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Differential programming and implementation of self-concept through vocational choice Chiu, Clifton Yu-Lam 1977

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DIFFERENTIAL PROGRAMMING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SELF-CONCEPT THROUGH VOCATIONAL CHOICE by CLIFTON YU-LAM CHIU B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1958 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1977 Clifton Yu-Lam Chiu, 1977 © In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Cttstvi. S & The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date >T A f y ^ ( , rtj 7 ABSTRACT Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of d i f f e r e n t i a l programming, or streaming, socio-economic status, and academic a b i l i t y to junior secondary male students' choice of occupation as a means to implement t h e i r self-concept. I t was generally hypothesized that as d i f f e r e n t programmes i n the secondary school presented d i f f e r e n t opportu-n i t i e s for occupational and educational advancement, streaming students into d i f f e r e n t programmes would d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t t h e i r choice of occupations as a means of self-concept implementation. S p e c i f i c a l l y i t was hypothesized that students i n academic programmes were able to a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y , greater degrees of congruency between th e i r self-concept and the stereotype of t h e i r probable occupational choice, between t h e i r probable occupational and i d e a l occupational stereotypes, and between t h e i r self-concept and i d e a l self-concept than students i n non-academic programmes. I t was also hypothesized that students from the lower socio-economic groups and students with lower academic a b i l i t y tended to be streamed into the non-academic programmes. Method Data were c o l l e c t e d from 194 Grade 10 male students i n three secondary schools i n the lower mainland i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A preliminary question-naire was used to obtain data on programme membership, s a t i s f a c t i o n with programme, parental occupation, and choice of probable and i d e a l occupations. A D e s c r i p t i v e Checklist was used to measure p r o f i l e s of self-concept, i d e a l self-concept, probable occupational stereotype, and i d e a l occupational i i i stereotype. In a d d i t i o n 52 students were randomly selected f o r a semi-structured interview. The completed d e s c r i p t i v e c h e c k l i s t s were converted 2 to y i e l d s i x congruency scores by employing the D s t a t i s t i c . M u l t i p l e regressional.analyses and t-tes t s were used to analyse the congruency scores. The interviews were transcribed and coded f o r analyses. Results S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the academic students and non-academic students on self-concept/probable occupational stereotype con-gruency, probable occupational stereotype/ideal occupational stereotype congruency, socio-economic status, and academic a b i l i t y . However, the pre-d i c t i o n that the two groups would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n self-concept/ i d e a l self-concept congruency was not supported by the data. It was also found from the interview data that the majority of the non-academic students did not have the required courses for an academic programme. Proportionally fewer non-academic students wanted to go on to i n s t i t u t e s of higher learning and to choose as theitf- probable occupations jobs at managerial and professional l e v e l s , yet given the chance and choice, over 50 per cent of them would choose as t h e i r i d e a l occupations jobs at these l e v e l s and would desire a u n i v e r s i t y or college education. Over 80 per cent of the non-academic students who considered t h e i r chance of getting t h e i r i d e a l occupa-tions low ascribed the main reason to being i n the wrong programme. Ad d i t i o n a l analyses of the data gave support to the general a p p l i c a -b i l i t y of Super's theory of vocational choice as a means of self-concept implementation i n that i t was found that for both academic and non-academic students the probable occupational choice was more congruent with t h e i r iv self-concept than was their ideal occupational choice. The results also lent support to Wheeler and Carne's finding that both the probable and ideal occupational choices were attempts at self-actualization. Conclusion The results of this study showed that differential programming in the secondary school had an effect on the students' perception of their educa-tional and occupational opportunity ^structures which influenced the degree of congruency between their self-concept and their occupational choices. The study not only confirmed the general applicability of Super's theory of vocational choice as i t was applied to junior high students with different opportunity structures, a b i l i t i e s , and occupational aspirations but also advanced the idea that the higher degree of congruency for the academic students was due to an attempt at self-actualization which was considerably less evident among the non-academic students. V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Development and Theoretical Bases of the Problem 1 The Statement of the Problem 4 Sig n i f i c a n c e of the Study 5 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. 8 Super's Theory of Occupational Choice.... 8 Research Studies on Self-concept Implementation through Occupational Choice 16 D i f f e r e n t i a l Programming, Streaming, Tracking, and A b i l i t y Grouping 25 Hypotheses f o r t h i s Study 37 I I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY 41. Instrumentation 41 Procedure 46 Treatment of Data 50 IV. THE PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 57 Results of the Interview 57 Results of the Descriptive C h e c k l i s t s 67 V. DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY 81 Limitations of the Study 85 Recommendation for Further Research 86 Implications f o r Vocational Counselling i n High Schools... 88 Summary 88 REFERENCES 92 APPENDIX A Descri p t i v e Checklist for Self-concept 100 APPENDIX B Descriptive Checklist f o r Ideal Self-concept 104 APPENDIX C Descri p t i v e C h e c k l i s t f o r Probable Occupational Stereotype 105 APPENDIX D Des c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t for Ideal Occupational Stereotype 106 APPENDIX E Preliminary Questionnaire 107 APPENDIX F Interview Schedule 108 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE . PAGE 1. Percentage and Cumulative Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Parental Occupations of Students as Measured on Blishen's Socio-economic Scale and Corresponding Figures f o r Labour Force for B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada 47 2. Probable Occupational Choices by Level and Programme 59 3» Ideal Occupational Choices by Level and Programme 59 4. Main Reasons Given by Students for Being i n t h e i r Programmes ?•'} by Programme 61 5. Students Desiring Post-secondary Education by I n s t i t u t i o n s and Programme 61 6. Estimated Chances by Students of Getting Ideal Occupation by Programme 62 7. Main Reason Given by Students for Low Chance (below 50%) of Getting Ideal Occupations by Programme 62 •J 8. Length of Time Probable Occupations have been Entertained by Students by Programme 63 9. Basis of Students' Description of T y p i c a l Person i n Probable Occupation by Programme 64 10. Probable and Ideal Occupations Seen as More Congruent with Self-concept by Programme 66 11. Students Whose Chosen Probable and Ideal Occupations are on the Same or D i f f e r e n t Level by Programme 66 12. Rating by Students as to Closeness between t h e i r Real Selves and th e i r Ideal Selves 67 v i i i TABLE PAGE 13. Means and Standard Deviations of the Six Congruency Scores, the D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Scores, and the Socio-economic Index Scores by Programme 68 14. Summary of Results of Comparisons of Models with Self-concept and Probable Occupational Stereotype Congruency Scores as C r i t e r i o n and Programme Membership, D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Scores, and Socio-economic Index Scores as Predictor Variables 71 15. Summary of Results of Comparisons of Models with Probable Occupational Stereotype and Ideal Occupational Stereotype Congruency Score as the C r i t e r i o n and Programme Membership, D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Scores, and Socio-economic Index Scores as the Predictor Variables 73 f',il6. Summary of Results of Comparisons of Models with Self-concept amd Ideal Self-concept Congruency Score as C r i t e r i o n and Pro-gramme Membership, D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Scores and Socio-economic Index Scores .as Predictor Variables 75 117. Results of t - t e s t s for S i g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between the Correlated Means of Paired Congruency Scores for the Whole Sample 77 18. Results of t - t e s t s f o r Si g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between the Correlated Means of Paired Congruency Scores for the Academic Group 77 19. Results of t - t e s t s for S i g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between ' 7 ^ the Correlated Means of Paired Congruency Scores for the Non-academic Group 78 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank a l l members of my t h e s i s committee f o r seeing me through t h i s study, e s p e c i a l l y my teacher Dr. M. Nevison f o r her guidance and e d i t o r i a l advice and Dr. T. Rogers f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n improving the pres e n t a t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . I a l s o want to thank my f r i e n d Herb Coleman f o r sharing with me hi s considerable experience i n , and knowledge o f , psychology. F i n a l l y I want to thank my w i f e Jean f o r her unwavering moral support i n t h i s p r o j e c t . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t i a l programming, or streaming, and implementation of self-concept through occupational choice by male students i n the junior secondary school. By d i f f e r e n t i a l programming i t i s meant the placement of students i n d i f -ferent programmes of studies by the school personnel either on the basis of academic a b i l i t y or i n accordance with the students' choice. Development and T h e o r e t i c a l Bases of the Problem According to the self-concept implementation theory of occupational choice (Super, 1957, 1963), a person s t r i v e s to implement h i s self-concept by choosing to enter the occupation that he sees as most l i k e l y to permit him self-expression. Along s i m i l a r l i n e s , Holland (1966) views i n d i v i d u a l s as s e l e c t i n g v o c a t i o n a l environments that are consistent with th e i r major personality o r i e n t a t i o n . Research based on the self-concept implementation theory generally seems to lend support to the view that both occupational choice (Englander, 1960; Healy, 1973; Morrison, 1962) and occupational pref-erence (Blocher & Schutz, 1961; Oppenheimer, 1966; Vroom, 1964) are to a large extent r e l a t e d to the degree that an occupation i s perceived to be consistent with one's self-concept. S o c i a l psychologists and s o c i o l o g i s t s , on the other hand, tend to • . i stress the nature and length of a person's•formal education and the aca-demic success which he achieves through i t as dominant factors i n occupa-t i o n a l choice, since entry to an ever-increasing number of occupations i s 2 dependent upon academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s such as school-leaving c e r t i f i -cates, college education, and u n i v e r s i t y degrees (Hodges, 1964, pp. 139-140; Jencks, 1972, pp. 180-185; Morrison & Mclntyre, 1971, p. 13). In t h i s connection researchers on both sides of the A t l a n t i c have i n v e s t i -gated and commented on the s i g n i f i c a n t part that d i f f e r e n t i a l programming or streaming plays i n the educational opportunities and occupational choices i n the l i v e s of high school students (Cicourel & Kitsuse, 1963; Elder, 1965). For instance, i n one B r i t i s h study (Himmelweit, Halsey, and Oppenheim, 1952) i t was found that placement i n modern secondary (non-academic) or grammar (academic) schools had a greater e f f e c t on the vocational outlook of youth than did t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l class structure. Canadian s o c i o l o g i c a l studies on occupational preferences of high school students seem to support the B r i t i s h and American findings on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between occupational and educational opportunities and the p a r t i c u l a r type of programme of study a student i s i n . Breton and McDonald (1968), i n one of the most comprehensive surveys on career decision among Canadian youth ever c a r r i e d out, concluded: The career chances open to a student—and the occupational preferences he develops from an appraisal of h i s career chances— determines what occupations he w i l l be q u a l i f i e d to enter. Conversely, i n c l u s i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r programme closes a l t e r n a t i v e occupational avenues.... Since the career preparation provided by and the status afforded by each programme of study d i f f e r , one would expect the occupational p r e f e r -ences of students to vary depending on the programme they are i n . (P- 284) Breton (1972) also pointed out that the i n t e n t i o n of students to con-tinue beyond high school i s associated with the type of programme of study i n high school. Students who are i n programmes which provide preparation f o r a wider range of occupational p o s s i b i l i t i e s (academic) are more l i k e l y 3 to intend to continue beyond high school than students i n the more r e s t r i c -t i v e programmes (technical and commercial). Clarke and Woodsworth (1963), emphasizing the importance of f l e x i b i l i t y i n career planning, said, "We have repeatedly made the point about getting as much formal education as possible because the educated person has more freedom of occupational choice i n our modern technology than does the person with l i t t l e education. That i s , education opens many doors f o r a person because i t increases h i s a b i l i t y to go on learning" (p. 114). Apart from l i m i t i n g or augmenting, as the case may be, a student's educational and occupational options, d i f f e r e n t i a l programming has been found to be r e l a t e d not only to the student's a b i l i t y to do academic work at a c e r t a i n stage of h i s schooling, but also to h i s socio-economic back-ground and self-esteem. Research studies have found that a larger propor-t i o n of students from the lower socio-economic classes are found i n the l e s s prestigious non-academic programmes, streams, or tracks (Cicourel & Kitsuse, 1963; Douglas, 1964; Elder, 1965; Jackson, 1964; Sexton, 1967) and those i n the non-academic or vocational programmes not only have lower occupational aspirations but also lower self-esteem (Borg, 1966; Brookover, Thomas & Paterson 1964; Eash, 1961; Rosenberg, 1965; Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). Super's (1963) theory of vocational choice through self-concept imple-mentation presupposes during the c r i t i c a l adolescent period of the high school student a process of exploration, s e l f - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n , and r e a l i t y t e s t i n g which enables the young man to strengthen or modify h i s self-concept and to confirm or to contradict the way i n which h i s developing self-concept i s t e n t a t i v e l y translated into an occupational r o l e . Since such a process implies not only an opportunity to explore and 4 to choose an occupation i n l i n e with one's self-concept but also the a b i l i t y as w e l l as the opportunity to pursue the r i g h t kind of education or t r a i n i n g e s s e n t i a l for the entry i n t o that occupation, i t i s important to examine what e f f e c t streaming has on self-concept implementation through occupa-t i o n a l choice for the high school student. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s was pointed out by Osipow (1973) i n h i s c r i t i c a l evaluation of Super's theory when he commented: Vocational development exhibits more evidence for the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that behaviour i s a function of the s i t u a t i o n i n which i t occurs. Students seem to make decisions at times that are imposed on them by the structure of the eductional system. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate on the e f f e c t s of vocational development under the English system of secondary education, i n which choice points are imposed at d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s . (p.163) The question therefore a r i s e s : Are" students i n the junior secondary schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n Grade 10, who are enrolled i n d i f f e r e n t programmes of studies, e i t h e r by choice or by necessity, i n a p o s i t i o n to make tentative occupational choices which are i n l i n e with t h e i r s e l f -concepts? Or are the programmes so structured that students i n one pro-gramme w i l l be able to make occupational choices that are more congruent with t h e i r self-concepts than students i n another programme? The Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the degree to which male students i n d i f f e r e n t educational programmes i n the junior secondary school d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r choice of occupation as a means to implement t h e i r self-concept within the framework, of Super's theory. A secondary purpose was to examine to what extent d i f f e r e n t i a l programming, or streaming, i s associated with the socio-economic status, self-esteem, and 5 academic a b i l i t y of the students. Specifically, i t was intended to answer the following two main and : -. three subsidiary research questions: Main Questions 1. Is there a significant difference in the degree to which Grade 10 male-students in academic and non-academic programmes achieve imple-mentation of their self-concept through, occupational choice? 2. Is there a significant difference between Grade 10 male students in academic programmes and in non-academic programmes in the extent to which their probable occupational choice approximates their ideal choice? Subsidiary Questions 1. Are students in academic and non-academic programmes significantly different in their self-esteem? 2. Are students in academic and non-academic programmes significantly different in their socio-economic status? 3. Are students in academic and non-academic programmes significantly different in academic abilities? Significance of the Study As was pointed out by Morrison and Mclntyre (1971, p. 192) "much of -the research aimed at demonstrating the centrality of self-concepts i n career development has tested the theory only on the undemanding ^criteria that occupational preferences should be consistent with self-concepts." Individual difference variables have not received much attention in this area of research, the one notable exception being "self-esteem" which has 6 been found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the degree of congruency between self-concept and occupational choice, although research findings are f a r from being conclusive (Korman, 1966; Greenhaus, 1972; Healy, 1973; Mans-f i e l d , 1973). Another aspect shared by the majority of the published studies i n t h i s area of research i s that samples were mostly drawn from nurses, nursing students, teachers i n t r a i n i n g , seminarians, college students, and college bound students. As w i l l be noted i n the next chapter, the subjects were mostly people who were already engaged i n a c e r t a i n career or were committed to t r a i n f o r c e r t a i n occupations or professions. Furthermore, the subjects comprised on the whole f a i r l y homogeneous groups, with middle c l a s s back-ground, above average a b i l i t y , and better than average educational oppor-t u n i t i e s . As far as can be ascertained, few studies have taken into account s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s such as socio-economic status, academic a b i l i t y , and educational opportunity that might have an i n t e r a c t i n g e f f e c t on s e l f -concept and occupational congruency. Therefore i t was f e l t that, as was pointed out by Osipow (1973, p. 163), there was a need for research data i n areas where the s c h o l a s t i c aspects of vocational development are c l o s e l y t i e d to the educational system, and where students have to make educational, and consequently occupational, decisions that are at times imposed on them by the structure of the educational system. In terms of theory contribution, the present study sought to under-stand the r o l e s that s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s such as programmes of study, socio-economic status, and academic a b i l i t y play i n the occupational choice behaviour among ju n i o r secondary school students and within the framework of the self-concept implementation theory of occupational choice. 7 Another expectation was that data generated by this study might enable the school counsellor to have a better understanding of the possible frustrations and d i f f i c u l t i e s that some students might experience when they are assigned to programmes which might impede their striving towards_a vocational goal congruent with their self-concept. It was hoped that studies such as this might lead to better vocational counselling based more on c l a r i f i c a t i o n and implementation of the student's self-concept and aspiration and less on the dictates of the particular programme the student happened to be in. 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE As the major t h e o r e t i c a l basis upon which t h i s study was conducted i s the theory of vocational choice developed by Donald E. Super, a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s theory and a summary of the major research studies dealing with the implementation of self-concept through occupational choice w i l l be presented here. The l a t e r sections w i l l be devoted to an examina-t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e and studies on the s o c i a l and psychological e f f e c t s of a b i l i t y grouping, streaming, tracking, and d i f f e r e n t i a l programming i n the secondary school. The hypotheses for t h i s study, th e i r r a t i o n a l e , the assumptions, and the d e f i n i t i o n of terms w i l l be set out i n the l a s t s e ction of t h i s chapter. Super's Theory of Occupational Choice Super (1953) f i r s t presented the g i s t of h i s theory i n an address before the American Psychologist A s s o c i a t i o n when he s a i d , The process of vocational development i s e s s e n t i a l l y that of developing and implementing a self-concept: i t i s a compromise -process..in which the self-concept i s a product of the i n t e r a c t i o n of i n h e r i t e d aptitudes, neural and endocrine makeup, opportunity to play various r o l e s , and evaluations of the extent to which the r e -s u l t of r o l e playing meet with the approval of superiors and fellows. The process of compromise between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s , between self-concept and r e a l i t y , i s one of r o l e playing, whether the r o l e i s played i n fantasy, i n the counselling interview, or i n r e a l l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , such as school classes, clubs, part-time work, and entry jobs. (p. 190) In 1963 he wrote, " i n expressing a vocational preference, a person puts into occupational terminology h i s idea of the kind of person he i s ; 9 that i n getting established i n an occupation, he achieves s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The occupation thus makes possible the playing of r o l e appropriate to the self-concept (p. 1). He also remarked, "...beginning about 1951, the con-c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of occupational choice as the process of implementing the self-concept began to bridge the gap between personality theory and vocational psychology" (p. 3). Self-concept as a Personality Construct The idea of s e l f as a primary personality construct which determines an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour dates back to the w r i t i n g of William James (1890), although Symonds (1951) c r e d i t s both Kant and Schopenhauer as the o r i g i n a -tors of the pronouns " I " and "me" i n r e l a t i o n to the s e l f . William James said, "...personality implies the incessant presence of two elements, an objective person known by a passing subjective thought and recognized as continuing i n time. Hereafter l e t us use the words ME and I for the empirical person and the judging thought" (p. 371). This empirical me, the s e l f , i s everything a person would c a l l h i s own, meaning h i s p h y s i c a l being, h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others, and h i s a c t i v i t i e s . During the t h i r t y or forty, years a f t e r James published h i s work, constructs concerning the s e l f received l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from the function-a l i s t s , who were concerned about the function of the mind and the behavior-i s t s , who were mainly .preoccupied.'with.