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Person perception processes in child rearing Theemes, Tracy 1989

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PERSON PERCEPTION PROCESSES IN CHILD REARING by TRACY THEEMES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of Windsor, 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1989 (c) Tracy Theemes, 1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  an  advanced  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his  or  her  purposes may be  representatives.  It  is  granted by the understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without permission.  Department of  C O V J U H S><2 U t H Q  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  VS\J>C_V>CAQ C\ U  head of my copying  or  my written  ii  ABSTRACT This study explored p e r c e p t i o n rearing.  centres o p e r a t i n g  Scale  child  A sample of parents of both s p e c i a l needs  typical children enrolled  region  processes of  was  i n preschool c h i l d development  i n the Vancouver, B. C. Lower Mainland  asked to complete the Maryland Parent  (MPAS), the Parenting S t r e s s  demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e . correlations rearing  Index (PSI),  Attitude and  a  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t  found between p a r e n t a l  (MPAS) and  and  t h e i r perception  a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d of t h e i r c h i l d ,  parents' p e r c e p t i o n s of themselves as parents, or parents' p e r c e p t i o n child.  of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r  As w e l l , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  between responses of parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n and  parents o f t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n .  regression  analyses however, revealed  s i g n i f i c a n t and Results that  Post hoc  multiple  a number of  interesting relationships.  of the m u l t i p l e  f a t h e r s ' r e j e c t i n g and  regression  analyses showed  mothers' p r o t e c t i n g  child  r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s decreased as the number of c h i l d r e n i n their  family  perceived negatively  increased.  I t was  t h e i r c h i l d r e n and than f a t h e r s .  also  found that mothers  themselves as parents more  In a d d i t i o n ,  fathers'  iii  occupations as measured by the B l i s h e n index  (1987) were  p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r Of p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t was  child.  the outcome that male c h i l d r e n  were r e p e a t e d l y viewed more n e g a t i v e l y by t h e i r As w e l l , parents of sons saw  themselves  parents.  as parents  and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r c h i l d more n e g a t i v e l y than parents of  girls.  These r e s u l t s suggest  that the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  s o c i o l o g i c a l aspects of c h i l d r e a r i n g and c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p need to be assessed Although  the parent  simultaneously.  the e x p e c t a t i o n s and c o g n i t i o n s o f parents are  an important area of study, the importance nature of s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , gender and v a r i a b l e s cannot  and  integral  socioeconomic  be ignored i n f o r m u l a t i n g hypotheses  designing research in t h i s  field.  and  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  1  Parent as I n t e r p r e t e r  5  Person P e r c e p t i o n  6  The  8  Role o f the P e r c e i v e r  Research Questions  10  CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  11  A t t i t u d e and P e r c e p t i o n  11  Parental Perception  12  Parents'  S e l f Perception  15  Parents'  Reports o f C h i l d Behavior  17  Attitude  21  Parental Attitude  22  C h i l d Development Outcomes  24  Socio-economic Status  28  S p e c i a l Needs C h i l d r e n  29  Summary  32  Hypotheses  33  V  CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY  35  Hypotheses Restated  35  Sample  37  Instruments  38  Parenting  S t r e s s Index  Maryland Parent A t t i t u d e Survey  38 42  Control Variables  45  Measurement o f Socioeconomic Status  46  Data C o l l e c t i o n  48  Design  49  Method o f A n a l y s i s  50  CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS  51  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sample  51  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s  55  Research Hypotheses  56  Post Hoc Analyses  63  CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION Review o f the R e s u l t s  75  D i s c u s s i o n o f Post Hoc Analyses  76  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the F i n d i n g s  81  Suggestions f o r Further  83  Conclusion REFERENCES APPENDIX  75  Research  88 90 107  vi  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1  Frequency  2  Frequency,  PAGE and Percentages o f C a t a g o r i c a l Data Percentages and Means o f Mothers and  Fathers Education 3  57  C o r r e l a t i o n s Between MPAS and PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n  Scores 6  55  C o r r e l a t i o n s Between MPAS and PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n  Scores 5  54  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n and Range o f Dependent  Variables 4  52  59  C o r r e l a t i o n s Between MPAS and PSI R e l a t i o n s h i p  P e r c e p t i o n Scores  61  7  Anova Summary Table  62  8  Mean MPAS and PSI Scores f o r Parents o f T y p i c a l and  S p e c i a l Needs C h i l d r e n  64  9 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d , Father's Occupation, D i s c i p l i n a r i a n , and R e j e c t i n g MPAS Scores on PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores  66  10 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d , F a t h e r ' s Occupation, P r o t e c t i n g , and Indulgent MPAS Scores on PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores  67  vii  11 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d , Father's Occupation, D i s c i p l i n a r i a n , and R e j e c t i n g MPAS Scores on PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n Scores  69  12 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d , F a t h e r ' s Occupation, P r o t e c t i n g , and Indulgent MPAS Scores on PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n Scores  70  13 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f Parent, Father's Occupation, D i s c i p l i n a r i a n , and R e j e c t i n g MPAS Scores on PSI  ( T o t a l ) Parent P e r c e p t i o n o f R e l a t i o n s h i p Scores..72  14 Anova Summary Table  73  15 Mean PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores  74  1  CHAPTER ONE Introduction Child rearing significance.  i s not a t e c h n i c a l  I t refers generally  term with  precise  to a l l the  i n t e r a c t i o n s between parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . interactions  include  the parents* e x p r e s s i o n s o f  a t t i t u d e s , values and b e l i e f s as well as t h e i r and  These  t r a i n i n g behavior.  caretaking  S o c i o l o g i c a l l y speaking, these  i n t e r a c t i o n s are one separable c l a s s o f events  that  prepare the c h i l d , i n t e n t i o n a l l y or not, f o r c o n t i n u i n g his l i f e  (Sears, Maccoby, & Levin,  1957, p. 457).  C h i l d r e a r i n g and i t s import to s o c i e t y as a whole has  long been acknowledged (Bossard & B o l l , 1966;  Kurian, 1986).  P a r e n t i n g has gained increased  a fundamental issue  s t a t u s as  i n the study o f the family and  s o c i e t y as a whole ( S e e f e l d t  & Barbour, 1986).  r e a r i n g however, has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y  Child  complex  issue  both f o r r e s e a r c h e r s to understand and f o r parents to undertake.  The methods and manners o f c h i l d r e a r i n g  evolved i n t o a research-worthy t o p i c 1957). family  In short,  c h i l d rearing  (Sears e t a l . ,  i s a family  has become a s o c i a l i s s u e .  issue and the  Of p a r t i c u l a r  i s the q u e s t i o n , "How much i n f l u e n c e  have  interest  do parents r e a l l y  have?" ( P o l s t e r & Dangel, "Who  1984), or more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  a f f e c t s whom?". C o n v e n t i o n a l l y , parents have been h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e  for t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s u p b r i n g i n g , not to mention t h e i r eventual success or f a i l u r e as a d u l t s (Brim, 1959).  (measured i n c u l t u r a l  terms),  Modern r e s e a r c h e r s and  t h e r a p i s t s have f o r t u n a t e l y tempered t h i s stance with an increased understanding and r e c o g n i t i o n of the complex nature of f a m i l y dynamics ( S i g e l , Dreyer, De L i s i ,  1984).  & McGillicudy-  Parents and c h i l d r e n a l i k e are seen  as  a f f e c t i n g both each other and the l a r g e r whole. Historically,  the c h i l d has been viewed as a product  of the mother's behavior development was  (Belsky, 1981).  f u l f i l l m e n t l e a d i n g to t r u s t  her i n f a n t ' s needs, t h i s (Antonousky, 1959).  Trust  the b a s i s f o r the establishment of a secure  attachment bond and  t h i s bond was  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the developmental Fiering, was  child's  b e l i e v e d to be dependent upon the  mother's a b i l i t y to f u l f i l l  was  The  1978).  The assumption  that the c h i l d was  the foundation of the process  (Lewis &  u n d e r l y i n g t h i s approach  a p a s s i v e being who  was  being  molded by p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s , a theory which can  be  t r a c e d back to the 17th century p h i l o s o p h e r John Locke ( L y t t o n , 1980, strengthened  Bell,  1968).  T h i s concept of the  by such t h e o r i s t s as Freud  E r i k s o n (1963) who  saw  infant  (1945) and  the mother as e x c l u s i v e l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s behavior and long term development. At f i r s t glance i t does seem p l a u s i b l e that parents e x e r t such a powerful Bell  (1968, 1977)  i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r young.  However,  p o i n t s out that even the most h e l p l e s s  newborns e x e r t a powerful  i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r parents.  The c r y of a newborn alone i s a such a compelling f o r c e that i t commands response  from i t s c a r e t a k e r s and  can  provoke behaviors ranging from l o v i n g care to i n f a n t battering  ( B e l l & Chapman, 1986;  T r i c k e t t & Kuczynski,  1986). Research  on the i n f a n c y p e r i o d has d r a m a t i c a l l y  documented the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the i n f a n t i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r parents ( B e l l , Harper, Feil,  1971;  1985;  L y t t o n , 1982; Thomas & Chess,  M a r t i n 1975; 1977;  1971; Sameroff  &  Yarrow & S c o t t ,  1971) . The younger the c h i l d ,  the l e s s l i k e l y  i t i s that  they are c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r o l l i n g parent behavior to achieve c e r t a i n ends.  The q u a l i t y and extent of  i n t e n t i o n a l behavior does, ( B e l l & Harper,  1977;  however, i n c r e a s e with  Maccoby & J a c k l i n ,  1983).  age Lytton  (1980) summarized that although r e c i p r o c i t y and m u t u a l i t y of i n f l u e n c e are apparent,  " i n no i n s t a n c e i n any of  these behavior systems does the c h i l d e x e r t a u n i l a t e r a l i n f l u e n c e on h i s p a r e n t s "  (p.281).  4  Bell  (1968) i n h i s landmark, paper on c h i l d e f f e c t s  p o s i t e d that i n any we  i n t e r a c t i o n between parent and  can only speak of an event sequence.  experimentally,  Only  f o r the purposes o f e l u c i d a t i n g  i n t e r a c t i o n a l e f f e c t s , can c h i l d e f f e c t s and e f f e c t s be  child  isolated.  He  s t a t e s that "no  parent  implication  about o r i g i n of the behavior need be drawn...since such s t u d i e s can  take as t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t any  which i s a v a i l a b l e a t the parent or c h i l d " Later, B e l l seldom an  time i n the r e p e r t o i r e of  (p.82). (1971) e l a b o r a t e s ,  " C h i l d behavior i s  independent v a r i a b l e , parent behavior a  dependent v a r i a b l e , even i f the c h i l d a formal  place  i n t h e o r i e s " (p.63).  i s acknowledged  (1979) f u r t h e r a s s e r t s The  perspective.  that:  basic p r i n c i p l e underlying  i n development a r i s i n g  by  Extending h i s work  from c h i l d e f f e c t s to an i n t e r a c t i o n a l i s t Bell  behavior  reciprocal influence  from p a r e n t - o f f s p r i n g  i n t e r a c t i o n i s that of a moving b i - d i r e c t i o n a l system i n which the responses of each p a r t i c i p a n t serve  not only as the s t i m u l i f o r the other  change as a r e s u l t of the same stimulus  but  exchanges,  l e a d i n g to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a l t e r e d response the p a r t of the other  on  (p.822).  Moreover, t h i s r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s not s t a t i c process.  also  a  I t i s a c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g dynamic, as  5 the c h i l d and 1977;  Schaffer Bell  versus the  & Collis,  1986).  (1981) concludes that the  incorporate  and  family change over time (Thomas & Chess,  field  the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the "puppet" parent.  Cognitions  c h i l d need to be accounted for now  i s ready to "thinking"  of both parent that we  have a  b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the complex r o l e a t t i t u d e s play i n behavior (Kelman, 1974).  B e l l s t a t e s that "we  ready to r e t u r n to s t u d i e s of p a r e n t a l c h i l d r e a r i n g that at one  may  now  be  a t t i t u d e s toward  time appeared to be  so  unproductive" (1981, p.300). Parent As  Interpreter  Clarke-Stewart  (1978) concurs that i n f o r m a t i o n  how  parents think and  feel,  their attitudes,  and  knowledge, about c h i l d r e a r i n g are  perceptions,  important data  which o f f e r a context  f o r understanding t h e i r  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the  f u l l c h a i n o f parent a t t i t u d e -  parent b e h a v i o r - c h i l d response can c o n t r i b u t e understanding o f c h i l d development.  "We  c h i l d e f f e c t s on p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , not reverse;  r e l a t i o n s among p a r e n t a l  behavior, and be s t u d i e d  behavior.  to  our  need to look  at  j u s t the  a t t i t u d e s , parental  c h i l d behavior are r e c i p r o c a l , and  from that p e r s p e c t i v e "  about  (p.62).  Stolz  should (1967)  a s s e r t s that parents operate w i t h i n a m i l i e u of p s y c h o l o g i c a l pressures.  Any  parent-child interaction  sequence i s comprised of the parent with t h e i r  immediate  6 urges, g o a l s , v a l u e s , p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  past  experiences, p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d r e a r i n g and  the c h i l d with t h e i r own  urges,  values,  g o a l s , b e l i e f s and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . parent-child  i n t e r a c t i o n may  c h i l d or the parent. and  t h i s a c t may  The  be i n i t i a t e d by e i t h e r  the  "In e i t h e r case, the parent a c t s  be l a b e l e d a c h i l d - r e a r i n g  practice"  (p.279) . Person  Perception  W.I.  Thomas (1928) argues that any  situation  involves: 1.  the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y  i n which the  2.  the p r e - e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e s of the  individual  acts  which a t any g i v e n time 3.  individual,  i n f l u e n c e behavior,  and  a p e r c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n which  i s comprised  of both the conception of and  toward a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of circumstances  attitude  (Thomas &  Thomas, 1928). Bates and P e t i t p e r c e i v e s a c h i l d may parent responds.  (1981) s t r e s s t h a t how have important  a parent  e f f e c t s on how  In f a c t , parent p e r c e p t i o n s are  i n t e g r a l p a r t of the s o c i a l and emotional  the  an  r e a l i t y of the  p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad (Bates, 1983). Schneider,  H a s t o r f , and  E l l s w o r t h (1979) provide  theory upon which t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s based.  They  the  a s s e r t that p e r c e p t i o n i s not j u s t the meaning assigned to  sensory s t i m u l i but i s a process demanding a c t i v e  involvement  on the p a r t o f the p e r c e i v e r who s e l e c t s and  c a t e g o r i z e s , i n t e r p r e t s and i n f e r s , to organize sensory world.  their  They a f f i r m that person p e r c e p t i o n i s not  j u s t a sensory process but one which e n t a i l s complex inferential  f a c t o r s as w e l l .  people are meaningful  Our experiences o f other  and have s t a b i l i t y .  As w e l l , we  place s t r u c t u r e on our p e r c e p t i o n s o f others by p l a c i n g separate i n s t a n c e s o f t h e i r behavior i n common categories.  The p e r c e i v e r must s t r u c t u r e the behavior  i t s e l f which i s continuous, divide  ;  f i n d the r e l e v a n t u n i t s or  i t i n t o separate components, and l a b e l , code or  c a t e g o r i z e the behavior.  In s h o r t , the p e r c e i v e r must  d e f i n e what the a c t o r i s doing. These r e s e a r c h e r s make the assumption t h a t the manner i n which a p e r c e i v e r c a t e g o r i z e s behavior and people of  i n f l u e n c e s how they then i n t e r p r e t the behaviors  others and consequently  how they respond  to the other.  For i n s t a n c e the same behavior can be l a b e l l e d f o o l i s h , or i d i o t i c .  playful,  My r e a c t i o n s to these  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s vary a c c o r d i n g l y :  I am e n t e r t a i n e d by  p l a y f u l n e s s , impatient with f o o l i s h n e s s , and downright annoyed by i d i o c y . critical  In essence,  the p e r c e i v e r p l a y s a  and a c t i v e r o l e i n s e l e c t i n g which  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f other people to observe and i n t e r p r e t .  