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What helps and what hinders in cross-cultural supervision : a critical incident study Wong, Lilian Chui Jan 2000

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WHAT HELPS AND WHAT HINDERS IN CROSS-CULTURAL CLINICAL SUPERVISION: A CRITICAL INCIDENT STUDY B Y LILIAN CHUI JAN WONG B.Sc, University of Toronto, 1962 M . A. , University of Texas, Austin, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology and Special Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERS'lTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 2000 © Lilian Chui Jan Wong (2000) in presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia. 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia L-ciiM..t Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T The present study investigated what helped and what hindered multicultural supervision. The participants consisted of 19 females, and 6 males, including Asian-Canadians, Indo-Canadians, First Nations, Latin-Canadian and Afro-Canadian. They were individually interviewed, following an expanded version of Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique. There were 340 relevant meaning units related to positive incidents and 386 meaning units related to negative incidents. Forty-two meaning units were associated with coping efforts, and 87 meaning units were on recommendations. Categories extracted from these meaning units were grouped as follows: (a) 20 positive categories, (b) 15 negative categories, (c) 15 coping categories, and (d) 33 recommendations. The reliability of classifying meaning units according to these categories was satisfactory, based on inter-judge agreement (80% and higher). The validity of content analysis was established by (a) confirmation by participants, (b) cross-validation by other participants, (c) cross-validation by an independent judge, and (d) cross-validation by other researchers. The most frequently cited positive categories were subsumed under five key areas: (a) personal attributes of the supervisor, (b) supervision competencies, (c) mentoring, (d) relationship, and (e) multicultural supervision competencies. The most frequently reported negative categories were associated with the following five areas: (a) personal difficulties as a visible minority, (b) negative personal attributes of the supervisor, (c) lack of a safe and trusting relationship, (d) lack of multicultural supervision competencies, and (e) lack of supervision competencies. The coping efforts employed were grouped into four areas: (a) help seeking, (b) existential coping, (c) active coping, and (d) emotional coping. Finally, recommendations were also grouped into four broad areas: (a) needs to improve the quality of supervision, (b) needs to improve multicultural supervision competencies, (c) needs for educational institutions to make changes, and (d) needs for minority students to make changes. The study provided a comprehensive picture of what works and what does not work in multicultural supervision. The results support a mentoring model, which posits that supervision is effective to the extent that the supervisor takes on the role of a mentor. The practical implications of the study include the need for cross-cultural supervision competencies and mentoring graduate students. iv T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of contents iv List of tables vi Acknowledgments vii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 16 Effective Supervision 16 Bad and Harmful Supervision 21 Multicultural Supervision 24 Models of Supervision 30 CHAPTER III: THE CRITICAL INCIDENT METHODOLOGY 42 The Critical Incident Technique According to Flanagan 44 Critical Incidents as Psychological States 52 CHAPTER IV: METHOD 58 CHAPTER V: RESULTS 68 Categories of Positive Incidents 68 Categories of Negative Incidents 71 Categories of Coping 74 Recommendations 77 Reliability Test 83 Validity Test 84 V Conclusion ....85 CHAPTER VI: DISCUSSION 87 Positive Critical Incidents 87 Negative Critical Incidents 93 Coping with Negative Supervision Experience 101 Recommendations 106 Theoretical considerations I l l Contributions 112 Limitations 113 REFERENCES 117 APPENDICES A. Participant recruitment poster 134 B. Letter to potential participants 135 C. Consent Form 137 D. Demographic Information Form • 140 E. Instructions to participants 142 F. Definitions and examples of positive categories 144 G. Definitions and examples of negative categories 151 H. Definitions of areas and categories of coping : 156 I. Categories of recommendations 159 J. Summary of demographic Information ^ 166 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Contrast between multicultural counselling and multicultural supervision 28 Table 2: Categories of positive incidents 69 Table 3: Categories of negative incidents 72 Table 4: Areas and categories of coping 75 Table 5: Areas and categories of recommendations 79 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S During the orientation for doctoral and masters students, one statement stayed with me. Dr. Larry Cochran said, "For your research, do something that you are passionate about, because you will be doing it for many years." Indeed, by a twist of fate, I have been involved in the study that I am excited and passionate about. Each member of my committee has contributed to my learning in different ways. Dr. Rod McCormick supervised my Directed Study on Critical Incident Technique. As I was poring over past theses, original writings, and discovering various versions of the technique, Dr. McCormick was most encouraging and validating. Dr. Bi l l Borgen, in his gentle manner, modelled for me supervision skills and attitudes that I have applied in supervision of my supervisees. Dr. Ishu Ishiyama, my program and thesis supervisor, has been my support and encourager as I travelled the ups and downs on this road of academic learning. He has been a teacher, counsellor, and friend. I want to thank all my committee members who have helped in shaping my thesis. The person that I would not want to live without is my husband, Paul. He is an exemplary mentor in fulfilling my dream. He offered support and shared his knowledge on a daily basis. Lastly, for the encouragement to return to my studies, I want to thank my two sons, Austin and Wesley, for telling me to "Go for it, Mom!" You all are so special! Finally, I want to thank my God for giving me the insatiable desire to learn and the opportunity to do so! 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Kim, a Korean student in a Counselling Psychology Program, had to repeat the basic skills course, because of her language deficiency and apparent difficulty in demonstrating basic skills, such as empathic reflection. Now, she is having problems in practicum, showing some difficulty in communicating with clients. Her supervisor, Dr. Smith, is worried that clients may not return because of her poor English. To his surprise, her clients return regularly. However, Dr. Smith is of the opinion that Kim spends too much time building relationships, and not enough time doing therapy. His main concern is that she seems to have a very limited vocabulary for reflecting feelings. He also considers her approach to be too cognitive and that she is too eager to give advice. During supervision, she politely acknowledges his concerns but continues to build relationships and solve problems for her clients, who seem to appreciate her friendliness, warmth and willingness to help, despite her language handicap. During group supervision, she tends to be reserved and quiet. She is also reluctant to do role- playing. Dr. Smith tells her that she needs to be more assertive and should contribute more to group discussion. When he criticizes her counselling sessions in the group, she appears painfully nervous. At the end of the practicum, she receives a rather negative evaluation. Dr. Smith believes that in addition to her lack of basic counselling skills, she is unreceptive to constructive criticisms and feedback. She is devastated. She feels that she cannot talk to any of her classmates. She seriously considers quitting the program, doubting that she will ever make it as a 2 counsellor because of the cultural and language barriers. After much soul searching and re-examining her practicum experiences, she concludes that she does have empathy for her clients, and that her counselling is not inferior to her Caucasian peers, but just different. She feels that Dr. Smith s evaluation is inaccurate and unfair. She does not want to file a complaint, because her culture has taught her to respect professors even when they are wrong. She also fears repercussion and misunderstanding. She decides to stay on and hopes that the next supervisor will have more understanding of visible minority students. From the above scenario, what are the main problems? Is it primarily Kim's lack of counselling skills and English proficiency? Is it Dr. Smith's lack of cross-cultural supervision competencies? Or is it both? What can be done to minimize or eliminate these problems so that minority students like Kim can have a more positive supervision experience? What constitutes helpful and effective supervision in cross-cultural situations? What constitutes bad and harmful supervision in working with visible minority students? These questions become more pressing as more and more ethnic minority students are enrolled in graduate programs in counselling psychology. According to Kyle and Williams (2000), about 26% of psychology students in the American Psychological Association (APA) accredited programs identify themselves as racial or ethnic minorities. The present dissertation seeks to address the above questions through a Critical Incident analysis (Flanagan, 1954) of what helps and what hinders multicultural supervision. The Critical Incident Technique, as originally developed by Flanagan (1954), is designed to map out behaviours that are critical to the success or failure of performing 3 a certain task, such as managing a store or supervising a trainee. Therefore, I need to clearly define the objective of supervision and review supervision research from a historical perspective. Because this dissertation focusses on supervision of visible minority students, I also need to examine cross-cultural issues. The objective of supervision Supervision is essential to counsellor education and development (Carroll, 1996; Holloway, 1992; Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987). Given the importance of supervision in preparing students for the counselling profession, there is now an ever-expanding literature on clinical supervision, especially on what constitutes effective supervision (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998; Holloway, 1995; Watkins, 1997; Worthington, 1987). According to Hart (1982), "Clinical supervision is an ongoing educational process in which one person in the role of supervisor helps another person in the role of supervisee acquire appropriate professional behaviour through an examination of supervisee's professional activities" (p. 12). Bernard and Goodyear (1998) identify two major goals for supervision: (a) teaching-learning, and (b) monitoring of client welfare. The teaching-learning objective is to develop students' clinical competencies needed for eventual licensure. At the same time, supervisors also have the responsibility to monitor the quality of client care provided by the trainees and safeguard client's welfare. Evaluation is essential to both the teaching and monitoring functions. Similarly, Holloway (1995) emphasizes professional development as the main objective of supervision, but she also recognizes the importance of the supportive 4 functions of supervision. She proposes that "clinical supervisors focus on the professional development of the supervisee's skills within the organization. Clinical supervision emphasizes the educational and supportive functions of the supervisory role" (p.3). "The goal of supervision is the enhancement of the student's effective professional functioning, and the interpersonal nature of supervision provides an opportunity for the supervisee to be fully involved toward that end. In this way, the supervisee is empowered in the process of acquiring attitudes, skills, and knowledge for independent, effective professional practice" (p.6). There is a consensus that the main objective of supervision is the development of clinical and professional competencies of supervisees. Closely related to this objective is the development of the student as a person, because the counsellor's personal qualities and attitudes may be more important than clinical skills (Rogers, 1977, 1986). A brief historical perspective of supervision research The last twenty years have witnessed considerable increase in supervision research. Heppner and Roehlke (1984) observed that "although supervision has been extensively studied, there is still relatively little information about the specific variables that affect the actual supervision process" (p.76). More than 15 years later, we have learned more about a number of variables relevant to supervision, but we still know very little about how these variables impact the supervision process and outcomes. Supervision has undergone changes over the past few decades. From a historical perspective, supervision research can be roughly grouped into five orientations: (a) 5 behaviour, (b) identity, (c) relationship, (d) development, and (e) person. These five orientations provide different perspectives of what needs to be emphasized in supervision. Behavioural orientation. Initially, the emphasis of supervision research was on specific supervisory tasks, such as modelling, teaching clinical skills and giving evaluative feedback. Therefore, this behavioural emphasis may also be characterized as task-oriented. Consistent with the Zeitgeist of behaviorism, researchers in supervision studied supervisory behaviours that could be readily operationalized. For example, Worthington and Roehlke (1979) measured the importance ratings of a wide range of supervisory behaviours. They found that supervisors considered giving feedback as the primary function of good supervision. In their study, supervisees perceived that good supervision depended on the following conditions: (a) that a personal and pleasant supervisor-supervisee relationship exists; (b) that supervisors provide relatively structured supervision sessions, especially during early sessions, and (c) that supervisors directly teach beginning counsellors how to counsel and then encourage the new counsellors to try out their new skills. Their finding of the discrepancy between supervisor and supervisee has considerable implications for both the research and practice of supervision. Identity orientation. The second is "identity orientation". Ekstein and Wallerstein (1972) recognized the inadequacy of focusing on skills training during supervision. According to these authors, in order for students to become truly professional, they also need to learn from their supervisors a special quality related to practising psychology, which Ekstein and Wallerstein (1972) referred to as a professional identity. This issue arose because as an emerging profession, competing with more established professionals, 6 such as psychiatrists and the clergy, psychologists needed to have a clear sense of identity in terms of the professional specialty of their expertise and the value of their services. This view is recently echoed by Bernard and Goodyear (1998) who emphasize that supervisors' need to induce their supervisees into the profession by providing a role model and helping them develop a sense of professional identity. Therefore, the image, role model and professional associations of the supervisor are important considerations in supervisory training. This aspect of supervision has been under-researched. What kind of experience during practicum and internship contributes to students' development of a professional identity? In what ways does the supervisor help or hinder professional identity development? These important questions remain largely unanswered. Relationship orientation. The third stage of the evolution of supervision is relationship orientation (Heppner & Roehlke, 1984). The focus shifts to interpersonal relationship issues. A consensus has emerged that the goals of supervision can be best achieved through a good supervisor-supervisee relationship. One of the most consistent findings in supervision research is that a supporting, trusting relationship is critical to effective supervision (Heppner & Roehlke, 1984; Holloway, 1995; Hutt, Scott, & King, 1983; Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993; Worthen & McNeill, 1996). The importance of having a good supervisor-supervisee relationship was summarized eloquently by Hunt (1986): It seems that whatever approach or method is used, in the end it is the quality of the relationship between supervisor and trainee therapist (or counsellor) that determines whether supervision is effective or not... there needs to be a degree of 7 warmth, trust and genuineness and respect between them in order to create a safe enough environment for supervision to take place, (p.20) Based on a review of the supervision literature, Carifio and Hess (1987) proposed that the ideal supervisor possesses good interpersonal skills (i.e., empathy and respect), and is generally supportive and non-critical. The ideal supervisor also possesses knowledge and experience, knows how to structure supervision, and provides an effective balance between direction and autonomy. More recently, Watkins (1995a) reported that effective supervisors demonstrated support, empathy, and respect for supervisees, while engaging in teaching and conceptualizing, and encouraging self-assessment in the supervisees. Furthermore, effective supervisors are very explicit in goal setting, communicating expectations and • providing feedback. They know how to maintain a balance among "support, respect, skill, clarity and teaching/education" (p.573). Developmental orientation. The interactions between supervisors and supervisees are complex because of the multiple roles involved (Bernard, 1988). The supervisor-supervisee relationship is often fraught with tension and conflicts, due to differences in expectations, personality, counselling orientations, and cultural values (Holloway, 1995; Hunt, 1987; Vasquez, 1992). A major factor is the developmental changes in supervisees, because supervision needs and expectations may vary according to the different stages of counsellor training (Holloway, 1987; Worthington, 1987). Most of the recent supervision research has a developmental orientation. Ronnestad and Skovholt (1993) presented a comprehensive review on the characteristics of effective supervision for beginning and advanced graduate students. They pointed out 8 that supervision of beginning level counsellors is generally characterized by high levels of structure, a didactic orientation, and a skill focus. At this level, the supervisor often assumes the role of a teacher, because students want clear instructions and directions. However, even at this level, Worthington and Roehlke (1979) reported that students want their teachers to provide support and encouragement. Ronnestad and Skovholt (1993) observed that "the beginning student's vulnerability and anxiety make it important for the supervisor at this introductory level to create a relationship that is characterized by support and understanding" (p. 399). At the advanced level, graduate students may experience considerable tension and anxiety for a different reason. They may feel quite confident in their basic counselling skills, but they also feel insecure and uncertain about their professional competence. Conflict with the supervisor is most likely to disrupt at this stage. According to Moskowitz and Rupert (1983) (as cited in Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993), about 39% of the doctoral students reported the experience of having a major conflict with a supervisor. These conflicts tend to result from (a) differences in personality styles, (b) differences in theoretical orientation or therapeutic approach, and/or (c) dissatisfaction with the style of supervision. In view of the greater likelihood of conflict and dissatisfaction with supervision at the advanced level, the supervisor needs to be sensitive to the tension experienced by the advanced graduate students, to provide "clarifying feedback" to reduce their anxiety, and take on a more collegial and consultative role. "The supervisor needs to take responsibility to create, maintain, and monitor the relationship with her or his student" (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993, p.403). They concluded that "the qualities of the 9 supervisory relationship have an impact on learning at all levels of expertise. We know that the conditions of good counseling and therapy, such as empathy, respect, and a trusting and permissive attitude, have validity in supervision" (p.401). Person orientation. More recently, the supervision literature has begun to pay close attention to the personal qualities of the supervisor as well as the personal growth of the supervisee. There is no denial that what the supervisor does is important and how the supervisor relates to the supervisee is also important. But, from a person-orientation perspective, being is more important than doing and relating. Ultimately, the quality of supervision depends on the quality of the supervisor as a person (i.e., the supervisor's attitude, character and core values). These qualities can affect both the nature of the relationship and the effectiveness of the supervisory behaviour. Recent research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy has discovered that the therapist as a person is a major factor (Lambert & Bergin, 1994; Metcalf, Thomas, Duncan, Miller, & Hubble, 1996). In other words, who the therapist is as a person may be more important than what the therapist does in bringing about positive outcomes. Therefore, Koss and Shiang (1994) have proposed that clinical training should focus on the development of the therapist as a person as much as skills development. This person-orientation of counsellor training needs to begin with supervision, because the level of personal development of the supervisor may affect the personal development of the supervisee. There is already some evidence that the supervisor as. a person is an important contributing factor in effective supervision. For example, it has been demonstrated that positive attributes of the supervisor (expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness) were 10 related to positive perceptions of the supervisory relationship (Heppner & Roehlke, 1984). Similarly, Allen, Szollos, and Williams (1986) found that, according to doctoral students' opinions, what differentiated between good and bad supervision was trustworthiness and expertise of the supervisor. These authors also reported that another discriminator was the supervisor's emphasis on the personal growth of the supervisee; this finding suggests that person-orientation embraces a concern for the personal development of the supervisee. In the Worthington and Roehlke's (1979) study, supervisors considered evaluation and giving feedback as the most important tasks in effective supervision. But, almost two decades later, in the Henderson, Cawyer and Watkins'(1997) study, supervision becomes much more person-oriented than task-oriented. These authors also found that students also emphasized the importance of personal growth, such as the development of student confidence and autonomy. According to this person-orientation, supervision or counselling is only as good as the people who practise it. Supervision that emphasizes good clinical skills, good supervisor relationships and a professional identity may succeed in producing competent practitioners. But supervisors who are genuine, caring, empathic, trustworthy, and highly ethical are more likely to succeed in reproducing good counsellors who are both competent and compassionate. At a recent international conference, three internationally renowned psychotherapists, Yalom (2000), Zeig (2000) and Spinelli (2000) all emphasized the importance of personal qualities of the therapists and the need for resolving personal issues. Research is needed to determine how the personal qualities of supervisors impact supervision effectiveness. 11 Cross cultural issues in supervision None of the above orientations pays much attention to cross-cultural issues. While cross-cultural counselling has generated a great deal of interest and research (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1993; Ivey, Ivey, & Simek-Morgan, 1997; Sue & Sue, 1990), cross-cultural supervision has received little attention as pointed out by Brown and Landrum-Brown (1995) and others (D'Andrea & Daniels, 1997; Stone, 1997). Brown and Landrum-Brown (1995) reported that a high level of caution is needed in cross-cultural supervision, because racial minority supervisees tend to be sensitive to the abuse of power. Such sensitivity is understandable when there is an inherent power differential in the supervisory relationship (William & Haglin, 1995) and when there has been a history of discrimination (Sue & Sue, 1990). Hunt (1987) recommended that racial and ethnic issues faced by minority trainees should be addressed within the supervisory relationship. Bernard and Goodyear (1998) pointed out that there is a need to prepare White middle-class faculty to work with minority counsellor trainees. But there are very few published studies on the supervision of minority students. Cook and Helms (1988) investigated the level of satisfaction with cross-cultural supervision in a survey of 225 African, Latino, Asian and Native-American trainees. The results showed that supervisors' unconditional liking for the trainees is related to their satisfaction with supervision. McNeill, Horn and Perez (1995) acknowledged a dearth of information on the training needs of racial and ethnic minority trainees. After reviewing the relevant literature, these authors pointed out that: 12 Culturally diverse trainees are then faced with a struggle to assert their unique needs and make others aware of the multicultural implications of course material, counselling theories, and interventions. Most often, however, students are forced to attend to and accept this insensitivity for fear of repercussion because of the power differential between professor and student, (p.253) McNeill et al. (1995) also pointed out that culture-specific communicational styles were often not recognized or accepted by Caucasian professors. They observed that visible minority students often experienced discrimination, isolation and racism. Consequently, these students felt angry, confused and discouraged, but chose not to disclose their feelings for fear of reprisal. They proposed that "it is incumbent on supervisors to take responsibility to create a supervisory relationship and environment in which these needs and issues are openly dealt with and met" (p.255). They also proposed inclusion of multi-cultural curricula, peer support and mentoring programs for minority trainees. Ethical issues in cross-cultural supervision Ethical issues become very important when the supervisor-supervisee relationship is complicated by cultural conflicts. Vasquez (1992) has made a significant contribution to our understanding of ethical responsibilities in cross-cultural supervision. Following Rest's (1984) model of moral development, Vasquez (1992) proposed that in the training setting, the supervisor has an obligation to provide professional and moral support for the supervisee to do what is morally right rather than what is expedient. 