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Women's experiences of group process in a career counselling intervention Mawson, Diana Louise 1989

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WOMEN'S E X P E R I E N C E S IN A CAREER  OF GROUP  COUNSELLING  PROCESS  INTERVENTION  By DIANA B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS THE  LOUISE  SUBMITTED  MAWSON  o f Winnipeg,  I N PARTIAL  1983  FULFILLMENT  R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A R T S in  THE  FACULTY  (Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  OF G R A D U A T E  of Counselling  this  thesis  therequired  (g) D i a n a  Psychology)  as conforming standard  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H October,  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1989  L o u i s e Mawson,  1989  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  partial  British Columbia, and study.  thesis for scholarly by  his  or  her  of  the  I agree  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  this thesis for financial gain shall not be  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  fulfilment  by the  understood  that  allowed without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  Abstract This  s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d women's e x p e r i e n c e s o f group  process i n a career Specifically, Yalom's client  counselling  intervention.  t h e s t u d y examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f  (1985) 11 group t h e r a p e u t i c  f a c t o r s , and s i x  demographic f a c t o r s , i n p r e d i c t i n g  intervention  l e v e l s of goal  instability  removing t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n addition,  the study attempted t o d e f i n e  between a s e t o f c l i e n t  post-  (GI) a f t e r l e v e l s o f GI. In the r e l a t i o n s h i p  demographic v a r i a b l e s  of 14 group change mechanisms which r e f l e c t  and a s e t  Yalom's 11  factors. S u b j e c t s were 108 a d u l t two-day c a r e e r counselling  group c o u n s e l l i n g program a t a government  u n i t . Data were c o l l e c t e d  questionnaires interviews  women c l i e n t s who a t t e n d e d a  using  a t p r e and p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n .  Follow-up  were c o n d u c t e d by t e l e p h o n e w i t h 71  p a r t i c i p a n t s two months a f t e r t h e i r workshop d a t e s . Levels  of goal  Instability  instability  Scale  a t p r e and p o s t - t e s t ,  demographic i n f o r m a t i o n Participant's therapeutic  were a s s e s s e d u s i n g  the Goal  and c l i e n t  was s o l i c i t e d w i t h a  I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet a t p r e - t e s t .  Group  f a c t o r s were a s s e s s e d a t p o s t - t e s t  by u s i n g  i i i the  How A  Career  preliminary  levels'  GI  hierarchical change  above  multiple  accounted  canonical  accounted analysis  d i d not  relationships  between  variables  and  a  Follow-up  data  cognitive  and  helping to  Post-test  career factors  equations  with  for a  equation,  pre-test  associated  findings  factors  intervention, equally.  The  relationships  between  participants'  career  confirmed  were  GI  levels.  A  and t h a t  significant  follow-up  the  the  for contributing intervention.  Yalom's study's  d i d not value  findings  and  both  factors for  i n this  the therapeutic planning  demographic  valued  and  clients  and  mechanisms.  that  operating  small  over  clients  with  but  levels,  any  planning  a  GI  group change that  In  cognitive  significant  identify  career  levels.  contributor  tested.  a f f e c t i v e group therapeutic  benefits  therapeutic  14  GI  GI  significant  set of s i x c l i e n t  indicated  clients  general  a  set of  i n post-test  i n post-test  f o r by  pre-test  l e v e l s i n a l l subsequent  regression  of the variance  that  GI  regression  mechanisms  portion  identified  the only  i n post-test  multiple  Scale.  to variance  l e v e l s were  variance  standard  Work  analysis  contribution  Pre-test to  Groups  clarified  factors  goal-setting  the  the  and processes.  