t h e r s eschewed s p i r i t u a l i t y - - t h e e x p e r i e n c e of f a l t e r i n g having c h a l l e n g e d / t e s t e d t h e i r  faith.  When one's s p i r i t u a l i t y or sense of hopefulness i s d i m i n i s h e d , an i n e r t i a or apathy can a r i s e , impetus t o do t h i n g s t h a t one knows how good f o r o n e s e l f . One momentarily  stealing  away the  t o do and knows are  seems t o be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a p a b l e y e t  i n c a p a b l e o f h e l p i n g o n e s e l f . J e n n i f e r , who  l i k e she i s " f a l l i n g a p a r t " and  "fragmented,"  tearfully  feels  103 explains: I spend a l o t o f time alone, (pause) Yeah. I t ' s been p r i m a r i l y s o l i t a r y . And I haven't used t h e d e v i c e s t h a t I "quote-unquote" should have f a l l e n back o n l i k e my j o u r n a l l i n g , f o r example, o r prayer, f o r example--which I sometimes used t o do when I was away--or even m e d i t a t i o n . I haven't used a n y t h i n g - I've j u s t been k i n d o f l i k e f l y i n g b l i n d . Advancing In c o n t r a s t t o f a l t e r i n g ' s q u a l i t y o f moving a g a i n s t t h e stream  and s t r u g g l i n g with o b s t a c l e s , advancing i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sense o f "going with t h e flow" and having o b s t a c l e s and stumbling b l o c k s removed from one's pathway. Daughters'  p e r c e i v e themselves  c l a r i t y o f purpose,  t o be advancing when they have  thereby e n a b l i n g them t o move more s w i f t l y  and d i r e c t l y i n a t t a i n i n g valued regrouping o b j e c t i v e s . As C a r o l i n e says,  "the end i s i n s i g h t . " There i s a d e f i n i t e  sense t h a t one i s moving/going forward w i t h one's l i f e and plans. Advancing  i s manifested by i n t e n t i o n a l , v o l i t i o n a l , and  p u r p o s e f u l a c t i o n s t h a t a r e designed t o get t h i n g s done, and t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e attainment o f one's g o a l s . Q u i t e simply, one knows what one wants and i s a c t i v e l y p u r s u i n g i t .  Daughters  a l s o d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n " s i g n s " t h a t a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f an a p p r a i s a l o f o n e s e l f as advancing. With regard t o Nancy's t a s k of contemplating her impending e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s and what h e r u l t i m a t e c a r e e r n i c h e w i l l be, she e l a b o r a t e s t h a t , "I don't know i f p r o c e s s i n g i t i n your mind a c t u a l l y  equates  movement...but I maybe s t a r t e d moving i n t h e sense t h a t I've  104 started  the Masters."  recognition  t h a t one  behaviours t h a t may both p o s i t i v e and "Trying rather  new  Advancing may  s i g n a l l e d by  be considered "experimental" but  they  necessary i n order f o r changes t o  things"  the  i s engaged i n novel behaviours, t h a t i s ,  or  " t r y i n g new  than being a p a t h e t i c ,  r e l y i n g on  a l s o be  standard but  i d e a s and  are  occur.  approaches"  s e t t l i n g f o r the  status  ineffective strategies  can  quo,  or  be  empowering. The  p e r c e p t i o n of o n e s e l f as  "advancing" towards  attainment of one's g o a l s i s a l s o s i g n a l l e d by optimism, hopefulness about the  future,  s e l f - e f f i c a c y . P o s i t i v e emotional s t a t e s contentment, and "doing the i n work and  the  feelings  of  accomplishment,  and  of s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  enjoyment are c o n s i d e r e d r e f l e c t i o n s o f  r i g h t t h i n g s f o r o n e s e l f " or relationships.  The  one  " f i n d i n g one's n i c h e "  positive feelings  are  c o n s i d e r e d a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the congruence between where wants t o be  (i.e.,  one's c u r r e n t l y  going i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n )  d o i n g — t h e r e i s a sense of  and  one  what  "Tightness" that  affirming. The  Tra i e c t o r y  E n t r y i n t o the p a r e n t a l home i s p r e c i p i t a t e d by a range of l i f e - e v e n t s or l i f e - t r a n s i t i o n s that setback/loss/crisis divorce,  include  personal  ( i . e . , h e a l t h / d i s a b i l i t y , unemployment,  r e l a t i o n s h i p breakup, geographic r e l o c a t i o n ) ,  personal decision  to change an aspect of one's l i f e  a  (i.e.,  pursue a degree, change c a r e e r , save money/payoff debts,  is  105 s e t t l e u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s with p a r e n t s ) , and/or a need f o r an i n e x p e n s i v e and convenient "home-base" a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g and working clincher  abroad w h i l e one gets r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . O f t e n t h e i n the d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n home i s the e x t e n s i o n o f a  " p a r e n t a l i n v i t a t i o n , " thereby r e a s s u r i n g daughters  that  p a r e n t s do not mind a s s i s t i n g them when they a r e i n p o s i t i o n s of r e l a t i v e  vulnerability.  The r e g r o u p i n g t r a j e c t o r y , first  which s t a r t s when a daughter  moves home, ends when a daughter  l e a v e s the p a r e n t a l  home t o s t a r t l i f e on her own again ( F i g u r e 1 ) . Many engage i n i n t r o s p e c t i o n and withdraw i n t o themselves. c o n s i d e r t h i s a time-out f o r themselves contemplate  daughters They  t o cocoon and  t h e i r f u t u r e . T h i s may be experienced by some as  overwhelming but necessary. Many daughters may not f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y happy a t t h i s p o i n t i n the r e g r o u p i n g p r o c e s s , and i t i s here t h a t many daughters' may f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e faltering, energy,  as they attempt  t o " r a l l y " t h e i r s p i r i t s and  and adapt t o l i f e a t home while contemplating what t o  do next and how t o do i t . Maria, who has been home f o r 4 months observes: I t h i n k t h a t when I f i r s t moved back, i t was d e f i n i t e l y a f a l t e r i n g , crazy-making i n some s e n s e s - - f e e l i n g l i k e I needed t o have a date when I was moving out--and a l l t h e r e s t o f i t . Now, f o r whatever reason, i t f e e l s a l o t l e s s urgent. I t h i n k t h a t i n some ways i t j u s t f e e l s okay r i g h t now. C a r o l i n e r e f l e c t s on how her experience and emotional  state  has fundamentally s h i f t e d over time s i n c e r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup. I n i t i a l l y she c h a r a c t e r i z e d her r e g r o u p i n g e x p e r i e n c e  106 as q u i t e n e g a t i v e , much d i f f e r e n t than her c u r r e n t s t a t e of s a t i s f a c t i o n as she makes s t r i d e s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , r e l a t i o n a l l y w i t h her parents and a new observes how  and  b o y f r i e n d . She  the t i m i n g of our i n t e r v i e w i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n  c a p t u r i n g a s l i c e of her o v e r a l l regrouping  experience:  L i k e , f o r example, i f you had spoke t o me i n J u l y , I v e r y unhappy about where I was i n my l i f e a t t h a t p o i n t i n time. I was dreading going t o work each day, because I had done t h a t job and I knew i t i n s i d e out and I was miserable. I t wasn't a c h a l l e n g e a t a l l . I was not happy--well I appeared to be content t o everyone around me, and I'd say t o o t h e r s "I'm f i n e " ( f a l s e t t o , h i g h cheery v o i c e ) . But you know, t h a t was my outward. Inwardly, I was v e r y unhappy w i t h the space I was i n . So I t h i n k i t would have been a very d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v i e w and I p r o b a b l y would have s t i l l had r e a l l y a l o t of f r u s t r a t i o n about t h a t and t h a t would have come across. So what accounts  f o r change i n the regrouping  was  experience  over time? A s i d e from the l i f e - c o n t e x t and r e l a t i o n s t h a t daughters  are embedded i n , " t u r n i n g p o i n t s " i n daughters'  l i v e s account  f o r more dramatic or n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t s i n the  q u a l i t y of t h e i r regrouping process. Turning p o i n t s c o n s i s t of meaningful  events  ( i . e . , getting a job), actions ( i . e . ,  a s o l i d p l a n , c l a r i f y i n g a d e c i s i o n ) , and i n t e r a c t i o n s f i g h t w i t h a parent) i n daughters'  (i.e.,  l i v e s . Such t u r n i n g p o i n t s  (both p o s i t i v e and negative) e x p l a i n how o s c i l l a t e from  making  f a l t e r i n g t o advancing  one can s h i f t  or  and from advancing  faltering. For i n s t a n c e , C a r o l i n e a t t r i b u t e s the  meaningful  improvement i n her l i f e t o succeeding o c c u p a t i o n a l l y , her treasured personal goal:  to  107 I was r e a l l y upset and f r u s t r a t e d , but then t h e management j o b came open a t (my workplace), and I got t h a t p o s i t i o n i n August, and i t j u s t c o m p l e t e l y -I t h i n k t h a t was the s t a r t o f the change t o be happy i n Vancouver. You know I'd been t h e r e a c o u p l e of months, I'd been very busy and I f i n a l l y had a job t h a t I was happy with. And I f e l t proud t o be doing i t and I f e l t ; I mean i t ' s extremely c h a l l e n g i n g , t h e r e ' s l o t s o f new t h i n g s t h a t I was l e a r n i n g . I t h i n k t h a t was s o r t o f a t r a n s i t i o n a l p o i n t f o r me. L o r r a i n e experienced months o f t e a r s and i n t r o s p e c t i o n as she s t r u g g l e d t o h e a l from the aftermath o f an abusive w h i l e r e e l i n g from t h e unsympathetic  marriage,  and i n t r u s i v e s t a n c e o f  her p a r e n t s , b e f o r e t h i n g s changed f o r her. In c o n t r a s t t o C a r o l i n e , she suggests t h a t her t u r n i n g p o i n t was an i n t e r n a l l y d e r i v e d d e c i s i o n a f t e r months o f t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out what t o do and how t o proceed with her l i f e : What p i c k e d me up more than anything e l s e , i t was, I t h i n k around November-time, and I had decided on a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n with where I was going t o go, what I was going t o do, and I had decided, r e a l l y , t h a t I was going t o go back t o Canada. I had made t h e d e c i s i o n t o go, and then the d e c i s i o n t o save t h e money. And then, a l l the stumbling b l o c k s j u s t disappeared!! I t ' s almost as i f a doorway had opened and i t s a i d I was not meant t o be here, i n t h e U.K. I was meant t o be here, i n Canada. The  i d e a l e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup  i s temporary, and t h a t one expects t o l e a v e and e s t a b l i s h one's own independent  life  and r e s i d e n c e a g a i n one day.  Leaving t h e p a r e n t a l home i s determined  by e i t h e r (a) an  a p p r a i s a l o f having regrouping o b j e c t i v e s w e l l underway o r reached and being i n a secure enough p o s i t i o n t o make i t on one's own again; o r (b) an a p p r a i s a l t h a t t h e f a m i l y homer e l a t i o n s h i p context i s not conducive t o regrouping and t h a t  108 one must l e a v e t h e p a r e n t a l home i n order t o p r e s e r v e one's personal well-being. Prolonged of  s t a y s a t home may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e nature  one's p e r s o n a l regrouping g o a l s , s i n c e c e r t a i n g o a l s  more time t o accomplish  (e.g., o b t a i n i n g a  post-secondary  degree can take s e v e r a l y e a r s ) ; o r having accomplished initial  take  one's  g o a l s and developing new g o a l s t o pursue w h i l e a t  home. F o r i n s t a n c e , C a r o l i n e extended her s t a y a t home past the i n i t i a l  d e a d l i n e t h a t she had a n t i c i p a t e d f o r h e r s e l f . She  i n i t i a l l y thought  t h a t once she had recovered from h e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p break-up and had succeeded a t o c c u p a t i o n a l l y r e e s t a b l i s h i n g h e r s e l f i n Vancouver t h a t she would l e a v e h e r p a r e n t s ' home. However, when she had r e a l i z e d her i n i t i a l g o a l s , she reviewed regroup  her s i t u a t i o n and decided t o c o n t i n u e t o  a t h e r p a r e n t s ' home by pursuing new g o a l s . She then  r e s e a r c h e d a c a r e e r i n Human Resources and decided t o pursue t h i s long-term to  c a r e e r c h o i c e . T h i s e n t a i l e d a p l a n t o go back  s c h o o l . She i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was pragmatic  and l o g i c a l t o  pursue these new c a r e e r - e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s from t h e f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y o f the p a r e n t a l home-base. F i n a l l y , prolonged at  stays  home may a l s o be a r e f l e c t i o n o f one s t r u g g l i n g b a d l y and  e x p e r i e n c i n g o n e s e l f as "being stuck" o r "on h o l d , " perhaps b e i n g unable  t o become independent i n t h e near f u t u r e .  laments, I t ' s (My l i f e ) been on hold f o r 5 y e a r s ! So i t ' s a l i f e s t y l e move. W e l l . . . sometimes I t h i n k DENIAL!! What am I doing?! What can I do t o change i t ? !  Anne  109 L i k e Anne, a few daughters may l i n g e r a t the p a r e n t a l home, a m a t e r i a l comfort zone, with no p r e s s i n g impetus t o l e a v e . In f a c t , a few daughters may a c t u a l l y f e a r l e a v i n g the p a r e n t a l home, dreading  an e x i s t e n c e o f f i n a n c i a l  l a c k o f emotional support,  instability,  and l o n e l i n e s s . Being a t home may  be a t r a d e - o f f , such t h a t having  independence and p r i v a c y ,  f u l l y being o n e s e l f and developing  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  others  are s a c r i f i c e d o r compromised i n favour o f m a t e r i a l comfort, s e c u r i t y , and s t a b i l i t y .  I t i s a pragmatic c h o i c e ,  some  daughters want the comfort and s e c u r i t y o f a r o o f over t h e i r head--such t h a t some aspects o f p e r s o n a l development and f u l f i l m e n t may be compromised ( i . e . , pursuing  intimate  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , being myself a t home and with my p a r e n t s ) , i f t h e i r absence i s keenly  felt.  Irene  even  observes:  I was shocked. I shocked myself a t the way t h a t I k i n d o f shut myself down when I came home. And a t the same time I have a couple o f f r i e n d s i n England, who uhm, who have been i n the same s i t u a t i o n as me and have s a i d , "Well t h a t ' s what happened t o me too." Yeah, I've got a f r i e n d who's got a Ph.D. as w e l l , and f o r awhile she had t o go l i v e with her f a t h e r i n H o l l a n d . And she s a i d , "I s a i d Yes and No, and Thank-you, and Please, and I do the work t h a t I have t o do and I don't...I'm not myself t h e r e . " In the short-term  t h i s c h o i c e can y i e l d d e s i r e d r e s u l t s  ( i . e . , p r o t e c t i n g p r i v a t e parts of s e l f , p r o t e c t i n g s e l f parental c r i t i c i s m , respecting parental expectations,  from  avoiding  c o n f r o n t a t i o n / c o n f l i c t with p a r e n t s ) . However, when s t r e t c h e d over time, the consequence o f remaining a t the p a r e n t a l home f o r an extended p e r i o d i s the sense t h a t one i s going and  nowhere  t h a t one's s e l f and one's l i f e i s on h o l d . These daughters  110 seem t o be i n a h o l d i n g p a t t e r n where the c r u c i a l i n t e n t o f r e g r o u p i n g may One's g o a l s may  be suspended ( t e m p o r a r i l y or be put on the back-burner.  t h a t these daughters  indefinitely). There i s a  are spent or burnt out from  sense  their  r e g r o u p i n g e f f o r t s , or attempting t o regroup i n an i n h o s p i t a b l e f a m i l i a l context, and t h a t they need t o withdraw i n t o themselves Anne who  i n order t o p r o t e c t themselves.  For i n s t a n c e ,  s u f f e r s from c h r o n i c p a i n and i s on w e l f a r e -  d i s a b i l i t y , wages b a t t l e with the government f o r m e d i c a l compensation f o r u n s u c c e s s f u l back s u r g e r i e s done i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Although she senses she i s f i g h t i n g a l o s i n g b a t t l e she p e r s e v e r e s . Her parents, although sympathetic  to  her p l i g h t , r e a l l y want her t o l e a v e t h e i r home. H e r e i n  lies  the i r o n y , because i t has a l s o been Anne's ardent g o a l t o r e s o l v e many i n t e r p e r s o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e s w i t h her p a r e n t s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h each parent and t o f e e l more loved and understood y e a r s she has sought  by them. For many  out i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each  parent, o n l y t o be misunderstood  and r e j e c t e d . She  i s gravely  d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t something she has wanted so b a d l y and worked f o r so p e r s i s t e n t l y seems u n a t t a i n a b l e . She and her  parents  have reached a stalemate, and she has  regrouping  "given" up on  w i t h them: W e l l , I've s o r t of g i v e n up because I don't f e e l t h a t e i t h e r of them i n d i v i d u a l l y want t o know. And uhm, as a couple, uhm, I j u s t f e e l t h a t the codependency, i t ' s r e a l l y hard t o t a l k t o them about a l o t of t h i n g s because t h e i r viewpoints are d i f f e r e n t and i t u s u a l l y ends up being a f i g h t . So I t h i n k we've a l l  Ill j u s t r e t r e a t e d t o our corners we don't communicate! Conditions  that Influence  and j u s t t o keep peace  the Regrouping Process  Context o f P r e c i p i t a t i n g L i f e - E v e n t s Daughters' d e c i s i o n s t o r e t u r n home t o regroup were o f t e n t r i g g e r e d by s i g n i f i c a n t circumstances, l i f e - e v e n t s , and personal  choices  i n t h e i r l i v e s . In t h i s sample, t h e r e t u r n  home was p r e c i p i t a t e d by personal working/travelling  setbacks/crises,  abroad, as w e l l as by s p e c i f i c  daughters had made t o r e f i n e a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect  postchoices of their  l i v e s . Moreover, these p r e c i p i t a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s were not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , because a daughter's r e t u r n home t o regroup may encompass one o r a l l o f these c o n d i t i o n s . Personal  Setbacks and C r i s e s  S e v e r a l daughters chose t o r e t u r n home t o take c a r e o f themselves and r e c e i v e t h e i r parents' support i n response t o traumatic  f i n a n c i a l and emotional  life-events or l i f e -  t r a n s i t i o n s (e.g., d i v o r c e / r e l a t i o n s h i p breakups, j o b l o s s , accident/health  disability,  f a i l u r e a t u n i v e r s i t y ) t h a t had  undermined t h e i r sense o f emotional, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y i n the world. In t h i s i n s t a n c e r e t u r n i n g home may f e e l i n v o l u n t a r y , other  recourse.  They r e t u r n home t o recuperate q u i e t and s o l i t u d e , "  l i k e one has no (i.e.,  "resting,"  "seeking  "praying,"  " t a k i n g long walks," " i n d u l g i n g myself w i t h  bubblebaths," "reading and  "meditating,"  and watching t e l e v i s i o n , "  "processing  managing one's emotions," "taking a time-out f o r  myself"),  112 t o r e e n e r g i z e ("gathering  energy," " r a l l y i n g t h e f o r c e s , "  " t a k i n g a down-time," "recharging my b a t t e r y " ) and t o contemplate how t o p i c k up the p i e c e s o f t h e i r l i v e s and move onward a g a i n  (i.e.,  " f i g u r i n g out what t o do next v i a deep  i n t r o s p e c t i o n and c o n v e r s a t i o n with f r i e n d s , parents,  and even  c o u n s e l l o r s " ) . There i s a strong sense t h a t they a r e attempting  t o r e b u i l d t h e i r l i v e s i n order t o make a f r e s h  s t a r t . G e n e r a l l y parents tend t o be p r o t e c t i v e o f t h e i r daughters when they r e t u r n home t o regroup a f t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t time o f t r a n s i t i o n . C a r o l i n e ' s mother says, had  "We f e l t t h a t we  t o support her and get her strong again."  p a r e n t s g o a l s p a r a l l e l daughters'  regrouping  Therefore, intentions to  become s t r o n g e r and get t h e i r l i v e s back on t r a c k . I t seems t h a t regrouping  i n response t o setbacks, l o s s e s ,  or c r i s e s i s much more emotional  and l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e because  these daughters f e e l wounded and need t o r e g a i n t h e i r energy, t h e i r courage, and t h e i r confidence before they can endeavour t o move onto more pragmatic t h i n g s l i k e f i n d i n g work o r going t o s c h o o l a g a i n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional at i t s own pace and i t cannot be rushed.  h e a l i n g happens  A f t e r her d i v o r c e  from a spouse who s t a l k e d her, L o r r a i n e shares t h a t "I c r i e d f o r months when I got back." For many months one may f e e l i n c a p a b l e o f doing anything, beyond withdrawing i n t o o n e s e l f and working through emotions o f sadness, anger, and d i s b e l i e f . For i n s t a n c e , a f t e r being asked t o leave her u n i v e r s i t y programme, Glenda returned home t o "wallow i n s e l f - p i t y " and  113 "maintain a c a t a t o n i c s t a t e f o r 4 months" b e f o r e she was  able  t o p u l l h e r s e l f out of i t to make some "tough d e c i s i o n s " about her academic f u t u r e . During those 4 months she p l a y e d games the e n t i r e day and d e s c r i b e s h e r s e l f as being  video  very  "inwardly focused" and engaged i n "navel-gazing," where "I never ever r e a l l y thought  about anyone e l s e but me  at that  In r e c o v e r i n g and r e c u p e r a t i n g from setbacks,  some of  time."  these daughters  seek a s s i s t a n c e o u t s i d e the f a m i l y , engaging  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n order to process t h e i r emotions (anger, c o n f u s i o n , a n x i e t y , depression) and t o f i g u r e out t o get over what has happened and how  to proceed w i t h  how  life.  They a l s o d e s c r i b e u s i n g ( b l a c k ) humour or d e v e l o p i n g s p i r i t u a l i t y t o d e a l with t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . Once emotional p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s have been d e a l t with, then daughters  these  u s u a l l y g r a v i t a t e towards contemplating  what they  want t o do next-- whether t h a t e n t a i l s f i n d i n g work so can get back out on t h e i r own  they  again, or going back t o s c h o o l  a g a i n i n o r d e r to f u r t h e r c a r e e r and monetary a s p i r a t i o n s . Lorraine i l l u s t r a t e s  this:  So e v e n t u a l l y what had happened was a f t e r about 4 o r 5 months, I had r e c e i v e d some r e a l l y good c o u n s e l l i n g from some people who were o b v i o u s l y a b l e t o h e l p me, and I recovered enough. And then I s a i d , "Okay, I'm going t o go o f f and f i n d myself a j o b . T r a v e l and Work Abroad Some daughters  and  acknowledged t h a t they c o n s i d e r e d  p a r e n t s ' house t o be a convenient  their  "home-base" t o r e t u r n t o  114 a f t e r e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l l i n g and/or working abroad r e o r i e n t themselves e s t a b l i s h themselves  t o " r e a l i t y " and  i n order to  " l i v i n g " and t o r e -  i n the world. They o f t e n observed  that  r e t u r n i n g t o Canada a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g or working abroad  felt  like a real out new  "let-down"  because the adventure,  freedom t o t e s t  behaviours, and s t i m u l a t i o n of being exposed t o  people and i d e a s were suddenly l o s t . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d as unexpectedly feeling  new  was  d i s o r i e n t i n g , and they mention  " c u l t u r e - s h o c k " or " r e - e n t r y shock." R e t u r n i n g t o the  p a r e n t a l home was  o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a "time-out"  o r "down-time"  i n which one can r e p l e n i s h one's d e p l e t e d funds, r e a d j u s t t o Canadian c u l t u r e , process and d i g e s t a l l the e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t one had been exposed t o while t r a v e l l i n g and/or working abroad,  and l i v e while r e e s t a b l i s h i n g o n e s e l f i n Canada (by  l o o k i n g f o r work and/or going back t o s c h o o l ) . O f t e n t r a v e l and work experiences were c o n s i d e r e d deeply and i n t e g r a l t o shaping new w i t h one's l i f e and how  such  meaningful  i d e a s about what one wanted t o do  one wants t o l i v e i t .  p e r c e p t i o n t h a t one has fundamentally  There i s the  "grown and changed"  such t r a v e l and work experiences abroad.  from  Indeed, the v e r y  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the " o r d i n a r y home-life" w i t h the " e x t r a o r d i n a r y / s p e c i a l travel/work experience" may  s e r v e as a  " c a t a l y s t " i n the regrouping process of reexamining  and  r e d e f i n i n g what one wants from work, r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  and  lifestyle.  T h i s c o u l d be experienced as both e x c i t i n g  d i s t r e s s i n g . The m a j o r i t y of these daughters  and  noted t h a t i t was  115 i d e a l t o contemplate  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of such  meaningful  changes i n o n e s e l f w i t h r e s p e c t t o f u t u r e work, r e l a t i o n s h i p , and l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s from the comfort and s e c u r i t y of the p a r e n t a l home-base, where one c o u l d c o n s u l t w i t h one's p a r e n t s and  f r i e n d s f o r advice, encouragement, and In c o n t r a s t t o the daughters  who  support.  have e x p e r i e n c e d  s e t b a c k s / c r i s e s / l o s s e s and seem t o be o p e r a t i n g from bottom," the daughters abroad  who  are regrouping a f t e r  (which i s uncomplicated  d i f f i c u l t i e s / m i s f o r t u n e s ) may p o s i t i o n . Although they may and may  by  "rock  travel/work  any  be s t a r t i n g out from a s t r o n g e r  keenly miss t h e i r l i f e s t y l e  be f r u s t r a t e d t h a t not everyone r e c o g n i z e s how  have grown and changed, they have accessed  abroad they  positive  e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t have a l t e r e d t h e i r v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s i n a p o t e n t i a l l y t r a n s f o r m a t i v e r a t h e r than d e b i l i t a t i n g manner. T h e i r dilemma l i e s i n attempting t o r e a l i z e these views and contemplating how  t o t r a n s l a t e them i n t o  altered realizable  g o a l s and a c t i o n s . D e c i s i o n t o Change Aspects of One's L i f e Some daughters  v o l u n t a r i l y r e t u r n home i n o r d e r t o  i n t e n t i o n a l l y change/refine and improve some aspect of one's life,  be i t f i n a n c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , o r  r e l a t i o n a l i n nature. T h i s i s a ' p r o a c t i v e stance' i n the quest t o become s t r o n g e r and t o improve the q u a l i t y o f one's l i f e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The sooner one c l a r i f i e s one's p l a n s , the sooner one  i s enabled t o be more focused i n t a k i n g a c t i o n ,  116 whether t h a t e n t a i l s s a v i n g a c e r t a i n amount of money f o r t u i t i o n or f o r a downpayment on a condo, or t o pursue a  degree  t h a t w i l l move one c l o s e r t o a c h i e v i n g an o c c u p a t i o n a l dream, or t o r e s o l v e i s s u e s with a parent. I t seems t h a t the few daughters who p l a n s made prior  have c l e a r g o a l s and  t o r e t u r n i n g home, g i v e n o p t i m a l or  s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , may  accomplish t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s more  q u i c k l y than those daughters who  do not have any  definite  g o a l s and p l a n s when they i n i t i a l l y r e t u r n home. In the  latter  case these daughters may  be "going i n b l i n d " and they need  more time t o contemplate  what they want and c l a r i f y  their  g o a l s and p l a n s b e f o r e they can a c t i v e l y pursue any  action.  For i n s t a n c e , i n h i n d s i g h t L o r r a i n e o f f e r s t h a t she wishes  she  c o u l d have been more p l a n f u l about her r e t u r n home, a l t h o u g h she c o n f e s s e s she d i d n ' t have "the ways, or the means, or the understanding t o do t h a t " a t the time when she was v u l n e r a b l e and s t i l l  especially  f e e l i n g traumatized from the abuse she  s u f f e r e d from her ex-husband. She  indicates:  I'd be i n c l i n e d t o say t h a t i f I was t o go back t o where I was b e f o r e , t o have a l i s t of questions--and j u s t say, "Why i s i t t h a t I'm going t o be doing t h i s ? What e l s e can I do? And what purpose do I have i n b e i n g a t home? Is t h i s f o r myself or f o r my p a r e n t s , or i s t h i s f o r both? And not go i n ' b l i n d ' , l i k e I d i d before. Context of I n d i v i d u a l and Family Background Daughters'  p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s  can  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the nature of one's r e g r o u p i n g e x p e r i e n c e when one c o r e s i d e s a t the p a r e n t a l home. F i r s t of a l l ,  many  117 daughters b e l i e v e d t h a t r e t u r n i n g home was an admission o f f a i l u r e , exacerbating  the experience o f f a l t e r i n g by  p e r c e i v i n g o n e s e l f as "being behind" o r "going backwards" i n one's l i f e .  