13 In addition to ethical considerations, developing clinical competence is another major responsibility of supervision. This obligation involves providing optimal experiences for the supervisees to gain competence in key areas of the profession, such as conceptualization, assessment, interventions, and the ability to work with clients from special populations. Vasquez (1992) pointed out the difficulty in cross-cultural situations: This is a particular challenge for supervisors because most traditional training fails to teach how to apply the basic principles of counseling beyond the values and ethos of the majority culture. Society's cultural diversity and broad range of social classes provide a challenge for the ethical clinician to acknowledge and deal with potential barriers, (p. 198) Still another important responsibility of the supervisor is to assess the personal functioning of supervisees. Vasquez (1992) stressed the importance of timely feedback and the imperative for supervisors to "set a climate of trust, openness, and responsibility so that supervisees feel able to engage in consultation and treatment-seeking behaviours" (p. 199). It is in the area of evaluation that conflicts in values and cultural assumptions are likely to erupt. In the absence of any objectively defined universal criteria of competence in counselling, good counselling practice according to a minority culture may be judged to be deficient from the perspective of the so called White middle-class Americans. Vasquez (1992) recognized the potential for the abuse of power in the supervisor-supervisee relationship. Such abuse is more likely to happen when supervisors lack sensitivity to ethnic/minority cultures. Vasquez and McKinley (1982) recommended that 14 in working with ethnic minority supervisees, it is important to be sensitive to their personal struggles to integrate their racial/ethnic identity with professional identity. Vasquez (1992) reminded supervisors that they need to recognize that the supervisees have similar rights to privacy, dignity and due process that clients have. A due process procedure should be available for the supervisees who feel that their rights and well-being have been violated by the supervisors. He concluded that "our effectiveness with supervisees, and indirectly with the clients of our supervisees, depends to a great extent on fulfilling our ethical responsibilities as clinical supervisors" (p.201). According to Sue and Sue (1990), counsellors who are culturally skilled are aware of their own biases and are sensitive to the needs of their culturally different clients. Culturally skilled counsellors also have a large repertoire of skills so that they can select culture-appropriate skills to help their clients. Corey, Corey, and Callanan (1998) also emphasized the importance of training in multicultural competencies. By the same token, supervisors also need to be culturally skilled in order to be helpful to ethnic minority supervisees. Unfortunately, the importance of cross-cultural competence in supervision has not received the same kind of attention as issues related to gender or sexual orientation. In sum, there is an urgent need for studying effective multicultural supervision for a variety of reasons. Firstly, an increasing number of graduate students in counselling psychology come from different ethnic groups (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998; Kyle & Williams, 2000; Leong & Chou, 1996). Secondly, the possibility of misunderstanding, conflict and discrimination is higher in cross-cultural situations because of cultural differences and language barriers (McNeill, Horn & Perez, 1995). Cross-cultural training 15 may be able to reduce racism and discrimination in supervision. Thirdly, supervisors' lack of cross-cultural competencies may result in harm to visible minorities. Finally, multicultural supervision competencies are needed not only for ethnic minority students, but also for majority counsellors. Wong and Wong (Wong, P. & Wong, L., 1999) point out that it is difficult for majority students to acquire multicultural counselling skills when their clinical supervisors do not possess cross-cultural competencies. The present research seeks to provide a comprehensive picture of what contributes to the helpful or unhelpful supervision experience among visible minority students. The findings will provide useful information on what works and what does not work in cross-cultural supervision from the perspective of visible minority supervisees. More importantly, the study will enhance supervisors' awareness and understanding of visible minority student experience and their difficulties encountered during clinical training and supervision. The present dissertation will also attempt to determine which existing model of supervision can best account for the present data as well as prior research findings on effective supervision. It is hoped that the present research will contribute to the development of a conceptual framework that will inform cross-cultural supervision and stimulate future research. 16 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW In the last few years, supervision has emerged as an important research topic (e.g., Holloway, 1992; Ellis & Dell, 1986; Ellis, Dell & Good, 1988). This chapter will provide a review of effective and harmful supervision literature, and examine issues in cross-cultural supervision. I will then review existing models of supervision in order to identify an appropriate conceptual framework for understanding cross-cultural supervision. Effective Supervision There is a growing body of literature on factors and issues involved in effective supervision (e.g., Allen, Szollos, & Williams, 1986; Ellis, 1991; Heppner & Roehlke, 1984; Worthington & Roehlke, 1979). The following factors have been identified as important: (a) supervisor-supervisee relationship, (b) personal attributes of the supervisor, and, (c) competence and feedback. Each of these factors is discussed in more detail hereunder. Supervisor-supervisee relationship One of the main findings that have emerged from supervision research is that effective supervision depends on a supporting and trusting relationship (Heppner & Roehlke, 1984; Hutt, Scott & King, 1983; Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993). The ideal supervisor is seen as one who possesses good interpersonal skills, knowledge, and experience, and sets concrete goals for the supervisees, and who is generally supportive and provides a balance between direction and autonomy (Carifio & Hess, 1987). Ellis (1991) reported that the most frequently cited issues were related to the supervisor-supervisee relationship, competence, emotional awareness and autonomy. 17 Shanfield, Mohl, Matthews, and Hetherly (1992), using a stepwise regression analysis, found that empathy towards the supervisee was the best predictor of effective supervision. Watkins (1995a) also reported that effective supervisors demonstrate support, empathy, and respect for supervisees, and at the same time provide teaching and encourage self-examination in the supervisees. Sawatzky, Jevne and Clark (1994) conducted a study to determine what experiences contribute to counsellor development. They interviewed eight doctoral student interns. The question asked was: "What experiences in the doctoral practicum and internship have been significant in contributing to your effectiveness as a counsellor?" Four categories were identified from their responses: (a) experiencing dissonance — recognizing deficiencies and experiencing emotional turmoil; (b) responding to dissonance — acquiring new skills, changing attitude; (c) relating to supervision — using the supervisor and supervisory process as a model; and (d) feeling empowered. The fourth category included a number of sub-categories, such as clarifying personal and professional self, assessing other resources, and feeling satisfied with new skills. Their findings suggest that tension and dissonance can lead to empowerment, i f the supervisor provides a climate of safety and trust. Ladany, Hi l l , Corbett, and Nutt (1996) studied the nature of supervisees' non-disclosure. Their methodology included both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The Supervisee Nondisclosure Survey allowed for reporting of participants' thoughts, feelings, and reactions they had not disclosed to their current supervisors over the course of supervision to date. Participants were given definitions and examples of five areas in which nondisclosure might occur: (a) personal issues, (b) information pertaining to the 18 supervisee's clients, (c) supervisee-client interactions, (d) aspects of the supervisor, and (e) supervisee-supervisor interactions. For each thought, feeling, or reaction listed, participants were also asked to state the reasons for non-disclosure. Typical reasons for non-disclosure included poor alliance with the supervisor, deference to the supervisor and perceived political suicide. In other words, in a relationship of great power differential, supervisees felt vulnerable and were afraid to say negative things about the supervisor. However, the result also showed that supervisees made more disclosures to supervisors who were open and collaborative. Personal attributes of the supervisor The relationship between supervisor and supervisee is dependent on the attributes of the supervisor. Ladany et al. (1996) have shown that supervisees have difficulty self-disclosing and forming an alliance with a critical, judgmental supervisor. This section focusses on the role of positive personal attributes in effective supervision. Allen et al. (1986) solicited students' opinions on supervision and reported that perceived expertise and trustworthiness of the supervisor were considered most important for effective supervision. An emphasis on the personal growth of the supervisees was also found to discriminate between-effective and detrimental supervision. Hutt, Scott and King (1983) examined both the positive and negative experiences in supervisees. A phenomenological methodology was employed. Open-ended audiotaped interviews were conducted with post-Masters supervisees in counsellor education, social work and clinical psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. The results showed that positive and negative experiences were not opposites but had their own unique meaning structures. Effective supervision involved both task- and person-oriented behaviours. The 19 positive supervisor-supervisee relationship "embodies warmth, acceptance, respect, understanding, and trust" (p. 120). Such personal attributes of the supervisor contributed to supervisory alliance and facilitated learning. The most significant aspect of negative supervision had to do with the negative feelings associated with supervision. "The supervisee experiences anxiety, frustration, and anger in the presence of the supervisor. The relationship is burdened with mistrust, disrespect, and a lack of honest self-disclosure on the part of both people. The supervisee expects or experiences criticism from the supervisor and does not experience support" (p.121). Such negative feelings towards supervision made it difficult if not impossible for the supervisor to carry on the task of supervision, such as openly discussing the supervisee's progress and providing helpful feedback. Competence and feedback Supervisor's competence in guiding students and giving them helpful feedback is clearly important in effective supervision. Henderson, Cawyer, and Watkins (1997) compared practicum students' and supervisors' perceptions of effective supervision. They interviewed both students and faculty on their experiences in psychotherapy practicum. The overarching categories identified by students as contributing to effective supervision were: (a) competence — general levels of knowledge (as a source of knowledge and clinical experience, providing astute analysis of therapeutic events), (b) competence — facilitation of learning (integrating theory and practical skills, stimulating self-examination and personal growth of supervisee), (c) relationship factors (facilitating teamwork between students and supervisors, establishing mutuality in relationships with students; enhancing the trust of students; approachability, respect for students and 20 clients), and (d) effectiveness of evaluation (e.g., clear communication, consideration of students' vulnerability, honesty, and encouragement, and constructive criticism). The four overarching categories identified by supervisors as contributing to effective supervision were: (a) students development (e.g.,, enhancing students' competence and confidence in clinical work, and modelling appropriate therapeutic interventions), (b) relationship factors (e.g., trust, genuineness, honesty, empathy, acceptance and mutuality in supervisory relationship, balance between constructive criticism and encouragement), (c) ethics (e.g., keeping supervision distinct from therapy, encouragement of student involvement in personal therapy), and (d) adaptability (e.g., willingness in the student to face difficult situations, and receptiveness to feedback). Thus, competence and relationship ranked high for both students and faculty. Shanfield, Matthews, and Hetherly (1993), based on an analysis of videotaped supervision sessions, found that supervisors who emphasized the materials brought to the supervision session by the supervisee were rated as most effective. This study shows that students appreciate and value their supervisors' helpful feedback on their counselling sessions. Based on her extensive review of the literature, Jones (1998) has identified the following characteristics of an effective supervisor: expertise, trustworthiness, interpersonal attractiveness, tolerance of trainee mistakes, provision of clear and direct feedback, confrontation of trainee mistakes in safe atmosphere, openness to feedback about own style of relating, significant investment of time, and keen interest in trainee's learning. 21 Bad and Harmful Supervision According to Jones (1998), the characteristics of a poor or bad supervisor are as follows: dis-interest, ineptness, vague communications, authoritarian styles, exploitative treatment of supervisees, tendency to avoid interpersonal issues in the supervisory relationships, focus on trainee's shortcomings, being absorbed in himself or herself (narcissistic needs), and sexist attitudes. Recently, there is also recognition that bad or unhelpful supervision can become harmful to students just as bad therapy can be harmful to clients (Mays & Frank, 1985, Beck & Ellis, 1998). Examples of harmful supervision include sexual relationships (Pope, Schover, & Levenson, 1980), and dual relationships (Disney & Stephens, 1994; Oik & Friedlander, 1992; Strohm-Kitchener, 1988; Watkins, 1997). Beck and Ellis (1998) differentiated between bad supervision and harmful supervision. Bad supervision may occur when the supervisor is unable or unwilling to meet the training needs of a counsellor supervisee. Usually, bad supervision refers to an ongoing supervisory situation, however, it may encompass one bad supervision session. Thus, bad supervision may include but is not limited to: a serious mismatch in your and supervisor's personality styles; profound incompatibility of theoretical orientations; the supervisor's disinterest and lack of investment in supervision; a supervisor's excessively demeaning, critical, and vindictive attitude towards the supervisee; and so forth. Harmful supervision may include supervisory practices that result in lasting psychological or physical harm to the supervisee. Harmful supervision can consist of one incident or an ongoing supervisory situation. 22 Harmful supervision may result from the supervisor acting inappropriately or with malice, negligence or clearly violating accepted ethical standards for supervisors. (P- 3) Beck and Ellis (1998) suggested that a research program in harmful supervision might include: a descriptive taxonomy of harmful supervision events, an understanding of the effects of harmful supervision on supervisees, an understanding of the characteristics of harmful supervisors and harmful supervisory situations, and an understanding of the characteristics of supervisees most and least likely to be harmed. Bennett, Bryant, Vanderbos and Greenwood (1990) identified three types of harm or injury: (a) physical injury or death, (b) consequent injury, and (c) subjective injury. Consequential injury refers to loss of income or inability to obtain licensure as a result of supervisor's behaviour. Subjective injury refers to pain and suffering. Disney and Stephens (1994) recognized the potential for subjective injury due to supervisory dual relationship. Jacobs (1991) noted that violation of the boundaries of the supervisory role and the trust relationship, supervisee may experience the same kind of emotionally trauma as victims of abuse. Legal and ethical guidelines Harmful supervision invariably violates legal and ethical guidelines, designed to protect supervisees and clients. With the establishment of standards of care by professional societies and the professional literature (American Counseling Association; 1995, Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, 1990, 1993; American Psychological Association, 1992; Bernard & Goodyear, 1992; Cohen, 1987; Disney & 23 Stephens, 1994; Dye & Borders, 1990; Minnes, 1987; Watkins, 1997), violations of these standards can be clearly identified. Guest and Dooley (1999) pointed out that these violations to involve "(a) lack of knowledge or competency in a supervised area, (b) discrimination or stereotyping, (c) ethical breaches such as dual relationships, (d) unfair evaluation or a failure to properly evaluate, and (e) any other deviation from the established set of standards." (p.275). When a supervisee is accepted by a supervisor, a legal duty of care is established by such an undertaking; this implied contract is supported by both,American Counseling Association (ACA)'s (1995) Code of Ethics and Standard of Practice and American Psychological Association (APA)'s ethical guides (Harrar, VandeCreek, & Knapp, 1990). The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES)'s (1993) Ethical Guidelines for Counseling Supervisors clearly indicate that supervisors have the duty and responsibility to foster the development of their supervisees. The legal and ethical duty in the supervisory relationship resembles that in the counselling relationship (Guest & Dooley, 1999; Minnes, 1987). Harmful supervision likely occurs when a supervisor forgets that he or she is responsible for the well-being of the supervisee. Bad or harmful supervision is invariably a betrayal of trust. The fiduciary relationship between supervisors and supervisees has been widely recognized (ACA, 1995; ACES, 1993; Bernard & Goodyear, 1992; Watkins, 1997), because power has been vested in the supervisors and supervisees are expected to place their trust in their supervisors for guidance and care. Cohen (1987) proposed that a mutually negotiated supervisory contract might protect the supervisee by defining the role and function of the supervisor. Bernard and 24 Goodyear (1992) believed that supervisor contract provides some sort of "quality control". Both the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) have provided some guidelines for cross-cultural supervision to prevent harmful effects to minority students. It is all the more important that supervisors assume ethical and legal responsibilities towards ethnic minority supervisees, because of their vulnerability to discrimination (Vasquez, 1992). Multicultural Supervision In contrast to the burgeoning literature on supervision, research on multicultural supervision has been scarce (Cook & Helms,1988; Ladany, Brittan-Power, & Pannu, 1997; McNeill , Horn & Perez, 1995), even though the importance of cross-cultural supervision has been recognized for some time (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992; Brown & Landrum-Brown, 1995; Hunt, 1987). Although the literature on multicultural counselling continues to grow (Pedersen, 1997; Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996; Sue & Sue, 1990), there has not been much attention given to multicultural supervision. Bernard (1994) has warned that "the development of the profession and the relevance of counselor education programs will be severely compromised, i f we do not advance the knowledge and practice of multicultural supervision" (p. 170). Issues in multicultural supervision After reviewing the existing literature on cross-cultural supervision, Leong and Wagner (1994) identified several problem areas, that ranged from failing to discuss 25 racial-ethnic issues to over-interpreting the influence of racial and cultural factors. These problems will affect the effectiveness of multicultural supervision. A study by Daniels, D'Andrea, and Kim (1999) has identified a number of difficulties due to different cultural values. For example, the supervisor's direct, assertive and confrontational interpersonal style may conflict with the more reserved, less confrontational interpersonal style of Asian trainees. Another difficulty was different expectations about the relationship. The supervisor expected the supervisee to treat him as a colleague, but the supervisee replied by saying, "I do see you more as my mentor and supervisor" (p. 198). Given the power differential between supervisor and supervisee, Daniels et al. (1999) recommended that supervisors take the initiative to discuss multicultural issues early in supervision. These issues should include: "Initiating discussions about the supervisor's and the supervisee's cultural/ethnic/racial background. Exploring ways in which the values and traditions that are associated with their cultural/ethnic/racial backgrounds may influence their goals in counseling and their expectations of supervision. Discussing how the supervisor's and the supervisee's level of racial identity development may affect the way they view counseling and supervision" (p.201). It is also important to discuss "the ways in which unintentional forms of racism and ethnocentrism might be manifested in counselling or supervision sessions (D'Andrea & Daniels, 1997)" (p.202). Finally, they suggested the importance of being sensitive to different personalities, which may have been shaped by culture (Locke, 1992; Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996). 26 Similarly, McNeill, Horn and Perez (1995) also reported that "racial and ethnic minority students often experience varying degrees of discrimination, isolation, racism, and differential treatment resulting in feelings of confusion, anger, outrage, and discouragement" (p.254). They proposed the inclusion of multi-cultural curricula, peer support and mentor programs for minority trainees. Ladany, Brittan-Powell, and Pannu (1997) reported that when supervisor and supervisee had higher levels of racial identity attitudes, they achieved greater supervision alliance in terms of goals and tasks of supervision and emotional bonding. They also found that racial matching affected supervisees' perception of their supervisors' influence on their multicultural competence. For example, supervisors of colour seemed to have been perceived as having the most impact by both supervisees of colour and White supervisees. Gardner (1980) suggested that supervisors of colour might act as a multicultural model for supervisees. Thus, in interacting with a supervisor of colour, supervisees, especially White supervisees, gain some multicultural experience. Ladany et al. (1997) suggest that White supervisors may be less likely than supervisors of colour to bring up racial issues due to their own biases or lack of multicultural training (Constantine, 1997; Priest, 1994). Recently, Paul and Croteau (2000) employed an open-ended written questionnaire to identify both biased and exemplary practices of White supervisors in multicultural supervision. They asked participants to describe one to three incidents of multicultural supervision that were biased, inadequate or inappropriate, as well as one to three incidents involving a White supervisor demonstrating special sensitivity. They also asked participants to express their opinions of both harmful and beneficial professional 27 practices by a White supervisor. They reported five major Categories of biased supervisory practices: (a) failure to address cultural issues in supervision, (b) negative evaluation of racial/ethnic minority students based on biased assumptions of their abilities, (c) pretending to be multiculturally sensitive (e.g., giving "lip service" to multicultural issues), (d) addressing multicultural issues which reflect overgeneralised or inaccurate assumptions about ethnic minority students, and (e) pathologizing supervisees or clients because of their race, culture or ethnicity. They also reported six exemplary practices: (a) addressing multicultural issues in supervision, (b) showing sensitivity towards both the individuality and the culture of minority students, (c) working to develop own multicultural competencies in supervision and/or counselling, (d) consulting others with more multicultural competence, (e) appreciating ethnic minority supervisees, and (f) admitting their own ignorance or biases regarding multicultural issues. Haber (1996 as cited in Jones, 1998) identified the following issues in cross-cultural supervision: 1. Majority supervisors may raise uncomfortable feelings in;minority supervisees with respect to control, suppression, and withdrawal. 2. Minority supervisees can be more sensitive to diversity issues. 3. Minority supervisors may misinterpret supervisee's issues as racial. These issues underscore the complexity and difficulty of multicultural supervision. Wong and Wong (1999) have shown that multicultural supervision is more complex than multicultural counselling as shown in Table 1. 28 Table 1 Contrast between multicultural counselling and multicultural supervision Multicultural counselling Needs to be aware of client's world views. Needs culturally appropriate counselling skills. Racial/cultural differences affect the relationship between counsellor and client. Cultural biases may harm client. Involves conflicts of cultural assumptions and values. Multicultural supervision Needs to be aware of client's and supervisee's world views. Needs cultural appropriate counselling and supervision skills. Racial/cultural differences affect both counsellor-client and supervisor-counsellor relationships. Cultural biases may harm client and supervisee. Involves conflicts of cultural assumptions and values plus conflicts of theoretical orientation and counselling approach. (Wong, P. & Wong, L. , 1999, p. 512) 29 Multicultural supervision clearly involves more skills. Just as a good clinician is not necessarily a competent supervisor, a good multicultural counsellor does not automatically become a multiculturally competent supervisor. Multicultural supervision involves more complexity, because any one of the triad - supervisor, supervisee and client - may come from different ethnic-cultural background. Therefore, training in multicultural supervision competencies is needed. Multicultural supervision competencies Wong and Wong (1999) have developed a Multicultural Supervision Competencies Questionnaire (MSCQ) which includes four subscales: (a) attitudes and beliefs, (b) knowledge and understanding, (c) skills and practices and (d) relationship. The MSCQ is primarily based on the three cross-cultural competencies described by Sue, Arredondo and McDavis (1992), namely, attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The MSCQ has added a fourth competency — supervisor-supervisee relationship. This dimension has also been added to cross-cultural counselling (Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994). In a pilot study, Wong and Wong (1999) found that overall, the cross-cultural competency of supervisors was rated low in all four areas by minority supervisees. These rating scores suggest inadequate multicultural supervision competencies. Three of the participants in the study reported that they had been abused psychologically and professionally. The MSCQ can be used to monitor the levels of multicultural competencies of supervisors as perceived by their ethnic minority supervisees. It can also be used as a research instrument to see how various factors contribute to the four areas of multicultural supervision competencies. 30 Models of Supervision Theoretical models are important for supervision as they are for counselling. A good model not only makes sense of research findings, but also illuminates the roles of the supervisor. Numerous models have been summarized in two recent books (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998; Holloway, 1995). I will survey a few influential models. Developmental models Developmental models of supervision (Watkins, 1995b; Worthington, 1987) assume that every stage of development in becoming a counsellor or psychotherapist represents unique concerns for both the supervisor and the supervisee. In order to be effective in helping supervisees, the supervisors should consider their levels of development. Stoltenberg and Delworth (1987) have incorporated the eight domains of supervision (i.e., intervention skills, assessment skills, interpersonal assessment, client conceptualization, individual differences, theoretical orientation, and professional ethics) across different levels of development, resulting in the Integrated Development Model (IDM). Developmental models have received the most empirical support and remain the most influential. After a comprehensive review of the developmental models, Holloway (1987) concluded that "developmental models of supervision have become the Zeitgeist of supervision training and research" (p.209). Developmental models are based on developmental psychology. "Basically, these models advocate that supervisors match the structure and style of supervision to the trainee's level of development as a counselor" (Holloway, 1995, p.4). The main attraction 31 of these developmental models is their intuitive appeal. Surely, the behaviour of the . supervisors has to change as supervisees gain experience and competence. There is considerable empirical support for developmental changes at different training levels (Stoltenberg, McNeill & Crethar, 1994). Worthen and McNeill (1996) conducted a phenomenological study of "good" supervision experiences. Since they were interested in the supervisees' experiences of good psychotherapy supervision, the phenomenological interview method seemed most appropriate. The open-ended interview "dialogue" provided a forum for the respondents to talk about their subjective experiences and personal meanings, and at the same time offered the opportunity for the interviewers to ask for clarification and elaboration in order to understand the experience as fully as possible. The Worthen and McNeill recognized the different needs of students at different stages of training. For example, according to their research, beginning trainees prefer didactic training in basic skills. Intermediate trainees want to learn more about case conceptualization skills, and development of counselling skills within a counselling model. Advanced trainees are interested in learning more complex issues of professional development, such as client and counsellor resistance. Parallel processes model The parallel processes model posits that there are reciprocal influences between supervision and counselling. The dynamics of the therapist-client relationship are often mirrored in the supervisor-supervisee relationship and vice versa. One important implication is that the supervisor must take into.account the parallel processes between supervision and counselling. 