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The relation of separated home background to student’s perception of the school environment Bartman, Lynne Yvonne 1976

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THE RELATION OF SEPARATED HOME BACKGROUND TO STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT by LYNNE YVONNE BARTMAN B.A., University of Manitoba, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 Lynne Yvonne Bartman, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT The ef f e c t of separated home background on students' perception of the school environment as measured by the School Environment Assessment Scales (SEAS) i s explored. Three hypotheses are advanced. The f i r s t proposes that students from separated homes w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t perception of the school environment when compared with students of in t a c t homes. The second suggests that there w i l l be a difference i n percep-t i o n depending on the age of the student when parental separ-ation took place. The t h i r d hypothesis indicates that there w i l l be a difference i n perception between male and female students of separated homes. In the f i r s t part of the study, 120 students from separated homes are compared with 120 students from i n t a c t homes. Results from t h i s comparison demonstrate that there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .01 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l between these two groups of students on Authoritarian Press, one of the eight SEAS scales. Contrary to expectations; students from separated homes perceived the school environment as less authoritarian. On the seven remaining SEAS scales, there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between these two groups. However, there i s some i n d i c a t i o n that students from separated homes perceived a few more aspects of the school environment i n a more favorable way. This more p o s i t i v e per-ception, even though conjectural i n nature, cannot be neglect-ed; implications of t h i s trend are explored. In the second part of the study, intra-group compar-isons on 117 students from separated homes on two variables, age at onset of parental separation and sex, are examined. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference on any of the SEAS scales between students whose parents separated when they were age 0 - 6 , and students who were over age 6. On the variable sex, the female group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on two scales. On the Heterosexual Social Expression Scale, the l e v e l of significance reached the .01 l e v e l . On the Creative Self-Expression Scale, the l e v e l of significance reached the .05 l e v e l . Females perceived themselves as being more encour-aged to inter a c t with members of the opposite sex, and as being more encouraged to express themselves c r e a t i v e l y . On the other six SEAS scales, there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence between male and female groups. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER I Introduction 1 1. Statement of Problem .. 3 2. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms .... 3 3. Instrumentation 4 CHAPTER II Review of the Literature 8 1. General Review 8 2. Sp e c i f i c Review 12 CHAPTER III Procedure 14 1. Hypotheses 14 2. Design 15 3. Methodology 17 CHAPTER IV S t a t i s t i c a l Results 21 CHAPTER V Discussion 3 2 1. Interpretation of Results 3 2 2. Limitations 36 3. Conclusions 37 FOOTNOTES 39 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page BIBLIOGRAPHY . • 40 APPENDIX A 44 APPENDIX B 45 APPENDIX C 46 APPENDIX D 62 APPENDIX E 63 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Number and Percent of Respondents by Age, at Onset of Parental Separation, and by Sex 21 II Means, Standard Deviations, and Average Scale Scores for Intact and Separated Groups on the SEAS scales 23 III Differences i n Perception of the School Climate by Students from Intact and Separated Homes 25 IV Differences i n Perception of the School Climate by Students from Two Age Groups .... 28 V Differences i n Perception of the School Climate by Male and Female Students 30 VI Means and Standard Deviations for Male and Female Groups on the SEAS Scales 31 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. SEAS P r o f i l e s for Intact and Separated Groups 27 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the assistance I have received from members of my committee: Dr. Robert Tolsma, Chairman, Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f and Dr. William Davis. In addition, I would l i k e to thank my family for t h e i r encouragement. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The number of children from homes where parents have separated i s increasing. Benjamin Schlesinger, i n the 'Family-Coordinator 1, 1973, estimated that about nine percent of Canadian children come from one-parent homes."'" In 'Social Trends i n Greater Vancouver 1, which i s a detailed demographic study of t h i s area, Michele Lioy found that single parent families accounted for ten percent of the families l i v i n g i n the Greater Vancouver Region and D i s t r i c t i n 1971.2* Their d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the region was concentrated i n Vancouver C i t y and New Westminster. In New Westminster, where t h i s research took place, single parent families, as a percentage of t o t a l number of families, was approximately fourteen percent. A map o u t l i n i n g the various percentages of single parent families i n the GVRD area i s included as Appendix A. In her conclusion, Michele Lioy wrote that single mothers, who accounted for more than eighty percent of single parent family heads, are becoming more r e a d i l y accepted by society. The trend today appears to be away from thinking of the two parent family as being the only viable setting i n which to rear children, e s p e c i a l l y when serious, traumatic c o n f l i c t s emerge between mother and father. Under these circumstances, i t i s thought that a 2. healthier environment for the psychological growth of the c h i l d i s provided when arrangements are made for the c h i l d to l i v e with one parent."^* A large portion of children i n our school system come from separated homes. Much of the l i t e r a t u r e , discussed l a t e r , dealing with children of separated homes hypothesizes that children's perception i s affected by parental c o n f l i c t and separation when l i t t l e or no helping intervention i s offered them. This report i s an investigation of the r e l a t i o n between these children's perception of the psychological climate of t h e i r school and t h e i r separated home background. The psychological climate of the school i s an environmental factor a f f e c t i n g the interactions of students i n t h i s s o c i a l structure. According to Murray, a person's behavior i s influenced by his unique personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c a l l e d needs, and by his perception of the properties i n the environment, which he termed beta press. I f students from separated homes, as a group, perceive the school environment d i f f e r e n t l y from that of other students, a divergence of be-havior may be expected. It i s important, then, to discover how students of separated homes perceive the psychological e climate of the school. An assessment of t h e i r perceptions i n t h i s environment could help define how the school might be instrumental i n f a c i l i t a t i n g p o s i t i v e behavioral patterns. 3. Statement of the Problem Bas i c a l l y , there are two parts to t h i s study. In part one, the problem, stated i n question form, i s : Do students from separated homes perceive the psychological climate of t h e i r school environment, as measured by the School Environment Assessment Scales, d i f f e r e n t l y from students of inta c t homes? In part two, the study explores possible age and sex differences which may exist among students of separated homes i n t h e i r perception of the school environment. The problem, i n t h i s intra-group analysis, stated i n question form, i s : Is there a difference among students of separated homes i n t h e i r perception of the psychological climate of the school environment, as measured by the School Environment Assessment Scales, depending on the student's age at onset of parental separation, and/or on the sex of the student? In a broad sense, the study seeks to answer the question: What i s the r e l a t i o n between students' perception of the psychological climate of the school environ-ment, as measured by the SEAS, and the type of home background? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms A d e f i n i t i o n of terms w i l l help c l a r i f y the ideas presented i n t h i s paper. 4. 1. Psychological Climate: This term refers to the psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as defined by the School Environment Assessment Scales, of the educational system, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , to the student's perception of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As noted previously, Murray coined t h i s perception, beta press. 2. Students from Separated Homes: Students of grades eight and nine whose parents (l e g a l l y married or having l i v e d common-law) do not l i v e together due to separation,' divorce or desertion. 3. Students from Intact Homes: Students of grades eight and nine who l i v e with both parents ( l e g a l l y married or l i v i n g common-law). 4. Student's Age at Onset of Parental Separation: This phrase refers to the age of the c h i l d when parental separation (physical separation) took place. Inst rument at i on The School Environment Assessment Scales, referred to as SEAS i n t h i s study, was developed by R. Tolsma and G. Hopper i n 1972.^' Ba s i c a l l y , the SEAS measures the psycholog-i c a l climate of a school as perceived by students. Using Murray's terminology, i t measures beta press. Various 5. dimensions of perception within the high school environment are explored. This 81-item instrument allows students to respond to t h e i r perception of behaviors dealing with school experi-ence. The test i s divided into two parts: the f i r s t involves making responses on a five-point Likert-type scale from "almost never" to "almost always", and the second, from "almost none" to "almost a l l " . The SEAS i s comprised of eight separate scales, which are defined below. 1. Scholarly A f f e c t : This dimension of the environment i s characterized by a po s i t i v e regard between student and teacher. Students perceive the teachers as possessing such attributes as fairness, i n t e r e s t , and respect. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the faculty help create a climate i n which there i s an affect for learning. High scores on t h i s factor seem to indicate that many faculty members behaviorally express to the students the philosophy, "We're interested i n you and seek to help you develop your academic pot e n t i a l s . " 2. Parental Climate: This type of environment i s perceived by students as being parental i n the sense that an attitude of shoulds and should-nots p r e v a i l s . Faculty members tend to moralize with students. They are ri g h t and wise and therefore should be obeyed. Faculty members behaviorally express to students the philosophy, "We know what i s ri g h t for you so you should do as we d i r e c t you to do". 3. Heterosexual Social Expression: Males and females mix fr e e l y i n t h i s type of environment. kThey are encouraged to interact with members of the opposite sex. There i s hetero-sexual s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and an absence of cliques based primarily on gender. 4. School S p i r i t : The school climate fosters an enthusiasm, a vigour for school events. There i s a f e e l i n g of "esprit de corps". School s p i r i t i s a behavioral expression by the student body of a p a t r i o t i c l i k e l o y a l t y toward the school. 5. A c t i v i t y : Students perceive the school environment as providing opportunities to engage i n a va r i e t y of pursuits. The press i s one of a c t i v i t y , dynamics, movement, providing numerous outlets for student energies. 6. Authoritarian Press: This press has a Spartan l i k e q u a l i t y . A c t i v i t i e s are performed under threat of punishment for non-compliance. D i s c i p l i n e and the threat of d i s c i p l i n e i s an omnipresent dynamic. The faculty expresses behaviorally the philosophy, "You w i l l do as I t e l l you....or else". 7. Creative Self-Expression: This environment encourages students to express themselves c r e a t i v e l y . They are encouraged to u t i l i z e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l , manual, and a r t i s t i c p otentials. This environmental press may help students actualize i n many dimensions. 8. Social Order: An environmental press encouraging s o c i a l l y acceptable behavior as opposed to a n t i - s o c i a l or delinquent behavior. Schools i n which students have indicated a less than moderate press for s o c i a l order have a number of students who are acting against the p r e v a i l i n g perceived environment. Students behaviorally express t h e i r disenchantment by trans-gressing against the school establishment. A low s o c i a l order press indicates there i s a press for delinquent and a n t i -establishment sentiment by students. Student feelings of h o s t i l i t y are behaviorally expressed i n the aggressive forms of destruction and disruption. R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t estimates, arrived at from average inter-item correlations, were tested by i t s authors at the time that the SEAS was developed. Their findings, as well as r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t estimates for the s p e c i f i c group examined i n t h i s study, are reported i n Appendix B. The s p e c i f i c items under each SEAS scale, and the factor loading of each item, are presented as Appendix C. Items for the SEAS are scored by giving each item of the t e s t a value from one to f i v e when the factor loading indicated i n Appendix C i s p o s i t i v e , and a value from f i v e to one when the factor loading indicated i n Appendix C i s negative. The sum of the item scores for each scale i s then calculated. To fin d the average scale scores for respondents, the sum of the item scores i s divided by the number of items i n each scale. To find the group means for each scale, average scale scores across individuals are added and then divided by the number o respondents. 8. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE General Review What i s the rationale for b e l i e v i n g that the percep-t i o n of students from separated homes w i l l d i f f e r from students of i n t a c t homes? A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d indicates that children of separated homes are seriously a f f e c t -ed by a change i n structure involving the family u n i t . The possible negative influences on the child's perception of himself, h i s family and the world at large, at the time of parental break-up and l a t e r i n l i f e , are emphasized. Helpful intervention from parents, friends and professionals i s strongly suggested. Irving R. Stuart and Lawrence Edwin Abt, editors of 'Children of Separation and Divorce' suggest that both the challenges the children face and the d i f f i c u l t i e s they must resolve become magnified for children of separated homes. Comparing interviews with young children and adolescents, Stuart and Abt conclude; "Although the problems faced by the younger children appear to them to be d i f f e r e n t , an examination of the perceptions of the older group shows that as the children grow older, many of t h e i r e a r l i e r perceptions of t h e i r parents are retained, and many of the problems p e r s i s t and remain unresolved 9. i n adolescence."^* Dr. Hanna E. Kapit refers to feelings of insecurity, r e j e c t i o n , g u i l t , resentment, bitterness, alone-ness and fear which might be evoked i n chil d r e n of separated parents. While Dr. Kapit stresses that each family break-up s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s , r e s o lution of feelings within the c h i l d must be dealt with by the parents or by professionals or by both p a r t i e s . In Adlerian fashion, Dr. Kapit concludes that the c h i l d ' s f i r s t world, that of his family, i s usually the sample he c a r r i e s along i n t o adulthood and uses to judge the whole world. His perception of the world, at l a t e r stages i n l i f e , i s influenced by the perception of h i s e a r l i e r experience; therefore, i t i s important to understand and help the c h i l d who has been subjected to a disturbed family relationship.