iv Table  of Contents  Abstract Table List  i  o f Contents  i v  o f Tables  CHAPTER  Purpose  Counselling  of this  Research  CHAPTER  1 f o r Women  Study  10  of this  Study  2: L i t e r a t u r e  11  Review  13  i n t h e Workforce  Career  Counselling  Recommendations for Review  13  f o r Women  f o r Career  Counselling 18  Counselling  21  Studies  of Multiple  Outcome  Studies  of Single  Shortcomings  and Possible  Evaluation  Summary CHAPTER Design  Interventions  Women  Outcome  of  17  Women  o f Career  for  4 6  Questions  Significance  Women  v i i  1: I n t r o d u c t i o n  Vocational  i  Studies  Interventions  Interventions  23 28  Improvements 34 45  3: Method  48 48  V  Sample  Data  49  Client  Screening  49  Client  Group Assignment  50  Groups  51  Leaders  52  Collection  52  Measures  53  Participant's Goal  Information  Instability  How  Career  Follow-up  Sheet  Scale  Groups  Work  53 Scale  Interviews  Statistical  56  Treatment  o f t h e Q u a n t i t a t i v e Data  Treatment  o f the Telephone  CHAPTER  Data  4: R e s u l t s  57  Interview 60 62  Sample  62  Psychometric Hypotheses Telephone CHAPTER  54 55  Hypotheses  Qualitative  53  Analyses Testing  Interview  65 68  Results  5: D i s c u s s i o n  76 91  Assumptions  o f t h e Study  91  Limitations  o f t h e Study  92  vi Sample  Limitations  Measurement  92  Limitations  92  Interpretation Ranking  94  of Therapeutic  Predictions Relationships Therapeutic Follow-up  Factors  of Post-test between  Goal  94 Instability  Client-types  101  and  Factors  103  Interviews  104  Conclusions  I l l  Recommendations  115  REFERENCES  118  APPENDICES  127  Appendix Career  A:  Agenda  Planning  and A c t i v i t i e s  o f W.E.C.U.  Workshop  127  Appendix  B:  Client  Consent  Appendix  C:  Participant's  Appendix  D:  Goal  Appendix  E:  Instruction  Appendix  F:  How  Appendix  G:  Follow-up  Letter Information  Instability  Career  132  Sheet  Sheet  Scale  137  (Day I I )  G r o u p s Work Interview  135  Scale  138 139 141  vii List Table  1:  Demographic  of Tables  V a r i a b l e s of 63  Workshop P a r t i c i p a n t s T a b l e 2:  Distribution  of P a r t i c i p a n t s  by 66  Most T y p i c a l Job Table  3:  GIS T e s t Item A n a l y s i s  67  Table  4:  HCGWS T e s t Item A n a l y s i s and 69  Item Rankings T a b l e 5:  H i e r a r c h i c a l Model:  Post-test Table  6:  Predicting 73  GIS Score  I n t e r v i e w Respondents' Two  Month 79  Post-workshop A c t i v i t i e s Table  7:  Workshop F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o  Development  of Interview  Respondents'  C a r e e r P l a n s and Ideas Table  8:  83  B e n e f i c i a l Elements o f  t h e Workshop  88  1 Chapter  1  Introduction The  field  considerable of  career  of vocational psychology  effort  choice  theoretical  on c r e a t i n g and v a l i d a t i n g  and vocational  ventures  actual  conditions  force.  Until  arise  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada,  ideas  of career  social and  1987).  Canada, Thus,  labour  force  gender  proportions  these and  have  changes  feminist  emerging differs  i n response t othe  experiences  comprised  the labour posited  &  i n economic and  m o r e women t o e n t e r , force  1988; H e r r  & Cramer,  i n pace alike  of labour  &  1984; S t a t i s t i c s rates  s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed t h e s i z e of specific  stay i n ,  (Employment  women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n  theorists  pattern  (Betz  shifts  the labour  increase  occupational  i n the and  areas.  and magnitude,  As  vocational  acknowledge that t h e  force  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that  Guido-DiBrito,  of the labour  o f men  recent  are prompting  1987).  These  1987) a n d t h e o r i s t s  However,  move t h r o u g h o u t  Canada,  theories  development based on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l ,  a n d work  trends  Immigration  partly  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  force  Fitzgerald,  adjustment.  r e c e n t l y , men p r i m a r i l y  educational,  focuses  1986; F i t z g e r a l d  participation o f men & Betz,  (e.g., 1983).  f o r women Borman  &  2 Specifically, status and  jobs  women  that  i n low-paying,  f r e q u e n t l y do n o t m a t c h  intelligence  1988)  are concentrated  levels  (Employment  ability  & Immigration  Canada,  .  Vocational cultural, women's  theorists  social,  career  t r yt o account  decisions  and p a r t l y  explain  and overrepresentation  stereotyped  (Astin,  jobs  Farmer,  1985;  Fassinger,  & Betz,  1981;  Hansen,  major  theorists  cultural  stereotypes  1983;  limited  access  counselling  these  female-  & Fitzgerald, 1987; 1981;  psychology  sex typing  agree  status,  socialization,  social  and r e l i g i o n )  and occupational  marital/family status)  and  career  involvement  feminine-stereotypes  environments  and  and  Subcultural factors  race,  levels,  also  (Betz  that  Fitzgerald  t o non-traditional occupations,  stereotypes.  