32 Friedlander, Siegel, and Brenock (1989) proposed a parallel process model to account for the reciprocal influences between supervision and counselling. To test this model, they conducted a single case study involving multiple measures of both the supervisory and counselling processes and outcome. The results showed that in each session the client's report paralleled those of counsellor's report. Similarly, the counsellor trainee's report tended to show the same pattern of fluctuation as that of the supervisor's report. In this study, according to the supervisor's self-description and the Supervisory Style Inventory as related by herself and the trainee, the supervisor was identified as having an attractive, interpersonally sensitive style, "which reflects a consultative, collegial, supportive, and therapeutic approach to supervision" (p. 155). Consistent with this supervisory style, the supervisor's feedback to the trainee tended to be global and positive, with very few specific or critical comments on trainee's counselling skills. The systems approach Recently, Holloway (1995) described her systems approach of supervision. Her model incorporates seven dimensions of supervision: (a) supervision relationship, (b) the institution, (c) the supervisor, (d) the client, (e) the trainee, (f) the functions of supervision, and (g) the task of supervision. Relationship is the core factor in this model. Successful supervision occurs within the context of a complex professional relationship that is ongoing and mutually involving. The supervisory relationship is the primary context for facilitating the involvement of the learner in reaching the goals of supervision. The essential nature of this interpersonal process bestows power to both members as they form the relationship, (p.6) .. .The provision of an 33 opportunity for empowerment is a difficult and challenging task for supervisors, not only because they must confront their own narcissistic needs and issues of self-aggrandizement, but they also must distinguish between the supervisor's responsibility to maximize the trainee's unique professional resources on one hand and the demands of the profession to evaluate the supervisee's competence on the other, (p.7) In addition to the overarching function of relationship, the five primary functions of supervision are: (a) monitoring and evaluating, (b) instructing and advising, (c) modelling, (d) consulting, and (e) supporting and sharing. "The supervisor supports the supervisee through empathic attention, encouragement, and constructive confrontation. Supervisors often support trainees at a deep interpersonal level by sharing their own perceptions of trainees' actions, emotions, and attitudes" (Holloway, 1995, p.37). The Systems Approach of Supervision is a complex and comprehensive model, which takes into account most of the important variables of supervision. As such, it lacks parsimony, which is generally considered an important characteristic of well developed theories. Another weakness of this model is that it is primarily descriptive and has not been subjected to empirical investigation. The discrimination model The discrimination model (Bernard, 1979, 1997) identifies three different major supervisor roles: teacher, counsellor, and consultant. The supervisor may adopt any one of these roles, depending on the supervisee's ability in each of the three competency areas: (a) intervention skills, (b) case conceptualization, and (c) personalization skills (i.e., how the supervisee employs a personal style but keeps counselling unfettered by 34 personal issues). Implicit in this model is the assumption that different supervisory roles are uniquely appropriate for different levels of counsellor development. For example, the consultant role is more suitable for advanced supervisees. One strength of the discrimination model is that it can be explicitly tested and it has received empirical support from numerous studies (Ellis & Dell, 1986; Ellis, Dell, & Good, 1988; Glidden & Tracey, 1992). Clarkson and Aviram (1995) used a phenomenological research methodology to reveal the meaning of supervision from the supervisor's perspective. Eleven supervisors of counselling and psychotherapy were asked the open question: "What does being a supervisor mean?" The emphasis was on being rather than doing. Content analysis yielded 37 meaning groups, with an inter-judge reliability higher than 95%. The top six of these groups (including the most number of statements) are (a) responsibility, (b) teaching and education, (c) triangle: supervisor, supervise, client, (d) guidance, growth promoter, (e) procedure, ethics and practice, and (f) support. The first three categories resemble the perception of the supervisor's role by Ellis et al. (1988). The results clearly indicate that supervisor differentiated between the roles of a teacher and those of nurturer and supporter. The roles of the supervisor seem to be expanding. Haber (1996 as cited in Jones, 1998) pointed out that supervisor serves the following functions or roles: 1. Education — teaching and guidance regarding clinical expertise and professional development. 2. Administration — responding to legal, ethical and procedural issues 3. Consultation — addressing specific clinical situations 35 4. Facilitation — working at the growing edge of supervisee's professional skills. 5. Evaluation — judging the quality and professional development of supervisees. 6. Mentoring •— providing a person-to-person connection and modelling. A mentoring model of cross-cultural supervision Daniels, D'Andrea, and Kim (1996) have pointed out the need to develop new models of supervision that are suitable for cross-cultural settings, because existing supervision models are based on values, assumptions of the dominant Euro-American culture (D'Andrea & Daniels, 1997). A mentoring model of effective supervision has recently been developed (Wong & Wong, 1999), which seems highly relevant to cross-cultural supervision. Stated briefly, the model posits that the major role of a supervisor is mentoring and that supervision is effective to the extent that the supervisor acts as a mentor towards the supervisees. Carmin (1988) has provided a very comprehensive definition of mentoring as follows: Mentoring is a complex, interactive process occurring between individuals of differing levels of experience and expertise which incorporates interpersonal or psycho-social development, career and/or educational development, and socialization functions into the relationship. This one-to-one relationship is itself developmental and proceeds through a series of stages which help to determine both the conditions affecting and the outcomes of the process. To the extent that the parameters of mutuality and compatibility exist in the relationship, the potential outcomes of respect, professionalism, collegiality, and role fulfillment 36 will result. Furthermore, the mentoring process occurs in a dynamic relationship within a given milieu, (pp. 9-10) Thus, mentoring is a multifaceted, dynamic process. It involves numerous roles and functions, which vary according to both the context as well as the stage of development of the mentee. However, the primary goal of mentoring remains the same — it is to facilitate mentee's professional and psychosocial development. Mentoring is both task-oriented and relationship-oriented — two major aspects of effective supervision, according the above review of the literature. Vanzant (1980) defined a mentor as "a person who acts as sponsor, advocate, guide — or who teaches, advises, trusts, critiques, and supports another to express, pursue, and finalize her career goals". Baird (1993) regarded mentoring as incorporating the roles of helper, sharer and carer. "This triplet of pro-social attributes blends cognitive responsibilities (e.g., adviser, guide) with the affective caring and sharing that enrich the relationships for both parties" (p.55). Taylor (1984) concluded that previous studies confirmed that mentoring fosters career and/or personal development. More specifically, mentoring fosters leadership development and self-actualization, leading to greater career and personal satisfaction as compared to those without a mentoring relationship. The above review suggests the following defining characteristics of a mentor. First, a mentor is interested in the career success of the protege. Secondly, a mentor cares about the well-being and personal development of the protege. Thirdly, a mentor shares his/her personal experience and wisdom to enhance the development of the protege. What distinguishes a mentor from a supervisor or teacher is that a mentor goes beyond the call 37 of duty, and willingly invests his/her life in the protege. A healthy mentor-protege relationship is unselfish and unpossessive, and it inspires trust and encourages honest interactions even in cross-cultural situations. In sum, a mentoring role contributes to effective supervision and may transcend cultural differences that often adversely affect supervisor-trainee relationships. Given the above positive attributes of mentoring, the present mentoring model of supervision has considerable appeal because of its simplicity and richness. The message of this model is very simple: be a mentor and you will be an effective supervisor. Being a mentor brings out the best in the supervisor, because it sets high expectations in terms of who you are, what you do, and how you relate to your supervisees. If a supervisor models after the ideals of a mentor and embraces the roles and functions of a mentor, he or she will be able to establish a trusting relationship and transcend cultural and individual differences that often lead to conflicts. Mentoring and effective supervision share many similar characteristics. For example, good relationship is central to both successful supervision (Hunt, 1986; Holloway, 1995; Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993) and mentoring. Both supervisor and mentor need to be committed to their students. Although the supervision literature has not emphasized commitment, its importance has been recognized. In the mentoring literature, the need for commitment is front and centre. For example, Haensly and Edlind (1986) emphasized that "the mentor must be willing to invest time and energy" (p.2). Stephenson and Sampson (1994) pointed out that one of the basic conditions for effective mentorship is that the mentor has to be "a willing and committed participant" (p. 174). 38 Supervision and mentoring also share similar objectives. Both focus on the students' professional development and personal development. Supervisors are primarily concerned with achieving their goals of supervision, mentors go beyond curriculum requirements and clinical responsibilities. The mentor "becomes involved in fostering the development and facilitating the advancement of the mentee—the junior professional— by serving as a source of support beyond what is required solely on the basis of their formal role relationship" (Collins, 1993, p. 123). In her study of clinical supervisors, Collins (1993) observed that "the subjects cultivated their mentor relationship beyond the normative role obligations of field supervision primarily of their own volition, personal inclinations and interpersonal capacities" (p. 125). Therefore, an added value of mentoring is that relationship is not limited to the duration of supervision. According to Phillips-Jones (1982), mentors are influential people who help their proteges to achieve their major life goals. In view of the above, mentors can be considered as specially committed and caring supervisors. They are supervisors with a heart for their students. By taking an interest in the well-being and development of their students, a mentor-like supervisor can establish a lasting relationship and exert a strong impact on the supervisee. In sum, the concept of mentoring incorporates most of the roles and functions of effective supervision, such as relating, protecting, teaching, coaching, modelling, caring, and encouraging. More importantly, the model emphasizes psychosocial aspects of effective supervision as much as the professional components. The model provides both the goals as well as the roadmap for effective supervision. It sets up high expectations, 39 but also provides the tools to achieve these expectations. As a general model, it has the advantage of being parsimonious and comprehensive. It seems a truism that supervisees at different levels of professional development require different types of help. A mentoring supervisor will demonstrate flexibility in order to adjust to the developmental needs of the supervisee. As a result, the supervisor-mentee relationship itself undergoes developmental changes. According to McManus and Russell (1997), "mentoring is a developmental relationship typically occurring between senior and junior individuals in organizations" (p. 145). For example, the function of guidance is important when the mentee is in the early stage of counselling training and feels confused, while challenge becomes important, i f the mentee has reached a comfortable plateau and needs to be encouraged to strive for new goals. Therefore, the present mentoring perspective incorporates features of the developmental models. A mentoring model reframes the task of supervision in several ways. First, the task is no longer limited to teaching and evaluation of clinical skills; it also includes the psychosocial development of the supervisee. Secondly, the task is accomplished not only by what the supervisor does and says in the clinical setting, but what he or she stands for. When a supervisor models a caring attitude for both therapists and clients and maintains a high level of integrity, such personal qualities can have a positive and lasting impact on the supervisees. Thirdly, the task of a mentor is competence-oriented rather than deficiency-oriented. A mentor strives to develop the competence and confidence of the students rather than focusing on their deficiencies. The mentor is interested in the 40 professional success of trainees; therefore, a mentor will do everything possible to help supervisees to get acculturated to the culture and adjusted well to the clinical site. Conflict is inevitable in any complex and prolonged relationship. Mentors reduce interpersonal conflicts because they are more concerned with enhancing their students' success than defending their own egos. They respect their students' views and are sensitive to their changing needs. Therefore, mentoring appears to be a promising way to overcome some of the difficulties of cross-cultural supervision and prevent ethical/legal violations. Concluding remarks This chapter has covered both the general supervision literature and multicultural supervision. This rather extensive review of literature further confirms the conclusion by McNeill et al. (1995) that there is a lack of information on cross-cultural training of minority supervisees. In the area of cross-cultural supervision research, almost all published studies were done in the United States, focussing on African-Americans and Latin-Americans in a dominantly Caucasian society (e.g., Cook & Helm, 1988; McNeill, Horn, & Perez, 1995; Ladany, Brittan-Power, & Pannu, 1997). The present research focusses on Asian minority students in Canada, where Asians constitute one of the largest visible minority groups. In terms of theoretical developments, my mentoring model (Wong, L. & Wong, P., 1999) is the only model developed by a visible minority. This model is designed not only to meet the need of minority students for mentoring (McNeill, Horn, & Perez, 1995) but also to incorporate all the major features of effective supervision, such as competence 41 in teaching/guidance and caring for the supervisees. The present research will provide direct evidence whether visible minority students' experiences of helpful supervision support the mentoring model. It is worth noting that research on supervision has gradually moved from quantitative measures of supervisory behaviours (Worthington & Roehlke, 1979) to a phenomenological study of supervisees' subjective experiences (Hutt, Scott, & King, 1983; Worthen & McNeill, 1996). The Hutt et al. (1983) study examined both positive and negative experiences, while Worthen and McNeill (1996) only examined supervisees' experience of "good" supervision. Neither of these studies focused on the experience of visible minority supervisees. The present research is the first comprehensive study of both negative and positive experiences of visible minority students. Although the present study employed Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique, it also employed an open-ended interview component to explore supervisees' subjective experiences. 42 CHAPTER III: THE CRITICAL INCIDENT M E T H O D O L O G Y In several studies, students were asked to identify critical incidents within the supervision setting that resulted in changes in the trainee's effectiveness as a counsellor (Ellis, 1991; Heppner & Roehlke, 1984). Typically, trainees were asked to describe critical incidents in each supervision session. This method focusses exclusively on positive critical incidents taking place within a supervision session. The Critical Incident Technique developed by Flanagan (1954) is more appropriate for addressing the present research question, because this technique can map out a comprehensive set of helpful and unhelpful supervisory behaviours which occur both within and outside supervision sessions. Such information is valuable in improving the quality of clinical supervision and supervision training. Initially, the Critical Incident Technique was designed primarily for job analysis (Flanagan, 1954). It has been applied to a variety of job situations and occupations. Andersson and Nilsson (1964) have summed it up this way: "The Critical Incident Technique is a procedure used in the collection and analysis of incidents in which the holder of a position in a certain occupation has acted in a way which, according to some criterion, has been of decisive significance for his success or failure in a task" (p.398). Since Flanagan's seminal publication, the technique has been modified and applied to other areas of psychological research. For example, Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) studied what affected work motivation. Cohen and Smith (1976) investigated the critical situations in a group process, which called for intervention from the group leader. Flanagan (1978) also used this approach to study quality of life in 43 America. Rimon (1979) studied the nurses' role in treating rehabilitation patients. Dachelet et al. (1981) studied the critical incidents related to clinical training of nurses; they identified categories of incidents in practicum settings that were perceived as helpful. McCormick (1995) studied behaviours that facilitated healing for the First Nations people of British Columbia. Dix and Savickas (1995) investigated behaviours effective in establishing a career. Woolsey (1986) concluded that: "The critical incident methodology is highly flexible. It can be used to study a wide range of phenomena, for example, relationships, decision-making, self-actualization, vocational choice, and group processes. It can be modified to collect data on factual happenings (rather than restricting its use to 'critical' incidents), and on qualities or attributes; to use prototypes to span the various levels of the aim or attribute (low, medium, high)" (p.251). Indeed, Flanagan's technique has been modified to study various psychological issues. However, in some cases, the technique was modified to the extent that its procedural and conceptual expansion departed greatly from the Flanagan's (1954) original formulation. Therefore, it is necessary to critically review the various "critical incident" studies and determine the defining features of different types of Critical Incident Techniques. 44 The Critical Incident Technique According to Flanagan "The Critical Incident Technique consists of a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems and developing broad psychological principles" (Flanagan, 1954, p.327). This technique was originally developed as a part of the Aviation Psychology Program of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. A number of studies were later carried out at the University of Pittsburgh; most of these studies were concerned with the critical requirements for various occupations such as dentists or industrial foremen. In the study on foremen, some of the probing instructions were: 1. Think of a time when a foreman has done something that you felt should be encouraged because it seemed to be in your opinion an example of good foremanship. (Effective-slight deviation from the norm.) 2. Think of a time when a foreman did something that you thought was not up to par. (Ineffective-slight deviation from norm.) 3. Think of a time when a foreman has, in your opinion, shown definitely good foremanship - the type of action that points out the superior foreman. (Effective-substantial deviation from the norm.) 4. Think of a time when a foreman has, in your opinion, shown poor foremanship - the sort of action which if repeated would indicate that the man was not an effective foreman. (Ineffective-substantial deviation from norm.) (Flanagan, 1954, p.332). 45 In addition to providing a description of specific behaviours, the observer also needed to provide a judgment regarding the behaviour's effectiveness or ineffectiveness. According to Flanagan (1954), only simple types of judgment were required of the observers and only reports from qualified observers were included. These observers evaluated the behaviours according to an agreed upon statement of the purpose of the activity. Flanagan was also concerned with the objectivity of such observations. The extent to which a reported observation can be accepted as a fact depends primarily on the objectivity of this observation. By objectivity is meant the tendency for a number of independent observers to make the same report....The accuracy and therefore the objectivity of the judgments depend on the precision with which the characteristic has been defined and the competence of the observer in interpreting this definition with relation to the incident observed.. .It is believed that a fair degree of success has been achieved in developing procedures that will be of assistance in gathering facts in a rather objective fashion with only a minimum of inferences and interpretations of a more subjective nature. (Flanagan, 1954, p.335) It is evident from these statements that the emphasis is on objective, factual and accurate description. Objectivity is established by inter-subject agreement that certain behaviour is effective or ineffective. Factualness is established by the first-hand direct observation of a specific behaviour in a concrete situation. Accuracy is inferred from the fact that the person is a qualified and experienced observer, and that the description is confirmed by other observers. Throughout the entire research process, Flanagan (1954) consistently emphasized objectivity. The two components, which are most vulnerable to subjective influence, are 46 classification and application. Because of the deficiency in psychological knowledge and theory about the content domain (e.g., job or task performance), the process of classification is relatively subjective. However, once a classification has been established for a given type of critical incidents, a fairly satisfactory level of objectivity can be achieved in terms of placing incidents in the appropriate categories by independent judges. The second subjective inference has to do with the application of the research findings to improve task performance. In order to predict accurately what will improve performance, we need to have sufficient information about relevant factors in a particular work environment and the principles of behaviour in that situation. Data collection Flanagan (1954) developed a set of guidelines and procedures for data collection. The first step is to establish the general aim for an activity. "The trend in the scientific field toward operational statement has led a number of writers to try to describe activities or functions in terms of the acts or operations performed, the materials acted on, the situations involved, the results or products, and the relative importance of various acts and results" (p.336). However, Flanagan concluded that "such discussions have failed to emphasize the dominant role of the general aim in formulating a description of successful behavior or adjustment in a particular situation" (p.336). Even though the general aim of the activity cannot be operationalized, it is possible to get an objective description of the aim by obtaining simple statements from the authorities in the field. For example, we can consult various textbooks and articles on supervision. If all the authorities agree that the aim of supervision is to increase trainees' 47 professional competence in clinical practice, we have established the objectivity of this general aim. The second step is to give clear instructions regarding what constitutes a critical incident. "By an incident is meant any observable human activity that is sufficiently complete in itself to permit inferences and predictions to be made about the person performing the act. To be critical, an incident must occur in a situation where the purpose or intent of the act seems fairly clear to the observer and where its consequences are sufficiently definite to leave little doubt concerning its effects" (p.327). Critical incidents are also defined as "extreme behavior, either outstandingly effective or ineffective with respect to attaining the general aims of the activity" (p.33 8). In other words, a critical incident has to be an observable activity relevant to the general aim, and its impact on the aim is clearly positive or negative. For example, in the case of supervision, a positive critical incident would be: "The supervisor demonstrated for me how to overcome client resistance. I found this very helpful." A negative critical incident would be: "After the counselling session, the supervisor criticized my performance very harshly and unfairly. I feel devastated and completely lost my confidence." Flanagan (1954) also specified the criteria in collecting critical incidents, because not all responses given by the participants are related to critical incidents. The following criteria are generally applied: 1. An actual and complete behaviour was reported. 2. The behaviour was directly observed by the participant 3. Relevant factors were given regarding the situation where the behaviour occurred. 4. The participant made a definite judgment regarding the behaviour. 48 5. The participant made it clear just why the behaviour was critical. For the Critical Incident Technique, the size of the sample is defined by the number of critical incidents obtained rather than the number of people interviewed. When repetitive patterns begin to emerge, the researcher can assume that sufficient incidents have been collected. Typically, the researcher continues to collect critical incidents until a saturation point is reached where no more new critical incidents are generated. Although Flanagan did not specify the number of participants required for the Critical Incident Technique, the "saturation" requirement suggested that the greater the complexity of the activity, the greater the number of participants were required. Since more critical incidents are needed to map out the content domain of a complex activity, more participants are required to reach that saturation point. For supervisory jobs, investigated by Flanagan (1954), it appeared that over a thousand critical incidents were required. Flanagan (1954) also emphasized the importance of the wording in research questions. A slight change in the wording can bias the critical incidents reported. The questions should focus on all behaviours, both positive and negative, that are relevant and important to the general aim of the study. For example, i f the questions emphasize behaviours that have a positive impact, then the results will be biased. The above set of procedures is designed to increase the objectivity and accuracy of data collection. When the above set of procedures was followed, Flanagan (1954) found that interviews and questionnaires seemed to yield similar results. However, Andersson and Nilsson (1964) later reported that the former tended to generate more critical incidents. 49 Data Analysis The purpose of data analysis is to summarize the data in order to draw inferences with practical implications. Since the data are qualitative, content analysis takes the form of classification. Flanagan (1954) has identified three methodological issues in classification. 1. The selection of an appropriate and useful frame of reference. Since there are so many different ways of classifying the incidents, the researcher needs to decide on categories that are most valuable and comprehensive. This decision is facilitated by having sufficient theoretical and empirical knowledge about the activity in question. 2. The inductive development of categories. Classification is a process of refinement. Typically, the researcher begins with sorting a small sample of critical incidents. Tentative categories are then defined (i.e. labeled) and additional incidents are classified into them. However, when these categories are no longer able to incorporate additional incidents, new categories are created, and existing categories are modified. This process of reclassification and redefinition continues until all items are included. 3. The selection of the appropriate level on the specificity-generality continuum. The level chosen may be a dozen general behaviours or it may be a few hundred very specific behaviours. One may begin with a more general level, and then divide the larger categories into more specific sub-categories. One may also begin with more specific categories and then combine them into broader categories. A more specific level of classification tends to be more informative, whereas a more general level tends to result in greater reliability. 