•stimulus :response theory and laboratory experimentation. Freud and h i s followers, i n the meantime, with t h e i r psychodynamic postulates that of necessity implied the existence of .a s e l f - r e f e r e n t , did much to advance a s e l f theory. However, for two reasons these theories did not immediately bring constructs concerning the s e l f to the forefront of psychology. F i r s t of a l l , Freud himself, i n h i s early 10 theorizing, emphasized too strongly the r o l e of jLd, and he did not e x p l i c i t l y formalize a s e l f - c o n s t r u c t or assign the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d ego functions much importance. Secondly, h i s theory was being denied or ignored by many American general psychologists who found i t lacking i n rigour, i n s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of empirical t e s t i n g , and i n compatibility with the theoret-i c a l models then i n favour (Gale, 1969). During the 1930s and 1940s, with the s h i f t i n g of emphasis to ego development and functioning among the Freudians and with the s t r e s s i n g of the importance of the s e l f - p i c t u r e and the ego-ideal by the neo-Freudians, psychologists who were beginning to work i n c l i n i c a l settings found b e h a v i o r i s t i c approaches apparently too l i m i t e d to account f o r t h e i r obser-vations and were more i n c l i n e d to accept c e r t a i n psychoanalytic ideas. During t h i s same period, the f u n c t i o n a l i s t s continued t h e i r i n t r o s p e c t i v e methods aimed at the e l i c i t i n g of the subjects' own view of t h e i r behaviour. The Gestalt psychologists with t h e i r emphases of the whole as more impor-tant than the sum of the parts, on i n s i g h t as an important feature of learning, and on dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n j e c t e d t h e i r phenomenological methods and theories into the stream of general psychology. Developments such as these led to a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n the study of the concept of s e l f , both conscious and unconscious, with cognitive' . and motivational a t t r i b u t e s . George Herbert Mead (1934) introduced a concept of s e l f that was important i n i t s e f f e c t s on personality study. The s e l f , i n Meadls, views, was the product of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with other people, and a person came to think of himself as others thought of him. The s e l f acquired many dimen-sions which varied according to the people he interacted with. In the 1940s a number of writers and t h e o r i s t s propounded t h e i r theories of personality and motivation that are based on the s e l f as a per-s o n a l i t y construct, i n one form or another. Lundholm (1940) made a d i s t i n c t i o n between a subjective s e l f and an objective s e l f , the former being what I think of myself and the l a t t e r what others think of me. A l l p o r t (1943, 1955) reviewed the many meanings of ego and of s e l f i n psychological w r i t i n g s . Although generally described as a t r a i t t h e o r i s t , A l l p o r t ' s system centers around the concept of the proprium, which includes what t r a d i t i o n a l psychology has included under the terms s e l f , ego, and s t y l e of l i f e . His concept of propriate s t r i v i n g includes a l l forms of behaviour that attempt to r e a l i z e the s e l f ' s : p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , the goals of l i f e , and the struggle to r e a l i z e goals. Lecky (1945), writing on s e l f -consistency as determiner of behaviour, asserted that "there i s a coherence i n the behaviour of any s i n g l e organism which argues against explanation i n terms of chance combinations of determiners and points to an organized dynamic subsystem which tends toward self-determination..." (p. 75). While many others also wrote on the s e l f or used s e l f as a person-a l i t y construct i n t h e i r theories, such as Sherif and C a n t r i l (1947), Hilgard (1949), Symonds (1951), Sarbin (1952), and Stephenson (1953) among others, the most representative of t h i s school of s e l f t h e o r i s t s i s Snygg and Combs' phenomenal s e l f (1949). They bel i e v e that " a l l behavior, without exception, i s completely determined by and pertinent to the phe-nomenal f i e l d of the behaving organism" (p. 15). The phenomenal f i e l d of the person i s defined as "the e n t i r e universe, including himself, as i t i s experienced by the i n d i v i d u a l at the instant of a c t i o n " (p. 85). This awareness of the s e l f v a r i e s between a low l e v e l and a high l e v e l , although 12 i t never becomes completely unconscious. They accept the idea that aware-ness i s a cause of behaviour and that what a person thinks and f e e l s determines what he w i l l do. C a r l Rogers (1942, 1951) i s generally recognized for having c o l l e c t e d the most systematic set of p r i n c i p l e s and constructs on self-theory from c l i n i c a l evidence as w e l l as for applying the theory to counselling psycho-therapy. The self-concept or s e l f - s t r u c t u r e , i n h i s view, may be thought of as an organized configuration of perceptions of the s e l f which are admis-v . s i b l e to awareness. It i s composed of such elements as the perceptions of one's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b i l i t i e s ; the percepts and concepts of the s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to others and to the environment; the value q u a l i t i e s which are perceived as associated with experiences and objects; and goals and i d e a l s which are perceived as having p o s i t i v e or negative valence. The self-concept i s not only a p e r s o n a l i t y construct to Rogers, i t i s also a determiner of behaviour. He wrote, "The self-concept i s constantly used as a frame of reference when choices are to be made. Thus i t serves to regulate behaviour and may serve to account for observed uniformities i n p e r s o n a l i t y " (1951, p. 191). Thus the idea of self-concept as a personality construct has been defined and explained rather v a r i o u s l y by d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s . Several attempts have been made to bring a l l these diverse and d i f f u s e ideas concerning the s e l f i n psychological theory and research together. Notable are the works of Crowne and Stephens (1961) and Strong and Felder (1961) on the measurement of the self-concept; the c r i t i c a l review of theory and research on self-concept and self-theory by Wylie (1961, 1968); and the review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the self-concept i n counselling by Wrenn (1958). 13 Super's Conception of Self-concept and i t s Formation Super (Super and Bohn, 1970) considers self-concept to be the picture a person has of himself. He considers the term self-concept p a r t l y an outgrowth of phenomenological psychology, which states that a person reacts to r e a l i t y as he sees i t . Thus a l l that a person experiences goes through h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n system. With regard to h i s own personality, an i n d i v i d u a l organizes, i n t e r p r e t s and understands what he knows of himself i n terms that are acceptable to him. He acknowledges that one's person-a l i t y i s more complex than those aspects that are known to oneself. That part of the s e l f which i s acc e s s i b l e to the consciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l he c a l l s the phenomenal s e l f ; while those f e e l i n g s , motivations, knowledge and perception that are unconscious to the i n d i v i d u a l he terms the non-phenomenal s e l f . I t i s mainly with the phenomenal s e l f that Super i s con-cernediin h i s study of the r e l a t i o n between personality and occupation. The formation of self-concept i s c e n t r a l to Super's theory of vocational development. His ideas on the formation of self-concept are summarized i n an a r t i c l e published i n 1963 (Super, 1963). As he sees i t , an i n d i v i d u a l begins forming a concept of himself from infancy and develops a sense of i d e n t i t y as a person d i s t i n c t from but at the same time resembling other persons. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an exploratory process which goes on throughout the e n t i r e course of l i f e u n t i l death. There are f i v e aspects i n the pro-=_ cess. F i r s t , there i s the phase of exploration. I t i s a continuing process during which the i n d i v i d u a l sees h i s s e l f and h i s environment both as objects of exploration as they develop and change. The second phase i s s e l f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . As part of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s search f o r i d e n t i t y , the baby notes the d i f f e r e n c e between himself and others. He also wants to know, "What am I l i k e ? " In adolescence, the differences between s e l f _ r v d others are broadened and make one aware that he i s f a t or t a l l , shy or poised, a t h l e t i c or clumsy, good i n academic matters or bored at school. The t h i r d phase occurs more or l e s s simultaneously with the second, and i t i s the phase of identifLcat'io.n. Beginning with t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the like-sexed parent, i n d i v i d u a l s develop images of themselves and adopt behaviour pattern that are modeled a f t e r people they i d e n t i f y with. Role-playing goes hand i n hand with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . As the i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f i e s with c e r t a i n people who serve as h i s models, he seeks to emulate them either i n imagination or i n overt behaviour. Whether the r o l e - p l a y i n g i s l a r g e l y imaginative or overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t gives him some opportunity to t r y the r o l e on for s i z e and to see how v a l i d the concept of oneself a c t u a l l y i s . The f i n a l phase i s r e a l i t y t e s t i n g . L i f e o f f e r s many opportunities for the i n d i v i d u a l to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the self-concept he has adopted for himself. The r e a l i t y t e s t i n g may take place i n children's play, i n school courses, i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i n part-time or temporary employment. These r e a l i t y t e s t i n g experiences strengthen or modify s e l f -concepts, and confirm or contradict the way i n which they have been tenta-t i v e l y translated into an occupational r o l e . Self-concept and Vocational Development Despite the vast amount of w r i t i n g and research that has been done by the s e l f - t h e o r i s t s and the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n that occupation occupies i n one's selfhood, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-concept and vocational devel-opment has not a t t r a c t e d much at t e n t i o n from either the personality t h e o r i s t s or the vocational psychologists u n t i l f a i r l y r ecently. Super (1963, p. 2) notes that vocational choice was l a r g e l y ignored by w r i t e r s on 15 the self-theory such as Wrenn (1958), Strong and Felder (1961), and Wylie (1961) . Among the few whose wr i t i n g and research on self-concept and vocational choice stimulated the thinking of Super on vocational development were Carter and Bordin. Carter (1940), whose i n t e r e s t was i n the development of vocational a t t i t u d e among adolescents, described self-concept as the product of a person's attempts to make a successful adjustment to h i s envi-ronment. Within the environmental and genetic l i m i t s of the i n d i v i d u a l , a person i d e n t i f i e s with people i n a p a r t i c u l a r occupation. If th i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a p r a c t i c a l o n e — t h a t i s , one for which he has the neces-sary i n t e r e s t s and aptitudes and which provides s a t i s f a c t o r y r e w a r d s — i t continues and exerts an integr a t i n g influence on the personality by strengthening a p a r t i c u l a r concept of the s e l f . Bordin (1943), working with Strong's Vocational Interest Blank, postulated that i n answering an i n t e r e s t inventory a person indicated his acceptance of a concept of himself i n terms of occupational stereotypes. The self-concept i s thus translated d i r e c t l y into f e e l i n g s and behaviours r e l a t e d to occupations. Two years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of a paper e n t i t l e d "Vocational Adjust-ment: Implementing a Self-concept"(Super, 1951), Super presented i n 1953 h i s theory of vocational development to the American Psychologist Asso-c i a t i o n , the g i s t of which was quoted at the beginning of t h i s review. Central to Super's theory (1953, 1963) i s the formation of the s e l f -concept, as outlined above, the t r a n s l a t i o n of the self-concept into occupational terms, and i t s implementation. The t r a n s l a t i o n of s e l f -concept into occupational terms takes place through one or more of three processes: i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , experience, and observation. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 16 with an adult sometimes seems to lead to a desire to play h i s occupational r o l e . Experience i n a r o l e i n which one i s cast, perhaps more or less through chance, may lead to the discovery of a vocational t r a n s l a t i o n of one's self-concept which i s as congenial as i t i s unexpected. For example, a draftee assigned to service as a medical corpsman may discover unexpec-ted i n t e r e s t s i n and aptitudes for medicine. By observation, reading and l i s t e n i n g to others, one learns that some of one's aptitudes and i n t e r e s t s are important i n c e r t a i n occupations, and one may look into the p o s s i b i l i t y of entering such occupations. For example, learning that one has a b i l i t y i n algebra i n high school may lead to the study of physics which may lead to a career i n engineering. The implementation of self-concept i s a process of a c t i o n . The i n d i -v i d u a l seeks and obtains the s p e c i a l i z e d education or t r a i n i n g heeded for the occupation to which he aspires, or he seeks and finds employment i n i t . Finding i t , he consolidates h i s concept of himself as worker. At the other extreme, the high school drop-out who never d i d w e l l i n h i s studies, who ; was not accepted by his class-mates, and who i s f i r e d from the job may f i n d the occupational t r a n s l a t i o n of h i s self-concept as a f a i l u r e confirmed and implemented. Reeducation would involve the b u i l d i n g up of a new p o s i t i v e self-concept and the f i n d i n g of a s u i t a b l e occupation i n which t h i s new self-concept may f i n d expression and take shape. Research Studies on Self-concept Implementation  Through Occupational Choice Super's theory of vocational development has attracted a considerable number of research studies. In t h i s b r i e f reveiw some of the studies r e l a t i n g to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-concept and career, e s p e c i a l l y 17 self-concept implementation, w i l l be examined. Brophy (1959) used 81 nurses working i n a New York h o s p i t a l as subjects and asked them to complete an adjective c h e c k l i s t to describe themselves, t h e i r i d e a l selves, and the kind of person t h e i r jobs required them to be. He found that v o c a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n was inversely r e l a t e d to the d i s -crepancy between self-concept and occupational r o l e , i d e a l occupational r o l e and occupational r o l e , and self-concept and i d e a l occupational r o l e concept. Englander (1960) also conducted a study to investigate discrepancy„be-tween self--concept and occupational r o l e concept. Her subjects consisted of 126 female college students, some of whom were elementary education majors, some were education majors i n other areas, and some were non-education students. They were asked to perform one Q-sort describing themselves and another Q-sort, with the same items, to describe elementary teachers. She hypothesized that congruency of self-concept and concept of the r o l e of elementary teacher would be greater for elementary educa-t i o n majors than other students. Her hypothesis was supported by her findings at the .01 l e v e l and she concluded that occupation was a means to implement the self-concept. A somewhat s i m i l a r study was done by Morrison (1962) who used the Q-sort to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-concept and occupational concept. He administered Q-sorts to 44 nursing majors and 43 education majors, a l l females. His findings supported h i s hypothesis that nursing students were more l i k e l y to report s i m i l a r i t y between s e l f perception and nurses than teachers and that education students were more l i k e tea-chers i n th e i r s e l f perception than nurses. Blocher and Schutz (1961) i n a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 18 s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s , occupational stereotypes of most l i k e d occupations and l e a s t l i k e d occupations, predicted that a person's s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n would be more congruent with the occupational stereotype of h i s most pre-ferred occupation than h i s l e a s t l i k e d occupation. They administered a d e s c r i p t i v e c h e c k l i s t to 135 twelfth grade boys to measure t h e i r s e l f -concept, i d e a l self-concept and the occupational stereotypes of the two occupations. The r e s u l t s supported t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s . They interpreted the r e s u l t s as i n d i c a t i n g that claimed vocational i n t e r e s t s are an out-growth of attempts to develop and implement s a t i s f y i n g concepts i n r e l a -t i o n to the world of work. Tageson (1960) i n a study of agreement between self-concept and occupational r o l e concept, used Q-sorts to obtain descriptions of the s e l f , the i d e a l s e l f , the i d e a l seminarian, and the average seminarian from 120 seminary students. Faculty and peer ratings of the realism i n the voca-t i o n a l choice for each seminarian were also obtained. He found that congruency among self-concept, i d e a l self-concept, a c t u a l and i d e a l occupa-t i o n a l r o l e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to realism of vocational choice as judged by both f a c u l t y and peer r a t i n g s . A s i m i l a r study was done by Anderson and Olsen (1965) with respect to realism of choice. They predicted a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the degree of congruency of self-and i d e a l self-concepts and the a b i l i t y to make r e a l i s t i c choices of occupational goals. Their sample consisted of 96 male and female high school seniors who were c l a s s i f i e d as r e a l i s t i c or u n r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r choices, depending upon whether they had the a p t i -tudes, as measured by the Flanagan Aptitude C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Tests (FACT), necessary for the completion of a four-year as against a two-year college course. Q-sorts between congruency of self-concept and i d e a l self-concept 19 were also performed. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the r e a l i s t i c and u n r e a l i s t i c subjects on the congruency of the s e l f and i d e a l self-concepts. There was no systematic d i f f e r e n c e i n the realism of choices made by students of varying degree of congruency between s e l f and i d e a l self-concept. Oppenheimer (1966) studied the hypothesis that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between an occupational preference hierarchy based on predictions made from the degree of agreement between s e l f and occupational concepts and the occupational preference hierarchy d i r e c t l y expressed by a subject. However, he did not use the more common adjective c h e c k l i s t or Q-sort f o r the measurement of self-concept and occupational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He used a modified version of Kelly's(1955) Role Construct Repertory Test to assess the subjects' own phenomenological f i e l d and to express t h e i r s e l f and occupational r a t i n g . The subjects also ranked 70 occupations i n order of th e i r preference f o r them. By comparing the occupational rankings with the responses to the Repertory Test, he concluded that h i s p r e d i c t i o n was supported and that people preferred occupations that were congruent with t h e i r self-concept. Ziegler(1970) tested the r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-concept and voca-t i o n a l preference. Four hundred twenty-eight male college students, repre-senting 39 college majors, selected t h e i r most- and le a s t - p r e f e r r e d occupational i n t e r e s t areas from a l i s t of 14 areas. The subjects described themselves and th e i r most- and lea s t - p r e f e r r e d occupational member concepts with Gough and Heilbrun's (1965) Adjective C h e c k l i s t . His findi n g s indicated that i n d i v i d u a l s perceived a greater degree of congruency between themselves and th e i r most-preferred occupational member concepts. Addi-t i o n a l support f o r Super's theory was that c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t i v e self-concept f e a t u r e s w e r e f o u n d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a s . W h e e l e r a n d C a r n e s ( 1 9 6 8 ) u s e d t h e c o n c e p t s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , i d e a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , s t e r e o t y p e o f p r o b a b l e o c c u p a t i o n , a n d s t e r e o t y p e o f i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n t o t e s t S u p e r ' s t h e o r y . U s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f B l o c h e r ' s ( 1 9 6 1 ) D e s c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t , t h e y a s k e d m a l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t o r e s p o n d i n t e r m s o f s e l f a n d i d e a l s e l f , a n d i n t e r m s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e p r o b a b l e a n d i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e i r c h o i c e . T h e i r f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e c o n g r u e n c y b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e o f h i s p r o b a b l e o c c u p a t i o n w o u l d b e s i g n i -f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o n g r u e n c y b e t w e e n h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e o f h i s i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n w a s s u p p o r t e d a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l . T h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t h e c o n g r u e n c y b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i -d u a l ' s i d e a l s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d h i s i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e w o u l d b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t b e t w e e n h i s i d e a l s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d t h e p r o b a b l e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e w a s n o t s u p p o r t e d b u t w a s f o u n d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a w h i s i d e a l s e l f a n d t y p i c a l p e o p l e i n b o t h i d e a l a n d p r o b a b l e o c c u p a -t i o n s a s q u i t e c o n g r u e n t , a n d t h a t , s i n c e b o t h p r o b a b l e a n d i d e a l o c c u p a -t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s w e r e m o r e l i k e t h e i d e a l s e l f t h a n t h e r e a l s e l f , t h e c h o i c e o f a n o c c u p a t i o n w a s v e r y m u c h m o r e t h a n t h e s i m p l e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a s e l f - c o n c e p t b u t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a n i d e a l s e l f - c o n c e p t . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n d o n e u s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m a s a n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e b e h a v i o u r a c c o r d i n g t o S u p e r ' s t h e o r y . K o r m a n ( 1 9 6 6 ) t e s t e d t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d c h o i c e h o l d s f o r s u b -j e c t s w i t h h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m b u t n o t f o r t h o s e w i t h l o w s e l f - e s t e e m . H i s 21 r e s u l t s supported h i s hypothesis that high self-esteem persons were more l i k e l y to possess t r a i t s relevant to t h e i r chosen occupation than were persons of low self-esteem. He concluded that the findings provided negative evidence f o r a simple match of s e l f to occupational stereotype process i n vocational choice. In another study (Korman, 1967) he also found that self-esteem was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the degree of congruency between self-perceived a b i l i t i e s and the a b i l i t i e s required i n the chosen occupation. Greenhaus (1972) also studied the r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-esteem and implementation of self-concept v i a occupational choice. He predicted that self-esteem would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the degree of s e l f -occupational congruency, and that self-esteem would moderate the r e l a t i o n -ship between congruency and occupational s a t i s f a c t i o n . His findings did not support the f i r s t p r e d i c t i o n and the r e l a t i o n between self--esteem and congruency was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . However, the moderating e f f e c t s of self-esteem on self-occupational congruency and occupational s a t i s f a c t i o n were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . He concluded from h i s r e s u l t s that high self-esteem persons tended to look at t h e i r own needs and relevant a t t r i -butes i n determing the s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r occupational choice, whereas low self-esteem persons look more toward external cues. Healy (1973) i n h i s study based on Super's theory of self-concept implementation examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p of self-esteem and s o c i a l c l a s s to self-occupational congruency and i d e a l self-occupational congruency. For h i s study 54 accounting majors were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from 58 non-accounting business majors on the basis of t h e i r i d e al-self-accounting congruency (p^.01) and t h e i r self-accounting congruency ( p ^ . 0 5 ) . Both high- and low-esteem accounting majors' congruency scores for accountant 22 were higher than other subjects' accountant congruency, and high-esteem accounting majors had the highest congruency. He concluded that h i s find-... ings supported Super's theory of self-concept implementation through occupational choice. However, since the i d e a l - s e l f - o c c u p a t i o n congruency scores better d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the two c u r r i c u l a r groups, he suggested that h i s data also supported Wheelers and Carnes' p o s i t i o n that persons sought to a c t u a l i z e themselves through, rather than i n , an occupation;.that i s , they hope that the occupational duties w i l l change them so that they become more l i k e t h e i r i d e a l . Mansfield (1973) with a sample of 300 undergraduates at Oxford Univer-s i t y attempted to r e p l i c a t e the findings of Korman that self-esteem acts as a moderating v a r i a b l e i n the occupational choice process. The theory was not supported when the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between self-esteem, self - p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s perceived as required i n occupations were examined. He found that i n d i v i d u a l s i n both high and low self-esttem groups are more l i k e l y to see themselves as possessing a higher percentage of the a b i l i t i e s they think e s s e n t i a l for :.their chosen occupations than the a b i l i t i e s they think e s s e n t i a l i n a second, unchosen occupation. However, the high-esteem group appear to achieve a considerably better f i t between the i r view of themselves and t h e i r view of t h e i r chosen occupation than the low s e l f -esteem group. He concluded that h i s data, while not supporting Korman's contention that self-esteem acted as a moderating v a r i a b l e , were consistent with the self-implementation theory of vocational choice. He also found that those with high self-esteem were more l i k e l y than those with low self-esteem to see themselves as possessing a b i l i t i e s they saw as necessary i n t h e i r chosen occupations. Bujold (1972) i n a study to examine the r o l e of self-concepts and 23 occupational concepts i n vocational choice during adolescence used a sample of 126 French Canadian high school boys who were considering engineering as a career. He found p a r t i a l support for Super's theory of self-concept implementation through career choice i n that a greater s i m i l a r i t y was found between the subjects' self-estimates of t h e i r work values than between the measured values of the sujects and the measured values of engineers. However, very few s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were observed between the subjects' self-estimates of a t t r i b u t e s and t h e i r estimates of engineers' a t t r i b u t e s . Two other studies having some bearing on the implementation of s e l f -concept through occupational choice are worth mentioning. Schuh (1966) used the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to measure congruency between self-concept and career of 89 graduating college seniors and predicted that s e l f and job r a t i n g would be congruent. His hypothesis was not supported by the r e s u l t s and he argued that i t was wrong to equate congruency with s a t i s -f a c t i o n , since a "bad" self-concept congruent with a "bad" occupational concept should produce s a t i s f a c t i o n . Since no such r e l a t i o n was found i n his study, he concluded that self-concept occupational congruency provided a meaningful way to p r e d i c t occupational preference when both were p o s i t i v e , but not when either was negative. Marks and Webb (1969) were concerned with the e f f e c t s of experience on the accuracy of occupational images, since self-concept implementation through career choice requires adequate knowledge of careers that o f f e r promise of self-expression. With a sample of 824 subjects that included u n i v e r s i t y students and professionals i n i n d u s t r i a l management and elec-t r i c a l engineering, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the amount of professional experience that one has i n a f i e l d has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the image one 24 holds of the incumbent of that occupation. However, they did. f i n d that college freshmen i n engineering and i n d u s t r i a l management do describe themselves d i f f e r e n t l y and i n ways that c o r r e l a t e approximately with images they hold of t h e i r future occupations. Their f i n d i n g would seem to lend some support to Super's hypothesis of self-concept implementation. One important study conducted by Super and Overstreet (1960), though not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to self-concept implementation through occupational choice, has some bearing on the present study as i t i s r e l a t e d to the vocational maturity of ninth grade students. In t h e i r l o n g i t u d i n a l Career Pattern Study they viewed the concept of vocational maturity i n terms of the congruency between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s vocational behaviour and the expected vocational behaviour at that age. They i d e n t i f i e d two major factors as relevant to vocational maturity i n ninth grade, namely, o r i e n t a t i o n of choice task and the use of resources. They also studied v a r i a b l e s that might be associated with vocational maturity and found that o r i e n t a t i o n of choice task was (a) s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to i n t e l l i g e n c e but not to age, (b) correlated p o s i t i v e l y with parental occupational l e v e l , school c u r r i c u -lum and amount of c u l t u r a l stimulation, (c) correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a s p i r a t i o n and also with the degree of agreement between a s p i r a t i o n and expectation, and (d) not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c orrelated with any of the person-a l i t y adjustment or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a b l e s as measured by the Thematic Apperception Test, Incomplete Sentence Blanks, and Father I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Inventory. The second f a c t o r , use of resource, did not appear to be a highly pervasive dimension i n vocational maturity. The importance of i n t e l l i g e n c e and socio-economic factors i n vocational maturity was also s i m i l a r l y indicated i n the studies of Gribbons and Lohnes (1969), and 25 Maynard and Hansen (1970). To sum up, research on Super's theory has shown that career or occupation s e l e c t i o n allows f o r self-expression and implementation of the s e l f . Current self-image, as w e l l as a s p i r a t i o n and i d e a l s e l f , are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to career development. In general i t has been shown that an i n d i -v i d u a l s e l e c t s or r e j e c t s an occupation i n accordance with i t s being com-p a t i b l e or imcompatible with one's self-concept and that there i s more congruency between one's self-concept and one's preferred occupational choice than between one's self-concept and other le s s preferred occupations. Realism, vocational s a t i s f a c t i o n , and self-esteem have also been the subjects of research i n connection with the self-concept implementation theory but the r e s u l t s are less conclusive. Studies on vocational maturity of high school students have indicated the relevance of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , socio-economic status, c u l t u r a l stimulation, and school curricula, i n the vocational choice behaviour of adolescents, but there does not seem to have been any study on self-concept implementation through occupational choice which takes these factors i n t o consideration i n general or examines the e f f e c t s of school c u r r i c u l a i n p a r t i c u l a r , e s p e c i a l l y with regard to high school students. D i f f e r e n t i a l Programming, Streaming, Tracking  and A b i l i t y Grouping D i f f e r e n t i a l programming, streaming, tracking, and a b i l i t y grouping a l l r e f e r to the organization of the school curriculum i n t o programmes or courses of study, forming groups of students on the basis of a b i l i t y or areas of i n t e r e s t s . In some cases where students of equal a b i l i t y and s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s are grouped together the two coincide. In most school 26 systems where there are groupings based on a b i l i t y students are usually streamed into academic, te c h n i c a l , and general programmes, often on the basis of academic performance or a combination of both academic and i n t e l -ligence t e s t r e s u l t s . In the following sections a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of a b i l i t y grouping as i t i s applied i n B r i t i s h , American, and Canadian secondary education and a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the educational and occupational prospects, the social-economic status, and the self-esteem of the students w i l l be presented. Streaming i n B r i t i s h Secondary Education Since the Education Act of 1944, d i f f e r e n t types of secondary educa-t i o n have been provided f o r c h i l d r e n who leave t h e i r primary schools at the age of eleven. Generally speaking, s e l e c t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t types of schools are based on test performance and interviews. The top 20%. are selected f o r the grammar school, 5% for the secondary t e c h n i c a l school, and the remining 70% or so go to a modern secondary school. Grammar schools are the highest esteemed since they are academically oriented and prepare the students f o r the General C e r t i f i c a t e of Education examinations, the passing of :which i s e s s e n t i a l for u n i v e r s i t y and higher education, entry to the professions and semi-professions, and c e r t a i n categories of highly s k i l l e d work and whi t e - c o l l a r work. The secondary modern school tends to stress general education and vocational preparation as i t s educational aims. Transfer from a modern school to a grammar school i s possible but d i f f i c u l t as the two types of schools follow d i f f e r e n t kinds of c u r r i c u l a . However, some of the r i g i d i t y of the system has been a l l e v i a t e d to some extent by the spread of the comprehensive high school where students i n d i f f e r e n t streams are educated i n the same school to f a c i l i t a t e transfer from one stream to another and also by the a d d i t i o n of more non-academic subjects i n the G.C.E. examinations. Some of these changes have been the r e s u l t s of c r i t i c i s m of educators, s o c i o l o g i s t s , and s o c i a l reformers. They point out that the early s e l e c t i o n of students for d i f f e r e n t types of education tends to r e i n f o r c e and per-petuate c l a s s d i v i s i o n and reproduce two main s o c i a l groups with d i f f e r e n t culture and l i f e s t y l e s . As the working class c h i l d i s more l i k e l y to come from a poor home environment with l i t t l e educational support or encourage-ment from the parents to perform well i n the school entrance examinations, he i s more l i k e l y to be placed i n a modern secondary school than h i s middle cla s s counterpart. Furthermore, such a system would r e s u l t i n unequal educational and occupational aspirations and opportunities for students i n the d i f f e r e n t streams of education (Dent, 1961; Taylor, 1963; Vernon, 1957). In a d d i t i o n to the s o c i a l and economic consequences there i s the psychological e f f e c t on the self-concept of the student himself. Being placed i n a modern school means a lowering of expectation and evaluation by oneself and by others. In many subtle and not so subtle ways, s o c i a l l y recognized f a i l u r e often begets further f a i l u r e by changing p o s i t i v e s e l f -concept about oneself into one that i s l e s s acceptable to the student himself. Elder (1965), a f t e r reviewing research data r e l a t i n g to streaming i n B r i t i s h education, concluded that a l l o c a t i o n of students to the d i f f e r e n t types of school on the basis of the 11-plus examinations works to the disadvantage of the working- or.lower-class youth; that once placement i n low-status school and streams i s made, the impact of t h i s change r e s u l t s i n a f u l f i l l m e n t of the "ordinary" or " d u l l c h i l d " ideology; and that for many students assigned to modern school, self-esteem, achievement, and i n t e r e s t i n school decrease as they experience the expectations and treatment accorded the ordinary c h i l d . Tracking i n the United States Despite the existence of some s p e c i a l i z e d schools i n c e r t a i n large c i t i e s , known as "academic," "college-preparatory," or "vocational," the comprehensive high school i s the type normally attended by most American high school students and belongs to what Havighurst and Neugarten (1975, pp. 72-79) c a l l the s i n g l e - t r a c k system, as most of the students follow the same track that can lead to the u n i v e r s i t y . In the s i n g l e -track system the choice of pathway, when i t occurs at a l l , i s delayed u n t i l at l e a s t the 9th, and usually u n t i l the 10th or 11th, grade, with the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a student to move back and f o r t h from one path to another. Increasingly, however, as a consequence of attempts to accommodate i n d i v i d u a l differences i n a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , the high school curriculum i s organized into programmes and courses of various educational i n t e r e s t s . The students may major i n c e r t a i n subjects or combination of subjects with such t y p i c a l programmes as general, college-preparatory, terminal business, or terminal i n d u s t r i a l . To a c e r t a i n extent t h i s system i s tantamount to mult i p l e - t r a c k i n g or streaming i n B r i t a i n . However, a student's career choice i s not necessarily f i n a l or i r r e v e r s i b l e . If he decides to continue h i s education, i n the case of a terminal-business student, he can remove h i s d e f i c i e n c i e s by taking more courses; he may f i n d a college that w i l l admit him c o n d i t i o n a l l y ; or he may even be admitted i n t o c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t e s without any conditions attached. Even under such a f l e x i b l e system Conant (1959. 1961) found some schools were r i g i d l y tracked. In many schools a student enrolled in,or was assigned to, a f i x e d programme and he stayed with i t u n t i l graduation. In some schools the student had l i t t l e or no choice i n determining h i s high school programme. His placement was determined by h i s a b i l i t y and past achievement, and tracking and a b i l i t y grouping then became synonymous. Havighurst and Neugarten commented that when a comprehensive school i s run l i k e a set of p a r a l l e l schools with r i g i d tracks and b a r r i e r s between c u r r i c u l a , i t does l i t t l e to promote s o c i a l f l u i d i t y and that students choose one curriculum rather than another i n l i n e with t h e i r s o c i a l c l a s s p o s i t i o n . Sexton (1967) pointed out that the school, by continually s o r t i n g and s e l e c t i n g students for the various groups according to a b i l i t y , w i l l greatly influence the kind and q u a l i t y of education the student receives, as w e l l as h i s future l i f e , i n cluding whether he goes to college, the jobs he w i l l get, and h i s f e e l i n g s about himself and others (p. 57). She found that grouping takes place e a r l i e r and e a r l i e r based on standardized tests and teacher judgments. By her c a l c u l a t i o n i n the early 1960's 49 per cent of the comprehensive schools had tracks. C i c o u r e l and Kitsuse (1963) theorized that one of the major conse-quences of s e l e c t i o n f o r tracking would be a l i m i t a t i o n of access to future occupational opportunities by organizational decisions and actions that occurred as early as the student's l a s t year i n the junior high school.. They found that p r a c t i c e and a c t i v i t i e s of counselling personnel i n the school were of prime importance i n deciding whether or not a student was placed i n a college or non-college curriculum which could e i t h e r advance or thwart the occupational a s p i r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l student. 30 D i f f e r e n t i a l Programming i n Canada The comprehensive or composite high school seems to be the most prevalent type of secondary school across the nation, replacing i n some provinces the separate academic and vocational schools by o f f e r i n g academic, commercial, tech n i c a l , vocational, and general courses w i t h i n the same high school (Johnson, 1968). The prevalence of the comprehensive type of high school i n the l a s t 15 years or so r e f l e c t s the f a c t that d i f f e r e n t i a l programmes wit h i n a s i n g l e school are getting acceptance. The assumptions behind d i f f e r e n t i a l programming according to Bargen (1963, p. 42) appear to be (a) i n d i v i d u a l differences are r e a l — b o t h i n degree and i n kind, (b) programme d i f f e r e n t i a l s made to meet i n d i v i d u a l d ifferences need not be anti-democratic, (c) i t i s more i n l i n e with the idea of economic return to educate students of varying a b i l i t i e s i n our technological and i n d u s t r i a l economy, and (d) school programmes should be d i v e r s i f i e d s u f f i c i e n t l y to meet the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the nations and community. That such assumptions are basic to the r a t i o n a l e of the Canadian high school can be .. found i n the recommendations of the Report of the Royal Commission on the Education i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960, on the organization of the public school programme (p.222) and i n Downey's (1963) address to educational administrators at the Conference of the Canadian High School. The growing trend towards the B r i t i s h type of streaming i n the secondary school i n Canada was also noted by Baker (1963). He pointed out that the senior high school i s tending to become a genuinely multi-track school, the s e l e c t i o n being l e s s and l e s s i n the hands of the students and more and more i n the hands of the school a u t h o r i t i e s . There i s also a tendency for the s e l e c t i o n to be made e a r l i e r and e a r l i e r , pushing down into the j u n i o r high school and approximating the B r i t i s h 11-plus. Such development towards multi-tracking and e a r l i e r s e l e c t i o n has been examined and c r i t i c i z e d by some educators. Downey (1963) concluded that " i t i s downright f o l l y to condemn any student to an i n f e r i o r educational opportunity on the basis of our assessment of h i s p o t e n t i a l , for none of us r e a l l y knows what another i s capable of becoming" (p. 6-7). Baker (1963) raised three questions that he considered to have e t h i c a l as w e l l as administrative i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i r s t , are our t e s t i n g and guidance procedures r e l i a b l e (and our supply of genuinely q u a l i f i e d guidance persons adequate) to warrant a purely school decision and a l l o c a t i o n to given programmes? Secondly, i s the evidence of educational outcomes of grouping either by a b i l i t y or achievement based on standardized tests r e l i a b l e enough to warrant the enforced a l l o c a t i o n of students to streams? T h i r d l y , are there a l t e r n a t i v e s to the streamed or multi-track school which would preserve a greater measure of personal prerogative for the student, or defer the time of a l l o c a t i o n , or ease the problem of transfer? Indeed while p r o v i s i o n are t h e o r e t i c a l l y made for a student to trans-fer from one programme to another (Administrative B u l l e t i n , B.C., 1967) at the senior secondary l e v e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia and while i t i s stressed that at the junior high l e v e l nothing should be done to make i t mandatory that pupils are placed i n s p e c i f i c , r i g i d l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d programmes, experience has shown that when a student has f a i l e d some core academic subjects, i t becomes very d i f f i c u l t , i f not outright impossible, f o r a student to trans-f e r to, or to remain i n , an academic programme. In the words of Bargen (1963) of the Edmonton School Board, "programmes d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on a track basis tend to place students i n s l o t s out of which i t i s d i f f i c u l t to move. Th e o r e t i c a l l y , of course, transfers are possible, but the h i s t o r y of sec-ondary schools using t h i s system shows that transfers seldom take place. Most track systems do not allow s u f f i c i e n t opportunity for c r o s s - s e t t i n g " (p. 44). The E f f e c t s of A b i l i t y Grouping on Self-esteem Feelings and personal worth are influenced by performances, a b i l i t i e s , appearance, and the judgment of s i g n i f i c a n t others. Since assignment to a low-status school, stream, track, or programme i s based on poor r e s u l t s of tests and other forms of assessment of a b i l i t y and c a p a b i l i t y , and since dependency of self-estimates on the judgments of others i s more pronounced during adolescence, a high school student's self-esteem i s greatly affected by t h i s open and formal recognition of h i s f a i l u r e . A v i c i o u s c i r c l e i s formed when a student i s put i n a s o c i a l l y deemed i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y group as a r e s u l t of poor performance i n school or t e s t s . Loretta Byers (1961) _ reviewed the research on a b i l i t y grouping and mental health and came to the following conclusions: (a) A halo e f f e c t seemed to accompany assignment to a class for the g i f t e d ; (b) Children i n g i f t e d classes tended to f e e l more secure than those i n more heterogeneous groups; (c) Children who were not i n g i f t e d sections evidenced f e e l i n g s of worthlessness and sometimes of r e j e c t i o n s . The negative implications of enrolment i n a vocational pro-gramme on the self-esteem of students were t y p i f i e d by the remarks of one boy i n a study conducted by Mallery (1962) when he said, "Around here you are nothing i f you are not college-prep" (p. 113). Eash (1961), i n h i s summary of the research on a b i l i t y grouping, stated that the evidence i s f a i r l y conclusive that grouping p r a c t i c e s i n a school can a s s i s t i n developing s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s that influence the student's perception of s e l f , h i s sense of d i g n i t y and worth, and h i s a t t i t u d e towards other c h i l d r e n . Jackson (1964) found considerable s o c i a l differences between streamed and unstreamed schools. In unstreamed schools c h i l d r e n were more cooperative and h e l p f u l towards each other, while the streamed schools emphasized competition. In another study on a b i l i t y grouping, Borg (1966) concluded that the .. self-concept of both the average and the slow pupils s u f f e r s markedly i n schools where a b i l i t y grouping:.'