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Career decisions among Hong Kong immigrants Yiu, Mei Mei 1989-12-31

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CAREER DECISIONS AMONG HONG KONG IMMIGRANTS By MEI MEI YIU S.Sc,  The Chinese  U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 19  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1989 © Mei Mei Y i u , 1989  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or for  her  of I  I further  purposes  gain  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  the  be  It not  that  the  Library  by  understood be  allowed  that  without  (Signature)  Mei Mei YIU  of  Counselling  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  August 25,  1989  Psychology  Columbia  advanced  shall  the  permission.  Department  an  permission for  granted  is  for  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  Abstract This make  career  Through data  study  aims to examine how Hong  d e c i s i o n s a f t e r they have  using  a case study approach,  Kong  immigrants  arrived this  in  study  Canada.  collected  by conducting indepth i n t e r v i e w s with two c l i e n t s ,  one  male and one female. A l l the i n t e r v i e w s were audio-taped  and  the  important  portions transcribed.  Three  decision-making  models (the r a t i o n a l decision-making model [Horan,  1979], the  c o n f l i c t decision-making model [Janis & Mann, 1977], deciding-in-context analyze  [Sloan, 1987]) were  employed  the c l i e n t s ' career c h o i c e s . T h i s study  the f i r s t  to  be  behavior of the two c l i e n t s . the  contexts  within  contexts  -  life  most u s e f u l  because  immediate  and  social  decisions.  ii  to that the  model  i t emphasizes  which choices were shaped history,  Sloan's  c u l t u r e and c h a r a c t e r - were p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t their  found  two models were not s a t i s f a c t o r y i n e x p l a i n i n g  decision-making seems  model  and the  made.  the Four  environment, in  shaping  Table  of  Contents Pages  Abstract  Table  ii  of Contents  i i i  Acknowledgement  . iv  Chapter  I: Introduction  1  Chapter  I I : Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e  8  Chapter  I I I : R e s e a r c h Method  33  Chapter  IV: Case H i s t o r y  36  Chapter  V: A n a l y s i s and D i s c u s s i o n  67  Chapter  VI: Conclusion  96  Bibliography  102  iii  Acknowledgment  I  would  gratitude  like  to express  to Professor  my  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l  Professor  Vincent  Committee, special  and a d v i c e  both  thanks t o P e t e r ,  completing  this  my two c l i e n t s , willingness Finally, wonderful entire  to  make t h i s  members  of  my h u s b a n d , who has  thesis.  various  who  my  and  Thesis  encouraged  kinds  of  their  personal  experience  has h e l p e d  process.  iv  me  i n many  My me  service  r e m a i n anonymous, f o r  I must thank Jane O s b o r n e , a f e l l o w friend,  thesis  My a p p r e c i a t i o n a l s o e x t e n d s  whose name s h a l l share  Thesis  a s s i s t a n c e and u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s .  t h r o u g h o u t my r e s e a r c h and p r o v i d e d for  and  t o P r o f e s s o r Marv Westwood  Doyley,  for their  appreciation  L a r r y C o c h r a n , C h a i r m a n o f my  Committee, whose g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t possible.  deep  to  their  with  me.  classmate  and  ways  in  the  CHAPTER I :  This career  Introduction  t h e s i s i s a s t u d y of how  decisions  Hong Kong  a f t e r t h e y have a r r i v e d  immigrants in  Canada.  s t u d y aims t o h i g h l i g h t t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e of p e r s o n a l  behind  exploring  and  life  will in  a career  d e c i s i o n by  structures  first  briefly  discuss  understanding  Then  I  will  review  the  (Levinson,  career  identify research  significance  and  the  the  key  method t o be  making  major p e r s p e c t i v e s theory  --  individuals  make  perspective it  has  focuses  on  immigrants. factors focus  can  often the  Since  that  be  cultural  theory in  immigrants. research  and  Finally,  the  be  examined.  cultural  values  behavior,  are  and  decision  studies The  t o a p p r o a c h the  distinctive cultural  history  Considerations  decisions.  been used  cultural  study w i l l  identified  career  shape t h e i r  m a i n l y on  —  my  employed.  l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s  meanings  perspectives  among  p r o b l e m s of  This  introduction, I  main t h e o r e t i c a l  d e c i s i o n making  Some T h e o r e t i c a l Two  individual life  1 9 7 8 ) . In t h i s  make  on  how  cultural  problem  since  backgrounds only  i t seems t o o  one  of  parochial  factors in explaining their  of the to  career  choices. The  decision  making  importance  of  rationality  calculation  and  utility  perspective conceptions 1987).  By  while  perspective (Horan,  of r a t i o n a l i t y a r e neglecting  1979).  maximization are  personal  meanings  stressed and  personal  the  Vigilance, by  this  individual  u s u a l l y de-emphasized  specific  1  emphasizes  (Sloan,  attributes  and  histories,  such  uniqueness  of  strongly two  a  perspective  individuals  affect  their  perspectives  own  contexts  and  histories  which  an  this  to t h e i r  significant  direct  during  the  groups,  at  least  stress  have t h e  status  of  (Westwood,  investment 1986),  C$  250,000  however t h e y may a  be  greater  however, a r e n o t  stress  i s not r e s t r i c t e d  understood positions  as  immigrants  occupied  by  less  overall  severe.  same  as  of  2  Their  drive  certainly I am their  a j o b as  those  from  work,  to  find  result  in  interested  in  psychological  alone.  There i s  well.  (1976), c a r e e r  remunerated  a person  they  f o r the  s k i l l s , s u c h as  adjustment  definition  They  situation.  because  to their  t o Super's a series  The  main  i n the  pressure.  enormous p r e s s u r e f o r them t o f i n d According  two  b u s i n e s s management or s o c i a l  psychological  independent  into  Canada  immigrants  n o t have much c a p i t a l .  these  into  Independent  j o b i n o r d e r t o "make ends meet" w i l l  much  coming  t o be q u a l i f i e d  immigrants.  f o r accountancy,  life  career.  means t o make a l i v i n g  Most o f them p o s s e s s o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l required  the  personal  their  immigrants.  for investors w i l l  must t o p o s s e s s a t l e a s t  from  divided  independent  financial  the  Problem  few y e a r s c a n be  i n v e s t m e n t and  of  to r e l a t e  a particular  t h e Hong Kong i m m i g r a n t s  past  psychological  of  will  satisfactory  specific  meanings  them t o c h o o s e  Identification Basically,  entirely  the  that  Since neither  study attempts  of immigrants  derive  appreciate  decisions  well-being.  provides  decisions  to  i n making  e x p l a n a t i o n to the problem, career  fails  and  can  be  nonremunerated  adolescence  through  retirement, Career  of w h i c h o c c u p a t i o n i s o n l y one  includes work-related roles,  employee,  and  avocational, people  be  choose  on  as  civic  well roles.  as  of s t u d e n t ,  complementary  Careers e x i s t  those  one  because of t h e  o f i t s many  independent  remunerated  ones,  concern  c o n c e p t i o n o f c a r e e r , my o n l y on  how  their  nonremunerated immediate  s u c h as t h o s e  elements.  them, t h e y a r e p e r s o n - c e n t e r e d . W h i l e  concentrate  will  Kong  and  a comprehensive  however, focus  familial,  pursue  provided  pensioner,  of the  this  Super  study  will,  rather  My  from  Hong  than  a s p e c t seems t o be  independent  has  aspects.  immigrants  careers,  o n l y as  immigrants  their  the  most  from  Hong  Kong. Since unique and  a  career exists  t o each  unfolding  independent career  may  hand,  there  of us.  also  our  t h o s e who  t h e n be  upward  f a m i l y demands.  they  and  lifespan.  Their  career decision  On  making w i l l  mean j u s t  career,  t h u s be a dynamic and  3  or and  to the  change  in  career  personal  similar  of one  a j o b or o c c u p a t i o n  for a particular  process.  the  the  search for  i n Hong kong. S i n c e some may settling  For  permanently  their  is  dynamic  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r downward  they can m a i n t a i n a l i f e s t y l e  before  it  conceptions  another.  settle  need t o meet  C a r e e r may  have e n j o y e d  frequently  the  i t ,  i t is also  , their  one  here.  c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e i r  mobility  them so t h a t  from  plan to  Canada once t h e y have a r r i v e d may  entire  f r o m Hong Kong  vary greatly  are  pursue  A t t h e same t i m e ,  throughout  immigrants  o n l y when we  to one jobs  their  continuous  On just  the  other  three  years  citizenship decisions  and  will  immigrants. their  hand, t h e r e a r e in  Canada  then  in  inevitably  differentiate  there are  "wait-and-see a t t i t u d e " ,  clearly  be  Since are  i n f l u e n c e d by s u c h both  making the  in  this  of t h i s  their  v i e w s of  their  and  life  how  will  are a f f e c t e d are  their  values  Their  career rest  of  s t a y i n Canada.  They  may  their  career choice  cultural  the  will  perspectives  career the  choices  career  i m m i g r a n t s by  dimensions  I b e l i e v e , can  career  by  are  other  their  Kong.  up  their  i n f l u e n c e d by  these  of  their  who  examine  i n a d j u s t i n g t o a new  structures,  obtain  a consideration.  strategies and  to  of  decision emphasizing  of p e r s o n a l m e a n i n g s . I p l a n t o e x p l o r e  perceptions  roles,  spend  made  and  g r o u p of Hong Kong  significance  to  have not  understanding study  decide  them f r o m t h e  t h e d e c i s i o n making and  inadequate  immigrants,  those  t o whether t h e y w i l l  adopt a  who  order  r e t u r n t o Hong  Finally,  minds as  others  family  changed  country.  of t h e i r we  life  by Only  life  how  histories, and  community  their by  coping  exploring  histories  come t o a b e t t e r  how  and  life  appreciation  choices. R e s e a r c h Method  I  plan to study  immigrants, than  i . e . those  four years.  levels,  such  two  s u b j e c t s who  who  They  are  as manager and  involve  a  s t r o n g need  foreign  environment  immigrants w i l l  be  have s t a y e d  are  recent  i n Canada f o r n o t  p r e f e r a b l y from middle accountants,  chosen through 4  &  1976).  informal personal  more  careers  transition  Richmond,  Kong  management  s i n c e these  f o r a d a p t a t i o n and  (Goldhurst  Hong  to  a The  contacts.  One w i l l  be an example o f an i m m i g r a n t  who i s s a t i s f i e d  his/her  career  while  decision  in  Canada  the  with  other  is  dissatisfied. Indepth and  interviewing with  appropriate  nature with  of  method t o h e l p  their  the  two  Significant  portions In  the  interpretation interviews with  these  rich  and  career  order  subjects and  with  immigrants natural  i d e n t i f y with  issue  specific  career  when  most  to  central  ( Y i n , 1984). life  they  and  of  the the  themes  of  the  By  collaborating I can  a b o u t how t h e y  main r e a s o n s . for  acquire  arrive  w h i c h compel  disturbance,  arrive  provides  First,  individuals.  at  them  a to  Study choices  such as  immigration Most  t o re-examine t h e i r  excellent personal  strengths  5  and  is  (Obery, of  and  weaknesses.  and  1960). making  opportunity  values  a  immigrants  frustration  a job, the process  an  after  and c h a l l e n g i n g  i n a new c o u n t r y  a r e eager t o f i n d  dislikes,  be  on  histories,  the values  then  work  i m m i g r a n t s make c a r e e r  point  decisions  immigrants likes  asked  recorded.  validity  i n Canada seems t o be an i n t e r e s t i n g  anxiety, Since  the  the  interviews  will  and L i m i t a t i o n s o f T h i s  from emotional  useful  careers.  how  turning  suffer  me  a  and  interviews  be  information  t o me f o r t h r e e  crucial  will  one-hour  conducted  to strengthen  in their  Significance  arriving  these  and e x p l o r e  Discovering  be  identify  together  choice  will  of  be  d e t e r m i n e t h e t r u e meaning and  choices. Eight  subjects  transcribed. findings,  career  immigrants w i l l  for  interests, Hence,  an  indepth our  a n a l y s i s of t h e i r  understanding  of key  aspects  Second, indeed their  not  search  f o r meanings w i l l  o n l y of t h e i r  of human b e h a v i o r various  career  in  choices,  but  also  immigrants  have  general.  problems c o n f r o n t i n g  a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n among r e s e a r c h e r s , career  concerned career  behavior  with  are  recent  still  scanty.  immigrants  might  special  be  career  considered  but  Since  studies  this  study  f r o m Hong Kong who  d e c i s i o n s , i t s f i n d i n g s may  about the  facilitate  provide  needs o f new  a modest s t e p  useful  fill  the  is  have made information  immigrants.  to  of  This gap  work  in  the  1iterature. Third,  the  increasing influx  o f Hong  Kong  immigrants  into  Canada f u r t h e r e n h a n c e s the  s a l i e n c e of t h i s  well  as  of t h i s  The  the  number  need  for counseling  of p e o p l e  immigrating  growing  r a p i d l y in recent  in  meaning t h a t  has Feb  1987,  chosen to 27.,  become  1988)!  a  contacts  live  1 out  significant  the  professionals, definitely  s u c h as  increase  and  counseling The  of t h i s  the  social  and  Hence  also  conducive  without  this  study,  qualifications  23,000  (Vancouver may  soon  services  workers,  analysis  to  Sun,  community,  social  of Hong Kong i m m i g r a n t s  but  of  an  been  i n Hong Kong  Canadian  counselors well.  has  f r o m Hong Kong  major g r o u p o f new  findings  generalized  in  year  local  as  useful,  Chinese  one  220  as  group.  t o a peak of  i m m i g r a n t s and  d e c i s i o n making p a t t e r n s timely  in just  minority  between t h e s e  rising  Kong  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  i n Canada Since  particular  f r o m Hong  years,  issue,  of  i s not the  will the only  improved  immigrants. nonetheless,  to  immigrant  cannot groups  be from  other  cultures.  limit  the  The  universality  approach  of  this  understanding  of  study  small  of t h i s  study  may  study.  Yet  facilitate  a  individual  d e c i s i o n s of  solution enhance  career  to t h i s the  immigrants,  might  fuller  and  In  life The  study  and  well  examining  e x p l o r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l  f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s has  literature  theory  and  explains  the  including measurement, IV  career  proposed  the and is  five  chapters.  r e v i e w of C h i n e s e  decision-making  to e x p l a i n i n g the  as  career contexts  theory, choices  of  problems the the  of  method  to  of  with  information  collected  and  Chapter  f i n d i n g s and  the  implications  be  and  a  V  for  design,  reliability. parts  analyses  discusses  III  employed,  important  Chapter VI  Chapter  research  validity  transcription subjects.  is  acculturation  immigrants.  subjects,  in  II  a l l of w h i c h seem r e l e v a n t  research  selection  Chapter  culture,  interviews  the  this  histories.  brief  Chapter  deeper  understanding  p r o b l e m , as in  the  sum,  c o n t r i b u t e t o the  i n t e r e s t s of r e s e a r c h e r s  also  i t seems t h a t  choices.  i n c r e a s i n g l y important  d e c i s i o n making t h r o u g h t h e  of  subjects  might h o p e f u l l y g e n e r a t e more i n s i g h t s i n  career  and  number of  the  of the  limitation  counselling  and  research.  /  7  CHAPTER I I : Review of L i t e r a t u r e The major  aim of t h i s review i s to d e s c r i b e and  models  (Janis and and  (3)  of  d e c i s i o n making: (1)  the d e c i d i n g - i n - c o n t e x t each  quality  d e c i s i o n s , and  of  immigrants,  model  of  Since  the  career d e c i s i o n s  between  good and  d e c i s i o n s to be  immigrants  potentially  progress  involved  by  were of  important  unique  features both the  might lead a d e c i d e r  to  of  emphasis  neglect  job s e c u r i t y .  others.  If  make  diverges  from  background may  immigrants making,  help to account f o r those  8  and upon  personal  such as f a m i l y , might lead  to,  of d e c i s i o n  major  Or a c u l t u r a l  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d e c i s i o n  models  by  their  context  transfer  Chinese  in  background  to c o n s u l t more e x t e n s i v e l y with, and,  way  made the  a decider  the  and  d e c i s i o n s are made.  an  emphasis upon o b l i g a t i o n to others  Kong  adequacy  decisions  For example, a c u l t u r a l  i n t e r e s t s i n favor of s a l a r y and  in  study  Hong  as to t h e i r  bad  Culture p o s s i b l y patterns  of a d e c i s i o n .  career  the  from Hong Kong, a review  understanding  form  evaluating  investigated  f e a t u r e s of Chinese c u l t u r e provides  decisions.  In  made  the models can be assessed  the  for  1987).  accounts of what i s  p r o v i d i n g an adequate account of how  for  model  By comparing each model with case  distinguishing  Chinese  conflict  (Sloan,  model o f f e r s c r i t e r i a  a decision.  descriptions  in  three  Mann, 1977), (2) the r a t i o n a l model (Horan, 1979),  particular,  making  the  review  perhaps even significant decisions  their  divergences.  cultural  Major Concepts Culture of  i s no longer a n e g l e c t e d area i n the  human behavior.  culture  i n Chinese C u l t u r e  Many r e s e a r c h e r s have a l r e a d y argued  i s indeed a prominent  factor  i n shaping the  p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and behavior of i n d i v i d u a l s 1972,  Sue,  shape  one's  study  1981,  Vontress, 1981).  Not  only  values,  (Sue & Sue  does  u p b r i n g i n g , but i t a l s o provides  that  an  culture extremely  u s e f u l b a s i s to examine one's d e c i s i o n making behavior. The Chinese have over 5,000 years of c i v i l i z a t i o n . an  influential,  significant towards  impact  life,  everyday  historic  would  inevitably  on the development of Chinese  human  life.  culture  relations,  and  the  decision  making  I t i s t h e r e f o r e c r u c i a l to examine  Hong Kong Chinese who  have  perceptions  f e a t u r e s of Chinese c u l t u r e i n order to understand affected  Such  in  the how  key  i t has  have come to l i v e  in  Western country such as Canada. Family and  " f a c e " are two  the key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Chinese c u l t u r e  (Baker, 1979,  &  Bond 1985,  two concepts  Hsu,  1985,  Wong, 1986).  As Mei  philosophy.  Status  upon  filial which  d i s t a n c e with k i n . of  King  A b r i e f review of  (1967) has a p t l y pointed out, f a m i l y  the prototype of a l l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Confucian  proximity,  of  the  i s t h e r e f o r e i n order.  Family:  based  a  deference  and a u t h o r i t y i n  Chinese  p i e t y , age and the p r i n c i p l e concerns  the  degree  of  social  culture of  is  are  kinship  closeness  and  These f a c t o r s c o n d i t i o n the proper amount  and obedience  that Chinese must  9  show  to  one  another  (Yang, 1959).  person,  and  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  h i s / h e r f a m i l y and  kinsmen are  a  Chinese  hence  closely  related. According Cardinal  t o the Confucian c u l t u r a l paradigm, the  Five  R e l a t i o n s h i p s (Wu Lun) are of prime importance.  Wu  Lun concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o v e r e i g n and s u b j e c t , father and  and son, e l d e r brother and younger  wife,  and  Cardinal  Relationships  priority. five  were  (Mei, 1967).  arranged  husband The  i n the  Five  order  With the e x c e p t i o n of the l a s t one, a l l of  sets  of  subordinate. of  f r i e n d and f r i e n d  brother,  relationships  are  between  of these  superior  and  Chinese are expected t o r e s p e c t the above order  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order to minimize  conflict  or  friction  w i t h i n one's f a m i l y as w e l l as i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . In with  a Chinese  f a m i l y , the "pecking order" s t a r t s  g e n e r a t i o n , progresses then t o age, and f i n a l l y t o sex  (Baker,  1979).  prearranged. rules  One's  role  upset  Chinese  i n the  family  the  i n order  balance  to  relationships  (Abbott,  Chinese  have  to  sustain  harmony  and  disrupt  maintain  proper  1970; Rubin,  serve the  1976).  common  and h o s t i l i t y towards a u t h o r i t y  are not encouraged  Most  Wang,  any and 1983;  t o " t a l k back" to  10  social of the  so  interest  suppress  (Bond and  and  interests  aggression  Children  a r e taught to  family  They  childhood  harmonious  Harmony i s h i g h l y valued by the  s a c r i f i c e t h e i r own and  the  families.  early  i s therefore  Those who do not f o l l o w the p r e s c r i b e d s e t of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among people.  their  first  as to  of  their  feelings peers Wu,  of from  1985).  parents  and  elders,  but  are  relationships.  expected  to  follow  five  Hence, c o n t r o l l i n g one's emotion  h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e i n Chinese c u l t u r e it  the  sets has  (Tseng, 1973).  of  become However,  i s p o s s i b l e the Chinese only conform to the p r e s s u r e s  demands from f a m i l y or s o c i e t y i n a s u p e r f i c i a l way, to maintain harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  They may  believe  i n what they have done or have to do  Hiniker,  1969).  While  the above-mentioned f e a t u r e s of  i n order  not s i n c e r e l y  (Kelman,  Chinese  1961,  culture  are  enduring and widely found i n Chinese s o c i e t i e s a l l  the  world, i t i s necessary to examine  related  to  capitalist Western their  the  economic  cultures  familism  Such  in  of Hong  system  and  toward Hong  family.  Kong,  to  changes a  that  the  from that of  in  prominent type  of  China.  "utilitarianistic  tendency of an i n d i v i d u a l to place  interests component  above  He  familism".  individuals  relationships  with  and  groups,  and  to  primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  (Lau,  1981,  of  its  structure  his  in  i n t e r e s t s take p r i o r i t y  p.201).  From Lau's point of  11  such  a  i n t e r e s t s i s the  At the same time, among the  materialistic  a  familial  any  other i n d i v i d u a l s and groups  f a s h i o n that the f u r t h e r a n c e of h i s f a m i l i a l  interests,  his  the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y or  a  with  a model of f a m i l i a l norms and behavior i s d e f i n e d as  behavioral  others  contacts  (1981),  has argued  Hong Kong v a r i a n t  whether  important  Lau  over  specifically  see  continuous  of Hong Kong i s d i f f e r e n t the  studies  Kong  have brought about  attitudes  sociologist  called  people  and  familial over  all  view,  the  familism  found  i n Hong Kong i s d i f f e r e n t  t r a d i t i o n a l l y emphasizes  from  that  which  common f a m i l i a l p r o p e r t y (e.g.  land  and house) and the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the f a m i l i a l members i n a certain Kong  locality.  His study a l s o i n d i c a t e d that  most  Hong  Chinese s t r e s s both m a t e r i a l i s t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n and  importance Kong  of f a m i l y a t the same time.  are p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with  needs and f i n d i n g though  immediate  The people filling  most  of  Hong  materialistic  materialistic satisfaction,  some of them are a l r e a d y w e l l - f e d  Moreover,  of  them  have  no  and  long  the  even  well-clothed.  