50 Reliability and Validity Flanagan (1954) was also concerned with the reliability and validity data analyais. Reliability reflects consistency and objectivity in classification. To determine the reliability of the categories, one or more independent raters are trained in the method of categorization, and instructed to sort the incidents into the appropriate categories. Then the percentage of agreement between their classifications and the researcher's classification can be calculated. A criterion of 80% agreement is generally used as an acceptable level of reliability in this type of research, but it depends on the number of categories. For example, i f the judges have to sort items into 40 rather than 20 categories, the criterion may be lowered because the judging task becomes more complex and the likelihood of assigning to the wrong categories becomes higher. It is possible to have only one critical incident in a category. However, to obtain a relatively precise definition of each category, we need three to four examples of each category. The definition needs to capture the main characteristics of these examples and needs to be interpretable. Construct validity of the categories is partially established by the fact that the purpose of the study is well defined and clearly established. The descriptions of critical incidents measure what the researcher purports to measure, because the participants are given clear and specific instructions to report only incidents relevant to the purpose of the study. Construct validity is also demonstrated by the fact that all participants are qualified to observe the designated activity and they make similar observations. Finally, Flanagan (1954) was concerned with the external validity or generalizability of the findings. Errors may occur in interpreting the data. If the 51 participants are not representative of the relevant groups, this must be clearly mentioned. "In order to avoid faulty inferences and generalizations, the limitations imposed by the groups must be brought into clear focus. Similarly, the nature of judgments made in collecting and analyzing the data must be carefully reviewed" (p.345). Conclusion The five steps in the Critical Incident procedure most commonly used are: 1. Determination of the general aim of the activity. 2. Development of specific plans for collecting critical incidents. 3. Collection of the data according to the specified procedure. 4. Data analysis and classification. 5. Interpretation and reporting. Flanagan (1954) has provided detailed guidelines for each of the above step to increase objectivity, accuracy and minimize various sources of errors. "In summary, the Critical Incident Technique, rather than collecting opinions, hunches, and estimates, obtains a record of specific behaviors from those in the best position to make the necessary observations and evaluations. The collection and tabulation of these observations make it possible to formulate the critical requirements of an activity." . (p.355). . In terms of applying the Critical Incident Technique to research on counselling and psychotherapy, Flanagan (1954) pointed out that there was "a trend towards emphasizing the collection of factual incidents" (p.334) in this field. For example, several Masters theses used this technique to find out the critical incidents reported by patients 52 who had shown improvement; these theses were interested in "what did the patient do that was indicative of improvement?" (p. 334). In the 50's and 60's, Flanagan's technique was used extensively in industry to measure task proficiency, to select personnel and design job procedures. A notable example was Andersson and Nilsson's (1964) study of the critical requirements for the job of a store manager in a Swedish grocery company. Two different methods were used in data collection. The interviews generated an average of five incidents per person, while the questionnaires generated 2.5 incidents per person. However, the structure of data from these two methods was not affected by the two different methods. Rank correlations demonstrated significant levels of reliability and validity for the Critical Incident Technique. Critical Incidents as Psychological States As originally developed by Flanagan (1954), the Critical Incident Technique was designed to measure critical behaviour requirements for successful job performance. However, the technique has been extended to study psychological states. Flanagan's (1978) Quality of Life Study Flanagan (1978) made a progress report on a long-term research project study regarding how to improve the qualify of life of Americans. This project involved several stages and the Critical Incident Technique was employed during the initial stage of the research. More than 6,500 critical incidents were collected from almost 3,000 people of different ages and races. In a follow-up study, additional 2,000 critical incidents were collected. 53 Several questions were asked during the interviews to cover a wide range of experiences and behaviors. One question focused on the factors that contributed to well-being: "Think of the last time you did something very important to you or had an experience that was especially satisfying to you. What did you do or what happened that was so satisfying to you? Why did this experience seem so important or satisfying?" (Flanagan, 1978, p. 138). Another question focused on negative factors: "Think of a time you saw something happen to another person that really was harmful or made their life worse in some way. Exactly what happened to this person? Why do you feel that this made their life worse? What should have happened in this situation?" (p. 139). Other questions inquired about "the biggest change in the quality of your life," "a continuing source of pleasure to you," and "a continuing source of trouble to you." Although Flanagan used the term "critical incidents" to describe the more than 6,500 descriptions from his participants, it is clear that he did not follow the procedures specified in his 1954 paper. He employed a semi-structured, open-ended interview survey method, coupled with quantitative ratings. At the most, only one component of his research program on quality of life can be considered as the Critical Incident Technique. It should be pointed out that in this "quality of life" research, his Critical Incident Technique has evolved to include phenomenological experiences. Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman's (1959) Study on Work Motivation Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) pointed out how their research method differed from Flanagan's Critical Incident approach, as follows: The goal of Flanagan's work is usually the evaluation of job performance or the development of a selection device. Thus, the choice of critical incidents is based 54 on a need to specify good or bad behavior on the job. These criteria are therefore external to the psychological processes of the individuals reporting. In our approach the choice of incidents is based on the respondent's judgment of his psychological state during the events, an internal criterion, (p. 12) Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) employed a semi-structured interview to measure the effects of feeling good or feeling bad about their job. The interview began with these statements: "Think of a time when you felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad about your job, either your present job or any other job you have had. This can be either the 'long-range' or the 'short-range' kind of situation, as I have just described it. Tell me what happened." This is followed by various questions, such as "How long did the feeling last? Can you described specifically what made the change of feelings begin?" "Can you tell me more precisely why you felt the way you did at that time?" "What did these events mean to you?" (p. 143). Herzberg et al. (1959) went beyond objective conditions and emphasized the subjective meanings attached to these conditions. Thus, the focus shifted from external sources to internal and subjective experiences. Critical incidents were no longer activities, but sequences which were further broken into factors and effects. Factors referred to antecedent conditions and actions, while effects referred to feelings and performance effect. This has broadened the scope of analysis to generate more information about the contributing factors as well as the effects surrounding certain psychological states. 55 The expanded critical incident method of the University of British Columbia (UBC) The evolution of Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique continues at the Counselling Psychology Department at the University of British Columbia. Herzberg et al.'s (1959) influence was also evident in some of the recent dissertations. Alfonso's (1997) dissertation investigated what facilitated the process of coping with depressive moods after an HIV+ diagnosis. The researcher did not simply focus on what helped or did not help with depressive moods. She also asked other questions such as: "How did a good day look like? And a bad day?" "What was meaningful about this incident?" "What did you learn about yourself from this incident?' Given the wide range of questions asked, the methodology can be described as a semi-structured, open-ended interview, with a critical incident component. Baum (1999) studied how Jewish Holocaust survivors had coped with stressful situations and which coping tactics were facilitative. Critical incidents were "defined as any event deemed significantly stressful and/or traumatic to the participants" (p.36). In other words, critical incidents referred to stressful situations rather than the coping responses. Baum's method was more similar to Weiner, Russell, and Lerman (1979), who employed critical incidents as stimuli that evoked various responses. Selective review of research at the University of British Columbia indicates that Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique has been extended to various research questions relevant to counselling psychology. More importantly, the expanded critical incident method have been broadened to include subjective experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings. The expanded critical incident method includes semi-structured and open-ended interviews to explore the subjective meanings attributed to critical events. 56 Definition of "critical incident" The term "critical incidents" has been defined differently in the expanded version of critical incident research. For example, Baum (1999) defined critical incidents as stressful events, but she also defined critical incidents as consisting of "incident and thought, feeling, behavior and outcome related to it" (p.39). In other words, coping behavior was just one of the several components of a critical incident; other components would include the incident itself and the outcome. Nevertheless, she declared that "the coping strategies instigated by the challenges were labeled critical events." (p.39). Throughout her result and discussion sections, the 1,416 coping strategies were referred to as critical incidents. Thus, critical incidents were defined both as stressful/traumatic events and the coping responses to these events. However, she only content-analyzed coping responses, but not the critical stressful events. Given the existence of different interpretations and usage of the fundamental concept of "critical incident", it is necessary to define "critical incident" more clearly. In the expanded version of Critical Incident Technique, critical incident should be defined as an event, which has a significant positive or negative impact on the individual. This critical incident may involve three components, which are: (a) antecedent conditions, (b) the event, and (c) the consequence. Each of these component may include thoughts, feelings, behaviours, and relationships. Thus, a critical incident may be a complex sequence of events such that each component of the sequence involves complicated interactions with different personalities and different coping strategies. Therefore, content analysis and classification need to take place at a more molecular level of meaningful 57 statements or "meaning units" that describe the rich complexity involved in each critical incident. 58 CHAPTER IV: METHOD The research method for the present research can be regarded as an expanded version of Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique. This present study followed closely Flanagan's (1954) direction that the objective be specified. This was accomplished both in explaining the research to participants during "orientation" and in the instruction given to participants prior to data collection. Participants were told: "The main objective of supervision is to develop supervisee's professional competence in the practice of counselling. Please describe specific incidents or examples of helpful and unhelpful supervision." Thus, the goal of supervision was clearly defined. Helpful and unhelpful incidents were defined with respect to the objective of developing professional competence in supervisees. Secondly, I followed Flanagan's (1954) approach in defining critical incidents. Participants were told, "Think of a time when a supervisor has done or said something that you felt was an example of effective (ineffective) supervision. Please explain why you judge that to be a helpful (or unhelpful) incident." In the spirit of Flanagan's emphasis on objectivity, critical incidents were defined as what the supervisor actually did or said that had significantly impacted the task of supervision. The researcher continued to ask for additional examples until the participants were not able to think of any more helpful or unhelpful incidents. Thirdly, I adopted the expanded critical incident method used by the U.B.C. Counselling Psychology, graduate students who had asked participants: What happened? What led up to it? What was the consequence or how did it turn out? Cochran 59 (Lecture, 1996) suggested that such questions provided a fuller context of the incident. Participants were also asked: What did it mean to you? How did you feel about it? How did you cope with it? This additional semi-structured, open-ended interview component incorporated Herzberg et al.'s (1959) line of questioning. U.B.C.'s expanded Critical Incident Technique allows participants to freely talk about their experiences and feelings (Borgen & Amundson, 1996). Fourthly, in the event of negative incidents, participants were asked to indicate what the short-term and long-term consequences were and how they managed to cope with them. Typically, when participants explained why they considered an incident as unhelpful, they naturally talked about the negative consequences and their coping efforts. The additional instruction was designed to have a complete account of the sequence of events emphasized by Herzberg et al. (1959). Fifthly, all participants were asked to recommend, on the basis of their personal experiences, ways to improve supervision. This question was helpful, because it empowered participants to have a positive closure on their supervision experience. Secondly, it allowed participants to process and integrate supervision experience and come up with some recommendations on how to provide good supervision to visible minority students. A copy of the instructions and questions is shown in Appendix E. Recruitment of participants An announcement was posted on bulletin boards at the University of British Columbia's (U.B.C.) Counselling Department, Student Union Building, Simon Fraser University's (S.F.U.) Counselling Department and at Trinity Western University 60 (T.W.U.). Potential participants needed to meet the following qualifications: Member of a visible minority group, having had at least one year of supervision experience, and being able to articulate their supervision experience. The researcher and her supervisor also made use of their personal contacts. As a result, 19 females and 6 males were recruited. The average ages for females and males were 32 and 37 years, respectively. The majority of the participants came from the three Universities in the Lower Mainland (UBC, SFU, and TWU). Three of the participants graduated from other provinces (Alberta and Ontario) and two from the United States. In terms of ethnic membership, there were 13 Chinese-Canadians, 4 Indo-Canadians, 3 First Nations, 2 Japanese-Canadians, 1 Afro-Canadian, 1 Korean-Canadian, and 1 Latin-Canadian. The 13 Chinese participants came from various parts of Asia, including Malaysia. In terms of levels of training, 3 were completing their Masters degree, 18 had graduated with their Masters, 1 was a doctoral candidate, and 3 had already obtained their Ph.D. degree. Procedure A l l potential participants were first contacted by telephone and told about the purpose of the study, the nature of their participation, and they were assured of confidentiality and anonymity with respect of data collection and data analysis. The interviewer then made an appointment to meet with each participant at a time and place convenient to that individual. During the initial stage of the interview, the researcher provided an orientation of the study, answered whatever questions they might have and then asked them to sign the Consent Form. Then, the interviewer proceeded 61 with the interview with a tape-recorder. At the end of the interview, the tape was transcribed verbatim and given an identification code. Two graduate students from two different universities served as interviewers for two reasons. Firstly, based on my experience in pilot study, some U.B.C. students were reluctant to disclose their supervision experience. It might be because they were concerned that some of the things they said about certain supervisors might get back to these supervisor. Their concerns would be lessened if they were interviewed by someone not connected with UBC. Secondly, having two interviewers might help minimize potential interviewer bias in qualitative research, which is vulnerable to this kind of bias. Content analysis of the interview data The recorded interviews were coded and transcribed verbatim. The following procedure was employed to extract categories from the protocols: 1. I read over several transcripts in order to get a sense of the scope and variety of the interview materials. This initial reading identified four clear sections, namely, positive incidents, negative incidents, outcomes of negative incidents, and recommendations. These sections closely parallel the questions of the interview (i.e., positive incidents, negative incidents, coping with negative incidents, and recommendations for change). 2. Both positive and negative incidents were identified by + or - respectively on the left margin of the transcript. Any specific incident was counted only once, even when the participant returned to the same incident several times in the course of the interview. In other words, the process of progressive elaboration seemed to be at work, when the participants returned to the same critical incident with more and more details. Two criteria were used to identify each critical incident: (a) the description of the incident 62 was complete in the sense of having a beginning and an end; and (b) the incident was clearly related to supervision. It was worth noting that many critical incidents did not always consist of all three sequential components — what happened, what led up to it and what the consequences were. For example, a demeaning remark by a supervisor constituted a critical incident, but the participant could not recall what led up to that hurtful remark. 3. Each report of critical incident typically consisted of several meaning units, which were similar to Herzberg et al.'s (1959) thought units. A meaning unit may vary in length from one sentence or one paragraph, but it must contain a complete and clear idea marked by a transition in meaning (Aanstoos, 1983; Giorgi, 1975). The researcher identified each relevant meaning unit by bracketing it with a pencil. A meaning unit was considered relevant if it had a direct bearing on the phenomenon under investigation. Thus, any recollection of the supervision and related experiences would be considered relevant, while any comments on other matters, such as boy-friend-girl-friend issues, money matters, etc., would not be considered relevant. Such distinction is necessary, because in any open-ended interview situation, there is a tendency for participants to digress occasionally and talk about personal issues unrelated to the subject matter of the interview. "The end of this step is a series of meaning units still expressed in the subject's own everyday language" (Giorgi, 1997, p.236). 4. A descriptor of each relevant meaning unit was created by the researcher and written on a 1" x 3" Post-it Note attached to the right margin of transcript as a tab. A 63 descriptor could be a phrase or a sentence that accurately captures the meaning of the unit. "My supervisor validated me" would be an example. 5. A database of the relevant meaning units was created. Each meaning unit was entered under the appropriate Section (i.e. Positive Incidents, etc.) with its descriptor and code. For instance, "Vflp3t" indicated that this meaning unit was taken from the interview of the first Female Visible Minority Student on the top section of Page 3. When there were more than 3 meaning units per page, a numerical value was used in the code. Thus, Vflp6(4) indicated that it was the fourth meaning unit on Page 6 of Female participant 1. Such a procedure makes it possible for other researchers to . check on validity of the coding in the proper context of the transcript. 6. In the process of describing meaning units, it soon became apparent that some descriptors were very similar in meaning. For example, "My supervisor was supportive and encouraging" was conceptually not different from "My supervisor validated me." Thus, these descriptors with highly similar meanings were merged under a broader category "Supervisor was appreciative, accepting, supportive, encouraging, and validating." Such merging was an ongoing process. 7. Finally categories were extracted from the descriptors following the procedure of Step 6. The main criterion for the final decision was that a category must contain a distinct, psychological meaning and shared by several participants. Thus, "language difficulties and cultural barriers", "problem in getting a practicum site" and other difficulties related to minority status were all combined into the general category of "Difficulties of being a visible ethnic minority." However, occasionally, a category was experienced by only one or two individuals, but it had a clear and important 64 . psychological meaning; such categories were also retained. For example, some coping efforts were idiosyncratic and specific to a particular situation; therefore, the criterion of extracting relatively general categories was somewhat relaxed, resulting in many specific coping strategies. Reliability test In qualitative data analysis, reliability is concerned with the consistency and objectivity in classifying meaning units into appropriate categories. If the coding is done in an arbitrary, subjective manner, then another person will not be able to reproduce the results. Thus, a high degree of agreement between independent judges indicates a high level of reliability in classifying the categories. Since conceptual categories are fussy categories at best, with overlapping meanings, generally 80% agreement indicates an acceptable level of reliability. The following procedure was followed in conducting the reliability test. A psychologist with expertise in qualitative methodology and supervision research served as the first judge. He was given the definitions and exemplars of the categories as shown in Appendices F, G, H, and I, one section at a time. In other words, he was asked to do the reliability test for the four sections: Positive Incidents first, then Negative Incidents, Coping, and finally Recommendations. Approximately 10% to 15% of the relevant meaning units were then randomly selected from the computer printout for the reliability test for the four sections. The judge was first given a test item to determine if he understood the instructions. If he did it incorrectly, then the correct answer was provided and a discussion ensued to determine 65 whether he fully understood the instructions or the definition. If he did it correctly, then the reliability test began. The judge was given one meaning unit at a time and asked to assign it to the appropriate category. He was given immediate feedback for his classification. When an error occurred, sometimes the judge suggested an alternative category, claiming that the two categories appeared similar. In such cases, some discussion would follow. This discussion resulted in either explaining to the judge why his initial response was incorrect, or acknowledging that two categories were indeed too similar and should be combined. A doctoral student in counselling psychology served as the second judge, and was given the same task of classifying a randomly selection of 10-15% of all the meaning units. This classifying task was very demanding, because the judge had to review all the different categories and decide under which category each meaning unit should be classified. It took approximately five to six hours for each judge to complete the reliability test. A Masters student in counselling psychology served as the third judge. This time, a less demanding procedure was used. She was given the definition of each category and about 10-15% of meaning units already classified according to each category. She was asked to decided whether any of the meaning units did not belong to each assigned category. Validity test In qualitative research, validity refers to whether the results of content analysis are believable or trustworthy, whether they resonate with people who have had some 66 experience with the phenomenon under investigation. Five steps were followed to determine the validity of the present results. 1. Confirmation by the participants. The participants were asked whether the categories extracted from their interview data accurately or truthfully summarized the incidents as they experienced. This step was designed to guard against the potential biases of the researcher, because the researcher might have inadvertently omitted some important categories or distorted other categories. Since the participants knew what had happened to them, and they had the'authority to verify whether the categories extracted from their report correctly reflected their experience. More importantly, this step is concerned with whether the language faithfully reflect the "voice" of the participants in terms of the words and concepts used in the categories. This is also referred to as interpretative validity (Maxwell, 1992). 2. Cross-validation by other participants. They were also asked whether they could relate to categories extracted from other participants' reports. This was designed to established inter-participant validation. In other words, all participants, whether they themselves had reported a particular category, agreed that the categories extracted were "trustworthy", "believable" and "accurate" representations of the phenomenon under consideration. 3. Cross-validation by an independent judge. An individual who had experienced supervision, but had not taken part in the research was asked to judge whether the results resonated with her own experience. This step was designed to provide additional inter-subjects validation. 67 4. Cross-validation by other researchers. Relevant literature was consulted to determine whether the categories extracted were consistent with prior research. The construct validity of the result was increased when other researchers investigating the same phenomenon had reported same or similar findings. 5. Saturation and comprehensiveness. It is difficult to reach a "saturation" point, when it is defined as no more new incidents, in complex tasks, such as supervision (Flanagan, 1954). It is all the more difficult to reach Flanagan's criterion of saturation in the expanded version, because every incident is different in some way in terms of the situations, personalities and dynamics of interaction involved. However, it is possible to reach a "saturation" point for categories based on meaningful statements (or meaning units) about critical incidents. According to Cochran (lecture, 1996), saturation and comprehensiveness provide evidence of construct validity. I extracted the categories based on 22 participants, and then tested saturation with the remaining 3 participants. If the all the remaining meaning units could be placed into existing categories, it then means that no new categories have emerged and a saturation point has been reached. In this case, saturation means that the categories are comprehensive, covering the major aspects of the phenomenon. This will serve as evidence that the overall classification of the categories has construct validity. 68 CHAPTER V: RESULTS The transcripts of the interview data were content analyzed according to the procedure described in Chapter IV. A total of 150 positive incidents and 191 negative incidents were identified. For the 19 female participants, the mean numbers of positive incidents and negative incidents were 6.2 and 8.3, respectively. For the 6 male participants, the mean numbers of positive and negative incidents were 5.5 and 5.7, respectively. Collapsing across gender, the average number of positive incidents per participant was 6.0, and the average number of negative incidents was 7.6. Categories of Positive Incidents A total of 340 meaning units were related to positive critical incidents. Twenty categories were extracted from these units. Frequency and participation rates for each category are shown in Table 2. Frequency refers to the number of meaning units per category; participation rate refers to the number and percentage of participants reporting a particular category. 