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The experience of reemployment following a period of unemployment Williams, Linda J.A. 1989

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THE EXPERIENCE OF REEMPLOYMENT FOLLOWING A PERIOD OF UNEMPLOYMENT by LINDA J.A. WILLIAMS B.A. L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1989 ( c ^ L i n d a J.A. W i l l i a m s , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the e x p e r i e n c e of reemployment a l o n g w i t h h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events i n h e r e n t i n the e x p e r i e n c e . Fourteen c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d . They were s e l e c t e d from c o n t a c t s w i t h i n v a r i o u s agencies t h a t worked w i t h the unemployed. P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to d e s c r i b e t h e i r unemployment-turned-reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . The e x p e r i e n c e of reemployment f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment was s t u d i e d u s i n g an open-ended, u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w method w i t h an approach a l s o designed t o e l i c i t h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events. T h i s technique was developed by Borgen and Amundson (1984). The i n t e r v i e w s were taped, t r a n s c r i b e d and used as the d a t a f o r t h i s study. The major p a t t e r n s of e x p e r i e n c e were d e s c r i b e d as were the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed; c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of the f u t u r e , and events t h a t e i t h e r h elped o r h i n d e r e d the reemployed person's adjustment process over time. i i i Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES V LIST OF APPENDICES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale . . 1 Purpose of the Study 5 CHAPTER I I . LITERATURE REVIEW . 6 Introduction 6 The E f f e c t s of Reemployment on Self-Esteem... 9 Underemployment 10 Summary 13 CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY 15 Co-researchers 15 Methodological Approach 15 Data Analysis 19 CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH RESULTS 22 Introduction 22 Section 1: Demographic Information 24 Occupational Categories 26 Section 2: Patterns of Experience 27 i v S e c t i o n 3: F e e l i n g S t a t e s and T r i g g e r i n g Events 41 S e c t i o n 4: Coping S t r a t e g i e s Employed 44 S e c t i o n 5: Future E x p e c t a t i o n s 47 E x p e c t a t i o n s of the Fu t u r e : R e s u l t s Breakdown 48 Sample Statements of Fu t u r e E x p e c t a t i o n s from the Interviews 49 S e c t i o n 6: Questions 50 Summary of R e s u l t s 60 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION 70 Statement of R e s u l t s 71 L i m i t a t i o n s 71 C o u n s e l l i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s 73 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 76 Summary 77 REFERENCES . 7 9 APPENDICES 90 Appendix A - Subject Consent Form 90 Appendix B - Demographics Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 91 V LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Events R e s u l t i n g i n F e e l i n g S t a t e s Changing From Negative'(Low) t o P o s i t i v e (High) and the Time Sequences Invo l v e d 42 Table 2 Events R e s u l t i n g In F e e l i n g S t a t e s Changing From P o s i t i v e (High) t o Negative (Low) and the Time Sequences Invo l v e d 43 Table 3 Coping S t r a t e g i e s Employed 46 Table 4 E x p e c t a t i o n s of the F u t u r e : R e s u l t s Breakdown 48 v i LIST OF APPENDICES Page Appendix A Subject Consent Form 90 Appendix B Demographics Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 91 v i i Acknowledgements A number of people have c o n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . I would l i k e f i r s t t o acknowledge Dr. W i l l i a m Borgen f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , a d v i c e and d i r e c t h e l p . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my o t h e r committee members, Dr. Norman Amundson and Dr. L a r r y Cochrane who have p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e guidance and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . Gentlemen, my h e a r t f e l t thanks! I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who are the nucleus of t h i s study, and my c l i e n t s who continue t o t e a c h me the importance of r e s e a r c h , e d u c a t i o n and knowledge. I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge the p a r t t h a t Sue Moore, Heather Ma c l n t y r e , L i n d s a y S t r a i t h and Maureen Grant p l a y e d . Without t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e t e c h n i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e . I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge the support I r e c e i v e d from my dear f r i e n d , L y n e t t e E l g e r t and my p a r t n e r , Rae Armour. Without t h e i r emotional and l o g i s t i c a l support, I doubt v e r y much t h a t t h i s t h e s i s would have been w r i t t e n . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o my p a r e n t s , B i l l and Marlene W i l l i a m s and t o my s i b l i n g s , P a u l , M a r j o r i e , Brenda and Lana. They are the reasons I s t r i v e t o e x c e l and t h i s i s f o r them! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION R a t i o n a l e C u r r e n t l y , a g r e a t d e a l of r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g conducted i n t o the e f f e c t s o f unemployment on i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . F i n l e y and Lee (1981) d e s c r i b e worker r e a c t i o n s t o non-voluntary job l o s s u s i n g the g r i e v i n g process d e s c r i b e d by Kubler-Ross (1969). T h i s process i n v o l v e s f i v e s t a g e s : d e n i a l , anger, b a r g a i n i n g , d e p r e s s i o n and acceptance. Borgen and Amundson (1984), suggest t h a t a l l the unemployed i n t h e i r study found the experi e n c e t o be a t r a u m a t i c one c h a r a c t e r i z e d by dramatic s h i f t s i n economic power, p e r s o n a l support, and s e l f - e s t e e m . Borgen and Amundson (1984, 1987) a l s o d e s c r i b e the dynamics of job search, which f o l l o w the acceptance phase of job l o s s u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o u r stage model: 1) i n i t i a l enthusiasm; 2) job se a r c h s t a g n a t i o n ; 3) f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the job se a r c h and 4) apathy, where t h e r e i s no hope of f i n d i n g employment. Marsden (1982), i n h i s book, Workless, has pr e s e n t e d some of 2 the s t r e s s f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h job se a r c h . Other authors have focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the many o t h e r aspects of unemployment. Hepworth, (1980); Swinburne, (1981); Feather & Bond, (1983); Kemp & Mercer, (1983), have d e s c r i b e d f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e people's e x p e r i e n c e of unemployment. O r w e l l (1979), Shumaker (1979) and K e l v i n (1981) have looked a t the r o l e of work i n d e f i n i n g a h e a l t h y i d e n t i t y . A number of authors i n c l u d i n g Shaw (1976), H i l l (1977), Brenner (1973), Gurney (1980), Jones (1979), H a r t l e y (1980), Finney and Lee (1981), Jahoda (1982), Kaufman (1982), Rump (1983), S i n f e l d (1981), Brenner and B a r t e l l (1983), Tiggeman and W i n e f i e l d (1984), B r a t f i s h and Warr, Jackson and Banks (1984) have d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s aspects of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o unemployment. Given the enormous amount of r e s e a r c h i n t o the t r a u m a t i c e f f e c t s of unemployment, t h i s author became' i n c r e a s i n g l y c u r i o u s about the e x p e r i e n c e of reemployment f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment. Questions of i n t e r e s t t o a r e s e a r c h e r or c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d be as f o l l o w s : What i s i t l i k e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l who has been unemployed l o n g enough t o have s u f f e r e d the t r a u m a t i c 3 e f f e c t o f unemployment and job s e a r c h t o f i n a l l y secure a job? Is the i n d i v i d u a l e u p h o r i c , r e l i e v e d , f r i g h t e n e d , embittered, i n d i f f e r e n t , e t c . ? What k i n d of job has t h i s i n d i v i d u a l accepted? Does the impact of unemployment f o r an extended p e r i o d of time a f f e c t job s e l e c t i o n ? Is the unemployed person so r e l i e v e d t o have a job o f f e r o r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he/she w i l l s e t t l e f o r an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n f o r which he/she i s over q u a l i f i e d j u s t t o have a job? Or, the o p p o s i t e , a s u p e r i o r one, f o r which he/she i s under q u a l i f i e d ? Is h i s / h e r a t t i t u d e toward h i s / h e r work any d i f f e r e n t as a r e s u l t o f having been unemployed f o r an extended p e r i o d of time? For example, Borgen and Amundson (1984, 1987) d e s c r i b e a stage i n unemployment where an i n d i v i d u a l a r r i v e s a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y i d e n t i t y and f e e l i n g s of worth o u t s i d e of p a i d work. I f t h i s i s so, does the newly reemployed person v a l u e h i s / h e r job l e s s than any p r e v i o u s ones? Or, to the c o n t r a r y , has the unemployment exper i e n c e been so t r a u m a t i c t h a t the newly reemployed i n d i v i d u a l becomes anxious about becoming unemployed again? And i f so, does t h i s a f f e c t h i s / h e r job performance? F u r t h e r , i f the p e r i o d of unemployment has been an extended one, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 4 d e p r e s s i o n , apathy, a l a c k of s o c i a l supports, a l a c k of r o u t i n e , e t c . , does the newly reemployed i n d i v i d u a l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t t o a work r o u t i n e ? Gray (1975) s t u d i e d the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s of employees v o l u n t a r i l y l e a v i n g one job and s t a r t i n g another. He proposed a model d e s c r i b i n g two p a t t e r n s of response to the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . The f i r s t p a t t e r n begins w i t h detachment w i t h the o l d job, e u phoria a t s e c u r i n g a new job, f o l l o w e d by shock upon s t a r t i n g the new job and ends wi t h s o c i a l i z a t i o n where t h i n g s go r i g h t and the i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t s p o s i t i v e l y t o h i s / h e r new job. The second p a t t e r n proposed by Gray i n v o l v e s the same responses as s t a t e d above, but, i n s t e a d of a d j u s t i n g p o s i t i v e l y d u r i n g the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p e r i o d , the newly reemployed worker becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the new p o s i t i o n . Gray's study, which i s e l a b o r a t e d upon i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , was used as a p o i n t of comparison i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the data s u p p l i e d by the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s study. 5 Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study, then, i s to examine the process of the e x p e r i e n c e of becoming reemployed, f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment. While Gray's sample i n v o l v e d those who v o l u n t a r i l y l e f t one p o s i t i o n f o r another, t h i s study addresses those who became unemployed i n v o l u n t a r i l y a t a time when new jobs were hard t o secure. The study addressed both the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t a t e s of those becoming reemployed; events t h a t caused s h i f t s i n the f e e l i n g s t a t e s from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e and/or n e g a t i v e t o p o s i t i v e , and the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s when t h e r e was a s h i f t i n f e e l i n g from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e . J u s t as Borgen and Amundson (1984) were i n t e r e s t e d i n "examining the e v o l u t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s of the unemployment experi e n c e over time, and i n d e t e r m i n i n g some of the f a c t o r s t h a t moderate or i n t e n s i f y the p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact of unemployment", ( p g . l ) , t h i s author was i n t e r e s t e d i n examining the e x p e r i e n c e of reemployment, f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment. 6 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW I n t r o d u c t i o n Very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t o the phenomenon of s t a r t i n g a new job or the phenomenon of s t a r t i n g a new job a f t e r h a v ing endured an extended p e r i o d of unemployment. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , Gray (1974), who s t u d i e d the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s of employees l e a v i n g and s t a r t i n g new jobs, proposed a model to d e s c r i b e p a t t e r n s of response t o l e a v i n g one job and moving t o another: 1. Disenchantment w i t h the o l d job, which p r e c i p i t a t e s a job s e a r c h . 2. Euphoria which occurs l a t e r once the i n d i v i d u a l has secured a new job. 3. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by shock, which occurs when the i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t s the new job. T h i s stage i s a k i n t o a c u l t u r e shock because the new job and company are not l i k e the o l d ones. A c c o r d i n g the Gray, no amount of " i n d u c t i o n " a t t h i s stage can take away the c u l t u r a l shock, because so many new t h i n g s have t o be exp e r i e n c e d . The next stage can be one of two p o s s i b i l i t i e s : (a) s o c i a l i z a t i o n , where t h i n g s go r i g h t , and the worker a d j u s t s comfortably, l i k e s h i s / h e r new job and c o l l e a g u e s , or (b) d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , where t h i n g s do not go r i g h t , the i n d i v i d u a l does not l i k e h i s / h e r new job, new company and/or new c o l l e a g u e s . I f t h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t o c c u r s , the worker w i l l e n t e r a f i f t h stage, detachment, where h i s / h e r e n e r g i e s are d i r e c t e d toward a new job s e a r c h . I f t h a t i s not p o s s i b l e , (because of age, economic, unemployment f a c t o r s , e t c . ) , containment o c c u r s , whereby, the worker " b u i l d s a c o r n e r f o r h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f where he/she can c o m f o r t a b l y weaken the p r e s s u r e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n " (Gray, 1974, pg. 2 ) . F u r t h e r , i f l e a v i n g i s n ' t p o s s i b l e , two paths may be taken by the worker: (a) he/she attempts t o e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f f a v o r a b l y i n o r d e r t o be granted good r e f e r e n c e s or (b) he/she remains unhappy, s e e k i n g g r a t i f i c a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n o u t s i d e of the work environment u n t i l he/she i s a b l e t o l e a v e . 8 While he/she puts v e r y l i t t l e i n t o the new company, he/she w i l l not be d i s r u p t i v e because the main g o a l i s t o l e a v e . I t would seem t h a t a f t e r a p e r i o d of unemployment, the newly reemployed person may not have made the be s t job c h o i c e and may i n f a c t become d i s i l l u s i o n e d . However, he/she may be u n w i l l i n g t o i n i t i a t e another job s e a r c h . I f so, how does he/she cope? T h i s author was p a r t i c u l a r l y c u r i o u s about what happens to the i n d i v i d u a l i f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t f o l l o w e d by detachment occurs? Is the newly reemployed person l i k e l y t o i n i t i a t e another job s e a r c h or w i l l he/she simply " c r e a t e a c o r n e r f o r h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f where he/she can co m f o r t a b l y weaken the p r e s s u r e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n " (Gray, 1974, pg. 2). Is i t r e a l i s t i c , i n the 1980's to b e l i e v e t h a t he/she w i l l i n i t i a t e a new job s e a r c h a f t e r h a v ing l i v e d through the trauma of a p r e v i o u s extended job search,? And i f the worker i s r e l u c t a n t t o l e a v e h i s / h e r newly a c q u i r e d p o s i t i o n , i n s p i t e of ~j the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t from which he/she may be s u f f e r i n g , what are the e f f e c t s of such d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t on p r o d u c t i v i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g ? How does he/she cope on an on-going b a s i s ? 9 I t i s important to note t h a t Gray's r e s e a r c h was conducted w i t h those employees who l e f t t h e i r jobs v o l u n t a r i l y , e i t h e r f o r a new p o s i t i o n or to conduct a job s e a r c h which would l i k e l y be s h o r t and p o s i t i v e i n outcome. The focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s on people who l e f t t h e i r job i n v o l u n t a r i l y . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h was found t h a t addressed t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . The E f f e c t s of Reemployment on Self-Esteem Kaufman, (1980) suggests t h a t w h i l e reemployment may c o n t r i b u t e t o the adjustment of p r o f e s s i o n a l s who have been out of work, the job l o s s e x p e r i e n c e appears to have l o n g l a s t i n g e f f e c t s which even a r e t u r n t o work cannot completely a l l e v i a t e . There i s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t o support the n o t i o n t h a t the job l o s s e x p e r i e n c e may r e s u l t i n a l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m , r e g a r d l e s s of reemployment success (Kaufman, 1973). Another study of l a i d - o f f b l u e c o l l a r workers who found work i n lower l e v e l p o s i t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h a t "reemployment i n such p o s i t i o n s may r e s t o r e some of the f i n a n c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n , but i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t o r e the i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s p r e v i o u s l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m , morale, and g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e " (Sheppard, 1965, p. 171). In a l o n g i t u d i n a l 10 study of t e r m i n a t e d b l u e c o l l a r workers over a two year p e r i o d , Cobb and K a s l , (1971, p. 171) found t h a t " d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the men e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i r e d new jobs, t h e i r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d as i f t h e i r e x p eriences had permanently uprooted o p t i m i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s and of t h e i r f u t u r e . " A study t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e d the e x p e r i e n c e of out of work p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r over a year, a r r i v e d a t a c o n c l u s i o n remarkably s i m i l a r t o t h a t of b l u e c o l l a r workers: t h a t reemployment " d i d not serve to i n t e g r a t e these workers i n t o a m i l i e u a t t h e i r p r e v i o u s l e v e l s of emotional h e a l t h or s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g " ( E s t e s , 1973, p. 277). The study a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the "displacement e f f e c t f o l l o w i n g reemployment i s somewhat troublesome s i n c e i t confirms t h a t the p r e v i o u s l y unemployed harbors c h r o n i c , i f not permanent s c a r s from t h e i r unemployment e x p e r i e n c e s " ( E s t e s , 1973, p. 277). Underemployment Other r e s e a r c h i n t o the e x p e r i e n c e of reemployment seems t o focus on the underemployed p r o f e s s i o n a l , though some data e x i s t on the underemployed bl u e c o l l a r worker, the underemployed c o l l e g e graduate, the underemployed female and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of race and 11 s o c i a l c l a s s i n the underemployment i s s u e , Kaufman (1980, 1982), r e v e a l e d t h a t underemployment, i . e . a s i t u a t i o n where a worker's s k i l l s are not b e i n g used, or where he does not p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e o r enjoy h i s / h e r job, was a problem f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t more than o n e - f i f t h of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s who took a p o s i t i o n t h a t l e f t them underemployed, r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r whole l i f e had changed as a r e s u l t of t h e i r o r i g i n a l job l o s s . On the o t h e r hand, o n l y o ne-twentieth of those who remained out of work or those who were unemployed i n t h e i r f i e l d r e p o r t e d such a d r a s t i c change. Kaufman suggests t h a t perhaps the g r e a t e s t amount of l i f e s t r e s s occurs among p r o f e s s i o n a l s who take a job t h a t leaves them underemployed, because many of them may be undergoing an i n v o l u n t a r y c a r e e r change. Other r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f the new job p r o v i d e s job s e c u r i t y , i t may be viewed as a b e t t e r job than the o l d one, even i f job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a f a c t o r (Kaufman, 1980, Brown, 1972). F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s evidence t h a t poor u t i l i z a t i o n of a worker's s k i l l s can c o n t r i b u t e t o obsolescence, job s t r e s s , and poor 12 adjustment t o work (Caplan, Cobb, French, H a r r i s o n , and Pineua, 1974; R i t t i , 1971). I t appears t h a t the reason many people become underemployed i s t h a t they view i t as a temporary "stop-gap" w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t underemployment may i n f a c t c o n t r i b u t e t o f u r t h e r underemployment and l o n g range c a r e e r growth d a m a g e — e s p e c i a l l y among c o l l e g e graduates. A p p a r e n t l y , many employers b e l i e v e something must be wrong wi t h any ca n d i d a t e t h a t was not "good enough" t o get a job i n h i s / h e r f i e l d i n the f i r s t p l a c e ( S h a f f e r , 1976). In h i s book, The  Overeducated American, Freeman (1976) documents the changes i n the labour market f o r c o l l e g e graduates, i n d i c a t i n g the growing number of c o l l e g e graduates i n low l e v e l j o b s . Rumberger (1984) suggests t h a t as many as 25 t o 50 perc e n t of r e c e n t c o l l e g e graduates i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s are, or f e e l t h a t they are o v e r q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e i r c u r r e n t job. And, w i t h r e g a r d t o women i n the workplace, Rumberger (1981) found t h a t women were more l i k e l y t o be underemployed a t the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l but not a t the lower. I t appears from the r e s e a r c h t h a t w h i l e reemployment c e r t a i n l y a s s i s t s many i n t h e i r adjustment from the j o b l e s s s t a t e , o t h e r problems o f t e n f o l l o w . I f reemployment means underemployment or a l a c k o f job s e c u r i t y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems may r e s u l t i n the l o n g run. A c c o r d i n g t o Kaufman, (1982), these workers may be no b e t t e r a d j u s t e d than those remaining unemployed. Summary From r e v i e w i n g the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , i t appears t h a t becoming reemployed i n and of i t s e l f , i s not enough t o a l l e v i a t e the t r a u m a t i c e f f e c t s of extended unemployment. Other f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g job s e c u r i t y and job s a t i s f a c t i o n appear t o impact the adjustment p r o c e s s . With t h i s i n mind, and c o n s i d e r i n g the l i m i t e d amount of r e s e a r c h on the reemployment exper i e n c e , t h i s author thought i t necessary t o employ a r e s e a r c h method t h a t encouraged s u b j e c t s t o f r e e l y d i s c u s s both t h e i r n e g a t i v e and- p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g reemployment and those events which e i t h e r helped o r h i n d e r e d t h e i r adjustment p r o c e s s . Thus, a r e s e a r c h approach was chosen which combined an open-ended, u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w method w i t h an approach designed to e l i c i t h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events i n the re-employment e x p e r i e n c e over time. T h i s approach, which encouraged c o - r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e p o r t t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s and any h e l p f u l o r h i n d e r i n g events, i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY Co-researchers The s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d c o - r e s e a r c h e r s because they were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study, who s u p p l i e d the data and i n f o r m a t i o n from which the d e s c r i p t i o n s of experie n c e were c r e a t e d . L a t e r they were r e c o n t a c t e d t o v e r i f y the expe r i e n c e s r e p o r t e d . The study c o n s i s t e d of 14 c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . A p i l o t study was conducted w i t h two i n d i v i d u a l s t o t e s t the procedure. The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were v o l u n t e e r s drawn from c o n t a c t s w i t h i n v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g Unemployed A c t i o n Centers, Canada Employment and Immigration, Job K i t , and any ot h e r agency t h a t had worked w i t h the unemployed. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approach Swinburne (1981) and Borgen and Amundson (1984), suggest the importance of non-survey techniques i n r e s e a r c h i n g the experiences of the unemployed. Borgen and Amundson (1984), developed an i n v e s t i g a t i v e method combining an open-ended, u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w w i t h an approach designed t o e l i c i t h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events i n the experie n c e of unemployment. They 16 d e s c r i b e t h e i r approach as " a l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s t o d e s c r i b e q u i t e f r e e l y t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of unemployment without b e i n g l e d to one emphasis or another by d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w e r s . " (p.16). Based on these s t u d i e s , t h i s author b e l i e v e d t h a t the same approach c o u l d be u t i l i z e d ' when c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t o the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . Hence, the o n l y q u e s t i o n posed i n the i n i t i a l stages o f the i n t e r v i e w was as f o l l o w s : "You were unemployed f o r a p e r i o d of time, and now you're reemployed. What i s t h i s l i k e f o r you?" In a d d i t i o n t o p o s i n g the above q u e s t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w e r attended t o each s u b j e c t u s i n g paraphrased responses t o c l a r i f y t h e i r statements. Borgen and Amundson (1984) suggested t h a t when cond u c t i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h the unemployed, i t i s u s e f u l to u t i l i z e an approach t h a t can h e l p t o e l i c i t , h i g h and/or low p o i n t s i n the unemployment e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s approach u t i l i z i n g h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events was pi o n e e r e d by John Flanagan (1954). The c o - r e s e a r c h e r 17 was asked to s p e c i f y e x a c t l y what helped or h i n d e r e d i n the t r a n s i t i o n from one event to another. Flanagan's technique was m o d i f i e d and used by Borgen and Amundson to examine the e x p e r i e n c e of unemployment over time. T h i s author employed t h i s same m o d i f i e d technique to get beyond any g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a more d e t a i l e d account of the s p e c i f i c events t h a t e i t h e r h elped or h i n d e r e d the re-employment p r o c e s s . Thus, the s u b j e c t s were asked to c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g statement about 40-50 minutes i n t o the i n t e r v i e w : "Think back over your e x p e r i e n c e of re-employment and d e s c r i b e the h i g h p o i n t s of your e x p e r i e n c e . T a k i n g the f i r s t h i g h p o i n t , t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened and why i t was so p o s i t i v e a t t h a t time?" and then: "Now l e t ' s t u r n t o your lowest p o i n t s d u r i n g t h a t time. T a k i n g the f i r s t low p o i n t , t e l l me e x a c t l y what happened and why i t was so d i f f i c u l t a t t h a t time?" 18 A f t e r the highs and lows had been e x p l o r e d , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Were you w i l l i n g t o take any job j u s t t o have one, and i f so, what i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact on you? 2. How do you view your employer now (with r e g a r d t o m a t e r n a l i s m / p a t e r n a l i s m ) ? 