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A comparison of the behavioral and attitudinal effects resulting from a pharmacologically based drug… Ducklow, Patrick Joseph 1975

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A COMPARISON OF THE  BEHAVIORAL  AND ATTITUDINAL E F F E C T S RESULTING FROM A PHARMACOLOGICALLY BASED DRUG EDUCATION  PROGRAM AND A NON-PHARMACOLOGICALLY  BASED HUMAN RELATIONSHIP  PROGRAM  by PATRICK JOSEPH DUCKLOW B.A.,  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR DEGREE OF  1971  THE  MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department o f Counselling  We  accept  required  Psychology  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  standard:  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e I f u r t h e r agree t h a t  and  study.  be  by the Head o f the Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g I t i s understood t h a t copying o r  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain without my  written  Date  Psychology  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  Vancouver, Canada  granted Psychol-  publication  s h a l l not be  permission.  Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g The  shall  permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  ogy.  the  allowed  i  ABSTRACT  A COMPARISON OP THE BEHAVIORAL AND ATTITUDINAL OUTCOMES RESULTING PROM A PHARMACOLOGICALLY BASED DRUG EDUCATION PROGRAM AND A NON-PHARMACOLOGICALLY BASED HUMAN RELATIONSHIP PROGRAM  The  purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was  to  determine  e m p i r i c a l l y whether o r not a p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program r e s u l t s i n a change i n the r e c i p i e n t ' s b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs. t h i s r e s e a r c h was  A further objective of  t o determine  e m p i r i c a l l y whether o r  not a n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program r e s u l t s i n a change i n the r e c i p i e n t ' s  behavior  and a t t i t u d e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs. ing  A c o n c e p t u a l model f o r drug e d u c a t i o n  f o u r components was The  also  utiliz-  developed.  sample c o n s i s t e d o f 284 grade e i g h t boy-s^ and  g i r l s i n one Vancouver* than o n e - h a l f were experimental and more than were c o n t r o l . groups,  Of the 117 students i n the  fifty-five  students, i n two  one-haIf  experimental  s e x u a l l y segregated  c l a s s groupings, were i n v o l v e d i n the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program. two  Sixty-two students i n  s e x u a l l y segregated c l a s s groupings were i n v o l v e d i n  the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p  ii program.  The c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t i n g o f 167  received  t h e n o r m a l g u i d a n c e and s t u d y b l o c k  which d i d not i n c l u d e  any form o f drug  A drug behavior q u e s t i o n n a i r e  c o n t r o l group design.  t o the use o f both  as  The consisted  reference  discussions data.  t o be e v a l u a t i v e  c a n be  taken  based drug education  information  t o drugs. program  of basic  transmitted  paper and p e n c i l a c t i v i t i e s ,  by  video-  large  and pamphlets a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e b a s i c  group  cognitive  The n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d human r e l a t i o n s h i p  program c o n s i s t e d structured  of fifteen,  one h o u r s e s s i o n s  e x p e r i e n c e s and c o g n i t i v e  several psychological  of  l e a r n i n g and was  systems o f t h o u g h t .  This  p r e m a t u r e l y t e r m i n a t e d a t t h e end o f t h e f o u r t h In t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a ,  yielded  at  on t h e  differential  o f t h i r t e e n , one h o u r s e s s i o n s  tape productions,  the  scores  central  t o the concepts r e l a t i n g  pharmacologically  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l and l e g a l  was  i s that  -  i n d i c a n t s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s a c t u a l b e h a v i o r and  attitudes with  on  attitude  f o r the pretest  o r the semantic  s c a l e s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d  education.  An a s s u m p t i o n  instruments  behavior questionnaire  programs  and a d r u g  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l were d e v e l o p e d postest  students  the basic data  the H o t e l l i n g  f o r the t h i r t y - e i g h t  drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e  program session.  routine variables of  and a s t u d e n t t  t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was  based  employed  statistic  i n determining  iii  between-group e q u i v a l a n c e and t h e n u l l hypotheses at p o s t e s t .  measured  The A l b e r t a General F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program  y i e l d e d t h e b a s i c data f o r t h e drug a t t i t u d e  semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l and one-way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were employed on emerging concept  s t r u c t u r e s i n determining p r e t e s t  between-group e q u i v a l e n c e and t h e n u l l hypotheses at p o s t e s t .  measured  M i s s i n g data from t h e instruments were not  scored a t p r e t e s t n o r a t p o s t e s t and i t a f f e c t e d none o f the  computations. The  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug education program  yielded n o n - s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the measured v a r i a b l e s from t h e drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a non-systematic  mean d i f f e r e n c e e f f e c t as compared  w i t h t h e c o n t r o l group a t p o s t e s t .  The n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y  based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program y i e l d e d  non-statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e measured v a r i a b l e s from the drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a s y s t e m a t i c and n e g a t i v e (decrease) mean d i f f e r e n c e e f f e c t as compared w i t h t h e c o n t r o l group a t p o s t e s t .  There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e treatment  recipients'  drug-  u s i n g and a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t t i t u d e s as measured by the p o s t e s t drug a t t i t u d e semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l between t h e  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program, t h e nonp h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program and the c o n t r o l group.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y Based Drug E d u c a t i o n Prog ram Non-Pharmacologically Based Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Program II.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE Related Research D e s c r i p t i v e Research Toronto Drug Survey London, O n t a r i o Drug Survey H a l i f a x Drug Survey M o n t r e a l Drug Survey B r i t i s h Columbia Drug Survey Ottawa Drug Survey Vancouver Drug Survey Research Hypotheses  III.  RESEARCH DESIGN  2 4 7 7 20 20 21 22 22 24 24 26 28 29  Sample  29  Instruments  30  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Programs  31  P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y Based Drug E d u c a t i o n Program  32  Non-Pharmacologically Based Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Program  IV. V.  33  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Instruments  35  S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures  37  RESULTS INTERPRETATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS  40 62  V  Hypothesis  1  62  Hypothesis  2  65  Hypothesis  3  66  Hypothesis 4  66  R a t i o n a l e f o r Premature T e r m i n a t i o n o f Treatment B, The Non-Pharmaco l o g i c a l l y Based Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Program  69  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Research  72  A Conceptual Model f o r Drug E d u c a t i o n  75  BIBLIOGRAPHY  81  APPENDIX A: P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y Based Drug E d u c a t i o n Program  89  APPENDIX B:  Non-Pharmacologically  Based  Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Program APPENDIX C:  Drug Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  APPENDIX D: Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic Differential APPENDIX Et T a b u l a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s from Drug Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  124 250 253 259  APPENDIX F: T a b u l a t i o n o f Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  282  APPENDIX G: I n s t r u c t i o n t o A d m i n i s t r a t o r s of t h e Drug Behavior Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t  293  vi  LIST OP TABLES TABLE I.  II.  III.  IV.  V.  VI.  VII.  PAGE Treatment Group A and C o n t r o l group D i f f erences Between P r e t e s t Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s  41  Treatment Group B and C o n t r o l group D i f f erences Between P r e t e s t Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s  43  Treatment Group A and Treatment Group B D i f f e r e n c e s Between P r e t e s t Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s  45  One-way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e from Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t P r e t e s t f o r Concept S t r u c t u r e One (Drug-using Anti-establishment Cluster)  47  One-way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e from Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l at P r e t e s t f o r Concept S t r u c t u r e Two (Non Drug-using, Establishment Cluster)  47  Treatment Group A and C o n t r o l group D i f f erences Between Postest Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s  49  Treatment Group A D i f f e r e n c e s Between Pret e s t and Postest Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s  51  V I I I . Treatment Group B and C o n t r o l group D i f f erences Between P o s t e s t Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s IX.  X.  53  Treatment Group B D i f f e r e n c e s Between Pret e s t and P o s t e s t Means on S e l e c t e d Drug V a r i a b l e s  55  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and Numbers o f Respondents From Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Concept S t r u c t u r e s One and Two  57  vii TABLE XI.  XII.  PAGE One-Way A n a l y s i s o f Variance from Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t Postest f o r Concept S t r u c t u r e One (Drug-using, A n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t Cluster)  58  One-Way A n a l y s i s o f Variance from Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t Postest f o r Concept S t r u c t u r e Two (Non Drug-Using, Establishment Cluster)  60  viii LIST OP TABLES APPENDIX E TABLE  PAGE  I.  Vancouver Drug Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  II.  Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n ( V a r i a b l e 1) f o r Treatment Groups A,B and C o n t r o l a t P r e t e s t and Postest  261  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ( V a r i a b l e 2) f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t P r e t e s t and Postest  262  Drug Involvement P o s i t i o n Statements ( V a r i a b l e 3) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  263  Incidence o f A l c o h o l ( V a r i a b l e 4) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  264  Incidence o f Amphetamines ( V a r i a b l e 5) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  265  Incidence o f B a r b i t u r a t e s ( V a r i a b l e 6) at P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  266  III.  IV.  V.  VI.  VII.  Variable List  V I I I . Incidence o f Cocaine ( V a r i a b l e 7) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l IX.  259  267  Incidence o f H a l l u c i n o g e n s ( V a r i a b l e 8) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  268  Incidence o f Inhalants ( V a r i a b l e 9) at P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  269  Incidence o f Marijuana o r Hashish ( V a r i a b l e 10) a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  270  Incidence o f Opiates ( V a r i a b l e 11) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  271  X I I I . Incidence o f Tobacco ( V a r i a b l e 12) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  272  X.  XI.  XII.  ix TABLE XIV.  XV.  XVI.  PAGE Summary o f Incidence o f Drug V a r i a b l e s 4 to 12 f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t P r e t e s t and Postest  273  Presence o f Drugs not I n c l u d i n g A l c o h o l o r Tobacco a t S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g s i n Two Months P r i o r t o T e s t i n g ( V a r i a b l e 14) a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  274  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Drugs not I n c l u d i n g A l c o h o l o r Tobacco ( V a r i a b l e 15) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and Control  275  XVII. P a r e n t a l Awareness o f Drug Use not I n c l u d i n g Alcohol and Tobacco ( V a r i a b l e 16) a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  276  XVIII. R a t i o n a l e f o r Drug Use by Drug Users and NortDrug Users (Why They B e l i e v e Users Use Drugs) Not I n c l u d i n g A l c o h o l and Tobacco ( V a r i a b l e 17) a t P r e t e s t and Poste s t f o r Treatment Groups A, B and Control  277  XIX.  XX.  XXI.  R a t i o n a l e f o r Stopping Drug Use by Ex-Drug Users (Mark as Many as Apply) ( V a r i a b l e 20) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  278  Drug Education Programs ( V a r i a b l e 21) at Pret e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  279  E v a l u a t i o n o f Drug Education Programs (Vari a b l e 22) a t P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  280  XXII. Drug Information Desired ( V a r i a b l e 23) a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l  281  X  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I.  II.  PAGE  Concept S t r u c t u r e One (Drug-Using, A n t i Establishment C l u s t e r ) Means From Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l a t P r e t e s t and P o s t e s t f o r Two Concept S t r u c t u r e o f the Domain.  59  Concept S t r u c t u r e Two (Non Drug-Using, Establishment C l u s t e r ) Means from Drug A t t i t u d e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l f o r Treatment Groups A, B and C o n t r o l at P r e t e s t and Postest f o r Two Concept S t r u c t u r e o f the Domain.  61  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. John F r i e s e n f o r h i s u n s t i n t i n g h e l p i n t h e d e v e l opment o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n programs and the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the research p r o j e c t ;  t o Dr. John M c N e i l l  f o r h i s many hours i n c r e a t i n g the pharmacological intervention;  t o Dr. Stephen F o s t e r f o r h i s pat-  i e n t guidance i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l and computer a n a l yses;  t o Dr. Robert Tolsma f o r h i s c a r e f u l read-  ings o f t h e manuscripts;  t o Mr. Ian Franks f o r  h i s communication e x p e r t i s e ;  t o Mr. Mark Hoffman  and Mr. E r i c Bojeson f o r t h e i r encouragementi«and aid;  t o the Vancouver School Board f o r t h e i r  m i s s i o n and support  f o r the research intervention;  t o t h e s t a f f and students and  finally,  per-  o f the school  involved;  t o my w i f e C a r o l e who b e l i e v e s i n me.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Survey r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d  a marked i n c r e a s e i n  youth involvement w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs 1969,  1970; Stennett and Peenstron,  Laforest, 1970).  1969; R u s s e l l ,  (Smart,  1969; Whitehead, 1969;  1970, 1971; Halpern and Mori,  The response o f s o c i e t y t o t h e i n c r e a s e d drug  usage has been t o t e a c h "about drugs" as a p r e v e n t a t i v e measure and t h i s has r e s u l t e d uated drug e d u c a t i o n programs.  i n a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f unevalThe v a l u e o f these programs  has been a p t l y questioned by Swisher "Drug E d u c a t i o n :  (1971) i n h i s a r t i c l e ,  Pushing o r P r e v e n t i n g ? "  I t i s t h e pur-  pose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t o t e s t e m p i r i c a l l y whether o r not a p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program r e s u l t s i n a change o f the r e c i p i e n t ' s b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e w i t h r e f erence t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs.  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e r purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o t e s t  a fur-  empirically  whether o r not a n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program r e s u l t s i n a change o f t h e r e c i p i e n t ' s behavi o r and a t t i t u d e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful  drugs.  There a r e many k i n d s o f drug e d u c a t i o n programs, but all  raise s i m i l a r questions;  what i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e set-  t i n g f o r drug education, what a r e t h e l o n g - and short-term g o a l s , what i s the t a r g e t  p o p u l a t i o n f o r drug  education,  what should be taught, how should i t be taught, and who should do t h e t e a c h i n g ?  Ordinarily,  drug e d u c a t i o n i s  c a r r i e d on i n h i g h s c h o o l s and o c c a s i o n a l l y  i n elementary  -  schools.  The  -  However, the mass media o f t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o  aimed a t a home audience, tion  2  as w e l l as the f o r m a l i z e d i n s t r u c -  i n i n d u s t r y , make use o f o t h e r types o f s e t t i n g s . long term g o a l f o r drug e d u c a t i o n i s , e x p l i c i t l y o r  implicitly, drugs.  The  p r e v e n t i o n o f the abuse o f p o t e n t i a l l y harmful s h o r t term g o a l s o f t e n c o n s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g  the b a s i s f o r informed d e c i s i o n making o r f o r i n c r e a s e d understanding.  The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i s most o f t e n the  h i g h s c h o o l a d o l e s c e n t but i s , on some o c c a s i o n s , the a d u l t f a m i l y o r the p r e - a d o l e s c e n t youth. p o p u l a t i o n s may who  be drug abusers,  The t a r g e t  p o t e n t i a l drug  abusers  are u s e r s o r o c c a s i o n a l misusers, o r p o t e n t i a l  users.  drug  Drug e d u c a t i o n content i s w i d e l y v a r i e d but  usually  c o n s i s t s o f p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l and/or l e g a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  On  some o c c a s i o n s the b a s i c content has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h drugs but i n c l u d e s problem s o l v i n g , human r e l a t i o n s h i p skills,  v a l u e judgements and the l i k e .  Richards  (1970)  summarizes some o f the e x i s t i n g drug e d u c a t i o n methods: scare t a c t i c s , attainment, The  l o g i c a l argument, peer p e r s u a s i o n ,  a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n and  concept  entertainment.  i n s t r u c t o r s are o f t e n pharmacologists, m e d i c a l d o c t o r s ,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s , lawyers, policemen/  regular high school tea-  chers, o r any number o f p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g ex-drug  A.  u s e r s and  informed  parents.  P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y Based Drug E d u c a t i o n Drug e d u c a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f the t r a n s -  f e r r a l o f a l a r g e body o f h i g h l y complex and r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r ate p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , conveyed by a number o f ed-  -  3  -  u c a t i o n a l models, w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o f changing the r e c i p i e n t ' s knowledge, a t t i t u d e o r b e h a v i o r i n a d i r e c t i o n p r e v i o u s l y determined by the educator A commercial  p u b l i s h i n g house asked  (Richards, 1970).  "How  can you  fight  drug abuse most e f f e c t i v e l y ? " and answered, "By g i v i n g students the f a c t s  (Guidance A s s o c i a t e s , 1970,  LeDain Commission I n t e r i m Report city  (1970) s t a t e d :  p.l)  The  "The  capa-  o f the s o c i e t y t o l i v e w i s e l y i n a world i n which  chemicals and chemical change w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y  sig-  n i f i c a n t w i l l depend on the understanding our c i t i z e n s have o f both themselves and the e f f e c t s o f an evergrowing l i s t o f c h e m i c a l compounds.  In t h i s context, the necess-  i t y f o r e f f e c t i v e drug e d u c a t i o n i s paramount." ie ider stated,  linger-  "we a r e j u s t t o present the k i n d o f i n f o r -  mation t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e so t h a t they f i g u r e out f o r themselves how problem o f drugs  ( r e c i p i e n t s ) can  t h e y want t o approach the  (1968, p. 627)."  The optimum a n t i c i p a t e d outcome o f t h i s k i n d o f i n t e r v e n t i o n has been the e l i m i n a t i o n o f abuse and misuse o f pot e n t i a l l y harmful drugs.  T h i s may  not be the case how-  ever, and drug educators have o f t e n contented themselves w i t h improved  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r and p u p i l , i n -  creased knowledge on the p a r t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c i p i e n t , p r o f e s s i o n s o f s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d a t t i t u d e s a g a i n s t drugs, o r enjoyment o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n methodology. Drug e d u c a t i o n o f a p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l nature has not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the r e c i p i e n t ' s b e h a v i o r and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs.  attitude In f a c t ,  - 4 Halleck (1970) concludes that drug educators are the perpetrators*^ of "The Great Drug Education Hoax" and that pharma c o l o g i c a l l y based drug education programs have had the opposite  anticipated e f f e c t .  In t h i s regard, Stuart and  Schuman (1972) reported that "the non-users of every type of drug were found to have lower drug information scores than did the users, the difference being s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f icant  (p. 139)."  Russell (1971) concluded that "the drug  programs that have been used seem to have l i t t l e effect on experimentation with drugs, more serious involvement with drugs, or with stopping use once i t started (p. 74)." Smart (1970) noted at  173 percent increase i n marijuana  involvement and a 235 percent increase i n hallucinogenic i n volvement among youth "although considerable drug education was undertaken i n the Toronto schools i n the past two years (p. 47)." B.  Non-Pharmacologically Based Human Relationship Program. A non-pharmacologically based human relationship pro-  gram presupposes that youth involvement with p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs i s primarily a manifestation of an i n t r a personal and/or interpersonal problem and only secondarily a problem associated with the pharmacological q u a l i t i e s of drugs.  Dohner (1972) observes that "overindulgence i s  due to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s inherent i n the i n d i v i d u a l and not due to some i n t r i n s i c function of . . . tobacco, or drugs (p. 21)""  alchol  Those who advocate a non-pharmacolog-  i c a l l y based prevention e f f o r t agree with Rado that drug involvement "begins with the recognition of the fact that not the toxic agent, but the impulse to use i t , makes an  - 5 addict  (1933, p. 2 ) . "  Elliott  comments t h a t "(pharmac-  o l o g i c a l ) f a c t s are not enough . . . emphasis must be the person understanding h i s needs, m o t i v a t i o n s and ations  ...  on  limit-  i t must be emphasized t h a t drug use i s o n l y  a symptom o f i n t e r n a l t u r m o i l (1970, p.  328)."  The n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program may  d e a l w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g causes o f drug abuse  (Hare, 1973), o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o drug use  (Cohen, 1971),  o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l framework t o comprehend s e l f and edness.  relat-  However, the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human  r e l a t i o n s h i p model has not been e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d as t o the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l outcomes. Jaffe  D e i t c h and  (1970) warn t h a t a human r e l a t i o n s h i p program may  be  viewed by youth as p l a y i n g an o l d game u s i n g new t e r m i n o l ogy,  "The d e f i n i t i o n o f winning  remains the same:  t a i n c o n t r o l , a d u l t v a l u e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f how must p r e v a i l tion  questionable  I t i s the f e a r t h a t drug educa-  r e c i p i e n t s w i l l view the human r e l a t i o n s h i p model i n  t h i s way that  (p. 182)."  main-  that resulted i n Fullmer's  (1971) o b s e r v a t i o n  "I do not c h e r i s h a naive hope t h a t merely  convening  a group o f persons w i l l c r e a t e any change i n b e h a v i o r 178)."  Nonetheless,  program . . .  " i f we want a c r a s h  education)  we must concern o u r s e l v e s w i t h s o c i a l  that of dissatisfaction, alienation,  ills,  overcompetitiveness,  f e e l i n g o f f a i l u r e on the p a r t o f youth p.  (drug  (p.  (HcDougal,  1971,  23)." I t i s the purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t o answer some p r i -  mary q u e s t i o n s .  What are the outcomes i n the  intervention  r e c i p i e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o potent-  -  6  -  i a l l y harmful drugs as a c a u s a l e f f e c t o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o g n i t i v e p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l data?  What a r e the outcomes i n  the i n t e r v e n t i o n r e c i p i e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as a c a u s a l e f f e c t o f a n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program?  The answer t o these q u e s t i o n s a r e important, not  j u s t i n t h e knowledge t h e y can g i v e , but i n t h e ' p o t e n t i a l change i n l i f e s t y l e o f those s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n any one o f t h e many drug e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e s c h o o l system.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE A,  R e l a t e d Research Many drug e d u c a t i o n programs have been i n i t i a t e d i n  North America  i n the past s e v e r a l years  Richards, 1969).  (Seabright, 1973;  These programs have c o n s i s t e d o f t r a n s -  f e r r i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n , conveyed by a v a r i e t y o f educa t i o n a l models, w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o f changing an  individ-  u a l ' s knowledge, and/or a t t i t u d e , and/or b e h a v i o r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l drugs.  E v a l u a t i o n o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between program o b j e c t i v e s and these drug edu c a t i o n programs are sparse and i n c o n c l u s i v e .  A review  o f those programs e v a l u a t e d c o n s i s t s o f those s t u d i e s examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between drug knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r and those s t u d i e s examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between program o b j e c t i v e s and the program. The study by Swisher, Crawford, G o l d s t e i n and (1971) e n t i t l e d  "Drug E d u c a t i o n :  Yura  Pushing o r P r e v e n t i n g ? "  examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge about drugs and h i s a t t i t u d e s towards the use o f drugs,  as  w e l l as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s drug knowledge and h i s involvement w i t h drugs.  In a non-randomized  sample o f  993  h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e students, a f o r t y - f o u r item a t t i t ude, knowledge, and b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was The r e s u l t s demonstrated  t h a t t h e r e was  a " c o n s i s t e n t neg-  a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( p . 72)" between knowledge and towards drugs.  completed.  attitude  In o t h e r words, the more knowledge the  respondents had about drugs, the more pro-drug use t h e y  - 8 were i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s .  I t was  drug u s e r s were more knowledgable non-drug  users.  a l s o demonstrated  that  about drugs than were  These r e s u l t s l e d the r e s e a r c h e r s t o  s p e c u l a t e on t h r e e p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : ment has l e d t o i n c r e a s e d drug knowledge?  drug  drug  involve-  involvement  has l e d t o a t t i t u d e s sympathetic t o the use o f drugs; drug e d u c a t i o n t h a t p r e s e n t s factu.al.al p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n may  d e s e n s i t i z e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e a r o f u s i n g  drugs and i n c r e a s e h i s c u r i o s i t y , c o n s e q u e n t l y l e a d i n g t o g r e a t e r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and use  (p. 74).  The r e s e a r c h c i t e d above r a i s e s a primary q u e s t i o n i n drug e d u c a t i o n :  what i s the outcome  (knowledge,  attit-  ude and b e h a v i o r ) o f p r e s e n t i n g f a c t u a l and a c c u r a t e i n f o r mation about drugs?  S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s as t o those spec-  u l a t e d above were found i n a study  (Fejer and Smart,  1972)  conducted among students i n O r a n g e v i l l e and Shelburne, Ontario.  C l o s e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found among  marijuana use, i n t e n t t o use marijuana, a t t i t u d e s  towards  l e g a l i z a t i o n o f marijuana and knowledge about drugs.  Both  u s e r s and nonusers e x p r e s s i n g i n t e n t i o n s t o use marijuana knew more about drugs, and had more p e r m i s s i b l e a t t i t u d e s towards  l e g a l i z a t i o n o f marijuana than nonusers not  i n g t o use m a r i j u a n a .  intend-  T h i s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  drug knowledge i s not a s u f f i c i e n t d e t e r r a n t t o drug  involve-  ment . Stuart  (1974), i n e v a l u a t i n g a t e n s e s s i o n f a c t  ed drug e d u c a t i o n program, concluded t h a t  orient-  "subjects receiving  drug e d u c a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r knowledge about  - 9 drugs, t h e i r use o f a l c o h o l , marijuana and LSD,  and  their  s a l e o f the l a t t e r two drugs, w h i l e t h e i r worry about decreased  (p.l)."  drugs  The r e s e a r c h e r : s u g g e s t e d t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s  supported the n o t i o n t h a t drug e d u c a t i o n o f an i n f o r m a t i o n a l nature may  have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t and advocates  precise  measurement o f i n t e r v e n t i o n outcome. A study by Grant  (1971) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the  relation-  s h i p between knowledge about drugs and a t t i t u d e s and behavi o r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o drugs.  His population consisted of  f o r t y - e i g h t male h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s and h i s instrument was  a twelve item q u e s t i o n n a i r e measuring  a t t i t u d e and  drug knowledge,  "suspect" b e h a v i o r c h a r a c t e r i z e d as such on  the b a s i s o f l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s towards marijuana and i a t i o n w i t h known marijuana u s e r s .  assoc-  He found these suspect  marijuana u s e r s had a s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f drug knowledge t o the group as a whole. d i d F e j e r and Smart  From t h i s . Grant s p e c u l a t e d , as  (1972), t h a t drug knowledge i s not a  s u f f i c i e n t d e t e r r a n t t o drug  involvement.  A few s t u d i e s have looked a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge o f drugs, a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs i n non-school p o p u l a t i o n s . Hanlon, Wiener and Kurland  (1960) found t h a t a d o c t o r ' s  knowledge o f p h e n o t h i a z i n e s d i d not a f f e c t the d o c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e towards t h a t drug as m a n i f e s t by how the drug.  Appelton and C h e i n  he p r e s c r i b e d  (1967) concluded t h a t a  p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s knowledge about c e r t a i n m e d i c a t i o n s d i d not i n f l u e n c e the frequence w i t h which he  - 10 p r e s c r i b e d them, but h i s a t t i t u d e s toward them d i d . Spelman and Lay  (1966), i n a comparative study o f non-  smokers, l i g h t smokers, and heavy smokers, found no  diff-  erence i n knowledge o f causes, symptoms and treatment o f lung c a n c e r .  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e found was  t h a t heavy  smokers were l e s s a b l e t o i n d i c a t e the c o r r e c t p r o g n o s i s of  lung cancer than non-smokers.  O v e r s t r e e t (1967)  observed t h a t drug a d d i c t i o n among p h y s i c i a n s and nurses i s t e n f o l d g r e a t e r than the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  One  p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n t o such r e s e a r c h would be t h a t a knowledge o f p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs i s not a s u f f i c i e n t d e t e r r a n t i n i t s e l f t o involvement w i t h these drugs. The r e s u l t s o f P e j e r and Smart's  (1973) drug knowledge,  a t t i t u d e , and b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o 4,693 M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto h i g h s c h o o l students agreed w i t h much o f the i n g s c i t e d above.  Knowledge about drugs was  find-  found t o  i n c r e a s e w i t h grade l e v e l , and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s tended t o have more p e r m i s s i v e a t t i t u d e s towards than those i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . est  drugs  Students w i t h the h i g h -  s c h o l a s t i c averages knew more about drugs than those  w i t h lower averages but a l s o tended t o be more non-permissive i n t h e i r attitudes.  However, the l a r g e s t  differ-  ences i n knowledge and a t t i t u d e were found between drug u s e r s and non-users. of  Users o f drugs  (with the e x c l u s i o n  the i n h a l a n t drugs) tended t o know more about  than non-users.  Furthermore,  drugs  f o r each o f the twelve  drugs i n v e s t i g a t e d , u s e r s had more p e r m i s s i v e a t t i t u d e s  - 11 towards drugs than nonusers.  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  particularly noticable f o r i l l i c i t  drugs such as amphet-  amines, o p i a t e s , and h a l l u c i n o g e n s .  The r e s e a r c h e r s  speculated that providing accurate pharmacological i n f o r mation may r e s u l t i n p e r m i s s i v e a t t i t u d e s towards  drug  use, and an i n c r e a s e i n drug use among s t u d e n t s . Research has suggested a r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge o f p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs and a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e f erence t o drugs and drug use, and from t h i s , much s p e c u l a t i o n has emanated.  However, t o know t h a t drug u s e r s  have h i g h drug knowledge and p e r m i s s i v e a t t i t u d e w i t h r e f erence t o drugs does not n e c e s s a r i l y lead t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t drug e d u c a t i o n programs i n t e n t on p r o v i d i n g a c c u r a t e pharmacological i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s h i g h e r drug use with substantiating a t t i t u d e s .  In f a c t ,  F e j e r and Smart  (1973) found t h a t those nonusers w i t h h i g h s c h o l a s t i c a v e r ages a l s o had h i g h drug knowledge and a non-permissive a t t i t u d e towards drugs. study  In t h e O r a n g e v i l l e and Shelborne  (Fejer and Smart, 1972)  s t u d e n t s who had not used  marijuana responded as t o t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d  involvement  w i t h marijuana and t h e i r responses were c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h t h e i r knowledge s c o r e s and a t t i t u d e s .  Those i n t e n d -  ing  t o t r y marijuana had more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s  its  l e g a l i z a t i o n and h i g h e r knowledge s c o r e s than those i n -  t e n d i n g not t o t r y i t .  towards  T h i s would suggest t h a t p e r m i s s i v e  a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o drugs, and an above average knowledge about drugs, preceeded drug involvement. ever, non-users i n t e n d i n g t o use marijuana were s t i l l  Howless  - 12 i n f a v o r o f l e g a l i z a t i o n and had drugs than u s e r s .  l e s s knowledge about  T h i s would suggest t h a t some changes  do o c c u r i n both a t t i t u d e and a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge a f t e r i n i t i a t i o n o f use.  S p e c u l a t i o n i n t h i s type o f  r e s e a r c h i s a p p r o p r i a t e but needs the s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f e v a l u a t e d drug e d u c a t i o n programs. For those drug e d u c a t i o n programs t h a t have been eva l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s o f drug knowledge, a t t i t u d e and behavior, the r e s u l t s are Swisher, Warner and H e r r o f f o u r approaches  inconclusive.  (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s  t o drug abuse p r e v e n t i o n and  concluded  t h a t although a l l f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d the s t u d e n t ' s knowledge about  p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs, none o f the t r e a t s  ments had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on student a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o drugs o r the extent o f drug  involvement.  S i m i l a r i t i e s were r e p o r t e d i n a parent drug e d u c a t i o n program  (Thomas, F r i s o n , Lipson, 1971)  which was  designed t o  p o s i t i v e l y a l t e r drug knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r i n the c h i l d r e n o f the p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d . ogy was  F a c t u a l pharmacol-  t r a n s f e r r e d from an a u t h o r i t y t o the parents o f  e i g h t e e n f a m i l i e s assuming t h a t t h e y would communicate i n formation and a n t i - d r u g a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t students would i n t e g r a t e t h i s  It infor-  mation and a l t e r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behavior a c c o r d i n g l y , thus r e s u l t i n g i n decreased drug usage.  Although  i m e n t a l parents had a c q u i r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  exper-  pharmacol-  o g i c a l knowledge t h a t c o n t r o l parents, the a t t i t u d e s o f exp e r i m e n t a l parents was  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  than  - 13 those o f c o n t r o l p a r e n t s .  Furthermore,  t h e r e was  no  measured i n c r e a s e i n communication between experimental p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , and experimental c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n drug knowledge, a t t i t u d e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o drugs o r involvement*with drugs. cluded  The  r e s e a r c h e r s con-  "that no changes a t a l l were found i n the c h i l d r e n  (p. 459)" as a r e s u l t o f the treatment w i t h the p a r e n t s . The  1973 Weaver and Tennant study i n v o l v e d a c o s t l y  and i n t e n s i v e commercially prepared program c o n s i s t i n g o f programmed t e x t s , f i l m s and v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n  exercises.  On the s i x t y - e i g h t item q u e s t i o n n a i r e measuring  drug know-  ledge and drug use, the experimental group  (n=452) demon-  s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r drug knowledge and i c a n t l y h i g h e r c a s u a l o r experimental drug usage. i t i o n , t h e r e was  signifIn add  a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n drug abuse  ( f i v e o r more times per week) between the experimental and control  (n=380) group.  Weaver and Tennant concluded  "that  d e s p i t e an i n t e n s i v e and c o s t l y drug e d u c a t i o n program t h a t u t i l i z e d advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l methods o f communication, r o l e p l a y i n g and d i d a c t i c l e a r n i n g ,  i t c o u l d not be demon-  s t r a t e d t h a t the program reduced drug use o r prevented p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h drugs Mason  (1973, p.  ex-  813)."  (1972) conducting a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t h a t measured  the e f f e c t s o f a d i d a c t i c , p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l model on the a t t i t u d e s o f grades e i g h t and twelve s t u d e n t s towards the use o f p s y c h o a c t i v e drugs, concured w i t h Weaver and Tennant (1973).  A n a l y s i s o f the p r e t e s t - p o s t e s t data  indicated  t h a t experimental students gained knowledge t o a s i g n i f i e -  - 14 ant degree, w h i l e t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about the e f f e c t s o f psychoactive  drugs was  i n c r e a s e d and they e x h i b i t e d an  i n c r e a s e d tendency t o d e a l w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c o m f o r t through the use o f drugs.  At the same time they  reacted  more f a v o u r a b l y toward the l e g a l i z a t i o n o f marijuana a r e d u c t i o n o f p e n a l t i e s f o r drug use, towards present drugs.  and  less  favourably  emphasis on a l e g a l approach t o the use  Mason's primary c o n c l u s i o n was  i s not an e f f e c t i v e means o f suppressing At f i r s t glance,  t h a t drug  (1973).  education  the r e s e a r c h by Amendolara  (1973)  (1972) and Weaver  Using a p r e t e s t - p o s t e s t d e s i g n meas-  ured by the t h i r t y - e i g h t item Chein q u e s t i o n n a i r e Lee* Rosenfeld,  of  the use o f drugs.  seems to c o n f l i c t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f Mason and Tennant  and  (Chein,  1965)* the author measured a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e i n p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o drugs between the experimental  and  c o n t r o l groups.  How-  ever, Amendolara comments t h a t the Chein q u e s t i o n n a i r e comb i n e s a t t i t u d e and knowledge and  "that the E group g a i n s  were b e t t e r than chance but t h a t the g a i n s were r e l a t e d more c l o s e l y t o i n f o r m a t i o n items than t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s (p. 71)." was  In o t h e r words, the measured a t t i t u d e g a i n  i n part a g a i n i n knowledge.  Amendolara does not  g i v e the breakdown o f knowledge g a i n and a t t i t u d e change, but  from t h i s ,  i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s e a r c h advocates the  o f a pharmacological The o f 1972  adoption  education model f o r the s c h o o l system.  p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d Swisher, Warner and Herr  research  i n t r o d u c e d other e d u c a t i o n a l models i n a d d i t i o n t o  - 15 the d i d a c t i c , p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l model. programs c o n s i s t e d  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the  o f an ex-drug abusing role-model, a  non-drug u s i n g r o l e model, and a s o - c a l l e d placebo o r Rogerian c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d group, i o n a l approach.  i n a d d i t i o n t o the t r a d i t -  Previous r e s e a r c h w i t h l i k e models y i e l d -  ed i n c o n s i s t e n t  results  (Swisher and Warner,  1971)  and i n the 1972  study had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on any o f the  t h r e e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s namely knowledge, a t t i t u d e behavior.  The authors  (Horan,  Swisher,  1972)  and  had a s i g n i f -  i c a n t e f f e c t i n changing drug a t t i t u d e s i n c o l l e g e  students  v i a induced c o g n i t i v e dissonance and the r e s e a r c h e r s conc l u d e d t h a t t h i s method had  future  possibilities.  Warner, Swisher and Horan employed a b e h a v i o r program and h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t  In  1973  modification  i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s would e x h i b i t  h e a l t h i e r a t t i t u d e s towards the use o f drugs than s t u d e n t s who  were t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c o g n i t i v e dissonance group,  c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d placebo group and a c o n t r o l group. r e s e a r c h e r s concluded t h a t a l t h o u g h the b e h a v i o r group "was  f a r more e f f e c t i v e than the o t h e r  procedures  i t was  a t a l l (p. 52)."  a  The  modification  counselling  o n l y d i r e c t i o n a l l y b e t t e r than n o t h i n g In o t h e r words, the placebo group r e s u l t e d  i n a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e change, the c o g n i t i v e group had a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  dissonance  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change and  the  c o n t r o l group had g r e a t e r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change than the o t h e r methods, w h i l e t h e r e was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between the c o n t r o l and the b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n Tennant, Weaver and Lewis  (1973) i n v e s t i g a t e d  groups. drug  programs i n one elementary and t h r e e secondary s c h o o l s .  - 16 R e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t a t t h e secondary  school l e v e l  the c o g n i t i v e model c o u l d not be shown t o decrease g a l 1. drug use among the s t u d e n t s .  ille-  F o l l o w i n g two o f t h e  t h r e e programs " a v a i l a b l e evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t some students experimented  w i t h i l l e g a l drugs  (p. 246)."  One program t a b u l a t e d t h a t 33 percent o f t h e students b e l i e v e d t h e program had encouraged the i l l e g a l use o f drugs.  However, i n a group o f seventy f i f t h and s i x t h  grade students, a c o g n i t i v e , led  l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n program  by a s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r and p h y s i c i a n evoked  a p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e i n students e x p r e s s i n g i n t e n t t o smoke c i g a r e t t e s and use i l l i c i t  drugs.  s e a r c h e r s observe t h a t t h e s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d  The r e -  instructors  and the age o f the students may be the f a c t o r s t h a t a l l o w for  some c a u t i o u s encouragement. A multi-media  drug e d u c a t i o n program  (Kline, 1972)  used a u d i o - v i s u a l communication t e c h n i q u e s t o present p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o 650 j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l students.  The emphasis o f t h e program was on p r e v e n t i n g  experimentation, w i t h l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o d i s c o u r a g ing  drug use among those who had a l r e a d y begun  a t i o n o r r e g u l a r use.  experiment-  K l i n e r e p o r t s t h a t 25 percent o f  the 107 students who had i n d i c a t e d p r i o r drug use stopped as a r e s u l t o f treatment.  As w e l l , o f those who claimed  to have a pre-program d e s i r e t o experiment  w i t h drugs  (n=82), 49 percent r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y decided not t o t r y drugs because o f the program.  The r e s u l t s a r e i n t e r e s t -  - 17 i n g and encouraging but p o s s i b l y i n f l a t e d .  A pretest  measure p r o v i d i n g b a s e l i n e data was not t a k e n .  A three  week p o s t t e s t a s k i n g the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d the information: 1.  I f you d i d use drugs b e f o r e t h e program, d i d the i n f o r m a t i o n you got i n t h e program make you deci d e t o q u i t u s i n g drugs? and  2.  I f you d i d not use drugs b e f o r e the program, but were t h i n k i n g o f t r y i n g one o r more drugs, d i d the program make you d e c i d e not t o t r y any drugs? (p.236).  There i s a p o s s i b l e r e a c t i v e e f f e c t i n these q u e s t i o n s and r e s u l t s must be c o n s i d e r e d as dubious. In an e v a l u a t i o n o f a c o l l e g e course on p s y c h o a c t i v e drugs  (Korn and G o l d s t e i n ,  1973) i t was demonstrated  that  the course s u c c e s s f u l l y taught c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a high r e c a l l .  Although a m a r g i n a l and n o n s i g n i f i c a n t  decrease i n i n t e n t t o use drugs was observed, a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n drug involvement was a l s o r e p o r t e d .  It  was noted t h a t some s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r concern f o r drug-using f r i e n d s f o r a l l drugs except marijuana which l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o conclude t h a t a p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l program c o u l d p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . However, Korn and G o l d s t e i n d i d not c o n c l u s i v e l y  demonstrate  t h a t drug a t t i t u d e s o r drug b e h a v i o r c o u l d be changed by drug knowledge. Dearden and J e k e l  (1971) u t i l i z e d n o n - d i r e c t i v e tech-  niques and s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g i n a p i l o t program f o r  - 18 drug e d u c a t i o n t h a t y i e l d e d some p o s i t i v e outcomes. program's o v e r t o b j e c t i v e was  The  t o enable students t o d e v e l -  op a drug abuse q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a d m i n i s t e r i t t o the dent body o f the s c h o o l .  The c o v e r t g o a l was  the  stu-  develop-  ment o f a method o f drug e d u c a t i o n based upon the group process t h a t took p l a c e among the students as they d e v e l oped and a d m i n i s t e r e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . group was  comprised  non-drug u s e r s .  Each student  o f o n e - h a l f drug u s e r s and  In one  student group  one-half  (n=12) t h r e e o f  the s i x drug u s e r s had d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r use o f drugs once they f e l t accepted and group members.  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the o t h e r  The o t h e r drug u s e r s claimed t o have r e -  duced t h e i r consumption o f drugs. i n t h i s type o f drug e d u c a t i o n was  The  significant  factor  the t e a c h e r ' s w i l l i n g -  ness t o be s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g and modeling  that kind of t r a n s -  i parent b e h a v i o r .  The  r e s e a r c h e r s a d v i s e t h a t "the  liter-  a t u r e i s strewn w i t h the bodies o f dead programs t h a t seemed i n i t i a l l y t o h o l d promise, fill  but which d i d not  t h a t promise when s t u d i e d o b j e c t i v e l y over an  p e r i o d o f time In  fulextended  (p. 124)."  c o n c l u s i o n , i t seems apparent  t h a t drug  education  programs o f any type have been l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r intended t a s k o f changing post-elementary ection.  a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r o f  s c h o o l i n d i v i d u a l s i n an a n t i - d r u g d i r -  Smoking programs designed t o d i s c o u r a g e  e t t e smoking among secondary  cigar-  s c h o o l students have not  been shown t o decrease smoking b e h a v i o r  (Reid and  Stove,  - 19 1971; Monk, Tanback and Gordon, 1970).  A study conducted  a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan showed t h a t 600 h i g h s c h o o l students s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d drug involvement f o l l o w i n g a drug e d u c a t i o n program  (American M e d i c a l News,  1972).  S u g g e s t i b i l i t y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h h a s h i s h have been demonstrated  f o l l o w i n g drug e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s g i v e n t o  U.S. Army s o l d i e r s  (Tennant, Mohler and S i l s b y ,  However, some s m a l l success has been r e a l i z e d Weaver and Lewis, 1973; Dearden and J e k e l , i e n t t o encourage a d d i t i o n a l  research.  