69 Table 2 Categories of positive incidents Categories Participation* Frequency** 1. Supervisor was appreciative, accepting, 20 (80%) 57 (16.8%) supportive, encouraging, and validating 2. Supervisor provided timely, clear, constructive 18 (72%) 42 (12.4%) feedback, guidance and debriefing 3. Supervisor mentored me 16 (64%) 40 (11.8%) 4. Supervisor provided a safe and trusting 14 (56%) 28 (8.2%) environment 5. Supervisor/professor had cross-cultural 13 (52%) 28 (8.2%) competencies 6. Supervisor taught me lessons, skills, insights, 13 (52%) 29 (8.5%) and explained things to me 7. Experienced personal growth through negative 10 (40%) 18 (5.3%) experiences 8. Allowed me the freedom to take risks and gave 9 (36%) 23 (6.8%) me space to grow 9. Supervisor demonstrated, modelled and role- 9 (36%) 18 (5.3%) played 10. Supervisor treated me with respect 9 (36%) 12 (3.5%) (table continues) 70 Table 2 (continued) Categories Participation* Frequency** 11. Supervisor was interested in my personal 7 (28%) 8 (2.4%) growth 12. Supervisor challenged me to grow 6 (24%) 11 (3.2%) 13. Supervisor was flexible, open-minded and 4 (16%) 7 (2.1%) receptive to student feedback and suggestions 14. Supervisor was professional and ethical in 4 (16%) 5 (1.5%) handling cases 15. Minority status served as an asset 3 (12%) 4 (1.2%) 16. Supervisor's style and orientations and interest 3 (12%) 3 (0.9%) matched mine 17. Clients were accepting and helpful 2 (8%) 20 (6.0%) 18. Group supervision was beneficial 2 (8%) 2 (0.6%) 19. Supervisor or department apologized 2 (8%) 2 (0.6%) 20. Spiritual transformation 1 (4%) 1 (0.3%) N = 25 Total = 340 Note. *The number of participants reporting each category is given in the Participation column, with the participation rate given in parenthesis. **The number of meaning units cited for each category is given in the Frequency column, with the percentage of the total number of meaning units given in parenthesis. 71 Definitions and exemplars for the positive categories are shown in Appendix F. Numbers of examples selected for each category vary, depending on the frequency of meaning units belonging to each category. Thus, a category consisting of more than 30 meaning units would have 3 to 4 exemplars, while a category comprised of only two meaning units would have a maximum of two examples. The exemplars provided different nuances of each category. Categories of Negative Incidents There was a total of 386 meaning units related to negative incidents. Fifteen categories were extracted from these meaning units. The frequency and participation rates for each category are shown in Table 3. These negative categories reveal not only the causes and nature of negative incidents but also a wide range of negative experiences and feelings. Several participants suffered severe emotional pains. Many had serious doubts whether they were in the wrong profession and seriously considered quitting the counselling program. Definitions and exemplars for the negative incidents are shown in Appendix G. Exemplars were chosen on the basis of the same guideline as for Positive incidents. These exemplars illustrate both the scope and the diversity of unhelpful supervision and its impact on visible minority students. 72 Table 3 Categories of negative incidents Categories Participation* Frequency** 1. Difficulties of being a visible ethnic minority 16 (64%) 63 (16.3%) 2. Supervisor was too rigid, controlling, insulting, 15 (60%) 41 (10.6%) intimidating or judgmental 3. Feeling worried, unsafe, confused, helpless and 14 (56%) 46 (11.9%) stressed out 4. Supervisor lacked multicultural competencies 14 (56%) 34 (8.8%) 5. Conflicts and politics 13 (52%) 34 (8.8%) 6. Supervisor did not give adequate feedback, 12 (48%) 42 (10.9%) guidance or supervision 7. Supervisor was unprofessional, unethical and 10 (40%) 26 (6.7%) irresponsible 8. Supervisor did not provide a safe, trusting 9 (36%) 20 (5.2%) environment 9. Discrimination in the department or agency 8 (32%) 20 (5.2%) 10. Supervisor's orientation, counselling style and 7 (28%) 16 (4.1%) approach differ from mine 11. Difficulties in counselling 6 (24%) 8 (2.1%) 12. Difficulties in group supervision 5 (20%) 15 (3.9%) (table continues) 73 Table 3 (continued) Categories Participation* Frequency** 13. Stereotyping ethnic minorities 4 (16%) 12 (3.1%) 14. Too many compliments 3 (12%) 5 (1.3%) 15. The university or department was not ethnically 2 (8%) 4 (1.0%) diverse N = 25 Total = 386 Note. *The number of participants reporting each category is given in the Participation column, with the participation rate given in parenthesis. **The number of meaning units cited for each category is given in the Frequency column, with the percentage of the total number of meaning units given in parenthesis. 74 Categories of Coping In reporting negative incidents, almost invariably participants talked about how these incidents had affected them and how they tried to cope. A total of 42 meaning units were related to coping efforts. Fifteen categories of coping were extracted. Some of the coping strategies, such as "Sought support from friends, spouse and other students" were shared by many of the participants. However, some of the coping strategy, such as "Wrote down everything so that others may know" was reported by only one person. The frequency and participation rate for each strategy are shown in Table 4. The fifteen coping categories were organized into four areas in order to provide a broad taxonomy of coping strategies. Higher levels of categories are helpful, because several of the coping themes were reported by one participant only. Appendix H shows both definitions and examples for different coping strategies for each coping category. The 15 coping categories were again classified according to the above four broader areas of coping. 75 Table 4 Areas and categories of coping Areas (in bold) and categories (indented) Participation* Frequency** A. Help seeking 9 (36%) 15 (35.7%) A l . Sought support from friends, spouse and 7 (28%) 8 (19.0%) other students A2. Sought supervision from other sources 4 (16%) 5 (11.9%) A3. Sought support from God 2 (8%) 2 (4.8%) B. Existential coping 8 (32%) 10 (23.8%) B I . Accepted what could not be changed 3 (12%) 3 (7.1%) B2. Kept quiet 3 (12%) 5 (11.9%) B3. Learned to put it all behind me 2 (8%) 2 (4.8%) C. Active coping 6 (24%) 11 (26.2%) C l . Counselled myself 3 (12%) 3 (7.1%) C2. Learned more about the language and 3 (12%) 3 (7.1%) culture C3. Changed my direction in research and 1 (4%) 2 (4.8%) counselling C4. Confronting 1 (4%) 1 (2.4%) C5. Switched to another program or supervisor 1 (4%) 1 (2.4%) C6. Wrote down everything so that others may 1 (4%) 1 (2.4%) know (table continues) 76 T a b l e 4 (cont inued) A r e a s (in bold) a n d categories ( indented) P a r t i c i p a t i o n * F r e q u e n c y * * D. E m o t i o n a l c o p i n g 2 (8%) 6 (14.3%) D1. Tried to make something positive of a 2 (8%) 3 (7.1%) negative experience D2. Became very defensive 1 (4%) 2 (4.8%) D3. Concealed my anger 1 (4%) 1 (2.4%) N = 25 Total = 42 Note . T h e number of participants reporting each area or category is given in the Participation column, with the participation rate given in parenthesis. **The number of meaning units cited for each category is given in the Frequency column, with the percentage of the total number of meaning units given in parenthesis. 77 The category of existential coping refers to accepting and enduring a situation which one is powerless to change (Wong, 1991, 1993). Help seeking (Flett, Blankstein, Hicken, & Watson, 1995; Wong, 1993) refers to attempts to seek emotional and practical social support from a variety of sources. Emotional coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) refers to various cognitive and defensive efforts to managing one's feelings without actually solving the problem. Active coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) includes various active attempts to improve oneself and confront the problem. Recommendations A total of 88 meaning units were related to recommendations. Most of the comments were given in response to the question "In your opinion, what could be done to improve the quality of supervision for visible minority students?" However, occasionally, in the course of describing negative incidents, some participants spontaneously suggested ways to prevent the kind of problems they had experienced. Many of the recommendations were made by only one or two participants but appeared to have important implications; therefore, they were retained as categories. Altogether, thirty-three categories were extracted. These specific recommendations can be grouped into four broad areas. The first area addresses the need to improve cross-cultural supervision competencies in counsellor education. The second area refers to the need to improve the quality of supervision in general; most of the recommendations belong to this area. The third area recommends departmental changes in order to meet the needs of ethnic minority students in a multicultural society. The fourth area recommends changes minority students need to make in order to do better in counselling training in the majority culture. The broad categories and frequency and participation rate for each recommendation are shown in Table 5. The definitions and exemplars for each recommendation are shown in Appendix I. 79 Table 5 Areas and categories of recommendations Areas (in bold) and categories (indented) Participation* Frequency** A . Needs to improve the quality of supervision 18 (72%) 39 (44.8%) A l . Supervisors need to provide more validation, encouragement and support 6 (24%) 8 (9.2%) A2. Need better relationship and communication between supervisor and supervisee. 3 (12%) 3 (3.4%) A3. Supervisors need to allow students room to take risks and grow. 3 (12%) 3 (3.4%) A4. Supervisors need to demonstrate and model for students. 3 (12%) 3 (3.4%) A5. Supervisors need to provide specific and constructive feedback. 3 (12%) 3 (3.4%) A6. Supervisors need to emphasize student development. 2 (8%) 2 (2.3%) A7. Supervisors need to maintain a positive group dynamic. 2 (8%) 2 (2.3%) A8. Supervisors need to provide a safe and trusting environment. 1 (4%) 3 (3.4%) A9. Supervisors need to challenge students. 1 (4%) . 2 (2.3%) (table continues) 80 Table 5 (continued) Areas (in bold) and categories (indented) Part icipation* Frequency** A10. Supervisors need to be supervised. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) A l l . N e e d more emphasis on clinical training 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) and professional development. A l 2 . Supervisors needs to emphasize spiritual 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) needs. A13. Need to resolve conflict in an open and professional manner. A14. Need more experienced supervisors in basic counselling skills. A15. Supervisors need to be secure in themselves. A16. Supervisors need to provide more 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) structure in supervision. A17. Need better communication between site 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) supervisors and university supervisors. A18.Need to be aware of personality differences. A19. Supervisors need to show commitment and interest in their students. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) (table continues) 81 Table 5 (continued) Areas (in bold) and categories (indented) Participation* Frequency11 B. Needs to improve multicultural supervision 14 (56%) 25 (28.7%) competencies B1. Supervisors need to better understand minority students. B2. Supervisors need to be more aware of demographic, political and cultural issues. B3. Supervisors need to be open-minded and allow alternative models. B4. Supervisors need to know their own ethnic-cultural identity. B5. Assumptions and practices of counselling need to be questioned. C. Needs for departments to make changes C1. Department needs to admit and help international students. C2. Department needs to require everyone to receive multicultural training. C3. Evaluation needs to become fairer and more democratic. 6 (24%) 9 (10.3%) 6 (24%) (6.9%) 5 (20%) 8 (9.2%) 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) 10 (40%) 18 (20.7%) 5 (20%) 5 (5.7%) 4 (16%) 6 (6.9%) 3 (3.4%) (table continues) 82 Table 5 (continued) Areas (in bold) and categories (indented) Participation* Frequency** C4. Department needs to hire minority supervisors. 1 (4%) 2 (2.3%) C5. Department needs to weed out weak students. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) C6. Department needs to provide counselling for graduate students. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) D. Needs for minority students to make 4 (16%) 5 (5.7%) changes D l . Minority students need to be more self-confident and assertive. 2 (8%) 2 (2.3%) D2. Minority counsellors need to develop alternative counselling services. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) D3. Need to get organized and form an ethnic minority student group. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) D4. Students should take note of what the supervisor said. 1 (4%) 1 (1.1%) N = 25 Total = 87 Note. *The number of participants reporting each category or area is given in the Participation column, with the participation rate given in parenthesis. **The number of meaning units cited for each category or area is given in the Frequency column, with the percentage of the total number of meaning units given in parenthesis. 83 Reliability Test An expert in qualitative research and supervision research served as the first judge. The percentages of agreement were 80%, 91%, 80% and 100% for Positive Incidents, Negative Incidents, Coping, and Recommendations respectively. The overall percentage of agreement was 87%. Several Coping and Recommendation categories could not be tested for reliability, because they only had one meaning unit, which was already used as an exemplar. Following the reliability test, two categories in the Positive Incidents Section were judged to be too similar or ambiguous, and they were combined to yield a more inclusive new category. Similarly, two similar categories in the Negative Incidents Section were combined. The Tables and Appendices shown here have already incorporated these changes. The same procedure was then repeated with a second judge, who was a doctoral student in counselling psychology. Percentages of agreement were 77%, 81%, 89% and 79% for Positive, Negative, Coping and Recommendations respectively. The overall percentage agreement was 80%. Finally, a third judge, who was a visible minority graduate student in counselling psychology was asked to read over the categories and approximately 10-15% of the meaning units for each category. She was asked to decided whether each meaning units had been placed under the appropriate category. There was 100% agreement with respect to the grouping of the meaning units. 84 Validity Test Confirmation by the participants I was able to contact 6 participants (2 males and 4 females) by telephone. Two were interviewed in person, while four were interviewed by telephone, according to the convenience of the participants. During the interview, they were told the following: "You have taken part in my dissertation research on Critical Incidents of supervision of visible minority students. I have completed data collection and data analysis. I have extracted several categories from our last interview. Today, I want to check with you and find out whether these categories have accurately captured your experience." Since the computer printout included every single meaning unit under each category, and every meaning unit was clearly coded with respect to participants (i.e., V f l p l t or Vf2p8m, etc.), I simply read out the category under which the participant's code appeared. The participants would say either "Yes" or "No". In the case of a "No" answer, I would read out verbatim.the "meaning unit" to refresh the participant's memory and explain the definition of the category. If the participant was still dissatisfied with the category, then I would ask for suggested changes. During the second interview, all six participants confirmed that the categories had accurately or faithfully captured their experiences. They used such expressions as "totally correct", "Yes, for sure." 85 Confirmation by other participants Results of cross-participant validation indicated that all of the participants endorsed the categories reported by other participants as "believable" and "realistic." Many used the word "definitely" or the phrase "I've seen that happening". Some participants even claimed that they too had had similar experiences, but forgot to mention them during the last interview. However, some participants wanted to qualify their endorsement of one of the recommendations; their reservations will be considered in the Discussion section. Additional cross-participant validation One visible minority student who had not taken part in the study was asked to read over all the categories. She agreed that she could personally relate to all the categories and found them to be "totally believable and trustworthy". Cross-researcher validation This step will involve a discussion of the categories in light of the supervision literature, which will appear in the next Chapter on Discussion. Saturation and comprehensiveness The meaning units of the last three participants constituted slightly over 10% of the overall meaning units based on 25 participants. I was able to assign these remaining meaning units according to the existing categories without creating new ones. Conclusion A rigorous procedure was followed to ensure the reliability and validity of the content analysis of the interview data. Therefore, the categories extracted from the 86 interviews represent a reliable and valid mapping of both positive and negative experiences of visible minority participants. The results also provide a fairly good picture of the their coping efforts, which are a part of the outcomes of negative incidents. The participants' recommendations for improving multicultural supervision are both specific and comprehensive. 87 CHAPTER VI: DISCUSSION Given the scope and richness of the present findings, I will focus on categories with high participating rates, and discuss their implications for effective cross-cultural supervision. This chapter will provide additional evidence of validity for the categories to the extent that they are supported by existing literature. Exemplars for some of the categories will be presented; in order to maintain the voice of the participants, their statements were quoted verbatim, including grammatical errors. The structure of the discussion will follow the sections in the Results chapter, starting with positive incidents. Positive Critical Incidents Interviews with 25 participants resulted in a total of 150 positive incidents, 340 meaning units and 20 categories. These categories mapped out the characteristics of helpful or good multicultural supervision. By and large, the results are consistent with what the literature says about effective supervision; categories with the highest participation rates and frequencies are associated with (a) personal attributes of the supervisor, (b) supervision competencies, (c) mentoring, (d) relationship, and (e) multicultural supervision competencies. Personal attributes of the supervisor The category with the highest participation rate refers to personal attributes of the supervisor: "Supervisor was appreciative, accepting, supportive, encouraging and validating"(80%). Another personal category was "Supervisor was flexible, open-minded and receptive to student feedback and suggestions"(16%). Twenty of the 25 participants reported at least one positive experience of having a supervisor who was appreciative, 88 accepting, supportive, encouraging or validating. For example, one participant (VD) said, "He was very supportive, very understanding. He said to me, at the time I was so, I felt so down with the whole struggle. He said, T understand what you are going through. Just hang on [sic] there and you will get there.' He was very supportive..." These findings are consistent with Watkins' (1995a) belief that effective supervision is both task-oriented and person-oriented. From a person-orientation, personal attributes of the supervisors, such as trustworthiness, are most important for effective supervision (Allen et al.,1986). A case may be made that good supervisory relationship depends on positive personal qualities. For example, a trusting relationship depends on the trustworthiness of the supervisor. Similarly, a trusting, open relationship requires that the supervisor be open-minded, flexible and receptive to students' opinions. Therefore, Hutt, Scott, and King (1983) have found that a positive relationship involves trust, acceptance, understanding and respect. Competence This area includes professional competence in teaching and guidance as well as multicultural competencies. Since students want to learn clinical skills, obviously, they value instruction and feedback from the supervisors. "Supervisor provided timely, clear, constructive feedback, guidance and debriefing" has the second highest participation rate (72%). Other competence-related categories include "Supervisor taught me lessons, skills, insights, and explained things to me" (52%), "Supervisor demonstrated, modelled and role-played" (36%) and "Group supervision was beneficial" (8%). These present 89 findings are consistent with a large literature on the importance of competence in supervisory tasks (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998; Henderson et al., 1997; Holloway, 1995). However, professional competence involves more than the ability to teach, guide and evaluate. It also involves modelling professionalism in handling cases and relating to others in the mental health field. Four participants reported the category "Supervisor was professional and ethical in handling cases" (16%). For example, one of the participants (Vfl2) stated: "She helped me because her manner of professionalism and the point really motivated me to enhance those areas in myself — to be conscientious and professional." The importance of professional identity development has already been mentioned by several experts in the area of supervision (Ekstein & Wallerstein, 1972; Bernard & Goodyear, 1998). Thirteen participants reported the category "Supervisor/professor had cross-cultural competencies". For example, a male participant (Vm5) reported: "They appreciate the culture I come from.. .She's very experienced in cross cultural counselling although she's Caucasian. She has a very, very solid knowledge of these things." The types of competencies perceived by minority students are consistent with the findings by P. Wong and L. Wong (1999). However, even when supervisors do not have adequate cross-cultural competencies, their willingness to learn from minority students and address ethnic-racial issues was appreciated by their supervisees. Mentoring While others have implicated the importance of mentoring in supervision (Daniels et al. 1999; McNeill, Horn, & Perez, 1995), the present study provides direct evidence on 90 the importance of mentoring in effective supervision from the. perspective of visible minority students. Mentoring emerged as a major category (64% participation rate), even though mentoring was never mentioned throughout the interview process. In several cases, the supervisee actually reported that the supervisor treated her or him as a protege. The following are two examples of this category: .. .he just give[sic] us so many opportunities to grow.. .That's what I mean when I say he's a mentor. He's just really marvellous. (Vfl lp3b) She called me her protege.. .she did pay attention to where I was at and didn't focus on what I didn't need anymore. (Vfl2pl5(3)) What sets mentoring apart as a unique category is that a mentor does more than the development of clinical skills. A mentor takes an active interest in a supervisee's personal and professional development. A mentor plays a variety of roles, including advisor, teacher, colleague, and friend (Swerdlik & Bardon, 1988). The mentoring category includes activities only a mentor would do for his/her proteges, such as providing protection, opportunity and advocacy to facilitate supervisee's success (Vanzant, 1980). In sum, the category encompasses all aspects of the multidimensional mentoring process (Carmin, 1988; Jacobi, 1991). Categories such as "Supervisor challenged me to grow" (24%), "Supervisor was interested in my personal growth" (28%) can also be related to mentoring, because these categories go beyond the call of duty as a supervisor and reflect the attitude of a mentor. Relationship 91. The importance of the supervisor-supervisee relationship is supported by the following categories: "Supervisor provided a safe, trusting environment" (56% participation rate), "Supervisor treated me with respect" (36%), "Allowed me the freedom to take risks and gave me space to grow" (36%). The results of the study have provided additional support of the well established fact about the importance of a trusting, supportive relationship (Heppner & Roehlke, 1984; Hunt, 1986; Hutt, Scott & King, 1983; Worthen & McNeill, 1996). Respecting the supervisee as an individual with dignity is an important pre-requisite for building a good supervisory relationship. Ronnestad and Skovholt (1993) concluded that respect, empathy and trust are essential for supervision just as much as they are for counselling. These researchers further pointed out that beginning students' vulnerability and anxiety made it all the more important for supervisors to create a safe climate. Carifio and Hess (1987) stated that the ideal supervisor has good interpersonal skills such as. empathy and respect. Watkins (1995a) also emphasized that effective supervisors showed support, empathy and respect towards supervisees. Such attitudes are needed to create a safe and trusting climate. One of the participants gave an example illustrating the development of trust through self-disclosure: He always shared with me.. .He shared on the personal level of information [sic], not only the level of how to handle the case. Also how he incorporated his personal experiences and all that and shared it with me. He asked me in a way that I could trust him without any doubt. (Vf3pl8m) The category "Supervisor's style, orientations, and interest matched mine" (12%) can also be viewed as underscoring the importance of relationship. When there is a match 92 between the supervisor and supervisee, supervision alliance is more likely to take place, because similarity tends to breed emotional bonding. In sum, consistent with prior literature, relationship categories dominated the positive incidents in this study. Several new findings Several new findings are of special interest. The category "Clients were accepting and helpful" proved to be a very encouraging experience for visible minority students. One may ask: Why are clients willing to work with minority counsellors in spite of their language and cultural barriers? It can be partially attributed to the good nature of clients, but it can also be partially attributed to minority trainees' ability and resourcefulness to be effective despite their language handicap. Ten participants reported the category "Experienced personal growth through negative experiences" (40%). Two examples are given as follows: I think that incident (of discrimination) taught me a lot about who I was, who other people are, what this world is about and how do I go about approaching this.. .1 think just knowing my rights as a person. Knowing what things an employer should or should not be asking. Learning how to love people despite differences and beliefs and personalities. Learning how to work well with colleagues. Learning how to not be intimidated by people who are my superior. Just learning that God is the one who is supreme over all this and if He's on my side then I have nothing to be afraid of. (Vfl6pl2b) If you think about it, those experiences probably make you a bit more tougher [sic], make you more wiser. And they did. Maybe those were good things for me to go through. (Vm6p 11m) 93 It is worth noting that many participants were able to develop greater self-understanding and empathy, and became more motivated to achieve success following a negative supervision experience. This category "Spiritual transformation" also suggests the potential for spiritual growth in adversity. Both of these categories reflect the resilience and resourcefulness of minority trainees. Three of the participants reported the category "Minority status served as an asset" under certain conditions. For example, some mental health agencies would accept visible minority interns to make them "politically correct". In some cases, minority students were valued because they could better meet the needs of minority clients. One of the participants (Vf2p9m) gave this account: "Towards the end I knew that the reason he wants me to be the internship student is my particular ethnic background as a Chinese.. .He wanted to see how my presence in that centre can impact, how much it can impact other staff and on the clients." Two participants reported the category "Supervisor or department apologized". These participants found it very helpful towards their healing, when the supervisor or department head apologized for the wrong that had been done to them. This category has never been researched in the supervision literature, but it promises to be important in facilitating the healing of supervisees who had been wounded or traumatized by the supervisor. Negative Critical Incidents Fifteen categories were extracted from 386 meaning units related to negative critical incidents. These negative incidents encompassed cases of both ineffective and 94 harmful supervision. Negative categories were grouped according to the following areas: (a) personal difficulties as a minority, (b) Lack of a safe and trusting relationship, (c) negative personal attributes of the supervisor, (d) lack of a safe and trusting environment, (e) supervisor's lack of multicultural competencies, and (f) conflicts and discrimination Personal difficulties because of minority status The category "Difficulties of being a visible ethnic minority" had the highest participation rate (64%). Most of the difficulties were due to language and cultural barriers. For example, being passive and reserved because of one's