.is p r a c t i s e d . Pupils, e s p e c i a l l y g i r l s , i n randomly grouped classes had more favourable a t t i t u d e s towards selves.and higher self-acceptance than those i n a b i l i t y grouped sections. In addition, there were fewer pupils i n the randomly grouped classes who were designated s o c i a l i s o l a t e s on sociometric t e s t s . The most detrimental e f f e c t s of a b i l i t y grouping on a student i s that i t tends to operate as a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy. There seems to be con-siderable evidence that due to s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy the groups that s u f f e r most are those who are placed i n groups that are l a b e l l e d as slow and les s demanding i n academic a b i l i t y , f o r c h i l d r e n are o b l i g i n g creatures and are i n c l i n e d to produce the standard of work that elders regard as appropriate (Yates, 1966). Other studies have shown that pupi l s of lower a b i l i t y placed i n the higher a b i l i t y streams or tracks gained i n terms of performance, while pupils of equal p o t e n t i a l s placed i n lower-streams or tracks l o s t . In the higher stream, the slower the p u p i l , the greater was the improvement; i n the lower track, the brighter the p u p i l , the greater the los s (Douglas, 1964; Goldberg, Passow, & Justman, 1966). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-esteem and academic performance and expectation has been investigated by various researchers. Brookover, Thomas, and Paterson (1964) found that self-concept of a b i l i t y i s correlated with academic performance. Smith (1966) established a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ship between fe e l i n g s of personal worth and competent r o l e performance, the two being mutually r e i n f o r c i n g . Rosenberg (1965) i n her study on youth . , found that low self-esteem i s associated with anxiety, defensiveness, low achievement, and low a s p i r a t i o n s . Rosenthal and Jacobson (1966) i n t h e i r study found teacher expectations shaped the children's self-concept i n a way that produced a performance consistent with t h e i r self-concept. A b i l i t y Grouping and Socio-economic Class of Students It has often been pointed out by. s o c i o l o g i s t s that more than a b i l i t y i s involved i n placing a student i n a c e r t a i n stream. Jackson (1964) pointed out that the d e c i s i o n to place a c h i l d i n a p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y group i s based p a r t l y on a b i l i t y and p a r t l y on s o c i a l c l a s s membership. In 140 B r i t i s h schools having two a b i l i t y groups, three-quarters of the pupils having fathers i n p r o f e s s i o n a l or managerial occupations were i n the higher group, and only one-quarter i n the lower group. Another study (Douglas, 1964) shows that with equal measured a b i l i t y , 11% more middle-class c h i l d r e n are a l l o c a t e d to the upper streams than are to be expected, and 26% fewer are placed i n the lower stream. The same study also shows that among c h i l d r e n of s i m i l a r measured a b i l i t y , educational opportunity i s influenced by. .social c l a s s p o s i t i o n . Among bright c h i l d r e n , the chances of entering a grammar school do not vary appreciably by s o c i a l c l a s s ; however, among ch i l d r e n of lesser a b i l i t y , upper-middle-class youth were four times as l i k e l y to be enrolled i n grammar schools at age 15. Transfer to grammar school i s very infrequent among modern school youth, and le s s than three per cent of an age group who enter modern schools a f t e r the 11-plus examination manage to get transfer to grammar schools (Robins' Report, 1963). Of the transfer, most students are from middle and upper-middle class f a m i l i e s . Breton's (1972) survey of secondary school students i n Canada shows that there i s an association between the student's programme of study and h i s l e v e l of mental a b i l i t y and socio-economic background. His data show that students higher i n mental a b i l i t y are generally more l i k e l y to be i n •.. an academic programme than those lower i n mental a b i l i t y and i n socio-economic status. A b i l i t y Grouping and Occupational A s p i r a t i o n As occupations that require a l o t of schooling generally have higher prestige than occupations that require very l i t t l e schooling, a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s betwen educational attainment and occupational status i s i n e v i t a b l e (Jencks, 1972, pp. 180-190) . As was pointed out by Caplow (1954) formal education i s of great influence i n career development. ^Occupational choices are often made when the student i s s t i l l f a r from entering the world of work. Choices are often forced on students through school require-ments and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l a , such as academic and terminal programmes. Caplow believes that as one acquires more education more vocational oppor-t u n i t i e s are open. P i e t r o f e s a and Splete (1975), r e f e r r i n g to the influence of school on career development, commented, "By f o r c i n g a choice of curriculum and standard for passing courses and graduating, the school does influence vocation development. The types of c u r r i c u l a a v a i l a b l e to a student are of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n " (p,. 102). C i c o u r e l and Kitsuse (1963) pointed out that a b i l i t y grouping i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of educational opportunities among the student population and that, with the d i f f u s i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d educational programmes from the graduate school through colleges into the secondary school systems, the adolescent i s forced to make, or to accept, educational and occupational decisions from a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s he can hardly be expected to know. Sexton (1961), commenting on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y group-ing and career opportunity, c i t e d examples of high schools which sort students into r i g i d l y defined a b i l i t y groups. In addition to a b i l i t y separation, students are sorted into three basic c u r r i c u l a : college preparation, vocational, and general. Placement i n these programmes, she said, determines the student's e n t i r e future l i f e . If a student i s placed for example, i n a general or v o c a t i o n a l curriculum, he w i l l have great d i f f i c u l t y q u a l i f y i n g f or college entry or remaining i n college, should he be admitted. His chances, therefore, of moving into p r o f e s s i o n a l or highly s k i l l e d jobs w i l l be s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d . Canadian studies on occupational preferences of high school students show s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between educational programmes and occupational opportunities. Breton (1972), i n h i s comprehensive survey of career decision of Canadian youth, concluded that the i n t e n t i o n of students to continue beyond high school i s associated with the type of programme of study i n high school. Those i n programmes which prepare for a wide range of occupational p o s s i b i l i t i e s (academic) are more l i k e l y to intend to continue beyond high school than those students i n the more r e s t r i c t i v e programmes (technical and commercial). Breton and McDonald (1968) also found that when high school students were c l a s s i f i e d according to the programme they were i n , the " l e v e l " of occupational preferences of the stu dents i n non-academic programmes i n most provinces was s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than those i n the academic, university-preparatory programmes (p. 270). In summary, research studies i n the areas of d i f f e r e n t i a l programming streaming, tracking, and a b i l i t y grouping have shown that a larger 37 proportions of students from the lower socio-economic classes are found i n the less p r e s t i g i o u s non-academic streams, tracks, or programmes. Stu-dents i n the less prestigious programmes usually have lower occupational and educational a s p i r a t i o n s , lower a b i l i t y , and a lower self-esteem. In a major Canadian study on occupational preferences of high school students, the researchers came to the conclusion that as each programme of study o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t kind of preparation for one's future career, a c e r t a i n h i e r a r c h i c a l ordering of programmes tended to be generated within each educational system. I t was also pointed out that students i n academic programmes are more l i k e l y to intend to continue beyond high school than those i n programmes that are more vocational or general i n o r i e n t a t i o n . Thus i t may be concluded that d i f f e r e n t i a l programming, or streaming, exerts a great influence i n the vocational development of the high school student as i t i s t i e d not only to h i s future educational and occupational plans and opportunities but also to h i s perception of a b i l i t y and s e l f -esteem. I t also seems clear that d i f f e r e n t i a l programming i t s e l f i s c l o s e l y associated with academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status and that any study of i t s possible e f f e c t s on the vocational choice behaviour of high school students must take these factors into account. Hypotheses for This Study In the following sections the hypotheses derived from the review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , the r a t i o n a l e for the d i r e c t i o n a l p r edictions, the basic assumptions made i n t h i s study, and the operational d e f i n i t i o n s of terms are presented. As non-academic programme students have a more l i m i t e d number of educational and occupational opportunities open to them, i t seems l i k e l y that, as they s t r i v e to implement t h e i r self-concept through choice of an occupation, other things being equal, t h e i r probable occupational stereotypes are more unlike t h e i r self-concept than i s the case for academic programme students who have more freedom of choice with regard to occupa-tions and further education. Hypothesis 1 The congruency between self-concept and probable occupational stereo-type for students i n academic programmes w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that for students i n non-academic programmes, given c o n t r o l for academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status. As students i n academic programmes are comparatively more free to choose a most probable occupation i n so f a r as perceived occupational and educational opportunities are concerned, other things being equal, i t seems l i k e l y that t h e i r probable and i d e a l occupational stereotypes are more a l i k e than students i n non-academic programmes whose probable occupation i s only a compromise choice dictated by the programmes they are i n . Hypothesis 2 The congruency between probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereotype for students i n academic programmes w i l l be s i g n i -f i c a n t l y greater than that for students i n non-academic programmes, given co n t r o l for academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status. As students i n l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s programmes and a b i l i t y groups are often found to have a low self-esteem, i t seems l i k e l y that non-academic programme^students are more d i s s a t i s f i e d with themselves than are the academic students. 3 9 Hypothesis 3 The congruency between self-concept and i d e a l self-concept for students i n academic programmes w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that for students i n non-academic programmes. As streaming and d i f f e r e n t i a l programming have often been found to work to the disadvantage of the lower socio-economic groups, i t seems there w i l l be more students from the lower socio-economic classes i n the non-academic programmes than i n the academic porgrammes. Hypothesis 4 Students from lower socio-economic groups tend to be streamed into non-academic programmes. As placement i n d i f f e r e n t programmes are usually based on academic a b i l i t i e s , i t seems l i k e l y that students with higher academic a b i l i t i e s are more l i k e l y to be placed i n academic programmes and students with lower a b i l i t i e s i n non-academic programmes. Hypothesis 5 Students i n academic programmes have higher academic a b i l i t i e s than students i n non-academic programmes. D e f i n i t i o n s Self-concept i s operationally defined as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of himself on a d e s c r i p t i v e c h e c k l i s t . Ideal self-concept i s ope r a t i o n a l l y defined as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of himself as he would l i k e to be on a d e s c r i p t i v e c h e c k l i s t . Occupational stereotype i s op e r a t i o n a l l y defined as the d e s c r i p t i o n on a d e s c r i p t i v e c h e c k l i s t of a t y p i c a l member of a p a r t i c u l a r occupation. 40 Self-esteem i s operationally defined as the degree of congruency between one's self-concept and one's i d e a l self-concept. Congruency i s operationally defined as the s t a t i s t i c a l s i m i l a r i t y between p r o f i l e scores on the d e s c r i p t i v e c h e c k l i s t s . Assumptions Made i n the Study 1. That a student i n Grade 10 has a s p e c i a l self-concept composed of those d i s t i n c t i v e patterns of a t t i t u d e s , ideas, f e e l i n g s , and desires which a person holds about himself i n r e l a t i o n to the world of work. 2. That a student i n Grade 10 has c e r t a i n stereotypes regarding people i n various occupations. 3. That a student i n Grade 10 w i l l have a probable vocational choice, that i s , a vocation that he thinkd he w i l l most probably take up upon leaving school, college, or u n i v e r s i t y , based on some conscious or unconscious assessment of r e a l i t y v a r i a b l e s such as f i n a n c i a l support, a b i l i t y , length of t r a i n i n g , and vocational and educational opportu-n i t i e s that are perceived as a v a i l a b l e to him. 4. That a student i n Grade 10 has an i d e a l self-concept, that i s , the kind of person he would l i k e to be, or s t r i v e s to become. 5. That an i n d i v i d u a l has an i d e a l v o c a t i o n a l choice, that i s , the vocation he would choose, i f he were free to choose as he l i k e d . CHAPTER I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY This chapter consists of three parts. In the f i r s t s e c tion a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the various instruments and a discussion of the r a t i o n a l e for t h e i r choice w i l l be presented. The second part describes the sample and the procedure for the c o l l e c t i o n of research data/ The l a s t section deals with the treatment of data, and the multiple regressional analysis model w i l l be examined i n some d e t a i l s . Instrumentation Measurement of Self-concept, Ideal Self-concept, Probable Occupational  Stereotype, and Ideal Occupational,Stereotype. The design of t h i s study required the choice of an instrument that could y i e l d a measure of the degree of congruency between any two of the four v a r i a b l e s , i . e . , self-concept, i d e a l self-concept, probable occupa-t i o n a l stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereotype. The instrument had to be f a i r l y straightforward and easy to administer to Grade 10 students i n groups. Several types of instrument were considered for use i n t h i s study. F i r s t , since the self-concept to be investigated was the phenomenal s e l f as experienced by the subject himself and not the i n f e r r e d s e l f (Wylie, 1961, p.18; Super, 1963, pp. 20-21), a l l empirically-derived personality inventories that are usually used for the measurement of self-concept had to be ruled out. Besides, such instruments are inappropriate f o r the measurement of i d e a l self-concept and occupational stereotypes. Of the several instruments used i n personality assessment, the Q-sort technique developed by Stephenson (1950) i s the most widely used i n the study of self-concept and i d e a l self-concept. I t s advantages are obvious since the items i n the Q-sort can be arranged to give measures of various constructs such as self-concept, i d e a l self-concept, stereotypes of occupations, etc., from which congruency between the constructs can be c a l c u l a t e d . However, the drawback for t h i s technique i s that the items have to be .selected for s p e c i f i c purposes i n order to l i m i t the number from getting too large and unmanageable. For t h i s reason, Q-sorts of the type used with nurses and teachers would be unsuitable for the purpose of the present study as the number of occupations involved would of necessity be large and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of occupations wide-spread. The actual sorting of the items would also be confusing f o r the students as they would have to deal with four constructs. The other types of instrument most useful for i n v e s t i g a t i n g s e l f -concepts consist of r a t i n g scales, questionnaires, and adjective c h e c k l i s t s . Many such r a t i n g scales, c h e c k l i s t s , or questionnaires have been cons-tructed. Wylie (1961) reported that of the 80 instruments she reviewed two-thirds'.had no reported r e l i a b i l i t y data, and 80 per cent provided l i t t l e information on construct v a l i d i t y . Of the several c h e c k l i s t s that have been used i n research i n the area of self-concept implementation through voca t i o n a l choice, the Descriptive .Checklist developed by Blocher (1959) seemed the most appropriate for the purpose of measuring self-concepts and occupational stereotypes. .His aim was to develop an instrument that would o f f e r ample scope f o r the expression of divergent personality v a r i a -bles which were s i g n i f i c a n t to self-concepts and vocational self-concepts. Blocher's c h e c k l i s t was based on C a t t e l l ' s (1946) study which contained 4,500 terms d e s c r i p t i v e of human personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s taken from A l l p o r t and Odbert's l i s t (1936) and from a survey of the psychological l i t e r a t u r e . C a t t e l l considered t h i s l i s t to be a complete and comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n the English language and these terms were again reduced to a set of 171 t r a i t - c l u s t e r s . Blocher eliminated nine terms taken from abnormal psychology as not a p p l i c -able to normal human behaviour. Adjectives or phrases appropriate to the vocabulary of adolescents were then selected for each of the 162 t r a i t c l u s t e r s , t o t a l l i n g 180 items and sampling 96 per cent of C a t t e l l ' s c l u s t e r s . The instrument was assumed to have b u i l t - i n v a l i d i t y as C a t t e l l ' s l i s t was accepted as c o n s t i t u t i n g a complete universe of personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (A.P.A. 1954). The Spearman-Brown corrected s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y was reported as .92. Wheeler (1967) modified Blocher's Desc r i p t i v e Checklist by changing the "yes ," "?'," "no" type of responses to a f i v e - p o i n t Likert-type r a t i n g scale for each item and he obtained a Spearman-Brown s p l i t h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y of .96. Since Wheeler's modified form of the c h e c k l i s t has two more choices i n the r a t i n g scale and appears to be a s l i g h t l y more re f i n e d instrument, i t was selected for the measurement of self-concept, i d e a l self-concept, as w e l l as probable and i d e a l occupational stereotypes (Appendix A, B, C, & D). The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y obtained by the researcher i n the pre-liminary t e s t i n g of Wheeler's Checklist for self-concept with a sample of Grade 10 boys was .92, i n d i c a t i n g that the Checklist was a s u i t a b l e instrument for the study. 44 Measurement of Socio-economic Status As one of the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s , the socio-economic status of subjects was measured on the Blishen's (1967) Socio-Economic Index f o r Occupations i n Canada, using data on parents' i-occupations supplied by students on the preliminary questionnaire. The Blishen Index i s based on the 1961 census data, using a v a i l a b l e data on income and education, and, unlike the 1951 Index, incorporating the Pineo-Porter scale f or prestige value for the 88 comparable occupations. The c o e f f i c i e n t of multiple c o r r e l a t i o n between the Pineo-Porter scores and the income and educational l e v e l scores obtained from census data was .919, i n d i c a t i n g support for the v a l i d i t y of the 1961 Index. The rank c o r r e l a t i o n 'between t h i s index and the 1951 index was .96. As the 1951 index has been found to co r r e l a t e highly with the Tuckman scale, .91, and s i m i l a r indexes obtained i n other i n d u s t r i a l countries, the Blishen 1961 Index was taken to be a v a l i d instrument f o r the purpose of t h i s study, since i t had not yet been updated at the time of w r i t i n g . Measurement of Academic A b i l i t y The other c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e , academic a b i l i t y , was measured by the combined scores of Verbal Reasoning and Numerical A b i l i t y (VR+NA) i n the D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test administered by the school counsellors about one month before the study began. The D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test was given to the Grade 10 students s i x months a f t e r they had decided on t h e i r programmes of study. Measurement of Probable and Ideal Occupational Choices In the Preliminary Questionnaire students were asked to respond to the two questions which e l i c i t e d t h e i r probable and i d e a l occupational choices (see Appendix E). 