1973). (Tennant,  1971) s u f f i c -  - 20 B.  Descriptive  Research  There have been s e v e r a l major d e s c r i p t i v e surveys o f drug use among Canadian  secondary students t o d a t e .  A  b r i e f overview o f e i g h t o f them i s presented h e r e . 1.  Torontot 1969)  was  The Toronto survey  (Smart  the f i r s t o f the Canadian  et a l . , city  surveys  on the i n c i d e n c e o f drug use among h i g h s c h o o l students and served as the model f o r the Montreal and H a l i f a x surveys t h a t f o l l o w e d . i v e s f o r both the 1968 and  The o b j e c t -  1970 Toronto  surveys  were the same:  The  1.  Determine the i n c i d e n c e o f use o f v a r i o u s drugs by students i n grades 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13.  2.  Measure changes i n the r a t e s o f drug use and the determinants o f drug use which have o c c u r r e d between 1968 and 1970;  3.  O b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g : demographi c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s and pare n t s ; student knowledge about and a t t i t udes toward drug use; p a r e n t a l drug habi t s ; student a l i e n a t i o n ;  4.  I d e n t i f y the determinants o f drug use by r e l a t i n g these p a t t e r n s t o p e r s o n a l , pare n t a l , and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p. 2 ) .  r e s e a r c h e r s employed two types o f p a r e n t a l consent  forms whereby the parents gave w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n t o a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o complete  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o r where the  parents were asked t o n o t i f y the s c h o o l i f t h e y d i d not wish t h e i r c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  In a s s e s s i n g the e f f e c t  o f t h i s procedure the Toronto r e s e a r c h e r s noted  "that  over h a l f o f t h e students i n s c h o o l s where a s i g n e d p a r e n t a l consent form was  r e q u i r e d d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e makes assump-  - 21 t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s untenable second Toronto survey  (p. 11)."  The  (Smart e t a l . , 1970) proposed t o  measure changes i n t h e r a t e s o f drug use from t h e f i r s t survey i n 1968 t o t h e second s u r v e y i n 1970.  The b a s i c  d e s i g n i s i d e n t i c a l t o the p r e v i o u s survey u t i l i z i n g the same p a r e n t a l consent forms.  The o v e r a l l completion  r a t e f o r 1970 was 72 percent compared w i t h 66 percent i n 1968.  I t would appear t h a t the use o f p a r e n t a l consent  forms may r e s t r i c t  t h e percentage o f student responses.  In comparing the two Toronto s t u d i e s , the r e s e a r c h e r s noted t h a t  "although c o n s i d e r a b l e drug e d u c a t i o n was under-  taken i n Toronto s c h o o l s i n the past two years, i t has not reduced i l l i c i t  drug use (p. 4 7 ) . "  In f a c t ,  marijuana  use i n c r e a s e d by 173 percent, t h e use o f h a l l u c i n o g e n s i n c r e a s e d by 235 percent, and t h e number o f heavy u s e r s or ing  abusers o f i l l i c i t  drugs i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a c c o r d -  t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e respondents.  The r e s e a r c h e r s  advocate e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n new methods o f drug e d u c a t i o n as the f a c t o r i n stemming t h e t i d e o f drug u s e .  In p a r t i c -  ular© ; t h e y conclude t h a t a d o l e s c e n t drug use i s f i r m l y r  rooted i n a d u l t s o c i e t y and t h a t e f f o r t s t o prevent drug use among young persons, w h i l e i g n o r i n g the r e s t o f s o c i e t y w i l l be i n e f f e c t i v e . 2.  London. O n t a r i o :  The London survey  (Stennett and  Feenstron, 1969) was c a r r i e d out a t approximately the same time as the f i r s t Toronto survey and had as i t s main o b j e c t i v e s t o determine t h e i n c i d e n c e o f student drug use and t o i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h drug use among  - 22 London h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . p a r e n t a l consent  T h i s survey d i d not use  forms and, as a r e s u l t , t h e r e was o n l y  a minor r e f u s a l r a t e from students d e s i r i n g not t o compl e t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The London survey, as t h e Ottawa  survey which f o l l o w e d , employed t e a c h e r s as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . may g i v e exaggerated  The l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t  o r d i s h o n e s t responses  students  o r refuse  t o p a r t i c i p a t e , b e l i e v i n g t h a t the t e a c h e r s may examine their questionnaires. 3.  Halifax:  The H a l i f a x survey  f o l l o w e d t h e f i r s t Toronto it  i n format.  (Whitehead, 1969)  survey and was modeled a f t e r  According t o the researchers, " t h i s sur-  vey i s designed t o determine i n a r e l i a b l e manner t h e r a t e s o f drug use and f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h drug use among a d o l e s c e n t students i n H a l i f a x (p. 1 ) "  In t h i s  survey t h e students r e c e i v e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s over a p e r i o d o f t h r e e days as opposed t o p r e v i o u s surveys t h a t were completed a t one s i t t i n g . contamination.  T h i s may a l l o w f o r some  The r e s e a r c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e question-  n a i r e ? ^ promising anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y t o a l l students.  No t e a c h e r s were present i n t h e classroom  w h i l e t h e students completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 4.  Montreal:  The M o n t r e a l  survey  ( L a f o r e s t , 1969)  o u t l i n e d the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : 1.  To measure t h e i n c i d e n c e o f use o f c e r t a i n drugs among h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e students o f the I s l a n d o f Montrealt  2.  To o b t a i n knowledge on i n f o r m a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s possessed by students r e l a t e d t o drugs;  3.  To r e l a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s and  - 23 main demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; 4.  To measure the u s e f u l n e s s o f data obt a i n e d i n the f i e l d o f p r e v e n t i o n (p. 14).  The M o n t r e a l survey was  i d e n t i c a l i n format t o the  survey w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f p a r e n t a l consent.  Toronto  Because  o f l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y i n the M o n t r e a l s c h o o l system, the r e s e a r c h e r s were unable t o make a s y s t e m a t i c  sampling  based on uniform c r i t e r i a .  To s o l v e the problem, they  made an i n t e n t i o n a l sampling  t h a t r e s p e c t e d the r a t i o of  major r e l i g i o u s and Montreal.  l i n g u i s t i c groups on the I s l a n d o f  In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s apparent  limitation,  the  M o n t r e a l r e s e a r c h e r s noted t h a t t h e y were unable t o reach the d e s i r e d number o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g grade 14 s t u d e n t s . Of the 4,509 students who  answered the L a f o r e s t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , about 48 percent r e p o r t e d u s i n g a l c o h o l a t l e a s t once i n the preceeding s i x month p e r i o d and  almost  46 percent used a t l e a s t one c i g a r e t t e per week.  This  i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l c o h o l and tobacco were the most used drugs a t t h a t time i n M o n t r e a l f o r e v e r y grade F o l l o w i n g these two  drugs, marijuana,  level.  tranquilizers  s t i m u l a n t s were the most favored drugs i n terms o f dence o f use.  inci-  For the M o n t r e a l study, drug use g e n e r a l l y  i n c r e a s e d by grade.  For example, marijuana use a t the  grade f o u r t e e n l e v e l was grade twelve,  and  10.9  a t grade e i g h t .  12.0  percent, 11.6  percent a t grade ten, and  percent a t 3.3  percent  The d e v i a t i o n s from t h i s p a t t e r n are i n  the use o f s t i m u l a n t s , b a r b i t u a t e s , h a l l u c i n o g e n s and inhalants.  Montreal's grade t e n students use more stimu-  l a n t s b a r b i t u a t e s and  i n h a l a n t s than do o t h e r grade s t u d e n t s ;  - 24 grade twelve students use t h e most h a l l u c i n o g e n s . 5.  B r i t i s h Columbia:  which was conducted  ( R u s s e l l , 1970)  i n s i x B. C. s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s repre-  s e n t i n g 40, 000 secondary ive  The B. C. survey  students, had as i t s main o b j e c t -  t o e s t a b l i s h a v a l i d estimate o f the incidence o f  drug use a t one p o i n t i n time i n B. C. h i g h s c h o o l s .  The  Toronto, Montreal, and H a l i f a x surveys used t h e more t y p i c a l c l a s s samples, London and Ottawa used census, B. C. study used a 10 percent sampling a complete r o l l c a l l  list  technique  but t h e employing  from each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .  The  f a c t t h a t students were randomly sampled from a c l a s s  list  and i d e n t i f i e d by t h e t e a c h e r o r o t h e r a u t h o r i t y as being t h a t student, a l l o w s f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the students would d i s b e l i e v e c l a i m s o f anonymity.  Part o f t h e 16  percent i n c o m p l e t i o n r a t e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s cedure.  pro-  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1971 Vancouver study by t h e  same r e s e a r c h e r , t h e f a c t t h a t d a t a was not r e a l i z e d  from  the C i t y o f Vancouver made t h e B. C. survey not as complete as  i t ; t would have been w i t h Vancouver i n c l u d e d .  R u s s e l l concluded t h a t a m i n o r i t y o f students a r e i n v o l v e d i n drug use but t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e i s f a r from  negligible.  He a l s o observes t h a t w h i l e f o r many t h e i r use o f drugs may be b r i e f and experimental, t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who have used drugs  (such as LSD) many times o r use some drugs  (such as marijuana)  6.  Ottawa:  regularly.  The Ottawa survey  (Halpern and Mori, 1970)  - 25 had  s i x main o b j e c t i v e s : 1.  To determine the extent t o which drugs are used by Ottawa students i n grades 7-13;  2.  To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f drugs and about c e r t a i n a t t i tudes r e l a t e d t o drugs;  3.  To d i s c o v e r student o p i n i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r type o f and media f o r d r u g - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n ;  4.  To r e l a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t o c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t u d e n t s ;  5.  To t e s t h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g drug usage and a t t i t u d e s w i t h usage by o t h e r f a m i l y members and w i t h a l i e n a t i o n ;  6.  To compare the f i n d i n g s w i t h those o b t a i n ed i n o t h e r s c h o o l systems (p. 6 ) .  The Ottawa drug survey employed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f  105  q u e s t i o n s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y concerned tobacco,  a l c o h o l and  i l l e g a l drugs.  The t o t a l  with  survey  would have taken over one hour t o complete, t h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h e r s f e a r f u l o f l o s i n g s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t , l y .I/ a d m i n i s t e r e d s e c t i o n s o f the survey r a t h e r than e n t i r e survey.  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures  randomthe  although  done by the r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s were c a r e f u l l y designed  to  m a i n t a i n the anonymity o f the students, t o maximize the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the anonymity p r e c a u t i o n s , and t o c a r r y out the s y s t e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h i r d s sampling Halpern and M o r i concluded  plan.  t h a t the use o f a l c o h o l , to-r  bacco, amphetamines, b a r b i t u a t e s and o p i a t e s i s s i m i l a r as i n the o t h e r Canadian surveys, but t h a t marijuana use  i s i n c r e a s i n g and the use o f t r a n q u i l i z e r s and  ants i s d e c r e a s i n g .  Students  and  LSD  inhal-  p e r c e i v e d a l c o h o l as the  - 26 l e a s t harmful drug, marijuana and c i g a r e t t e s somewhat more harmful and LSD and amphetamines as the most h a r m f u l . The consensus among the Ottawa students was  t h a t drug  e d u c a t i o n should be s t a r t e d i n elementary s c h o o l , empha^ s i z i n g the e f f e c t s o f drugs and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the laws c o n c e r n i n g drugs. 7.  Vancouver:  The Vancouver  drug survey  (Russell,  1971)  intended t o measure "the i n c i d e n c e o f drug use i n Vancouver" and t o "examine the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f drug use, and the consequences (p. 1 ) . "  f o r the  individual  In one p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h "Drugs  i n the S c h o o l s " the r e s e a r c h e r s observed t h a t a drug educ a t i o n program "that aims a t some o f the b a s i c f a c t o r s t h a t may  u n d e r l i e s e r i o u s involvement w i t h drugs  (p. 74),"  may  be more s u c c e s s f u l than a drug e d u c a t i o n program t h a t i s based e x c l u s i v e l y on i n f o r m a t i o n about drugs.  Implicit  i n the statement i s the assumption t h a t present i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g drug e d u c a t i o n models may expected outcomes.  not be a c h i e v i n g the  Although the Vancouver  study i s l i m -  i t e d i n e m p i r i c a l l y examining t h i s assumption, observes t h a t  Russell  "there are f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n drug use  t h a t go beyond the drugs themselves which must be  dis-  cussed and understood i f we a r e t o comprehend drug use  (p.  72)." In summarising  the extent o f drug involvement by  Canadian h i g h s c h o o l students, drug use as r e p o r t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h c i t e d i s on the i n c r e a s e a l t h o u g h i t i s o f a transient nature.  A l c o h o l and tobacco were r e -  - 27 ported t o be the most e x t e n s i v e l y used drugs among t h i s p o p u l a t i o n w i t h between 40 percent and 60 percent u s i n g one and/or the o t h e r o f these drugs.  Marijuana,  tran-  q u i l i z e r s and h a l l u c i n o g e n s were used l e s s e x t e n s i v e l y and whereas t r a n q u i l i z e r s were used d e c r e a s i n g l y , m a r i juana and h a l l u c i n o g e n s were r e c e i v i n g g r e a t e r u s e . Inhalants were being abused l e s s and t h e o p i a t e s were s t i l l used l e a s t .  Drug u s e r s d i d not use one drug and  ignore t h e o t h e r s but were i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i - d r u g u s e . Some drug u s e r s used drugs o n l y on o c c a s i o n  ("users"),  o t h e r s used drugs e x t e n s i v e l y ("abusers"), w h i l e o c c a s i o n a l l y abused drugs  ("misusers").  others  Generally,  drug e d u c a t i o n seems t o have been i n e f f e c t i v e i n stopping people  from u s i n g drugs and stopping u s e r s from u s i n g  more drugs. Survey r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . However, as R u s s e l l i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Vancouver study notes,  " i t i s one matter t o know how many students  are u s i n g what drugs,  i t i s q u i t e another t o . . .  determine what would be a reasonable (1971, p. 1 ) . "  response  to i t  - 28 C.  Research  Hyphotheses.  It i s the purpose of t h i s research t o test empirica l l y whether or not a pharmacologically based drug education program and a non-pharmacologically based human rel a t i o n s h i p prog ram result i n a change of the recipient's behavior and attitude with reference to p o t e n t i a l l y harmf u l drugs. The s p e c i f i c hypotheses tested 1.  i n t h i s analysis were:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  i n the  r e c i p i e n t s ' involvement with p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by the postest instrument as a result of the pharma c o l o g i c a l l y based drug education program. 2.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  i n the  r e c i p i e n t s ' involvement with p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by the postest instrument as a result of the nonpharmacologically based human relationship program. 3.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  i n the  r e c i p i e n t s ' attitude with reference to p o t e n t i a l l y harmf u l drugs as measured by the postest instrument as a result of the pharmacologically based drug education program. 4.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  i n the  r e c i p i e n t s ' attitude with reference to p o t e n t i a l l y harmf u l drugs as measured by the postest instrument as a result of the non-pharmacologically based human r e l a t i o n ship program.  CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH A.  DESIGN  Sample The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 284 grade e i g h t boys and  girls  i n one Vancouver h i g h s c h o o l o f whom l e s s than o n e - h a l f were experimental and more than o n e - h a l f were c o n t r o l . Of the 117 students i n the experimental groups, f i v e students, i n two  fifty-  s e x u a l l y segregated groupings, were  i n v o l v e d i n the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program.  Sixty-two students i n two  s e x u a l l y segregated  c l a s s groupings, were i n v o l v e d i n the a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program.  non-pharmacologicI n s t r u c t i o n took  p l a c e i n the r e g u l a r l y scheduled guidance and study b l o c k s . The s c h o o l had a s s i g n e d students t o the r e g u l a r l y scheduled c l a s s b l o c k s a c c o r d i n g t o a p p l i c a t i o n f o r admission  from  the feeder elementary s c h o o l s but randomization c o u l d not be assumed.  Two  c l a s s e s , one boys' c l a s s and one  girls'  c l a s s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o each experimental program. The c o n t r o l group, which c o n s i s t e d o f 167 students, r e c e i v e d the normal guidance and study b l o c k programs which did  not i n c l u d e any form o f drug e d u c a t i o n .  - 30 B.  Instrument Two  first  instruments were developed f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , the  t o measure the drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e and the second  t o measure the drug a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e .  Both instruments  were completed a t the same time by students a t one i n both p r e t e s t and postest* n a i r e being completed  sitting  the drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n -  first.  The drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e appears i n the appendix as Appendix C. was  two  I t c o n s i s t e d o f twenty-three q u e s t i o n s and  pages i n l e n g t h .  Questions 1-3 c l a s s i f i e d  respondents i n t o sex, age and the e x t e n t o f t h e i r ment w i t h drugs.  Questions 4-13  measured drug  the  involve-  incidence  f o r two months preceeding the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the questionnaire.  Students responded t o q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  a l c o h o l , amphetamines, b a r b i t u r a t e s * c o c a i n e , h a l l u c i n o g e n s , i n h a l a n t s * marijuana o r h a s h i s h , o p i a t e s , tobacco and o t h ers.  Questions 18-19 measured the i n c i d e n c e o f c i g a r e t t e s  and c i g a r s .  Questions 14-15 measured the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  drugs, not i n c l u d i n g a l c o h o l o r t o b a c c o .  Question 16  measured p a r e n t a l awareness o f the c h i l d ' s drug ment, not i n c l u d i n g a l c o h o l o r t o b a c c o . icited  involve-  Question 17 s o l -  i n f o r m a t i o n as t o the reasons people use drugs, not  including a l c o h o l or tobacco.  Q u e s t i o n 20 s o l i c i t e d r e -  sponses as t o the reasons people s t o p u s i n g drugs. i o n s 21-23  e v a l u a t e d drug e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l system.  The drug a t t i t u d e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l the  Quest-  appendix as Appendix O.  appears i n  I t c o n s i s t e d o f a semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l technique whereby the s t u d e n t s r a t e d twenty  - 31 concepts concerning drugs on a s e t o f twelve b i p o l a r adjective scales.  The development  o f t h i s instrument con-  s i s t e d o f i d e n t i f y i n g b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a r e s which were used as e v a l u a t i v e f o r the treatment and c o n t r o l groups. T h i s was  done by a s k i n g s i x t y - f o u r grade e i g h t s c h o o l s t u -  dents t o respond t o a s t i m u l u s q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o drugs. The d e s c r i p t i v e terms appear i n Appendix  F.  Secondly,  c l u s t e r s o f concepts were i d e n t i f i e d f o r which er  responses were s i m i l a r .  The same s c h o o l students prov-  i d e d the concepts t h a t appear i n Appendix i v e was  within-clust-  F.  The  object-  t o o b t a i n f o r each respondent a p r o f i l e o f a t t i t -  ude s c o r e s on a s e t o f concept  clusters.  An assumption c e n t r a l t o the use o f both instruments i s t h a t s c o r e s on the b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r the semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o be e v a l u a t i v e can be taken as i n d i c a n t s o f the respondent's  actual  b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the concepts r e l a t i n g to drugs. C.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Programs Both programs began on Monday, February 4, 1974,  the  and  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program t e r m i n -  ated on F r i d a y , March 22,  1974.  The  non-pharmacologic-  a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program was i n a t e d on Thursday,  February 21, 1974,  prematurely term-  having  completed  f o u r o f the proposed f i f t e e n one-hour s e s s i o n s . grams f o r a l l c l a s s e s were i n s t r u c t e d by Mr.  Both pro-  Patrick  Ducklow and Mr. Mark Hoffman, graduate students i n c o u n s e l 1 -  - 32 ing psychology. 1.  P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y Based Drug E d u c t i o n  Program  (Treatment A) The p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n  program  ( r e f e r r e d t o as Treatment A) c o n s i s t e d o f t h i r t e e n onehour s e s s i o n s and was p r i m a r i l y a d i d a c t i c of cognitive data.  presentation  Dr. John M c N e i l l , i n a t e n t o f i f t e e n  minute d i d a c t i c video tape p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r each s e s s i o n , provided the b a s i c pharmacological  information.  gram i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e appendix as Appendix A.  The  pro-  The pro-  gram i n c l u d e d : 1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Pharmacology: Part One.  2.  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Pharmacology: Part  3.  A P e r s p e c t i v e on the Drug Problem: Two Officers.  4.  Opiate  5.  C e n t r a l Nervous System Depressent Drugs.  6.  C e n t r a l Nervous System Stimulant  7.  P h y s i c a l A s p e c t s o f Drugs on t h e Nervous System.  8.  Cannabis Drugs.  9.  H a l l u c i n o g e n i c Drugs: Part  One.  10.  H a l l u c i n o g e n i c Drugs: Part  Two.  11.  A P e r s p e c t i v e on Drugs and Canadian Law: An R .C .M. p. cNarcot i c s" • 0 f f i c e r &  12.  Solvent  13.  Tobacco Drugs.  Two. Probation  Drugs.  Drugs.  Drugs.  The program i s based on the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t  accurate  c o g n i t i v e data t r a n s m i t t e d by an a u t h o r i t a t i v e person w i l l  -  33 -  e f f e c t acceptance, understanding and change i n t h e r e c i p i e n t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs. One boys' c l a s s w i t h twenty-six  students  and one  g i r l s ' c l a s s w i t h twenty-nine students were i n v o l v e d i n the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y seven weeks.  based program twice per week f o r  Tne program took t h e p l a c e o f t h e s t u d e n t s '  r e g u l a r guidance and study b l o c k s .  Each one-hour c l a s s  c o n s i s t e d o f an i n t r o d u c t o r y " i n t e r e s t - h o o k i n g " a t e n t o f i f t e e n minute video-tape,  activity,  d i d a c t i c presentation  o f pharmacological  information,  i l l u s t r a t i v e paper and  pencil activities,  l a r g e group d i s c u s s i o n s and a N a r c o t i c  A d d i c t i o n Foundation pamphlet a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e b a s i c cognitive data.  Each student  r e c e i v e d t h e data as a  l e a r n i n g packet f o r each s e s s i o n . 2.  Non-pharmacologically Based Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Program The  program  (Treatment B) non-pharmacologically  based human r e l a t i o n s h i p  ( r e f e r r e d t o as Treatment B) c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t e e n  one-hour s e s s i o n s and was based on s e v e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l systems o f thought. endix as Appendix B.  The program i s i n c l u d e d i n the appThe program  included:  1.  B e h a v i o r M o d i f i c a t i o n : I n t r o d u c t i o n and C o n t r a c t Formation.  2.  E x i s t e n t i a l : Past and Future Time Dimensions P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Present.  3.  Transactional Analysis y s i s o f Ego S t a t e s .  4.  T.A.: T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f Communications.  5.  G e s t a l t : Power t o Decide and Implement Change.  (T.A.): S t r u c t u r a l A n a l -  - 34 6.  T.A.: B a s i c P s y c h o l o g i c a l P o s i t i o n s and Reinforcements .  7.  T.A.: Stamp C o l l e c t i n g and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Rackets.  8.  T.A.: S c r i p t A n a l y s i s  ( D e f i n i t i o n and Overview).  9.  T.A.: S c r i p t A n a l y s i s Peer).  ( C u l t u r a l , Family and  10.  G e s t a l t : Power t o Decide and Implement Change.  11.  T.A.: Game A n a l y s i s .  12.  T.A.: Problem S o l v i n g  13.  T.A.: Problem S o l v i n g .  14.  T.A.: Time S t r u c t u r i n g (Intimacy, R i t u a l , A c t i v i t y , Pastime).  15. The peutic  Withdrawl,  Conclusion. s t r u c t u r e d experiences  were based on t h r e e  thera-  techniques:  1. past,  (Introduction).  Increasing  present  i n s i g h t as t o i m p l i c i t assumptions o f  and f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s emphasizing t h e e x i s t -  e n t i a l moment  (Van Kaam, 1962; Dreyfus,  1966; Arbuckle,  1965); 2.  Understanding, a n a l y z i n g and implementing t h e  b e h a v i o r a l dynamics o f r e l a t e d n e s s u s i n g t h e T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s system o f psychotherapy  (Berne, 1961, 1968;  James and Jongeward, 1971); 3.  Applying  i n g behavior,  l e a r n i n g by experimentation  t h e s e t t i n g o f c o n t r a c t s and t h e develop-  ment o f reinforcement atebehaviors Lazarus,  i n reward-  1966).  contingencies  t o strengthen  appropri:  (Wenrich, 1971; S u l z e r , 1972; Wolpe and  - 35 The n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program i s based on t h e assumption  t h a t drug b e h a v i o r i s  a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f an i n t r a - p e r s o n a l arid/or i n t e r - p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t y and t h a t e x i s t e n t i a l i n s i g h t ,  intellectual  understanding and b e h a v i o r a l implementation  o f change  would a l t e r t h e u n d e r l y i n g and r o o t cause o f drug  involve-  ment.  infor-  The model d i d not c o n t a i n pharmacological  mation  i n i t s format.  I t was intended t h a t t h e b o y s  1  c l a s s w i t h twenty-  n i n e students and t h e g i r l s ' c l a s s w i t h t h i r t y - t h r e e  stu-  dents would be i n v o l v e d i n t h e n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program t w i c e per week u n t i l t h e completion o f t h e f i f t e e n hour treatment  intervention.  The program was t o take t h e p l a c e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r guidance and study b l o c k s .  Each one hour s e s s i o n , w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n o f s e s s i o n s f i v e and t e n , was t o i n c l u d e an " i n t e r e s t - h o o k i n g " a c t i v i t y , a t e n t o f i f t e e n minute i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , an i n s i g h t experience and a " s e s s i o n evaluation" period.  Homework assignments  emphasized  a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n e d p r i n c i p l e s i n the home  environment.  The program was prematurely terminated a t t h e end o f the f o u r t h s e s s i o n .  The r a t i o n a l e f o r t e r m i n a t i o n i s  included i n the f i f t h  chapter.  D.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Instruments The two instruments were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y  285 grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s i n one Vancouver h i g h s c h o o l on F r i d a y , February 1, 1974, a t 2 p.m. and Tuesday, A p r i l 9, 1974,  a t 2 p.m.  The drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e  -  36 -  drug a t t i t u d e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l were a d m i n i s t e r e d by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and were administered i n the regular high school c l a s s e s .  Prior  n o t i c e f o r t h e r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o f t h e admini s t r a t i o n o f t h e instruments was p r o v i d e d by the h i g h school administration.  The instrument a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  were not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l f a c u l t y nor w i t h t h e experimental treatment were p e r m i t t e d t o remain  instructors.  Teachers  i n t h e classroom but the admin-  i s t r a t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e instruments was e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e team. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l r e q u i r e d approximately t h i r t y t o f o r t y - f i v e minutes t o complete although s i x t y minutes was a v a i l a b l e f o r both t h e p r e t e s t and t h e p o s t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  the instruments was designed t o encourage honest p r o t e c t t h e anonymity o f t h e respondents  answers,  and t o permit the  completion o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e one s c h o o l i n one hour.  Anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were guaranteed by  a s k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s not t o w r i t e t h e i r own name on t h e questionnaire.  To i d e n t i f y and compare t h e p r e t e s t and  the p o s t e s t instruments t h e mother's maiden name and t h e first  i n i t i a l was recorded on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  exam-like atmosphere was e n f o r c e d i n each When a l l students had completed  An  classroom.  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e team c o l l e c t e d the instruments without undue a t t e n t i o n t o t h e w r i t t e n r e s -  -  37  -  ponses o t h e r than t o ensure and  first  arranged  i n i t i a l was  t h e m o t h e r ' s m a i d e n name brought  immediately  administrative  as Appendix E.  recorded,  c l a s s r o o m and  The  that  them t o a  left  the  school.  i n s t r u c t i o n s appear i n the  Procedures,  In t h e a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a t h e p r e l i m i n a r y t o determine  of treatment  g r o u p A,  ment on t h e d r u g was  due  the equivalence or B and  b e h a v i o r and  ence.  and  The  (Bjerring  the  and  Seagraves,  right  of students to  statistic 1974)  ( H o t e l ) was  pretest  at the  the t h r e e drug twelve  on t h e  greatest  A and it  was  .05  B.  c o n t r o l , B and I f the  differences  left  and  determining  employed  (from v a r i a b l e s  four  on to  behavior questionnaire) with  c o n t r o l , and  r e s u l t was  assumed t h a t  cor-  b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s a Student t  behavior variables drug  employed  In  l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was  pretest  equival-  provided  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means between  g r o u p A and  treatment  this yielded a  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n means.  e q u i v a l e n c e f o r the drug  statistic  This  f o r the t h i r t y - e i g h t v a r i a b l e s  f o r a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s and  l i m i t s and  measure-  attitude variables.  o f t h e d r u g b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and relation matrix  pretest  r e s u l t i n g i n a b i l i t y t o assume  Hotelling T  statistical  non-equivalence  c o n t r o l at the  t o the non-randomization  groupings  appendix  G.  Statistical  t a s k was  pre-  not  the  treatment  treatment  groups  statistically significant  t h e measured v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r  betweenOthe  istically significant  pretest  (Kerlinger?  means were a l s o n o t 1973,  pp.  285-288).  stat-  - 38 In determining between-group e g u i v a l a n c e on the drug a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s from the drug a t t i t u d e semantic  diff-  e r e n t i a l the A l b e r t a G e n e r a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program (AGFAP) was  employed whereby a persons by concept m a t r i x  o f e v a l u a t i v e s c o r e s from the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l determined  (Osgood,  et a l . ,  1957).  was  To t h i s m a t r i x a maximum-  l i k e l i h o o d f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c technique u s i n g o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n w i t h varimax procedures was  applied.  This yielded a  p r o f i l e o f e v a l u a t i v e s c o r e s f o r each respondent on two emerging concept s t r u c t u r e s  (McKie and F o s t e r , 1972).  These emerg-  ing concept s t r u c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t 93.52 percent o f the t o t a l variance.  See pages 289 and 290 f o r the r o t a t e d  principal  component l o a d i n g s f o r m a t r i x o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between c o n c e p t s . Between-group e q u i v a l e n c e was  t e s t e d between treatment  groups  A,B and c o n t r o l on the two concept s t r u c t u r e s by one-way analyses o f v a r i a n c e . The second s t e p i n the procedure employed the H o t e l and AGFAP r o u t i n e s , as had been done t o t e s t p r e t e s t betweengroup e g u i v a l a n c e , t o t e s t the n u l l hypotheses at the p o s t e s t measurement  (Cronbach and Furby, 1970)  over time between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t .  as opposed  to testing  For the drug b e h a v i o r  v a r i a b l e w i t h the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between p o s t e s t means, a Student t s t a t i s t i c a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  was  employed t o t e s t the n u l l hypotheses o f equal means between vectors.  The same procedure was  employed f o r each treatment  between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measures f o r a d d i t i o n a l  comparison.  For the drug a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s the a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r the two concept s t r u c t u r e s w i t h a F t e s t a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was  employed t o t e s t the n u l l  hypotheses.  - 39 M i s s i n g data on the drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the drug a t t i t u d e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l were not s c o r e d at p r e t e s t nor a t p o s t e s t and i t a f f e c t e d none o f t h e computations.  Responses t o p a r t i a l l y completed  questionn-  a i r e s and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s were scored w h i l e the m i s s i n g d a t a was not s c o r e d . drugs"), eighteen use")  Variables thirteen  ( " c i g a r e t t e use") and nineteen  ("other ("cigar  o f the drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e were not scored  because o f i n s u f f i c i e n t  and m i s l e a d i n g  responses.  Res-  ponses f o r these v a r i a b l e s were not t a b u l a t e d . See Appendix E f o r a complete t a b u l a t i o n o f a l l t h i r t y e i g h t v a r i a b l e s from t h e drug behavior q u e s t i o n n a i r e and Appendix F f o r a l i s t i n g o f a t t i t u d e domain concepts, aluative bipolar adjective scales and c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s  transformed  f o r concept  ev-  matrices  s t r u c t u r e s from AGFAP.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS The i n i t i a l s t a t i s t i c a l t a s k o f the r e s e a r c h was t o determine t h e e q u i v a l e n c e o r non-equivalence o f treatment groups A, B, and c o n t r o l a t the p r e t e s t measurement on the drug b e h a v i o r and drug a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s . drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e , a t w o - t a i l e d  On t h e  Student t s t a t i s t i c  a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was employed on the drug v a r i a b l e between treatment groups A and c o n t r o l , groups B and c o n t r o l and groups A and B t h a t had the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two means. not  statistically significant  I f t h e r e s u l t was  i t was assumed t h a t the  measured v a r i a b l e s w i t h a s m a l l e r d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e t e s t means were a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y Table I o u t l i n e s the sample s i z e s group means  significant.  (N), t h e treatment  (X) and standard d e v i a t i o n s  (s.d.), the  d i f f e r e n c e s between means and the rank d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r the s e l e c t e d drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s between treatment grbups A and c o n t r o l a t p r e t e s t .  TABLE I TREATMENT GROUP A AND CONTROL GROUP DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRETEST MEANS ON SELECTED DRUG VARIABLES. VARIABLES  TREATMENT GROUP A  CONTROL GROUP  X  S.d.  N  12. Tobacco  2.325  1.639  40  2.039  1.579  130  0.286  1  4. A l c o h o l  2.190  1.215  42  2.410  1.367  134  -0.220  2  5. Amphetamines  1.000  0.000  36  1.091  0.500  121  -0.091  3  11. O p i a t e s  1.000  0.000  35  1.060  0.421  117  -0.060  4  6. B a r b i t u r a t e s  1.000  0.000  37  1.050  0.384  121  -0.050  5  8. H a l l u c i n o g e n s 1.054  0.229  37  1.100  0.475  120  -0.046  6  9. I n h a l a n t s  1.000  0.000  37  1.042  0.376  120  -0.042  7  7. Cocaine  1.081  0.277  37  1.092  0.537  119  -0.011  8.5  10. Marijuana and h a s h i s h  1.385  0.935  39  1.374  0.970  123  0.011  8.5  X  S.d.  DIFFERENCES RANK BETWEEN MEANS DIFFERENCE  N  - 42 According t o t h e t p r o b a b i l i t y s t a t i s t i c statistically  significent difference  t h e r e was no  f o r the tobacco  v a r i a b l e a t p r e t e s t between treatment groups A and c o n t r o l . The tobacco v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t value o f 0.991 a s s o c i a t e d v  w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.325.  T h e r e f o r e , e q u i v a l a n c e can  be assumed between treatment groups A and c o n t r o l on a l l v a r i a b l e s measured s i n c e i t i s a l s o assumed t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r mean d i f f e r e n c e s than t h e tobacco v a r i a b l e on the p r e t e s t means were a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Table I I g i v e s t h e sample s i z e s group means (X) and standard d e v i a t i o n s  (N), t h e treatment (s.d.), t h e d i f f -  erences between means and the rank d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r the s e l e c t e d drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s between treatment groups B and c o n t r o l a t p r e t e s t .  TABLE I I TREATMENT GROUP B AND CONTROL GROUP DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRETEST MEANS ON SELECTED DRUG VARIABLES VARIABLES  TREATMENT GROUP B X  s.d.  N  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS  CONTROL GROUP X  s.d.  N  RANK DIFFERENCE  4. A l c o h o l  2.021  1.246  48  2.410  1.367  134  -0.390  1  10. Marijuana and hashish  1.463  1.206  46  1.374  0.970  123  0.089  2  8. H a l l u c i n o g e n s  1.171  0.588  41  1.100  0.475  120  0.071  3  12. Tobacco  1.978  1.530  45  2,039  1.579  130  -0.061  4.5  7. Cocaine  1.154  0.670  39  1.092  0.537  119  0.061  4.5  11.  1.000  0.000  40  1.060  0.421  117  -0.060  6  9. Inhalants  1.000  0.000  40  1.042  0.376  120  -0.042  7  5. Amphetamines  1.122  0.557  41  1.091  0.500  121  0.031  8  6. B a r b i t u r a t e s  1.026  0.160  39  1.050  0.384  121  -0.024  9  Opiates  _ 44 There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r the  a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e a t p r e t e s t between treatment groups B and c o n t r o l .  The a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t v a l u e o f  1.733 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.081.  Since i t  i s assumed t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r mean d i f f e r e n c e s than t h e a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e on the p r e t e s t means were not statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t , e q u i v a l e n c e between treatment  groups B and c o n t r o l can be assumed. Table I I I g i v e s t h e sample s i z e s group means  (X) and standard d e v i a t i o n s  (N), the treatment (s.d.), t h e d i f f -  erences between means and t h e rank d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r the s e l e c t e d drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s between treatment groups A and B.  TABLE I I I TREATMENT GROUP A AND TREATMENT GROUP B DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRETEST MEANS ON SELECTED DRUG VARIABLES VARIABLES  TREATMENT GROUP A X  S.d.  N  12 . Tobacco  2 .325  1. 639  4. A l c o h o l  2 .190  5. Amphetamines  TREATMENT GROUP B  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS  RANK  X  s.d.  N  DIFFERENCE  40  1.978  1.530  45  0.347  1  1. 215  42  2.021  1.246  48  0.169  2  1 .000  0. 000  36  1.122  0.557  41  -0.122  3  8. H a l l u c i n o g e n s  1 .054  0. 229  37  1.171  0.588  41  -0.117  4  10. M a r i j u a n a and Hashish  1 .385  0. 935  39  1.463  1.206  46  -0.078  5  7. Cocaine  1 .081  0. 277  37  1.154  0.670  39  -0.073  6  6. B a r b i t u r a t e s  1 .000  0. 000  37  1.026  0.160  39  -0.026  7  9. I n h a l a n t s  1 .000  0. 000  37  1.000  0.000  40  0.000  8. 5  11 . O p i a t e s  1 .000  0. 000  35  1.000  0.000  40  0.000  8. 5  - 46 There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r the tobacco v a r i a b l e a t p r e t e s t between treatment groups A and B.  The tobacco v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t value o f 1.010  associated  w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.317.  Since i t i s  assumed t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r mean d i f f e r e n c e s than the tobacco v a r i a b l e on the p r e t e s t means were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , e q u i v a l a n c e between  treatment  groups A and B can be assumed. I t can be concluded  from the t h r e e Student  t stat-  i s t i c s t h a t t h e r e was p r e t e s t e q u i v a l e n c e i n the nons y s t e m a t i c a l l y grouped treatments  f o r the drug  behavior  v a r i a b l e s as measured by the drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Pretest  e q u i v a l e n c e on the drug a t t i t u d e  d i f f e r e n t i a l was determined  semantic  by two one-way a n a l y s e s o f  v a r i a n c e s t a t i s t i c s f o r the two r e s u l t i n g concept structures.  A one-way ANOVA f o r treatment groups A, B  and c o n t r o l f o r concept  s t r u c t u r e one  (Table IV) y i e l d e d  an P v a l u e o f 0.27 which was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  when computed w i t h d f o f 2 and 234 a t the .05 l e v e l .  - 47 TABLE IV ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST FOR CONCEPT STRUCTURE ONE (DRUG-USING, ANTI  ESTABLISHMENT  CLUSTER) SOURCE Total  SS  ms  19,269.86  236  44.08  2  22.04  19,225.78  234  82.16  Between groups W i t h i n groups  df  F  0.27  p  N.S.  A second one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r concept s t r u c t u r e two (Table V) y i e l d e d an F value o f 0.05 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t when computed w i t h d f o f 2 and 234 a t the .05 l e v e l .  TABLE V ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST POR CONCEPT STRUCTURE TWO (NON DRUG-USING, ESTABLISHMENT CLUSTER). SOURCE Total Between groups W i t h i n groups  SS 23,690.76 10.33 23,680.43  df  ms  F  p  236 2 234  5.16 101.20  0.05  N.S.  - 48 It  c a n be c o n c l u d e d  variance that  t h e r e was p r e t e s t  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y grouped one  In t h e second there w i l l  i n the treatment  e q u i v a l e n c e i n t h e non-  treatments f o r concept  and two i n a two c o n c e p t  by t h e drug a t t i t u d e  that  f r o m t h e two one-way a n a l y s e s o f  structure  semantic  schema a s m e a s u r e d  differential.  step o f the analysis the hypothesis  be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y recipient's  significant  involvement w i t h  h a r m f u l drugs a s measured by t h e p o s t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e as a r e s u l t drug e d u c a t i o n program a method o f t e s t i n g statistic  structures  drug  difference  potentially behavior  o f t h e p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based  ( t r e a t m e n t A) was d e t e r m i n e d .  t h e h y p o t h e s i s , a two t a i l e d  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  Student  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was u s e d  v a r i a b l e t h a t had t h e g r e a t e s t  As t  on t h e  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two  means b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t g r o u p A and c o n t r o l g r o u p a t t h e p o s t e s t measurement.  T a b l e V I o u t l i n e s t h e sample  (N), t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p means (s.d.),  (X) and s t a n d a r d  deviations  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n means and t h e r a n k  ence s c o r e s f o r t h e s e l e c t e d  size  differ-  drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s be-  tween t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s A and c o n t r o l a t p o s t e s t .  j  TABLE VI TREATMENT GROUP A AND CONTROL GROUP DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POSTEST MEANS ON SELECTED DRUG VARIABLES VARIABLES  TREATMENT GROUP A X  s.d.  N  CONTROL GROUP X  S.d.  N  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS  RANK DIFFERENCE SCORE  1. Cocaine  1.120  0.440  25  1.231  0.803  148  -0.111  1  9. I n h a l a n t s  1.231  0.815  26  1.222  0.594  149  0.109  2  11 . O p i a t e s  1.000  0.000  24  1.070  0.484  144  -0.070  3  4. A l c o h o l  2.548  1.567  31  2.604  1.510  160  -0.056  4  5. Amphetamines  1.154  0.785  26  1.102  0.520  148  0.052  5  8. Ha1luc inogehs  1.115  0.588  26  1.161  0.648  150  -0.046  6  12 . Tobacco  2.233  1.696  30  2.190  1.629  154  0.043  7. 5  10 . M a r i j u a n a o r hashish  1.414  0.825  29  1.457  1.094  152  -0.043  7. 5  6. B a r b i t u r a t e s  1.115  0.588  26  1.116  0.568  148  -0.001  9  - 50 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t s t a t i s t i c t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  sig-  n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r the cocaine v a r i a b l e at postest between treatment  groups A and c o n t r o l .  The c o c a i n e  v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t value o f 0.999 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.324.  Since i t i s assumed t h a t a l l v a r -  i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r mean d i f f e r e n c e s than t h e c o c a i n e v a r i a b l e on t h e p o s t e s t measurement were a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t o t h e pharmacolo g i c a l l y based  drug education program  (treatment A) i s  supported. As can be seen i n Table VI t h e c o c a i n e mean i n c r e a s e d by 0.111 w h i l e t h e i n h a l a n t drugs mean decreased by . approximately the same amount.  < ;  Throughout comparison o f t h e  v a r i a b l e s t h e r e i s no p a t t e r n o f d i f f e r e n c e , s i x drug v a r i a b l e s d e c r e a s i n g i n mean score and t h r e e drug i n c r e a s i n g i n mean s c o r e .  The treatment  variables  group A r e s u l t s  p o i n t t o a h i g h e r mean use w i t h i n h a l a n t s , amphetamines and tobacco than do t h e c o n t r o l group r e s u l t s .  The c o n t r o l  group r e s u l t s p o i n t t o a h i g h e r mean use o f c o c a i n e , o p i a t e s , a l c o h o l , h a l l u c i n o g e n s , marijuana o r h a s h i s h and b a r b i t u r a t e s than does treatment treatment  group A a t p o s t e s t .  In o t h e r words,  group A d i d not have a s y s t e m a t i c mean d i f f e r e n c e  e f f e c t as compared w i t h t h e c o n t r o l group a t p o s t e s t . Acceptance  o f the n u l l hypothesis i s further  t i a t e d by t h e s t a t i s t i c  substan-  f o r the drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e  w i t h the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between means f o r treatment group A between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measures. g i v e s the treatment group sample s i z e  Table V I I  (N), the treatment  group  - 51 means (X) and standard d e v i a t i o n s  ( s . d . ) , the d i f f e r e n c e s  between means and the rank d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s  f o r the select-  ed drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s between treatment group A on t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t  measures.  rH  CM  CD  rH  > CQ  Ol  I  o i  O  •-I  VO CN  CN  VO CN  O ro  VO CN  CN  vo  iH  in  in  00  00 00  00 00  o  in  VO CT> VO  rH  o  o  o  rH  o  o  in  m  ro ro  i  m  H  CQ  Q  CO  Q  w  00  w  w  w  b  CO  00  rH  1  CN  rH  rH rH  CN  rH  rH  rH  CN  i> ro  ro  ro  m  o o  o o  o o  rH  o  o  o  O rH  o o o  CN  rH  m  B  CO  rH  in  tc  rH VO  O  ro  ro  .  .  VO  •  cn O O  o o  o o  in  in  in  CO  cn  as CN  o o  o o o o  as CN  CN  1  1  O  CN 00  in  O o o  o  o o  CN  .  rH rH  CN rH  rH  CN  rH  rH  rH  O  r» ro  r> ro  o\ ro  m ro  in  o o  •  •  •  o  o• rH  04  § CD  E-i T3 CO  53  ^  EH  "  EH  .  W  rH CN  •  o•  o•  CQ  3 06  rH 0 r3 0 0 rH  «c t  <*  CO 4J (3 id rH  <tt ^ H  •  CT>  0> r-  CN CN  CN  O  o  CO  •>  o•  vO t rH  o o o  o o o  CN  ro  <* in o  rH 00  00  ro  o o o  rH  rH  CN  rH  rH  rH  rH  CQ © CO  cn ro  m  +»  -P 0)  io  3 -M •H  a  -5 U  •55 •  in  ( 0 U  0 CJ  o c •rl  rl id CQ  0  rH rH  »  CN rH  XI  VO  o id  •  0  •  00  o  •  in  o  o• o  TJ  cid  <u  <D  as  •  tco  CO  a  -rl R  •  Ha  H H  CN  CN  i  2  vO  rH rH  o  CO  in  in  m  m CO  to  ro  id  c •rH id  o 0 o  •  •>  c ,£3 Id 3 0) •r-i-H A  U CO id id  S A o  •  rH  m  cu  •P id •H CU  o  •  rH rH  - 52 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t s t a t i s t i c t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference  f o r the a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e f o r t r e a t -  ment group A between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measures.  The  a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t value o f 1.100 a s s o c i a t e d a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.275. v a r i a b l e s with smaller not  statistically  with  I t i s assumed t h a t drug b e h a v i o r  d i f f e r e n c e s between means a r e a l s o  significant.  The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference  i n t h e treatment r e c i p i e n t ' s  involve-  u ment w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by the p o s t e s t drug b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e  as a r e s u l t o f the non-pharm-  a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program (treatment B) was then determined.  