term  plans  for  themselves. In Hong  another study, Wong (1988) argued that Kong  is  expected  t r a d i t i o n a l China because territory. being  to  be  different  from  that  Certainly, family s o l i d i t y  is s t i l l  regarded  of great importance; the core f e a t u r e s of the  Hong  the  effects  of  been  as  Chinese  made  industrialization  c o l o n i z a t i o n . Wong a l s o found out that the Hong Kong  to and  Chinese  may be d e s c r i b e d as Westernized o n l y i n a s u p e r f i c i a l s i n c e they s t i l l  of  p i e t y , are preserved  Kong. However adjustments have a l s o  accommodate  in  of the r a p i d s o c i a l changes i n the  f a m i l y , such as ancestor worship, f i l i a l in  familism  sense,  t r e a t f a m i l y s o l i d i t y as c r u c i a l .  Both Lau and Wong have s t a t e d that the f a m i l i s m found i n Hong Kong i s d i f f e r e n t  from the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese  concept,  and yet the importance of f a m i l i s m t o the people of Hong Kong cannot  be  underestimated,  despite  their  fondness  for  m a t e r i a l i s m . The people of Hong Kong, as shown i n the s t u d i e s conducted  by Lau, are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as l a c k i n g i n long 12  term  planning in  f o r the future, while  materialistic  Theses  satisfaction  characteristics  e x h i b i t i n g a strong  and a d e e p r e s p e c t  therefore  should  also  interest  of f a m i l i s m . be  found  in  recent  Hong Kong i m m i g r a n t s and m i g h t a l s o a f f e c t  t h e way  in  which  they  instead  of  placing  their  and/or in  make c a r e e r own  material  personal  returns  making a c a r e e r  occupation certain  style  According  tze^^J- .  Lien  to  through  a type  distinction  stated  that  effectively during face major  claims  a particular i s similar difference  lien  and  manifested  the  evidenced  The W e s t e r n  contact  integrity  through  community.  Mien-tze  through  i s obtained success  and  i d e a o f f a c e does n o t  make  by t h e r o l e  (p.213).  13  value he  (1955)  a  person  has  taken  The W e s t e r n c o n c e p t by Hu.  i n the i n d i v i d u a l  W e s t e r n v i e w o f f a c e a s opposed  the  individual  t o mien-tze as d e s c r i b e d i s found  mien-  two c a t e g o r i e s . Goffman  himself  of  f o r an  i s the p o s i t i v e s o c i a l for  sustain a  of s o c i e t y i n the  within  between t h e s e  "face"  an  importance.  makes i t i m p o s s i b l e  in life,  (p.45).  be  f a m i l y demands.  of p r e s t i g e or r e p u t a t i o n which  achieving  ostentation  living,  with  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s ,  properly  may  Hu ( 1 9 4 4 ) , t h e C h i n e s e c o n c e p t  i s the confidence  function  concerns  considerations  meaningful career  i n d i v i d u a l ' s moral c h a r a c t e r  represents  the  A  them t o make a good  "ego". The l o s s o f l i e n to  family  m i g h t be t h e p r i m a r y  and c a u s e no c o n f l i c t  f a c e c a n be d i v i d e d  an  first,  needs may o n l y be o f s e c o n d a r y  Face:  of  needs  choice.  which a l l o w s  life  Personal  d e c i s i o n s . For instance,  of  However,  nature  to the Chinese concept  of  a  the  which  emphasizes  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between face and a  structure.  For  property; (King  Chinese  people,  They  &  Bond, 1985).  are  which  themselves and on t h e i r The  individual mean  may r e f l e c t  bark."  and  negatively  avoid  both  on  f a m i l y (King & Bond, 1985, p.37).  concept of face seems p o t e n t i a l l y to be a key f a c t o r  career d e c i s i o n s are not o n l y an  career  choices.  individual  concern,  but are a l s o r e l a t e d t o the r e p u t a t i o n and the w e l l - b e i n g the whole f a m i l y . may  a  from a  needs  cautiously  a f f e c t i n g how Hong Kong immigrants make  Their  collective  C h i l d r e n are taught  t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y to behave behavior  social  The l o s s of one's face would  age that " A man needs face l i k e a t r e e  impulsive  in  is a  the f a m i l y i s of more concern than the  l o s s of face of the whole f a m i l y . young  life  larger  add  Pressure  to maintain  a d d i t i o n a l pressure  of  " f a c e " f o r the f a m i l y  t o the i n d i v i d u a l i n making  a  "right" choice. Since f a m i l y and face are two major concepts i n culture,  i t can be assumed t h a t they  will  exert  i n f l u e n c e on the p e r c e p t i o n s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and of the Hong Kong immigrants i n Canada. d i s c u s s e d Chinese c u l t u r e alone  maintain  life  history,  experience  the career choice of  and  and  other  be considered factors,  these  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  such  Kong  in  immigrants.  as part of as  peer i n f l u e n c e , should a l s o be 14  been  but i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t  the career c h o i c e s of the Hong  c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s should  behavior  However, as has  need to s u s t a i n f a m i l y  one's face i s powerful,  explaining Such  The  profound  seems i n s u f f i c i e n t t o give us  a complete guide t o understanding immigrants.  Chinese  one's  childhood  included  in  order  to  examine  process.  It  perspective  their influence  i n order to understand how  Acculturation:  of  adjustment and  modification  have  which  from  Herskovits, As  can  autonomous  issue  can  Most of the in  the  concerning  the  studies  contact  (Redfield,  by the  Social  be d e f i n e d cultural The  Science  as the c o n j u n c t i o n  systems process  which may  result  or a r e a c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n of  as the mixture of the s e l e c t i v e  culture.  systems,  the  processes  differentiation,  and  the  In sum,  personality  change  processes  engages  in  through  first-hand  15  to  the  traditional  integration of  or  internal  adaptation  can of and  developmental traits.  more personal l e v e l , a c c u l t u r a t i o n  continuously  lead  acculturation  of  generation  sequences, r o l e determinants, and  overall  two  in  the  be  a  &  (1954),  of  might  to the new  At  Linton  Research  modes of l i f e  value  and  between  because of the acceptance of the c u l t u r e of  country,  regarded  the  acculturation  anthropology  continuous  cultures  as  internalization on  of  the  concept  be understood  fields  focus on the  change.  adjustments host  cultural  1936).  suggested  individual  the  change of immigrants i s the  different  acculturation more  on  making  Hong Kong Chinese come  o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e and  conducted  sociology, groups  of an  key  Acculturation  value system.  been  decision  choices. Another  acculturation.  of a new  the  i s inadequate to focus only  to make s p e c i f i c career  cultural  on  which contacts  involves an  the  immigrant with  a  new  environment  (Kim,  confront the new acute  threats  1979).  to t h e i r own  Stonequist  other  have  In  order  people.  (1937)  defined  marginal  through m i g r a t i o n , education,  satisfactory  they  man  as  marriage or some  himself on the margin of each but a member of n e i t h e r "  (p.2).  strong  another,  t h a t most immigrants have  experienced  sense of l o s s . Such f e e l i n g s can be c a t e g o r i z e d  three main types for those of  to  without finds  a l s o maintained  adjustment  the  11  and  He  a  to  place d u r i n g t h i s process,  i n f l u e n c e leaves one's s o c i a l group or c u l t u r e  making  to  which o f t e n pose  endeared c u l t u r e .  i n a new  become m a r g i n a l i z e d  i n d i v i d u a l who  immigrants  values of the host country,  find t h e i r existence may  Almost a l l  who  country,  become  of " s t r i p s " : s t r i p p e d of s t a t u s  experience and  overwhelmed,  confused  and  Many  stripped  immigrants  disoriented  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment, and may  into  (especially  downward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ) ,  s t r i p p e d of r o o t s .  a  by  the  even l o s e t h e i r  may new  judgment  abilities. Studies revealed community their  on  that  a c c u l t u r a t i o n of  Chinese  even though they p a r t i c i p a t e i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l needs and  some  have ethnic  entertainment,  f a m i l i e s are of upmost importance to them (Hayner  Reynolds,  1937,  California  Lee,  1956  & 1960,  Lyman, 1968).  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory,  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g and immigrants. The  Abbott  group  Using  (1970)  changing values of  oriented  and  less 16  and the  examined Chinese  f i n d i n g s showed t h a t Chinese-Americans,  compared with European-Americans, were more more  immigrants  when  self-restrained,  extroverted  and  social.  According  to  Americans  seem  external that  a study by Sue and K i r k  to be l e s s a g g r e s s i v e and  locus of c o n t r o l .  Chinese-American  unassimilable  have  (p.340).  with  interactions Chinese  community.  traditional  Chinese  evidence  long  been  a  still  own  race  suggest as  that  have a r e l a t i v e l y and  more  regarded  Their research indicates  their  among  the  Kuo and L i n (1977) even  m a j o r i t y of Chinese Americans attachment  (1972),  the  strong  culture,  through  f a m i l y members, c l o s e f r i e n d s ,  and  the  F u r t h e r , another study found  that  the  Chinese value system  (such as  attitudes  toward  f a m i l y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and the use of the mother language), Chinese  were s t i l l  (Yao, 1979).  c o n s i d e r e d v e r y important among  the  The Chinese have a l s o shown the h i g h e s t  r a t e of language r e t e n t i o n  ( L i , 1988).  While the concept of a c c u l t u r a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y p r o v i d e s a useful  way  perspective  f o r a n a l y z i n g the experience of immigrants, a l s o has shortcomings.  Acculturation  this  seems  to  suggest that there i s a standard s e t of v a l u e s , behaviors and language  that a l l people, i n c l u d i n g m i n o r i t i e s , adopt  s i m i l a r manner ( L i , 1988).  Yet i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to  in  presume  that people from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s can conform s i m i l a r l y a  s i n g l e c u l t u r e , because  behave i n d i f f e r e n t ways. the  persistence  of  i n d i v i d u a l s from the same  a  to  culture  Hence i t i s necessary to recognize  sub-cultures,  homogenous s o c i e t y .  17  even  in  a  culturally  Models i n D e c i s i o n Making After Chinese  briefly  culture,  d i s c u s s i n g some key  to  e x p l a i n human choice  elements  of  perception,  the  the  major  Most d e c i s i o n making t h e o r i e s behavior by a n a l y z i n g  decision  information  alternatives.  concerning  i t i s necessary t o a review of  approaches i n d e c i s i o n making. aim  issues  making  process  gathering,  and  the key  —  such  as  evaluation  of  These t h e o r i e s o f t e n u t i l i z e a r a t i o n a l  which  emphasizes  rationality  and  cost-benefit  Since  most approaches focus mainly on * r a t i o n a l i t y  model  analysis. and  1  how  i t a f f e c t s the q u a l i t y of d e c i s i o n s , the process of a c h i e v i n g rationality  i s presumed to be the  loci  f o r understanding  one's d e c i s i o n . Rationality "good" avoid  is  o f t e n considered  or " r i g h t " c h o i c e . using  the  central  Some s t u d i e s on  word " r a t i o n a l i t y " .  to  making  decision  Chernoff  a  making  and  Moses  (1959) suggested that d e c i s i o n making i s a process of u t i l i t y maximization,  i n which people decide i n the hope of  maximum  utility  best  choice.  However,  s i n c e the concept of u t i l i t y maximization  excludes  personal  rather  than  the  a t t r i b u t e s , the meaning of choices  thus completely neglected. suggested which  finding  getting  In a s i m i l a r v e i n , E t z i o n i  that d e c i s i o n making i s a kind of  involves  evaluating  to i n d i v i d u a l s i s  and  approach  i s no  approach  which  the  searching,  weighing  of  different emphasizes  18  collecting,  information.  from the  mixed  the  scanning  processing,  However,  mainstream  weighing  (1967)  of  this  rational different  alternatives. the  Herbert Simon (1976) argued  pressure  of  time, personal  that  because  limitations,  and  various  e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s , people a c t u a l l y do not have the to  of  ability  maximize; and they can o n l y hope to make the best of t h e i r  decisions.  Although  limitations, subjective  were  from  factors,  acknowledged  context of how  l e f t untouched. making  personal  in  such  Simon's  as  studies,  an i n d i v i d u a l chooses  The r a t i o n a l e f f o r t s  personal  was  in explaining  d i f f e r e n t angles are u s e f u l i n  insights  to  still  decision  broadening  understanding of t h i s phenomenon, yet they a l l f a i l any  the  understanding the meaning  of  to  our offer  choices  as  valued by the d e c i s i o n maker. Whether  as  a d e s c r i p t i v e or  dominant approaches  prescriptive  model,  i n d e c i s i o n making seem to ignore the  a t t r i b u t e s of the d e c i s i o n maker and h i s / h e r d e c i s i o n contexts. person,  but  contexts, life web  What each d e c i s i o n means i s d i s t i n c t i v e not o n l y because of the d i f f e r e n c e s  factors,  also  such  history. upon  choices.  which  past  and  characteristics behavior.  complexity  p e r c e i v e , understand  to  of  personal  background,  and  to  In  would short,  behavior  of  life  form  this  section  powerful suggests  our cool,  Individual influence that  Kong 19  immigrants,  they  on  while  are c l e a r l y r e l e v a n t i n understanding Hong  a  influenced  experiences.  surely exert  and  evaluate  nor do they decide without being present  each  situational  Hence, these v a r i a b l e s interweave  r a t i o n a l approaches career  in  key  making  Human beings do not make d e c i s i o n s i n only a  c a l c u l a t i n g way, by  because of the  as c u l t u r e , socio-economic  we  the  are  the not  entirely  satisfactory  because  they f a i l  impact of i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s , l i f e contexts.  While  (2)  (1)  relevant  the c o n f l i c t model ( J a n i s and  model (Sloan,  The  are  Conflict  the  cultural  plentiful,  to c o u n s e l i n g  the r a t i o n a l model (Horan, 1979), and  in-context  consider  h i s t o r i e s , and  models of d e c i s i o n making  only three major c o n t r i b u t i o n s discussed:  to  will  Mann,  (3) the  be  1977),  deciding-  1987). Mann  (1977)  conceptualized  d e c i s i o n making as a c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n  process.  Arguing  decision  that  cognition, they an  Model:  Janis  making was  and  not simply  a  matter  s i n c e emotions of the d e c i s i o n maker are  considered choice behavior as a type of hot  i n t e r a c t i v e process between thoughts and  such  interaction influences  gain  from  a  decision,  uncertainties,  our  involved, cognition,  feelings.  Since  a n t i c i p a t i o n of l o s s  and/or  psychological  apprehension,  of  and  conflicts  a desire  to  (such  avoid  as from  choosing an a l t e r n a t i v e ) i s generated. Janis making  and  Mann considered these c o n f l i c t s  that  a medium l e v e l of s t r e s s  c o n f l i c t s f a c i l i t a t e s better decisions. of s t r e s s , the a  low  each  high,  frightened  information  alternative.  panic  produced The  prevails  to take any  As a r e s u l t , they tend  or c a r e f u l l y consider  the d e c i s i o n  action.  20  by  maker  such level  because not  to  implications  However, i f the s t r e s s l e v e l and  They  lower the  l e s s motivated the d e c i s i o n makers i s  sense of urgency.  search f o r new of  decision  an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n making q u a l i t y c h o i c e s .  suggested  of  in  is  too  becomes  too  Janis  and  evaluating together  Mann  postulated  seven  the q u a l i t y of a d e c i s i o n . constitute  what they c a l l e d  major  These seven vigilant  processing.  While these steps are complicated,  that  information  such  unanticipated  processing  criteria  criteria  information they  will  for  argued  help  reduce  setbacks and p o s t - d e c i s i o n a l r e g r e t s .  These  seven c r i t e r i a are as f o l l o w s : "The his  d e c i s i o n maker, t o the best of h i s a b i l i t y information-processing capabilities:  and  within  1. thoroughly canvasses a wide range of a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n . 2 . surveys the f u l l range of o b j e c t i v e s t o be f u l f i l l e d the values i m p l i c a t e d by the c h o i c e ;  and  3. c a r e f u l l y weighs whatever he knows about the c o s t s and r i s k s of negative consequences, as w e l l as the p o s i t i v e consequences, that could flow from each a l t e r n a t i v e ; 4. i n t e n s i v e l y searches f o r new i n f o r m a t i o n f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n of the a l t e r n a t i v e s ;  relevant  to  5. c o r r e c t l y a s s i m i l a t e s and takes account of any new information or expert judgment t o which he i s exposed, even when the i n f o r m a t i o n or judgment does not support the course of a c t i o n he i n i t i a l l y p r e f e r s ; 6 . re-examines the p o s i t i v e and negative consequences of a l l known a l t e r n a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g those o r i g i n a l l y regarded as unacceptable, before making a f i n a l c h o i c e ; 7. makes d e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r implementing or executing the chosen course of a c t i o n , with special attention to contingency plans that might be r e q u i r e d i f v a r i o u s known r i s k s were to m a t e r i a l i z e . " (p. 11) According  t o J a n i s and Mann, four b a s i c questions  to be answered i n the d e c i s i o n making process: risks serious serious  i f one does not change?  i f one does change?  better solution?  Finally,  have  F i r s t , are the  Second, are the  risks  T h i r d , i s i t r e a l i s t i c to f i n d a i s there s u f f i c i e n t time to search  21  for  information  a decider's  and  deliberate?  p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n and  l e v e l of s t r e s s a f f e c t s coping question. (1)  F i v e coping  unconflicted  defensive  Each question  influence  l e v e l of s t r e s s .  patterns  patterns  will  The  i n responding to each  are suggested i n t h e i r model:  adherence, (2)  unconflicted  avoidance, (4) h y p e r v i g i l a n c e , and  change, (5)  (3)  vigilance  (p.70). In Mann  order  to put these ideas  proposed a d e c i s i o n a l "balance sheet" as a  decision both  makers  to plan f o r a c t i o n .  cognitive  and  motivational  balance sheet provides what  would  coping  decisions  Janis  and  scheme  for  from  aspects of  capturing  deciding,  an a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r  Each  entry  favorable  or  on the  unfavorable  d e c i s i o n maker needs to consider expected  Aside  happen when a d e c i s i o n maker  pattern.  anticipated  steps  into practice,  before  uses  sheet  this  assessing  a  defective  refers  consequence  to  that' a  making a c h o i c e .  that  t h i s scheme w i l l help others  to  if  they go c a r e f u l l y through each  make of  an  They  better  the  seven  previously outlined. The  R a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n Making Model:  exhaustive focused  study  by  J a n i s and  Mann,  In c o n t r a s t to Horan  (1979)  the  mainly  on d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s i n c o u n s e l l i n g . Instead  o f f e r i n g a novel approach to d e c i s i o n making, he p o s t u l a t e d four-stage  a  model by s y n t h e s i z i n g a number of a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g  cognitive-behavioral conceptualization, (3)  of  identification  models.  These four  (2) enlargement of of  discriminative  22  stages  response stimuli,  are:  (1)  repertoire, and  (4)  response s e l e c t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . Stage  one  construction maker  has  is  conceputalization,  of c o g n i t i o n  which  concerns  of the environment.  The  to develop a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the  decision.  Stage  repertoire.  the  decision  problem  two concerns the enlargement  of  or  response  A f t e r the s i t u a t i o n has been appraised  by  the  d e c i s i o n maker, he/she asks what can be done and searches f o r as many p o t e n t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e responses as p o s s i b l e . Stage  three focuses on "the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of  stimuli  d i s c r i m i n a t i v e of p o s i t i v e or negative consequences f o r response" acquired  (Horan,  1979, p. 175).  experience,  probabilities alternatives.  of  Based on  past  the d e c i s i o n maker then utilities  from  or  newly  assesses  various  The f i n a l stage i s response  each  possible  selection.  d e c i s i o n maker ranks a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s and implements best  possible  one. However, the choice  may  the  be  The the  tentative,  depending upon f u t u r e developments and feedbacks. According  t o Horan, the q u a l i t y of d e c i s i o n making  can  be evaluated by whether the d e c i s i o n maker has e x h i b i t e d  the  necessary behaviors i n each of the stage of d e c i d i n g .  the  first  stage,  three s k i l l s are p e r t i n e n t  conceptualization: affective choice  arousal;  to the  process  a) the a b i l i t y t o maintain low b) the a b i l i t y to d e f i n e  problem; and c) the a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n  In  level  correctly the  of of the  decision  making paradigm. In enlarge  the second stage, Horan suggested t h a t  in  the response r e p e r t o i r e , the d e c i s i o n maker  have the a b i l i t y t o avoid  order  to  has  to  an impulsive response, i d e n t i f y a l l 23  known a l t e r n a t i v e s to the c o u n s e l l o r , additional should  identify and  what  In  the  explain  key  question  Mann), and  be  has  to have and  the  balance  implement the  selected decisions  acquired  these  i n the d e c i s i o n making process.  making a s e r i o u s  works on d e c i s i o n making and to  I  to  They  In Horan's view, the q u a l i t y of  necessary a b i l i t i e s  failed  the  p r o b a b i l i t i e s of expected u t i l i t i e s , adopt  improved i f the d e c i s i o n maker has  While  maker  ones. "What would happen i f  a response s e l e c t i o n paradigm (such as  be  for  to  to determine what they w i l l do.  course of a c t i o n .  again  stimuli  f i n a l stage, the d e c i s i o n maker  sheet proposed by J a n i s and  will  to search  the d e c i s i o n  discriminative  be done?" i s thus the  the a b i l i t y  to assess the  known  search f o r new  could  addressed. have  plan  a l t e r n a t i v e s . In stage t h r e e ,  counsellor did  and  e f f o r t to s y n t h e s i z e  the  major  apply them i n c o u n s e l i n g ,  Horan  enlighten  our  understanding  of  choice  behavior beyond a mechanical stage-by-stage d e s c r i p t i o n which might  or might not  conceptualized alternative making can his  be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e .  decision  making  as  Horan  the  best  choosing  i n order to maximize u t i l i t i e s .  While  decision  be q u a n t i f i e d by means of s e l f - r e p o r t i n g s c a l e s  view, i t i s c l e a r that the meaning and  decisions  First,  are completely excluded.  (1987),  Horan has  reliable  device  in  personal  values  are  clarification  and  the  uniqueness  As Sloan has  pointed  considered q u a n t i f i c a t i o n to be d e c i s i o n making. more  subject  Yet to  the  it  a  24  of out  highly  seems  processes  understanding than to q u a n t i f i c a t i o n .  