Moreover t h i s negative  b e l i e f was f r e q u e n t l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h being o l d e r , such t h a t being c l o s e t o 30 y e a r s o l d o r o l d e r made i t l e s s acceptable  t o be l i v i n g a t home.  Both p a r e n t s and daughters saw the 20s as a time o f e x p l o r a t i o n and l e s s maturity home was c o n s i d e r e d  and experience, and r e t u r n i n g  more acceptable  these daughters were s t i l l p e r c e i v e d  and normative because t o need t h e i r p a r e n t s and  were not expected t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . Yet, many daughters seemed t o t h i n k t h a t there was something momentous about t u r n i n g age 30, such t h a t they "should" p a r e n t s and t h a t they should  no longer need  their  be e s t a b l i s h e d . The s e l f - r e p r o a c h  seems t o be, " i f you haven't made i t on your own by age 30, you're a l o s e r . " The  negative  b e l i e f that r e t u r n i n g home i s a s i g n o f  f a i l u r e o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n f e e l i n g s o f embarrassment and shame about one's c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . Kathleen c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s as feeling  " l o s e r i s h . " In turn, t h i s o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n daughters  not being  open w i t h others about t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , and s o c i a l l y  avoiding others  i n order t o p r o t e c t themselves from  a n t i c i p a t e d negative and  judgements, thereby r e d u c i n g  t h e nature  amount o f s o c i a l support o r f r i e n d s h i p s a v a i l a b l e t o them  during  t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t time p e r i o d when one f e e l s e s p e c i a l l y  vulnerable.  Thus, whether the r e t u r n home i s framed as a  118 " f a i l u r e " versus an "opportunity" i s s i g n i f i c a n t  t o shaping  the emotional tone and q u a l i t y o f one's e x p e r i e n c e a t home. The b e l i e f t h a t r e t u r n i n g home i s a s i g n o f p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e seems t o be q u i t e d e b i l i t a t i n g t o ones s e l f - e s t e e m . I n c o n t r a s t , a few o f the daughters who b e l i e v e d t h e r e t u r n home was  not a s i g n o f f a i l u r e , but an o p p o r t u n i t y t o advance  themselves  and enjoy t h e i r parents and the comforts o f home  seemed more r e s i l i e n t and open about t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h o t h e r s ; thereby m a i n t a i n i n g and expanding  upon t h e i r  social  support network. Moreover, i n s h a r i n g t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s more openly w i t h o t h e r s they o f t e n l e a r n e d t h a t many o t h e r s were r e t u r n i n g home and t h a t they were not alone o r abnormal, thereby n o r m a l i z i n g t h e i r experience o f r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home. Second, a key e x p e c t a t i o n daughters and p a r e n t s h o l d i s t h a t t h e r e t u r n home t o regroup w i l l be "temporary." daughters  Some  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had s p e c i f i c timeframes  f o r how  l o n g they expected t o be home and a d e a d l i n e f o r l e a v i n g , u s u a l l y p e r t a i n i n g t o something  concrete l i k e f i n i s h i n g a  degree. Others i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r d e a d l i n e f o r l e a v i n g would be determined  by the achievement o f a s p e c i f i c g o a l  (i.e.,  r e s o l v i n g i s s u e s with p a r e n t ( s ) , saving a c e r t a i n amount o f money, f i n d i n g c a r e e r n i c h e ) , which c o u l d not be determined i n advance. Regardless, the n o t i o n t h a t " t h i s i s o n l y  temporary"  b o l s t e r e d many daughters' self-esteem, somehow making t h e r e t u r n home more a c c e p t a b l e t o themselves  and t o o t h e r s .  119 Moreover, as long as daughters  believed that t h e i r stay at  home was temporary, they c o u l d manage t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c o r e s i d i n g w i t h t h e i r parents more e f f e c t i v e l y . t e l l i n g themselves  In r e p e a t e d l y  " t h i s i s o n l y temporary," they c o u l d "put  up w i t h " o r " t o l e r a t e "  any negative c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e l i v i n g  environment, c o n f l i c t u a l p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , i m p o s i t i o n s on f r i e n d s h i p s and one's s o c i a l As some daughters' the r e f r a i n , daughters  life.  s t a y s a t home became more prolonged,  " t h i s i s o n l y temporary," wears t h i n - - s u c h t h a t  may experience i n c r e a s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  c u r r e n t circumstances, themselves  or the  with  their  and become more prone t o q u e s t i o n  about the wisdom o f what they a r e doing a t home and  t h e i r a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , when t h i n g s take l o n g e r than some daughters  expected,  can p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y beat themselves up;  b e r a t i n g themselves  f o r not accomplishing more, o r f o r not  making d e c i s i o n s . They blame themselves  f o r a n y t h i n g t h a t they  p e r c e i v e as d e l a y i n g a c t i o n and p r o l o n g i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f r e g r o u p i n g a t home. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the c u l t u r a l o r e t h n i c background o f daughters  and t h e i r parents seemed more r e l e v a n t t o  " e x p e c t a t i o n s about home-leaving" as opposed t o i d e a s about r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . For i n s t a n c e , Western v a l u e s l e n d themselves  t o e x p e c t a t i o n s o f independence--such t h a t l e a v i n g  home t o l i v e independently i s c o n s i d e r e d normative and d e s i r a b l e . In t h i s case, White (European predominantly  ethnicity),  m i d d l e - c l a s s parents and daughters  were both  120 prepared  f o r daughters  at home t o regroup. Portuguese,  t o leave again a f t e r t e m p o r a r i l y l i v i n g  In c o n t r a s t , while daughters  from  E a s t - I n d i a n , and F i l i p i n o backgrounds saw t h e i r  r e t u r n home as temporary they noted t h a t t h e i r more t r a d i t i o n a l parents seemed t o hope t h a t i t was a permanent arrangement. These parents and daughters c o n f l i c t between the daughters'  experienced a  d e s i r e t o l e a v e home a g a i n and  the p a r e n t s ' t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they s t a y at home u n t i l they marry, o r p o s s i b l y embark upon f u r t h e r specialized  e d u c a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t i n g going t o u n i v e r s i t i e s  from home. These daughters,  away  more than t h e White daughters i n  the sample, may experience s u b t l e p r e s s u r e by t h e i r p a r e n t s t o not l e a v e home a g a i n . T h i s can produce an i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e between t h e d e s i r e the daughter  has t o be a "good  and remain a t home t o s a t i s f y her parents' wishes,  daughter" and t h e  p e r s o n a l d e s i r e t o spread her wings and d i s c o v e r t h e world on her own, away from the c a r i n g but p r y i n g eyes o f p a r e n t s . Under t h i s c o n d i t i o n , a daughter  may end up s t a y i n g a t home  l o n g e r than she wishes t o . Irene i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s dynamic: "Many times i n t h e past when I've t r i e d t o move out my mom's, but she says we need you. E m o t i o n a l l y we need you. And so, I've r e a l l y f e l t  I can't." Context o f Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s  Daughters d e s c r i b e d how t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e i r s i b l i n g s p e r s o n a l l y a f f e c t e d them and the a c t i o n s they took, i n ways t h a t c o u l d both f a c i l i t a t e o r  121 h i n d e r t h e i r regrouping process, thereby c r e a t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g and p o s i t i v e experience o r an u n s a t i s f y i n g and n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w h i l e l i v i n g a t home. First,  the extent t o which one f e e l s welcomed, l o v e d , and  supported by one's parents i n r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e i s important  i n s e t t i n g the tone and q u a l i t y o f one's c o r e s i d i n g  and r e g r o u p i n g experience. When some parents had a l s o " i n v i t e d " t h e i r daughters  t o come and l i v e w i t h them t o r i d e  out "rough times," daughters did  f e l t relieved that t h e i r  parents  not c o n s i d e r them unwelcome and i n t r u s i v e burdens i n t h e i r  own l i v e s . daughters  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y important because s e v e r a l acknowledged they f e l t g u i l t y about imposing on  t h e i r p a r e n t s ' r e t i r e m e n t — t i m e t h a t should be j u s t f o r them. These daughters  felt  f l a t t e r e d t o be valued and c a r e d f o r by  t h e i r p a r e n t s , and s a i d t h a t they hoped they c o u l d do t h e same for  t h e i r own c h i l d r e n one day. Many daughters  spoke about how they t r e a s u r e d the  companionship and support they experienced w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s ; c u l m i n a t i n g i n the g r a t i f y i n g r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t they a r e not alone i n the world. In t u r n , daughters  reciprocated their  p a r e n t s ' c a r i n g and g e n e r o s i t y by attempting t o m a i n t a i n and n u r t u r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r parents, a s s i s t i n g w i t h household  voluntarily  chores and errands, s h a r i n g meals  t o g e t h e r , r e s p e c t i n g p a r e n t a l p r i v a c y , being  courteous,  n e g o t i a t i n g and problem-solving around any i s s u e s t h a t a r i s e as soon as p o s s i b l e , and l o v i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s .  122 W i t h i n t h i s type of s u p p o r t i v e and encouraging  parent-  c h i l d bond, a few daughters c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p a r e n t s t o be v a l u a b l e models, mentors, and a d v i s o r s t o t h e i r r e g r o u p i n g e f f o r t s . They saw  t h e i r parents as having  specialized  knowledge i n c e r t a i n matters, u s u a l l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , o r t o be models f o r " l i v i n g a balanced l i f e s t y l e " and having one's " p r i o r i t i e s i n line"--meaning work, f a m i l y , and f r i e n d s are a l l balanced. W i t h i n the context of a c l o s e and c a r i n g bond, C a r o l i n e e x e m p l i f i e s how  she f e e l s a b l e t o seek out her  f a t h e r ' s knowledge of f i n a n c e s i n order t o l e a r n more about f i n a n c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g h e r s e l f i n the f u t u r e : And I t h i n k , as an a d u l t , there are a l o t o f t h i n g s t h a t I can l e a r n from my parents r i g h t now...I'm i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d so t h e r e ' s a l o t of t h i n g s t h a t I can l e a r n from them that I t h i n k t h a t they know. And from dad I've been l e a r n i n g a l o t . . . D a d has a v e r y good f i n a n c i a l mind and g i v e n my s c i e n t i f i c background t h a t ' s something t h a t I don't have v e r y much knowledge of and I t h i n k i t ' s important t o l e a r n about. So I've been r e a l l y t r y i n g t o l e a r n what I can about that world, j u s t because I have a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n i t and I want t o be a b l e t o keep myself supported f i n a n c i a l l y i n the f u t u r e . So i t ' s s o r t of l e a r n i n g about a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s about i n v e s t i n g and about you know, d i f f e r e n t ways of doing business and d i f f e r e n t ways of approaching t h i n g s . He has a huge amount of years o f e x p e r i e n c e t o draw on from t h e r e . The caveat i s t h a t daughters' must f e e l t h a t they are s e e k i n g out t h e i r parents' i n p u t , r a t h e r than b e i n g the r e c i p i e n t s of the parents' u n s o l i c i t e d a d v i c e . T h i s boundary must be c a r e f u l l y preserved, such that daughters  feel  like  they are i n c o n t r o l and t h a t they are t r e a t e d l i k e a d u l t s and not l i k e c h i l d r e n . Many daughters spoke of attempting t o " s e t  123 boundaries" around p r i v a c y , a d v i c e - g i v i n g , and they c o n s i d e r e d  to be r e s p e c t f u l and  criticism  appropriate  that  relative  to  t h e i r s t a t u s as an a d u l t i n the shared household. When daughters p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r parents  are making a s p e c i a l  e f f o r t t o not t r e a t them as c h i l d r e n but as a d u l t s , daughters do not grow and  be  responsible  f e e l undermined i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o  different.  T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t with the well-meaning parent  who  cannot h e l p but t r e a t the daughter as a c h i l d - - b y g i v i n g u n s o l i c i t e d advice and  feedback, by t e l l i n g her what t o do,  by  i n s i s t i n g on curfews o r knowing where she i s when she's out, by i n t r u d i n g on her space and p r i v a c y , and household use and  standards.  by  controlling  S e v e r a l daughters conveyed  such p a r e n t a l behaviours were u n h e l p f u l and  how  frustrating  to  them, e s p e c i a l l y i f they were s t r i v i n g to become more grounded i n t h e i r own  unique v o i c e and p e r s p e c t i v e s . To d e a l w i t h  dynamic, Kathleen  acknowledged t h a t she had  p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g to l e a r n how  to "negotiate  e s t a b l i s h boundaries with her parents," "empathize w i t h t h e i r  sought  as w e l l as  out and to  perspective."  With r e s p e c t t o f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , one might t h i n k daughters who unresolved  this  came from f a m i l i e s who  have a h i s t o r y of  i s s u e s or unhealthy behaviours ( i . e . ,  abuse, c o n f l i c t , depression,  that  alcoholism,  c o n s i s t e n t l a c k of communication  o r misunderstanding) would be l e s s l i k e l y to r e t u r n home t o l i v e than those daughters who  come from f a m i l i e s who  do  not,  124 however t h i s was not always the case i n t h i s sample. Some daughters w i l l r e t u r n home, even t o " c o n f l i c t u a l " o r "unhealthy" f a m i l i e s , m a t e r i a l resource  because they a r e s t i l l  considered  i n a time o f need. They p e r c e i v e  a  that  p a r e n t s have t o take them i n . The a t t i t u d e here seems t o be, "I'11  do what I have t o do and then get out!"  Such daughters  o f t e n d e a l w i t h t h i s type o f f a m i l y by having r e s o l v e d t o accept t h e f a m i l y the way i t i s and t o persevere w i t h i n i t r a t h e r than t o make f u t i l e attempts t o change t h e f a m i l y system. They a l s o attempt t o minimize t h e i r exposure t o unhealthy p a t t e r n s parents'  of interaction  by "being  busy away from t h e  home" with s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o r with  educational  p u r s u i t s , o r by i s o l a t i n g themselves i n t h e i r bedrooms. T h i s can be a cause o f s t r a i n f o r the daughter because she may be i d e n t i f i e d as " d i f f e r e n t "  and perhaps u n c o o p e r a t i v e i n t h e  f a m i l y system, such t h a t the f a m i l y can f e e l a f f r o n t e d by t h e daughters' l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and i n t e r e s t  i n them.  Daughters w i t h i n t h i s type o f f a m i l y context  will  seldom  t u r n t o t h e i r parents f o r advice because they do not c o n s i d e r them t o be a c r e d i b l e o r r e l i a b l e source o f emotional, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o r i n t e l l e c t u a l support. Moreover, they do not do so i n order t o avoid any k i n d o f c r i t i c i s m , disparagement, or questioning  o f t h e i r own values,  ideas, plans,  and a c t i o n s .  They do not f e e l understood by t h e i r parents and do not wish to r i s k a potential  c o n f r o n t a t i o n . Such an i n h o s p i t a b l e  dynamic i s seldom conducive t o a daughter's sense o f w e l l -  125 being, and as a r e s u l t ,  one may p l a n t o l e a v e home as soon as  p o s s i b l e t o reduce one's exposure. few daughters  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, a  d e a l t with t h e i r parents' l a c k o f support and  b e l i e f i n t h e i r plans and t h e i r d i r e c t o r i m p l i e d c r i t i c i s m s as an impetus t o t r y even harder t o succeed a t t h e i r g o a l s . They became more determined  t o prove t h e i r p a r e n t s ' l a c k o f  f a i t h wrong, and more determined  t o be d i f f e r e n t  from  p a r e n t s by succeeding a t having happy and s a t i s f y i n g  their lives,  u n l i k e t h e i r parents. A couple o f daughters  noted t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n  home t o r e s o l v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s with a parent the mother), o c c u r r e d o n l y when i t was determined  (usually that a  s i b l i n g would be absent. A s i b l i n g ' s presence was c o n s i d e r e d an o b s t a c l e t o attempts  t o work through i s s u e s and have one-  on-one d i s c u s s i o n s , even c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , w i t h a p a r e n t . Hence, t h e i r absence assured, i n the daughter's  mind, t h a t r e s o l v i n g  i s s u e s w i t h one's parent c o u l d occur without  interference.  E l a i n e frames her s i s t e r ' s absence i n the home as an opportunity: I saw i t as a chance where I c o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e s t u f f w i t h my mom because my s i s t e r ' s very p r o t e c t i v e o f my mom. So with her out o f the house I f e l t l i k e I had t h e freedom t o do whatever I wanted t o do...which i s work through i t , cause my mom i s v e r y important t o me. Indeed, s e v e r a l daughters'  negative e x p e r i e n c e s  with  t h e i r c o r e s i d i n g s i b l i n g s confirms t h a t t h e presence o f s i b l i n g s c o u l d undermine one's e f f o r t s , o r make one f e e l unwelcome and unsupported  i n the p a r e n t a l home. One has t o  126 persist  i n one's regrouping i n the f a c e o f h o s t i l i t y o r  i n t e r f e r e n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , Glenda's  coresiding brother  "shunned" h e r f o r t h e 3 years she l i v e d a t home. He d i d not speak t o her o r e x p l a i n what was wrong the e n t i r e time, and t h i s was a c h r o n i c source o f s t r e s s t h a t h u r t and confused her. F i n a l l y , c u l t u r a l o r e t h n i c background was i n f l u e n t i a l t o parent-child relations, everyday  daughters' l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s , and  l i v i n g . A l l t h e daughters c o n s i d e r e d themselves  t o be  q u i t e Western and l i b e r a l - m i n d e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l , s e x u a l , and work v a l u e s — i n c l u d i n g the East Indian, Portuguese, and F i l i p i n o daughters who c o n s i d e r e d themselves  t o be q u i t e  a c c u l t u r a t e d t o Western v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . G e n e r a l l y , most daughters e x p e r i e n c e d  their  p a r e n t s as being more c o n s e r v a t i v e with r e s p e c t t o s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s , such t h a t s e v e r a l daughters minimized  or concealed  d a t i n g a c t i v i t y from t h e i r parents w h i l e they were l i v i n g a t home. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t they wanted t o p r o t e c t t h i s of t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s from t h e i r parents, and t h a t wished  aspect  they  t o a v o i d any p o t e n t i a l judgements and uncomfortable  t e n s i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s reason, Irene a l s o v o l u n t e e r e d t h a t she minimized d a t i n g because she a l s o wanted t o focus e x c l u s i v e l y on f i n i s h i n g her graduate t h e s i s - - d a t i n g would be a distraction  she would f e e l g u i l t y about. The consequence o f  these c h o i c e s was t h a t s e v e r a l daughters were postponing t h e development o f i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , thereby p u t t i n g an  127 important  aspect of t h e i r l i v e s on h o l d .  In c o n t r a s t t o the European daughters, and F i l i p i n o daughter tended  observed  the E a s t Indian,  that t h e i r family r e l a t i o n s  t o be more formal, adhering t o a h i e r a r c h y i n which the  p a r e n t s are c o n s i d e r e d the heads of the f a m i l y , t o be r e s p e c t e d and l i s t e n e d to, such t h a t daughters c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r parents' c h i l d r e n f o r l i f e , t h e i r age, respond  may  be  r e g a r d l e s s of  e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , or m a r i t a l s t a t u s . One  t o t h i s c u l t u r a l dynamic by "swallowing  could  one's t r u e  o p i n i o n s " and going along with parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s as  Irene  d i d , or by " c h a l l e n g i n g and q u e s t i o n i n g the s t a t u s quo"  as  Glenda d i d . Each a c t i o n has i m p l i c a t i o n s — i n the former  case,  one  sacrifices  "being myself" with my  parents f o r  i n t e r p e r s o n a l harmony, i n the l a t t e r case, one has  the  s a t i s f a c t i o n of being t r u e t o o n e s e l f but a t a c o s t t o smooth interpersonal  relations. Context of the  Many daughters one's own space,  space"  Living-Environment  spoke about the importance  of  "having  ( p h y s i c a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y ) , having enough  and being a b l e t o d i s p l a y and use t h e i r own  personal  b e l o n g i n g s i n the p a r e n t a l home. They c o n s i d e r e d these  aspects  o f t h e i r l i v i n g - e n v i r o n m e n t t o be c r u c i a l t o c r e a t i n g p r i v a c y f o r o n e s e l f and being a b l e t o express o n e s e l f through the o f one's time, space,  and decor. Moreover, s a v o u r i n g t h e  s o l i t u d e o f one's own  room allows one t o be o n e s e l f , i n a  p r o t e c t i v e s p a c e — i t i s a b u f f e r from the o u t s i d e world  use  and  128 e x t e r n a l s t r e s s o r s . Being able to "cocoon" i n one's room i s an i d e a l form of r e c u p e r a t i n g who my  and  r e e n e r g i z i n g as w e l l . J e n n i f e r ,  spends a l o t of time i n her bedroom, observes t h a t " i t ' s little  haven, my  watch t . v . , and  little  I read."  " s a f e s t p l a c e f o r me  escape. I mostly do my  She  to be"  b e l i e v e s t h a t her room i s the and  that  "a person's space i s p a r t  of t h a t i d e n t i t y . " With r e s p e c t to t h i s , being t h i n g s out of storage sense of belonging, own"  and  homework, I  able to bring  and p l a c e them around o n e s e l f c r e a t e s  and  i t i s the act of making a space  a  "my  more "homelike." I t seemed important t o daughters t o  c r e a t e a s a f e , comfortable, and p r i v a t e environment i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the s e r i o u s work of b u i l d i n g or r e b u i l d i n g a p o r t i o n of one's The  notable  life. absence of t h i s type of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  w i t h i n the l i v i n g - e n v i r o n m e n t  can be a source of  frustration  w i t h l a r g e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h i n d e r i n g the development of p r i v a t e p a r t s of s e l f , o f t e n considered whole, and  important t o  feeling  the a b i l i t y to engage i n the a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d  r e a l i z e g o a l s r e l e v a n t to personal quality l i f e .  well-being  and  to  having a  Irene observes t h a t "I have to shut away a whole  p a r t of myself to work i n t h i s dynamic," thereby undermining her e f f o r t s t o f i n i s h her Ph.D. compromises her needs, by  t h e s i s and  " s h u t t i n g away," i n order  accomodate t o her parents e x p e c t a t i o n s elaborates  f e e l whole.  and  schedules.  She  to She  that:  s h u t t i n g away means t h a t I can't express myself i n my own environment--that means I can't o r g a n i z e my  129 space the way I'd l i k e t o . Uhm, and I'm j u s t one o f those people t h a t d e s p e r a t e l y needs to decorate, you know, i m p r i n t myself on my space. So, uhm, t h a t ' s one t h i n g I can't do. I can't o r g a n i z e my time the way I'd l i k e t o . So, I guess I f e e l a l l the time t h a t I have t o o r g a n i z e my l i f e i n s n i p p e t s , around everyone e l s e ' s schedules. Not being allowed to have one's own throughout  things allocated  the l i v i n g - e n v i r o n m e n t , but l i m i t e d t o one's  bedroom, i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t because these t h i n g s can r e p r e s e n t or symbolize reminders  of who  had on one's own.  who  one i s . Personal o b j e c t s s e r v e  I am and the " i d e a l i z e d " p r i o r l i f e t h a t Not having one's own  as one  personal belongings i n  the l i v i n g - e n v i r o n m e n t , because they are i n storage, i n boxes, s o l d - o f f , or because t h e r e i s no room f o r them i n the home, can be a source of l o s s and sadness. it  parents'  Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  i s a s u b t l e acknowledgement t h a t the l i v i n g - e n v i r o n m e n t i s  not r e a l l y your space,  u l t i m a t e l y i t i s the p a r e n t ' s  space.  Anne e x p l a i n s : I've got a few of my own o b j e c t s u p s t a i r s , you know, o f my former l i f e and who I t h i n k I am, so... which r a p i d l y changes ( l a u g h s ) . And t h a t ' s the whole t h i n g too, you know. I never b r i n g my f r i e n d s here because i t ' s t h e i r p l a c e and none of t h e i r t h i n g s r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t s who I am, and uh, you know, because t h i s i s t h e i r p l a c e ! And t h e r e ' s a c e r t a i n l o n e l i n e s s because of t h a t . Although  i t seems obvious,  i t should a l s o be acknowledged  t h a t the s i z e and q u a l i t y of the daughter's is  a r e f l e c t i o n of the parent's socioeconomic  living-environment s t a t u s . More  a f f l u e n t parents have l a r g e r homes and more r e s o u r c e s , p a r e n t s w i t h s m a l l e r or f i x e d incomes ( i . e . , tended  and  retirement)  t o have s m a l l e r homes and l e s s r e s o u r c e s . With r e g a r d  130 to the l a t t e r ,  t h e r e were more "complaints" o f "not having  enough space,"  " f e e l i n g crowded," o r "being i n t o o c l o s e  p r o x i m i t y w i t h o t h e r s ; " thereby "reducing p r i v a c y " i n t h e l i v i n g - e n v i r o n m e n t and " i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n " - - e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e r e i s c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the use o f space and r e s o u r c e s  (i.e.,  t . v . , computer, k i t c h e n , bathroom). These a s p e c t s make l i v i n g a t home l e s s enjoyable, and setup a c o n d i t i o n where  daughters  are l i k e l y t o expend e x t r a time and energy d e a l i n g w i t h these l e s s d e s i r a b l e aspects o f d a i l y l i v i n g . T h i s can draw time and a t t e n t i o n away from t h e important business o f r e g r o u p i n g . Finally, feel  a few daughters s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned how they  " d e f l a t e d " o r "down" when they have t o go home a f t e r  b e i n g a t work o r engaging  i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s outside the  home. When they a r e pressed t o e x p l a i n why t h i s i s t h e case, they mention t h a t t h e "atmosphere" o f t h e p a r e n t a l home can be influential.  I t i s o f f e r e d that one can f e e l d e f l a t e d and down  when t h e atmosphere a t home i s " s t i f l i n g " o r "unhealthy." T h i s type o f atmosphere i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o unhappy o r tense r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the f a m i l y ( i . e . , p a r e n t s have an unhappy marriage, p a r e n t - d e p r e s s i o n , p a r e n t - a l c o h o l i s m , parent-daughter  f i g h t i n g ) . In d e s c r i b i n g t h e "home  atmosphere," Oneida used the analogy o f the " h o s p i t a l atmosphere" t o convey the d i s t a s t e f u l sense o f s m e l l and s i c k n e s s t h a t can permeate a h o s p i t a l , e l i c i t i n g  feelings of  d i s c o m f o r t . T h i s type o f home atmosphere d i s c o u r a g e s a daughter's  c r e a t i v i t y and a b i l i t y t o contemplate  her l i f e p l a n s  131 w i t h enthusiasm. A few daughters home environment "contaminates"  noted t h a t i t ' s as i f t h e daughters  by p a s s i n g on  f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s o f n e g a t i v i t y and discouragement, which h i n d e r s t h e i r e f f o r t s t o s t r i v e f o r higher g o a l s t o enhance t h e i r l i v e s . Such an atmosphere does not s u s t a i n o r encourage growth, r a t h e r s t a g n a t i o n . Context  o f S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s and F r i e n d s h i p s  The m a j o r i t y o f the daughters  acknowledged t h a t t h e  a d v i c e , encouragement, and emotional  support t h a t t h e i r  f r i e n d s p r o v i d e d them with was s i g n i f i c a n t t o managing t h e i r r e g r o u p i n g p r o c e s s . In f a c t , i n a d d i t i o n t o p a r e n t s and f r e q u e n t l y i n p r e f e r e n c e over parents, f r i e n d s were nominated as the ones t h a t daughters  were most l i k e l y t o t u r n t o - - t o  contemplate one's l i f e p l a n s with, t o process t h e i r emotions, t o r e q u e s t feedback, own enthusiasm  and t o r e c e i v e encouragement when t h e i r  o r confidence waned. F r i e n d s were c o n s i d e r e d a  "resource"--"sounding  boards"  t o contemplate i d e a s , p l a n s , and  s t r a t e g i e s with, o f t e n without apprehension  o f judgement.  