The  sex-role  (e.g.,  1 9 8 1 ) . Women's  Hackett  1980).  r o l e s has produced  on  confound  women's  T i n s l e y & Faunce,  career  o f women's  Gottfredson,  immediate  educational  1984;  Betz  i n  Gottfredson,  i n t e r v e n t i o n s based  socioeconomic women's  1985;  and occupational  & Betz,  maintain  1984;  o f women's  view  f o r the  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s that  underachievement  our  their  low-  plus  (e.g., female  determine  (e.g., factors i n  parents' role  career  & Fitzgerald).  The  models, choice  intrapersonal efficacy 1985),  beliefs  and  (Betz  linked  to  limit  jobs  and  the  are  women's  1987;  must  social,  theorists  have  to  establish  Vento  Sagaria, for  or  and  Labour  women  meet  the  p.  251)  of  career  combining  low  Herr  to  work  1984;  i n the  &  when  and  and  low  of  these  to  task  women's of  roles  1984;  Perun  & Wilson,  It  is  (Betz  &  & 1982;  difficult  society expects  family  trying  work  Rotter, 1980).  changing  Vocational  i s the  Cramer,  Women  or  face  f a m i l y and  &  1984).  common b a r r i e r s  women's c a r e e r  self-esteem  are  barriers  Betz  workforce  imperative"  both  1987)  and  challenging  barriers.  Robinson,  goals  more  Hansen,  barrier  around  cultural  common b a r r i e r  women's  into  1985;  T i n s l e y & Faunce,  set "new  1981;  educations  Canada,  (Astin,  two  1983;  (Farmer  f a c t o r s pose  decisions  One  self-  development.  individual  priorities  1989;  science  r e - e n t e r i n g the  identified  Bielby,  to  is  of  low  motivation  preceding  Fassinger,  & Betz,  women t o  second  the  decision-making.  (Fitzgerald Del  of  make c a r e e r  cultural,  career  and  career  movement  entering  careers  math  n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l work  Fitzgerald, who  of  levels,  & Betz),  & Fitzgerald;  Combinations that  ability  (Hackett  avoidance  vocations also  f a c t o r s of  them  Fitzgerald,  roles.  The  decision-making  self-efficacy  beliefs  4 (Hackett  1981;  & Betz,  1989). T h e s e b e l i e f s ability  t o pursue  careers.  Nevill cause  women a r e n o t c a p a b l e which of  they  work  have  women t o q u e s t i o n  challenging  Women i n t e r n a l i z e  social  a n d weak  and low s e l f - e f f i c a c y  significant  barriers  t o career  Counselling  c o u n s e l l i n g . Many  Some a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d unchallenging paying  jobs.  force  after  time.  They  and  a r e unsure  unfamiliar with  planning.  According  plan  and  family  However,  flexibly that  despite  beliefs)  with  about  that  integration  are thus  their  clients  their  want  career  of their  two  abilities  (cited  information  their  differences  often changes.  histories  of  andl o w -  t o the labour  or entering  t o Bernard  meets  career  paths,  are returning  absences,  careers  employment  and e f f e c t i v e l y  best  than  self-concept (low  t h e "how t o ' s " o f  women n e e d t o a c q u i r e "to  women  clients  prolonged  other  imply  decision-making.  positions, limited Other  that  f o r Women  Women w h o a r e i n d e c i s i v e seek  work  d o n e . Women's  self-esteem  Vocational  their  stereotypes  of performing  roles,  Wood,  and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  traditionally  and family  1988;  & Schlecker,  f o rt h e f i r s t  and  interests,  life/career i n Voydanoff,  and resources  i n order  the combination needs"  (p.  i n employment  1988)  o f work  277).  backgrounds  5 and  family life,  have  similar  explore term  career  options  career  a n d make a commitment  majority  However,  of career  negotiate paucity  c o u n s e l l i n g programs  to set career/life  self-concepts.  barriers  of recent  counselling The  outcome  report  long-  outcome  t o employment  and l e v e l  have  designs  have  been  as content  structure  Results  been  domain,  women There  career  career  program  evaluations designs.  to variables  attitudes  indecision. and  i s a  women.  o f group  limited  toward  self  and  Specifically,  experimental-group-only  used t o explore  (Fretz,  help  and experimental  success,  of career  their  s t u d i e s o f women's  on a v a r i e t y  measures  women  i f o r how t h e  decision-making.  