3. Does the unemployment ex p e r i e n c e loom l a r g e i n your mind, has your l i f e been a f f e c t e d i n any permanent way, or has i t a l l been f o r g o t t e n ? 4. Has the meaning of work changed f o r you? And f i n a l l y , t o conclude the p r o c e s s , co-r e s e a r c h e r s were asked t o complete a demographics q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves i n c l u d i n g age, sex, l e n g t h of time unemployed and reemployed, s a l a r y of both p r e v i o u s and c u r r e n t jobs, p e r c e i v e d job s a t i s f a c t i o n and s u i t a b i l i t y , and l e n g t h of time they intended to s t a y i n t h e i r new job. Co-r e s e a r c h e r s were assured t h a t the data would remain c o n f i d e n t i a l and t h a t a c o - r e s e a r c h e r ' s consent form would be p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r a u d i o - r e c o r d i n g of the i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s . T h i s approach e l i c i t e d from c o - r e s e a r c h e r s both the reemployment exper i e n c e as i t was remembered by each of them and more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about any h e l p f u l o r h i n d e r i n g events i n h e r e n t i n the process of becoming reemployed f o l l o w i n g an extended p e r i o d of unemployment. Data A n a l y s i s The 14 taped i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d verbatim. The author then searched each t r a n s c r i p t l o o k i n g f o r emotions or f e e l i n g s t a t e s i n h e r e n t i n the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . These f e e l i n g s t a t e s were then examined w i t h a view to g i v i n g them l a b e l s t h a t a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t e d what the c o - r e s e a r c h e r r e p o r t e d the reemployment experience was l i k e and i n d o i n g so, i t became apparent t h a t t h e r e were many s i m i l a r i t i e s between the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . Gray's model was used as a p o i n t of comparison throughout the data a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the data. I t became r e a d i l y apparent t h a t many of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s p a r a l l e l e d those proposed by Gray; however, t h e r e were a l s o some apparent d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a s e a r c h f o r any s h i f t s i n the f e e l i n g s t a t e s from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e , o r from n e g a t i v e to p o s i t i v e , and f o r the events t h a t t r i g g e r e d these s h i f t s . F i n a l l y the data was examined f o r the ways c o - r e s e a r c h e r s coped w i t h the s h i f t s from p o s i t i v e to n e g a t i v e . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the f e e l i n g , s t a t e s and the l a b e l s g i v e n t o those d e s c r i p t i o n s ; the events t h a t c r e a t e d p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e s h i f t s i n the f e e l i n g s t a t e s , and the ways c o - r e s e a r c h e r s coped w i t h the s h i f t s from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e were t e s t e d by a s k i n g a c o l l e a g u e to read the t r a n s c r i b e d v e r s i o n s of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' i n t e r v i e w s . The c o l l e a g u e was then asked t o compare the t r a n s c r i p t s w i t h the l a b e l s and d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n by t h i s author, to the f e e l i n g s t a t e s , the events t h a t c r e a t e d p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e s h i f t s i n the f e e l i n g s t a t e s , and the s t r a t e g i e s employed to cope wi t h s h i f t s from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , a meeting was h e l d t o d i s c u s s any d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the d e s c r i p t i o n s and l a b e l s a s s i g n e d by the author and those r e a d i l y apparent t o the c o l l e a g u e . L a t e r , t h e r e was a post check w i t h s i x co-r e s e a r c h e r s t o v e r i f y the d e s c r i p t i o n s . F i v e of the s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were from the group who a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new j o b s . One was from the o t h e r group who d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new j o b s . 22 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULTS I n t r o d u c t i o n The r e s u l t s of the data are p r e s e n t e d i n s i x s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n One p r e s e n t s the demographic i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t each c o - r e s e a r c h e r was asked t o p r o v i d e . In S e c t i o n Two, two d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s of the expe r i e n c e of reemployment are pre s e n t e d . P a t t e r n A d e s c r i b e s those c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y to t h e i r new job s . P a t t e r n B d e s c r i b e s those co-r e s e a r c h e r s who d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r j o b s . Both p a t t e r n s are compared w i t h the model proposed by Gray, (1974). S e c t i o n Three p r o v i d e s a rank o r d e r e d l i s t of a l l the events t h a t r e s u l t e d i n f e e l i n g s t a t e s and the time sequences i n v o l v e d . S e c t i o n Four focuses on the c o p i n g mechanisms employed by the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s d u r i n g the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . These cop i n g mechanisms are rank o r d e r e d from the most f r e q u e n t l y t o the l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y employed c o p i n g s t r a t e g y . S e c t i o n F i v e d e a l s w i t h the f u t u r e e x p e c t a t i o n s of the co-r e s e a r c h e r s and S e c t i o n S i x addresses the co-23 r e s e a r c h e r s ' responses t o a v a r i e t y of q u e s t i o n s posed toward the end of the i n t e r v i e w s . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the data was checked by having a c o l l e a g u e and s i x co-r e s e a r c h e r s v e r i f y the f e e l i n g s t a t e s , the events t h a t s h i f t e d f e e l i n g s from p o s i t i v e to n e g a t i v e , and/or n e g a t i v e t o p o s i t i v e , and the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n order t o d e a l w i t h s h i f t s from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e . In d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the c o l l e a g u e about any p o s s i b l e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the data, no i n s t a n c e s of disagreement were e v i d e n t . In d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the author, a l l s i x co-r e s e a r c h e r s s a i d t h a t the l a b e l s g i v e n to the events, f e e l i n g s t a t e s and coping s t r a t e g i e s employed, a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n to v e r i f y i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n s p r o v i d e d , the one c o - r e s e a r c h e r who d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y t o h i s / h e r job a t the time of the study, but who a t the time of the post check, worked i n a job t o which he/she d i d a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y , confirmed the f e e l i n g s t a t e s and events of the o t h e r group. The o t h e r f i v e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the post check who were i n jobs to which they had a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y a l s o confirmed the o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e of not a d j u s t i n g f a v o r a b l y . They r e p o r t e d t h a t b e f o r e s e c u r i n g t h e i r c u r r e n t job, they had accepted a t l e a s t one job they d i d not a d j u s t to f a v o r a b l y and t h a t t h e i r e x periences p a r a l l e l e d those of P a t t e r n B. In summary, a l l the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the post check agreed w i t h a l l the f e e l i n g s t a t e s and events of both groups. They made statements such as, "There's n o t h i n g t h e r e t h a t I can d i s a g r e e w i t h " ; "Yea, t h a t sounds l i k e what happened"; and "I sure remember f e e l i n g l i k e t h a t . " S e c t i o n One: Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n Co-researchers were asked to f i l l out a demographics q u e s t i o n n a i r e , (Appendix B). The f o l l o w i n g i s a s y n o p s i s of the responses t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Number of P a r t i c i p a n t s 14 Gender Number of males 7 Number of females 7 Age Average Age 32 25 C i t i z e n s h i p Canadian 13 German 1 Length of Time Unemployed Range 5 and 1/2 months to 2 and 1/2 years How d i d c o - r e s e a r c h e r s get t h e i r new job? a) A d v e r t i s e m e n t ( s ) , e.g. newspapers, r a d i o 1 b) Through knowing someone who t o l d them about i t 6 c) Mass m a i l - o u t of resume 2 d) C.E.I.C./Unemployment A c t i o n Centres 3 e) Became self-employed 2 How many l i k e d t h e i r new jobs? a) Yes 11 b) I n d i f f e r e n t 3 c) No 0 How long w i l l most s t a y i n t h e i r new jobs? Range: 1 - 3 ye a r s , or u n t i l a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n comes along. Note: Only two p a r t i c i p a n t s responded w i t h " f o r e v e r . " These two were i n the self-employed category. OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES Co-researcher Number Before Unemployment Salary Length per yr. of Time Unemployed Reemployment Salary Length of per yr. Time in New Job 1 2 10 11 12 13 14 Cashier Personnel Administration Operations Analyst Personnel Assistant Trainman (part-time) Nurse Video Sales Representative 20,000 30 months 23,000 8 months 26,000 9 months 24,000 9 months 8,000 7 months 20,000 5 1/2 mo. 12,000 8 1/2 mo. Physical Edu- 30,000 8 months cation Teacher Trainer High School Teacher Teacher Head Chef Director, Lumber Company Program Manager, Corrections 35,000 6 months 16,000 18 months 20,000 11 months 40,000 13 months 45,000 18 months 22,000 10 months Secretary 17,000 9 months Senior 22,400 1 year Secretary Assistant Director of Legal Services 29,000 14 months Administration 35,000 Assistant Labor Relations 34,000 Assistant Nurse 22,500 Delivery 29,000 Driver Special Educa- 13,000 tion Teacher Training 30,000 Consultant Financial 16,000 Worker Laboratory 23,000 Assistant (College) Manager, Food Services Yacht Broker 24,000 80,000 16 months 3 months 1 year 13 months 3 months 1 year 9 months 2 years 2 years 2 years Research Officer 24,000 4 months Corrections The results show that 8 co-researchers were reemployed in similar jobs, while six were in completely different jobs and that in most cases the salaries remained pretty much the same. 27 S e c t i o n Two: P a t t e r n s of Experience In t h i s s e c t i o n two d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s of e x p e r i e n c e are p r e s e n t e d : the f i r s t i s P a t t e r n A and i n v o l v e d those c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new j o b s . The second, P a t t e r n B, i n v o l v e d co-r e s e a r c h e r s who d i d not a d j u s t f a v o u r a b l y to t h e i r new j o b s . For both p a t t e r n s , a d e t a i l e d account of the events and accompanying f e e l i n g s t a t e s i s p r e s e n t e d . A l s o i n c l u d e d are samples of ex p e r i e n c e from the i n t e r v i e w s conducted. Throughout the p r e s e n t a t i o n the p a t t e r n s are compared to the model proposed by Gray, (1974). A c c o r d i n g t o Gray, (1974), who checked the s u b j e c t i v e experiences of employees v o l u n t a r i l y l e a v i n g one job and s t a r t i n g another, two p a t t e r n s of e x p e r i e n c e o c c u r r e d . The f i r s t p a t t e r n was d e s c r i b e d as e u p h o r i a - t u r n e d - s h o c k - t u r n e d - s o c i a l i z a t i o n . T h i s p a t t e r n emerged when the worker a d j u s t e d p o s i t i v e l y t o h i s / h e r new job. The second p a t t e r n was d e s c r i b e d by Gray as e u p h o r i a - t u r n e d - s h o c k - t u r n e d - d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t - t u r n e d detachment or containment. T h i s second p a t t e r n emerged 28 when the worker d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y t o the new job. A f t e r a n a l y z i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f experi e n c e p r o v i d e d by the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s