45 Measurement of Programmes of Study In the Preliminary Questionnaire students were asked to i n d i c a t e whether they were on selected studies or combined studies, and to i n d i c a t e the areas of concentration. Students taking selected studies i n a r t s and science and students taking combined studies majoring i n arts and science, in c l u d i n g mathematics, were c l a s s i f i e d as academic students. A l l others were c l a s s i f i e d as non-academic students. Where students were unclear what programmes of studies they were i n , the school counsellors supplied the necessary information from t h e i r records. Semi-structured Interview Rationale for the interview. The interview was designed to serve three purposes. F i r s t , while the assumptions made i n t h i s study were e s s e n t i a l to the formulation and t e s t i n g of the hypotheses, i t was neces-sary to determine to what extent these assumptions were applicable to Grade 10 boys. An examination of these assumptions would be of value i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the research data generated by the Descriptive C h e c k l i s t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the interview was designed to answer the follow-ing questions: 1. Do Grade 10 boys i n academic and non-academic programmes have d i f f e r e n t occupational and post-secondary educational aspirations? 2. Do they have a probable occupation i n mind? 3. Do they have an i d e a l occupation i n mind? 4. How do they come to acquire the stereotype of t h e i r probable occupation? Secondly, since programming i s one of the main v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study, the interview aimed at getting some background information on 46 the reasons why students chose or got into a p a r t i c u l a r programme, whether they were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r programmes or whether they would prefer to be i n another programme i f they were free to so so. T h i r d l y , the interview attempted to gather information d i r e c t l y from the students themselves so that three of the hypotheses might be examined by using the student's subjective assessment of the degree of congruency between t h e i r perceived t o t a l p e rsonality and occupational stereotypes and between perceived self-concept and i d e a l i z e d self-concept. In other words, the interview would y i e l d information that could be used to look at the hypotheses with more i n t u i t i v e l y a r r i v e d at data. Construction of the interview schedule. When the idea of employing an interview was f i r s t conceived, i t was proposed that a standardized form be used. However, i n the pre-test of the schedule i t was found that while the standardized interview was quite adequate, there were occasions when rephrasing and probing were necessary. I t was therefore decided that the approach described as "the non-schedule standardized interview" (Richardson, Dohrenwend & K l e i n , 1965) would be followed i n the interview. The i n t e r -view schedule (Appendix F) was therefore used i n the interview as guides for the types of information required rather than as uniform s t i m u l i . Procedure Sample The subjects i n t h i s study consisted of a l l the Grade 10 male students i n two junior and one senior secondary schools which had Grade 10 classes i n the lower mainland i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Two hundred and twenty-one students took part i n the f i r s t session of the study, but absences i n subsequent sessions and incomplete returns reduced the number 47 to 194. The ages of the boys ranged from 14 to 18, with roughly half of them aged 15 and the other half aged 16 and an average age of 15.6 years. One of the junior secondary schools was situated i n a working class area and the other i n a middle cl a s s area. The senior secondary school served students from several diverse "income" areas. The percentage and percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of parental occupations of the students as measured on the Blishen (1967) Socio-economic.Ihdex, with corresdonding figures for the labour force f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, are presented i n Table 1. As can be seen the sample s l i g h t l y overrepresented the higher and middle income groups and underrepresented the lower income groups as compared with the p r o v i n c i a l and national labour force d i s t r i b u t i o n . Table 1 Percentage and Cumulative Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Parental Occupations of Students as Mea-sured on Blishen's Socio-economic Scale and Corresponding f i g u r e s f or Labour Force for B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Socio-economic No. of occupations ' .Sample B. C. Canada Index ( N--= 194 ) Cum. Cum Cum _ % % % % % %;, 70.00+ 13 6.7 6.7 4 4 4 4 60.00 - 69.99 20 10.31 17.01 4 8 4 8 50.00 - 59.99 23 11.86 28.87 9 17 9 17 40.00 - 49.99 49 25.25 54.12 19 36 20 37 30.00 - 39.99 53 27.32 81.44 31 67 32 69 Below - 30.00 36 18.56 100.00 33 100 31 100 A l l three schools had arts and science academic programmes and com-mercial, i n d u s t r i a l , and community services non-academic programmes. Of the 194 students, 100 were taking academic programmes and 94 were en r o l l e d i n non-academic programmes. Data C o l l e c t i o n The data were c o l l e c t e d during regular school hours when the students were having t h e i r guidance periods. In two of the schools students were organized into small groups of from 10 to 15 boys for t h e i r guidance lessons and they met once i n eight days. The other school had three groups consis-t i n g of the whole d i v i s i o n s of two Grade 10 classes and a s p l i t Grade 10 and 9. The Grade 9 also took part i n the study but the r e s u l t s were not used i n the a n a l y s i s . In the f i r s t session the students were given the Preliminary Question-naire and the Descriptive Checklist f o r Self-concept and the Descriptive Ch e c k l i s t f o r Ideal Self-concept. The researcher then read out the purpose for the study as was i n the f i r s t paragraph on the Preliminary Question-n a i r e . The students then f i l l e d i n .the Questionnaire as each item was being read out. This took about seven to eight minutes. The researcher then asked the students to turn to the Descriptive Checklist marked with SC. The preliminary i n s t r u c t i o n was then read out. I t was found i n the preliminary t e s t i n g that a few words or terms caused some queries, so these were written on the blackboard and t h e i r meaning explained to them. These included " a l c o h o l i c , " "chip on shoulder," "cocky," "drawing a b i l i t y , " and "worldly." The students were t o l d that they could ask the meaning of words or phrases i f they did not understand the meaning of any of them. I t was found that generally students had no problem with the l i s t of words apart from those r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r . In one class one student said he was a new immigrant and so was excused from the study as he was not too f a m i l i a r with the English language. The Self-concept Checklist took about 20 minutes to do. The students had a break of about f i v e minutes to enable the slower ones to f i n i s h . The procedure was then repeated, a f t e r the Descriptive Checklists for Ideal Self-concept were given out, except, i n t h i s instance, the students went s t r a i g h t to the c h e c k l i s t a f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n had been read out to them. The Ideal Self-concept Checklist took about 15 minutes as the students were f a m i l i a r with the words and phrases. Seventeen f i r s t sessions were con-ducted over a 12-day period. The occupational t i t l e s for probable and i d e a l occupations were then transcribed by the researcher from the Preliminary Questionnaires onto the Checklist for Probable Occupation and the Che c k l i s t for Ideal Occupation before the second session which took place eight days a f t e r the f i r s t session. There were a few cases where students did not give a clear occupational t i t l e or where they did not enter any occupations, probable or i d e a l . Such students were interviewed f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n p r i o r to the second session. Those who affirmed that they had no occupational choices, probable or i d e a l , were excluded from the second session. On the second session students were i d e n t i f i e d by the number they had on the preliminary questionnaires and were given the corresponding Che c k l i s t s f o r Probable and Ideal Occupations. The i n s t r u c t i o n on the Probable Occupational C h e c k l i s t was read out by the researcher and the students started to f i l l i n the Che c k l i s t according to i n s t r u c t i o n . A short break of about 10 minutes was allowed the students a f t e r they had 50 f i n i s h e d the Probable Occupation C h e c k l i s t . The i n s t r u c t i o n on the Ideal Occupation C h e c k l i s t was then read out and the students proceeded to f i l l i n the C h e c k l i s t . The Interview When the second sessions were over, 26 academic and 26 non-academic students were randomly selected for the interview. The i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r -views took place during normal guidance periods and students were excused from the class so they could be interviewed by the researcher. One stu-dent was absent from school on the day he was to be interviewed and he was replaced by another student randomly selected from h i s guidance group. Before the interview proper began the interviewer, a f t e r i n v i t i n g the student to come into the interview room and to make himself comfortable, explained to him the purpose of the interview thus: "As you know I am working on t h i s research study on students' choice of occupation. This i s the second part of the study and only, about 25 per cent of the Grade 10 students have been randomly selected to take part. I would l i k e to t a l k to you about your programme of study and any vocational and educational plans that you may have. They are very general questions and everything you say w i l l , of course, be kept i n s t r i c t confidence. I use t h i s tape recorder to record our interview so that I don't have to write and ta l k at the same time." A few warm-up questions such as: "How long have you been i n t h i s school?" , "Which high school are you going to next term?" , "Are you looking forward to i t ? " etc., led to the interview proper. Each interview l a s t e d approximately 20 to 30 minutes. Treatment of Data The research hypotheses c a l l e d for an assessment of the degree of congruency between self-concept and probable occupational stereotype, probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereotype, and self-concept and i d e a l self-concept, as measured on the D e s c r i p t i v e Check-l i s t s , and comparisons for s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences between the academic and non-academic students along these three dimensions. Cronbach and Gleser (1953) devised a s t a t i s t i c a l technique for assess-ing s i m i l a r i t y , or congruency, between p r o f i l e scores such as those yielded 2 by the D e s c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t . This technique, y i e l d i n g the D s t a t i s t i c , was used to c a l c u l a t e the degree of congruency between two p r o f i l e s . B r i e f -l y the f i v e - p o i n t responses were given weights from 1 to 5. Congruency or d i f f e r e n c e for each p a i r of the same item on the two p r o f i l e s i s calculated by subtracting the value of one of the p a i r from the other. The difference was then squared. The squared differences for a l l the 180 items were added up to obtain a congruency score, e.g.. Self-concept and Probable Occupational Stereotype congruency score. ( A l l the item scores on the D e s c r i p t i v e Checklists were transferred onto computer punch cards. The cards were processed by the IBM 360 computer at the Computing Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the print-outs checked against the C h e c k l i s t s for accuracy. The congruency 2 scores were ca l c u l a t e d v i a the D s t a t i s t i c by using a Fortran programme s p e c i a l l y w r itten for t h i s purpose. The research questions i n t h i s study involved the question whether s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences existed among congruency scores between academic and non-academic students. The simplest test would be a t - t e s t , ignoring a l l the covariables. The problem could also be handled by analysis of covariance with academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status as covariates. Recent writings, however, have pointed out the advantages of using the 52 multiple regression model i n cases where, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , analysis of variance or covariance would have been employed (Cohen, 1968). Theoreti-c a l l y , the multiple regression analysis model i s equivalent to the analysis of variance model, but has at l e a s t three advantages over i t : (a) the use of continuous v a r i a b l e s , (b) les s data processing time, and (c) d i r e c t , comprehensive estimates of the magnitude and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the independent v a r i a b l e e f f e c t s on the dependent variables (Walberg, 1971). A f u l l account of the multiple regression model and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n can be found i n K e l l y , Beggs, and McNeil (1969), Bottenberg and Ward (1963), or Kerlinger and Pedhazur (1973). By means of the multiple regression analysis method, i t i s possible not only to te s t the main hypothesis concerning group membership, but also the e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n , socio-economic status, and academic a b i l i t y on the c r i t e r i o n score. In general the f u l l model f or the regressional analysis i s as follows: Y. = a U + a nX, + a 0X 0 + a„X„ + a.X. + a cX c + arX^ + E. 1 o 1 1 12 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 1 where Y^ = c r i t e r i o n score (a congruency score) U = the unit vector X^ = DAT score, i f Y^ comes from a student i n academic group; z e r o i otherwise. X£ = DAT score, i f comes from a student i n non-academic group; zero otherwise. X^ = Socio-economic score, i f comes from a student i n academic group; zero otherwise. X^ = Socio-economic score, i f Y^ comes from a student i n non-academic group; zero otherwise. X^ = 1, i f Y^ comes from a student i n academic group; zero otherwise. Xg =1, i f comes from a student i n non-academic group; zero otherwise. = (Y^ - Y^), where Y^ = predicted c r i t e r i o n score and where a l ' - a 2 ' a 3 ' a 4 ' a 5 ' a 6 = Part^-a-'- regression weights calculated to minimize the sum of the squared elements i n vector E^. The above f u l l scale model i s i d e n t i f i e d as (F) i n the summary table. To te s t f o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of DAT scores on group membership the following r e s t r i c t e d model was used: Y n = a U + a_X_ + aj£„ + a,X, + a_Xr + a„X^ + E„ 1 o 7 7 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 2 where X^ = the sum of vectors X^ and X^, or a continuous vector whose elements are DAT scores regardless of group membership. a_ = p a r t i a l regression weight of t h i s continuous vector. From these two regression equations, m u l t i p l e - c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are then calculated. Squaring the m u l t i p l e - c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (R), 2 2 R^ (R squared, f u l l model) and R_, (R squared, r e s t r i c t e d model) are obtained. The F - r a t i o i s calculated according to the following formula (Bottenberg and Ward, 1963); F = < R f - R r > / d £ l ( 1 - R2f ) / d f 2 2 where, R^ = the square of the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t produced by the f u l l model, or the amount of variance accounted for by the f u l l model. 2 R = the square of the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t produced by the r e s t r i c t e d maodel. df^ = the degree of freedom f o r the numerator, computed by sub-t r a c t i n g the number of l i n e a r l y independent vectors i n the r e s t r i c t e d model from the number of l i n e a r l y independent vectors i n the f u l l model. df^ = the degree of freedom f o r the denominator computed by sub-t r a c t i n g the number of l i n e a r l y independent vectors i n the f u l l model from the t o t a l numebr of subjects. If the F test i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i n t e r a c t i o n e x i s t s . Interaction e f f e c t with regard to socio-economic status can be s i m i l a r l y tested by. construc-t i n g the appropriate r e s t r i c t e d model. I f no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t e x i s t s , the following regressional equation i s used as the f u l l model: Y. = a U + a-,X_, + a 0 X 0 + acX_ + a,X. + E„ 1 o 7 7 - .8 .8 . 5 5 6 6 3 where, Y^ = c r i t e r i o n score U = unit vector X ? = DAT score Xg = Socio-economic score X,. = 1, i f Y^ comes from a student i n academic group; zero otherwise Xg = 1, i f Y^ comes from a student i n non-academic group; zero otherwise. E 3 = ( Y , - ^ ) The above model i s referred to as (FR) i n the summary table. To answer the question, "Is there s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the-two groups?" i s the same as answering the question, "Does group membership have an influence on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e with academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status s t a t i s t i c a l l y c ontrolled?" The r e s t r i c t e d model r e f l e c t s the absence of knowledge of group membership and i s as follows: Y l " a 0 U + a 7 X 7 + a 8 X 8 + E4 The above.equation i s ref e r r e d as SESDAT i n the summary table. 55 For easy reference the following notations are used to denote the variables included i n the d i f f e r e n t models i n the computer print-outs and i n the summary tables: DAT = DAT score regardless of programme membership SES = Socio-economic Index score regardless of programme membership PP = Programme membership as a predictor v a r i a b l e SS = Socio-economic Index score dichotomized by programme membership DD = DAT score dichotomized by programme membership F = the f u l l model, containing the unit vector, and DD, SS, and PP as predictor variables FR = the f u l l model, containing the unit vector and SES, DAT, and PP as predictor variables In the summary table F/DATPPSS gives the F - r a t i o when the f u l l model i s compared with the r e s t r i c t e d model containing DAT, PP, and SS as pre-d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . The model on the left-hand side of the l i n e , ( / ) i s the f u l l model i n that p a r t i c u l a r comparison, while the model on the r i g h t -hand side of the l i n e i s the r e s t r i c t e d model. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r example, the question that i s being asked i s , "Does the removal of programme mem-bership information about DAT score s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the p r e d i c t i o n of the c r i t e r i o n scores?" This amounts to the te s t i n g of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of DAT with programme membership. If i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s detected to be s i g n i f i c a n t H.then DD w i l l have to be used i n a l l the models containing D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test scores information; otherwise the u n i f i e d DAT w i l l be used i n the equation as a sin g l e vector. By using the various models f i r s t as r e s t r i c t e d models and then as f u l l models .a, number of of comparisons between the models can be made. The number of vectors i n the r e s t r i c t e d model i s always less than that i n the f u l l model. The F - r a t i o t e l l s whether the removal of c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s , or vectors, s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence the p r e d i c t i o n of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . A l l the multiple regressional analyses were performed by using the packaged programme, ED46: BOTWARD, courtesy of the Department of Mathe-matics, College of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Treatment of Interview Data Five of the interviews were transcribed and response categories were constructed. The r e s t of the interviews were then coded according to the response categories. An independent judge was asked to check the accuracy of the coding of the responses. Where doubts existed the researcher and . the judge reviewed the tape together and decided on the correct response. The responses were then added up by categories and the percentages for the academic and non-academic groups computed for presentation i n table forms. CHAPTER IV THE PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The purpose of the f i r s t part of t h i s chapter i s to present the r e s u l t s of the interview. The analyses of the interview data were guided by the r a t i o n a l e f o r the interview outlined i n the previous chapter. The second ha l f deals with the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the data generated by the four Descriptive Ch e c k l i s t s and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n with respect to the f i v e hypotheses of t h i s study. Results of the Interview Choice of and S a t i s f a c t i o n with Programmes A l l 52 students (26 academic and 26 non-academic) claimed they had chosen the programmes themselves. However, while 24 academic students ... (92.3%) had the necessary courses for the academic programme, only f i v e non-academic students (19.2%) had the required courses for the academic programme, i n d i c a t i n g that the majority of the non-academic students did not i n a c t u a l i t y have any a l t e r n a t i v e choice. Three academic students were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r programme, two for i t s being too hard and one for being too boring. Three non-academic students were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r programme, a l l saying i t was too easy. While honei of the academic students would want to change pro-gramme, s i x of the non-academic students wished to be i n an academic programme i f they could f r e e l y do so. 58 Probable and Ideal Occupational Choices With respect to the assumption that an i n d i v i d u a l student would have a probable vocational choice, the r e s u l t (see Table 2) shows that of a l l the students interviewed 94.2% had a probable vocational choice at t h i s stage of t h e i r education. The assumption of the existence of an i d e a l occupational choice seems a l i t t l e l e s s tenable as only 88.4% of those interviewed had an i d e a l occupational choice (Table 3). Programmes and Levels of Probable and Ideal Occupational Choices The assumption the d i f f e r e n t programmes tend to widen or to r e s t r i c t a student's freedom of choice of possible occupations i s to a c e r t a i n extent supported by the r e s u l t s . Tables 2 and 3 show that while 50% of the academic students chose managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l occupations for t h e i r probable choice, only 3.8% of the non-academic students did so. The majority of the non-academic students, 77%, chose a probable occupation i n the s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d l e v e l s . However, when they were given the chance to make an i d e a l choice, regardless of any l i m i t i n g f a c t ors that they might see, 52.4% out of 21 of the non-academic students who had an i d e a l choice chose occupations w i t h i n the managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l s , and only 47.6% preferred occupations i n the s k i l l e d l e v e l , and none i n the u n s k i l l e d l e v e l . As for the academic students, 76% out of 25 who had an i d e a l choice chose occupations i n the managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . The r e s u l t s seem to i n d i c a t e that students i n non-academic programmes did experience r e s t r i c t i o n i n the choice of a probable occupation and that when some of the l i m i t i n g f a c t ors were removed, they tended to choose occupations which were at a higher l e v e l than t h e i r probable occupations and approached the choice pattern of the academic students. 