programs. A l lo f these  outcome  help  f o radult/non-college  experimental/control-group  of  to a  s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g on  used quasi-experimental  relating  such  want t o  and strengthen  we d o n o t k n o w  t o career  few published  counselling  goals  c o u n s e l l i n g programs  programs  interventions  work,  Usually clients  career.  clients  Their  women who s e e k c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g  counselling goals.  Ideally,  have  most  treatment  parameters  interpersonal context,  and degree  1981) o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  from experimental  designs  indicate  that  both  6 skills  and beliefs-focused  (Keller,  Glauber,  learning  environments  interventions and  that  & Snyder,  (Kahn  facilitate Other  Gelso,  of topics  & Ward,  client  studies  experimental-group-only  Kahn and  found  information  programs,  that  have  clients  on jobs,  reported  program 1984)  also  that  Purpose The  o f This purpose  1977) c a n  In a survey of  wanted  counselling  career  market,  training  These  career/life  clients  were  goals. planning  Stevens,  p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . These  client  counselling  a l l of which  (Bruyere,  with  unit,  job search i n s t r u c t i o n ,  services,  women  programs  successful  1977),  limited to  opportunities.  of a multi-faceted  yielded  been  i n establishing career  f o rr e - e n t r y  suggested yield  counselling  as h e l p f u l  Evaluation  & Hirsch,  & Goering,  the labour  and educational  personal  of counselling  i n long-term  a government  made u s e o f a t e s t i n g s e r v i c e , and  supportive  part  included  designs.  women a c c e s s i n g  (1986)  that  Greenfeig,  1983; R i c e  are effective  change.  outcome  unemployed  1983),  are a valuable  (Berman,  a variety  programs  interventions  &  Pfost,  findings  varied  structure  counselling  outcomes.  and content  Study of the current  study  i s t o address two  shortcomings counselling variables, valued on  to  o f group  two features  identify  t o occur this  kinds  biodemographic group  traditional  during study  will  of clients  outcome  study  aspects  study  experiences  with  also  group  prefer  methodology  investigates planning  o n women's p r o g r e s s  clients  value  this  attempts  to identify by  whether  clients'  variations may  on  identify  intervention  the intervention  women  that  clients' over  intervention.  i n the early  study  &  factors  activities  reporting  planning,  (Robbins  decision-making.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a group  career  better  counselling.  career  following  their  that  d i f f e r e n t elements of  three  o f a group  career  process  attempt  focuses  variable  I t also  group  These  study  instability)  (as defined  information)  o f outcome  indecision  1986).  career  women's c a r e e r  This  goal  group  of client-  This  an outcome  & Tucker,  counselling.  client-valued facilitate  (i.e.,  choice  exploration  of career  the client-valued  Furthermore,  career  by using  studies  1985; R o b b i n s  different  (a) l i m i t e d  counselling.  women's s t a t e  previous  presumed  f o r women's c a r e e r  a n d (b) i n s u f f i c i e n t  may r e f l e c t  Patton,  studies  interventions:  aspects  these  than  o f outcome  indicates  time, By  phases o f i f a n d how  f o ri t s contribution  to  their  career  development.  Specifically, clients' group  the present  experiences  o f group  investigates  process  i n a two-day  career  counselling intervention f o r adult/non-college  women t h a t  focuses  on t h e c a r e e r  construct  of goal  variable,  as i tappears  instability Patton,  instability  o r absence  Goal  psychological  a p t l y than  i s used  of orienting precedes  instability  states  and needs  process.  as an a  The  outcome  "general  goals"  (Robbins  the state of  may r e f l e c t  commonly-used  employment/training  planning  t o represent  1985, p . 226) t h a t  indecision.  more  study  career  the  of career-undecided outcome measures  status, career  &  maturity,  women  (e.g.,  and  self-  esteem) . The  conceptual  women's e x p e r i e n c e Astin's  that  experiences distribution  both  career  goal  instability  of career  development. between  This  discrimination, job  i s dynamic  and changing.  