F r i e n d s were o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d " s a f e r " t o c o n f i d e i n s i n c e t h e r e i s a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t they a r e l e s s i n v e s t e d and p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d , r e l a t i v e t o parents, and t h e r e f o r e l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be c r i t i c a l ,  dominating,  or c o n t r o l l i n g .  In f a c t ,  i n s t r i v i n g t o enhance t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s , some daughters surrounding  spoke o f s t r a t e g i c a l l y  themselves with b r i g h t , p o s i t i v e , and educated  f r i e n d s and acquaintances--"go-getters"  who can i n s p i r e them,  132 network w i t h them, brainstorm with them, motivate them, and spur them i n t o  action.  Given the importance  of f r i e n d s as a support system,  has t o wonder what happens t o daughters  and t h e i r  one  regrouping  p r o c e s s i f t h i s support system i s somehow compromised o r absent. Relevant t o t h i s , i t seems t h a t l i v i n g w i t h one's p a r e n t s can compromise access t o and a f f e c t the nature of one's s o c i a l support system. The m a j o r i t y of the spoke about how  l i v i n g i n t h e i r parents' homes was  daughters "hard  on  f r i e n d s h i p s . " The l a c k of p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y , and the d e s i r e t o r e s p e c t one's p a r e n t s ' p r i v a c y , meant t h a t most daughters  felt  u n w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n t h e i r f r i e n d s or dates a t home. They d i d not want t h e i r parents t o know about t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e i r l i v e s . The  i n a b i l i t y t o c o n v e n i e n t l y have f r i e n d s over meant  t h a t one c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y become s o c i a l l y  isolated,  e s p e c i a l l y i f one d i d not compensate by "going out" more f r e q u e n t l y . Moreover, many daughters  noted t h a t not having  the  p r i v a t e space t o e n t e r t a i n i n t h e i r parents' homes h i n d e r e d the development and maintenance of i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h others, e s p e c i a l l y p o t e n t i a l partners. S e v e r a l o t h e r s acknowledged t h a t they e x p e r i e n c e a " s o c i a l stigma"  subjectively  ( o f t e n p r o j e c t i o n s of t h e i r  own  embarrassment) a s s o c i a t e d with being an a d u l t and l i v i n g a t home. Oneida i l l u s t r a t e s  this:  I t ' s embarrassing. L i k e f o r myself t h a t ' s number one. not proud of i t . I'm embarrassed of i t . No one's ever responded, but you're s t i l l . . . ' C a u s e I, t h a t ' s how I guess I would t h i n k t h a t of somebody: "You're  I'm  133 s t i l l l i v i n g a t home". But then I probably wouldn't because I am. So. I t ' s j u s t t h e way our s o c i e t y i s . I t ' s j u s t not done. You l e a v e . They f e l t  like  " f a i l u r e s " o r " l o s e r s " f o r being a t home, and  they d e a l w i t h these n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s by not i n v i t i n g o t h e r s over, and by a v o i d i n g p u t t i n g themselves  i n social  s i t u a t i o n s where o t h e r s w i l l know they l i v e a t home. Although t h i s a c t i o n p r o t e c t s them i n the short-term, over t h e l o n g term i t erodes t h e i r s o c i a l support system f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s , being misunderstood  and exacerbates and b e i n g  different. Societal  Context  I was immersed i n s t u d y i n g the phenomenon o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , and I began t o n o t i c e newspaper a r t i c l e s , books ( i . e . , Squeeze"), "Seinfeld";  movies ( i . e . ,  "Mother"),  "Empty Nest";  "The Family  and t . v . shows ( i . e . ,  "Maggie Winters";  "Providence")  that  d e a l t w i t h t h e t o p i c . T e l e v i s i o n and movie d e p i c t i o n s o f boomerang k i d s o f t e n poked fun a t the o s t e n s i b l e immaturity o f such a d u l t c h i l d r e n and the d y s f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I had wondered i f daughters,  l i k e myself, began t o n o t i c e such  media treatments and were i n f l u e n c e d i n some manner. However none o f t h e daughters v o l u n t e e r e d any awareness o f o r i n t e r e s t i n media p o r t r a y a l s o f "boomerang k i d s . " Rather, daughters' i d e a s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s about r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e were shaped by t h e i r s o c i a l m i l i e u " o f parents, r e l a t i v e s , c l o s e  "immediate  friends,  134 acquaintances, daughters  and c o l l e a g u e s . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had l e a r n e d about  North  American/Western s o c i e t y ' s " s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s " f o r d e f i n i n g adulthood--emphasizing  t h a t one should be l i v i n g  i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f one's parents, and be somewhat f i n a n c i a l l y and o c c u p a t i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the time one reaches 30 years o l d . Many daughters  suggested  t h a t today's  sociocultural  s c r i p t s seem t o p l a c e l e s s emphasis on being i n a s t a b l e i n t i m a t e p a r t n e r s h i p , o r marriage, one  and having  children--until  i s o l d e r and e s t a b l i s h e d . Today's s c r i p t s , which encompass  c u r r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and s o c i a l t i m e t a b l e s f o r l i f e t a s k s l e a v i n g home, e s t a b l i s h i n g a c a r e e r and g e t t i n g  like  married,  should be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from yesterday's s c r i p t s o r one's p a r e n t s ' s c r i p t s . In y e s t e r d a y ' s - p a r e n t ' s s c r i p t s t h e timeframe f o r accomplishing milestones was t i g h t e r o r more rigid—living  independently, g e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , and forming  one's own f a m i l y were expected  t o occur i n one's e a r l y  t w e n t i e s . The " s h i f t i n g " q u a l i t y o f the s c r i p t s can be c o n f u s i n g f o r both daughters  and parents, and n e i t h e r  adequately d e a l with the meaning o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . Given t h e u b i q u i t y o f such s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s , many daughters  were exposed, d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t o t h e  judgement and censure o f others who h e l d low o p i n i o n s o f a d u l t s r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . T h i s s o c i a l judgement can be  135 e x p e r i e n c e d as q u i t e harsh and damaging t o some daughters. Awareness of d e p a r t i n g from the s c r i p t , e s p e c i a l l y  pertaining  t o l i v i n g independently of one's parents, c o u l d c r e a t e dissonance and be f r i g h t e n i n g f o r those who  accept  the  v a l i d i t y of the s c r i p t on the one hand, and l i b e r a t i n g f o r those who  questioned the hegemony and v a l i d i t y o f the  on the o t h e r hand. Those daughters who tended  t o h a r s h l y judge themselves  and those who  accepted the  as " l o s e r s " and  d i d not, c o n s i d e r e d themselves  script  scripts "failures,"  too smart t o  i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s and embraced being non-conformist d i f f e r e n t . The  former had a harder time r e c o n c i l i n g  buy and  their  a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n , and grappled with f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r themselves  a t times.  Departure  from the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t c a l l s f o r  meaning-making and a d a p t a t i o n . Although many daughters  and  p a r e n t s i n i t i a l l y f e l t d i s t r a u g h t about daughters r e t u r n i n g home, because i t v i o l a t e d what had been expected  and  a t t a i n a b l e f o r the parents when they were younger, they v o l u n t e e r e d t h a t " t a l k i n g t o o t h e r s " made them r e a l i z e t h a t many o t h e r a d u l t c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n i n g home--thereby " n o r m a l i z i n g the experience." In the process of n o r m a l i z i n g the r e t u r n home, i t seems t h a t daughters  and t h e i r  parents  were acknowledging t h a t the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t of independent  l i v i n g t h a t parents grew up with may  and t h a t a r e v i s e d , more " f l u i d " s c r i p t , i n today's c o n t e x t of extended  be  outdated  i s more a p p r o p r i a t e  e d u c a t i o n a l needs,  expensive  136 housing,  and prolonged s i n g l e h o o d . Some parents and  daughters  acknowledged t h a t moving back t o one's p a r e n t s ' home does not n e c e s s a r i l y make one l e s s of an a d u l t , "being r e s p o n s i b l e " i n one's l i f e emerged as a more important  feature. Ultimately,  t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t "the world i s d i f f e r e n t  today."  The a d a p t a t i o n of more " f l u i d " s c r i p t s can be more f o r g i v i n g t o daughters'  s e l f - i m a g e and s e l f - e s t e e m .  Consequences of Regrouping  a t the P a r e n t a l Home  The consequences of regrouping at the p a r e n t a l home be understood  i n terms of (a) the s t a t u s of  may  daughters'  a t t a i n i n g t h e i r regrouping o b j e c t i v e s and what happens when one's r e g r o u p i n g o b j e c t i v e s are met, going well,  are underway, o r are not  (b) the q u a l i t y of the regrouping p r o c e s s  as  p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e r e l a t i v e t o the compromises one makes and the c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e while c o r e s i d i n g i n the p a r e n t a l home, (c) the impact image, and  on daughters'  sense of s e l f or  (d) the impact on daughters'  self-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  parents. With r e g a r d t o t h i s , the reader i s reminded t h a t a subset of s i x daughters, Nancy) who  (Barbara, E l a i n e , Glenda,  Hannah, L o r r a i n e ,  had a l r e a d y l e f t the p a r e n t a l home and one  (Deborah) who  was  daughter  i n the process of l e a v i n g , p r o v i d e d the  c l e a r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n of "outcomes" i n the sense t h a t they o s t e n s i b l y regrouped  and had l e f t the p a r e n t a l home t o  independently. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o s e v e r a l daughters C a r o l i n e , F a r r a h , Irene, J e n n i f e r , Kathleen, Maria,  had  live (Anne,  Oneida)  137 who were i n t h e process o f regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l home. The  S t a t u s o f A t t a i n i n g Regrouping O b j e c t i v e s  Daughters' regrouping o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d enhancing p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e by s t r i v i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , pursuing c a r e e r and e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s , and i n d i v i d u a t i n g by r e s o l v i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n a l i s s u e s . With r e s p e c t t o t h i s , t h e i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n i s : "Do daughters a c t u a l l y a t t a i n t h e i r  regrouping  o b j e c t i v e s a t t h e p a r e n t a l home"? The answer seems t o be, with r a r e e x c e p t i o n , y e s . Some daughters a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t have adequately (Barbara,  reached  they  t h e i r goals and have l e f t home  E l a i n e , Glenda, Nancy) o r l e a v i n g i s imminent  (Deborah). U s u a l l y daughters decide t o l e a v e t h e p a r e n t a l home as soon as they have a t t a i n e d t h e i r regrouping o b j e c t i v e s and c o n s i d e r themselves f i n a n c i a l l y capable o f l i v i n g independently  o f t h e i r parents. A few daughters b e l i e v e t h a t  they a r e heading i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and t h e end i s i n sight with respect to educational-career o b j e c t i v e s (Caroline, I r e n e ) . Others were s t i l l  i n the process and suggest  that i t  i s t o o soon t o say how e v e r y t h i n g w i l l t u r n out ( F a r r a h , Maria,  Oneida, Kathleen,  J e n n i f e r ) . One daughter was r e a l l y  s t r u g g l i n g t o " s u r v i v e " and her s t a y a t home seems indefinitely  (Anne), and another  daughter had t o l e a v e t h e  p a r e n t a l home because i t was such an e m o t i o n a l l y s i t u a t i o n f o r her (Hannah).  prolonged  abusive  138 Attaining Financial Security In r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o regroup,  daughters  were s t r i v i n g f o r more f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r l i v e s . As a r e s u l t o f regrouping at the p a r e n t a l home, an enormous b e n e f i t t h a t a l l daughters Having  enjoyed was  r e l i e f from m a t e r i a l w o r r i e s .  l e s s m a t e r i a l w o r r i e s i s r e l e v a n t t o the n o t i o n s o f  "ease of l i v i n g , "  "easing p r e s s u r e s " on daughters  shoulders,  and having more " f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y " because one's immediate m a t e r i a l needs f o r a p l a c e t o l i v e and access t o r e s o u r c e s (i.e.,  food, laundry, car, computer) are taken c a r e of by  one's p a r e n t s . Having daughter  l e s s m a t e r i a l w o r r i e s meant t h a t a  had none t o minimal  enabled some daughters  r e n t or food e x p e n d i t u r e s , which  t o save money f o r the f u t u r e , t o pay o f  d e b t s / l o a n s , and t o have more expendable or d i s c r e t i o n a r y income. In t u r n , many daughters  experienced l e s s worry about  the f u t u r e because they p e r c e i v e d t h a t they were i n a l e s s v u l n e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , J e n n i f e r says t h a t r e g r o u p i n g a t her parent's home "opens" up the f u t u r e , "because you're not l i m i t e d t o making a r e n t cheque." G e n e r a l l y speaking, daughters as soon as they determined independent  they sought  d i d not abuse t h i s p r i v i l e g e  t h a t they c o u l d be  and  financially  t o l e a v e the p a r e n t a l home.  P u r s u i n g Career and E d u c a t i o n a l Plans Many daughters'  regrouping e f f o r t s encompassed the need  t o a s s u r e a q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e by becoming more educated  and c l a r i f y i n g one's c a r e e r niche, thereby a s s u r i n g  f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . In doing so, daughters  hope t o i n c r e a s e  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s a l a r i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , as w e l l as t o d i s c o v e r one's c a r e e r niche--whose d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s encompass doing " f u l f i l l i n g " feels  and  "rewarding"  work t h a t  " p a s s i o n a t e " about. For many daughters,  being a b l e t o  c l a r i f y one's c a r e e r n i c h e meant t h a t one was in  the quest t o "be happy," " f e e l complete,"  one  moving and  forward  "be  l i b e r a t e d " from the " u n s a t i s f y i n g 9 t o 5 g r i n d " t h a t one i s c u r r e n t l y i n , or the r o u t i n e - r u t t h a t one had seen one's p a r e n t s p l o d through i n unrewarding but "secure" work l i v e s . Being a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h i s process was because one was  empowering  not r e s i g n i n g o n e s e l f t o an unhappy f a t e ,  moving towards shaping one's own  but  o c c u p a t i o n a l d e s t i n y . The  d e p a r t u r e from r o u t i n e , unimaginative jobs was  experienced  as  both r i s k y and e x c i t i n g . I t does not n e c e s s a r i l y matter t h a t one's a c t u a l success cannot be p r o g n o s t i c a t e d or As Deborah, who  guaranteed.  has l e f t her secure f i n a n c i a l a d v i s o r j o b i n  favour of e x p l o r i n g a c a r e e r i n w r i t i n g ,  says:  I t seems more e x c i t i n g and i n t e r e s t i n g t o go: Okay, t h i s w i l l be hard f o r awhile, but then you're going t o have t h i s huge p o t e n t i a l success! And success not j u s t m o n e t a r i l y , but success i n t h a t I'm l i v i n g a l l the elements of l i f e t h a t I need--being p a s s i o n a t e and c r e a t i v e about t h i n g s . So t h a t seems f a r more e x c i t i n g than doing the same o l d , same o l d . In  t h i s sense, many daughters  b e l i e v e that regrouping at  the p a r e n t a l home has been i n s t r u m e n t a l t o them both e d u c a t i o n a l l y and o c c u p a t i o n a l l y . They may  f e e l c l o s e r to  c l a r i f y i n g t h a t c a r e e r niche, or l e a s t t h a t they are moving i n  140 the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n .  For i n s t a n c e , Glenda's dream t o become a  nurse may not have been r e a l i z e d without having l i v e d a t her p a r e n t s home f o r 3 1/2 years while she went t o c o l l e g e . She s t a t e s t h a t her sense o f s e l f i s more complete now t h a t she has achieved her n u r s i n g degree and i s g a i n f u l l y  employed.  Individuating i n Parent-Child Relationship For some daughters,  developing a s t r o n g e r sense o f s e l f  meant "becoming more grounded o r c e n t r e d i n myself,"  "finding  my v o i c e / b e i n g a s s e r t i v e , "  less,"  and  "needing parents a p p r o v a l  " f e e l i n g more s o l i d / i n t e g r a t e d " r e l a t i v e t o one's p a r e n t s .  In t h e i r quest t o become s t r o n g e r and t o have more s a t i s f y i n g parent-child relations,  E l a i n e and Deborah b e l i e v e d t h a t they  had s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e c o n c i l e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s w i t h  their  p a r e n t s . E l a i n e moved out as soon as she f e l t t h a t she had accomplished  her agenda. Deborah chose t o s t a y on as l o n g as  she c o u l d because she was a l s o engaged i n making a c a r e e r transition  and had l e f t her p l a c e o f employment i n o r d e r t o  w r i t e a book. N e i t h e r daughter  seemed t o have made any s i g n i f i c a n t  compromises i n order t o achieve t h e i r agendas. In t h i s they may have appeared but t o themselves  r i g i d or i n f l e x i b l e to t h e i r  i t was enormously s a t i s f y i n g  regard,  parents,  t o withstand  any p a r e n t a l o b j e c t i o n s t o the changes they were making i n t h e i r l i v e s . Deborah was s a t i s f i e d t h a t she had a t t a i n e d p e r s o n a l " c l o s u r e " i n t h i s regard. E l a i n e noted how r e s o l v i n g some i s s u e s w i t h her mother was i n s t r u m e n t a l t o h e r b e g i n n i n g  141 to f e e l l i k e she had a "stronger i d e n t i t y " - - l i k e her person and not j u s t her parents' daughter,  own  and t o f e e l more  " a d u l t . " She r e p o r t s t h a t she i s n e a r l y 100%  s a t i s f i e d with  having r e s o l v e d her i s s u e s with her mother, and concludes t h a t it  has allowed her t o be a b l e t o do what she wants without  worrying about what her parents t h i n k . Most n o t a b l y , she i s b e g i n n i n g t o accept the person she i s becoming i n r e l a t i o n  to  her mother: I need t o be a b l e t o accept t h a t her o p i n i o n w i l l be d i f f e r e n t than mine sometimes, and t h a t ' s okay, and t h a t ' s p a r t of being an a d u l t . You know t h a t I am d i f f e r e n t than my mother. I should be d i f f e r e n t than her because I'm not the same as her; we weren't r a i s e d the same way. I t h i n k t h a t was a b i g p a r t of i t , t h a t s e p a r a t i o n of me from my parent's daughter-who I am. Q u a l i t y of the Regrouping Although the daughters  a t Home Experience  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had a t t a i n e d  t h e i r r e g r o u p i n g o b j e c t i v e s , or were i n the process o f approximating  t h e i r regrouping o b j e c t i v e s , t h i s does not  n e c e s s a r i l y imply t h a t r e a l i z i n g one's e x p e c t a t i o n s was or s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . Indeed, some daughters  easy  have n e g a t i v e  e x p e r i e n c e s of regrouping at home because they s t r u g g l e w i t h internal  o b s t a c l e s ( i . e . , negative b e l i e f s , a n x i e t y ,  i n d e c i s i o n ) and e x t e r n a l o b s t a c l e s ( i . e . , p a r e n t a l c r i t i c i s m and l a c k of emotional support, l a c k of money) t h a t make i t more d i f f i c u l t t o a t t a i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s a t the pace they would l i k e t o . In such cases, daughters and may  seem t o be  remain l i v i n g a t home longer than they  a n t i c i p a t e d , they may  faltering  initially  c h a r a c t e r i z e the experience of l i v i n g at  142 home as "hard," l e s s s a t i s f y i n g , and they may f e e l t h e i r  self-  esteem has been somewhat diminished as a r e s u l t . In an extreme case, Hannah l e f t home when t h e arguing between h e r and f a t h e r culminated i n her being "kicked out." Although  she saved money  f o r t r a v e l and a condo, she s t a t e s t h a t she was unable i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f her l i f e  (i.e.,  t o grow  professionally,  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , emotionally). S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o regroup may not be a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e from daughters'  p e r s p e c t i v e s because t h e r e a r e  v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f compromises and s a c r i f i c e s t h a t may accompany r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup. Some compromises a r e known and a n t i c i p a t e d i n r e t u r n i n g home, however o t h e r compromises and c o m p l i c a t i o n s may be unexpected  and a r i s e  w h i l e one i s c o r e s i d i n g with one's p a r e n t s . The e x t e n t and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such p e r s o n a l compromises ( i . e . , o f one's independence, freedom, p r i v a c y , a b i l i t y t o be o n e s e l f , p e r s e v e r i n g i n an unhealthy f a m i l y dynamic, q u a l i t y o f s o c i a l l i f e and i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s , r i s k i n g o t h e r s ' judgement), and the e x t e n t t o which they a r e c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e , temporary, and worthwhile  w i l l a l s o determine  tolerable,  whether  r e g r o u p i n g a t home i s c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y o r not. I n c o n s i d e r i n g whether o r not i t i s good o r bad f o r h e r t o be a t home a t t h i s time, J e n n i f e r responds  with  ambivalence:  W e l l , p r a c t i c a l l y i t should be good, but i n some ways I t h i n k i t ' s not....(pause). I don't know. I guess... (pause) I don't know. I haven't q u i t e f i g u r e d t h a t one o u t .  143 U l t i m a t e l y , daughters  who make g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l compromises  and s a c r i f i c e s t o be a t home, and a l s o e x p e r i e n c e a g r e a t e r degree o f f a l t e r i n g , may experience d i m i n i s h e d p o t e n t i a l t o enhance p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r daughters who do n o t . The number and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f compromises and c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e i n daughters'  l i f e contexts, i n turn,  c u l m i n a t e i n t h e degree t o which t h e daughters'  consider t h e i r  e x p e r i e n c e s o f regrouping as p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . F o r i n s t a n c e , F a r r a h ' s compromise e n t a i l s her d e c i s i o n t o p e r s e v e r e i n an unhealthy  f a m i l y atmosphere so t h a t she can  pursue h e r graduate degree p l a n s - - a t r i s k t o her mental and emotional w e l l - b e i n g . She f i n d s i t q u i t e d e v a s t a t i n g t o witness her f a m i l y ' s unhealthy dynamic and her mother's a l c o h o l i s m unchanged. Moreover, t h e i r disparagement o f her i n t e r e s t s and l i f e s t y l e hurt her deeply. Pursuing h e r p a s s i o n and c a r e e r pathway i n music i s a constant b a t t l e because she f e e l s t h a t h e r f a m i l y "sabotages"  her e f f o r t s t o p r a c t i c e her  music. Given t h i s , she r a t e s her l e v e l o f emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g a t home as q u i t e low ( i . e . ,  1 to 3  out o f 7 ) . She w i l l accomplish her g o a l s , but not without s i g n i f i c a n t emotional c o s t t o h e r s e l f , such t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l i v i n g and regrouping a t home may be c o n s i d e r e d a h i g h l y n e g a t i v e experience. F a r r a h acknowledges t h a t regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l home i s not completely the best p l a c e f o r her t o be. However, she  144 c l i n g s t o t h e hope t h a t i t w i l l be worth i t i n t h e l o n g r u n . She weighs t h e pros and cons i n the present a g a i n s t t h e p o t e n t i a l r e t u r n s she f o r s e e s i n t h e f u t u r e . Thus t h e n o t i o n t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o regroup  i s "easy" i s dismissed as untrue f o r many daughters.  I n s t e a d i t i s e x p l i c i t l y acknowledged t h a t r e g r o u p i n g a t t h e p a r e n t a l home o f t e n e n t a i l s " g i v i n g up something t o g e t something." Returning home t o regroup seems t o e n t a i l a w i l l i n g n e s s t o make compromises t h a t o t h e r s ' may not r e c o g n i z e or  g l o s s over as i n s i g n i f i c a n t . J e n n i f e r observes: But you g e t comments from people you know. People t h i n k t h a t i t ' s a r e a l "swan" t h a t you're doing n o t h i n g and not paying, maybe 'cause they're envious. But, I t h i n k people, i f they've had t o make t h e c h o i c e , they don't choose t o l i v e a t home. They choose t o work f u l l time and c l a i m t h a t they don't have t h e l u x u r y o f going t o s c h o o l and then have t h e i r own p l a c e . So i t ' s a compromise and people don't n e c e s s a r i l y see t h a t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e a b i l i t y t o enhance p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and  q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n the f u t u r e may be d i m i n i s h e d by s i g n i f i c a n t compromises o r u n a n t i c i p a t e d c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n daughters'  life  contexts. This, i n turn, a f f e c t s the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the e x p e r i e n c e and d e c i s i o n s t o leave o r t o remain a t t h e p a r e n t a l home. I t ' s as i f a r a t i o o f s u b j e c t i v e l y weighted such as t h e nature and q u a l i t y o f regrouping  factors-  process  ( f a l t e r i n g v e r s u s advancing) and i t s outcomes r e l a t i v e t o t h e nature and amount o f compromises and o t h e r " n e g a t i v e s " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i v i n g a t the p a r e n t a l home c u l m i n a t e i n a net r e s u l t — t h e e x t e n t t o which the o v e r a l l e x p e r i e n c e i s  145 c o n s i d e r e d n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e . Daughters (and t h e i r  parents)  f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d a negative experience as being  "hard,"  "difficult,"  experience  and " u n s a t i s f y i n g , " whereas a p o s i t i v e  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "easy,"  "comfortable," and " s a t i s f y i n g . "  Thus, even when regrouping o b j e c t i v e s a r e met o r w e l l underway, a daughter  may s t i l l  c o n s i d e r her e x p e r i e n c e t o be  somewhat n e g a t i v e i f some important aspect o f h e r s e l f  (i.e.,  expression of s e l f ,  (i.e.,  s e x - l i f e on-hold,  self-esteem) o r her r e l a t i o n s h i p s  f a l l i n g out with parents) has been  d i m i n i s h e d . In t h e daughter's  mind t h i s may seem l i k e an  acceptable "trade-off," temporarily s a c r i f i c i n g or compromising aspects o f h e r s e l f and her l i f e i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a l a r g e r g o a l . Having  s a i d t h i s , i t does not mean t h a t  t h i s i s an easy road t o t r a v e l . Indeed, as Hannah who "has been t o h e l l and back" i m p l i e s ,  "the road t o h e l l i s paved  w i t h good i n t e n t i o n s . " In t h i s sense,  t h e r e may be ambivalence  of r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup  about t h e wisdom  i n the sense t h a t a c c o m p l i s h i n g  p e r s o n a l g o a l s may be done a t the expense o f t h e daughter's emotional w e l l - b e i n g o r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . Some daughters ask themselves,  may  "Does the end j u s t i f y t h e means?" Hannah may  o f f e r some i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s dilemma. A f t e r l e a v i n g / b e i n g k i c k e d out by her f a t h e r d u r i n g a heated  fight,  she can now  see t h a t she had compromised h e r s e l f and her i n t e g r i t y by v a l u i n g money o r m a t e r i a l i s m over being t r u e t o h e r s e l f and her own v a l u e s concerning freedom, education, and  146 spirituality.  