study and comparing them t o Gray's model, i t was apparent t h a t t h e r e were many s i m i l a r i t i e s . However, some d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t . The f i r s t s i m i l a r i t y was t h a t two p a t t e r n s of f e e l i n g s t a t e s and events o c c u r r e d . The f i r s t of the two p a t t e r n s t h a t emerged i n t h i s study were: P a t t e r n A - e u p h o r i a - t u r n e d - d o u b t - t u r n e d - s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o the job c o n t e x t - t u r n e d comfort zone. T h i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the f i r s t p a t t e r n of ex p e r i e n c e proposed by Gray. Based on the d e s c r i p t i o n s p r o v i d e d by t h i s study, each c o - r e s e a r c h e r r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g e u p h o r i c upon b e i n g granted an i n i t i a l job i n t e r v i e w and subsequent job o f f e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s author agreed w i t h Gray's f i r s t r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g s t a t e of eup h o r i a . While Gray l a b e l l e d the next f e e l i n g s t a t e shock, a l l the co-r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s study d e s c r i b e d t h e i r second f e e l i n g s t a t e as b e i n g d o u b t f u l about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o 29 do the new job. T h i s f e e l i n g s t a t e invoked f e a r , worry and doubt. Whereas Gray l a b e l l e d the f i n a l e x p e r i e n c e of P a t t e r n A s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h i s author l a b e l l e d i t s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o the job c o n t e x t because i t seemed s p e c i f i c t o the job c o n t e x t . The author then added a f o u r t h e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t e d by the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and c a l l e d i t a comfort zone. A l l of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s study who had been reemployed f o r s e v e r a l months and who had passed through the f e e l i n g s t a t e s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of comfort i n the new p o s i t i o n . T h i s f e e l i n g s t a t e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by contentment, c o n f i d e n c e and a tendency t o take the new job f o r granted. T h i s was a s u r p r i s e t o the co-r e s e a r c h e r s i n v o l v e d because t h e r e had been times i n both the unemployment experi e n c e and the b e g i n n i n g of the reemployment exper i e n c e where they d i d not t h i n k they would ever take a job f o r granted a g a i n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e t a i l e d account of the f e e l i n g s t a t e s and accompanying events of P a t t e r n A. Euphoria: 1 . T h i s stage can be d e s c r i b e d as an i n i t i a l and very p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n by c o - r e s e a r c h e r s to a job 30 i n t e r v i e w and a subsequent job o f f e r t h a t i s accepted. The f e e l i n g s were those o f enthusiasm, r e l i e f t h a t the job se a r c h was over; a sense of something d i f f i c u l t having been accomplished and a sense of b e i n g worthy or the "chosen" one. Sample Statements of Euphoria: (a) "When the phone r i n g s and the v o i c e on the o t h e r end says, 'Yes, we'd l o v e t o have you come and work w i t h us,' suddenly i t makes a l l the s t r u g g l i n g worthwhile. Suddenly i t j u s t takes an enormous p r e s s u r e o f f your s h o u l d e r s . I t ' s l i k e , I'm wanted and a p p r e c i a t e d . I t ' s l i k e , I worked hard f o r t h i s and I was j u s t rewarded. I t gave me my f a i t h back and i t ' s a good f e e l i n g i n s i d e . " (b) " J u s t g e t t i n g , the job i n t e r v i e w i s a h i g h and then g e t t i n g the j o b . " (c) "The f i r s t h i g h was j u s t g e t t i n g the j o b . " Doubt: 1(a) T h i s stage can be d e s c r i b e d as r e f l e c t i o n upon one's a b i l i t y t o do the job, job s u i t a b i l i t y , and whether the r i g h t job c h o i c e had been made. The f e e l i n g s of f e a r , i n h i b i t e d excitement and doubt 31 were exp e r i e n c e d . A l l of the above o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the job o f f e r was accepted, (b) As the i n d u c t i o n process began, f e e l i n g s of estrangement or c u l t u r e shock s u r f a c e d because n o t h i n g about the new company or job was f a m i l i a r . More doubt, worry and f e a r s u r f a c e d . At times the new employee f e l t good about the c h o i c e and a t times anxious about the c h o i c e . Sample Statements of the D o u b t f u l E x p e r i e n c e : "The f i r s t low came r i g h t away as I w o r r i e d about my a b i l i t y t o do the j o b . " "Obviously the h i g h p o i n t i s when they make the job o f f e r t o you and then t h e r e ' s l i v i n g up t o i t . I mean t h a t ' s another t h i n g . " "I was t e r r i f i e d of some of my work because I knew t h e r e was so much I d i d n ' t know, so, I was r e a l l y s t r u g g l i n g . " " I t went down because I f e l t overwhelmed u n t i l I s t a r t e d t o make some pro g r e s s on my f i r s t p r o j e c t . " S o c i a l i z a t i o n t o the Job Context: 1(a) In t h i s stage, some doubt was erased as the environment began t o f e e l more co m f o r t a b l e . Meeting new people, g e t t i n g on w i t h t a s k s and g e t t i n g i n t o a r o u t i n e o c c u r r e d . T h i s stage was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e r v a l s of highs and lows as i t was a p e r i o d of g r e a t adjustment. Sometimes the new employee f e l t good about the job and sometimes d o u b t f u l . (b) Continued e r a s u r e of doubt took p l a c e a t t h i s l e v e l , as the new employee d e c i d e d he/she had made the r i g h t c h o i c e and l i k e d both the company, i t s people, and the job. T h i s f e e l i n g s t a t e was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by highs and l o w s — h i g h s on a good d a y — l o w s on a bad day. Job i n s e c u r i t y , c a r e e r c h o i c e , and job s a t i s f a c t i o n were q u e s t i o n e d from time t o time. Sample Statements of the S o c i a l i z a t i o n t o the Job Context E x p e r i e n c e : 1(a) ( I n i t i a l E r a s u r e o f Doubt) " . . . I l i k e d my work, f e l t i t was an a c c e p t a b l e c h a l l e n g e . . . lows occur d u r i n g the times when you ask y o u r s e l f , 'Is t h i s r e a l l y f o r me, w i t h a l l my q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ? • " (b) ( F u r t h e r E r a s u r e of Doubt) "...everytime a new c h a l l e n g e p r e s e n t s i t s e l f you f e e l low because you have doubts as t o your 33 a b i l i t y t o do the job...you f e e l h i g h a g a i n as your comfort zone i s reached." (a) ( I n i t i a l E r a s u r e of Doubt) "The next h i g h p o i n t was working w i t h f i v e or s i x people and I r e a l i z e d I was on the team and people were used t o me and they would accept me and h e l p me...". (b) ( F u r t h e r E r a s u r e of Doubt) "...another h i g h p o i n t was b e i n g t o l d by the bosses t h a t I was doing a good job...the next h i g h p o i n t was b e i n g g i v e n new and i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . the next h i g h p o i n t was f i n d i n g out I'd g o t t e n a r a i s e f o r good p e r f o r m a n c e . . . i t was a low p o i n t when the company r e o r g a n i z e d , I f e l t v e r y i n s e c u r e about t h a t . . . I w o r r i e d a l o t a t t h a t time about whether I s t i l l had a j o b . " 34 (a) ( I n i t i a l E r a s u r e of Doubt) "A low p o i n t was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t I've got to go t o work and when I f i r s t s t a r t e d I c o u l d n ' t stand i t . . . I got h i g h e r a g a i n when I s t a r t e d t o get t o know people and what n o t . . . I had t o move to another o f f i c e , i t was l i k e s t a r t i n g the above process a l l over again...then another h i g h came a f t e r the new o f f i c e when t h i n g s s t a r t e d working out. " (b) ( F u r t h e r E r a s u r e of Doubt) " . . . i t ' s been p r e t t y b a lanced ever s i n c e . . . " Comfort Zone i s reached: t h i s stage was s p e c i f i c t o Group A and was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a deep f e e l i n g t h a t the reemployed person was comfortable w i t h most f a c e t s of the new job, company, e t c . , most of the time. Some of the i n i t i a l job r e l a t e d enthusiasm d i s s i p a t e d as " t a k i n g the job environment f o r granted" o c c u r r e d . T h i s stage was d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t i n g of a balance of highs and lows. Sample Statements of the Comfort Zone E x p e r i e n c e : (a) "A low p o i n t came when the i n i t i a l r u s h of energy and e f f o r t I put i n stopped and g e t t i n g more and 35 more i n t o a r o u t i n e . . . another low p o i n t i s c o n f l i c t w i t h a person a t work." (b) "...I'm j u s t g r a d u a l l y coming down to r e a l i t y and I c a l l t h i s a v e r a g e . . . i t ' s g e t t i n g t o a p o i n t where i t ' s j u s t a job, i t keeps me going." (c) " I t goes up and down f o r the r e s t of the time and what the lows are about would be when I have temporary f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y about my a b i l i t y t o do the job, which are g e t t i n g l e s s f r e q u e n t as I get i n t o the system and see how they do t h i n g s . . . a n d now i t ' s more of a b a l a n c e . " The second p a t t e r n t h a t emerged i n t h i s study was: P a t t e r n B - euphoria-turned-doubt-turned-d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t - t u r n e d - c h a n g e . T h i s a l s o c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the second p a t t e r n of e x p e r i e n c e proposed by Gray. As mentioned e a r l i e r , Gray's P a t t e r n B model r e p l a c e d the e x p e r i e n c e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t would occur when the newly employed worker d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y to h i s / h e r new job, company, c o l l e a g u e s , e t c . The two co-r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s study who d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y to t h e i r jobs r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . Whereas Gray reported-two f u r t h e r 36 e x p e r i e n c e s of detachment and containment, t h i s author l a b e l l e d the f i n a l e x p e r i e n c e of t h i s p a t t e r n as t h a t of r e q u i r i n g t h a t a change occ u r . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s study r e p o r t e d the need t o change t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a f t e r becoming d i s i l l u s i o n e d . The change seemed t o take the form o f att e m p t i n g t o work something out w i t h i n the new job, company, e t c . and/or r e -i n i t i a t i n g a job search, q u i t t i n g w i t h severance pay or g e t t i n g f i r e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a more d e t a i l e d account o f the f e e l i n g s t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n P a t t e r n B. Euphoria: Same as i n P a t t e r n A. Doubt: Same as i n P a t t e r n A. D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t : (a) I n i t i a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t r e s u l t e d from the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the reemployed person was not s u i t e d t o the new job, company, i t s procedures, p o l i c i e s , the people, e t c . There was a sense of b e i n g bored, i r r i t a t e d , d i s c o u r a g e d , d i s a p p o i n t e d , y e t t h e r e was s t i l l hope t h a t e v e r y t h i n g would work out. (b) Heightened d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t o c c u r r e d as the r e a l i z a t i o n of b e i n g i l l - s u i t e d t o the environment became even more apparent. There was a deeper sense of boredom, f r u s t r a t i o n , d i s c o n t e n t , p r e s s u r e , e t c . A new job s e a r c h was a c t i v a t e d , ( u s u a l l y q u i e t l y and s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y ) . In t h i s stage t h e r e was s t i l l some hope t h a t t h i n g s would work out. Sample Statements of D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t : (a) ( I n i t i a l D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ) "Then came the low of b e i n g i n the wrong job and s l u g g i n g i t out." (b) (Heightened D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ) "What saved me was my c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those who shared s i m i l a r f r u s t r a t i o n s . I smoked more. I complained a l o t . I had screaming arguments w i t h the manager and p a r t of t h a t I knew wasn't p r o d u c t i v e , but, i t was a r e l i e f . " (a) ( I n i t i a l D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ) "...and then a c t u a l l y s t a r t i n g the job was p r e t t y low, not a l l the way to the bottom, but low...and then I s o r t of d r i f t e d a l o n g i n d i f f e r e n t l y most of the time w i t h o c c a s i o n a l plunges..." ( b ) ( H e i g h t e n e d D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ) " . . . I began t o q u i e t l y look elsewhere... I was dreaming o f another, b e t t e r way and was t r y i n g t o a c t u a l i z e that...I'm l o o k i n g f o r a d i f f e r e n t job s i t u a t i o n . . . h o p e f u l l y , i n the f a l l I'm going t o Saudi A r a b i a . " A change o c c u r s : (a) A sense of r e l i e f from the o v e r a l l unhappiness r e s u l t e d when a change f i n a l l y o c c u r r e d . The change u s u a l l y took the form of e i t h e r q u i t t i n g , f i n d i n g a new job, or t e r m i n a t e d . I f a new job had not been found, the r e l i e f stage was a l s o s u b j e c t t o renewed f e e l i n g of worry, f e a r and doubt about the new unemployment s i t u a t i o n . These f e e l i n g s d i d not seem t o be as severe as i n the very f i r s t job l o s s . Sample Statements of the Need t o make a Change: (a) "Then t h e r e was g e t t i n g the severance pay and a c t u a l l y l e a v i n g . T h i s was a r e l i e f and a hig h p o i n t . . . t h e low came a g a i n when I had t o become concerned about what I'd do w i t h myself." (b) "...and then I was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a new d i v i s i o n . I was q u i t e h i g h because i t was a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n . 