In p e r c e i v i n g another  person we focus not j u s t on  behavior but on the i n t e n t s and purposes as w e l l .  We p e r c e i v e others as c a u s a l agents,  i n t e n t i o n s and emotional  infer  s t a t e s , and deduce enduring  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . al.,  o f the behavior  Schneider e t  (1979) s t a t e t h a t t h i s process i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t to  the r e s e a r c h e r  "because i t i s one o f the most s a l i e n t  outcomes o f s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n and, by the same token,  one o f the major determinants i n t e r a c t i o n s " (p.  o f the nature o f  15).  The r o l e o f the p e r c e i v e r The p e r c e i v e r ' s r o l e conscious.  i s an a c t i v e one, i f not always  At every stage o f the p e r c e p t i o n process  from  a t t e n t i o n to long range p r e d i c t i o n the p e r c e i v e r ' s past e x p e r i e n c e s , p r e j u d i c e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , values and goals ' dictate  i n p a r t , what one observes about another  person,  t h e i r behavior and the context i n which the behavior occurs as well as the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n one makes o f t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s (Schneider e t a l . ,  1979).  Newcomb (1958) augments t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e with h i s i n j e c t i o n o f the concept o f a t t i t u d e s i n the person p e r c e p t i o n process. most important  judgements o f o t h e r s i n terms o f t h e i r and  our own a t t i t u d e s . observed  He holds that we make our  The observer a t t r i b u t e s to the  a t t i t u d e s toward o b j e c t s toward which the  observer a l s o has a t t i t u d e s .  This  presupposes  9 s i m i l a r i t i e s between the p e r c e i v e r and the p e r c e i v e d and Newcomb's a s s e r t i o n i s that these s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a t t i t u d e s promote i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g and reduce individual conflict. a mediating v a r i a b l e  In s h o r t , Newcomb views a t t i t u d e as i n the p e r c e p t u a l process.  Summary C h i l d r e a r i n g i s the general context o f t h i s research.  Within the sphere of c h i l d r e a r i n g the parent  and c h i l d are seen as i n v o l v e d i n a dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p in which both the parent and c h i l d e f f e c t each other ( B e l l 1977, 1979, 1981).  In t h i s study, the aspect o f  t y p i c a l versus s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n w i l l be used as an ( a l b e i t somewhat crude)  i n d i c a t o r o f c h i l d e f f e c t s and  parents' p e r c e p t u a l c o g n i t i o n s w i l l be i l l u s t r a t i v e o f parent e f f e c t s .  These c o g n i t i o n s w i l l be framed w i t h i n  the context o f Schneider e t a l . , ' s  (1979) o u t l i n e o f  person p e r c e p t i o n theory augmented by Newcomb's (1958) d e l i n e a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e as an important person p e r c e p t i o n process.  factor  i n the  Given t h a t the r o l e o f the  p e r c e i v e r i s an a c t i v e one r e f l e c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the p e r c e i v e r , i t i s reasonable to i n f e r t h a t p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g (perceptual process) w i l l be an important  f a c t o r i n t h e i r view o f  t h e i r c h i l d r e n and themselves  as parents ( p e r c e p t u a l  product).  10  The the  purpose  magnitude  parents and  in  are highly with  developmental line  cognitions.  t o t h e way  i n which  to c h i l d behavior,  outcomes and i s t h e r e f o r e  of inquiry  and  a v a l i d and  f o r the researcher  interested  rearing.  Questions  1. child  related  their children,  the study of c h i l d  Research  i s to determine  processes, comprised of attitudes  interact  beneficial  investigation  and d i r e c t i o n o f p a r e n t a l  These c o g n i t i v e perceptions,  of this  To w h a t d e g r e e  rearing  related  are parents' attitudes  to t h e i r view o f t h e i r  about children's  behavior? 2. child  To w h a t d e g r e e  rearing  related  are parents' attitudes  to their  about  view o f themselves  as  parents? 3. child of  rearing  related  the parent c h i l d 4.  parents and  To w h a t d e g r e e  about  to t h e i r perception of the q u a l i t y relationship?  To w h a t d e g r e e differ  are parents' attitudes  do s p e c i a l  i n their attitudes  need and toward  typical  child  rearing  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e m s e l v e s a s p a r e n t s and  child?  their  11 CHAPTER TWO L i t e r a t u r e Review An attempt w i l l be made here to o u t l i n e the research which r e l a t e s to the f o r m u l a t i o n hypotheses.  o f t h i s study's  L i t e r a t u r e l i n k i n g parental  perception  processes w i l l be introduced.  constructs  will  a t t i t u d e s and Both o f these  then be more thoroughly d i s c u s s e d :  their  r o l e i n the c h i l d r e a r i n g process and subsequently t h e i r impact on c h i l d developmental outcomes. A t t i t u d e and P e r c e p t i o n Cohler, Weiss, and Grunebaum (1970, p.8) s t a t e  that:  a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g permit a mother to a p p r a i s e and i n t e r p r e t t r a n s a c t i o n s h e r s e l f and her c h i l d .  involving  To the extent that her  a p p r a i s a l and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are incongruent with the needs or i n t e n t i o n s o f the c h i l d , her a t t i t u d e s are maladaptive f o r the r e s o l u t i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r issue or issues which are s a l i e n t a t that In t h e i r research (1957) s t a t e  that  time.  on c h i l d dependency. Sears e t a l . ,  " i t i s important to keep i n mind that a  mother's own a t t i t u d e s toward dependency i n f l u e n c e her perception  o f her c h i l d ' s behavior" (p.143).  Peterson, L u r i a , Shoemaker, and Hellmer  Becker,  (1962) found  that  parents who viewed t h e i r c h i l d r e n as a g g r e s s i v e a t home possessed h o s t i l e and p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d rearing.  Winder and Rau (1962) found that f a t h e r s o f  12 popular  boys maintained  more p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s  (perceptions) o f t h e i r sons' behavior, d i s p l a y e d a t t i t u d e s i n d i c a t i n g that they o f f e r e d more s u p p o r t i v e reinforcement,  and discouraged  using r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e privileges.  a g g r e s s i v e behavior  while  punishment or d e p r i v a t i o n o f  Moss (1974) found  that an i n t e r v i e w r a t i n g  of newlywed women's p o s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n and nurturant a t t i t u d e toward babies p r e d i c t e d the women's behavior with t h e i r interview.  3 month o l d i n f a n t s about 2 years a f t e r the I t should a l s o be noted  t h a t r e s e a r c h has  shown that there are no c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mothers' and f a t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s ( N i c h o l s 1962; Kogan, & T y l e r ,1978) or p e r c e p t i o n s  (Hollerman,  Slough, Littman,  Freund, & Schmaling, 1982). In c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears e v i d e n t that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and their perception of their Parental  child.  Perception  Dinkmeyer, Dinkmeyer, and Sperry,  (1987) s t a t e t h a t  "we acquire a p e r c e p t i o n o f o u r s e l v e s and the world around us...to understand come to recognize  behavior, one must  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the inner,  s u b j e c t i v e experience decisions"  people's  and i t s i n f l u e n c e on a l l our  (p.18).  Combs (1954) concurs  that a l l behavior  i s a function  of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r r e a l i t y a t any  13 given time.  People have a tendency to hear what they  want to hear,  see what they want to see  Howieson, & Jackson,  1976).  (Desiderato,  People behave a c c o r d i n g to  the meaning they a s s i g n to t h e i r r e a l i t y Richards, & Richards, behavior  one  1949)  to understand  human  must acknowledge the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  inner, s u b j e c t i v e experience 1951).  and  (Combs,  of the i n d i v i d u a l  In d e c i p h e r i n g the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i t i s as important  parent-  to understand  parents think about t h e i r c h i l d r e n as i t i s to c h i l d r e n ' s o v e r t behavior  (Rogers,  what  understand  (Yarrow & S c o t t , 1971;  Zelco,  Duncan, Barden, & Garber, 1986). How  people  see things and  how  they  interpret,  construe and a t t r i b u t e t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s a f f e c t s  their  interpersonal  and  clinical  interactions.  psychology  The  f i e l d s of s o c i a l  have r e a f f i r m e d the r e l e v a n c e  c o g n i t i v e processes  in s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  have been i n c r e a s i n g l y compelling  of  Moreover, there  demonstrations of  how  the p e r c e i v e r ' s a t t r i b u t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l behavior perceived  not only i n the p e r c e i v e r , but i n the  (Bates,  1983).  I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n parents' c o g n i t i o n s  may  act as moderators of c h i l d e f f e c t s i n the more complex model of a d u l t - c h i l d r e c i p r o c a l Pettit,  1981).  I t was  found  interaction  (Bates &  that a d u l t s ' analogue  responses to an i n f a n t were r e l a t e d to the a d u l t ' s  background, a t t i t u d e , and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n understandable ways (Bates & P e t t i t , Messe, Michaels,  Buldain,  1981).  Stollack,  C a t l i n , and P a r i t e e (1982)  found that person p e r c e p t i o n  b i a s e s were r e l a t e d t o :  (a)  adjustment problems i n t h e i r 8-9 year o l d c h i l d r e n and (b)  behavior that was e x h i b i t e d during parent c h i l d  interactions.  These authors found that r e l a t i v e to other  s u b j e c t s , n e g a t i v e l y biased  persons tended to a c t i n a  more a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner toward the c h i l d with whom they i n t e r a c t e d , while p o s i t i v e l y biased behave l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y discussion task). the negative  subjects  tended to  :  i n a more a n t a g o n i s t i c context .(a  As w e l l , i t was found that the g r e a t e r  b i a s , the more l i k e l y the parent was to  d i s p l a y d i s t a n c i n g behaviors toward h i s or her c h i l d . P a r e n t a l a c t s connoting s u p e r i o r  s t a t u s tended to be more  n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with ( i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t y l e ) IPS than were e g a l i t a r i a n or behaviors.  perceptual  subordinated  In a second r e l a t e d study f a t h e r s o f problem  c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n e g a t i v e l y biased were f a t h e r s o f h i g h l y adjusted  children.  seem to suggest that perceptual  biases  behavior, and hence, the c h i l d r e n ' s development.  These f i n d i n g s  influence  parental  psychological  However, the authors c a u t i o n  cannot d i s c o u n t  than  that one  the p o s s i b i l i t y that the obtained  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these v a r i a b l e s were due p r i m a r i l y to the d e t r i m e n t a l  impact on parents'  general  perceptual  15 accuracy  of numerous negative experiences  poorly adjusted c h i l d .  with  I t seems probable  behavior  own  that the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e p t i o n and behavior, outcomes are r e c i p r o c a l .  their  and i t s  P e r c e p t i o n a f f e c t s behavior  and  affects perception.  Messe, S t o l l a c k , Watts, Peshkess, and  Perlmutter  (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d person p e r c e p t i o n b i a s e s and c a r e g i v i n g behavior of f i r s t  time parents and  the  found  that  f a t h e r s * parenting competence, based on home v i s i t observations at 4, 7, and negatively related  to  9 months postpartum  t h e i r degree of p e r c e p t u a l b i a s  and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r e n a t a l about t h e i r  infant.  was  For  expectations  fathers e s p e c i a l l y ,  b i a s , measured p r e n a t a l l y was subsequent p a r e n t a l behavior;  perceptual  n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the more biased  the  respondents p e r c e p t i o n , the l e s s responsive p a r e n t i n g displayed.  They concluded  i n f l u e n c e parents* et  a l . , state:  important  that p e r c e p t u a l b i a s e s  encounters  Messe  other  issues w i l l y i e l d useful i n s i g h t s into  complex processes  do  with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  " i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s and  was  the  that mediate f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and  their  impact on c h i l d r e n ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l development" (p.5). Parents' s e l f Beane and and  perception  Lipka (1980) a s s e r t that both  s e l f - c o n c e p t are s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s .  concept  as the p e r c e p t i o n ( s ) one  has  self-esteem  They d e f i n e  i n terms of  the  self-  16 a t t r i b u t e s one possesses and the r o l e s one p l a y s .  Self-  esteem i s the e v a l u a t i v e assessment one makes r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r o l e s and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f performance. One's s e l f - c o n c e p t and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s are manifested i n almost every aspect o f one's behavior and d e a l i n g s with others ( E p s t e i n & E r s k i n e , 1983;  Satir,  1978).  parent who f e e l s s a t i s f i e d with h i s own l i f e  The  i s apt to  a t t a c h l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e and focus l e s s a t t e n t i o n on h i s c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s while the l e s s s a t i s f i e d parent may be prone to judge h i s c h i l d more c r i t i c a l l y  (Katkovsky,  Preston, & C r a n d a l l , 1964). Parents operate pressures ( S t o l z , themselves  i n a milieu of psychological  1967).  Parents not only p e r c e i v e  as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior,  they are held r e s p o n s i b l e by the s o c i a l group (Goodnow, 1985).  Dix and Grusec  (1985) comment:  Parents are enmeshed with the c h i l d social, biological relationship. socializers, children.  i n a powerful,  They are  r e g u l a t o r s , and c a r e t a k e r s o f t h e i r  T h i s means t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s behavior has  personal relevance to parents... and  i s seen as a  r e f l e c t i o n on parent's competence as parents. Whether a c h i l d  i s c l e a n , a g g r e s s i v e , or i n t e l l i g e n t  i s more important  to an a t t r i b u t o r who i s the  c h i l d ' s parent than to one who i s not.  The parent  r o l e a l s o causes parents to share e m o t i o n a l l y t h e i r  17 c h i l d r e n ' s successes and f a i l u r e s .  These aspects o f  the parent r o l e may e x e r t an important i n f l u e n c e on parents* p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior (p. 203). It  i s reasonable to conclude that parents are  strongly  invested i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n both s o c i a l l y and  e m o t i o n a l l y (Radke-Yarrow & Kuczynski, 1983). Parents f i l t e r  t h e i r experience o f themselves and  t h e i r c h i l d through a screen o f a t t r i b u t i o n s and expectations.  Zuckerman and Oltean (1959) found  mothers with low acceptance o f s e l f and o t h e r s  that (husband  and c h i l d r e n ) scored high on the H o s t i l i t y and R e j e c t i o n s c a l e s o f the PARI (Parent A t t i t u d e Research One might surmise e x p e c t a t i o n s around  Instrument).  that parents who have high  c h i l d rearing  (manifested by extreme  c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e scores) would be more c r i t i c a l and e x a c t i n g i n the p a r e n t i n g r o l e and would t h e r e f o r e tend to  have lower p e r c e p t i o n s o f themselves  t h e i r more average  as parents than  scoring counterparts.  Parents' Reports o f C h i l d  Behavior  Behavior r a t i n g s c a l e s are a primary source o f p e r c e p t i o n data and may be more r e f l e c t i v e o f the parents themselves Forehand,  than o f the c h i l d ' s behavior 1979).  Teachers and parents  ( G r i e s t , Wells, & interpret  c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors d i f f e r e n t l y as do mothers and f a t h e r s (Turner & H a r r i s , 1984).  In e x p l o r i n g the i s s u e  18 of  parent agreement of the Behavior Problem C h e c k l i s t ,  Jacob, Grounds, and Haley  (1982) found t h a t t h e i r  very l i t t l e agreement between mothers and e i t h e r d i s t u r b e d or non-disturbed Humphreys and Ciminero  fathers in  samples.  (1979) reviewed  and  evaluated  parent r e p o r t measures of c h i l d r e n ' s behavior and that they f a i l e d  was  to c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with  o b s e r v a t i o n o f the c h i l d ' s behavior.  found  direct  They a r t i c u l a t e  p o s i t i o n that parents' r e p o r t s are j u s t i f i a b l e  the  i n that  they are b e t t e r able to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the problem than the c h i l d and i n and of themselves may  that t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  a f f e c t the c h i l d ' s behavior s i n c e i t  a f f e c t the manner i n which the parent  the c h i l d . Stollack  may  i n t e r a c t s with  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with Michaels, Messe, and  (1983) who  " n e u t r a l " and  have argued  that attempting  t h e r e f o r e " o b j e c t i v e " r a t i n g s of behavior  avoids the complexity o f the parent and involvement  to o b t a i n  child's  with each other and leaves the r e s e a r c h e r or  t h e r a p i s t without adequate means to understand range of c a u s a l l i n k s i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d  the  full  interaction  and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process. Bates  (1983) p o i n t s out t h a t the Thomas and Chess  (1977) f i n d i n g s on c h i l d r e n with d i f f i c u l t  temperament  are based upon p a r e n t s ' r e p o r t s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior and  temperament.  