In r e t r o s p e c t she sees how being a t home was  damaging t o these result  " f i n e r " i d e a l s she a s p i r e d t o , and as a  "my s e l f - e s t e e m r e a l l y sunk while I was t h e r e . " She  observes  t h a t "I was w i l l i n g t o s u f f e r t o save money b e f o r e ,  whereas I'm not w i l l i n g t o do t h a t now." She e l a b o r a t e s t h a t , When I was i n Europe I had a l l these f r e e i d e a s about money and how money i s not important and I had t h i s philosophy, but then I went back home and moved back w i t h them a f t e r I came back and I s t a r t e d t o f o r g e t what I had l e a r n e d . And when I l e f t again, I remembered i t a l l again. And i t ' s l i k e , "What was I t h i n k i n g ? " I t ' s almost l i k e i t was a l l r e p r e s s e d f o r a l l t h a t time and then i t came out again and I remembered who I was again! There i s a danger, perhaps a c a u t i o n a r y note, c a r e not t o j e o p a r d i z e one's emotional,  t h a t one take  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and  s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g i n favour o f g r a t i f y i n g m a t e r i a l needs. Impact on Sense o f S e l f In regrouping  a t the p a r e n t a l home many daughters s t r i v e  towards d e v e l o p i n g a s t r o n g e r sense o f s e l f , which c o n s i s t s o f " f e e l i n g whole," "grounded," "centred," " c o n f i d e n t . " For many daughters,  " a s s e r t i v e , " and  becoming s t r o n g e r a l s o  c e n t r e d around "overcoming v u l n e r a b i l i t y " emotional,  (i.e.,  financial,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) by r e c u p e r a t i n g and r e e n e r g i z i n g  a f t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t setback o r time o f t r a n s i t i o n i n one's life.  For Maria she a s s e r t s t h a t regrouping  a t her mother's  home means t h a t , "I t h i n k f o r me, i t ' s coming back t o my c e n t r e o f power and my r e b a l a n c i n g i n my own l i f e  I t h i n k . And  k i n d o f t a k i n g what I need from the past and l e a v i n g t h e r e s t behind."  147 Ultimately, vulnerability  s e v e r a l daughters noted t h a t overcoming  and becoming stronger  i n the face o f  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r l i v e s created a stronger  sense o f t h e i r  i n n e r r e s i l i e n c e and c a p a c i t y t o handle " l i f e ' s c u r v e - b a l l s . " Of t h e daughters who were s t r i v i n g t o become s t r o n g e r  after a  setback o r d u r i n g a t r a n s i t i o n a l time, they were attempting t o "ground" o r "centre" themselves i n the face o f f e e l i n g vulnerability,  fragmentation, and c o n f u s i o n .  Relevant t o t h i s ,  M a r i a says r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup f a c i l i t a t e d h e r a b i l i t y t o become a s t r o n g e r  person i n r e l a t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  " l e t t i n g go o f t h e past"  (i.e.,  childhood  issues with  p a r e n t s ) so t h a t she can move forward with her l i f e and hopefully establish  a healthy  intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p  with a  man. She observes t h a t , I am with have know that  g e t t i n g stronger and that I can stand my ground whatever o r whomever e n t e r s my l i f e - - a n d j u s t t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f handling i t . Being a b l e t o t h a t a t home, o r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r a t work I can stand my ground and f e e l whole.  Unfortunately,  s t r i v i n g t o develop a s t r o n g e r  sense o f  s e l f i n t h e face o f a s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e - t r a n s i t i o n (chosen o r not)  can be undermined by exposure t o o t h e r s '  judgements t h a t  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  Many  daughters' sense o f s e l f was n e g a t i v e l y impacted by t h i s . They spoke o f t h e embarrassment and shame t h a t they f e l t  about  r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home. They o f t e n s a i d t h a t they like  "losers"  felt  o r " f a i l u r e s " i n t h e i r own eyes, as w e l l as i n  the eyes o f o t h e r s .  J e n n i f e r says t h a t s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n  148 her sense o f s e l f i s a core i s s u e t h a t she contends  with since  her r e t u r n t o her mother and s t e p f a t h e r ' s home: M a i n t a i n i n g who you a r e i n s p i t e o f t h e way s o c i e t y views moving home--sort o f m a i n t a i n i n g a sense o f who I am, and my p r i d e i n who I am d e s p i t e how people may view what I do, what I'm doing. That's s o r t o f how I see i t . I t ' s a b i g joke, i s n ' t i t , people who s t i l l l i v e with t h e i r parents? She e l a b o r a t e s t h a t the process o f m a i n t a i n i n g a sense o f "who I am" has a l s o been u n w i t t i n g l y undermined by t h e presence o f her p a r e n t s . S i n c e she i s f e e l i n g so f r a g i l e and fragmented these days,  as she s t r u g g l e s t o get her l i f e t o g e t h e r , she  c o n f e s s e s t h a t she f e e l s  "inadequate"  p a r e n t s who a r e " s a i n t s "  and so "together." Others may compare  themselves  i n comparison t o h e r  unfavourably t o t h e i r peers who seem t o be moving  forward w i t h t h e i r l i v e s p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and r e l a t i o n a l l y . They see themselves  as " f a l l i n g behind" because they have r e t u r n e d  to t h e i r p a r e n t s ' home. Another r e p e r c u s s i o n o f r e t u r n i n g home t o some daughters' sense o f s e l f was t h e concern t h a t they had compromised  their  "independence." They f e a r e d t h a t they may become dependent on t h e i r p a r e n t s . "Becoming dependent" s i g n a l l e d , incalculable  f o r a few, an  l o s s i n which the freedom t o be o n e s e l f and t h e  sheer a p p r e c i a t i o n o f one's c a p a c i t y t o l i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y and make i t on one's own i s compromised. In t u r n , they o f t e n f e l t t h a t they had traded t h e i r  "adult s t a t u s " f o r a " c h i l d s t a t u s "  because they were dependent--such t h a t they sometimes  felt  l e s s r e s p o n s i b l e and competent r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r peers, and were o f t e n t r e a t e d l i k e c h i l d r e n by t h e i r p a r e n t s . A few  149 daughters  joked about the t e r r i f y i n g prospect o f s t i l l  living  at home 10 y e a r s i n the future--how h o r r i b l e and demeaning t h i s would be! Yet the ambivalence  about " g i v i n g up one's  independence f o r comfort" h i n t s a t the s e d u c t i v e temptation o f s t a y i n g a t t h e p a r e n t a l home beyond one's own s u b j e c t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what i s necessary and reasonable. Impact on R e l a t i o n s h i p s with Regrouping  Parents  i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s e l f - i n v o l v e d and  p e r s o n a l process, where one i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g one's time, a t t e n t i o n , and e f f o r t s on o n e s e l f . Although  this  r e g r o u p i n g process t r a n s p i r e s w i t h i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t of the f a m i l y , some daughters  d e s c r i b e t h e i r f a m i l i e s as being  q u i t e p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e i r plans and a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s and a c t i v i t i e s f i g u r e prominently i n the foreground o f t h e i r l i v e s , whereas t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s a r e r e l e g a t e d t o the background. Given  this  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the regrouping process, an i n a d v e r t e n t consequence i s t h a t the f a m i l y members l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e p a r e n t a l household  f u n c t i o n q u i t e independently o f each o t h e r .  J e n n i f e r uses the metaphor o f "ships p a s s i n g i n the n i g h t " t o convey t h i s  "independent"  q u a l i t y of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s :  I guess t h a t the metaphor f o r t h a t would be s h i p s , and t h a t ' s going t o sound c l i c h e , s h i p s p a s s i n g i n t h e n i g h t o r whatever. But I f e e l we're each v e r y i n d u s t r i o u s i n our own ways, and we're v e r y much independent. But we c r o s s paths and we communicate. But we're d e f i n i t e l y , very d e f i n i t e l y our own u n i t s , k i n d o f t h i n g . Yeah. I t ' s k i n d o f l i k e t h a t I guess. We k i n d o f c r u i s e around each o t h e r ! ( l a u g h i n g ) In choosing t o l i v e f a i r l y independently o f one's  150 p a r e n t s ' and s i b l i n g s ' d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , one's own  activities,  some daughters  i n favour of p u r s u i n g  seem t o c o n s i d e r the  p a r e n t a l home as a p r a c t i c a l and f r e e p l a c e t o be  without  n e c e s s a r i l y making a s u b s t a n t i a l commitment t o spending  time  w i t h o t h e r f a m i l y members. Yet t h i s does not mean t h a t a number of these daughters  do not worry about the consequences  of t h i s a c t i o n on t h e i r parents. The i n d i v i d u a l and nature of regrouping t h a t may r a i s e s daughters'  concerns  entail  private  " s h u t t i n g p a r e n t s out"  (and p o s s i b l y g u i l t ) about  i n a d v e r t e n t l y h u r t i n g parents' f e e l i n g s and making them unimportant.  Jennifer i l l u s t r a t e s this  feel  concern:  But you see I worry because you see I'm so i n t o myself. do--I wash up and I do the meals and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , so we do k i n d of bond over those t h i n g s , but I'm r e a l l y i n t o myself. L i k e I spend a l l my time i n my room, and I worry about them. L i k e I don't want them t o f e e l t h a t I'm s h u t t i n g them out, but I do shut them out t o a p o i n t . So, yes, i t i s p o s i t i v e i n c e r t a i n ways, but I worry t h a t I'm not g i v i n g them e x a c t l y what they would hope f o r . U l t i m a t e l y , one's parents (and s i b l i n g s ) cannot  be  e n t i r e l y ignored, l i k e background n o i s e , as the l i k e l i h o o d of t e n s i o n or c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g may c o n d i t i o n s . When daughters'  be h i g h e r under these  do not communicate w i t h o r spend  time w i t h t h e i r parents, parents may  object to being t r e a t e d  as an inconvenience or an o b l i g a t i o n t h a t must be  tolerated.  They i n d i c a t e t h a t they deserve t o be r e s p e c t e d and make p o i n t e d remarks about these daughters  needing  t o be more  c o n s i d e r a t e and courteous of parents' needs, wishes, and b e l o n g i n g s . Anne's parents  say:  space,  I  151 We have arguments with her, you know, and we j u s t f e e l t h a t t h e r e ' s no way out f o r us and i t ' s so hard. Anne l i k e s her own way and expects us t o go along w i t h her and t h a t ' s no good because she should c o n s i d e r us more than she does because we have our l i f e to l i v e . Thus, i n choosing t o regroup a t the p a r e n t a l home, daughters  must d e a l with t h e i r parents i n a d d i t i o n t o d e a l i n g  w i t h one's own concerns. For some daughters,  "dealing with  p a r e n t s " means responding t o t h e i r concerns,  complaints,  criticisms,  r e q u e s t s , and a d v i c e . T h i s i s p a r t o f t h e p r i c e o f  r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o regroup. Some days t h i s may f e e l onerous because one o f the b e n e f i t s o f having  lived  i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r years was t h a t one d i d not have t o d e a l w i t h one's parents on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s , e s p e c i a l l y from  such  close proximity. Although daughter's  o f t e n b e n e f i t from p a r e n t s '  financial  support as they seek t o achieve t h e i r regrouping o b j e c t i v e s , a source o f " t e n s i o n " e x i s t s between parents and daughters c o n c e r n i n g how much a s s i s t a n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e by daughters.  Daughters a r e very s e n s i t i v e and p r o t e c t i v e o f  t h e i r independence. Therefore, parents who a r e t o o i n t r u s i v e in  attempting t o a s s i s t t h e i r daughters  may r i s k t h e i r i r e .  C a r o l i n e ' s mother observes t h a t there i s some t r e p i d a t i o n about h e l p i n g t h e i r daughter  without being t o o i n t r u s i v e o r  heavyhanded: C a r o l i n e came back f r a g i l e and we wanted t o h e l p b u i l d her c o n f i d e n c e a l l the time, and so we d i d n ' t want to say a l o t . So i t ' s been hard sometimes and t h i n g s got b e t t e r by the f a l l . We wanted her t o be a p a r t of our l i f e , but we d i d n ' t want t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h  152 her l i f e and we d i d n ' t know how much she was w i l l i n g to share--which she d i d n ' t share a l o t i n the b e g i n n i n g . She d i d n ' t want us t o have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h the f e l l o w she l e f t . Uhm, and as she s t a r t e d t o make a l i f e f o r h e r s e l f i n Vancouver t h i n g s became much e a s i e r . In  c o n t r a s t , o t h e r parents 'dive i n ' and become more h e a v i l y  i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g t h e i r daughters, as Barbara's p a r e n t s d i d by " c l o s i n g ranks" and  " c i r c l i n g the wagons" around  their  daughter when her husband abandoned her. Barbara's mother h i n t s a t her concern t h a t t h e i r impulse t o p r o t e c t daughter may  have overwhelmed her and been o v e r l y  r o b b i n g her of the freedom  t o e x e r c i s e her own  their intrusive,  will.  agrees t h a t she i s extremely f r u s t r a t e d w i t h how  Barbara  her p a r e n t s  tend t o make d e c i s i o n s f o r her or a c t p r e c i p i t o u s l y without c o n s u l t i n g her. Although parents are aware t h a t t h e i r daughters are  now  a d u l t s , they admit t h a t they can i n a d v e r t e n t l y o v e r s t e p t h e i r daughters' boundaries. " C r o s s i n g t h i s l i n e " i s tantamount t o t r e a t i n g daughters l i k e c h i l d r e n . Barbara's mom  notes t h a t ,  I t ' s v e r y hard because Barbara r e a l l y never has never r e a l l y been out on her own, so i t ' s v e r y hard to remember t h a t she's a 30-year o l d woman w i t h two c h i l d r e n , and not j u s t Barbara, my l i t t l e g i r l . T h i s may because  c r e a t e t e n s i o n i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d  relationship  daughters' c o n s i d e r regrouping t o be t h e i r p e r s o n a l  b u s i n e s s . Parents have been s e n s i t i z e d t o t h e i r  daughter's  need f o r boundaries. C a r o l i n e ' s dad notes t h a t "we're u l t r a s e n s i t i v e t o not p u t t i n g f o r t h our views t o her-t i p t o e i n g around her." In c o n t r a s t , Barbara's dad  cannot  153 r e s i s t speaking h i s mind: Sometimes I'm i n c l i n e d not t o o f f e r advice, but t o TELL them. And then I'm t o l d t o "Get l o s t ! To go and feed your c a t s . " I'm i n c l i n e d t o f o r g e t t h a t and o v e r s t e p a b i t . . . Y o u know you have t o walk a f i n e l i n e . Sometimes I go over the l i n e and I'm pushed back. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the amount o f t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d between a daughter and her mother and a daughter and her f a t h e r was f r e q u e n t l y not considered parents.  the same by daughters and t h e i r  Barbara's mother o f f e r s t h a t f o r her "the hardest  p a r t o f l i v i n g together  i s two women i n one house." She  elaborates: Yeah, I t h i n k i t ' s very much e a s i e r f o r my husband, because the father-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n ' t n e a r l y as complex as a mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p . Generally,  "mother-daughter t e n s i o n " was mentioned more  f r e q u e n t l y than father-daughter r e l a t i o n s . T h i s was considered  tension i n parent-child a r e f l e c t i o n o f (a) f a t h e r ' s  g e n e r a l l y having been more p e r i p h e r a l i n daughters' and  activities;  upbringing  (b) mothers having been more i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r  daughter's u p b r i n g i n g ,  activities,  and s h a r i n g a more  emotional bond; ( c ) daughters g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t  intense  their  p e r s o n a l i t i e s o r s t y l e s o f communication were more s i m i l a r t o t h e i r f a t h e r s ( i . e . , more l a i d - b a c k , more d i r e c t , more a n a l y t i c a l , more humorous) than t h e i r mothers; and (d) daughters g e n e r a l l y considered s e n s i t i v e t o any p e r c e i v e d  t h e i r mothers t o be much more  c r i t i c i s m o r s l i g h t s i n comparison  t o t h e i r f a t h e r s . Relevant t o t h i s mother-daughter t e n s i o n , Deborah notes t h a t her mother i s more " s t r e s s e d out by my  154 presence than dad s i n c e she doesn't want t o p l a y mother anymore" (e.g., drudge work of cooking, g r o c e r y  shopping,  c l e a n i n g f o r a f a m i l y a g a i n ) . Her mother concedes t h a t , you're a mother, you're always a mother. But I'm go o f t h a t r o l e and not s l i p  "Once  trying to l e t  up."  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a core i s s u e i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s has t o do with e s t a b l i s h i n g adequate boundaries. I n v a r i a b l y , daughters  i n d i c a t e t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h p a r e n t s means  c o n s t a n t l y " n e g o t i a t i n g boundaries"--which energy,  takes c o n s i d e r a b l e  p e r s i s t e n c e , and know-how. In a few cases,  l a c k e d the necessary knowledge of how  daughters  t o adequately d e a l w i t h  p a r e n t s and sought out p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g . C e r t a i n l y , a h i g h e r degree of p a r e n t a l involvement may  be a p p r e c i a t e d by  some daughters as s u p p o r t i v e and h e l p f u l , but a few e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s as " p a r e n t a l  daughters  interference"--unwelcome,  i n t r u s i v e , and u n h e l p f u l . For i n s t a n c e , L o r r a i n e observes her p a r e n t s badgered  her with q u e s t i o n s about why  she  that  had  r e t u r n e d home, h i n d e r i n g her c a p a c i t y t o h e a l from an abusive marriage t h a t she wished  t o c o n c e a l from her p a r e n t s , and  she  concludes t h a t they "wouldn't allow me t o do what I needed t o do i n o r d e r t o move on."  In t h i s regard she s t a t e d t h a t  she  b e l i e v e d t h a t regrouping at the p a r e n t a l home was u n h e l p f u l . She  observes: I thought i t t o be very u n h e l p f u l . Uhm, I had c o u s i n s were more understanding of my s i t u a t i o n than my p a r e n t s were. And, i t turned out t h a t , uhm, when I t a l k e d w i t h my c o u s i n s i t was more t o t a l k about what I a c t u a l l y wanted t o do, where I was going t o go, and how I was going t o d e a l with the f u t u r e - -  who  r a t h e r than a c t u a l l y d e a l i n g with t h e past, which was being l e f t behind, and not one t h a t needs t o be dredged up. And so t h a t ' s what I f e l t a t t h a t time, and being a t home and t r y i n g t o do t h a t r e g r o u p i n g was v e r y d i f f i c u l t because t h e r e was always, "Oh w e l l , what would so and so t h i n k o f t h i s ? " I t ' s l i k e , "I don't know what he t h i n k s ! " Although L o r r a i n e e v e n t u a l l y f i g u r e d out what she wanted to  do w i t h h e r l i f e and became s t r o n g enough t o v e n t u r e o u t on  her own again, she c o n s i d e r e d her o v e r a l l e x p e r i e n c e a t her p a r e n t s ' home t o be q u i t e negative because she found i t p e r s o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l with her p a r e n t s ' q u e s t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s t o h e r being a t home. In t u r n , t h i s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with her p a r e n t s . She concludes t h a t r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup c r e a t e d h o s t i l i t y and miscommunication with her parents, a dynamic they had not p r e v i o u s l y experienced together, r e s u l t i n g i n a l a s t i n g t h a t she s t i l l  "rift"  s t r u g g l e s t o come t o g r i p s w i t h today. She  comments on her r e l a t i o n s h i p with them: I don't know you guys, and you don't know me. And t h a t was v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . I t h i n k i t devastated a l l t h r e e o f us because we thought i t was a r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h a t we thought we got along w e l l , but we d i d n ' t . We're a l l three very s t r o n g personalities. In  c o n t r a s t t o L o r r a i n e , some daughters  acknowledged t h a t  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r parents had improved ( i f s t r a i n e d ) , w h i l e o t h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s remained l a r g e l y unchanged as a r e s u l t o f r e t u r n i n g home t o l i v e . r e l a t i o n s were q u i t e s a t i s f y i n g , daughters  When  generally reported  t h a t they f e l t q u i t e l u c k y with t h e i r c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s and suggested  t h a t the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s enhanced t h e i r  156 r e g r o u p i n g and c o r e s i d i n g experience. For i n s t a n c e , C a r o l i n e i s g r a t i f i e d t h a t she has r e c e i v e d the emotional h e l p and support  and f i n a n c i a l  she needed from her parents. Seeing C a r o l i n e  and h e r parents together, one c o u l d a l s o not h e l p but be s t r u c k by t h e mutual c a r i n g and r e s p e c t w i t h which they regarded  one another. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r some  r e t u r n i n g home t o regroup may unexpectedly  daughters,  diminish the  q u a l i t y o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s . T h i s i s a r i s k some daughters  unknowingly make When they r e t u r n t o t h e p a r e n t a l  home t o regroup,  as i l l u s t r a t e d by L o r r a i n e ' s o r Anne's more  extreme n e g a t i v e experiences with t h e i r p a r e n t s . Summary o f Study F i n d i n g s In t h i s theory, daughters p a r e n t s i n o r d e r t o regroup and/or i n response  r e t u r n home t o l i v e w i t h  their  a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g / w o r k i n g abroad,  t o p e r s o n a l s e t b a c k s / c r i s e s , and/or  d e c i s i o n s t o change an aspect o f one's l i f e money, becoming educated,  (i.e.,  saving  reappraising/shifting career  pathway, r e s o l v i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s u e s ) . Regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l home i n v o l v e s t a k i n g some time t o r e e n e r g i z e , t o r e c u p e r a t e , and t o contemplate one's l i f e and immediate p l a n s i n o r d e r t o g e t a f r e s h s t a r t i n some aspect o f one's and,  life  u l t i m a t e l y , t o move out on one's own a g a i n . The i n t e n t i o n  i s t o pursue,  even a c c e l e r a t e , the r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l  g o a l s and p l a n s without  having the o b s t a c l e o r d i s t r a c t i o n o f  having t o spend time, energy, and worry i n meeting b a s i c s u r v i v a l needs ( i . e . , housing,  food). Regrouping seems t o be a  157 h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e process t h a t can encompass i n d i v i d u a l and/or f a m i l i a l i s s u e s . As the c o r e p r o c e s s  and  i m p e r a t i v e , the focus of daughters'  can  regrouping e f f o r t s  encompass contemplating and pursuing c a r e e r or e d u c a t i o n a l plans, s t r i v i n g to a t t a i n f i n a n c i a l security,  and  i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The  intention  i s t o enhance one's p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and assure the l i k e l i h o o d of having a q u a l i t y l i f e i n the f u t u r e . Regrouping  a t the p a r e n t a l home i s embedded o r nested  w i t h i n the immediate context of a daughter's  individual  and  f a m i l y background, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , l i v i n g environment,  and  the i n t e r r e l a t e d but more p e r i p h e r a l c o n t e x t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and f r i e n d s h i p s , and s o c i e t y ' s s o c i o c u l t u r a l  scripts  ( F i g u r e 1). These c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , the nature of the l i f e - e v e n t s t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d regrouping and  daughters'  a c t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e the tone or q u a l i t y of r e g r o u p i n g a t home-i t s d u r a t i o n , l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y ,  and emotional  and complexity. Therefore, daughters'  intensity,  l i f e - c o n t e x t mediates  and i n f l u e n c e s the regrouping process i n both f a c i l i t a t i v e  and  h i n d e r i n g ways. Daughters do not experience a simple,  uncomplicated  l i n e a r forward movement towards a t t a i n i n g g o a l s ; r a t h e r they e x p e r i e n c e an o s c i l l a t i n g p a t t e r n between " f a l t e r i n g "  and  "advancing"  The  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to r e a l i z e valued goals.  r e g r o u p i n g process may from advancing  s h i f t from f a l t e r i n g t o advancing  t o f a l t e r i n g as a r e s u l t of p o s i t i v e  and  and  158 n e g a t i v e t u r n i n g p o i n t s ( i . e . , c l a r i f y i n g one's p l a n , making a s o l i d d e c i s i o n , g e t t i n g a job, having a b i g f i g h t w i t h a p a r e n t ) i n daughters'  l i v e s . The o s c i l l a t i o n back and f o r t h  w i t h i n the regrouping process has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a f l u c t u a t i n g sense o f s e l f o r s e l f - i m a g e . Advancing w i t h a t t a i n i n g p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h moving forward and f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t , o p t i m i s t i c , secure, and focused; whereas f a l t e r i n g i n the regrouping p r o c e s s i s a s s o c i a t e d not moving forward and with f e e l i n g  frustration,  a n x i e t y , i n s e c u r i t y , and d e p r e s s i o n . The i d e a l outcomes o f regrouping i n c l u d e enhancing p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g ( i . e . , becoming s t r o n g e r ) and enhancing the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n the f u t u r e by s t r i v i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , becoming educated,  c l a r i f y i n g one's c a r e e r n i c h e ,  and r e s o l v i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s u e s . I d e a l l y , when one's p e r s o n a l g o a l s a r e w e l l underway o r a t t a i n e d , one l e a v e s the p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e independently. Yet one may a l s o d e c i d e t o c o n t i n u e t o regroup a t the p a r e n t a l home by s e t t i n g new p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o achieve a f t e r i n i t i a l g o a l s have been realized.  In t h i s sense, the regrouping process may be  c o n s i d e r e d c y c l i c a l because one i s beginning the r e g r o u p i n g p r o c e s s anew w i t h another g o a l . However, some daughters  have n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s o f  r e g r o u p i n g a t home because they s t r u g g l e w i t h i n t e r n a l negative b e l i e f s ,  (i.e.,  a n x i e t y , i n d e c i s i o n ) and e x t e r n a l o b s t a c l e s  ( i . e . , p a r e n t a l c r i t i c i s m and l a c k o f emotional support, l a c k  159 of money), which exacerbate difficult  f a l t e r i n g and makes i t more  t o a t t a i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s a t t h e pace they  would l i k e t o , p o s s i b l y p r o l o n g i n g t h e i r s t a y a t t h e p a r e n t a l home. Moreover, daughters'  optimal regrouping e x p e r i e n c e may be  d i m i n i s h e d by t h e v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f c o m p r o m i s e s / s a c r i f i c e s and c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t may accompany r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o regroup.  Some o f these compromises may be a n t i c i p a t e d  i n advance by daughters,  and other compromises o r  c o m p l i c a t i o n s may a r i s e unexpectedly  while one i s l i v i n g a t  the p a r e n t a l home. The extent and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such compromises ( i . e . , g i v i n g up one's independence, freedom, p r i v a c y , a b i l i t y t o be o n e s e l f , s o c i a l l i f e and i n t i m a t e relations,  and p e r s e v e r i n g i n an unhealthy  f a m i l y ) , and t h e  e x t e n t t o which such compromises a r e c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e , t o l e r a b l e , temporary, and worthwhile w i l l a l s o determine whether l i v i n g a t home and regrouping a t home i s c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y or not. The amount and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e compromises made i n daughters'  everyday  l i v i n g contexts, r e l a t i v e t o one's  i d e a l i z e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and g o a l s , may culminate i n t h e degree t o which t h e regrouping process and l i v i n g  at the parental  home i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " p o s i t i v e " o r "negative" by daughters.  