39 I s t i l l am unable t o use a l o t of my s k i l l s , but at l e a s t what I do i s more a p p r e c i a t e d . " Summary E s s e n t i a l l y the r e s u l t s supported the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by Gray, (1974). Two d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s of expe r i e n c e were r e p o r t e d - the newly reemployed worker e i t h e r a d j u s t e d p o s i t i v e l y t o h i s / h e r new job or he/she d i d n ' t . When he/she d i d a d j u s t p o s i t i v e l y , the f o l l o w i n g f e e l i n g s t a t e s and experie n c e were r e p o r t e d : euphoria a t the i n t e r v i e w and subsequent job o f f e r , doubt about one's a b i l i t y t o do the job, f o l l o w e d by s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o the job context where he/she began t o enjoy the new job, the new c o l l e a g u e s and the new company. T h i s l e d to the newly reemployed worker r e a c h i n g a comfort zone c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e i n g a b l e t o take the job environment f o r granted, f e e l i n g s of contentment and job competence. When the worker d i d not a d j u s t p o s i t i v e l y t o the new job, the f e e l i n g s of euphoria a t having found i t q u i c k l y t u r n e d t o d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and provoked the need f o r a change. T h i s change took the form of c o n f r o n t i n g the s i t u a t i o n a t work, i n i t i a t i n g a new job search, q u i t t i n g and/or b e i n g t e r m i n a t e d . 40 To conclude t h i s summary, a c h a r t i s p r o v i d e d which compares Gray's p a t t e r n s o f exp e r i e n c e w i t h the p a t t e r n s o f experi e n c e which emerged as a r e s u l t o f t h i s study. Gray (1974) Pattern A Euphoria (upon securing the new job) Pattern _B Euphoria (upon securing the new job) This Study ggttera.1 Euphoria (upon securing the new job) Pattern B Suphoria (upon securing the new job) Shock (which occurred when the individual s t a r t e d the new job - akin to a c u l t u r a l shock) Shock (which occurred when the in d i v i d u a l started the new job - akin to a cu l t u r a l shock) Doubt (which occurred prior to starting the new job, and continued ongoing u n t i l the new worker reached a coafort zone) Doubt (which occurred p r i o r to starting the new job and continued ongoing u n t i l the new worker aade a change) S o c i a l i x a t i o n (where things went right, and the worker adjusted comfortably to his/her new job) O i s i l l u s ionaent (where thing* did not go right and the individual did not adjust favorably to his/her new job) Detachment (the individual directs his/her energies toward a new job search or containaent occurred when a new job search was not possible. The worker did not cause trouble but contributed l i t t l e to the new company. Socialization to the Job Context (the new worker began to enjoy the new job and adjusts favorably). Coafort Xone (the reeaployed worker began to feel contented and to take the job for granted D i s i l l u s i o n -ment (the new worker did not adjust favorably to the new job and things did not go rig h t . Change (the d i s i l l u s i o n e d worker attempted to make things work, i n i t i a t e d a new job search, quit or was f i r e d . 41 Section 3: Feeling States and Triggering Events (Rank  Ordered) This section provides a l i s t i n g of the t r i g g e r i n g events that led to p o s i t i v e and/or negative f e e l i n g states. These events are rank ordered and presented i n chart form along with the approximate time sequences involved. Table 1 S e c t i o n 3: Events R e s u l t i n g i n F e e l i n g S t a t e s Changing From  Negative (Low) to P o s i t i v e (High) and Time Sequences Invol v e d Events i n f l u e n c i n g a s h i f t Number of co- Time sequence from n e g a t i v e t o p o s i t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s i n v o l v e d (rank ordered) i . e . from the p o i n t of unemployment tu r n e d rememployment a) Being the "chosen" one, l a n d i n g the i n t e r v i e w and then the job. 14 Immediately, upon g e t t i n g the job o f f e r b) People t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n you again; b e i n g p a r t of a team 14 0-1 month c) Making a c o n t r i b u t i o n a g a i n 14 1-3 months d) Being a b l e t o perform w e l l / mastery of ta s k s 14 1-3 months e) G e t t i n g p o s i t i v e feedback from s u p e r i o r s , s u b o r d i n a t e s , co-workers; c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s at work. 14 1-3 months f) F i t t i n g i n , b e l o n g i n g , b e i n g l i k e d , l i k i n g the job, l i k i n g the company, e t c . 14 1-3 months g) G e t t i n g a paycheck a g a i n . 7 F i r s t pay p e r i o d ( u s u a l l y 2 weeks to 1 month) h) Reaching a comfort zone on the job. 5 0-12 months Table 2 S e c t i o n 3: Events R e s u l t i n g In F e e l i n g S t a t e s Changing From  P o s i t i v e (High) to Negative (Low) And the Approximate Time  Sequence Involved) Events i n f l u u e n c i n g a s h i f t Number of co- Time sequence from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e r e s e a r c h e r s i n v o l v e d (rank ordered) i . e . from the p o i n t of unemployment turn e d reemployment a) Doubts about a b i l i t y t o do 14 Immediately job b) Not a g r e e i n g w i t h company 14 1 week-1 month p o l i c i e s , s t y l e , procedures, e t c . c) G e t t i n g used to a r o u t i n e 14 0-6 months again, e.g. the s t r u c t u r e of a new job versus the l a c k of s t r u c t u r e of unemployment d) Fear of a d d i t i o n a l job l o s s , 12 Whenever job e.g. t h r e a t of a c t u a l l y b e i n g l o s s seemed l a i d o f f a g a i n , or having to p o s s i b l e i n i t i a t e a new job search e) C o n f l i c t a t work 7 Whenever con-f l i c t o c c u r r e d f ) Money/benefits, i . e . not 5 F i r s t paycheck g e t t i n g p a i d enough and owing so much as a r e s u l t of unemployment g) Boredom and knowing you do not l i k e your job. 2 2 weeks -1 month 44 S e c t i o n 4: Coping S t r a t e g i e s H i l g a r d and A t k i n s o n (1979) suggest the f o l l o w i n g i n r e g a r d t o cop i n g s t r a t e g i e s : Because a n x i e t y i s a very uncomfortable emotion, i t cannot be t o l e r a t e d f o r lo n g . We are s t r o n g l y motivated t o do something t o a l l e v i a t e the d i s c o m f o r t . Sometimes we t r y t o d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h the a n x i e t y -p r o d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n by a p p r a i s i n g the s i t u a t i o n and then doing something t o change or a v o i d i t . Both of these a c t i o n s are designed t o cope w i t h the problem. We c a l l the be h a v i o r s t h a t a person uses to d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s (p.261). T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a l i s t i n g of the v a r i o u s coping s t r a t e g i e s , ( e i t h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e o r d e s t r u c t i v e ) , employed by c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n response t o events t h a t l e d t o s h i f t s i n f e e l i n g - s t a t e s from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s were employed d u r i n g times when co-r e s e a r c h e r s doubted t h e i r a b i l i t y t o perform i n t h e i r new jobs; when they d i s a g r e e d w i t h company p o l i c i e s ; w h i l e they were g e t t i n g used t o a new r o u t i n e again; when f e a r o f a d d i t i o n a l job l o s s became an i s s u e ; when th e r e was c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r new work r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; when they f e l t the amount of money on t h e i r pay cheques d i d not r e f l e c t t h e i r worth; when they were bored and 45 f e l t they were not a d j u s t i n g f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new jobs, or t h a t the i n c o r r e c t job c h o i c e had been made. Coping took the form of r e a c t i v a t i n g a job search, dreaming of a b e t t e r way and t r y i n g to a c t u a l i z e t h a t b e t t e r way. Sometimes forming c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those who shared s i m i l a r f r u s t r a t i o n s about the company helped. More d r i n k i n g , smoking, substance abuse, complaining, absenteeism and psychosomatic i l l n e s s e s such as c o l i t i s and migraine headaches were a l s o r e p o r t e d . The u l t i m a t e c o p i n g s t r a t e g y employed was l e a v i n g the p o s i t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . Table 3 t h a t f o l l o w s , o u t l i n e s the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s (rank ordered) and the number of c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who employed the coping s t r a t e g y . Table 3 Coping S t r a t e g i e s Employed: Coping s t r a t e g y employed (rank Number of c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ordered) who employed s t r a t e g y Making c o n t a c t s and networking 14 whi l e on the job. P o s i t i v e s e l f - t a l k . 14 Always l o o k i n g toward s e l f - 14 employment, i . e . "What can I l e a r n here t h a t I can do on my own l a t e r ? " Not working as hard as i n your 12 p r e v i o u s job. Not g i v i n g the whole process your 12 one-hundred p e r c e n t . C l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h those a t 12 work who share s i m i l a r f r u s t r a t i o n s ; r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h co-workers. Q u i e t l y l o o k i n g f o r another job 6 and/or dreaming of another b e t t e r way. D r i n k i n g more to r e l a x . 3 Absenteeism. 3 I n e r t i a , apathy and j u s t g e n e r a l l y 3 an o v e r a l l l a c k of p r o d u c t i v i t y ; making a minimal c o n t r i b u t i o n . Q u i t t i n g w i t h severance pay. 1 R e l o c a t i n g t o another department 1 P o l i t i c k i n g , a t t a c h i n g o n e s e l f t o 1 the one i n command; making o n e s e l f v i s i b l e t o the one i n command. 4 7 S e c t i o n 5: Future E x p e c t a t i o n s Another area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n mentioned i n Chapter Three had t o do w i t h the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e c t a t i o n s of the f u t u r e . The m a j o r i t y of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s thought t h a t t h e i r f u t u r e s were p o s i t i v e ( 1 0 ) . Only two c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of the f u t u r e and two were i n d i f f e r e n t toward t h e i r f u t u r e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i d e s a complete breakdown which i n c l u d e s samples of c o - r e s e a r c h e r s responses from the i n t e r v i e w s conducted. Table 4 E x p e c t a t i o n s of the F u t u r e : R e s u l t s Breakdown Co-Researcher Number Response 1 P o s i t i v e 2 P o s i t i v e 3 P o s i t i v e 4 P o s i t i v e / e x c i t i n g 5 P o s i t i v e 6 Negative--no way around the f u t u r e commonplace of unemployment 7 I n d i f f e r e n t 8 P o s i t i v e 9 P o s i t i v e 10 N e g a t i v e — e v e r y t h i n g i s temporary 11 Very p o s i t i v e 12 I n d i f f e r e n t t o n e g a t i v e — d o e s not b e l i e v e he w i l l ever be a b l e t o work again i n the way he once d i d , i . e . money, s t a t u s , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , e t c . 13 P o s i t i v e — h a p p i e r than ever and b e l i e v e he w i l l be f o r e v e r 14 P o s i t i v e i n the s h o r t term; n e g a t i v e i n the long haul about job s e c u r i t y beyond a 2 to 3 year p e r i o d . 