cultural upbringing could create difficulty in interacting with the supervisor in both individual and group supervision. Most of the participants struggled with issues of acculturation. The following are two illustrations: We are passive to start with. We're not assertive. We're are not like Caucasians who speak their mind. Some of our actions may be interpreted as more underlying aggressive. (Vm3pllt) What I saw was: here I am, I'm a visible minority. I've had to deal with racism. I've also migrated and changed country. (Vf 18p2) "Difficulties in counselling" (20%) and "Difficulties in group supervision" (20%) referred to personal difficulties as a visible ethnic minority in counselling and group supervision situations, where language and cultural barriers made minority supervisees feel uncomfortable and anxious. In some cases, a supervisor's assertive, confrontational interpersonal style created some difficulty for ethnic minorities (Daniels et al., 1999). This is attributed to supervisors' lack of sensitivity and understanding that the personality and 95 communicational styles have been shaped by culture (Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996; Sue & Sue, 1990). Feelings of isolation, racism and discrimination caused additional difficulties (McNeill e ta l , 1995). Lack of a safe and trusting relationship The category "Supervisor did not provide a safe, trusting relationship" suggested that it was difficult to provide effective supervision without such a relationship. This is the other side of the same coin on the importance of supervisor-supervisee relationship. A female participant (Vfl 1) reported, "When you don't feel comfortable with your supervisor, and you don't quite trust them, and you don't trust that they're really there for your best interest.. .1 felt blocked to be totally open and wanting to learn and be with that person" (P7t). Another (Vfl2) said, "I feel that there was no rapport being built.. .1 was going through a hard time. It wasn't working for me. I really needed to feel comfortable and feel supported" (P2m(3)). McNeill, Horn, and Perez (1995) have also reported that ethnic minority students often experience "discrimination, isolation, racism, and differential treatment" (p. 254); they emphasized that the supervisors must create a safe relationship and environment to meet the needs of minority students. Negative personal attributes of the supervisor Negative personal attributes of supervisors contribute to negative incidents as much as positive attributes contribute to positive incidents. The category "Supervisor was too rigid, controlling, insulting, intimidating or judgmental" was reported by 15 participants (60%). Some supervisors insisted that only the Rogerian approach was acceptable. Others insisted on following the formula of solution-focused therapy. Such a rigid, authoritarian approach to supervision was not helpful to supervisees. However, most of the complaints 96 were about supervisors' critical and judgmental attitudes. The following two examples will illustrate: From the beginning, she just kept criticizing everything I did in counselling.. .1 remember that the whole process was all negative. Everything she said was very negative. (Vf2p3) .. .she became very judgmental. When I talked about some incidents and situation [sic], she just said 'You should do this, you should have done that, you may have misunderstood.' (Vf9pl6m) When a supervisor treated supervisees in a demeaning, negative and judgmental manner, it could seriously undermine their self-confidence and self-respect. Furthermore, Ladany et al. (1996) have reported that supervisees had difficulty forming an alliance with a critical, judgmental supervisor. Lack of a safe and trusting environment. Bad or harmful supervisors were perceived as lack of commitment or interest in the supervisees. Nine participants (36%) reported that their supervisors made them feel unwanted, unsupported and unsafe, as illustrated by the following examples: When you don't feel comfortable with you supervisor, and you don't quite trust them, and you don't trust that they're really there for your best interest.. .1 felt blocked to be totally open and wanting to learn and be with that person. (Vfl lp7t) I feel that there was no rapport being built.. .1 was going through a hard time. It wasn't working for me. I really needed to feel comfortable and feel supported. (Vfl2p2m(3)) 97 Lack of supervision competencies. The category "Supervisor did not give adequate feedback, guidance or supervision" (48%). This happened when a supervisor was unavailable, incompetent or not interested in providing proper supervision. Beck and Ellis (1998) considered this as an example of bad supervision. Harmful supervisors Beck and Ellis (1998) believed that supervisors could cause harm when they neglect ethical standards or act with malice towards their supervisees. Harmful supervision occurs when the "Supervisor was unprofessional, unethical and irresponsible" (48%). One of the participants in the present study described an incident where the supervisor actually set up a trap in order to build a case against her, this had caused her a great deal of anger and anxiety. Participants reported cases involving supervisors who lied or made supervisees do something unethical, as illustrated by the following quotations: We argued for an hour. She won't take no, that I am not comfortable doing this. She wasn't willing to hear that it was not ethical for me to do this; that I didn't feel comfortable doing it. I don't think it's ethical. (Vf4pl2) I just didn't have a trust in him, I thought — you're standing there lying to my face. (Vf7p8) My supervisor, this fellow with the Ph.D. was really interested in Buddhism and was talking about incorporating it into therapy. No one ever said to him, hey, that's wrong. You can't bring in your religious beliefs.. .(They) decided to teach everybody how to do mantras and meditate. Everybody in the room was into it. I 98 was in a really difficult situation, because they were Hindu mantras. When you see your supervisor doing and really into it. He was rolling on the floor. What do you say? You don't want to ruffle the feathers. ..I felt it was totally inappropriate. (Vm6p6t) Effects of bad or harmful supervision The category "Feeling worried, unsafe, confused, helpless and stressed out" (56%) reflects the emotional consequence of bad or harmful supervision. Some participants expressed their reactions and feelings as follows: It meant I've withdrawn more and more and got more disillusioned with counselling as a profession. (Vfl8pl lb) I felt very bad. I think that was one of the most negative experiences I have even gotten from this kind of setting The thing is he was in the position of power.... The thing is he did something very bad. He intentionally tried to put me down, tried to teach me a lesson. (Vm2pl5) These findings are consistent with prior research on cross-cultural supervision. For example, McNeill et al. (1995) have also reported that visible minority students often felt angry, confused, and discouraged. Lack of cross-cultural supervision competencies Three categories reflect this problem area: "Supervisor lacked multicultural competencies" (56%), "Stereotyping ethnic minorities" (16%) and "The university or department was not ethnically diverse" (8%). Stereotyping, discrimination and racism reflect a lack of cross-cultural competencies. D'Andrea & Daniels (1997) wrote that "unintentional forms of racism and 99 ethnocentrism might be manifested in counselling or supervision sessions" (p.202) Supervisors without multicultural supervision competencies may unintentionally harm students, as suggested by the following examples: Sometimes the trainer has not been trained for their multicultural thing. It's very dangerous especially for the professor. It's very easy for the professor to say something to the student that would be very hurtful. Still they explain it away as to why it is hurtful — it's because it's your fault. (Vf2pl6b) ...this was noticed more in group settings or in casual conversations of the team members. Just typical stereotyping around Indo-Canadians. Wife beating. And them looking at you with the same eye.... Don't paint everybody with the same brush. (Vm6p27b) The category "The university or department was not ethnically diverse" is also related to weakness in cross-cultural competencies. The absence of diversity in terms of graduate students, faculty complement and curriculum reflects a lack of cross-cultural sensitivity to the needs of minority students and the larger ethnic communities they represent. Conflicts and discrimination The category "Conflicts and politics" (52%) encompasses a variety of conflictual situations resulting from role ambiguity, dual relationship, personality differences and office politics. Several participants reported negative incidents related to role ambiguity and conflicts, because of the difficulties inherent in multicultural communication. For example, Nilsson and Anderson (2000) reported that minority students who perceived 100 more prejudice also reported more role difficulties. Ladany and Friedlander (1995) have found that role difficulties could adversely affect supervisory alliance. Another source of conflict is that supervisees often find themselves caught in a political cross-fire in the department or internship site. Their feeling of powerlessness in the conflict situation creates a great deal of stress for them. For example, one participant (Vf9) commented that "It was a hard experience. I hated it. I hate being in the middle between my clinical supervisor and the school." The category "Supervisor's orientation, counselling style and approach different from mine" (28%) represents yet another area of conflict. The supervisor-supervisee relationship is often fraught with tension and conflicts because of differences in personality and counselling orientation (Hunt, 1987). The possibility of conflict is even higher in cross-cultural supervision (Vasquez, 1992.), because different cultures represent diverse worldviews, values and belief systems, which affect one's perceptions and reactions (Sue & Sue, 1990). The category "Discrimination in the department or agency" (32%) is discussed here under the sub-heading Conflicts and discrimination rather than under Lack of cross-cultural competencies, because the discrimination described here mostly stems from political correctness or unwritten agency policies hostile to Christians. Several minority students reported their very painful experience of having been singled out for public ridicule or hostile comments, simply because of their affiliation with a Christian university. Such discrimination is clearly a violation of human rights as well as ethical guidelines from American Counseling Association and American Psychological association. 101 A new finding The category "Too many compliments" (12%) was an interesting new finding. Three participants reported that their supervisors were not helpful, because the supervisors constantly praised them, no matter what they did. These supervisees were wondering whether the supervisors were sincere. They also felt that they did not learn very much if the supervisors only complimented them without pointing out areas that they needed to improve. Supervisors need to strike a balance between unconditional positive regard and constructive criticisms. Coping with Negative Supervision Experience Negative incidents in supervision were often stressful and resulted in coping actions. Therefore, coping behaviours are the outcomes of negative incidents. Lazarus & Folkman (1984) defined stress as a "particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being" (p. 19). Wong (1990) redefined stress as "problematic internal or external condition that creates tension/upset in the individual and calls for some form of coping" (p.70), because some of the stress may stem from internal conditions, such as intrapsychic conflicts. In short, stressful events are always problems that require a solution. After reading the entire transcripts of the interviews, one cannot help but sense the deep pains suffered by many of the participants. Often, they dwelled on the painful events, as if they were seeking some resolution and healing. Such rumination is typical of individuals who have been traumatized (Peterson & Moon, 1999). For some of the 102 participants, their psychological pain is aggravated by the shattering of their assumptive world (Janoff-Bulman, 1999) — they were struggling with such questions: how could supervisors harm their own supervisees? How could this have happened in a Counselling Psychology Department, where students are constantly taught the importance of empathy and unconditional positive regard? However, in spite of the scope and depth of their suffering, there is also the evidence of resilience and heroism. Those who have been wounded and traumatized somehow have managed to survive and grow. Their coping efforts shed light on both the nature of their problems, and their adjustment process. In order to facilitate discussion, their coping efforts are grouped into the following broad areas: Help seeking The most widely used coping strategy is help seeking with a 36% participation rate. However, some of the participants used more than one form of help seeking. For example, one may seek help from friends as well as pray to God for help. The literature on help seeking and social support (Flett, Blankstein, Hicken & Watson, 1995) deals with both emotional, social support as well as practical, tangible help. According to Wong's (1993) congruence model, when the stressor is appraised as controllable by self, one employs instrumental or problem-focused coping. However, when the stressor is appraised as beyond one's control, one resorts to others for both emotional support and tangible help. To the extent participants expressed feelings of powerlessness and helplessness in dealing with a controlling and powerful supervisor, helping seeking would be an appropriate form of coping. 103 Many participants sought emotional support from friends, spouse, and other students. Two of the participants also sought comfort and strength from God through prayer. Four participants sought practical help by seeking supervision from other sources when their own supervisor failed to provide adequate supervision. It was noted that no participant sought help from Counselling Services or Administration. This observation is consistent with the literature that Asian Americans tend to seek informal help from their own social-support networks (Chou, 1988; Sue & Sue, 1990). Existential coping When a negative event shatters individuals' assumptions or overwhelms their coping resources, they not only ask "why" questions, but also resort to existential coping, a strategy of accepting the negative event and incorporating it in rebuilding the assumptive world making something positive out of it (Janoff-Bulman, 1999; Wong, 1991, 1993). The adaptive value of acceptance has been demonstrated by Carver and Scheier (1999). The present findings provide some evidence of existential coping in terms of acceptance and endurance. The category "Accepted what could not be changed" refers to acceptance of an unpleasant reality, which was accompanied by a more realistic view of counsellor education. The category "Kept quiet" refers to accepting and enduring the negative situation quietly, because of the perceived futility of appeal and fear of reprisal (Ladany et a l , 1996). They just wanted to endure the pain and tried to get out of the program as quickly as they could. The following are examples of existential coping: 104 I think it's very Japanese side of me to accept it as it is.. .Just take it in and be submissive. (Vmlp9b) ' I can't really say anything. I was just doing my time there.. .1 just wanted to finish my program. I just wanted my internship hours to be finished. That's all my goal was for this internship. (Vfl9p6m) Active coping This is similar to but broader than problem-focused coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), because it also includes taking actions to improve oneself. Categories related to self-improvement include: "Counselled myself, "Learned more about the language and culture", and "Changed my direction in research and counselling". In one instance, the participant actually moved in with a Canadian family in order to practise English and learn the Canadian culture. In another instance, the participant changed her future direction in order to learn more about cross-cultural supervision and counselling. One of the participants resorted to documenting her negative experience "Wrote down everything so that others may know". This coping action has some therapeutic benefits, because research has shown that writing about one's stressful event can be an effective coping strategy (Smyth & Pennebaker, 1999). Emotional coping Emotional coping refers to participants' attempts to manage their negative feelings of anger, resentment, worries, and fears. It is similar to but broader than the emotional-focused coping conceptualized by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). It includes defensiveness, anger management and positive reframing. Only two participants resorted to some form of emotional coping. "Became very defensive" can be counterproductive, 105 because it would further confirm supervisor's negative evaluation of the supervisee as someone being defensive and resistant to feedback. Concluding comments In reviewing the coping efforts made by the participants, I observed that no one was taking instrumental actions to change the problematic situation. In fact, none of the participants took actions, such as filing a complaint against their supervisors. The prevalence of helping seeking and existential coping suggests that supervisees felt powerless and were afraid of reprisal (Ladany et al., 1996). It may also indicate minority students' reluctance to challenge authority. The overall picture of coping portrayed here is one of powerless supervisees trying to survive a bad situation or a powerful supervisor; they seemed to take the "grin and bear it" attitude or talk about their woes with their friends and spouse. On the other hand, this rather bleak picture is balanced by the bright picture of having supportive, encouraging, and mentor-like supervisors. A l l the participants recalled and shared their positive experiences that enabled them to survive and grow. After surveying the coping literature, Snyder (1999) points out some of the limitations of prior research, which are pertinent to the present findings. One criticism is that most coping researchers have followed the nomothetic approach, and ignored the in-depth ideographic approach. He comments that "This status quo mentality about our methods, however, will not suffice as we address the complex and grand coping questions in the twenty-first century" (p.327). The inadequacy of the nomothetic approach, such as using Folkman and Lazarus' (1980) Ways of Coping Scale, is quite evident here, because 106 several of the coping categories reported by my participants are not covered by their coping scale. Another criticism by Snyder (1999) is the lack of a cross-cultural perspective in coping research. He asked: "To what extent are our coping ideas a by-product of our Western society?" Certainly, the emphasis on mastery and instrumental coping is rooted in the individualistic emphasis of the Western culture. Studying the coping behaviour of other ethnic groups from a social constructivist perspective will expand our knowledge of coping. The present findings of coping behaviours reported by minority students are consistent with prior research on coping in Asian cultures (Wong, 1999). Recommendations Almost all the participants were very conscientious and thoughtful in recommending changes. These recommendations can be grouped into the following broad categories: (a) needs to improve the quality of supervision, (b) needs to improve multicultural supervision competencies, (c) needs for the departments to make changes, and (d) needs for minority students to make changes. Needs to improve the quality of supervision - This area has the highest participation rate (72%), reflecting that minority students want good supervision. Most of the recommendations in this category merely mirror the categories of positive critical incidents. One participant recognized the parallel process between supervision and counselling, and wondering why supervisor did not treat their supervisees the same way they were expected to treat clients: 107 In order for the client to feel comfortable and to share, you have to create that atmosphere of trust and support, feeling not judged and empathy and connection and rapport. That's what happens in counselling. These supervisors are supervising students to be able to do that in counselling. But the supervision situation is very similar to a counselling situation where a student has a difference of authority with the supervisor. They (the students) are going to be sharing private experiences, exposing themselves, showing a tape, putting themselves in a situation where they have to look at negative aspects of themselves for things that aren't working in counselling and things that are good. So why don't they (the supervisors) do the same exactly or use the same skills in building that rapport, trust and safety in that process? That was always a puzzle to me. (Vfl2p20t) Although the category "Supervisors need to emphasize spiritual needs" was recommended by only one participant, this recommendation deserves consideration because it is consistent with the growing recognition of addressing spiritual issues in counsellor education. After citing numerous individuals who favour greater emphasis on spiritual and religious issues, Corey (1996) concluded that "In spite of the position of these writers, it appears that counselor-education programs have a long way to go in training future practitioners to deal with religious and spiritual issues" (p.452). The category "Supervisors need to show commitment and interest in their students" is also important in spite of the fact that it was recommended by only one participant. We have already learned that many of the negative incidents of inadequate supervision were because of supervisors' lack of interest and commitment. By definition, a mentor is committed and interested in the success of supervisees (Haensly and 108 Edlind,1986; Stephenson & Sampson, 1994). Thus, a mentoring emphasis will help minimize this problem. The category "Supervisors need to be supervised" is also interesting, because some of the incidents of bad or harmful supervision were less likely to happen, i f supervisors were accountable to more experienced and senior supervisors. However, in reality this recommendation is unlikely to be implemented, because very few faculty or site supervisors are willing to submit themselves to supervision. In this connection, one participant felt that supervisors not only need supervision, they also need more training in supervision. This recommendation seems sensible, because many of the supervisors at agencies have never received training in supervision. Most participants interviewed agreed that more experienced supervisors were needed in basic counselling skills course, but some pointed out that this requirement should not exclude doctoral students, because some doctoral students were both competent and experienced. Needs to improve multicultural supervision competencies This area had a participation rate of 56%. The categories cover the need for awareness, knowledge and understanding: "Assumptions and practices of counselling need to be questioned", "Supervisors need to better understand minority student", "Supervisors need to know their own ethnic-cultural identity" and "Supervisors need to be more aware of demographic, political, and cultural issues". The category "Supervisors need to be open-minded and allow alternative models" emphasizes the need for supervisors to be more accepting of approaches and models of counselling that are different, from the Western models but appropriate for other ethnic groups. 109 The needs for addressing multicultural issues and developing multicultural competencies have been emphasized elsewhere (Fong & Lease, 1997; Gopaul-McHicol &' Brice-Baker, 1998; Kaiser, 1997; Wong, P. & Wong, L., 1999). Supervisors need to acquire these competencies in order to work effectively with ethnic minority students. Vasquez and McKinley (1982) emphasized that supervisors need to be more sensitive to the difficulties and struggles of ethnic minorities. Ladany et al. (1997) found that high levels of racial identity led to greater supervisor alliances. Constantine (1997) and Priest (1994) reported that some supervisors were reluctant to talk about racial, ethnic issues due to their own biases or lack of multicultural training. It is important to note that supervisors have the responsibility to address multicultural issues (Tyler, Brome, & Williams, 1991). The needs for educational institutes to make changes Most of the categories in this area require that departmental leadership institute certain changes in order to meet the needs of ethnic minority students. Very few professors would voluntarily take courses and receive training in multicultural competencies, unless it is required by the department and accrediting agencies (Sue & Sue, 1990). There is also a need for due process and accountability to ensure that supervisors assume ethical and legal responsibilities towards ethnical minority supervisees because of their vulnerability to discrimination (Vasquez, 1992). Evaluation of supervisors may also improve supervision effectiveness (Worthen & Dougher, 2000). The category "Department needs to weed out weak students" suggests that a stricter screening procedure might screen out academically weak students. While participants agreed that weak students need to be "weeded out", but some wondered how 110 this can be accomplished fairly without hurting minority students. They felt that expulsion from the program should happen only when there was a due process in place to avoid wrongful dismissal. Furthermore, they pointed out that the department should give sufficient help and support for the students who were deficient in some areas, and expulsion should not be considered unless students failed to improve in spite of remediation. Finally, participants emphasized that supervisors should be accountable for their evaluation of minority students in order to prevent unfair assessment. . Regarding the need of providing counselling to graduate students so that they could work through their personal issues, most participants interviewed agreed that this would be a good idea, but they did not think that the department should be directly involved because of issues of dual relationships and confidentiality. They suggested some other arrangements to facilitate counselling for graduate students. For example, some graduate programs, such as Biola School of Psychology, require all of their clinical students receive counselling from a list of recommended therapists who offer a special rate for graduate students. Needs for minority students to make changes Recommendations in this area are concerned with adaptation and acculturation. The category "Minority students need to be more self-confident and assertive" reflects the realization that their modesty and deference to authority could be counter-productive in this culture and they need to become more self-confident and assertive. The category "Need to get organized and form an ethnic minority student group" reflects the realization of a united voice addressing the needs of ethnic minority students. However, one of the I l l participants interviewed was concerned that such an organization might create a ghetto and further isolate minority students. Theoretical considerations Which of the supervision models can best account for the above constellation of complex results? Since this study did not differentiate between beginning and advanced counsellor students, it is not possible to verify developmental models of supervision (Watkins, 1995b; Worthington, 1987). The results clearly support Holloway's (1995) systems approach, because her seven dimensions of supervision were all implicated by the helpful categories as well as recommendations. Bernard's (1979, 1987) discrimination model receives support, because there is evidence of all three supervisor roles: teacher, counsellor and consultant. However, the mentoring model (Wong, L. & Wong, P., 1999) also seems to be a promising model, because all the positive Categories of supervision are attributes of mentors. In fact, several participants explicitly referred their effective supervisors as mentors. Mentoring seems to provide a very promising model for cross-cultural supervision, because a mentor's attitude of caring and advocating for supervisees helps in overcoming fears and mistrust due to cultural barriers. Secondly, mentors can help supervisees acculturate to the prevailing norms and values of the organization (Wooldridge & Yeomans, 1994). The literature also indicates that minority supervisees prefer supervisors as mentors (Daniels, et al. 1999; Ladany, et al., 1997; McNeill , et al., 1995). 112 The mentoring model not only can encompass all the research findings on effective supervision, but can incorporate other models of supervision. For example, the discrimination model about roles of supervision can be absorbed by the various roles and functions of mentoring (Tentoni, 1995). By the same token, developmental models of supervision are a part of the mentoring model, because mentoring is a developmental process, sensitive to the different levels of experiences of the protege (Carmin, 1988). The mentoring model has heuristic value for supervision research, because the model can predict effective supervision which is directly related to mentor-like attitudes and behaviours. Therefore, any increase or decrease of mentor activities should result in a corresponding change in supervision effectiveness. In addition for the theoretical value of the mentoring model, it also has practical benefits which have received wide recognition and empirical support. Contributions The present study provides a comprehensive picture of helpful and unhelpful supervision in cross-cultural supervision. It has replicated and extended prior research (Cook & Helms, 1988; McNeill, Horn & Perez, 1995; Paul & Croteau, 2000). Probably, the most important contribution is that the study uncovers the extent and prevalence of unhelpful incidents and their harmful effects on supervisees. The sad part was that in most cases, there was no redress, no remedy, and no resolution. Only in rare cases, the supervisor or the department head apologized to the injured supervisee, and it proved to be a very positive experience. 