I f daughters  who make g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l  c o m p r o m i s e s / s a c r i f i c e s while a t home experience a h i g h degree of  faltering,  then they may experience a d i m i n i s h e d c a p a c i t y  160 t o enhance t h e i r p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and t h e i r q u a l i t y of i n the f u t u r e r e l a t i v e to those who experiences.  had more p o s i t i v e  In such a negative case, these daughters  l e a v e home because remaining  may  i s c o n s i d e r e d too d e t r i m e n t a l t o  t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . However, some daughters n e g a t i v e s i t u a t i o n as they may other acceptable  life  may  remain i n t h i s  p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e r e are  no  alternatives.  These f i n d i n g s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r theory  and  c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e , and these w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n the following  chapter.  161 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION In  t h i s f i n a l chapter, I begin by comparing r e l e v a n t  l i t e r a t u r e w i t h t h e study f i n d i n g s i n order t o demonstrate t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t with regard t o t h e e x i s t i n g knowledge about t h e experience o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have r e t u r n e d t o t h e p a r e n t a l home. C e r t a i n l y , t h e f i n a l t a s k i n g e n e r a t i n g a grounded theory i s t o determine  i t s relevance  ( G l a s e r , 1999). The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s theory i s demonstrated i n p a r t by h i g h l i g h t i n g i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i t h o t h e r work. L i t e r a t u r e t h a t addresses t h e c o r e a s p e c t s o f t h i s theory ( i . e . ,  reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home  to c o r e s i d e w i t h parents, l i f e - s p a n development, a d a p t a t i o n and change, p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s ) has been c o n s i d e r e d . The e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e p r e v i o u s l y reviewed reinterpreted i n light of  i n Chapter  II i s  o f t h i s study's f i n d i n g s . A d i s c u s s i o n  t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study i s i n c l u d e d , f o l l o w e d by  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n home t o live,  and recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y . C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Extant T h i s study sought  Literature  t o e x p l o r e the c o r e s o c i a l and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes t h a t female a d u l t c h i l d r e n when they r e t u r n t o the p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e .  experience  "Regrouping" i s  the c o r e concept w i t h i n the t h e o r e t i c a l model c o n s t r u c t e d . The women i n t h i s study engaged i n regrouping--a m u l t i f a c e t e d p r o c e s s t h a t encompasses t a k i n g time t o r e c u p e r a t e ,  162 r e e n e r g i z e , and t o contemplate response  and pursue one's l i f e p l a n s i n  t o s a l i e n t l i f e - e v e n t s and c h o i c e s . The i n t e n t i o n i s  to pursue,  even a c c e l e r a t e , the r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l g o a l s  and p l a n s without having the o b s t a c l e o r d i s t r a c t i o n o f having to  spend time, energy,  needs ( i . e . , housing,  and worry i n meeting b a s i c s u r v i v a l food). The focus o f women's r e g r o u p i n g  e f f o r t s i n t h i s study encompassed c a r e e r - e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s , s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , and i n d i v i d u a t i n g i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The extent t o which women " f a l t e r " o r "advance" i n t h e i r regrouping e f f o r t s i s a f f e c t e d by t h e c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y background, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , the l i v i n g environment, f r i e n d s h i p s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and s o c i e t y ' s s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s . The l i f e - e v e n t s and c h o i c e s p r e c i p i t a t i n g a r e t u r n home, and t h e a c t i o n s women engage i n a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e g r o u p i n g process and i t s outcomes. About t h e Female A d u l t C h i l d r e n i n t h e Study The growing t r e n d o f p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e has been documented i n Canada (Boyd & Pryor, 1989; Boyd & N o r r i s , 1999), and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( G l i c k & L i n , 1986; G r i g s b y & McGowan, 1986; DaVanzo & Goldscheider, 1990). Boyd and N o r r i s ' (1999) Canadian census data i n d i c a t e t h a t i n 1996, unmarried  women aged 20-34 and 56% o f unmarried  47% o f  men aged 20-34  c o r e s i d e w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . C o r e s i d i n g w i t h parents i s not e x c l u s i v e l y done by younger a d u l t s e i t h e r . More and more " o l d e r " a d u l t s a r e c o r e s i d i n g a t home. As o f 1996,  33% o f  163 unmarried  women aged 25 and over and 40% o f unmarried  men  c o r e s i d e w i t h t h e i r parents. T h i s study focused on women's experiences o f r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home i n adulthood.  S i m i l a r t o Boyd and N o r r i s '  (1999) census data, the women i n t h i s study were s i n g l e and somewhat o l d e r - - r a n g i n g i n age from 24 t o 44 y e a r s , w i t h an average age o f 29.5 y e a r s . Despite the f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e more men l i v i n g a t home with t h e i r parents, i t was women who came forward t o v o l u n t e e r f o r t h i s study. They were i n t e r e s t e d i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r experiences i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e r e s e a r c h i n t e r v i e w . In terms o f gender r o l e s , i t has been s p e c u l a t e d t h a t s m a l l e r percentages  o f a d u l t women l i v e a t home because  they p r e f e r l i v i n g independently over being c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d at home and t h a t they a r e more capable o f household maintenance r e l a t i v e t o men (Boyd & Pryor, 1989; DaVanzo & Goldscheider,  1990; Ward & S p i t z e , 1992). The i m p l i c a t i o n i s  t h a t c o r e s i d e n c e may be l e s s d e s i r a b l e f o r women than f o r men. I t may be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the women i n t h i s study were e x p e r i e n c i n g c o r e s i d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and/or were more w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h i s i n order t o a l l e v i a t e o r r e s o l v e d i f f i c u l t i e s . Some women suggested  t h a t the r e s e a r c h i n t e r v i e w was an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o "vent and process" d i f f i c u l t c o r e s i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . One woman s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned t h a t i t p r o v i d e d " c l o s u r e " r e g a r d i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s u e s . A few women a l s o c o n f i d e d t h a t they had pursued  professional counselling i n  o r d e r t o l e a r n how t o b e t t e r manage t h e i r parents and t o  164 f i g u r e out how t o move on with t h e i r l i v e s p e r s o n a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . C e r t a i n l y the women's s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s w i t h c o r e s i d i n g were f a i r l y low, ranging  from 1 t o 6, w i t h a  mean r a t i n g o f 4.35 (out o f 7). T h i s i s lower than Ward and Spitze's  (1996) p r i o r f i n d i n g s t h a t r e t u r n c o r e s i d e n t s (60%  sons) were f a i r l y s a t i s f i e d with c o r e s i d i n g , w i t h a mean r a t i n g o f 5.3 (out o f 7 ) . Daughters o f t e n resented  t h e i r l a c k o f independence and  p r i v a c y w h i l e c o r e s i d i n g with parents, was a c h a l l e n g e  and suggested t h a t i t  t o maintain t h e i r boundaries. Having t o d e a l  w i t h t h e i r parents'  unwanted a t t e n t i o n , advice, o r  i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i l e pursuing  t h e i r valued  l i f e g o a l s was a  common theme. The d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t t h e i r independence as w e l l as c o n c e a l  t h e i r p r i v a t e dreams, goals, and concerns was so  s t r o n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f the women i n t h i s study d i d not wish t o share t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e i r  p a r e n t s i n a shared i n t e r v i e w format. T h i s seems t o speak t o the d e f e n s i v e n e s s and p r o t e c t i v e n e s s preserving privacy,  women f e e l about  t h e i r s t a t u s as an autonomous a d u l t w i t h r i g h t s t o  independence, and the c a p a c i t y t o do t h i n g s  make c a r e e r c h o i c e s ,  (i.e.,  seek out i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , save  money) i n t h e i r own way. The i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s d e s i r e i s something t h a t p r i o r f i n d i n g s i n the l i t e r a t u r e have not documented. R e v i s i t i n g Reasons f o r Adult C h i l d r e n R e t u r n i n g Home The  reasons c i t e d f o r a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home  165 i n c l u d e : lower incomes (Boyd & Pryor, 1989),  housing c o s t s ,  unemployment, and d i v o r c e ( G l i c k & L i n , 1986; Heer e t a l . , 1985),  prolonged post-secondary e d u c a t i o n enrolments,  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the labour market, and remaining  unmarried  l o n g e r (Boyd & N o r r i s , 1999). With r e s p e c t t o e c o n o m i c - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , M i t c h e l l and Gee (1995) document 81% o f t h e i r Canadian  sample o f 218 "boomerang k i d s " s t a t e d economic  reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home. A break-down o f these reasons r e v e a l e d t h a t 26.1% r e p o r t e d " f i n a n c i a l problems," 19.3% i n d i c a t e d t h a t they r e t u r n e d t o "save money," and 13.3% s t a t e d t h a t they had r e t u r n e d due t o t r a n s i t i o n a l o r temporary reasons ( i . e . ,  f i n i s h e d t r a v e l l i n g ) . Some had r e t u r n e d f o r  s c h o o l - r e l a t e d reasons (12.8%), and a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n had r e t u r n e d due t o t h e ending o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p (5%) o r because housing c o s t s a r e too h i g h (4.6%). Of the 17% o f reasons f a l l i n g i n t o a non-economic category, 9.2% i n d i c a t e d they r e t u r n e d f o r s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s such as companionship,  t h e comforts o f home, o r not b e i n g ready t o  l i v e on t h e i r own; 4.2% r e t u r n e d because 3.7%  s t a t e d a h e a l t h problem  they needed h e l p , and  such as i l l n e s s o r d i s a b i l i t y .  U l t i m a t e l y t h e extant l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s a d e s c r i p t i v e list  o f t h e reasons f o r a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home as i f  t h i s adequately e x p l a i n s the complete p i c t u r e o f why a d u l t c h i l d r e n a r e r e t u r n i n g home. Moreover, the l i t e r a t u r e ( w i t h the n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n o f Gee e t a l . ,  1995) g e n e r a l l y g i v e s t h e  o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c impression that a d u l t c h i l d r e n a r e moving  166 home out o f economic need. The suggestion  i s that renesting i s  a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f expensive housing and d i m i n i s h e d j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a competitive substantive  theory  economic c l i m a t e . T h i s  refines t h i s perspective  e x p l a i n i n g t h a t r e t u r n i n g home i s about  study's  by a l t e r n a t i v e l y  "regrouping"--the  s t r a t e g i c u t i l i z a t i o n o f the p a r e n t a l home-base and r e s o u r c e s t o g e t ahead f i n a n c i a l l y , o c c u p a t i o n a l l y , one's l i f e . social,  T h i s study's theory  and e m o t i o n a l l y i n  f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e s women's  emotional, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g  home by p e r s o n a l i z i n g t h e i r regrouping  process and g i v i n g  v o i c e t o t h e i r concerns about themselves, t h e i r f u t u r e s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r parents and o t h e r s . the m a j o r i t y  Although  o f women i n d i c a t e t h a t " f i n a n c e s " a r e an  important reason f o r r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home, when pressed  t o go deeper women i n d i c a t e p r i v a t e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  g o a l s t o r e s o l v e p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s u e s and renew r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s as an a d u l t , t o secure an i d e a l i z e d o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , and t o become a stronger  i n d i v i d u a l both  i n t r a p e r s o n a l l y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y . T h i s study's theory  suggests t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s s t a t e d  reasons ( i . e . , d i s a b i l i t y / w e l f a r e , r e l a t i o n s h i p breakup, going t o s c h o o l , post-travel/work  abroad, saving money f o r t u i t i o n ,  t r a v e l , condo; a n t i c i p a t i n g c a r e e r change) f o r r e t u r n i n g home are j u s t t h e t i p o f t h e i c e b e r g and g l o s s over t h e more dynamic p r o c e s s and experience o f c o r e s i d i n g a t t h e p a r e n t a l home. The theory  t h a t regrouping  i s the core s o c i a l and  167 p s y c h o l o g i c a l process  t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n a r e engaging i n  w h i l e c o r e s i d i n g o f f e r s a more complete and meaningful explanation  and understanding o f the r e n e s t i n g phenomenon, a t  l e a s t from daughters' p e r s p e c t i v e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l model, w i t h regrouping also provides  as the core s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  coherence by l i n k i n g together  process,  seemingly  d i s p a r a t e reasons f o r r e t u r n i n g home. T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l model speaks t o t h e a c t i v e , dynamic, and v o l i t i o n a l a c t i o n s t h a t women engage i n t o improve t h e i r  lives.  Regrouping a t the P a r e n t a l Home and L i f e - S p a n According  Development  t o the l i f e - s p a n development p e r s p e c t i v e ,  l e a v i n g t h e p a r e n t a l home i s a s s o c i a t e d with t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e t a s k s o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g from t h e i r f a m i l i e s o f o r i g i n , developing  i n t i m a t e peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  and e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves with regard t o work and f i n a n c i a l independence (Aylmer, 1989; C a r t e r & McGoldrick, 1989). I t has been i m p l i e d t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home p l a c e s important developmental tasks i n p e r i l 1995). There seems t o be a u b i q u i t o u s  these  (Johnson & W i l k i n s o n , and unquestioned  u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h i n Western s o c i e t i e s t h a t a d u l t c h i l d r e n need t o have p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e from one's parents, independently, Generally, considered  t o o p t i m a l l y achieve  by l i v i n g  these t a s k s .  r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home i s a l s o  d i s c o r d a n t with normative e x p e c t a t i o n s  t r a n s i t i o n t o adulthood ( i . e . ,  i n the  E l d e r , 1985; Hagestad, 1990).  Parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n maintain  normative time t a b l e s  168 about a c c e p t a b l e  t i m i n g and sequence o f s i g n i f i c a n t  events,  such as l e a v i n g and r e t u r n i n g home (Veevers,  Wister,  1996). The f a i l u r e t o maintain  Gee, &  an independent  arrangement o u t s i d e t h e p a r e n t a l home may v i o l a t e norms and p r e f e r e n c e s h e l d by parents  life  living  cultural  and a d u l t c h i l d r e n (Ward  & S p i t z e , 1992). I t i s suggested t h a t the r e t u r n home o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n i s p r o l o n g i n g dependence on p a r e n t s — l e n d i n g n o t i o n s o f such a d u l t c h i l d r e n being  t o the  " l a t e bloomers" ( L i p s k y &  Abrams, 1994) o r a "generation on h o l d " (Cote & A l l a h a r , 1994). T h e r e f o r e ,  the l i f e - s p a n development p e r s p e c t i v e  suggests t h a t i t i s considered maladaptive t o v i o l a t e normative e x p e c t a t i o n s for  and t i m e t a b l e s - - c r e a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s  t r a n s i t i o n s i n adulthood  and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s .  What r e l e v a n c e does t h i s study's  f i n d i n g s have t o t h e  l i f e - s p a n development p e r s p e c t i v e ? F i r s t ,  despite the  tremendous concerns o f the l i f e s p a n developmental p e r s p e c t i v e about r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home i n adulthood negative,  a notion  s c r i p t s , women s t i l l  r e f l e c t e d i n mainstream  as b e i n g  sociocultural  pursued the non-normative a c t i o n o f  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home. They returned t o t h e p a r e n t a l home, knowingly r i s k i n g o t h e r s ' s o c i a l judgement and p o s s i b l y c r e a t i n g t e n s i o n w i t h i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s . I t seems t h a t the r i s k o f v i o l a t i n g s o c i a l norms was outweighed by t h e p e r c e i v e d advantages o f regrouping  a t home i n o r d e r t o g e t  ahead. Daughters convey a pragmatic stance; you do what you have t o i n o r d e r t o get ahead i n l i f e .  S a c r i f i c i n g one's  169 independence, p r i v a c y , and s o c i a l l i f e considered  d i f f i c u l t but necessary  temporarily i s  i n order t o ensure one's  future q u a l i t y of l i f e . Second, t h e theory o f women's regrouping  at the parental  home suggests t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e a s s o c i a t e d independent l i v i n g i s not a necessary  condition for attaining  the l i f e - s p a n development tasks o f adulthood. regrouping  with  To f a c i l i t a t e  e f f o r t s , women r e p l a c e d p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e  with  p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e while c o r e s i d i n g with p a r e n t s . Women who c o r e s i d e with t h e i r parents  seemed i n t e n t on r e g u l a t i n g  the amount o f c l o s e n e s s and d i s t a n c e w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s . In f a m i l y systems theory,  " d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " r e f e r s to the  p a t t e r n s o f d i s t a n c e r e g u l a t i o n w i t h i n a f a m i l y , as w e l l as the f a m i l y ' s t o l e r a n c e f o r both i n d i v i d u a l i t y and i n t i m a c y (Anderson & S a b a t e l l i ,  1990; Bowen, 1978). I t seemed t h a t t h e  m a j o r i t y o f t h e women i n the sample sought out h i g h e r  levels  o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y - - meaning a reduced need for  f a m i l y members t o c o n t i n u a l l y seek l o v e , a p p r o v a l , o r  a f f e c t i o n from one another, and t o blame o t h e r s f o r not f u l f i l l i n g these needs. I t has been a s s e r t e d t h a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y enables engage i n adaptive,  age-appropriate,  one t o  goal-directed tasks  (Bowen, 1978). Relevant emotional,  t o t h i s , women's o c c u p a t i o n a l ,  and r e l a t i o n a l regrouping  educational,  was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e  a c t i o n s t r a t e g y o f c r e a t i n g "personal space" f o r o n e s e l f .  170 Personal  space a f f o r d s o n e s e l f the a b i l i t y t o be o n e s e l f and  t o pursue valued  a c t i v i t i e s without d i s t r a c t i o n o r  i n t e r r u p t i o n . The women c r e a t e d personal personal  territory  space by e s t a b l i s h i n g  ( i . e . , bedroom), p e r s o n a l  boundaries  (i.e.,  l i m i t - s e t t i n g on p a r e n t a l behaviours l i k e a d v i c e - g i v i n g ) , and s t r i v i n g t o e s t a b l i s h personal parents'  sidestepping  schedules) and away from t h e p a r e n t a l home. They d i d  so i n order oneself  time alone ( i . e . ,  t o a t t a i n independence and p r i v a c y , t o p r o t e c t  ( i . e . , minimizing p a r e n t - c h i l d t e n s i o n ) , and t o f o l l o w  one's own a c t i v i t i e s lifestyle  (i.e.,  ( i . e . , education,  career,  s o c i a l ) and  f r i e n d s h i p s and d a t i n g ) , without  observation  or i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , women's use o f s o c i a l space w i t h i n t h e p a r e n t a l home seems reminiscent  o f Berardo's (1998) w r i t i n g s  on p r i v a c y w i t h i n the f a m i l y . I t i s suggested t h a t  family  members attempt t o e s t a b l i s h "zones o f s a f e t y " t o demarcate t h e i r i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r spaces. Kantor and Lehr (1975) note t h a t "the purpose o f these s a f e t y zones i s u s u a l l y t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f property,  p r i v a c y , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  f a m i l y members, r a t h e r than guarding o f p h y s i c a l s a f e t y " (p. 42).  T h i s was echoed by the women i n the study, a l t h o u g h i n a  few  extreme cases,  " p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c i n g " gone unchecked  can  invoke resentment i n parents and other  f a m i l y members.  T h i r d , developmentally, i t seemed r a t h e r s t r i k i n g some women would want t o r e t u r n t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o i n d i v i d u a t e w i t h t h e i r parents.  Psychoanalytic  that  171 conceptualizations  view i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r i m a r i l y as  i n t r a p s y c h i c process i n which one s e p a r a t e and  an  comes to see o n e s e l f  as  d i s t i n c t r e l a t i v e to o t h e r s w i t h i n one's  r e l a t i o n a l c o n t e x t (Anderson & S a b a t e l l i , 1990).  Individuation  i s a l i f e l o n g process through which an i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d s knowledge about the s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s . Sabatelli  Anderson  and  (1990) observe t h a t :  I n d i v i d u a t i o n i n v o l v e s continuous, ongoing demands to regulate  the t e n s i o n between p e r s o n a l  ( s e l f as i n d i v i d u a l ) and  autonomy  connectedness t o  s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( s e l f as r e l a t e d t o o t h e r ) , must be c o n t i n u a l l y negotiated  and  begins w i t h the i n f a n t ' s f i r s t  recognition  renegotiated.  the  d e f i n i t i o n of i d e n t i t y i n  r e l a t i o n t o parents (and p e e r s ) , major and  It  of  separateness from mother, c o n t i n u e s through adolescent's i n i t i a l  which  and  through every  minor a d u l t experience r e q u i r i n g a  reassessment of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r (pp. Erikson  33-34).  (1959) suggests t h a t the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n  i s accompanied by the r e s o l u t i o n of i d e n t i t y t a s k s o r c r i s e s (i.e.,  ego  of 16 and The  i d e n t i t y versus r o l e c o n f u s i o n ) .  Between the  20 or so a person s t r u g g l e s to d e f i n e the  "real  s i g n s of s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n of the i d e n t i t y c r i s i s  i n c l u d e acceptance of o n e s e l f incomplete r e s o l u t i o n may  and  one's a c t i o n s , whereas  r e s u l t i n f e e l i n g s of  confusion  ages me".  172 about o n e s e l f and about what wants, v a l u e s , and l i k e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s (parents and p e e r s ) . In r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home t o r e s o l v e i s s u e s w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , s e v e r a l women suggested t h a t they c o u l d become stronger--meaning  t h a t they c o u l d be more a s s e r t i v e and f i r m  i n t h e i r own v a l u e s , needs, and l i f e s t y l e s without  needing  p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l . In l i n e with E r i k s o n ' s (1959) work, one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t the women who had r e t u r n e d t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o do t h i s work had not adequately r e s o l v e d t h e t a s k o f d e f i n i n g who they were p r i o r t o home-leaving.  He would a s s e r t  t h a t they need t o r e t u r n home t o r e s o l v e t h e i r i d e n t i t y b e f o r e they can move forward t o develop i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , s e l f - i n - r e l a t i o n models t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e women's i n d i v i d u a t i o n process as c o n s t a n t l y being n e g o t i a t e d and r e n e g o t i a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s ( e s p e c i a l l y mothers) suggests t h a t r e t u r n i n g home t o r e s o l v e t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n process through c o n n e c t i o n and d i a l o g u e makes sense 1991). The female c h a l l e n g e i s becoming d i f f e r e n t  (Enns,  while  m a i n t a i n i n g c o n n e c t i o n s with o t h e r s . Moreover, i t a l s o may be the case t h a t these women a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e n e g o t i a t i n g t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n adulthood, such t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f o n e s e l f as an a d u l t and not j u s t a c h i l d t o a parent i s v a l i d a t e d . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d an a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e developmental  p r o g r e s s i o n t h a t i s s i g n a l l e d by a movement from  asymmetrical,  dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p s with p a r e n t s towards  more symmetrical,  or  interdependent, and mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p s  173 w i t h p a r e n t s d u r i n g adulthood  (Anderson  & Sabatelli,  1990).  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c o n d i t i o n s of p a r e n t a l overinvolvement i n t r u s i v e n e s s ) or p a r e n t a l i n v a l i d a t i o n ( i . e . ,  (i.e.,  rejection,  demands f o r c o n f o r m i t y at the expense of i n d i v i d u a l i t y ) h i n d e r e d some daughters' e f f o r t s i n t h i s r e g a r d . Fourth, although some p r i o r r e s e a r c h has demonstrated t h a t r e t u r n i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n are g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d coresiding  (Ward & S p i t z e , 1996), other r e s e a r c h has  with also  i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o r e s i d i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n experience more n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i n terms of mutual r e s p e c t , decision-making support, acceptance resolve c o n f l i c t s ,  autonomy, p e r c e i v e d a f f e c t i o n  and  of parents as r o l e models, a b i l i t y t o and f e e l i n g a p p r e c i a t e d and  understood  (Flanagan e t a l . , 1993). White and Rogers (1997) r e s e a r c h showed t h a t c o r e s i d e n t a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r p a r e n t s . I t was t h a t l e s s r e s p e c t , t r u s t , and f a i r n e s s was  noted  experienced i n  r e l a t i o n t o c o r e s i d e n t mothers. In a s i m i l a r v e i n , Umberson's (1992) r e s e a r c h on the impact of c o r e s i d i n g on a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s r e l a t i o n s and w e l l - b e i n g has demonstrated t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h mothers are more s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s w e l l - b e i n g ( i . e . , p e r c e p t i o n s of support, c r i t i c i s m , demands) than with f a t h e r s . The c o r e s i d e n t women i n t h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r parents, f r e q u e n t l y t h e i r mothers, were s a l i e n t t o t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . The v a l u e of t h i s t h e o r y i s i n  174 demonstrating  how such p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s mediate women's  r e g r o u p i n g p r o c e s s . Negative p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e to d i m i n i s h e d w e l l - b e i n g ( i . e . , competent, doubting s e l f , h i n d e r s t h e daughter's the attainment  f e e l i n g weaker, l e s s  becoming n e g a t i v e ) , which i n t u r n  c a p a c i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y advance towards  o f p e r s o n a l g o a l s . I t was as i f n e g a t i v e  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s have a dampening e f f e c t on r e g r o u p i n g . Parent-child r e l a t i o n a l conditions associated with heightened  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with c o r e s i d i n g i n c l u d e d : p a r e n t a l  i n t r u s i o n on p e r s o n a l boundaries  (i.e.,  unsolicited  c r i t i c i s m ) , being t r e a t e d l i k e a c h i l d by parents g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n on c h o i c e s , l i f e s t y l e ) ,  advice,  (i.e.,  the perception o f a  l a c k o f support o r c r i t i c i s m o f one's g o a l s and p l a n s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a r e n t s ' unresolved problems ( i . e . ,  alcoholism,  abuse, d e p r e s s i o n , unhappy marriage) such t h a t p a r e n t s were p e r c e i v e d as poor models and sources o f support,  and a  n e g a t i v e home environment. Such negative r e l a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s had t o be d e a l t with ( i . e . , by a v o i d i n g parents, n e g o t i a t i n g boundaries  w i t h parents, arguing with parents,  receiving  c o u n s e l l i n g ) , thereby t a k i n g time and mental energy away from p o s i t i v e regrouping g o a l s , which c o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d of  an unexpectedly  prolonged  s t a y a t home. U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s  c o u l d r e s u l t i n one f e e l i n g stuck and not moving Although  forward.  