The d e s c r i p t i o n s of  temperament upon which these r e s e a r c h e r s r e s t  difficult their  19 t h e s i s are n e i t h e r v a l i d nor  i n v a l i d however they are  s u b j e c t to the same s y s t e m a t i c b i a s e s that i n f l u e n c e a l l parent r e p o r t i n g . p e r c e p t i o n s may  Bates suggests, however, that these  be more important  i n s o c i a l development  outcome than the o b j e c t i v e , w i t h i n - t h e - i n f a n t f a c t o r s . He argues  t h a t "seeing d i f f i c u l t  temperament r e p o r t s as  s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n s allows i n t e r e s t i n both the r o l e of o b j e c t i f i a b l e q u a l i t i e s of c h i l d r e n and the r o l e of c o g n i t i v e processes Hollerman,  in parents"  Littman, Freund,  (p.94). and Schmaling  (1982) i n  using a s i g n a l approach to a s s e s s i n g parent's p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e n ' s behavior  found that parents o f normal  c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d higher l e v e l s of s e n s i t i v i t y parents o f problem c h i l d r e n . negative behavior  than d i d  As w e l l , s e n s i t i v i t y to  i n the home was  negatively correlated  with the r a t e of p o s i t i v e behavior  i n the home.  In  summary, these r e s e a r c h e r s s t a t e that parents of problem c h i l d r e n appear incapable on a more b a s i c l e v e l of seeing p o s i t i v e or praiseworthy behavior.  Parents who  cannot  a c c u r a t e l y p e r c e i v e d i f f e r e n t types of behavior may respond  to them i n an a p p r o p r i a t e manner.  In a previous study S t o l l a c k , Scholom, Kallman, Satursky  not  (1973) measured s e n s i t i v i t y of responses  c h i l d r e n i n problem s i t u a t i o n s . that p a r e n t a l r e p o r t s may  Their findings  r e f l e c t long-term  to  suggest  and  g e n e r a l i z e d p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e s which themselves  and  may  i n f l u e n c e the type o f p a r e n t a l responses will  to the c h i l d and  t h e r e f o r e have consequences f o r the c h i l d ' s  development.  Studies have u s u a l l y tended  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between:  (a) p a r e n t s ' r e p o r t s o f  a f f e c t i o n a t e or l o v i n g behavior and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment  to f i n d  various indices of  and, (b) r e p o r t s o f p u n i t i v e  behavior and i n d i c e s o f c h i l d ' s maladjustment (Sears e t al.,  1957).  However, Michaels e t a l . ,  (1983) found no  c l e a r c u t p a t t e r n s r e g a r d i n g parents r e p o r t s o f t h e i r behavior and c h i l d adjustment.  However they do r e p o r t  that when parent and c h i l d view p a r e n t a l behavior s i m i l a r l y i t i s more l i k e l y  that the c h i l d w i l l  be able  to a n t i c i p a t e c o r r e c t l y the parent's behavior i n a particular situation.  Bates and P e t i t  (1981) concur  that  p a r e n t - c h i l d p e r c e p t u a l agreement i s r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n ' s behavior and  adjustment.  Messe, S t o l l a c k , Larson, and Michaels observed  (1979)  that a d u l t s with extreme negative b i a s e s i n  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the behavior o f a videotaped a l s o acted more a u t h o r i t a r i a n toward a c h i l d c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y task than those without In summary, i t i s apparent t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s both  child  in a  the b i a s .  t h a t p a r e n t s ' views o f  i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i r own  person  p e r c e p t i o n processes and i s a l s o r e l a t e d to the ways i s which they behave with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  As w e l l ,  r e p o r t measures are not, as was once b e l i e v e d , an  parent  21 o b j e c t i v e assessment of c h i l d r e n ' s behavior of p a r e n t a l  but a measure  perception.  Attitude A p r o l i f e r a t i o n of d e f i n i t i o n s have been proposed for the term " a t t i t u d e " , i n the l i t e r a t u r e Ajzen,  1975;  Canary & S e i b o l d , 1984).  o f f e r s that a t t i t u d e s a f f e c t  Kelman (1974)  the kind of i n f o r m a t i o n  which a person w i l l be exposed, the way information w i l l be organized,  and  i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s ) the way o b j e c t i t s e l f w i l l behave.  (Fishbein &  to  i n which t h a t  o f t e n (as i n  i n which the a t t i t u d e  For t h i s study, a t t i t u d e w i l l  be d e f i n e d as a c o n s t r u c t t h a t r e f e r s to a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e t h a t predisposes  an  evaluative  response toward p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t s or people (Osgood & Tannebaum, 1969).  This d e f i n i t i o n was  chosen because o f  i t s prominence and esteemed p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the a t t i t u d e literature relatedness  (Canary & S e i b o l d , 1984)  as well as i t s  to the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of t h i s  As p r e v i o u s l y p o s t u l a t e d , a t t i t u d e i s seen as an and  s a l i e n t aspect  of the person p e r c e p t i o n  study. integral  process  (Newcomb, 1958). P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e , s p e c i f i c a l l y , r e f e r s to a s e t of d i s p o s i t i o n s or tendencies  i n v o l v i n g motives, emotions,  thoughts, b e l i e f s , o p i n i o n s , e v a l u a t i o n s , i n t e n t i o n s , judgements, and  behavioral  values about c h i l d r e a r i n g .  These a t t i t u d e s w i l l be o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as  the  22 scores obtained on (MPAS).  The  the Maryland Parent A t t i t u d e  MPAS y i e l d s four parenting  based on parents' s e l f - r e p o r t s : Indulgent, P r o t e c t i v e , and  and  p r o f i l e s and  are  Disciplinarian,  Rejecting.  l i t e r a t u r e reviewed u t i l i z e s  Survey  Although  the more general  parent a t t i t u d e d e f i n i t i o n s , i t i s the  the  attitude  parent  a t t i t u d e p r o f i l e s which are  the d e f i n i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e  utilized  t e s t i n g our  i n formulating  and  research  hypotheses. Parental  attitude  Schaefer and  Bell  (1957) i n the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p a r e n t a l  a t t i t u d e s determined  a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g may measured and  may  i n t e r a c t i o n and  f i r s t major  be p r e d i c t i v e o f  be  that  objectively  parent-child  the p e r s o n a l i t y development o f c h i l d r e n .  These researchers then developed the Parent  Attitude  Research Instrument (PARI, 1958), which became the most popular t o o l used by r e s e a r c h e r s to assess a t t i t u d e s concerning c h i l d r e a r i n g . reveal  patterns  The  parental  PARI was  used to  of responding which were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of c e r t a i n dimensions o f p a r e n t i n g  s t y l e s ; f o r example,  a u t h o r i t a r i a n versus democratic or punishment versus praise.  Becker and  Krug (1965) however, found that  PARI d i d not adequately c o n t r o l s e t s and  the  for s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y  exaggerated e d u c a t i o n e f f e c t s .  I t was  also  23 found to be r e l a t i v e l y unsuccessful  i n predicting  child  behavior. Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and subsequent c h i l d behaviors i s a complex one,  attitudes  rearing  Pumroy (1966) demonstrated  that scores on the MPAS do have some b e a r i n g on behavior. Mothers who scored high on MPAS d i s c i p l i n a r i a n  scales  showed more d i r e c t i n g and r e s t r i c t i n g behavior than those that scored low and f o r b i d d i n g and d i s t a n c i n g behavior on the p a r t o f the mother was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the mother's score on the r e j e c t i n g s c a l e a d d i t i o n , Radin and Glasser on the PARI could  (Pumroy, 1966).  In  (1972) found that some s c a l e s  f a i r l y accurately  p r e d i c t how n u r t u r a n t  the mother would be i f she were observed. In studying  parental  attitude. Bell  (1958)  determined that context plays a key r o l e i n a t t i t u d e response.  In a d d i t i o n , research  i n d i c a t e s that  parental  a t t i t u d e s change as a r e s u l t o f l i v i n g with c h i l d r e n i n conjunction  with the simple passage o f time ( B e l l ,  Researchers r e p r e s e n t i n g  1958).  a variety of theoretical  approaches continue to study and a f f i r m the importance o f understanding p a r e n t a l  a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e on  the developmental process o f c h i l d r e n and the h e a l t h o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p (Barnard & C o r r a l e s , 1979;  Sameroff, 1977; Schaefer & Edgerton, 1985). has  Although i t  been demonstrated that a t t i t u d e f a c t o r s have  24 considerable  ability  to p r e d i c t both the achievement  l e v e l and the p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s o f the c h i l d (Dielman, C a t t e l l , Lepper, & Rhoades, 1971), the o r i g i n and  pattern o f parental  (Bossard  & Boll,  1966).  a t t i t u d e i s q u i t e complex We know that p a r e n t a l  responses  to t h e i r c h i l d r e n are shaped by t h e i r own p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and  a t t i t u d e s as well as t h e i r ongoing i n t e r a c t i o n s with  one  another ( L y t t o n , 1982).  Because these i n t e r a c t i o n s  take place w i t h i n a h i g h l y dynamic,  continuing  r e l a t i o n s h i p i t i s reasonable to i n f e r that the i n f l u e n c e is b i - d i r e c t i o n a l i n i t s e f f e c t s .  The concept o f  a t t i t u d e and i t s r o l e i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad i s fundamental to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  A survey o f the  p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e l i t e r a t u r e w i l l now be undertaken. C h i l d Development Outcomes Research has c l e a r l y demonstrated that parents a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d r e a r i n g are r e l a t e d to c h i l d development outcomes.  For i n s t a n c e , Cohler,  Grunebaum (1970) found that maladaptive  Weiss, and  parenting  a t t i t u d e s s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d mothers' a b i l i t y  to r e l a t e  e f f e c t i v e l y with t h e i r c h i l d r e n and r e s o l v e c h i l d  care  developmental issues and can a c t u a l l y impair the psychological indulgent  f u n c t i o n i n g o f the mother.  Permissive,  home environments ( c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low  d i s c i p l i n e , high  indulgent,  and high p r o t e c t i v e  r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s ) were p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d  child  with  preschoolers'  superior  throwing s k i l l s while  jumping s k i l l s were a s s o c i a t e d discipline  with higher maternal  (Schnabl-Dickey, 1977).  There i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l research i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to c h i l d Radin and  increased  Glasser  intellectual  SES  and  and  functioning.  (1972) found that scores on  c o r r e l a t e d with young c h i l d r e n ' s functioning.  on a t t i t u d e  the PARI  intellectual  maternal a t t i t u d e were s t r o n g l y  c o r r e l a t e d with i n f a n t s ' mental development (Poresky & Henderson, 1982).  Mothers of the more i n t e l l i g e n t groups  of c h i l d r e n tended to be more a c c e p t i n g  and  less  dominating i n c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s than mothers o f l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n (Hurley, 1959).  Mothers o f  academically competent g i r l s demonstrated a t t i t u d e s which were l e s s n u r t u r a n t and g i r l s who  a f f e c t i o n a t e than the mothers of  were l e s s p r o f i c i e n t ( C r a n d a l l , Dewey,  Katkovsky, & Preston, 1964).  F i l s i n g e r (1981) found  homes i n which parents were held D e i f i c a t i o n measure on  i n high r e s p e c t  the PARI) but  that  (high  which d i s p l a y e d  on  an  open environment tended to have the most c o g n i t i v e l y differentiated offspring. Parent a t t i t u d e has social  functioning.  a l s o been l i n k e d to  Peery, Jensen, and  children's  Adams (1985)  found that p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e a r i n g were r e l a t e d to the s o c i o m e t r i c children.  s t a t u s of t h e i r preschool  Parents of r e j e c t e d and  isolated children  r e p o r t e d a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t i n g low discipline,  infrequent  c o n f i d e n c e , low  use  use  of p r a i s e  of t h r e a t ,  low  self  preference for young c h i l d r e n  d e f i n i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s about c h i l d behavior. c h i l d r e n were p r e d i c t e d  by  parental  or  and Popular  attitudes  r e f l e c t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r young c h i l d r e n ,  which  frequent  p r a i s e by mothers, a high c h i l d o r i e n t a t i o n , and  father's  acceptance of i n t r u s i v e behavior. Anderson (1946) found that a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d rearing  were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the  c h i l d r e n as w e l l .  s o c i a l behavior of  Parents of s u c c e s s f u l  children  encouraged independence, were l e s s c o n t r o l l i n g , r e s t r i c t i v e and opinions.  and  respected t h e i r  A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was  Sheintuch and attitudes  protective  found  by  Lewin (1981) r e g a r d i n g degree of  favoring  c o n t r o l and  directiveness  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s and independence.  Parental  were a s s o c i a t e d  initiative  indulgence and  parental  and  c h i l d ' s l e v e l s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , i n t e r e s t  the and  and  protectiveness  with higher s c o r e s on measures of  child's self-concept, (Turner & H a r r i s , had  children's  vocabulary, empathy, and  1984).  altruism  In essence, w e l l - l i k e d  p o s i t i v e , supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p s  the  children  with t h e i r  parents. Children  of mothers s c o r i n g  high on  the MPAS  d i s c i p l i n a r i a n used more d i r e c t i n g behavior than c h i l d r e n  27 of l o w - d i s c i p l i n a r i a n mothers (Brody, 1969).  As w e l l ,  c h i l d r e n o f mothers s c o r i n g high on the MPAS r e j e c t i n g s c a l e engaged i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a t t e n t i v e  observation  of the mother, were l e s s seeking o f i n f o r m a t i o n  from the  mother, engaged i n more independent play had a lower r a t e of compliance with the mother's requests,  and sought more  a t t e n t i o n , approval and p r a i s e from the mother. Becker e t a l . , (1962) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between boys' aggressive  behavior a t school  a t t i t u d e s of h o s t i l i t y and p u n i t i v e n e s s .  and mother's  As w e l l ,  c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t e d h o s t i l e and withdrawing behavior were parented by f a t h e r s expressing punitive c h i l d rearing attitudes.  h o s t i l e , s t r i c t and Sears e t a l . , (1957)  found that the number o f aggressive  acts displayed  by a  c h i l d were l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d to the p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f the mother. A synthesis  o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e would seem to support  the hypothesis that parents possessing child rearing attitudes indulgent  (higher  more p o s i t i v e  s c o r i n g on the MPAS  and p r o t e c t i v e s c a l e s ) would tend to have  p o s i t i v e perceptions  of their child.  One could  hypothesize that parents r e p o r t i n g more negative rearing attitudes  (higher  negatively.  child  MPAS d i s c i p l i n a r i a n or  r e j e c t i n g scores) would tend to be more c r i t i c a l c h i l d and would t h e r e f o r e  further  perceive  of their  t h e i r c h i l d more  Socioeconomic  Status  I t should be emphasized a t t h i s p o i n t that r e s e a r c h has demonstrated a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between socioeconomic  s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l and p a r e n t a l  a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s .  In p a r t i c u l a r , Melvin Kohn  (1969) t h e o r i z e d that o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s g i v e r i s e to adaptive values and b e l i e f s which are t r a n s m i t t e d d i r e c t l y and chidren.  i n d i r e c t l y to t h e i r  An overview  i n t e r a c t i o n s with  of t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l now  their  be  provided. Sheintuch and Lewin (1981) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the education l e v e l of the parent and the extent of permissiveness i n a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g ; the more educated, c o n t r o l l i n g are the parents.  the l e s s r i g i d  and  As w e l l , mothers with  higher v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e e i t h e r express more a d a p t i v e a t t i t u d e s and\or are b e t t e r able to determine  the  adaptive p o s i t i o n f o r any p a r t i c u l a r behavior.  Glidewell  (1961) r e p o r t s that the higher the s o c i a l c l a s s of the respondent  the g r e a t e r the s t a b i l i t y of a t t i t u d e  child rearing.  