59 Table 2 Probable Occupational Choices by Level and Programme Level Academic % Non-•academic % T o t a l % Managerial & pro f e s s i o n a l 13 50.0 (54.2)* 1 3.8 (4)* 14.' 26.9 C l e r i c a l & sales 2 7.7 ( 8.3)* 4 15.4 (16)* 6 11.5 S k i l l e d 9 34.6 (37.5)* 16 61.5 (64)* 25/ 48.1 Uns k i l l e d 0 .0.0 4 15.5 (16)* 4 7.7 (No choice) 2 7.7 1 3.8 3 5.8 26 100.0 (100) 26 100.0 (100) 52 100.0 * Per cent of those students with probable choice Table 3 Ideal Occupational Choices by Level and Programme Level Academic % Non-academic % T o t a l % Managerial & pro f e s s i o n a l 19 73.1 (76)* 11 42.3 (52.4)* 30 57.7 C l e r i c a l & sales 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 S k i l l e d 6 23.1 (24)* 10 38.5 (47.6)* 16 30.8 Un s k i l l e d 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 (No choice) 1 3.8 5 19.2 6 11.5 26 100.0 (100) 26 100.0 (100) 52 100.0 * Per cent of those students with i d e a l choice 60 Programmes and Opportunity for Higher Education Tables 4 and 5 i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between programme differ e n c e and perceived opportunities for higher education. While 61.5% of the academic students gave as t h e i r main reason for being i n the programme "going to u n i v e r s i t y or college," not one of the non-academic students di d so. This r e s u l t contrasts s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the large percentage of non-academic students who expressed the desire f o r higher e d u c a t i o n — 38.5% f o r u n i v e r s i t y and 23.1 for college or t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e , i f given the chance. Only 23.1% of the non-acadmic students would l i k e to pursue post-secondary education which did not require any academic preparation. These data seem to suggest that academic students tend to regard secondary education as an intermediate stage i n t h e i r education, whereas non-academic students looked on secondary education as terminal courses that led to jobs and occupations. Programme and Ideal Occupation Another i n d i c a t i o n that programmes determine the types of occupations that were r e a l i s t i c a l l y open to the students i s provided by r e s u l t s con-cerning the students' estimation of t h e i r chances of ever getting t h e i r i d e a l occupations. Table 6 shows that 64% of the academic students thought t h e i r chances were 50% or better, while only 47.6% of the non-academic students thought t h e i r chances were better than 50%. Of those students who considered t h e i r chances to be below 50%, the majority of the non-academic students, 81%, ascribed the main reason to being i n the "wrong programme", while most academic students pointed to personal or f i n a n c i a l handicap (see Table 7). 61 Table 4 Main Reasons Given by Students f o r Being i n Their Programmes by Programme Reason Academic % Non-academic % Going to u n i v e r s i t y or college 16 61.5 0 0.0 Having f a i l i n g grades 0 0.0 8 30.8 Preference f o r courses 7 26.9 15 57.7 Better job opportunity 3 11.5 3 11.5 26 99.9 26 100.0 Table 5 Students Desiring Post-secondary Education by I n s t i t u t i o n and Programme I n s t i t u t i o n Academic % Non-academic % Un i v e r s i t y 19 73.1 10 38.5 BCIT or college 6 23.1 6 23.1 Vocational school 0 ;<0.0 ' 6 23.1 No further education 0 0.0 4 15.3 Undecided 1 3.8 0 0_0 26 100.0 26 100.0 62 Table 6 Estimated Chances by Students of Getting Ideal Occupation by Programme " Chances % Academic % Non-academic % 100-75 11 44.0 6 28.6 74-50 5 20.0 4 19.0 49-25 8 32.0 6 28.6 24-0 1 4.0 5 23.8 25* 100.0 21* 100.0 * Students without i d e a l occupational choice not included Table 7 Main Reason Given by Students f or Low Chance (below 50%) of Getting Ideal Occupations by Programme Main reason given Academic % Non-academic % Being i n wrong programme 0 0.0 9 81.8 Lack of finance 2 22.2 1 9.1 Lack of a b i l i t y 2 22.2 1 9.1 Course too long 3 33.3 0 0.0 Phy s i c a l handicap 1 11.1 0 0.0 Lack of motivation 1 11.1 0 0.0 9 99.9 11 100.0 63 Length of Time Probable Occupational Choice Considered Table 8 shows that 75% of the academic students had t h e i r probable occupations i n mind for over two years or more as compared with 40% of the non-academic students. Sixty per cent of the non-academic students had entertained th e i r probable choice within one year or l e s s , r e f l e c t i n g probably the fac t that since Grade 9 they had gone into a programme which was job or occupation-oriented. Table 8 Length of Time Probable Occupations Have Been Entertained by Students by Programme: -Length of time Academic % Non-academic % Within 6 months 0 0.0 5 20.0 Within 1 year 6 25.0 10 40.0 Within 2 years 9 37.5 5 20.0 More than 2 years 9 37.5 •5 20.0 24* 100.0 25* 100.0 * Students without probable occupational choice not included 64 Bases for Occupational Stereotypes Table 9 indicates that the assumption students were able to des-cri b e a t y p i c a l member of t h e i r chosen occupations had some v a l i d i t y as the majortiy of the students had some idea of the t y p i c a l person i n a c e r t a i n occupation.either through personal experience, reading, or d i r e c t contact. Only about s i x per cent of a l l the students who had a choice sa i d they had no basis f o r t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of occupational stereotypes. Table 9 Bases of Students' Description of T y p i c a l Person i n Probable Occupation by Programme Bases for d e s c r i p t i o n Academic % Non-academic % Personal experience 3 12.5 4 16.0 General impressions (books, v i s i t s , talks) 12 50.0 5 20.0 Having parents, r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , etc. i n occupation 7 29.2 15 60.0 No p a r t i c u l a r basis 2 8.3 1 4.0 24* 100.0 25* 100.0 * Students without probable occupational choice not included 65 Congruency Between Occupational Choice and Self-concept Answer to the f i r s t research question i s generally indicated by the findings i n Table 10. The r e s u l t on the question of which occupation the students perceived as being more congruent with t h e i r self7Concept seemed at f i r s t a l i t t l e b i t unclear since some students responded to the question by saying " e i t h e r one" and were unable to say which one f i t t e d the per-s o n a l i t y b e tter. However, i f the " e i t h e r occupation" percentage i s added to the other two occupations, then we can compare the two groups. If the " e i t h e r occupation" i s added on to the probable occupation percentage, then we obtain 87.5% for the academic students and 47.6% f o r the non-academic students. S i m i l a r l y , for the i d e a l occupation, we get 79.2% f o r the academic students and 81.0% for the non-academic students. The r e s u l t s seem to i n d i c a t e that more academic students considered t h e i r probable occupations to be congruent with t h e i r self-concepts than the non-academic students, i . e . , 87.5% to 47.6%. With regard to congruency between i d e a l occupation and self-concepts, there does not seem to be much di f f e r e n c e between the two groups of students, i . e . , 79.2% to 81.0%. The academic students appeared to see both occupations as quite congruent with t h e i r self-concept, whereas the non-academic students tended to see t h e i r i d e a l occupations as more congruent with t h e i r s . Programmes and Levels of Probable and Ideal Occupational Choices Table 11 shows that more academic students (66.7%) than non-academic students (22.6%) had chosen probable and i d e a l occupations within the same l e v e l . The r e s u l t provides an answer to the second research question that i f occupations are c l a s s i f i e d according to l e v e l s , academic students are more l i k e l y to choose i d e a l occupations that are on the same l e v e l as 66 t h e i r probable occupations than non-academic students. Again the i n t e r -view r e s u l t s tend to lend support to the underlying assumption that students i n d i f f e r e n t programmes make vocat i o n a l plans and decisions that are a function of the type of programmes they are..in. Table 10 Probable and Ideal Occupations Seen as More Congruent with Self-concept by Programme.; Occupation Academic y Non--academic a Probable, occupation 5 20. .8 (87.5%)* 4 19. .0 (47.6%)* Ideal occupation 3 12. .5 (79-2%)* 11 52. .4 (81.0%)* Either occupation- 16 66. .7 6 28. .6 24** 100. .0 21** 100. .0 * With either occupations added on ** Students with both probable and i d e a l occupational choices Table 11 Students Whose Chosen Probable and Ideal Occupations Are on the Same or D i f -ferent Level by Programme; Level Academic % Non-academic % Same Level 16 66.7 6 28.6 Di f f e r e n t Level 8 33.3 15 71.4 24* 100.0 21* 100.0 * Students with both probable and i d e a l occupational choices 67 Programme and Self-esteem The t h i r d research question asks whether students i n both academic and non-academic programmes are equal i n self-esteem as indicated by congruency between t h e i r self-concept and i d e a l self-concept. Table 12 shows that, i f congruency i s taken to mean the way students see the closeness between what they are and what they want to be, students i n both programmes tend to see themselves as quite congruent. Table 12 Rating by Students as to Closeness Between Their Real Selves and Their Ideal Selves Rating of closeness Academic % Non-academic % Very close 2 7.7 5 19.2 F a i r l y close 22 84.6 21 80.8 Not close 2 7.7 0 0.0 .26 100.0 26 100.0 Results of. .the D e s c r i p t i v e 'Checklists "> 2 The means and standard deviations of the D s t a t i s t i c s (the congruency scores derived from the Self-concept, Ideal Self-concept, Probable Occupa-t i o n a l Stereotypes, and Ideal Occupational Stereotypes Descriptive C h e c k l i s t s ) , the D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test scores, and the Socio-economic Index scores are summarized i n Table 13 by programme type. As expected, the means of the academic students are higher than the means of the non-academic students i n both the D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test (DAT) and the Socio-economic 68 Table 13 Means and Standard Deviations of the Six Congruency Scores, the D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Scores, and the Socio-economic Index Scores by programme Academic (N=100) Non-Academic (N=94) Variable Mean (Adj. Mean)* S.D. Mean (Adj. Mean)* S.D. DAT (VR+NA) 60.97 23 .85 37.28 20 .20 Socio-E Index 48.04 14 .04 39.76 11 .80 SC/POS 274.89 (275.87) 120 .12 321.14 (320 .09) 140 .75 POS/IOS 171.03 (166.01) 132 .83 206.00 (211 • 30) 131 .16 SC/ISC 288.50 (284.01) 123 .87 330.88 (335 .67) 184 .93 SC/IOS 293.20 159 .13 348.44 156 .65 ISC/POS 235.07 107 .65 304.03 149 .23 ISC/IOS 241.70 139 .50 297.39 140 .40 Note: DAT (VR+NA) = D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test (Verbal Reasoning + Numerical A b i l i t y ) . Socio-E Index = Blishen's (1967) Socio-economic Index for Occupations i n Canada. SC/POS = Self-concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency score POS/IOS = Probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency score SC/ISC = Self-concept and i d e a l self-concept congruency score SC/IOS = Self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency score ISC/POS = Ideal self-concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency ISC/IOS = Ideal self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency score *Adjusted mean Index (SES)• Although only the Self-concept and Probable Occupational Stereotypes (SC/POS), Probable Occupational Stereotypes and Ideal Occupa-t i o n a l Stereotypes (POS/IOS), and Self-concept and Ideal Self-concept (SC/ISC) congruency scores are required for s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the main hypothesis, a l l s i x congruency scores were computed for a d d i t i o n a l analyses presented i n a l a t e r section. In a d d i t i o n the adjusted means for the f i r s t three congruency scores a f t e r the e f f e c t s of the covariates have been removed (Kerlinger and Pedhazur, 1973, pp.265-277) are also included i n the table for l a t e r comparisons. I t should be noted that as a congruency score i s calculated by squaring the d i f f e r e n c e between a p a i r of raw scores on two respective D e s c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t s , the higher 2 the D s t a t i s t i c , the greater the discrepancy or the greater the lack of congruency. The r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the data with respect to the research hypotheses are presented i n the following sections: Hypothesis 1. The congruency between self-concept and. probable occupa-t i o n a l stereotype f o r students i n academic programmes w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that for students i n non-academic programmes, given control for academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status. With self-concept and probable stereotype congruency scores as c r i t e r i o n scores, the predictor v a r i a b l e s , i.e., programme membership, socio-economic index score, and D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test score. , were p l o t t e d against the r e s i d u a l s . The r e s u l t s revealed no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s i d u a l s and the predictor v a r i a b l e s , i n d i c a t i n g that the l i n e a r model i s appropriate for the analyses. The r e s u l t s of multiple regressional analyses with respect to s e l f -concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency (SC/POS) are summarized i n Table 14. The f i r s t models comparison, F/DATPPSS, tests whether academic a b i l i t y (DAT) has any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t with group membership. The F-r a t i o f o r t h i s comparison (F = 1.1971; _p_"^ .05) indicates that the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . The second models comparison s i m i l a r l y tests the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of socio-economic status (SES) with group membership, and since the r e s u l t i n g F - r a t i o ( F = 1.3221; jp_^.05) does not approach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s in d i c a t e d . The t h i r d model comparison, F/FR, tests whether DAT and SES together have any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t with group membership. The F - r a t i o (F = 1.2569; jp_^.05) shows that the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . Since DAT and SES do not i n t e r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y with group membership either singly or j o i n t l y , the FR model i s used as the f u l l model for model comparisons. R e c a l l i n g that the FR model i s represented by the following multiple regressional equation (see p. 54,): Y 1 = a U + a^X_ + a QX Q + a cX c + a,X, + E„ 1 o 7 7 8 8 5 5 6 6 3 and that the r e s t r i c t e d model, .SESDAT, i s represented by the following multiple r e g r e s s i o n a l equation: Y l = a o U + a 7 X 7 + a 8 X 8 + V FR/SESDAT represents the models comparison which gives the p r o b a b i l i t y of p r e d i c t i n g the same c r i t e r i o n scores when programme membership i s removed from the f u l l model equation. Since the F - r a t i o (F = 4.0181; JO ^  .05) i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the n u l l hypothesis i s rejected and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of group membership i s in d i c a t e d . Since the adjusted mean SC/POS congruency score for the academic group i s smaller than that f or the 2 non-academic group (see Table 13), and since the higher the D s t a t i s t i c the greater the discrepancy, the academic students were able to achieve Table 14 Summary of Results of Comparisons of Models with Self-concept and Probable Occupational Stereotype Congruency Scores as C r i t e r i o n and Pro-gramme Membership, D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Scores, and Socio-economic Index Scores as Predictor Variables No. Models Compared D.F. Num. D.F. Den. -I R 2 ...r F - r a t i o Prob. 1 F/DATPPSS 1 188 0.05965 0.05366 1.1971 0.27537 2 F/SESPPDD 1 188 0.05965 0.05303 1.3221 0.25169 3 F/FR 2 188 0.05965 0.04707 1.2569 0.28688 4 FR/SESDAT 1 190 0.04707 0.02692 4.0181 0.04641 5 FR/DATPP 1 190 0.04707 0.03366 2.6742 0.10360 6 FR/SESPP 1 190 0.04707 0.04412 .0.5880 0.44412 Note: DAT = D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test score SES = Socio-economic Index score DD = DAT score dichotomized by programme membership SS = SES score dichotomized by programme membership PP = Programme membership used as predictor v a r i a b l e F = Multiple regressional equation for the f u l l model containing the unit vector and DD, SS, and PP as predictor variables FR = Multiple regressional equation containing the unit vector and SES, DAT, and PP as predictor variables DATPPSS, etc. = multiple regressional equations containing unit vector and other v a r i a b l e s as indicated as predictor variables s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater congruency between t h e i r self-concept and t h e i r probable occupational stereotype than the non-academic students, regardles of socio-economic status and academic a b i l i t y ; and Hypothesis-- i s supported by the f i n d i n g s . Hypothesis 2. The congruency between probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereotype for students i n academic programmes w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that for students i n non-academic programmes, given c o n t r o l for academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status. With probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereo-type congruency scores (POS/IOS) as c r i t e r i o n score, the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a -bles were pl o t t e d against the r e s i d u a l s . The r e s u l t s revealed no r e l a t i o n -ship between the r e s i d u a l s and the predictor v a r i a b l e s , showing that the l i n e a r model i s appropriate for the analyses. As presented i n Table 15 and explained i n the l a s t section, model comparisons Nos. 1, 2, and 3 i n d i c a t e that no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s e x i s t between academic a b i l i t y and programme member-ship and between socio-economic status and group membership eit h e r s i n g l y or j o i n t l y . The FR model i s , therefore, used as the f u l l model i n the comparison. Model comparison No. 4, FR/SESDAT, tests the hypothesis that the two groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r probable occupational and i d e a l occupational stereotypes congruency scores, when the e f f e c t s of academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status are s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . The F - r a t i o (F = 4.1046) i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant.„(p ^ .05) and the n u l l form of the hypothesis may be r e j e c t e d . Since the adjusted mean POS/IOS score for the academic group i s smaller (see Table 13), and hence more congruent, than the non-academic group, Hypothesis 2 i s supported by the data i n the d i r e c t i o n predicted. Table 15 Summary of Results of Comparisons of Models with Probable Occupational Stereo-type and Ideal Occupational Stereotype Congruency Score as the C r i t e r i o n and Programme Membership, D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Score, and Socio-economic Index Score as the Predictor Variables No. Models Compared D.F. Num. D.F. Den. R R F- r a t i o Prob. 1 F/DATPPSS 1 188 0.02784 0.02659 0.2414 0.62384 2 F/SESPPDD 1 188 0.02784 0.02785 0.0018 1.00000 3 F/FR 2 188 0.02784 0.02659 0.1214 0.88581 4 FR/SESDAT 1 190 0.02659 0.00556 4.1046 0.04416 5 FR/DATPP 1 190 0.02659 0.02566 0.1804 0.67150 6 FR/SESPP 1 190 0.02659 0.01832 1.6130 0.20555 Note: DAT = D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test score SES = Socio-economic Index score DD = DAT score dichotomized by programme membership SS = SES score dichotomized by programme membership PP = Programme membership used as predictor v a r i a b l e F = Mult i p l e regressional equation f o r the f u l l model containing the un i t vector and..DD,_SS, and PP as predictor variables FR = Mu l t i p l e regressional equation containing the un i t vector and SES, DAT, and. PP as predictor variables DATPPSS, etc. = multiple regressional equations containing unit vector and other v a r i a b l e s as indicated as predictor variables 74 Hypothesis 3. The congruency between self-concept and-.ideal self-concept for students i n academic programmes w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that for students i n non-academic programmes, given c o n t r o l for academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic status. As before, t e s t s of l i n e a r i t y show that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the r e s i d u a l s and the predictor v a r i a b l e s . Results of multiple regressional analyses with regard to the self-concept and i d e a l self-concept congruency scores are summarized i n Table 16. Examination of the table shows that no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s e x i s t between programme membership and the two covariates. The FR/SESDAT model comparison y i e l d s a F - r a t i o of 3.8190 which, with 1 and 190 degrees of freedom, has a p r o b a b i l i t y of .052. Since the obtained p r o b a b i l i t y i s over the .05 l e v e l and since the interview r e s u l t s (Table 12) did not i n d i c a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e trend between the two groups i n self-esteem, the n u l l form of the hypothesis cannot be rejected and Hypothesis 3 i s not supported by the fi n d i n g s . Hypothesis 4. Students from the lower socio-economic groups tend to be streamed into the non-academic programmes. The socio-economic index mean for the academic group i s 48.0413 with a standard deviation of 14.0488. The mean for the non-academic group i s 39.7067 with a standard deviation of 11.8049. The t - t e s t between the two groups y i e l d s a t-value of 4.430, which, with 192 degrees of freedom, i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l . The research hypothesis i s , therefore, supported by the f i n d i n g s . Hypothesis 5. Students i n academic programmes have higher academic a b i l i t i e s than students i n non-academic programmes. As shown i n Table 13, the DAT mean for the academic group i s 60.97 with a standard deviation of 23.85. The mean f o r the non-academic group Table 16 Summary of Results of Comparisons of Models with Self-concept and Ideal S e l f -concept Congruency Score as C r i t e r i o n and Programme Membership, D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test Score, and Socio-economic Index Score as Predictor Variables No. Models..Compared D.F. Num. D.F. Den. R R F - r a t i o Prob. 1 F/DATPPSS 1 188 0.03523 0.03491 0.0637 0.80101 2 F/SESPPDD 1 188 0.03523 0.02306 2.3726 0.12515 3 F/FR 2 188 0.03523 0.02271 1.2199 0.29761 4 FR/SESDAT 1 190 0.02271 0.00307 3.8190 0.05213 5 FR/DATPP 1 190 0.02271 0.02249 0.0440 0.83405 6 FR/SESPP 1 190 0.02271 0.01841 0.8368 0.36143 Note: DAT = D i f f e r e n t i a l Aptitude Test score SES = Socio-economic Index score DD = DAT score dichotomized by programme membership SS = SES score dichotomized by programme membership PP = Programme membership used as predictor variable F = Multiple regressional equation for the f u l l model containing the unit vector and DD, SS, and PP as predictor variables FR = Mult i p l e regressional equation containing the unit vector and SES, DAT, and PP.as predictor variables DATPPSS, etc. = multiple regressional equations containing unit vector and other v a r i a b l e s as indicated as predictor variables 76 i s 37.28 with a standard deviation of 20.20. The t - t e s t between the academic and non-academic group means has a t-value of 7.442, which, with 192 degrees of freedom, i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l . The research hypothesis i s , therefore, supported by the research data. A d d i t i o n a l Findings The data c o l l e c t e d from the D e s c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t s were amenable to a d d i t i o n a l analyses, and as the t h e o r e t i c a l basis of t h i s study rests mainly on Super's theory of self-concept implementation through occupational choice, the data were analysed to see to what extent they supported Super's general th e s i s . The relevant congruency scores were f i r s t analysed as a whole group and then separately by programmes. t - t e s t s for s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between correlated means between four of the congruency scores, SC/POS, SC/IOS, ISC/POS, ISC/IOS, were performed by means of the UBC TRIP computer programme.