in  that of  Second, decision to the  while Horan attempted to develop  making model, he  failed  subjective  processes i n d e c i s i o n making.  richness  of  disregarded. through  an  in  and  inner worlds and  relevant  subjective  Deciding  J a n i s , Mann, and  but  ignored  In Context Model:  approaches f a i l  i n t h i s way  (Sloan, In  1987,  than our only maker  p.42).  contrast  to emphasize  to  both  can  we  resorts  to  the  model; t h e i r  understand the meaning  might  25  human  reflective  of  specific  contexts,  self-deception.  to capture  a  primary task because  By  approach to examine the  we  of  inadequate. Instead,  more  understand  and  why  using  a  decision  making  accurately  of decision-making. By e s t a b l i s h i n g a makers,  meaning,  conceptions  should be our  might be able  the  because they a l l adopt  individuals in different  "phenomenological"  decision  rather  major  understanding of d e c i s i o n s  process  extensive  a  uniqueness of d e c i s i o n s  we  calculus  making  other f a c t o r s which render  are mechanical and  process,  emphasizes  are  human  behavior  he/she  choices  Horan, Sloan (1987) argued t h a t most of  making  for  and  in  rationalistic  decisions  of  variations  logical,  only  complexity  meanings of c h o i c e s to the d e c i s i o n  motives and  context and  The  d e c i s i o n making c o n t e x t s . Not  l i f e d e c i s i o n unique are a l s o  decision  intricacies  connections between  dropped e n t i r e l y from c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  The  the  one's  rational  of p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and  capacities,  attention  His approach t r i e s to examine d e c i s i o n  gathering  exploration  are the  meaning  a n a l y t i c a l framework that  information  'rational'  to give adequate  f e e l i n g s of the d e c i s i o n maker and  personal  a  their  rapport frames  the with of  reference Put  and  appreciate  the r e a l o r i g i n s of t h e i r  simply, Sloan s t r e s s e d  the  interrelationship  different  importance  between  the  of  choice,  rationality  not  be  understanding  individual  contexts w i t h i n which the d e c i s i o n  meaning. In e x p l o r i n g career  the  behavior.  and  maker  only must p s y c h o l o g i c a l  i d e n t i f i e d , but a l s o  choice  behavior  perspective,  how  and  misunderstanding  individuals  uncover of  choose  factors  from  be  help  to  theories their  own  in  the  involves  s i t u a t i o n s which can  and  must  l e f t by the p r e v a i l i n g d e c i s i o n making  examine  on  material  Sloan's ideas concerning d e c i s i o n making  it  human  social,  explored.  since  on  as  constraints  influences  the gap  creates  s p e c i f i c major l i f e d e c i s i o n s , such  practical  fill  the  lead to  a  faulty  decision. Sloan  argued  t h a t d e c i s i o n making  is  an  between s e l f understanding and  social, historical,  or  of j u s t  other  several stressed an  contexts. special  focusing  contexts i n examining d e c i s i o n  the uniqueness of i n d i v i d u a l s .  cultural, on  one  The  nature and  d e c i s i o n to d e c i s i o n .  influence  the number and  the process and Rather  He maintained  he that  in  a  number of contexts v a r y  Individual differences  nature of contexts  that  in  turn  determine  outcome of d e c i s i o n making.  than  presenting  making b e t t e r c h o i c e s , involves  or  making,  i n d i v i d u a l would be a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t contexts  particular situation. from  Instead  interaction  a  step-by-step  guideline  for  Sloan h i g h l i g h t e d t h a t d e c i s i o n making  one's s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background, personal  26  meaning,  s e l f awareness and life  structure  structure  life  history.  from Levinson.  i s the u n d e r l y i n g  l i f e at any  given  time.  He borrowed the concept According to  pattern  or d e s i g n of a  L i f e structure  i n t e r a c t i o n s between r e l a t i o n s h i p s and opportunities,  fantasies,  and  e.g.  conflicts,  realizing  their  individual  activities  However,  skills,  and  l i f e structure  goals,  which  potential,  and  (3)  their  from  subjectivism more  serving  as  a  constraints ideals,  individuals  mediations  not  only  contexts.  by  unconscious  corrective  in  between  socio-cultural  i s influenced  three  immediate  wishes,  affect  f a c t o r s , but a l s o by s e l f - i m a g e s and Aside  i . e . the  r o l e s ; (2)  life  person's  i s composed of  key elements: (1) s e l f - w o r l d t r a n s a c t i o n s ,  and  Levinson,  of  external  intentions.  balance  to  the  u s u a l l y adopted, l i f e s t r u c t u r e a l s o p r o v i d e s  objective  stand p o i n t  for  deliberation  through continuous s e l f - q u e s t i o n i n g and  in  a  deciding,  examination of  self-  world r e l a t i o n s h i p s . According special  to  Sloan, every major d e c i s i o n  derives  meaning from the contexts w i t h i n which i t  Deciding  is  thus  conceived  constant  questioning  and  as  an  answering.  amorphous  is  judgments.  Sloan's  conception  Experience  of  context  encompassing, i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , and may  interpersonal aspects.  i n t e r a c t with one  decider In the  might not  made.  process  is  affects quite  developmental,  Further,  contexts  another i n the process of d e c i d i n g .  be c o n s c i o u s l y  f i n a l a n a l y s i s , our  A  aware of these i n t e r a c t i o n s .  s e l f perception,  27  of  influences  our assumptions of the world, which i n t u r n d i r e c t l y our  its  and  understanding  of  others  and  the  world  are  crucial  in  blocking  or  f a c i l i t a t i n g our deeper s e l f awareness and hence our d e c i s i o n making. Individuals intentions  and  decision  is  often wishes  try in  to  fulfill  decision  their  making.  imbued with s p e c i a l meaning  desires,  Thus  to  the  decision  maker, whether he/she i s conscious of them or not. to Sloan, only  d e c i s i o n making i s not simply  concerns  every  According  a p r i v a t e choice  the d e c i s i o n maker i n v o l v e d .  Rather,  that  i t is  c l o s e l y t i e d with the conscious or unconscious images of s e l f in  relation  to o t h e r s . S e l f p e r c e p t i o n  i s in  turn  heavily  i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r p e r s o n a l experience and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Sloan argued that most d e c i s i o n s are a c t u a l l y d e n i a l s of the s e l f - a n d - o t h e r  relationship.  D e c i s i o n makers r a t i o n a l i z e  t h e i r a c t i o n s , hence i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g defenses which r e p r e s s an  unacceptable  through  cases,  vision  or  alternative.  He  illustrated,  t h a t d e c i s i o n making o f t e n i n v o l v e s  only  a  s u b j e c t i o n of consciousness to r e l a t i o n s of power, f o r c e , and authority. to  Our d e c i s i o n making i s t h e r e f o r e c l o s e l y  the s p e c i f i c s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l contexts  we make our c h o i c e s . and "only  way  mainstream that  to  go."  in  sharp  of d e c i s i o n making,  contrast Sloan  do not r e a l l y have the freedom  He  maintained that o n l y i f d e c i s i o n makers can  28  as  the  to  the  suggested to  s i n c e they are s u b j e c t to a great deal of e x t e r n a l  which  "reality,"  i n t o compromises that appear  Therefore,  approaches  individuals  within  The demands of "conscience,"  " d e s i r e " are fused  related  decide  pressures.  grasp  their  s i t u a t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y f o r themselves can they generate  more  o p t i o n s . Otherwise, they a r e f o r c i n g themselves t o submit e x t e r n a l demands.  The g r e a t e r  to  the s e l f awareness, the b e t t e r  the chance d e c i s i o n makers can formulate t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s and  preferences,  desires,  Our  not  the  easier  they  can  dependency on others  free  t o choose.  pressures the  structures.  and  freedom  to  In  pursuing  neglected  to  predetermined critically  alternatives. examine  and  s h o r t , freedom i n d e c i s i o n  what i s best without being  unduly  by d e c i s i o n makers.  recognizing  our  finances a f f e c t us  i n making good c h o i c e s . Sloan  may  p.  opportunities, obstacles  results  is  159).  that We  to make good d e c i s i o n s , we must focus  29  we  simply  our e x i s t i n g  By attempting to overcome these  By more  or methods which a s s i s t us i n overcoming  of l i f e .  to  often  provide  maintained  accept the s t a t u s quo and r a r e l y challenge In order  coercive  subject  seldom pay a t t e n t i o n to many aspects of our l i v e s .  pattern.  It  In the modern world, one tends  " s e l f " f o r "money" (Sloan, 1987 how  to  change  making  demands. In a d d i t i o n , the economic context  exchange  options  are a t  good d e c i s i o n making as the  s i t u a t i o n s , not to conform w i t h i n what he considered  others*  are  t o choose, and freedom from automatic compliance  external involves  Individuals  by  the mechanical r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n  model, he c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  freedom  own  was regarded a n a l o g i c a l l y  Hence the d e c i s i o n s they make  best s e l f - d e c e p t i o n s . Unlike  from  their  r a t h e r than those of the o t h e r s .  as a master-and-slave r e l a t i o n s h i p .  making  pursue  wishes and i n t e n t i o n s i n accordance with t h e i r  expectations  Sloan  and  life on the  obstacles,  we may be able t o i d e n t i f y more a l t e r n a t i v e s and make  better  choices. A Comparison of the Models These  three major t h e o r i e s have both  differences.  The  similarities  r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making  model  and the  c o n f l i c t model have more elements i n common with one than and  with the d e c i d i n g - i n - c o n t e x t  model.  Horan,  and  cost-benefit  a n a l y s i s i n d e c i s i o n making  want to maximize t h e i r p a y o f f s . or  Janis  rationality because  Thus, whether i n  they  explaining  p r e s c r i b i n g , they b e l i e v e d that human beings decide i n a  conscious people  as w e l l as c a u t i o u s  manner.  Rather  than  as unique, emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  considered all  another  and  Mann a l l assumed t h a t human beings r e l y upon  and  beings,  they  them as h i g h l y r a t i o n a l , c a l c u l a t i v e . Hence,  they  suggested  a step-by-step g u i d e l i n e s f o r making  choices.  This  earlier,  i s quite  emphasizes contexts  viewing  p e r s p e c t i v e , as has a l r e a d y d i f f e r e n t ' from  the personal  that  been of  better  discussed  Sloan,  aspects of d e c i s i o n making  who  and the  w i t h i n which one make c h o i c e s .  However, Horan's model i s not e n t i r e l y i d e n t i c a l to that of  J a n i s and Mann.  of  cognitive-behavioral  making t r a d i t i o n latter  focuses  The former mainly s y n t h e s i z e s models  i n the  rational  decision  on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t , notably s t r e s s ,  the p o s i t i v e and negative  making,  variety  ( i n c l u d i n g that of J a n i s and Mann) while the  generated i n the process of d e c i s i o n making. both  a  r o l e s of s t r e s s  J a n i s and Mann thus i n c o r p o r a t e d  30  By  emphasizing in  not only  decision cognitive  but a l s o emotional aspects of human behavior. The balance the  sheet designed by these two  authors  importance of s i g n i f i c a n t others i n  making.  Horan,  attention  only  on to  the  other  individual  decisional  also  addresses  affecting  hand,  paid  decision  much  greater  in  decision  considerations  making. Sloan  postulated  understanding  rather  d e c i s i o n making.  r a t i o n a l i t y and as  a  different  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making, but  pointed  in  He acknowledged the r o l e  a defense to j u s t i f y one's c h o i c e ,  aptly  approach  of more  a self-deception. special  meaning  which i s not addressed by e i t h e r the r a t i o n a l or the  conflict  model. the  out t h a t each d e c i s i o n  T h i s meaning, which may  or may  not  be recognized  d e c i s i o n maker, i s embedded i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  individual decision  and  the  v a r i e t y of contexts  of our  identity.  pertinent  One  can  " r a t i o n a l e " of a d e c i s i o n by e x p l o r i n g  between  self  world.  and  only  the  others as w e l l as between  to  argued, appreciate  self  and  decision  has  been made, because  address the  f u n c t i o n i n g of the conscious and  l e v e l s , or i n t e r a c t i o n s between the two,  they the  the  found i n the  or c o n f l i c t models, can never f u l l y e x p l a i n  particular  the  relationships  Consequently, a m e c h a n i s t i c approach, as  rational  by  between  making s i t u a t i o n . A d e c i s i o n , as Sloan has  is a representation the  has  He  why fail  a to  subconscious  from which we  derive  meaning f o r our d e c i s i o n making behavior. If clear  one that  guideline  appreciates the  for  other two  the  i n s i g h t s of Sloan, then  models f a i l  making b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s  31  to  provide  because  it  Is  a  useful  they  cannot  e x p l a i n the phenomenon c o r r e c t l y i t s e l f . While the  different  s t r a t e g i e s o f f e r e d by the r a t i o n a l and c o n f l i c t models serve are  as suggested also  quite  uniqueness contexts  of and  postulating  methods f o r making b e t t e r  s u p e r f i c i a l and r i g i d as each  i n d i v i d u a l and the  choices,  they  simplistic  framework  enables  the  role  of  Rather  than  i n explanation  and  p r e s c r i p t i o n , as i n the r a t i o n a l or c o n f l i c t models, model  they  ignore  prominent  c o n s t r a i n t s on d e c i s i o n making. a  might  us t o examine d e c i s i o n making as a  Sloan's  much  more  complex phenomenon. Sloan's c o n t e x t u a l model encourages an understanding of decisions meaning  by  exploring  the r e l e v a n t  contexts  from  i s d e r i v e d . Such an approach i n understanding  behavior  is  more  consistent  with  a  which human  counsellor's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a p p r e c i a t e the r i c h n e s s of human e x i s t e n c e . The  focus  on context enables  one to look a t  the  intricate  r e l a t i o n s between s e l f and others as w e l l as between s e l f and the world. to  The emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l uniqueness a l s o  distinguish  the d i f f e r e n c e s among l i v i n g  human  beings.  Having d i s c u s s e d the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of these models,  the next chapter w i l l b r i e f l y d i s c u s s  method of t h i s  study.  32  the  helps  three  research  CHAPTER I I I : Research Method Case  study i s the r e s e a r c h method used  this  study.  According to Y i n (1984), a case study i s an e m p i r i c a l  inquiry  that  i n v e s t i g a t e s a contemporary  life  context,  context of  when the boundaries  are used.  allows  meaningful method  between  His d e f i n i t i o n  its  characteristics  which  the  I  believe  and  sources  that  case  holistic  of r e a l - l i f e events  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful for t h i s  immigrants,  real-  phenomenon  suggests  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n to r e t a i n  t h i s r e s e a r c h aims a t examining Kong  phenomenon with  are not c l e a r l y e v i d e n t , and which m u l t i p l e  evidence  study  in  (p.  and  14),  study.  While  the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s of that  each  of  their  Hong career  d e c i s i o n s i s not a simple d e c i s i o n to f i n d an o c c u p a t i o n . fact,  each  decision  i s also affected  profoundly  by  In life  h i s t o r i e s and the r e l e v a n t contexts w i t h i n which c h o i c e s made.  This  t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and the  nature  sample use  of  questionnaires  and  population.  interviews  from a large group of s u b j e c t s  of  case  study  representativeness  intricate probing  collecting limits  Although  universality  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s ,  and  the l i f e  h i s t o r i e s and  33  does  and  the  d e t a i l s of each case,  it  the  exploring  into  findings,  Yet  in  the  my  the  a  help  investigating  of  restricts  in  severely  the depth i n t o which we can explore each case.  in  method  a l l o w us to i d e n t i f y a common p a t t e r n from  that i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l a r g e r  information  use  my  inquiry. Survey may  the  are  of  t o p i c suggest that case study i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e for  a  in  contexts  of  each  d e c i s i o n through  indepth i n t e r v i e w s .  Experimental variables this  designs  enables  us  to  control  while o b s e r v i n g the i n f l u e n c e of  others.  kind of design i s n e i t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e nor  t h i s study.  important  of t h e i r l i v e s , such as c a r e e r , f a m i l y and U n l i k e other t o p i c s t h a t can use  designs,  the  cultural  background  impact  of and  independent  personal h i s t o r y ,  experimental  recent immigrants from Hong  on  of  separated  and c o n t r o l l e d under an experimental  dependent  variable,  be  career  setting. design,  partially  Schramn  particularly  useful  i n examining d e c i s i o n  e.g.  achieved  (1971) has r i g h t l y pointed out, case  on by  cases.  study  making  be In  factors  comparing the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of our two As  as  cannot  of environmental  can  such  the  Kong,  f a c t , some of the advantages of an experimental s i n g l i n g out of the impact  personal  variables,  decisions  the  in  The s u b j e c t s to be i n v e s t i g a t e d are human beings  development.  the  However  feasible  who have made d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g some of the most aspects  some  is  behavior  because we can i l l u m i n a t e why c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s are made, how they  are  implemented,  and what  results  come  from  these  choices. The Two  design of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a m u l t i p l e  participants,  Linda  and M i c h a e l ,  will  case take  study. part  in  indepth i n t e r v i e w s so t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r can i d e n t i f y  the  salient  the  patterns  rationales, shaped  of t h e i r l i f e  contexts,  and  histories  environmental  t h e i r key career d e c i s i o n s .  34  and  explore  constraints  These i n t e r v i e w s ,  that which  are  recorded by a c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r , provide the key  of  source  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r my a n a l y s i s . These two s u b j e c t s are  i n v i t e d to review the d r a f t of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e case in  order  to  histories biases  or  misunderstanding.  In a d d i t i o n  to  their  easy  and  behavior. Since  themselves to the i n v e s t i g a t o r , they have been introduced  to  group  friends.  However, they are not  Both  Linda and M i c h a e l ,  professionals  with one c h i l d . in  Hong  coming refer  will  atypical  among  the  of independent immigrants who r e c e n t l y come from  Kong. young  who  i t is up  by  w i l l i n g respondents  is  open  me  find  personal  perspectives  two cases are not chosen randomly. to  life  i n order t o determine which  the most u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r career These  reports  comparing  these two cases, three t h e o r e t i c a l  be a p p l i e d to each case  not  of  and career c h o i c e s are not t a i n t e d by my  contrasting will  ensure t h a t my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  also  Kong  separate  i n t h e i r e a r l y 30s.  individuals,  married  Both r e c e i v e d u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n s ,  either  t o Canada.  Both  are  are  or abroad, and both had  to Chapter  Hong  jobs  before  (For d e t a i l s of t h e i r background,  please  IV).  They correspond  decent  t o what I observe  as  the t y p i c a l kind of independent immigrants who have been able to  leave Hong Kong f o r other c o u n t r i e s i n the mid 1980s,  they  f i t almost  p e r f e c t l y into  the  type  immigrants t a r g e t e d by the Canada government. they we  share a s i m i l a r Chinese can  explore  ultimately  have  deeply  into  the  independent  Further, since  and socio-economic  shaped t h e i r career  background,  personal  factors  that  paths,  without  being  d i s t r a c t e d by these background v a r i a b l e s . 35  of  and  CHAPTER IV: Case H i s t o r y Case 1: Linda Unlike thought me  most of my co-workers or f r i e n d s , I  of immigration  when I was  i n my  life.  had  E v e r y t h i n g was  never  fine  i n Hong Kong. However, the ambition of Mark, my  husband, always posed a t h r e a t to the p l a c i d i t y of our He was that  so desperate to study abroad  graduation  bother  His dream d i d  so f a r an average  after  not  really I  d i s a p p o i n t e d because he d i d not want to s e t t l e down.  I  longed  f o r a s t a b l e f a m i l y l i f e ever s i n c e our marriage.  No  matter  how  at  times.  He o n l y thought  never  because he was  studies  Yet  felt  me  from u n i v e r s i t y .  lives.  s i n c e h i s e a r l y adulthood  he kept t r y i n g to a p p l y f o r postgraduate  his  for  much I r e s p e c t e d him,  of h i s postgraduate s t u d i e s  was  seemed to be u n f a i r to him. Even though he worked  very  was  not w e l l r e c o g n i z e d by h i s  a f r a i d to t e l l  In  the winter of 1986,  up any j e a l o u s y between us.  Mark t o l d me  postgraduate study i n England. to  widespread  he wanted to  rumor t h a t the Canadian  because  government  a p p l i c a n t s . To t e l l  e n t i r e l y e x c i t e d about  h i s p l a n s . My anger  the  accept was  towards him  not burst  Nancy,  o l d daughter. Leaving Hong Kong would be  36  of  would  the t r u t h , I  a g a i n . He d i d not seem to care about me and  three-year  apply  At the same time, he a l s o  a p p l y f o r immigration to Canada  independent  bosses.  him about my accomplishments a t  work s i n c e I d i d not want t o s t i r  out  and  that  However, I was  wanted  him  admit  hard, h i s performance  more  I f e l t angry with  keen on b u i l d i n g our home. W e l l , I had to  fate  for  student.  our  painful  for me. my  I wanted to be with my  elder  parents  brother and  Moreover,  f a n t a s y . I t was  on  the dream of having  so near and  f i v e years and  not sure whether  younger s i s t e r would take care  s i n c e he a l r e a d y had a f a m i l y and  marry.  than  f a m i l y ! I was  she was  of  my  going  to  our home was  again  yet so f a r ! I had waited  I r e g r e t t e d that I had  a  f o r more  not put  pressure  Mark about b u i l d i n g our home r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g him  wander sign  around. Nonetheless, I h i d my of  objection  Believing  because  f e e l i n g s and  I d i d not  t h a t h i s plans might f a i l ,  want  to  I decided  to  showed hurt  no him.  not to  think  about i t . I c o u l d not c o n t r o l my was had  accepted no  that  he  by a u n i v e r s i t y i n England. A l l of a sudden,  I  idea of what I should do.  shoulders  was t h a t we  for  years. How  two  three  be  c o n t r o l my how  really  about Nancy, our  of  already  his  and  even angry with myself.  