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s a f f e c t e d the r e g r o u p i n g  p r o c e s s , g e n e r a l l y the daughters  d i d not e x h i b i t a blaming  a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r mothers (Caplan, 1989) o r f a t h e r s .  175 In a d d i t i o n t o negative  family r e l a t i o n a l  conditions,  i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s ( i . e . , b e l i e f s about s e l f as a l o s e r , o l d e r ) , a diminished  being  s o c i a l support network, and a  subscription to traditional sociocultural scripts  could  c o n t r i b u t e t o the experience o f f a l t e r i n g i n g e t t i n g s t a r t e d , g a i n i n g momentum, o r moving forward with the attainment o f personal  goals.  Moving beyond extant  research  f i n d i n g s , the v a l u e  of this  study's t h e o r e t i c a l model l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o e x p l i c a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , women's w e l l being,  and regrouping  outcomes.  Managing T r a n s i t i o n s i n Adulthood Adulthood i s i n c r e a s i n g l y recognized  as a p e r i o d o f time  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i g n i f i c a n t change and development (Krupp, 1987). I n f a c t , i t has been suggested t h a t we l i v e i n a "semipermanent c o n d i t i o n o f t r a n s i t i o n a l i t y "  ( B r i d g e s , 1980,  p. 4 ) . In h e r seminal c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e , Schlossberg  Nancy  (1984) d e f i n e d a t r a n s i t i o n as "an event o r  nonevent t h a t r e s u l t s i n changes i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r o u t i n e s , assumptions, and/or r o l e s w i t h i n the s e t t i n g s o f s e l f , work, h e a l t h , and/or economics." Bridges  (1980) viewed t r a n s i t i o n as  a " n a t u r a l process o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n and r e o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t marks t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s o f the path o f growth" o r as "key times i n t h e n a t u r a l process o f s e l f - r e n e w a l " (1991) d e s c r i b e s  (p. 5 ) . Cowan  t r a n s i t i o n s as "long term p r o c e s s e s t h a t  r e s u l t i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f both i n n e r l i f e and  176 e x t e r n a l behaviour" (p. 5 ) . How i n d i v i d u a l s manage t r a n s i t i o n s is  o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o c o u n s e l l i n g psychology because  t r a n s i t i o n s o f t e n culminate i n changes i n one's i d e a s about s e l f and t h e world, o f t e n r e q u i r i n g a m o d i f i c a t i o n i n one's assumptions and a c t i o n s t h a t may culminate i n growth o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n (Schlossberg,  1981).  Relevant t o t h i s , the theory  i l l u m i n a t e s how r e t u r n i n g t o  the p a r e n t a l home i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r a n s i t i o n on two levels:  (a) t h e p r e c i p i t a t i n g events l e a d i n g women t o r e t u r n  t o t h e p a r e n t a l home, and (b) r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home itself.  F i r s t , women's r e t u r n s t o the p a r e n t a l home o f t e n were  p r e c i p i t a t e d by l i f e events such as r e l a t i o n s h i p breakup, unemployment, onset o f h e a l t h problems, abroad, going  post-travel/working  t o c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , and a n t i c i p a t i n g  making s i g n i f i c a n t c a r e e r c h o i c e s o r changes i n one's  life.  Such meaningful l i f e - e v e n t s o r l i f e - c h a n g e s o f t e n s i g n a l l e d a c r u c i a l time o f t r a n s i t i o n and re-examination i n women's l i v e s . T h i s theory e x p l a i n s how some women manage such t r a n s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e context  o f t h e i r l i v e s . Regrouping a t  the p a r e n t a l home i s a s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g with a n t i c i p a t e d and  u n a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n one's l i f e .  In response t o such  events one o f t e n needs t o regroup--to permit o n e s e l f some down-time t o recuperate continue  and t o r e e n e r g i z e b e f o r e one c a n  onward and determine what t o do next.  Schlossberg  (1981) observes t h a t s o c i a l support i s  e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l adaptation,  and the female a d u l t  177 c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n t o t h e i r parents' homes a r e s t r a t e g i c a l l y m o b i l i z i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s , a s s i s t a n c e , and c a r i n g t h e i r offer  parents  i n o r d e r t o weather l i f e ' s changes, and t o enhance t h e i r  w e l l - b e i n g and q u a l i t y o f l i f e .  The p a r e n t a l home p r o v i d e s a  secure base from which one can recuperate, r e e n e r g i z e , contemplate,  and pursue one's l i f e p l a n s d u r i n g times o f  vulnerability,  i n s t a b i l i t y , or uncertainty.  However, the study p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e type o f s o c i a l support they r e c e i v e d and from whom, c o u l d h e l p or h i n d e r t h e i r regrouping process. Relevant t o t h i s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t s o c i a l support i s a m u l t i f a c e t e d concept. F o r i n s t a n c e , House (1981) proposed  a four-component  model t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . These components a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l support ( a i d , money, l a b o u r , time, h e l p i n m o d i f y i n g the environment), (advice, suggestion, d i r e c t i v e s , support ( a f f i r m a t i o n ,  feedback,  emotional support (esteem,  i n f o r m a t i o n a l support  information), appraisal s o c i a l comparison), and  t r u s t , concern, l i s t e n i n g ) . The  women i n t h i s study g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d t o r e c e i v e emotional and a p p r a i s a l support from t h e i r f r i e n d s , and i n s t r u m e n t a l support from t h e i r parents (e.g., money and o t h e r t a n g i b l e r e s o u r c e s ) . Indeed,  they o f t e n valued t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h  f r i e n d s over t h e i r parents when i t came t o the important b u s i n e s s o f contemplating one's f u t u r e p l a n s , b r a i n s t o r m i n g , having a "sounding board," r e s e a r c h i n g , networking, a d v i c e , p r o c e s s i n g one's emotions,  receiving  and s o c i a l i z i n g . They o n l y  178 c o n s i d e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l o r a p p r a i s a l support from p a r e n t s t o be h e l p f u l when and i f they requested i t .  Unsolicited  a p p r a i s a l o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l support from parents was p e r c e i v e d as i n t r u s i v e , condescending,  judgmental,  and undermining t o  one's f e e l i n g s o f competence. T h i s dynamic o f t e n c u l m i n a t e d i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f being t r e a t e d l i k e a c h i l d , which was h i g h l y r e s e n t e d by t h e women i n the sample. U l t i m a t e l y , S c h l o s s b e r g (1981) suggests t h a t t h e ease o f a d a p t a t i o n t o a t r a n s i t i o n w i l l depend on one's p e r c e i v e d and/or a c t u a l balance o f resources t o d e f i c i t s i n terms o f t h e transition itself,  t h e pre-post environment,  and t h e  i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f competency, w e l l - b e i n g , and h e a l t h . T h i s p r o j e c t ' s t h e o r y echoes her a s s e r t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , "advancing" w i t h i n the regrouping process was eased by not having endured  a significant loss or c r i s i s ,  p o s i t i v e parent-  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , access t o p a r e n t a l r e s o u r c e s , l i v i n g environments  endowed with s u f f i c i e n t space and p r i v a c y ,  maintenance o r expansion o f one's s o c i a l support network, and p e r c e p t i o n s o f o n e s e l f as capable and p l a n f u l r a t h e r than a being i n d e c i s i v e o r a l o s e r . Second, the r e t u r n home i n adulthood a l s o may be c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t and non-normative t r a n s i t i o n i n these women's l i v e s as w e l l . U n l i k e l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s t h a t p r e s e n t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r normative demands, such as the t a s k s accompanying home-leaving  t o be independent  c a r v e a c a r e e r , r e t u r n i n g home i s c o n s i d e r e d more  and t o  nebulous.  179 The unexpected, unwanted, off-time,, o r unusual r e t u r n i n g home i n adulthood  nature o f  implies that i t i s a t r a n s i t i o n  w i t h no markers t h a t d e f i n e what i s t o be done, how t o manage, and what t o expect. The p r e s e n t theory f i l l s t h i s gap by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e g r o u p i n g may e n t a i l a p r e d i c t a b l e process and t r a j e c t o r y t h a t r e t u r n e e s engage i n when they r e n e s t . Regrouping i s marked by s p e c i f i c l i f e - s p a n o b j e c t i v e s t o become f i n a n c i a l l y secure, t o e s t a b l i s h a c a r e e r niche, and t o i n d i v i d u a t e w i t h one's p a r e n t s . I t i s a t i m e - l i m i t e d phenomenon, r a n g i n g from s e v e r a l months t o years, dependent on the nature o f r e t u r n e e s ' r e g r o u p i n g g o a l s . One can expect t h a t one's a b i l i t y t o regroup w i t h ease o r w i t h d i f f i c u l t y may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e n a t u r e of  one's g o a l s , t h e degree o f support from f r i e n d s and f a m i l y ,  the degree t o which one i s o l a t e s o n e s e l f , t h e q u a l i t y o f one's immediate environment, the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p e r s o n a l and p a r e n t a l r e s o u r c e s , and the extent t o which one views r e t u r n i n g home as a f a i l u r e as opposed t o an o p p o r t u n i t y . S t r i v i n g f o r a B e t t e r L i f e and Future Regrouping g o a l s and success. The women i n t h i s  study  i n t e n t i o n a l l y sought t o shape b e t t e r q u a l i t y f u t u r e s and enhance themselves by becoming f i n a n c i a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , and o c c u p a t i o n a l l y s t r o n g e r from the p a r e n t a l home-base. They were committed t o improving ways. They contemplated life,  o r changing  t h e i r l i v e s i n meaningful  the q u e s t i o n o f what they wanted i n  what would c o n s t i t u t e a meaningful  life,  and what would  180 make them h a p p i e r i n t r a p e r s o n a l l y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y . The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r contemplation was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f meaningful g o a l s t h a t were a c t i v e l y pursued  from t h e p a r e n t a l  home-base. O f t e n the g o a l s f o r which they a c t i v e l y  strived  were r e a l i z e d and they c o u l d venture out i n t o t h e world on t h e i r own again, as they had i d e a l l y e n v i s i o n e d . With r e g a r d t o t h e women's c a r e e r development g o a l s i n particular,  I was s t r u c k by t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o f i n d a  c a r e e r n i c h e which would be d e f i n e d by t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f passion f o r i t .  For these women, s e c u r i t y became a l e s s  important f a c t o r r e l a t i v e t o p a s s i o n a f t e r having worked u n i n s p i r i n g and b o r i n g 9-to-5 jobs f o r many y e a r s o r having witnessed p a r e n t s doing so. They were i n t e n t on e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , c o n n e c t i n g with o t h e r s i n p o t e n t i a l f i e l d s o f interest  ( v i a networking,  information interviewing,  job  shadowing, d i s c u s s i o n s with f r i e n d s and sometimes w i t h p a r e n t s ) , and e v e n t u a l l y committing  t o a new c a r e e r  (i.e.,  becoming a w r i t e r was o f i n t e r e s t t o s e v e r a l daughters who wished  t o l e a v e occupations i n p o s t a l , s e c r e t a r i a l , and  banking o c c u p a t i o n s ; a few other daughters were i n t e n t o f p u r s u i n g c a r e e r s i n human resources, academia, n u r s i n g , b u s i n e s s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l development).  Moreover, they  p e r s i s t e d i n determining t h a t t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s were t h e r i g h t course o f a c t i o n and t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e t o pursue a d e s i r e d c a r e e r n i c h e was a l s o manifested i n t h e i r t o pursue  willingness  such a c t i o n s from the p a r e n t a l home-base.  181 The  home-base was not considered  t o t h e development o f one's personal  personally life  advantageous  (e.g.,  social  r e l a t i o n s w i t h female and male f r i e n d s ) , however i t was considered  h i g h l y advantageous e d u c a t i o n a l l y and  o c c u p a t i o n a l l y g i v e n the f i n a n c i a l savings focus more e x c l u s i v e l y i n pursuing these women, i n seeking reminiscent  and t h e a b i l i t y t o  one's g o a l s .  I t seemed t h a t  s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r development, a r e  o f R i c h i e , Fassinger,  Robinson's (1997) grounded theory  Prosser,  Linn, Johnson, and  study on t h e c a r e e r  development p r o c e s s o f h i g h l y a c h i e v i n g A f r i c a n American-Black and  White women. T h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l model suggested t h a t  passion,  persistence,  and connection  were c r i t i c a l  to the  c a r e e r development o f h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l women. T h e i r sample o f 18 women were r e l a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d , p e r s i s t e n t i n t h e f a c e o f obstacles  (i.e.,  sexism, racism),  and p a s s i o n a t e  about  their  work. Regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l home i s a means o f overcoming perceived  obstacles  (i.e.,  l a c k o f money, support) i n women's  c a r e e r development, l a y i n g the foundation in  fulfilling  career  f o r f u t u r e success  goals.  Indeed, some women were so committed t o making meaningful changes t o improve t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r f u t u r e s t h a t they were w i l l i n g t o r e t u r n t o p a r e n t a l homes t h a t they d y s f u n c t i o n a l o r unhealthy f o r t h e m - - p a r t i c u l a r l y with unresolved  interpersonal conflicts,  considered families  abusive dynamics, o r  h e a l t h - r e l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s such as d e p r e s s i o n  or alcoholism.  T h i s f i n d i n g has some bearing on Aquilano's (1991) a s s e r t i o n s  182 about t h e c o r e s i d e n c y s e l e c t i o n process. He i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d u l t c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e i s most l i k e l y when home c o n d i t i o n s are conducive  to positive parent-child relations  (i.e.,  p a r e n t s have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about r e t u r n , good p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s o v e r a l l ) and not problematic r e l a t i o n s ( i . e . , remarriage,  s t e p f a m i l y ) . T h i s theory suggests  parent  that the  "regrouping i m p e r a t i v e " may be a c o n d i t i o n t h a t o v e r r i d e s t h e p o s i t i v e s e l e c t i o n b i a s i n r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home. Determination  t o f u l f i l p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o improve and change  one's l i f e may be c o n s i d e r e d both pragmatic  and paramount.  The women's experiences o f pursuing l i f e g o a l s from t h e p a r e n t a l home i n order t o g e t ahead i n l i f e seems r e l e v a n t t o r e c e n t t h e o r e t i c a l models o f s u c c e s s f u l development and ageing over t h e l i f e - s p a n ( B a l t e s & Carstensen,  1996; Heckhausen &  S c h u l z , 1995; Schulz & Heckhausen, 1996). B a l t e s and Carstensen  (1996) maintain a f l e x i b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f success,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s u c c e s s f u l development i m p l i e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s reach p e r s o n a l goals--whether these g o a l s  parallel  i d e a l o r s t a t i s t i c a l norms o r a r e i d i o s y n c r a t i c . The women i n the study seemed t o monitor  and judge how they were doing, be  it  f a l t e r i n g o r advancing,  to  r e a l i z i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s . The women r e p o r t e d t h a t  imminent g o a l attainment  i n r e l a t i o n t o how c l o s e they were  and g o a l f u l f i l m e n t was a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t , p r i d e , and empowerment. B a l t e s and B a l t e s ' (1990) f o r m u l a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l human development suggest  t h a t the fundamental requirements o f  183 developmental r e g u l a t i o n a c r o s s the l i f e s p a n a r e managing d i v e r s i t y and s e l e c t i v i t y and d e v e l o p i n g t h e c a p a c i t y t o compensate f o r f a i l u r e (e.g., normative developmental  failure  e x p e r i e n c e s encountered when i n d i v i d u a l s attempt t o e n l a r g e t h e i r competencies,  and non-normative  o r random n e g a t i v e  e v e n t s ) . B a l t e s and c o l l e a g u e s , i n t h e i r t h e o r y o f s e l e c t i v e o p t i m i z a t i o n w i t h compensation encompass development  from i n f a n c y t o o l d age. They have  achieved t h i s by emphasizing environments  have extended t h e i r t h e o r y t o  "how i n d i v i d u a l s and l i f e  can manage o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r , and l i m i t s on,  r e s o u r c e s a t a l l ages" (Marsiske, Lang, B a l t e s , & B a l t e s , 1995).  I m p l i c i t w i t h i n t h i s view o f developmental  regulation  i s t h e i d e a t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a b l e t o engage and impact t h e i r environments  around them f o r the l o n g e s t p e r i o d o f time  would be judged t h e most s u c c e s s f u l . Heckhausen and Schulz (1995) e l a b o r a t e upon t h i s , o b s e r v i n g t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t o f c o n t r o l i s a c e n t r a l theme f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g s u c c e s s f u l human development  throughout t h e  l i f e s p a n . The u n d e r l y i n g assumption o f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t people hope t o c r e a t e behaviour-event c o n t i n g e n c i e s and thus e x e r t primary c o n t r o l over the environment  around them  throughout t h e l i f e s p a n . The authors d i s t i n g u i s h between primary and secondary c o n t r o l . Primary c o n t r o l t a r g e t s t h e e x t e r n a l world and attempts t o i n f l u e n c e t h e immediate environment  e x t e r n a l t o the i n d i v i d u a l , whereas secondary  c o n t r o l t a r g e t s the s e l f and attempts t o a c h i e v e changes  184 d i r e c t l y w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Both primary and secondary c o n t r o l may i n v o l v e c o g n i t i o n and a c t i o n . Optimal development a r i s e s by i n c r e a s i n g our l e v e l s o f primary and secondary c o n t r o l and i n c r e a s i n g s e l e c t i v i t y i n one's l i f e domains throughout adulthood. However, Heckhausen and Schulz (1996, p. 711) do acknowledge an important caveat: Although t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s an a b s o l u t e  definition  o f s u c c e s s — t h e more primary c o n t r o l the b e t t e r - - i t i s important t o note t h a t a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , the p o t e n t i a l f o r primary c o n t r o l i s l i m i t e d by t h e g e n e t i c makeup o f the i n d i v i d u a l and the a v a i l a b l e s o c i o c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Thus, e v a l u a t i o n s o f success must be tempered by the b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i o c u l t u r a l resources  o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  Regrouping, perhaps, may be reframed w i t h i n a l i f e - s p a n model o f s u c c e s s f u l development as a p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i v e o p t i m i z a t i o n w i t h compensation ( B a l t e s & B a l t e s , Breaking down the m u l t i f a c e t e d that processes of "recuperating  regrouping  1990).  process,  and r e e n e r g i z i n g "  i t seems approximate  Schulz and Heckhausen's (1996) n o t i o n s o f "compensatory primary c o n t r o l " and "compensatory secondary c o n t r o l . " The former r e f e r s t o the use o f e x t e r n a l resources "parental assistance"  such as  ( i . e . , housing, monetary) when t h e  c a p a c i t i e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o a t t a i n a chosen g o a l  (i.e.,  f i n a n c i a l security, e s t a b l i s h i n g career  185 n i c h e ) . The l a t t e r serves t o b u f f e r the e f f e c t s o f f a i l u r e o r losses (i.e.,  j o b l o s s , r e l a t i o n s h i p breakup). Moreover,  r e g r o u p i n g ' s "contemplation o f and p u r s u i t o f p e r s o n a l  life  p l a n s and g o a l s " seems r e m i n i s c e n t o f Schulz and Heckhausen's (1996) " s e l e c t i v e primary c o n t r o l , " which r e f e r s t o t h e focused investment o f resources such as e f f o r t , time, and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r a chosen g o a l ( i . e . , p u r s u i n g p o s t secondary t r a i n i n g f o r d e s i r e d c a r e e r n i c h e ) .  Selective  secondary c o n t r o l enhances the value o f a chosen g o a l , w h i l e d e v a l u i n g nonchosen a l t e r n a t i v e s . Reframing  women's regrouping a t t h e p a r e n t a l home w i t h i n  t h i s l i f e span theory o f s u c c e s s f u l development c r e a t e s a new p e r s p e c t i v e by widening t h e l e n s t o look a t t h e b i g g e r p i c t u r e of  these women's l i v e s . I t allows one t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e  p o t e n t i a l o f a wider meaning f o r the regrouping p r o c e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o a t t a i n i n g g o a l s and primary c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e l i v e s of  t h e women i n t h i s study. T h i s study p r o v i d e s a s l i c e o f  these women's l i v e s , and i t i s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n o f r e g r o u p i n g a t the p a r e n t a l home d u r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y important time o f e a r l y adulthood may have l a s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r g o a l attainment and f u t u r e successes as t h e i r l i v e s unfold. Regrouping  and change. Regrouping  a t t h e p a r e n t a l home  may be c o n s i d e r e d a powerful change s t r a t e g y f o r t h e women i n t h i s study. Relevant t o the i s s u e o f change i s t h e movement i n c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r y t o understand  the fundamental  principles  186 and p r o c e s s e s o f change (Lyddon & A l f o r d , 1993; Prochaska & DiClemente,  Mahoney,  1991;  1982). Prochaska and h i s c o l l e a g u e s '  r e s e a r c h program has attempted t o i d e n t i f y how change both as a r e s u l t of t h e i r own  individuals  e f f o r t s and as a response  t o c o u n s e l l i n g and psychotherapy (McConnaughy, Prochaska, Velicer,  1983;  Prochaska & DiClemente,  1982,  1986).  &  Their  f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s employ a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s o f change t h a t can be l o c a t e d r e l i a b l y a t d i f f e r i n g stages o f the change p r o c e s s . In t h e i r  conceptualization,  these stages are not assumed t o be d i s c r e t e nor i s movement n e c e s s a r i l y u n i d i r e c t i o n a l and s u c c e s s i v e . Prochaska DiClemente  and  (1986) i d e n t i f i e d four b a s i c stages o f change: (a)  p r e c o n t e m p l a t i o n ( i n d i v i d u a l s are e i t h e r unaware o f a problem of have no d e s i r e t o change),  (b) contemplation ( i n d i v i d u a l s  are aware o f a problem and begin t o t h i n k about making a commitment t o change),  (c) a c t i o n ( i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e l y have  begun t o a l t e r t h e i r behaviour and t h e i r environment), and maintenance  (d)  ( i n d i v i d u a l s have made s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s toward  the d e s i r e d change and are working toward c o n t i n u i n g g a i n s and at p r e v e n t i n g r e l a p s e ) . Prochaska and DiClemente's  (1982,  1986)  stages o f change  model suggests t h a t change i s q u i t e dynamic, w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s r e g r e s s i n g a t times as w e l l as p r o g r e s s i n g a t o t h e r times. Relevant t o t h i s , the regrouping process, w i t h i t s o s c i l l a t i n g p a t t e r n between " f a l t e r i n g " and "advancing," a l s o  demonstrates  t h a t change can be n o n l i n e a r and c y c l i c a l . There a l s o i s a  187 s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y i n the elements of the two models. L i k e Prochaska  and DiClemente's (1986) model, r e g r o u p i n g i n v o l v e s  contemplation, behaviour  p l a n n i n g , i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n , a l t e r i n g one's  and environment and they both i n v o l v e working  towards a d e s i r e d change or g o a l . As i t was  observed by Prochaska  seems t h a t the importance  and DiClemente (1986), i t  o f contemplation as s i g n i f i c a n t work  i n the r e g r o u p i n g process should be emphasized so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s do not become discouraged because they a r e not y e t "doing" t h i n g s t o f u l f i l of contemplation  (i.e.,  t h e i r g o a l s . Perhaps extended f i g u r i n g t h i n g s out,  p l a n n i n g ) should be reframed  times  introspection,  as a necessary and q u a l i t y  p r e c e d i n g and i n t e r t w i n e d with a c t i o n . As Cochran and  step  Laub  (1994) suggest: While i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c u r a t e t h a t agents r e l y upon a c t i o n t o get t h i n g s done, more p r e c i s e l y , they upon the q u a l i t y of a c t i o n . P l a n n i n g i n i t s e l f  rely does  not forward the end, but good p l a n n i n g does. D e c i d i n g i n i t s e l f does not forward success, but a w e l l - d e l i b e r a t e d d e c i s i o n does. Means i n  themselves  do not forward a happy outcome, but adequate, r e a s o n a b l e means do (p. 169). However, what i s m i s s i n g from Prochaska (1982, 1986)  and  DiClemente's  stage model of change, when compared t o the model  o f the r e g r o u p i n g process, i s an a p p r e c i a t i o n of how  the  r e g r o u p i n g process i s i n f l u e n c e d by c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n s such  188 as one's background, f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s ,  living-environment,  f r i e n d s h i p s , and s o c i e t y ' s s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s . T h i s t h e o r y e x p l i c a t e s how  regrouping i s not a l i n e a r process, but  t h a t o s c i l l a t e s between f a l t e r i n g and advancing  towards one's  g o a l s , as a r e s u l t of c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s , s i g n i f i c a n t in  one's l i f e ,  one  events  s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h  others. P o s s i b l e s e l v e s . Women's regrouping e f f o r t s are to  shape a s t r o n g e r s e l f ( i . e . , who  c o u l d be  intended  assertive,  independent and not crave o t h e r ' s approval) and t o shape an i d e a l f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f ( i . e . , who p a s s i o n , i n t e r e s t , and meaningful  has  success,  work). I t was  striking  how  p r e o c c u p i e d and i n v e s t e d women were with t h e i r f u t u r e s . T h e i r c u r r e n t e f f o r t s ( i . e . , to save money, to go to s c h o o l , t o change o c c u p a t i o n s , to r e s o l v e i s s u e s with p a r e n t s ) were i n t e n d e d t o assure a q u a l i t y l i f e  and t o a t t a i n a s t r o n g e r  p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t one's f u t u r e s e l f would be competent, and c o n t e n t . I t seemed t h a t when daughters on t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i d e a l i z e d s e l f nurse,  secure,  were more focused  ( i . e . , as a graduate,  a w r i t e r , a human resources manager, and so on)  f e l t more secure, c o n f i d e n t , and assured of t h e i r  a they  imminent  success i n the near f u t u r e - - u l t i m a t e l y e n a b l i n g them t o be f i n a n c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y independent of t h e i r  parents.  