In upper c l a s s e s , mothers tend to accept  the most r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r the behavior of t h e i r  c h i l d r e n ; i n the middle c l a s s e s somewhat l e s s ; lower c l a s s e s mothers accept the l e a s t amount of responsibility.  toward  i n the  Cohler, Weiss, and education and  Grunebaum (1970) found that  s o c i a l s t a t u s mothers express more  maladaptive a t t i t u d e s regarding  the a p p r o p r i a t e  of the c h i l d ' s a g g r e s s i v e impulses. a u t h o r i t a r i a n and  Sears e t a l . , )  on  i n the home seems  l e s s educated  Scores on the  control  An emphasis  suppressive a t t i t u d e s  to be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the 1946;  lower  (Anderson,  authoritarian  dimension of the PARI seem to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  to  general a u t h o r i t a r i a n tendencies  are  which i n t u r n ,  r e l a t e d to the e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of the mother (Zuckerman & Oltean, 1959). Conger, McCarty, Yang, Lahey, and that demographic v a r i a b l e s , such as  Kropp (1984) found  low  income,  low  education, s i n g l e parent homes, were r e l a t e d to mother's emotional d i s t r e s s , a u t h o r i t a r i a n c h i l d r e a r i n g and  p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e n .  educational  Mothers of the  (1982) has increase,  lower  l e v e l s tend to have l e s s approving  toward c h i l d r e n (Schaefer & B e l l ,  values  attitudes  1958).  Patterson  argued that as s t r e s s f u l l i f e  conditions  parents i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e  a negative l i g h t .  Social class strongly correlates  i n f a n t s ' mental development. that p a r e n t a l  their children in  attitude  Radin and  Glasser  with  suggest  i s the mediating mechanism (1972).  S p e c i a l Needs C h i l d r e n Research on contributed  f a m i l i e s o f handicapped c h i l d r e n  has  s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the body of l i t e r a t u r e on  c h i l d e f f e c t s and  the r e c i p r o c a l nature of the  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p ( B e l l & Harper, 1977; 1986).  The  parent-  B e l l & Chapman,  impact of the c h i l d upon the mother been  well-documented (Vadasy, Fewell, In the present study, c h i l d  Meyer, & S c h e l l , 1984).  t y p i c a l i t y as measured  by  t h e i r s t a t u s as a s p e c i a l needs or t y p i c a l c h i l d , w i l l employed as an  i n d i c a t o r of c h i l d e f f e c t s i n our  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the person p e r c e p t i o n rearing.  An  be  introductory  processes i n c h i l d  survey of the  literature will  be undertaken to i l l u s t r a t e that although o v e r a l l relationships will  be s i m i l a r , parents of s p e c i a l needs  children will differ  from parents of t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n i n  both t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and  their  p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c h i l d . A number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found that parents o f handicapped c h i l d r e n do experience s t r e s s l e v e l s higher than normal and the 1984;  t h i s i s not  necessarily correlated  s e v e r i t y o f the c h i l d ' s c o n d i t i o n Kazak & Marvin, 1984).  with  (Longo & Bond,  Loyd and  Abidin  (1985)  found that parents of handicapped c h i l d r e n scored higher on the C h i l d domain of the Parenting S t r e s s  Index  (PSI)  than other parents, i n d i c a t i n g that these c h i l d r e n displayed  q u a l i t i e s which make parenting  difficult.  There seems to be a growing r e c o g n i t i o n l i t e r a t u r e that changes i n p a r e n t a l  attitudes  p e r c e p t i o n s are dynamically l i n k e d to  in  the  and  the a c t i v e agency  of the c h i l d  (Thomas, 1978).  that p a r e n t a l  a t t i t u d e s and  many forces and  are  This researcher responses are  a l s o argues  the product of  j u s t as l i k e l y to r e s u l t from  i n t e r a c t i o n with a s p e c i f i c c h i l d as to be responses to disability  itself.  Mannoni (1973) a l s o a s s e r t s  that  ongoing i n t e r a c t i o n s with the c h i l d are the most potent source of ongoing a t t i t u d e s . supported by Walters and both parents and  This p r o p o s i t i o n  Stinnett  (1971) who  is also  assert  that  c h i l d r e n are engaged i n a process i n  which e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  perceptions  and  p r o g r e s s i v e l y change although l i t t l e  attitudes i s known about  process by which p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s are shaped  the  by  c h i l d r e n ' s behavior. Cummings, Bayley, and  Rie  (1966) i n a landmark study  found that mothers of handicapped c h i l d r e n demonstrated lower l e v e l s of self-esteem, interpersonal children.  greater  depression,  and  less  s a t i s f a c t i o n than mothers of normal  These authors concluded however,that parents  of s p e c i a l need c h i l d r e n are e s s e n t i a l l y normal and t h e i r s c o r i n g ranges r e f l e c t both s u c c e s s f u l patterns  as well as the s t r e s s i n v o l v e d  disabled  child.  B e l l and  coping  in parenting  a  Harper (1977) observed that more  i n t r u s i v e n e s s emerged i n a p a r e n t a l questionnaire  that  attitude  for mothers o f c o n g e n i t a l l y  handicapped  c h i l d r e n than for mothers of normal c h i l d r e n , presumably  i n d i c a t i n g a p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s l i m i t e d coping a b i l i t i e s . that a t t i t u d e s  Slough, Kogan, and T y l e r  (1978) found  (as measured by MPAS) of mothers of  c h i l d r e n with handicapping c o n d i t i o n s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower  than comparison mothers on  the  r e j e c t i n g s c a l e and higher on the p r o t e c t i v e s c a l e .  No  d i f f e r e n c e s were found on the d i s c i p l i n e or p r o t e c t i v e scales.  These authors concluded  a f t e r a survey of the  research that a t t i t u d e s of parents of c h i l d r e n with handicaps  tend to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  from  those  of parents of non-handicapped c h i l d r e n i n a v a r i e t y of ways. One  can c o n f i d e n t l y conclude  t h a t p a t t e r n s of  responding w i l l be s i m i l a r  i n both parent groups but t h a t  s p e c i a l needs parents w i l l  tend to have lower p e r c e p t i o n s  of themselves  as parents and  t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n and w i l l  their child  than parents of  t h e r e f o r e express  lower  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the q u a l i t y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p their  with  child.  Summary I t i s recognized that only e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , f o r the purposes  of e l u c i d a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a l e f f e c t s ,  should  parent or c h i l d e f f e c t s be i s o l a t e d . I t i s understood that only through  s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n o f the  parent-  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p can a f a i r assessment of c h i l d  effects  and  i n t e r a c t i o n a l e f f e c t s be measured.  exceeds the  scope o f our  This research  study f o r the present time.  i s f o c u s i n g on  processes of p a r e n t a l  However, t h i s  the person  a t t i t u d e and  perception  perception  (view) o f  c h i l d and  s e l f as parent, i n the context o f  rearing.  I t i s f e l t that the l i t e r a t u r e supports  view that p a r e n t a l f a c t o r s are  child  c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and  important mechanisms i n the c h i l d  the  perception rearing  sequence as they are s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to c h i l d development outcomes. For  the purposes of t h i s study p a r e n t a l  attitudes  toward c h i l d r e a r i n g w i l l be o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d scores  obtained on the Maryland Parent A t t i t u d e  (MPAS). defined  P e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d and as scores  domains (Factors S t r e s s Index  Survey  s e l f as parent w i l l  obtained on the c h i l d and I and  as  be  parent  II r e s p e c t i v e l y ) of the  Parenting  (PSI).  Hypotheses 1.  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  parental  c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and  themselves as parents and 2.  their perception  of  their child.  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  parental  a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d r e a r i n g and  perception  o f the q u a l i t y o f the  relationship.  their  parent-child  3.  Parents of s p e c i a l  significantly  needs c h i l d r e n d i f f e r  from parents o f t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n i n both  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and  their  p e r c e p t i o n s of themselves as parents and t h e i r  child.  35 CHAPTER THREE Methodology In t h i s chapter, the purpose o f the study and the hypotheses w i l l be r e s t a t e d and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . thorough d e s c r i p t i o n test  A  o f the r e s e a r c h instruments used to  the hypotheses w i l l  then be presented.  The  procedures f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and i t s subsequent a n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o be provided. The  purpose o f t h i s study i s to e x p l o r e the  relationships  between parent c h i l d r e a r i n g  (independent v a r i a b l e ) and t h e i r  attitudes  perceptions of  themselves as parents, t h e i r c h i l d and t h e i r with t h e i r c h i l d  (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) .  having a t y p i c a l or s p e c i a l  The r o l e  needs c h i l d  variable) plays i n influencing  relationship that  (independent  these a t t i t u d e s and  p e r c e p t i o n s (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) w i l l a l s o be examined. Hypotheses Restated and O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d 1.  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  relationship  p a r e n t a l c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and (a) t h e i r  between perception  of t h e i r c h i l d and (b) t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f themselves as parents. a)  Scores on MPAS d i s c i p l i n a r i a n or r e j e c t i n g  s c a l e s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c h i l d on e i t h e r  with negative  ( i e . , the higher the MPAS score  the d i s c i p l i n a r i a n or r e j e c t i n g  higher t h e i r PSI c h i l d domain s c o r e ) .  s c a l e , the  36 b)  Scores on MPAS indulgent or p r o t e c t i v e  w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d perceptions of t h e i r c h i l d  with p o s i t i v e  ( i e . , the higher the MPAS  score on e i t h e r the i n d u l g e n t or p r o t e c t i v e MPAS, the lower the PSI c h i l d domain c)  s c a l e s o f the  score).  Parents' a t t i t u d e scores w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  negatively  correlated  with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f themselves  as parents - the stronger t h e i r c h i l d r e a r i n g the  scales  lower t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s  attitudes,  ( i e . , the higher t h e i r  scores on any MPAS s c a l e , the higher t h e i r score on the PSI  parent domain).  2.  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  parental  a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d r e a r i n g and t h e i r  p e r c e p t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d relationship. a)  Parental  c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s w i l l be  significantly positively correlated of the p a r e n t - c h i l d any  MPAS s c a l e ,  relationship  with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n  (the higher the score on  the higher t h e i r t o t a l PSI r e l a t i o n s h i p  score). 3.  Parents o f s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n  significantly  differ  from parents o f t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n  (a) t h e i r a t t i t u d e s  i n both  toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and (b) t h e i r  perceptions o f themselves as parents, t h e i r c h i l d , and the p a r e n t - c h i l d  relationship.  37 a)  Parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n w i l l  higher c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e scores and perceptions o f t h e i r c h i l d ,  lower  themselves as parents and  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p than parents of children  have  typical  ( i e . , parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n  have higher MPAS s c a l e s c o r e s , higher c h i l d and domain scores and a higher o v e r a l l  the  will parent  t o t a l PSI s c o r e ) .  Sample The r e s e a r c h sample c o n s i s t e d of 107 parents o f c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at any one  of f i v e Lower Mainland  child  development c e n t e r s or i n t e g r a t e d p r e s c h o o l s operated  by  the Vancouver Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n For M e n t a l l y Handicapped People. d i s t r i b u t e d and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  107 parents returned t h e i r packages (a  36% r e t u r n r a t e ) . reflect  A t o t a l of 300  The  s u b j e c t s who  responded appeared to  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the whole group i n regard  to socioeconomic  s t a t u s , c e n t r e attended by the  type, sex and age of c h i l d .  Although  child,  socioeconomic  i n f o r m a t i o n i s not c o l l e c t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l c e n t e r s , and  t h e r e f o r e impossible to r e p o r t , each preschool  represented by approximately population.  one  was  t h i r d of i t s parent  The r e s e a r c h e r ' s personal knowledge of the  c e n t e r s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s however, l e a d her to c o n j e c t u r e that there was  a g r e a t e r percentage  of response  from  parents from two-parent homes than i n the whole group.  38 I t i s recognized  that as an a v a i l a b i l i t y sample our  data w i l l not meet the f u l l control.  Kidder  requirements  o f experimental  (1981) e l a b o r a t e s that s u b j e c t  assignment i n a quasi-experimental  design  incorporates  the n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g biased s e l e c t i o n processes e x i s t i n the world.  The non-random nature  samples make i t d i f f i c u l t d i s e n t a n g l e treatment  that  o f these  f o r the experimenter to  e f f e c t s from other  (particularly selection).  effects  I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y may be  compromised due to b i a s e s r e s u l t i n g from d i f f e r e n t i a l recruitment o f s u b j e c t s (Nachmias & Nachmias, 1981). Instruments P a r e n t i n g S t r e s s Index Parents' p e r c e p t i o n s o f themselves as parents and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d w i l l be measured by the parent and c h i l d domains o f Loyd and A b i d i n ' s  (1985)  Parenting S t r e s s Index (PSI F a c t o r s II and I respectively).  This instrument  i s a 101-item  r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t , when both  self-  f a c t o r s are taken  together, measures parents p e r c e p t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p that they have with t h e i r Although  child.  i n i t i a l l y used as a s c r e e n i n g device to i d e n t i f y  a t - r i s k parents,  i t a l s o provides a means f o r measuring  parents' p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p their  child.  with  39 The  two domains o f the PSI a r e as f o l l o w s :  1.  The 47 items o f the C h i l d domain i n c l u d e  parents' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s acceptability,  demandingness, mood, d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y ,  reinforcement o f parent. a s s o c i a t e d with c h i l d r e n it difficult  adaptability, and  High scores i n t h i s domain are who d i s p l a y  f o r parents to f u l f i l  For parents o f handicapped c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y e l e v a t e d above the parent  q u a l i t i e s which make  their parenting  roles.  t h i s domain i s characteristics  domain. 2.  The Parent domain which c o n t a i n s 54 items  includes parents' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r r o l e , d e p r e s s i o n , attachment, sense o f competence, social  isolation, relationship  with spouse, and h e a l t h .  High scores i n t h i s domain are i n d i c a t i v e the parent's individuals  functioning.  The o v e r a l l  of distress in  sense o f  who earn high p a r e n t a l domain scores i s t h e i r  f e e l i n g o f being f r u s t r a t e d ,  overwhelmed and inadequate  to the task o f p a r e n t i n g . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y The c u r r e n t form o f the PSI i s the r e s u l t o f s i x revisions.  The v e r s i o n used i n t h i s study has  demonstrated high v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y A b i d i n , 1985).  (Loyd &  The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s  f o r the  C h i l d and Parent domains a r e .89 and .93 r e s p e c t i v e l y and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t  (Cronbach's Alpha) f o r both  40 domains together ( q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p ) i s .95.  These  c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e that there i s a high degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r these measures.  As w e l l ,  test-  r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s obtained from four s t u d i e s s t r o n g l y demonstrate the s t a b i l i t y of the PSI s c a l e s ( c i t e d i n Loyd & A b i d i n , 1985). Construct v a l i d i t y  i s the degree to which  p r e d i c t i o n s based on the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c being measured are a c t u a l l y  confirmed.  