school f e e s . How  Although  Money was  draw  more  I was  parents  every  unhappy about the d e c i s i o n , i t seemed  37  I  was major  from  some f i n a n c i a l  To  knowing  savings could o n l y  could we  him the money I gave to my  would  a  t i g h t budget. A f t e r weeks of d i s c u s s i o n , we  giving  was  Mark.  much I wanted him to s t a y with us,  the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I could o f f e r him by  development  e a s i e r s a i d than done. Not  concern f o r h i s overseas s t u d i e s . Our 3/5  i n England  i n t e r r u p t e d by the s e p a r a t i o n from  him how  upset  Her  my The  l o v e l y daughter who  o l d at t h a t time?  f r u s t r a t i o n was  to t e l l  breathe.  could not a f f o r d to s t a y together  years  definitely  I f e l t t h a t the burden on  so heavy t h a t I could not even  f a c t was  only  a n x i e t y when Mark t o l d me  came  pay our to  support month. to  be  the  only  solution  discussion  did  for  relieve  him me  to  realize  a b i t , but  withdrawal of f i n a n c i a l support was my my  his my  guilt  The  over  Nevertheless,  one of the means to show my  respect  to them. Anyway, I kept on t e l l i n g myself that I had to the r e a l i t y and  my  never l e s s e n e d . A c t u a l l y ,  parents d i d not ask f o r any money from me. f i n a n c i a l support was  dream.  face  i t took me a long time to accept t h a t I would  shoulder a l l the f i n a n c i a l cost f o r h i s study. My t e n s i o n  was  soon l i g h t e n e d . Our a p p l i c a t i o n f o r immigration to Canada  was  successful checked about  one month l a t e r ! I t might be a t u r n i n g  with my c l o s e f r i e n d s who Mark's chance  point.  had been i n Canada  of being admitted by the  I  before  university  in  Canada. T h e i r r e p l i e s were v e r y encouraging. In a d d i t i o n , the right  of  being a Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p would a l l o w  Mark  to  enjoy  a student fee on a l o c a l r a t e . That meant we could  be  t o g e t h e r ! I valued the togetherness of a whole f a m i l y . I t was indeed the  a good a l t e r n a t i v e . Time passed extremely  day  I planned to inform Mark about  collected Mark  from my  about  couch.  the  I was  the  slowly  information  f r i e n d s . I remember my eagerness good news and could not s i t  still  hands  of  home.  Unexpectedly, he d i d not seem to be i n t e r e s t e d  news.  Although I understood how  not  to  so tense that I watched every movement  the c l o c k . I almost screamed  when  Mark  calm down my anger. Arguments d i d not h e l p . When  young,  I l o s t a l l the d i s p u t e s a t home. My parents  listen  to  38  I  was  I  tell  on  the  of  the  returned  f r u s t r a t e d he was,  my reasons; they j u s t s a i d that  on  in I  the could  I  was  did  not  naughty.  Instead  of arguing with Mark, I decided not to speak to  because he used reason to defend Failing was  to convince myself  h u r t ! The  h i m s e l f r a t h e r than  listen.  t h a t he r e a l l y cared about us,  i c e between us melted  i n a very slow  Mark had  England  would be s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d ; i t was  not f e a s i b l e  him  study  gave  conflict. me.  I  process.  Anyhow,  to  him  to go to Canada because the s c h o o l fees  there.  His  I questioned  whether I was  I f e l t s o r r y f o r him.  him some emotional  decision  I thought  yet too  me  support. Well, I had  for  another  aggressive  I should a t  in  toward  least  give  to admit t h a t i t  was  good to know t h a t there would be no s e p a r a t i o n f o r us! It our  took a l o t of courage f o r me  immigration.  believed my  told for  They looked happy about  our  was  so h e a r t b r e a k i n g f o r me  myself  care  me.  because she seldom  I wanted to s t a y . However, there was  The  weight  the  of my  steps  increased  of  i t was  full.  I had to soothe  L i f e was fall  I  miracle  rapidly  l o o k i n g a t the f a m i l y photo. What a b e a u t i f u l  as had  I to  passengers myself  by  picture!  never easy f o r us a f t e r we a r r i v e d a t Canada i n  of 1987.  We  chose to s t a y i n Toronto  were more job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I was company. However, Mark was his  no  plane. I walked so s l o w l y t h a t Mark  on the plane although  Mom.  cried.  i n t o the plane. I c o u l d h a r d l y n o t i c e any  I  towards  On the date of our departure, t e a r s came from my  push me  of  of  decision.  t h a t they would miss us. My sense of g u i l t  approached  the  parents  parents b u i l t up because I c o u l d no longer take  them. It  to inform my  application  to  because  l u c k y to work i n the  very d i s a p p o i n t e d by the the 39  there  postgraduate  program  same  rejection in  the  universities in  i n Canada. He c o u l d n o t e v e n p u r s u e  Canada b e c a u s e o f h i s l a c k  of Canadian  similar  jobs  e x p e r i e n c e . He  was  unemployed! What I c o u l d do was t o a s s u r e  h i m o f my  and  had n e v e r  financial  s u p p o r t . My r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  h e a v y b e f o r e ! I t was s t r e s s f u l . in  t h e summer Toronto  still did  o f 1988, I f e l t  Finally,  relived  was t o o b i g f o r me.  t r y i n g my b e s t  had  no  wife  did  and happy.  I had no r o o t s h e r e .  I  was  Since  on Mark t o  to learn  i t quite stressful a t t h e same t i m e .  h e l p e d me t o t a k e  a l l the household  I knew t h a t  and  and  remembered my good o l d  c a r e o f my d a u g h t e r  chores.  with  addition,  t o be a mother, an employee  I still  I  take  how t o d r i v e  s p a r e money t o buy a c a r on my own. I n  when my mom  job  and r e t u r n home, I was n o t c o m f o r t a b l e  d e p e n d e n c y . Y e t I had no t i m e  so  when Mark g o t a  and had t o depend  this  found  been  t o a d j u s t t o a new l i f e s t y l e .  n o t know how t o d r i v e  me t o t h e o f f i c e  emotional  I a  days,  and my maid  I l o v e d Hong  Kong.  I wanted t o go b a c k ! Career D e c i s i o n My husband and I had v i s i t e d our  immigration  Toronto We our  also  for  because  to friends  employment  However, good  i n order t o e x p l o r e our  was a t t r a c t i v e talked  my Mom  or bad f a t e s  v e r y hard  job  I tried  always t o l d  us t h a t  opportunities.  people  I felt  rate.  Canada  not t o b e l i e v e  b e f o r e t h e y were b o r n  in  about fate.  were d e s t i n e d  to  and t h e r e was no  way  s c a r e d by h e r s t a t e m e n t  so  i n e v e r y t h i n g i n order  40  before  o f t h e low unemployment  i n Hong Kong and i n  potential.  us t o change our f a t e .  I tried  Canada t h r e e months  t o g e t back my  sense  of  control.  exploring from  my career  my  pleased Kong  Instead  friends.  find  information  opportunities,  My e f f o r t s were not i n  a job i n i t s  I  help  was  in  so Hong  Canada.  d i d not reduce my a n x i e t y because i t was  The  not  subsidiary  even though he had a l o t of overseas  afraid  that  he might  misunderstand  advantage of him. My s u p e r v i s o r father,  a  busy  in  distinguish impression  my that  supervisor I  might  my  connections. me  as  honest  taking  but  between my f a t h e r and I was minimal  with h i s business.  I found i t very from my f a t h e r  hurt  my  quiet.  since  he  difficult  to  and  supervisor  I  had the  if I  said  something i n a p p r o p r i a t e . My t e n s i o n e s c a l a t e d when I t o l d supervisor  his friend,  who was now the personnel  With h i s l e t t e r ,  I was p r e t t y c o n f i d e n t  get a temporary p o s i t i o n i n t h a t  life,  but  subsidiary is  to  officer  of the  computers.  him.  subsidiary.  not my job. I am s t i l l  a system a n a l y s t  in  Knowledge  of  to customers on the 41  operation  how  and  to  my  f o r the  of the same computer company i n Canada. My assistance  him  that I could a t l e a s t  immigration has caused a l o t of changes  provide  not  to me by  s u b s i d i a r y i n Canada, but a l s o the r e c o g n i t i o n given by  Indeed,  my  t h a t I would immigrate to Canada. I was then  o n l y s u r p r i s e d by the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r given to  a  impressed me as i f he were my  person who was hard working,  Communication was  get  vain.  subsidiary  in  I t was uncommon f o r me t o express my concerns to  supervisor was  approach  I attempted t o  guarantee that I could get a job i n the  Canada.  I  wait-and-see  t o know that some former s t a f f of my company i n  could  100%  of using a  job  operate  structure  of  computers i s necessary f o r my d u t i e s . Besides making c o n t a c t s with customers, office.  I am a l s o a b l e to have some time alone i n  Meeting  Nonetheless,  people  I  i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y  appreciate  having  Everyone t o l d me that I t was parents. because for  I  wondered  time  at f i r s t ,  but I  began  I  including to  to have same f r e e  I graduated from the MBA  time  that my s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  to f i n d a job i n banking because  i n f i n a n c e d i d not of the poor  until  XXX  recruitment me  company  launched  an  program i n our u n i v e r s i t y . I t was  help at  not  go  intensive  very  natural  to make an attempt. I thought I might a t l e a s t get  and I d i d not r e a l l y care what kind of job I got. I not  want  to s t a y home. I  was  parents and husband asked me about my I was a f a i l u r e t h a t MBA  uncomfortable  got  married.  alternative!  It  burdens  husband.  We  my like  thought  students were i n great demand, hence g i v i n g me a l o t  just  to my  The  when  i f I could not f i n d any job. They a l l  a  just  job s e a r c h . I f e l t  p r e s s u r e . B e s i d e s , I needed a job to run my  had  so  economy  away  computer  1984  program i n Hong Kong. I was  The f e e l i n g of f r u s t r a t i o n and l o s s d i d  me.  it  in  time.  of  my  accept  that  did  myself.  d i d not p l a n to be a systems a n a l y s t  disappointed  job  me.  myself.  after  for  to  for  a good job f o r me,  not every job would enable me  Well,  me  some  tense  my  The  recruitment  seemed u n f a i r to leave  f i r s t day I took up my  job was  was  the  a l l the  as  I  only  financial  q u i t e impressive  had about ten t r a i n e e s . A l l of us seemed  42  family  to  enthusiastic  about  the  new  job. However I d i s c o v e r e d  were not trustworthy.  t h a t many  hurt.  Silence  friends.  To  No was  politics  f o r me!  the golden r u l e though I  was  r i g h t . She  might  loved  be a system a n a l y s t j u s t f i t me, on my  many  freedom the  and  job was  about my  i n t r o v e r t e d person i n order to a v o i d My  seven  become  of  responsibility  and  pressure  and  would  we be  shoulder  my  e s p e c i a l l y my  would get married r e q u i r e d f o r my  was  i f I were  an  help  to  Mom,  always  I held back and  because  What a  introverted brother,  my  I was  43  to of  under  back to  my  highlighted females, education he  had  ridiculous  refused to express my  f a m i l y because they would not  work  good enough f o r  e l d e r brother  me  sense  e v e n t u a l l y , yet more  a f a m i l y when he grew up.  about my  did  commitment would help me  parents,  of  tell  strong  f e l t r e s e n t f u l toward t h i s statement and  Anyway,  my  that  t h a t high school education  because  I  fact  to  perform w e l l i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . Way  c h i l d h o o d , my to me  the  terms  mistakes.  years of working experience  aware  should  a b i t uneasy  I appeared as  My  reliable.  in  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I tended not immigration.  not  colleagues.  quite ideal  remuneration. However, I was  interpersonal  colleagues  my  make  did  always s t r e s s e d t h a t our concerns  people,  to get  to  so I  be kept w i t h i n the f a m i l y because people were not To  to  opinions  Otherwise, I  need to r e l y h e a v i l y on the c o o p e r a t i o n Mom  no  very i n t i m i d a t i n g f o r me  open up myself because some s t a f f might misuse my others.  them  Gossip spred around the o f f i c e , with  c o n f i r m a t i o n , l i k e a f l u . I t was  attack  of  tears  to  idea! flowed.  sadness to  my  l i s t e n to i t . When compared  to  considered  to  be  disobedient  and  rebellious.  simply  because  They paid almost  a l l the a t t e n t i o n  he was male! I hoped I c o u l d be a  to him  male  too  when I was young. I wondered i f I was r e a l l y naughty or i f I was  just  outspoken i n my f a m i l y . Without  any  confirmation  from  my f r i e n d s , I was p r e t t y sure that I was a  Even  when I was a k i d , I t r i e d t o v o i c e my o p i n i o n i f there  was anything u n f a i r t o me. My Mom considered i t because angry  about My  parents;  unacceptable  that  s i n c e I was prevented  dissatisfaction  I was discouraged  their  was  never  from  recognized  my  same  time,  school.  with the  other  At the in  easy  my  kid  my parents, but I was not approved of by them. "Bad" k i d !  Oh! I d i d not want t o be l a b e l e d as "bad" k i d by my Otherwise, was  my  mouth  kids  My o b s e r v a t i o n s d i d t e l l me t h a t I was an  my  Confused  because i t was the best way t o p r o t e c t myself. compared myself  was  by  t o take f u r t h e r a c t i o n .  a t t i t u d e s towards me, I decided to keep  I  I  pursuing  shut  for  girl.  i t meant that I d i d not r e s p e c t my parents.  rights.  by  good  I would be l e f t alone  i n our room. My  parents. experience  v e r y s c a r y ^ t o me, I spoke back once when I was i n  grade  2, and my Mom kept me i n our bedroom f o r s e v e r a l hours. So acquiesced  to t h e i r o p i n i o n s . The word "bad" was connected to  the l o s s of love and acceptance to  face  myself  that  did  from my parents, I was a f r a i d  type of l o s s . Although  I  could  i n g i v i n g my o p i n i o n s about any i n j u s t i c e ,  when they showed My  I  not  control  I retreated  t h e i r disagreement.  parents were not h i g h l y educated,  even  though  spend a l o t i n p u t t i n g us i n a p r i v a t e elementary  44  they  school,  so  t h a t we c o u l d get a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n . S i m i l a r to most  the Chinese,  they b e l i e v e d that education was  for  have a b e t t e r f u t u r e . My  us  to  Dad  the o n l y  was  a  of  means  driver  of  c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , indeed a p h y s i c a l l y demanding job. He had to work from morning t i l l my  family.  He  seldom  a c t i v i t i e s . The  dawn with l i t t l e  spoke  to us  or  time  left  for  us  out  for  took  i n t e r a c t i o n between us grew o n l y i n the  past  few years a f t e r he could a f f o r d to h i r e two workers to his  d u t i e s . My mom  share  had to do laundry f o r others to maintain a  l i v i n g . She emphasized t h a t they worked very hard to us and they hoped t h a t we would not do anything to  support dishonour  our f a m i l y . My  mom  never  suggested  would be s u i t a b l e to me. l i f e was  t h a t any  Anyhow, she always  particular emphasized  different  environment  high but the s a l a r y was  low.  that  was,  a t l e a s t , comfortable and decent.  unsatisfactory  my  working I  parents  performance  did  not  scold  i n elementary  time and e f f o r t e s p e c i a l l y because my  bad  brother. me  school,  for I  aware t h a t i f I d i d not work hard, I would waste my  in school. F i r s t  agreed  parents' example. Moreover, I f e l t  because I always had the i n t e n t i o n to surpass my Although  However,  f o r a white c o l l a r worker s i n c e the  with her because of my  well  job  hard f o r a blue c o l l a r worker because the demand f o r  p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h s was i t was  to me  brother d i d not  my  became parents' perform  I f e l t g u i l t y ; then I decided to  work  hard. My insights  high  s c h o o l education d i d not r e a l l y  i n career e x p l o r a t i o n . Two 45  give  me  career e x h i b i t i o n s  any were  organized nursing That  by  my  high s c h o o l . But they  focused  heavily  and t e a c h i n g because a l l the students were  was  all  I  knew about  jobs when  I  was  a  on  females. teenager.  T h i n k i n g that the l i m i t a t i o n of c a r e e r c h o i c e s was  linked  to  my  gender, I had the idea t h a t i f I worked hard, I might  be  in  a  better position  to get a decent  job,  even  though  I  might end up being a teacher or a nurse. My  e f f o r t s were rewarded! I was  universities restricted  in  Hong  Kong.  Well,  accepted by one of  the  my  not  education  was  to secondary s c h o o l . E x c i t e d by the admission,  I  could not s l e e p f o r a week. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I seemed to lose  my  courage  to inform my parents of my admission. I was  frightened  because  they  f i n a n c i a l l y . I practiced  might  refuse  i n my mind how  to  to t e l l  somewhat  support  me  them and  ask  f o r h e l p . S u r p r i s i n g l y , my parents d i d not r e j e c t my s t u d y i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y , s i n c e the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of my improved.  f a m i l y had  U n c e r t a i n about the s u b j e c t I wanted to  study,  ended  up choosing geography because I got the h i g h e s t  in i t .  In f a c t , Geography was  I  switched  developed  to some  Economics interest  had  took  an  indeed  too  impulse to choose Economics.  The  Economics  a  sophomore. after  i n t r o d u c t o r y course. What a disappointment!  I  I was  program  was  program  with f a i r l y good grades but I d i d not want to  on.  was  It  very t h e o r e t i c a l . I managed to get  time f o r me  so  I  in  impatient, i n r e l y i n g on my  grade  not p r a c t i c a l enough f o r me,  when I was  I  to f i n d a job. Without  what type of work I wanted to do, I was  46  through  any  the carry  idea  q u i t e nervous.  of  I went  home  l a t e f o r about a month i n order to a v o i d any  from my  parents.  The year  year of my  of  i n my  teaching  was  I had  checked  u n i v e r s i t y . I was  almost  t e a c h i n g was  s e v e r a l attempts, whole  graduation d i d not come together with  prosperity.  services  Well,  with  a t l e a s t a decent  my  lot  e d u c a t i o n . Education d i d not ensure  career. school  my  a p p l i c a t i o n was least  worked business  bad about the  my  ability,  university  was  accepted. I f e l t I was  available  accountable  to my  Business  appeared  to  any  the  and  relieved after  the business s c h o o l , I was  was.  us of  a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t post i n  I felt  in  make  I  parents might be r i g h t : females might not need  Anyway, of  that  graduates.  job. I decided to  With many questions about  business  I got a  not c l e a r  a  good  finally  parents.  be  a  appointment  the o n l y job o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  but a l l were r e j e c t e d . I f e l t  situation.  of  the  so f r u s t r a t e d to f i n d  guessed  At  questions  my job.  Before about  associated  m a t e r i a l i s m and c o r r u p t i o n . I t sounded a b i t d i r t y .  I  what with  However,  I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t business d i d cover a wide v a r i e t y of areas, such and  as business management, i n f o r m a t i o n systems, f i n a n c e . I t was  very p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l i n  the economy. Moreover, i t was the  developing  interesting. I  idea t h a t the more I knew about b u s i n e s s , the  could manage i t . Two  better  years of work i n the business s c h o o l  in f a c t enough f o r me  to understand  develop  a interest  because  the job market was  MBA  dynamic and  marketing  what business was  and  i n i t . Yet I decided to study f o r an  degree might enable me  still  poor.  I believed that  to f i n d a b e t t e r job. 47  had I was to MBA the  Consequently,  I  became  a  system  analyst  m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n . Quite s a t i s f i e d with my no was  in  a  job, I had  plan to give i t up f o r at l e a s t a few y e a r s . In f a c t , not  an i d e a l time f o r me  to take a  risk.  Risk  it  taking  would c e r t a i n l y prevent my husband from pursuing h i s p l a n . felt  guilty  annoyed  i f I gave up my support. Although  at  l o s i n g the promotion  I was  o p p o r t u n i t y of  b e l i e v e d t h a t Mark's development was  my  a  bit  job,  f a r more important  had supported my  really  temporary,  my  f a t h e r when the economic s i t u a t i o n  bad. With the b e l i e f t h a t my pressure would  was  only  be  I opened the wardrobe c a l m l y and t r i e d to f i n d  dress f o r myself to go to work that  I  than  mine s i n c e he i s the head of the f a m i l y . I remembered how Mom  I  a  day.  Case 2: Michael From That at for  of  l e a s t h e a l t h y and e n e r g e t i c . Having worked as over  am now  myself.  ten years has not changed my appearance.  living  teacher I  still  word  I  i n a completely d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n . "immigration" does not sound a l i e n to  I t s t r u c k my mind a t l e a s t three times a f t e r a  a  s p e c t a c l e s and the same s k i r t s and pants. However,  The  from  m i r r o r , I can see the r e f l e c t i o n  i s myself, the Michael I have known f o r 36 y e a r s , I look  have my  all.  the  university  i n Canada i n 1979.  Time  flies.  48  It  was  in  1987  I had r e a c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y  to the idea of immigration each time. I might phrase process of t r a n s f o r m i n g p a s s i v i t y  at  I graduated  almost 9 years ago that I became a landed immigration at l a s t . Anyway, I can remember how  me  into a c t i v i t y .  i t as  a  The  six  undergraduate opportunity freedom  study to  from  assistance treasured relief  years  study  that were  I a  spent  luxury  i n Canada to  me.  abroad, what I valued  the c o n t r o l of my parents.  were  certainly  valuable  most  me,  advice but  d i r e c t i o n s from my parents! To be honest,  and  I  the o p p o r t u n i t y to be independent. I t was  only son i n , a t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese  the  was the  also  such  to l i v e on my own even though I f e l t nervous  getting  my  Besides  Their  to  for  a  without  to be the  f a m i l y d i d provide me  with  l o t s of p r i v i l e g e s . I got not only what I wanted, but a l s o an e x c e p t i o n a l l y high l e v e l of t o l e r a n c e from my parents. concern my  f o r my w e l l - b e i n g was so v i s i b l e  life!  married  They planned to  and  i n every aspect  lack of confidence  contributed  to  my  I  i n me. But I l i v e d  muddling around. T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n of my  obedience  of  e v e r y t h i n g f o r me before I got  make sure t h a t I was on the r i g h t t r a c k .  annoyed by t h e i r nobody,  almost  Their  already  was  like a  submission  confused  self  i d e n t i t y . I y i e l d e d to t h e i r power because t h e i r p r o v i s i o n of shelter,  food and p r o t e c t i o n were e s s e n t i a l t o my  Resistance young but  survival.  to t h e i r c o n t r o l d i d not work. Even when I was  k i d , I made numerous attempts t o speak up f o r  a  myself,  my v o i c e never caught the a t t e n t i o n of my parents.  Such  discouragement  o b v i o u s l y overwhelmed a k i d l i k e me.  Instead  of  my needs, I t o l d myself  not t o  expressing  cause  any h a s s l e t o myself  the best way  was to remain s i l e n t .  t h i s s t r a t e g y i n p r e p a r i n g f o r postgraduate I  was  study  about t o graduate a t the graduate  from u n i v e r s i t y .  I  applied  study a t the time To  continue  l e v e l could be i n t e r p r e t e d as a 49  my  means  for  me t o escape from my parents' c o n t r o l again and b u i l d  my  confidence to be an independent  be  a good excuse f o r me because s t u d y i n g was congruent  their  person. So f a r , i t would  b e l i e f t h a t b e t t e r education would lead t o a  f u t u r e . I t would be almost  up  embarrassing  with  brighter  f o r them t o say "No"!  