As a method o f t e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s ,  a two t a i l e d t s t a t i s t i c a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was used on the v a r i a b l e t h a t had the g r e a t e r  difference  between the two means between treatment group B and c o n t r o l group a t the p o s t e s t measurement. sample s i z e s deviations  Table V I I I o u t l i n e s the  (N), the treatment group means  (X) and standard  (s.d.), the d i f f e r e n c e s between means and the rank  d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r the s e l e c t e d drug b e h a v i o r between treatment group B and c o n t r o l a t p o s t e s t .  variables  TABLE V I I I TREATMENT GROUP B AND CONTROL GROUP DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POSTEST MEANS ON SELECTED DRUG VARIABLES VARIABLES  TREATMENT GROUP B X  s.d.  N  CONTROL GROUP X  s.d.  DIFFERENCES RANK BETWEEN DIFFERENCE MEANS SCORE  N  12. Tobacco  1.971  1.446  34  2.190  1.629  154  -0. 219  1  7. Cocaine  1.061  0.242  33  1.231  0.803  148  -0. 170  2  4. A l c o h o l  2.471  1.354  34  2.604  1.510  160  -0. 133  3  10. M a r i j u a n a and hashish  1.353  1.012  34  1.457  1.094  152  -0. 104  4  5. Amphetamines  1.000  0.000  33  1.102  0.520  148  -0. 102  5  8. H a l l u c i n o g e n s  1.061  0.242  33  1.161  0.648  150  -0. 100  6  9. I n h a l a n t s  1.030  0.174  33  1.122  0.544  149  -0. 092  7  6. B a r b i t u r a t e s  1.062  0.354  32  1.116  0.568  148  -0. 054  8  1.030  0.174  33  1.078  0.484  144  -0. 040  9  11. O p i a t e s  - 54 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t s t a t i s t i c t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e tobacco v a r i a b l e a t p o s t est  between treatment group B and c o n t r o l .  The tobacco  v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t value o f 0.698 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.493.  S i n c e i t i s assumed t h a t a l l v a r -  i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r mean d i f f e r e n c e s than t h e tobacco  var-  i a b l e on the p o s t e s t measurement were a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t o t h e nonp h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program  (treat-  ment B) i s not c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . As can be seen i n Table V I I I , treatment o r t e d a s y s t e m a t i c and n e g a t i v e  group B rep-  (decrease) mean d i f f e r e n c e  e f f e c t a t t h e p o s t e s t measurement.  In o t h e r words, t h e  means f o r a l l n i n e drug v a r i a b l e s were s m a l l e r f o r t h e group t h a t had r e c e i v e d the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program than t h e c o n t r o l group t h a t r e c e i v e d no drug program i n t e r v e n t i o n . N o n ^ r e j e c t i o h o f theihull«hypothesis i s f u r t h e r t i a t e d by the t s t a t i s t i c  substan-  f o r t h e drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e  w i t h the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between means f o r treatment group B between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measures. g i v e s t h e treatment group sample s i z e group means  Table IX  (N), t h e treatment  (X) and standard d e v i a t i o n s (s.d.), t h e d i f f e r -  ence between means and the rank d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r the s e l e c t e d drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s between treatment group B on t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measures.  TABLE IX TREATMENT GROUP B DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRETEST AND POSTEST MEANS ON SELECTED DRUG VARIABLES VARIABLES  TREATMENT GROUP B PRETEST X s.d. N  TREATMENT GROUP B POSTEST X S.d. N  DIFFERENCES RANK BETWEEN DIFFERENCE MEANS SCORE  4. A l c o h o l  2.021  1.246  48  2.471  1.354  34  -0.450  1  5. Amphetamines  1.222  0.557  41  1.000  0.000  33  0.122  2  8. Ha 1 l u c inog en s  1.171  0.588  41  1.061  0.242  33  0.110  3. 5  10 . Marijuana and Hashish  1.463  1.206  46  1.353  1.012  34  0.110  3. 5  7. Cocaine  1.154  0.670  39  1.061  0.242  33  0.093  5  6. B a r b i t u r a t e s  1.026  0.160  39  1.062  0.354  32  -0.037  6  9. I n h a l a n t s  1.000  0.000  40  1.030  0.174  33  -0.030  7. 5  11 . O p i a t e s  1.000  0.000  40  1.030  0.174  33  -0.030  7. 5  12 . Tobacco  1.978  1.530  45  1.971  1.446  34  0.007  9  - 56 A c c o r d i n g t o the t s t a t i s t i c t h e r e was  no  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r the a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e f o r t r e a t ment group B between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measures. a l c o h o l v a r i a b l e y i e l d e d a t value 1.554 p r o b a b i l i t y o f 0.120.  The  associated with a  I t i s assumed t h a t the drug  be-  h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r d i f f e r e n c e s between means are a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  In the t h i r d stage o f the a n a l y s i s , the n u l l  hypoth-  eses t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t erence i n the treatment to  diff-  r e c i p i e n t s ' a t t i t u d e with reference  p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by the p o s t e s t  drug a t t i t u d e semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l between the pharmacol-  o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program  (treatment A)  and  the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program (treatment B), was iations  tested.  The means (X), standard dev-  (s.d.) and number o f respondents  (N) f o r treatment  groups A, B and c o n t r o l a t p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t measurements f o r concept  s t r u c t u r e s one  c l u s t e r ) and two  (drug-using, a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  (non drug-using,  are shown i n Table  X.  establishment  cluster)  - 57 TABLE  X  MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND NUMBERS OF RESPONDENTS FROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR CONCEPT STRUCTURES ONE AND TWO TREATMENT GROUPS  MEASUREMENT  CONCEPT STRUCTURE  N  X  s.d.  A B Control  Pretest Pretest Pretest  1 1 1  45 47 145  49.36 50.70 49.97  9.69 10.64 9.94  A B Control  Pretest Pretest Pretest  2 2 2  45 47 145  50.02 50.31 49.84  8.43 10.97 10.21  A B Control  Postest Postest Postest  1 1 1  33 39 158  47.87 49.62 50.47  12.33 9.43 9.64  A B Control  Postest Postest Postest  2 2 2  33 39 158  47.24 50.36 50.55  9.13 9.58 10.30  As a method o f t e s t i n g the hypotheses as above, a oneway a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed f o r treatment groups A, B and c o n t r o l f o r concept s t r u c t u r e s one and two a t postest.  Table XI g i v e s t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e drug-using,  establishment  a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r (concept  anti-  s t r u c t u r e one) a t  p o s t e s t and F i g u r e I g i v e s t h e r e s u l t s d i a g r a m a t i e a l l y .  - 58 TABLE XI ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR  TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND  POSTEST FOR CONCEPT STRUCTURE ONE  CONTROL AT  (DRUG-USING, ANTI-  ESTABLISHMENT CLUSTER) SOURCE  Total  S.S.  d.f.  20,643.87  229  239.32  2  119.66  20,404.55  227  89.89  Between groups W i t h i n groups  m.s.  F  p  1.33  The ANOVA y i e l d e d an F value o f 1.33  which was  i c a n t when computed w i t h d f o f 2 and  227 a t the  On the b a s i s o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c ,  not  signif-  .05  the n u l l hypotheses  o u t l i n e d above, as p e r t a i n i n g t o concept cannot be r e j e c t e d .  N.S.  level. as  s t r u c t u r e one,  In o t h e r words, t h e r e i s no  i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the treatment  statrecipients'  drug-using and a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t t i t u d e s as measured by the p o s t e s t drug a t t i t u d e semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l between  the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program  (treatment  A), and the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program  (treatment B ) .  Table X I I g i v e s the r e s u l t s f o r the non establishment a t t i t u d e c l u s t e r  drug-using,  (concept s t r u c t u r e two)  at  p o s t e s t and F i g u r e I I g i v e s the r e s u l t s d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y .  - 59 FIGURE CONCEPT STRUCTURE ONE  I  (DRUG-USING, ANTI-ESTABLISHMENT  CLUSTER) MEANS FROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST AND POSTEST POR TWO CONCEPT STRUCTURE OF THE DOMAIN.  51. G 50.70  50.0  49.36 49.0  48.0 47.87  47.0  Treatment A  Treatment B  .Pretest (N-237) .Postest  (N=230)  Control  _ 60 TABLE X I I ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR  TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND  POSTEST FOR CONCEPT STRUCTURE TWO  (NON  CONTROL AT  DRUG-USING,  ESTABLISHMENT CLUSTER). SOURCE  S.S.  Total Between groups W i t h i n groups  d.f.  m.s.  F  13,230.90  229  360.75  2  180.37  12,870.15  227  56.70  3.18  The ANOVA y i e l d e d an F value of 3.18 which was when computed w i t h d . f . o f 2 and  227 a t the  p  .05  0.05  significant level.  On the b a s i s o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c , the n u l l hypotheses o u t l i n e d above, as p e r t a i n i n g t o concept are r e j e c t e d . significant  structure  as two,  In o t h e r words, t h e r e i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e i n the treatment  r e c i p i e n t s ' non  drug-using and establishment a t t i t u d e s as measured by the postest  drug a t t i t u d e semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l between the  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug education program  (treatment A),  and the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program  (treatment B ) .  - 61 CONCEPT STRUCTURE TWO  (NON DRUG-USING,  ESTABLISHMENT  CLUSTER) MEANS PROM DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TWO CONCEPT STRUCTURE OF THE DOMAIN. 51. Q 50.36 50.0  50.02  50.55  49.84  49.01;  48.0  " 47.24 47.0  4 Treatment A  Treatment B  PRETEST  (N= 237)  POSTEST  (N= 230)  FIGURE I I  Control  CHAPTER V INTERPRETATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS In t h i s chapter, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter w i l l be g i v e n .  The r a t i o n a l e f o r the premature  t e r m i n a t i o n o f treatment B and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and weaknesses o f t h i s study w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .  In a d d i t i o n  a c o n c e p t u a l model f o r drug e d u c a t i o n w i l l be p r o v i d e d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s as t h e y r e l a t e t o the experimental  hypotheses  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . Hypothesis  1:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f erence i n the r e c i p i e n t s ' i n v o l v e ment w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by the p o s t e s t i n s t r u ment as a r e s u l t o f t h e pharmacolo g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program (treatment A).  On the b a s i s o f t h e t s t a t i s t i c between treatment groups A and c o n t r o l a t the p o s t e s t measurement, the above h y p o t h e s i s cannot he ^ r e j e c t e d .  As i s i shown i n Table VI,  the c o c a i n e v a r i a b l e had t h e l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between means and t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y icant.  signif-  I t i s assumed t h a t those v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r  d i f f e r e n c e s between means a r e a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y nificant.  sig-  In o t h e r words, t h e drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s  measured f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the pharmacologi c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program  (treatment A) were  - 63 not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than those drug v a r i a b l e s from an otherwise comparable p o p u l a t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e d no drug e d u c a t i o n .  This result i s further  sub-  s t a n t i a t e d by c r o s s - t i m e t - t e s t s f o r t h e drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s f o r treatment A as i s e v i d e n t i n T a b l e V I I . Along w i t h t h e r e not being a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between treatment A and c o n t r o l a t p o s t e s t , t h e r e was no s y s t e m a t i c mean d i f f e r e n c e e f f e c t  (Table V I ) .  Following  treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group r e p o r t e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y though d i r e c t i o n a l l y h i g h e r mean drug involvement w i t h i n h a l a n t s , amphetamines and tobacco than the c o n t r o l group.  The c o n t r o l group r e p o r t e d h i g h e r mean  involvement w i t h cocaine, o p i a t e s , a l c o h o l , h a l l u c i n o g e n s , marijuana o r h a s h i s h and b a r b i t u r a t e s than d i d t h e experimental group f o l l o w i n g treatment  intervention.  P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug educators have operated under t h e assumption  that the dispensing o f accurate  i n f o r m a t i o n about drugs would r e s u l t i n a change o f l i f e s t y l e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o drugs.  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s has not  been v e r i f i e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h and these r e s u l t s  concur  w i t h the r e s u l t s o f most o t h e r s (Stuart, 1974; Swisher, Crawford, G o l d s t e i n and Yura, 1974; Grant,  1971? Swisher and Horan,  1971; Feger and Smart, 1972).  In some  i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e has been an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c r e a s e d knowledge about drugs and a n t i - d r u g b e h a v i o r decisions  (Horan,  1974) t h a t goes beyond t h e n u l l  e s i s accepted i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .  hypoth-  - 64 There are s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t account f o r t h i s seeming paradox.  The f i r s t  i s t h a t although drug  knowledge c o v a r i e s w i t h drug involvement, not n e c e s s a r i l y concluded.  causality i s  The s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t  drug  use l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e d knowledge about drugs i s as tenuous as the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d drug knowledge f o s t e r s a decrease i n involvement w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y harmf u l drugs.  Drug use decision-making i s a l i f e - s t y l e  choice  and i t i s not determined by p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l knowledge alone, but by i n t r a - p e r s o n a l and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s as w e l l .  As r e p o r t e d i n Appendix E, T a b l e XVIII, approx-  i m a t e l y t h i r t y - t w o percent o f the 469 respondents a t pret e s t and p o s t e s t r e p o r t e d t h a t people used drugs f o r "fun, k i c k s and t h r i l l s " w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty percent reported  " c u r i o s i t y " as the r a t i o n a l e .  Ex-drug  reported  (Appendix E, T a b l e XIX), t h a t they stopped u s i n g  drugs f o r i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s : they "saw  users  the harm i t  had done t o f r i e n d s " and they were " i n f l u e n c e d by parents or  f r i e n d s " to stop.  P r o v i d i n g p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l informa-  t i o n as an i s o l a t e d p r e v e n t a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s an  empir-  i c a l l y unsubstantiated e f f o r t . A second  f a c t o r i n e x p l a i n i n g the e f f e c t may  t h a t t e a c h i n g about drugs i n c r e a s e s c o g n i t i v e ing  be.  understand-  w h i l e d e c r e a s i n g f e a r about drugs, i n c r e a s e s c u r i o s i t y  about drugs w h i l e d e c r e a s i n g p r o h i b i t i o n s about  drugs.  The i n t r u s i o n o f an " i n t e r v e n t i o n team" i n t o t h e n o r m a l l y proceeding s c h o o l day may  draw a t t e n t i o n not t o the  implic-  i t l y p e r s u a s i v e message but t o the d e s i r a b i l i t y and  attract-  i v e n e s s o f the u n o b t a i n a b l e and  the  illicit.  As w e l l ,  - 65 student now a b l e t o c o g n i t i v e l y understand a drug o r determine  the e f f e c t s o f  the p u r i t y o f a " s t r e e t drug", may be  d e s e n s i t i z e d t o the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d e b i l i t a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t u a t i o n although he knows t h a t he i s not p h y s i c a l l y an a d d i c t . Hypothesis  2:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e c i p i e n t s ' involvement w i t h pote n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by the p o s t e s t instrument as a r e s u l t o f the n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program (treatment B ) .  On the b a s i s o f the t - s t a t i s t i c  between  treatment  groups B and c o n t r o l a t the p o s t e s t measurement, the above h y p o t h e s i s .cannot b e - r e j e c t e d .  As i s shown i n Table V I I I ,  the tobacco v a r i a b l e had t h e l a r g e s t , though not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , d i f f e r e n c e between means.  It i s  assumed t h a t the remaining v a r i a b l e s w i t h s m a l l e r ences between means a r e a l s o not s t a t i s t i c a l l y ant.  differ-  signific-  The drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s measured f o l l o w i n g the  n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program (treatment B) were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significantly  e r e n t than those drug v a r i a b l e s from an otherwise  diffcompar-  a b l e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e d no drug e d u c a t i o n .  This  r e s u l t i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a c r o s s - t i m e t t e s t f o r the drug b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e t h a t had the l a r g e s t  diff-  erence between means (Table I X ) . Treatment B d i d r e s u l t i n a s y s t e m a t i c though not statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e e f f e c t as i s  shown i n Table V I I I .  The treatment group B p o s t e s t means  - 66 were s m a l l e r than t h e c o n t r o l p o s t e s t means f o r a l l n i n e v a r i a b l e s measured.  However, t h i s s y s t e m a t i c and negat-  i v e mean d i f f e r e n c e e f f e c t must be viewed c a u t i o u s l y s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e e f f e c t was due t o t h e p r e mature t e r m i n a t i o n o f treatment f i v e treatment  sessions  B r a t h e r than due t o t h e  completed.  Hypothesis  3:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e c i p i e n t s ' a t t i t u d e with r e f e r ence t o p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l drugs as measured by t h e p o s t e s t instrument as a r e s u l t o f t h e p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n program (treatment A ) .  Hypothesis  4:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e c i p i e n t s ' a t t i t u d e with r e f e r ence t o p o t e n t i a l l y harmful drugs as measured by t h e p o s t e s t instrument as a r e s u l t o f the non-pharmacologically based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program ( t r e a t ment B) .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e design  between treatment groups A , B and c o n t r o l on concept  s t r u c t u r e one (drug-using, a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t values) a t p o s t e s t , the n u l l hypotheses cannot be r e j e c t e d . : v treatment  Following  i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h e r e was r e p o r t e d a t t i t u d e e q u i v -  a l e n c e between t h e p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug  education  program, t h e n o n - p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based human r e l a t i o n s h i p program and t h e c o n t r o l group which r e c e i v e d t h e r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m not i n c l u d i n g drug e d u c a t i o n .  It  i s concluded t h a t n e i t h e r treatment A nor treatment B had any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n a l t e r i n g t h e drug-using, establishment a t t i t u d e s o f experimental  students.  anti-  -  67  -  However, a one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e significant difference  f o r concept s t r u c t u r e two,  drug-using, e s t a b l i s h m e n t c l u s t e r . Figure  I I the  post-test  the non  a n a l y s i s spans 3.31  the  non  points. attitude clust-  d i f f e r significantly, attitudes  representing  drug-using, e s t a b l i s h m e n t c l u s t e r d i f f e r e d t o a  significant  degree.  As diagramed i n F i g u r e f o r concept ;two ment A,  a  As can be seen i n  Although the drug-using a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t e r d i d not  yielded  the  I I , the g r e a t e s t  l i e s between p r e t e s t and  difference  postest  for treat-  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug program.  There  i s v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between c r o s s - t i m e measurements o f treatment B, the  control.  and  v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e over time f o r  Treatment A r e s u l t s y i e l d e d a decrease i n  a t t i t u d e s with reference  t o the non  drug-using e s t a b l i s h -  ment c l u s t e r t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d the g r e a t e s t  proportion  ing a s i g n i f i c a n t change between treatments A,  yield-  B and  control.  I t i s concluded t h a t the  p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug educ-  a t i o n program n e g a t i v e l y  influenced  treatment r e c i p i e n t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e ablishment The  the a t t i t u d e s o f t o non  the  drug-using  values. conclusion  c i t e d above i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  the  drug a t t i t u d e research  o f Swisher, Crawford, G o l d s t e i n  Yura  Smart  (1971), F e j e r and  Weaver and (i973).  est-  Tennant  (1972, 1973), Mason  (i973) and Warner, Swisher and  and  (1972), Horan  P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y based drug e d u c a t i o n programs  - 68 have been measured t o have no e f f e c t o r a negative e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o drugs.  This  r e s e a r c h demonstrated t h a t the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l program had a n u l l e f f e c t o n students' a t t i t u d e s with reference t o the drug-using, a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t c l u s t e r , had a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the non drug-using, establishment c l u s t e r , w h i l e the human r e l a t i o n s h i p program and the c o n t r o l group had no s i g n i f i c ant e f f e c t s on the two measured concept  structures.  - 69 R a t i o n a l e f o r Premature T e r m i n a t i o n o f Treatment B, The  Non-Pharmacologically The  Based Human R e l a t i o n s h i p Program.  i n i t i a l purpose o f t h e present  r e s e a r c h was t o  measure t h e drug b e h a v i o r a l e f f e c t o f a d i d a c t i c , ological intervention.  pharmac-  At a l a t e r time i t was d e c i d e d t o  measure a drug a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e drug behavior v a r i a b l e .  Some time l a t e r i t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e  t o develop a non-pharmacologically  based, human r e l a t i o n -  s h i p program and t o measure t h e drug b e h a v i o r a l e f f e c t and the drug a t t i t u d i n a l e f f e c t o f t h i s i n v e r v e n t i o n . ment B was an adjunct t o the o r i g i n a l  Treat-  research.  Having completed four o f t h e f i f t e e n one-hour s e s s i o n s , treatment reasons  B was prematurely  terminated.  There a r e many  f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n , not t h e l e a s t o f which was t h e  c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s system f o r the grade e i g h t s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n s t r u c t e d .  The  students r e p o r t e d t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e ego s t a t e schema as t h e o r i z e d . have a Parent  A common r e t o r t was, "I don't  ego s t a t e and I don't have an A d u l t ego s t a t e ,  I'm j u s t a k i d . "  The student's  e n s i o n was m a n i f e s t  f r u s t r a t i o n t o non-compreh-  i n overt h o s t i l i t y o r passive resistance  t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r s and t o t h e treatment.  I t became  necess-  a r y t h a t a member o f t h e permanent t e a c h i n g s t a f f be p r e s ent f o r d i s c i p l i n e purposes d u r i n g a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d s . Secondly, experimental  s i n c e t h e content o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e  and a p p l i c a t i o n a l methods o f l e a r n i n g were un-  f a m i l i a r a t the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , the students  judged  - 70 the i n t e r v e n t i o n as i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  Having  a prior  d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t the treatment was  not r e l e v a n t and  t h a t i t was  non-examinable, the students avoided  attendance,  r e f u s e d t o complete assignments and a c t e d  out i n h o s t i l i t y toward the i n s t r u c t o r s and the  class  treatment.  Although a m i n o r i t y o f the students attempted  t o under-  stand the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and completed  the a p p l i c -  a t i o n a l assignments,  the m a j o r i t y o f the students were  openly d e f i a n t . Third,  i n a d d i t i o n t o the u n f a m i l i a r i t y o f the i n -  t e r v e n t i o n t o the e s t a b l i s h e d h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , the treatment  i n s t r u c t o r s were unaware o f the  dynamics o f the c l a s s e s . a t i o n was  I t was  subcultural  assumed t h a t the i n f o r m -  i n h e r a n t l y a t t r a c t i v e and t h a t students would be i  e a s i l y motivated t o a p p l y themselves ing.  t o the t a s k o f l e a r n -  However, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the non-acceptance  by the student l e a d e r s o f the treatment was  a powerful  s t i m u l u s f o r i n t e n s i f i e d non-acceptance by the group. Seemingly acceptant and i n d u s t r i o u s students  increasingly  r e j e c t e d i n s t r u c t i o n s u r g i n g them t o a p p l y themselves  to  the t a s k s . Fourth, contamination between treatments A and B became e v i d e n t .  Although treatment  B was  a non-pharmac-  o l o g i c a l program, students a s s o c i a t e d the program w i t h a drug e d u c a t i o n program because the i n s t r u c t o r s o f the programs were the same.  I t was  r e t a i n i t s non-pharmacological  important t h a t treatment  B  i n t e n t t o comply w i t h the  - 71 model. F i f t h , the on-going  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  Depart-  ment o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology and the School Board p o s s i b l y be hampered as a r e s u l t o f student The  could  complaints.  i n s t r u c t o r s were aware t h a t t h e y d i d not f u n c t i o n i n  i s o l a t i o n but were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the u n i v e r s i t y under a u t h o r i t y o f the s c h o o l system.  Student  and  reported  p a r e n t a l complaints and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n doubts as t o the e f f i c a c y o f the program added f u r t h e r p r e s s u r e t o possible strained  relations.  S i x t h , the emotional r e s o u r c e s o f the both f u l l time graduate  students, was  instructors,  s t r a i n e d from  the  e x h a u s t i o n o f academic s t u d i e s and the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . There was  a sense  i n which i t was  d o u b t f u l whether the  i n s t r u c t o r s c o u l d c o n t i n u e the i n s t r u c t i o n o f both  pro-  grams and m a i n t a i n t h e i r o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Addit-  i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f would have been n e c e s s a r y .  - 72 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Research A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s i n e v i t a b l y a compromise between what would be i d e a l and what i s p o s s i b l e g i v e n the circumstances o f f i n a n c e s , manpower, e x p e r t i s e , and t h e l i k e . When the i d e a l d i f f e r s from the r e a l , caveats become e v i d ent as l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e study.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the study  w i l l be o u t l i n e d here t o f u r t h e r enable a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n . F i r s t , anonymous and c o n f i d e n t i a l s e l f - r e p o r t questi o n n a i r e s were the source o f the i n f o r m a t i o n . assumed t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s  1  I t was  s c o r e s on the drug b e h a v i o r  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the drug a t t i t u d e semantic  differential  were a c c u r a t e i n d i c a n t s o f t h e i r a c t u a l b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s concerning drugs.  T h i s assumption was not t e s t e d .  S e l f - r e p o r t instruments w i t h the guarantee o f anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were d e c i d e d upon as more p r a c t i c a l than peer o r p o l i c e r e p o r t s , b l o o d o r u r i n e analyses, o r face-to-face interviews. Second, the non-randomization  o f treatments  required  t h a t a p r e t e s t be taken t o determine the e q u i v a l a n c e o r non-equivalence o f treatments and c o n t r o l .  Since t h e pre-  t e s t needed t o be i d e n t i c a l t o the p o s t e s t , the p r e t e s t may have had a s e n s i t i z i n g e f f e c t on the p o s t e s t t h a t had nothing t o do w i t h treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n .  This could  p o s s i b l y p r e c i p i t a t e m i s l e a d i n g responses. T h i r d , the p e r i o d o f time between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t  -  measures i n v o l v e d  73  -  s i x t y - e i g h t days thereby i n t r o d u c i n g  the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f problems r e l a t i n g t o i n t r a s e s s i o n h i s t o r y . The  experimental treatments are one  a t t r i b u t e d t o change. break and are  scattered  f a c t o r t h a t may  However, the h i g h s c h o o l  school  closures  due  have  spring  t o union s t r i k e s  i n t r a s e s s i o n h i s t o r y f a c t o r s t h a t may  have  contributed  t o change i r r e s p e c t i v e o f treatment g r o u p i n g . Fourth, these f i n d i n g s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d the  i n t e r v e n t i o n g i v e n by the two  e n t i r e l y white, p r o t e s t a n t , eight school  population.  i n s t r u c t o r s t o an almost  academic, middle c l a s s , grade R e p l i c a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t commun-  i t i e s w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u c t o r s would add o f the  research.  The  degree t o which one o f b e h a v i o r and findings.  t o the g e n e r a l i z e a b i l i t y  measurement instruments a l s o l i m i t  can g e n e r a l i z e  the  a t t i t u d e measures may  As w e l l , these two  cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d  findings. have r e s u l t e d  conclusions  the  Other types i n other  i n t e r v e n t i o n programs are  the o n l y types o f drug e d u c a t i o n and research  beyond  not  in this  t o o t h e r k i n d s o f programs.  For example, r e s u l t s from research o f drug e d u c a t i o n cannot g e n e r a l i z e  on a f e a r i n d u c t i o n model t o a concept a t t a i n -  ment model. Fifth,  the  extreme c a u t i o n  f i n d i n g s o f treatment B must be t r e a t e d as the  i n t e r v e n t i o n prematurely t e r m i n a t e d .  I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether the treatment, o r the termination  with  o f the treatment, produced the  As w e l l , the d i r e c t i o n o f e f f e c t must be  disruptive  resultant e f f e c t .  suspect.  - 74 S i x t h , students  i d e n t i f i e d themselves on t h e anony-  mous q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by t h e i r mother's maiden name and f i r s t initial.  E v i d e n t l y some students d i d not know o r d i d n o t  remember between p r e t e s t and p o s t e s t t h i s p i e c e o f i n f o r mation.  T h i s would account f o r t h e response r e c i d i v i s m ,  beyond normal absenteeism, i n t h e p o s t e s t .  Unidentifiable  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were grouped w i t h t h e c o n t r o l responses and may have e f f e c t e d change i n t h e c o n t r o l . Seventh, t h e r e has been no f o l l o w - u p survey a f t e r t h e p o s t e s t t o determine t h e s t a b i l i t y o f any r e p o r t e d change o r whether o r not change r e p o r t e d a t a l a t e r time c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n .  - 75 A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR DRUG EDUCATION The purpose,  o f t h i s aspect o f t h e present chapter i s  t o generate hypotheses  r e g a r d i n g t h e motives  f o r drug usage,  review some o f t h e more promising and emerging methods o f p r e v e n t a t i v e drug e d u c a t i o n and propose some broad  guide-  l i n e s which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n planning f u t u r e programs. What a r e t h e i n i t i a l motives taking i l l i c i t "fun,  drugs?  kicks or t h r i l l s "  drug usage.  t o experimentation o r  The present r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a r e t h e primary i n i t i a l motives t o  The secondary motives  are "curiosity,  pressure and escaping w o r r i e s and tension.". are b a s i c a l l y  interrelated  These  peer motives  and have a common a d a p t i v e v a l u e .  They r e f l e c t a common s o c i e t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , namely t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o cope w i t h l i f e ' s  problems by a l t e r i n g t h e i n t e r n a l  environment, than b y s t r u g g l i n g w i t h e x t e r n a l  situations.  Recourse t o chemicals, may be a m i s d i r e c t e d route toward experiencing s o c i a l i n t e r e s t . Goodman  In l i n e w i t h t h i s view,  (1972) observed t h a t peer pressure, c u r i o s i t y and  a v a i l a b i l i t y a r e t h e l e a d i n g c o n t i n g e n t s t o drug u s e . None o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s new ( L i p i n s k y and L i p i n s k y , 1967;  Keniston, 1969; Davis and Munoz, 1968). Keniston  (1969) has suggested  that the i n i t i a l  motives  f o r drug usage does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from o t h e r forms o f human b e h a v i o r i n t h a t a g r e a t v a r i e t y motives  can cooperate t o produce i t .  of distinct  As L i p i n s k i  has o u t l i n e d , t h e r e a r e agent, environment and h o s t  (i972) factors  - 76 t h a t a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g m o t i v a t i o n s t o drug use. the  However even  knowledge o f the drug u s e r ' s i n i t i a l motives needs t o be  suspect, u n l e s s the concepts o f drug e d u c a t i o n are c l e a r l y understood. "what men  One  can agree w i t h Blum, e t . a l . (1969) t h a t  say t h e y seek w i t h drugs i s a l s o what they seek  without them."  Thus drug usage i s not p r i m a r i l y a pharma-  c o l o g i c a l problem, but a problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i v i n g i n society.  A l l people have a need t o g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o  their social interests.  Drug usage i s a way  of handling  boredom, l o n e l i n e s s , d e s p a i r and the f r u s t r a t i o n s o f d a i l y living. The  "drug problem" viewed as a " l i f e problem" necess-  i t a t e s a d i f f e r e n t approach t o drug e d u c a t i o n . at  l e a s t four components t o such an The f i r s t  There a r e  approach.  component i n such an approach i s t o focus  i n on the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f people.  In the  f i n a l r e p o r t o f the Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o the  Non-  M e d i c a l Use o f Drugs, the Commission concluded t h a t the most promising methods o f drug e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d an e f f e c t ive  program o f l i v i n g where understanding i n t r a - p e r s o n a l  and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e c e i v e d the focus o f attention. Low  Programs as o u t l i n e d by Conger  (1973) and  (1973) i n c l u d e the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l l i f e s k i l l  Others  (Dohner,  and Smith,  concepts.  1972; Gordon, 1972; Cornacchia, B e n t a l  1973) have advocated v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o drug  use t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e x p l o r e both the i n t r a - p e r s o n a l and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l dimensions.  E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o the  c o n s t r u c t s o f f e a r , love and anger have been suggested  - 77 (Elliot, ation.  1970) as p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d avenues f o r drug Problem-solving, time s t r u c t u r i n g ,  educ-  decision-  making, awareness o f p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , ; , s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l experiences a r e a d d i t i o n a l avenues. As i s e v i d e n t from t h e above d i s c u s s i o n , p r e v e n t a t i v e drug e d u c a t i o n i s most e f f e c t i v e when programs a r e d e v i s e d which h e l p t o r e s o l v e i n t r a - p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s and which are designed t o a c t u a l i z e soci a l interest.  Behavior anomalies  are e s s e n t i a l l y char-  a c t e r i z e d by an i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l r e a l i t y , a l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and an unpreparedness for social Tne  living. second component o f a " l i f e " approach t o drug  e d u c a t i o n has t o do w i t h the methods o f communicating the course c o n t e n t .  The l e c t u r e format  common channel o f communication i n drug (Seabright, 1973).  i s t h e most education,  T h i s channel permits t h e t r a n s f e r r a l  o f l a r g e amounts o f a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n making e f f i c i e n t use o f time and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l resources o f t h e t e a c h e r . t  T h i s method may a l s o de-emphasize t h e thoughts, and  beliefs  f e e l i n g s o f the student and r e s u l t i n fragmented  learn-  ing t h a t a v o i d s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e m a t e r i a l i n t o human e x p e r i e n c e .  Kitzinger  (1970, p. 383) has p o i n t e d  out t h a t t h e s c h o o l system s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e s t r o y s s t u d ents ' s e l f - e s t e e m by " d i s c o u r a g i n g them through t h e gradi n g system, d e p r e c i a t i n g them through t h e s t r e s s on a c o l l ege e d u c a t i o n and d i s p a r a g i n g them through the t r a c k i n g  - 78 system  . . . a young person who v a l u e s h i m s e l f i s not  l i k e l y to destroy himself  (on d r u g s ) . "  An e x p e r i e n t i a l l y  based method o f l e a r n i n g may enhance s e l f - e s t e e m and prove to ing  be more s u c c e s s f u l than the l e c t u r e method i n developa p p r o p r i a t e drug a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . As was r e p o r t e d i n chapter two, Oearden and J e k e l  (1971) u t i l i z e d n o n - d i r e c t i v e techniques and s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g i n an e x p e r i e n t i a l l y based t e a c h e r - l e a d student p r o j e c t t h a t produced  some p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s .  (1971) and o t h e r s have advocated  Bland  a non-threatening and  n o n - p r e j u d i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f b e l i e f s and thoughts as w e l l as f e e l i n g s about drugs and the s u b c u l t u r a l style.  In a r e c e n t l y conducted  poll,  life-  students asked  t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l content and communication methods be r e l evant t o the contemporary world  ( K i t z i n g e r , 1970).  They  expressed t h e need f o r e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t would enhance a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a r t , music, appreciation of l i f e are a l l about,  drama, and nature and f o r an  i n general.  "That i s what  drugs  they f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d - d e s t r o y i n g your  l i f e because you do not v a l u e o r a p p r e c i a t e i t  (p.385)."  The t h i r d component o f t h i s type o f p r e v e n t a t i v e drug e d u c a t i o n program i s t h a t t h e t h r u s t must be s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive t o i n c l u d e t h e f a m i l y and community. The program must be h o l i s t i c and d e a l w i t h the e n t i r e community . • system.  The t e a c h e r must convey e f f e c t i v e l y  the a t t i t u d e t h a t ,  "we a r e a l l i n t h i s together, t h a t  having c r e a t e d s o c i a l r e a l i t y we a r e capable o f changing  - 79 it."  E f f o r t s need t o be made t o h e l p students p e r c e i v e  themselves  as s o c i a l l y u s e f u l and a b l e t o change t h e i r  environment. An assumption  implicit  i n the drug u s e r s  rationale  f o r u s i n g drugs emmanates from the s o c i a l system w i t h which the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s .  "No man  i s an  island."  A program o f drug education must focus i n on the t o t a l community,! system, on the m u l t i - p e r s o n ,  multi-relational  i n t e r a c t i o n i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s embedded. i s a growing r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the i n t e r l o c k i n g  There  systems  and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e drug usage among s t u d e n t s .  This r e a l i z a t i o n c a l l s for  ways i n p r e v e n t a t i v e drug e d u c a t i o n .  A  "life"  approach  t o drug e d u c a t i o n i s t o focus f i r s t on the student, t o the student's f a m i l y and  new  then  f i n a l l y t o the f a m i l y ' s comm-  unity. The  f o u r t h component o f t h i s approach t o p r e v e n t a t -  i v e drug e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the commitment o f time, and  f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o the t a s k .  There i s an  energy obvious  p a r a l l e l between the i n s t a n t hedonism o f the a d o l e s c e n t drug u s e r and the drug educator who  responds t o complex  problems w i t h s i m p l i s t i c programs o f t e n easy l e s s o n s . Gordon  (1972) advocates  a comprehensive program i n v o l v i n g  c r i s i s c a r e and treatment, ilitation,  v o c a t i o n a l and academic  rehab-  p r e v e n t a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n and p r e v e n t a t i v e  alternatives.  Weimar  (1972) views p r e v e n t a t i v e e d u c a t i o n  as an aspect o f an encompassing h e a l t h program beginning i n the elementary  school.  Donner  (1972) has suggested  a  - 80 mental h e a l t h approach c e n t e r e d on such f a c t o r s as p e r s o n a l awareness, i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l experiences and s o c i a l and involvement.  a  political  I t i s c l e a r from t h i s and o t h e r r e s e a r c h  t h a t drug e d u c a t i o n i n t e r v e n t i o n needs t o be a  long-term  process t h a t i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e s h i g h c o s t , time and  energy.  0  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  - 81 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Amende-lara, Pilomena R. "Modifying A t t i t u d e s Toward Drugs i n Seventh Grade Students", J o u r n a l o f Drug Education, 1973, 3:1, 71 - 78.  2.  American M e d i c a l News, December 11, 1971,  3.  Appleton, W.S. and Che i n , C P . 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"Some S t a t i s t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Student Drug Surveys," In Wittenborn, J.R., Smith, J.P. and Wittenborn, S.A. (eds.), Communication and Drug Abuse. Springfield, I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s J . Thomas, 1970.  82.  U n g e r l e i d e r , Thomas, "Drugs and the E d u c a t i o n a l Process," The American B i o l o g y Teacher, 1968, 30, 627.  83.  VanKaam, A d r i a n . " C o u n s e l l i n g from the Viewpoint o f E x i s t e n t i a l Psychology," Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, V o l . 32, No. 4, F a l l , 1962.  84.  Van  85.  Warner, R.W., Swisher, J.D. and Horan, J . J . "Drug Abuse P r e v e n t i o n : a B e h a v i o r a l Approach," N.A.S.S.P. B u l l e t i n , 1973, A p r i l , 49 - 54.  86.  Weaver, S.C. and Tennant, F.S. "Effectiveness of Drug E d u c a t i o n Programs f o r Secondary School Students," American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 1973, 130:7, 812 - 814.  Patten, James. "Education i n R e l a t i o n t o Drug Use and Abuse," School and S o c i e t y , 1972, 100, 2340.  - 88 -  Weimar, Robert H. "Toward a Model o f Primary Preve n t i o n o f Drug Abuse i n Elementary S c h o o l s , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f A d d i c t i o n , 1972, 68, 57 - 63. Whitehead, Paul C. Drug Use Among A d o l e s c e n t Students i n H a l i f a x . H a l i f a x : Youth/Agency, P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a , 1969.  APPENDIX A:  PHARMACOLOGICALLY BASED DRUG EDUCATION PROGRAM  89 OUTLINE FOR PART I  INTRODUCTION TO DRUGS  Dr. M c N e i l l d e f i n e s a drug as any substance t h a t produces an e f f e c t on l i v i n g c e l l s . A d d i c t i o n has s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  including:  a) p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependence - a p e r s o n t h i n k s he has t o have the drug, or t h e e f f e c t s o f the drug, i n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n b) p h y s i c a l dependence - t h e body cannot f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y i f the drug i s removed f  c ) t o l e r a n c e - decrease i n t h e drug response w i t h time.  Dr. M c N e i l l d e s c r i b e s t h e a b s t i n e n c e syndrome, or the withdrawal syndrome as t e n s i o n which i s produced when people stop t a k i n g drugs, T h i s t e n s i o n sometimes sends them back t o drugs.  The reasons f o r people b e g i n n i n g t o take drugs a r e : 1)  curiosity  4)  availability  7)  escapism  2)  peer p r e s s u r e  5)  chance  8)  unhappiness  3)  status  6)  boredom  9)  p a r t o f a group  The reasons people c o n t i n u e t o t a k e drugs a r e : 1)  f o r the e f f e c t  they  produce  2)  because  3)  because s o c i e t y encourages r e l i e f from t e n s i o n  of theirdependence on them r  d r u g - t a k i n g i n g e n e r a l as a ,  There a r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f drug u s e r s .  \  They i n c l u d e :  1)  Heads - people who are not making i t , who r e s e n t a u t h o r i t y , who have a low t o l e r a n c e f o r a n x i e t y , and who s e a r c h f o r m a g i c a l cures t o problems.  2)  S o c i a l u s e r s - people who use drugs o n l y sometimes. i s h a r d t o do w i t h some drugs.  3)  T a s t e r s - people who t r y drugs o n l y once o r t w i c e .  This  7.  90 -  Dr. M c N e i l l says t h a t a l l drugs a f f e c t the c e n t r a l nervous system, but t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of drugs. They a r e : 1)  Narcotics  2)  Depressants  3)  Stimulants  4)  Hallucinogens  5)  Marijuana  6)  Miscellaneous  - s o l v e n t s , tobacco  and  others  A f t e r h a v i n g seen the v i d e o - t a p e and r e a d i n g the o u t l i n e , t h e r e may be f a c t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n which are u n c l e a r t o you. L i s t them below:  - 91 You have j u s t r e c e i v e d some c h o c o l a t e , l i c o r i c e one o f these foods c o n t a i n a drug? I t seems t o me t h a t drug i s  and a j e l l y bean.  c o n t a i n s a drug  Which  . The  .  Drugs a r e p a r t o f our everyday l i f e . You know t h a t we a r e surrounded by numerous types o f drugs. A l s o , many t h i n g s we eat and d r i n k c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n drug. For example, c o f f e e and t e a c o n t a i n a drug. Keeping t h e above comments i n mind l i s t as many drugs and substances t h a t c o n t a i n a drug. }  A drug i s any substance t h a t produces an e f f e c t on l i v i n g c e l l s . State by a YES or NO which o f the f o l l o w i n g substances a r e or a r e not drugs. Some o f the substances c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n drug. Heroin  Fingernail  Aspirin  Methadone  Coffee  Cocaine  L.S.D.  Penicillin  Coke  Tea  V i t a m i n C.  Sleeping  Chewing gum  Cough drops  Marijuana  Contact - C  Sugar  cubes  Sominex  Poppy seeds  Compoze  Cigars  Cough syrup  Chocolate  Cocoa  Aeroplane g l u e  Sinutab  Right  Carrots  Guard  poli  pills  Tooth p a s t e  Glucose t a b l e t s  Resdan  Menthol  Hair  Ghewing gum  shampoo  drops  _ 92 "Better l i v i n g through Chemistry". I t i s suggested by T.V. commercials that we can solve most of our discomfort by taking some sort of commercial drug product. Solutions w i l l occur i n minutes or comfort w i l l l a s t for hours. Think about some commercials and l i s t them i . e . Contact C: of l i t t l e  r e l i e v e s cold discomfort f o r hours. are working for you.  Millions  Make up some of your own drugs and their e f f e c t s . i.e.  Vitapoze: for immediate r e l i e f of mental and physical r e l i e f take Vitapoze, i t w i l l give V i t a l i t y to your l i f e today.  -  93 -  THINGS TO THINK AND DO  1.  What do you t h i n k o f pop-rock music as a cause o f drug abuse?  2.  Can you d i s t i n g u i s h between drugs and m e d i c i n e s ? a difference?  3.  Where can you c a l l  f o r h e l p or drug i n f o r m a t i o n  Is there  I n Vancouver?  4.  I s i t p o s s i b l e t o I d e n t i f y someone near you as a drug abuser? How do>you know f o r sure?  5.  Count how many T.V. commercials a r e about drugs? I f you spend an e v e n i n g watching T.V., count the number o f drugs a d v e r t i s e d .  6.  Everyone has drugs at home. Do you have 10, 20 ?  What k i n d do you have a t home?  REASONS WHY PEOPLE BEGIN TAKING DRUGS ARE HIDDEN BELOW. HOW MANY CAN YOU FIND?  E  U  Y  0  0  C  s  Y  P E  s  C  P  M  s  A  0 T  M  C  E  R S 0 R G R R 0  P A  E  P  C  E e \A D A B S 0 N E G R 0 U p R \ U R E A B P s E R 0 0 S T A T u  E  S  K T l A P  E U  T  E  S  S  U  T  B  C  A  1 C  P  A  V  0 A  S  A  £  U  0  R  G  P  0  o  R G  L  A  B  L  P  i  E e R B  E  C i r c l e the f o l l o w i n g words, which a r e the i n i t i a l reasons f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o drug use. They may he forward, backward, h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l o r d i a g o n a l . The words used most o f t e n a r e the two major reasons. CURIOSITY  CHANCE  ESCAPE  PEERS  UNHAPPY  AVAILABLE  STATUS  GROUP  BOREDOM  The two major reasons that people b e g i n t a k i n g drugs a r e s 1.  - 95 _ OUTLINE FOR PART II INTRODUCTION TO DRUGS 1.  2.  Dr. McNeill outlines the various factors affecting the way a person responds to drugs. The main ones are: 1)  Drug - there i s no one effect for one drug  2)  Dose - increased dosage brings increased e f f e c t s , including desired e f f e c t s , side e f f e c t s and t o x i c i t y  3)  Age  4)  Weight  5)  Sex - i s the person man or woman?  6)  Route of administration - how the person takes the drug  The "set" or setting affects drug response. 1)  where?  2)  when?  3)  who with?  4)  How?  5)  mood, personality?  This includes:  3.  Drug response i s often affected by a person's expectations. Some responses occur because people anticipate them.  4.  Several factors affect the way people react to drugs. d i f f e r e n t l y to the same drug because of:  5.  People react  1)  Individual v a r i a t i o n - no two people are exactly a l i k e  2)  Presence of other drugs - some drugs, when taken together, w i l l add effects (addition), while other drugs taken together w i l l antagonize each other (antagonism).  I t i s impossible to predict e n t i r e l y how a drug w i l l act i n any given i n d i v i d u a l . When a person takes a drug, i t ' s always the r i s k versus the benefit that he must consider.  