A b i d i n (1986) acknowledges that the PSI was to measure temperament or c h i l d behavior but  not  designed  "the  parent's p e r c e p t i o n of the impact of a g i v e n temperamental q u a l i t y o f the parent as w e l l as a c h i l d behavior r e f e r e n t "  (p.2).  The a p p r a i s a l component  involved i n the experience of s t r e s s i s acknowledged and "it  i s the very combination  of important  child  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the parent's p e r c e p t i o n of these which enhance the c l i n i c a l  u t i l i t y of the PSI"  (p.2).  w e l l , the PSI c l e a r l y acknowledges the r e c i p r o c a l of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s and  As  nature  that there are parent  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and f a m i l y context v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e the parent's a b i l i t y respond  to t h e i r  to  child.  Although other s t u d i e s using t h i s measure s p e c i f i c a l l y as an i n d i c a t o r of parent p e r c e p t i o n were unobtainable, an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review on  behavior  41 r a t i n g s c a l e s was Research  presented e a r l i e r  in this  paper.  s t r o n g l y supports the view t h a t parent r e p o r t  measures are not, as was  once b e l i e v e d , an o b j e c t i v e  assessment of c h i l d r e n ' s behavior but a measure of p a r e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n (Bates, 1983; Forehand, 1979;  G r i e s t , Wells, &  Humphreys & Ciminero,  1979).  The  PSI  can be u t i l i z e d as a p e r c e p t i o n measure with a high degree of confidence i n i t s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . Discriminant v a l i d i t y  i s shown by demonstrating  that  t e s t scores are more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with c e r t a i n criteria  than o t h e r s .  Groups with d i f f e r e n t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be d e f i n e d on the b a s i s of t e s t measures.  A multitude of f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t i n g t h i s c l a i m  are presented by A b i d i n (1986). in Loyd & A b i d i n , 1986)  found  Greenberg (1983, c i t e d  that the PSI d i s c r i m i n a t e d  between her sample of mentally r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and normative  population.  Mash (1983a) found  the  that mothers o f  h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n earn s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores than parents of normal c h i l d r e n .  Kazak (1984) r e p o r t e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores on PSI subscales f o r parents of c h i l d r e n with s p i n a b i f i d a versus matched comparison families. F a c t o r i a l v a l i d i t y of the PSI was three f a c t o r a n a l y s e s .  The  investigated  sample c o n s i s t e d o f  mothers of normal and c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n .  by  534 The  p a t t e r n of f a c t o r l o a d i n g s presented by A b i d i n (1986,  t a b l e s 6 & 7, p. 34)  "support  the n o t i o n that each  subscale i s measuring a moderately stress".  of  A b i d i n a l s o r e p o r t s on a r e p l i c a t i o n of the  f a c t o r analyses which determined  that markedly d i f f e r e n t  c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s d i d not a l t e r or  d i s t i n c t source  the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e  reliability. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  PSI  A high t o t a l score (above the 80th p e r c e n t i l e ) i s a strong i n d i c a t o r of s t r e s s i n the p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad  and  r e f l e c t s a very low parent p e r c e p t i o n of the q u a l i t y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c h i l d .  As w e l l ,  earning e x c e p t i o n a l l y low scores (below the p e r c e n t i l e ) may  parents 15th  be e i t h e r uninvolved with t h e i r  r e j e c t i n g , or paranoid.  child,  E x c e p t i o n a l l y low or high scores  are seen by these authors as i n d i c a t i n g d i s t u r b a n c e  and  n e c e s s i t a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n (Loyd & A b i d i n , 1985).  I t should be noted  as i n i t i a l handicaps The  t h a t obvious e x p l a n a t i o n s  r e v e l a t i o n o f c h i l d handicap may  account  such  or extreme  f o r e l e v a t e d c h i l d domain s c o r e s .  normal range for the t o t a l score i s from the 15th to  the 80th p e r c e n t i l e rank (raw  scores from 185.2-277.6)  Maryland Parent A t t i t u d e Survey P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e w i l l be measured by the Maryland Parent A t t i t u d e Survey (MPAS) which i s a r e s e a r c h instrument designed  to measure p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s about  c h i l d r e a r i n g with s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y  controlled  43 (Pumroy, 1966;  Tolor,  1967).  The  items, r e q u i r i n g a f o r c e d choice statements.  This n o n - i p s a t i v e  MPAS c o n s i s t s of  response to a p a i r of  t e s t i s scored  the number of items chosen f o r each of four These c a t e g o r i e s  or s c a l e s are:  r e j e c t i n g , indulgent, types.  and  S p l i t - h a l f and  by  categories.  disciplinarian,  test-retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranged from .62  - .84  the which  Even though these s c a l e s were not  independent, i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed. r e l a t i o n s h i p was  A negative  found between the d i s c i p l i n a r i a n  s c a l e s and  ( T o l o r , 1967).  for  average f o r instruments of t h i s nature  ( T o l o r , 1967).  indulgent  adding  p r o t e c t i v e parent a t t i t u d e  four s c a l e s were measured and i s considered  95  the p r o t e c t i v e and  and  rejecting scales  R e l i a b i l i t y analyses were computed  by  t h i s author f o r a l l four s c a l e s and  the r e s u l t s  (Cronbach's Alpha) are as f o l l o w s :  (a) D i s c i p l i n a r i a n  scale  (c) P r o t e c t i v e  .68,  .75, and  (b) Indulgent s c a l e  (d) R e j e c t i o n  instrument has i s considered  scale  .64,  .73.  The  been somewhat d i f f i c u l t to be  scale  v a l i d i t y of t h i s to e s t a b l i s h .  It  the best measure a v a i l a b l e with  s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y c o n t r o l l e d ( T o l o r , 1967). Scales Pumroy (1966) d e s c r i b e s 1•  the  four s c a l e s as  follows:  Indulgent parents  These parents are c h i l d centered; the c h i l d allowed to have t h e i r own  way  i n a l l matters.  is  The  child  i s showered with warmth and a f f e c t i o n . attempts  at d i s c i p l i n e ,  circumvented.  While  there a r e  the c h i l d knows the r u l e s can be  The c h i l d  i s not encouraged to show any  i n i t i a t i v e , and seldom has r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s around the house.  F r e q u e n t l y , but f o r no p a r t i c u l a r reason other  than an impulse on the p a r t o f the parent, the c h i l d i s g i v e n g i f t s and t r e a t s . 2.  Disciplinarian  parents  These parents need and expect obedience child.  from the  Rules are e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d by the parents.  c h i l d knows that non-compliance w i l l r e s u l t  The  i n punishment  which i s c a r r i e d out i n a f a i r and c o n s i s t e n t manner. This parent i s c o n s t a n t l y pushing beyond t h e i r a b i l i t y , 3..Protective  the c h i l d to achieve  f o r c i n g them to grow up e a r l y .  parents  P r o t e c t i v e parents are p r i m a r i l y concerned ensuring that the c h i l d Consequently,  takes a minimum amount o f r i s k s .  the parents are o v e r l y watchful o f the  c h i l d and always a l e r t to p o t e n t i a l danger. parents perform the c h i l d  These  tasks f o r the c h i l d long beyond the time  i s capable.  independent  with  The c h i l d  i s discouraged  from  a c t i v i t y , out o f fear that something w i l l  happen to them. 4.  R e j e c t i n g parents  These parents are openly h o s t i l e toward t h e i r children.  This h o s t i l i t y  i s frequently reflected i n  45 d i s c i p l i n e and punishment which seems to be based  more o f  the general negative f e e l i n g s of the parent than on the behavior of the c h i l d .  Because of the  engendered i n the c h i l d ,  there i s o f t e n a f e e l i n g t h a t  c h i l d r e n are i n c o r r i g i b l e . concerned  with t h e i r own  bothered by c h i l d r e n .  hostility  These parents are p r i m a r i l y  a c t i v i t i e s and p r e f e r not be  This s c a l e has been suggested  an i n d i c a t o r of emotional d i s t a n c e between parent child  (Brody,  as  and  1969).  Control Variables Age-related i s s u e s I t should be noted t h a t p a r e n t s ' scores on the MPAS are not a f f e c t e d by the ages of t h e i r preschool c h i l d r e n (Schnabl-Dickey,  1977;  Turner & H a r r i s , 1984).  a d d i t i o n , Zuckerman and Oltean (1959) found of the mother bears l i t t l e attitude  factors.  In  that the  age  r e l a t i o n s h i p to p a r e n t a l  Peterson and R o l l i n s  c a u t i o n that age of c h i l d may  (1987) however,  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  i d e n t i f y i n g parents' i n t e r a c t i o n s t y l e s with  factor i n  their  children. There i s some suggestion t h a t the PSI s t r e s s scores earned  by p a r e n t - c h i l d systems with younger c h i l d r e n are  higher than scores earned by systems with o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Thus, A b i d i n (1986) suggests  that the c r i t i c a l  cut o f f  score f o r high s t r e s s i n f a m i l i e s when the c h i l d two years of age  should be  250.  i s above  46 Measurement of Socioeconomic Status Since World War have been developed s t a t u s i n Canada.  I I , s e v e r a l socioeconomic to d e s c r i b e and  measure o c c u p a t i o n a l  Using a h i e r a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e , these  i n d i c e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d based on three variables:  indexes  p r e s t i g e , income, and  primary  education.  B l i s h e n ' s (1958) s c a l e which was  based on  1951  Census data used income l e v e l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s to rank 343 occupations.  In a r e v i s i o n of t h a t s c a l e  B l i s h e n (1967) used a p r e s t i g e ranking of 88  occupations  to rank 320 occupations  Census.  B l i s h e n and 1971  r e p o r t e d i n the 1961  McRoberts (1976) updated that s c a l e using  Census data with some methodological  innovations  r e l e v a n t to the change i n the n a t i o n a l employment situation.  Pineo,  P o r t e r , and McRoberts (1977) responded  to the Census o c c u p a t i o n a l coding system by changing t h e i r Major Groups h i e r a r c h y and corresponding  altering  the  p r e s t i g e codes.  B l i s h e n , C a r r o l l , and Moore (1987) i d e n t i f y p r i n c i p a l methodological  problems that have  r e s e a r c h e r s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and socioeconomic  indexes:  plagued  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  (1) the omission of women as  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e u n t i l e a r l y 1980's, (2)  three  the  the v a l i d i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e  scores as a c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , and  (3) the l a c k of a  47 c l e a r u n i t o f a n a l y s i s f o r the measurement o f socioeconomic  status.  These authors adopt a s t r a t e g y f o r c a l c u l a t i n g socioeconomic  s t a t u s which minimizes  the r o l e o f  c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r e s t i g e scores and i n c o r p o r a t e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the e n t i r e Canadian labor f o r c e i n t o a s i n g l e index.  Using the 1981 Census data, the employed  labor force was grouped i n t o 514 c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f Occupations.  Education and income l e v e l s were d e r i v e d  for each o c c u p a t i o n a l category based on these data.  The  pooled median income f o r men and women across a l l 514 occupations and the net p r o p o r t i o n o f well-educated men and women were used.  The socioeconomic  index was based  on the sum o f the standard scored v e r s i o n s o f these variables.  As w e l l , to provide c o n t i n u i t y with previous  indexes, t h i s index was c a l l i b r a t e d to the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e m e t r i c o f Pineo and Porter (1967) through a r e g r e s s i o n analyses.  D e t a i l s on exact  computational  formulas are provided by B l i s h e n e t a l . (1987). For our purposes,  the forementioned  a p p r o p r i a t e to our r e s e a r c h .  index i s most  Occupational t i t l e  w i l l be  used as the i n d i c a t o r o f each s u b j e c t ' s c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n i n the Canadian o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . al.,  The B l i s h e n e t  (1987) index provides the most c u r r e n t , male and  48 female based, research grounded, Canadian s c a l e o f socioeconomic  status available.  Data C o l l e c t i o n A f t e r permission was r e c e i v e d from the U.B.C. E t h i c s Review Committee, n o t i c e s were sent out by the D i r e c t o r of C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e s f o r the Vancouver Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Mentally Handicapped People (VRAMHP) to parents o f a l l c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the f i v e VRAMHP centers announcing and endorsing  the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t .  As w e l l , v e r b a l announcements were made a t a l l the monthly parent meetings by c e n t r e s u p e r v i s o r s .  One week  p r i o r to the commencement o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n a copy o f the explanatory q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e t t e r was posted on each c e n t e r ' s parent b u l l e t i n board.  Appendix A  contains c o p i e s o f the complete q u e s t i o n n a i r e package with announcement l e t t e r s . There are two v e r s i o n s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which place the PSI and the MPAS i n opposite order o f each other. numbers. original  They were randomly assigned Included  to package code  i n the package was the copy o f the  l e t t e r sent by the VRAMHP C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e s  D i r e c t o r , an i n s t r u c t i o n sheet,  the instruments,  s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Family Background.  and a  This s e c t i o n asked  for i n f o r m a t i o n on the age and sex o f the c h i l d e n r o l l e d at the c e n t r e , age and sex o f the responding  parent,  number o f c h i l d r e n i n the home, languages spoken, number  of  parents  education, The  i n the home, and mother's and f a t h e r ' s income and occupation.  researcher used parent  lists  number to each q u e s t i o n n a i r e package. researcher had access  to the code.  and assigned a Only the  A l l parents  picked  t h e i r package up from t h e i r c h i l d ' s "cubbie" a t the centre. box  Volunteers  returned  s t a t i o n e d a t each c e n t r e .  i t w i t h i n three weeks to a A f t e r the f i r s t  week, the  researcher sent out a reminder n o t i c e to non-respondents and again asked that people or questions  call  i f they had any concerns  i n f i l l i n g out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Design Survey r e s e a r c h i s a r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y that attempts to answer questions about n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g phenomena. Data are c o l l e c t e d  from people  i n t h e i r own s e t t i n g and  i n f o r m a t i o n i s e x t r a p o l a t e d from t h e i r answers r e g a r d i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the people (Kerlinger,  and groups  surveyed  1973).  C o r r e l a t i o n a l research  i s especially useful for  e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s and i n v o l v e s c o l l e c t i n g data on two or more v a r i a b l e s on the same group o f s u b j e c t s and calculating correlational coefficients d i s c o v e r and c l a r i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  i n order to  Correlation  c o e f f i c i e n t s are used to measure the degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p and to explore p o s s i b l e c a u s a l f a c t o r s which can be l a t e r t e s t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y  (Borg & G a l l ,  1983).  50 In t h i s study, we frequencies  and  have focused on e s t a b l i s h i n g  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  well as the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e perception  variables.  The  and  i n f l u e n c e o f having a s p e c i a l  needs or t y p i c a l c h i l d on a t t i t u d e s and  perceptions  will  a l s o be examined. Method of Raw  Analysis data were c o l l e c t e d i n the  questionnaires.  Information was  numerical form and  For  recorded.  analyzed using  the  Statistical  PSI,  frequencies,  raw  and  scores,  means, standard  p e r c e n t i l e ranks were  Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed  on the data i n the process of hypothesis t e s t i n g . Extensive post hoc multiple  into  S o c i a l Sciences, v e r s i o n X (SPSS X).  the MPAS and  deviations,  later transcribed  entered i n t o the U.B.C. mainframe  computer where i t was Package f o r the  form of  analyses c o n s i s t i n g of Anova  regressions  were a l s o undertaken.  and  51 CHAPTER FOUR Results This chapter r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f the r e s e a r c h data.  Sections o u t l i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  the sample and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s will  be presented  f o r the reader.  Subsequently,  each  research hypothesis w i l l be r e s t a t e d with i t s corresponding r e s u l t s .  The chapter w i l l  c l o s e with a  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the post hoc analyses computed on the c o l l e c t e d data. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample Table 1 c l e a r l y demonstrates the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e s e a r c h sample. the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . women.  