I decided not t o t e l l my parents t h a t I wanted t o continue my study but I planned Hong  Kong  really  and then r e t u r n to Canada. My  help  times  to spend the summer of 1976 with them  me s e t t l e down. I  how to t e l l  immigration  actually  decision  d i d not  practiced  several  them about my p l a n ! Suddenly the  flashed  idea  the fees would be much lower since  financial  support. However, I c o u l d not t h i n k of  way  c o u l d l i b e r a t e myself  when to  because  f o r l o c a l students. I f e l t a b i t  worthless  that  was e n t i r e l y dependent  on  from t h e i r  my  parents' any  other  domination.  my parents t o l d me to s t a y i n Hong Kong, I f e l t refuse.  of  i n t o my mind! I wondered i f I c o u l d be an  immigrant, I might a f f o r d the t u i t i o n fees by myself  I  in  So I was i n Hong Kong ever s i n c e the  Yet  guilty  summer  of  after  my  1976 ! Although undergraduate to that  me. my  I  d i d not a p p l y  degree,  f o r immigration  immigration was s t i l l  a tempting  As a newly wed i n the e a r l y 1980's, I d i d not marriage  brought  me the promise of which a  people mentioned, such as success and a sense  of s e c u r i t y .  on my t e a c h i n g with the hope t h a t my students would students  showed  d i s r e s p e c t t o me no  50  feel  l o t of  was upset about my t e a c h i n g job as w e l l . I worked r e a l l y  My  idea  matter  I  hard  benefit. how  much  efforts  I had spent on my job. I f e l t deeply hurt  response!  their  In a d d i t i o n to my d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  administration, order  by  to  I  was confused about what I  g a i n an upper hand on the  admitted  school  should  teaching  do  in  situation.  I  t o myself that I was not born with the t a l e n t of  brilliant  teacher.  rejection  from my students, which made me f e e l t h a t I was  kid  before  my  recognition. talked  to  I  However,  parents guessed  me  I  did try! I  again.  I  needed  my mom n o t i c e d my  and suggested  that  disliked  been  unhappiness.  She  might  be  before.  What a good  suggestion!  could  because  give  me f i n a n c i a l  I  felt  had very  She a l s o h i n t e d  support  f o r my  a  new i n  Canada would be an i d e a l p l a c e f o r me because I  there  a  and  immigration  pleased with such an understanding mom. she  the  respect  p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n f o r me so t h a t I could t r y something Canada.  a  that  application  I d i d not earn much from my job. E x c i t e d by such  an  amazing idea, I put i t forward to my w i f e . Just reasons  as for  dissatisfaction  I expected, my wife was a b i t puzzled immigration. and  tried  I to  told  her  convince  about her  by my  with  my job  various  reasons. Nonetheless my argument d i d not s a t i s f y her. She d i d not agree that immigration was the best s o l u t i o n t o a l l e v i a t e my job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and to provide a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r me  t o s t a r t a new l i f e .  wanted she  to do something  Her h e s i t a t i o n annoyed me because f o r both of us. Wondering how  I  deeply  loved me, I tended not t o speak t o her and r e t r e a t e d  to  my own thoughts. Soon, my wife n o t i c e d my disappointment. She consented  to  a p p l y f o r immigration a t l a s t . I  51  felt  guilty  about t h a t because  I d i d not want to f o r c e her to do anything  she d i d not l i k e . I wanted to make sure that I c o u l d make her happy,  yet  husband. wife.  I  I was  u n c e r t a i n about my a b i l i t y to  be  a  had the urge to get frequent assurance  from  She d i d g i v e me some assurance by t e l l i n g me  she needed me.  I t was  good  how  my much  such a good f e e l i n g ! I then a p p l i e d f o r  immigration. I had no i n f o r m a t i o n about the p o s s i b i l i t y of my a p p l i c a t i o n because and  none of my  f r i e n d s had such an experience  I could f i n d nothing from the newspapers and  What  I  prepare  could do was  to t e l l myself to be  f o r r e j e c t i o n . Even though  I was  magazines.  positive  and  to  a b i t surprised  by  the r e j e c t i o n from the Canada Consulate ( s i n c e I had experience lost  i n Canada),  overseas  I could o n l y accept the f a c t  a p r e c i o u s chance  f o r immigration. A l r e a d y  that  overwhelmed  by disappointment, I had to face the same o l d s c h o o l and same  old  overshadowed accept about  my  students  again.  My  sense  my optimism. I t might be my f a t e because  of  the u n s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n was  the  hopelessness  f a t e , but I had  no one could change  I  i t . To  the s o l u t i o n I  to  forget chose  to calm myself down. The year of 1987 her  was  My wife  changed  mind and t o l d me that she wanted to emigrate to  Canada.  In f a c t , immigration was  f r u s t r a t i n g to me.  no longer a t t r a c t i v e to me any more.  Unlike most of the people i n Hong Kong, the take over of Hong Kong by the Chinese government was job as a high s c h o o l teacher was  l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g to me.  My  not p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e . I  asked myself s e v e r a l times what would be the worst that could  52  happen a f t e r 1997. only Why  imagination. I  could  p i c t u r e t h a t Hong Kong would be more or l e s s the  same.  bother  changed right  Nothing came i n t o my  about something t h a t might not happen?  to a new job.  I  I  s c h o o l , I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I had chosen  enjoyed  the freedom I  t e a c h i n g schedule. I loved my good  After  had  in  planning  students as w e l l . We  e n t h u s i a s t i c about my  of idea i n p l a n n i n g new  s t r a t e g i e s f o r my  my  had a v e r y  r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e i r r e s p e c t c o n s o l i d a t e d my  and s e l f worth. I was  the  confidence  job and had  lots  teaching.  My wife seemed to have changed her mind completely about immigration  to Canada. She  now  i n a p p l y i n g f o r immigration. for  quotas  would  agree  However,  Canada  f o r s e c r e t a r i e s a t the time. She s a i d  had  that  it  be a golden chance f o r us because her occupation as  secretary  meant a higher chance of s u c c e s s . She urged me  s i n c e the quotas  occupations  such an excuse and  of  her  recently.  f o r independent  immigrants i n  changed from time to time. I was  her d e c i s i o n was  too.  to her request  kept on a s k i n g me about immigration because  more  two  I d i d not respond  interested  immigration, b e l i e v i n g t h a t she might withdraw.  she  by  seemed to be very  I guessed  t h a t she missed  s i s t e r s who  The  had  indeed  angered behind  her f a m i l y , her parents emigrated  r e s t of her f a m i l y a l s o planned  I d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t her i n t e n t i o n was  to to  based  to  various  t h a t the r e a l reason  already  a  and  Canada emigrate on  her  e x p e c t a t i o n about the u n c e r t a i n t y of the f u t u r e of Hong Kong, or  the  well-being  aggravated and,  of  our f a m i l y .  My  anger  because my wife d i d not appear to  e s p e c i a l l y , my a s p i r a t i o n s about my  53  was  further  understand  job. Anyway, I  me felt  guilty  t o s a y t h a t she  consider  me  confusion  and  and  my  a n x i e t y t o her  In o r d e r  I dared  not  t o do  for  and  I d i d not  a  bad  after  anything  punished.  person  even  t h o u g h she  want  to  This  later!  that  I was  Consulate. further  satisfaction parents care  immigration leave  f o r our  I cared  by  mom  was  the  punished  f o r my  felt  cared  not  to  be  believed very  low  I did  not  Well,  to worry about  a  was  for  I felt  students.  our  we  three from  were months  the  Canada  arrival  added  nervous because I might  family, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  lose my  my  encouragement and  I job  parents.  responsibility  e v e n more s h a m e f u l  I  minimal.  lot until  successful  and  me  tortured  I was  of s u c c e s s  I had  was  told  I consented.  deadline  o l d , so  my try.  I  and  time.  notification  o f them. T h e i r s u p p o r t me  might  had  application  myself  the  I m i s s my  we  for  by anyone t h a t I  be  so  A l l a t once,  were g e t t i n g  made  her  previous experience,  application  addition,  and  prepared  relationship.  blamed  enthusiasm,  v e r y shocked  j o b and  my  not  p a t t e r n d i d h e l p me  a n x i e t y t o me.  l o v e d my  take  our  In  our  the p o s s i b i l i t y  k i n d of t h o u g h t  informed  want t o e x p r e s s  I told  would  by t e l l i n g  since  not  t h e main a p p l i c a n t t h i s  c o o l down her  application  My  was  was  did  s c e n a r i o ! I d i d n o t want  t o my  t h e c h a n c e of s u c c e s s  a bit relieved  she  seemingly  remembered what my  that  felt  as  to r u i n  What a s c a r y  According  she  I d i d not  want t o be  young, a bad  death.  but  to please her,  husband. I s t i l l  when I was  selfish,  f a m i l y . Yet  opposition.  her  was  for guilty  to our to  them a l o n e . Hong  Kong a p p e a r e d  so d i f f e r e n t  54  t o me  after  I  noticed  that The  I had  to leave. I t was  traffic  congestion,  lifestyle,  almost  so dynamic, busy and  the  every  air  aspect  extremely a p p e a l i n g to me.  pollution,  of  Hong  beautiful. the  Kong  now  the only place t h a t reminded me  was.  soon lose my  I  dreadful  would  i t was!  I hated  became  I could see myself i n every  in Hong Kong. I t was But  hectic  sense  of  corner  of who  belonging.  to t e l l myself t h a t I had  I How  to  leave  such a l o v e l y p l a c e . I r e g r e t t e d that I d i d not s t r u g g l e with my  wife about my  remedial me  a c t i o n was  to t e l l  could go to Canada with her f o r them was  would v i s i t with  my  suggestion  her. She  and  was  time. She  upset about my f a m i l y was  turned  a  s t r u g g l e and  deaf  search  could  was  of prime  I  She  importance that.  teaching  Eventually  job  gave  Immigration has  day  up.  showed upset  in my  I a r r i v e d at Canada.  truncated my  career development. Worried  my  order to f i g u r e out what I could uneasiness  w i f e . I had  unwillingness definitely  to  i n p u b l i c because I d i d  do.  hardly to  enough grumbles from her because of  my  for  Hong Kong . Time to me  to 55  reduce  my  not  I  deep  want  leave  necessary  My over  about the poor job market i n Canada, I always dove i n t o thought  I but  f o r the meaning of work s t a r t e d a l l  again upon the very f i r s t  I  furious  selfishness.  fondness about my  ear to me.  old  holidays  could not t o l e r a t e any s e p a r a t i o n l i k e  t r i e d to convey to her my she  i f she wanted. What I  them i f I had  s t r e s s e d t h a t the u n i t y of our to  four years  to make sure that whenever I had  them or c a l l  My  her t h a t i t might be p o s s i b l e f o r  to s t a y i n Hong Kong, because George, our  son do  u n w i l l i n g n e s s to apply f o r immigration.  be  alone  sadness  was about  l e a v i n g my The Canada pack  parents and a p l a c e t h a t I r e a l l y l o v e d . date of our departure to Canada as ordered  Consulate was e v e r y t h i n g . We  was  to  write  information contacted  the  not long enough f o r us to plan or j u s t had three months!  to my  about  by  f r i e n d s and  the  f r i e n d s who  All I  relatives  job market  in  in  even  could  do  Canada  Canada.  for  Besides,  had r e t u r n e d to Hong Kong from  Canada  r e c e n t l y . Though not as shocking as having a heart a t t a c k , was  indeed very d i s a p p o i n t e d with a l l the negative  They  told  me  that  my  teaching  experience  month  would  to accept t h a t f a c t ! Besides t e a c h i n g ,  years of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience of  experience  architectural Rather for  working  as  a  not  than f e e l i n g hopeless, I j u s t t o l d myself to do was  to  That meant I might end up doing a job  not  me  the same s t a t u s , reward  a d d i t i o n , I would c o n s i d e r changing and  taking  up  apprenticeship  a t t r a c t e d or accepted Staring to them  Canada,  were people  immigration? to  me,  in  to  an  prepare downward  that  would  satisfaction.  In  my area of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n whatever  business  i n the plane t h a t brought  not s u r p r i s e d to f i n d t h a t almost  98%  from Hong Kong. What were t h e i r dreams  I attempted  a man  years  that  me.  a t the passengers I was  in  and  two  job hunting.  accept  mobility, give  had  drawer  f i r m . These might be u s e f u l f o r my  the worst. What I planned  I  be  almost  i n a c o l l e g e and two technical  I  feedback!  recognized by the Canada School Board, but i t took me a  I  to look f o r someone who  overwhelmed by u n c e r t a i n t y . My  56  was  mind  us of for  similar was  too  preoccupied so  I fell The  to  by my  asleep first  call  my  worries  As  thing I did after  c o u s i n , who  the  an  had  we  found  as  interior  designer,  I was  introduced  a  support.  I felt  a  prevent  drawing.  I was  little  me  relieved  pleased  j o b was  The  not  son,  I  really  t i m e one. because career to  But  I thought  to for any  apply  related  l o n g t i m e ago.  h i g h s c h o o l , my f o r any  performance d i d not  with I  a  by  examination, college.  d r i v e me  nuts,  57  not  sense  12  vanish,  burden a t  The  a l l .  nature  of  four years the  job  old  company  into a  f o r me  full reply  to s t a r t  field  from  good enough f o r  to get  a  I wanted  graduated  me  students  admitted  discontent  since  in  years.  which prepared or  My  creativity  his negative  to" a r c h i t e c t u r e , a  was  because  d i d not  asked  a good c h a n c e  result  financial  temporary  of changing the  matriculation class  secondary  no  I remembered when I  examination  u n i v e r s i t y entrance post  the  quite disappointed  i t m i g h t be  i n some a r e a  try a  was  job s e c u r i t y .  possibility  I was  about  aesthetic  gave me  me.  excited  l a c k of  skills  for  design  t o me  my  ten  interior  not  The  was  extensive  interesting  family, p a r t i c u l a r l y needed  manager a b o u t t h e  an  p r a c t i c e i t f o r more t h a n  v e r y demanding and  job. Having a  had  live over  the  t o know t h a t my  o n l y t h i n g t h a t annoyed me  the  for  because of  from e x p r e s s i n g  e v e n t h o u g h I d i d not new  to  i n an  I was  T e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g sounded  not  a place  Canada,  job o p p o r t u n i t y  I o n l y needed t o f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s . did  in  she  t o work  t e c h n i c a l drawer. Although  job,  future  a l r e a d y been h e r e  network w h i c h m i g h t p r o v i d e  I expected,  firm  career  eventually.  y e a r s . W o r k i n g as social  a b o u t my  about  I knew t h a t  into my  somehow  my  parents would do something f o r me.  blame  me  for  overrode  As expected,  a while, but t h e i r concerns  t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with my  grandmother  (who  incident), parents  had  passed  away  the most powerful person  to  help me.  My  f a t h e r was  over  one  year  i n my  busy with  used  be very p a s s i v e , e s p e c i a l l y when she  was  was  to remain s i l e n t . My  a b i t a g g r e s s i v e to my Mom  best s u p e r f i c i a l . on  maintaining  I t might be because my  to do so was  f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y with my  the  rights,  f a m i l y and  from  best  any  acquiescence also  my  deciding  with  my  avoid the  to c o n t r o l my  at  insisted  she  thought  parents  i n order  extremely kind a taboo  grandmother. No matter  I l o s t every b a t t l e . F i n a l l y , way  Modeled a f t e r my Mom me  Mom  how  to in hard  to break t h i s unwritten r u l e f o r the sake of s t a n d i n g  up f o r my that  My  grandmother  but a l s o r a t h e r . p r o t e c t i v e . T a l k i n g back was  I tried  in  that  grandmother  c o n s o l i d a t e her power. Anyway, she was  me,  work  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p was  her i n f l u e n c e i n my  that the best way to  my  to  young she kept on reminding me  to save t r o u b l e was  this  a f r a i d of her, so  t r i e d to do e v e r y t h i n g to please her i n order  t r o u b l e s . When I was  my  his  my  urged  l e f t a l l the p a r e n t i n g work to my Mom.  grandmother. I could see t h a t my mother was  best way  future  after  family,  He  she  my  did  performance. Even  banking. to  they  to s u r v i v e was and my  harassment  to keep  I  my  discovered  mouth  e l d e r s i s t e r , my s i l e n c e s h i e l d e d from  my  i n c r e a s e d not o n l y my  family  or  r e l i a n c e on my  friends.  myself  and  taking  58  up  My  f a m i l y , but  i n e r t i a . T h e i r o v e r p r o t e c t i o n discouraged for  shut.  me  responsibility  from while  strengthening  my  p e r c e p t i o n of being a worthless person.  keep e v e r y t h i n g i n s i d e my My  own  grandmother's excitement  me),  brought  love f o r me t h a t my on one was  mind became a norm i n my of having a grandson  o c c a s i o n because she c o u l d not do  bring  me  home  overconcern.  I  She  s a f e t y t h a t she t o l d my neighbor  to  was  embarrassed  s c h o o l was  by  but no one  s u r p r i s e d by t h e i r response,  Their  their  i n me  protection  kid!  I  I f e l t hurt t h a t they never  had  independence.  not fade away even when  I  grew  t h a t they needed to provide the best f o r me,  certainly  t r i e d t h e i r best to f i n d me a  of my uncles was  in  his architectural  such  job.  jobs with high s t a t u s and  work  in  there  and  l o t s of economic  any of these areas c o u l d provide I was  pleased  o c c a s i o n , she t a l k e d to me  were  was  they  Consequently,  f i r m . My grandmother was  s e r i o u s manner, s a y i n g t h a t lawyer, accountant  it  up.  w i l l i n g to h i r e me as a t e c h n i c a l drawer  an arrangement. On one  financial stability.  I not  Believing  one  my  was  or allowed me any chance f o r did  from  little  l i s t e n e d . Although  me  I c o u l d go  o n l y one block away  not want to be t r e a t e d l i k e a  again,  confidence  home  I d i d not want to have anyone to go home with  did  protested  and  i t on t h a t date.  hand i n hand. I  by myself. The  home.  care  to take me  hand i n hand! J u s t l i k e the r e s t of my classmates, home  was  i n t o o v e r p r o t e c t i o n . I remembered  grandmother had requested a neighbor  so worried about my  life.  (that  my parents a l o t of p r e s s u r e s . T h e i r  l a t e r developed  To  me  not t h r i l l e d about my  again a c o u r t e s y by a r e l a t i v e ,  I  59  in  a  architect reward.  prestige job  uncle  To and  because  understood  would be a l o t of l i m i t a t i o n s because my  with  that would  report had  to my  parents  to exchange my  provided was  me  about my  behaviors  and  performance.  compliance f o r h i s kindness.  Anyhow,  I it  an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to work i n an area which  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to my  i n t e r e s t , i . e . my  appreciation  of  design company i n Canada seemed  to  the s t r u c t u r e of b u i l d i n g s . Leaving be  the  interior  the o n l y o p t i o n f o r me.  w i f e . I b e l i e v e d my I  My d e c i s i o n would  frankness  would draw us c l o s e r  e x p l a i n e d to her t h a t her understanding  be  invaluable  searching her  process  immense  appreciated. Staying care  for  me  my  to a d j u s t b e t t e r i n  patience  about my  Hopefully,  my  son, but  level  of  advertisement  I could f e e l my  later.  For  finally  stirred  overwhelmed that  was  demanded it  almost 30 days, such my  mind  slightly  associated  be  our mind  tension  I  read one  free-of-charge  any  the month  possibility not  because i t was with  totally  only  education  a  and  job which  Anyway,  l o s s to t r y . I r e g i s t e r e d f o r  seminar i n a r e s o r t area  s u r p r i s e d and  by the manager f o r me  organized  impressed by the  to j o i n h i s team on  60  I  newspapers!  refreshing was  taking  whenever  until  I  much  tension.  marketing s k i l l s t h a t I might not possess.  the company. I was offered  body.  by the advertisement  would not cause me  3-day  and  job  would  publications  a  My  however,  no magic i n the  s e l l i n g education  would  hers,  I d i d not  my disappointment went up on  support  softened  not easy f o r me.  my  together.  Canada.  job hunting  honesty  opened the newspapers. There was My  and  would not be as smooth as  at home was  of  disappoint  the by  invitation the  last  day  of  came  the seminar. The idea that i t might be worth  a try  i n t o my mind immediately when he t o l d me about the  and  i t s remuneration.  assurance  from  With  the  financial  my wife, I was encouraged to  job  and  emotional  try  something  new, even though I wondered i f I had the marketing p o t e n t i a l . Saying no meant more than a l o s s of job o p p o r t u n i t y ; i t might also  deter  me  development.  My  from  exploring a  excitement  surpassed my concern of r i s k Taking company  courses  was  on  new  about the  new  for  job  career  apparently  taking.  marketing  insufficient  horizon  skills  offered  f o r me. Reference  by  books  the  on  this  p a r t i c u l a r area a l s o captured my a t t e n t i o n . My job as a s a l e s representative supervision  started  provided  by  with  some  successes,  the manager was f a r  but  less  the  than  I  expected. His r e c o r d of s a l e s was e y e - c a t c h i n g . However, never  demonstrated h i s s k i l l s  t o me. We p a i r e d together  he but  worked independently. I d e s p e r a t e l y wanted t o l e a r n more from him  by  watching how he d i d h i s work or l e t t i n g him  work and comment did  p.m.  him  c o u l d not c o o l me down.  best time f o r s e l l i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n s was  4  hours  because i t was so dark and c o l d to work d u r i n g w i n t e r .  After  months,  addition  I d i d not r e a l l y enjoy such  from  working  two  t o 10 p.m..  my  on my s k i l l s . E x p r e s s i n g my concerns to  not work s i n c e h i s compliments The  see  doubt about my d e c i s i o n began  to  develop.  In  to the lack of f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n ,  was tempted  by an i n v i t a t i o n by one of the customers to  computer  in  his office. First  because  my  potential  in  of a l l , I f e l t  marketing 61  was  a  proven  I  sell  b i t proud by  his  invitation.  Moreover,  income  meant  follow  my  for  his  r e g u l a r working  a l o t to a man  time  with f a m i l y . I t  f a t h e r ' s model, a busy man  and  was  with no  f a m i l y . Communication between my  s c a n t y . There was he was  a  stable  scary  time  reserved  f a t h e r and  I  no bridge between us. To a c e r t a i n  so strange to me  t h a t I was  to  was  extent,  a f r a i d to t a l k to him.  No  n o u r i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d between us. I made a promise with  myself  when I was  f a t h e r one day. new  young, I wanted to  for  a  a new  c h a l l e n g e to me.  some s i m i l a r i t i e s with t e a c h i n g , such as  knowledge  Spending  of  the product,  sincerity  four months i n t h i s company was  and  I n o t i c e d t h a t my  to  h i s e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l connections; My s a l e s  did  boss's performance was  p r e t t y discouraged by my  not t o t a l l y agree with my  advertisement Reading  in  newspapers  job advertisements  boss's s a l e s  I d i d not miss a page! Consequently,  post  offered to me.  