In c o n t r a s t , d w e l l i n g on p e r c e p t i o n s of one's s e l f b e i n g v u l n e r a b l e , being f i n a n c i a l l y dependent, b e i n g a or a l o s e r ,  as failure  "being a b i r d i n a cage," or being stuck a t home  189 were e x p e r i e n c e d as depressing  images t h a t reminded one about  one's n o t moving forward i n one's c u r r e n t removed from one's i d e a l i z e d one's s e l f as being  situation--far  d e s t i n a t i o n . The p e r c e p t i o n o f  "on-hold" o r "stuck"  represented  daughter's f e a r s t h a t they would not m a t e r i a l i z e t h e i r for plans  and would never culminate i n them being  independent o f t h e i r parents. faltering and  i n their  regrouping  s e l v e s t h a t negative  anxiety  hoped-  fully  I t seems t h a t when daughters a r e efforts  perceptions  to realize  optimal  lives  of s e l f are triggered,  i s heightened, and self-esteem  and s e l f - e f f i c a c y a r e  diminished. Women's f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d regrouping Markus and Nurius'  g o a l s seem r e l e v a n t t o  (1986) work on " p o s s i b l e s e l v e s . "  Possible  s e l v e s a r e t h e f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d components o f t h e s e l f - s y s t e m i n v o l v e d i n g o a l - s e t t i n g and m o t i v a t i o n . p o s s i b l e selves involves imaginative reflection  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  c a p a c i t y and s e l f -  on t h e p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o c r e a t e a s e t o f  hoped-for, expected, and feared f u t u r e s e l v e s . A hoped-for s e l f i s an a s p i r e d s e l f t h a t one d e s i r e s t o become, b u t which may  o r may not be r e a l i s t i c . An expected p o s s i b l e  self,  however, i s a s e l f t h a t one b e l i e v e s one c a n r e a l i s t i c a l l y become. When a hoped-for s e l f i s viewed as a t t a i n a b l e , specific  p l a n s and a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s become a t t a c h e d  s e l f and t h e hoped-for s e l f evolves (Markus, Cross,  i n t o an expected  t o that self  & Wurf, 1990). In c o n t r a s t , when a hoped-for  s e l f i s seen as unachievable, the plans and m o t i v a t i o n a l  190 c o n t r o l s needed t o a t t a i n i t do not develop. A f e a r e d s e l f i s a p o s s i b l e s e l f t h a t one does not want t o become, y e t f e a r s becoming. The feared s e l f p l a y s an important p a r t i n t h e s e l f concept by a c t i n g as a motivator so t h a t c o n c r e t e  actions are  taken t o a v o i d t h a t f u t u r e p o s s i b l e s e l f . Findings  i n t h i s study a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e  are advancing i n t h e i r regrouping  process,  t h a t when women  that  task-relevant  p o s s i b l e s e l v e s a r e s a l i e n t and t h a t r e l e v a n t n e g a t i v e o r f e a r e d s e l v e s w i l l be suppressed so t h a t they do not i n t e r f e r e w i t h moving forward (Markus e t a l . , 1990). Moreover, daughters need t o be i n v e s t e d , even unwavering i n t h e i r  envisioning  p o s i t i v e , hoped-for s e l v e s because t h e i r p a r e n t s o r o t h e r f a m i l y members can sometimes hold negative  messages about  t h e i r f e a r e d s e l v e s over them (by suggesting unrealistic,  naive, The  they a r e  unworthy).  Enduring P a r e n t - C h i l d  Daughters considered  Connection  t h e i r parents t o be i n v a l u a b l e  sources o f a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r l i v e s r e g a r d l e s s o f whether o r not they c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p as " c l o s e . " Many were g r a t e f u l t o t h e i r parents f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o improve  t h e i r l i v e s , and some b e l i e v e d they would have been d e s t i t u t e without the a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e i r parents.  Although t h e  daughters were h i g h l y i n v e s t e d i n becoming independent o f t h e i r parents,  they u l t i m a t e l y recognized  t h e i r connection w i t h parents,  with t h e i r parents.  and h i g h l y  The enduring  i n good times and bad, r e p r e s e n t s  valued  connection  a sense o f  191 b e l o n g i n g and v a l u e - - t h a t one  i s not completely  alone i n the  world. Help  Exchange The  s o c i a l exchange p e r s p e c t i v e suggests  that equitable  exchanges between c o r e s i d i n g parents and a d u l t c h i l d r e n c r e a t e more p o s i t i v e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . Yet, the daughters  in this  study e x p l i c i t l y recognized t h a t they had r e t u r n e d t o the p a r e n t a l home t o h e l p themselves and to r e c e i v e t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . Beyond a s s i s t i n g parents with maintenance and p r o v i d i n g t h e i r presence daughters  parents'  household or companionship,  focused t h e i r time and e f f o r t on p u r s u i n g t h e i r  g o a l s . Moreover, i t seemed to be understood  that  own  daughters  c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be the r e c i p i e n t s of p a r e n t s ' c a r i n g and resources—an  e x t e n s i o n of a p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l o b l i g a t i o n t o  a s s i s t i n l a u n c h i n g daughters  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o the  world.  Parents w i l l i n g l y provided the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e i r daughters'  regrouping. Daughters o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t they  c o u l d not r e c i p r o c a t e i n k i n d to t h e i r p a r e n t s . daughters  Instead,  t r i e d to h o l d up t h e i r end or r e c i p r o c a t e by  accomplishing  t h e i r goals ( t o get an education, s t a r t a  new  c a r e e r , save money) as soon as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o move out on t h e i r own t h e i r own  a g a i n . Many were anxious  to resume t h e i r l i v e s  on  again, and to not be a burden or i n t r u s i o n t o t h e i r  parents. Study L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s study has s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o the  192 sample t h a t w i l l impact the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e t h e o r y . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were v o l u n t e e r s who s e l f s e l e c t e d a f t e r having read advertisements posted on t h e UBC campus, i n t h e l o c a l community, and i n t h e l o c a l media. Although not a l l o f t h e advertisements o f f e r e d money as an i n c e n t i v e f o r v o l u n t e e r i n g i n the study (due t o t h e space c o n s t r a i n t s i n media a d v e r t i s i n g ) , some o f t h e v o l u n t e e r s i n t h i s study may have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o f f e r o f an honorarium  l o t t e r y being drawn a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e study.  U l t i m a t e l y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not know about t h e honorarium  l o t t e r y u n t i l a f t e r they had a l r e a d y  c o n t a c t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r and agreed t o v o l u n t e e r . Relevant t o the i s s u e o f s e l f - s e l e c t i o n , e a r l y i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t process, boomerang k i d s f r e q u e n t l y d e c l i n e d t o be i n t h e study when they l e a r n e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l and p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w s , i t e n t a i l e d a shared p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d i n t e r v i e w . The p a r t i c i p a n t s who d i d not wish t o engage i n shared p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d i n t e r v i e w s c i t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons: w i s h i n g t o preserve t h e i r p r i v a c y and not wanting  t o be misunderstood  independence,  by parents, not wanting t o  h u r t o r anger parents, a v o i d i n g p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t , not w i s h i n g t o j e o p a r d i z e the f i n a n c i a l and housing a s s i s t a n c e they were r e c e i v i n g from parents, and inconvenience. I t i s unknown how many people a c t u a l l y chose t o not be i n t h e study f o r these reasons and o t h e r s . Indeed,  C a r o l i n e ' s mother  i n d i c a t e d t h a t she p e r s o n a l l y knew s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s w i t h  193 boomerang k i d s and b e l i e v e d t h a t i t would not be a problem  to  get them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. When she asked each  one  o f them (through the mothers) i f they would be i n the study, she was  s u r p r i s e d when they d e c l i n e d . She wondered why  they  were so r e t i c e n t t o d i s c u s s t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . She remarked t o me  t h a t i t seemed strange, and t h a t she got the d i s t i n c t  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t they would not be comfortable d i s c u s s i n g s i t u a t i o n . She asked,  their  "What's going on i n these f a m i l i e s t h a t  people don't want t o t a l k about i t ? " The subset o f f o u r boomerang f a m i l i e s t h a t d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o n j o i n t l y ,  are  unique i n the sense t h a t they were w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r with the r e s e a r c h e r . These p a r t i c i p a n t s , r e l a t i v e t o those who  d e c l i n e d c o n j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d i d not  seem t o have e x c e s s i v e needs t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s . They g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had n o t h i n g t o h i d e from one another and t h a t they welcomed open d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r experience, even i f t h i s was c o n f l i c t u a l . The supplemental e i g h t p a r e n t s who  p o t e n t i a l l y s e n s i t i v e or  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by  were i n t e r v i e w e d strengthened the study  f i n d i n g s . They p r o v i d e d t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i r own t h e i r daughter's  the  experiences, o f t e n s u p p o r t i n g and  and  elaborating  upon shared c o r e s i d i n g experiences ( i . e , l a u n c h i n g c h i l d r e n , managing boundary dilemmas) but a l s o very r e v e a l i n g i n what they d i d not mention or were unaware of i n t h e i r  daughter's  i n t e r n a l l i v e s ( i . e . , the s a l i e n c e of regrouping, the p r i v a c y  194 around r e g r o u p i n g ) . No men and o n l y women s e l f - s e l e c t e d themselves the study. In being w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e t h e i r  t o be i n  private  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a s t r a n g e r , i t seemed t h a t some o f these women were i n t e r e s t e d i n s h a r i n g t h e i r experience i n o r d e r t o a m e l i o r a t e p e r s o n a l d i s t r e s s they were f e e l i n g , t o v o i c e any sources o f unhappiness,  and t o process t h e i r concerns and  i s s u e s w i t h a p e r c e i v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l . They suggested  t h a t they  hoped t h e i r t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s may serve t o i n f o r m and improve o t h e r s ' experiences. I wondered i f the i n t e r e s t i n t a l k i n g t o a c o u n s e l l i n g psychology  r e s e a r c h e r a t t r a c t e d women who needed t o t a l k -  meaning t h a t some o f t h e women who s e l f - s e l e c t e d were e i t h e r p r e s e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g some d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d some d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n c o r e s i d i n g , o r had  and were s t i l l  trying to resolve  the e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t women who were having r e l a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e o r benign experiences o f c o r e s i d i n g w i t h t h e i r parents may have not s e l e c t e d themselves  t o be i n  the study because t h e r e was no p a r t i c u l a r need t o t a l k t o someone about t h e experience. Perhaps they thought  they d i d  not have anything s i g n i f i c a n t t o say t o a c o u n s e l l i n g psychology  researcher.  Another l i m i t a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h study concerns t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the theory proposed.  More v a r i a t i o n i n  s u b j e c t s and g r e a t e r range o f i n t e r v i e w data can p r o v i d e a wider a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a grounded theory ( C h e n i t z & Swanson,  195 1986). I n t h i s study attempts were made t o t e s t t h e categories,  t h e l i n k s between c a t e g o r i e s ,  and t h e e v o l v i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by i n c l u d i n g women presumed t o have d i f f e r e n t l i f e experiences.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e  sample were able-bodied  women from predominantly white, middle  c l a s s f a m i l i e s (as i n f e r r e d from the data a v a i l a b l e t o t h e researcher)  who l i v e i n Vancouver. U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  i t was not  p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n more women who came from f a m i l i e s w i t h more v a r i e d socioeconomic s t a t u s , s i n g l e - p a r e n t  s t a t u s , o r more  d i v e r s e e t h n i c backgrounds. The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e F i l i p i n o , East  Indian,  and Portuguese women i n t h i s study a r e s u g g e s t i v e  o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e f a m i l y e t h n i c i t y has i n shaping t h e s c r i p t s , expectations,  goals,  and t y p i c a l  i n t e r a c t i o n s o f parents and r e t u r n i n g a d u l t women. Thus, t h e concept o f "regrouping" returned  may be a p p l i c a b l e t o any woman who has  t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e but t h e a c t u a l  e x p e r i e n c e s p e c i f i c t o t h i s concept w i l l be d i f f e r e n t f o r women who have d i f f e r e n t backgrounds, e t h n i c , and c u l t u r a l norms. I t should geographically  a l s o be acknowledged t h a t the sample i s skewed towards the urban, West-coast s e t t i n g .  With few exceptions  ( i . e . , Montreal, V i c t o r i a , Wales) t h e  women c o r e s i d e d with t h e i r parents i n Vancouver. S e v e r a l women noted t h a t Vancouver i s a c i t y t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y expensive t o l i v e i n . I n c o n t r a s t , c i t i e s l i k e Winnipeg and Edmonton were c o n s i d e r e d  much more a f f o r d a b l e . Given t h i s , would t h e  196 e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home be d i f f e r e n t i n a more e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e s e t t i n g ? How would t h e e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r i f t h e s e t t i n g was a s m a l l town v e r s u s a c i t y ? Moreover, Canada i s an enormous country c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t g e o g r a p h i c a l and r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . How might t h e r e t u r n i n g home experience be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l i f e s t y l e p r a c t i c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of d i s t i n c t geographical regions ( i . e . , West Coast, P r a i r i e s , The  East-Coast)?  study's sample i n c l u d e d women who were c u r r e n t l y  c o r e s i d i n g w i t h t h e i r parents and women who had c o r e s i d e d w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s but were now l i v i n g independently. F o r those s u b j e c t s who were a l r e a d y l i v i n g independently, concerns  about  r e t r o s p e c t i v e accounts being muddied by t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n and memory l a p s e s were minimized by o n l y i n c l u d i n g the women i f they had c o r e s i d e d w i t h  parents  q u i t e r e c e n t l y , not more than a year ago. These women were a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the outcomes o f r e g r o u p i n g a t t h e p a r e n t a l home, answers t o which c u r r e n t l y c o r e s i d i n g daughters  who a r e s t i l l  Finally,  i n process c o u l d not respond.  i t would be remiss not t o mention t h a t t h e  study's f i n d i n g s can be compromised by the b i a s e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Although the i n t e r v i e w format was s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d and used open-ended q u e s t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t n o t a l l a s p e c t s o f women's experience o f r e t u r n i n g t o c o r e s i d e w i t h p a r e n t s had been i n c l u d e d i n the r e s u l t a n t t h e o r y . F o r i n s t a n c e , no e x p l i c i t attempt was made t o e x p l o r e how t h e  197 women's s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n may have i n f l u e n c e d  their  c o r e s i d i n g experience. Perhaps i n the absence o f such a d i r e c t attempt,  some women d i d not f e e l comfortable enough t o express  how t h e i r s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n may have a f f e c t e d t h e i r experience. P o t e n t i a l b i a s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e data was r e d r e s s e d by c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the grounded theory a n a l y t i c group t h a t was headed by t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n methodologist.  Through t h e p r o c e s s  o f j o i n t open coding on segments o f t r a n s c r i b e d  text,  review and d i s c u s s i o n o f the development o f codes,  ongoing  hypotheses,  and emerging a n a l y t i c memos and f i g u r e s the grounded t h e o r y a n a l y t i c group p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l feedback  on whether o r n o t  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were sound o r s u s p e c t . G e n e r a l l y , sound i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were grounded c l o s e l y i n the data, and d i d not go f a r beyond the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s words. Suspect i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , which were c h a l l e n g e d , reflected  "pet i d e a s "  often  from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s own background,  t r a i n i n g , o r experience. Of course, the p a r t i c i p a n t s  also  a s s i s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g the i n t e g r i t y o f the data and t h e ongoing  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the c o n t i n u a l  of t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l ,  i n response  p a t t e r n s t h a t were generated  refinement  t o t e n t a t i v e themes and  i n the open coding p r o c e s s ,  c r e a t e s an i t e r a t i v e process between r e s e a r c h e r and respondents.  The r e s e a r c h e r generates codes,  themes, and  hunches based on the data and t h i s shapes ongoing w i t h new p a r t i c i p a n t s who share t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s .  interactions  198 P a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o the t e n t a t i v e l y "regrouping" concept were very encouraging. h i g h f a c e v a l i d i t y t h a t immediately  presented The concept had  resonated  with  p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i t was a stimulus t o f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . As the theory was being f l e s h e d out d u r i n g the a n a l y t i c process, p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked  increasingly  r e f i n e d q u e s t i o n s t o t e s t ideas and t o check whether o r not the e v o l v i n g theory being generated was a v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . T h e i r r e a c t i o n s , feedback, and e l a b o r a t i o n s ensured  t h a t the theory was an a c c u r a t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r experience. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e and S e l f - H e l p Johnson and W i l k i n s o n (1995) observe t h a t "although i t seems c l e a r t h a t some f a m i l i e s have d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g t o the r e - n e s t i n g t r a n s i t i o n because o f a r e t u r n t o o l d dependency and c a r e t a k i n g r o l e s , extant l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t about 50% o f the f a m i l i e s a r e comfortable w i t h t h e l i v i n g arrangement" (p. 128). M i t c h e l l and Gee (1996) echo t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s cope w e l l with the p a r e n t - a d u l t c h i l d c o r e s i d e n c e , w i t h 73% o f c o r e s i d i n g parents being v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r marriages. Therefore, s o c i a l  scientists  and c o u n s e l l o r s have r e s e r v e d t h e i r advice, s o l u t i o n s , and i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t h a t have d i f f i c u l t i e s when a d u l t c h i l d r e n c o r e s i d e . To date, the s e l f - h e l p books w r i t t e n on how t o d e a l w i t h a d u l t c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g home t a r g e t parents and p r o v i d e them  199 w i t h t i p s on how t o empathize, communicate, s e t e x p e c t a t i o n s , goals,  and d e a d l i n e s  f o r coresidency  (Kingsmill &  Schlesinger,  1998; Okimoto & S t e g a l l , 1987; Weiner, 1997). Community workshops (e.g.,  UBC's C o n t i n u i n g Education F a l l 1997:  "Boomerang K i d s o r Revolving Door P a r e n t i n g " ) t h a t have sprung up a l s o t a r g e t p a r e n t s ' l e a r n i n g how t o d e a l w i t h  parenting  "boomerang k i d s . " There i s an obvious l a c k o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s o r s e l f - h e l p books designated t o a s s i s t  those  a d u l t c h i l d r e n who may experience d i f f i c u l t i e s when r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p a r e n t a l home. T h i s study attempts t o c l o s e t h i s gap. Richardson (1993) once observed t h a t a c e n t r a l o f knowledge i s i t s u s e f u l n e s s  criterion  t o the p r a c t i t i o n e r s who work  t o improve l i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y p e r t a i n i n g t o g o a l s r e l a t e d t o both development and w e l l - b e i n g .  T h i s study's f i n d i n g s does  imply some pragmatic suggestions t o c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s and  t o a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have returned  It i s also reassuring already easing  t o the parental  t o know t h a t s e v e r a l study p a r t i c i p a n t s  mentioned how h e l p f u l p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g was i n t h e i r regrouping and c o r e s i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s on f a c i l i t a t i n g personal facilitating  development and  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s a r e intended t o o f f e r some  g u i d e l i n e s and p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s use  home.  may  t o a s s i s t those a d u l t c h i l d r e n who have e x p e r i e n c e d some  d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l  home.  F a c i l i t a t i n g Personal Development C l a r i f y i n g P e r s o n a l Goals  200 Returning  t o c o r e s i d e a t the p a r e n t a l home i s much more  t o l e r a b l e and p r o d u c t i v e f o r an a d u l t c h i l d when one what one  hopes to accomplish  knows  while l i v i n g at home. C l a r i f y i n g  the nature of one's g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s may  empower a  r e t u r n e e , r e d u c i n g one's u n c e r t a i n t y about the f u t u r e and r e s t o r i n g one's sense of s e l f - e f f i c a c y and p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a set-back  competence--  or l o s s p r e c i p i t a t e d one's r e t u r n  home. E s t a b l i s h i n g very s p e c i f i c g o a l s t o save a c e r t a i n amount o f money, t o r e c e i v e a p a r t i c u l a r c o l l e g e degree, t o develop  one's c a r e e r niche, or to r e s o l v e an i s s u e w i t h one's  p a r e n t ( s ) a l s o c r e a t e s the sense t h a t one has a worthwhile purpose t h a t i s accompanied by an indeterminate  but  temporary  timeframe. Knowing t h a t a r e t u r n home i s temporary reframes the r e t u r n as a f i n i t e t r a n s i t i o n with an ending.  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e a s s u r i n g i f t h e r e are any d i f f i c u l t i e s i n parent-child  relations.  Weighing Pros and Cons Weighing the pros and cons of r e t u r n i n g home and remaining  at the p a r e n t a l home should be encouraged.  r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home may and/or permit one  be f i n a n c i a l l y  to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l and  while Although  beneficial,  occupational  g o a l s , i t seems t h a t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s can be e m o t i o n a l l y spiritually  d i m i n i s h i n g f o r women. The  and  following conditions  seem t o h i n d e r women's regrouping e f f o r t s :  unresolved  d i f f e r e n c e s between parents, s i b l i n g s , and r e t u r n i n g c h i l d r e n ; past and/or present emotional  and/or p h y s i c a l abuse; p a r e n t a l  201 a l c o h o l i s m and p a r e n t a l d e p r e s s i o n . M a i n t a i n i n g One's Self-Esteem Reframing  an a d u l t c h i l d ' s r e t u r n home as an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o regroup i n o r d e r t o get ahead o r t o g e t one's l i f e ont r a c k , r a t h e r than i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as a set-back,  f a i l u r e , or  l o s s can be h e l p f u l t o r e s t o r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f o n e s e l f . Encouraging r e t u r n e e s t o focus on "hoped-for  s e l v e s " ( i . e . , as having a p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r  i d e n t i t y , as being s t r o n g e r , and so on), r a t h e r than " f e a r e d selves"  (i.e.,  as on-hold, stuck, f a i l e d ) , w i l l a l s o  assist  r e t u r n e e s i n t h e i r attempts t o f u l f i l p e r s o n a l g o a l s and f e e l h o p e f u l about t h e f u t u r e . Seeking S o c i a l  Support  The daughters who seemed t o be f a l t e r i n g t h e most were the ones who had become i s o l a t e d a t the p a r e n t a l home— a l l o w i n g t h e i r f e a r s o f s o c i a l judgement, and concerns  about  parental supervision or intrusiveness to diminish t h e i r  social  support. Gibson and Brown (1992) observe t h e importance o f m o b i l i z i n g s o c i a l support i n combating  the e f f e c t s o f s t r e s s -  q u a l i f y i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t types o f s o c i a l support may be d e s i r e d from d i f f e r e n t persons. T h i s theory suggests  that  r e g r o u p i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e s o c i a l and emotional support o f f r i e n d s . In c o n t r a s t , p a r e n t s ' support was o f t e n l i m i t e d t o i n s t r u m e n t a l support ( i . e . , f i n a n c e s , housing, t a n g i b l e r e s o u r c e s ) , u n l e s s the p a r e n t s were p e r c e i v e d t o be a p a r t i c u l a r l y c r e d i b l e source o f support by  202 their  daughters.  Shaping One's Environment Schulz and Heckhausen (1996) suggest t h a t o p t i m a l development may be f a c i l i t a t e d  through the a s s e r t i o n o f  primary c o n t r o l , meaning t h e e x e r t i o n o f c o n t r o l over our immediate, e x t e r n a l environment. Women experienced  higher  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i v i n g a t the p a r e n t a l home, and t h e i r being was heightened,  well-  when they took t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o make a  p a r t o f t h e i r parent's home t h e i r own. C r e a t i n g a l i v i n g  space  t h a t was e x c l u s i v e l y one's own ( i . e . , bedroom) permits one t o spend time alone, t o have p r i v a c y , t o study, t o s o c i a l i z e , and to express o n e s e l f through t h e environment by d e c o r a t i n g o r u s i n g one's own f u r n i t u r e o r t r e a s u r e d belongings t h a t had been a c q u i r e d when w h i l e having l i v e d independently o f p a r e n t s . Facilitating  Family R e l a t i o n s  Having R e a l i s t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s o f Parents A d u l t c h i l d r e n who have r e t u r n e d home f r e q u e n t l y complain t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s t r e a t them l i k e c h i l d r e n . They a l s o complain  t h a t t h e i r parents do not acknowledge how they have  grown and changed (while they were l i v i n g on t h e i r own)--to become t h e i r own unique  s e l f with sometimes d i f f e r i n g i d e a s ,  v a l u e s , and l i f e s t y l e s . Sometimes a d u l t r e t u r n e e s a l l o w these dynamics t o d i m i n i s h t h e i r sense o f competence, energy, and optimism.  