A t o t a l o f 107 parents responded to Of these, 44 were men and 63 were  Both mothers and f a t h e r s i n each f a m i l y were  given q u e s t i o n n a i r e packages.  To preserve the  independence o f t h e i r responses, s e p a r a t e l y f o r both  data were analyzed  sexes.  The v o l u n t e e r s who answered and r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r i m a r i l y parents from homes (83.2%). households  The remainder  were from one parent  (11%) or were f o s t e r  was the f i r s t  two-parent  families  (6%).  English  language spoken i n 69% o f these homes. For  24% o f the f a m i l i e s E n g l i s h was the second i t was not spoken i n 7%.  language, and  52 Table 1 Frequency and Percentages of C a t a q o r i c a l  Variable  N  Data  %  Male  44  41.1  Female  63  58. 9  Male  53  49.5  Female  54  50. 5  Age of c h i l d :  1  14  13. 1  (years)  2  21  19.6  3  17  15.9  4  32  29.9  5  21  19.6  6  2  1.9  Sex o f parent:  Sex of c h i l d :  Handicap:  none  43  40 . 2  mental  23  21.5  physical  17  15.9  multiple  18  16. 8  6  5.5  other Siblings:  only  child  oldest  child  youngest middle twins  child  child  42  39. 3  14  13. 1  36  33. 1  14  13.1  1  .9  53 These parents r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from other f a m i l y members or C h i l d Development Centre s t a f f to f i l l out their questionnaires.  The mean age o f parents  surveyed  was 35.16 years with a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 5.0 years. Ages ranged  from 23 to 49 years.  The mean c h i l d age o f  the c h i l d a t t e n d i n g the c e n t r e ( i e . , the s u b j e c t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) was 3.3 years, h a l f were boys and h a l f were g i r l s . and  T y p i c a l c h i l d r e n comprised  40% o f our sample  the remaining 60% had s p e c i a l needs.  Thirty-nine  percent (39%) o f the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s sample were only c h i l d r e n , while 47% had s i b l i n g s .  One o f the c h i l d r e n  had a twin s i s t e r . Mothers' and f a t h e r s ' education l e v e l s are presented in Table 2.  Both parents had a mean education l e v e l o f  having "some c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y " .  The e d u c a t i o n mode  for both groups however, was e l e v a t e d a t l e v e l 6.00, possessing "a u n i v e r s i t y degree".  Mothers' mean income  l e v e l was $16,000-520,000 with the mode a t under $10,000. F a t h e r s ' mean earnings were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher a t $36,000-$40,000 and the mode was $21,000-$25,000. Our  parent sample represented a range o f socioeconomic  (SES)  l e v e l s as measured by B l i s h e n ( B l i s h e n , C a r r o l l , &  Moore, 1987).  Mothers' SES l e v e l s ranged  from  23.31 to  101.32 with a mean of 43.45 and a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 22.22.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s occupations from w a i t r e s s e s  (23.31) to surgeons  (101.32).  54 Table 2 Frequency, Percentages,  and Means of Mothers' and  F a t h e r s ' Education  Mothers N  Fathers  %  N  %  Variable Education: 1. Less than grade  3  2.8  1  ,9  2. High school grad  25  23.4  14  13,. 1  3. Trades  17  15. 9  17  15. 9  9  8.4  17  15., 9  19  17. 8  13  12. 1  31  29.0  39  36. 4  5  4. 7  certificate  4. Some c o l l e g e / u n i v 5. C o l l e g / u n i v  diploma  6. (Jniv degree 7. Not a p p l i c a b l e  .9  1  Total:  105  106  Mean:  4.07  4.54  Mode:  6.00  6.00  In a d d i t i o n , there were 3 students housewives.  who were scored as  F a t h e r s ' SES l e v e l s ranged  from 22.73 to  99.74 with a mean of 47.81 and a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 19.4.  Two f a t h e r s were students.  Canadian mean score i s 42.74.  B l i s h e n ' s (1987)  55 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s A l l dependent v a r i a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e approximately normal with the e x c e p t i o n of the indulgent s c a l e o f the MPAS which i s s l i g h t l y skewed.  This  v a r i a b l e has a mean o f 25.5, a mode o f 21.0, a median o f 25.00 and a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 6.47.  Table 3 presents  a summary o f a l l o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r a t t i t u d e and perception  variables.  Table 3 Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s Variables  and Range o f Dependent  (n=107)  Variables  Mean  SD  Range  MPAS V a r i a b l e s ; Disciplinarian  18. .08  6., 13  5--32  Rejecting  16, , 35  5., 74  5--31  Indulgent  25. 51  6.,47  12- -43  Protective  29. , 33  4,.76  16- -40  PSI Domains; Child  112.1  24.5  71-190  Parent  122.76  24.22  61-186  Total  234.87  44.71  132-347  56 Research Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 1.  a)  Scores on MPAS d i s c i p l i n a r i a n or r e j e c t i n g  s c a l e s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with negative p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c h i l d  ( i e . , the higher the MPAS score  on e i t h e r the d i s c i p l i n a r i a n or r e j e c t i n g s c a l e , the higher the PSI c h i l d domain b)  score).  Scores on MPAS indulgent  or p r o t e c t i v e  scales  w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with p o s i t i v e perceptions o f t h e i r c h i l d  ( i e . , the higher the MPAS  score on e i t h e r the indulgent  or p r o t e c t i v e  s c a l e s o f the  MPAS, the lower the PSI c h i l d domain s c o r e ) . Results Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d all  for  four a t t i t u d e s c a l e s o f the MPAS and the c h i l d domain  of the PSI.  The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table 4.  Included i n t h i s t a b l e are c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , p r o b a b i l i t i e s , and the number o f subjects each computation.  Calculations  included i n  are presented f o r  mothers, f a t h e r s , and both parents together. predicted  I t was  i n the hypothesis that a t t i t u d e s would be  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with perceptions.  O v e r a l l , none o f  the c o r r e l a t i o n s was s i g n i f i c a n t and we f a i l  to r e j e c t  the n u l l hypothesis f o r hypotheses l a ) and l b ) .  57 Table 4 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between MPAS and PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores  PSI C h i l d  Mothers  P e r c e p t i o n Scores  Fathers  Both  Parents MPAS V a r i a b l e s Disciplinarian  Rejecting  Indulgent  .08  .13  .09  P = .27  p = . 20  p = . 20  n =61  n=41  n=102  - . 12  . 14  -.01  P = . 18  p=. 20  p=. 46  n =59  n=40  n=99  - . 10  -. 21  -.13  P = . 21  p = . 10  p=. 10  n =61  n=41  n=102  - . 05  .01  -.03  P = .34  p = .49  p=. 39  n =61  n=41  n=102  ;  Rejecting  58 1.  c)  Parents' a t t i t u d e scores w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  negatively  c o r r e l a t e d with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f themselves  as parents - the higher t h e i r c h i l d r e a r i n g the lower t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s  attitudes,  ( i e . , the higher t h e i r  MPAS s c a l e s c o r e s , the higher t h e i r score on the PSI parent domain). Results As o u t l i n e d  i n Table 5, Pearson  c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d both parents together.  correlation  for mothers, f a t h e r s , and  Our hypothesis p r e d i c t e d  parents' p e r c e p t i o n s o f themselves  that  as parents, PSI Parent  domain s c o r e s , would be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with t h e i r c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s , as measured by the four MPAS scales.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s found f o r  any a t t i t u d e s c a l e .  We f a i l  to r e j e c t the n u l l  hypothesis f o r l c . Hypothesis 2 2.  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between  p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d r e a r i n g and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d relationship. a)  Parents' a t t i t u d e scores  w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the parent-child  r e l a t i o n s h i p (the higher the score on any  MPAS s c a l e , the higher t h e i r t o t a l PSI r e l a t i o n s h i p score) .  59 Table 5 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between MPAS and PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n Scores  PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n Scores Mothers  Fathers  Both  . 16  .05  . 07  p= . l  p=. 38  p=. 28  n=61  n=41  n=102  -. 14  . 13  -.01  p=. 15  p = . 21  p=.45  n=59  n=40  n=90  -. 16  -. 15  -. 13  p= . l l  p=.17  p = .09  n=61  n=41  n=102  -. 10  -.01  -.05  p = . 22  p=.47  p = . 30  n=61  n=41  n=102  MPAS V a r i a b l e s Disciplinarian  Rejecting  Indulgent  Protecting  60 Results Data were again analyzed s e p a r a t e l y f o r mothers, fathers,  as well as a l l parents as one group.  Pearson  c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r a l l four a t t i t u d e  scales  with p e r c e p t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p scores ( t o t a l PSI  score).  C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , p r o b a b i l i t i e s ( p ) , and number of s u b j e c t s included Table 6.  i n the computation  are presented i n  O v e r a l l , a t t i t u d e s were not found to be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p a r e n t - c h i l d  relationship  perceptions. Hypothesis 3.  3  Parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n  significantly  from parents of t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n  (a) t h e i r a t t i t u d e s  toward c h i l d r e a r i n g and  perceptions o f t h e i r c h i l d , themselves parent c h i l d a)  differ  (b) t h e i r  as parents and  Parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n w i l l  p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d , themselves parent-child  the  relationship.  higher c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e scores and  children  i n both  have  lower  as parents and  r e l a t i o n s h i p than parents of t y p i c a l  ( i e . , parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n  have higher MPAS s c a l e s c o r e s , higher c h i l d and domain scores and a higher o v e r a l l t o t a l PSI  will parent  score).  the  61 Table 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between MPAS and PSI R e l a t i o n s h i p  Perception  Scores  PSI R e l a t i o n s h i p  P e r c e p t i o n Scores  Mothers  Fathers  Both  . 13  . 10  . 09  p=. 15  p = . 26  p = . 19  n=61  n=41  n = 102  -.14  . 15  -.01  p = . 15  p=. 18  p=. 45  n=59  n=40  n=90  -. 14  -.20  -. 14  p=. 14  p= . l l  p=.08  n=61  n=41  n=102  -.08  -.01  -. 04  p=. 26  p=. 49  p=. 33  n=61  n=41  n=102  MPAS V a r i a b l e s Disciplinarian  Rejecting  Indulgent  Protecting  62 Results Mean a t t i t u d e and and  perception  are shown i n Table 8.  needs or t y p i c a l ) . i n Table 7.  PSI)  domains of the and  was  research  type o f c h i l d ( s p e c i a l  An Anova summary t a b l e i s d i s p l a y e d  C a l c u l a t i o n s were performed s e p a r a t e l y  mothers, f a t h e r s , and  the  t o t a l parent group.  squares, degrees o f freedom, F R a t i o s , are  were c a l c u l a t e d  An a n a l y s i s of variance  computed for a l l s c a l e s and instruments (MPAS and  scores  Sum  for of  and p r o b a b i l i t i e s  outlined.  Table 7 Anova Summary Table  Both Parents Source:  Type of  c h i l d ( S p e c i a l Needs or T y p i c a l )  Main E f f e c t s  PSI  Child  PSI  Parent  PSI  Total  Perception Perception  MPAS: D i s c i p l i n a r i a n Rejecting Indulgent Protecting  df  F  1  . 29  .66  1  . 00  . 98  101.51  1  .06  .88  113.82  1  3. 21  . 07  4. 39  1  . 14  .71  18.70  1  . 43  . 51  8.74  1  . 37  .54  SS  115.3 .44  P  63 There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  found between  t y p i c a l parents and s p e c i a l needs parents f o r any o f the MPAS s c a l e s , PSI t o t a l , c h i l d domain or parent domain scores and we t h e r e f o r e , hypothesis.  fail  I t i s worthwhile  to r e j e c t the n u l l n o t i n g that scores of  parents o f s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n were e l e v a t e d above scores o f parents o f t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n on a l l p e r c e p t i o n variables  (see Table 8 ) .  c o r r e l a t i o n computation  As w e l l , i n a  Pearson  disciplinarian child  rearing  a t t i t u d e s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r parents of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n (r= .27 p=.008). Post Hoc Analyses In l i g h t of the f a c t that c h i l d r e a r i n g and p a r e n t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s are h i g h l y complex and that hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s were not s i g n i f i c a n t , i t was f e l t that a deeper look a t our r e s u l t s was necessary.  In  order to f u r t h e r examine the data, a c o r r e l a t i o n a l matrix was computed f o r the independent  v a r i a b l e s , dependent  v a r i a b l e s , as w e l l as c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s such as age of c h i l d , age o f parent, sex o f c h i l d , sex o f parent, number of s i b l i n g s , p a r e n t s ' education l e v e l , o c c u p a t i o n a l status,  income and type o f c h i l d .  statistical  Appropriate  analyses were then conducted  relationships.  for s i g n i f i c a n t  Table 8 Mean MPAS and PSI Scores f o r Parents o f T y p i c a l and  (n=43)  S p e c i a l Needs C h i l d r e n (64)  Means Variables PSI  Typical  S p e c i a l Needs  Scores;  C h i l d Perception  109.26  114.02  Parent Perception  121.53  123.59  Total  230.79  237.61  (Relationship)  MPAS Scores: Disciplinarian  16.38  19.18  Rejecting  16.86  16.05  Protecting  29.75  29.06  Indulgent  26.20  25.02  Results Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r mothers, f a t h e r s , and parents f o r the independent v a r i a b l e s age o f c h i l d and number o f s i b l i n g s , with dependent p e r c e p t i o n discovered the  and a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s .  I t was  t h a t f o r f a t h e r s , the more c h i l d r e n they had,  less rejecting their c h i l d rearing attitudes  p=.003).  (r=-.43,  As w e l l , a s i g n i f i c a n t negative r e l a t i o n s h i p  was found f o r mothers.  The more c h i l d r e n they have, the  65 l e s s p r o t e c t i v e t h e i r c h i l d - r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s (r=-.24, p=.032). As suggested  by the r e s u l t s of the  correlational  matrix d e s c r i b e d above, m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s were run with PSI c h i l d p e r c e p t i o n s c o r e s , MPAS c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e scores and c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s sex of c h i l d , f a t h e r ' s occupation.  For purposes of c l a r i t y ,  r e s u l t s of the analyses are presented,  except  for the parent group as a whole  i n the instance of i n d u l g e n t  r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s , where sex of parent was signifcant  (Table 10).  unstandardized  Tables 9 and  R squared.  found  also  to be  (B), the  (Beta), p r o b a b i l i t i e s  As R-squared can o n l y have a  p o s i t i v e value, any chance d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be positive direction,  child  10 o u t l i n e the  regression coefficients  standardized r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (p), R, and  only  in a  t h e r e f o r e the a d j u s t e d R square i s  presented. Multiple regression i s u t i l i z e d  e f f e c t s , and  i n studying  the  magnitude of the e f f e c t s , of one or more  independent v a r i a b l e s on one  dependent v a r i a b l e u s i n g  the  p r i n c i p l e s o f r e g r e s s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973).  Regression  i s an a l g e b r a i c a l l y  expressed  f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s (Nachmias & Nachmias, 1981)  and c o r r e l a t i o n d e s c r i b e s the s t r e n g t h of  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s (Borg & G a l l ,  1983).  66 Table 9 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d , Father's  Occupation,  D i s c i p l i n a r i a n and R e j e c t i n g MPAS Scores on PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores  Var i a b l e s  (n=107).  B  Disciplinarian Sex o f C h i l d Father's Occup  Beta  T  P  14  . 03  . 37  71  -17. 95  -. 36  -3. 94  * 00  00  -. 27  -2. 99  * 00  R Square=. 21  F=8. 85  Adjusted R Square=. 19  P = -00  T  P  73  47  -. 36  -3. 91  00  -.30  -3. 33  * 00  Variables  B  Beta  Rejecting  29  .06  -17. 97 00  Sex o f C h i l d Father's Occup  •  R Square=.23  F=9.53  Adjusted R Square=.21  p=.00  67 Table 10 Multiple  Regression of Sex o f C h i l d , F a t h e r ' s  Occupation,  P r o t e c t i n g and Indulgent MPAS Scores on PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores (n=107).  Variables Protecting Sex o f C h i l d Father's Occup  §  Beta  T  P  -.17  -.03  -.35  .72  -18.23  -.37  -4.08  *.00  -.00  -.27  -2.99  *.00  R Square=.21  F=8.85  Adjusted R Square=.19  p=.00  P  Var i a b l e s  B  Beta  Indulgent  .47  -.12  -1,. 37  -,. 17  -. 36  -4. 02  * ,00  -.27  -3.,08  ,00  2. 02  * .05  Sex o f C h i l d Father's Occup Sex of Parent  -17,, 83 ,00 8. 87  R Square=, 29 Adjusted R Square=,. 20  . 18  T  i  F=9.,58 P = .00  68 From knowledge of the values of two v a r i a b l e s we Multiple  want to p r e d i c t a dependent v a r i a b l e .  regression  statistical variables  estimates both the magnitude  Results  1983).  of the m u l t i p l e  although p r e d i c t e d  by our  regressions  significantly  perceptions o f t h e i r c h i l d . sex of c h i l d and  I t was  r e l a t e d to  perceived  fathers' occupational  10).  in child  Boys were c o n s i s t e n t l y  than g i r l s .  The  higher  the  p o s i t i o n ( B l i s h e n Index, 1987),  the c h i l d was  sex of parent was  perceived.  found to c o n t r i b u t e  the  Additionally,  significantly  to  c h i l d domain scores (B=8.87, Beta=.18, t=2.02,  p=.04).  Mothers perceived  negatively  than  their  c h i l d somewhat more  fathers.  Tables 11 and  12 i l l u s t r a t e a set of m u l t i p l e  results.  