Could  I  eyes! A  teach again? The a p p l i c a t i o n and  I  me. I  j u s t to make a  teaching a  life  interview  post! served  process  b u r s t i n t o t e a r s when I got  62  to  Job  for  teaching  , even though the whole  three weeks. I almost  came  o r g a n i z a t i o n served l i k e  I c o u l d not b e l i e v e my  a torment f o r me  was  more than a l e i s u r e to me.  that  saver  owing  record  hope  sure  by a Chinese  for  strategies.  f l i p p e d over the newspapers everyday  about  enthusiasm.  performance and  again provided  was  need  remarkable  f l i p p e d and  like  the  s i g n i f i c a n t because I had to r e l y on those who  our o f f i c e . I was  I could  a b i t too long  me.  less  nurturing  A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g with my w i f e , I took up the  job. S e l l i n g computers was  identify  be  took the  offer!  A  teacher  immigrants. Oh! very  my  E n g l i s h as  my  a  e x h i l a r a t i o n was  encouraging f o r me.  t e a c h i n g post to  for  second  hard to c o n t r o l ! This  Anyway, i t was  i n Canada. My devotion  in  need of support  undergraduate  to t e a c h i n g  study  and  had  h e l p . My  urged me  toward a  and  s h a r i n g . I hoped I could p r a c t i c e my  people.  much I loved The  myself.  i t took me  no  was  love  helping  time I found a job  by  of job I wanted to do  since  planned to go back to Canada to pursue postgraduate  study  geography.  However, my  plan was  Without  supported  myself to continue  month  in  changed  persuading  me  agreed  t h e i r f i n a n c i a l support,  so much. I t was began  me.  s t r o n g l y opposed  my  relatives  to f i n d a job and  was  interest  explore  the job market and  with the  idea t h a t my  in teaching  a decent job.  had of  kept  on good  though My  teaching  had a b e t t e r idea about me  experience 63  i n t e a c h i n g was  a  sense  i n a high s c h o o l . I d i d  applied for only  parents  first  parents  Kong  I  hunch  t h a t I might be w e l l respected  i f I were a teacher  my  hardly  s t a t e d t h a t t e a c h i n g was  them t h a t t e a c h i n g was  the job market. My  mind. Hong  to develop g r a d u a l l y . My  about t h e i r suggestion  could  such an e n e r g e t i c c i t y ! My  I wondered about my with  I  by  p l a n . A f t e r spending about  Hong Kong, I a l s o changed my  belonging  my  Thank  a very long time to d i s c o v e r  the f i r s t  idea what types  parents.  for  in  my  teaching.  summer i n 1976 I had  solution.  beliefs  who  during  i n r e l i g i o n ; C h r i s t i a n i t y emphasized  Nevertheless,  a  contributed  loneliness  I found refuge  in  was  i n c r e d i b l e to get  God!  I  for  eagerness to h e l p . There were, i n f a c t , many people  were  how  language  by not  posts and  terrible.  I d i d not agree with the management s t y l e of the s c h o o l and I found  i t very d i f f i c u l t  my compliance  with my  to handle the young k i d s .  parents' s u g g e s t i o n bothered me.  so d i s a p p o i n t e d with myself and  I still  depended on my  search f o r another  Moreover, I  because I c o u l d not a c t on my p a r e n t s . My anger motivated  job. The  was  job market was  own  me  to  not t h a t promising  at  t h a t time. I t took me more than a year to change job.  new  post as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t  My  i n a c o l l e g e was  not  e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . My e f f o r t s were w e l l recognized but was  not able to b u i l d up a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p  boss. I was left  I  after  had  spent  d u t i e s was  two  years  other  because, that  a r e a s , such as business or  something  my  my  took  in  same.  No  with  my  found to  be  teaching  students, in  I  teaching  I came to Canada. t e a c h i n g i n the Chinese o r g a n i z a t i o n  so r e f r e s h i n g . But the students were  they  of  again I  i n planning new  uniforms! No s c h o o l bags! Yet they  aspiration, more time  Instead  teaching  i n t e a c h i n g . My enthusiasm  f i r s t day of my  Canada was  to i n t e r a c t  My  attempts  had more freedom i n my work.  time  interest  remained even a f t e r The  anymore.  industry.  I  college.  from making  preferred  As I spent more e f f o r t s  and  developed  that  parents might be r i g h t s i n c e t e a c h i n g seemed  good f o r me. methods  I  different,  least, I  at  in  not a t t r a c t i v e to me  l i m i t e d working experience prevented me  trying  my  so f u r i o u s that he always took advantage of me.  Administrative  in  with  I  had  wanted to l e a r n . My w i l l i n g n e s s  i n p r e p a r i n g f o r my  t e a c h i n g r e v e a l e d my  64  not  the  the  same  to  spend  commitment  i n the j o b . However problems of the o r g a n i z a t i o n soon apparent. and  The o r g a n i z a t i o n was s u b s i d i z e d by the  supported  by  donation. The  adequacy  of  government  funding f o r  running the o r g a n i z a t i o n was c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the of the jobs p r o v i d e d . My boss was a wonderful  became  stability  person.  She was  c o n s i d e r a t e but she was not a good a d m i n i s t r a t o r , she  seldom  mentioned fund r a i s i n g f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n which was  indeed  necessary t o i t s s u r v i v a l . I worried about the f u t u r e of the organization.  My attempt to d i s c u s s with my boss about  fund  r a i s i n g always ended i n v a i n . She d i d not seem to respond me.  I  that  was v e r y discouraged  by her r e a c t i o n and  I b e t t e r keep my o p i n i o n s t o myself. The taking  means  f o r me t o o f f e r a hand to o t h e r s . Although Board  application  gave  me  a  favorable  for registration  because  was not  reply I  believed  old  about  School  a new j o b r e v i v e d . Teaching  I  to  concerns the  the  only Canada  regarding  was  my  educated  in  Canada, I wanted to r e c o n s i d e r t h a t o p t i o n . To take t e n more credits  i n education  i n u n i v e r s i t y was not very demanding  me, but once I made up my mind i n t a k i n g the c r e d i t s , be  a  teacher  trigger  my  Marketing only estate  the  f o r e v e r ! My past experience  interest  i n business,  I would  i n marketing  particularly  in  could a l s o be considered as a means t o help product was d i f f e r e n t . The blooming  of  business captured my a t t e n t i o n because I  to  did  sales. people,  the  could  real have  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o explore v a r i o u s types of b u i l d i n g s t h a t wanted t o look a t s i n c e I was a c h i l d .  I thought  me a good o p p o r t u n i t y to help needy people learn  i t provided  to f i n d a home, t o  more about the s t r u c t u r e s of b u i l d i n g s , earn more 65  I  and  even  contribute  really was  pleased  i n May, I me  confused  was to  to the funding whether  I should  t o know t h a t my  1989. W e l l ,  my  give  parents  up my  present  i t m i g h t now j o b and  business.  66  I  teaching post.  would e m i g r a t e  t h e y would s h o u l d e r  pretty excited that quit  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  to  was I  Canada  p a r t o f my  mortgage.  be t h e b e s t  time  explore  the  real  for  estate  CHAPTER V: A n a l y s i s and Having decision  reviewed  making  subjects,  the three  and  discussion  theoretical  approaches  d e s c r i b i n g the case h i s t o r y of  my  two  t h i s chapter w i l l c a r e f u l l y examine which  of  the  approaches i s most u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r career These and  choices.  approaches w i l l be a p p l i e d to each of these two  evaluated  simply,  the  models  seem  conflict to  be  model and inadequate  of both s u b j e c t s .  definite  or  preferences, information  clear nor  rational in  The  ideas  and  decision  explaining  about  their  S t r e s s d i d p l a y a part  quality  and  choices.  Mann considered  making career very  values  systematic  s e l e c t i o n of options  Put  have  career  and  steps  of  as  postulated  in their  decisions,  i t e v i d e n t l y d i d not b r i n g about the kind Janis  the  s u b j e c t s d i d not  d i d they f o l l o w the  gathering  i n these models.  which  cases  i n accordance with the e m p i r i c a l evidence.  behavior  but  in  of  as f a c i l i t a t i v e  Rather than behaving l i k e  vigilance of  making  calculative  and  r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n makers, they were both s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d their  relations  personal  with t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  histories,  which  were i n  background.  families  turn  Chinese  cultural  Therefore,  context  model o f f e r e d by Sloan provides  behavior of these two  new  their  by  their  deciding-in-  the most u s e f u l  r e l e v a n t a n a l y t i c a l framework i n examining and career  and  shaped the  by  explaining  and the  immigrants from Hong Kong.  Comparison Let  us begin our a n a l y s i s by d i s c u s s i n g a  interesting decision  similarities  and  differences  making behavior of Linda and 67  in  Michael.  number the While  of  career both  have  been  their  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  parents  career  and  values,  spouses,  but  also  they not  have  relationships only  adopted  hold  case s t i l l The  stories  of  Linda and Michael  commonalties.  jobs  in  because  former  had  f e l t good  graduated reunite  from with  decisions anxiety,  their  i s not  attractive, families  wished  to study  abroad,  f a m i l y members i n  t e n s i o n i n Linda and  ever  Canada.  whenever c o n f l i c t s with t h e i r spouses  Linda's since  he  wanted  to  Since  feelings  Michael,  and  "compromise"  u n i v e r s i t y , while Michael's wife her  jobs  However, both were r e l u c t a n t to come  concerning immigration caused and  about  i n order to a v o i d c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  long  of  obtained  T h e i r d e c i s i o n s were p r i m a r i l y a  with t h e i r spouses  number  3 to 4 years o l d . They  they d i d not want to leave t h e i r  jobs.  husband  a  thirties  Canada, not because the country i t s e l f  but  two  early  Hong Kong and  before going to Canada. to  Yet these  have  Both are i n t h e i r  both have a c h i l d about  decent  dissimilar  show many s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s .  remarkable and  different  quite  s t r a t e g i e s to achieve t h e i r c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e s .  with  of  they  arose and,  these anger,  withdrew  ultimately,  they f o l l o w e d t h e i r spouses' p r e f e r e n c e s . Serious significant important about  strongly  issue to  what  p u r s u i t of c a r e e r does not seem to be the to e i t h e r Linda or M i c h a e l .  It  note that they d i d not have v e r y  clear  types of jobs they would l i k e to do.  believed  p r i m a r i l y to f u l f i l l  that  they should o b t a i n  the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r  68  a  is  most also ideas  But  they  decent  job,  parents.  Their by  their  parents, taboo been  continuous  f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e were i n f a c t efforts  particularly  regarding strongly  childhood up  struggles  planted  preferences.  their  career  getting  a  achieve Most  Michael  career  minds  kind  the  role  through  their  were  of  i t should  financial  be  noted  independence  in a struggle  job,  something  time  t h a t she  boss  or  could  r e t r e a t f r o m her  for  could  be  f a m i l y . Her  Kong  was  in l i f e .  p r i v a t e spare  w h i c h she  treasured  alone,  without  family l i f e  similar  to  His  his  desire for self  parents  Linda  and  identity would  any  not  and and be  discovered  time allowed I t was  in the  pressure  her only  from  her  p o s s i b l e o n l y when  she  workload. for  c h o s e a more a c t i v e s t r a t e g y . The  first  a teacher  in  after  his  he  returned  more a p r o t e s t t h a n a r e a s o n e d d e c i s i o n  career.  the  struggle  q u i t h i s j o b as  own  follow  Linda  most.  i n d e p e n d e n c e was  independence, Michael he  meanings  i n the  their  t h a t both Linda  their  some  to  them.  able  own  need  from t h e i r  W i t h o u t more i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e y  to r e a l i z e  their  affected  them t o make ends meet,  t o seek a p p r o v a l  both engaging  early  standing  also  independence.  time  from  has  courage t o pursue  of a t t i t u d e has  expected  The  culture  i n Canada stemmed more f r o m a need t o pattern  their  Chinese  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e  importantly,  Though  from  choices.  were i n h i b i t e d  summoning t h e i r  behavior.  well-established and  in their  This  approval  back" i n the  j o b t h a t would a l l o w  job hunting  their  Hence t h e y  f o r t h e m s e l v e s and  own  regarding  "talking  training.  in seeking  hampered  career  change  realization  69  i n Canada, however, and  career  to  about  Hong his  indicated  development.  The  process of job hunting was to own  a c t u a l l y a means i n i t s e l f  f o r him  f i n d himself again because he could then t h i n k about values  family.  and  i n t e r e s t s without  being  burdened  In terms of career change, Linda was  p a s s i v e while Michael was clearly  conducted  more a c t i v e .  his  by  his  clearly  more  Their struggles  were  i n d i f f e r e n t ways, but t h e i r  achieve some degree of s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n and  desires  to  independence  are  both s a l i e n t and q u i t e s i m i l a r . However,  there  are  also  between Linda and M i c h a e l . its  several  major  differences  F i r s t , the gender d i f f e r e n c e  i n f l u e n c e on r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s have exerted  impact  on t h e i r career v a l u e s .  expected very  to be h i g h l y educated  t r a d i t i o n a l way  viewpoint,  the  by her f a m i l y , who  of  decisive  As a female, Linda  of Chinese  completion  a  thinking. high  In  school  was  become p a r t of another  seemed  to  accept t h i s  f a m i l y someday.  i d e a , a t l e a s t on  her  Even though  a b i l i t y and to compete with her b r o t h e r .  surface,  She  not erode  The  f a c t t h a t i t was  she her  support  a lone s t r u g g l e ,  did  her d e t e r m i n a t i o n . However, t h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n  was  l i m i t e d to her s t u d i e s . and  she  struggled  hard toward t h i s g o a l , seemingly without any v i s i b l e from her p a r e n t s .  was  married  worked v e r y hard to get i n t o u n i v e r s i t y i n order to prove own  a  parents'  education  the  not  followed  considered good enough f o r her because she would get and  and  started  expectations  working, of  being  A f t e r she graduated she a  still  had  wife and a  to  from follow  mother  i n t e r e s t s of her f a m i l y above those of h e r s e l f .  70  and  university the put  role the  As  the  Michael's  o n l y but a l s o the youngest son  position  expectations  and  particularly They  in  i n h i s f a m i l y s t r o n g l y molded career  behavior.  h i s grandmother had  His  or a r c h i t e c t when he grew up.  parents fulfill  and  grandmother had  h i s career g o a l s .  family, his  role  parents  and  held great hopes  expected him to become a p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  lawyer  his  Not  an  for  him.  accountant,  surprisingly,  his  been very a c t i v e i n h e l p i n g  him  Yet t h e i r z e a l and  a c t i o n s created  a legacy of dependency on h i s p a r t . Second, and  as an extension  p o i n t , both  Michael d e r i v e d t h e i r career values and  from  different  evolved  sources.  A major  career  job  job  was  mother,  a  means  from  Her  for  time and  her  her s u p e r v i s o r and  attitude  toward  that  job enabled  her  i d e n t i t y , one  in  to  command  work was  t h a t was  colleagues.  Her  thus c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to  her to experience separate  and  from her  h i s career v a l u e s .  familial  through  p r o f e s s i o n s such as t e a c h i n g . others  r e c o g n i t i o n he so d e s i r e s and  to  selecting  A job allowed  71  own  relationship  strove  would give him a sense of meaning and  r e s p e c t and  her  fact  roles.  Although h e l p i n g others was  recognition,  and  a great d e a l of freedom  h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , he a l s o and  in  serious the  achieve  h e a v i l y on the h e l p i n g  he focused  and  j u s t a wife or a  support,  respect  Linda  respect  been granted  on  for  energy invested  For M i c h a e l , having  part  satisfaction  value  r e c o g n i t i o n as an autonomous i n d i v i d u a l , not  and  Linda  around her s t r o n g sense of s t r o n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  commitment toward her work. her  of the f i r s t  based  acquire helping  Michael  to  offer  him  f e e l s he  in  help the  deserves.  Such  c r e d i t would a l s o be achieved  by h i s own  efforts,  not  t a i n t e d by the a s s i s t a n c e of h i s f a m i l y members. Third,  owing  expectations,  to d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the job f i n d i n g processes  were a l s o d i f f e r e n t . from  their  gathering  upbringing  While t h e i r  f r i e n d s and this  of our two  newspapers, t h e i r  uncommon means  hand experience among  for  out  preparing  f o r her  first  degree  potential  Linda was  Michael at  with  friends,  other sources,  employers  to  get  as  job hunting  as  well  through  His i n f o r m a t i o n search was  friends  v i a telephone  or m a i l .  that h i s t a r d i n e s s i n job hunting by h i s dependency on h i s parents.  of  Canada  r e s t r i c t e d to  F i n a l l y , there  i n job  his and  contacting  One  might even  was  influenced considerably  While there  extrapolate  i s no  relatives,  this  explicit  possibility  a kind of i n e r t i a which c o u l d p a r t l y  half-hearted e f f o r t s  be v a l i d  would be able to f a l l back upon  h i s f a m i l y and  in  i n Canada.  chose not to take an e x p l o r a t o r y t r i p to  t h a t Michael  as  friends.  because he b e l i e v e d that h i s c r e d e n t i a l s , e.g.  indication  a  gathering  c l e a r l y much more a c t i v e than Michael  useful.  establish  her  i n order  from a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y , would s t i l l  support  and  T h e i r t r i p , though not  other  from newspapers and  searching  Linda  toward  immigrants from Hong Kong, served  networking  information  Therefore,  new  of Canada.  mostly  attitudes  data were q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r .  role  subjects  job i n f o r m a t i o n was  husband v i s i t e d Canada before they emigrated some f i r s t  and  explain  the to his  hunting.  i s a l s o a marked d i f f e r e n c e between Linda  72  and  Michael  i n t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r career change,  this difference is partly to  pursue  their  motivation already  was  own  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r  career values and  responsibility  major to  changes  satisfy  in  her  partly  Linda's  her  due  her  own  had  life.  Her  needs  seemed to leave no p o s s i b i l i t y f o r her  about  each  Immigration  husband's  any r e a l development i n her c a r e e r . clear  interests.  lower than t h a t of M i c h a e l .  brought  immigration  rooted  although  after to  have  In a d d i t i o n , she was  career v a l u e s .  This,  of  not  course,  is  to the f a c t t h a t f a m i l y , r a t h e r than c a r e e r ,  was  the top p r i o r i t y f o r her. Thus she would work i n any  field  order  to  in  to achieve  the  her  same f i e l d  f a m i l i a l goals.  the  liked.  place would have allowed  development she was  Instead  and  of  thinking  about  e x p l o r i n g her career values  her to  her  she badly needed money and  Michael  was  some  freedom  explore  and  interests,  responsibility mistakes  He  i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t  for  position,  to change h i s career and  did his  not  need to  family.  analyst which  impossible.  because h i s wife could support  emotionally.  she  personal  s t a b i l i t y , without  her husband's dreams would have been  of  think  the one  a l r e a d y g l a d to continue working as a system  because  work  prospect  c a r e f u l l y about whether her former job was  really  have  continued  i n Canada, even though  career change i n a new more  She  in  His  be  him too worry  more  He time  financially worried about  i n pursuing career change could thus be  did to and about  making  minimized.  Therefore, the above d i f f e r e n c e seems to be rooted as much i n their  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r spouses and  73  their  financial  s i t u a t i o n s , as i n the d i f f e r e n t gender and as d e f i n e d society  i n t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese c u l t u r e .  are  families  expected to s a c r i f i c e  while  planning  men  for their  Janis  and  select  Women i n  their more  Chinese  husbands  and  flexibility  in  C o n f l i c t Model  Mann suggested t h a t choice behavior as a type  are considered  information,  expectations  career.  conceptualized  makers  for  are able to enjoy  The  best  role  of hot  cognition.  as c a l c u l a t i v e beings  can  Decision  t h a t search  for  examine p a y o f f s f o r each a l t e r n a t i v e , and  the best c h o i c e .  Instead  be  then  of i g n o r i n g emotions,  they  argued that a medium l e v e l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s caused  by  the  to  d e c i s i o n making s i t u a t i o n motivates  become more v i g i l a n t and  careful  decision  in searching  makers  for  information  and a l t e r n a t i v e s . If  J a n i s and  Mann are c o r r e c t , then the d e c i s i o n  would think c a r e f u l l y about the r i s k s of change and of m a i n t a i n i n g if  she  the s t a t u s quo.  While Linda was  could f i n d a job a f t e r  immigrating  to  maker  the  risks  eager to know Canada,  she  ended up working as a system a n a l y s t i n a Canadian s u b s i d i a r y of  her  thought change  former about her  However,  to  the  Her be  in  r i s k s and  career  environment. seemed  company. T h e o r e t i c a l l y  when  consequences i f  she  arrived  at  a  should she  did  totally  s i t u a t i o n d i d c r e a t e s t r e s s f o r her and  fully order  mother, she was  Linda  aware of  to f u l f i l l  the  risks  her r o l e as a  in  her  good  compelled to f i n d a job as soon as  74  have not new she  choice. wife  and  possible.  Although  stress  extensive  information search,  she  actually  Therefore,  should  did  while  she  consider  different  manner.  The  to  not  as  her  was  she  to f i n d  d i d not  search  calculations.  the  that  she  solution  ample  time  was  alternatives. with  the  Nonetheless,  do  seemed  and  stress  information  job  She  change,  from  found  that i t  Any  t o J a n i s and and  of h e r  had  the  better alternatives.  According  no  wife  even  information  was  vigilant  of a c a r e e r a  and  not  collect  there  in  e v e n t h o u g h she  vigilance  hunting.  in a  emotions  an  Mann,  decision  mother and  a waste o f t i m e ,  shortcomings  job  this  l u c k y to get  were o t h e r  s i t u a t i o n with  might r e v e a l the  her  former employer.  seemed t o be to  in  possibility  f o r her,  whether t h e r e  other  the  out  by J a n i s and  b r i n g a b o u t more v i g i l a n c e  only choice  explored  d i d not  a j o b , but  C a n a d i a n s u b s i d i a r y of her was  carry  t o make a  r o l e s as  Without c o n s i d e r i n g the believed  to  suggested  motivated  options,  generated  she  her  show v i g i l a n c e  i n f l u e n c e of her  motivate  and  have c a u s e d  even  and  i f she  explore  Mann, she reject  had  other  should  cope  opinions  that  chosen course  s i g n t h a t she  had  of a c t i o n .  