After having seen the video-tape and reading the outline, there may be facts i n this section which are unclear to you. L i s t them below:  - 96 F a n t a s i z e t h a t you a r e going t o take a c e r t a i n drug. sheet.  What i s t h e name o f the drug?  How much a r e you t a k i n g ?  Where w i l l you take the drug?  Describe the p l a c e .  Who w i l l you take the drug w i t h ?  Why?  Do you have a reason?  How i s your mood b e f o r e t a k i n g the drug?  What happens t o you a f t e r t a k i n g t h e drug?  Complete  this  WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS?  Have you ever seen someone f a k i n g or p r e t e n d i n g t h a t he was stoned or drunk? C i r c l e YES or NO. How do you know he was pretending?  Are drugs abused i n your s c h o o l ? drugs a r e abused?  YES or NO.  If-so,  which  Where does one g e t Chem? Check the box: Home  Gastown Older b r o t h e r or s i s t e r  •  Friends  McDonalds  Other p l a c e s  Do you know someone who i s a drug abuser? How do you know he i s a drug abuser?  YES  or  NO  - 98 -  FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS AND FIND THE HIDDEN ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE: TAKING DRUGS IS A GAMBLE, THE BET IS  T  E N u V 3 s B X O L s D s o 2  I  Y  Y  z E F A T E  h A c K E R H 1 S s I X R P Q E N S  H K  A  S  H  I  S  H R E  0 Y S Y U 0 P X Z 0 4 u 0 0 I I S u Y X s U Y N T U  1. C i r c l e the names o f v a r i o u s drugs: HASHISH, SPEED, LSD, HEROIN, GRASS, POT, SMACK. 2. C i r c l e the word YOU f i v e  times.  3. C i r c l e a l l the numbers, i n c l u d i n g words and f i g u r e s . 4.  C i r c l e every X, Y and Z which  remains.  5. U s i n g the u n c i r c l e d l e t t e r s , f i l l l n the blanks above and complete the r i d d l e .  HIDDEN BELOW ARE THE SIX FACTORS WHICH AFFECT DRUG RESPONSE. CAN YOU FIND THEM ALL?  H 0  R T  O M  E  A  c  D  E  P  G  0  L  Y U R T  A  P  I  O  S E R E E  T G  B R I D 0 D L E L O M Z W  A X A F a U S G H 1 L A R E E T U 0 R  The words appear once each, and they may be forward, backward, h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l or diagonal. ANSWERS:  - 100  QUESTIONS ASKED IN  INTERVIEW WITH PROBATION OFFICERS  1.  Would the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s d e s c r i b e t h e i r j o b and the t h i n g s they do?  2.  What i s the average age o f the youths o f the two p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ?  3.  What kinds o f laws are the youths the c o u r t ?  4.  Are some o f the laws t h a t are broken, drug  5.  What are the types o f drugs t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n these  6.  Is t h e r e some kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p between drug use and drug offenses?  7.  Why do j u v e n i l e s use drugs?  8.  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between drug use and school dropouts? Do s t u d e n t s take drugs and drop out or drop out o f s c h o o l , then begin to take drugs?  9.  Do the j u v e n i l e s under y o u r c u s t o d y come from homes where drugs are abused?  t h a t come to the a t t e n t i o n  breaking t h a t b r i n g them b e f o r e  offenses? offenses?  10.  Are some laws broken w h i l e under the i n f l u e n c e o f drugs?  11.  How does the judge look upon j u v e n i l e s u s i n g f o r t h e i r behavior?  12.  What a r e y o u r o p i n i o n s on the s o - c a l l e d drug problem i n To what e x t e n t i s i t a problem today?  Vancouver?  13.  What can be done and what has been done i n Vancouver i n to the drug problem?  respect  drugs as an excuse  -  Almost everyone i s  101 -  c u r i o u s about the drugs  people are  and e x p e r i m e n t i n g with today to change the way they f e e l This  is a natural  and h e a l t h y c u r i o s i t y .  There i s  using  and a c t .  no q u e s t i o n  that  almost e v e r y teenager i s c o n f r o n t e d with the i s s u e o f drugs a t one time or another. following  You probably a l r e a d y know something about drugs.  sessions  and l e s s o n s  will  add to y o u r knowledge.  The  You w i l l  f i n d t h a t some o f your knowledge i s q u i t e a c c u r a t e and some o f i t not.  It  decisions  is  important t h a t you be well  is  informed so t h a t you can make  for yourself.  Riddles D i r e c t i o n s - L i s t e d below a r e a group o f words. P u t t i n g the words i n a c o r r e c t o r d e r w i l l g i v e you some key q u e s t i o n s about drugs. Use every word. 1.  "drugs you on on you w i l l  or w i l l  they t u r n t u r n ? "  "Will  2.  "Whether o r to or not when, drugs  3. "Handle to drugs  use?"  can l e a r n we how?"  Riddle Find out the important i s s u e i n making d e c i s i o n s about drug use by r e a r r a n g i n g the l e t t e r s to form t h r e e words.  EACRUCAT  GRUD  NTIAOORMINF  - 102 OUTLINE FOR  1.  -  NARCOTICS  N a r c o t i c drugs are drugs t h a t a r e u s u a l l y used t o r e l i e v e p a i n .  They  include: 1) H e r o i n ("smack", "scag") 2) Morphine 3) Codeine 4) Demerol 5) O t h e r s , such as N a l l i n e , Narcan. 2.  3;  There are two b a s i c s o u r c e s of n a r c o t i c d r u g s : 1) Opium poppy (e.g., morphine and  codeine)  2) S y n t h e t i c , t h a t i s , made by man  (e.g., Demerol, Methadone)  H e r o i n i s made from morphine.  I t i s more p o t e n t ,  as l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s a r e needed t o produce 4.  The  a  and  therefore,  giyen effect'.  e f f e c t s of n a r c o t i c s on the body are d i v i d e d i n t o two  1) S t i m u l a n t  categories:  effects  (a)  vomiting  (b)  pleasure  (c) h e a r t  not  slows  (d) p u p i l s  contract  (e) stomach muscles  contract  2) Depressant e f f e c t s (a) s e n s i t i v i t y t o p a i n i s lowered (b) lowered  anxiety  (c) r e s p i r a t i o n , coughing s u p p r e s s e d (d) blood- p r e s s u r e 5.  depressed  Ways i n w h i c h n a r c o t i c s e n t e r the body: 1) t h r o u g h the mouth 2) s n i f f e d or smoked 3) i n j e c t e d i n t o a b l o o d  6.  vein  A f t e r i n j e c t i o n i n t o a v e i n , h e r o i n and o t h e r n a r c o t i c s cause s e v e r a l changes: 1) "Rush" s t a g e - warm f e e l i n g and 2) E u p h o r i a - lasts.,-344 hours  gut muscles  contract  -  103 -  Show the d i f f e r e n c e between the e f f e c t s o f s t i m u l a t i o n and d e p r e s s i o n on t h e eyes. Draw i n the p u p i l s . I f you have c o l o u r e d p e n c i l s o r crayons, use them to i l l u s t r a t e how the e f f e c t s a r e d i f f e r e n t on the e y e s .  There a r e about t h r e e ways o f t a k i n g n a r c o t i c s . Draw a p i c t u r e i n the space below of a n a r c o t i c u s e r who i s t a k i n g drugs. How i s he t a k i n g the drug?  _ 104 -  WHAT'S YOUR OPINION  Directions  - C i r c l e A i f you agree and D i f you d i s a g r e e with the  statement.  1.  J u v e n i l e s as d e f i n e d by law a r e boys and g i r l s and under.  2.  In Vancouver j u v e n i l e s charged by the p o l i c e , w i l l Family and C h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t .  3.  Some o f f e n s e s committed by j u v e n i l e s are s h o p l i f t i n g , breaking and e n t e r i n g .  A.D.  4.  Possession  A.D.  5. . P o s s e s s i o n  A.D.  6.  Most o f the j u v e n i l e s who come b e f o r e the c o u r t are heavy of drugs.  A.D.  7.  J u v e n i l e s t u r n to drug use and abuse as a way to s o l v e problems.  A.D.  8.  J u v e n i l e s who a r e r e g u l a r drug users end up dropping out o f  A.D.  9.  Judges tend to be l e n i e n t to j u v e n i l e s who committed a crime w h i l e under the i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l .  A.D.  10.  of alcohol  by a j u v e n i l e i s  o f Marijuana  or Hashish  is  17 y e a r s o f  age  appear a t  the  t h e f t , and  legal. a criminal  offense. users  their  personal  school.  A high percentage o f i l l e g a l a c t s committed by j u v e n i l e s are done w h i l e they a r e under the i n f l u e n c e o f some d r u g .  - 105 There a r e many " s l a n g e x p r e s s i o n s " used by p e o p l e on t h e n a r c o t i c scene. L i s t e d below a r e a number o f s l a n g terms. Put an N t o terms r e f e r r i n g t o the n a r c o t i c drug. Cross out t h e words t h a t have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h n a r c o t i c drugs. Some o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s r e f e r t o h e r o i n ; p u t an H b e s i d e those terms. And some e x p r e s s i o n s r e f e r t o Morphine, so p u t an M b e s i d e those terms.  Smack  Heat  Scag  Hophead  Horse  Joy powder  H  L i p t o n Tea  Candy  Maj o  Junk  Pack  Smut  C  Smeck  Chippy  Monkey  Pock  Deck  Peach  Harry  Quill  M  Stash  Bindle  Kits  Boy  Sugar  Hype  Stick  Cake  White S t u f f  Cotics  Bernice  Goods  Cokie  Hard s t u f f  M i s s Emma  Mop ho  Ukie  Buzz  Blanks  Boxed  Fuzz  Hooked  Junkie  Hash  Dope  Drano  Stuff Dame  Check them over now.  Some a r e p r e t t y  tricky!  - 106 ~  A t o l e r a n c e develops i n s e v e r a l weeks of d r u g - t a k i n g : 1) Need more of the drug to get same e f f e c t  ( e f f e c t of the drug g e t s  less) . 2) I f t o l e r a n t to one n a r c o t i c drug, then t o l e r a n t t o a l l n a r c o t i c drugs. P h y s i c a l dependence s e t s i n about the same time as t o l e r a n c e . the person f e e l s he must get the drug e v e r y  Then  day.  1) D r i v e and a m b i t i o n lowered. 2) Hard t o stay on a j o b . 3) Women\may t u r n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n to make jnoney. 4) S t e a l i n g , p r o s t i t u t i o n l e a d to problems w i t h the p o l i c e and the Withdrawal  symptoms b e g i n t o occur when a p e r s o n can't get the drug:  1) w i t h i n 9 - 1 2  hours  -  2) w i t h i n 12 - 14 hours 3) by 14 hours, and a f t e r  t e a r s , runny nose, yawning, p e r s p i r a t i o n . -  tossing sleep -  4) by 48 - 72 hours  (yen) which i s not  restful.  loss of appetite, d i l a t e d p u p i l s , gooseflesh,  . restlessness, i r r i t a b i l i t y ,  tremor ( s h a k i n g ) .  (the peak of w i t h d r a w a l )  nausea, v o m i t i n g , d i a r r h e a , abdominal muscle  law.  -  weakness, d e p r e s s i o n ,  cramps, p a i n i n the back,  spasms and k i c k i n g movements, spontaneous  e j a c u l a t i o n or  orgasm. 5) 7 - 1 0  days  -  above symptoms c o n t i n u e , l i f e i s not i n danger,  symptoms can be i n t e r r u p t e d by drug. A f t e r w i t h d r a w a l symptoms cease, a person i s : 1) No  l o n g e r p h y s i c a l l y dependent  2) No l o n g e r t o l e r a n t o f the drug a large  (he doesn't need  the drug f o r h i s body)  (a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l dosage w i l l have  effect).  3) P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y dependent  ( h i s mind t e l l s him t h a t he needs to have  a drug). Some of the m e d i c a l , s o c i a l and l e g a l problems  that a r i s e are:  1) Overdose  5) Decreased  drive  2) I n f e c t i o n s  6) Family  3) M a l n u t r i t i o n  7) Work problems  4) V e n e r e a l d i s e a s e  8) L e g a l problems  problems  - 107 -  2,  The r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g methadone, a s y n t h e t i c n a r c o t i c drug, i s : 1)  P r e v e n t s w i t h d r a w a l as the person s t o p s u s i n g the drug  2) Decreases  "hunger"  3) Taken o r a l l y 4) E f f e c t 3.  f o r the drug  (mouth) and so i t does not have t o be i n j e c t e d o r smoked  l a s t s l o n g e r than o t h e r n a r c o t i c s  There are s i d e e f f e c t s when u s i n g methadone: decreased sex d r i v e , drowsiness, "cheap" way  somnolence, out.  constipation,  - 108 -  THINGS TO THINK ABOUT AND DO  1.  P r e t e n d t h a t y o u wanted t o be a d d i c t e d t o a n a r c o t i c d r u g . choose h e r o i n ? Why o r why not?  Would y o u  2.  Which drug would y o u choose i f you d i d n o t choose h e r o i n ? j u s t i m a g i n a r y , remember.)  (this i s  3.  Why would y o u n o t choose any drug t o abuse?  4.  Should n a r c o t i c s be c o n t r o l l e d and a b l e to be o b t a i n e d by a p r e s c r i p t i o n ? S t a t e reasons f o r o r a g a i n s t .  5.  What a r e t h e j a i l s e n t e n c e s f o r t r a f f i c i n g i n h e r o i n ?  6.  Write a b r i e f story:  7.  W r i t e a poem about n a r c o t i c drugs u s i n g s l a n g words.  T i t l e "Ride a Deadly Horse".  _ 109 FIND OUT WHY SEVEN OUT OF EIGHT NARCOTIC ADDICTS PREFER HEROIN INSTEAD OF MORPHINE.  z 7  S  G w p t  N A  I  c  I  2 E  L  E  Y  A M E N 0  Q  G 8 9 7 5 G A L U I G N 0 R E 4 T E N G H O F 1 V E P 4- E T P E M X 0 M E 0 •• Ni A L R E 1 £ tsl 0 w 8 0 i A P A S T G 7 e E R N N  E  1 •• E T  M  A  G  Y  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  —  I  Q U Y R I W C  I  R 9 T X  A N  s  —  S  I  s  7 8  C i r c l e the opposite o f "lower". C i r c l e a l l numbers g r e a t e r than f i v e ( f i g u r e s and words). A policeman i s sometimes c a l l e d a . C i r c l e i t twice. C i r c l e the word gnome, which means dwarf. I f someone doesn't pay a t t e n t i o n t o you, she G S you. C i r c l e the word. These men do t r i c k y and mysterious t h i n g s : M S. C i r c l e the word t w i c e . ~* When you were a k i d , you used t o L . Circle i t . A g i r l i s sometimes c a l l e d a . C i r c l e her. B r i t i s h Columbia has many a l o n g the c o a s t . C i r c l e . C i r c l e a l l the a r i t h m e t i c signs except"~the one used i n m u l t I p l l c a t l o r A f a s t c a r has _P . C i r c l e the word. C i r c l e the word and the number one, as o f t e n as you can f i n d i t . Another word f o r a boy i s a . C i r c l e him. C i r c l e a l l the f i v e s .  15. NOW, USING THE UNCIRCLED LETTERS AND NUMBERS AND SIGNS, F I L L IN THE ANSWER: HEROIN IS.: 1  - 110 HIDDEN BELOW ARE SOME PROBLEMS WHICH MAY RESULT FROM ABUSING NARCOTICS. THEY MAY BE FORWARD, BACKWARD, HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL OR DIAGONAL. CAN YOU FIND A L L SIX? 1.  _  2.  _ _ F  _  _  _  _  H  [  3. _ _ _ _ _ U _ _  _  N  ^. _ _ £ _ _ _ 6. B  Y  V  o  G 0  L  E  E  P 0  L. T  R F  N F  I M  B E D 0  G A  w  A  S  \  S  H S A  R  E T W U Y  R  1  A T  I  0  1  A  &  E  L  N G  £  L T  \  S Y 0  c  0  &  H G O E E V l  1  A  W E Y  S r  0  L F  E  I  D C  S N O P  U E  N F  I  O N  e» P C D E  P R 0  Kl  A L  C T  N F  0  C A  E  I  \  N A  fc  T  T  0  F  Y  A U  B Y  P  1  R Q u  A (a  &  D  T  R B  v J  T  C 0  l  A  M A F  E S  R  U Z  I  \  D L  T  I  Y Y L R E V A L  b  A  u  T  0  W W E  O  I  k  G R E D N R vi e 0  T  A N N E  L  S N L  A  H  J  S  G H A 0 A T s  C  C A  E  R R A N  1  A  - IllOUTLINE FOR CNS DEPRESSANTS  The C e n t r a l Nervous System d e p r e s s a n t s , o r "downers" a r e drugs  which  depress t h e b r a i n : 1) B a r b i t u r a t e s 2) B a r b i t u r a t e - l i k e drugs  :.. .  3) A l c o h o l 4) A l c o h o l - l i k e drugs  i,' .?.. 3  5) Minor t r a n q u i l i z e r s  :  U'-g- .  The h i g h e r t h e dosage o f a drug t h e g r e a t e r t h e e f f e c t o f t h e drug: i f a s m a l l amount o f t h e drug i s t a k e n then t h e e f f e c t i s r e l a x a t i o n , i f a l a r g e amount o f t h e drug i s t a k e n then h y p n o s i s , coma and death could r e s u l t . The C e n t r a l Nervous System d e p r e s s a n t group i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most drug problems, even more than h e r o i n .  A l c o h o l i s t h e b i g g e s t problem:  h o m i c i d e s , t r a f f i c f a t a l i t i e s , broken homes, and t h e l i k e r e s u l t when a l c o h o l i s abused. The e f f e c t o f t h e d e p r e s s a n t drug on t h e body i s dependent on t h e type of  d r u g , dose, r o u t e , t o l e r a n c e , s e t , o t h e r d r u g s .  Good uses i n m e d i c i n e ( u s u a l l y t a k e n o r a l l y ) : 1) Calming 2) S l e e p i n g p i l l s 3) T r e a t e p i l e p s y 4) R e l a x muscles Problems w i t h t h e s e d r u g s : 1) Overdose  (suicide)  2) P h y s i c a l dependence 3) I n j e c t i o n s , i r r i t a t i o n s  on t h e s k i n  4) Depressant u s e r s a r e i n a n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g o r p a r t i a l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g state  (alcohol)  •5) A l c o h o l has c a l o r i e s , but no n u t r i t i o n 6) A c c i d e n t s , v i o l e n c e as a r e s u l t o f poor W i t h d r a w a l syndrome, s l i g h t l y  (malnutrition) functioning.  d i f f e r e n t from h e r o i n :  1) Can r e s u l t i n death 2) 12 - 16 hours 3) 24 hours 4) 2 - 3 days  -  -  r e s t l e s s , weak v o m i t i n g , h y p e r t e n s i o n , f a i n t i n g  t r e m o r , d e l e r i u m , "D.T.'s" -  convulsions  -  days  -  112  5)  4-7  6)  Symptoms can be r e l i e v e d by drugs.  -  d e l e r i u m , a g i t a t i o n , h i g h body  temperature  What does t h i s mean?  Problems i n t h i s category a r e u s u a l l y problems o f a " s t r a i g h t (sometimes c a l l e d  "the e s t a b l i s h m e n t " )  1) O l d e r , middle-aged 2) G r e a t e r problem  s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than y o u t h .  than we sometimes t h i n k  society."  - 113  -  INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY Magazines c o n t a i n numerous a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r a l c o h o l . T h i s drug i s p a r t nf the d e p r e s s a n t drug t y p e a l o n g w i t h the b a r b i t u r a t e s and minor t r a n q u i l i z e r s . "Jith your magazines, f l i p t h r o u g h the pages and l i s t t h e a l c o h o l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s .  3 a r b i t u r a t e s a r e the b e s t known droup of s e e p - p r o d u c i n g o r s e d a t i v e d r u g s , suggest s e v e r a l s l a n g names to d e s c r i b e b a r b i t u r a t e s o r d e p r e s s a n t l i k e irugs.  - 114 Slang names f o r drugs u s u a l l y a r e d e s c r i p t i v e .  A l t h o u g h you p r o b a b l y do n o t  enow the meaning of these drug names, make up a s l a n g name f o r each one.  Amytal  ( s o l i d blue capsule)  Seconal  (bright red capsule)  Tueinal  (orange and b l u e c a p s u l e )  Nembutal  ( s o l i d yellow capsule)  Phenobarbital  (various coloured t a b l e t s )  - 115  -  Here a r e 5 l e v e l s o f e f f e c t s of b a r b i t u r a t e s , a c c o r d i n g to the amount t a k e n :  Death  Anti-anxiety  Hypnosis  Sedation  Coma  Put them i n the c o r r e c t o r d e r .  r h e r e aremany problems r e s u l t i n g from the misuse and abuse o f the d e p r e s s a n t type drugs. W r i t e a s h o r t t r a g i c s t o r y about a person's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e p r e s s a n t s . G i v e the f a c t s o f the problem and the consequences.  - 116;, -  0  L  L  w  E  A  G  E  R  0  A  0  N  A  U  S  E  A  1 K  A  E W  T  R  E  u  M  E  S  R  p  I  S  u  0  \  A  s  A  T  A  S  L  B  o  F  L  N  A  0  S  S  E  F  A  1 N  E  S P M A  S  S  e  L  H  A  S  S  R  I  D  E  L  E  R  \  U  K  A  D  A  N  l  F  S  r  C  E W  R  0  P  S  R  R  S  E  y  T  X  f  E  E  A  U  A  P  l  U  I  A  L  A  K  L  0  U  u  M  1 r  U  P  N  S  0  N  s  L  S  B  vJ  0  T  E  6.  L  L. O  A  R  1 R  U  A  A  L  E  A  R  N  X  S  N  E  U  r  I  N G  P  X  X  S M  R  c  O  A H  I  s  1 u  IT  T  S  E  R  A  X  0  A  R  u S  E  A  O  R  U X  S E U fl r  p  A  R  C  S  S  L  M  0  E  T  S  E  R  HIDDEN ABOVE ARE THE SYMPTOMS OP WITHDRAWAL PROM BARBITUATES. THE WORDS MAY BE FOUND HORIZONTALLY, VERTICALLY, DIAGONALLY, FORWARD AND BACKWARD. THE WORD WHICH IS FOUND ONLY ONCE IS NOT A SYMPTOM. WHAT IS IT? HERE ARE THE WORDS YOU ARE LOOKING FOR: NAUSEA  RESTLESS  FAINTING  TREMULOUS  WEAK  DELERIUM  ANXIOUS  CRAMPS  - 117 OUTLINE  The C e n t r a l N e r v o u s  System  1)  Cocaine  "Snow,"  2)  Amphetamines  ("Coke,"  FOR .CNS' STIMULANTS  stimulants,  or  "uppers,"  stimulate  the  brain:  "Blow")  (Benzedrine,  Methedrine,  Dexedrine, Meth,  Speed,  Crystal) All  have  t h e same  stimulant  classified  under  Effects  amphetamines  of  t h e law  1)  Arousal,  2)  Increased  energy  3)  Decreased  appetite  4)  Boredom and f a t i g u e  5)  Anxiety,  Effects  at  1)  Feelings  2)  "Rush,"  Toxicity  of  heart  Psychotic  3)  Blood  very  with of  doses:  beating  quickly  i n j e c t e d or- s n i f f e d :  vivid  are high:  .  feelings  delusions,  paranoia,  violence  physical  dependence i s  questionable,  psychological  great.  amphetamines:  1)  Loss  2)  Psychological  3)  Diseases  4)  Injection  appetite problems  due t o of  Canada  stimulants  drug.  disease  develops,  dependence i s  is  behaviour  behaviour,  vessel  Tolerance  -  cocaine  pleasure  o c c u r s when d o s e s  2)  are  Amphetamines is  low  taken o r a l l y ,  repetitious  Hallucinations  Laws i n  a narcotic-type  though  overcome  doses, power,  on t h e b r a i n ,  wakefulness  nervousness,  1)  Problems  as at  alertness,  high  action  insoluble have  the  material  tightened  generally  c a n no  now a g a i n s t  needles  hard  longer law.  since to  January  1,  1973 and  therefore,  get.  be p u r c h a s e d  for  weight  control  since  it  CNS  ).  L.  -  118  -  Some m e d i c a l u s e s : 1)  P e o p l e who  need t o s t a y awake  2) O v e r - a c t i v e c h i l d r e n 3) M e n t a l  retardation  4) E p i l e p s y 5) P a r k i n s o n i s m 6) Low b l o o d p r e s s u r e P r e v i o u s l y used as l o c a l a n a e s t h e t i c s , but today we have b e t t e r ones.  - 119 FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS AND FIND THE HIDDEN ANSWER.  c  s  D E X  W w N  T R A E s •  E S C j E s 0 U  R A  E  o  E S  N  E P  8  i  c  p E  R E  L  K A  W  0  P  I  L 0 T  8 N  s  L  E  ? B  A  & E  e E N M  L M  S T  L  E  i  Z  A  R  S  b  M  \  T  T  b  —  T  E  ?  A R i  s ?  M  U M A A L  0  A  6  R  0  E  L  T  A  T  H  l  0  M  E  T  T  R A  H  S  L  D  Y> E  L  B  T  E  £  R J  M A  p  C  0  A  A  G S r  rt  C  L & s A  A  t  rt  C  E  u  rt  P  p  0  S C  S G R O S o c A  s s E £ s Y 1 N e  T  c o  S T  L  P  0  A  7  1.  C i r c l e a l l numbers g r e a t e r than f o u r  2.  C i r c l e the f o l l o w i n g names: JOE, DICK, SUE, CAROL, LAURA, BRAD and TIM.  3.  C i r c l e a l l the a r i t h m e t i c  signs.  4. C i r c l e the f o l l o w i n g words (forward, backward, h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l or diagonal): PEP PILLS HEARTS BENZEDRINE CRYSTAL  SPLASH METH COCAINE JAG  FOOTBALL METHEDRINE EYE OPENER ROSES  PEACHES UPS BOTTLE CO PILOTS  COAST TO COAST BENNIES DEXIES CftRftWHEELS  What do these a l l have i n common? Fi-11 i n the answer w i t h the u n c i r c l e d l e t t e r s and numbers: ANSWER:  n  n  - 120 PLEASE  FOLLOW THE.DIRECTIONS TO FIND THE HIDDEN MESSAGE ABOUT AMPHETAMINES•  Y  H  Q  u  r s  & E R F  A K  H P  P  E E  \  E  0  L  A R D I  A 4 T A K M S A U U L Q U 3  R S E % Q 0 T Q N H N 0 R S T 0 R E E T E P 8 -rO X — V E S P K 1 N P N Y E E N A T N U S 4 4 S N A R 0 N T E N \  •  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  C i r c l e 18. C i r c l e the hoys' names: ERNIE, NORMAN, RALPH. C i r c l e the g i r l s ' names: RITA, KATHY. C i r c l e every box which i s f o u r from the l e f t . C i r c l e Kamloops. I f you l i e on the teeach i n the summer, you might get a . Circle I t . C i r c l e a l l numbers, i n c l u d i n g words and f i g u r e s . C i r c l e the f i r s t two l e t t e r s o f QUEEN wherever they appear, e i t h e r together or separate. C i r c l e the word t h a t t e l l s where you buy t h i n g s . C i r c l e a l l the a r i t h m e t i c s i g n s .  Remember, words may be forward, backward, h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l or d i a g o n a l . NOW, USE THE UN@IRCLED LETTERS TO FIND THE ANSWER: ANSWER:  - 121 -  OUTLINE FOR L.S.D.  1.  Dr. McNeil (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  defines  some terms r e l a t i n g  PART 1  to h a l l u c i n o g e n i c  Psychotomimetic - mimicking p s y c h o s i s H a l l u c i n o g e n i c - producing h a l l u c i n a t i o n s (something t h a t ' s not r e a l l y t h e r e ) I l l u s i o n s - the m i s t a k i n g o f something f o r what i t i s not Delusions - a f i x e d f a l s e b e l i e f t h a t cannot be changed, even by l o g i c a l argument P s y c h e d e l i c - mind m a n i f e s t i n g or s o - c a l l e d mind expanding.  2.  LSD i s the most potent h a l l u c i n o g e n i c are needed to produce e f f e c t s .  3.  Most o f the e f f e c t s a r e i n the b r a i n . the world around him i s changed:  drug.  V e r y , very small  A person's  An LSD t r i p l a s t s 1 - 4 h o u r s , and i s (a) (b)  5.  amounts  perception of  (a) time sense changes (b) c o l o r s , p a t t e r n s , d i s t a n c e s change (c) v i s u a l i l l u s i o n s o c c u r (d) n o n - l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g (e) l o s s o f boundaries — f e e l i n g o u t s i d e o n e s e l f ( f ) c r o s s i n g over o f senses - - h e a r i n g and t a s t i n g f o r example.  4.  drugs:  a color,  u s u a l l y over i n 12 hours.  A p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e i s c a l l e d a "good t r i p " - - i t depends on q u a l i t y o f d r u g , s e t , s e t t i n g , presence of a g u i d e . a "bad t r i p " happens when t h e r e i s a n x i e t y , f e a r , impure drug.  A bad t r i p can cause a person to become p s y c h o t i c . person can p r o v i d e necessary comfort and h e l p .  Often another  - 122 -  OUTLINE FOR L.S.D.  1.  T o l e r a n c e to the e f f e c t s o f L.S.D. develops very q u i c k l y , and dissipates quickly. (a) (b)  2.  T h e r e ' s c r o s s t o l e r a n c e between L.S.D. and m e s c a l i n e . T h e r e ' s no c r o s s t o l e r a n c e between L.S.D. and m a r i j u a n a .  Toxicity: (a) (b) (c) (d) (f)  3.  PART 2  What does L.S.D. do t o a person?  Most problems a r e Flashbacks. B i r t h defects are E p i l e p s y i n a few Problems w h i l e i n  Uses o f L . S . D . : (a) (b)  psychological  - - bad t r i p s .  possible. individuals, a delusion.  There a r e none a t p r e s e n t .  A l c o h o l i s m treatment - - no. Mental h e a l t h treatment - - no.  4.  There i s no p h y s i c a l effects.  dependence on L . S . D . , and no withdrawal  5.  The e f f e c t s a r e so b i g t h a t people l i m i t t h e i r u s e .  6.  Other drugs l i k e L . S . D . :  7.  Other h a l l u c i n o g e n i c drugs u n l i k e L . S . D . : Belladonna, nitrons o x i d e , p h e n c y c l i d i n e ( c a l l e d Hog, Angel Dust, Peace P i l l - - i t an a n a e s t h e t i c , but small doses cause h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . )  Mescaline, p s i l o c y b i n , S.T.P.,  D.O.E.T.  is  -123 Individual  Activity  Write a s t o r y , s h o r t e p i s o d e , o r poem about a bad t r i p . Make i t h o r r i b l e , s c a r y and even s a d . Include behavior and i n c i d e n t s t h a t you have h e a r d , seen or even e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t have r e s u l t e d from bad t r i p s .  Things  1.  to Think About and Do  R e c a l l a f r i g h t e n i n g dream o r nightmare. symptoms? Yes or No  Did t h i s  cause  physical  What would they?  How i s a dream or nightmare d i f f e r e n t from a drug  trip?  2.  Can h a l l u c i n a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s be induced without drugs? Yes or No . I f yes - - How?  3.  What are the " c o n d i t i o n s "  t h a t a f f e c t the e f f e c t s o f drugs?  Why should t h e r e be a " g u i d e "  for " t r i p  takers."  APPENDIX B:  NON-PHARMACOLOGICALLY BASED HUMAN RELATIONSHIP PROGRAM  - 124 -  OUTLINE FOR MARIJUANA  Marijuana comes from the p l a n t c a l l e d Cannabis drug i n t h i s p l a n t i s THC.  Sativa.  The a c t i v e  Two forms o f the drug appear i n North A m e r i c a . (a) (b)  So,  Hashish - - the tops o f the p l a n t ; as much as 20% THC. Marijuana - - the e n t i r e p l a n t , shopped up, minus s e e d s ; o n l y 1% THC.  hashish  i s more potent than m a r i j u a n a .  Marijuana i s u s u a l l y smoked. The e f f e c t s a r e n o t i c e a b l e i m m e d i a t e l y , and they l a s t f o r about 30 m i n u t e s .  almost  If the drug i s taken by mouth ( i n a d r i n k , or baked i n c o o k i e s ) i t i s l e s s p o t e n t , the e f f e c t s are n o t i c e a b l e a f t e r 30 m i n u t e s , and they might l a s t 6 - 1 2 hours. A l s o , the drug p e r s i s t s i n the body. 56 hours f o r h a l f o f i t to be e l i m i n a t e d .  E f f e c t s o f m a r i j u a n a . o u t s i d e the b r a i n : (a) (b) (c) (d)  rapid heart r a t e . reddening o f e y e s . body t e m p e r a t u r e , blood p r e s s u r e o n l y s l i g h t l y smoke i r r i t a t e s mouth and t h r o a t .  changed  E f f e c t s o f marijuana on the b r a i n : (i)  (ii)  Usual  dose.  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)  euphoria e x a g g e r a t i o n of emotion d u l l i n g of a t t e n t i o n time sense l o s t anxiety sensory changes ( l i g h t s seem b r i g h t e r , "zoom" l e n s e f f e c t some a p p e t i t e change  (i)  i m p a i r e d memory, e s p e c i a l l y o f r e c e n t events  Usual (a) (b) (c)  dose - anxiety panic dizziness  etc.)  bad e f f e c t s : • (d) (e) (f)  nausea lightness decrease i n motor performance  -  125  -  Outline for Marijuana (continued) (iii)  Higher doses: (a) more pronounced distortions. (b) visual hallucinations (c) paranoia (d) psychotic state  (iv)  Higher doses -- adverse reactions: (a) greater toxicity when taken orally (b) psychosis (c) hangover (d) flashbacks  8. Long term effects of marijuana are being debated. (i) (ii)  (iii)  Some tolerance occurs, In some people, reverse tolerance occurs, and less drug is used: (a)  person learns smoking technique  (b)  drug accumulated in body  Long term adverse effects: (a) lung cancer (b) disease fighting cells are reduced (c) brain size reduced -- debatable (d) amotivational syndrome -- debatable (e) teenagers mature more slowly  9. 10.  Marijuana has no use in society. Does marijuana use lead to use of other drugs? (i) Yes. (a)  people using drugs are close to people using other drugs -- availability (b) barriers against drug use are broken down by smoking marijuana (ii)  No. (a) (b) (c)  heroin users take alcohol, tobacco along with marijuana recent heroin users never used marijuana no pharmacological reason why using marijuana should lead to use of other drugs  - 126 LISTED BELOW ARE A NUMBER OP SLANG TERMS. CIRCLE THE ONES THfiT REFER TO MARIJUANA. THEY MAY BE NICKNAMES, WORDS DESCRIBING USE, OR WORDS ASSOCIATED IN THE BUYING AND SELLING OF MARIJUANA.  MUTAH  JIVE  CHIEF  ACID  MEZZ  WEEKEND HABIT  PEANUTS  ON THE NOD  POT  NARCO  MAINLINE  LOCOWEED  BARBS  ARTILLERY  GRASS  HAWK  TEA PARTY  FRESH AND SWEET  ROPE  HEAD  GOLD DUST  CHARGED UP  JOINT  BREAD  ROACH  BUZZ  BINDLE  WEED  TEXAS TEA  YEN SHEE  MOR A GRIFA  BLOW A STICK  WORKS  HAY  GRIEFO  RED DEVILS  LIPTON TEA  BAGMAN  KIEF  REEFER  PINKS  STICK  KILO  SCA,G  MANICURE  JOY POWDER  GAGE  HOT  SQUARE  HOOKED  DOPE  HEMP  DYNAMITE  DECK  MARY JANE  COASTING  WEED HEAD  - 127 -  Marijuana may be taken i n s e v e r a l ways r e s u l t i n g Draw methods o f t a k i n g about v a r i o u s methods.  this  drug.  in d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s .  P o s s i b l y you have seen o r h e a r t  Some o f them may be v e r y d i f f e r e n t .  Diagram  Method  Diagram  Method  Diagram  Method  Other  Methods  - 128 FIND OUT THE NAME OF THE MOST POTENT TYPE OF THE DRUG WHICH IS GENERALLY CALLED MARIJUANA.  L  G  T  D  A  N  W o  C  A  A  R  A  S A  T N  A  G E  S A N X S J  A  G A  &  U  A  N  G A  T G N  C  L A  R  A  M  E  A  M  A  C  O  N  A  D  14  E  F  F  G  B  A  A  L  S  P  E  N  S  I  A  G R  A  I  A  G  P  R  A  M  0  C  M  S  r s  A  H  I  A  E  J  R  K  W R. F  N  A  e>  A  B  K  S  A  B  A  K  M  A  H H  C  0  H  N  A  I  A  R G  1  R  C  0  E  T  E  H  C  E  K  C  14  A  R  A  s  F  0  Hidden above a r e the names f o r the d i f f e r e n t types o f CANNABIS SATIVA, o r m a r i j u a n a . The name t h a t appears most o f t e n i s the answer t o the p u z z l e . Here a r e the names: HASHISH  MACOHNA  C HARAS  GANJA  DAGGA  BHANG  KIEF  They appear forward, backward, h o r i z o n t a l l y , v e r t i c a l l y and d i a g o n a l l y . THE  MOST POTENT TYPE IS:  _  - 129 -  OUTLINE  1.  Solvent  2.  What a r e the s o l v e n t s (a) (b) (c) (d)  3.  Solvent users: (a) (b) (c) (d)  5.  6.  has become a problem j u s t  A i r p l a n e cements P l a s t i c cement F i n g e r n a i l p o l i s h remover (Poly) Lagner t h i n n e r  --  (e) (f) (g)  (d) (e) (f)  few y e a r s .  system?  Gasoline Cleaning f l u i d Corn and c a l l o u s  found i n the s o l v e n t s  Toluene Xylene Benzene  users  i n the l a s t  t h a t a f f e c t the nervous  The chemical substances brain are: (a) (b) (c)  4.  sniffing  FOR SOLVENT SNIFFING  remover  that a f f e c t  Acetone Naphtha Alcohols  some e x p e r i m e n t e r s , some moderate u s e r s ,  Age 1 3 - 1 7 , g e n e r a l l y Boys more than g i r l s Spree use — once i n a w h i l e t o the p o i n t o f S e l f l i m i t i n g - - people s t o p  C h r o n i c u s e r s a r e u s u a l l y having problems: t r u a n c y , u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , s o c i a l problems.  Effects of solvent s n i f f i n g :  the  family  few heavy  toxification  disorganization,  combination o f d e p r e s s a n t and p s y c h o -  mimetic e f f e c t s . (i)  Immediate (a) (b) (c) (d)  (ii)  set.  l i g h t headed — s p i n n i n g through space euphoria - - f e e l i n g o f strength drowsiness — f e e l i n g numb h a l l u c i n a t i o n - - v i v i d c o l o r s , sounds  A f t e r the drug wears o f f — happened. (a)  7.  - - depends a l o t on  weight  loss  T o l e r a n c e develops t o some e x t e n t .  person c a n ' t r e c a l l  all  that  -  Outline for Solvent Sniffing  130  -  (continued)  8.  Psychological dependence occurs, and addition is found in chronic users.  9.  Physical dependence with withdrawal is unlikely.  10.  Problems: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  11.  death (suffocation) heart stoppage stop breathing brain damage (rare) psychological dependence — person escapes from reality, matures slowly l i v e r , kidney damage is possible  Similar drugs — aerosols, or spray cans: (a) (b)  can be inhaled same problems as above  - 131 -  OUTLINE FOR TOBACCO  Dr. McNeil says t h a t people d o n ' t u s u a l l y but i t i s .  t h i n k tobacco i s a d r u g ,  2.  Tobacco c o n t a i n s n i c o t i n e which s t i m u l a t e s r e l e a s e c e r t a i n chemical s u b s t a n c e s .  the nervous system to.  3.  The reason why people smoke i s t o get n i c o t i n e i n t o the body t o b r i n g about the r e l e a s e o f t h e s e chemical s u b s t a n c e s , such as adrenalin.  4.  If  you take n i c o t i n e out o f t o b a c c o , people won't smoke  it.  The e f f e c t s o f n i c o t i n e i n the body: (a) (b) (c) (d)  blood v e s s e l s a r e c o n s t r i c t e d . blood gets l e s s oxygen because people inhave carbon d i o x i d e . blood p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s . overdose i s p o s s i b l e : nausea, v o m i t i n g , l o s s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  The long term e f f e c t s o f c o n t i n u a l n i c o t i n e use: (a) (b) (c) (d)  7.  What i s (a) (b)  8.  Is  d e c r e a s e l i f e span. more h e a r t a t t a c k s . more lung c a n c e r — more than 90% o f a l l lung c a n c e r v i c t i m s a r e c i g a r e t t e smokers. smoking mothers have more s t i l l b o r n b a b i e s , small l i v e b a b i e s , and more babies which d i e e a r l y i n l i f e .  the b a s i s f o r smoking?  (b)  (c)  theories:  p s y c h o l o g i c a l need to have something i n the mouth. p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l need f o r the b r a i n to be e i t h e r s t i m u l a t e d or depressed.  smoking an a d d i c t i o n ? (a)  Several  Look a t the  facts:  smokers use t h e i r drug e v e r y d a y , and some use i t e v e r y 30 m i n u t e s . body changes o c c u r : i r r i t a b i l i t y , increased a p p e t i t e , r e s t l e s s n e s s , heart rate decreases, sleep disturbances a l l these happen when people s t o p smoking. smokers w i l l c o n t i n u e even when they know i t ' s o r when they a r e s i c k .  dangerous,  - 132 -  O u t l i n e f o r Tobacco  9.  Can people q u i t (a) (b)  10.  (continued)  smoking?  i t ' s very hard. not a l l people who say they can q u i t a r e a b l e to do  Dr. McNeil t h i n k s c i g a r e t t e of true addiction.  smoking has a l l  the  it.  characteristics  -  OUTLINE  1.  2.  3.  Nervous  5.  6.  (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  7.  --  happen q u i c k l y  the nervous system i s d i v i d e d i n t o two  c e n t r a l nervous system - - s p i n a l c o r d and b r a i n p e r i p h e r a l nervous system - - those nerves o u t s i d e s p i n a l c o r d and b r a i n Nervous System can f u r t h e r be d i v i d e d  parts: of  int:  somatic - - nerves t o arms and l e g s autonomic - - organs such as h e a r t , glands we respond a u t o m a t i c a l l y to c e r t a i n s t i m u l i  Dr. M c N e i l l (a) (b)  blood  System:  Peripheral (a) (b)  normal  long range and slow changes i n the body r e l e a s e o f hormones to produce e f f e c t s , i . e . i n s u l i n hormone r e l e a s e d from pancreas lowers g l u c o s e (decreases amount o f sugar i n our blood  Dr. McNeill s t a t e s (a) (b)  its  System:  r a p i d changes 4.  by which the body m a i n t a i n s  e n d o c r i n e (gland) system the nervous system  The Endocrine (a) (b)  -  FOR EFFECTS OF DRUGS ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM  There are two systems functioning: (a) (b)  133  e l a b o r a t e s on the C e n t r a l  Nervous  System:  s p i n a l c o r d - - two way nerve s i g n a l s medulla o r medulla oblongata - - b r e a t h i n g , keeping h e a r t running - - c e r t a i n drugs can depress medulla m i d b r a i n with r e t i c u l a r a c t i v a t i n g system - - sends nerves to o t h e r p a r t s o f b r a i n hypothalamus - - c e n t r a l c o n t r o l o f autonomic system thalamus - - "way s t a t i o n " c e r e b e l l u m - - c o n t r o l s balance c e r e b r a l c o r t e x — most important p a r t c o n t a i n s 9/10 o f a l l nerves r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i n k i n g , memory  Dr. M c N e i l l s t a t e s t h a t the b a s i c u n i t o f the nervous system the nerve o r neuron (a) (b) (c) (d)  11 b i l l i o n 10 b i l l i o n i n c e n t r a l nervous system mode up o f c e l l body, d e n d r i t e s , axon - - axon c a r r i e s message - - c a r r i e d e l e c t r i c a l l y nerves communicate both e l e c t r i c a l l y and c h e m i c a l l y  is  -  134  -  O u t l i n e f o r E f f e c t s o f Drugs on C e n t r a l  8.  On h i s diagram Dr. M c N e i l l nerve to n e r v e : (a) (b) (c)  9.  10.  12.  Note -  from  cell  transmitter:  the r e c e p t o r and t r a n s m i t t e d by the i d e a o f  l o c k and key f i t t i n g - - c o n n e c t i o n wrong key i n l o c k - - blocks r i g h t c o n n e c t i o n r e s u l t s between r i g h t key (drug) and wrong key ( a n t a g o n i s t )  Antagonist -  passed  amphetamines — r e l e a s e l a r g e amounts o f t r a n s m i t t e r p r e v e n t i n g r e l e a s e o f t r a n s m i t t e r - - drugs such as n a r c o t i c s , a l c o h o l and d e p r e s s a n t s mimic t r a n s m i t t e r - - drug b r i n g s a change b l o c k i n g - - f i t t i n g onto r e c e p t o r area to prevent change  Dr. M c N e i l l e x p l a i n s l o c k and key: (a) (b)  (continued)  the t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e p t o r can be compared  Drugs a f f e c t nerves by a c t i n g on the  (c) (d)  how a message i s  transmitter mitochrondria - - f a c t o r i e s of r e c e p t o r area  Dr. M c N e i l l s t a t e s t h a t to a l o c k and key:  (a) (b)  11.  explains  Nervous System  can be h e l p f u l as p o i n t e d out by Dr.  antagonize e f f e c t of  in  McNeill:  narcotics  Each p a r t o f b r a i n r e c e p t i v e to o n l y c e r t a i n types o f d r u g s . C e r t a i n drugs a f f e c t c e r t a i n a r e a s . Furthermore each area o f the b r a i n has d i f f e r e n t s e n s i t i v i t y .  fight  - 135 -  - 136 ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS, USING YOUR OUTLINE AS A REFERENCE  1.  The two systems i n t h e body which m a i n t a i n normal body are:  a)  functioning  k)  2.  The system which c o n t a i n s d i f f e r e n t drugs i s t h e  3.  The c e n t r a l nervous system c o n s i s t s o f  4.  The b a s i c u n i t o f t h e nervous system i s  5.  Nerves communicate messages i n two ways:  6:  Drugs c a n a f f e c t  __•  r a p i d changes and i s q u i c k l y a f f e c t e d by system.  a transmitter  and  i n 4 ways. -  or  and  They may and  7.  Drugs t h a t stop a c e r t a i n drug from t a k i n g e f f e c t a r e c a l l e d  8.  Which type o f drugs would r e l e a s e  9.  What type o f drugs would p r e v e n t r e l e a s e o f t r a n s m i t t e r ?  l a r g e amounts o f t r a n s m i t t e r ?  -  137 -  USING YOUR OUTLINE AND THE DIAGRAM SHEET DRAW A LINE CONNECTING THE WORDS UNDER COLUMN A WITH ITS MEANING IN COBUMN B. ONE OF THEM I S COMPLETED FOR YOU. EACH MEANING CAN BE USED ONLY ONCE.  Column A Cerebral  Cortex  Column B Quick changes, r e a l l y  fast  A l c o h o l a f f e c t s t h i s a r e a , makes  Neuron  you t i p s y Endocrine  System  Lock and Key c o n n e c t i o n  Autonomic  The drug n a l l i n e i s c a l l e d t h i s because i t stops the a c t i o n of '-narcotics  Receptor and t r a n s m i t t e r  "Way s t a t i o n "  Medulla  The b a s i c u n i t o f t h e nervous system  S p i n a l Cord  Slow changes i n the body organs  Hypothalamus  Nervous system which r e a c t s autom a t i c a l l y - p u l l hand away from hot stove  Cerebellum  C o n t r o l s your b r e a t h o f l i f e  Antagonist  Part o f the c e n t r a l nervous system  Thalamus  Part  Nervous  system  that  c o n t r o l s t h e autonomic  system  Don't f o r g e t the most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the b r a i n . Think, Remember.  - 138 The  -  b r a i n i s a v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d mechanism.  Nothing i n the world may  be  compared t o i t .  things.  I t can  it  c e n t r a l c o n t r o l o f our whole body.  i s the  store information,  What a teemendously c o m p l i c a t e d and  FIND OUT WHAT CONTROLS THE THE PUZZLE BELOW  I t , a l s o , i s a work o f a r t . The  i t e n a b l e s us Wow,  b r a i n can do  so many  to s o l v e problems, what a  and  creation!  s e n s i t i v e mechanism!  BRAIN AND  HOW  IT CONTROLS THE  BRAIN BY  SOLVING  Instruction The f o l l o w i n g sentence c o n t a i n s words t h a t are w r i t t e n backwards and/or u p s i d e down. Re-arrange the l e t t e r s , p u t t i n g them f i r s t i n t h e i r correct position, then p u t t i n g the l e t t e r s i n proper o r d e r . For example , _ i s r e a l l y SOUL MUSIC. c  A  3 A ^ 3 Z  A  The  <9  No/j_  sentence i s :  VJ  r\  I - X S  S 3 J J S  - 139; -  Some o f the m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s program has been I t has been used f o r r e s e a r c h purposes o n l y .  copyrighted.  -  Uo  -  S e s s i o n number 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n and C o n t r a c t F o r m a t i o n  L. Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (25 min)  Hand out mimeographed " P e r s o n a l V a l u e S h i e l d " t o each s t u d e n t . Each s t u d e n t i s t o complete each quadrant as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Then each s t u d e n t i s t o rank o r d e r w h i c h quadrant i s "most i m p o r t a n t " and to i n d i c a t e the r a n k i n g i n the b r a c k e t s p r o v i d e d ( a l l o w 10 m i n ) . I n s t r u c t students to buttonhole or p i n t h e i r "Personal Value S h i e l d " to t h e i r c h e s t . Have t h e s t u d e n t s " m i l l " w i t h o u t v e r b a l l y communicating to o t h e r s t u d e n t s u n t i l they have b r o k e n i n t o " c h o i c e t r y a d s " as i n s t r u c t e d . Each member o f each t r y a d i s t o communicate t h r e e q u a d r a n t s of t h e i r s h i e l d s t o t h e o t h e r two members o f t h e i r t r y a d ( a l l o w 15 m i n ) .  2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l P e r i o d :  (5 min)  Each f a c i l i t a t o r i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f t o the t o t a l c l a s s by communicating t h r e e quadrants of h i s " P e r s o n a l V a l u e S h i e l d " . F o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n from each f a c i l i t a t o r another f a c i l i t a t o r a s k s : "Why a r e you t e l l i n g me t h i s ? " emphasizing t h e words "you," "me" and " t h i s . " No further i n s t r u c t i o n i s provided.  3. I n s i g h t E x p e r i e n c e : (25 min) The c l a s s i s a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e " i l l u m i n a t i o n g r o u p s " (of about 10 p e o p l e i n each group) and one f a c i l i t a t o r goes w i t h each group. Each p a r t i c i p a t o r o f each group i s s t i l l w e a r i n g h i s " P e r s o n a l V a l u e S h i e l d . " The f a c i l i t a t o r i n each group asks t h e q u e s t i o n s , "Why d i d you t e l l the p e o p l e what you t o l d them about y o u r s e l f ? " The f a c i l i t a t o r s o l i c i t s response as t o t h e d a t a t h a t was communicated, the persons i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s a c t i o n , and t h e r a t i o n a l e and importance of the a c t of communication.  4. S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n : (5 min)  5. T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment: Hand out " p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s h e e t s " as s t u d e n t s l e a v e the c l a s s .  - 141 S e s s i o n number 1 : P e r s o n a l V a l u e  -  Shield  (name) Quadrant #1 (  )  Quadrant #2 (  What a r e t h e two t h i n g s I do BEST?  )  /  What i s one t h i n g t h a t I am r e a l l y AGAINST?  / /  1. The b e s t i s 1. I r e a l l y am a g a i n s t  \  /  2. The second b e s t i s  \ \ \  Quadrant #3 (  )  Quadrant #4 (  Quadrant #5 ( \ \  )  Who a r e two p e o p l e t h a t I would l i k e t o become \ more than anyone e l s e \ i n a l l history?  \  /  What i s my h i g h e s t REALISTIC aspiration?  I f I had one f u l l y e a r and u n l i m i t e d money, I would  \  )  Quadrant #6 (  )  / /  /  What i s one t h i n g (person / i d e a l , hope) t h a t I w o u l d / die for? /  l m  \* 2  DIRECTIONS; 1. Complete each quadrant  of the S h i e l d  2. Rank o r d e r from "most i m p o r t a n t " (1) t o " l e a s t i m p o r t a n t " (6) and i n d i c a t e i n the brackets 3. B u t t o n h o l e t h e sheet t o your c h e s t .  Wait f o r f u r t h e r  instructions.  - 142 _ S e s s i o n number 1 : P e r s o n a l  Expectation  Sheet  (To be completed BEFORE S e s s i o n ill - T h i s i s f o r your p e r s o n a l use ONLY)  A.  "The Me" I ' d L i k e To Be Imagine i n your mind f o r about 3 minutes t h e r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y p e r s o n t h a t you would l i k e t o b e . F i x i n your mind an image o f t h i s p e r s o n . B r i e f l y l i s t t h e f i v e major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t he has t h a t you would l i k e . L i s t o n l y those t h i n g s t h a t YOU want, t h a t YOU t h i n k t h a t y o u would l i k e f o r YOU. 1. 2. __ 3.  4. 5. B. How To Be "The Me" I'd L i k e To Be A f t e r y o u have completed a l l f i v e major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t A (above) ask y o u r s e l f t h e q u e s t i o n , "What can I DO t o make each one o f those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s my own?" S t a r t w i t h #1 and work on t h a t u n t i l y o u have completed i t and then go on t o #2, and so on, u n t i l y o u have f i n i s h e d #5. F o r example, say t h e #1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t y o u would l i k e i s t o be "accepted and l i k e d by my f r i e n d s . " What can y o u DO t o be a c c e p t e d and l i k e d by them? Who a r e they? What a r e t h e r e names? I s i t r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t I am l i k e d and a c c e p t e d by ?  Go ahead and do y o u r b e s t .  - 143  -  Now t h a t you have completed p a r t A and B, r e - r e a d what you have w r i t t e n and ask y o u r s e l f the q u e s t i o n , "Do I r e a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t I can i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o my own p e r s o n a l i t y ? " I f your answer i s "Yes" t h e n what i s s t o p p i n g you from becoming the p e r s o n t h a t you would l i k e t o be? Perhaps d u r i n g the n e x t f o u r t e e n s e s s i o n s we w i l l a g a i n t o u c h upon some of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . At those times you might remember what those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are and determine whether or not t h e y are r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r you.  - 144 Decide F o r Y o u r s e l f ; '  Session Evaluation  S e s s i o n // Date: Time:  ( C o n f i d e n t i a l Student P r o c e s s Document) DIRECTIONS: 1.  The S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n form i s a c o n f i d e n t i a l document f o r y o u r own use o n l y . No one w i l l see i t u n l e s s you show i t t o them.  2 . The S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n form w i l l be l i k e a p e r s o n a l d i a r y o f y o u r growth. I f y o u complete i t h o n e s t l y you w i l l be a b l e t o see y o u r change over the weeks of t h e Decide F o r Y o u r s e l f s e s s i o n s . 3. You may f e e l l i k e you've l e a r n e d " n o t h i n g " . I f t h a t i s an honest response t h a t i s t h e k i n d o f response t h a t would be a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n d i c a t e . 4 . You must complete t h e form d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n . when y o u a r e a t home y o u w i l l n o t g e t a c c u r a t e 5.  Think and work r a p i d l y s i n c e o n l y 5 minutes w i l l be a l l o w e d f o r completion. Complete a l l 1 0 b l a n k s .  I am c o m p l e t i n g 1.  t h i s form h o n e s t l y .  I learned that I  2. I r e a l i z e d t h a t I 3. I r e - l e a r n e d t h a t I 4.  I was s u r p r i z e d t h a t I  5.  I noticed that I  6. I was p l e a s e d 7. I d i s c o v e r e d  that I _ that I  8 . I was d i s p l e a s e d t h a t I 9. I hope t h a t I 0.  I f you complete t h e form data.  I have d e c i d e d  that I  Yes  No  - 145  -  S e s s i o n number 2; The E x i s t e n t i a l Moment i n P a s t , P r e s e n t and Dimensions  1. Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (15  Future  min)  Hand out mimeographed c o p i e s of an i m a g i n a r y newspaper c l i p p i n g of P r e s i d e n t R i c h a r d Nixon's r e s i g n a t i o n on a paper e n t i t l e d , "When D i d I Become The Person That I Am Today?" On the paper i s a time l i n e of t h e ex-U.S. P r e s i d e n t . Below the time l i n e i s a s e r i e s of b l a n k s e n t i t l e d "past c h o i c e s " and a n o t h e r s e r i e s e n t i t l e d " a n t i c i p a t e d l i f e . " Two f a c i l i t a t o r s r o l e p l a y i n costume a s e r i e s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s between R i c h a r d N i x o n and Nixon's w i f e d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f the e x i s t e n t i a l c h o i c e . The s t u d e n t s complete the b l a n k s as they watch the r o l e p l a y . i  2. I n s t r u e t i o n a l _ P e r i o d :  (10  min)  In t h r e e a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d " i l l u m i n a t i o n groups" b r a i n s t o r m on the p a s t and f u t u r e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r e s e n t i n t h e i m a g i n a r y r o l e p l a y about Nixon's r e s i g n a t i o n . The group f a c i l i t a t o r w i l l r e c o r d each expressed o p i n i o n on the b l a c k b o a r d or f l i p c h a r t under t h e t i t l e s "past c h o i c e s " and " a n t i c i p a t e d l i f e . "  3. I n s i g h t E x p e r i e n c e : (20  min)  Hand out mimeographed c o p i e s of a l i f e l i n e to each s t u d e n t . The extreme l e f t end of t h e l i n e i s l a b e l e d " b i r t h " and t h e extreme r i g h t end of the l i n e i s l a b e l e d " d e a t h . " The s t u d e n t i s i n s t r u c t e d t o p l a c e an "X" on t h e l i n e where he now i s , and compute h i s d e a t h age. He i s then t o r e c o r d between 10 and 20 p a s t events below the l i n e and i n d i c a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the l i n e . He i s t o r e c o r d between 5 and 10 f u t u r e events below t h e l i n e and i n d i c a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n on t h e l i n e . The s t u d e n t ' s age f o r each event i s a l s o r e c o r d e d on t h e l i n e .  4. S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n : (5  min)  5. T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment: I n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s t o complete l i f e l i n e and t o do a " r e a l b i r t h announcement," " I am what?" and "two o b i t u a r i e s . " Mimeographed c o p i e s of the forms are handed out a t the c o m p l e t i o n o f c l a s s .  - 146  -  S e s s i o n number 2 ; L i f e l i n e (To be completed BEFORE s e s s i o n number 3 i f not completed d u r i n g c l a s s )  DIRECTIONS: A. . On the l i f e l i n e below, y o u r l i f e and death a r e i n d i c a t e d a t t h e extremes of t h e l i n e . P l a c e an "X" where you a r e r i g h t now and l a b e l i t w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t age ( y e a r s and months). A c c o r d i n g t o y o u r p r e s e n t age and the d i s t a n c e between y o u r b i r t h and the p r e s e n t , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y compute y o u r death age. I n d i c a t e 10 t o 20 p a s t events t h a t made you the k i n d o f p e r s o n you a r e today. Look t o t h e f u t u r e and i n d i c a t e 5 t o 10 f u t u r e events t h a t you a n t i c i p a t e . F o r a l l of t h e s e events i n d i c a t e your approximate age i n y e a r s . B. Once you have completed the e v e n t s on y o u r l i f e l i n e , graph whether each e x p e r i e n c e was a good o r bad e x p e r i e n c e . For example, do you t h i n k your b i r t h was a good o r bad e x p e r i e n c e ? How about your death? What about y o u r NOW? Connect a l l the h i g h and low p o i n t s w i t h a s i n g l e graph l i n e , moving from t h e b i r t h p o i n t t o the d e a t h p o i n t .  r  "Good"  ."Pretty much happy"  When I  Wli en I  was born  will die  " P r e t t y much unhappy"  'Bad'  "A bummer"  w  - 148 S e s s i o n number 2 : R e a l B i r t h Announcements (To be completed BEFORE s e s s i o n number 3)  At your b i r t h your p a r e n t s p r o b a b l y sent out b i r t h announcements t h a t s a i d how " p l e a s e d " they were a t your b i r t h . Maybe they were g e n u i n e l y p l e a s e d and, y e t , maybe they were n o t p l e a s e d a t a l l . W r i t e a " r e a l b i r t h announcement" i n t h e space p r o v i d e d . Cut out t h e announcement and g l u e i t t o a p i e c e o f c a r d b o a r d . F o l d on t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e . What i s on t h e f r o n t cover? I s t h e r e any p i c t u r e ? What i s t h e c o l o r ? I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g on the i n s i d e l e f t h a l f ? What i s on t h e back? Is t h e message typed, w r i t t e n i n p e n c i l ? Decorate t h e c a r d as y o u b e l i e v e your p a r e n t s r e a l l y f e l t . I f they were joyous i n d i c a t e t h e j o y on t h e c a r d . I f they d i d n o t c a r e , i n d i c a t e t h e c a r e l e s s n e s s . You can use magazine c l i p p i n g s , f i n g e r p a i n t , a n y t h i n g t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o communicate how y o u b e l i e v e your p a r e n t s r e a l l y felt.  - 149 S e s s i o n number 2 : I Am What? (To be completed BEFORE s e s s i o n number 3)  You a r e a number o f t h i n g s . Some o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e more e s s e n t i a l to you than o t h e r s a r e . F o r example, i t may be--more i m p o r t a n t f o r y o u t o be female than r e l i g i o u s , o r upper c l a s s than O r i e n t a l . L i s t t e n words o r phrases t h a t b e s t answer t h e q u e s t i o n , " I am what?" A f t e r h a v i n g l i s t e d a l l t e n words o r p h r a s e s , rank o r d e r them from "most i m p o r t a n t " t o " l e a s t i m p o r t a n t " .  Rank . . , 1 1 .  1.  I am  2.  I am  3.  I am  4.  I am  5.  I am  6.  I am  7.  I am -  8.  I am  9.  I am  10.  I am  - 150  -  S e s s i o n number 2 ; Two O b i t u a r i e s (To be completed  BEFORE s e s s i o n number 3 )  An o b i t u a r y i s a b r i e f a r t i c l e i n a newspaper o r news magazine about a person's d e a t h . I t c o n t a i n s the i m p o r t a n t b i o g r a p h i c d a t a of the p e r s o n . Imagine, i f you can, b e i n g dead r i g h t now. Under " O b i t u a r y Now" w r i t e what y o u r o b i t u a r y would be. Imagine b e i n g dead f i v e y e a r s from today. Under " O b i t u a r y F u t u r e " w r i t e what your o b i t u a r y w i l l be.  Obituary  Now  Obituary Future  - 151 S e s s i o n number 3: S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s  1. Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (5 min)  Hand out mimeographed c o p i e s o f t h e "Are y o u Someone Who?" q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Students complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l P e r i o d : (20 min) On s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s i n T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and e n t i t l e d "The P e r s o n That I Am." T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , as a l l o t h e r s , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by overhead p r o j e c t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l diagrams and c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o these medias, p h o t o g r a p h i c s l i d e s w i l l be p r o j e c t e d i l l u s t r a t i n g P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d ego s t a t e s .  3. I n s i g h t E x p e r i e n c e : (30 min) Students form c h o i c e t r y a d s . I n t h e t r y a d s t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t o w r i t e a 30 second mini-drama d e m o n s t r a t i n g an ego s t a t e o f a p o p u l a r f i g u r e : t e a c h e r , m u s i c i a n , f e l l o w s t u d e n t , p o l i t i c i a n , comic c h a r a c t e r , f a m i l y r o l e , e t c . (allow 15 min) Each t r y a d p r e s e n t s i t s completed mini-drama, i f time i s s u f f i c i e n t , s t a t i n g t h e name and ego s t a t e o f t h e p o p u l a r f i g u r e , and a c t i n g out how the ego s t a t e i s p r e c e i v e d i n body p o s i t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y .  4. S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n : (5 min)  5. T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment: Students a r e t o complete t h e "P-A-C L i f e Value I n d i c a t o r " and c h a r t . In a d d i t i o n , they a r e t o r e c o r d t h r e e i n s t a n c e s when they have been aware o f b e i n g i n t h e i r P a r e n t , t h e i r A d u l t , and t h e i r C h i l d . Students a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e next s e s s i o n they w i l l have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o communicate t h e s e r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e s o f changed ego states i n choice tryads. The homework assignments classroom.  a r e handed t o s t u d e n t s as they l e a v e t h e  - 152  S e s s i o n number 3:  The Person That I  Every person has Child  (C).  t h r e e ego  -  Am  states:  a Parent  (P), an A d u l t  (A), and  The person's Parent a c t s i n the same f a s h i o n as d i d h i s p a r e n t s  guardians towards him.  The Parent can be s u p p o r t i v e  ( N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ) or c r i t i c a l simultaneously  both.  The  and  ( P r e d j u d i c e d P a r e n t ) and  person's A d u l t  person's C h i l d a c t s i n the same way He may  i s usually  i s r a t i o n a l and  data  as he d i d when he was  a c t i n an u n f e t t e r e d ,  i n an adapted manner to p l e a s e  processing  a child  "natural" fashion  or defy h i s i n t e r n a l P  or  sympathetic  o r i e n t e d , making d e c i s i o n s on f a c t r a t h e r than p r e j u d i c e s or f e e l i n g s .  childish.  a  The  acting  (Free C h i l d ) or  (Adapted C h i l d ) , and  he o f t e n a c t s i n both ways.  H  Parent  (P)  Adult  (A)  Child  The  No  one  ego  Free C h i l d L i t t l e Professor Adapted C h i l d  (C)  D e s c r i p t i v e Aspects of P e r s o n a l i t y  Person  s t a t e i s more important than the other  n e c e s s a r y f o r the wholeness of the person. others  and  situation.  The  reminds the A d u l t what i s or i s not The  Adult  Prejudiced Parent (PP)  Nurturing Parent (NP)  computes the i n p u t data  and  a l l three  Parent n u r t u r e s appropriate  in a  from Parent and  are self given  Child,  i n t e g r a t e s and weighs the m a t e r i a l and makes d e c i s i o n s based on  reality.  The  C h i l d i s u s u a l l y the n o i s i e s t ego  and  spontaneously, i n s i s t i n g on h e r e - and-  ego  s t a t e s make themselves known by v o i c e s w i t h i n the p e r s o n , and  u s u a l l y most v o c a l when they d i s a g r e e .  and  state acting s e l f i s h l y , creatively, now  pleasure  experiences.  The  are  For example, i f an i n d i v i d u a l i s  - 153  d e c i d i n g whether o r not t o use i l l i c i t f e e l s good, do i t ; "  the P a r e n t may  not be done;" and the A d u l t may  -  d r u g s , h i s C h i l d may  say, " I f i t  s a y , "That i s not r i g h t and i t s h o u l d  say, "Given the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l  data,  t h e r i s k - b e n e f i t r a t i o , I have d e c i d e d not t o use drugs f o r now."  An  a d o l e s c e n t a f t e r r o b b i n g a drunk d e r e l i c t says t o h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , " I know I s h o u l d n ' t have h i t him anyway, I thought  (P) but I knew what I was  i t would be k i n d of f u n ( C ) . "  a f t e r e l o p i n g w i t h a much o l d e r man  doing  (A)  and  A fourteen year o l d g i r l  says t o her f a t h e r , " I know I s h o u l d  have j u s t s t a y e d a t home ( P ) , but I so much wanted some excitement  ( C ) , even  though I made the d e c i s i o n a f t e r e v a l u a t i n g the consequences ( A ) . "  "That i s not r i g h t and i t s h o u l d not be done"  "Given the p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l d a t a , t h e r i s k - b e n e f i t have d e c i d e d not to use drugs f o r now."  " I f i t f e e l s good, do  ratio,,I  it."  There are f o u r ways of d e t e r m i n i n g what ego s t a t e a person i s i n : b e h a v i o r , i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e a r l y remembrances, and Look a t your b e h a v i o r .  I t i n c l u d e s your p o s t u r e , t h e way  you s t a n d , s i t  o r walk; i t i n c l u d e s your v o i c e and the words t h a t you use. l i s t e n to the f o l l o w i n g words: These are u s u a l l y P a r e n t words. c o r r e c t a r e u s u a l l y A d u l t words. can't are common C h i l d words.  c u t e , marvelous,  feelings.  For example,  awful, c h i l d i s h ,  filthy,  S u i t a b l e , p r a c t i c a l , a p p r o p r i a t e , and Words l i k e gee,  f a r o u t , won't and  - 154 -  Watch how you get a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e . or  I f t h e Parent i n you i s bossy,  t h i n k s he knows i t a l l , he w i l l o f t e n upset t h e C h i l d i n o t h e r p e o p l e .  I f the C h i l d i n you i s f u n - l o v i n g and happy, t h e C h i l d i n o t h e r s w i l l enjoy b e i n g around you, and have f u n w i t h you.  When you behave as A d u l t ,  there i s a good chance t h a t t h e people around you w i l l be A d u l t towards you. Check your e a r l y y e a r s , your c h i l d h o o d . when you were l i t t l e ,  s p o k e  You may remember how you  and how your mother and f a t h e r t a l k e d .  Some-  times you w i l l n o t i c e t h a t you a r e t a l k i n g e x a c t l y the same way you used to when you were a c h i l d . S  o  m  e  t  i  m  e  s  you w i l l  h  e  a  r  Then you w i l l know you a r e speaking as C h i l d . y  o  u  r  s  e  l  f  say  t  h  i  n  g  s  e  x  a  c  t  l  y  t h e way your mother o r  f a t h e r d i d . You a r e then s p e a k i n g as P a r e n t . Check you own f e e l i n g s . actually  T h i s i s a most important t e s t .  You can  f e e l the s t a t e o r p a r t o f you t h a t i s a c t i v e i n you a t any  g i v e n moment.  What I might say speaking i n my Parent  What I might say speaking i n my A d u l t  What I might say speaking i n my C h i l d  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  'You l o o k h o r r i b l e i n t h a t h a l t e r t o p ! " 'Never l e t a s t r a n g e r g i v e you candy o r take you i n h i s 'Poor t h i n g l o o k s as i f he hasn't s l e p t a wink." "Rhymin Simon' i s a h o r r i b l e album." 'It s e r v e s you r i g h t . "  1.  "People get 'wild mushrooms' on the U.B.C. endowment lands." " I t h i n k i t s b e s t to c a l l the p o l i c e . " "Cabbage has a h i g h v i t a m i n C c o n t e n t . " "Why does B i l b o Baggins have h a i r on h i s t o e s ? " " I t ' s nearly four o'clock."  2. 3. 4. 5.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  "Wow! She's b e a u t i f u l ! " " I wish I c o u l d take some time o f f f o r f u n . " "Nobody's going t o make me throw out my L e v i ' s . " "No matter how w e l l I do my homework, I can't p l e a s e Mr. Brown." "Yeah, t h a t ' s r e a l l y f a r o u t . "  - 155 -  A l l three ego states are of equal importance.  The Parent ego state i s  th'e/one most d i s l i k e d because i t can be c r i t i c a l of the selfishness of the Child.  The Child i s the state most loved because i t indulges i t s e l f ,  acts spontaneously and i s most fun to be around.  The Adult i s the state  that i s usually most respected and t y p i f i e s businessmen, students and politicians.  Some people are constant(Parent, Adult or Child; they  are stuck i n one state to the "exclusion" of the others.  Blocked out Child erson who cannot play)  Blocked opt Parent (Person without a conscience)  Blocked out Adult (Person who cannot think rationally)  Another common problem i n addition to "exclusion" that can lead to trouble i s contamination which means "messing"'.'  The Parent or Child part  of you can interfere with your Adult and mess up whatever you are doing or feeling.  In some situations you may think you are using your Adult, but  i f you are prejudiced, the Parent i n you may be doing the t a l k i n g . For example, i f your mother believed that people of another race are no good, the Parent i n you may respond i n the same fashion. Your Adult may then be contaminated by your Parent.  That i s , your Adult may take what your  mother said as fact, without r e a l l y checking i t out. be contaminated by your Child.  Your Adult can also  For example, i f you think that people are  against you when they r e a l l y are not, i t may be the scared Child i n you that i s messing up your Adult thinking.  P a r e n t contaminated Adult  C h i l d contaminated Adult  P a r e n t and C h i l d contaminated A d u l t  - 157 S e s s i o n number 3 : P-A-C (To be completed  L i f e Value  Indicator  BEFORE s e s s i o n number 4)  In the f o l l o w i n g pages are t e n images o f t e n p e o p l e . I f you understand s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s (P-A-C) you w i l l be a b l e t o "hear" what your P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d "say" about each one o f these p e r s o n s . A l t h o u g h every p e r s o n i s an imaginary p e r s o n , some may be l i k e your t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s and even y o u r s e l f . How do you respond to them from your t h r e e ego s t a t e s ?  Here i s an example of what you a r e t o do: The b a r f l y : man i n h i s mid-60's who d i s l i k e s h i s w i f e ; cannot h o l d a job because of d r i n k i n g c o n t i n u a l l y ; has income from p r e v i o u s investments and w e l f a r e ; has o c c a s i o n a l e x t r a - m a r i t a l s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s ; l o v e s h i s c h i l d r e n and g i v e s them more than 10 hours of time each week, buys them gifts. My My My  1. Simply f i l l i n the b l a n k a c c o r d i n g t o the response of your P, A and C. I t h e l p s some people to f i l l i n the Parent and C h i l d messages f i r s t , and then to complete the A d u l t message. Complete a l l 10 p e r s o n a l i t i e s b e f o r e moving °JVitol-the? P^AS-Gikvhart • Complete the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n any o r d e r t h a t you l i k e . 2. Once you have completed your own P-A-C responses t o a l l 10 p e r s o n a l i t i e s complete the P-A-C c h a r t . Simply arrange the 10 p e r s o n a l i t i e s from "most h a r m f u l ( 1 ) " to " l e a s t h a r m f u l ( 1 0 ) " f o r your P a r e n t , then your C h i l d and then your A d u l t .  - 158 P-A-C L i f e Value I n d i c a t o r  1. The S h o p l i f t e r : comes from a w e l l t o do f a m i l y ; mother d r i n k s q u i t e a b i t when a l o n e a t home d u r i n g t h e day; s t e a l s a l l t h e time, but never over $25.00 each time; has never been i n any t r o u b l e w i t h p o l i c e ; i s i n grade 8 and c l a i m s t o need t h e money t o c o n t i n u e s c h o o l .  2. The F r e n c h t e a c h e r : middle-aged Scottsman who l o v e s t h e French language; has a v e r y h i g h s t a n d a r d o f e x c e l l a n c e f o r h i s s t u d e n t s ; b o t h boys and g i r l s o f t e n break down and c r y i n h i s c l a s s ; does n o t know why h i s s t u d e n t s don't l o v e F r e n c h .  3. The a b o r t i o n g i r l : a c o l l e g e student spends h e r c o l l e g e t u i t i o n fees on an a b o r t i o n a t t h e Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l ; h e r p a r e n t s gave h e r the s c h o o l f e e s ; she does n o t t e l l h e r p a r e n t s f o r f e a r o f h u r t i n g them; s i n c e she has no money f o r c o l l e g e she has dropped o u t and l i v e s i n a communal home and o c c a s i o n a l l y l o o k s f o r a j o b , b u t cannot f i n d one; she w o r r i e s t h a t they w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f i n d o u t .  4. The u n d e r a c h i e v e r : an i n t e l l i g e n t Vancouver h i g h s c h o o l student who d e c i d e s on an o c c u p a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l program i n s t e a d o f t h e academic program; s i n c e grade 6 he has had poor marks e s p e c i a l l y i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and h i s t o r y ; he has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r A marks i n p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y and b i o l o g y , b u t t h i n k s he i s "nobody" and wants t o be w i t h his friends.  - 159 The drug u s e r : uses MDA and "H" a t l e a s t 3-4 times each week; t a l k s about drugs a l o t ; says he r e a l l y e n j o y s drugs and how i t expands h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; he does v e r y w e l l a t s c h o o l b u t i s i n t e n d i n g on q u i t t i n g ; he has l o t s o f home h a s s l e s ; he's l o s i n g f r i e n d s .  The no-mother: works 48 hours each week b e c a u s e r s h e l i k e s w o r k i n g (she has no f i n a n c i a l need); she i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l a t i n g w i t h h e r 4 k i d s ; h e r o l d e s t daughter ( i n grade 8) i s h a v i n g a d i f f i c u l t time r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r g i r l s and spends much of h e r t i m e w i t h grade 12 boys.  The salesman: s e l l s i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y farm equipment t o poor farmers who cannot a f f o r d t o pay f o r t h e p r o d u c t s ; t a k e s o v e r t h e farms o f those who w i l l n o t pay a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n t r a c t ; a good husband and f a t h e r ; r e s p e c t e d man i n t h e community.  The h i p p y : a s l o p p y pot-smoking d r i f t e r ; c l a i m s t o have no a m b i t i o n s ; p o l i c e r e c o r d f o r vagrancy; l i v e s on w e l f a r e and on anybody who w i l l l o o k a f t e r him; he i s 37 y e a r s o l d and has been d r i f t i n g s i n c e he was 19 y e a r s o l d .  - 160  -  The d r a f t - d o d g e r : opposed t o U.S. war p o l i c y ; moves t o Vancouver and goes t o B.C.I.T.; graduates and gets a j o b as a h o t e l manager; h i r e s o t h e r U.S. d r a f t - d o d g e r s .  A —<  C .0. The runaway: grade 9 boy from m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l y runs away from home; he r e f u s e s t o phone h i s p a r e n t s so as to get back a t them f o r some minor i n j u s t i c e ; h i s p a r e n t s s e a r c h madly f o r 2 y e a r s ; a f t e r f i v e y e a r s the p a r e n t s accept h i s "death; " the boy i s l i v i n g i n S e a t t l e and has j u s t graduated from a two y e a r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l . 1  Chart f o r "P-A-C L i f e V a l u e Parent 1.  shoplifter  2.  French t e a c h e r  3.  abortion  4.  underachiever  5.  drug u s e r  6.  no-mother  7.  salesman  girl  8. h i p p y 9. 10.  draft-dodger runaway  Indicator": Adult  Child  - 161  -  Session number 3 c : Your P-A~G (To be completed BEFORE session number 4)  )IRECTIONS: lou are asked to record three instances i n which you spoke i n your Parent, rour Adult and your C h i l d during the past one or two days. Write down as c l o s e is you can to what you remember you s a i d . I f you were speaking from j rour Parent i n d i c a t e what you s a i d beside the Parent part of your egogram. Three instances i n the past few days i n which I spoke i n my Parent.  What do you FEEL (not "think") l i k e when you speak i n your Parent (give a few d e s c r i p t i v e words)?  B. Three instances i n the past few days i n which I spoke i n my A d u l t :  - 162  -  G i v e a few d e s c r i p t i v e words o f what i t FEELS l i k e to speak i n your Adult.  C  Three i n s t a n c e s i n the past  few days i n which I spoke i n my C h i l d :  What does i t FEEL l i k e t o speak i n your C h i l d ?  - 163 Session number 2»: Interpersonal Transaction  1. Hooking A c t i v i t y ; (15 min) Students are asked to form a choice tryad and to communicate t h e i r recorded instances of changed ego states. The f a c i l i t a t o r s during t h i s period mix with the tryads encouraging attentive l i s t e n i n g by the students. 2. Insight Experience A: (15 min) In the center of the room are placed magazines of various descriptions: t r a d i t i o n a l l y male and female magazines, r e l i g i o u s magazines, news magazines and the l i k e . Each student i s handed three 3" x 5" cards and i s instructed to make three collages representing t h e i r three ego states. On the back of each card the students record t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r ego state. The students are then asked to conceal t h e i r cards u n t i l a l a t e r time.  3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Period: (15 min) On "How I Transact With People" demonstrating complimentary, crossed and u l t e r i o r transactions. Instruction i l l u s t r a t e d by a s l i d e presentation of t y p i c a l human transactions. 4. Insight Experience B: (10 min) Students are to form choice tryads and to take t h e i r concealed ego state collages and create complimentary, crossed and u l t e r i o r transactions with the other student.  5. Session Evaluation: (5 min)  6. Transferance Assignment: The students are to p r a c t i s e using complimentary, crossed and u l t e r i o r transactions a t l e a s t f i v e times i n the coming week without t e l l i n g anyone what they are doing.  - 164 Session_number  How I  4:  A transaction business.  It  angry blows. another. or  is  Transact with  a n e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n two p e o p l e ,  can be an exchange All  conversations  These exchanges  f r i e n d l y words,  are  transactions, A-C,  A-P,  a bit  of  social  Christmas  presents  one exchange  after  P-P,  P-A,  P-C,  or  C-P,  C-A,  The l i n e s  with  C-C.  arrows the  tell  lines  son,  "What  (Adult  Qf  i n what  time i s son).  goody!"  transactions can s w i t c h  transactions.  a simple,  i n mother s a y s , the l i n e s  cross.  in  the  diagram  and u n b r o k e n .  are the best  kind.  state  and w i t h a l l  to  are  still  There i s  "It's  transaction,  a hug,"  and  Adult  saying  so  easily,  the t r a n s a c t i o n s  to  the  her  o'clock" Adult.  i n him  to  w i t h no b r e a k  remaining  to  says,  transaction  Adult-to^Adult  Two o r more p e o p l e t a l k i n g another  that  twelve  the C h i l d  parallel,  no r u l e  Notice  a mother says  He s a y s ,  uncrossed  "Come g e t  going.  Suppose  ( A d u l t .of m o t h e r ) .  is  f r o m one ego  conversation,  simple  T h e y do n o t  it?"  This  straightforward  of  d i r e c t i o n the communication i s  are p a r a l l e l .  the Parent  "Oh, is  of  can be A - A ,  T h e d i a g r a m b e l o w shows e x a m p l e s  If  People  one in  uncrossed.  another the  -  165  -  s: " P o l i t i c i a n s a r e always cron'-" " r : "Canada w i l l have i t s own 'Watergate' one day s: "What i s y o u r name?" r : "Brenda. What's y o u r s ? "  s: " C a r l i Simon i s t h e b e s t s i n g e r i n the w o r l d ! " r : "No way! Boz Scaggs s i n g s b e t t e r t h a n her!"  #1  P e r s o n #2  Sometimes the l i n e s become c r o s s e d , as the diagram below shows. Crossed t r a n s a c t i o n s r e s u l t i n a breakdown o f communication. shows a mother t a l k i n g A d u l t t o A d u l t .  The  diagram  She asked, i n an u n c r i t i c a l  way,  "What t i m e i s i t ? " b u t her s o n , i n s t e a d of a n s w e r i n g w i t h h i s A d u l t , " I t ' s :welve o ' c l o c k , " says a n g r i l y , from h i s C h i l d , "Why ie?"  a r e you always r u s h i n g  The communication about time i m m e d i a t e l y b r e a k s down and s w i t c h e s t o  a. d i s c u s s i o n about whether t h e mother i s r u s h i n g him. crossed.  her  Son  The t r a n s a c t i o n i s  - 166 -  Another k i n d o f t r a n s a c t i o n i s c a l l e d u l t e r i o r , one t h a t has a h i d d e n message i n i t . F o r example, a c a r salesman i s t a l k i n g t o a customer who obviously  admires the p r o d u c t .  The salesman says s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y ,  i s our b e s t model, but t h e r e a r e o n l y two l e f t . " t r u t h , but h i s A d u l t  answers t o h i m s e l f , it!"  The A d u l t  He may be t e l l i n g t h e  i s t a l k i n g n o t o n l y t o the A d u l t  i s a l s o s e n d i n g a s e c r e t message t o t h e C h i l d . "Gee, I might miss o u t , "  "This  o f t h e customer, but  The customer's C h i l d  and says a l o u d ,  o f the salesman p o l i t e l y d i r e c t e d h i m s e l f  " I ' l l take  to the Adult o f  the customer, but he "hooked t h e C h i l d " by s e n d i n g a s e c r e t message so he c o u l d q u i c k l y c l o s e the s a l e .  The  salesman i n the diagram above works an a n g l e from h i s A d u l t .  u l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n i s angular.  His  Another k i n d o f t r a n s a c t i o n i s c a l l e d  duplex, o r double, i n w h i c h two ego s t a t e s i n both p e r s o n s a r e a c t i v e . example, a boy may say t o h i s g i r l  f r i e n d , from h i s A d u l t  "We can study a t my p l a c e t o n i g h t . " Adult,  " F i n e . See you a t e i g h t . "  might hear i t as a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  to her Adult,  She answers from h e r A d u l t  Someone o v e r h e a r i n g  For  this  exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n ,  to h i s  conversation and miss the  C h i l d - t o - C h i l d s e c r e t exchange, which i s , l e t ' s say ( o n l y t h e two o f them know f o r s u r e ) : "Let's "Yes,  goof o f f t o n i g h t . " let's."  - 167  -  The b e h a v i o r t h a t f o l l o w s a d u p l e x t r a n s a c t i o n (see diagram below) w i l l depend more on the s e c r e t message than on t h e spoken message. r e a l l y g o i n g on i n an u l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n may have n o t h i n g what's s a i d a l o u d .  What's  t o do w i t h  However, n o t a l l u l t e r i o r t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e d i s h o n e s t .  P e o p l e commonly c a r r y on two c o n v e r s a t i o n s  a t once w i t h o u t b e i n g sneaky.  F o r example, two l o v e r s may t a l k i n words about l i f e i n s u r a n c e  while  t h e i r eyes communicate something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t than f a c t s and f i g u r e s .  - 168 Session number i»; Complimentary, Crossed and U l t e r i o r Transactions a  A. Complimentary:  B. C r o s s e d :  p -< A  P »< A  »—<  C  C  - 172 S e s s i o n number 5: B e h a v i o r a l  -  Choice  One element i n v o l v e d i n the "Decide f o r Y o u r s e l f " human r e l a t i o n s h i p t r a i n i n g program i s the a c t u a l element of d e c i d i n g upon a p p r o p r i a t e l i f e a t t i t u d e s and l i f e b e h a v i o r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o a d e c i s i o n t o change o r t o remain the same, b e h a v i o r a l c o n t r a c t s a r e employed. Each c o n t r a c t c o n t a i n s t h r e e p a r t s : f i r s t , a s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s i n the d e s i r e d l i f e s t y l e ; second, a commitment on the p a r t o f \ t h e s t u d e n t t o implement the l i f e s t y l e ; t h i r d , a commitment on the p a r t of a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r p e r s o n t o e v a l u a t e the implemented l i f e s t y l e . S e s s i o n number 5 emphasizes the b e h a v i o r a l d i m e n s i o n of chosen change. 1. I n s i g h t E x p e r i e n c e s :  (55  min)  The s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o become as c o m f o r t a b l e as p o s s i b l e w h i l e s t a y i n g i n a s e a t e d p o s i t i o n . They may s i t on the f l o o r , l e a n a g a i n s t the w a l l s , s i t on a c h a i r , change the p o s i t i o n o r l o c a t i o n of the c h a i r . For the next 30 minutes the s t u d e n t s w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i e s o f fantasy experiences. At the c o n c l u s i o n of each f a n t a s y e x p e r i e n c e , the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s a r e asked: who would you l i k e t o be ... can you be t h e p e r s o n you would l i k e to be ..'v how would you f e e l b e i n g t h i s new p e r s o n ... do o t h e r p e o p l e l i k e t h i s new p e r s o n ... how about y o u r p a r e n t s ... the p o l i c e ... y o u r f r i e n d s ... y o u r t e a c h e r ... ? F o l l o w i n g the 30 minute f a n t a s y e x p e r i e n c e s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n i l l u m i n a t i o n groups. 2. S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n : (5  3. T r a n s f e r a n c e  the s t u d e n t s w i l l  share  min)  Assignment:  As s t u d e n t s l e a v e the c l a s s r o o m , hand out mimeographed c o p i e s of the " A l t e r n a t i v e A c t i o n Search."  - 173. S e s s i o n number 5:  B e h a v i o r a l Choice  A. Sex R e v e r s a l Would you p l e a s e r e l a x i n a c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n . I f y o u r c h a i r i s u n c o m f o r t a b l e y o u may l e a v e y o u r c h a i r and s i t on t h e f l o o r o r l e a n a g a i n s t t h e w a l l . Do n o t become so c l o s e t o p e o p l e t h a t y o u a r e aware o f sounds they may make o r t h a t y o u t o u c h them (pause u n t i l a l l s t u d e n t s appear s e t t l e d ) . Now t h a t you a r e i n a c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n , c l o s e your eyes and r e l a x . P l e a s e remain quietet.Your eyes w i l l be c l o s e d f o r about 5 minutes so j u s t r e l a x , (pause f o r a few moments)) Now t r y t o get i n touch w i t h your body. Do you f e e l p r e s s u r e from s i t t i n g anywhere on your body? (pause) Do you f e e l y o u r s e l f b r e a t h o r your h e a r t beat o r your b l o o d move? (pause) Do you f e e l s t i f f n e s s o r soreness anywhere? (pause) W i t h y o u r eyes s t i l l c l o s e d and y o u r body p e r f e c t l y r e l a x e d .. (pause) .. imagine t h a t your s e x i s r e v e r s e d ( p a u s e ) . I f y o u a r e a boy imagine y o u r s e l f t o be a g i r l and i f you a r e a g i r l imagine y o u r s e l f t o be a boy (pause). Become r e a l l y aware o f y o u r new body. (Pause 30 seconds between each question.) 1. How i s your body d i f f e r e n t now? 2. How do you f e e l i n t h i s new body? 3. How w i l l y o u l i v e y o u r l i f e d i f f e r e n t l y because o f t h i s new body? 4. W i l l p e o p l e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y towards you now? 5. Do you l i k e y o u r s e l f i n y o u r new body? W i t h your eyes s t i l l c l o s e d and y o u r body p e r f e c t l y r e l a x e d ... (pause) imagine t h a t you a r e changing back t o y o u r o r i g i n a l s e x . (pause). Become r e a l l y aware o f y o u r r e a l body. (Pause 30 seconds between each q u e s t i o n ^ 1. How i s your body d i f f e r e n t now? 2. Do you e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n y o u r r e a l body? 3. Would y o u r a t h e r be a boy o r a g i r l ? W i t h your body p e r f e c t l y r e l a x e d , v e r y s l o w l y open your eyes. t a l k o r make any n o i s e .  Do n o t  R e v e r s i n g o u r u s u a l way o f t h i n k i n g i s a way o f s a y i n g maybe some t h i n g s and events i n t h e w o r l d c o u l d a c t u a l l y be t h e r e v e r s e o f how I see them. I t i s one way o f t e m p o r a r i l y d i s c a r d i n g our p r e j u d i c e s and s e e i n g i f a n o t h e r way o f l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s c o u l d be more a c c u r a t e . F o r example, i f my image o f m y s e l f i s t h a t I am s t r o n g and tough and o n l y g i r l s a r e t e n d e r and g e n t l e , then I must deny any weakness, o r warmth, and t e n d e r f e e l i n g s t h a t I have. I f I am w i l l i n g t o t e m p o r a r i l y g i v e up my image when I r e v e r s e r o l e s and become a g i r l i n f a n t a s y , I become my image of what a g i r l i s l i k e and f e e l s l i k e i n s i d e . S i n c e my image o f a g i r l p e r m i t s weakness and t e n d e r f e e l i n g s , I can then a l l o w m y s e l f t o e x p l o r e my own r e a l f e e l i n g s of weakness and t e n d e r n e s s t h a t I d i d n o t p r e v i o u s l y  - 174 p e r m i t m y s e l f , because they d i d n o t f i t my image. I w i l l become aware t h a t we a r e a l l made up o f male and female q u a l i t i e s , and l e a r n t o c e l e b r a t e and enjoy b o t h s i d e s o f my p e r s o n a l i t y .  B. Race R e v e r s a l The same i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n as i n Sex R e v e r s a l except t h a t C a u c a s i a n and N a t i v e I n d i a n a r e t h e o p p o s i t e s employed. F o l l o w i n g t h e Race R e v e r s a l f a n t a s y , s t u d e n t s a r e i n s t r u c t e d t o m i l l and t o l o o k a t each i n d i v i d u a l as e i t h e r an East I n d i a n , an O r i e n t a l , an American b l a c k , a N a t i v e I n d i a n o r a C a u c a s i a n and t o imagine h a t r e d . (The a t t i t u d e i s then change t o P-C and then A-A n o n - v e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . )  C. The Magic Swapshop The same i n t r o d u c t i o n i s g i v e n as i n t h e Sex R e v e r s a l f a n t a s y . pauses between most sentences a r e i n d i c a t e d .  Short  Imagine y o u a r e w a l k i n g i n a c i t y a t n i g h t i n t h e r a i n . . . y o u a r e warmly d r e s s e d i n w o l l e n c l o t h e s and c o m f o r t a b l e . (5 s e c . ) J u s t ahead t h e r e i s a s t r a n g e l i t t l e s i d e s t r e e t . (5 sec.) As y o u w a l k down t h i s s t r e e t , y o u w i l l see one s t o r e window. (5 s e c ) That s t o r e window has an i n c r e d i b l e v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s i n i t — s o m e o l d , some new, some v e r y a n c i e n t . (10 s e c . ) Some o f i t i s j u n k (5 sec.) and some i s t r e a s u r e (5 sec.) and you'd n e v e r expect t o see a l l t h e s e t h i n g s i n the same window. (5 sec.) As y o u s t a n d t h e r e l o o k i n g a t t h i s window f u l l o f t h i n g s , a f r i e n d l y l i t t l e o l d man w a l k s out o f t h e door (10 s e c . ) and i n v i t e s y o u i n t o h i s shop. (5 sec.) He e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s i s no o r d i n a r y shop, b u t t h a t w i t h i n t h i s s m a l l shop t h e r e i s e v e r y t h i n g i n the w o r l d . (10 sec.) Anyone who f i n d s h i s way t o t h i s shop can choose one t h i n g and t a k e i t home. (10 sec.) You cannot t a k e money, and y o u cannot s e l l what you t a k e f o r money. A s i d e from t h i s , y o u can have any one t h i n g from t h e shop. (5 sec.)Take some time t o l o o k around t h e shop and see what i s t h e r e . (15 sec.) There a r e a l l s o r t s o f l i t t l e nooks and s i d e rooms, w i t h t h i n g s t h a t y o u might want t o have. (15 s e c . ) E v e n t u a l l y you w i l l have t o d e c i d e w h i c h one o f t h e s e many t h i n g s y o u want t o t a k e w i t h you...When y o u have d e c i d e d what y o u want t o t a k e w i t h you, t a k e some time g e t t i n g t o know i t b e t t e r . (15 sec.) Look a t i t c a r e f u l l y (5 sec.) n o t i c e a l l t h e d e t a i l s about i t . ( 5 s e c . ) Touch i t w i t h your hands, (5 sec.) h a n d l e and s m e l l i t . ( 5 sec.) How do y o u f e e l about t h i s t h i n g ? . . . ( 1 0 s e c . ) As y o u s t a r t t o w a l k out t h e door w i t h i t , t h e s t o r e k e e p e r speaks t o you a g a i n and s a y s : (5 s e c . ) "You may have t h i s , as I s a i d b e f o r e . There i s one c o n d i t i o n — y o u must g i v e me something i n r e t u r n . (5 s e c . ) I t can be a b s o l u t e l y a n y t h i n g y o u have, (10 s e c . ) i t may be a way o f behaving y o u want t o g i v e up (10 sec.) o r a bad f e e l i n g y o u want t o get r i d o f f o r e v e r , (10 sec.) b u t y o u must g i v e me something i n r e t u r n f o r what you t a k e . " What w i l l y o u g i v e t h e o l d man? (15 sec.) Take a. l i t t l e time t o d e c i d e . . ( 5 sec.)..Now t e l l t h e o l d man(what y o u _ w i l l g i v e him. (5 sec.) Now w a l k out t h e door, and t a k e a l a s t l o o k a t t h e s t o r e . (5 sec.) S l o w l y say goodbye t o t h e s t o r e . (5 s e c . ) Now k e e p i n g your eyes c l o s e d r e t u r n t o t h i s room and b r i n g w i t h y o u whatever y o u d e c i d e d t o t a k e from t h e shop. (5 s e c . )  -  175  -  Now become t h i s t h i n g t h a t you found i n the shop. (5 s e c . ) As t h i s thing,what a r e you l i k e ? (5 s e c . ) What a r e your c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? (5 s e c . ) What i s your s i z e ? (5 s e c . ) What i s your f u n c t i o n o r use? (5 s e c . ) Now keeping your eyes c l o s e d become y o u r s e l f a g a i n , and l o o k a g a i n a t t h i s o b j e c t . (5 s e c . ) See i f you can d i s c o v e r s t i l l more about i t . (5 s e c . ) Do you understand i t b e t t e r ? (5 s e c . ) Say goodbye t o t h i s o b j e c t , and put i t away somewhere i n your pocket..(5 s e c . ) . . a n d now j u s t r e s t quietly f o r a l i t t l e while...  ~1  - 176 F r e q u e n t l y , we f i n d o u r s e l v e s a c t i n g one way i n a s i t u a t i o n and l a t e r r e g r e t t i n g i t or w i s h i n g we had behaved d i f f e r e n t l y . The c l e a r e r p e o p l e are about t h e i r v a l u e s , t h e more congruent t h e i r a c t i o n s a r e w i t h t h e i r f e e i i n g s and b e l i e f s and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e l e s s o f t e n they l a t e r r e g r e t their actions. T h i s s t r a t e g y enables s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a c t i o n i n various s p e c i f i c situations. The g o a l i s t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o b r i n g t h e i r everyday a c t i o n s more c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t o harmony w i t h t h e i r f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s .  1. You a r e w a l k i n g behind someone. You see him take out a c i g a r e t t e pack; withdraw t h e l a s t c i g a r e t t e ; p u t the c i g a r e t t e i n h i s mouth; crumple the package and n o n c h a l a n t l y t o s s i t over h i s s h o u l d e r onto the s i d e w a l k . You a r e t w e n t y - f i v e f e e t behind him. What i s your decision?  2. There i s a boy i n your c l a s s who has a body odor problem. You know the g e n e r a l sentiment i s , "He's not such a bad k i d , but I j u s t hate to get hear him." You h a r d l y know him - you j u s t have s o r t o f a nodding acquaintance a t a f r i e n d l y d i s t a n c e . What i s your d e c i s i o n ?  3. You a r e p u s i n g a shopping c a r t i n thunderous c r a s h o f cans. As you o l d b e i n g beaten, q u i t e s e v e r e l y , p u l l i n g out the bottom can o f the  a supermarket and you hear a round the c o r n e r you see a two y e a r by h i s mother, a p p a r e n t l y f o r pyramid. What i s your d e c i s i o n ?  4. You a r e on a v a c a t i o n t r i p and a r e d r i v i n g t o the beach w i t h your p a r e n t s . You would l i k e t o go t o the amusement park, but you a r e concerned because you have spent most o f the money you had saved f o r your v a c a t i o n e a r l i e r . Your f a t h e r s t o p s f o r g a s o l i n e and you get out and walk around. A l a d y i s w a l k i n g back t o h e r c a r and you see her purse f a l l open and h e r w a l l e t f a l l o u t . You walk over, p i c k up the w a l l e t j u s t as the l a d y g e t s i n t o h e r c a r to d r i v e away. The edges o f s e v e r a l t e n d o l l a r b i l l s are s t i c k i n g out of t h e w a l l e t . No one saw you p i c k i t up. What i s your d e c i s i o n ?  - 177 5. You see a k i d t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s younger than y o u s h o p l i f i n g a t t h e l o c a l d i s c o u n t s t o r e . You're concerned t h a t h e ' l l get i n t o s e r i o u s t r o u b l e i f the s t o r e d e t e c t i v e catches him. What i s your d e c i s i o n ?  6. You're t a k i n g a r e a l l y l o u s y c o u r s e a t s c h o o l . You're n o t doing w e l l i n the course. On t h e day o f t h e f i n a l exam, someone o f f e r s t o s e l l you a copy o f what he c l a i m s i s t h e f i n a l f o r o n l y $5.00. What i s your d e c i s i o n ?  7. Your f a t h e r has been g i v i n g y o u a l o t o f f l a c k about how much TV y o u w a t c h . , One day you come home from s c h o o l and t h e TV s e t i s n ' t w o r k i n g . You suspect your f a t h e r has done something t o t h e s e t . What i s y o u r d e c i s i o n ?  8. Your f a m i l y : i s h a v i n g a d i s c u s s i o n about a b o r t i o n and you n o t i c e t h a t your 1/7-year-old s i s t e r becomes e x t r e m e l y u p s e t . What i s your de d e c i s i o n ?  9. You're l a t e . Your dad s a i d y o u had t o have t h e c a r back by m i d n i g h t , o r i t would be r e a l t r o u b l e f o r you. Two b l o c k s away from y o u r house, you h i t a dog who runs a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t . What i s your d e c i s i o n ?  .0. You have been i n v i t e d t o a p r i v a t e p a r t y . You would r e a l l y l i k e t o go. Being i n c l u d e d w i t h t h i s group i s v e r y important t o y o u . A l l you have t o do i s b r i n g your own booze and g r a s s . What i s y o u r d e c i s i o n ?  - 178 S e s s i o n number 6: B a s i c P o s i t i o n s and S t r o k i n g  1. Hooking A c t i v i t y : (15 min) P r o v i d e each s t u d e n t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t paper t h a t he may choose t h e s i of p a i n t i n g he w i l l do. P l a c e s e v e r a l b a s i c p a i n t c o l o r s i n t h r e e s p o t s o f t h e room. Have each s t u d e n t t a k e two c o l o r s and make a finger painting entitled: " P l e a s e be c a r e f u l .. t h i s i s me!" The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d spend c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e i n d e c i d i n g w h i c h c o l o r s t o p i c k ( a l l o w 5 m i n ) . They s h o u l d t r y t o l e t t h e c o l o r s p i c k them. Only two c o l o r s t h a t p e r f e c t l y d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be chosen. The s t u d e n t s now p o s t t h e i r p a i n t i n g s about t h e room.  2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l P e r i o d :  (15 min)  T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s i n s t r u c t i o n on B a s i c P o s i t i o n s and S t r o k i n g , e n t i t l e d , "Winning and L o o s i n g i n R e l a t i o n s h i p s . "  3. I n s i g h t E x p e r i e n c e :  (20 min)  Each s t u d e n t i s p r o v i d e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t " A r t C r i t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l S h e e t s " t o e v a l u a t e each p a i n t i n g i n t h e room. I f he would l i k e t o t a l k t o t h e p e r s o n about h i s p a i n t i n g he i n d i c a t e s t h a t on t h e space p r o v i d e d ( a l l o w 10 m i n ) . I n t r y a d groups d i s c u s s how c r i t i c i z i n g p e o p l e ' s a r t work e n t i t l e d , "This I s Me" made y o u f e e l . Does t h i s s m a l l i n t e r a c t i o n r e f l e c t your b a s i c p o s i t i o n ? W i t h r e s p e c t t o y o u r own p a i n t i n g do y o u see how you might i n t e r a c t w i t h p e o p l e ? (10 min)  4. S e s s i o n  Evaluation:  (5 min)  Completed w h i l e P a u l Simon's "Something So R i g h t " i s p l a y e d on c a s s e t t e recorder. 5, T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment : As t h e s t u d e n t l e a v e s c l a s s a number o f T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignments handed t o him, a l l o f w h i c h need t o be completed b e f o r e s e s s i o n 7.  -  S e s s i o n number 6:  Winning and  Everyone needs strokes«  Loosing  spanked than completely OK  stroke.  Relationships  Everyone needs to get and  or u n p l e a s a n t .  ignored.  An  One  t o g i v e some  i n f a n t would r a t h e r  A s t r o k e t h a t h e l p s you  i s called a p o s i t i v e stroke.  a negative  In  A s t r o k e i s a pat on the back, a word of  r e c o g n i t i o n , a k i c k on the s h i n s . k i n d of s t r o k i n g , p l e a s a n t  i7?; -  t h a t t e l l s you  Loving  i s positive stroking.  to you  f o r what you  you  be  f e e l you  are  are not-OK i s  Hating  is  negative  stroking. A stroke given  is a conditional stroke. l i k e you when you  do r a t h e r than f o r what you  For example, i f your f a t h e r says to you,  do as you're t o l d , " he i s g i v i n g you  c o n d i t i o n t h a t you  g i v e him  f o r what you  When a s t r o k e i s g i v e n  are.  than f o r what you are you,"  do,  something i n r e t u r n .  being who  are g i v e n s t r o k e s  you  a negative  are, you may  way,  unconditional stroking. f o r what you Strokes  o n l y f o r doing  You  anger.  "I  a s t r o k e on  the  i s not s t r o k i n g  f o r what you " I l o v e you  I t has no  soon r e s e n t doing  perhaps w i t h  He  to you  as when your mother says,  her s t r o k e i s u n c o n d i t i o n a l .  When you  are  strings  are  you  rather  because  you  attached.  "good t h i n g s / ^  and not  "good things" ,' and 1  react' i n  Everyone seems to need much p o s i t i v e  probably  p r e f e r to be  are, r a t h e r than o n l y f o r what you  t o l d t h a t you  are  OK  do.  are n e c e s s a r y f o r p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h .  Without  strokes,  i n f a n t s may  d i e , because t h e i r urge to l i v e d e c r e a s e s .  the h e a l t h y  growth of t h e i r baby by d i s c o u n t i n g h i s need f o r s t r o k e s .  a mother r e p e a t e d l y  i g n o r e s her  bawls l i k e t h a t , " she  for  c r y i n g i n f a n t and  i s d i s c o u n t i n g him.  He may  P a r e n t s can  says,  stunt When  "01^he always  whimper h i m s e l f back to  s l e e p , h i s need f o r s t r o k i n g unmet. As you  grow up you become more w i l l i n g to take word s t r o k i n g  i n s t e a d of the p h y s i c a l s t r o k i n g you  had when you were a l i t t l e baby.  s t i l l need and want p h y s i c a l s t r o k i n g , but you word s t r o k i n g .  Stroking f o r being  T h i s i s an important l e s s o n . stroking.  A good q u e s t i o n  make s u r e I g e t , and  how  to get p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s The  basic p o s i t i o n s .  You  o f t e n have to s e t t l e f o r  i s more important than s t r o k i n g f o r need not  doing.  f e e l ashamed to ask f o r p o s i t i v e  to ask y o u r s e l f i s , "What k i n d o f s t r o k e s  do I make sure I get  them?"  One  do  I  of the b e s t ways  i s to g i v e them.  k i n d o f s t r o k e s you  about y o u r s e l f and  You  (symbolic)  g i v e and  about o t h e r s  get depends on how  (basic p o s i t i o n s ) .  your C h i l d f e e l s  There are f o u r such  -  1. I'M OK: YOU'RE OK.  180 -  T h i s i s the h e a l t h y p o s i t i o n , t h e " g e t - o n -  with,<"-winner's p o s i t i o n . 2.  I'M OK: YOU'RE NOT-OK. d i s t r u s t s others. divorcing,  I t i s the "get-rid-of" position  T h i s i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e C h i l d who  f e e l s unworthy o r d e p r e s s e d .  position gradually  (by i g n o r i n g ,  o r , i n t h e extreme, k i l l i n g ) .  3. I'M NOT-OK: YOU'RE OK. usually  T h i s i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f a C h i l d who  I t i s t h e "get-away-from"  (by w i t h d r a w i n g , r u n n i n g away, o r c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e or abruptly).  4. I'M NOT OK: YOU'RE NOT OK.  T h i s i s t h e "get-nowhere" p o s i t i o n  of a C h i l d who f e e l s he can't w i n ,  that  l i f e j u s t i s n ' t worth i t .  He may even go c r a z y t o g e t p u t away t o escape i t . I f t h e C h i l d i n y o u f e e l not-OK, y o u p r o b a b l y l e a r n e d t o s e t t l e more n e g a t i v e than p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s . f e e l i n g you don't d e s e r v e them. c o l l e c t negative strokes. uncomfortable g e t t i n g  them.  You may t u r n down p o s i t i v e  for  strokes,  You may even go o u t o f y o u r way t o  A l t h o u g h y o u want compliments, you may f e e l When y o u do g e t one,  y o u may t h i n k t h e  p e r s o n g i v i n g i t i s j u s t b e i n g p o l i t e , o r wants something. I f you  feels  OK about y o u r s e l f  Having r e c e i v e d p l e n t y  you p r o b a b l y draw on a s t r o k e r e s e r v e .  of p o s i t i v e strokes,  g i v e and t o enjoy f o r y o u r s e l f .  you have a ready s u p p l y t o  B e i n g open t o p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s ,  you get  more, and have more time and energy t o be a mature P a r e n t , a competent A d u l t , and a f r e e  Child.  - 181 S e s s i o n number 6 a :  Art C r i t i c  -  Differential  DIRECTIONS: Round about you a r e a number o f f i n g e r p a i n t i n g s by f e l l o w s t u d e n t s . Each one i s e n t i t l e d , " P l e a s e be c a r e f u l . . . t h i s i s me!" You know w h i c h p a i n t i n g i s y o u r own and some o f your f r i e n d s know w h i c h p a i n t i n g i s y o u r s . However, you do not know who p a i n t e d many o f t h e p a i n t i n g s , and many o f your f e l l o w s t u d e n t s do not know who p a i n t e d your p a i n t i n g . Below i s an " A r t C r i t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l " numbered from 1 t o 7. For every p a i n t i n g i n the room (except y o u r own) you a r e t o r a t e from 1 t o 7 what you t h i n k of the p a i n t i n g . Then d i r e c t l y below the p a i n t i n g , l e a v e y o u r "Art C r i t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l " sheet. S e c o n d l y , t h e " A r t C r i t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l " sheet may be ^anonymous_(that you don't have t o s i g n your name) i f you l i k e . However, you w i l l have your b e s t e x p e r i e n c e i f you d i s c l o s e y o u r i d e n t i t y . T h i r d l y , i f you d i s c l o s e who you a r e t o the a r t i s t o f t h e p a i n t i n g have the o p t i o n o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . I f you u n d e r s t a n d , go  :st ng e  Very good i t means quite a b i t t o me  5  4  It's really pretty ordinary  A pretty good p i e c e of a r t . I like i t  Not bad, but I l i k e o t h e r s much better  ie i s ; chosen t o remain [anonymous. .d l i k e t o know who you a r e .  1  |  J j  (check)  (check)  .d l i k e t o t a l k about your p a i n t i n g , l a i n t i n g made me f e e l  you  ahead!  3  2  '±sj_i  (check)  6 P r e t t y bad ...really awful  7 Horrible.. makes me sick  Very good i t means quite a b i t t o me  3t  A pretty good p i e c e of a r t . I like i t  It's really pretty ordinary  Not b a d , but I l i k e o t h e r s much better  P r e t t y bad ...really awful  Horrible, makes me sick  P r e t t y bad ...really awful  Horrible, makes me sick  P r e t t y bad ...really awful  Horrible, makes me sick  6 J_ P r e t t y bad ...really awful  Horrible, makes me sick  is chosen t o remain anonymous.  (check)  I l i k e t o know who you a r e . (check) 1 l i k e t o t a l k about your p a i n t i n g , (check) l i n t i n g made me f e e l  3t  _L  Very good i t means quite a b i t t o me  5 A pretty good p i e c e of a r t . I like i t  It's really pretty ordinary  Not b a d , but I l i k e o t h e r s much better  J  is chosen t o remain anonymous.  (check)  [ l i k e t o know who you a r e . (check) I l i k e t o t a l k about your p a i n t i n g . (check) l i n t i n g made me f e e l  Very good i t means quite a b i t t o me  A pretty good p i e c e of a r t . I like i t  It's really pretty ordinary  Not b a d , but I l i k e o t h e r s much better  is chosen t o remain anonymous.  (check)  l i k e t o know who you a r e . (check) l i k e t o t a l k about y o u r p a i n t i n g , (check) n t i n g made me f e e l  Very good i t means quite a b i t t o me  A pretty good p i e c e of a r t . I like i t  It's really pretty ordinary  chosen t o remain anonymous.  (check)  Not b a d , but I l i k e o t h e r s much better  is  l i k e t o know who y o u a r e . (check) l i k e t o t a l k about y o u r p a i n t i n g , (check) i n t i n g made me f e e l  _ 183 e s s i o n number 7:  -  Stamp C o l l e c t i n g and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Rackets  . Hooking A c t i v i t y ;  (10  min)  Hand out an "Anonymous Bombardment" e x e r c i s e sheet randomly t o On each sheet i s w r i t t e n a name of a s t u d e n t i n the c l a s s . He complete the sheet w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the s t u d e n t i n d i c a t e d . the c o m p l e t i o n of the a c t i v i t y one f a c i l i t a t o r c o l l e c t s a l l of . I n s t r u c t i o n a l P e r i o d ; (15  each s t u d e n t . i s to Following the s h e e t s .  min)  I n s t r u c t i o n on the concept o f stamp c o l l e c t i n g and r a c k e t s w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on good and bad f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of f e e l i n g s . . I n s i g h t Experience:  (25  min)  The s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o form c h o i c e i l l u m i n a t i o n groups. The "Anonymous Bombardment" e x e r c i s e s h e e t s are handed t o the s t u d e n t i n d i c a t e d i n the b r a c k e t . I n t h e i r groups o f 10»discussion i s to f o c u s on the r e c e p t i o n of s i x g o l d stamps and how t h a t a f f e c t s t h e i r immediate f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r . The c o l l e c t i o n o f s i x brown stamps i s f a n t i s i z e d . F o r m a t i o n of r a c k e t s a r e d i s c u s s e d . . S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n : (5  Transferance  min)  Assignment:  As the s t u d e n t -leaves the c l a s s r o o m t o him.  t r a n s f e r a n c e assignments a r e handed  - 184 S e s s i o n number 7: My 'Stored Up F e e l i n g s Stamp c o l l e c t i n g r e f e r s t o the C h i l d ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f o l d (archaic) good (gold) and bad (brown) f e e l i n g s f o r a l a t e r exchange f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l prize.  F o r examplej i f a p e r s o n does not say "thank you>'" you may c o l l e c t  a brown stamp.  You can save up i n s u l t s or h u r t s  from someone u n t i l you  f e e l you have enough t o t r a d e i n f o r one b i g punch on h i s jaw.  You can  choose to f e e l t h a t a f t e r a l l you've had to take from him you have earned the  " r i g h t " t o h i t him.  That i s , you have saved up enough stamps f o r  one g u i l t - f r e e a c t o f revenge. Brown stamps a r e f o r bad f e e l i n g s , g o l d stamps f o r good f e e l i n g s .  You  may want to cash i n a f u l l page o r f u l l book o f brown stamps f o r one f r e e temp§Er. tantrum o r a day o f f " s i c k " from s c h o o l .  You may need many books  of brown stamps t o shout a " f r e e " swear word a t you Dad o r Mom. means f r e e from f e e l i n g s of g u i l t ,  at l e a s t f o r awhile.  The " f r e e "  I t means you  f e e l you now have the " r i g h t " to do what you might not o r d i n a r i l y do. You can save up your good f e e l i n g s to use as g o l d stamps.  I f you  have done someting w e l l you may use the good f e e l i n g as an excuse t o r e l a x , or to have y o u r s e l f a good time. stamp" c o l l e c t o r .  I f you do t h i s you a r e a " g o l d -  People i n whom the C h i l d f e e l s he i s OK, and o t h e r s a r e  OK, t o o , do n o t have t o c o l l e c t e i t h e r brown t o g o l d stamps.  They do  not need excuses f o r what they do o r f e e l . Here i s an example o f a l i t t l e g i r l who i s shopping f o r a brown and  a mother who c o u l d have avoided the uproar simply  by t a k i n g the  daughter, a f t e r the opening remark, i n t o h e r arms. "Mommy, I don't t h i n k you r e a l l y l o v e "Why o f course I l o v e you.  me."  Don't be s i l l y . "  "How can you l o v e me when you get so mad a t me?" "I get mad a t you because I l o v e you. things r i g h t . "  I want you t o l e a r n t o do  "You mean you o n l y l o v e me when I do s t u f f f o r you?" "You know t h a t ' s n o t s o . " "It  i s t o o , and I hate y o u . "  "Now l i s t e n here, young l a d y , I've heard about enough." "I  knew i t .  You don't l o v e me.  Nobody l o v e s  me."  "I've had i t . The way you"re behaving, who c o u l d l o v e you?"  stamp,  '-13$ T h i s l i t t l e g i r l ' s C h i l d went out o f h e r way t o c o l l e c t  "unloved"  f e e l i n g s , t h a t i s , brown stamps. Stamp c o l l e c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y brown-stamp c o l l e c t o r s , have a hard' t i m e t h r o w i n g t h e i r stamps away. them.  The C h i l d wants to c a s h them i n , n o t f o r g e t  Q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g may h e l p you see i f you a r e a stamp  collector: (3  Do you s u l k when you don't get your own way?  (^)Do you put t h i n g s o f f ,  and then f e e l g u i l t y f o r n o t d o i n g them?  (^)T)o  you do t h i n g s you c o n s i d e r wrong, and t h e n f e e l bad?  QDo  you sometimes p l a y " s t u p i d " when you r e a l l y know what's g o i n g on?  (^)Do you sometimes s t o p y o u r s e l f from r e l a x i n g because you f e e l you don't deserve a r e s t ? The C h i l d i n you can c o l l e c t " d e p r e s s i o n " (Low f e e l i n g s ) stamps f o r a f r e e "drop o u t , " " q u i t , " o r s u i c i d e t r y .  "Anger" stamps can be used f o r  a f r e e a s s a u l t . You can c o l l e c t " C r a z y " stamps f o r a f r e e t r i p t o a m e n t a l hospital.  J a i l s a r e f u l l o f p e o p l e i n whom t h e C h i l d c o l l e c t s brown stamps.  Even i f a l l your l i f e you have been c o l l e c t i n g brown stamps, o r bad f e e l i n g s , you  can change.  You can r e p l a c e your bad f e e l i n g s w i t h good f e e l i n g s .  You  do n o t have t o a c c e p t brown stamps no m a t t e r how o f t e n they a r e handed t o you.  And you do not need g o l d stamps t o f e e l good. D e a l i n g i n t r a d i n g stamps i s a r a c k e t because a c o l l e c t o r uses t h e  stamps d i s h o n e s t l y . not  He does not o p e r a t e aboveboard. H i s s u p p l i e r s may  even be aware they a r e s u p p l i e r s .  Have you e v e r been s u p r i s e d by  someone s a y i n g , " I ' v e n e v e r f o r g i v e n you f o r t h a t " ? p e r s o n had c o l l e c t e d a stamp.  You d i d n ' t know t h e  Brown stamp c o l l e c t o r s jump t o c o n c l u s i o n s  about what a p e r s o n "meant" when he s a i d s o m e t h i n g . They hear i n s u l t s i n s i m p l e remarks.  Both brown and g o l d stamp c o l l e c t o r s l o o k f o r excuses f o r  t h e i r b e h a v i o r and f e e l i n g s . These a r e some bad f e e l i n g s you might use t o cash i n f o r a f r e e tantrum or s u l k : and  stupidity.  f e a r , c o n f u s i o n , anger, f r u s t r a t i o n , a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , Your f e e l i n g s u s u a l l y come from t h e C h i l d i n you.  Take smoking f o r example.  I f you smoke and f e e l g u i l t y , and t h e g u i l t  l e a d s you as A d u l t t o t a k e a c t i o n ( q u i t t i n g ) , your g u i l t i s n o t a r a c k e t . But  i f you c o n t i n u e t o smoke and you c o n t i n u e t o f e e l g u i l t y about i t ,  then y o u r g u i l t i s p r o b a b l y a bad f e e l i n g r a c k e t i n w h i c h you can c o l l e c t brown stamps t o c a s h i n l a t e r f o r a f r e e "low f e e l i n g " o r coughing s p e l l .  186 That may be t h e way t h e C h i l d i n you a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n f o r s t r o k e s . I f so, t h e A d u l t i n you may n o t r e a l i z e what you a r e d o i n g .  Your C h i l d can  be c l e v e r a t d o i n g t h i n g s your A d u l t i s n o t aware o f . D r i n k i n g a l c o h o l may be a n o t h e r example.  I f a number o f y o u r  friends  have i g n o r e d y o u , you c a n ' t g e t a l o n g w i t h p a r e n t s , and your p r i n c i p a l c a l l e d y o u t o t h e o f f i c e , y o u may go out and g e t "bombed."  ;  You have  cashed i n a l l these brown stamps t o g e t drunk and now t h e s c a l e s a r e balanced. Rackets a r e taught by p a r e n t s , o r g u a r d i a n s . f e e l i n g s a r e p r o b a b l y n o t " f o r real." . :  Many o f y o u r bad  I f t h e C h i l d i n you has n o t taken  b a s i c p o s i t i o n No. 1 ( t h a t i s , "I'm OK, and o t h e r s a r e OK t o o " ) , you w i l l be i n some k i n d o f b a d - f e e l i n g r a c k e t . p e r m i t t e d you t o use f e e l i n g s as e x c u s e s .  Your p a r e n t s w i l l have  A good way t o check on what  your f e e l i n g r a c k e t might be i s t o r e c a l l what happened i n your home when t h i n g s got u p t i g h t .  D i d your p a r e n t s respond w i t h anger, c o n f u s i o n ,  depression, g u i l t , f e a r , nervousness, a n x i e t y , or Adult a c t i o n ? did  I f they  n o t u s u a l l y respond w i t h A d u l t a c t i o n , they p r o b a b l y t a u g h t you a  feeling racket.  - 187 -  [  Session number 7 « Anonymous Bombardment  J o t i c e i n t h e b r a c k e t above a s t u d e n t ' s name. Do n o t i n d i c a t e t o t h a t student o r t o any o t h e r s t u d e n t t h a t you have t h e "Anonymous Bombardment" sheet f o r t h a t s t u d e n t . lere i s what y o u a r e t o do: ^s y o u l e a r n e d i n s e s s i o n number 6 t h e r e i s such a t h i n g as p o s i t i v e and l e g a t i v e , c o n d i t i o n a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l s t r o k i n g . Simply w r i t e t h r e e > o s i t i v e c o n d i t i o n a l (+C) and t h r e e p o s i t i v e u n c o n d i t i o n a l (+UC) statements ibout t h e person i n d i c a t e d i n the b r a c k e t above. [f y o u do n o t know t h e s t u d e n t a t a l l o r i f t h e "Anonymous Bombardment" sheet has your own name on i t , r a i s e your hand q u i e t l y . tow t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t : be honest and s i n c e r e . Do n o t make a n y t h i n g up. [f y o u cannot complete a l l 6 spaces then l e a v e them b l a n k .  C+ci) C+C2) C+C3) (+UC1)  (+UC2) (4UC3) [f y o u d e s i r e , and i t would p r o b a b l y be most h e l p f u l t o y o u i f y o u d i d s o , fou may i n d i c a t e who y o u a r e and g i v e up your anonymity. The way t o do ; h i s i s t o f i l l i n y o u r name i n t h e space p r o v i d e d . [ have d e c i d e d t o g i v e up my anonymity  Yes;  No.  - 188 s e s s i o n number 8:  Script Analysis  L. Hooking A c t i v i t y ;  (10 min)  Each s t u d e n t i s handed a l a r g e p i e c e o f n e w s p r i n t o r computer paper and a f e l t marker. The s t u d e n t s a r e t o w r i t e on s i d e A o f t h e paper 20 o r more one word a d j e c t i v e s t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e who they t h i n k they a r e . These a r e t o be w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e hand t h a t they n o r m a l l y w r i t e w i t h . The s t u d e n t s c o n c e a l w h a t they have w r i t t e n . I. I n s t r u c t i o n a l P e r i o d :  (15 min)  I n s t r u c t i o n on t h e T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s concept o f s c r i p t i n g , i n c l u d i n g c u l t u r a l and s u b c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s , f a m i l y s c r i p t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c r i p t s and s c r i p t s w i t h a c u r s e . 3. I n s i g h t E x p e r i e n c e :  (25 min)  Each s t u d e n t p i c k s up h i s l a r g e p i e c e o f paper and h o l d s i t t o h i s back w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v e s i d e o f t h e paper t o h i s back ( s i d e B f a c i n g o u t w a r d s ) . Then, w i t h t h e f r e e hand, each s t u d e n t i s t o w r i t e an " o r i g i n a l and courageous" p o s i t i v e ( c o n d i t i o n a l o r u n c o n d i t i o n a l ) s t r o k e f o r each student (10 min). When completed they a r e t o form i n t o s m a l l groups o f 5, w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n a l a d j e c t i v e l i s t ( s i d e A) f a c e up. Each p e r s o n i n t h e s m a l l group o f 5 t u r n s over h i s sheet and reads t h e l i s t o f p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s i n the f i r s t person present tense. F o r example, " I am l i k e a b l e " " I am a t h l e t i c , " " I am good a t penmanship" (15 m i n ) . s  +. S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n :  (5 min)  5. T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment: As t h e s t u d e n t l e a v e s t h e c l a s s r o o m , h i s t r a n s f e r a n c e handed t o him. ("What i s your s c r i p t ? " )  assignments a r e  _  189 _  S e s s i o n number 8: _ T h i s i s My L i f e Your l i f e depends on what i s known as y o u r s c r i p t .  I t i s your  life  p l a n , w h i c h y o u r C h i l d d e c i d e d upon i n y o u r e a r l y y e a r s , and w h i c h y o u are  now p r o b a b l y n o t aware o f .  You can f i n d out what y o u r s c r i p t i s by  examining y o u r P a r e n t messages and y o u r C h i l d f e e l i n g s .  Your s c r i p t i s  e i t h e r h e a l t h y o r u n h e a l t h y , depending on y o u r b a s i c p o s i t i o n .  I f your  C h i l d e a r l y i n l i f e was c o n v i n c e d t h a t he i s n o t q u i t e OK, t h a t he i s u n l o v e a b l e , y o u may want t o change y o u r s c r i p t .  F o r example, y o u r C h i l d  may have d e c i d e d , " I t n e v e r pays t o g e t c l o s e t o p e o p l e , " because y o u t r i e d t h a t as a l i t t l e boy and g o t burned.  Your s c r i p t then would be a  p l a n n o t t o a l l o w y o u r s e l f t o g e t c l o s e t o p e o p l e i n a warm, open way. You w i l l s e t t l e i n s t e a d f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s based m a i n l y on game p l a y i n g . You w i l l g e t s t r o k e s , b u t t h e y w i l l o f t e n be n e g a t i v e , o r o n l y ones.  conditional  You w i l l s t i l l want i n t i m a c y , b u t y o u r C h i l d w i l l be a f r a i d t o  risk i t . You w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t change y o u r s c r i p t u n t i l y o u d e c i d e t o s t a r t s e e i n g t h e C h i l d i n y o u as g r e a t , and l o v e a b l e , knowing t h a t y o u d e s e r v e a l l t h e p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s y o u c a n g e t , and t h a t y o u can be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n g e t t i n g them. Y o u r r t r a n s a c t i o n s , y o u r b a s i c p o s i t i o n , y o u r stamps. y o u r r a c k e t , t h e ways y o u f i l l y o u r t i m e , and t h e games y o u p l a y a r e a l l p a r t o f y o u r plan. the  life  L o o k i n g a t t h e s e w i l l h e l p y o u t o e x p l a i n why y o u chose t o l i v e  way y o u have, and what y o u may want t o change. C h i l d d e c i s i o n s , such a s , " I w i l l never l e t anyone g e t c l o s e t o me,"  a f f e c t e v e r y t h i n g y o u do now, perhaps w i t h o u t y o u r even knowing  it.  But  you can know i t ; y o u can d e c i d e n o t t o l e a d a d u l l l i f e , n o t t o head f o r an unhappy e n d i n g .  You can change y o u r s c r i p t , l i n e by l i n e .  you can s t o p p l a y i n g a t l i f e , and s t a r t l i v i n g i t . s c r i p t questions are:  (e.g.  the  life What was  What i s t h e myth i n y o u r house about y o u r b i r t h  "Mother almost d i e d " ) ? What was t h e n i c e s t  mo.therr(father) ever s a i d t o you? it?  Some t y p i c a l  What i s y o u r e a r l i e s t c h i l d h o o d memory?  your f a v o r i t e f a i r y t a l e ?  That means  (worst) t h i n g your  What d i d y o u f e e l when she (he) s a i d  And what d i d you say t o y o u r s e l f ?  What y o u s a i d t o y o u r s e l f  after  n i c e s t o r w o r s t p a r e n t a l remark may be one o f y o u r most i m p o r t a n t  lifelong  decisions.  Your s c r i p t depends m a i n l y on y o u r C h i l d d e c i s i o n about how y o u were going t o l i v e your l i f e .  You may have s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d y o u r o p t i o n s  ( c h o i c e s ) by t h a t l i f e t i m e commitment.  You based i t m o s t l y on t h e messages  -i.90 -  you got f r o m t h e C h i l d i n y o u r p a r e n t s .  W h i l e t h e P a r e n t and A d u l t o f  your mother and f a t h e r may have been t e l l i n g y o u s e n s i b l e t h i n g s , t h e C h i l d i n them c o u l d have been s e n d i n g o u t f o o l i s h messages.  F o r example,  b o t h y o u r p a r e n t s c o u l d have been a d v i s i n g y o u t o grow up and a c t y o u r age, w h i l e t h e l i t t l e C h i l d i n y o u r mother was w i s h i n g y o u would s t a y a baby.  I n t h e meantime, t h e C h i l d i n your f a t h e r c o u l d have been showing  you how t o a c t as a baby (have temper t a n t r u m s , d r i n k too much, be irresponsible, etc.),  The "here's how" message o f a s c r i p t may come from  any o f e i t h e r p a r e n t ' s ego s t a t e s .  (The diagram below shows how i t i s commu-  n i c a t e d a t t h e C h i l d l e v e l i n an u n h e a l t h y s c r i p t ^ .  Your mother and  f a t h e r may have t o l d y o u t o g e t as much e d u c a t i o n as p o s s i b l e , w h i l e t h e C h i l d i n them was b r a g g i n g about how w e l l they d i d w i t h o u t school.  finishing  The C h i l d i n them c o u l d be j e a l o u s o f y o u d o i n g b e t t e r than they  d i d , w i t h o u t t h e i r A d u l t s knowing they r e a l l y f e e l t h a t way.  You  - 191  -  The t h r e e s e t s o f c i r c l e s i n the above diagram t e l l you how a s c r i p t be formed.  Messages from the C h i l d o f y o u r p a r e n t s a r e c a l l e d  may  injunctions.  An i n j u n c t i o n from the C h i l d i n your mother o r f a t h e r i s sometimes c a l l e d a "Witch Message" i f i t d i s c o u n t s your i m p o r t a n c e and a d v i s e s you t o develop a harmful l i f e s c r i p t . For  I t i s not always put i n words.  example, y o u r mother may  I t may be s e c r e t .  have h e l p e d you not "grow up" by n e v e r  letting  you f i n i s h a j o b , even though she might have thought she was b e i n g good t o you.  A l l o f us have r e c e i v e d some d i s c o u n t i n g messages from our p a r e n t s  because no p a r e n t s a r e p e r f e c t .  - 192 s e s s i o n number 8 : What I s Your  Script?  DIRECTIONS: [nvest a good d e a l o f time and e f f o r t i n t h i s assignment. Record i n w r i t t e n form on t h i s p i e c e o f paper ( o r another s h e e t ) y o u r responses t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s . L. N o n v e r b a l messages i n y o u r s c r i p t : C l o s e your eyes and t r y t o see e a r l i e s t f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n you can r e c a l l . I f o n l y p a r t s o f the f a c e emerge, such as eyes o r mouth, l o o k a t these closely. Whose f a c e s do y o u see? Now t r y t o r e c a l l t h e n o n v e r b a l messages your p a r e n t s s e n t t h r o u g h t h e i r a c t i o n s ( i . e . a f f e c t i o n a t e k i s s , c l e n c h e d f i s t , s l a p on t h e bottom, p a t on t h e head, e t c . ) . What a r e t h e main ones?  What p l e a s a n t o r u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s a r e aroused i n you? What messages do t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n and body a c t i o n s  convey?  I. V e r b a l messages i n your s c r i p t : Imagine y o u r s e l f t o be of c h i l d age a g a i n . You- a r e now 2 o r 3 o r 4 y e a r s o l d . What do y o u t h i n k your p a r e n t s say about: Your w o r t h Your l o o k s Your a b i l i t i e s Your  intelligence  Your m o r a l s Your h e a l t h Your s e x u a l i t y Your f u t u r e Say i n one sentence what y o u imagine each o f your p a r e n t f i g u r e s thought of y o u .  - 193 Is t h e way t h a t y o u t h i n k o f y o u r s e l f now (today) r e l a t e d t o t h e way y o u r p a r e n t s t h i n k o f you now? Yes ; No . Role I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : T h i n k about your l a s t few days and r e c a l l how y o u r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . D i d y o u f i n d y o u r s e l f p l a y i n g any o f t h e t h r e e d r a m a t i c r o l e s V i c t i m , P e r s e c u t o r , Rescuer? Victim with Persecutor with  ^  Rescuer w i t h Do y o u p l a y one r o l e more o f t e n then a n o t h e r ? . Does your r o l e change when t h e s e t t i n g changes? school, etc.)  . ( i . e . , from home t o  On Stage: Imagine your l i f e drama b e i n g performed on a s t a g e . Comedy  Soap o p e r a  Farce  Melodrama  Isitr.a:  Saga  (other)  Tragedy  (other)  What i s t h e s c r i p t theme o f y o u r p l a y ? f a i l u r e oriented  , constructive  I s i t success o r i e n t e d , nonproductive  Imagine t h a t y o u a r e t h e audience w a t c h i n g y o u r p l a y . 1.  applaud  2.  cry  , ?  What do you do?  Q  3. b o o Q 4. laugh 5. go t o s l e e p 6.  want your money back  7.  excuse y o u r s e l f t o t h e bathroom  8. ( o t h e r )  (^)  .  L i f e Stages: Imagine your l i f e as a r e v o l v i n g s t a g e w i t h each o f your s e t t i n g s as a s e c t i o n o f i t . Diagram y o u r v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f time y o u i n v e s t i n each. E v a l u a t e a t y p i c a l month i n y o u r l i f e . Eliminate s l e e p i n g time u n l e s s i t i s o f p a r t i c u l a r importance t o y o u .  - 194 -  Do your i n t e r e s t s l i e where your time and energy a r e i n v e s t e d ? Yes; No. I f "No," w i l l you choose t o do a n y t h i n g about r e - d i s t r i b u t i n g your time and energy? Yes; No. I f "Yes," what w i l l y o u do?  Who seems t o be d i r e c t i n g y o u r drama on each l i f e stage? (Perhaps your f r i e n d s , p a r e n t s , church l e a d e r s , t e a c h e r s , y o u r s e l f , f a m i l y , e t c . )  Cast o f C h a r a c t e r s : Think o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p e o p l e who a r e c u r r e n t l y i n your l i f e drama. L i s t them from 1 t o 10 ( i f t h e r e a r e more than 1 0 , l i s t them).  1.. 2..  3. 4. 5.. 6..  7. 8.. 9.10-  Rank them i n terms o f time (column A ) , energy (column B) and r e a l i n t e r e s t (column C) y o u i n v e s t i n them (from 1 b e i n g "most" t o 10 b e i n g " l e a s t " ) . Reverse the s i t u a t i o n . How much t i m e , energy and r e a l i n t e r e s t do they i n v e s t i n you? (columns a, b,cc) Do they f u r t h e r your l i f e p l a n s ?  Yes;  No.  I f "No," why do you c o n t i n u e your a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them?  I f "Yes," how?  - 195 S e s s i o n number 9:  1.  -  Script Analysis  Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (5  min)  On the sheet of paper e n t i t l e d " S w e a t s h i r t " w r i t e a name, a word or p h r a s e t h a t seems t o f i t f o r you. An example may be: If i t f e e l s good, do i t , " "S.F.U. t r a c k team," "Beethoven," " A d d i d a s " (etc.). , !  2.  Instructional Period:  (15  min)  S e s s i o n number 9 i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n of s e s s i o n number 8 on s c r i p t i n g but from a d i f f e r e n t t a c t : a s e r i e s o f examples and the c r e a t i o n of a d e s i r a b l e s e l f - s c r i p t . 3.  Insight Experience:  (30  min)  B r a i n s t o r m i n i l l u m i n a t i o n groups the p o s s i b l e d e s i r a b l e f a c t o r s i n a l i f e s c r i p t . Have each s t u d e n t r e c o r d the response w h i l e the group f a c i l i t a t o r w r i t e s the responses on the b l a c k b o a r d . 4.  Session  Evaluation:  (5  5.  T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment:  min)  As the s t u d e n t s l e a v e the c l a s s r o o m hand them a copy of "A Script Questionnaire."  Life  - 196 -  S e s s i o n number 9:  T h i s I s My L i f e  ( p a r t 2)  " A l l t h e w o r l d ' s a s t a g e and a l l t h e men and women merely p l a y e r s . They have t h e i r e x i t s and e n t r a n c e s ; each man i n h i s time p l a y s many parts!''.' (Shakespeare) As does a c h a r a c t e r i n a drama, y o u l i v e out your l i f e a c c o r d i n g to a s c r i p t w h i c h you have w r i t t e n .  As a c h i l d y o u made many l a s t i n g  d e c i s i o n s about y o u r s e l f , and t h o s e d e c i s i o n s were based m o s t l y on t h e messages t h a t you r e c e i v e d from your p a r e n t s .  F o r example, your mother  may have s a i d t o y o u over many y e a r s , "He's j u s t l i k e h i s f a t h e r , " and now, i n many ways, maybe y o u a r e l i k e your f a t h e r .  Or perhaps y o u r  f a t h e r t h o u g h t , though never s a i d t o y o u , "Gee, I w i s h she was a boy!" and now, p e r h a p s , y o u a r e more l i k e a boy than a g i r l .  Your p a r e n t s  messages s e r v e d as d i r e c t i v e s o r commands t e l l i n g y o u how t o l i v e .  The  messages c o u l d have been p r o h i b i t i o n s , l i k e , "Don't t a l k back," o r "Grow up!" o r p e r m i s s i o n s , l i k e , "Have a good t i m e . " many, and y o u made s u r e d e c i s i o n s about some o f them.  You r e c e i v e d You c o m p l i e d t o  a s s u r e y o u r s e l f o f t h e n u r t u r i n g y o u needed. l.Take a few moments r i g h t now and l i s t f i v e p r o h i b i t i o n s o r p e r m i s s i o n s t h a t y o u remember when you were a v e r y young p e r s o n : 1.  2. 3.  4. 5.  Are t h e s e d i r e c t i v e s p a r t o f y o u r s c r i p t ?  What do you t h i n k ?  You may n o t be aware o f how your e a r l y c h i l d h o o d d e c i s i o n s i n f l u e n c e  - 197  your l i f e p l a n t o t h i s day.  -  The C h i l d i n you made t h e s e l o n g - t e r m  commitments when y o u r A d u l t was p o o r l y i n f o r m e d o r m i s i n f o r m e d .  At  t h a t t i m e , the d e c i s i o n s may have been a p p r o p r i a t e , even n e c e s s a r y for  your s u r v i v a l , b u t w i t h some o f them y o u may now be d e f e a t i n g  yourself.  They a r e n o t e a s i l y r e v e r s e d w i t h o u t A d u l t awareness.  Here a r e some common c h i l d h o o d d e c i s i o n s .  As y o u read through them,  check them i f they a p p l y t o y o u today, and c r o s s them out i f t h e y don't apply.  Be honest w i t h y o u r s e l f .  ' ' ' ' ' ' " I •  ss  -  "  guess I'm p r e t t y  smart"  I am dumb." "It's  f u n t o f e e l good about m y s e l f . "  '' ' '  ''  " I ' l l make i t even i f i t k i l l s  •  '  "Most p e o p l e a r e O.K."  me."  "Most p e o p l e a r e n o t O.K." "It ' '  "  I  t  '  doesn't pay t o g e t c l o s e t o anyone." s  n i c e t o be l o v e d . "  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ " I ' l l p r o b a b l y have t o d i e b e f o r e anyone c a r e s about me." "what's t h e use?  I ' l l p r o b a b l y never be happy."  Suppose as a young p e r s o n y o u came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n , " I ' l l p r o b a b l y never be happy."  You may have had good reasons f o r b e i n g unhappy.  Y e a r s l a t e r t h e Sad C h i l d c o n c l u s i o n , whose words you had f o r g o t t e n , may s t i l l be i n e f f e c t .  You may n o t a l l o w y o u r s e l f t o f e e l happy, because  when you d i d as a young p e r s o n , y o u ended up b e i n g h u r t o r d i s a p p o i n t e d . You may now p l a y Sad C h i l d games t h a t pay o f f i n sad f e e l i n g s t o p r o t e c t y o u r s e l f from d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . your d e s i r e t o be happy.  Your n o t OK f e e l i n g C h i l d may i n t e r f e r e w i  - 198  -  C h a r l i e i s a good example of a p e r s o n who  made c h i l d h o o d  l i v e s by them, and has not checked them out w i t h h i s A d u l t . mother t o l d him,  " C h a r l i e , you're j u s t no good.  H i s f a t h e r t o l d him,  You  get good money."  a no-good guy,  to grade 8) and he's he met  His  can't you be good?"  "Look C h a r l e s . When you get to Grade 8, drop  and get a j o b as a w e l d e r . s u p p o s i n g t h a t he's  Why  decisions,  he's  So C h a r l i e has  out been  p r e t t y dumb (he s h o u l d o n l y  always thought t h a t he'd  l i k e t o be a w e l d e r .  a g i r l at the end of Grade 8 t h a t he r e a l l y l i k e d .  go Then  She wanted  t o be a c o n c e r t p i a n i s t and p l a n n e d t o go t h r o u g h seven y e a r s of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d y i n g music. to her  One  ( b e l i e v i n g he was  l u n c h hour he f i n a l l y got the courage up to t a l k not OK and  she was  OK,  i t was  t a l k t o her) and she r e a l l y enjoyed t a l k i n g to him.  h a r d f o r him  And  C h a r l i e l i k e d t a l k i n g t o h e r , t h a t i s , u n t i l she s a i d : are you g o i n g to take n e x t y e a r a t s c h o o l ? " her t h a t he was He t h o u g h t , "I'm  obviously " C h a r l i e , what  As C h a r l i e began t e l l i n g  going to q u i t s c h o o l and be a w e l d e r , he f e l t dumb, I can't go t o s c h o o l , I'm  he c o u l d have a n a l y z e d  trapped.  going t o q u i t . "  Although  h i s childhood d e c i s i o n w i t h h i s A d u l t , h i s Parent  kept s a y i n g , "Come on, you're j u s t a dummy!"  And  he q u i t s c h o o l , became  a plumber ( c o u l d n ' t get i n t o w e l d i n g ) and never saw You have p r o b a b l y  to  that g i r l  chosen a whole number of s c r i p t s .  again.  Maybe you have  chosen a c u l t u r a l s c r i p t , p a s t i n g maple l e a f f l a g s on j a c k e t s and windows and r e p e a t e d l y  s a y i n g "eh" t o your American f r i e n d s .  Or maybe you have  chosen a r e l i g i o u s s c r i p t and you c a r r y the b i g g e s t K i n g James B i b l e you can f i n d so as to e v a n g e l i z e your f r i e n d s .  Perhaps you have chosen a  s u b ^ - c u l t u r a l s c r i p t , a c t i v e l y d e f y i n g the v a l u e s of your p a r e n t s your worn-out j e a n s , s k i - j a c k e t s , l o n g - h a i r and w o r l d l y  with  expressions.  - 199 -  Or you m i g h t , have chosen a f a m i l y s c r i p t and you say t h i n g s l i k e , " I n our f a m i l y , home i s a man's c a s t l e , " o r "There's always a t l e a s t one b l a c k sheep i n our f a m i l y . " There i s a n o t h e r k i n d o f s c r i p t t h a t we have a l r e a d y mentioned b r i e f l y and t h i s i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c r i p t .  Everyone has chosen a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c r i p t and i t i s e i t h e r a w i n n e r ' s s c r i p t , a l o s e r ' s s c r i p t or a banal s c r i p t .  A p e r s o n who has a w i n n e r ' s s c r i p t i s t h e  p e r s o n who does something w i t h o u t any excuses and does i t as b e s t he can. Everyone has someone t h a t they admire a l o t and t h a t p e r s o n u s u a l l y has a w i n n e r ' s s c r i p t .  A l o s e r ' s s c r i p t i s one t h a t i s adapted from t h e  not OK C h i l d p o s i t i o n .  A l o s e r f i n d s excuses f o r n o t d o i n g what he wants  to do.  L o s e r s have s c r i p t s w i t h t r a g i c e n d i n g s :  a mental h o s p i t a l .  s k i d row, p r i s o n , o r  A b a n a l s c r i p t i s t h e non-winner and n o n - l o s e r who  p l a y s i t s a f e j u s t t o s t a y even.  They obey a c o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t and  do n o t r i s k C h i l d i n t i m a c y o r t e s t o u r A d u l t awareness. a b a n a l s c r i p t u s u a l l y f e e l b o r e d , l o n e l y and depressed. a b a n a l and l o s e r s c r i p t s can become w i n n e r s . A d u l t d e c i s i o n t o do s o .  Those who have Both p e o p l e w i t h  But they need t o make an  - 200 -  S e s s i o n number 9:  :  "Sweatshirt"  At one time o r a n o t h e r i n our l i v e s we have chosen a p a r t i c u l a r p h r a s e o r word t h a t seems t o sum up our l i f e s c r i p t .  Sometimes t h i s i s l e t t e r e d  on a T - s h i r t , o r we pen i t on our arm, o r p l a s t e r i t on a c a r bumper. What would y o u say i s t h e main word o r p h r a s e t h a t b e s t sums y o u up? W r i t e i t on the s w e a t s h i r t .  These a r e some o t h e r words o r p h r a s e s t h a t sum me up w e l l :  on number 9: : ;t>  A Life ~~  )escribe y o u r s e l f  201  -  Script Questionnaire  briefly.  ) e s c r i b e your mother  briefly.  ) e s c r i b e your f a t h e r  briefly.  What does your mother say when she compliments you?  what does she say when she c r i t i c i z e s you?  What i s h e r main a d v i c e to you?  what does your f a t h e r  say when he compliments you?  What does he say when he c r i t i c i z e s you?  khat i s h i s main a d v i c e to you?  (To be completed BEFORE s e s s i o n number 10).  What nicknames have p e o p l e c a l l e d you?  202  -  What do t h e names mean?  What do y o u want t o be when y o u ' r e an a d u l t ?  What does your mother want y o u t o be?  What does your f a t h e r want y o u t o be?  What do y o u l i k e most about y o u r s e l f ?  What do y o u l i k e l e a s t about y o u r s e l f ?  Do y o u ever f e e l t h a t something might be wrong w i t h you?  What have you done i n t h e lasV  What would y o u f e e l i f ' someone  ( i f y e s , a s k what.)  l i t t l e w h i i e t h a t you f e e l m q s t a w f u l about?  caught y o u d o i n g  this?  D e s c r i b e t h e bad f e e l i n g y o u have had most o f t e n i n y o u r  life.  _ 203 When d i d y o u f i r s t f e e l t h i s bad f e e l i n g ?  What was your f a v o r i t e c h i l d  story'  What was your f a v o r i t e p a r t o f i t ?  I f y o u c o u l d be t h e p e r s o n y o u r e a l l y wanted t o be and do t h e t h i n g s he would do, what would y o u be d o i n g f i v e y e a r s from today?  I f y o u f o l l o w through on what y o u a r e now p l a n n i n g f o r y o u r s e l f , what w i l l you be d o i n g f i v e y e a r s from today?  When do y o u t h i n k y o u might d i e ?  What w i l l i t say on y o u r  A t what age?  tombstone?  What would "heaven on e a r t h " be f o r you?  What do y o u w i s h your mother had done d i f f e r e n t l y ?  What do y o u w i s h y o u r f a t h e r had done d i f f e r e n t l y ?  - 204 I f by magic y o u c o u l d change a n y t h i n g about y o u r s e l f , what would y o u change?  What do you want most out o f l i f e ?  What i s y o u r b i g g e s t  problem?  What d e c i s i o n s a r e y o u g o i n g t o have t o make so t h a t y o u can be t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n t h a t y o u want t o be?  What about y o u r s e l f w i l l you change t o implement t h e s e d e c i s i o n s ?  What w i l l you do t o make t h o s e changes?  How w i l l you know t h a t y o u have reached y o u r g o a l ?  - 205  S e s s i o n number 10:  -  B e h a v i o r a l Choice  One element i n v o l v e d i n the "Decide f o r Y o u r s e l f " human r e l a t i o n s h i p t r a i n i n g program i s the a c t u a l element of d e c i d i n g upon a p p r o p r i a t e l i f e a t t i t u d e s and l i f e b e h a v i o r s . In a d d i t i o n t o a d e c i s i o n t o change or t o remain the same, b e h a v i o r a l c o n t r a c t s a r e employed. Each c o n t r a c t c o n t a i n s t h r e e p a r t s : f i r s t , a s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n of b e h a v i o r s i n the d e s i r e d l i f e s t y l e ; second, a commitment on the p a r t of the s t u d e n t to implement the l i f e s t y l e ; t h i r d , a commitment on the p a r t of a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r p e r s o n t o e v a l u a t e the implemented l i f e s t y l e . Session number 10 emphasizes the b e h a v i o r a l dimension of chosen change.  1.  Insight Experiences:  (55  min)  The s t u d e n t s are asked to become as c o m f o r t a b l e as p o s s i b l e w h i l e s t a y i n g i n a s e a t e d p o s i t i o n . They may s i t on the f l o o r , l e a n a g a i n s t the w a l l s , s i t on a c h a i r , change the p o s i t i o n o r l o c a t i o n of the c h a i r . F o r the n e x t 30 m i n u t e s the s t u d e n t s w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i e s of f a n t a s y e x p e r i e n c e s . At the c o n s l u s i o n of each f a n t a s y e x p e r i e n c e , the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s are asked: who would you l i k e t o be ... can you be the p e r s o n you would l i k e to be ... how would you f e e l b e i n g t h i s new p e r s o n ... do o t h e r p e o p l e l i k e t h i s new p e r s o n ... how about your p a r e n t s ... the p o l i c e ... your f r i e n d s ... your t e a c h e r ... ? F o l l o w i n g the 30 minute f a n t a s y e x p e r i e n c e s the s t u d e n t s w i l l t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n i l l u m i n a t i o n groups. 2.  Session Evaluation:  3.  T r a n s f e r e n c e Assignment:  share  (5 min)  As s t u d e n t s l e a v e the c l a s s r o o m , hand out mimeographed c o p i e s of "Alternative Life Styles."  -  S e s s i o n number 1 0 :  206  -  B e h a v i o r a l Choice  The Wise Man on t h e M o u n t a i n :  (see i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s e s s i o n No.5, A c t i v i t y  A.)  I want you t o i m a g i n e t h a t you a r e w a l k i n g up a t r a i l i n t h e mountains^ at n i g h t .  There i s a f u l l moon w h i c h l e t s y o u see t h e t r a i l e a s i l y , and  you can a l s o see q u i t e a l o t o f y o u r s u r r o u n d i n g s .... What i s t h i s like?  .... What e l s e can you see around you? .... How do y o u f e e l as  you w a l k up t h i s mountain t r a i l ? trail  trail  .... J u s t ahead t h e r e i s a s m a l l s i d e  t h a t l e a d s up h i g h e r t o a cave t h a t i s t h e home o f a v e r y w i s e  man who can t e l l y o u t h e answer t o any q u e s t i o n .  Turn o f f onto  this  s i d e t r a i l and walk toward t h e w i s e man's cave ... N o t i c e how y o u r s u r r o u n d i n g s change as you move up t h i s t r a i l and come c l o s e r t o h i s cave When you a r r i v e a t t h e c a v e , y o u w i l l see a s m a l l c a m p f i r e i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e c a v e , and y o u w i l l be a b l e t o f a i n t l y see t h e s i l e n t w i s e man by t h e l i g h t of t h e d a n c i n g f l a m e s o f t h e f i r e  ... Go up t o t h e f i r e ,  put some more wood on i t , and s i t q u i e t l y . . . . As t h e f i r e b u r n s more b r i g h t l y y o u w i l l be a b l e t o see t h e w i s e man more c l e a r l y to  r e a l l y become aware o f h i m —  ... Take some t i m e  h i s c l o t h e s , h i s body, h i s f a c e , h i s  eyes. Now a s k t h e x^ise man a q u e s t i o n t h a t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o y o u ... As you ask t h i s q u e s t i o n , c o n t i n u e t o watch t h e w i s e man, and see how he r e a c t s t o what y o u s a y . He might answer you w i t h words a l o n e , o r he might a l s o answer you w i t h a g e s t u r e o r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , o r he might show you something  ... What k i n d o f answer does he g i v e you?  J u s t as you a r e about t o say goodbye t o t h e w i s e man, he t u r n s and r e a c h e s i n t o an o l d l e a t h e r bag b e h i n d h i m , and s e a r c h e s i n t h e bag f o r  -  something v e r y s p e c i a l  207  -  t o g i v e t o you ... He takes i t out of t h e bag  and g i v e s i t t o you t o take.home w i t h you ... Look a t t h e g i f t he g i v e s you ... How  do you f e e l toward the w i s e man now? ... T e l l him how  you  f e e l ... and s l o w l y say goodbye t o him. Now  t u r n away, and s t a r t w a l k i n g back down the mountain  b r i n g your g i f t w i t h you ... As you w a l k back down t h e t r a i l , the t r a i l  carefully  look at  so t h a t you w i l l remember how t o f i n d y o u r way  to the w i s e man when you want t o v i s i t him a g a i n surroundings,  trail,  and how you f e e l  back  ... Be aware o f your  ...  Now keep your eyes c l o s e d , and b r i n g your g i f t w i t h you as you r e t u r n t o t h i s room ... With your eyes c l o s e d , take some time now t h i s g i f t i n more d e t a i l ... What d i d he g i v e you?  t o examine  R e a l l y d i s c o v e r more  about i t ... Touch i t , ... S m e l l i t , ... t u r n i t o v e r i n y o u r hands and look at i t c a r e f u l l y  ... Now put the g i f t away c a r e f u l l y  your -memory ... and say goodbye t o i t f o r now. You may  open your eyes.  Statue of Y o u r s e l f :  and s a f e l y  in  - 208 -  Statue  of Y o u r s e l f :  Now  I want you  to imagine t h a t you  can't see a n y t h i n g  are i n a v e r y dark b u i l d i n g .  at a l l y e t , but you know t h a t i t i s some k i n d of a r t  museum or a r t g a l l e r y  for sculpture.  Directly  a s t a t u e or s c u l p t u r e of y o u r s e l f as you or a b s t r a c t , but into  the darkness, and  i n front  r e a l l y are.  t h i s s t a t u e somehow expresses  I t might be  Slowly  and  w i t h your hands ... How  and  I want you  fell  does i t f e e l ?  and p o s i t i o n  ... What happens to you,  ... As you  how  b r i n g t h i s s t a t u e to l i f e  s t a t u e , what do you  c l o s e to i t and  Imagine t h a t you  like?  do you  seem any  different  i n your i m a g i n a t i o n like?  f e e l now  toward t h i s s t a t u e ?  statue.  Say  quietly  are t h i s  ...  Slowly  anything  ...  ... As a l i v i n g time  ...  ... Does the  changed?... How  do  statue you  r e t u r n to your e x i s t e n c e i n t h i s room, and ...  How  statue?  get ready to say goodbye to  absorb what you have j u s t e x p e r i e n c e d  statue,  ...  ... Take a l i t t l e  l o o k at t h i s s t a t u e  to you now? ... Has  goodbye now,  touch i t  ... D e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f  f e e l about t h i s ?  do and what i s your l i f e  become y o u r s e l f a g a i n and  are  to f i t the form of the s t a t u e  to d i s c o v e r more about your e x i s t e n c e as t h i s l i v i n g s t a t u e Now  and  ... Walk around  ... What i s your e x i s t e n c e l i k e as t h i s and  able  ...  as t h i s s t a t u e ? . . . What are you  as t h i s s t a t u e , " I am — "  Now  ... Go  to become t h i s s t a t u e .  change your p o s t u r e  do you  angles  Look  ... What i s i t s shape  l a r g e i s i t , and what i s i t made of?  look at i t from d i f f e r e n t  Now  realistic  the l i g h t w i l l i n c r e a s e ,  a b l e to see i t more c l e a r l y , d i s c o v e r s t i l l more d e t a i l s it  there i s  your b a s i c e x i s t e n c e .  you w i l l be a b l e to d i s c o v e r more about t h i s s t a t u e form? ... How  o f you,  as the l i g h t g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e s you w i l l be  to see what t h i s s t a t u e i s l i k e ...  and  You  this  - 209 -  In a minute o r two I'm g o i n g t o ask you t o open your eyes and r e t u r n to the group.  Then I want each o f y o u , i n t u r n , t o become your s t a t u e  p h y s i c a l l y , and t e l l about your e x i s t e n c e as t h i s s t a t u e —  take a posture  t h a t f i t s your s t a t u e and t e l l a l l t h e d e t a i l s o f your e x p e r i e n c e as t h i s s t a t u e and what you do when you b r i n g t h e s t a t u e t o l i f e your e y e s , and come back t o t h e group  ... Now open  ... Who i s w i l l i n g t o begin? ...  - 21n S e s s i o n number 1 0 :  Alternative Life  a  Styles  (To be completed BEFORE S e s s i o n number 11)  Directions: In t h i s  activity  responding  you a r e to formulate  to 13 o t h e r ways of l i v i n g .  alternative l i f e style, 1. "way  your own  Read each l i f e 1" to "way  of l i f e  life  c o n s i d e r your own  life  style.  s t y l e d e s c r i b e d below, p r o g r e s s i n g i n o r d e r  13."  Evaluate  each l i f e  a f t e r you have read i t . Do not w a i t  by  T h i s w i l l a l l o w you to c o n s i d e r  s t y l e s , more"thoughtfully  and, perhaps, choose a new  philosophy  s t y l e from 1 to 7  from  directly  u n t i l you have read a l l the ways.  Remember t h a t i t i s not a q u e s t i o n of what k i n d of l i f e you now  lead,  or the k i n d of l i f e you t h i n k you ought to l i v e i n our s o c i e t y , or the k i n d o f l i f e you t h i n k would be good f o r o t h e r p e r s o n s , but simply  the  k i n d of l i f e you would p e r s o n a l l y l i k e to l i v e . Use the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e and w r i t e one of these numbers i n the box at the c o n c l u s i o n of each way  to l i v e : -  7 - " T e r r i f i c , f a r out,  tremendous"  6 -r "Yeah, I l i k e i t q u i t e a b i t , p r e t t y much." 5 - "Oh,  I guess i t i s O.K.  4 ^ "I r e a l l y 3  2. life  don't not l i k e i t or l i k e i t - I'm  " I don't t h i n k much of i t ... I d i s l i k e  2 - "I d i s l i k e .. .  I like i t slightly" indifferent  to i t . "  i t slightly"  i t quite a l o t "  1 - " H o r r i b l e , awful,  revolting"  Once you have completed a l l 13 ways to l i v e , rank o r d e r from the s t y l e you l i k e most to the l i f e  you have e v a l u a t e d  several l i f e  s t y l e you l i k e l e a s t .  s t y l e s the same.  When t h i s  Perhaps happens,  - 211' -  determine which one has a h i g h e r rank order t o you.  Use t h e space  provided. 3.  Now w r i t e your own l i f e  phrases  o r sentences  style.  What w i l l  from the 13 o u t l i n e d l i f e  i t be?  You can borrow  styles.  But your own  life  s t y l e must be your own. 4.  F i n a l l y , what a r e the t e n t h i n g s t h a t you have done i n t h e l a s t  week t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e described  Way 1: in  ( i n #3).  In t h i s d e s i g n f o r l i v i n g  the s o c i a l l i f e  the i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v e l y  participates  of h i s community, n o t p r i m a r i l y to change i t but t o under-  stand, a p p r e c i a t e , and p r e s e r v e life  t h a t you have  the b e s t t h a t man has a t t a i n e d .  In t h i s  s t y l e , e x c e s s i v e d e s i r e s a r e avoided and moderation i s sought.  wants the good t h i n g s of l i f e , but i n an o r d e r l y way. ciLarity, balance, refinement, i r r a t i o n a l behavior,  control.  impatience,  L i f e i s t o have  V u l g a r i t y , great  enthusiasm,  i n d u l g e n c e a r e t o be avoided.  Friend-  s h i p i s t o be esteemed, but n o t easy i n t i m a c y w i t h many people. marked by d i s c i p l i n e , i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y ,  One  Life i s  good manners, p r e d i c t a b i l i t y .  S o c i a l changes a r e to be made s l o w l y and c a r e f u l l y , so t h a t what has been a c h i e v e d i n human c u l t u r e i s n o t l o s t . and  The i n d i v i d u a l i s a c t i v e  s o c i a l l y , but not i n a h e c t i c o r r a d i c a l way.  t e l l i g e n c e should g i v e o r d e r t o an a c t i v e Way 2:  In t h i s way of l i f e ,  physically  R e s t r a i n t and i n -  life.  the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the most p a r t goes i t  a l o n e , a s s u r i n g h i m s e l f o f p r i v a c y i n l i v i n g q u a r t e r s , h a v i n g much time to  h i m s e l f , attempting  to c o n t r o l h i s own l i f e .  Emphasis i s on s e l f -  s u f f i c i e n c y , r e f l e c t i o n and m e d i a t i o n , knowledge o f o n e s e l f .  Intimate  a s s o c i a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s o c i a l groups a r e t o be a v o i d e d ,  - 212  -  as a r e t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of o b j e c t s and attempts the p h y s i c a l environment. life,  at c o n t r o l of  One s h o u l d aim t o s i m p l i f y one's e x t e r n a l  t o moderate d e s i r e s which depend upon p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f o r c e s  outside of o n e s e l f . self-direction.  One c o n c e n t r a t e s on r e f i n e m e n t , c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and  Not much i s g a i n e d by l i v i n g o u t w a r d l y .  a v o i d dependence upon persons  One must  o r t h i n g s ; the c e n t e r o f l i f e s h o u l d be  found w i t h i n o n e s e l f . Way 3 : persons.  T h i s way o f l i f e makes c e n t r a l the s y m p a t h e t i c  concern f o r o t h e r  A f f e c t i o n i s the main t h i n g i n l i f e , a f f e c t i o n t h a t i s f r e e  from a l l t r a c e s o f t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f o n e s e l f upon o t h e r s , o r o f u s i n g o t h e r s f o r one's own purposes.  Greed i n p o s s e s s i o n s , emphasis on s e x u a l  p a s s i o n , s t r i v i n g f o r power over persons and t h i n g s , e x c e s s i v e emphasis upon i n t e l l e c t , and undue concern f o r o n e s e l f a r e t o be a v o i d e d . things hinder the sympathetic s i g n i f i c a n c e to l i f e .  These  l o v e among persons w h i c h a l o n e g i v e s  Aggressiveness  b l o c k s r e c e p t i v i t y t o the f o r c e s  w h i c h f o s t e r genuine p e r s o n a l growth.  One s h o u l d p u r i f y o n e s e l f , r e s -  t r a i n one's s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and become r e c e p t i v e , a p p r e c i a t i v e , and h e l p f u l i n r e l a t i n g to other Way 4:  persons.  L i f e i s something t o be enjoyed - s e n s u o u s l y e n j o y e d ,  w i t h r e l i s h and abondonment.  enjoyed  The aim i n l i f e s h o u l d n o t be t o c o n t r o l  the course of t h e w o r l d o r t o change s o c i e t y o r the l i v e s o f o t h e r s , but t o be open and r e c e p t i v e t o t h i n g s and p e r s o n s , and t o d e l i g h t i n them. L i f e i s a f e s t i v a l , not a workshop o r a s c h o o l f o r m o r a l d i s c i p l i n e . To l e t o n e s e l f g£>, t o l e t t h i n g s and persons a f f e c t o n e s e l f , i s more i m p o r t a n t than t o do - o r t o do good.  Such enjoyment r e q u i r e s t h a t one "be  s e l f - c e n t e r e d enough t o be k e e n l y aware o f what i s happening w i t h i n i n  - 213 -  order  t o be  should not not  free  for  be t o o  new h a p p i n e s s .  m e d i t a t i o n and awareness  Way  for  This  5:  be a l o o f group,  are  of  and s o c i a b i l i t y  oneself.  stresses  should  not  cooperative  group  possessions  all  life  the s o c i a l focus  group  rather  on h i m s e l f ,  common g o a l s .  Meditation,  Persons  restraint,  which bind persons  enjoying  with  others  t h i n g s w h i c h make p o s s i b l e  too  social  tenderly.  Way 6: active  This  these  Life  physical  can't  philosophy  t o become  tendencies, action,  they appear,  t h e good t h i n g s  T h o s e who o p p o s e  participant.  fortable,  as  life.  the  be t o o  sees  Life  or  a  of  social  resolute  social,  activity  stress  and  and  on  one's one's  One  life,  should  working  a pleasant  i d e a l are not  stress  tends  and  ener-  to be d e a l t  stagnate, cast  the need f o r  the r e a l i s t i c  solution  techniques  speculations.  to  the p a l e  f u t u r e depends p r i m a r i l y  on h i s  are  in  dynamic and t h e i n d i v i d u a l  sicklied o'er with  the improvement o f  what h e f e e l s  as  continuously  adventure,  Man's  are  with  fastidious.  life  a p e r s o n must  and s o c i e t y .  this  with  together.  outwardly with gusto  getic  for  the  concern f o r  intellectuality, solitude,  the roots  secure  time  from p e o p l e ,  j o i n with others  live  to  than  withdraw  s h o u l d merge e n e r g e t i c group  abstract  cut  solitude  companionship,  enjoyment.  self-sufficiency,  Both  R a t h e r h e s h o u l d merge h i m s e l f  the r e a l i z a t i o n of active;  should  s h o u l d have  c o o p e r a t i o n and  for  things,  one s h o u l d be a l o n e a l o t ,  and s e l f - c e n t e r e d .  activity  entanglements,  life.  life  A person  enjoy  persons  t h e good way o f  individual.  avoid  d e p e n d e n t on p a r t i c u l a r p e o p l e o r  be s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g ;  necessary  One s h o u l d  for  of  an  t o become c o m -  thought.  constant of  as  Against  activity-  specific  problems  controlling  the  world  on what h e d o e s ,  not  on  New p r o b l e m s  constantly  arise  - 214 -  and always w i l l a r i s e .  Improvements must always be made i f man i s t o  progress.  We can't j u s t f o l l o w the p a s t o r dream of what the f u t u r e  might be.  We have t o work r e s o l u t e l y and c o n t i n u a l l y i f c o n t r o l i s to be  gained over the f o r c e s which t h r e a t e n us. Man should r e l y on t e c h n i c a l advances made p o s s i b l e by s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. in  the s o l u t i o n o f h i s problems.  Way 7:  He should f i n d h i s g o a l  The good i s the enemy o f the b e t t e r .  