of c h i l d ,  Sex  parent p e r c e p t i o n  regression  f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , and  c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s are PSI  their  found however, that  amount o f the variance  (see Tables 9 and  more p o s i t i v e l y  that  f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n accounted f o r a  highly s i g n i f i c a n t  more n e g a t i v e l y  indicated  hypotheses, p a r e n t s ' c h i l d  r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s were not  PSI  and  s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  (Borg & G a l l ,  perception  or more independent  the  scores are  MPAS  independent v a r i a b l e s  and  the dependent v a r i a b l e s .  69 Table 11 M u l t i p l e Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d ,  Father's  Occupation,  D i s c i p l i n a r i a n and R e j e c t i n g MPAS Scores on PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n Scores (n=107).  Variables Disciplinarian Sex o f C h i l d Father's Occup  B  Beta  T  P  .08  .02  .23  .82  -20.77  -4.27  -4.7  *.00  -.20  -2.27  *.02  -.00  R Square=.23  F=9.78  Adjusted R Square=.20  p=.00  Variables  Ii  Beta  T  P  Rejecting  .20  .05  .55  .58  -19.01  -.40  -4.51  *.00  -.00  -.27  -3.05  *.00  Sex of C h i l d Father's Occup  R Square=.30 Adjusted R Square=.27  F=9.85 p=.00  70 Table 12 Multiple  Regression o f Sex o f C h i l d , Father's  D i s c i p l i n a r i a n Protecting  Occupation,  and Indulgent MPAS Scores on  PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n Scores (n=107).  Variables  B  Beta  T  P  Protecting  . 29  -.06  -.65  .52  -4.16  -4.73  *.00  -1. 95  *. 05  Sex of C h i l d Father's Occup  -20.27 -.00  -. 18  R Square=.26  F=8.55  Adjusted R Square=.23  Beta  T  P  -.51  -. 14  -1.56  . 12  -19.85  -.40  -4.67  *.00  -.00  -. 17  -2.02  *. 05  B  Var i a b l e s Indulgent Sex of C h i l d Father's Occup  p=.00  R Square=.28 Adjusted R Square=.25  F=9.23 p=. 00  71 It i s again found  that sex o f c h i l d and f a t h e r ' s  occupation, i n a l l four equations o f MPAS c h i l d  rearing  a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f the v a r i a n c e (23-29%) o f parent's p e r c e p t i o n s c o r e s . regard to p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p  In with  t h e i r c h i l d , i t was found that f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f the v a r i a n c e i n equations with d i s c i p l i n a r i a n and r e j e c t i n g c h i l d attitudes  rearing  (see Table 13).  R e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l Anova computations show t h a t sex of c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d , themselves as parents, and the parent c h i l d relationship  (see Table 15).  In Table 16, mean scores o f  parents are o u t l i n e d and i t i s apparent t h a t parents o f boys c o n s i s t e n t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y have more negative p e r c e p t i o n s than parents o f g i r l s and t h a t sex o f parent was s i g n i f i c a n t themselves.  i n determining p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f  Mothers p e r c e i v e d themselves more n e g a t i v e l y  than f a t h e r s (see Table 14 B).  72 Table 13 M u l t i p l e Regression of Sex o f Parent, Father's Occupation, D i s c i p l i n a r i a n and R e j e c t i n g MPAS Scores on PSI  ( T o t a l ) Parent P e r c e p t i o n of R e l a t i o n s h i p Scores  (n=107).  B  Variables Disciplinarian Sex of Parent Father's Occup  Beta  T  P  1 .05  . 14  1 .45  . 15  13 .09  . 14  1 .44  . 15  -. 25  -2 .587  *.01  —  .01  R Square=.io  F=3. 8  Adjusted R Square = . 07  p = .01  B  Beta  17  .02  Sex of Parent  8 . 19  .09  Father's Occup  - .01  -.36  Var i a b l e s Rejecting  •  R Square=.15 Adjusted R Square=.ll  T  P  •  22  .83  •  90  . 37  -3 . 59  * . 00  F=3.96 p=.01  73 Table 14 Anova Summary Tables  A)  PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n by Sex o f C h i l d  Source Sex o f C h i l d  SS 7536.11 n=107  B)  df 1  MS 7536.11  p=.00  PSI Parent P e r c e p t i o n by Sex o f C h i l d and Parent  Source  SS  df  MS  F  Sex o f C h i l d  9620.37  1  9620.37  *19.52  Sex o f Parent  2497.78  1  2497.78  **5.07  C)  n=107  *p=.00  n=107  **p=.02  PSI ( T o t a l ) P e r c e p t i o n o f R e l a t i o n s h i p by Sex o f  Child Source Sex o f C h i l d  SS 34185.88 n=107  df 1 p=.00  MS 34185.88  F *20.15  Table 15 Mean PSI C h i l d P e r c e p t i o n Scores  Mean Scores PSI P e r c e p t i o n Scores; Male  Female  Child  120.98  103.39  (53)  (54)  132.83  112.89  (53)  (54)  253.81  216.28  (53)  (54)  Parent  Relationship (Total)  75  CHAPTER FIVE Discussion The present study was grounded i n Schneider,  Hastorf  and E l l s w o r t h ' s (1979) person p e r c e p t i o n theory which s t r e s s e s that we a c t i v e l y and c r i t i c a l l y observe and i n t e r p r e t other people's behavior, i n essence, what the a c t o r i s doing.  we d e f i n e  This was augmented by Newcomb's  (1958) view t h a t a t t i t u d e i s a mediating mechanism i n the perceptual process.  An e x p l o r a t i o n o f the person  p e r c e p t i o n processes o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e and p e r c e p t i o n (view)  i n the context o f c h i l d r e a r i n g was  undertaken.  As w e l l , c h i l d e f f e c t s , o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d by the presence  or absence o f a handicap,  r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r  were examined i n  impact on p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and  their child rearing attitudes.  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s e l e c t f a m i l y v a r i a b l e s such as sex o f c h i l d , sex o f parent, age o f parent, age o f c h i l d , socioeconomic  s t a t u s (SES) and f a m i l y composition, was  a l s o undertaken.  This c o n c l u d i n g chapter presents a  review o f the r e s u l t s ,  followed by a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f i n d i n g s and suggestions  for further  research. Review o f the R e s u l t s The  f i r s t hypothesis s t a t e d t h a t there would be a  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s as measured by the Maryland  Parent  76  A t t i t u d e Scale (MPAS) and  (a) p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f  their c h i l d ,  (b) p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f themselves  parents, and  (c) p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of  r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r c h i l d .  as  their  These p e r c e p t i o n s were  measured by parent, c h i l d , and  t o t a l domain scores on  Parenting S t r e s s Index (PSI).  This hypothesis was  the  not  supported by the data. The second  hypothesis s t a t e d that there would be a  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d r e a r i n g and  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the  q u a l i t y of the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . hypothesis was The  This  not supported by the data.  t h i r d hypothesis s t a t e d that parents with  s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n would respond  more n e g a t i v e l y to  t h e i r c h i l d r e n by e x h i b i t i n g stronger c h i l d a t t i t u d e s and more negative p e r c e p t i o n s .  rearing  There were no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found between these two  groups.  However, p e r c e p t i o n s of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n were c o n s i s t e n t l y more negative than parents with c h i l d r e n , on a l l p e r c e p t i o n v a r i a b l e s . post hoc a n a l y s i s produced coefficient  a Pearson  typical  Interestingly, a  correlation  which i n d i c a t e d a s m a l l , but  significant  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c i p l i n a r i a n  child  r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and having a s p e c i a l needs c h i l d . Our  f i n d i n g s do not support our p r e d i c t i o n s about  the person p e r c e p t i o n processes of c h i l d r e a r i n g i n  77  general,  or the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s  perceptions  specifically.  and  This w i l l be d e l i b e r a t e d  later  in the paper. D i s c u s s i o n o f Post Hoc In the  Analyses  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , we  secondary f i n d i n g s and related  literature.  of s i g n i f i c a n t and  w i l l discuss  examine them i n the context Post hoc  analyses  revealed  interesting relationships.  of  a number Our  r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t with the common trends research  our  in this  area.  Finding  #1  Fathers'  r e j e c t i n g and  mothers' p r o t e c t i n g  child  r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s decreased as the number of c h i l d r e n i n their  family i n c r e a s e d .  Bossard and  Boll  that r o l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , d i s c i p l i n e , and organization  increases  as f a m i l y s i z e  Peterson and  R o l l i n s (1987), on  (1956) observed efficiency  of  increases.  the b a s i s of a review of  l i t e r a t u r e conclude that parents having s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n tend to use  more c o n t r o l attempts, spend l e s s time  are l e s s supportive fewer c h i l d r e n . b i r t h order  and  with each c h i l d ,  than parents with  They a l s o s t a t e that c h i l d gender may  and  also e f f e c t c h i l d  density, rearing  responses. Finding  #2  In t h i s study, mothers were found to p e r c e i v e c h i l d r e n and  themselves as parents and  their  their relationship  78  with t h e i r c h i l d , more n e g a t i v e l y than f a t h e r s . still  accept the m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d  responsibilities and women s t i l l differently  Women  rearing  (Aldous, Osmond, & Hicks, 1979) and men experience t h e i r  (Peterson & R o l l i n s ,  familial  roles  1987).  Additionally,  mothers are probably held more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior by the s o c i a l group (Dix & Grusec, 1985;  Goodnow,  1985).  I t seems f e a s i b l e t h a t mothers  would be more i n v e s t e d and t h e r e f o r e , more c r i t i c a l o f themselves  and t h e i r charges  than f a t h e r s and that t h i s  would t r a n s l a t e i n t o more negative p e r c e p t i o n s . F i n d i n g #3 F a t h e r s ' occupations as measured by the B l i s h e n Index (1987) were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d of t h e i r c h i l d .  to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  This i s i n keeping with the f i n d i n g s o f  Kohn's (1969) nation-wide  survey  that dimensions  of a  man's work i n f l u e n c e h i s c h i l d r e a r i n g v a l u e s . For instance, t y p i c a l m i d d l e - c l a s s jobs r e q u i r e i n i t i a t i v e , the a b i l i t y to think and a c t independently, and r e l a t i n g skills.  Working c l a s s occupations on the other hand,  r e q u i r e conformity and obedience.  I t seems f i t t i n g that  parents o f each s o c i a l c l a s s would emphasize  those  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which seem most b e n e f i c i a l and appropriate for their c h i l d r e n .  Langman (1987) concurs  t h a t , "parents o f every c l a s s value achievement, but i t s t r a n s l a t i o n into concrete e x p e c t a t i o n s and techniques  79  varies"  (p.243).  argue that  Z i g l e r , Lamb and  Child  social class distinctions actually  p o p u l a t i o n s at d i f f e r e n c e that p e r c e i v e and Finding I t was  experience the  world d i f f e r e n t l y .  a l s o d i s c o v e r e d that  fathers'  that SES  relationships  relationships,  Gecas (1979) s t a t e s :  and  parenting  negatively  the  higher the  p a r e n t a l SES,  fathers  p l a y a more s u p p o r t i v e r o l e as  research Finding  increases.  the  true  for  their  This i s c o n s i s t e n t  with  findings. #5  of c h i l d was  perceptions.  After  e x p r e s s i o n of  found t h i s to be e s p e c i a l l y  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was sex  parents  s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n Langman  She  our  to  child.  (p. 483).  affection.  occupational status  to  have consequences  greater the degree of p a r e n t a l warmth and  who  related  between parent and  relationship"  r e s e a r c h on  (1987) found that  attitudes.  "Conditions experienced by  parent-child  in  is positively related  i n t h e i r socioeconomic context may  reviewing the  variance  rejecting c h i l d rearing  research by p o s i t i n g equalitarian  occupations  the  Gecas (1979) summarized s o c i a l c l a s s and  the  development  #4  d i s c i p l i n a r i a n and  within  represent  l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e  accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of  autocratic  (1982) a l s o  the  repeatedly strongly  Parents of boys saw  r e s e a r c h outcome related  that  to  t h e i r c h i l d , themselves  80  and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p more n e g a t i v e l y than d i d parents  of g i r l s .  Gender r o l e s are most l i k e l y  combination  of b i o l o g y and c u l t u r e .  i n f l u e n c e d by a  Gender r o l e s are  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and l e a r n gender i d e n t i t y very e a r l y .  By age  2, c h i l d r e n  use g e n d e r - r e l a t e d words to r e f e r to themselves Weinraub, 1979;  Maccoby & J a c k l i n ,  children  1974).  can  (Lewis &  At about the  same time, c h i l d r e n a l s o a c q u i r e gender-typed  interests,  a c t i v i t y and play p a t t e r n s .  Any  preschool teacher  a t t e s t to the more rough and  tumble and higher  can  gross  motor a c t i v i t y l e v e l of young boys and r e s e a r c h has substantiated this  (Maccoby & J a c k l i n ,  number of s t u d i e s i t has been found  1974).  In a  that parents  more p r o t e c t i v e l y with t h e i r daughters  than  sons.  Mothers tend to encourage t h e i r sons to brush off  and go back to play a f t e r a f a l l  cuddle and nurture t h e i r daughters  and w i l l  longer  interact  themselves tend to  (Fagot, 1982).  A d d i t i o n a l l y , parents reward g i r l s more o f t e n f o r s o c i a l behaviour  while they w i l l  (Fagot, 1982).  r e i n f o r c e boys' e x p l o r a t i o n s  Anselmo (1987) concludes  that gender r o l e  s t e r e o t y p i n g begins between the ages of two and Losh-Hesselbart  three.  (1987) summarizes a p l e t h o r a o f gender  r o l e r e s e a r c h by s t a t i n g that parents of preschool c h i l d r e n appear to t r e a t sons and daughters in only a few areas such as dress and however, may  be c r u c i a l  toys.  differently These areas  i n the development of sex  81  d i f f e r e n c e s and gender r o l e s .  As w e l l , r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  area i n d i c a t e s t h a t boys r e c e i v e more punishment than girls  from parents and  teachers f o r a g g r e s s i o n .  Boys  a l s o r e c e i v e more p h y s i c a l punishment f o r a g g r e s s i o n parents than g i r l s do  (Losh-Hesselbart, 1987).  would lead us to c o n j e c t u r e that c o g n i t i v e l y behavior must be f i r s t  frequent punishment. changing,  This  their  viewed more n e g a t i v e l y than  and that these negative p e r c e p t i o n s r e s u l t Although  Consequently,  girls,  i n more  a d u l t sex r o l e s are  Hoffman (1977) acknowledges that s o c i a l  are not i n s t a n t l y r e f l e c t e d  in c h i l d rearing  trends  attitudes.  he r e p o r t s that sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences and outcomes of male and o f f s p r i n g continue to be r e p o r t e d .  support Peterson & R o l l i n s '  female  Gender e f f e c t s w i t h i n  the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p are complex.  Our  results  (1987) c o n c l u s i o n that  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s continue to provide evidence  that parents  have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s of sons and daughters consequently  from  and  d i r e c t d i f f e r e n t behaviors a t them.  I m p l i c a t i o n s of The F i n d i n g s The  f i n d i n g s of the present study f a i l e d  to support  the n o t i o n o f a c o n s i s t e n t and p r e d i c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents' p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s .  Our  results  do s t r o n g l y support the c u r r e n t research on gender effects,  i n f l u e n c e s of SES on p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s  the i n c o n s i s t e n t , yet a t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s of responding  and of  82  parents o f s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n . of the n e c e s s i t y  of taking  We are again reminded  i n t o account the important  r o l e o f s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l f o r c e s , gender i n f l u e n c e s  and SES  variables. There were s e v e r a l  l i m i t a t i o n s to t h i s study.  Subject p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y and although every attempt was made to ensure that representative  the sample was  i t was not p o s s i b l e  to know about the  c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f those parents who chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e . a f f e c t i n g response b i a s  Social d e s i r a b i l i t y  i s always a problem when  surveying f e e l i n g s and thoughts from parents about t h e i r children.  Although the MPAS i s the best  measure of c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s desirability controlled,  available  with s o c i a l  there i s no guarantee that our  parent p o p u l a t i o n expressed themselves a c c u r a t e l y or candidly.  Additionally,  the MPAS i s the most p r e v a l e n t  a t t i t u d e measure i n the l i t e r a t u r e y e t i t can be criticized  for i t s idiosyncratic attitude  definitions.  construct  This w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r i n our  discussion. A l l o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s were parents o f c h i l d r e n i n a c h i l d development centre or preschool Mainland.  