reached  this  stage. Linda family  was  clear  a b o u t her  considerations  concerns.  The  than  calculation  the  profoundly support  her  husband  the  seemed  expectations  shaped  of  Linda's  husband and  priorities to  have  and  daughter  freedom to pursue 75  long  financially  other  others,  interests,  c h o i c e . As  particular  outweighed  of s i g n i f i c a n t career  in  rather  have  thus  she  could  as and  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , she  give  her  appeared  to  be  quite s a t i s f i e d .  She  was  concern f o r f a m i l y harmony and concern to  Family harmony was  she d i d not want to upset  further  studies.  Security  because  she  to be the main  provide  full  highlighted operated  was  f i n a n c i a l support  Further,  the in  has  important  stress  n e i t h e r motivated  been  to  have  had  in  to  level  searching  from t a k i n g  A s t r o n g sense of  l o y a l t y seemed to be the most m o t i v a t i n g  to  has  mother, her s t r e s s  her to be more v i g i l a n t  her  daughter.  While Linda c l e a r l y  at a l l because of p a n i c .  his  order  which  i n f o r m a t i o n or o p t i o n s , nor hampered her  action  in  the c o n f l i c t model does not appear suggested.  with  for  f o r her husband and  her  crucial  support  breadwinner  psychological  i n the way  her  relationship  equally  bear the burden of being a wife and  for  her  husband, which t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t h a t she  was  by  f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y than by  f o r career development.  her and  her  much more a f f e c t e d  any  familial  f a c t o r i n her  career  d e c i s i o n making. Michael  seems to be d i f f e r e n t  from Linda  i n t h a t he  to  change h i s career when he a r r i v e d i n Canada.  he  p e r c e i v e d t h a t there was  fact,  he had  another one teacher  s i n c e he was  i n Canada. He was  In  i f he d i d not  change.  not q u a l i f i e d to work as a under great pressure  to  i n Canada, but he could s t i l l  a t t i t u d e and  be best f o r  Therefore, In  no choice but to change h i s t e a c h i n g career  h i s career choice and-see  risk  had  to  certified reconsider  adopt a  examine which of the p r o f e s s i o n s  waitwould  him.  Michael's  case, the r i s k  76  f o r not making  any  career  change was  h i s i n a b i l i t y to f i n d a job.  mention  the  changes  i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s , we  find  it  consequences  harder  family.  The  refused  which was  can  to  he d i d  make  any  imagine t h a t fail  to  not  career  he  would  support  his  r i s k s would, t h e r e f o r e , be q u i t e s e r i o u s i f  to change.  only  of f a i l i n g  to make a l i v i n g and  However, h i s past working experience  a teacher d i d not enable could  Although  him to have many c h o i c e s .  think of h i s experience  a l s o one  in  of h i s i n t e r e s t s .  he  drawing,  he was  unclear  i n t e r e s t s , he could s t i l l  single  out h i s urge to help others as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n to h i s  career  about h i s c a r e e r values and  choice. and  Although  as  Thus,  technical  he  Instead of c o n s i d e r i n g a l l  available alternatives  seeking a b e t t e r s o l u t i o n , he p r e f e r r e d a t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r  approach, hoping about  t h a t t h i s would a l l o w him to understand  h i m s e l f and  help him  f i n d the r i g h t  job.  as though he had not considered whether i t was  It  more  appeared  realistic  for  him to f i n d a b e t t e r s o l u t i o n s i n c e he had  no f i r m idea about  what  He  would  be the best choice f o r him.  consistently  q u i t e o p t i m i s t i c about h i s job  also  appeared  finding.  Even  with s u f f i c i e n t time to c o l l e c t career i n f o r m a t i o n , i t seem  t h a t h i s chosen career choice was  h i s lack of s e l f understanding. Michael  should  avoidance. opinion  cope  with  However, he was  about h i s new  greatly  According  this  would  hampered  by  to J a n i s and Mann,  situation  q u i t e open to any  by  defensive  information  and  job and d i d not show any avoidance  in  r e c e i v i n g negative comments from o t h e r s . Both  Linda  and Michael went through only some  seven steps i n the model p o s t u l a t e d by J a n i s and Mann. 77  of  the Since  they  had  not r e a l l y followed a l l the recommended  steps  in  decision  making, they should have experienced  unanticipated  setbacks  and  arguments  this  p o s t - d e c i s i o n a l r e g r e t s , i f the  conflict  satisfied  model  are  correct.  Yet  Linda  whether  followed even  quite  with her career choice while Michael d i d not  to be upset by any of h i s career d e c i s i o n s . is  was  they  the  would have been b e t t e r  advice suggested  seem  The key q u e s t i o n  off  by J a n i s and  if  they  Mann.  had  Indeed,  i f they have c a r r i e d out the v a r i o u s s t e p s , i t i s  l i k e l y t h a t they would have made a b e t t e r d e c i s i o n . reason  is  that  their  familial  loyalty  of  very  The main  precluded  other  alternatives. The R a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n Making Model If the  one a p p l i e s the r a t i o n a l model suggested  decision  maker  decision  problem,  identify  criteria  i s presumably generate  able  as many  to  by  recognize  options  as  f o r judging o p t i o n s , and s e l e c t  the  among them.  needed  to secure a job i n Canada i n order to make a  response r e p e r t o i r e was very l i m i t e d .  she  c o l l e c t e d about the job market i n Canada came  The  impressions  during  a short v i s i t  Horan,  should  have f a i l e d  to Canada.  to  she d i d not show much e f f o r t  alternatives.  make  a  she  living,  information primarily  newspapers and some of her f r i e n d s as w e l l as  because  best  However, while Linda was aware t h a t  her  she  the  possible,  choice  from  Horan,  her  According quality  i n l e a r n i n g more  The f a c t t h a t she behaved t h i s way  to  choice about  and  she was not d i s s a t i s f i e d with her choice showed how much  78  own  that she  deviated  from  depicted  the systematic  He c e r t a i n l y  found  done  sufficient making  resources using to  i t necessary  Both L i n d a  from  i t  potential  their  is  decisions  by  since  they  In t h i s  case,  Linda  about her c a r e e r  are  of  many  other  inquiries  knowledge  might  had  be  and  influenced  to  make  major  to  follow  the  d e c i s i o n making is  clear  seemed t o be  preferences  d i d n o t r e a l l y mind w o r k i n g  her f a m i l y . Michael  than in  as l o n g as  about  a  little Michael.  the she  same could  however a d o p t e d a t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r  i n h i s job hunting. well,  decision  these  maker  considered her  decision  t h e d e c i s i o n maker  ( i . e . as a system a n a l y s t )  or  rational  model and t h e r a t i o n a l  profession  As  that  already  were s e l d o m f o r c e d  Linda  approach  he  could  find  and making  lack  Therefore,  support  but  were  there  the resources  they  that  values.  conscious  Linda.  parents.  presuppose  his/her  seemed t o  agencies  Their  themselves  of t h e i r  of  w h i c h would be u s e f u l t o them, e . g .  i n identifying  Both the c o n f l i c t model  maker  even t h o u g h he  newspaper  obvious that  employers.  upbringing;  to that  I f one a p p l i e s t h e  and i n f o r m a t i o n  motivation  more  and  the s e r v i c e of personnel  dictates  decision  t o change h i s c a r e e r ,  and M i c h a e l  friends  f o r them.  model,  was q u i t e s i m i l a r  a l t e r n a t i v e s thoroughly  so.  information  by  situation  not explore  have  rational  by H o r a n .  Michael's  did  and  two models assume t h a t  i s most  as a d i s t i n c t  own  fate  important.  The  decision  e n t i t y who i s c a p a b l e  by making t h e 79  right  the  individual maker  is  of shaping h i s  decision.  On  the  contrary, were  the experience  strongly  of our s u b j e c t s  i n f l u e n c e d not only  their  families  their  culture  and t h e i r and  personal  social  suggest  by t h e i r  Hence  but  they  were  s e l f - s e e k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who c a n m a x i m i z e  utilities.  Rather,  strongly conditioned conflict  did nor  the career  not r e a l l y did  they  emphasizes  carefully  our  cases,  these  gathering, alternatives  objectives.  two m o d e l s have n o t c o n s i d e r e d  role  familial  decisions  are  of s t r e s s  loyalty  and M i c h a e l  while  is clearly  As  aptly  reflected  emotions  such as l o v e ,  in  loyalty,  emotion  The c o n f l i c t the  model  rational  a crucial  element  two  and commitment  cases,  of that  did.  who do n o t e x i s t  these  model  In both  t o behave t h e way t h e y  made by human b e i n g s ,  vacuum.  Such in  a  human  intervene  in  making. The  The  career  explained  namely  for different  the  subjects  information  own c a r e e r  been  explain  The  on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r a t i o n a l i t y .  Linda  contexts  their  their  had  or  by not  I n sum, b o t h  to describe  f a c t o r i n d e c i s i o n making.  motivated  decision  who  of our s u b j e c t s .  search  the  capitalizes  fail  i n any v i g i l a n t  Finally, a serious  models  choices  achieve  beings  environments.  engage  which might best  as  by t h e i r  and t h e r a t i o n a l  adequately  were s o c i a l  with  also  autonomous,  they  they  relations  histories,  roles.  that  by  Deciding-in-Context choices  Sloan's  o f t h e two  subjects  deciding-in-context  that are c l o s e l y life  Model  related to their  h i s t o r y context,  character  80  seem  model. career  context,  best Four  choices, immediate  social  c o n t e x t , and  relating two  these  a  H i s t o r y Context:  Since low  her  a powerful  working c l a s s  driver  so as  Even  her  part-time  order  to earn  arduous  had  she  her  who and  social  our  of  how  were  usually  i n the  was  living  1950s and  rearing as d o i n g  t o make a l i v i n g  d u t i e s , had  family.  seemed t o  survival,  she  t h a t she  should  take  a  realized  decent  job which  would  only be  promise  truck family. a l l up  others,  in  parents'  profoundly  perspective regarding a career. the  her  take  Her  have  a the  for  to  laundry for  work was  also  a  responsible  the  from  1960s,  of h i s  in  work.  at  a t h i s j o b as  already  child  people  living  standard  have  Raised  of h a r d  w e l f a r e and  l e a r n e d t h a t hard  up  of  especially  career behavior.  more money t o s u p p o r t  Linda's  history,  l e a r n e d the v a l u e  the  j o b s , such  efforts  influenced  little  improve  chores  some  By  f a m i l y , seemed t o  t o spend most of h i s t i m e to  examined.  understanding  life  with  especially  mother,  household  on  stratum  level,  had  Linda's  f a m i l y , she  socio-economic  father  a deeper  relation  impact  Hong Kong had  subsistence  be  career decisions.  u p b r i n g i n g and  exerted  will  to the c a r e e r b e h a v i o r  might a c h i e v e  t h e y came t o t h e i r  her  context,  four contexts  s u b j e c t s , we  Life  cultural  Not  strategy practical her  only for and  financial  stabi1ity. Further, crucial By  in  Linda's shaping  t h e way  the time  she  entered  university,  her  own  been  relationship  the  she  made her  her career  j o b market a f t e r  i d e a s and  l a r g e l y d e f i n e d by h e r  with  family  decisions.  graduating  p r e f e r e n c e s about a c a r e e r p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . The  81  was  from had most  significant parents  found  assistant She  consideration  was  acceptable.  was m a i n l y simply  efforts  in  a  job her  Her d e c i s i o n t o become a  teaching  determined  afraid  finding  for  h e r was t o f i n d  by h e r f e a r o f h e r  t h a t her parents  a job.  might  I f she c o u l d  parents.  question  not f i n d  her  one,  she  would be v e r y e m b a r r a s s e d . She d i d n o t want t o be l a b e l e d "stupid"  or  teaching  assistant  she  "useless."  ceased  really  In  choice  She f e l t this,  own  feared  that  might  lose  linked  to effort  degree  very relieved  and p l e a s e d  and p r e f e r e n c e s  i f she c o u l d their  the  a  and  job  she  her  parents' parents'  in life  she  expectations,  she  In  fact,  her  and  a t t i t u d e s have t h u s  career values  weak  Since  she d i d  not  i d e n t i t y and s h e had  a  make low  she had come t o d e r i v e much o f h e r  i t provided i  expectations  her  because  f r o m h e r f a m i l y . A j o b meant more t h a n  because  Michael's  approved.  i d e a o f c a r e e r may be c l o s e l y  identity.  t o d i s c o v e r h e r own  the  she seldom put  their  l o v e and a c c e p t a n c e .  validation,  that they  case,  job,  appraised  as t o p p r i o r i t i e s  not s a t i s f y  h e r ambiguous  of s e l f  meaning  her  of f i n d i n g  by how h e r p a r e n t s  c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and c o n f u s e d  to  up  t o be a s y s t e m a n a l y s t , h e r s e c o n d  as w e l l as i n the e a r l i e r  interests  much  took  liked.  also greatly affected  job.  she  j o b a s s o o n a s i t was o f f e r e d t o h e r  e x p l o r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y  Linda's was  Consequently,  as  an o p p o r t u n i t y  to  to  abilities.  prove  exerted  her  a profound  a  fulfill  influence  job her  Her on  and d e c i s i o n s .  life  history,  especially his 82  relations  with  family, his  i s c l e a r l y an  career  from  a  values  humble  financially very  was  his  significant  decisions.  background,  not  but  his  living  as  strongly  Such a  an  ordinary  influenced was  the  allowed  him  much f r e e d o m .  He  expense  of  his parent's concerns, to plan  Michael's  has  life  for  of  parents prevented  his  also for  independence.  provided  him  could  for his  been q u i t e  struggle  Linda,  Although him  he  family  protected  almost always t r i e d  factor that  Although his  h i s t o r y b e c a u s e he  family.  Like  than hers.  t o make a  occupational in  and  stronger  hard  Michael  equally  and  deal  to  father  worked  his  father's  and  even though  smooth, e x c e p t the  excessive  of  on  struggle  between  gaining  more  i n d e p e n d e n c e and  his  family.  t o be  the  habit  i n charge Therefore,  of  of  his  he  life  His  disgust  prevented  him  from  ever  Canada,  toward  of  While  more  as  not  risks  h i s parents to share  83  He  it  paying by  the  losing  the  he  already he  attitude  a  upon man  and  Even when he cease.  his  wanted  independence.  reliance  himself  the  parents  own,  frustrated  love-hate his  dependency.  h i s dependency d i d  arrival  his  of  i s shown i n h i s c a s e h i s t o r y  contemplated  from t h i s  very  gaining  accepting  evidence  seriously  departing  the  no  by  the  protection  upon h i s p a r e n t s ,  developed a  himself.  However,  relying  status  for  s u p p o r t , e.g.  He  developed  his  son  future.  abroad.  from  youngest  a f f o r d t o change a t  studies  support  be  worker,  his  continual  was  came  seemed  privileged  from d e c i d i n g  with a great  also  banking  by only  shaped  still  towards family worth. that  he  benefits  of  emigrated  to  waited  h i s mortgage so  that  for he  could  make a c a r e e r c h a n g e .  change  h i s c a r e e r , he  unfailing  support  Immediate immediate more  than  in getting but  exploratory  visit  on  her  The  the  Not  i n f o r m a t i o n from  had her  no  t h e a c t of  alien  country,  both  of which e v i d e n t l y caused  also  had  she  supporting  her  When benefit her  limited. affected  i t was  with  her  to  different  the  to talk  Hence she sources  of  L i n d a was  social  her  of  any  her  already  settle  in  great the  did  not  have  c o u l d she  rely  network  i n Canada  was  with  an  anxiety  burden  to  make  in  her  parents.  b a c k , as she  had  She  learned  b e c a u s e she  quite limited  was  even  upon  was  believed  in  afraid  the  quite  friendships  t h e r e f o r e i t became d i f f i c u l t  was  and  Nor  ability  dealing for of  in learning  her being about  I n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r s . g l a d t h a t she  i n Canada b e c a u s e she  growing  work  time.  parents.  relationship  bad  same  more o f  i n Canada, she  many f r i e n d s h i p s  While occupation  her  p a r e n t s , and  develop  rejected.  well,  her  that  her  b e c a u s e her  As by  from  home town and  to shoulder  settled  of h e l p  friends  t o l e a v e her  f a m i l y a t the  Linda  Canadian  immigration  had  be lack  t o Canada a l s o d i d n o t a s s u r e While  to  she  friends  t h a t she  her,  to  Linda's  only did  meant  for  of  c a r e e r c h o i c e seemed  facilitative.  opportunities.  chose  continuous,  impact  a j o b b e c a u s e she  the  on  i f he  parents.  Context;  context  experience,  career  his  Social  restrictive  confidence  c o u l d always count  from  social  T h e r e f o r e , even  b u r d e n of her  was  r o l e s as  84  could continue familiar  with  breadwinner,  the the wife  same work, and  full-time offering her  professional support,  feeling  interests  t h a t she  or  to  p r e c i s e l y any  one  On and  great  deal  instance,  the  these  instrumental in  than  Since both  to  culture  the  out,  s i n c e an  hand  contacts  values,  social  The  not  only  of  new  of  also  adaptation  He  both  as  revealed,  f o r him  to f i n d  These  various  also  from  benefited  to in  a for  by  one  of  a  job  was  supports have  more  fostering  a  security.  of t h e  immigrants,  process  new  value Kim  t h e y would  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . system  and  (1979) has  aptly  a hew  experience also  environment the  effects  suggested  85  that  and  also They  accept  i m m i g r a n t would c o n t i n u o u s l y engages  (1937)  the  h i s w i f e a s w e l l as  a c a r e e r , but  c o u n t r y . As  with  On  receive  i n a l l o w i n g him  s u b j e c t s were new pains  allowed  his preparation for  i n t r o d u c e d t o him  pressure  her.  different  interests.  networks  job being  choosing  he/she may  Stonequist  from  more  to  context  f a m i l y i n Canada.  face a completely of the  social  could  that for Linda.  much s t r o n g e r s e n s e  experience  support  from  were  flexibility  immediate  left  or  quite  of  career  important  c o n t r a r y , was  hand, he  extended  far less  for Linda  job,  t o make h i s p r o c e s s  other  customers.  A  very  w i t h Canada and  and  thus  had  the  helped  by h i s t h i r d  former  definitely  His  emotional  relatives  fields.  in exploring his career  mobility  financial  his  on  hand, h i s f a m i l i a r i t y  smoother.  other  thus  case,  context  Instead  l i t t l e chance t o pursue her  explore  more f r e e d o m  downward  his  had  t h a t of L i n d a ' s .  him  overwhelmed h e r .  immediate s o c i a l  j o b , was  Michael's from  the  almost  the  pointed in  first-  confronts  new  of m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n . immigrants  become  confused,  disoriented  adapt  a new  to  and  f r u s t r a t e d because they  environment.  T h e r e f o r e , Linda  might a l s o have experienced these d i f f i c u l t i e s of  acculturation,  judgment  in  which would hamper t h e i r  building  social  community s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r Character Context: in  decision  work,  making.  Linda's  connections  While  i s another  spared  was  passive  effort She was  keep  mouth shut and withdraw  process  and  she was  exploring  crucial  and  Linda's  obedient.  even  to  from  any  performance.  She  but  avoid  she any  rather  Being a p a s s i v e person  and  became because  also  desire  her  for  security  professional  she  have  personal  values  At the same time, she was  Such a c h a r a c t e r t r a i t  an  identity.  took her work s e r i o u s l y i n order  under c o n t r o l .  practical.  As  confrontation.  p r e f e r a b l e , s t r a t e g y f o r her  passivity  making,  her  s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by her  i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y her i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and  things  in  a l s o s e v e r e l y threatened by the idea t h a t  could maintain her w e l l - b e i n g and  decision  context  up i n a f a m i l y t h a t favored boys  might be l e f t a l o n e .  acceptable,  and  t r a i n e d not to t a l k back; she p r e f e r r e d to  been brought  than g i r l s , she  i n the  motivation  i n p l e a s i n g them by t r y i n g  conflict.  Having  Michael  In order to seek approval from her parents,  no  her  and  competent and c o n f i d e n t  mentioned e a r l i e r , her c h a r a c t e r was upbringing.  to  job hunting.  Character  behavior  have  to  also  i s , of course, r e l a t e d  and get very to  the working c l a s s s t a t u s of her f a m i l y and her r e a l i z a t i o n of the  significance  of  financial  86  stability.  But,  more  importantly, as  well  p r a c t i c a b i l i t y promises her a degree of  as  a  conservative case,  the  Canada  sense  of  security.  She  was  control  thus  and r e l u c t a n t t o change than M i c h a e l . availability  clearly  of a job as a  r e i n f o r c e d her  systems  practical  more  In  this  analyst  and  in  conservative  character. In c o n t r a s t , Michael's that  of  Linda.  optimistic.  He  Like  c h a r a c t e r was l e s s p r a c t i c a l  tended  to  be  more  L i n d a , he was q u i t e  than  "romantic"  passive  and  toward  his  f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y h i s wife and parents, and p r e f e r r e d not to argue with them i n order t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t s . youngest  son i n the f a m i l y , he was much more i d e a l i s t i c  optimistic try  As the only and  about l i f e  and  than Linda because he could a f f o r d  d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s without  worrying  to  as much about the  consequences. While  Michael  appeared  to  be  very  i n d e c i s i v e because of the c o n t i n u a l support parents,  he  had  made a s u b s t a n t i a l  himself and to c r e a t e a new s e l f . was a l s o p a r t l y instrumental his  career  reveal  i n Canada.  his  beliefs,  he  Practicality idealism  to  has  understand  His w i l l i n g n e s s to  i n m o t i v a t i n g him t o  and  P a r t l y due to the i n f l u e n c e of developed an urge t o  romanticism  aspect  of l i f e .  first  as  change  reconsider  help  a  need  his  have b l i n d e d him  other  As a r e s u l t , he explored  t e c h n i c a l drawer, then as  87  to  the  a v a r i e t y of a  also for  religious  i s , t h e r e f o r e , not a q u a l i t y of M i c h a e l ' s .  and  a  effort  generosity  and  and care from h i s  His enthusiasm i n h e l p i n g others  kindheartedness,  recognition.  dependent  salesman,  people. His harsher jobs, before  becoming an  E n g l i s h as  considering  i n e a c h c a s e whether t h e  help  other  made  their  conduct the  career  has of  Chinese  context  choices.  of  above. also  behavioral  In t h e  values  and  issues  norms of s o c i a l  Mei  indicates  the  (1967) has  i n the  strong  traditional  family  ahead  parents.  analyst  sacrifice  of  in  self  husband's o b j e c t i v e s . w h i c h m i g h t be her  out,  own.  family.  Canada c a n interest  wife  conflicts  the  development  of  already way,  role  been  Chinese and  obligation  role  has  as  best  so  which  culture.  