^» In a taped interview with CBC, Dr. Richard A. Gardner, emphasizing that each c h i l d reacts d i f f e r e n t l y to h i s parents' separation, mentions feelings of depression and anger as being s a l i e n t i n the c h i l d . Again, the manner i n which these feelings are handled,it i s thought, helps or hinders the c h i l d ' s psycho-l o g i c a l growth. * John Bowlby, i n a comprehensive volume en-t i t l e d 'Separation', 1972, refers to anger and anxiety as being aroused i n a c h i l d or adult after a period of separation from a loved object. He also contends that threats of separation or other forms of r e j e c t i o n e l i c i t these feelings. Bowlby furthers his ideas: "Because of the tendency for anger and h o s t i l i t y 10. directed towards a loved person to be repressed and/or r e d i r e c t -ed elsewhere (displaced), and for anger to be attributed to others instead of to the s e l f (projected), and for other reasons too, the pattern and balance of responses directed towards an attachment figure can become greatly distorted and tangled. Furthermore, because models of attachment figures and expecta-tions about t h e i r behavior are b u i l t up during the years of childhood and tend, thenceforth, to remain unchanged, the behavior of a person today may be explicable i n terms, not of his present s i t u a t i o n , but of his experiences many years e a r l i e r " . The ef f e c t of the early experience on a ch i l d ' s future perception and behavior i s accentuated. Implicit here i s the need for i n t e l l i g e n t and empathic intervention i n aiding the person undergoing the stress of separation, as a way of f a c i l i t a t i n g h is psychological adjustment to the change as well as ensuring h i s psychological growth i n the future. While the above named authors do not hold the exact, same views on the reactions of children from separated homes, nevertheless there are some s i m i l a r i t i e s among them that deserve consideration. There i s agreement that there are deep a f f e c t i v e reactions when parental separation takes place. It would appear that negative feelings such as anger, depression, anxiety, r e j e c t i o n , g u i l t , fear, aloneness, play major roles 11. i n the individual's psychological make-up. These feelings are described as 'negative' i n that they are considered to lessen the child's a b i l i t y to cope with l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Unless these feelings are properly resolved at the time of separation, or at a l a t e r date, the i n d i v i d u a l c a r r i e s these emotions with him, often unwittingly, throughout his l i f e . I t i s thought that as the i n d i v i d u a l perceived, and thus reacted to his family s i t u a t i o n , he w i l l perceive and react to the world at large i n a s i m i l a r way. The feelings mentioned, i t i s conjectured, affect the child's perception of the family, and on a larger scale, of the community. Thus, two themes surface from the readings dealing with children of separated homes: the children have strong a f f e c t i v e reactions to separation, and t h e i r per-ception of the environment i s changed i f l i t t l e or no e f f o r t i s made to help them confront and resolve t h e i r feelings and perceptions. The focus of t h i s study centers around the perception of children from separated homes i n one of the major community environments i n which they are placed, namely, the school environment. Their responses to the SEAS, accord-ing to t h e o r e t i c a l concepts, should d i f f e r from responses given by students of in t a c t homes. Two pertinent variables, age at onset of separation and sex of student, are considered i n t h i s study. Henry B i l l e r , 12. a leading authority on paternal deprivation, strongly suggest that these variables be taken into account when studying children from separated homes, since they appear to a f f e c t the c h i l d i n a potent manner.^* The younger the age of the c h i l d at onset of separation, the greater w i l l be h i s re-action to parental break-up. A difference i n responses to the SEAS can be anticipated between children who underwent early separation and those who underwent l a t e r separation. Males are thought to be more seriously affected by parental break-up because t h e i r loss i s usually that of an i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n figure, the father. A difference i n responses to the SEAS can be anticipated between male and female students of separated homes. Sp e c i f i c Review Many studies have been conducted which r e l a t e per-ception of school environment and c e r t a i n variables. The variable i n question i n t h i s study, the e f f e c t of separated home background on the students* perception of school environ ment was examined i n 1966 by A. C. C a u d i l l , using the High School Characteristics Index (HSCI). No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f icant differences were found. C a u d i l l , i n an unpublished doc t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , studied many variables using the HSCI 13. without finding s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences involv-ing the variables socio-economic status, aptitude, r e l i g i o n . He did fi n d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences with the variables sex, and a c t i v i t y l e v e l i n one of four groups. His findings with four of s i x variables were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These findings contradict other studies, espec-i a l l y on the variables aptitude and socio-economic status. There appear to be no other studies r e l a t i n g perception of school environment with separated home.background. The general inconsistencies of many reports r e l a t i n g perception of school environment and certa i n variables must be challenged so as to produce a more r e a l i s t i c picture of what i s happening. 14. CHAPTER III PROCEDURE Hypotheses The hypotheses for t h i s study, stated i n n u l l form are as follows: Hypothesis One: There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between students of separated homes and students of in t a c t homes i n t h e i r perception of the school environment as meas-ured by the SEAS. Hypothe s i s Two: There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n perception of the school environment, as measured by the SEAS, among students of separated homes, based on age at onset of separation. Hypothe s i s Thr e e: There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n perception of the school environment, as measured by the SEAS, among students of separated homes, based on sex of the students. Each of the n u l l hypotheses i s rejected when the difference referred to i s of such magnitude as to exceed the chance findings at the .05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l ( p f . 0 5 ) . Design This study i s descriptive i n nature. The independ-ent variable, the separation of parents, was established before the SEAS was administered. In the f i r s t part of the study, the paradigm i s : Y Experimental group (^X) Y Control group (Design 18.4,F. Kerlinger) where, (x)is broken home background (^x)is i n t a c t home background Y i s scores on the SEAS scales. In the second part of the study, intra-group compar-isons among students of separated homes i s made according to age at onset of separation and sex. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) design i s used to s t a t i s t i c a l l y test hypothesis one with 'type of home' being the independent v a r i a b l e : 16. Type of Home Intact Separated Since the number of students from i n t a c t homes w i l l be greater than that of separated homes, equal numbers are established by randomly s e l e c t i n g an equal number of students from i n t a c t homes. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) design i s used to s t a t i s t i c a l l y t e s t hypothesis two with 'age at onset of parental separation' being the independent v a r i a b l e : Age at Onset of Parental Separation 0 - 6 6+ A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) design i s used to s t a t i s t i c a l l y test hypothesis three with 'sex' being the independent v a r i a b l e : Sex Male Female 17. While no i n t e r a c t i o n a l e ffects between age at onset of parental separation and sex are hypothesized, these effects are tested. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n a l e f f e c t i s detected. Methodoloqy The SEAS was administered to students i n grades eight and nine of a large high school at the end of May, 1976. These grades formed a large body of students so that c e l l sizes for the design requirements would be met. It was thought that students i n both grade l e v e l s would have had time to formulate impressions of the school by the end of that month; most students would have spent nine months or more i n t h i s school. The SEAS was given to 595 students i n grades eight and nine; 36 teachers participated i n administering the SEAS to t h e i r classes. I t i s estimated that most students i n these grades at the high school were tested; four homeroom classes (two from each grade) were not tested because these classes were taking physical education during t e s t i n g time; providing desks and chairs for these students was not f e a s i b l e . I t i s thought that t h i s omission did not seriously a l t e r t e s t r e s u l t s as there i s no reason to believe that t h i s l a t t e r group of students would d i f f e r from the tested students. 18. Each homeroom teacher received written instructions (Appendix D) regarding the administration of the t e s t . Each student was provided with a questionnaire (Appendix E), a SEAS test and an I.B.M. answer sheet. The questionnaire defined the status of each student: type of home, sex, age at onset of parental separation when appropriate. Since anonymity was maintained for a l l students, the questionnaire and I.B.M. answer sheet were numerically paired i n order to i d e n t i f y which questionnaire would be considered with each I.B.M. answer sheet. A l l tests were given to students by t h e i r teachers i n t h e i r homeroom classes during the f i r s t period of the day. It can be assumed that the administration of the t e s t was given under normal class conditions. No time l i m i t was imposed on students. Of the 595 paired answer sheets and questionnaires received, 544 or 91.42 percent were appropriately answered. The number of unuseable test r e s u l t s was 51: 19 answer sheets were incomplete, 15 questionnaires did not c l e a r l y indicate the type of home that the student came from, 9 answer sheets were i n c o r r e c t l y marked, 6 questionnaires indicated a r e f u s a l to respond, and 2 questionnaires indicated the death of a parent. The number of students coming from separated homes was 120 of 544 or 22.05 percent. I t would appear that one out 19. of every f i v e students i n these grade leve l s at t h i s school was from a separated home. Of t h i s l a t t e r group, 100 students or 83.3 percent indicated that they l i v e d with t h e i r mothers, 11 students or 9.16 percent indicated that they l i v e d with t h e i r fathers, and 9 students or 7.5 percent indicated that they l i v e d i n other s i t u a t i o n s . These incidence figures d i f f e r from those of the 1971 census for t h i s area, and are probably an i n d i c a t i o n of the expected re s u l t s of the incidence figures, yet to be published, based on the census taken i n June, 1976. A l l of the 120 subjects from separated homes were included i n the f i r s t part of the study, comparing students of intac t and separated homes. Of the remaining 424 students from i n t a c t homes, 120 students were randomly selected by using a table of random numbers. That status of each group (intact home, separated home) was marked on each I.B.M. sheet for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n purposes. For the second part of the study exploring intra-group comparisons, the status of a l l students from separated homes was delineated as to the age at onset o.f parental separation and sex. Three answer sheets of the 120 students from separated homes were omitted because the two variables examined were not included on the questionnaire. Therefore, the t o t a l number of students i n the l a t t e r part of the study was 117. 20. The I.B.M. answer sheets were o p t i c a l l y scanned at the Simon Fraser University Computer Centre, and transferred onto two computer cards per student. These cards were scored at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer Centre. The scores were converted to the eight scale scores of the SEAS for each subject. Means and standard deviations on each scale of the SEAS were computed for each s p e c i f i e d group. The BMD:10V Analysis of Variance program was used to tes t hypotheses. 21. CHAPTER IV STATISTICAL RESULTS The sample consisted of grade eight and nine students. An equal number of students from in t a c t and separated homes was accomplished through a random sampling procedure. The number of students i n each group was 120, making the t o t a l number of respondents for the f i r s t part of the study 240. The number of students from separated homes was twenty-two percent of the students tested. parisons between students from separated homes on the two variables, age at onset of separation and sex, was 117. The number and percent of respondents by age at onset of separa-t i o n and sex are presented i n Table I. Number and Percent of Respondents by Age at Onset of Parental Separation and by Sex. The number of respondents for the intra-group corn-Table I Respondent Characteristics Number Percent Age 0 - 6 36 31 Age 6+ 81 69 Male 45 38 Female 72 62 There are over twice as many subjects i n the study whose parents separated after the subject was age 6 and over, than those whose parents separated before the subject was age 6. There i s a larger number of females i n the study. Hypothesis 1 Results of hypothesis one are considered f i r s t . Hypothesis one, stated i n n u l l form i s as follows: there are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between students of separated homes and students of intact homes i n t h e i r per-ception of the school environment as measured by the SEAS. The means, standard deviations and average scale scores for students from i n t a c t homes and for students from separated homes on each of the eight SEAS scales are reported i n Table I I . The number of observations for each scale was 240, 120 for the inta c t group and 120 for the separated group. Group means for students from separated homes are higher on a l l scales except for that of Authoritarian Press. Standard deviations indicate that students from separated homes had more heterogeneous responses on a l l scales as compared with students of intact homes. This consistent heterogeneity could indicate that responses for the separated group were more diverse or more extreme. 23, TABLE II Means, Standard Deviations, and Average Scale Scores for Intact and Separated Groups on the SEAS Scales SEAS Scales (1) Scholarly Affect (2) Parental Climate (3) Heterosexual Social Expression (4) School S p i r i t (5) A c t i v i t y (6) Authoritarian Press (7) Creative Self-Expression (8) Social Order Intact Group 42.72 6.53 3.29 25.97 5.07 2.60 21.26 3.62 3.54 25.62 5.91 2.85 24.50 4. 50 2.45 37.04 4.40 3.70 29.86 5.41 2.98 24.16 4.65 2.69 Separated Group 42.99 7.29 3.31 26.11 5.16 2.61 21.75 4.05 3.63 27.03 6.03 3.00 25.36 5.20 2.54 35.15 5.01 3. 