49 Sample Statements of Future E x p e c t a t i o n s from the  Interviews a) "I f e e l r e a l l y p o s i t i v e because' I have a good p o s i t i o n from which to work upwards. I ' l l never go backwards a g a i n . " b) "I've met many, many more people and my employment h o r i z o n s , my chances f o r the f u t u r e have expanded. I t h i n k t h e r e w i l l be many more o p p o r t u n i t i e s . " c) "I see my f u t u r e as b e i n g one where I ' l l e x p l o r e many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s and I see i t as b e i n g very e x c i t i n g . " d) "The whole t h i n g of unemployment i s something t h a t i s g o i ng to be very commonplace i n the f u t u r e and I don't see any way around t h a t . " e) "My f u t u r e e x p e c t a t i o n s are p o s i t i v e f o r the next couple of y e a r s . I f e e l k i n d of trapped because i t ' s so much more d i f f i c u l t t o get good jobs, so you a l r e a d y know how hard i t ' s l i k e l y t o be. You f e e l a sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s r e g a r d i n g s t e e r i n g your c a r e e r . " 50 S e c t i o n S i x : Questions In t h i s s e c t i o n the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' responses t o a v a r i e t y of q u e s t i o n s posed toward the end of t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s are pr e s e n t e d . T h i s s e c t i o n concludes the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s . Q u e stion 1. Are you w i l l i n g t o take any job j u s t t o have one, and  i f so, what i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact o f doing so,  over time? A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d b e i n g w i l l i n g t o take any job i n t h e i r g e n e r a l f i e l d a t l e a s t once a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t job l o s s ; these same s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d d i s a s t r o u s outcomes of having done so. Where t h i s had happened once (and i n most cases i t had), the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d b e i n g t o t a l l y u n w i l l i n g t o do i t t h a t way a g a i n . In f a c t , they r e p o r t e d t h a t they would r a t h e r be unemployed than t o take j u s t any job. Sample Responses t o Question #1: a) "No, not t h i s time. I a l r e a d y .did t h a t a couple of times and i t proved d i s a s t r o u s , so I don't want t o do t h a t a g a i n . I l e a r n e d through the experi e n c e t h a t i t ' s j u s t not worth i t t o take j u s t 51 a n y t h i n g . . . I mean you can't be employed and m i s e r a b l e e i t h e r . " b) "No, I a c t u a l l y had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o say 'no' t o a couple of jobs b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g t h i s one. I d i d t h a t p r e v i o u s l y and i t was a d i s a s t e r . I o n l y l a s t e d t h r e e weeks i n the company and was te r m i n a t e d . I hated the p l a c e . I t h i n k y o u ' l l hear t h a t from a l o t of people who have been unemployed...that they had at l e a s t one d i s a s t r o u s job b e f o r e g e t t i n g a job they l i k e d . " c) "During my f i r s t unemployment e x p e r i e n c e s , yes, I would have been w i l l i n g t o take any job i n my f i e l d - - s o I d i d . I t h i n k i t was p r o b a b l y one of the most d i f f i c u l t e x p eriences i n my l i f e . . . s o , t h e r e came a p o i n t i n t h a t reemployment e x p e r i e n c e where b e i n g unemployed became more a p p e a l i n g than b e i n g employed—somehow i t ' s l e s s degrading t o be unemployed." d) "Yes, as I a l r e a d y had accepted another p o s i t i o n and hated i t , so i t was a r e l i e f t o be c a l l e d back a f t e r the i n i t i a l l a y - o f f . " 52 e) "Yes, as I had a l r e a d y accepted another p o s i t i o n a t $5.00 per hour pumping g a s — e v e n t h i s made me f e e l b e t t e r . " f ) "Yes, i n f a c t , sometimes I wondered i f I'd ever see a pay cheque a g a i n . I'd l i n e up f o r jobs as a dishwasher, 7-11 c l e r k , e t c . and s t i l l d i d not get the j o b." g) "Within my f i e l d , yes, though I f e l t i n s e c u r e as a r e s u l t of two l a y - o f f s — a s i f t h e r e wouldn't be any jobs--so b e s t t o c r e a t e my own." Question 2. How do you view your employer now (with r e g a r d t o  maternalism/paternalisnO ? A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d a s h i f t i n how they viewed t h e i r new employer versus how they had viewed p r e v i o u s ones. A l l s a i d t h a t they d i d not view the employers as b e i n g committed t o t h e i r ongoing development and w e l l - b e i n g . Rather, an employer/employee r e l a t i o n s h i p was one viewed as a f a i r exchange of t a l e n t and s k i l l f o r a paycheck. A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s viewed t h e i r employers as p r o v i d i n g a temporary means of e a r n i n g a l i v i n g As a r e s u l t , almost everyone r e p o r t e d t h a t they were working w i t h a view t o d i f f e r e n t , or self-employment. Thus, they embraced t h e i r c u r r e n t employment as an o p p o r t u n i t y to "take" what they c o u l d i n t o a new s i t u a t i o n . Sample Responses to Question #2: a) "I have a r e a l t h i n g a g a i n s t . . . I would i d e a l l y l i k e t o be self-employed. I don't l i k e the c o n t r o l someone e l s e has over my l i f e . " b) "I'm p r a i s e d d e a r l y by my employer, but i t doesn't h o l d weight because I've heard i t a l l b e f o r e and I s t i l l got axed. Gone are the days of job s e c u r i t y . I f anyone t h i n k s they have a secure job, they've got rocks i n t h e i r head." c) "I don't see the company as p a t e r n a l . I f e e l k i n d of detached i n a w a y — i t ' s more l i k e I'm working f o r myself i n the midst of a l l t h i s . . . b e f o r e I saw the company as permanent--it was l i k e a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g m a c h i n e - - i t would never stop, I don't t h i n k t h a t way anymore. I grabbed more i n the sense of b e n e f i t s . I t h i n k i t ' s u s i n g anger, the f e e l i n g of "damn i t , " t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o do i t to you, so t h e r e f o r e you've got t o get e v e r y t h i n g t h a t you can. So I'm almost p u s h i e r now, demanding t h a t my expenses get p a i d i m m e d i a t e l y — t h a t I have my 54 courses p a i d - - t h a t I have and use a l l the l i t t l e b e n e f i t s , l i k e u s i n g the d e n t a l p l a n , e t c . What I t h i n k I'm doing w i t h the reemployment i s c a r v i n g out what I want—making i t much more what I want i t t o be w i t h i n the framework of what the company wants from me." d) "The r o l e I view i s not one of p a t e r n a l i s m — I view i t as we k i n d of have t h i s equal s i t u a t i o n , l i k e , I have t h i s time, s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t h a t I'm prepared to i n v e s t and I expect something f o r t h a t investment." e) "I am not committed to my employer; my employer i s not committed to me. I can remember f o r years people were proud t h a t they worked and they worked hard; t h e r e was some sense of human d i g n i t y i n i t r e g a r d l e s s of what they d i d . I don't see t h a t anymore! People are always s a y i n g , 'Don't work too hard, take i t easy', a 'fuck em' a t t i t u d e and I don't see t h a t as p r o d u c t i v e f o r anybody." f ) "I t h i n k t h e r e are two ways to look a t t h a t — i n my p a s t job, I f e l t v e r y secure t h a t I c o u l d continue t h e r e as long as I wanted t o be. I was never concerned w i t h b e i n g l a i d o f f - b u t I do not f e e l 55 t h a t way here o r r e a l l y anymore...! do not view the employer as p a t e r n a l / m a t e r n a l . " Question #3. Does the unemployment experi e n c e loom l a r g e i n your  mind and has your l i f e been a f f e c t e d i n any permanent  way or has i t a l l been f o r g o t t e n ? A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they had not by any means f o r g o t t e n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of unemployment. The p o s s i b i l i t y of b e i n g unemployed a g a i n was always i n the back of t h e i r minds. F u r t h e r , a l l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r f i r s t unemployment exp e r i e n c e s were the worst ones and t h a t they gained s t r e n g t h and s e l f - s e c u r i t y from the experience, i . e . they l e a r n e d t h a t s e c u r i t y came from knowing they c o u l d s u r v i v e the worst p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o . A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t t h e i r l i v e s had been changed permanently from the unemployment experi e n c e and even though reemployment had o c c u r r e d , t h e i r l i v e s had never r e t u r n e d t o the way they had once been. On the one hand, new l e v e l s of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e were r e p o r t e d as a r e s u l t of s u r v i v i n g the unemployment-turned-reemployment, and on the o t h e r hand, c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t even though they 5 6 were well into the reemployment experience, they were only beginning to once again f e e l any sense of control over themselves, t h e i r l i v e s , or t h e i r d e s t i n i e s . This appeared to be the only question that affected co-researchers from either pattern d i f f e r e n t l y . A l l the co-researchers from Pattern A (those who had adjusted favorably to t h e i r new job) reported being happy to be back to work, even i f they weren't as happy as they had been i n t h e i r previous job (prior to t h e i r f i r s t unemployment experience). And i n f a c t , some reported being happier i n t h e i r new jobs. Of course, the co-researchers i n Pattern B, (those who did not adjust favorably to t h e i r new job), did not report being happy to be back to work and i n fact, were unhappy about i t . A l l reported, or f e l t that i t would be better to be unemployed than to be serio u s l y d i s s a t i s f i e d with a job. Most co-researchers also reported that they were not a f r a i d of unemployment recurring and they attr i b u t e d t h i s to t h e i r b e l i e f that every job was of a temporary nature anyway. Most co-researchers reported being more empathetic toward the unemployed than they were previously and 5 7 b e l i e v e t h a t those who had never e x p e r i e n c e d unemployment l a c k e d t h a t same empathy. F u r t h e r , they r e p o r t e d b e i n g l e s s extravagant; more f l e x i b l e ; more independent; more c a u t i o u s ; l e s s b e l i e v i n g i n permanency; more c o n f i d e n t ; more c l e a r about what they wanted from a job or p a i d work; more s e n s i t i v e t o the human c o n d i t i o n ; more i n t e n t on l o o k i n g out f o r themselves; more i n t e n t on e n j o y i n g t h e i r work and having more w e l l - d e f i n e d work boundaries, i . e . what they were prepared to do at work and/or to f u r t h e r t h e i r c a r e e r s . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t unemployment-turned-reemployment caused extreme emotional upheaval. Sample Responses t o Question #3 a) "Not r e a l l y — i t ' s not f o r g o t t e n . . . t h e worst was 1984, (my f i r s t unemployment e x p e r i e n c e ) , I l e a r n e d from going through i t , t h a t t h i n g s would always work out, so, w h i l e I wouldn't want t o be unemployed again, I would s t i l l walk out i f I f e l t something was r e a l l y wrong—though I'd t r y t o have a few t h i n g s i n o r d e r , e.g. get something s t a r t e d on the s i d e or q u i e t l y look elsewhere, so I'd be more s e n s i b l e about w a l k i n g o u t — n o t j u s t r e a c t i n g 58 on emotion a l o n e . . . I ' d a c t u a l l y say I'm a d i f f e r e n t person now than b e f o r e . . . I ' v e got a l o t more con f i d e n c e , but on the o t h e r hand, I want even more than b e f o r e to s p e c i a l i z e , so I have something s p e c i a l t o o f f e r — I ' m j u s t much more c o n f i d e n t and much more p o s i t i v e i n t h a t I always t h i n k t h e r e ' s a way out. To summarize i t a l l , I t h i n k I've come out a l o t s t r o n g e r and a much b e t t e r person. I would never, ever want t o go through i t a g a i n . I'm o n l y now b e g i n n i n g to f e e l l i k e I'm back i n c o n t r o l of my l i f e and f e e l good about e v e r y t h i n g and to balance t h i n g s out. I made a commitment to myself to get my l i f e back i n o r d e r because now I f e e l I've got my p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e i n o r d e r . You can't have one without the o t h e r . I t h i n k anyone would be f i b b i n g i f they s a i d t h a t unemployment or reemployment d i d n ' t cause a l o t of upheaval, havoc and adjustment i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s ; e.g. j u s t g e t t i n g back to hobbies you gave up. I l i k e t o keep any o p t i o n s o p e n — a n y t h i n g c o u l d happen tomorrow--!'ve l e a r n e d I'm number one and 5 9 t h a t I have to look out f o r m y s e l f — n o one e l s e i s g o i n g t o . " b) "I l e a r n e d t o be very, v e r y f l e x i b l e — I t h i n k t h a t ' s the key word. Nothing s u r p r i s e s me anymore. I t h i n k I tend to be more compassionate and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of people and s i t u a t i o n s . . . I t ' s r e a l l y t u r n e d i n t o something p o s i t i v e . . . I've gone through a r e a l s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . I t o l d myself I would never g i v e up myself i n another job and I don't l i k e i t because I f e e l v u l n e r a b l e . . . I don't worry about work anymore... t h e r e ' s t h i n g s l i k e the i n s e c u r i t y of the c l o s e d door. I even want to seek p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p r e g a r d i n g t h i s — e v e r y t i m e the door c l o s e s and I'm on the o u t s i d e — n o t p r i v y t o the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g d i s c u s s e d I f e e l I'm b e i n g f i r e d - - i t ' s l i k e a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and I can't cope w i t h i t . I f t h e r e ' s any one t h i n g t h a t s t i c k s w i t h me, i t ' s t h a t . I've had a tendency to over-compensate to prove t h a t I'm capable because a l l of a sudden you've l o s t a l l your c r e d i b i l i t y . . . i n your new job nobody knows what S.S. i s capable of d o i n g — i t ' s l i k e s t a r t i n g a l l over a g a i n . " 60 c) "I'm more i n t e r e s t e d i n the k i n d of person I work f o r , r a t h e r than the k i n d of job or the company, i t s e l f . I w o r r i e d every time t h e r e was an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e change or someone would l e a v e . I would get r e a l l y c onvinced t h a t I would get f i r e d or, somehow, I would get caught i n the middle of i t . No one e l s e w o r r i e d about i t because I t a l k e d about i t . I f i n d i t harder now to r e l a t e t o the people whom I work with, although I get a l o n g w i t h them. I don't attempt t o make the k i n d of f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t I had p r e v i o u s l y . I t ' s as i f t h e r e i s something t h e r e t h a t says t h i s job i s n ' t g o i n g t o l a s t , so why bother g e t t i n g r e a l l y , r e a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a l l these people. I'm not r e l a x e d ; I'm not as cozy as I was i n my o t h e r job. I don't take i t f o r granted i n the same way. I'm b e i n g more c o m p e t i t i v e i n the sense t h a t I t r y to be i n the l i m e l i g h t — I t r y t o have the work t h a t I do r e c o g n i z e d . Before I d i d n ' t always put my name on the work. I was contented t o l e t i t flow through the h i e r a r c h y . Now I take the i n i t i a t i v e — n o w I make suggestions d i r e c t l y t o the top d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers. I don't flow through 61 the system anymore. I don't d e c o r a t e my o f f i c e anymore e i t h e r — I don't p e r s o n a l i z e i t as much—I've s t a r t e d l a t e l y , but i t ' s been a y e a r . " d) "Oh no, i t ' s not been f o r g o t t e n a t a l l . I've never had problems g e t t i n g jobs b e f o r e . To know t h a t i t ' s a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y i s r e a l l y f r i g h t e n i n g . I guess i t ' s the u n c e r t a i n t y of the f u t u r e and wondering j u s t how bad i t was going t o be. Yes, i t ' s f r i g h t e n i n g enough t h a t i t would l i k e l y send me back t o Saudi A r a b i a . " e) "Yes, what f r i g h t e n s me i s t h a t you can be out of a job any moment and how i s one going t o l i v e on U.I.C., I mean we're not t a l k i n g about buying a new ca r , c l o t h e s , e t c . , we're t a l k i n g about a r o o f over your head. As a r e s u l t of my unemployment I f a c e d bankruptcy, so what's changed i s you don't see me with a c r e d i t c ard; you don't see me throwing money around. I'm very c a u t i o u s w i t h my money because I r e a l i z e you've got t o make a l i t t l e go a l o n g way...I'm much more secure about my r e l a t i o n s h i p s because I'm nearer my f a m i l y and some day I ' l l p r o b a b l y e v e n t u a l l y marry." 