113 The second contribution is that almost all participants, no matter how negative their experience had been, were able to report positive incidents. While many of the positive categories are related to professional competence and good relationships, several Categories emphasize the importance of the personal qualities of the supervisors; many of these attributes are the characteristics of a mentor. The findings support the mentoring model as a viable framework for effective cross-cultural supervision. The third contribution is revealing the resilience and resourcefulness of minority supervisees. In spite of their language handicaps and negative experiences in supervision, they were able to survive and grow professionally. The range of coping efforts reported by them reveals their ability to endure and persist, often against terrible odds. Many of them were able to see something positive in their ordeals, and believed that their painful experiences have made them better counsellors. Finally, the comprehensive set of recommendations provides many useful "tips" for department administrators, supervisors and supervisees to improve the supervisory experience for minority students. Since an increasing number of graduate students will be visible minorities, and the society is becoming increasingly multicultural, it is high time that we take multicultural supervision competence seriously. Limitations Most of the limitations of the study stems from the self-imposed delimitation of the research. For example, financial consideration made it necessary for me to recruit participants from Vancouver and the Lower Mainland, because I did not have the 114 resources to fly to other cities to do the interviews. Time constraint also made it necessary to limit the number of participants. However, the delimitation was also based on the research strategy of focusing on visible minorities first before studying invisible minorities, because the former is an easier target of discrimination than the latter. Part of my future research program is to conduct a similar study of supervisors who have supervised visible minority students. In view of the above constraints, the main limitation is related to generalizability. Flanagan (1954) was concerned with the external validity or generalizability of the findings. It was important to him that participants represented the relevant group. "In order to avoid faulty inferences and generalizations, the limitations imposed by the groups must be brought into clear focus. Similarly, the nature of judgments made in collecting and analyzing the data must be carefully reviewed" (p. 345). Because of the small sample size, the results of the present study are difficult to generalize. A related problem is the interaction between race and culture. For example, the majority of the participants were Chinese in terms of ethnic origin. However, three of them were born in Canada, and the rest have immigrated to Canada for different durations, with varying degrees of acculturation. Only the "new immigrants" experienced language and cultural difficulties in supervision; this finding may not be generalizable to Canadian born Chinese. The physical characteristics of Chinese people, on the other hand, would apply to all the participants of Chinese origin, regardless of their cultural backgrounds and ethnic-cultural identity. These visible ethnic characteristics occasionally invited stereotyping from the supervisors. It may be helpful to disentangle cultural and ethnic factors in future research on multicultural supervision. 115 The study may also be criticized for not including a Caucasian comparison group. It would be very informative to study both groups with the same research methodology. However, time and financial considerations did not allow this additional undertaking for the present dissertation research. Nevertheless, categories related to supervision in general, such as "Supervisor was appreciative, accepting ...," and "Supervisor provided timely, clear, constructive feedback," may be equally applicable to both majority and visible minority supervisees. Categories related to visible minorities, such as "Difficulties of being a visible ethnic minority," and "Stereotyping ethnic minorities," are clearly not applicable to Caucasian supervisees. Another limitation is that the study only provided the perspective of the supervisees. In order to arrive at a fuller understanding of the challenges of cross-cultural supervision, we also need to find out what works and what does not work with visible minority supervisees from the perspectives of both majority and minority supervisors. I intend to pursue this line of research in the future. The study was retrospective rather than prospective in nature. Since memories do evolve over time, and many of the details may have faded away, some of the critical incidents may have been distorted, selectively recalled or forgotten. Future research should attempt a longitudinal study by interviewing visible minority supervisees several times over the course of the practicum or internship training. This line of research will have the added value of providing a comprehensive picture of the developmental changes in cross-cultural supervision. Finally, the present results may be criticized for lacking objective evidence. Earlier, I have demonstrated the trustworthiness of the present findings according to the 116 widely acceptable criteria of qualitative research (Creswell, 1998; Guba & Lincoln, 1994). However, researchers with a positivistic, experimental perspective may still question whether the present research can have any claim to knowledge in the absence of objective, quantifiable evidence. To answer this criticism, I would point out that qualitative researchers, using the Critical Incident methodology, are interested in exploring and understanding human experiences. They are concerned with how these incidents have affected their professional and personal developments. The participants' perceptions of what had happened to them is of greater importance than the actual events. After all, clinical supervisors and counselling educators are more concerned with the quality of the supervision experience of their supervisees than questioning the "objectivity" of their experience. It is, however, possible to provide additional evidence of the knowledge-claim of qualitative research through triangulation with quantitative measures. For example, one can conduct a follow-up quantitative study. In the experimental group, the supervisors are trained in mentoring and multicultural supervision competencies. In the control group, supervisors do not receive such training. Visible minority supervisees are then randomly assigned to either group. Then, quantitative measures are obtained from the supervisees. Superior performance in the experimental group will provide evidence of predictive validity of the present two major findings on the importance of mentoring and the need for multicultural competence training. 117 REFERENCES Aanstoos, C. M . (1983). 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APPENDIX B Letter to potential participants (Following 1 page) APPENDIX C Consent Form (Following 2 pages APPENDIX D Demographic Information Form (Following 1 page) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel- (604) 822-5259 Fax:(604) 822-2328 Demographic Information Participant Number: Gender Age Marital status Place of birth ; Canadian citizen ? Landed immigrant ? Visa student ? Length of residence in Canada Ethnicity or race Religious affiliation (optional) Levels of clinical training t . Number of different counselling supervisors you have had Number of visible minority supervisors you have had Work experience in the counselling field . 142 APPENDIX E Instructions to participants Interview procedure The semi-structured interview comprises of four components: (a) orientation, (b) elicitation of incidents, (c) exploration of lived experiences, and (d) elicitation of opinions. (a) Orientation The orientation serves to establish rapport with the participants and to ensure that they understand the purpose of the study and the definition of critical incidents. They were encouraged to ask questions of clarification on the nature of the study and the procedure of defining critical incidents. Illustrations were provided to illustrate helpful and unhelpful critical incidents. Thank you for your interest in my dissertation research. The purpose of this study is to find out what helps and what hinders in supervision in your development as a counsellor. Generally, the objective of clinical supervision is to develop students' professional competencies as counsellors. I want to learn from you what have been helpful and unhelpful critical incidents in your practicum or internship experience. When the supervisor did or said something that was in your judgment very helpful or very unhelpful, then that incident may be considered critical. After they indicated that they truly understood the above instructions, they were then presented with the consent form (Appendix B), which also explained confidentiality and their right to withdraw from the study at any time. The participants also completed a personal information questionnaire (Appendix C) regarding relevant demographic information, as well as their educational and work history in the counselling field. (b) Elicitation of critical incidents Following the orientation, a semi-structured interview began. The interview took ' approximately one-and-a-half hours and was audio-taped. A l l interviews were conducted in a quiet room selected by the participant. Care was taken to ensure privacy. This part of the interview was designed to elicit critical incidents that facilitate or hinder supervision. 143 Think of a time when a supervisor did or said something that was very helpful or very unhelpful. Take your time to think of a specific incident and describe it as clearly and completely as you can. Also described how you felt about it. Here are some pointers: • What happened? • What led up to it? • What was the outcome? • What made this incident so helpful(or unhelpful)? • What did it mean to you? • How did you feel about it? • In what ways it has facilitated/hindered your development as a counsellor? • How did it affect you personally or professionally? •> In the case of a very helpful incident, participants were also asked: • . How did you cope with it? • What were the resources that enabled you to overcome? • What lessons did you learn from it? Participants were encouraged to describe as many critical incidents as they could remember. When they talked in generalities, they were asked to focus on one concrete incident at a time. (c) Elicitation of opinions and recommendations regarding the quality of supervision In this section, the focus is on how to improve the quality of supervision. • What is your overall experience of your practicum/internship supervision? • What has been a continuing source of satisfaction to you during your practicum/internship? • What has been a continuing source of trouble to you during your practicum/internship? • In your opinion, what could be done to improve the quality of supervision? 144 APPENDIX F Definitions and examples of positive categories (1) Allowed me the freedom to take risks and gave me space to grow. (The supervisor empowered me to develop my own style and try new things.) Vf lp8t" . . .she was really there to help me grow as a counsellor. It wasn't about me trying to fit into their model or therapy or just learning their ropes. It was more than that. It was more about me developing on my own. That really stuck with me." Vf7p4m "There was never a sense that, you really blew that — you should do this. Never. It was always about there are different approaches and different ways of going about it and there are different way that you can try." Vfl0pl0(5) "He gave me so many opportunities to do things on my own.. .Anything I was interested in he would encourage." (2) Clients were accepting and helpful. Clients accepted me in spite of language barriers.) Vf8pl 1 "They always can guess what I mean and most of the clients help me out. They say, do you mean this? And I say, exactly, you're so smart. And they just laugh and we keep working.... Generally, I really treasure, it's quite positive." Vf9p5m "I was very glad. I felt like I'm accepted by one of the difficult patients that I have to deal with." (3) Experienced personal growth through negative experiences. (I learned self-understanding, empathy, and became more motivated as a result of negative incidents.) Vf2pl4t "(As a result of my traumatic experience) I found myself as having separate identities, as a professional, as a person, as a Chinese — they were separate identities." Vfl6pl2b "I think that incident (of discrimination) taught me a lot about who I was, who other people are, what this world is about and how do I go about approaching this.. .1 think just knowing my rights as a person. Knowing what things an employer should or should not be asking. Learning how to love people despite differences and beliefs and personalities. Learning how to work well with colleagues. Learning how to not be intimidated by people who are my superior. Just learning that God is the one who is supreme over all this and i f He's on my side then I have nothing to be afraid of." 145 Vm6pl lm "If you think about it, those experiences probably make you a bit more tougher, make you more wiser. And they did. Maybe those were good things for me to go through." (4) G roup supervision beneficial. (I learned from case conferencing and group supervision.) Vf8pl0 "It's (case conferencing) enrich my experience. I can only see one client at one time. But i f I hear other people, usually it's the tough cases and it's a very good learning experience for me to see cases could come in like this." (5) M i n o r i t y status served as an asset. ( There were certain advantages of being a visible minority.) Vf2p9m "Towards the end I knew that the reason he wants me to be the internship student is my particular ethnic background as a Chinese.. .He wanted to see how my presence in that centre can impact, how much it can impact other staff and on the clients." Vm3p9 "In most of the experiences I had, my cultural difference became more of an asset than a detriment...." (6) Spi r i tua l transformation. (I experienced spiritual growth as a result of adversity.) Vfl6pl3b "I think God taught me the most through it, through transforming me. It wasn't the professors. It wasn't the courses. It wasn't anything they could have done or said.. .And also through watching other people. Observing them and seeing God working in them and that touching my heart and saying, yeah, this person is sharing about their weaknesses. They're crying. They're awesome, beautiful, and wonderful. I think somehow just God changing me here through looking at people through their brokenness and even when the professors are teaching something a lot of times I would tune out and God would be teaching something totally different. The professor might be saying, "It's very important for you to be in control of your client or the situation in counselling. God is saying it's me that is in control. It's the Holy Spirit". (7) Supervisor challenged me. (Supervisor asked me tough questions and challenged me to grow.) Vfl2pl5b(4) "She focused on where I was at and kept on giving me challenges to keep me growing." Vfl9p4m "It was helpful in that he always wanted me to be out of my comfort zone. Any issues with any patients I've had, he would challenge me or assign me to go and deal with that.. .That was helpful in terms of developing me and being out of my comfort zone." 146 (8) S u p e r v i s o r demonst ra ted , mode l led a n d ro le -p layed . (Supervisor taught me clinical skills through demonstration and modelling.) V f l 5p2b "She modelled it how to remain calm and gave me the words to say and cleared the path around ethics, who you tell, so I understand". Vm4plb "The most helpful thing a supervisor has done for me is to show me how it's done rather than tell me how it's done." Vm6pl2t "One thing he did really well was: You have a client there. How are you going to introduce yourself? Word for Word. What are you going to say next? ...That really helped me." (9) S u p e r v i s o r / p r o f e s s o r h a d c ross -cu l tu ra l competencies. (Supervisor demonstrated cross-cultural sensitivity, awareness, knowledge and skills, and a willingness to learn and address ethnic-cultural issues.) Vfl3p9(4) "He was First Nations as well so I think he understood the differences culturally." Vfl4p3m "It was really helpful to have him there because I could talk about cultural differences. I didn't have to explain. The other two supervisors, I had to explain this is Japanese culture. With A A A (professor's name) I didn't have to explain and that was helpful". Vfl6p4b "He was really great. He's a good guy. He really encompasses different cultures because he is a professor in this area and does a lot of cross-cultural counselling himself. Vm5pl0t "They appreciate the culture I come from.. .She's very experienced in cross cultural counselling although she's Caucasian. She has a very, very solid knowledge of these things." (10) S u p e r v i s o r o r depar tment apologized . (Supervisor or department apologized for having hurt me.) Vf2pl0m "I told him that sometimes when you are away, I feel I am being left here without supervision (for) hours. He felt that he was very sorry. He admitted it. He said sorry that he couldn't make it. That's the part I feel very positive about." Vf3p4b "The good thing I think I learned was the Department head apologized. He asked why I was leaving the school as I was saying good bye to everyone. He called me in and said, 'I have to apologize to you for what we've been doing. It wasn't supporting you. That wasn't right. We admire your courage to stick around.'" 147 (11) Supervisor provided a safe and trusting environment. (Supervisor built trust through honest sharing, self-disclosure, and open-exchanges of ideas) Vf3pl8m "He (the African supervisor) always shared with me.. .He shared on the personal level of information, not only the level of how to handle the case. Also how he incorporated his personal experiences and all that and shared it with me. He asked me in a way that I could trust him without any doubt." Vf5pl0b "I sense she was very caring, approachable. I felt very comfortable working with her." Vf l2p l 5(2) "David did make it very safe. I felt comfortable with him from the beginning." (12) Supervisor mentored me. (Supervisor acted a mentor towards me by taking me under his/her wing, and by providing guidance, opportunity, protection and advocacy.) VBp4t "Without telling me what he had been doing, but afterwards he told me that he wrote to the school about the whole ting and how he perceived this as discrimination. He felt the coordinator was wrong in not supporting me on the issue and dealing with it." V f l lp3b ".. .he just give (gave) us so many opportunities to grow.. .That's what I mean when I say he's a mentor. He's just really marvellous" Vf l2p l 5(3) "She called me her protege.. .she did pay attention to where I was at and didn't focus on what I didn't need anymore." Vfl5p2m "Because she was there for me, I ' l l believe more in myself that I could get through difficult situation and she really talked to me about what are you going to do when you get home now? Are you going to take care of yourself? What kind of people do you have to support you? The long-term effects were being aware of self-care when you're going through a hard day like that, when you have to report that sort of stuff and it's really hard..." Vm4pl3t "Rod was a good mentor for me. He really brought me into the program and encouraged me to apply to the program." (13) Supervisor provided timely, clear, constructive feedback, guidance and debriefing. (Supervisor was competent and helpful in guiding me and giving me feedback.) Vflp7b "Right away at the very beginning of the internship, she sat down and wrote down on a piece of paper: 'what do you expect to get out of the internship? How can I help you get to your goals? What would you like to see in my as a supervisor?' I found that incredibly helpful." 148 Vf2p9m "He is very specific about that: 'that is good. You should keep doing that. And that part is good too but you can think about other alternatives.' I really appreciate that." Vm2pl9m "But here they reminded me of the areas I have shortcomings, I have weaknesses, I need to improve. But at the same time they frame that in a more positive way. They always make me feel that they are supportive." Vm4p8m "Her feedback was excellent, positive. It always focused in on my behaviours rather than me as a person." (14) Supervisor's style and orientations and interest matched mine. (Supervisor and I shared similar styles, interests and counselling orientations.) Vf5p8t "I found that it can be very effective when the supervisee's and the supervisor's styles mesh.. .1 found my supervisor at my practicum was very much like that, very much a planner, very must lets set some clear objectives. Let's set some timelines. Very organized. This was very much my style." Vfl2p9m "The other thing that was useful was that some of my beliefs or theoretical perspectives did match my supervisors by coincidence.. .1 felt it was a good match." (15) Supervisor taught me lessons, skills, insights, and explained things to me. (Supervisor taught me professional, legal, counselling and theoretical issues beyond giving me feedback and guidance.) Vf6plb "What was nice is that they were able to teach things from the faith perspective and combine that (with counselling issues)." Vf8p3b "We ask for the technique, the tools to use. But for her she will bring us back to the theoretical level and actually: What do you think is the problem here? Do you think it's a communication problem? What else is it? I think that really helps. That is what I long for in supervision.. .That level just really makes me think." V f l 2pl 5(5). "Towards the end I did no training for EMDR, because she trained me." Vm2p8t".. .the supervisor would give a lot of his reflections.... Clinically speaking, I actually learned a lot from this process." (16) Supervisor treated me with respect. (I felt that supervisor treated as a friend or as a valued junior colleague.) Vfl3p9(4) "I felt very valued by him. He listened to what I had to say." 149 Vfl4p8t "She's so nice, it's like friendship. I turn to her when I have a question about ethics...She's my pal. I really like her. She's a sweetheart". Vm5p9 "there is a more personal relationship. I never took offence because I treated him as a friend and he also treated me as a friend.. .He is a very kind and generous person." (17) Supervisor was appreciative, accepting, supportive, encouraging, and validating. (Supervisor had a very positive, supportive attitude towards me.) Vf3p4t "He (a black supervisor) was very supportive, very understanding. He said to me, at the time I was so, I felt so down with the whole struggle. He said, 'I understand what you are going through. Just hang on there and you will get there.' He was very supportive and in fact he was very angry about the whole thing." Vf8p4b "Sometimes I get quite discouraged, because I couldn't help my clients much.. .My supervisor will encourage me: 'You are the only one she comes to see. She misses all her social worker appointments.' Maybe this is the most helpful, just being there." Vfl0p8(4) "She was great. She was always... throughout all of my supervision, I think the one thing that stands out as the most helpful thing is somebody.. .who is just encouraging to you." Vm2pl lb "(She said:) 'It's really not your fault.' I think that's very important to a novice trainee because you didn't know i f you are right or wrong. When you get this kind of psychological endorsement from your supervisor, just think about that.. .That was great. That was very impressive." Vm4p8t "I'm very critical with myself and she was extremely positive with me and really validated me. I always come out of there feeling really good." (18) Supervisor was flexible, open-minded and receptive to student feedback and suggestions. (Supervisor was open and receptive to my opinions.) Vf l6pl7m "The way he acted was very un-counsellor like...He is more casual. He is who he is as a person. He wouldn't necessarily sit. He would walk around the room make popcorn. Whatever Very casual. It was helpful for me to know my individual style. I don't have to be this cardboard counsellor. I could do whatever I want that fits with who I am. It helped me to be less tense, to ease up, and just be who I am. To try new things". Vm5p3b " A A A wasn't happy about the way they handle, particularly with my training. So A A A sometimes jumped in and .. .He actually said you can use whatever model you feel comfortable and you think would be suitable for this student.. .Forget this is a Rogerian or whatever." 150 Vm5p8t "She was open. She agreed with me...She said you can use whatever style you prefer.. .1 found her supervision style is open, flexible, and very encouraging." (19) Supervisor was interested in my personal growth. (Supervisor cared about my well-being and personal development.) Vf6p 16b "They were interested in me as a person and that was good." Vfl0pl2(4) "she always came across in her sessions as someone who really cared, wanted to help and not judging." V f l lp4t "He was one of the people that I would say really helped me a lot in my growth." Vm4p7t "the secondary supervisor was worked more on my own processes as an individual.. .very helpful to look at what was going on in my own life that was affecting my life with my clients. That was useful." (20) Supervisor was professional and ethical in handling cases. (Supervisor demonstrated professionalism.) V G p l It "How she handled it was very professional. It was ethical in the sense that she was not showing her knowledge as a supervisor but showing how she was a psychologist. That's how I learned." Vf l2p l lb "She helped me because her manner of professionalism and the point really motivated me to enhance those areas in myself — to be conscientious and professional." 151 APPENDIX G Definitions and examples of negative categories (1) Conflicts and politics (Interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts due to role ambiguity, dual role, power differential, personality differences and office politics.) V f l p l 2 m "There was a real conflict between what she (my supervisor) thought was okay and what the director thought was okay (regarding my counselling notes). There was a real difference." Vf4pl6b "I was caught between two different philosophies (of supervision). I got caught between their own politics. Maybe now I am able to admit maybe I made a mistake by telling my boss. But that is my UBC supervisor's point of view. I think my boss had wanted a more open atmosphere in that I could talk with her." (2) Difficulties in counselling (Difficulties due to language barriers, own lack of skills/experience or client resistance.) Vm2pl0b "I consider myself a Rogerian kind of counsellor trainee. I went to this work place and found this was not working unfortunately." Vm5p3t "We're dealing with ESL students.. .it is harder for them to speak of their feelings and talk about their feelings in English." (3) Difficulties of being a visible ethnic minority (A wide variety of personal difficulties stemming from one ethnic-cultural background, such as inability to assert oneself before authority, language and cultural barriers, difficulty in getting a field placement, feelings of discomfort and inferiority. Please note that stereotyping and discrimination are not included here; these have been treated as separate Categories because of their importance and prevalence.) Vflp l4b "I was the only one that was a minority in that whole group. It was difficult for me to fit in that way." Vf3p5m "For minority to try and get anything, it could be a struggle" Vfl8p2 "What I saw was: here I am, I'm a visible minority. I've had to deal with racism. I've also migrated and changed country". Vm3pl It "We are passive to start with. We're not assertive. We're are not like Caucasians who speak their mind. Some of our actions may be interpreted as more underlying aggressive..." 