52 31.04 6.11 3.10 25.30 5.38 2.81 X SD ASS X SD ASS X SD ASS X SD ASS X SD ASS X SD ASS X SD ASS X SD ASS 24. The re s u l t s of analysis of differences between the int a c t and separated home groups on each of the SEAS scales are reported i n Table I I I . On each of seven SEAS scales, there i s no s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p_:.05) between the mean scale scores of the inta c t and separated groups. Therefore, hypoth-esis number one cannot be rejected for each of these seven scales. There i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference on one scale. On the sixth scale, Authoritarian Press, the. difference between the mean scale scores of the two groups i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y (p_:.01). Students from separated homes have a lower group mean. Even though the l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g nificance was placed at the .05 l e v e l for t h i s study, i t i s of int e r e s t to note that two scales, School S p i r i t and Soc i a l Order f a l l within the .10 l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Other pos-s i b l e d i r e c t i o n a l trends can be seen i n the mean differences on the scales A c t i v i t y and Creative Self-Expression which are close to the .10 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . These four scales are indicated because a pattern of school perception for students from separated homes, even though not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , can be seen to emerge and w i l l be discussed i n Chapter 5. The Average Scale Scores on each of the SEAS scales for students from i n t a c t and separated homes are reported i n TABLE III Differences i n Perception of the School Climate by Students from Intact and Separated Homes SEAS Scales (1) Scholarly Affect (2) Parental Climate (3) Heterosexual Social Expression (4) School S p i r i t (5) A c t i v i t y (6) Authoritarian Press (7) Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square Prob 4.53750 1.20417 .14500 119.00414 45.06664 212.81658 4.53750 1.20417 Creative Self-Expression 82.83748 .14500 119.00414 45.06664 212.81658 82.83748 .09470 .75855 .04601 .83035 .99000 .32200 3.33526 .06966 1.90112 .16925 9.55887 .00223** 2.48408 .11633 (8) Social Order 77.06663 77.06663 3.04083 .08249 <J1 ** S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of pro b a b i l i t y (p^.01) 26. Figure 1. This p r o f i l e indicates more c l e a r l y how students from both groups perceived t h e i r school environment. Except on the Authoritarian Press Scale, the students from separated homes had a higher score. Hypothesis 2 The second hypothesis presented i s : there are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n perception of the school environment, among students of separated homes, based on age at onset of separation. The res u l t s of analysis of differences between students whose parents separated when they were age 0 - 6 , and students whose parents separated when they were over age 6 on each of the SEAS scales, are reported i n Table IV. The number of observations for each group i s shown i n Table I. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p ^.05) between these two groups on any of the scales. There-fore, hypothesis number two cannot be rejected for the eight scales. No d i r e c t i o n a l trends are observed. Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis three i s as follows: there are no s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n perception of the school environment, as measured by the SEAS, among students of separ-ated homes, based on sex of the student. The res u l t s of FIGURE 1 SEAS P r o f i l e s for Intact and Separated Groups M (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6). (7) (8) Scholarly Parental Heterosexual School A c t i v i t y Authoritarian Creative Social Affect Climate S o c i a l S p i r i t Press Self- Order Expression Expression t o TABLE IV Differences i n Perception of the School Climate by Students from Two Age Groups S SEAS Scales (1) Scholarly Affect (2) Parental Climate (3) Heterosexual S o c i a l Expression (4) School S p i r i t (5) A c t i v i t y (6) Authoritarian Press (7) Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square Prob 33.33569 42.40765 .45338 1.17131 10.14963 .00907 33.33569 42.40765 Creative Self-Expression .04336 .45338 1.17131 10.14963 .00907 .04336 .62850 .42957 1.59637 .20902 .02897 .86515 .03129 .85991 .37367 .54224 .00035 .98500 .00117 .97279 (8) Social Order 1.64074 1.64074 .05720 .81141 29. analysis of differences between male and female students from separated homes are reported i n Table V. There i s a s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference beyond the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i -ficance on the Heterosexual Social Expression Scale. There i s a difference beyond the .05 l e v e l of significance on the Creative Self-Expression Scale. On both of these scales, females had higher group mean scores. The means and standard deviations of these respective groups are reported i n Table VI. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference (pf:.05) between these two groups on the other s i x scales. Therefore, hypothesis three cannot be rejected for these s i x scales. TABLE V Differences i n Perception of the School Climate by Male and Female Students SEAS Scales (1) Scholarly Affect (2) Parental Climate (3) Heterosexual Social Expression (4) School S p i r i t (5) A c t i v i t y (6) Authoritarian Press (7) Sum of Squares D. F. Mean Square Prob 49.82569 5.79706 137.73 51.61105 79.23370 .01309 19 49.82569 5.79706 Creative Self-Expression 224.29349 137.73000 51.61105 79.23370 .01309 224.29349 .93939 .33450 .21822 .64130 8.80139 .00367** 1.37866 .24280 2.91710 .09039 .00051 .98198 6.04571 .01546* (8) S o c i a l Order 38.08964 38.08964 1.32793 .25161 * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of pr o b a b i l i t y (p_r.05) ** S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y (p_.01) 31. TABLE VI Means and Standard Deviations for Male and Female Groups on the SEAS Scales SEAS Scales Male Group Female Group (1) Scholarly Affect 42.3 5 43.44 X 8.38 6.46 SD (2) Parental Climate 26.37 25.77 X 4.99 5.23 SD (3) Heterosexual Social 20.20 22.69 X Expression 4.07 3.82 SD (4) School S p i r i t 26.36 27.41 X 6.15 6.04 SD (5) A c t i v i t y 24.53 25.81 X 5.91 4.74 SD (6) Authoritarian Press 34.99 35.27 X 5.65 4.58 SD (7) Creative Self-Expression 29.53 31.90 X 6.51 5.82 SD (8) Social Order 25.99 24.84 X 5.81 4.97 SD CHAPTER V DISCUSSION Interpretation of Results The outcome of the comparison between the mean scores of students from in t a c t homes and students from separated homes i s as follows: on seven of the SEAS scales, there i s no s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p_:.05) between these two groups of students; however, there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant difference on one scale, Authoritarian Press, beyond the .01 l e v e l of sig n i f i c a n c e . I t would appear that students from separated homes perceive the school environment as being less authoritarian than students from in t a c t homes. For students of separated homes, the school environment i s perceived as having less of a Spartan-like qu a l i t y than for students of intac t homes. D i s c i p l i n e and the threat of punishment for non-compliance are not as marked a dynamic for students of separated homes. It could be that students from separated homes enjoy the authoritarian press more than students of intac t homes. This press may provide them with a type of structure which these students may need. I f t h i s l i n e of thought i s sound, the behavior and attitude of school personnel dealing with students from separated homes may be clearer. Being more authoritative with these students, giving them 33. more structure might be h e l p f u l . Another hypothesis regarding t h i s finding may be that students from separated homes adapt more e a s i l y to the Authoritarian Press, and therefore perceive the school as being less authoritarian than the in t a c t home group. More research, surrounding t h i s difference i n percep-t i o n , i s indicated. As noted i n the s t a t i s t i c a l findings, School S p i r i t and Social Order are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .10 l e v e l , and A c t i v i t y and Creative Self-Expression are close to the .10 l e v e l of sign i f i c a n c e . These four scales are mentioned because they indicate a pattern of response for students of separated homes. While not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , these may be of p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . On a l l of these scales, these students perceive the school environment i n a more favorable way (higher mean scores). To dismiss t h i s pattern as t o t a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t could be misleading; there appears to be a d i f f e r e n t response set on the part of students from separated homes on these scales. This observation coupled with the s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean score on Authoritarian Press could indicate that students from separated homes perceive more aspects of the school environment i n a more p o s i t i v e way than students from i n t a c t homes. From t h i s perspective, i t can be said that students from separated homes perceive the school as having a greater "esprit de corps" (School S p i r i t ) . They see the school as 34. more encouraging i n s o c i a l l y acceptable behavior (Social Order). They perceive the school climate as providing more opportun-i t i e s to engage i n a vari e t y of pursuits ( A c t i v i t y ) . They perceive the school as being more encouraging i n creative expression (Creative Self-Expression). Even though the comments made on these four scales s t i l l remain conjectural i n nature, a "trend" i n perception of school environment for students of separated homes can be advanced. These students would appear to perceive the school environment as providing a more p o s i t i v e atmosphere. This proposition i s substantiated by t h e i r lower score on Authori-t a r i a n Press. I t may be that students from separated homes are not as c r i t i c a l of what the school offers i t s pupils, as are students of inta c t homes. It may be also that students of separated homes are having more of t h e i r needs met at school than are students of inta c t homes. The p r o f i l e of perception of the school environment for i n t a c t and separated groups on each SEAS scale i s i l l u s t r a -ted i n Figure 1. Scores for both groups peak and f a l l under the same scales. Heterosexual Social Expression and Authori-t a r i a n Press are high; Scholarly Affect, School S p i r i t , Creative Self-Expression and Social Order are moderately high; Parental Climate and A c t i v i t y are moderately low. Students from both groups follow a same general way of viewing the school environ-35. ment. A l l scores for students from separated homes can be seen to be higher except on one scale, Authoritarian Press, where t h e i r score i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower. It would appear that the school i n which t h i s study was performed i s seen by students of separated homes as pro-viding a more "congenial" environment. Yet, no special programs for t h i s group of students have been i n i t i a t e d by the school. There i s some reason, then, to speculate that these students perceive the school d i f f e r e n t l y , even though they are i n the same environment. The more p o s i t i v e perception on the part of these students was not anticipated as much of the l i t e r a t u r e on children of separated homes stress t h e i r even-t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n perceiving circumstances outside the home i n a more po s i t i v e way than children from i n t a c t homes. This finding, although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , except on Authoritarian Press, i s i n t e r e s t i n g and warrants closer examination i n future studies. The outcome of the comparisons between groups of students from separated homes depending on age at onset of parental separation shows that there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference on any of the SEAS scales. No pattern of response can be seen when looking at the group means. Perhaps the age groupings ( 0 - 6 and 6 over) were too large to d i s t i n g u i s h a difference i n t h i s study, i f , i n fact there 36. i s one. The problem with t h i s type of comparison arises from the fact that the number of subjects whose parents separated when they were very young i s small; i n t h i s study, there were seven subjects whose parents separated before age three. The one-way analysis of variance showing re s u l t s for hypothesis three, demonstrates a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference on two scales. Females had higher mean scores on Heterosexual Social Expression and Creative Self-Expression. Females perceived themselves as being more encouraged to intera c t with members of the opposite sex, and as being more encouraged to express themselves c r e a t i v e l y . On these two scales, findings concur with the proposition that females would perceive the environment i n a more p o s i t i v e manner. There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between male and female groups on the other six SEAS scales. Interactional effects between age at onset of parental separation and sex were tested with no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s (p^.05) being reached. Limitations This study was directed to male and female students of separated homes i n grades eight and nine of low-middle and middle income groups. Findings can be generalized to t h i s group of students; i t i s probably quite representative of s i m i l a r l y described groups throughout our educational system. 37. One variable, economic status, was not taken into consideration, when studying the two groups of students from i n t a c t and separated homes. There i s some in d i c a t i o n that students from separated homes might not have the f i n a n c i a l resources that students from i n t a c t homes might have. This factor might have affected responses to the SEAS. In the pa r t i c u l a r school being studied, the economic factor, while a consideration, does not appear to possess the d i s p a r i t y of incomes described i n other studies (eg: comparing ghetto children with high-income children) which stress the import-ance of the economic variable. Other variables (contact with separated parents, contact with parent-surrogates, severity and duration of parental c o n f l i c t , degree of c o n f l i c t between parents at break-up time, qu a l i t y of parental care at present, sex of remaining parent, number of s i b l i n g s i n present family, basic c o n s t i t u t i o n a l make-up of c h i l d and his experience u n t i l the c o n f l i c t occurred) were not delineated when examining the group of students from separated homes. Conclusions Results of t h i s study seem to indicate that students from separated homes perceive the school environment, as measured by the SEAS, i n a more favorable way as compared 38. with students from i n t a c t homes. On Authoritarian Press, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .01 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y , with students from separated homes perceiving the school environment as less authoritarian. On four other scales, School S p i r i t , A c t i v i t y , Creative Self-Expression and Social Order, students from separated homes perceived the school environment i n a more p o s i t i v e way. Even though re s u l t s on these four scales are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a d i r e c t i o n a l trend can be seen to emerge. This trend was not anticipated. Further research i s needed to explore implica-tions of t h i s finding. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences were observed between students whose parents separated when they were age 0 - 6 or when they were over age 6. I t would appear that the variable, age at onset of separation, has no e f f e c t on the perception of students as measured by the SEAS. A fi n e r age grouping may have brought about d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . On the variable, sex, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ferences i n perception of the school environment as measured by the SEAS were found on two scales, Heterosexual Social Expression and Creative Self-Expression. Females perceived, as expected, the school as more encouraging on these two scales. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences on s i x scales. D e f i n i t i v e statements on these r e s u l t s cannot be drawn. 39. FOOTNOTES 1. Schlesinger, Benjamin: The One-Parent Family i n Canada: Some Recent Findings and Recommendations. 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Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a , 1974. Murray, H. A.: Exploration In Personality. Oxford University Press, 1938. 42. Newicki, S. Jr. and Segal, N.: Perceived Parental Charac-t e r i s t i c s , Locus of Control Orientation and Behavior Correlates of Locus of Control. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 33-37. Nye, Ivan F.: Child Adjustment i n Broken and Unhappy Unbroken Homes. Marriage and Family Living, May, 1963 XXV, 221-223. Palmer, R. C.: Behavior Problems of Children i n Navy O f f i c e r s ' Families. Social Casework, 1960, 41, 177-184. Perry, Joseph B. and Pfuhl, Ed: Adjustment of Children i n Solo and Remarriage Homes. Marriage and Family  Living, XXV, May, 1963, XXV, 221-223. Polardy, J. N.; What Teachers Believe, What Children Achieve. Elementary School Journal, 1969, 370-374. Rouman, J . : School Children's Problems as Related to Parental Factors. Journal of Educational Research, 1956, 50, 105-112. Russell, I.L.: Behavior Problems of Children From Broken and Intact Homes. Journal of Educational Sociology, 1957, 124-129. Santrack, J.W.: Relation of Type and Onset of Father-Absence to Cognitive Development. Child Development, 1972, 43, 455-469. Schlesinger, Benjamin: The One-Parent Family i n Canada: Some Recent Findings and Recommendations. Family  Coordinator, 1973, 746-747. Siegman, A. W.: Father Absence During Childhood and A n t i s o c i a l Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1966, 71-74. Spelke, E.: Father Interaction and Separation Protest. Developmental Psychology, Sept., 1973, 83-90. Stuart, Irving; Abt, Lawrence Edwin: editors, Children of Separation and Divorce. Grossman Publishers, New York, 1972. 43. T i l l e r , P.O.: Father Separation and Adolescence I n s t i t u t e for S o c i a l Research, Oslo, Norway, 1961. Tolsma, R. and Hopper, G.: Development of an Environmental Assessment Technique to Measure Characteristics of High School Environments. College of Education, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 1971. APPENDIX A Single Parent Families as Percentage of Total Number of Families for the Greater Vancouver Region and D i s t r i c t , 1971 45. APPENDIX B R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Estimates of the SEAS Scales for the 1972 Norming Group and the 1976 Study Group. Estimates for SEAS Scales 1972 Group* Estimates for 1976 Group** (1) Scholarly Affect .76 .71 (2) Parental Climate .69 .52 (3) Heterosexual Social A c t i v i t y .59 .61 (4) School S p i r i t .82 .73 (5) A c t i v i t y .59 .53 (6) Authoritarian Press .54 .40 (7) Creative Self-Expression .70 .66 (8) Soc i a l Order .68 .61 R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t estimates based on the 1972 group were estimated by average inter-item c o r r e l a t i o n s r rkk = l*.(n-l)? ** Hoyt's r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were used for the 1976 group. A l l of the above r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t estimates are s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y (McCall, Robert B.: Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s for Psychology, Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, 1970, p.369). APPENDIX C S p e c i f i c Items Under Each SEAS Scale and Factor Loading of Each Item 1. SCHOLARLY AFFECT D e f i n i t i o n - This dimension of the environment i s characterized by a p o s i t i v e regard between student and teacher. Students perceive the teachers as possess-ing such attributes as fairness, interest, and respect. These charac-t e r i s t i c s of the faculty help create a climate i n which there i s an affect for learning. High scores on t h i s factor seem to indicate that many faculty members behaviorally express to the students the philosophy, "We're interested i n you and seek to help you develop your academic pot e n t i a l s . " Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .56 .50 .47 .46 .45 .45 59 54 63 66 76 60 of the teachers assign grades f a i r l y , of the science classes are well taught, of the teachers here appear to be i n t e r -ested and enthusiastic about what they are teaching. of the teachers w i l l volunteer to stay after school i f necessary, to help an i n d i v i d u a l student with his or her studies. of the classes seem to have been planned i n advance. of the teachers seem to respect student opinions on serious matters. (7) Robert Tolsma and Gordon Hopper 197 2 1. Scholarly Affect (continued) Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .37 53 of the students would aqree that t h i s school has an adequate service program for those planning careers i n science. -.31 34 Daily tests are qiven i n classes .30 33 There are enouqh books and maqazines on science available for borrowing from the l i b r a r y . .29 27 A student, who wants to, can r a i s e his or her midterm grade by the end of the term. .21 78 of the students look up to t h e i r teachers and admire them. .21 13 The school nurse i s r e a d i l y available to those who need her. -.15 19 It i s d i f f i c u l t to see why one has to take such courses as history. 2. PARENTAL CLIMATE De f i n i t i o n - This type of environment i s perceived by students as being parental i n the sense that an attitude of shoulds and should-nots p r e v a i l . Faculty members tend to moralize with students. They are right and wise and therefore should be obeyed. Faculty members behaviorally express to students the philosophy, "We know what i s right for you so you should do as we d i r e c t you to do.11 Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .63 30 The teachers express opinions about how a student should dress to come to school. .62 36 Something i s said to students who come to school but are not neatly dressed. .59 25 Students and teachers disagree on how students should dress for various after-s choo1 events. .54 41 A student w i l l get reprimanded i f observed chewing on pencils, rubber bands, gum, etc. .41 20 Students are for science f a i r or science display. encouraged to make things .39 73 of the faculty members expect students to be neatly groomed and conforming i n the clothes they wear to school. 2. Parental Climate (continued) Factor Sample SEAS Loading X Item No. Item 32 35 The students here are t o l d to grow up and act t h e i r age. 27 22 Faculty members encourage students to report those who v i o l a t e school rules. 21 16 Students are t o l d to keep things neat and orderly around here. 21 31 A new student here would fi n d i t d i f f i c u l t to meet and make new friends. 3. HETERO-SEXUAL SOCIAL EXPRESSION D e f i n i t i o n - Males and females mix freel y i n t h i s type of environment. They are encouraged to intera c t with members of the opposite sex. There i s heterosexual s o c i a l interaction and an absence of cliques based primarily on gender. Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .60 .53 .46 .32 .25 69 79 70 11 45 of the boys and g i r l s mix together during class breaks, during noon hours, etc. of the boys.and g i r l s mix together and s i t at the same table when eating i n the caf e t e r i a . of the students have a l o t of dating experience. There are opportunities to work on projects with members of the opposite sex. You can expect to fi n d students gathered together at certa i n places after school. .19 57 I f at a s o c i a l gathering, a cigarette or alcoholic drink i s offered, _______ of the students w i l l accept i t . 3. Hetero-Sexual S o c i a l Expression (continued) Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Itemm .17 67 of the students here have a written or unwritten study schedule which they follow. .17 77 of the teachers have tauaht i n t h i s school for a long time. .14 68 There are enough school dances and parties to s a t i s f y of the students 4. SCHOOL SPIRIT D e f i n i t i o n - The school climate fosters an enthusiasm, a vigor for school events. There i s a f e e l i n g of "esprit de corps." School s p i r i t i s a behavioral expression by the student body of a p a t r i o t i c l i k e l o y a l t y toward the school. Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .72 75 School S p i r i t i s expressed by students here. of the .70 .70 .64 .62 43 64 56 42 Students get excited about a t h l e t i c contests involving t h i s school. of the students a c t i v e l y support the school's a t h l e t i c teams. The major school events are en t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported by of the studeritjubody. There i s a f e e l i n g of excitement around here before a school event, .31 .23 52 Students are encouraged to uphold the proud tr a d i t i o n s of the school. ; of the students have school pennants and school pictures displayed i n t h e i r lockers, cars, or rooms at home. 4. School S p i r i t (continued) Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .15 65 of the teachers crive the same exams they have given before to previous classes. .12 8 Student elections are hotlv con-tested and provoke student i n t e r e s t . 