* The r e s u l t s of the t - t e s t s are presented i n Tables 17, 18, 19. Self-concept and probable and i d e a l occupational stereotypes. Table 17 shows that for the whole sample the student's probable occupational stereo-type i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with h i s self-concept than i s h i s i d e a l occupational stereotype (t = -3.252; £ < .01, two-tailed t e s t ) . The r e s u l t thus supports the conclusions of wheeler and Carnes (1968). When the data for the two groups are examined separately (Tables 18 and 19), they show that, while for the non-academic students the probable occupational stereotype i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with the self-concept than i s h i s i d e a l occupational stereotype (t = -2.968; JD ^.01; Table 19), for the * UBC TRIP, Triangular Regression Package, Computer Centre, the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974. Table 17 Name+ Results of t - t e s t s f o r Si g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between the Correlated Means of Paired Congruency Scores for the Whole Sample Vs. Name Mean Difference t-value d.f. t-prob. SC/POS SC/POS ISC/POS SC/IOS SC/IOS -22.6649 -3.252 ISC/POS 28.8196 3.006 ISC/IOS - 0.2010 -0.027 ISC/IOS 51.2835 5.456 193 193 193 193 0.002* 0.003* 0.928 0.000** + SC/POS = self-concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency SC/IOS = self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency ISC/POS = i d e a l self-concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency ISC/IOS = i d e a l self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency *_ <.01 **£ < .001 Table 18 Results of t- t e s t s for Si g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between the Correlated Means of Paired Congruency Scores for the Academic Group Name+ Vs. SC/POS SC/POS ISC/POS SC/IOS Name Mean Difference t-value d.f. t-prob. SC/IOS -18.3100 -1.757 99 0.078 ISC/POS 39.8300 3.158 99 0.002* ISC/IOS - 6.6300 -0.559 99 0.584 ISC/IOS 51.5100 4.404 99 0.000** + as i n Table 16 *£ <.01 **_< .001 78 Table 19 Results of t- t e s t s for S i g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between the Correlated Means of Paired Congruency Scores for the Non-academic Group Name+ Vs. Name Mean Difference t-value d.f. t-prob. SC/POS SC/IOS -27.2979 -2.968 93 0.004* SC/POS ISC/POS 17.1064 1.178 93 0.240 ISC/POS ISC/IOS 6.6383 0.743 93 0.466 SC/IOS ISC/IOS 51.0426 3.415 93 0.001* + SC/POS = self-concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency SC/IOS = self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency ISC/POS = i d e a l self-concept and probable occupational stereotype congruency ISC/IOS = i d e a l self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype congruency *p_ <.01 academic group the congruency between self-concept and probable occupational stereotype i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that between self-concept and i d e a l occupational stereotype (see SC/POS vs. SC/IOS, Table 18). These r e s u l t s show that although the two groups made th e i r probable and i d e a l choices under d i f f e r e n t circumstances that led to s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences i n the degree of congruency achieved between self-concept and occupational choice, as demonstrated i n the preceding sections, t h e i r probable occupa-t i o n a l choice i s more congruent with t h e i r self-concept than, or at l e a s t as congruent as, t h e i r i d e a l occupational choice made under the most i d e a l condition when r e a l i t y f a c t o r s did not figu r e as prominently i n th e i r reckoning. Thus, the data support Super's general theory of self-concept implementation through occupational choice. 79 Probable occupational stereotype and self-concept and i d e a l  self-concept. Table 17 shows that f o r the whole sample the congruency between probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l self-concept i s s i g n i f i -cantly greater than that between probable occupational stereotype and self-concept ( SC/POS vs. ISC/POS, £. < .01). S i m i l a r l y the congruency between i d e a l occupational stereotype and i d e a l self-concept i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that between i d e a l occupational stereotype and self-concept. These findings support the conclusion a r r i v e d at by Wheeler and Carnes which they interpreted as i n d i c a t i n g that the choice of an occupation could be seen more as attempt at s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n than simply as s e l f -concept implementation. Table 18 shows s i m i l a r r e s u l t s f o r the academic programme students. Thus for the academic students choosing an occupation i s not j u s t the implementation of a self-concept; i t i s also an attempt to reach the i d e a l s e l f , i . e . s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . As for the non-academic programme students, Table 19 shows that,, although the probable occupational stereotype i s more congruent with the i d e a l self-concept than with the self-concept, the di f f e r e n c e i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (SC/POS vs. ISC/POS, £. > .05). As for the i d e a l occupational stereotype, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with the i d e a l self-concept than with the self-concept, as i n the case of the academic programme students, with £ < .01. The r e s u l t s seem to in d i c a t e that, while the probable occupational stereotype i s s l i g h t l y more congruent with the i d e a l s e l f than with the r e a l s e l f , the non-significance of the differe n c e tends to suggest that the probable occupational choice for the non-academic students i s more an attempt at self-concept implementation than s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . That the i d e a l occupational stereotype i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with the i d e a l self-concept than with the self-concept suggests that the ideal occupational choice enables the non-academic students to achieve self-actualization, bearing in mind that their probable occupational stereotype i s more congruent with the self-concept than i s their ideal occupational stereotype. Thus, i t appears that for the non-academic students, the choice of a probable occupation i s largely a process of self-concept implementation. For the academic students, however, their probable occupational choice means not just an attempt at self-concept implementation, but also the opportunity to achieve a measure of self-actualization. It i s this opportunity to incorporate a part of their ideal self-concept in their probable occupational choice that differentiates the occupational choice made by the academic students from that made by the non-academic students. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY The r e s u l t s presented i n the previous chapter suggested strongly that d i f f e r e n t i a l programming, or streaming, played an important r o l e i n the junior high school student's choice of occupation as a means of self-concept implementation. A l l but one of the hypotheses were supported by the research data. Both the interview and the a d d i t i o n a l analyses of the congruency scores y i e l d e d further data f o r the inter-., p r e t a t i o n and discussion of the f i n d i n g s . The empirical support for the f i r s t two hypotheses meant that the academic students were able to choose a probable occupational stereotype which was both more congruent with t h e i r self-concept (hypothesis 1) and with t h e i r i d e a l occupational stereotype (hypothesis 2) than was the case with the non-academic students. These findings c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e the influence of programme membership on occupational choice. There appears to be two l e v e l s of explanation for t h i s influence. The f i r s t i s suggested by the interview r e s u l t s which affirmed the assumption that d i f f e r e n t programmes i n the secondary school presented the students d i f f e r e n t opportunities for educational and occupational advancement. I t was found that p r o p o r t i o n a l l y fewer students i n non-academic programmes wanted to go on to i n s t i t u t e s of higher education and to choose as t h e i r probable occupations jobs i n the managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l , as compared with the academic students. Yet, given the choice and chance, many more of the non-academic students would choose as t h e i r i d e a l choice of occupations jobs' i n the managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . Over f i f t y per cent of them would desire u n i v e r s i t y or college education i f given the chance. Furthermore, about 80 per cent of the non-academic students interviewed ascribed t h e i r main reason for t h e i r estimated poor chance of getting t h e i r i d e a l occupations to being i n the wrong programme. Thus i t appeared that students i n d i f f e r e n t programmes perceived d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of educational and occupational opportunities which, on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , either f a c i l i t a t e d or impeded t h e i r choices of occupations most congruent with t h e i r self-concepts and t h e i r i d e a l choices. On another l e v e l , as explained i n the preceding chapter and i n Tables 17, 18,and 19, i t was found that while for the whole sample the probable occupational stereotype was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with the self-concept than was the i d e a l occupational stereotype-—thus lending support to Super's theory of implementation of self-concept through occupational c h o i c e — a n d that the probable occupational stereotype was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with the i d e a l self-concept than with the s e l f - c o n c e p t — t h e r e b y suggesting s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n as concluded by Wheeler and Carnes (1968), there were dif f e r e n c e s when the two groups were analysed separately. The r e s u l t s showed that for the academic group both the probable and i d e a l choices were equally congruent with the self-concept; however, for the non-academic group, the probable choice was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with t h e i r self-concept than was,; t h e i r - : i d e a l c h o i c e . . , Furthermore, while for the academic group the probable occupational choice was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with t h e i r i d e a l self-concept than with t h e i r self-concept, t h i s was not so f o r the non-academic students. Therefore i t would seem 83 that the probable choice for the non-academic students was more r e a l i t y , or self-concept implementation, oriented, whereas for the academic students i t was i d e a l , or s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , oriented. The f a i l u r e of the data to support the t h i r d hypothesis that the academic students would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent between t h e i r s e l f -concept and t h e i r i d e a l self-concept than the non-academic students may be interpreted i n several ways. One p o s s i b l e explanation i s that d i f f e r e n t i a l programming as practised i n the comprehensive schools, i n contrast to s t r i c t streaming, provides more opportunities for students of d i f f e r e n t programmes to intermingle through c e r t a i n common courses and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and does not produce stigmatization and a lowering of the self-esteem among students i n l e s s prestigious programmes as noted by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . Secondly, i t may mean that self-concept and i d e a l self-concept congruency, though often used as a measure of mental health and personality adjustment, i s not an adequate measure of self-esteem for normal adolescents. T h i r d l y , since the data f a i l e d to support the hypothesis at only a marginally non-s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l , i t i s possible that the two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n some dimensions of t h e i r p e rsonality but quite s i m i l a r i n others, and that these differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s might cancel one another out i n a global measure. The f a c t that previous studies (Korman, 1966 & 1967; Greenhaus, 1972; Healy, 1973; Mansfield, 1973) i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r o l e of "self-esteem" i n the context of self-concept and occupational congruency have produce c o n f l i c t i n g or inconclusive r e s u l t s underscores the complexity of the concept of self-esteem, which i t i s probably more f r u i t f u l to look at multidimensionally rather than as a s i n g l e e n t i t y . The empirical support for hypotheses 4 and 5 showed that d i f f e r e n t i a l programming , or streaming, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to socio-economic status and academic a b i l i t y of the students. Since placement i n various programmes was based e s s e n t i a l l y on academic performance and since academic achievement and socio-economic status are highly correlated, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that more students with a lower socio-economic background were found i n the non-academic programmes. However, both socio-economic status and academic a b i l i t y are not r e l a t e d to self-concept and probable occupa-t i o n a l stereotype congruency when the e f f e c t s of programming are held constant (see Table 13, Models 5 and 6). To sum up, the following conclusions may be drawn from the findings of t h i s study: 1. ' The theory of vocational choice through self-concept implementation has general a p p l i c a b i l i t y to Grade 10 male students i n the secondary school. 2. The probable occupational choice made by the students enables_them not only to implement t h e i r self-concept but also to achieve a c e r t a i n measure of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . 3. The degree of congruency achieved between self-concept and probable occupational stereotype i s a function of the school programme the student i s i n . In other words, students i n school programmes that o f f e r more educational and occupational options and opportunities are able to make occupational choices that are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent with t h e i r self-concept than students i n programmes with a more l i m i t e d educational and occupational scope. 4. The degree to which students are able to make occupational choices that are congruent with t h e i r i d e a l choice i s r e l a t e d to the type of programmes they are i n . That i s to say students i n programmes 85 that o f f e r wider educational options and occupational p o s s i b i l i t i e s are able to make probable occupational choices closer to t h e i r i d e a l choices than students i n programmes with fewer educational and occupational options. 5. Students i n non-academic programmes make probable occupational choices that are more self-concept or r e a l i t y oriented than i d e a l ' T s e l f oriented. 6. Students i n academic programmes make probable occupational choices that are more i d e a l s e l f oriented than self-concept oriented. 7. Students i n d i f f e r e n t programmes do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r self-concept and i d e a l self-concept congruency. 8. Socio-economic status and academic, a b i l i t y are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n t i a l programming but not to self-concept and occupa-t i o n a l congruency. Limitations of the Study Several l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study should be recognized i n evaluating the r e s u l t s and conclusions of the study. F i r s t , true random sampling was not possible i n s e l e c t i n g students i n Grade 10 classes to take part i n the study. Consequently, the conclusions can only be generalized to the Grade 10 students i n the three schools. Since a l l three schools, though f a i r l y representative of the junior secondary schools i n the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, are situated i n middle c l a s s , lower middle c l a s s and working class areas, the sample tended to underrepresent students from the lower income groups and from the r u r a l areas. Furthermore, only the r e s u l t s of students who had both probable and i d e a l occupational choices were used and not much i s known about those who had no choice yet. 86 Secondly, the main instrument used i n t h i s study, the De s c r i p t i v e Ch e c k l i s t , though by f a r the most s u i t a b l e and v e r s a t i l e of the e x i s t i n g instrument, proved to be a l i t t l e too long f o r Grade 10 students. For the less b r i g h t among the students, the repeated use of the instrument to measure four p r o f i l e s sometimes caused confusion and misunderstanding which may a f f e c t the r e s u l t of the measurement. The group s e t t i n g i n which the administering of the Chec k l i s t s took place also gave some concern to some students who informed the invest i g a t o r afterwards that t h e i r friends might look at t h e i r c h e c k l i s t s . Factors such as these might a f f e c t the outcome., of the measurement without having any influence on the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. 2 Th i r d l y , the congruency score, D s t a t i s t i c , has meaning only when i t i s compared with another congruency score; i t does not i n d i c a t e to what extent, for example, one's self-concept i s congruent or not congruent with one's occupational stereotype. The establishment of some norms would be of d e f i n i t e help i n i n t e r p r e t i n g such congruency scores. Fourthly, while conclusions can be drawn based on s t a t i s t i c a l analyses that the academic and non-academic students d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on c e r t a i n dimensions of measurement, what was pointed out was simply that c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s did not occur by chance. No causal r e l a t i o n s h i p can be deduced from such analyses, no matter how many factors are c o n t r o l l e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Recommendation for Further Research The most i n t e r e s t i n g and rewarding research along the l i n e of the present study would appear to be one that involves a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of high school students through Grade 10 to Grade 12 while the students are s t i l l i n school and when data are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y easy to c o l l e c t . Such a study w i l l not only enable a researcher to study and test the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Super's theory over a period of time while the youngsters are s t i l l c onsolidating t h e i r thinking and f e e l i n g s about a number of possible careers within t h e i r reach and p r i o r to t h e i r making a commitment to any one of them either by taking the f i r s t job or by taking the necessary vocational or p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n preparation for i t . I t would be of i n t e r e s t to see whether and under what conditions students i n various programmes change or r e v i s e t h e i r probable and i d e a l choices and whether such changes are i n response to a changed self-concept or a change i n programme of study. A preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the data generated by the Self-concept D e s c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t gave some i n d i c a t i o n s that the academic and non-academic students d i f f e r e d " more i n the way they perceived t h e i r cognitive and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s rather ..than i n t h e i r personality functioning. As there are items i n the D e s c r i p t i v e Checklist that are r e l a t e d to s e l f -evaluation i n the areas of s o c i a b i l i t y , personality, i n t e l l i g e n c e , values, and work a t t i t u d e , a f a c t o r i a l study of the self-concept data may f u r n i s h a better idea as to whether and how the academic and non-academic students d i f f e r i n t h e i r self-concept or self-esteem. With the establishment of some normative data, there i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y that the D e s c r i p t i v e C h e c k l i s t may be developed into a v a l i d , handy, and u s e f u l instrument i n vocational counselling. The area of vocational development i s f u l l of research p o s s i b i l i t i e s and Super's theory provides the e s s e n t i a l framework within which the s o c i a l , psychological, and economic forces which l a r g e l y shape an i n d i v i d u a l ' s career choice and d e c i s i o n can be studied and examined systematically. 88 Implications for Vocational Counselling i n High Schools I t would appear from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study that students placed i n non-academic programmes often have fewer options, or at l e a s t they so perceive, i n terms of further education and occupational choice. Very often they see higher education or more rewarding occupations as beyond t h e i r reach and tend to l i m i t t h e i r vocational choices to what are within easy reach. The school vocational counsellor should look beyond what i s immediately open to such students within t h e i r opportunity structure. They should rather help the students to c l a r i f y t h e i r neeeds and aspirations and to motivate them to reach the p o s i t i o n , either by extra work or remedial help, where they would have a chance to pursue t h e i r choice i n l i n e with t h e i r self-concept, or to explore other occupational p o s s i b i l i t i e s congruent . with t h e i r self-concept within c e r t a i n l i m i t e d l e v e l . Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of d i f f e r e n -t i a l programming, or streaming, to the degree to which the self-concept was implemented i n the occupational choice made by male students i n the ju n i o r secondary school. I t was assumed that as d i f f e r e n t programmes i n the secondary school presented d i f f e r e n t opportunities for educational and occupational advancement, students would have a wider or narrower choice of occupations open to them when they were asked to make _a .tentative occupational choice. I t was generally hypothesized that as d i f f e r e n t programmes offered d i f f e r e n t occupational prospects and opportunities, students i n d i f f e r e n t programmes would d i f f e r i n the degree to which they could achieve congruency between t h e i r self-concept and occupational choice. 