is  defined required  interests  simply  same r e s p e c t  of  becomes that  she  d e c i s i o n t o work as be  interpreted  to  help  consider l o n g as  between she  88  the  husband  Linda's  d i d not  A wife  is  daughter  been w e l l  t o put  i n order  a v a i l a b l e t o her  The  family,  women i n C h i n e s e  Her  Therefore,  She  Chinese  expectations  Linda's  husband and  of her  is  Five Cardinal Relationships,  bias against  t o her  the  the  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e deserves the  p a y s t o her systems  to  subjects  sense,  have  C h i n e s e c u l t u r e , however.  subordinate  two  specific  a p t l y pointed  A r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband and  another  him  roles.  one's b e h a v i o r .  listed  the  which  determines  even  her  while  context  s t r u c t u r e of  directly  was  t o be  broadest  i n a more  in guiding  in  cultural  w i t h i n which the  But,  crucial not  The  molded t h e  some  discussed culture  teacher,  j o b would e n a b l e  i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , and  self,  As  Context:  significant  culture  (ESL)  people.  Cultural another  a Second Language  and  any  as  realize other  she  could  her  husband  a a  her  option support before  they  came to Canada arose  out of her having  concerns,  such as her s a t i s f a c t i o n with her  and  wish  her  maintain  to s t a y c l o s e to her  family  harmony  as  the  to deny her job i n Hong  parents, prime  in  a  importance.  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p r a t h e r than  relationship  a  her  Her similar  ( i n the sense of p a r t n e r s h i p with equal s t a t u s ) .  husband,  immigrate  to  husband-wife  Such a p a t t e r n of m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s has made her to  Kong  order  r e l a t i o n s h i p with her husband seems to be s t r i k i n g l y to  own  and  as best e x e m p l i f i e d  in  her  subservient agreement  to become the s o l e breadwinner of  the  to  family  when they came to Canada. Michael's prominently Chinese  role  within  specified  culture.  a f t e r the one  his  family  between the emperor and  his subordinates.  The  the most important  even  more  only  bearer  family's  to such a high place i n pecking i s to be the bearer  and  The  e l d e s t son  figure in a family.  important.  of h i s f a m i l y name, he was  p r o p e r t y and  represent  f o r him,  eagerness  to  only  He had  and  him succeed  was  the  position  was  be  the  inherit  his  His f a m i l y  had  able to  very high e x p e c t a t i o n s help  considered  As he would  the f a m i l y . yet  his  undermined  parents' his  generated a sense of dependency on h i s  learned n e i t h e r to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r anything  89  the  command  Since Michael  the youngest i n the f a m i l y , h i s  p r e s t i g i o u s and  of  should  is usually  developed  confidence  in only  prestige.  son  is  t h a t i t i s placed  of h i s whole f a m i l y , but a l s o t h a t he  only  son  I t i s so important  order suggests not o n l y t h a t a son  r e s p e c t and  only  i n the F i v e C a r d i n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s  s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e attached  honor  as  self part.  he  did  nor  to  career  take  t o change h i s l i f e .  c h o i c e s i n Canada, M i c h a e l was  freedom count was  initiative  i n e x p l o r i n g the on h i s f a m i l y and  technically  t h e one  dependency enabled The indeed  impact  t o change  of Chinese  Michael  were t h e y t r a i n e d  their  r e s p e c t f o r the e l d e r s ,  voice  their  unjustly. by  Chinese  child  authority. in  order  (1985), rearing  preferred  our  importance was  felt  two  Hence t h e i r t o them as  w h i c h t h e y had  they  (1985), the  to  As  subjects, i n order  and  show  by  respect  for  90  parents  obedience,  appeared  improper  harmony  to  break  behavior  because t h e i r  f a m i l y and in their  in  they of the  Chinese  secondary  main  concern  r e s p e c t the youth.  not  i n the  that  c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s were o n l y of  internalized  the that  to m a i n t a i n the  individuals,  to  suggest  indicated  the m o t i v a t i o n as  Not  them.  clearly it  is  treated  s u b j e c t s obeyed t h e i r from  his  both  silent.  collaborated  stress  approval  regarded  that  were  he  Linda.  subjects  back as a means  Bond  practice  t o m a i n t a i n harmony i n t h e i r  rules  two  than  t h e y were a l s o d i s c o u r a g e d  N e i t h e r had  norm, w h i c h would be  still  because  to find  emphasizes compliance  self-sacrifice  families.  culture.  to t a l k  or s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e . of  more  could  him  our  coincidental  K i n g and  l o v e and  culture  choices  on  b e h a v i o r , w h i c h was  to secure  independence career  not  In s h o r t , our  Chinese  their  Hsu  He  j o b s more e a s i l y  o p i n i o n s even when t h e y Their  research  liked.  f a v o r e d the v a l u e of r e m a i n i n g  only  his  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough,  culture  I t i s not  making  a b l e t o have  h i s wife to support i n charge.  him  compelling.  L i n d a and  o p t i o n s he  thus  In  same  As  well,  reflect  the  "face." pride not  be  family.  who  degraded the  of the  enhanced  Those  cause the and  from  expected  to consider the  Both decision  doing  Linda  pattern.  social  context, she  could  Michael's  Hong  teaching others While  appeared  this  not  endorsed  family  own  family  to  is  greatly maintain  Linda  and were  families,  followed  c a s e , her cultural  their  context,  changes  in  all  have e x e r c i s e d  as  In  authority refused  change the  and  suggested  career. the  taken  f a c t o r s must a l s o be  different  history,  her  p e r s o n a l i t y and  spouses's  a  personal  outweigh h i s p r e r o g a t i v e  other  members.  of t h e i r  with  s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r e must be case,  supposed  They  i n C h i n e s e c u l t u r e , and  his passive  decent  interests.  complied  could  and  matter,  is  wanted.  reputation  make any he  they  to  maintaining  restrained  though each  as  for  Kong, w h i c h would t h e n c a u s e no  career,  the  well  case, while  o f a h u s b a n d , as leave  as  family  need t o s u p p o r t and  jobs  Michael  In L i n d a ' s  of  i n the  family  the  their  immigrate,  career  that  whatever  and  demands  "face"  the  first  respect  efforts in finding  "face"  The  of  a  well  attached  e f f o r t s of a l l f a m i l y  l o s s of  e x p e n s e of  to  The  might  families  r e g a r d e d as  parents'  discredited.  job  them t o b r i n g  Their  joint  "face"  decent  their  j o b was  their  the  Michael  in  A  family.  by  collective  even a t  that  i n d i v i d u a l one.  "face"  of a  parents expected  were t o p l e a s e  the to  the  j u s t an  pursuit  importance  Their  to  jobs  their  to  in  his  support  from  a into  weighed  husband. account in  our  analysis. The  above d i s c u s s i o n  suggests 91  that  both  the  conflict  model  and r a t i o n a l  useful  framework  subjects.  are  these  the  insufficient which  t o comprehend  While  understanding  models of L i n d a  in their  prevent  two models m a i n t a i n  ignore  While  the  consider  role  Michael,  both  and t h e y  of t h e i r  two  families.  Rather,  harmony) t a c i t l y their  stress  chief  rationality  regrets  unanticipated  or  models  others,  they  satisfaction  own  self  which  do  as  the  most  Linda  and  interests  interests  manner a s p r o p o s e d goal  as  top  for  the  never  by  (e.g.  used  not  evidently  However,  had a c l e a r  an  ignoring  From  the  the case  isolated  related  character,  of the r a t i o n a l  on t h e s y s t e m a t i c  hence  uniqueness.  closely  processes  T h e i r d e c i s i o n making s t y l e s  they  are  these family  justifications  a l r e a d y chosen d i r e c t i o n .  making,  simply  they  The  that only  g u i d i n g them and s i m p l y  A n o t h e r weakness their  in  choice  their  f o l l o w e d the step-by-step  models.  useless  making.  not t o p l a c e t h e i r sacrificed  our  at a quality  significant and  a  of  personal  i n d e c i s i o n making.  tended  not  two d e c i s i o n making  needs  factors  priority  really  of  individual  important  sake  these  provide  and M i c h a e l ,  decision  post-decisional  to  behavior  are  t o e x p l a i n t h e complex and involved  setbacks.  fail  the c a r e e r  e n s u r e t h a t one would a r r i v e  would  for  two  behavior  arguments of these can  d e c i s i o n making model  to  culture  event. their and  and c o n f l i c t  procedures  used  significance  histories,  92  social  decision  were  not  in  fact  were  past  is  individual  the c h o i c e s  history,  immediate  in  of  Their decisions life  models  experience,  context.  These  various  contexts  direction conflict  in  have a l m o s t  preconditioned  d e c i s i o n making.  models p l a c e  strong  Further,  emphasis  the  rather  among  than o n l y  instance, consider  one's e m o t i o n ,  i s subject  cognition  and  and  Linda  both recognized  change and e x p e r i e n c e d  models a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t  which  are  indeed  in explaining  more complex and  narrow a t t e n t i o n t o but a l i m i t e d When Sloan's  compared approach  understanding  decisions. in  a  and  conflict  the reasons  models  particular,  they  factor.  Perhaps  Western  culture,  individuality  fail do  for their  they  place  and r a t i o n a l i t y ,  to  these  decisions, instead  rational  models,  perspective  of  The  provide  the  making,  he  contexts  a vantage The  point  rational  any of the c o n t e x t s .  two too  rather  account models much  in  following  four  choices.  into  these  need  and  decision  of c o n t e x t s .  to consider  because  and fresh  examining  not take  For  In s h o r t ,  their  Instead  i n t h e two c a s e h i s t o r i e s  understand  to the  focus.  provides  the importance  to  side  disturbances  personal,  the c o n f l i c t  indeed  approach  highlighted identified  with  one's  traditional  and  behavior,  the  emotional  b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . two  rational  t h e c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t s .  Michael career  career  on t h e m e c h a n i c a l  o f human f u n c t i o n i n g . However, human n a t u r e interaction  their  the are  In  cultural based  on  emphasis  on  than c o l l e c t i v i t y  and  emotions. The in  deciding-in-context  examining  emphasizes  decisions.  the p o s s i b i l i t y  model u s e s c o n t e x t s  It  allows  more  of understanding 93  as the  flexibility one's  key and  decision  from  one's own  p o i n t of v i e w . T h i s model h e l p s  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e regarding Linda's less  self and  picture  deception  Michael's  predetermined  relationships from  with  satisfying regarded  argued  t h a t money has  The  two  clearly situation  The  that  and  was  addresses  that  decision. decision choice our  they  With  and  needs.  lowest  priority.  this  was  one's  important  controlled  by  aspect  rational the  and  e x p l a i n e d by  career  job.  finding  Sloan  awareness. higher for  a  the  their the  better  awareness  of  w i l l i n g n e s s to  be  of  both  either  steps  alternatives interests.  94  can  financial  the  Linda  of  searching  t h a t would b e s t On  the  and  conflict  making model b e c a u s e t h e y  sequential  selecting  in  spouses.  career behavior  decision  we  knowledge,  l a c k of s e l f  c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r  fully  her  reasons  of  be  case,  of s e l f  the  Sloan  behavior.  h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f , the  However t h e  were  element  t o s t a y i n t h e same  understand  parents  interests  In L i n d a ' s  important  them  In a d d i t i o n ,  a greater p o s s i b i l i t y  cannot  individual  Their self  making.  subordinate  spouses which kept  self  the  i n f o r m a t i o n and  by  i n c r e a s e o f one's  conclude,  undertake  and  a p r o f o u n d . e f f e c t on  will  the  by t h e i r  model or t h e  their  parents  knows a b o u t  maker has  dominated  not  authority  compelled  subjects further  Michael  or  she  f o r him/her.  To  more  the v e r y  more a p e r s o n  chance  c a s e s . T h e i r d e c i s i o n s were  one's d e c i s i o n  find  argument in  own  the  i n d e c i d i n g seems t o  other approaches skipped  explaining  also  as  Sloan's  a  true  their  almost  depict  be  by  their  of one's c h o i c e .  us  contrary,  did for serve the  impact on  of d i f f e r e n t  career  c h o i c e s , which  sacrifices, life  decisions  their  in  parents  and in  calculation of  each  As a  life  decisions  comprehended  contexts  w i t h i n which  harmony  Canada have been s h a p e d interest,  alternative.  and  they  career not so  by t h e c o n t e x t s  their  contexts.  95  they  career  f o r meaning i n  derived  their  with  their  choices  after  much  and  by  their  implications  choices  w i t h i n which they  by t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  career  i n a c u l t u r e which  preferences,  Rather,  examining the  relations  I n sum, t h e i r  personal  their  search  and u n i t y ,  p r i m a r i l y from t h e i r  of s e l f  that  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n  histories  and  without  I t seems e v i d e n t  result  spouses.  p r i m a r i l y shaped  and p e r s o n a l  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  familial  meaning  arriving  made.  were a l s o  lives.  stresses  and o t h e r  were  traits  l e d t o compromises,  c a n n o t be f u l l y  histories  behaviors  character  attached  have  been  made  their  to  these  CHAPTER VI: According rationality choices. out  decision  making  factor in  information  g a t h e r i n g and  making  to  t h a t can be learned through continuous  making. study,  to  make  carry careful  practice  might  be even more important  in  This  history  shaping  be and  guidelines.  on the c o n t r a r y , has r e v e a l e d t h a t l i f e  contexts  quality  D e c i s i o n making i s thus widely b e l i e v e d to  improved by f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c u l a r steps and study,  theories,  R a t i o n a l i t y i s understood as the a b i l i t y  extensive  skill  mainstream  i s the most important  calculations. a  to  Conclusion  and  decision  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n w i l l d i s c u s s the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s the  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r immigrant l i f e and  counseling  and  the recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Limitations gJL t h i s Study This  study  since t h i s of  two  i s an  has  s e v e r a l obvious  recent Hong Kong immigrants i n Canada,  other comparable groups. analysis  First,  i n t e n s i v e case study of the career d e c i s i o n s  cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to a l l new  of cases  limitations.  findings  immigrants from Hong Kong or  While t h i s study has  of the career behavior  its  of two  offered a r i c h  s u b j e c t s , the  number  i s too small to generate u n i v e r s a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  Second, applicable  the to  conclusions  all  of t h i s study  immigrants.  For  might  instance,  not  there  be are  s e v e r a l types  of immigrants from Hong Kong, namely investment  immigrants,  independent  immigrants.  The  independent and  two  category,  c u l t u r a l contexts  immigrants,  and  s u b j e c t s of t h i s study but the  family are  reunion from  i n t e r p l a y of p e r s o n a l ,  i n the career d e c i s i o n making of  96  the  social other  types  of  immigrants  immigrants another might  from  set have  might  other  be  quite  varied.  c o u n t r i e s , they may  of s o c i a l and  political  a d i f f e r e n t impact on  be  for  motivated  factors,  their  As  which  by  again  subsequent  career  a testing  ground  behavior. F i n a l l y , while t h i s study has for  provided  three major t h e o r i e s of d e c i s i o n making, i t i s  t h a t f u r t h e r research  is  needed i n order  to a r r i v e at a more  d e f i n i t e assessment of these d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s . theories not  might apply b e t t e r  i n others,  provides  that  first  rationality.  as  and  f o r Immigrant L i f e and  and  making Rather,  is  not  decision  the contexts  but  immigrants  better  Once  individuals  Counselling  entirely making  decisions learn  a  is  w i t h i n which one  bound  decision,  self  as  awareness. they  the c r i t e r i a t h a t  used i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r c h o i c e s .  of life  Therefore,  themselves,  become more aware of t h e i r needs and  by  is  in helping i n d i v i d u a l s  i s to enhance t h e i r more about  product  makes a  cases of t h i s study.  argued, a more e f f e c t i v e way  make  be  decisions  foremost i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h  suggested by the two  Sloan has  these  only a p a r t i a l t e s t of these t h e o r i e s .  decision  history  i n some types of  Since  t h i s study of career d e c i s i o n s of  Implications The  apparent  In t h i s way  will should  they  may  e x e r c i s e b e t t e r judgment i n d e c i d i n g . Therefore, self  c o u n s e l l o r s should  understanding  specific,  technical  rather  than  guidelines  97  help c l i e n t s gain simply  in  teach  making  better  them  decisions,  some as  stipulated  by  models.  the  The  r a t i o n a l and  need  for  particularly  acute  emotionally  overwhelmed  frustrated Since  by  they  greater  f o r new  develop  support and  assistance  making  understanding  the  alien  and  may  be  confidence i n a  new  and  instability.  need to r e - e s t a b l i s h  from c o u n s e l l o r s  is  environment  disorientation  have a s t r o n g and  self  decision  immigrants because they  by  a sense of  identities  conflict  their  self-  society,  the  would be p a r t i c u l a r l y  urgent. Second,  while  only two  immigrants from Hong  Kong  analyzed here, t h i s study suggests that c o u n s e l l i n g well-recognized culture.  For  service instance,  for  people  from  a  are  i s not  non-Western  c o u n s e l l i n g seems to be at odds  with  the a u t h o r i t a r i a n , m o r a l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n of the Chinese 1985;  Hsu,  1985).  obligation,  familial  underlining  in  other  aware  that  cultures. the  psychological  face.  individual  counselling  As a r e s u l t ,  promotion  of  c o n f l i c t not  t h e i r c l i e n t s and  counsellors traits  many  of  harmony,  Therefore  the  autonomy  approaches  in  counsellors  and Western people  should  i n d i v i d u a l i t y might  t h e i r f a m i l y members.  In  should be more s e n s i t i v e to the s p e c i a l  be  cause  only f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s , but  of t h e i r c l i e n t s before suggesting any  (Ho,  mutual  might c o n t r a d i c t the deep-rooted values of  from  between  s o l i d a r i t y and  assumption  independence countries  Chinese c u l t u r e values  a  also short,  cultural  interventions  to cope with t h e i r problems. T h i r d , t h i s study a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t s o c i a l networks a u s e f u l channel f o r h e l p i n g  people. 98  For  instance,  are  t h i s case  study  shows that the Chinese have a s t r o n g tendency t o  upon  s o c i a l networks, such as f a m i l y members and  to cope with p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems. attention should  to  the uniqueness  of  Therefore,  rely  relatives,  while paying  individuals,  counsellors  s e n s i t i z e themselves t o s o c i a l networks which might be  extremely  useful  t o c l i e n t s from  f a m i l i a l and other  social  cultures  that  emphasize  connections.  RQCQmmen^tlQns f o r Further Research The recent offer Yet  paucity  of  research  on  career  decisions  Hong Kong immigrants i n Canada makes i t d i f f i c u l t e m p i r i c a l evidence t o support or d i s p u t e  my  s e v e r a l recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  making and c o u n s e l l i n g a r e suggested by t h i s  the  to  findings.  on  decision  study.  F i r s t , there seems t o be an urgent need f o r research  on  decision  whether  in  provides  an  Canada  or  excellent career  making  processes of  elsewhere. opportunity  choices,  decision  T h e i r choice  behavior  not o n l y t o study  but a l s o to t e s t  making.  immigrants,  further  t e s t i n g of immigrants from other needed  changes  in  theories  of  Although the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  the u s e f u l n e s s  be  major  the major  affirmed  would  among  study  of the d e c i d i n g - i n - c o n t e x t  to a s c e r t a i n  approach,  c o u n t r i e s or  the v a l i d i t y  have  areas  of d i f f e r e n t  d e c i s i o n making t h e o r i e s . Second,  t h i s study has supported Sloan's argument  that  d e c i s i o n s a r e o f t e n b a s i c a l l y deceptions caused by a lack self  understanding.  obstructed  by other  Deeper  self  awareness  is  of  often  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l  99  factors.  Hence  examining  how  shaped  these  decision  highlighted In  further  upon  countries,  should  d i f f e r e n t contexts  behavior.  concentrate in  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  the c r u c i a l r o l e of c u l t u r e  view of the  mostly  research  deciding this  research  experience  in decision  on the  collected  have  study  has  making.  f a c t that d e c i s i o n making t h e o r i e s are empirical  on  based  in  Western  importance of c u l t u r e i n  decision  making should deserve much more s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n . F i n a l l y , studies  on the a p p r o p r i a t e  type of  intervention  i n h e l p i n g Chinese immigrants would a l s o be v a l u a b l e .  These  s t u d i e s would improve the a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s assist  t h e i r newly a r r i v e d c l i e n t s  environment.  The  various  them, the  Western  i n a b i l i t y of many Hong Kong immigrants  i n t e g r a t e smoothly w i t h i n the in  i n adapting to a  l o c a l community, as  kinds of c o n f l i c t s and  for  misunderstanding  b e t t e r c o u n s e l l i n g of t h i s  ethnic  to  manifested between  t e s t i f i e s to the urgency of t h i s type of research need  to  and  group  in  importance  of  Canada. In life  sum,  t h i s study has  h i s t o r y and  d e c i s i o n making contexts  career  decision  making.  career  decisions  of two  not  simply  decisions  involve involve  a f f e c t e d by  recent  choices  in  understanding  indicated  that  the  immigrants from Hong Kong about  jobs.  Rather,  a much more complicated process  R a t i o n a l i t y has  their that  is  personal  always been i d e n t i f i e d  element i n d e c i s i o n making 100  do  experiences, t h e i r s o c i a l ,  f a m i l y backgrounds, as w e l l as other  characteristics. key  This work has  t h e i r e a r l y childhood  f i n a n c i a l , and  the  underscored the  by  dominant  as  decision  making  theories,  important does  i t cannot be  f a c t o r , as maintained  psychological  helps one model.  but  regarded  stress constitute a positive factor  that  make q u a l i t y c h o i c e s ,  The r o l e of s e l f  as suggested  More a t t e n t i o n t o the impact  significant  by the c o n f l i c t  i n d e c i s i o n making, as suggested In f a c t , i t seems one a c h i e v e s ,  the p o s s i b i l i t y that one w i l l make a  behavior,  most Nor  the higher the l e v e l of s e l f understanding  decision  the  by the r a t i o n a l model.  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