I t i s assumed that  the parents o f p r e s c h o o l e r s  i n the Lower  they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i n urban Canadian c i t i e s ,  however, we have no assurance that t h i s i s so.  of  83  Suggestions For Further Research Over three decades ago, Robert Sears (1951) advocated that r e s e a r c h e r s begin to address  bidirectional  models when studying the phenomena o f parent c h i l d relations.  However, not u n t i l the l a t e  1960's and  1970's d i d t h i s trend begin to emerge.  There are  early now  four predominant approaches to studying the p a r e n t - c h i l d dyad  (Peterson & R o l l i n s , 1.  1987):  Mutual attachment processes are seen as the  c r i t i c a l determinant o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d (Ainsworth & B e l l , 2. children  relationship  1970).  Researchers of c h i l d e f f e c t s , i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s ,  examine  how  perceptions, behaviors,  and i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e i r parents ( B e l l & Harper, Lerner & Spanier, 1978; Maccoby & M a r t i n , 3.  Reciprocal  interactionalists  i n f l u e n c e occurs i n both d i r e c t i o n s  1977;  1983).  postulate  (Bell,  that  1981;  S c h a f f e r & C o l l i s , 1986). 4.  There i s a growing body of l i t e r a t u r e  which  advocates the systemic approach to s t u d y i n g the p a r e n t c h i l d dyad w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f an impinging s o c i a l environment  ( B e l l , 1979; Belsky, 1981; Bronfenbrenner,  1986; Hess & Holloway, 1984; 1986; Mattesich & H i l l ,  Hinde & Stevenson-Hinde,  1987).  The f i r s t and most s i m p l i s t i c approach, attachment, i s a very popular s u b j e c t f o r c h i l d  development  84  researchers and can be n e a t l y separated  from the o t h e r s .  The l a s t three processes are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d and r e s u l t s of our study c e r t a i n l y underscore interconnectedness and separate them e i t h e r The  this  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of t r y i n g to  i n theory or r e s e a r c h .  t h r u s t of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on p a r e n t - c h i l d  relations framework. reiterated O'Connell failed  the  is.toward a more h o l i s t i c ,  bidirectional  The value of such an approach can only be i n the l i g h t of present f i n d i n g s .  Osofsky  and  (1979) p o i n t out however, t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s have  to develop  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  that provide  i n s i g h t i n t o the nature, the antecedents, consequences of b i - d i r e c t i o n a l  and  interaction.  the Construction  of a theory which i n c o r p o r a t e s c o g n i t i o n s , behavior, s o c i a l processes  i n a b i d i r e c t i o n a l model i s needed.  An a l t e r n a t i v e model of p a r e n t - c h i l d has been developed  socialization  i n which the s e q u e n t i a l exchanges  between c h i l d and parent are examined  (Gewirtz, 1969).  This approach focuses on the meaning that a s s i g n to i n t e r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . o b j e c t i v e and  and  individuals  To assess both  s u b j e c t i v e aspects of these  the  interactions  r e q u i r e s the use of i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n with o b s e r v a t i o n procedures.  This approach  would allow the a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and behaviors of parents and c h i l d r e n to be assessed 1978).  (Parke,  An approach of t h i s kind would n e c e s s i t a t e the  85  d e l i n e a t i o n of  important aspects of i n t e r a c t i o n and  c o n v e r s a t i o n of g e s t u r e s . investigator  requires  the  The  parent-child  i n c l u s i o n of the  macrosystem for t h i s theory to be i t appears that Peterson and step towards t h i s  R o l l i n s have taken the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e s e a r c h with  parent e f f e c t s . environment.  are  parent and  At the  child  This  the  This dimension accounts for a  documented and  complicating  the  r e l a t i o n s , the  influence  parent-child direct  b i r t h order,  husband-wife r e l a t i o n s h i p on  At the  portrayed.  Included  sphere are e d u c a t i o n systems, socioeconomic p o l i t i c s , culture,  child the  t h i r d (macro) l e v e l , a v a r i e t y  l a r g e r s o c i a l systems are  with  well-  of both i n d i r e c t and  e f f e c t s such as s i b l i n g d e n s i t y ,  family  their relationships  factor in  the  interdependent  one  c h i l d dyad.  child  between s i b l i n g s , extended  system members and  the  first  roles,  takes into account  nature of the  and  relevant  f a c t o r s , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , spousal r e l a t i o n s , and  density,  first  At the next l e v e l i s the r o l e of  mutuality of i n f l u e n c e  another.  and  the  the  i n three l e v e l s of i n t e r a c t i o n .  attitudes, perceptions, personality  family  the  R o l l i n s (1987) summarized t h e i r review  l e v e l , the m i c r o - l e v e l ,  and  r o l e of  t r u l y comprehensive  development of a model which i n c o r p o r a t e s variables  relationship  goal.  Peterson and of p a r e n t - c h i l d  the  language, r e l i g i o n , and  parent of  in this  influences, economics.  86  These contexts are d i r e c t and  i n d i r e c t sources of the  b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s that parents c a r r y i n t o t h e i r c h i l d r e a r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  In s h o r t t h i s model o f f e r s a  framework from which we can o u t l i n e the whole of  parent-  c h i l d s o c i a l i z a t i o n while acknowledging the import composite dynamics and  t h e i r accompanying t h e o r i e s .  Kohn's (1969) socioeconomic and  theory, gender  researchers  person p e r c e p t i o n t h e o r i s t s such as Schneider  (1979) are a l l compatible r e s o l v e any c o m p e t i t i o n of psychology  and  of  with t h i s model.  We  et a l . ,  can  for prominence between the  fields  s o c i o l o g y by a f f i r m i n g the r e l e v a n c e  of  both p e r s p e c t i v e s to the study of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s . Further e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s model would be very u s e f u l for r e s e a r c h e r s  in this  field.  There are however, many c o m p l i c a t i o n s and to p a r e n t - c h i l d s t u d i e s i n g e n e r a l , and research, s p e c i f i c a l l y . simplify  the model, and  to b i d i r e c t i o n a l  There i s the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to avoid the c o m p l e x i t i e s of  i n t e r a c t i o n a l t o g e t h e r ( B e l l & Harper, 1977). Rollins  (1987) a l s o a f f i r m that data  s t u d i e s and  problems  from  Peterson  interaction  the subsequent a n a l y t i c a l procedures  are  h i g h l y complex and encourage r e s e a r c h e r s to be preoccupied  with methodology and  smaller samples.  There i s a l s o the problem o f c o n s t r u c t d e f i n i t i o n . Blumer (1969) opines  that t y p i c a l measurement p r o t o c o l s  &  87  bend the e m p i r i c a l world to t h e i r premises expectations.  and  D i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  evoked for each researcher.  Inconsistent  meanings are  f i n d i n g s are  compounded by the use of d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s the same v a r i a b l e s . the present  study and  This s i t u a t i o n was  encountered i n  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true f o r the  dimensions o f c o n t r o l and  support  p r a c t i c e s and  For  i s behavior  attitudes.  in child rearing  i n s t a n c e , parent  which f o s t e r s those a c t i o n s and  s t a t e s which are c o n s i s t e n t with p a r e n t a l This can be  i n t e r p r e t e d i n a multitude  reinforcement  of  "support"  internal expectations.  of ways from  procedures, attachment, acceptance, to  v a r i a b l e s such as  indulgence  s c a l e s used i n the MPAS.  and  protectiveness,  the  Problems i n the c o n t r o l  dimension are even more apparent.  Constructs  ranging  from love withdrawal ( r e j e c t i o n , on the MPAS), c o e r c i o n , and  discipline  (same on MPAS).  These are  commonly d e f i n e d dimensions of c o n t r o l and  the three most one  can  that i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s would be compounded by different  see these  conceptualizations.  Another d i f f i c u l t y encountered by  researchers  u t i l i z i n g a b i d i r e c t i o n a l model i s the p r a c t i c e of summarizing s t a t i c v a r i a b l e s across concepts.  Parents are asked to r e p o r t , as i n t h i s  on t h e i r a c t i o n s and of general  time, s i t u a t i o n s , and study,  f e e l i n g s i n a very broad assessment  a t t i t u d e s and  perceptions.  88  Other d e f i c i e n c i e s r e s u l t samples,  from problems of small  b i v a r i a t e r a t h e r than m u l t i v a r i a t e models and  the need for s o p h i s t i c a t e d multiplicative  techniques to analyze  i n t e r a c t i o n s and c u r v i l i n e a r  (Peterson & R o l l i n s ,  relationships  1987).  I t would be o f value to r e p l i c a t e t h i s r e s e a r c h with a d i f f e r e n t measure of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s which a more c u r r e n t c o n s t r u c t d e f i n i t i o n a l  reflects  framework.  As  w e l l , as our study again a f f i r m s , the d e s i g n should i n c o r p o r a t e impinging v a r i a b l e s  (such as sex, c l a s s ,  education...) i n t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of primary  age,  hypotheses.  I t i s obvious that "black boxing" phenomena i n t h i s area i s both m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and u n r e a l i s t i c . et a l . ,  state,  As  Schneider  "People, behavior, and context are  extremely complex s t i m u l i "  (1979, p.248).  thought needs to be g i v e n as to how separate out i n d i v i d u a l  In a d d i t i o n ,  to most a c c u r a t e l y  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s while  maintaining the i n t e g r i t y o f the whole. Conclus ion Parent c h i l d  socialization  i n v o l v e s an e v o l v i n g ,  dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n where mutually shared conceptions and e x p e c t a t i o n s emerge.  I t i s these e x p e c t a t i o n s which are  the source of our r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . think and  feel?  How  What do  does that shape t h e i r  and understanding of themselves  parents  interactions  and t h e i r c h i l d ?  researchers i n t h i s area need to c l a r i f y our  We,  concepts  as  89  (what i s an a t t i t u d e ? perception? what i s c o n t r o l  or  support?). Q u a n t i t a t i v e methods such as our study which use experimental  designs, s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses,  survey  r e s e a r c h and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d c o n s t r u c t s are very  useful.  This needs to be augmented by q u a l i t a t i v e processes i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s are u t i l i z e d fuller,  r i c h e r understanding  of changing,  where  to c r e a t e a momentary  interactions. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s study confirms the value of f u r t h e r i n g our knowledge of the complex nature of parent and c h i l d  i n t e r a c t i o n s and  the need to continue  s c r u t i n i z e our c h o i c e s i n d e s i g n and a l s o encourages p r a c t i t i o n e r s and  to  methodology.  t h e o r i s t s both,  It to  d e l i n e a t e c o n s t r u c t s , q u e s t i o n assumptions and  to regard  the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p with the r e s p e c t  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i t deserves.  90  REFERENCES Abelson, R.P., & Rosenberg, M. J . (1958). Symbolic psycho-logic: A model of a t t i t u d i n a l c o g n i t i o n . Behavioral Science, 3_, 1-13. A b i d i n , R. (1986). 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T a g u i r i , R., & P e t r u l l o , L. (Eds.). (1958). Person P e r c e p t i o n and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Behavior. S t a n f o r d , CA: S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press. Teyber, E.C., Messe, L.A., & S t o l l a c k , G.E. (1977). Adult responses to c h i l d communications. Child Development, 48, 1577-1582. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Thomas, D. (1978). The s o c i a l psychology o f c h i l d h o o d disability. London: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  106  Thomas, W. I. & Thomas, D. S. (1928). America. New York: Knopf.  The C h i l d i n  T o l o r , A. (1967). An e v a l u a t i o n o f the Maryland Parent A t t i t u d e Survey. The J o u r n a l of Psychology, 67, 6974 . T r i c k e t t , P. K. & Kuczynski, L. (1986). Children's misbehaviors and p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e s t r a t e g i e s i n abusive and nonabusive f a m i l i e s . Developmental Psychology, 22.(1), 115-123. 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C , & Garber, J . (1986). A d u l t s ' e x p e c t a n c i e s about c h i l d r e n ' s emotional r e s p o n s i v e n e s s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development of i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s of a f f e c t . Developmental Psychology, 22(1), 109-114. Z i g l e r , E. F., & C h i l d , I. L. (1982). S o c i a l i z a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y development (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. Zuckerman, M., & Oltean, M. (1959). Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s between maternal a t t i t u d e f a c t o r s and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , p e r s o n a l i t y needs, psychopathology, and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e . Child Development, 30, 27-36.  107  Appendix A  VANCOUVER-RICHMOND ASSOCIATION FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED PEOPLE CHILDREN'S SERVICES M  E  M  O  R  A  N  D  DATE:  November 23, 1988  TO:  A l l Parents  FRCM:  J e n n i f e r Andersen, C h i l d r e n ' s  RE:  PARTICIPATION IN RESEARCH PROJECT  U  Services  M  Director  The Research Committee of the Vancouver-Richmond A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Mentally Handicapped People has reviewed the p r o p o s a l submitted by Tracy Theemes e n t i t l e d "Person P e r c e p t i o n Processes i n C h i l d " Rearing". We are pleased to report that the committee has approved the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t of the f i v e centres i n v o l v e d i n VRAMHP C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e s . Our A s s o c i a t i o n i s e x c i t e d about the s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s f o r parents, c h i l d r e n , and s t a f f from t h i s p r o j e c t . I t w i l l provide us with s p e c i f i c information and feedback on our c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s w i t h parents as w e l l as recommendations f o r our agency i n e d u c a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n issues and general f a m i l y involvement. The r e s u l t s w i l l enable us to b e t t e r meet the needs o f t y p i c a l and s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Thank you f o r your support o f t h i s p r o j e c t . JA /jv cc.  Wanda J u s t i c e Kathy Cruickshank Ann Stone V i c k i Lee K e l l y Chong  109  INSTRUCTIONS  1.  Please read d i r e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . to  the c h i l d  which  A l l questions  i scurrently enrolled  refer  i n the Infant  D e v e l o p m e n t Programme. 2.  I f y o u have d i f f i c u l t y feel  free  answering  to c o n t a c t Tracy  q u e s t i o n s may be d i f f i c u l t to  3.  Theemes a t 687-3249. t o a n s w e r o r may s o u n d  you. S e l e c t the best response  important  any o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  available.  Some silly  It is  t h a t a l l q u e s t i o n s be a n s w e r e d .  Pen o r p e n c i l  may be u s e d i n f i l l i n g  out the  questionnaire. 4.  When y o u have c o m p l e t e d it  t o your  visit. 5.  t h e whole package p l e a s e r e t u r n  I n f a n t D e v e l o p m e n t C o n s u l t a n t on h e r n e x t  Your prompt r e s p o n s e  Thank you f o r y o u r  i s appreciated.  t i m e and s u p p o r t .  110  Personal  Information:  Family  Background  NOTE: T h i s s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s q u e s t i o n s regarding the f a m i l y background of your c h i l d . This i n f o r m a t i o n i s c r u c i a l to the outcome of the study on the e f f e c t s of parent teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Again, a l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Age  of responding  Age  of c h i l d  parent\guardian  sex  sex  Please check one of the f o l l o w i n g regarding your  child:  non-handicapped  (  )  p h y s i c a l handicap  (  )  mental handicap  (  )  b e h a v i o u r a l handicap  (  )  emotional  (  )  m u l t i p l e handicap  (  )  handicap  other: Please check one of the f o l l o w i n g regarding your f a m i l y composition: two  parent  family  ( )  one  parent  family  (  f o s t e r parent  )  or guardian  ( )  How many brothers and s i s t e r s does t h i s c h i l d have? none, w r i t e "0". o l d e r brothers younger brothers  ( (  ) )  older s i s t e r s younger s i s t e r s  What languages are spoken i n your home? english french german Ukrainian Portuguese italian punjabi other  n a t i v e indian eskimo\inuit metis  polish Chinese  Vietnamese Spanish  If ( ) ( )  Ill  Mothers and f a t h e r s e d u c a t i o n : box. Mother  Please check the a p p r o p r i a t e  Father l e s s than grade nine high school graduate trades c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma some u n i v e r s i t y or post-secondary without c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma u n i v e r s i t y or other post-secondary with c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma u n i v e r s i t y degree  Please d e s c r i b e below the job most r e c e n t l y held by: Mother  Father  Family income:  Please check the a p p r o p r i a t e box.  Mother  Father under $10,000 11,000-15,0 00 16,000-2 0,0 00 21,000-25,000 2 6,000-30,000 31,000-35,000 36,000-40,000 41,000-45,000 46,000-5 0,0 00 51,000-55,000 56,000-60,000 over $60,000  

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