62 f ) "I guess i n t o t a l the e x p e r i e n c e I've had over the pa s t two years of b e i n g unemployed then reemployed a couple of times, f o r me, has been one of the most f r u s t r a t i n g , most p a i n f u l time, i n my l i f e ; but not j u s t the work t h i n g — d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d of time, I s e p a r a t e d and changed my appearance and s t y l e of c l o t h i n g and a l l the r e s t of i t — c h a n g e d my f r i e n d s . . . I ' v e d i s c o v e r e d i n s i d e myself an i n n e r s t r e n g t h t h a t I d i d n ' t r e a l i z e was t h e r e . I f e e l more happiness and s a t i s f a c t i o n around the t h i n g s I do i n my l i f e than I ever have. I t ' s a tremendously powerful f e e l i n g f o r me to r e a l i z e t h a t I can go and do whatever i t i s I need to do. So t h a t the s t r e n g t h I f e e l - - t h a t no matter what happens, I ' l l handle i t . I d e f i n i t e l y have a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t approach t o work than I d i d b e f o r e . I enjoy the f l e x i b i l i t y and a b i l i t y t o s e t my own hours." g) "The reemployment i s e x c i t i n g but t h e r e ' s s t i l l t h a t f e e l i n g of b e i n g r e s e r v e d because i t ' s temporary and i t ' s not r e a l l y your f i e l d and s t i l l not knowing how l o n g am I going to have t h i s job. So t h e r e ' s t h a t f e e l i n g of excitement, tempered 63 with, "I can't get e x c i t e d 'cause i t ' l l a l l be gone." I t ' s always i n your mind, i . e . 'When w i l l i t happen again?'" h) "I f e e l the same way now as I d i d b e f o r e when I worked but s e v e r a l t h i n g s have changed; e.g. you t h i n k unemployment can't happen t o you but now i t 1 s always t h e r e — a l i t t l e f e a r t h a t i t can happen again...so you l i v e w i t h a f e e l i n g of—'When i s i t your t u r n t o be l a i d o f f ag a i n ? ' — w h e r e a s you never thought about i t b e f o r e . " i ) "I have r e a l l y q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t approach--the i d e a of b e i n g my own person; b e i n g i n c o n t r o l and b e i n g at peace wi t h myself i s so much s t r o n g e r now than i t was b e f o r e . Another area t h a t has changed s i n c e my reemployment i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t I have wi t h my f a m i l y . I have the sense of c l o s e n e s s t h a t I d i d n ' t have b e f o r e . One of the t h i n g s I f i n d , i s t h a t i t doesn't matter much anymore i n terms of what happens i n my work l i f e . I have t h i s sense t h a t I have the s t r e n g t h and stamina i n s i d e me t o go on and do whatever i t i s I need t o do. A l o t d u r i n g the past 64 I depended on oth e r people t o p o i n t me i n a d i r e c t i o n and I f e e l now t h a t I don't need t h a t . I f e e l d i r e c t i o n comes from w i t h i n me." j) "I'm not as extravagant as I used t o be when i t comes t o spending money. There's not much money l e f t f o r f r i n g e s — b e f o r e I f o o l i s h l y spent money on f r i n g e s . I t h i n k you look more a t o t h e r people, too, who are l a i d o f f . You look more a t them and how t h e y ' r e d e a l i n g w i t h i t , as b e f o r e you d i d n ' t c a r e . " k) "My va l u e system has changed d r a s t i c a l l y . . . w h e n I got my se t t l e m e n t from M.B. I put i t i n t o R.R.S.P.'s. I don't wear s u i t s anymore, or ve r y r a r e l y . I eat d i f f e r e n t l y , more n a t u r a l l y . A l o t of t h i s i s due to the people I've met s a i l i n g . I l i v e a h e a l t h i e r l i f e and I a c t u a l l y gained a b i t of weight, but I q u i t smoking." 1) "I r e a l i z e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , how much I a t t a c h my s e l f - w o r t h t o work and t h a t i s something I have t o l i v e w i t h . I t h i n k p r e v i o u s l y I would have denied t h i s because I wouldn't have had the o c c a s i o n t o see i t . I guess i t j u s t r e a f f i r m e d how much I need work. I'm a more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t person and a 65 b e t t e r person now. I'm c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g m i n d f u l of the f u t u r e ; of needing another j o b — I ' m t h i n k i n g about t h a t a l l the time." Question 4. Has the meaning of work changed f o r you? A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the meaning of work had changed f o r them. The f o l l o w i n g are examples of how i t had changed. Sample Responses to Question 4. a) "I am no l o n g e r w o r r i e d about having job s e c u r i t y or not having a job tomorrow." b) "I w i l l never g i v e 100% i n a job a g a i n . " c) "I w i l l never g i v e up myself i n another job a g a i n . " d) "My a t t i t u d e about work and c a r e e r has changed. I no l o n g e r have the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t I had. I r e a l l y got s i c k and t i r e d of people a s k i n g me what my l o n g and s h o r t terms g o a l s a r e . No l o n g e r do I want t o go t o n i g h t s c h o o l . L i k e what good d i d i t do me to expend a l l t h a t energy...now I enjoy w a l k i n g out the door a t 4:30 p.m. and doing my own t h i n g ; whereas two years ago, I d i d n ' t mind s t a y i n g l a t e . . . a n d n i g h t s c h o o l , e t c . , because I thought i t made a d i f f e r e n c e . I don't have a f e a r of l o s i n g a job anymore. Gone are the days of s e c u r i t y . I f anyone t h i n k s they have a secure job, they've got rocks i n t h e i r heads." Summary of R e s u l t s A c c o r d i n g to t h i s study the reemployment exper i e n c e i n i t i a t e d one of two p o s s i b l e journeys. The f i r s t p a t t e r n t h a t emerged began w i t h euphoria and ended w i t h the reemployed person r e a c h i n g a comfort zone i n the new job. The second began w i t h the same eup h o r i a but ended i n d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g two paragraphs e l a b o r a t e on these two p a t t e r n s : In P a t t e r n A, the c o - r e s e a r c h e r r e p o r t e d g o i n g i n t o a f e e l i n g s t a t e of euphoria upon g e t t i n g the job i n t e r v i e w and subsequent job o f f e r . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by the f e e l i n g s t a t e of doubt, where the r e a l i t y of r e t u r n i n g t o work began to s u r f a c e . Questions about one's a b i l i t y t o perform and job s u i t a b i l i t y were r a i s e d . As the reemployment co n t i n u e d the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process began and the reeemployed person d e c i d e d i f , indeed, the c o r r e c t job c h o i c e had been made. I f so, the reemployed person became job s a t i s f i e d and e v e n t u a l l y reached a comfort zone 67 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i n g s of c o n f i d e n c e , and of b e i n g competent a t work. The second p a t t e r n i n v o l v e d the same f e e l i n g s t a t e s of e u phoria and doubt. What d i f f e r e d was t h a t the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process d i d not l e a d the reemployed person to a comfort zone a t work. Instead, i n c r e a s e d job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was e x p e r i e n c e d l e a d i n g t o d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and e v e n t u a l l y a change was ne c e s s a r y . T h i s change took the form of i n i t i a t i n g a new job search, q u i t t i n g , or b e i n g t e r m i n a t e d . I f a new job had not been found, and l e a v i n g seemed imminent, the f e e l i n g s t a t e was a combination of r e l i e f and f e a r , or worry a t the p r o s p e c t of unemployment. Gray (1975), proposed a s i m i l a r model t o d e s c r i b e a person's response to l e a v i n g one job and moving to another. Gray's model proposed disenchantment w i t h the o l d job, euphoria at s e c u r i n g the new one, f o l l o w e d by shock d u r i n g the i n d u c t i o n process and, i f t h i n g s worked out, s o c i a l i z a t i o n was the f i n a l stage i n a d j u s t i n g f a v o r a b l y . I f t h i n g s d i d not work out, d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t r e s u l t e d , f o l l o w e d by detachment, where the person's e n e r g i e s were d i r e c t e d toward a new job 68 s e a r c h or containment where the worker stayed but c o n t r i b u t e d v e r y l i t t l e t o the company. Gray's study was r e s t r i c t e d t o those who v o l u n t a r i l y l e f t one job f o r another. T h i s author's study, c o n c e n t r a t e d on the e x p e r i e n c e of those who found themselves i n v o l u n t a r i l y unemployed at a time when jobs were very hard t o f i n d . In s p i t e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n samples, the f e e l i n g s t a t e s appeared s i m i l a r i n both s t u d i e s w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s i n g , as have been s t a t e d . The study showed t h a t the unemployment experi e n c e was not f o r g o t t e n , i n s p i t e of a r e t u r n t o work. Co-researchers r e p o r t e d t h a t the e n t i r e e x p e r i e n c e of unemployment-turned-reemployment, was an emotional upheaval they p r e f e r r e d not to r e p e a t . F u r t h e r , t h e i r e n t i r e o u t l o o k on the meaning of work had changed. S p e c i f i c a l l y , they r e p o r t e d a g e n e r a l t r e n d toward the b e l i e f t h a t a l l jobs were t o some extent, temporary. T h i s had both a n e g a t i v e and a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s . On the one hand, they were more c a u t i o u s and l e s s g i v i n g i n a job; on the o t h e r , they were more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , w i t h a view toward the f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t y of once a g a i n needing a new job. T h i s study a l s o r e v e a l e d a t r e n d toward p o s i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of the f u t u r e . Most r e p o r t e d a b e l i e f t h a t the f u t u r e would p r o v i d e ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r employment and t h a t they c o u l d s u r v i v e q u i t e w e l l w i t h or without a permanent job. T h i s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t 12 people i n the study had a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new job s . 70 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION Statement of R e s u l t s T h i s study addressed the experi e n c e of reemployment f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment by f o c u s i n g on the f e e l i n g s t a t e s and the h e l p f u l o r h i n d e r i n g events i n h e r e n t i n the reemployment p r o c e s s . Fourteen c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n c l u d e d i n the study based on the c r i t e r i a t h a t they had been unemployed i n v o l u n t a r i l y f o r at l e a s t t h r e e months, had been reemployed f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e months, and were a b l e t o c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t o the author. The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e as i f t e l l i n g a s t o r y ; w i t h a be g i n n i n g , middle and end. They were a l s o asked t o d e s c r i b e both the h i g h and low p o i n t s of the e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by answering a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r new jobs, t h e i r new employers, themselves and t h e i r f u t u r e e x p e c t a t i o n s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s were tape-recorded, t r a n s c r i b e d and c a t e g o r i z e d . In the pr o c e s s , p a t t e r n s of experi e n c e and h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events emerged, which were then compared 71 a c r o s s c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The author, a c o l l e a g u e and s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s v a l i d a t e d and v e r i f i e d what was r e v e a l e d at each step of the d e s c r i b e d e x p e r i e n c e . The study showed t h a t f o r the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new jobs, (those i n P a t t e r n A), the unemployment-turned-reemployment e x p e r i e n c e was l e s s t r a u m a t i c than f o r the two c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who d i d not a d j u s t f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new jobs, (those i n P a t t e r n B). These newly reemployed workers s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y