5. ACTIVITY D e f i n i t i o n - Students perceive the school environment as providing few opportunities to engage i n a va r i e t y of pursuits. The press i s one of a c t i v i t y , dynamics, movement, providing numerous outlets for student energies. Factor Sample SEAS Loading X Item No. Item ,38 32 Students around here can be seen playing checkers, chess, working crossword puzzles, and engaged i n other l i k e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r spare time. ,36 46 Those students who are interested i n b a l l e t and modern dance _ get adequate oppor-t u n i t i e s to practice and perform i n school. ,33 49 Popular books and movies dealing with psy-chological problems are . read and discussed by teachers and students a l i k e . 3 2 61 of the students and faculty donate to charity drives conducted at school. 27 55 of the faculty members attend the majority of the school's dramatic or musical 2iZ 9 Projects to help the needy are supported by students and teachers here. 5. A c t i v i t y (continued) Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item . 26 2 Poems and short stories written by students are being published i n the school newspaper i n addition to the regular news items. .22 14 Students with complaints take them up with the p r i n c i p a l . .14 38 Students qet a chance to hear music of t h e i r choice i n the lunchroom or during free periods. .15 74 of the teachers here would rather attend a school play, concert, etc., than an a t h l e t i c event. Cn 6. AUTHORITARIAN PRESS De f i n i t i o n - This press has a Spartan l i k e quality. A c t i v i t i e s are performed under threat of punishment for non-compliance. D i s c i p l i n e and the threat of d i s c i p l i n e i s an omni-present dynamic. The faculty expresses behavior-a l l y the philosophy, "You w i l l do as I t e l l you, ... or else." Factor Sample Loading X SEAS Item No. Item -.43 48 There are comfortable places a v a i l -able where a student can go to just s i t and relax. .39 23 Students t have to pair up on science projects due to a lack of equipment i n the science lab. .36 .36 71 26 In of the classes students have assigned seats. "Get permission or be ready to suffer the consequences" i s the attitude one hears expressed around here. .35 24 Students have to take t h e i r school work home i n order to have i t completed on time. -. 22 10 There are hanging on the walls around school. copies of famous paintings 6. Authoritarian Press (continued) Factor Sample SEAS Loading X Item No. Item .19 7 When a student i s contacted to come to the pr i n c i p a l ' s off-ice he _______ has to wait once he has arrived. -.18 51 of the classrooms, o f f i c e s , and other rooms are c l e a r l y labeled as to what they are used for. .13 50 of the teachers w i l l give an "F" grade. -.16 80 of the lunches served i n the c a f e t e r i a are tasty and eye-appealing. 7. CREATIVE SELF-EXPRESSION D e f i n i t i o n - This environment encourages students to express themselves c r e a t i v e l y . They are encouraged to u t i l i z e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l , manual, and a r t i s t i c potentials. This environmental press may help students actualize i n many dimensions. Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .41 .39 .34 .33 21 47 Students are encouraged to use the science lab during th e i r free time. New ideas are t r i e d out f i r s t before they are adapted as policy . _encouraged to enter into Students are classroom discussions. Student opinions and ideas about school matters are taken into serious consideration by the faculty. .29 The themes of "be an in d i v i d u a l " and "make up your own mind" seem to be stressed i n t h i s school. .27 The people who are involved i n the counsell-ing and guidance program here seem to be warm, concerned, and genuine i n working with students. 7. Creative Self-Expression (continued) Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .27 40 Students are t o l d whv thev are being punished. .25 44 Students who enjoy working with t h e i r hands get the opportunity to repair and make things. .24 17 Serious subjects are openly discussed i n panels or other ways at school assemblies or i n the classroom. .14 15 Classes i n history, l i t e r a t u r e , and art are considered amoncr the best offered here. 8. SOCIAL ORDER De f i n i t i o n - An environmental press encouraging s o c i a l l y acceptable behavior as opposed to a n t i - s o c i a l or delinquent behavior. Schools i n which students have indicated a less than moderate press for. s o c i a l order have a number of students who are acting against the pr e v a i l i n g perceived environment. Students behaviorally express t h e i r disenchantment by transgressing aginst the school establishment. A low so c i a l order press indicates there i s a press for delinquent and anti-establishment sentiment by students. Student feelings of h o s t i l i t y are behaviorally expressed i n the aggressive forms of destruction and disruption. Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item -.55 -.53 -.52 .46 .42 -.40 28 62 72 12 37 39 School property i s damaged by students. of the school books have been torn, marked, or written i n . of the desks are defaced by knife or pencil marks. Classrooms and h a l l s are and neat. kept clean E f f o r t i s made to keep the school grounds and buildings neat and t i d y . Shouting and y e l l i n g i s h a l l s and i n the ca f e t e r i a . heard i n the o 8. Soc i a l Order (continued) Factor Loading Sample X SEAS Item No. Item .38 58 of the students make an e f f o r t tn help keep the washrooms neat. .36 18 E f f o r t i s made to keep the h a l l s looking bright, cheerful, and in t e r e s t i n g . -.33 29 Classes are interrupted by announce-ments, knocks at the door, etc. CTl I-APPENDIX D Notice to Teachers Regarding Administration of the Test 1. Would you have the students i n your home room answer both: i) the questionnaire and i i ) the 81-item test (School Environment Assessment Scales). 2. The questionnaire i s to be completed by students f i r s t , on the  question sheet i t s e l f ; there are 5 questions. Any i r r e g u l a r -i t i e s may be noted by students i f they so wish, at the bottom of the questionnaire; eg. a student may want to include that he/she l i v e s with an aunt. 3. The test i s completed on IBM sheets. There are 81 items i n the te s t ; students darken one choice of f i v e choices (A,B,C,D or E) for each of the 81 items. Pencils should be used. The front page instructions of the test should be read aloud to the class by the teacher, and any questions can be answered at t h i s time. Students could be reminded: i) that they are not to write t h e i r names anywhere; i i ) that numbers on the IBM answer sheet run i n order across the page, and not down the column. 4. Each student's questionnaire and IBM sheet must be together to assess test r e s u l t s . To reach t h i s goal, each questionnaire and each IBM sheet have been numbered i n pairs at the top l e f t hand corners of the pages. Could you ascertain that each  student has a paired questionnaire and IBM sheet before they complete them; eg. one student might have questionnaire #41 and IBM sheet #41. Questionnaires and IBM sheets have been ordered t h i s way for convenience i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of both copies. 5. The test should take about 2 0 - 3 0 minutes. Students who f i n i s h e a r l i e r can be expected to wait for a l l students to f i n i s h t h i s untimed test before handing copies to the teacher. 6. Thank you for your co-operation. APPENDIX E Questionnaire Given to Students Questionnaire (Your answers are considered c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l not be paired with your name). 1. Grade: 2. Age: 3. Sex: 4. Check one or more, where appropriate: I l i v e with my mother: father: step-mother: step-father: brother (s): s i s t e r (s) : other: 5. For students whose parents have separated. I was years old when my parents separated. 

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