T h i s p h i l o s o p h y says t h a t we should a t v a r i o u s times and i n v a r i o u s  ways accept something from a l l o t h e r paths o f l i f e ,  but g i v e no one our  exclusive allegiance.  At one moment one way may be more a p p r o p r i a t e j a t  another moment another  i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e .  enjoyment and a c t i o n and contemplation  L i f e should contain  i n about equal amounts.  one way i s c a r r i e d to extremes, we l o s e something important So we must c u l t i v a t e f l e x i b i l i t y ;  the midst  of enjoyment and a c t i v i t y .  f i n d a p l a c e f o r detachment  The g o a l o f l i f e  the dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n o f the v a r i o u s paths o f l i f e . all  of them in°building a l i f e ,  Way 8: for  f o r our l i f e .  admit d i v e r s i t y i n o u r s e l v e s ; accept  the t e n s i o n which t h i s d i v e r s i t y produces; in  When any  i s found i n  One should use  and not one a l o n e .  Enjoyment should be the keynote o f l i f e .  Not the h e c t i c  search  i n t e n s e and e x c i t i n g p l e a s u r e s , but the enjoyment of the simple and  e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e p l e a s u r e s ; the p l e a s u r e s o f j u s t e x i s t i n g , o f s a v o r i n g f o o d , o f c o m f o r t a b l e s u r r o u n d i n g s , o f t a l k i n g w i t h f r i e n d s , o f r e s t and relaxation.  A home t h a t i s warm and comfortable, c h a i r s and a bed t h a t  are s o f t , a k i t c h e n w e l l stocked w i t h food, a door open t o f r i e n d s t h i s i s the p l a c e to l i v e .  Body a t ease, r e l a x e d , calm i n i t s movements,  not h u r r i e d , b r e a t h slow and easy, a w i l l i n g n e s s t o nod and t o r e s t , g r a t i t u d e t o t h e worSid t h a t feeds the body - so should i t be.  Driving  ambition.iand the f a n a t i c i s m of a s c e t i c i d e a l s a r e the s i g n s of d i s c o n t e n t e d p e o p l e who  have l o s t the c a p a c i t y to f l o a t  i n the stream o f s i m p l  c a r e f r e e , wholesome enjoyment. Way  9:  life  R e c e p t i v i t y s h o u l d be the keynote of l i f e .  come of t h e i r own  by r e s o l u t e a c t i o n .  a c c o r d , and come unsought.  ,the t u r m o i l of s o c i a l l i f e . be h e l p f u l .  They cannot be  found  They cannot be found i n the i n d u l g e n c e of the sen-  suous d e s i r e s of the body.  to  The good t h i n g s of  They cannot be gathered by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n They cannot be g i v e n to o t h e r s by  They cannot be garnered by hard t h i n k i n g .  come unsought when the b a r s of the s e l f are down.  attempts  Rather do they  When the s e l f  has  ceased to make demands and w a i t s i n q u i e t r e c e p t i v i t y , i t becomes open to the powers which n o u r i s h i t and work through i t ; s u s t a i n e d by these powers, i t knows j o y and peace. to  S i t t i n g alone under the t r e e s and the sky, open  n a t u r e ' s v o i c e s , calm and r e c e p t i v e , then can be wisdom from w i t h o u t  enter w i t h i n . Way  10:  S e l f - c o n t r o l s h o u l d be the keynote of l i f e .  Not  c o n t r o l which r e t r e a t s from the w o r l d , but the v i g i l a n t ,  the easy  self-  s t e r n , manly  c o n t r o l of a s e l f which l i v e s i n the w o r l d , and knows the s t r e n g t h of the world and the l i m i t s of human power. and f i r m l y pursues h i g h i d e a l s . of  comfort and d e s i r e .  The good l i f e  i s rationally  I t i s not bent by the s e d u c t i v e v o i c e s  I t does not expect s o c i a l U t o p i a s .  t r u s t f u l of f i n a l v i c t o r i e s .  directed  It i s dis-  Too much s h o u l d not be expected.  Yet  one  can w i t h v i g i l a n c e h o l d f i r m the r e i n s o f s e l f , c o n t r o l u n r u l y impulses, understand one's p l a c e i n the w o r l d , guide one's a c t i o n s by maintain s e l f - r e l i a n t p e r i s h , man  independence.  And  i n t h i s way,  reason,  though he  can keep h i s human d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t , and d i e w i t h  finally cosmic  - 216 -  good manners. Way 11:  The c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e  not f i t h a b i t a t f o r man. life of  i s the good l i f e .  The e x t e r n a l w o r l d i s  I t i s too b i g , too c o l d , too p r e s s i n g .  turned inward t h a t i s rewarding.  I t i s the  The r i c h i n t e r n a l w o r l d o f i d e a l s ,  s e n s i t i v e f e e l i n g s , of r e v e r i e , o f self-knowledge i s man's t r u e home.  By the c u l t i v a t i o n of t h e s e l f w i t h i n , man becomes human.  Only  then  does t h e r e a r i s e deep sympathy w i t h a l l t h a t l i v e s , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s u f f e r i n g i n h e r e n t i n l i f e ,  a r e a l i z a t i o n of the f u t i l i t y  g r e s s i v e a c t i o n , the attainment o f c o n t e m p l a t i v e j o y . away and a u s t e r i t y i s d i s s o l v e d .  o f ag-  C o n c e i t then  falls  In g i v i n g up the w o r l d , one f i n d s the  l a r g e r and f i n e r sea o f t h e i n n e r s e l f . Way 12:  The use o f t h e body's energy  i s the s e c r e t of a rewarding  The hands need m a t e r i a l t o make i n t o something; b u i l d i n g , food t o h a r v e s t , c l a y t o mold. in  action:  in  overcoming,  life.  lumber and stone f o r  The muscles  a r e a l i v e to j o y o n l y  i n c l i m b i n g , r u n n i n g , s k i i n g , and the l i k e . dominating, conquering some o b s t a c l e .  Life finds  zest  I t i s the a c t i v e  deed which i s s a t i s f y i n g ; the deed t h a t meets the c h a l l e n g e o f the p r e s e n t , the d a r i n g and the adventuresome deed. in  r e l a x e d ease does l i f e  Not i n c a u t i o u s f o r e s i g h t , n o t  a t t a i n completion.  Outward e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n ,  the excitment o f power i n the t a n g i b l e p r e s e n t - t h i s i s the way to l i v e . Way 13:  A person s h o u l d l e t h i m s e l f be used.  Used by o t h e r persons i n  t h e i r growth, used by the g r e a t o b j e c t i v e purposes s i l e n t l y and i r r e s i s t i b l y purposes  achieve t h e i r goal.  a r e b a s i c a l l y dependable  F o r persons' and the world's  and can be t r u s t e d .  humble, c o n s t a n t , f a i t h f u l , u n i n s i s t e n t . p r o t e c t i o n , but undemending.  i n t h e u n i v e r s e which  One s h o u l d be  G r a t e f u l f o r a f f e c t i o n and.  C l o s e t o persons and t o n a t u r e , and  -  w i l l i n g to be second.  2 1 7  -  N o u r i s h i n g the good by d e v o t i o n .  a s e r e n e , c o n f i d e n t , q u i e t v e s s e l and powers which move to f u l f i l l  instrument  themselves.  One  should  be  of the g r e a t dependable  - 218 mative Life Styles:  Priority  ige the l i f e s t y l e s a c c o r d i n g from 1 to 1.  of  -  Likeness  to the k i n d of l i f e you would p e r s o n a l l y l i k e  13.  I would l i k e to l i v e t h i s way  the most:  way  #  2.  way  3.  way  4.  way  #  5.  way  #  6.  way  #  7.  way  #  8.  way  #  9.  way  #  10.  way  #  11.  way  12.  way  13.  I would l i k e to l i v e t h i s way  e the back of t h i s  #  the l e a s t : w a y #  sheet of paper t o o u t l i n e your own  life  style].  10 t h i n g s t h a t you have done, i n t h i s p a s t week t h a t are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e you have d e s c r i b e d . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  to  (I;f you need e x t r a p a p e r , a t t a c h a second s h e e t ) .  life  _ 219 _  S e s s i o n number 11:  Game A n a l y s i s  1.  Hooking  Activity:  2.  Instructional Period:  (15 min)  T h i s s e s s i o n d e a l s w i t h game a n a l y s i s and i s e n t i t l e d "Do you want t o p l a y ? " I t concerns i t s e l f w i t h u n s t r a i g h t c h i l d t r a n s a c t i o n s to avoid intimacy.  3.  Insight Experience:  (20 min)  Have each s t u d e n t d e s c r i b e and c r e a t e games as o u t l i n e d i n t h e "Game Analysis" Exercise.  4.  Session  Evaluation:  (5 min)  5.  T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment:  S e s s i o n number 11; Do You-Want To One  way  220  -  Play?  you can s t r u c t u r e time w i t h p e o p l e i s by p l a y i n g games.  In a  game, the A d u l t p a r t of you does not know e x a c t l y what the C h i l d o r P a r e n t i s up t o ; t h a t i s , the C h i l d o r P a r e n t has a s e c r e t r e a s o n f o r p l a y i n g a game.  When you a r e not coming on s t r a i g h t — t h a t i s , when y o u r message  to a n o t h e r p e r s o n i s u l t e r i o r , f o r some h i d d e n p u r p o s e s , such as to have a f e e l i n g o f d e f e a t i n g him, you a r e p l a y i n g a game. may  F o r example,  you  be h e l p i n g a p e r s o n w i t h a problem, t h i n k i n g w i t h your A d u l t t h a t  a r e r e a l l y h e l p i n g him.  At the same time your C h i l d may  you  be making f u n o f  him. Here i s an example of a game c a l l e d "Now and a group of your f r i e n d s , a r e h a v i n g r e a l l y a t t r a c t i v e g i r l come i n .  I've got you"  (NIGY).  c o f f e e a t a r e s t a u r a n t and  Everyone at the t a b l e s t a r t s  You see  a  talking  about her and s e v e r a l of the guys c a l l out rude remarks t o her.  You  n o t i c e t h a t B a r r y i s not e n j o y i n g the f o o l i n g around and t h a t makes you k i n d of mad  because you've been c o l l e c t i n g brown stamps over him  some t i m e .  So you ask him*.  being with us?" you a t a l l .  for  "What's the m a t t e r , B a r r y , don't you  P a r t of you knows t h a t he may  like  not r e a l l y want t o be  with  When he s a y s , " W e l l I j u s t don't much l i k e t a l k i n g b e h i n d .  Jane's back, e s p e c i a l l y r o t t e n t h i n g s , " you say something l i k e , " I t ' s funny t h a t you're the o n l y p u r i t a n i n the group. Barry w i l l probably resentment.  You may  What's y o u r p r o b l e m ? "  r e s e n t your remark and you w i l l p r o b a b l y  l i k e his  then say, "What are you g e t t i n g u p t i g h t about?  You're the w e i r d n u t , not me!"  B a r r y who  may  be p l a y i n g " K i c k  Me"  probably  sensed t h a t you were n e v e r r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a s t r a i g h t  answer.  He c o u l d have r e f u s e d to p l a y by i g n o r i n g your  question,  j o i n i n g Jane, o r by s a y i n g something l i k e , "Sure I l i k e b e i n g w i t h  you,"  and l e t t i n g i t go at t h a t . A s e t o f t r a n s a c t i o n s i s a game i f i t meets f o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s : 1. The p l a y e r s seem t o have an honest r e a s o n f o r the t r a n s a c t i o n ; e.g. 2.  "Dom't you l i k e b e i n g w i t h u s ? "  "Not  They a l s o exchange s e c r e t messages; e.g.  much."  "Do  you want a k i c k ? "  one  feels superior,  "Yes." 3. They e x p e r i e n c e  a f e e l i n g p a y - o f f ; e.g.,  the o t h e r f e e l s put down. 4.  (They c o l l e c t t h e i r stamps.)  The A d u l t s of b o t h p l a y e r s are unaware they are i n a game, they may  and  become i m m e d i a t e l y aware when the game i s o v e r .  although  - 221  The  -  game of NIGY ends w i t h a f e e l i n g of w i n n i n g  down, the o t h e r p l a y e r . wronged.  A C h i l d may  The  game K i c k Me  o v e r , o r of b e a t i n g  ends w i t h the f e e l i n g of  being  want to f e e l wronged i n o r d e r to have a r e a s o n f o r  revenge, f o r " G e t t i n g Even;"  Another C h i l d may  want t o f e e l wronged i n  o r d e r to have a good r e a s o n f o r r u n n i n g away, g e t t i n g a d i v o r c e , q u i t t i n g s c h o o l , doing dope. brown stamps. g o l d stamps. and way.  P e o p l e who  P e o p l e who  want t o f e e l wronged use games t o c o l l e c t  want t o f e e l they a r e r i g h t use games t o c o l l e c t  Games t h a t pay  o f f i n g o l d stamps a r e sometimes c a l l e d good  crooked games because they end i n p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s , but i n an u n s t r a i g h t Games t h a t pay  o f f i n brown stamps may  be c a l l e d bad and  P l a y e r s can s w i t c h p l a c e s , or r o l e s , w h i l e p l a y i n g games.  crooked. The  three  common r o l e s , as shown i n t h e diagram below, a r e V i c t i m ( V ) , P e r s e c u t o r (P),  and Rescuer ( R ) .  Persecutor.  The NIGY p l a y e r i n the example above i s the  H i s V i c t i m agrees t o p l a y by g o i n g a l o n g .  After feeling  s u p e r i o r i n c r i t i c i z i n g V i c t i m , P e r s e c u t o r might f e e l g u i l t y and Rescue.  t r y to  V i c t i m c o u l d then s w i t c h t o P e r s e c u t o r by a n g r i l y t e l l i n g  Rescuer t o f o r g e t i t .  Rescuer then becomes V i c t i m .  These s w i t c h e s  go  i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n around the t r i a n g l e formed by the t h r e e r o l e s . p e r s o n may  p l a y a l l t h r e e r o l e s a t once: e.g.,  s a y s , "Don't b o t h e r  the " m a r t y r " mother  about me...I'm o n l y the housekeeper," i s  of being a V i c t i m f o r having  Victim  who  complaining  t o c a r e f o r (Rescue) her f a m i l y , who  her as a P e r s e c u t o r .  A  may  hear  - 222  -  C h i l d r e n ' s f a i r y t a l e s were i n v e n t e d by s t o r y t e l l e r s who these t h r e e r o l e s i n p e o p l e ' s  lives.  recognized  L i t t l e Red R i d i n g Hood, w h i l e out to  Rescue v i c t i m Grandma, r a n i n t o P e r s e c u t o r Wolf, and s e t h e r s e l f up to become h i s V i c t i m .  But P e r s e c u t o r Wolf ended up as V i c t i m of t h e  Rescueing Woodsman. You r e c o g n i z e your games by t h e i r p a y - o f f s .  When you f e e l you've  "wonj •' but p a r t o f you knows you took u n f a i r advantage, you know you were p l a y i n g a game l i k e NIGY. for  When you f e e l put down, but sense t h a t you  i t , you know you were i n a s e l f - d e f e a t i n g game l i k e K i c k You can choose not t o p l a y .  The b e s t way  asked  Me.  t o s t o p a game i s t o r e f u s e  the p a y - o f f ; t h a t i s , r e f u s e t o cash i n on the f e e l i n g t h a t u s u a l l y r e s u l t s from the game.  You w i l l , l i t t l e by l i t t l e ,  once you d e c i d e not t o t a k e the p a y - o f f .  s t o p t r y i n g to p l a y the game,  You may  then be ready to drop  the r a c k e t . Why five  would you want to p l a y games i n the f i r s t p l a c e ?  You have a t l e a s t  reasons: 1. Games h e l p your C h i l d s t a y i n your r a c k e t by c o l l e c t i n g o r c a s h i n g in  stamps.  You may  f e e l uneasy i f your stamp b a l a n c e i s not  right.  2. Games h e l p you t o keep from f a c i n g up t o what y o u ' r e a f r a i d o f , such as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  c o m p e t i t i o n , o t h e r s ' o p i n i o n s o f you, e t c .  3. Games h e l p you pass time w i t h o t h e r s w i t h o u t your h a v i n g t o get too c l o s e t o them ( a v o i d i n g i n t i m a c y w i t h f r i e n d s o r p a r e n t s maybe.). 4. Games h e l p you get s t r o k e s , a l t h o u g h they may  be n e g a t i v e .  5. Games h e l p to "prove" t h a t your C h i l d ' s b a s i c p o s i t i o n (such a s , "I Why was  am not as OK as o t h e r s " ) i s " r i g h t . "  would any C h i l d want to f e e l not OK?  No C h i l d w o u l d , u n l e s s he  c o n v i n c e d from h i s e a r l y y e a r s t h a t he was not as OK as o t h e r s .  he was  c o n v i n c e d of t h a t , he w i l l then be out to "prove" i t i n o r d e r to  b e l i e v e t h e r e i s no use i n t r y i n g t o change f o r the b e t t e r . your C h i l d can f e e l not-OK w i t h o u t your A d u l t r e a l i z i n g I n s t e a d o f p l a y i n g games, you have another way people. l o v e may  Remember—  it.  to spend time w i t h  I n t i m a c y i s a c l o s e , l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h another  w i t h o u t any games. sex.  If  I t i s the b e s t way  person,  to get and g i v e s t r o k e s .  Married  be i t s b e s t e x p r e s s i o n , but i n t i m a c y does not always i n c l u d e  F a t h e r - s o n , s i s t e r - b r o t h e r , f r i e n d - f r i e n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s can  very i n t i m a t e .  be  - 223 -  S e s s i o n number 11 : Game A n a l y s i s E x e r c i s e A.  L i s t e d below a r e s e v e r a l k i n d s o f games. D e s c r i b e t h e theme and purpose f o r each game and i l l u s t r a t e w i t h some h y p o t h e t i c a l t r a n s l ations.  1.  " I f i t weren't f o r y o u . "  2.  "I'm o n l y t r y i n g t o h e l p y o u . "  3.  "Poor me."  B.  Imagine a game y o u p l a y .  Why do y o u p l a y t h i s game?  1. 2.  Name i t a n y t h i n g you l i k e .  Describe  i t below.  G i v e a t l e a s t 3 reasons t h a t a p p l y t o y o u .  - 224 -  S e s s i o n number 12:  1.  Problem S o l v i n g  Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (15 min)  Copies o f the "Zap Technique" are completed.  2.  Instructional Period:  a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e students and  (25 min)  E n t i t l e d "Bash T r a p p i n g and Problem S o l v i n g ( 1 ) " and has t o do w i t h making d e c i s i o n s from the A d u l t Ego s t a t e .  3.  Insight Experience:  (10 min)  Students a r e asked to form c h o i c e t r y a d s and determine the ego s t a t e i n which they responded i n the zap t e c h n i q u e . I n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be p r o j e c t e d from the overhead p r o j e c t o r .  4.  Session Evaluation:  (5 min)  5.  T r a n f e r a n c e Assignment: As s t u d e n t s l e a v e the c l a s s r o o m , c o p i e s o f the " A l l i g a t o r R i v e r " a r e handed to them. They a r e t o p l a y the game w i t h as many o f t h e i r f a m i l y members p r e s e n t as p o s s i b l e .  -  225 -  Session Number 12 - Bash Trapping and Problem Solving (1) Have you ever been i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which you f e l t trapped?  Per-  haps your parents are t e l l i n g you that university i s the avenue to success and you have the hardest time passing even the simplest subjects. So you bash your head against the academic wall and f e e l l i k e you are getting nowhere.  Or maybe, somewhere along the l i n e , you learned that i t i s  r e a l l y important to l i k e everybody and be l i k e d by everybody.  So you  develop a mask that i s smiling and cheerful, when on the inside you f e e l l i k e a hypocrite. You f e e l trapped and i n the trap you discover you don't know who you r e a l l y are, but you joist keep on smiling, f e e l i n g more and more trapped. These are examples of "bash trapping." when you bash yourself against some wall ("university i s the avenue to success," "need to l i k e and be l i k e d by everyone").  I t gives you more than headaches.  You begin to  f e e l depressed, d i s i l l u s i o n e d and discouraged. There are three major reasons people bash trap: 1.  they r e a l l y don't know who they are (they have "lax ego state boundaries")|  2.  they are bigoted or deluded (they have a "contaminated Adult'0 ;  3.  they don't accept their whole selves ("rigid ego state boundaries" r e s u l t i n g i n "exclusion").  Problem solving i s the opposite of bash trapping since i t avoids running f u l l force into a s i t u a t i o n that you think i s "necessary but impossible." There are a number of stages for getting out of a bash trap:  (1)  r e a l i t y testing; (2) seeking alternative solutions; (3) estimating the  - 226 -  l o g i c a l consequences o f each a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n d e c i s i o n r e s u l t i n a new bash t r a p ? ) ;  (e.g. w i l l  ( 4 ) making a c h o i c e ;  this ( 5 ) impler-  menting the choice. R e a l i t y t e s t i n g i s t h e p r o c e s s o f c h e c k i n g o u t what i s r e a l . I t involves  separating  feelings. and  f a c t from f a n t a s y ,  I t includes  perceiving  t r a d i t i o n s , opinions,  and e v a l u a t i n g  the current  r e l a t i n g t h e d a t a t o p a s t knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e .  allows a person t o f i g u r e out a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s .  and a r c h a i c situation  Reality testing  When a p e r s o n has  a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , he can then e s t i m a t e t h e p r o b a b l e consequences of the v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n .  The A d u l t ego s t a t e ' s  r e a l i t y t e s t i n g and p r o b a b i l i t y e s t i m a t i n g  functions of  s e r v e t h e purpose o f m i n i -  m i z i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f a i l u r e and r e g r e t and i n c r e a s i n g l i t y of c r e a t i v e success.  Creative  the p o s s i b i -  s u c c e s s i s a c h i e v e d by c h o o s i n g  the b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n and implementing i t , t h a t , i s , making i t work i n your l i f e . I.  Why does a p e r s o n l i k e y o u r s e l f bash t r a p ?  Because he p r o b a b l y doesn't know who he r e a l l y i s . Samuel B u t l e r w r o t e , "An open mind i s a l l v e r y w e l l i n i t s way,  but  i t ought n o t t o be so open t h a t t h e r e i s no k e e p i n g a n y t h i n g i n o r  out o f i t . I t s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f s h u t t i n g i t may be found a l i t t l e d r a f t y . "  i t s doors sometimes, o r  A p e r s o n w i t h l a x ego b o u n d a r i e s  doesn't c l o s e t h e doors between h i s ego s t a t e s .  He appears t o l a c k  i d e n t i t y and g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g s l i p s h o d i n h i s b e h a v i o r . He  s l i p s c o n t i n u a l l y from one ego s t a t e t o another i n response t o j u s t  about e v e r y t h i n g .  He may have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y f u n c t i o n i n g  w o r l d and be i n s e r i o u s need o f p r o f e s s i o n a l One  woman w i t h  i n the r e a l  help.  t h i s boundary problem was d e s c r i b e d by o t h e r s i n a  -  counselling  group':  -  "You never know what's g o i n g on w i t h h e r o r what  she's g o i n g t o do n e x t . " as  227  A p e r s o n w i t h l a x b o u n d a r i e s can be diagrammed  follows:  The p e r s o n w i t h l a x ego b o u n d a r i e s has l i t t l e A d u l t c o n t r o l .  For  example, a drug u s e r ' s P a r e n t might s a y , " I know I s h o u l d n ' t t a k e d r u g s , " and h i s C h i l d s a y s , "But gee, t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g e l s e t o do, and i t f e e l s good," and h i s A d u l t never r e a l l y makes a d e c i s i o n , c o n t i n u e s t o t a k e drugs.  H i s A d u l t i s n o t i n c o n t r o l and, hence, he  does n o t r e a l l y know who he i s . He i s a l l confused 2.  except t h a t he j u s t  inside.  He may be " b i g o t e d " o r " d e l u d e d " The c l e a r t h i n k i n g o f t h e A d u l t may be " s p o i l e d " o r " c o n t a m i n a t e d "  by t h e C h i l d o r t h e P a r e n t .  When t h e p a r e n t contaminates  the Adult there  i s " b i g o t r y " and when t h e C h i l d contaminates t h e A d u l t t h e r e i s " d e l u s i o n . " C o n t a m i n a t i o n o c c u r s when t h e A d u l t a c c e p t s as t r u e some unfounded P a r e n t b e l i e f s o r C h i l d d i s t o r t i o n s , and r a t i o n a l i z e s and j u s t i f i e s these  attitudes.  - 228 -  The A d u l t , contaminated by t h e P a r e n t (bigotry)  The A d u l t contaminated by t h e P a r e n t and C h i l d ( b i g o t r y and delusion)  The A d u l t contaminated by t h e C h i l d (delusion)  We a l l know what .., b i g o t r y i s : " I t h a t e b l a c k s , M u s l i m s , peanuts (though I've never t a s t e d them) and women!" " S c o t t i s h p e o p l e a r e good s a v e r s and Jews a r e t i g h t wads." "Everyone needs a t l e a s t 8 hours s l e e p . " "Men s h o u l d work i n o f f i c e s and women s h o u l d cook and sew." "Don't t r u s t anyone over  thirty."  B i g o t r y i s when o u r P a r e n t t e l l s us something and we a c c e p t i t without  checking  o n l y be r a c i a l ,  i t out w i t h our A d u l t .  So b i g o t r y doesn't have t o  s e x u a l o r r e l i g i o u s , i t can be a n y t h i n g when t h e  P a r e n t contaminates t h e A d u l t . B i g o t r y o f t e n i n t r u d e s on t h e laws o f s o c i e t y .  Until recently,  under Texas law a man who k i l l e d h i s w i f e f o r a d u l t e r y was p r a c t i c i n g justifiable  homocide; however, i f a w i f e k i l l e d her husband i n a s i m i l a r  circumstance,  i t was f i r s t degree murder.  The same dynamic seemed t o  be a work when a U.S. l e g i s l a t o r i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l e a r l y i n 1969 a s k i n g  -  22?  -  t h a t young p e o p l e o f n i n e t e e n be g i v e n t h e v o t e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n , however, o f young men w i t h l o n g h a i r , t o be c i t i z e n s , they s h o u l d l o o k l i k e When t h e C h i l d contaminates  He admonished, " i f t h e y ' r e  going  citizens."  the Adult there i s delusion.  Delusion  i s j u s t as common as b i g o t r y : "No one l o v e s me." "People a r e always t a l k i n g behind my b a c k . " " H e r o i n i s good f o r y o u . " " S i n c e I've been w o r k i n g  a t t h e Spot, I'm i n d e s p e n s i b l e . "  "Some day 'Mr. R i g h t ' w i l l come a l o n g and r e s c u e me from my r o t t e n home." When t h e ego s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s  a r e r e a l i g n e d , t h e person  h i s C h i l d and P a r e n t r a t h e r than b e i n g contaminated One c l i e n t e x p r e s s e d  t h i s decontamination  understands  by t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s .  p r o c e s s when he s a i d , " I used t o  have t h i s s t r a n g e i d e a t h a t no one c o u l d ever l i k e me. t h a t ' s j u s t the way I f e l t a t home as a k i d .  Now I see t h a t  Now I r e a l i z e t h a t n o t  everybody l i k e s me, b u t many p e o p l e do." A r e a l i z a t i o n such as t h i s means t h a t he has s o l v e d h i s problem and i s no l o n g e r bash t r a p p i n g . 3.  Perhaps He Does Not Accept H i s Whole S e l f Not a c c e p t i n g your whole s e l f means e x c l u d i n g p a r t o f you t h a t  you don't much l i k e .  T h i s happens when a p e r s o n almost always comes on  P a r e n t , o r always i s n o t i n touch w i t h h i s whole s e l f .  The P a r e n t excluding the A d u l t and C h i l d (Constant P a r e n t )  The A d u l t excluding the P a r e n t and Child (Constant Adult)  The C h i l d excluding the P a r e n t and A d u l t (ConS stant Child)  -  A p e r s o n who  230;  -  o p e r a t e s p r i m a r i l y from the P a r e n t ego s t a t e o f t e n  t r e a t s o t h e r s , as i f they were c h i l d r e n . the t e a c h e r who  Such b e h a v i o r can be found i n  " t a k e s c a r e o f " everyone's problems a t t h e s c h o o l o r  i n the f a t h e r who  tries  cannot be approached  to run the p e r s o n a l l i v e s  r e a s o n a b l y , o r who  of h i s c h i l d r e n ,  d i s p l a y s l i t t l e o r no  of humor.  E i t h e r k n o w i n g l y o r unknowingly  people who  are w i l l i n g  who  sense  t h e Constant P a r e n t  collects  to be dependent upon, o r s u b o r d i n a t e t o , him  and o f t e n c a s t s h i m s e l f w i t h someone i n the complementary r o l e o f Constant Child. One of duty. may  type of Constant P a r e n t i s h a r d w o r k i n g and has a s t r o n g sense He may  be j u d g m e n t a l , c r i t i c a l of o t h e r s , and m o r a l i s t i c .  He  n e i t h e r l a u g h nor c r y from h i s C h i l d , n o r be o b j e c t i v e l y r e a s o n a b l e  from h i s A d u l t .  He "knows a l l the answers," m a n i p u l a t e s o t h e r s and i s  d o m i n e e r i n g , o v e r p o w e r i n g , and The p e r s o n who  authoritarian.  o p e r a t e s p r i m a r i l y as Constant A d u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y  o b j e c t i v e , u n i n v o l v e d , and concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h f a c t s and d a t a processing.  He may  appear u n f e e l i n g and u n s y m p a t h e t i c .  He may  not  empathize w i t h someone who has a headache, and may be a bore a t a p a r t y . People who A d u l t may oriented.  e x h i b i t the r i g i d boundary problem of the Constant  seek j o b s t h a t a r e not o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d r a t h e r than p e o p l e They may  emotion i s v a l u e d .  s e l e c t v o c a t i o n s where a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g d e v o i d of They may  be a t t r a c t e d , f o r example, t o a c c o u n t i n g ,  computer programming, e n g i n e e r i n g , c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s , o r  mathematics.  The Constant A d u l t o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e s t r o u b l e a t home because he needs t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h the r e s t of the f a m i l y .  With l i t t l e  P a r e n t or f u n - l o v i n g C h i l d , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e l i k e l y to be  caring sterile.  - 231 -  His  f a m i l y p r o b a b l y f e e l unhappy because he g i v e s them so l i t t l e  stroking.  A p h y s i c i a n w i t h t h i s problem may make a competent d i a g n o s i s , b u t h i s p a t i e n t s may complain t h a t he l a c k s a b e d s i d e manner, t h a t he i s c o l d , a l o o f , and doesn't c a r e about them.  A p a t i e n t on t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e  may be e m o t i o n a l l y b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r s u r g e r y i f t h e d o c t o r says p a r e n t a l l y , "Now don't worry  ... we w i l l t a k e good c a r e o f y o u , " r a t h e r  than f a c t u a l l y "You have a 50-50 chance o f s u r v i v i n g t h i s o p e r a t i o n . " The p e r s o n who o p e r a t e s p r i m a r i l y as Constant C h i l d i s t h e one who i s t h e p e r p e t u a l l i t t l e boy o r g i r l who, l i k e P e t e r Pan, doesn't want t o grow up.  He doesn't t h i n k f o r h i m s e l f , make h i s own d e c i s i o n s , o r t a k e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own b e h a v i o r .  He may e x h i b i t l i t t l e  conscience  i n h i s dealings w i t h other people.  The Constant C h i l d a t t a c h e s h i m s e l f t o  someone who w i l l t a k e c a r e o f him.  A man o r woman who wants t o be " k e p t , "  b a b i e d , p u n i s h e d , rewarded,  o r applauded  i s likely  t o seek out a Constant  P a r e n t who can a f f o r d him. P e o p l e w i t h t h i s ego boundary problem a r e o f t e n s u c c e s s f u l as p e r f o r m e r s on t h e stage o r on t h e p l a y i n g f i e l d .  However, w i t h o u t adequate A d u l t  f u n c t i o n i n g , t h e p e r f o r m e r may spend h i s s a l a r y i m p u l s i v e l y , o f t e n ending up b r o k e .  The drug a d d i c t i s a l s o a Constant C h i l d .  H i s o n l y concern  i s t o s a t i s f y h i m s e l f and t o t h i s end he may p r o s t i t u t e h i m s e l f , s t e a l or  kill. These a r e t h e t h r e e main reasons why a p e r s o n bash t r a p s .  The f i v e -  stage p r o c e s s f o r problem s o l v i n g i s how t o g e t out o f t h e bash t r a p . do y o u bash t r a p ? traps?  How do you s o l v e your problems?  What a r e your bash  Why  -  S e s s i o n Number 12a - The Zap How  do you make d e c i s i o n s ?  232  -  Technique Do you do whatever you want t o ( C h i l d ) ?  do you do o n l y what you know you s h o u l d do ( P a r e n t ) ?  Or  Maybe your A d u l t  a c t s as the e x e c u t i v e o f your p e r s o n a l i t y , c o n s u l t i n g your P a r e n t and Child.  There a r e two ways o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e Zap Technique.  You can t h i n k i t s  p r e t t y i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d out how t o make d e c i s i o n s o r you can f i g u r e i t s p r e t t y u n i m p o r t a n t and j u s t f o o l around. 1.  I w i l l t r y to understand  2.  I w i l l f o o l around  What i s y o u r  decision?  (check t h e space  that  b e s t summarizes your decision)  Directions: You have the power of " e l i m i n a t i o n " by " z a p p i n g " "  E l i m i n a t i o n i s the  suspending of a human l i f e f o r e v e r i n a l a n d where a l l bad dreams come true.  Zapping i s t h e power o f d o i n g t h a t .  c l a s s have t h a t power.  Only you p e o p l e i n t h i s  And you must e x e r c i s e i t .  Below a r e t e n p a i r s o f c i r c l e s each connected by a zap l i n e .  You have t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e l i m i n a t i n g one of t h e two p e o p l e by c o n v e r t i n g l i n e i n t o an arrow.  the zap  You must complete a l l t e n zap l i n e s i n t o e l i m i n a t i o n  arrows.  O  The p e r s o n you l o v e t h e most, o t h e r than yourself An unknown baby i n an unknown c o u n t r y  - 233  -  Someone you r e a l l y  dislike  Everybody, i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f Henry K i s s i n g e r (U.S. S e c r e t a r y  of State)  The p e r s o n s i t t i n g c l o s e s t t o you r i g h t now A p r i s o n e r c o n v i c t e d o f murder (he i s appealing the c o n v i c t i o n ) M i s s A m e r i c a , 1969 Your m i n i s t e r leader) Bobby O r r  (rabbi, elder,  spiritual  - 234 -  S e s s i o n Number 12b - A l l i g a t o r  River  I n v i t e as many of your f a m i l y as you can t o p l a y " A l l i g a t o r R i v e r . ! ' A l l o w about o n e - h a l f hour t o p l a y .  Here i s what t o do:  first,  the s t o r y ahead and then r e - r e a d t h e s t o r y a g a i n i f d e s i r e d .  read Go ahead!  Once t h e r e was a g i r l named A b i g a i l who was i n l o v e w i t h a boy named Gregory.  Gregory f e l l o o f f h i s 10 - speed b i k e and broke  h i s Sony t r a n s i s t o r  radio.  A b i g a i l , being a true  v o l u n t e e r e d t o t a k e h i s r a d i o t o be r e p a i r e d .  friend,  But t h e Sony  r e p a i r shop was a c r o s s t h e r i v e r , and t h e r i v e r was f u l l o f alligators.  Poor Gregory c o u l d n ' t l i s t e n t o "LG w i t h o u t h i s  r a d i o , so A b i g a i l was d e s p e r a t e r e p a i r shop.  to get across the r i v e r to the  W h i l e she was s t a n d i n g f o r l o r n l y on t h e bank o f  the r i v e r , c l u t c h i n g t h e b u s t e d  r a d i o i n h e r hands, a boy  named Sinbad g l i d e d b y v i n a rowboat.  She asked Sinbad i f he would t a k e h e r a c r o s s . c o n d i t i o n t h a t w h i l e she Was h a v i n g  He agreed t o on  t h e r a d i o r e p a i r e d , she  would go t o a nearby r e s t a u r a n t , hang around out f r o n t , and buy  some h a s h i s h f o r him.  A b i g a i l r e f u s e d t o do t h i s and  went t o see a f r i e n d named Ivan who had a boat.  When A b i g a i l t o l d Ivan h e r problem, he s a i d he was too busy t o h e l p h e r out and d i d n ' t want t o be i n v o l v e d .  Abigail,  feeling  t h a t she had no o t h e r c h o i c e , r e t u r n e d t o Sinbad and t o l d him she would buy some hash f o r him.  When A b i g a i l r e t u r n e d t h e r e p a i r e d t r a n s i s t o r  r a d i o t o Gregory,  - 235  she t o l d him what she had t o do.  -  Gregory was a p p a l l e d a t what  she had done and toOid h e r he never wanted t o see h e r a g a i n .  A b i g a i l , u p s e t , t u r n e d t o S l u g w i t h h e r t a l e o f woe.  S l u g was  so s o r r y f o r A b i g a i l t h a t he promised h e r he would get even w i t h Gregory.  They went up t o t h e s c h o o l where Greg was p l a y i n g  b a l l and A b i g a i l watched h a p p i l y w h i l e S l u g smashed Gregory i n the mouth and stomped on h i s t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o .  Now t h a t you have read t h e s t o r y a t l e a s t t w i c e , rank o r d e r from the most o b j e c t i o n a b l e people  i n the s t o r y .  on a p i e c e o f paper from most objectionabTLe  1-5  W r i t e your rank o r d e r i n g (1) t o t h e l e a s t o b j e c t i o n -  a b l e ( 5 ) . Compare your r a n k i n g and d i s c u s s your  reasons.  Do you know why your f a m i l y chose t h e r a n k i n g they d i d ?  You §hould!  - 236  S e s s i o n number 13:  1.  -  Problem S o l v i n g  Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (15 min)  Have each s t u d e n t imagine i n h i s mind a p r o b l e m t h a t he i s p r e s e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g or has e x p e r i e n c e d i n h i s i m m i d i a t e p a s t . L i s t as many as 20 p o s s i b l e ways of s o l v i n g t h e problem. 2.  Instructional Period:  (15 min)  E n t i t l e d "Bash T r a p p i n g and Problem S o l v i n g (2):'" T h i s s e s s i o n i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the one i m m e d i a t e l y p r e v i o u s . I t f o c u s e s on how to s o l v e problems from the A d u l t ego s t a t e .  Insight Experience:  (15 min)  I n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , f i v e ways o f r e s p o n d i n g t o a problem were r e c o r d e d . Ask the s t u d e n t w h i c h way he responds t o problems.  4.  Session Evaluation:  (5 min)  5.  T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment: As the s t u d e n t s l e a v e the c l a s s r o o m hand t o them a "Problem S o l v i n g Contract""  - 237  S e s s i o n number 13:  _  Bash Trapping and Problem S o l v i n g  (2)  Each p e r s o n has the p o t e n t i a l to put h i s A d u l t i n e x e c u t i v e cont r o l of h i s ego s t a t e s .  I f f r e e d from n e g a t i v e o r i r r e l e v a n t i n f l u e n c e  from h i s P a r e n t and C h i l d , he i s emancipated t o make h i s own  autonomous  decisions. U n l e s s a p e r s o n has A d u l t awareness of h i m s e l f , most o u t s i d e s t i m u l i a r e l i k e l y t o be f i r s t responded 'to by e i t h e r the P a r e n t o r C h i l d ego or b o t h .  states  When the A d u l t becomes the e x e c u t i v e , a p e r s o n l e a r n s to r e c e i v e  more and more s t i m u l i through h i s A d u l t .  He s t o p s , l o o k s , and  f o r h i m s e l f , perhaps c o u n t i n g t o t e n , w h i l e he t h i n k s .  He  evaluates  b e f o r e a c t i n g and t a k e s f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r him t h o u g h t s , and b e h a v i o r .  listens  feelings,  He assumes the t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h of the p o s s i b l e  responses i n h i s ego s t a t e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e , u s i n g t h a t w h i c h i s OK from h i s P a r e n t and h i s C h i l d .  Response  «£•  Stimulus  (a) A d u l t u s i n g p a r e n t programming  In some i n s t a n c e s the p e r s o n may  take a l o o k a t the s i t u a t i o n  and  d e c i d e t h a t what h i s mother o r f a t h e r would do i s the a p p r o p r i a t e t h i n g to do.  For example, he may  d e c i d e t o s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y comfort  a crying,  l o s t c h i l d i n a l a r g e department s t o r e as h i s p a r e n t s would have done (Diag. a ) . A t another time he-may r e j e c t h i s P a r e n t  response  and w i t h h o l d a c r i t i c a l remark he l e a r n e d from h i s f a t h e r (Diag. b ) .  Stimulus  —  E.esponse  (b) A d u l t r e j e c t i n g p a r e n t programming I n some i n s t a n c e s a p e r s o n can t a k e a l o o k a t a s i t u a t i o n and d e c i d e t o respond t o i t as he d i d when he was a c h i l d .  F o r example, when  d r i v i n g p a s t a r e s e r v o i r on a h o t s u l t r y day, he may suddenly stop t h e c a r , check out i f i t ' s s a f e and d e c i d e t o t a k e a r u n n i n g jump i n t o t h e water t o c o o l o f f .  At another time he may r e j e c t a C h i l d i m p u l s e t o  have sex, swear a t a p a r e n t , do dope, o r r a c e h i s c a r .  Making a c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e i n v o l v e s s h i f t i n g from one ego s t a t e t o another when i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e .  F o r example, by an a c t o f f r e e w i l l  a p e r s o n can s h i f t from C h i l d resentment t o A d u l t concern  and a c t i o n .  John was caught t a l k i n g i n an E n g l i s h exam and was e s c o r t e d by t h e teacher to the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ' s , o f f i c e .  The v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , who n e v e r  much l i k e d John, d e c i d e d t o e x p e l him from s c h o o l , b u t r e a l i z e d t h a t t h a t a c t i o n was n o t a p p r o p r i a t e .  Although  the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ' s  Child  wanted t o have revenge, h i s A d u l t e x e r c i s e d e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l and John was g i v e n some more a p p r o p r i a t e form o f punishment.  The A d u l t ego s t a t e as e x e c u t i v e o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y r e f e r e e s between t h e P a r e n t ego s t a t e and t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y when the i n n e r d i a l o g u e i s h u r t f u l o r d e s t r u c t i v e .  I n such cases t h e A d u l t  becomes a more r a t i o n a l P a r e n t t o t h e C h i l d than t h e a c t u a l p a r e n t s were  setting r a t i o n a l l i m i t s , giving r a t i o n a l permissions,  reasonable g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r the C h i l d .  seeking  The f o l l o w i n g cases i n d i c a t e  how t h e A d u l t might r e f e r e e o r e f f e c t a compromise between C h i l d and Parent  dialogue. Jim  I c o u l d g e t away w i t h i t , b u t I'd have t o work t w i c e as h a r d t o make up f o r i t . No p o i n t i n s t a y i n g home.  Mary  - -2-4U • -  fA J I'm capable as a worker and ^— b e i n g a s e c r e t a r y i s below my potential. I'm going to t r a n s f e r to the academic program.  ©  Larry P 1 You s h o u l d count your b l e s s i n g s , Larry. There's not many guys who have a g i r l f r i e n d t h a t i s good l o o k i n g .  I'm trapped i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Beth.  ©  What are the pros and cons of staying i n this relationship? What are the p r o s and cons of stopping i t ? I think I ' l l t a l k to my Grandad b e f o r e I d e c i d e . He g i v e s me good o b j e c t i v e d a t a .  Tom ( P J N e v e r i n t e r r u p t when someone i s — t a l k i n g . You might make a f o o l of y o u r s e l f .  (c jl don't get t h a t word the t e a c h e r ^ — ' j u s t used but i f I ask, I ' l l sound stupid.  ( A ) I f I don't 'ask my q u e s t i o n ..I _ _ might miss the whole p o i n t of the l e c t u r e . So here_ goes_,_ey_en ' i f I f e e l stupid. 3  When a person a c t i v a t e s h i s A d u l t executive  of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , he  h i s bash t r a p p i n g . .  . . my  ...  my  He may  see  j o b i s a dead end beauty has  no  and  i s able  makes t h a t p a r t  to s o l v e problems and  avenues t h a t he and  r e a l power, I had  . . b e i n g a " g r o u p i e " a l i e n a t e s me  .  . . r e a l f r i e n d s h i p s are r a r e ;  how  the  stop  c o u l d never see  i t ' s wrecking my  .  of him  before:  marriage.  b e t t e r work at  school.  from m y s e l f . can  I be  a better  friend?  . . . t h e r e i s no f a i r y godmother to r e s c u e me from my homework. . . . s i t t i n g w a i t i n g f o r t h i n g s t o happen i s a h o r r i b l e waste 6 f time. Faced w i t h such awarenesses -many p e o p l e f e e l f r e e . -may  But they a l s o  f e e l d e s p a i r , r e a l i z i n g t h a t they have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r  lives.  own  For the f i r s t time they r e a l i z e t h a t i f they are t o be r e s c u e d ,  they must r e l y on themselves and s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s , f o r much of l i f e i s a d o - i t - y o u r s e l f p r o j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h e f e e l i n g of d e s p a i r i s p a i n f u l , i t i s a c h a l l e n g e t o do something  different.  At t h i s p o i n t a person can (1) remove him-  s e l f from s o c i e t y by becoming a h e r m i t i n some i s o l a t e d p l a c e , by b e i n g committed  t o a mental h o s p i t a l , o r by l o c k i n g h i m s e l f up i n a h o t e l  room; (2) t r y t o e l i m i n a t e h i s problems by " t u n i n g o u t " w i t h a l c o h o l o r d r u g s , or more d e c i s i v e l y by c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e ; (3) get r i d of the p e o p l e whom he sees as c a u s i n g him p a i n ; s e n d i n g the c h i l d r e n away, shedding a w i f e o r husband, o r murdering someone; (4) do n o t h i n g and w a i t (5) get b e t t e r and b e g i n to l i v e i n the r e a l w o r l d . l i v e i n the r e a l w o r l d , who  P e o p l e who  decide to  d e c i d e they were b o r n t o w i n , agree w i t h  D i s r a e l i t h a t " L i f e i s too s h o r t t o be  small."  -  S e s s i o n number 13 :  242  _  Problem S o l v i n g C o n t r a c t (To be completed b e f o r e S e s s i o n number 14)  Directions: As you complete t h i s c o n t r a c t be as honest as you a r e a b l e . Spend about o n e ^ h a l f hour c o m p l e t i n g i t . Once you have completed i t t r y t o s o l v e more problems t h i s way. 1.  Imagine i n your mind t h e most i m p o r t a n t problem o r d e c i s i o n you have to d e a l w i t h . I n f i v e words o r l e s s d e f i n e the problem.  2.  L i s t the f i v e b e s t ways and the f i v e w o r s t ways of s o l v i n g your problem. "The B e s t " "The Worst" 1.  1.  2.  2.  3.  3.  4. 5  • .  5  4. .  3.  Decide on which way you a r e g o i n g t o s o l v e your problem from t h e t e n ways l i s t e d above. How w i l l you do i t ?  4.  When a r e you g o i n g t o implement your d e c i s i o n ? month and y e a r .  5.  What i s the b e s t p o s s i b l e outcome as a r e s u l t of the way }rou d e c i d e d t o d e a l w i t h your problem?  6.  What i s the w o r s t p o s s i b l e outcome as a r e s u l t of t h e way you d e c i d e d t o d e a l w i t h your problem?  G i v e t h e h o u r , day,  - 243' i •  • •  7.  What i s most l i k e l y t o happen as a r e s u l t o f t h e way y o u d e c i d e d t o d e a l w i t h your problem?  8.  O f t e n t i m e s i t i s h e l p f u l t o i n c l u d e an " o v e r s e e r " i n your c o n t r a c t . He w i l l e v a l u a t e y o u on how y o u have completed your c o n t r a c t and g i v e you some more h e l p . Who w i l l t h i s p e r s o n be?  9.  I s your problem s o l v e d ?  - 244  S e s s i o n number 14:  1.  -  Time S t r u c t u r i n g  Hooking A c t i v i t y :  (10  min)  Have the s t u d e n t s w r i t e a f o u r l i n e poem e n t i t l e d "Time." poems i n t r y a d s . 2.  Instructional Period:  (15  Share t h e  min)  E n t i t l e d "What Do You Want To Do?" T h i s s e s s i o n concerns i t s e l f w i t h time s t r u c t u r i n g . The s e s s i o n covers i n t i m a c y , w i t h d r a w l , r i t u a l s , a c t i v i t i e s an'd"pas;t%riing i n a survey manner. I t i s i n t e n d e d to make the s t u d e n t s a n a l y z e and r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t i m e . 3.  Insight Experience:  (30  min)  In t y r a d s d i s c u s s and l i s t a t l e a s t t h r e e examples of t h e v a r i o u s ways time i s s t r u c t u r e d i n your s c h o o l , w i t h your f a m i l y and w i t h your f r i e n d s . R e c a l l how time has been s t r u c t u r e d over t h e p a s t week. Rank t h e v a r i o u s ways of s t r u c t u r i n g your time. Do you f e l l you used your time w e l l t h i s p a s t week? Do you i n t e n d t o change anything? 4.  S e s s i o n E v a l u a t i o n : (completed t o the taped music of "Bookends" and "When I'm S i x t y - F o u r " ) (5 min)  5.  T r a n s f e r a n c e Assignment: As the s t u d e n t l e a v e s c l a s s , he i s handed a time s c h e d u l e f o r a one week p e r i o d . The s t u d e n t i s to determine how he a l l o c a t e s h i s time and s e a r c h f o r c r e a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s to p o o r l y managed time.  - 245  S e s s i o n number 14;  What Do You Want To  -  Do?  To g i v e and get s t r o k e s you need p e o p l e . have o n l y s i x ways of f i l l i n g the time.  When you are w i t h them you  The way  you do so depends on  w h i c h of the f o u r b a s i c p o s i t i o n s the C h i l d i n you has k i n d of s t r o k i n g your C h i l d wants from o t h e r s .  t a k e n and on  the  Your g r e a t e s t need i s t o  be c l o s e t o someone i n a l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i n t i m a c y ) . But t h e r e f i v e o t h e r ways, and you use wwith everyone you meet.  them because you  I t may  choose not t o be  w i l l use the f i v e o t h e r ways t o f i l l C h i l d s t i l l wants t o be i n t i m a t e .  f i r s t way  you  I f so,  not be s u r e t h a t  intimacy.  time w i t h p e o p l e i s c a l l e d  withdrawal.  You w i t h d r a w when you are p r e s e n t p h y s i c a l l y , but absent m e n t a l l y I t i s a way  of h o l d i n g o u t , r e f u s i n g t o  mixed up w i t h o t h e r s , even to the p o i n t of making b e l i e v e you somewhere e l s e . The  Day  second way  f i x e d way  dreaming, f o r example, i s one way  to f i l l  t h a t almost everyone uses.  time w i t h p e o p l e i s by r i t u a l s .  say something l i k e , " H i , how  I'm  fine.  way  of b e h a v i n g , an example of one  remark i s a "word s t r o k e . "  get  are  A ritual is a transactions  For example, i n g r e e t i n g your f r i e n d s , you  may  are you?".  from  t o withdraw.  of b e h a v i n g towards o t h e r s , a t r a n s a c t i o n o r s e t of  How  you  s e t t l e f o r ways of g e t t i n g a l o n g trhat seem t o  can f i l l  the p e o p l e around you.  you  time w i t h p e o p l e , even though your  Since you may  be s a f e r , l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g , than The  intimate  be t h a t the C h i l d i n you because he i s  not s u r e t h a t he i s OK i s a f r a i d t o get too c l o s e t o anyone.  are t h a t l o v a b l e , you may  are  ya d o i n g ? "  You may  Your f r i e n d may  say, " F i n e , t h a n k s . "  say,  "Hi,  This i s a f i x e d  of our many g r e e t i n g r i t u a l s .  I f p e o p l e do not r e t u r n t h e s e s t r o k e s ,  Each we  - 246 -  consider  them u n f r i e n d l y , o r even rude,  are p r o b a b l y a good s t r o k e r .  I f y y o u have good manners, you  You can be depended on t o go t h r o u g h t h e  rituals. A t h i r d way t o f i l l  time w i t h o t h e r s i s by a c t i v i t i e s .  This i s  it ' 1  u s u a l l y c a l l e d "work; o r " s c h o o l " and i s n o t u s u a l l y f o r t h e sake o f s o c i a l v i s i t i n g , b u t r a t h e r t o g e t something done. are o f t e n done w i t h o t h e r s ,  i t i s a l s o a way o f g e t t i n g  A f o u r t h way y o u can f i l l s e s s i o n s " and g o s s i p  Since a c t i v i t i e s strokes.  time w i t h p e o p l e i s p a s t i m i n g .  a r e examples o f p a s t i m e s .  "Bull  Some have names, such  as " G e n e r a l M o t o r s , " a p a s t i m e i n w h i c h p e o p l e t a l k about and compare c a r s ; "Who Won" i s t a l k about s p o r t s : "Wardrobe" about f a s h i n g s . p a s t i m e s a r e Man T a l k and o t h e r s , Woman T a l k . They a r e s u s u a l l y p l e a s a n t g e t t i n g t o know p e o p l e .  Some  You can name o t h e r p a s t i m e s .  ways of expfengitng. s t r o k e s , f i l l i n g t i m e , and  "Making Out" i s a p a s t i m e o f some and i t may l e a d  to a l o v i n g c l o s e n e s s ( i n t i m a c y ) , o r i t may be done w i t h o u t l o v e a t a l l .  - 247 s i o n number 14a - T h i s Week's Time Schedule ow i s a time schedule f o r the week s t a r t i n g next Monday. Complete the s c h e d u l e i n g the next s e v e r a l days but b e f o r e t h e upcoming Monday. Use a p e n c i l and p l e t e i t t o w i t h i n a h a l f hour. F o r example, what do you i n t e n d t o be d o i n g 11:30 p.m. F r i d a y , o r 8:30 a.m. Sunday? On the r e v e r s e s i d e t o t a l -up how you | l be spending your time (e.g. 10 1/2 hours e a t i n g , 20 hours watching T.V., 3 1/2 irs s t u d y i n g , e t c . ) L i s t the ways t h a t you would r a t h e r spend your time ( C h i l d ) , ^t you s h o u l d spend your time ( P a r e n t ) , and t h a t you have d e c i d e d t o spend your ie i n t h e f u t u r e ( A d u l t ) .  - 248 -  S e s s i o n number 15:  Conclusion  As a c o n c l u s i o n t o the s e t e x p e r i e n c e s , have the s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s i n t h e i r i l l u m i n a t i o n groups how they w i l l t r a n s l a t e the i n s i g h t s they have a c h i e v e d i n t o the " r e a l w o r l d " s i t u a t i o n . Conclude the s e s s i o n w i t h a good d e a l of p o s i t i v e s t r o k i n g to the group.;'  - 249 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Berne, E.  