and e i t h e r q u i e t l y looked f o r another job, q u i t , o r were termi n a t e d . The study a l s o showed t h a t most i n d i v i d u a l s would not remain i n any job j u s t t o have one. F u r t h e r , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the memory of unemployment remained w i t h them even though they were reemployed and t h a t t h e i r l i v e s had been a f f e c t e d i n a permanent way by the whole process of l o s i n g one job and f i n d i n g another. F i n a l l y , the study showed t h a t i n s p i t e of t h e i r unemployment-turned-reemployment, most c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were p o s i t i v e about t h e i r f u t u r e s . L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s was a f o u n d a t i o n a l study designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f e e l i n g s t a t e s and h e l p f u l and h i n d e r i n g events i n h e r e n t i n the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h i s study i s l i m i t e d somewhat, i n t h a t not a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s had been reemployed f o r the same l e n g t h of time. In f a c t , the range was from t h r e e months to two y e a r s . I t i s l i k e l y f a i r t o assume t h a t some of the experiences and f e e l i n g s t a t e s i n h e r e n t i n the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d not be as f u l l y e x p e r i e n c e d by a c o - r e s e a r c h e r reemployed t h r e e months, as a c o - r e s e a r c h e r reemployed two or more y e a r s . However, most f e e l i n g s t a t e s d i d take p l a c e w i t h i n t h r e e months and a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s had been reemployed at l e a s t t h a t l o n g . Another l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i n v o l v e d the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the number of job l o s s e s and subsequent reemployment experiences of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . Some of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t job l o s s , they r e l o c a t e d one or more times, i n t o a s i t u a t i o n t h a t was i l l - s u i t e d and d i s a s t r o u s both p e r s o n a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i s a stage i n the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . Had more r e s e a r c h been conducted, m i n i m i z i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e n g t h of time reemployed, and work h i s t o r i e s , a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e may have appeared. Yet another l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study l i e s i n the many p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t may have i n f l u e n c e d the reemployment experience of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . Some of the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s had more f i n a n c i a l s t r u g g l e s than d i d o t h e r s . Some were married, and had f i n a n c i a l support from a spouse, so f e l t l e s s desperate t o s t a y employed. Some were s i n g l e , o r s o l e breadwinners who depended on a pay cheque f o r s u r v i v a l . Another l i m i t a t i o n may occur as a r e s u l t of the q u e s t i o n : How do you view your employer now, (with r e g a r d t o pate r n a l i s m / m a t e r n a l i s m ) ? The f a c t t h a t the author asked s p e c i f i c a l l y about p a t e r n a l i s m / m a t e r n a l i s m may have l e d the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s t o one emphasis or another versus some g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of how they .viewed t h e i r employers. A l s o , the f a c t t h a t the r e s e a r c h was conducted w i t h v o l u n t e e r s may l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the study. And f i n a l l y , the f a c t t h a t 12 of the 14 c o - r e s e a r c h e r s had a d j u s t e d f a v o r a b l y t o t h e i r new jobs may a l s o l i m i t t h i s study. C o u n s e l l i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have some important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f i e l d s of both c a r e e r and per s o n n e l c o u n s e l l i n g . F i r s t l y , i t i d e n t i f i e d a l a r g e 74 group of people, mainly the unemployed-turned-reemployed, who e x p e r i e n c e an adjustment process t h a t c o u l d be b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e d through the h e l p and support of knowledgeable pe r s o n n e l managers and/or immediate s u p e r v i s o r s . The f a c t t h a t a l l the c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d having had d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g to a r o u t i n e again, p o i n t s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the newly reemployed person i s u n l i k e l y t o make h i s / h e r u s u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r approximately t h r e e to s i x months i n t o the new job. Judging the newly reemployed persons competence and/or a b i l i t i e s p r i o r t o t h i s time would seem i n a p p r o p r i a t e . F u r t h e r , i f a newly h i r e d employee has preceded h i s / h e r employment wit h a l e n g t h y p e r i o d of unemployment, he/she may not seem o v e r l y committed to h i s / h e r new job or o v e r l y e x c i t e d about i t . Fears of f u r t h e r job l o s s and h i s / h e r a b i l i t y t o do the job w i l l l i k e l y a f f e c t h i s / h e r immediate job performance and/or a t t i t u d e . The newly reemployed person may a l s o have accrued a c o n s i d e r a b l e debt l o a d d u r i n g the unemployment p e r i o d and as a r e s u l t may be under a g r e a t d e a l of f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s . T h i s c o u l d c r e a t e the c o n d i t i o n s whereby the 75 employee appears d i s c o u r a g e d and unmotivated, p a r t i c u l a r l y on payday. The new job may not pay as much as the employee f e e l s he/she i s worth and a t times he/she may r e s e n t t h i s . He/she may demonstrate h i s / h e r resentment by w i t h h o l d i n g h i s / h e r b e s t e f f o r t a t work. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t the unemployment experience d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y end when the reemployment experience began, and i n some cases, s e c u r i n g the new job was j u s t the b e g i n n i n g of a whole new s e t of problems. C o u n s e l l o r s working w i t h the unemployed need t o make t h e i r c l i e n t s aware of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . I n formation about the experi e n c e o f reemployment needs to be p r o v i d e d . S p e c i a l emphasis should be p l a c e d on the p o t e n t i a l highs and lows i n h e r e n t i n the ex p e r i e n c e . Issues of s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o the new job context and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t need t o be addressed both by the worker and the company i n v o l v e d . When d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t occurs f o r the newly reemployed worker, f u r t h e r support s e r v i c e s need t o be made a v a i l a b l e . A new job se a r c h may need t o be i n i t i a t e d and i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n s t r u c t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s need t o be p r o v i d e d i f the worker i s f o r c e d 76 t o remain i n the new job due t o economic reasons and/or an i n a b i l i t y t o r e l o c a t e q u i c k l y . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e a move away from employer/employee l o y a l t y and may p o i n t t o a newly emerging "worker m e n t a l i t y , " t h a t p l a c e s l e s s emphasis on employer pat e r n a l i s m / m a t e r n a l i s m , and more emphasis on a temporary exchange of money f o r s e r v i c e s rendered. And f i n a l l y , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d s e l e c t i n g t h e i r new jobs based on l i k i n g the t a s k s they were r e q u i r e d to perform and r e l a t i o n a l f a c t o r s such as l i k i n g the person they r e p o r t e d t o , as opposed t o the image of the company, the p r e s t i g e of the job, the amount of money be i n g o f f e r e d , e t c . Co-researchers a d j u s t e d to t h e i r new jobs more p o s i t i v e l y i f they l i k e d both the job and t h e i r immediate s u p e r v i s o r . T h i s combination seemed c e n t r a l t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o s t a y w i t h a company or not. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research I t i s hoped t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e s r e v e a l e d i n t h i s study can be used as a f o u n d a t i o n f o r b u i l d i n g upon, d e v e l o p i n g and expanding an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the reemployment experience f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study made up of a l a r g e r group of reemployed persons may p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the l o n g term e f f e c t s of unemployment on c a r e e r development. I f p o s s i b l e , the study should attempt t o minimize and/or i s o l a t e , the number of p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s a c r o s s s u b j e c t s , such as m a r r i e d versus s i n g l e ; s o l e versus co-breadwinner; s k i l l e d versus u n s k i l l e d worker; l e n g t h of time reemployed, and job s u i t a b i l i t y . T h i s c o u l d h e l p minimize the d i f f e r e n c e s between groups or c a t e g o r i e s of e x p e r i e n c e . I f t h i s were achieved, a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e would r e s u l t of both the f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g events i n h e r e n t i n a d j u s t i n g t o the reemployment e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, more p o s i t i v e a s s i s t a n c e and e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e through p e r s o n n e l and c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r s f o r those who had once been unemployed and are now reemployed. Summary The exp e r i e n c e of reemployment f o l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of unemployment was d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study. I t appears t h a t t h e r e i s indeed an on-going adjustment process f o r reemployed persons who have been i n v o l u n t a r i l y unemployed. T h i s adjustment process e f f e c t s t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , t h e i r job performances and 78 t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g i n g e n e r a l . H o p e f u l l y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowing the f u l l meaning of the reemployment experi e n c e , over time, w i l l serve t o make the l i v e s of those who share the exper i e n c e and those who are c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the newly reemployed person, more p o s i t i v e . 79 REFERENCES Andersson, B. and N i l s s o n , S. (1964). S t u d i e s i n the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n ique. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 48, 398-403. Berg, I. 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(1984). "The e f f e c t s o f unemployment and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i n young men and women." Current P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, 2, 207-214. Toppen, J . (1971). Underemployment: Economic o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l ? P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 28 (1), 111-122. Warr, P.G., Jackson, P.R. & Banks, M.H. (1982). D e v i a t i o n of unemployment and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l b e i n g i n young men and women. Cur r e n t P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Research, 2, 207-214. Appendix A 9 0 Subject Consent Form I agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t about the e f f e c t s of extended unemployment on subsequent reemployment. I understand t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y , t h a t I am f r e e t o withdraw at any time or r e f u s e to answer any q u e s t i o n . I understand t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l r e q u i r e me to t a l k w i t h an i n t e r v i e w e r f o r about s i x t y minutes about my reemployment expe r i e n c e . I a l s o g i v e my p e r m i s s i o n t o have the i n t e r v i e w audio-taped w i t h the understanding t h a t the contents of the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and used f o r r e s e a r c h purposes o n l y . F u r t h e r I agree t o be c o n t a c t e d f o r a post-check upon completion of the r e s e a r c h . S i g n a t u r e of P a r t i c i p a n t Date S i g n a t u r e of S t u d e n t / C o - i n v e s t i g a t o r L i n d a W i l l i a m s , M.A. (Candidate) C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Appendix B 91 Demographics Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. Name 2. Age _ 3. Sex 4. C i t i z e n s h i p 5. P r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n ( b e f o r e becoming unemployed) 6. Length of employment t h e r e i n 7. S a l a r y (per year) 8. Current p o s i t i o n 9. Length of employment t h e r e i n 10. S a l a r y (per year) 11. How l o n g were you unemployed p r i o r t o s e c u r i n g your p r e s e n t job? 12. B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e the process you underwent i n f i n d i n g your c u r r e n t j o b — i . e . How d i d you f i n a l l y get t h i s job? :  13. Do you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f t o be working a t a job you 14. I f you answered NO t o Question 13, p l e a s e comment f u r t h e r on t h i s , d e s c r i b i n g what i t i s about your job you do not l i k e . 15. How long do you p l a n t o s t a y i n your c u r r e n t job? 16. Make any o t h e r comments you wish t o i n the remaining space or on the back of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 

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