152 (4) Difficulties in group supervision (Negative, experiences related to group supervision and case conferencing.) Vflp3bp4t "I was worried that if I showed my videotape in front of the class ... and everybody just tore it apart." Vm6p27 "Slowly but surely the team started to fall apart and we became more demoralized. It was sad. No one had addressed the team dynamic. You come into a situation like that. It's different. You just don't feel comfortable." (5) Discrimination in the department or agency (Experiences of discrimination and prejudice, real or perceived, because of one's race, gender, age or religion.) V f l lp6b "There was sexism that went along with it. A combination of racism and sexism stuff that goes together." V f l 6 p l "If anything, the positives and negatives I remember, especially the negatives would be because I'm a Christian and not because I'm a visible minority." Vm4p5 "Even challenging my own beliefs. That part wasn't helpful. What I found in that was the same respect that she wanted me to show these clients of a certain population in a way she wasn't showing me the same.. .There's a bit of hypocrisy in the way that she challenged me." (6) Feeling worried, unsafe, confused, helpless and stressed out (Negative feelings, such as anxiety, helplessness, loss of confidence, fear and pain as a result of negative incidents, or power differential.) Vf4p22t "I'm scared that somebody is always evaluating me, has power over me.' Vf9pl9b "Scary to work with White people, whether they're a client or not." Vfl2pl2t "My anxiety level is high. It's because I'm so anxious I can't help myself." (7) Stereotyping ethnic minorities (Negative experiences resulting from supervisor's assumptions that all members from a certain ethnic group or background will behave in certain ways.) Vfl0p5m "I didn't trust my supervisors.. .because of my race being different as well as being stereotyped" V f l lp6m "But it's all stereotype. They don't realize it.. .1 know there were times when I would get really pissed off when I would hear these kinds of comments, and I would make some comment back about that's not true." 153 Vm6p27b "...this was noticed more in group settings or in casual conversations of the team members. Just typical stereotyping around Indo-Canadians. Wife beating. And them looking at you with the same eye.. .Don't paint everybody with the same brush." ( 8 ) Supervisor did not give adequate feedback, guidance or supervision (The perception of a lack of proper supervision because supervisor was unavailable, incompetent, or not interested in the supervisee.) Vflp2t "And although I had made a couple of mentions along the way of, 'Exactly what do you mean by when you say this?' I always got more of an ambiguous answer and I never really understood what I needed to do." Vfl9p6t "I didn't have a good experience interning with him, because he wasn't as committed to supervising me. We don't meet together regularly. May show up for a meeting and he is out somewhere. He has forgotten about the appointment and he is out somewhere. Something came up and that was it. I wasn't on his priority list. I felt that because there were two students with him, I felt he wasn't interested in me. I didn't feel valued or that he was really interested. I was more on my own.. .He didn't really care." Vmlp4m "They didn't spend time with me." (9) Supervisor did not provide a safe, trusting environment (Feeling unsafe because of supervisor's failure to establish a relation of trust). V f l lp7t "When you don't feel comfortable with you supervisor, and you don't quite trust them, and you don't trust that they're really there for your best interest.. .1 felt blocked to be totally open and wanting to learn and be with that person." Vfl2p2m(3) "I feel that there was no rapport being built.. .1 was going through a hard time. It wasn't working for me. I really needed to feel comfortable and feel supported." Vm6p5t "It also made me realize it wasn't a very safe place to work.. .my supervisor was the senior guy there. He never took charge." (10) Supervisor lacked multicultural competencies (The perception that the supervisor lacked cross-cultural sensitivity, awareness, knowledge and skills in working with supervisees and clients.) Vf2pl6b "...sometimes the trainer has not been trained for their multicultural thing. It's very dangerous especially for the professor. It's very easy for the professor to say something to the student that would be very hurtful. Still they explain it away as to why it is hurtful — it's because it's your fault." Vf9p23b "she doesn't have too much interest, too much multicultural concept. Whenever I talk about cultural issues, she listens but she doesn't get into the issue." 154 Vfl3pl9m "Talk therapy isn't always my culture eye contact is not acceptable.. .people who are having to struggle with the original rules set up for counselling that aren't really applicable." Vmlp8m "When she said about why don't I take an assertiveness class, I got so angry. I really wondered if I should go back to Japan." (11) Supervisor's orientation, counselling style and approach differ from mine (Difficulties, real or perceived, due to a mismatch between supervisor and supervisee.) Vf6p4t,m "That's a very specific kind of approach and there's a lot of experiential component to it.. .he would say, 'his is what you should do with your client.' (But) that was not in line with my own approach, which is more cognitive behavioural." V f l lp8t "The therapy style of that particular supervisor was also one more of a teaching style.. .It was very behavioural. Possibly, part of it was the therapy style itself, then, the personality style and it didn't click for me." Vm5p2b ".. .1 started to challenge whether Roger's model is the way to deal. That was a mistake... You are not really believe that model. This is a model in this department." (12) Supervisor was too rigid, controlling, insulting, intimidating or judgmental (Negative experiences due to the perception that the supervisor imposed own ideas on the students, insulted, intimidated them, and judged them unfairly.) Vf2p3 "From the beginning, she just kept criticizing everything I did in counselling.. .1 remember that the whole process was all negative. Everything she said was very negative." . Vf9pl6m "...she became very judgmental. When I talked about some incidents and situation, she just said 'You should do this, you should have done that, you may have misunderstood.'" Vm5p7t "If you are not Rogerian counselling model you are not supposed to be in this department.. .The impression is the department is very narrow thinking." (13) Supervisor was unprofessional, unethical and irresponsible (The perception that supervisor had violated professional ethical codes by lying, ignoring supervisee's and client's welfare, or breaching confidentiality.) Vf4pl2b "She wasn't willing to hear that it was not ethical for me to do this; that I didn't feel comfortable doing it. I don't think it's ethical." Vm6p3b "He's like, I ' l l call you back later, and he never did...I just felt professionally that wasn't right." 155 Vm6p6t "My supervisor, this fellow with the Ph.D. was really interested in Buddhism and was talking about incorporating it into therapy. No one ever said to him, hey, that's wrong. You can't bring in your religious beliefs.. .(They) decided to teach everybody how to do mantras and meditate. Everybody in the room was into it. I was in a really difficult situation, because they were Hindu mantras. When you see your supervisor doing and really into it. He was rolling on the floor. What do you say? You don't want to ruffle the feathers.. .1 felt it was totally inappropriate." (14) The university or department was not ethnically diverse (Lack of diversity in terms of admissions, faculty hiring and curriculum.) Vf2p4m "It is true that the university is not very ethnically diverse and out of the 40 white students, we have two Asian students and two black. That's all." Vfl8p5m "That's why I started to realize that's why I feel uncomfortable here. The department, the courses, the program, the profession, reflected a very white middle class kind of value and it didn't fit me totally. I didn't quite fit in". (15) Too many compliments (The feeling that supervision should involve more than just being nice and praising supervisees.) V f l 6p 10m "Not to be nice but to be honest and truthful with tact and love and respect, but not just to be a nice person. Niceness does nothing for me to grow, But also for my colleagues and fellow students and also for the clients. It does nothing for them when you're nice to them". Vm4p9m "I feel like they're not telling me the truth. Not telling me really what are my weakness... Often in counselling they call it the love feast. We're always so positive with each other." 156 APPENDIX H Definitions of Areas and Categories of Coping (A) Existential coping (accepting and enduring a situation which I am powerless to change). (1) Accepted what could not be changed — Coping by accepting a difficult situation or own limitations. V f l lpl3b "Perhaps accept myself in terms of issues around race and my own internalized races and all that kind of stuff." Vmlp9b "I think it's very Japanese side of me to accept it as it is... Just take it in and be submissive." (2) Kept quiet — Coping by enduring the situation quietly. V f l 8pl lb "It meant that I've withdrawn more and more and got more disillusioned with counselling as a profession." V f l 9p6m "I can't really say anything. I was just doing my time there.. .1 just wanted to finish my program. I just wanted my internship hours to be finished. That's all my goal was for this internship." (3) Learned to put it all behind me — Coping by trying to forget about the whole thing. Vf l2p l9 (1) "But we managed to leave it behind and continue a very good relationship. I was able to let it go. I didn't sit down and thin how unfair it was on her part." (B) Help seeking (seeking social support from various sources). (4) Sought support from friends, spouse and other students— Coping through depending on others for emotional support. Vf3pl7m "I was frustrated. I cried. I talked with my husband. He almost said he will go with me to the school to make the argument that they can't treat me like that. I said, No, you don't. I go by myself. A l l I need was for him to understand and support me. I have a place to cry. I really needed that." V f l 8p 12b "There were a couple of students in the class I did tell.... There were a few people who were very sympathetic". 157 (5) Sought support from God — Coping through praying to God. VmlplOt "I definitely pray and depend on God." (6) Sought supervision from other sources — Coping with inadequate supervision by seeking additional supervision from some other sources. Vfl3pl6t "I also actively pursue that. I wanted more supervision. When I didn't get it, I look for it." Vfl6p8t "For myself, because I didn't find the supervision classes very helpful, I just sought other counsellors or supervisors that I knew, either from different schools or just people I knew. I would go up to them and get more specific help from them. That was more useful". (C) Emotional coping (managing one's emotions and trying to feel better). (7) Became very defensive —Coping with criticisms by becoming defensive. Vf2p5b "I found myself very defensive when people are talking to me of issues emphasizing more on emotions (in counselling)." (8) Concealed my anger — Coping with my anger by keeping it under control. Vf2pl5"I think at first I was angry, but I don't think I showed it. I know myself. I am not a person good at showing my anger. I probably would just take it and by very angry with myself. I may be very sarcastic. That's the usual way I deal with difficulties." (9) Tried to make something positive of a negative experience — Coping by reframing or looking at the positive side. Vf lp l3b "I tried to kind of take it more as a learning experience, as something I need to learn, and try not to get down on myself." Vf2pl5b "I always have been able to find the positive out of the negative. But sometimes I also found a difference in that I try to avoid voicing the negative thing and I would feel good about myself." (D) Active coping (doing something about the situation or myself). (10) Counselled myself — Coping by doing therapy on myself. Vf4p23b "Also I counselled my self, because I didn't know (what else to do.)" 158 Vfl3p21b "I know there are some things I need to go back in my own life and work on" (11) Learned more about the language and culture — Coping with my language and cultural barriers by becoming more acculturated. VOp5m "We moved in with a Canadian family and lived there for years, basically everyday we would do everything together. That really helped a lot" Vf4p25b "Need to be strong and assertive (as Caucasians)." (12) Changed my direction in research and counselling — Coping with my negative experience by doing something different in thesis research and counselling approach. V f l 8p6t "After that I became very focused and changed my dissertation to the alternative approaches to counselling cross-culturally.... From that point I then started actually defining myself as a cross-cultural counsellor, rather than a marriage or family counsellor." Vfl8p6b "I think I ' ll feel more comfortable doing that (becoming a multicultural counsellor) then trying to perpetuate being a little white counsellor". (13) Confronting — Coping confronting or challenging the supervisor. Vfl3p3(4) "I tried approaching her directly on the number of sessions and that whole area. I didn't feel heard." (14) Switched to another program or supervisor — Coping by switching to a better program or supervisor. Vf3p3t "I finally had to switch to a different university to take the course from a different department." (15) Wrote down everything so that others may know — Coping with the bad situation by documenting everything. Vf4p21t "(She said): 'People do things sometimes that they know are not right, but you have to learn to let go and carry on.' I said I didn't want to be hurt. I want you to know everything that happened. I said I've written down everything that's happened the first term, but I haven't written down the second term. I am writing down and give to her. I want somebody to hear what happened." 159 APPENDIX I Areas and Categories of recommendations (A) Needs to improve the quality of supervision (1) Need better communication between site supervisors and school supervisors Vfl6p20t "Maybe the site supervisor can meet with the school supervisor just to talk about the student and how they can work together to improve things, just so they're both on the same track". (2) Need better relationship and communication between supervisor and supervisee — Need to establish a relationship of equality and openness. Vf3p21m "That establishes more equal relationship when working with a student, than being authoritative, always judging you, watching you." V f l 5p7 "Part of the supervision is also getting what you need, being able to ask for what you need. I think some students are not as forthcoming... You have to respect them as a teacher. That helps. Open to learning. But some people get quite defensive too. I think the inner play between supervisor and supervisee also affects how the supervisor feels, too". (3) Need more experienced supervisors in basic counselling skills — Need to have experienced faculty rather than graduate students to teach basic skills. Vm4pl lb "I think that they.should not have doctoral or masters students teaching that course. I think they should have registered psychologists." (4) Need more emphasis on clinical training and professional development V f l lp9b "I guess one of the things that I appreciated the most about some of the supervisors that I had was about the emphasis on, within the supervision, what my experience was a clinician, because it's from there that I think people really can grow-more." (5) Need to be aware of personality differences — Need to be aware of personality differences that contribute to conflict in supervision. Vf l5p l lm "The only way I can think of improving supervision training is increased awareness of how people interplay between each other, different personalities. Just you being aware of how you're going to react to a certain personality or certain type of person". 160 (6) Need to resolve conflict in an open & professional manner — Supervisors need to resolve conflict in a way that is professional and helpful to supervisees. V f l p l 5 m ".. .there is always going to be conflicts and there is always going to be negative stuff happening. But afterwards, if there is a way to resolve it or a way to talk about it or a forum to have a discussion about it, then I think that would go a long way in terms of my personal growth as a counsellor." (7) Supervisors need to allow students' room to take risks and grow — Supervisors need to let students try new things and learn from their mistakes. Vflp4m "I believe we should be allowed to make mistakes and learn from out mistakes." VmlplOb "Giving me certain opportunities, for me to be able to try something." (8) Supervisors need to be secure in themselves — Supervisors need to have sufficient self-confidence in their own ability and experience. Vm3pl lm "supervisors who are comfortable with themselves will often will be people that can help others grow." (9) Supervisors need to be supervised — Accountability requires that supervisors be supervised. Vm3pl lb and pi2 "The supervisors are supervised.. .have an internal kind of quality control and the focus is improving everybody and not just the trainees." (10) Supervisors need to challenge students — Supervisors need to stretch students and challenge them to grow. Vfl6pl0t "If I were a supervisor I think I would take more charge and say okay, there are things that I think you're really good at and these are things that I would challenge you on. Work on these things. Maybe come back next week and let's try it again and go from there. Just be more practical and more specific". Vf l6pl8m "Challenge the students more on what they need to work on.. .just keep on growing that part until we master it". (11) Supervisors need to demonstrate and model for students Vf7p7b "I would have liked to have seen a supervisor in action. To actually see them doing the counselling work with a client." 161 Vfl6pl8m "Have the supervisor demonstrate more skills and etc. Do more role-plays. Do more on-hand practical counselling things like techniques. Don't talk about the theory but actually counsel it out". (12) Supervisors need to emphasize spiritual needs— Supervisors need to recognize the importance of prayer in working with supervisees and clients. V f l 6p 18m "More prayer." (13) Supervisors need to emphasize student development — Supervisors need to help students grow personally and professionally. Vflp4b "I know that underlying the heart of the supervisors was to help us always grow." (14) Supervisors need to maintain a positive group dynamic — Supervisors need to maintain a good group dynamics for the clinical team as well as group supervision. Vfl0pl5t "As the clinical supervisor in this group, watch that particular dynamic. If it is needed, do step in and soften things". Vm6p27b "the supervisor has to be aware of the team dynamics and help people fit in. They need to address that so the persons themselves can take the steps to fit in properly. They need to have a team that's healthy." (15) Supervisors need to provides a safe and trusting environment Vfl2p l9 (4) "The most important aspect of counselling is to build a relationship.. .The (the clients) have to disclose private information and they have to feel comfortable in order to grow and change. That to me is the exact same thing that should apply to supervision." Vfl2p20t "In order for the client to feel comfortable and to share, you have to create that atmosphere of trust and support, feeling not judged and empathy and connection and rapport. That's what happens in counselling. These supervisors are supervising students to be able to do that in counselling. But the supervision situation is very similar to a counselling situation where a student has a difference of authority with the supervisor. They (the students) are going to be sharing private experiences, exposing themselves, showing a tape, putting themselves in a situation where they have to look at negative aspects of themselves for things that aren't working in counselling and things that are good. So why don't they (the supervisors) do the same exact or use the same skills in building that rapport, trust and safety in that process? That was always a puzzle to me." Vfl2p21 "To me the essential is just what I said: keep the students feeling safe so that they can really grow." 162 (16) Supervisors need to provide more structure in supervision — Supervisors need to provide a clear structure for supervisees' activities. Vfl9xxb "I would like to see him give me more structure in terms of who I should be visiting, what kind of things should we be discussing. More structure and more discussion on what happens each visit that I do because they (mental patients) are so different from the rest of the population." (17) Supervisors need to provide more validation, encouragement and support Vf3p21m "I need more validation as a person." . V f l 4 p l If "a little bit of encouragement was really helpful.. .even a little bit of compliment, because you are not so confident". Vm2p20b "Nurturing the self-confidence of counsellors trainees from another culture. It is important for various reasons...". (18) Supervisors need to provide specific and constructive feedback Vflp l5 t "I think making things more explicit would help in terms of whether we meet our goals." Vfl3p20b "just getting a bit more specific." (19) Supervisors need to show commitment and interest in their students V f l 9 p l l m "I think I find that it's most helpful when first of all the supervisor is interested in their time with you and is interested in developing your skills. Also that they give you that time. Different supervisors have different styles of supervising but i f you can see their interest in you and that they are putting aside time for you, then I think that encourages you and you feel support that you can go to them and talk about certain things." (B) Needs to improve multicultural competencies in supervision (1) Assumptions and practices of counselling need to be questioned — Need to question the appropriateness of assumptions and practices of Western models of counselling in working with minorities. Vf2pl7 "I think a lot of assumptions should be challenged.. .For example, the dual Taiwan, it is so common, especially in the school setting." (2) Supervisors need to be open-minded and allow alternative models — Need to be more receptive to alternative models of counselling based on other cultures. 163 V f l 4pl 0 "I think as a supervisor they should understand there is other ways to see things, other ways to do counselling". V f l 6pl 8m "Help us find our personal style of counselling". Vm5pl 1 "as supervisor you give the trainee a general direction and guidelines.. .1 think the supervisor should give more flexibility especially in cross-cultural counselling. Need to get more information about supervisee.. .there is a lot of uncertain issues in cross-cultural counselling. Which model is most effective in dealing with this specific case, this person? There is no clear answer." (3) Supervisors need to better understand minority students — Need to be more aware of minority students' needs, feelings and the reasons for their sensitivity to criticisms. Vf3p21m "Yet, being ESL, I already know I need to improve. Without them telling me, I know it. You don't need to point that out to me every single time." Vf6p21t "Just what I already said, being aware of different cultural differences with their interns and being able to talk about it and recognize what might be obstacles or potential misunderstandings and deal with that beforehand." Vm6p26m "You really have to understand how a visible minority student comes from. The family values, the core values they operate on. It might have been helpful for the supervisor to say to me, look, I understand you are a visible some ethnic groups like aboriginal people, they will not speak. Something against authority they are very silent. The silence doesn't mean they are not wanting help; it's just they don't speak. (Supervisors need) to be aware of those things." (4) Supervisors need to know their own ethnic-cultural identity — Supervisors need to be aware of the assumptions of their own ethnic-cultural identity. Vfl8p20t "Supervisors more than anyone need to be very comfortable with who they are. If it comes up in the sessions with the counsellors, they can address it." (5) Supervisors need to be more aware of demographic, political and cultural issues (C) Needs for departments to make changes (1) Department needs to admit and help international students Vf9p23t "We need someone who first of all who can accept international students as a student. They're not willing to have a student who cannot speak English, because they have to make a lot of effort. I understand that. Once they have an international student in their program, they need someone who can take care of international students." 164 V f l 8p 19m "The whole admissions process needs to be looked at. Why don't they want to look at the younger people? Why don't they want to look at different minorities?" Vm4pl3 "when a minority student comes into a program, and First Nations especially, they need to take (the) person and really train them. They're going to need the tools to defend themselves down the road" (2) D e p a r t m e n t needs to h i re m i n o r i t y superv isors Vf9p23b "If there is a Chinese supervisor, a Korean supervisor, it would be very helpful to supervise the same ethnic student." Vfl6p20 b "I think the director who supervises the supervisor should know more about their background and maybe hire some visible minority supervisors". (3) D e p a r t m e n t needs to p r o v i d e counse l l ing f o r g raduate students Vm6p26m "You learn a lot of things about yourself but you don't have anybody to process with. You can't do it with your supervisor because you might be perceived as stupid or not with it. There's always that sense of criticism you think you might get from them.. .If you did a counselling thing, where you could either help the trainee understand those values for themselves. . Explore those (values) at the same time, they become more integrated. As they become more integrated, they express more things to the supervisor. As well it could if the supervisor wants to do some of it on his own. I don't know how that changes the relationship though. The client/counsellor relationship. But you might want to have the supervisor aware of people operate from different values. You really have to be aware of that". (4) D e p a r t m e n t needs to requ i re everyone to receive m u l t i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g Vf2pl6m "I think multicultural, cross-cultural counselling should be required. That's the first step. Because it's an elective, so not everybody in the training would have that experience and be exposed to that." V f l 8p 19b "Should include a whole course on social areas, social politics, about racism, sexism, homophobia, heterosexism, the way in which power is very much a part of our society. The counsellor is in the power situation and that needs to be addressed". Vfl8p25 "The need to really challenge the profession to get with it and train these people properly (in cross-cultural counselling). I have been doing this for the last 10 years, by myself.. .you are in a multicultural environment. This is crucial training." (5) D e p a r t m e n t needs to weed out w e a k students 165 Vf l5p l 1 "I think clinic and 362 and 578, those three — that's where they should really be weeding people out." (6) Evaluation needs to become fairer and more democratic Vfl0pl5m "That's the responsibility of both the student and the supervisor.... Maybe a mid-term evaluation would be valuable in terms of the things that are helpful and stuff." Vfl0pl7b "It's that continual process of trying to evaluate how this relationship is developing and how it can be improved." (D) Needs for minority students to make changes. (1) Minority students need to be more self-confident and assertive VGpl6b "You have to have enough confidence to know your qualities, your strengths, your weakness, and you what can do. You know your own personal abilities. Even if it is difficult, but you know you can do it, you can make it." Vfl3p21m "I'm learning to be more assertive, because I'm still finding it frustrating following through on something that I don't really agree with." (2) Minority counsellors need to develop alternative counselling services Vfl8pl8m "There are too many of us, minority group counsellors, being pushed to the outside. What I see happening — I've only seen it in Britain — is that you start alternative things. You either go and start alternative counselling groups, professional counselling services, and it's not main stream yet". (3) Need to get organized and form an ethnic minority student group — Minority students need to get organized if they want their voice heard. Vfl8p21t "I would suggest they get organized in terms of actually forming a group. Have an ethnic minority student group.. .1 think that the power of more than one voice, they're more likely to be heard. Certainly, if nothing else, it will support them. They can at least talk to each other." (4) Students should take note of what the supervisor said — Taking note of supervisors' instructions or feedback to avoid misunderstanding. Vf7pl0b "Maybe making sure there are notes kept about the supervision, so that you could go back to them." 166 Appendix J Summary of Demographic Information Participant Interviewer Age of Ethnicity of Code Participant Participant Level of Clinical Training Length of North American residence Female VF1 VF2 VF3 VF4 VF5 VF6 VF7 VF8 VF9 VF10 VF11 VF12 VF13 VF14 VF15 VF16 VF17 VF18 VF19 A A A A A B A B B A A A B A A B B B B 33 Chinese 29 Chinese 47 Chinese 32 Indo-Canadian 31 Indo-Canadian 27 Chinese 29 Afro-Canadian 31 Chinese 29 Korean 29 Chinese 34 Chinese 37 Latin-American 28 First Nations 34 Japanese 28 First Nations 27 Chinese 42 Chinese 36 Indo-Canadian 27 Chinese Completing MA Masters Ph.D. Completing MA M.Ed. Masters Masters Masters Masters Masters Ph.D. Masters Masters M.Ed. Masters Masters Masters Masters Masters 33 yrs. Born 2 1/2 yrs. 8 yrs. 16 yrs. 28 yrs. 27 yrs. Born 29 yrs. Born ! yrs. ! yrs. 29 yrs. Born 29 yrs. 16 1/2 yrs. 28 yrs. Born 4 1/2 yrs. 28 yrs. Born 25 yrs. 10 yrs. 12 yrs. 20 yrs. 2 1/22 1/2Male VM1 VM2 VM3 VM4 VM5 VM6 A B A A A B 32 41 43 32 43 30 Japanese Chinese Chinese First Nations Chinese Indo-Canadian Completing MA Completing Ph.D. Ph.D. Masters Masters Masters 11 yrs. 8 yrs. 22 yrs. 29 yrs. 13 yrs. 25 yrs. 


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