89 I t was hypothesized that students i n academic programmes were more congruent between t h e i r self-concept and the stereotype of t h e i r chosen probable occupation; that academic students made probable occupational choices which were closer to t h e i r i d e a l occupational choices than non-academic students; that the academic students were more congruent between t h e i r self-concept and i d e a l self-concept than non-academic students; and that academic students had higher socio-economic status and higher academic a b i l i t i e s than the non-academic students. The subjects were 194 Grade 10 male students from three secondary schools. A preliminary questionnaire was used to gather information on programme of study, parental occupation, and choice of probable and i d e a l occupations. D e s c r i p t i v e Checklists were administered to measure p r o f i l e s of self-concept, i d e a l self-concept, probable occupational stereotype, and • i d e a l occupational stereotype. A supplementary semi-structured interview was given to a sub-sample of 52 students randomly selected for a d d i t i o n a l background information r e l a t i n g to some of the assumptions made i n the formulation of the hypotheses. The D e s c r i p t i v e Checklist data were converted into congruency scores 2 by means of D s t a t i s t i c . The r e s u l t i n g self-concept/probable occupational stereotype, probable occupational stereotype/ideal occupational stereotype, and s e l f - c o n c e p t / i d e a l self-concept congruency scores were analysed by means of multiple regressional a n a l y s i s . A d d i t i o n a l t - t e s t s were performed between a l l congruency scores for further analyses. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, and coded by response categories. 90 The interview r e s u l t s showed that p r o p o r t i o n a l l y fewer students i n the non-academic programme wanted to go on to higher education, to choose probable occupations i n the managerial and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l as compared with the academic students. Yet, given the chance and choice, many more of them would prefer jobs i n the managerial and professional l e v e l , as i n d i c a -ed by t h e i r i d e a l occupational choice; and over 50 per cent of them desired u n i v e r s i t y or college education i f given the opportunity. Over 80 per cent of the non-academic students who considered t h e i r chance of getting t h e i r i d e a l occupations low ascribed the main reason to being i n the wrong programme. S t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the congruency scores supported hypotheses with respect to self-concept, probable occupational stereotype, and i d e a l occupational stereotype. I t was found that academic students were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more congruent than the non-academic students between t h e i r self-concept and probable occupational stereotype and betweeen t h e i r probable occupational stereotype and i d e a l occupational stereotype when the e f f e c t s of socio-economic status and academic a b i l i t y were held constant. With respect to the t h i r d hypothesis the data did not y i e l d c l e a r - c u t differences between the two groups on self-esteem as measured by s e l f - and ideal-self-concepts congruency. If any trend was present i t was i n the d i r e c t i o n as predicted, but the differences appeared to be due to s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two groups' perception of t h e i r cognitive a b i l i t i e s . 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K e r l i n g e r , F . N . , & P e d h a z u r , E . J . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n i n b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1 9 7 3 . K o r m a n , A..' K.. S e l f - e s t e e m v a r i a b l e i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . J o u r n a l o f  A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , 5 0 , 4 7 9 - 4 8 6 . K o r m a n , A . K . S e l f - e s t e e m a s a m o d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t i e s a n d v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 5 1 , 6 5 - 6 7 . L e c k y , P . S e l f - c o n s i s t e n c y . N e w Y o r k : I s l a n d P r e s s , 1 9 4 5 . L o r e t t a , B . A b i l i t y g r o u p i n g — h e l p o r h i n d r a n c e t o s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l g r o w t h ? T h e S c h o o l R e v i e w , 1 9 6 1 , 6 9 , 4 4 9 - 4 5 5 . L u n d h o l m , H . R e f l e c t i o n s u p o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e l f . P s y c h o l o g y R e v i e w , 1 9 4 0 , 4 7 , 1 1 0 - 1 2 7 . M a l l e r y , D . H i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s p e a k o u t . N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , 1 9 6 2 , P . 1 1 3 . M a r k s , E . , & W e b b , S . V o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a s f a c t o r s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l i m a g e . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 9 , 5 3 , 2 9 3 - 3 0 0 . M a y n a r d , P . E . , & H a n s e n , S . C . V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y a m o n g i n n e r c i t y y o u t h . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 0 , 1 7 y 4 0 0 - 4 0 4 . M e a d , G . H . M i n d , s e l f , a n d s o c i e t y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1 9 3 4 . P p . 2 6 - 2 7 . M e r t o n , R . K . , F i s k e , M . , & K e n d a l l , P . T h e f o c u s e d i n t e r v i e w . G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s : T h e F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 . M o r r i s o n , A . , & M c l n t y r e , D . S c h o o l s a n d s o c i a l i z a t i o n . H a r m o n d s w o r t h , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 7 1 . M o r r i s o n , R . L . S e l f - c o n c e p t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 2 , 9., 2 5 5 - 2 6 0 . O p p e n h e i m e r , E . A . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c e r t a i n s e l f - c o n s t r u c t a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , J_3, 1 9 1 - 1 9 7 . O s i p o w , S . H . T h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , ( 2 n d e d . ) . N e w Y o r k : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 7 3 . 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S t a t i s t i c a l approach to typology, the study of t r a i t universe. Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1950, _6, 26-37. Stephenson, W., A. The study of behaviour. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1953. 98 Strong, D. J., & Felder, D. D. Measurement of the self-concept. Journal  of Counselling Psychology, 1961, 8, 170-178. Super, D. E. Vocational adjustment: Implementing self-concept. Occupations, 1951, 30, 88-92. Super, D. E. A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 1953, 8, 185-190..' Super, D. E. The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row, 1957. Super, D. E. Self-concepts i n vocational development. In D. E. Super, R. Starishevsky, N. M a l l i n , & J . P. Jordaan, Career development: S e l f - concept theory. New York: CEEB Research Monograph, 1963, No. 4. Super, D. E., & Overstreet, P. L. The v o c a t i o n a l maturity of ninth-grade  boys. New York: Bureau of Pu b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers College, Columbia Uni v e r s i t y , 1960. Super, D. E., & Bohn, M.. J . Occuapational psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1970. Symonds, P. M. The ego and the s e l f . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1951. Tageson, C. F. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l f perceptions to realism of vocational  preference. Washington, D.C: C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America Press, 1960. Taylor, W. The secondary modern school. London: Faber & Faber, 1963. Vernon, P. E. Secondary school s e l e c t i o n : A B r i t i s h psychological society  inquiry. London: Methuen, 1957. Vroom, V. H. Work and motivation. New York: Wiley, 1964. Walberg, H. Generalized regression models i n educational research. American  Educational Research Journal, 1971, 8/1), 71-91. Warren, J. R. Self-concept, occupational r o l e expectation, and change i n college major. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1961, j$, 164-169. Wheeler, C. L. Relationship among self-concepts, i d e a l self-concepts, and  stereotypes of probable and i d e a l vocational choices. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1967. Wheeler, C L., 6k Carnes, E. F. Relationships among self-concept,.-ideal self-concept, and stereotypes of probable and i d e a l vocational choices. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1968, 1_5_(6), 530-535. 99 Wrenn, C. G. The self-concept i n counselling. Journal of Counselling  Psychology, 1958, .5, 104-109. Wylie, R. The s e l f concept. L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1961. Wylie, R. The present status of s e l f theory. In E. E. Borgatta & W. W. 1 Lambert (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory i n research. Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1968. Pp. 728-787. Yates, A. (Ed.) Grouping i n education. New York: Viking Press, 1966. Zie g l e r , K. J . Self-concepts, occupational member concept, and occupational i n t e r e s t area r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n male college students. Journal of  Counselling Psychology, 1970, J_(2), 133-136. Appendix A DESCRIPTIVE CHECK LIST (Self-concept) No. SC " 100 Stop for a moment and think about Yourself. If you were asked to write your autobiography, how would you describe yourself? What kind of person do you think you are? The check l i s t i s made up of words and phrases which may be used to describe the attitudes and behaviour of people. You are asked to use t h i s l i s t to describe the kind of person you think you are. Indicate how often you f e e l each item i s true of Yourself by placing a check( \/) i n the appropriate column. There are no right or wrong answers. Just be as frank and honest with yourself as possible. Do not spend too much time on any one item. Rather give your f i r s t impression. A l l answers w i l l be kept i n s t r i c t confidence. PLEASE REMEMBER TO CHECK EVERY ITEM. -* £ * a ? 1 A good leader 2 A persuasive talker 3 A p r a c t i c a l joker k Able to c r i t i -cize s e l f 5 Acts on spur of moment 6 Adventurous 7 Affected and a r t i f i c i a l 8 Affectionate and warm 9 Aggressive and for c e f u l 10 Alcoholic 11 A l e r t and wide awake 12 Ambitious 13 Analyzes problem well 14 Apol getic, runs 8 e l f down 13 Awkward and self-conscious 16 Boasts and brags a l o t 17 Bossy and domineering 18 Casual and unconcerned 19 Cautious 20 Changeable 21 Charming 22 Cheerful 23 Chip on shoulder 2k Clear-thinking 25 Clever 26 Cocky (arroycwt) 27 Conscientious (vpryht, honest) 28 Conservative 29 Considerate 30 Contented 31 Cooperative - 1 -32 Courageous 33 C r e a t i v e 34 C r u e l 35 Curious 36 C y n i c a l , b i t t e r 37 D e c i s i v e , u n h e s i t a t i n g 38 Deep, powerful f e e l i n g s _____ ___, 39 Determined, p e r s i s t e n t 40 D i g n i f i e d 41 Does many t h i n g s w e l l 42 Doesn't d i s p l a y f e e l i n g s 43 Drawing a b i l i t y 44 Eager to please__ 45 Easy-going 46 E f f e m i n a t e , g i r l i s h 47 Eats too much 48 E g o t i s t i c a l , c o n c e i t e d 49 Enjoys companionship _____ _____ _____ 50 E n t e r p r i s e , i n i t i a t i v e (readiness iv venture) 51 E n t h u s i a s t i c 52 E v a s i v e , hard to p i n down 53 Even-tempered 54 E x c i t a b l e 55 Fair-minded ilil} -56. F a u l t - f i n d i n g 57 F l a t t e r i n g 58 F l i g h t y and high s t r u n g 59 Formal and impersonal 60 Forward-looking 61 Frank and outspoken 62 F r i e n d l y 63 Generous 64 Goes a l o n g with m a j o r i t y 65 Good mathematical a b i l i t y 66 Good memory 67 G r a t e f u l 68 Grumbling 69 Hard-hearted 70 Hard to convince 71 Hard to get alon g with 72 Hard-working 73 Has a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y 74 Head-strong (Stmorrt) 75 H e s i t a t i n g , u n c e r t a i n 7t> High i d e a l s 77 High reasoning a b i l i t y 78 H i g h - s p i r i t e d 79 Honest, tr u s t w o r t h y 80 H u r r i e d , always busy -2-81 Imaginative 82 I m i t a t e s others 83 In a rut. , (to kfixeAmoiU) 84 Independent, s e l f - r e l i a n t 85 I n t e l l i g e n t 86 I n t e r e s t e d i n a r t 87 I n t e r e s t e d i n business 88 I n t e r e s t e d i n f a m i l y 89 I n t e r e s t e d i n music 90 I n t e r e s t e d i n people _____ 91 I n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s _____ 92 I n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o n 93 I n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l 94 I n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n c e 95 I n t e r e s t e d i n s p o r t 96 I n t e r e s t e d i n many things 97 J e a l o u s _ 98 J o l l y and f u l l of fun 99 K i n d 00 Knows what he's doing _____ 1 Laughs e a s i l y and o f t e n 2 L i k e s to argue a l o t 3 L i k e s to read 4 L i v e l y 5 L o y a l 6 Makes good impression 7 Manly 8 Mature, r e s p o n s i b l e 9 Mechanical a b i l i t y 10 Moderate, not extreme 11 Money-minded 12 Moody, e a s i l y depressed _____ 13 Narrow-minded ____ 14 Nervous, e a s i l y upset _____ _____ _____ 15 Obeys too r e a d i l y 16 Odd and e c c e n t r i c 17 Often worried 18 Patientt^r/*i*"g) 19 Perf e c t i o n i s t i c , f u s s y 20 P e s s i m i s t i c 21 P h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e 22 P h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g 23 P l e a s a n t and agreeable 24 P l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g __ __ 25 P o i s e d , s e l f - a s s u r e d 20 PoliBhed-manners 27 Popular wi t h o p p o s i t e sex 28 P r a c t i c a l 29 Proud -3-102 3 0 Quick thinking — — — — — and acting 31 Quiet 3 2 R e a l i s t i c , doesn't fool self 3 3 Reasonable 34 Rebels against authority ; __ 3 5 Relaxed 3 6 Reliable 3 7 Restrained and inhibited 38 Reverent and God-fearing 39 Ruthless—do anything to win 40 Sarcastic and c r i t i c a l 41 Scandal spreader _ __ 42 Self-confident 43 S e l f - c o n t r o l l e d 44 Self-deceiving 45 Self-denying 46 S e l f - p i t y i n g 47 Self-respecting 48 Self-seeking, s e l f i s h 49 Sensitive, e a s i l y hurt 5 0 Sentimental (kwiy tenderfte\injf) 51 Serious 52 Show-off 53 Shrewd, calculating 54 Shy and wi thdrawn # ^ ^ # 5 5 S k i l l f u l -with hands 5 6 Sleeps well 5 7 Sophisticated (YJM4N-wise) — 58 Spends money fre e l y 59 S p i r i t u a l l y , unworldly 60 Squeamish . f r i ^ t c f i n i c k y p^tae) 61 Sullen and resentful 62 Superstitious 6 3 Sympathetic 64 Tactful 6 5 Takes suggestions __ ____ 6 6 Talented musically 6 7 Talkative 68 Thinks for himself 6 9 Thinks things through 70 Thorough, watch de t a i l s 71 Thoughtful 72 T h r i f t y 73 Timid, f e a r f u l 74 Tolerant of others 7 5 Trusting 76 Treacherous 7 7 Uses words well 78 Wandering, unsettled 79 Wise 80 Witty Appendix B. No. ISC DESCRIPTIVE CHECK LIST (Ideal self-concept) Stop for a moment and think about Yourself. If you could be any kind of person you want to be, how would you describe this "Ideal Self"? The check l i s t i s made up of words and phrases which may be used to describe the attitudes and behaviour of people. You are asked to use thi s l i s t to describe the kind of person you would most l i k e to be, that i s , your "Ideal Self"? Indicate how often you f e e l each item would be true of your "Ideal S e l f " by placing a check ( y/) i n the appropriate column. There are no right or wrong answers- Do not spend too much time on any one item. Rather give your f i r s t impression. A l l answers w i l l be kept i n s t r i c t confidence. PLEASE REMEMBER TO CHECK  EVERY ITEM. 1 A good leader 2 A persuasive talker 3 A p r a c t i c a l joker 4 Able to c r i t i -cize s e l f 5 Acts on spur of moment 6 Adventurous 7 Affected and a r t i f i c i a l 8 Affectionate and warm 9 Aggressive and forceful 10 Alcoholic 1 1 A l e r t and wide awake 1 2 Ambitious 1 3 Analyzes problem well 14 Apologetic, runs 8 e l f down 1 5 Awkward and self-conscious l6» Boasts and brags a l o t 17 Bossy and domineering 18 Casual and unconcerned 1 9 Cautious 20 Changeable 21 Charming 22 Cheerful 23 Chip on shoulder 24 Clear-thinking — 25 Clever 26 CockyCorr^aM*) 27 Conscientious 28 Conservative 29 Considerate 3 0 Contented 3 1 Cooperative (next 3 pages as in Appendix A ) Appendix C DESCRIPTIVE CHECK LIST POS No. _ (Probable occupational stereotype) This check l i s t i s made up of words and phrases which may be used to describe the attitudes and behaviour of people. You are asked to describe the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t y p i c a l What i s the t y p i c a l person i n this occupation like? Indicate how often you f e e l each item i s true of the t y p i c a l person i n this occupation by placing a check(v /) i n the appropriate column. There i s no right or wrong answer. Any answer i s r i g h t i f i t describes what you f e e l the t y p i c a l per-son in this occupation i s l i k e . Your f i r s t impression i s best, so go through the l i s t as quickly as you can. I t i s important that you place a check in one space for every item. Please do not skip any item. 1 A good leader 2 A persuasive talker 3 A p r a c t i c a l joker 4 Able to c r i t i -cize s e l f 5 Acts on spur of moment 6 Adventurous 7 Affected and a r t i f i c i a l 8 Affectionate and warm 9 Aggressive and f o r c e f u l 10 Alcoholic 11 A l e r t and wide awake 12 Ambitious 13 Analyzes problem well 14 Apologetic, runs s e l f down 1 5 Awkward and self-conscious 1 6 Boasts and brags a l o t 1 7 Bossy and domineering 18 Casual and unconcerned 19 Cautiou s 20 Changeable 21 Charming 22 Cheerful 2 3 Chip on shoulder 24 Clear-thinking 25 Clever 2 6 Cocky (arrogant) 27 Conscientions Cufrijkt, honest) 28 Conservative 2 9 Considerate 3 0 Contented 31 Cooperative (next 3 pages as i n Appendix A) Appendix D DESCRIPTIVE CHECK LIST IOS No. 1 0 6 (Ideal occupational stereotype) This check l i s t i s made up of words and phrases which may be used to describe the attitudes and behaviour of people. You are asked to describe the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of a ty p i c a l 1 2 6 7 What i s the ty p i c a l person i n this occupation like? Indicate how often you f e e l each item i s true of the ty p i c a l person i n this occupation by placing a check(v /) i n the appropriate column. There i s no right or wrong answer. Any answer i s ri g h t i f i t describes what you f e e l the t y p i c a l per-son i n this occupation i s l i k e . Your f i r s t impression i s best, so go through the l i s t as quickly as you can. I t i s important that you place a check i n one space for every item. Please do not skip any item. A good leader A persuasive talker A p r a c t i c a l joker Able to c r i t i -cize self Acts on spur of moment Adventurous Affected and a r t i f i c i a l Affectionate and warm Aggressive and fo r c e f u l 1 0 A lcoholic 1 1 A l e r t and wide awake 1 2 A m b i t i o u s 1 3 Analyzes problem well 14 Apologetic, runs s e l f down 1 5 Awkward and self-conscious 1 6 Boasts and brags a l o t 1 7 Bossy and domineering 18 Casual and unconcerned 1 9 Cautious 2 0 Changeable 2 1 Charming 2 2 Cheerful 2 3 Chip on shoulder 24 Clear-thinking 2 5 Clever 2 6 Cocky (arrogant) 2 7 Conscientions [•upright, honest) 28 Conservative 2 9 Considerate 3 0 Contented 3 1 Cooperative ///// - 1 -(next 3 pages as in Appendix A) Appendix E » ° 107 P r e l i m i n a r y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e You are being asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h study conducted by the Department of Guidance and C o u n s e l l i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. The aim of the study i s to provide i n f o r m a t i o n on how secondary school students make v o c a t i o n a l plans and d e c i s i o n s . S t u d i e s such as t h i s h e l p us to plan s e r v i c e s which are more u s e f u l to stude n t s . We are most g r a t e -f u l f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n you provi d e w i l l be kept i n s t r i c t c o n f i d e n c e . Please complete t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Age Programme: S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s or Combined S t u d i e s Which of the ar e a ( s ) l i s t e d below w i l l you be c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon:-A r t s & Sci e n c e Commercial I n d u s t r i a l Community S e r v i c e V i s u a l and performing a r t s A g r i c u l t u r e Would you l i k e to change to another programme or area i f you were completely f r e e to do so? Yes No Father ' s occupation Mother's o c c u p a t i o n ( i f a p p l i c a b l e ) or P r i n c i p a l wage earner's occupation What i s your most l i k e l y occupation? That i s , l o o k i n g ahead i n t o the f u t u r e from where you are now and what you are doing i n school now, what o c c u p a t i o n do you thi n k you are most l i k e l y to take up a f t e r you have completed your education? Be as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e . Your answer: I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to s p e c u l a t e on the occupation which would be most d e s i r a b l e to you, without having to c o n s i d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s such as f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y , a b i l i t y and t a l e n t , o p p o r t u n i t i e s to o b t a i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , e t c . T h i s may sound i m p o s s i b l e , but i f you were completely f r e e to choose any occ u p a t i o n you would r e a l l y l i k e , what would be your choice of an i d e a l occupation? Your answer: Appendix F INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Programmes 1. What programme are you i n now? (Possible probes: Are you taking selected studies or combined studies? What are your areas of concentration? Are you taking French? Do you take academic mathematics?) 2. Why did you choose t h i s programme? (Possbile probes: Are there any p a r t i c u l a r reasons for your choosing th i s programme? Do you have a l l the required subjects to get into the art s and science programme? Is t h i s the programme you chose for your-s e l f ? Is i t recommended by your counsellor?) 3. Now that you have gained ome experience of t h i s programme, what do you think of i t ? (Possible probes: Are you glad to be i n t h i s programme? Does t h i s programme prepare you for your future educational and vocational plans?) 4. Would you l i k e to be i n another programme? (If yes, which one? Why?) Occupations 5. What kind of job or occupation do you think you are most l i k e l y to take up when you complete your education? (Possible probes: When you leave school, or college, or u n i v e r s i t y , whatever the case may be, what sort of f i r s t permanent job do you f e e l you are most l i k e l y to get into? Why i s t h i s your choice? How long have you been considering t h i s as your most l i k e l y f i r s t permanent job?) 6. If you were asked to describe a person who i s a (name of occupation) what i s the basis of t h i s description? (Possible probes: Do you personally know anyone who i s a (name of occupation)? Did you learn about t h i s (occupation) from other people, from something you have heard or read about?) 7. If money was no problem, and i f you thought you could handle a l l the course: work i n higher education, would you continue studying a f t e r high school? (If yes, where? Vocational school, j u n i o r college, t e c h n i c a l i n s -t i t u t e , or university?) 8. If you did go on to higher education, what job would you eventually l i k e to have? 9. What chances out of 10 do you f e e l you have of ever getting t h i s i d e a l occupation? (If chances are low, why do you think so?) 10. Which of these two occupations (name the probable and i d e a l choices) do you f e e l s u i t s your present personality best? (Possible probes: Which of the two occupations do you think w i l l enable you to work most harmoniously with your present personality while you are on the job? Which of these two occupations, i f you did get into them, would be more expressive of the personality you now have?) Descriptive Checklist 11. You remember you used the D e s c r i p t i v e Checklist (show student a copy of i t to remind him) to describe yourself as you are. How would you describe the Checklist i n terms of i t s adequacy i n helping to describe yourself? Would you say i t i s very adequate, adequate, or not adequate? 12. Looking back at the way you described your r e a l s e l f and your i d e a l s e l f on the C h e c k l i s t , would you say your r e a l s e l f i s very close to your i d e a l s e l f , f a i r l y close to your i d e a l s e l f , or not close to your i d e a l s e l f ? 

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