Games People P l a y , N.Y.:  Grove P r e s s ,  1964.  Berne, E.  P r i n c i p l e s of Ga?oup Treatment, N.Y.: 1966.  Berne, E.  T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s i s Psychotherapy, N.Y.: Books, 1961.  Berne, E.  What Do You Say A f t e r You Say H e l l o ? 1970.  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  N.Y.:  Press,  Ballantine  Simon and S h u s t e r ,  Campos, L. and McCormick, P. I n t r o d u c e Y o u r s e l f to T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s (3rd e d i t i o n ) . S t o c k t o n , C a l i f o r n i a : San J o a q u i n I n s t i t u t e of T.A., 1972. Cooke, Sharon T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and G e s t a l t f o r S t u d e n t s . p u b l i s h e d p r o p o s a l , 1973. H a r r i s , T.  I'm O.K. - You're O.K.: A P r a c t i c a l Guide to T r a n s a c t i o n a l Analysis. New York: Harper and Row, 1969.  James, M u r i e l and Jongeward, Dorothy. Addison-Wesley, 1971. Jongeward,  Un-  Born to Win, Reading, Mass.:  Dorothy and Uames, M u r i e l . Winning With P e o p l e , Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1972.  Simon, Sidney, Howe, L e l a n d and Kirschenbaum, Howard. V a l u e s C l a r i f i c a tion: A Handbook of P r a c t i c a l S t r a t e g i e s f o r Teachers and Students. N.Y.: Hart Pub. Co., 1972. Stevens, John.  Awareness, Moab, Utah:  *  *  *  Red P e o p l e P r e s s ,  *  A  1971.  APPENDIX C:  DRUG BEHAVIOR QUESTIONNAIRE  -  250  -  ANONYMOUS VANCOUVER DRUG QUESTIONNAIRE  INSTRUCTIONS:  Do n o t w r i t e y o u r name on t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Do n o t show anyone y o u r answers to t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be marked by machines and l a t e r destroyed. However, we do need t o be a b l e t o know w h i c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were answered by the same p e r s o n a t a l a t e r d a t e . T h e r e f o r e , r e c o r d y o u r mother's maiden name and f i r s t i n i t i a l on space number 1.  1.  (Your mother's maiden name and f i r s t  initial)  - 251  CHECK THE SPACE THAT APPLIES TO YOURSELF  o  Are you a boy 2.  3.  o  or a g i r l  How o l d were you on y o u r l a s t birthday?  o  11 or l e s s  o  o  oo o o 12  Check t h e c a t e g o r y t h a t a p p l i e s t o y o u r s e l f . I have used I have used I have used drugs — I drugs — I drugs — I w i l l n o t use w i l l keep on might use them a g a i n u s i n g them them a g a i n  o  -  13  15 o r o l d e r  14  (Mark one o n l y ) I have NOT I have NOT used drugs — used drugs — I might l i k e I am n o t g o i n g to t r y them t o use them  o  o  For each o f the f o l l o w i n g drugs show how many times you have used them i n t h e p a s t two months f o r o t h e r t h a n m e d i c a l r e a s o n s .  Mark o n l y one space f o r each Never 4.  A l c o h o l ( L i q u o r , Beer, Wine)  5.  Amphetamines (Speed, Pep Diet P i l l )  6.  B a r b i t u r a t e s (Seconal, Bennies, Goofballs, Sleeping P i l l s )  7.  Cocaine (Coke, Snow)  8.  H a l l u c i n o g e n s (LSD, A c i d , M e s c a l i n e , MDA, P e y o t e )  9.  Inhalants ( S n i f f , Glue, Poly, Gas, T h i n n e r s )  1  or  2  3  to  5  6  to  8  9 o r more  Pills,  LO.  Marijuana or Hashish (Pot, Grass)  11.  O p i a t e s ( H e r o i n , Morphine, Demarol, Smack, Horse)  12.  Tobacco Pipes)  13.  Other  (Cigarettes, Cigar, (specify)  I n t h e p a s t TWO months how o f t e n have you been t o a p a r t y o r g a t h e r i n g where drugs were used? (not i n c l u d i n g tobacco and a l c o h o l ) Never  15.  (^)  or times  1  2Q  to times 3  5  Q  6 to 1 0 Q times  More t h a n Q 10 times  - 252 -  CHECK THE SPACE THAT APPLIES TO YOURSELF  (not  Do your p a r e n t s ( o r g u a r d i a n s ) know about y o u r u s i n g drugs? tobacco and a l c o h o l )  o  I don't use drugs'  They knowA~\ and want V J me t o s t o p  I'm n o t s u r e / ^ \ i f they know\_y  They don't^->. know I u s e \ / drugs  including They know/^. and say \_J i t ' s ok  The f o l l o w i n g a r e reasons why some p e o p l e use d r u g s . I F YOU DO USE DRUGS choose t h e one r e a s o n t h a t comes c l o s e t t o y o u r r e a s o n f o r t a k i n g d r u g s . IF YOU DO NOT USE DRUGS choose one r e a s o n why you t h i n k s t u d e n t s use drugs. (Mark o n l y one.) (not i n c l u d i n g tobacco and a l c o h o l ) Foor f u n , f~\ k ii c k s , o r ^ thrills  To r e l i e v e or t o escapeV-/ t e n s i o n and worries  For c u r i o s i t y to see what it's like  ~(^~\ ^—'  To f e e l f \ at home^—' with a group  Some othe reason  pn t h e average week now much do you smoke c i g a r e t t e s and/or c i g a r s ? (Mark one space f o r each) (Note: f o r c i g a r s t h e r e a r e 5 t o a pack) Not a t a l l  Less t h a n one pack a week  3 to 4 packs a week  1 to 2 packs a week  5 to 6 packs a week  one pack a DAY o r more  Cigarettes Cigars I f you have used drugs b u t have stopped w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g comes as many as a p p l y ) I have n o t stopped Tr OR I do n o t use  I had a bad experience  I saw what harm i t did to friends  o  o  o  I was afraid of getting caught  I just outgrew it  o  I was influenced by what my parents or friends said  o  Some other reason  o o  Have you r e c e i v e d any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ways o f g i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n i n s c h o o l ? (Mark as many as a p p l y ) None(^) 22.  Film/")  Books, pamphlets  L e c t u r e (~^\ ^"^^  Other  Group (^) discussion  I n g e n e r a l what i s y o u r o p i n i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on drugs you r e c e i v e i n s c h o o l ? (Mark one) Excellent^"") W  Very (^) good^  Good (^) W  Poorf^ W  Very f^) Have n o t poor received any W  W  I f you wanted i n f o r m a t i o n on drugs what k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n would you l i k e ? (Mark as many as a p p l y ) I don't want any i n f o r m a t i o n  o  What t h e drug does t o my mind and body  o  How I can tell i f a drug i s pure and clean  o  What t h e l o n g range ( f u t u r e ) e f f e c t s of the drugs w i l l be  What t h e laws a r e concerning drugs  o  o  APPENDIX D:  DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL  On t h e f o l l o w i n g pages of  t h e r e i s e i t h e r a word o r a phrase i n CAPITAL LETTERS f o l l o w e d by p a i r s  o p p o s i t e words underneath t h e c a p i t a l i z e d word o r s e n t e n c e .  t h e r e a r e seven dashes. o p p o s i t e words.  Between each o f the p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e s  YOU a r e t o p l a c e a mark on one o f the 7 p o s i t i o n s t h a t are between t h e two  The mark s h o u l d i n d i c a t e how you f e e l about t h e CAPITALIZED word o r c o n c e p t .  Look a t t h e examples  below:  EXAMPLE 1: MY EDUCATION  9 o D  Good  Slow  Cruel  In  t h i s example,  the f i r s t  0 o 0  0 o 0  0 0 0 o a o D J) fj  Bad  Fast  Kind  "MY EDUCATION" i s t h e i d e a b e i n g d e s c r i b e d and the p a i r s o f o p p o s i t e s a r e Good-Bad,  Slow-Fast, and C r u e l - K i n d . in  0 s D  I f MY EDUCATION seems to you to mean something VERY GOOD, you would p u t a mark  space on the Good-Bad s c a l e .  I f "MY EDUCATION" seemed to you to mean something SLOW, then y o u  would p l a c e y o u r mark i n t h e second space on t h e Slow-Fast s c a l e .  And i f y o u f e e l t h a t "MY EDUCATION" means  something which i s n e i t h e r C r u e l n o r K i n d , then you would p u t your mark i n the middle space - t h e f o u r t h space. On t h e f o l l o w i n g pages, p l a c e your marks r a p i d l y . There a r e no " r i g h t " o r "wrong" answers. not  s k i p any p a i r s o f words o r pages.  What i s wanted i s y o u r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n .  Be s u r e to make o n l y one mark f o r each p a i r o f words. -  -  Do  PBANA - 2J7  - 254 Ill  -  ± ±  -L_L  2 I  1- o o  00  I  u ro| <n u  _  o  a: D N| D o  o <_> o  ___ u  a o  Hi  Q O  H  < Q  2) Oj  ro  c\l  _____ _. >- w  ± 3f  0 00 00 00 0 000 Q z £ Q c o : > - z _ i o a . | - > o  < t I < i < D 3 D U O ^ U . S < S - ) - D < t , 0 O  O  2  U  Q  z u Q  p  c  a<cra:o_cvi : co-^co_— — —o —rn_co  CO  MY EDUCATION  HANGING AROUND WITH PEOPLE WHO TAKE DRUGS  boiled  le  fun  weak  strong  weak  doesn't matter  matters  doesn't matter  bad  good  bad  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  nasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  a l l right  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid  dislike  like  dislike  hurt  helped  hurt  unfriendly  friendly  unfriendly  TAKING DRUGS ONCE  oiled  dull  fun  dull  weak  strong  weak  doesn't tnaftp-  matters  doesn't matter  bad  good  bad  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  nasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  a l l right  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid  like.  dislike  hurt. unfriendly PENCIL  dull  PEOPLE WHO TRY TO GET OTHERS TO DO DRUGS  _di__ike_  USE  nnnnnrr  dull  Jl_lped_ friendly  ONLY — MARK ONLY ONE RESPONSE PER ITEM — ERASE CLEANLY  hurt unfriendly  JJL  2  41 ft-ft^m  m.  o  in  ±1A  — LJ H o o o  rj  J.  __ hi u .  CO  rt  ui  "I  i .  10 D J - cr o CM| D O O O O  At  ro  • H A  < O < O Q  1-  j5  ZJ Cj  hi O  <fl eft  _a  •ft <fl rB  <rt * ctt f^-  1  3  1  0 0 00 0  z « t i : ) - z j ( j i h >  S ^ S J ^ ^ ^ S W O O U J T U . S < S - 5 T < ( 0 O 2 O  F  0 0 0 o-o 0  :rolled  le  0 000 0  < U  0  °  H Z U  D  §  £  4* <H  2  JUi — Q CO  ui o °00  MY TEACHER  I  _  .cW  CM ™  .fl tfl  cfl  < e i c o « : w ^ o „ ctco-5cnu.t----.<^ D o C  £ CO  m  KIDS WHO COME TO SCHOOL STONED  F  dull  fun  weak  strong  doesn't m a t t e r  matters  doesn't m a t t e r  bad  good  bad  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  nasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  all  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid  dislike  like  dislike  hurt  helped  hurt  unfriendly  friendly  unfriendly  SMOKING GRASS  •oiled  - 255 -  SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL DIGITEK ANSWER SHEET  URBAN A - 2J7  right  dull  PEOPLE WHO DO SOFT DRUGS ONCE OR TWICE A MONTH dull  fun  dull  weak  strong  weak  doesn't m a t t e r  matters  doesn't m a t t e r  bad  good  bad  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  nasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  all  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid  dislike  like  dislike  hurt  helped  hurt  unfriendly  friendly  right  - 256 -  SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL D1GITEK ANSWER SHEET  RBANA - 217  z  o  Hi _____  — Ll H Q O O LJ U  1  _____  00  CO  J-  K D  __1  U —(D CM O  ° <-> _ c  _a_  r i j  1  2  1  "T  I Z  (  Mill  D  O  :  Q  :  V  Z  -  J  O  O  -  |  proIlea  bie  0 0 0000 0  P  <  « •«  O  ( «l r O _  _  dull  fun  weak  strong  doesn't m a t t e r  matters  doesn't m a t t e r  bad  good  b_d_  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  pasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  all  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  a tup id  dislike  like  dislike  hurt  helped  unfriendly  friendly  dull  right  unfriendly  PEOPLE MY AGE WHO USE SOFT DRUGS STEADILY  T O 0 00 0 0 dull :-fl 0 0 0 0 0 weak 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 doesn't  le  O  KIDS WHO NEVER TAKE DRUGS  DROPPING ACID  rolled  >  -  z u Q  CO  #_R_N*S>  0  -  l i l < f l . < 3 D D l J O O U u . z < S - 5 - 3 < < n O z Q  o _  JL ±4 __ IT  _!  1  1  ____  1_  J J  Ift  _L_  i l <§+}  dull  fun strong matter  matters  D 0weak doesn't m a t t e r  0 0 frad  bad  good  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  nasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  all  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid  dislike  like.  ritflHkft  hurt  helped  hurt  unfriendly  friendly  unfriendly  Tight  SEMANTIC  U R B A N A - 217  11IH W  tiffli  ± ±  Si!  o — fO Ul GO  j-  3  o  O I-  ANSWER  L  I  4)  1 hi I<  Q  -ij  I  II  I  1,1  i  rH  1  0 00000 0  zmoro:>-z-JOCLi->o  < U < l < D 3 D u g O U T L . S < £ - 3 - ) < < / ) O Z Q  4+ cN oH <tt -tt <N oH  eft cH if  if  rH #  ott oH  I  a o u  00  T  z Ul a  P co  < c e a : o o : c \ j « - o _ , „ , o: C0-)C0U.r-r---<7>tO  o  QUIT TAKING DRUGS  TT  dull  fun  weak  strong  weak  doesn't matter  matters  doesn't matter  bad  good  bad  undisclplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty,  nice  nasty  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  a l l right  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid  dislike  like  dislike  -hurt.  helped  hurt  unfriendly  friendly  unfriendly  -irresponsible  DRINKING ALCOHOL  i£X_12i_i  ble_  33 00 0  • UJ Q.  257  <R  <» 4+ cU <tt 4+ cW  o  ot di  KIDS WHO  blfi.  O Z  _l <  MARKS IN SCHOOL  trolled.  -  SHEE"  UJ I  o  w V <  DIGITEK  UJ O O O  OT kl a. a 3 O o  <_>  33  DIFFERENTIAL  PEOPLE WHO  dull  USE HEROIN  dull  fun  dull  weak.  strong  weak  doesn't matter  matters  doesn't matter  good  bad  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty  nice  nasty  irresponsible  responsible  irresponsible  a l l wrong  a l l right  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  8tupid  _bjid_  dislike  -hurtunfriendly  -like  dislike  Jhelped  hurt  friendly  unfriendly  SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L  pfttAMA -21?  - 258 •-  D i O i T E K ANSWER SHEET  < tc tc- o tt pj w O _• _ . cc O-> -j cr> u. — — , - • > * . ' O  prolled  fun  weak  strong  doesn't matter  matters  bad  good  J__L  undisciplined  self-controlled  undisciplined  nasty.  nice.  nanty  0 0  dull  _____  ^responsible  irreapon-<h^f  a l l wrong  all right  a l l wrong  stupid  smart  stupid.  dislike  like  diglike  hurt  helped  ImrJL  unfriendly  friendly  unfriendly  HARD DRUGS  boiled  Aim HASHISH  dull  irrespons-fblP  0 0  PEOPLE yrjj USF  SOFT DRUGS  dull  fun  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 dull  weak  strong  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wftflk  matters  0 000000  good  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 bad  undisciplined  self-controlledq  0 00000 0  nasty  nice  0 00000 0  irresponsible  responsible  0 00000 0  a l l wrong  a l l right  0 00000 0  stupid  smart  0 0 0 0 0-0 0  doesn't matter  undiscidined nasty irresoonsible a l l wrong stupid  0 00000 0  jiLalikfL luirt_  helped  unfriend!v  •FT* on/II n  0 0D000 0 0 00000 0  hurt  APPENDIX Et  TABULATION OF VARIABLES FROM DRUG BEHAVIOR QUESTIONNAIRE  - 259 -  TABLE I  VANCOUVER DRUG QUESTIONNAIRE VARIABLE LIST V a r i a b l e 1:  sex  V a r i a b l e 2:  age  Variable 3 s  drug use category-  V a r i a b l e 4s  a l c o h o l use i n the past two months  V a r i a b l e 5s  amphetamine use i n t h e past two months  V a r i a b l e 6s  b a r b i t u r a t e use i n the past two months  V a r i a b l e 7s  cocaine  V a r i a b l e 8s  hallucinogen  V a r i a b l e 9s  i n h a l a n t use i n the past two months  V a r i a b l e 10s  marijuana and h a s h i s h  Variable l i s  o p i a t e use i n the past two months  V a r i a b l e 12s  tobacco use i n t h e past two months  V a r i a b l e 13s  other use i n the past two months  V a r i a b l e 14s  p a r t y attendance where drugs a v a i l a b l e i n the  use i n the past two months use i n the past two months  use i n the past two months  past two months V a r i a b l e 15s  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f drugs  V a r i a b l e 16s  p a r e n t a l knowledge o f drug use not i n c l u d i n g tobacco and a l c o h o l  V a r i a b l e 17s  reason why people use drugs, not i n c l u d i n g tobacco and a l c o h o l  V a r i a b l e 18s  c i g a r e t t e use per week  V a r i a b l e 19s  c i g a r use per week  V a r i a b l e 20s  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug uses stopped o r do not u s e .  have not  - 260 V a r i a b l e 21:  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug u s e : had a bad .experience  V a r i a b l e 22:  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug u s e :  saw harm  i t causes t o f r i e n d s V a r i a b l e 23:  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug u s e :  outgrew i t  V a r i a b l e 24:  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug use:  afraid of  getting V a r i a b l e 25:  caught.  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug u s e :  influenced  by words o f parents o r f r i e n d s V a r i a b l e 26:  reason f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g drug u s e :  some other  reason. V a r i a b l e 27:  method o f r e c e i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n :  none  V a r i a b l e 28:  method o f r e c e i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n :  film  V a r i a b l e 29:  method o f r e c e i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n :  literature  V a r i a b l e 30:  method o f r e c e i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n :  lecture  V a r i a b l e 31:  method o f r e c e i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n :  group  discussion V a r i a b l e 32:  method o f r e c e i v i n g drug i n f o r m a t i o n :  other.  V a r i a b l e 33:  opinion of  information  V a r i a b l e 34:  information  desired:  V a r i a b l e 35:  information  desired:  e f f e c t o f drug on mind  desired:  discerning cleanliness  nothing  and body V a r i a b l e 36:  information  and p u r i t y o f drug V a r i a b l e 37:  information  desired:  long-range e f f e c t s o f  desired:  laws concerning  drug use V a r i a b l e 38:  information  drugs.  - 261 TABLE I I SEX DISTRIBUTION (VARIABLE 1)  FOR TREATMENT GROUPS  A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST AND POSTEST Treatment Group A No. %  Treatment Group B No. %  Control Group No. %  Total Respondents No. %  males  21  47.73  23  47.92  75  52.45  119  50.64  females  22  50  25  52.08  68  47.55  115  48.94  Pretest  unidentified  1 2 . 2 7  0  0  0  0  1 0 . 4 3  Postest males  16  51.11  12  33.33  93  55.69  121 51.71  females  14  45.16  24  66.67  74  44.31  112  1 3 . 2 3  0  unidentified  0  0  0  47.86 1  0  Totals pretest  44 100  48 100  143 100  235 100  postest  31 100  36 100  167 100  234 100  TABLE I I I AGE DISTRIBUTION  (VARIABLE 2) FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST AND POSTEST Treatment Group A No. %  Treatment Group B No. %  Control Group No. %  Number o f Respondents No. %  Total No.  %  235  100  234  100  Pretest 1  2.08  2  1.40  3  1.28  13.64  3  6.25  9  6.29  18  7.66  25  56.82  37  77.08  97  67.83  159  67.66  12  27.27  7  14.58  32  22.38  51  21.70  11 years o r l e s s  0  12 years  6  13 years 14 years  0  15 years o r o l d e r  e  0  0  0  2  .007  2  0.85  missing data  1  2.27  0  0  1  .007  2  0.85  11 years o r l e s s  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  12 years  3  9.68  5  13.89  13  7.78  21  8.97  13 years  16  51.61  23  63.89  85  50.90  124  52.99  14 years  9  29.03  7  19.44  60  35.93  76  32.48  15 years o r o l d e r  2  6.45  1  2.78  5  2.99  8  3.42  missing  1  3.23  0  0  4  2.40  5  2.14  Postest  data  0  TABLE IV DRUG INVOLVEMENT POSITION STATEMENTS (VARIABLE 3) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST POR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL "I have used drugs-I w i l l keep on u s ing them" No.  %  "I have used drugs-I might use them a g a i n "  "I have used drugs-I w i l l not use them again" No.  No.  "I have not used drugsmight l i k e t o t r y them" No.  %  " I have not Missing Totals used d r u g s data am not goi n g t o use them No. No. % No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  2 0  4.55 0  7 5  15.91 16.13  2 0  4.55 0  2 2  4.55 6.45  30 23  68.18 74.19  1 2.27 1 3.23  44 31  Treatment group B pretest postest  1 2  2.08 5.56  6 3  12.50 8.33  0 1  0 2.78  7 5  14.58 13.89  33 24  68.75 66.67  1 2.08 1 2.78  48 36  C o n t r o l group pretest postest  3 11  2.10 6.59  14 19  9.79 11.38  6 7  4.20 4.19  f 12  4.90 7.19  111 116  77.62 69.46  2 1.40 143 100 2 1.20 167 100  Totals pretest postest  6 13  2.55 5.56  27 27  11.49 11.54  8 8  3.40 3.42  16 19  6.81 8.12  174 163  74.04 69.66  4 1.70 235 4 1.71 234  100 100  100 100  TABLE V INCIDENCE OP ALCOHOL (VARIABLE POUR) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL A l c o h o l Incidence Por P e r i o d Beginning Two Months P r i o r To T e s t Totals  1 to 9 or more times No. %  Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  3 to 5 times No. %  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more M i s s i n g times data No. % No. %  No.  Treatment group A pretest postest  15 10  34.09 32.26  13 10  29.55 32.26  8 2  18.18 6.45  3 2  6.82 6.45  3 7  6.82 22.58  2 0  4.55 0  44 31  100 100  27 21  Treatment group B pretest postest  22 10  45.83 27.78  13 9  27.08 25.00  7 9  14.58 25.00  2 1  4.17 2.78  4 5  8.33 13.89  0 2  0 5.56  48 36  100 100  26 24  Control group pretest postest  41 50  28.67 29.94  44 43  30.77 25.75  22 20  15.38 11.98  7 15  4.90 8.98  20 32  13.99 19.16  9 7  6.29 4.19  143 167  100 100  93 110  Totals pretest postest  78 70  33.19 29.91  70 62  29.79 26.50  7 31  15.74 13.25  12 18  5.11 7.69  27 44  11.49 18.80  11 9  4.68 3.85  235 234  100 100  146 155  ro  TABLE VI INCIDENCE OF AMPHETAMINES  (VARIABLE FIVE) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST POR TREATMENT GROUPS A,B & CONTROL  Amphetamine Incidence For Period Beginning Two Months P r i o r To Test Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  36 25  81.82 80.65  0 0  0 0  Treatment group B pretest postest  39 33  81.25 91.67  0 0  0 0  Control group pretest postest  116 137  81.12 82.04  2 5  Totals pretest postest  191 195  81.28 82.98  2 5  3 to 5 times No. %  0  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  0  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 3.23  8 5  18.18 16.13  44 31  100 100  0 1  3.25 3.25  1 0  2.08 0  1 0  2.08 0  0 0  0 0  7 3  14.58 8.33  48 36  100 100  2 0  4.17 0  1.40 2.99  1 3  0.70 1.80  1 1  0.70 0.60  1 2  0.70 1.20  22 19  15.38 11.38  143 167  100 100  5 11  3.38 6.59  0.85 2.13  2 3  0.85 1.28  2 1  0.85 0.43  1 3  0.43 1.28  37 27  15.74 11.54  235 234  100 100  7 12  2.98 5.13  0  0  6 to 8 times No. %  TABLE V I I INCIDENCE OF BARBITURATES  (VARIABLE SIX) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL  Barbiturate  Treatment group A pretest postest  Never No. %  1 or 2 tiroes No. %  37 25  0 0  84.09 80.65  0 0  Incidence For Period Beginning Two Months P r i o r To Test 3 to 5 times No. %  0 0  0 0  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  0 0  0 1  7 5  44 31  0 1  0 0  0 3.23  15.91 16.13  100 100  0 3.23  <n °» i  Treatment group B pretest postest  38 31  79.17 86.11  1 0  2.08 0  0 1  0 2.78  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  9 4  18.75 11.11  48 36  100 100  1 1  2.08 2.78  Control group pretest postest  119 140  83.22 83.83  2 4  1.40 2.40  0 1  0 0.60  0 1  0 0.60  0 2  0 2.40  22 19  15.38 11.38  143 167  100 100  2 8  1.40 4.79  Totals pretest postest  TABLE V I I I INCIDENCE OF COCAINE  (VARIABLE SEVEN) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Cocaine Incidence For P e r i o d Beginning Two Months P r i o r To Test 6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  3 to 5 times No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  34 23  77.27 74.19  3 1  6.82 3.23  0 1  0 3.23  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  7 6  15.91 19.35  44 31  100 100  3 2  6.82 6.45  Treatment group B pretest postest  36 31  75.00 86.11  2 2  4.17 5.56  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 0  2.08 0  9 3  18.75 8.33  48 36  100 100  3 2  6.25 5.56  Control group pretest postest  114 132  79.72 79.04  3 9  2.10 5.39  0 1  0 0.60  0 1  0 0.60  2 5  1.40 2.99  24 19  16.78 11.38  143 167  100 100  5 16  3.50 9.58  184 186  78.30 79.49  8 12  3.40 5.13  0 2  0 0.85  0 1  0 0.43  3 5  1.28 2.14  40 28  17.02 11.97  235 234  100 100  11 20  4.68 8.55  Totals No. %  _?0'tclls  pretest postest  TABLE IX INCIDENCE OP HALLUCINOGENS (VARIABLE EIGHT) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST POR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Hallucinogens Never No. %  Incidence For Period Beginning Two Months P r i o r To Test  3 to 5 times No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  ro  Treatment group A pretest postest  35 25  79.55 80.65  2 0  4.55 0  0 0  0 0  0 1  0 3.23  0 0  0 0  7 5  15.91 16.13  44 31  100 100  2 1  4.55 3.23  Treatment group B pretest postest  37 31  77.08 86.11  2 2  4.17 5.56  1 0  2.08 0  1 0  2.08 0  0 0  0 0  7 3  14.58 8.33  48 36  100 100  4 2  8.33 5. 56  Control group pretest postest  113 139  79.02 83.23  4 4  2.80 2.40  2 4  1.40 2.40  0 0  0 0  1 3  0.70 1.80  23 17  16.08 10.18  143 167  100 100  7 11  4.90 6.59  III ll.ll  8  3.40  3  1.28  1  0.43  1  0.43  37  15.74  235  100  13  5.53  6  2  4  1.71  1  0.43  3  1.28  25  10.68  234  100  14  5.98  Totals  nretest  £stest  as  185  78 72  56  oo  TABLE X INCIDENCE OF INHALANTS (VARIABLE NINE) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Inhalants  Incidence F o r P e r i o d Beginning Two Months P r i o r To Test  Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  3 to 5 times No. %  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  37 23  84.09 74.19  0 2  0 6.45  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 1  0 3.23  7 5  15.91 16.13  44 31  100 100  0 3  0 9.68  Treatment group B pretest postest  40 32  83.33 88.89  0 1  0 2.78  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  8 3  16.17 8.33  48 36  100 100  0 1  0 2.78  Control group pretest postest  118 141  82.52 84.43  1 6  0.70 3.59  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 2  0.70 1.20  23 18  16.08 10.78  143 167  100 100  2 8  1.40 4.79  Totals pretest postest  195 196  82.98 83.76  1 9  0.43 3.85  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 3  0.43 1.28  38 26  16.17 11.11  235 234  100 100  2 12  0.85 5.13  TABLE XI INCIDENCE OF MARIJUANA OR HASHISH (VARIABLE TEN) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A,B & CONTRO M a r i j u a n a Or  Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  H a s h i s h Incidence F o r P e r i o d Beginning Two Months P r i o r To T e s t 3 to 5 times No. %  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  32 22  72.73 70.97  2 3  4.55 9.68  Treatment group B pretest postest  39 29  81.25 80.56  3 2  6.25 5.56  3 1  6.25 2.78  1 0  2.08 0  0 2  0 5.56  2 2  Control group pretest postest  105 121  73.43 72.46  4 13  2.80 7.78  7 6  4.90 3.59  4 2  ,2.80 1.20  3 10  2.10 5.99  20 15  176 172  74.89 7350  9 18  3.83 7.69  13 10  5.53 4.27  6 3  2.55 1.28  4 12  1.70 5.13  27 19  T  or2tLt  j£stlst  Totals No. %  1 t o 9 or more times No. %  i  3 3  6.82 9.68  1 1  2.27 3.23  1 0  2.27 0  5 2  11.36 6.45  44 31  100 100  7 7  15.91 w 22.58 o i  48 36  100 100  7 5  14.58 13.89  13.99 8.98  143 167  100 100  18 31  12.59 18.56  11.49 8.12  235 234  100 100  32 43  13.62 18.38  4.17 5.56  TABLE X I I INCIDENCE OF OPIATES  (VARIABLE ELEVEN) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Opiate Incidence F o r Period Beginning Two Months P r i o r To Test  Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  3 to 5 times No. %  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  Totals No.  Treatment group A pretest postest  35 24  79.55 77.42  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  9 7  20.45 22.58  44 31  100 100  0 0  0 0  Treatment group B pretest postest  40 32  83.33 88.89  0 1  0 2.78  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  8 3  16.67 8.33  48 36  100 100  0 1  0 2.78  Control group pretest postest  114 140  79.72 83.83  1 2  0.70 1.20  1 0  0.70 0  0 0  0 0  1 2  0.70 1.20  26 23  18.16 13.77  143 167  100 100  3 4  2.10 2.40  Totals pretest postest  189 196  80.43 83.76  1 3  0.43 1.28  1 0  0.43 0  0 0  0 0  1 2  0.43 0.85  43 33  18.30 14.10  235 234  100 100  3 5  1.28 2.14  TABLE X I I I INCIDENCE OP TOBACCO (VARIABLE TWELVE) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Tobacco Incidence F o r P e r i o d Beginning Two Months P r i o r To T e s t Never No. %  1 or 2 times No.  %  3 to 5 times No. %  6 to 8 times No. %  9 o r more times No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  1 to 9 or more times No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  20 18  45.45 58.06  6 2  13.64 6.45  4 1  9.09 3.23  1 3  2.27 9.68  9 6  20.45 19.35  4 1  9.09 3.23  44 31  100 100  20 12  45.45 38.71  Treatment group B pretest postest  29 16  60.42 44.44  4 5  8.33 13.89  3 4  6.25 11.11  2 2  4.17 5.56  7 7  14.58 19.44  3 2  6.25 5.56  48 36  100 100  16 14  33.33 38.89  Control group pretest postest  77 90  53.85 53.89  22 22  15.30 13.17  2 6  1.40 3.59  3 5  2.10 2.99  25 31  17.48 18.56  14 13  9.79 7.78  143 167  100 100  52 64  36.36 38.32  Totals pretest postest  - 273 -  TABLE XIV SUMMARY OF INCIDENCE OF DRUG VARIABLES FOUR TO TWELVE FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL AT PRETEST AND POSTEST.  Variables  Pretest %  Postest  62.13  62.24  Amphetamines, Use o f  2.98  5.13  6.  B a r b i t u r a t e s , Use o f  1.28  4.27  7.  Cocaine,  4.68  8.55  8.  Hallucinogens,  5.53  5.98  9.  Inhalants, Use o f  0.85  5.13  10.  Marijuana  13.62  18.38  11.  Opiates, Use o f  1.28  2.14  12.  Tobacco, Use o f  37.45  38.46  4.  A l c o h o l , Use o f  5.  Use o f Use o f  o r h a s h i s h , Use o f  %  TABLE XV  PRESENCE OP DRUGS NOT INCLUDING ALCOHOL OR TOBACCO AT SOCIAL GATHERINGS IN TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO TESTING (VARIABLE FOURTEEN) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL  Never No. %  1 or 2 times No. %  3 to 5 times No. %  6 t o 10 times No. %  More than 10 times No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  1 t o more than 10 times No. %  33 25  75.00 80.65  6 2  13.64 6.45  3 3  6.82 9.68  0 0  0 0  1 1  2.27 3.23  1 0  2.27 0  44 31  100 100  10 6  22.73 19.35  39  81.25  6  12.50  1  2.08  1  2.08  0  0  1  2.08  48  100  8  16.67  Control group pretest postest  113 126  79.02 75.45  14 22  9.79 13.17  8 6  5.59 3.59  2 4  1.40 2.40  2 4  1.40 2.40  4 5  2.80 2.99  143 167  100 100  30 41  20.98 24.55  Totals pretest postest  185 183  78.72 78.21  26 25  11.06 10.68  12 11  5.11 4.70  3 5  1.28 2.14  3 5  1.28 2.14  6 5  2.55 2.14  235 234  100 100  48 51  20.43 21.79  Treatment Group A pretest postest Treatment 9  p?etest  to  TABLE XVI AVAILABILITY OP DRUGS NOT INCLUDING ALCOHOL OR TOBACCO (VARIABLE FIFTEEN) AT PRETEST AND  POSTEST  FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL  Very e a s i l y No. %  Easily No. %  Not e a s i l y No. %  Can't No.  %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  Very e a s i l y t o not e a s i l y No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  5 3  11.36 9.68  8 11  18.18 35.48  9 6  20.45 19.35  19 9  43.18 29.03  3 2  6.82 6.45  44 31  100 100  22 20  50.00 14.52  Treatment group B pretest postest  7 4  14.58 11.11  10 10  20.83 27.78  10 13  20.83 36.11  18 8  37.50 22.22  3 1  6.25 2.78  48 36"  100 100  27 27  56.25 75.00  Control rroup group pretest p retest postest  16 23  11.19 16.08  33 35  23.08 24.48  32 39  22.38 27.27  54 59  27.76 41.26  8 11  5.59 7.69  143 167  100 100  81 97  56.14 58.08  —  — »  •* _ * #w  i  w  r» r\  235 234  100 100  130 144  55.32 61.54  *  Totals pretest postest  .  28 30  11.91 12.82  51 56  _  _  _ _  21.70 23.93  _  _  51 58  ________  21.70 24.79  . _ _ _ _ ,  91 76  38.72 32.48  -i  14 14  _> A  5.96 5.98  y v J»N  r\ r\  TABLE XVII PARENTAL AWARENESS OF DRUG USE NOT INCLUDING ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO (VARIABLE SIXTEEN) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL  Don't use No. %  Don't know Don't know i f they use know No. % No. %  Know and want me t o stop No. %  Know and give approval No. %  Missing data No. %  Totals No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  36 25  81.82 80.65  4 5  9.09 16.13  2 1  4.55 3.23  1 0  2.27 0  1 0  2.27 0  0 0  0 0  44 31  100 100  Treatment group B pretest postest  41 30  85.42 83.33  1 2  2.08 5.56  2 0  4.17 0  2 0  4.17 0  0 1  0 2.78  2 3  4.17 48 8.33 36  100 100  Control group pretest postest  123 131  86.01 78.44  9 14  6.29 8.38  5 7  3.50 4.19  2 2  1.40 1.20  2 5  1.40 2.99  2 8  1.40 143 4.79 167  100 100  Totals pretest postest  200 186  85.11 79.49  14 21  5.96 8.97  9 8  3.83 3.42  5 2  2.13 0.85  3 6  1.28 2.56  4 11  1.70 235 4.70 234  100 100  TABLE XVIII RATIONALE POR DRUG USE BY DRUG USERS AND NON-DRUG USERS (WHY THEY BELIEVE USERS USE DRUGS) NOT INCLUDING ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO (VARIABLE SEVENTEEN) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Relieve or escape t e n - Fun',: K i c k s sion or or t h r i l l s worries No. % No. %  Curiosity No.  %  To f e e l at home with, a group No. %  Some other reason No. %  Missing data No.  Totals  %  No.  %  Treatment group A pretest postest  7 10  15.91 32.26  15 9  34.09 29.03  7 7  15.91 22.58  8 3  18.18 9.68  4 1  9.09 3.23  3 1  6.82 3.23  44 31  100 100  Treatment group B pretest postest  9 6  18.75 16.67  18 8  37.50 22.22  9 6  18.75 16.67  4 3  8.33 8.33  2 6  4.17 16.67  6 7  12.50 19.44  48 36  100 100  Control group pretest postest  17 19  11.89 11.38  44 59  30.77 35.33  32 29  22.38 17.37  21 29  14.69 17.37  16 12  11.19 7.19  13 19  9.09 11.38  143 167  100 100  Totals pretest postest  33 35  14.04 14.96  77 76  32.77 33.76  48 42  20.43 17.95  33 36  14.04 15.39  22 19  9.36 8.12  21 27  8.94 11.54  235 234  100 100  TABLE XIX RATIONALE POR STOPPING DRUG USE BY EX-DRUG USERS (MARK AS MANY AS APPLY)  (VARIABLE TWENTY) AT PRETEST  AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Have not stopped o r Bad do not use experience No. No.  Saw harm i t does t o friends No.  Outgrew i t No,  Fear o f getting caught No.  Treatment group A pretest postest  21 21  3 2  7 3  0 0  2 3  Treatment group B pretest postest  26 21  2 1  2 2  1 0  1 0  Control group pretest postest  83 99  1 4  10 10  2 3  Totals pretest postest  130 141  6 7  19 15  3 3  Influenced by parents or friends No.  —  Missing data No,  3 3  10 4  1 1  1 2  14 12  4 7  6 6  6 12  42 48  7 10  10 10  10 17  66 64  3  3  Some other reason No.  TABLE XX DRUG EDUCATION PROGRAMS  None  (VARIABLE TWENTY-ONE) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST POR TREATMENT GROUPS A,B AND CONTROL Films  Literature  Lecture  Group Discussion  Other  Missing data  Treatment group A pretest postest  2 0  40 29  13 25  16 25  19 23  4 7  1 1  Treatment group B pretest postest  6 2  36 34  17 14  16 16  23 22  2 7  2 2  Control group pretest postest  17 22  117 128  36 75  36 69  58 75  11 29  4 13  Totals pretest postest  25 24  193 191  66 114  68 110  100 120  17 43  7 16  TABLE XXI EVALUATION OF DRUG EDUCATION PROGRAMS (VARIABLE TWENTY-TWO) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Have not received any No. %  Treatment group A pretest postest  2 0  Treatment group B pretest postest  4.55 0  Excellent  V e r y good  No.  No.  %  Good  %  No.  Poor %  No.  Very poor %  No.  %  Missing data No. %  Totals No.  %  9 6  20.45 9 19.35 7  20.45 22.58  19 11  43.18 4 35.48 4  9.09 0 12.90 2  0 6.45  1 1  2.27 44 3.23 31  5 1  10.42 2 2.78 4  4.17 8 11.11 3  16.67 26 8.33 19  54.17 3 52.78 6  6.25 1 16.67 0  2.08 0  3 3  6.25 8.33  48 36  100 100  Control group pretest postest  18 16  12.59 15 9.58 24  10.49 25 14.37 24  17.48 66 14.37 69  46.15 9 41.32 13  6.29 4 7.78 6  2.80 3.59  6 15  4.20 8.98  143 167  100 100  Totals pretest postest  25 17  10.64 26 7.26 34  11.06 42 14.53 34  17.87 111 14.53 99  47.23 16 42.31 23  6.81 9.83  2.13 5.13  10 19  4.26 8.12  235 234  100 100  5 12  100 100  TABLE XXII DRUG INFORMATION DESIRED (VARIABLE TWENTY-THREE) AT PRETEST AND POSTEST FOR TREATMENT GROUPS A, B AND CONTROL Don't want What drug any i n f o r m - does t o ation mind and body  Determine purity of drug  Long range e f f e c t s of drugs .  Laws about drugs  Missing data  Treatment group A pretest postest  6 8  25 16  11 7  19 12  15 10  0 0  Treatment group B pretest postest  12 4  25 25  9 11  15 14  15 15  1 1  Control group pretest postest  45 49  77 77  20 37  40 52  36 53  4 12  pretest postest  63 61  127 118  40 54  74 78  66 78  5 13  APPENDIX F :  TABULATION OF DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L  - 282 -  SELECTED CONCEPTS THAT REPRESENT ATTITUDE DOMAIN ON DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC  DIFFERENTIAL  1.  my e d u c a t i o n  2.  hanging around w i t h people who take drugs  3.  t a k i n g drugs once  4.  people who t r y t o get o t h e r s t o do drugs  5.  my t e a c h e r  6.  k i d s who come t o s c h o o l stoned  7.  smoking g r a s s  8.  people who do s o f t drugs once o r t w i c e a month  9.  parents  10.  k i d s who never take drugs  11.  dropping a c i d  12.  people my age who use s o f t drugs s t e a d i l y  13.  marks i n s c h o o l  14.  k i d s who q u i t t a k i n g drugs  15.  drinking  16.  people who use h e r o i n  17.  t a k i n g speed  18.  people who use g r a s s and h a s h i s h  19.  hard drugs  20.  s o f t drugs  alcohol  -  RESPONSES  283 -  FROM SIXTY-FOUR GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS  THE DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC  IN DEVELOPING  D I F F E R E N T I A L AS TO CONCEPTS  REPRESENT THE ATTITUDE DOMAIN, k i d s who t a k e d r u g s ( 3 7 ) * p e o p l e my age who u s e h a r d o r s o f t d r u g s s t e a d i l y k i d s who do s o f t d r u g s o n c e o r t w i c e a month p e o p l e who u s e g r a s s a n d h a s h (3) p e o p l e who u s e h a r d d r u g s (6) p e o p l e who s h o o t u p o r d r o p p i l l s k i d s who u s e s o f t d r u g s (5) kids k i d s my age k i d s who smoke p o t t h e g u y who u s e s them d r u g s (4) h a r d s t u f f (10) s o f t s t u f f (9) smoking dope a c i d and LSD window pane weed speed pot cocaine drugs i n a d r i n k chemicals a d d i c t i v e drugs alcohol aspirin t o smoke g r a s s (3) more c h a l l e n g i n g d r u g s t o t a k e d r u g s (14) t o t r y t o g e t o t h e r s t o do i t t o g e t h o o k e d and go o n t r i p s t o k i l l someone d u r i n g a t r i p t a k i n g a c e r t a i n amount t o make b r e a d s e l l i n g i t t o be t o o h i g h f o r s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g to take drugs t o o long t o become a v a n d a l o r a t h i e f t o t r y drugs somebody who w a n t s t o t a k e i t to take drugs f o r the fun o f i t t o h a n g a r o u n d w i t h p e o p l e who u s e d r u g s t o come i n c o n t a c t w i t h d r u g s the thought o f a l l the drugs going around t h e k i d I knew Who t o o k d r u g s o l d e r k i d s who t a k e d r u g s e v e r y o n e e l s e who u s e s d r u g s k i d s who h a v e done i t what e v e r y o n e e l s e s a y s a b o u t d r u g s *  B r a c k e t e d numbers r e p r e s e n t  incidence o f response.  THAT  - 284 -  the problem society people my age l i f e , l i v e s (15) marks i n s c h o o l the teacher w i l l power kicks something t o do parents the movie "Go Ask A l i c e " I (64) brain the s t a t e today n i c e people bodies c o r r e c t dosage young people adults s c h o o l work fault a straight money own good the mind (4) dying o f an overdoes k i d s who q u i t k i d s w i t h problems k i d s who a r e freaked out people who love them one who doesn't take drugs f r i e n d s who a r e h i g h on drugs k i d s who s i t a t t h e back o f t h e room stoned people who a r e hooked f r i e n d s t h a t do (3) f r i e n d s t h a t don't people t h a t a r e s e l l i n g i t what I have read the way he acted a t s c h o o l what i t does upper o r downer what happens t o them (3) what t h e y a r e g e t t i n g i n t o r e a l r o t t e n mood a b e t t e r mood  - 285 -  SELECTED EVALUATIVE BIPOLAR ADJECTIVE SCALES TO SELECTED CONCEPTS ON  APPROPRIATE  DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L .  1.  fun - d u l l  2.  strong  3.  matters - doesn't matter  4.  good - bad  5.  self-controlled - undisciplined  6.  nice - nasty  7.  responsible  8.  all  9.  smart - s t u p i d  10.  like - dislike  11.  helped - h u r t  12.  friendly - unfriendly  - weak  - irresponsible  r i g h t - a l l wrong  -  286 -  RESPONSES PROM SIXTY-FOUR GRADE EIGHT STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING THE DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L AS TO EVALUATIVE BIPOLAR A D J E C T I V E SCALES APPROPRIATE  bad weak stink fine illegal harmless disagree suffer terrific respectful dumb (3) * funny k i l l (3) no s e l f - c o n t r o l no d i s c i p l i n e a l l r i g h t (4) OK (4) s t u p i d (15) nuts curious friendly stuck quieter entertaining retarded silly ruined crazy damaging lonely t o t a l l y unnecessary irresponsible pleasant challenging tough idiotic weird very patient neat great carefree fortunate straight *  Bracketed  numbers r e p r e s e n t  TO SELECTED CONCEPTS.  good strong legal harmful agree  smart self-controlled disciplined  free  incidence o f response.  - 287 -  have done i t have not done i t go around a t t a c k i n g people don't want want endangering o t h e r s ' l i v e s endangering own l i f e won't t e l l c r a c k s me up can't understand feel sorry don't t h i n k much waste o f time don't h e l p you don't use t h e i r head should l a y o f f should keep them away from me shouldn't i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s shouldn't t r y t o t a l k o t h e r s i n t o i t up t o the i n d i v i d u a l (4) doesn't bother me don't c a r e (3) don't mind shouldn't be bugged r e a l l y doesn't matter i t ' s t h e i r l i f e (3) t h e i r own b u s i n e s s (6) doesn't i n f l u e n c e me l e t them do i t t h e i r choice they don't c a r e don't have anything a g a i n s t them no one t h i n k s much o f i t c a l l you l i t t l e goodies r e a l l y b i g (4) laugh t h e i r heads o f f bug you show o f f s (3) want more and more tough beans something wrong should know b e t t e r want t o be i n w i t h the crowd need something j u s t a mess don't do schoolwork something drove them t o i t led into i t depends on how they behave should be sent t o p r i s o n fucked up say dumb t h i n g s don't hang around w i t h does not know what's going t o happen shouldn't use them  - 288 -  a r e n ' t any d i f f e r e n t (4) don't t h i n k about them d e s t r o y i n g themselves i s n ' t enjoying l i f e has a problem w i l l associate with should be put away j u s t a c t t h e same n i c e guys are good f r i e n d s don't q u i t should be allowed f a r out ruins kids mentally handicaps k i d s f o r t h e f u t u r e should l e g a l i z e no one c a r e s are t h e s h i t s as much as p o s s i b l e more worthwhile doesn't r u i n t h e i r b r a i n not a v e r y good i d e a make you do queer t h i n g s don't know h e l p s them s c a r e s me c o u l d n ' t handle s t e e r i n g away too heavy f o r me don't l i k e (7) make your mind go screwy wreck t h e i r minds (8) fuck up t h e i r minds fuck you up t h e y should do i t need something d i f f e r e n t i s t o blame can be s o l v e d nuts know t o o much don't g e t mad t o o e a s i l y hard t o g e t i t t o g e t h e r f e l l t o pieces t h e i r own f a u l t pity throwing away would never have guessed  l i k e (3)  -  289 -  TRANSFORMED MATRIX TO TWO  1.  my e d u c a t i o n  2.  hanging around w i t h people  .151502  take drugs  3.  taking  4.  p e o p l e who  -.644859  drugs once  -.655044  t r y t o get others  t o do d r u g s 5.  my t e a c h e r  6.  k i d s who  Concept S t r u c t u r e Two o f t h e Domain -.587940 .177887 .167406 .145353  -.583929 .092607  come t o s c h o o l  stoned  -.667622 .185777 .088262  -.690679  7.  smoking  8.  p e o p l e who  grass  -.865499  do s o f t  parents  10. k i d s who  never take drugs  11. d r o p p i n g a c i d  -.835965  -.448283  .044553  -.101038  -.012992 -.682365  12. p e o p l e my age who u s e s o f t drugs s t e a d i l y  -.008317 -.647302 -.344050  -.844980  13. marks i n s c h o o l  -.009878  14. k i d s who  quit  -.435724  15. d r i n k i n g  alcohol  t a k i n g drugs  .111305 -.647633  drugs  o n c e o r t w i c e a month 9.  PRETEST  Concept S t r u c t u r e One o f t h e Domain  Concepts  who  FACTORS AT  .074748 -.147500 -.121713  -.702324  16. p e o p l e who u s e h e r o i n  -.800290  .098098  17. t a k i n g  -.833890  -.142693  speed  18. p e o p l e who hashish 19. h a r d d r u g s 20. s o f t  drugs  .172394  use g r a s s and -.852918 --.833040 -.877817  -  290 -  TRANSFORMED MATRIX TO TWO  Concept S t r u c t u r e One o f t h e Domain  Concepts 1.  my  education  2.  hanging around w i t h people who  FACTORS AT  -.125744  take drugs  POSTEST Concept S t r u c t u r e Two o f t h e Domain .728707 .228028  .691617 .160593  3.  taking  d r u g s once  .591716  4. 5.  p e o p l e who t r y t o g e t o t h e r s t o do d r u g s .619942 my t e a c h e r -.155651  6.  k i d s who  come t o s c h o o l  stoned  .065087 .692515 .031749  .716354 .040195  7.  smoking  8.  p e o p l e who do s o f t once  9.  grass  .698458 drugs  o r t w i c e a month  parents  10. k i d s who  never take drugs  11. d r o p p i n g a c i d  -.034351 .717532  .574891  -.095062  .351930  -.225204  -.036065  .562558 -.108081  12. p e o p l e my age who  use  soft .687001  drugs s t e a d i l y  .868033 .252950  13. m a r k s i n s c h o o l  .021675 -.000302  14. k i d s who q u i t  taking  drugs  .148177 .168034  15. d r i n k i n g  alcohol  16. p e o p l e who 17. t a k i n g  use h e r o i n  speed  18. p e o p l e who u s e g r a s s and hashish 19. h a r d d r u g s 20. s o f t d r u g s  .592486 .646748 .746684  -.068905 -.200857 - .047743  .826221 .736178 .787233  -.291429  CORRELATION MATRIX FOR TWO RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR-  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  1 C1 .000000 — .086523 .114387 _ .086418 .531716 .125730 _ .169917 _ .173267 .348012 .191477 .046391 _ .169864 .484371 .136610 _ .144863 _ .094604 — .101006 _ .168072 _ .077692 .250976  2 1 .000000 .675694 .587927 — .063772 .586732 .607092 .643373 _ .176146 — .064996 .403582 .566907 — .061849 .208584 .460146 .410276 .430034 .546439 .431386 .550590  3 1 .000000 .528220 .097897 .468220 .647302 .542416 — .168484 .097798 .437303 .492188 .054926 .216726 .484955 .431857 .525129 .554455 .475212 .612436  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  1 .000000 .307883 .041984 .010576 .478544 .158995 — .001617 .019752 _ .009629 _ .065407 .001676 .173679  10 1 .000000 .070865 .040253 .248619 .367698 — .085997 .147521 .054194 — .088793 .065713 - .078793  11 1 .000000 .618198 .008344 .355097 .399808 .575357 .661426 .508753 .599560 .562747  16 17 18 19 20  -  -  i &  -LO  1 .000000 .756775 .660109 .738779 .647110  17 1 .000000 .719839 .819798 .737465  FACTOR  OF AGFAP AT PRETEST  4 1 .000000 .071707 .546518 .497132 .536876 .179218 .054205 .393085 .534342 .119285 .186023 .389592 .476701 .431602 .450083 .443505 .470442  1.000000 -.208139 -.141576 -.127852 .471597 .221162 -.042131 -.065703 .438439 .158883 -.119589 -.014672 -.003052 -.157538 .001121 -.201958  6 1.000000 .575274 .643386 -.178622 -.114576 .408392 .620195 -.060335 .232948 .519686 .508287 .537315 .619479 .533551 .596984  7 1.000000 .774287 -.026542 -.038465 .597440 .726540 -.044691 .354895 .667363 .624486 .679174 .737936 .688469 .790311  -  12 1 .000000 .013559 .383529 .591035 .734685 .647153 .720693 .683015 .701262  -  13 1.000000 .203369 -.018772 .038626 .065235 -.020559 .101218 -.076298  14 1.000000 .349568 .437313 .359065 .320749 .384561 .303580  15 1.000000 .512050 .538379 .598962 .545748 .659214  18 1 .000000 .672066 .815515  19 1 .000000 .744351  20 1.000000  -  -  -  -  -  -  8 1.000000 -.080917 -.011648 .540002 .763383 -.059096 .363846 .610757 .648687 .593976 .737557 .622185 .730723  CORRELATION MATRIX POR TWO RRRRRRRRRRRRRR-^ RRRRRR-  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  RRRRRRRRRRRR-  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  RRRRR-  16 17 18 19 20  1 .000000 .222482 _ .144591 — .033962 .586247 _ .176664 _ .172771 .147454 .438615 .215725 _ .060805 — .167314 .536358 .019838 .129951 .066679 .068310 _ .260388 —.102703 .314927 Q 1 .000000 .343115 .134319 —.102487 .389134 .174405 — .054270 .058652 .174590 .183136 .089434 .241240 16 1 .000000 .515762 .436683 .501747 .357863 —  — —  —  —  — — —  — —  FACTOR ANALYSIS OF AGFAP AT POSTEST  2 1 .000000 .632755 .655140 - .318529 .528953 .497636 .556857 .211422 — .234271 .382491 .699108 - .120551 - .051163 .385401 .385986 .449931 .555283 .412606 .526458  3 1.000000 .527179 -.244104 .450262 .480857 .492239 -.095061 -.166533 .296309 .533792 -.139527 .020493 .328026 .318916 .399525 .472108 .370145 .448671  4 1.000000 -.203106 .425811 .377478 .396713 -.078608 -.150733 .504558 .613588 -.081336 -.097288 .267414 .415730 .493877 .415192 .504175 .381394  10 1 .000000 - .130659 - .185155 .132634 .257266 - .208561 - .109141 - .153218 - .288704 .172420 - .259412  -  11 1.000000 .549940 -.064582 .013247 .271641 .443781 .532740 .368969 .481933 .386896  17 1 .000000 .715422 .783670 .696181  18 1.000000 .688256 .875505  -  5 1 .000000 .141179 .168269 .129686 .401965 .364221 .148939 .215832 .423368 .194451 .157665 - .023181 - .148039 .210927 .122894 — .256974  -  6 1.000000 .645458 .660948 -.071879 -.186636 .402934 .643784 -.027095 .090803 .536557 .534446 .453202 .505864 .453477 .501973  7 1.000000 .618770 -.071970 -.281904 .329207 .602599 .033532 .159340 .521308 .516368 .363779 .568696 .445772 .517084  12 1.000000 -.101584 .109795 .464304 .520455 .616473 .714749 .592900 .709677  13 1 .000000 .186024 .076961 .237858 - .035039 - .081550 .016201 .199920  14 1.000000 .174378 .239902 -.028508 .122463 -.005356 .082275  15 1.000000 .480504 .355961 .509344 .353915 .429867  19 1.000000 .684815  20 1 .000000  -  -  —  8 1.000000 -.092068 -.174791 .360410 .684688 -.038033 .254928 .570079 .463117 .373402 .555831 .361177 .528499  APPENDIX Gs  INSTRUCTION TO ADMINISTRATORS DRUG BEHAVIOR  QUESTIONNAIRE  DRUG ATTITUDE SEMANTIC  OF THE  AND THE  DIFFERENTIAL  AT PRETEST AND POSTEST  -  AN  293  ANONYMOUS VANCOUVER DRUG QUESTIONNAIRE AND  ATTITUDE SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L  Instructions to 1.  -  Administrators  Schedule  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s b e i n g r u n on a t i g h t s c h e d u l e . We h a v e o n l y one h o u r f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e i s t i o n n a i r e . T h e r e i s no a v a i l a b l e time f o r c a r l e s s n e s s . 2.  Discipline  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e n e e d s t o be c o m p l e t e d i n an e x a m - l i k e setting. S t u d e n t s c o n v e r s i n g o r a c t i n g o u t n e e d t o be d i s couraged. P e r s i s t e n t v i o l a t i o n o f the exam-like s e t t i n g s h o u l d be met b y s e p a r a t i n g t h e s e a t i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s involved. 3.  Procedure  Tnere are nine grade e i g h t c l a s s e s i n t h i s h i g h s c h o o l . E a c h c l a s s w i l l h a v e one a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e , p r o c e e d t o t h e c l a s s t h a t you h a v e been a s s i g n e d . Teachers are requested t o remain i n the classroom. However, s i n c e a n o n y m i t y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y need t o be g u a r a n t e e d , t h e y must n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n administration. P l a c e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f a c e down on t h e d e s k . B e g i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s as soon as p o s s i b l e . Students have been asked t o b r i n g p e n c i l s . I f t h e y do n o t h a v e p e n c i l s , pens a r e a c c e p t a b l e . Do  not  Introduce the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o the c l a s s as o u t l i n e d . d e v i a t e u n n e c e s s a r i l y from t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s .  E n f o r c e an e x a m - l i k e s e t t i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Do t a l k n e e d l e s s l y w i t h the students nor w i t h the classroom teacher.  not  C o l l e c t the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s without l o o k i n g at the responses. Do n o t p e r m i t t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o help in questionnaire collection. P l a c e them i n t h e f o l d e r provided. R e c o r d t h e room number on t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e folder. Leave the folder. 4.  classroom  Instruction to  with  the  questionnaires  i n the  students  "These a r e anonymous and  c o n f i d e n t i a l drug  questionn-  - 294 -  aires. Do not w r i t e your name on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . However, w r i t e your mother's maiden name on both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s so t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r s w i l l be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y the responses made a t a l a t e r date. At no time w i l l you ever be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e responses made by you on the questionnaires. There i s no way t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s can i d e n t i f y you from your mother's maiden name. Complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o n e s t l y and q u i c k l y . Inaccurate o r incomplete q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l h i n d e r t h e results o f the questionnaires. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be seen by r e s e a r c h e r s o n l y and w i l l not be seen by t e a c h e r s , p o l i c e o r p a r e n t s . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , please r a i s e your hand and we w i l l answer them i n d i v i d u a l l y . Please b e g i n . "  

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