C o u n s e l l o r s may need t o remind a d u l t r e t u r n e e s t o  have r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e i r p a r e n t s ' a c t i o n s and  203 r e a c t i o n s t o them. Returnees must be cognizant e l d e r l y parents,  who  that older  are e s p e c i a l l y i n v e s t e d i n the  r o l e f o r c u l t u r a l or personal  reasons, may  be  or  parenting  particularly  u n w i l l i n g t o modify p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i n a l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l manner. In a n t i c i p a t i n g and advance, a d u l t returnees  may  accepting  this in  be able to reduce or at l e a s t  minimize the occurrence of power s t r u g g l e s i n attempts t o change the s t a t u s quo  with  parents.  Being S e n s i t i v e t o Mothers In order  t o preserve or enhance p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s  w h i l e c o r e s i d i n g i t i s suggested t h a t a d u l t daughters may  need  t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to t h e i r mothers (Umberson, 1992). Mothers take t h e i r r o l e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s and experiencing result  family  the f a m i l y household q u i t e s e r i o u s l y - - o f t e n more b e n e f i t s and more emotional c o s t s as  (Antonucci,  a  1990). Daughters can expect t o spend more  time w i t h t h e i r mothers i n shared household a c t i v i t i e s , many mothers remain t e r r i t o r i a l about the use of the l i v i n g  and  and  maintenance  environment. For example, C a r o l i n e ' s mother  had  headed s e v e r a l f a m i l y meetings to ease the t r a n s i t i o n t o c o r e s i d i n g . Mutual e x p e c t a t i o n s , lifestyle  issues (i.e.,  household standards,  p r i v a c y , s o c i a l l i f e ) were  i n advance. In l i e u of t h i s approach, the m a j o r i t y and  daughters p r e f e r r e d to d e a l with i s s u e s as they  and  redressed of mothers arose.  O f t e n mothers' complaints seemed p i c k y or t r i v i a l t o daughters who  saw  themselves as i n v o l v e d with much more important  tasks  204 in their lives.  I t i s recommended t h a t they may  need t o  a c t i v e l y develop empathy f o r t h e i r mothers' p e r s p e c t i v e s order  in  t o prevent unnecessary c o n f l i c t or misunderstanding.  U l t i m a t e l y the women i n t h i s study suggested t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r mothers c o u l d be more i n t e n s e "high maintenance," r e l a t i v e to f a t h e r s who  ; and  were e x p e r i e n c e d  as more p e r i p h e r a l , but working t h i n g s out w i t h mothers considered  important because the r e l a t i o n s h i p was  so  was  highly  valued. P r i v a c y and  Boundaries  Johnson and W i l k i n s o n  (1995) observe t h a t when a d u l t  c h i l d r e n r e t u r n home, they cannot r e l y on p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e a t t a i n t h e i r developmental g o a l s . C l o s e p r o x i m i t y p a r e n t a l home means t h a t one  within  to  the  must s t r i v e t o c r e a t e a b a l a n c e  between c r e a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l space f o r o n e s e l f and out c o n n e c t i o n s with o t h e r s . Securing  optimal  seeking  psychological  space f o r o n e s e l f may  be f a c i l i t a t e d by n e g o t i a t i n g a c l e a r  s e t of boundaries and  expectations  with one's p a r e n t s so  that  they do not become i n t r u s i v e . Cross C u l t u r a l Dynamics The may  e x p e r i e n c e of r e t u r n i n g home to c o r e s i d e w i t h p a r e n t s  be i n f l u e n c e d by the c u l t u r a l background or e t h n i c i t y of  the f a m i l y of o r i g i n . The white ( i . e . , v a r i e s from the East  Indian,  European) e x p e r i e n c e  F i l i p i n o , or Portuguese  e x p e r i e n c e . Moreover, o f t e n r e t u r n i n g a d u l t c h i l d r e n have already  adopted the values,  b e l i e f s , and  expectations  of  their  205 Canadian c o h o r t , which may be a t odds w i t h those o f t h e i r p a r e n t s — e s p e c i a l l y i f parents adhere t o t r a d i t i o n a l norms, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and b e l i e f s about h i e r a r c h i c a l  cultural parent-  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , and c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e a s about p r e m a r i t a l i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s . Daughters, up accommodating t h e i r p a r e n t s  under these c o n d i t i o n s , may end 1  standards and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n  o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n smooth r e l a t i o n s . T h i s may p o t e n t i a l l y compromise s i g n i f i c a n t aspects o f self-development.  Moreover,  they may f e e l pressured t o remain a t the p a r e n t a l home l o n g e r than they would l i k e t o . Learning t o manage t h i s c r o s s c u l t u r a l dynamic may ease daughters'  regrouping p r o c e s s .  Implications for Social  Policy  Given t h e i n c r e a s i n g postponement o f marriage, post-secondary ongoing  s c h o o l attendance,  prolonged  youth unemployment, and  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l cut-backs, Veevers  and M i t c h e l l  (1998) observe t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o the p a r e n t a l home w i l l be an i n c r e a s i n g l y popular s t r a t e g y f o r " o p t i m i z i n g t r a n s i t i o n s adulthood"  into  (p. 106). In l i g h t o f c u r r e n t s o c i e t a l and urban  c o n d i t i o n s , these authors a s s e r t t h a t i t may become a " n e c e s s i t y " f o r many young a d u l t s t o r e t u r n home t o l i v e  with  p a r e n t s i n order t o f u l f i l e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t r a v e l , home ownership, and employment. However, M i t c h e l l and Gee (1995) a l s o p o i n t out t h a t not a l l young a d u l t s have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o r e s i d e w i t h  their  p a r e n t s w h i l e a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y o r attempting t o save money. T h i s c r e a t e s the d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some young  206 a d u l t s may  f a c e short-term and long-term disadvantages i n the  e d u c a t i o n a l and employment markets, f u t u r e l i v e s . M i t c h e l l and Gee  thereby compromising  their  (1995) have a s s e r t e d t h a t the  Canadian government's movement towards p r i v a t i z a t i o n i n the w e l f a r e system and p o l i c y i n a t t e n t i o n t o young a d u l t s , c o u p l e d w i t h an assumption t h a t f a m i l i e s w i l l look a f t e r t h e i r  own,  has p l a n t e d the seeds of i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . M i t c h e l l and Gee  (1995) have recommended  t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n and program development  must be r e f i n e d i n  o r d e r t o meet the needs o f today's young a d u l t s . They suggest s h o r t - t e r m and long-term s o l u t i o n s designed t o a l l e v i a t e youth p o v e r t y and unemployment by recommending t h a t the Canadian government p r o v i d e work programmes, job c o u n s e l l i n g ,  training,  and placement,  and  s u f f i c i e n t minimum wage, j o b s e c u r i t y  b e n e f i t s , government-sponsored  student l o a n s , g r a n t s f o r  students t o l i v e independently of parents, and  affordable  housing. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these i d e a l i s t i c p o l i c y recommendations take time t o implement and they a l s o may  not be  financially  f e a s i b l e f o r the Canadian government t o comprehensively p r o v i d e . Moreover,  s o c i a l p o l i c y aimed a t the economic l e v e l  of the boomerang phenomenon do not take i n t o account the myriad o f emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t h a t accompany r e t u r n i n g home i n adulthood. Nor does i t take i n t o account the s o c i a l phenomenon of our i n c r e a s i n g l y extended l i f e spans, i n which the t r a d i t i o n a l demarcation p o i n t s f o r adulthood seem  207 i n c r e a s i n g l y a r b i t r a r y . Within the i n d i v i d u a l and w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y t h e r e i s an i n i t i a l  sense o f c o n f u s i o n ,  m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n , and i s o l a t i o n t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a d u l t r e t u r n i n g home--the expected  l i f e s c r i p t has not  u n f o l d e d as a n t i c i p a t e d . Indeed, Sheehy (1995) observes t h a t "We l i v e i n t h e postmodern world, where anything i s p o s s i b l e and almost nothing i s c e r t a i n , " and she concludes t h a t "there i s no l o n g e r a standard l i f e c y c l e . People a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y a b l e t o customize  their l i f e cycles"  (pp. 14-15). The women  and t h e i r parents f a r e d b e t t e r when they a p p r e c i a t e d t h i s , and embraced t h e n o t i o n t h a t today's s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s a r e d i f f e r e n t than parent's s o c i o c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s  concerning  a c c e p t a b l e m i l e s t o n e s i n a d u l t development. Today's developmental  t i m e t a b l e seems t o have s h i f t e d by 10 y e a r s -  c a r e e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t , marriage and c h i l d b e a r i n g a r e a l l delayed f o r today's a d u l t s (Sheehy, 1995). When t h e women and t h e i r p a r e n t s began t o r e a l i z e t h a t they were not alone i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , t h a t many other parents and daughters  were  e x p e r i e n c i n g boomeranging and i t s a s s o c i a t e d f i n a n c i a l and c a r e e r developmental  concerns,  they were a b l e t o n o r m a l i z e t h e  e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . S o c i a l l y , economically, and c u l t u r a l l y our post-modern world i n t h e new millennium i s r a p i d l y s h i f t i n g and i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s need t o be educated  and prepared f o r  t h i s r e a l i t y . In the past, i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s have had to  accommodate and a d j u s t t o s o c i e t a l changes, and they must  208 be prepared t o do so again. Perhaps young a d u l t s should not be i n such a rush t o l e a v e t h e p a r e n t a l home t o b e g i n w i t h . Perhaps post-secondary  education should be pursued  at the  p a r e n t a l home, and o n l y a f t e r secure employment i s a t t a i n e d s h o u l d young a d u l t s move out t o l i v e independently. I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h delayed home-leaving, perhaps t h e r e a l s o should be i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p i n g income t a x i n c e n t i v e s o r deductions f o r f a m i l i e s t h a t c o n t i n u e t o c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n i n t o adulthood. C e r t a i n l y , i t has been acknowledged t h a t many young a d u l t s leave home b e f o r e they a r e ready  (Gee e t a l . , 1995). Premature home-leaving may i n c u r  heightened debt on t h e b e h a l f o f young a d u l t s - - t h e r e b y n e c e s s i t a t i n g r e l i a n c e on parents f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and i n c r e a s i n g t h e need t o r e t u r n t o the p a r e n t a l home. Recommendations f o r Future  Research  Some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h based on t h e t h e o r y a r e as f o l l o w s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o e v a l u a t e t h e t h e o r y w i t h more d i v e r s e e t h n i c / c u l t u r a l groups o f women who have r e t u r n e d t o t h e p a r e n t a l home t o l i v e . While t h i s d e a l t w i t h a group o f predominantly  study  white, m i d d l e - c l a s s  Canadians ( o f European e t h n i c i t y ) , the e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e E a s t Indian, t h e F i l i p i n o ,  and the Portuguese  women i n t h e study  h i n t e d a t t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n the regrouping e x p e r i e n c e due t o c u l t u r a l / e t h n i c b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . Examining t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s theory t o women o f more d i v e r s e e t h n i c backgrounds ( i . e . ,  I t a l i a n , Greek, Portuguese,  Chinese,  East  209 Indian) would be of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s i n c e these groups have c l o s e k i n s h i p norms and c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ( i . e . , l e a v i n g home u n t i l marriage, marriages  extended  households,  arranged  among t r a d i t i o n a l East Indians) t h a t d i v e r g e  the t r a d i t i o n s of white, middle c l a s s Canadians.  not  from  Moreover, the  demographic make-up of Vancouver c o n s i s t s of a l a r g e number of Chinese and East Indian communities t h a t c o u l d be  accessed.  Being a b l e t o speak the n a t i v e tongue of these p o p u l a t i o n s  may  be a n e c e s s i t y f o r the r e s e a r c h e r . I n v e s t i g a t i n g the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the grounded t h e o r y f o r men  who  r e t u r n home would be i n t e r e s t i n g . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  c o u l d determine  whether or not men  d i f f e r from women's  e x p e r i e n c e s of regrouping at the p a r e n t a l home. I am c u r i o u s i f men's regrouping g o a l s are s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t from women. I a n t i c i p a t e t h a t men  would a l s o engage i n r e g r o u p i n g a t the  e d u c a t i o n a l / o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l . However, I am u n c e r t a i n i f men would pursue the r e s o l u t i o n of p a r e n t - c h i l d i s s u e s i n o r d e r t o i n d i v i d u a t e and become s t r o n g e r as some women had d e s c r i b e d . Moreover, I wonder i f the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t h i n d e r v e r s u s h e l p men's r e g r o u p i n g process would be the same as women's. Would men  e x p e r i e n c e the same l e v e l of p a r e n t a l i n t r u s i v e n e s s t h a t  women experienced with t h e i r parents? Do men  who  have r e t u r n e d  home t o c o r e s i d e f e e l l i k e they have t o fend o f f p a r e n t s ' well-meaning a d v i c e and comments (about c a r e e r c h o i c e s , d a t i n g c h o i c e s , l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s , and so on) t o a s i m i l a r degree? Would men  experience the r e t u r n home as "hard on  friendships"  210 as women had,  thereby d i m i n i s h i n g t h e i r s o c i a l support system?  Such v a r i a t i o n i n the theory based on gender remains t o be examined. The  substantive  theory o f women's regrouping  at the  p a r e n t a l home may a l s o be enhanced through t r i a n g u l a t i n g m u l t i p l e data sources i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . (1994) note t h a t  Denzin and L i n c o l n  "the combination o f m u l t i p l e methods,  empirical materials, perspectives  and o b s e r v e r s i n a s i n g l e  study i s a s t r a t e g y t h a t adds r i g o r , breadth, and depth t o any i n v e s t i g a t i o n (p. 2 ) . Perhaps i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e t u r n i n g  adult  c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents c o u l d be supplemented w i t h e m p i r i c a l measures on v a r i a b l e s t h a t seem r e l e v a n t t o t h e regrouping  process ( i . e . ,  self-efficacy,  self-esteem).  Concluding Remarks Grounded theory  assumes t h a t any group shares an  u n a r t i c u l a t e d s o c i a l problem t h a t i s r e s o l v e d through a s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l process (Glaser, c o n t r i b u t i o n i s the generation  of a substantive  women's e x p e r i e n c e s o f regrouping the extant consider  literature,  1978). T h i s  theory o f  a t the p a r e n t a l home. U n l i k e  i t e x p l a i n s what r e t u r n i n g women  t o be t h e i r core i s s u e ; namely regrouping  get ahead o r t o get a f r e s h s t a r t i n l i f e educationally, occupationally,  i n order t o  financially,  and p e r s o n a l l y . By f o c u s i n g on  the e x p e r i e n c e s o f women who have returned home t o l i v e ,  study's  to the parental  i n s i g h t s have been a t t a i n e d about women's  journey t o become stronger  successful i n d i v i d u a l s . Staying  c l o s e t o the women's shared experiences r e v e a l e d how e x p e r i e n c e o f f a l t e r i n g o r advancing  their  towards the s u c c e s s f u l  r e s o l u t i o n o f p e r s o n a l g o a l s was embedded i n a l i f e c o n t e x t i n which p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s h i p s , and s o c i e t y p l a y an i n f l u e n t i a l role.  212 References Aldous, J . (1987). 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Anshen (Ed)., The f a m i l y : I t s f u n c t i o n and d e s t i n y , (pp. 180-210). New York: Harper. Pepper, S. C. (1942). World hypotheses: A study i n e v i d e n c e . Berkeley, CA: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . P i l l e m a r , K., & S u i t o r , J . J . (1991). " W i l l I ever escape my c h i l d ' s problems?" E f f e c t s of a d u l t c h i l d r e n ' s problems on e l d e r l y parents. J o u r n a l o f Marriage and Family, 53, 585-594. Prochaska, J . O., & DiClemente, C. (1982). T r a n s t h e o r e t i c a l therapy: Toward a more i n t e g r a t i v e model o f change. Psychotherapy: Theory, r e s e a r c h , and p r a c t i c e , 19, 276-288. Prochaska, J . 0., & DiClemente, C. (1986). The t r a n s t h e o r e t i c a l approach. In J . C. Norcross (Ed.), Handbook o f e c l e c t i c psychotherapy (pp. 163-200). New York: Brunner/Mazel. Rennie, D. L., P h i l l i p s , J . R., & Quartaro, G. K. Grounded theory: A promising approach t o c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n psychology? Canadian Psychology, 29, 139-150.  (1988).  Reese, W. A., & K a t o v i c h , M. A. (1989). Untimely a c t s : Extending the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f d e v i a n c e . The S o c i o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 30, 159-184. Richardson, M. (1993). Work i n people's l i v e s : A l o c a t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s . J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, 40, 425-433. R i c h i e , B. S., F a s s i n g e r , Linn, S., Johnson, J . , P r o s s e r , J . , & Robinson, S. (1997). P e r s i s t e n c e , c o n n e c t i o n , and p a s s i o n : A q u a l i t a t i v e study of the c a r e e r development of h i g h l y a c h i e v i n g A f r i c a n AmericanB l a c k and White women. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g  220 Psychology, 44, 133-148. R o s s i , A. S., & R o s s i , P. H. (1990). 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Grounded t h e o r y methodology: An Overview. In N. K. Denzin and' Y. S. L i n c o l n (Eds.) Handbook o f g u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h (pp.273285). London: Sage.  221 S t r a u s s , A., & Corbin, J . (1998). B a s i c s o f q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h : Techniques and Procedures f o r Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. S u i t o r , J . J . , & P i l l e m a r , K. (1987). The presence o f a d u l t c h i l d r e n : A source o f s t r e s s f o r e l d e r l y c o u p l e s ' marriages? J o u r n a l o f Marriage and t h e Family, 49, 717-725. S u i t o r , J . J . , & P i l l e m e r , K. (1988). E x p l a i n i n g i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t when a d u l t c h i l d r e n and e l d e r l y parents l i v e together. J o u r n a l o f Marriage and t h e Family, 50, 1037-1047. S u i t o r , J . J . , & P i l l e m e r , K. (1991). Family c o n f l i c t when a d u l t c h i l d r e n and e l d e r l y parents share a home. I n K. P i l l e m e r and K. McCartner (Eds.), P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s throughout l i f e (pp. 163-177). H i l l s d a l e , NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s . Tienda, M., & Angel, R. (1982). Headship and household composition among Black, H i s p a n i c s , and o t h e r Whites. S o c i a l Forces, 61, 508-531. Umberson, D. (1992). R e l a t i o n s h i p s between a d u l t c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences f o r both g e n e r a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f Marriage and t h e Family, 54, 664-674. Veevers, J . E., Gee, E. M., & Wister, A.V. (1996). Homel e a v i n g age norms: C o n f l i c t o r consensus? I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Aging and Human Development, 43, 277-295. Veevers, J . E., & M i t c h e l l , B. A. (1998). 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J o u r n a l of Adolescence, 17, 173-191.  223 Appendix A Sample Advertisements  i n F l y e r s and Media  Boomerang Family  Research  The C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department i s l o o k i n g f o r a d u l t s who have r e t u r n e d home t o l i v e . They and t h e i r parents a r e i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study f o c u s i n g on the experience, i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and responses t o t h i s change i n the f a m i l y . I n v o l v e s c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w s . For more i n f o r m a t i o n , p l e a s e c a l l Michele a t 432-1915.  Research  Study  WHAT: The purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o f i n d out what r e t u r n i n g home i n adulthood i s l i k e . WHO: A d u l t s (mid-twenties t o f o r t i e s ) who have r e t u r n e d home t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r parents, and who have c u r r e n t l y been l i v i n g with them f o r a t l e a s t 6 months. WHERE: A confidential  i n t e r v i e w a t UBC.  WHY: 3 Chances t o WIN $100! Leave a message f o r MICHELE A. PASELUIKHO w i t h UBC's C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department a t 822-5259 o r 2699986.  Female V o l u n t e e r s Daughters who have r e t u r n e d home t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e needed f o r a Ph.D. psychology study. An i n t e r v i e w a t your convenience i s r e q u i r e d . P l e a s e c a l l M i c h e l e a t 269-9986.  224  Appendix B Research Sample's Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  1*  2*  3*  4*  44  30  25  29  Ethnicity  British  Scottish  Brit/Scott  Scott/Fr.Can.  Education  B.A.  • B.A.  B.Sc.  B.A.  Occupation  Unemployed  Student/Health Care  Manager  Banking  Income @ Parental Home  Welfare  Student Loans  $30,000+  $37,500+  Duration @ Parental Home  3 years  2 years  10 months  19 months  Duration Since Leaving Home  -  6 months  Number of Brothers  1  1  Age of Brother(s)  41  33  Number of Sisters  0  0  I  1  Age of Sister(s)  -  _  23  27  Number of children  0  2  0  0  Satisfaction Living @ Home  -  5  6  4  Total Number of Returns Home  2  2  1  2  . 74  59  50  60  Father's Ethnicity  British  Scottish  British  Scott/French  Father's Education  B.Sc.  High School  B.Com.  M.Sc.  Father's Occupation  Retired  Retired  Accountant  Banker  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  $100,000+  73  52  50  58  Mother's Ethnicity  British  Scottish  Scott/Italian  Scottish  Mother's Education  High School  High School  B.Ed.  M.A.  Mother's Occupation  Retired  Retired  Teacher  Teacher  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  Age  Father's Age  Father's Income Mother's Age  Mother's Income  *subset of daughters and parents interviewed separately and conjointly N / A : not avaiable  0 0  1 20  225  Research Sample's Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (Continued)  5  6  7  27  24  27  Ethnicity  Irish/German  Danish  Fillipino  Education  B.A./B.Sc.  B.Mus.  B.Sc.Nurs.  Occupation  Occupational Therapist  Student  Student  Income @ Parental Home  $40,000+  None  N/A  Duration @ Parental Home  6 months  1 month  3.5 years  Age  Duration Since Leaving Home  •1 day  _  2 months  Number of Brothers  0  0  1  Age of Brother(s)  _  _  older  Number of Sisters  1  1  1  Age of Sister(s)  24  22  older  Number of children  0  0  0  Satisfaction Living @ Home  5  1-3  4  Total Number of Returns Home  2 .  1  1  Father's Age  59  58  62  Father's Ethnicity  German  Danish  Fillipino  Father's Education  B.Com  High School  N/A  Father's Occupation  Accountant  Lumber  Bookeeper/Unemployed  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  55  55  57  Mother's Ethnicity  Irish  Danish  Fillipino  Mother's Education  B.Nurs.  B.Ed.  B.Nurs.  Mother's Occupation  P/T Nurse  Teacher  Nurse  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  Father's Income Mother's Age  Mother's Income  N / A : not avaiable  226  Research Sample's Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  8  9  27  Ethnicity  (Continued)  10  11  JJ  ~> -i  28  30  Scottish  East Indian  European  English/Dutch  Education  B.A.  Ph.D. Cand.  Gr. 12  B.A.  Occupation  Canada Post  GT A/Student  Student  Secretary  Income @-Parental Home  $32,000  $4-8,000  Savings  $30,000  Duration @ Parental Home  2 years  3 years  7 months  3.5 years  Duration Since Leaving Home  1 year  _  0  Age  Number of Brothers  0  1  1  Age of Brother(s)  -  26  30  1  0  0  Age of Sister(s)  25  _  Number of children  0  0  0  0  2-3  5  5  5  Total Number of Returns Home  2  1  1  1  Father's Age  53  N/A  53  59  Father's Ethnicity  Scottish  East Indian  European  Dutch  Father's Education  N/A  Ph.D.  High School  Ph.D:  Father's Occupation  Banker  Professor  Sales  Geological Consultant  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  50  N/A  53  57  Mother's Ethnicity  N/A  East Indian  European  English  Mother's Education  High School  Ph.D.  G.D.A.  High School  Mother's Occupation  Retail  Professor  Not employed  Journalist  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  '  Number of Sisters  Satisfaction Living @ Home  Father's Income Mother's Age  Mother's Income  N / A : not avaiable  •  1 28  .  227 Research Sample's Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (Continued)  12  13  14  15  34  29  25  30  Ethnicity  Welsch  Portugese  German  Ukranian  Education  Diploma  M.A.  B.Sc.  Diploma  Occupation  Secretary  Counsellor  Technician  Clerk  Income  Welfare  N/A  $17,000  $l,50'0/month  Duration @ Parental Home  1 year  4 months  1 year; 1 month  one month  Duration Since Leaving Home  1 year  _  4 months  2  0  2  1  Age of Brother(s)  35 & 3 1  _  26 & 17  33  Number of Sisters  0  1  1  2  Age of Sister(s)  _  21  21  29&32  Number of children  0  0  0  0  Satisfaction Living @ Home  _  6  5.5  3  Total Number of Returns Home  4  1  1  3  Father's Age  67  Deceased  65  60  German  Ukranian  Age  Number of Brothers  Father's Ethnicity  Welsch  Father's Education  B.A.  Elementary  B.Sc.  Engineer  Father's Occupation  Retired  N/A.  Retired  Retired  N/A.  N/A.  $70,000  N/A.  64  58  56  60  Mother's Ethnicity  German  Portugese  German  Canadian  Mother's Education  High School  Elementary  B.A.  High School  Mother's Occupation  Retired  Cleaning  Homemaker  Homemaker  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  N/A.  Father's Income Mother's Age  Mother's Income  N / A : not avaiable  Portugese •  Appendix C j  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA 228  Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-5259 Fax: (604) 822-2328  Research P a r t i c i p a n t ' s Consent Form Family-Form  I consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t " E x p l a i n i n g P a r e n t - C h i l d Experience when A d u l t - C h i l d r e n Return Home to L i v e " . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g conducted by Michele Paseluikho, a d o c t o r a l c a n d i d a t e a f f i l i a t e d with the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department a t U.B.C. I understand t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study w i l l e n t a i l t h a t M i c h e l e v i s i t my home i n order to t a l k to me about what i t i s l i k e when and a d u l t c h i l d r e t u r n s home t o l i v e ; from both the p e r s p e c t i v e of the p a r e n t ( s ) and the a d u l t - c h i l d . The t i m i n g and l e n g t h of these v i s i t s w i l l be arranged t o s u i t our convenience. I understand t h a t the c o n v e r s a t i o n s I have w i t h M i c h e l e w i l l be audiotaped and t r a n s c r i b e d l a t e r . Michele may a l s o w r i t e notes about her o b s e r v a t i o n s . I understand t h a t I may be asked t o meet with Michele on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . A l t o g e t h e r , approximately 3 t o 6 hours of o b s e r v a t i o n and c o n v e r s a t i o n may take p l a c e with my f a m i l y over a p e r i o d of two t o f o u r months. T a l k i n g about my f a m i l y ' s s i t u a t i o n to a " s t r a n g e r " may be somewhat uncomfortable at times. I have the p e r s o n a l d i s c r e t i o n t o share whatever aspects of f a m i l y l i f e I would l i k e t o . I a l s o have the r i g h t t o not answer any q u e s t i o n at any time, without any r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r o u r s e l v e s . Although p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study may i n v o l v e some l o s s of p r i v a c y , M i c h e l e w i l l take p r e c a u t i o n s to prevent t h i s : ( 1 ) a u d i o t a p e s and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d by our names, but w i t h a number known o n l y t o Michele; ( 2 ) tapes, t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , f i e l d notes, and w r i