of influence interact  development  during  from  model  socialization  and t h e structure of opportunity of jobs,  and  indecision i s derived  the relationship  t h e economy) spheres  between  of career  (1984) m o d e l  maintains  and  link  (e.g.,  requirements, Elements a woman's  and a r e u l t i m a t e l y manifested  i n  from  career  choice.  "continual between  micro  career/life  levels  i n Robbins  difficult.  life  instability  thus  difficulties Therefore,  through 1985).  with  competencies  result,  can be  extremely  setting  period.  force  Their  are low, and t h e i r flux.  to incorporate  women's c a r e e r  i ti s l i k e l y  transitions  (re)entering the labour  are i n constant  goal  strength and  life  As a  beliefs  with  experience  are i n a transition  appears  confounding  the factors  personal  or vocational goals  plans  i nh e r  negatively correlated  and s e l f - e f f i c a c y  and career  factors  are going  careers  self-esteem  flux  feelings of personal  C e r t a i n l y , women  changing  spheres of  her self-concept.  Individuals  & Patton,  life  and other,  decision-making.  1985).  when t h e y  this  a woman's  t o see great  i s also  i n their  establishing  and a l t e r  and perceived  & Patton,  that  (public)  as she s o r t s through  instability  variability  or  we m a y e x p e c t goals  self-esteem  (Kohut  affect  on h e r c a r e e r  Goal  identity  and macro  1984, p . 1 4 5 ) , s h a p e s  and w i l l  a result,  (Robbins  (personal)  (Kahn,  development  impinging  t o assume  r e v e r b e r a t i o n between t h e s e l f  influence"  As  I t i s reasonable  Goal  t h e two major  decision-making  a n d weak  —  self-concept.  t o be a s e n s i t i v e  indicator  of  10 women's e x p e r i e n c e s In report  addition, approach  significance Johnsen,  this  counselling  have  1983;  group  process  factors  1987;  been et  learning  by  questions, needed  Kivlighan  significance  of  intervention" uses  their  to  clients.  i s a model  (p.  Yalom's  career  examines of  of  11  client-valued  (Kahn  the or  address that  &  Ward, a  result,  group  which  aspects  these "what  i s  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a  career-group/class  group  et  processes  a l . , the  therapeutic  r e s p e c t i v e change mechanisms  identifying  group  of  Like Kivlighan  model  career  client  1981). As  a l . suggested  aspects  36).  to  1985)  in  assess  change,  order  relative  Yalom,  limited  client  In  et  that  the  of  aspects  conducive  the  (Kivlighan,  to  know w h i c h  context  valued  not  self-  experiences  Efforts  extremely  client  1983;  Fretz,  do  and  Lieberman,  aspects  a  identify  a l . , 1987;  researchers are  utilizes to  helpful  Kivlighan  decision-making.  attempt  counselling settings. of  study  study  w i t h members'  perceptions  are  career  i n an  & Fretz,  associated group  of  with  as  current factors  a means  i n career  group  counselling. Research This  Questions study  addresses  the  following  of  questions:  11  1.  Which  therapeutic  client-preferred by  women  group  i n a career  2. W h i c h  change  group  therapeutic  client-preferred variance  factors  group  (as i n d i c a t e d  mechanisms)  counselling factors  change  a r e most  valued  intervention?  (as i n d i c a t e d  mechanisms)  i n women's p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  by  by  account f o r  levels  of  goal  instability? 3. W h i c h  client  demographics  women's p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n 4.  Do d i f f e r e n t  distinguished different  therapeutic  client-preferred  group  5. How d o women  over  i n  instability?  information) factors  change  prefer  (as i n d i c a t e d  by  mechanisms)?  c l i e n t s value  f o rc o n t r i b u t i n g  career  to their  group  career  development  time?  Significance  of this  Information implications Lieberman which  of goal  f o r variance  o f women c l i e n t s ( a s  by demographic  group  counselling  kinds  levels  account  conduct  gained  from t h i s  f o rc o u n s e l l i n g  (1983)  individuals  learning,  Study  practice.  "observations use a group  o r growth  such groups"  could  study  lead  may h a v e  According t o  concerning context  broad  t h e way i n  f o r change,  to alterations  (p. 207). F o r example,  i n how  leaders  we might  12 emphasize  those  and  content  shape  meet  client Goal  elements  materials  needs  and  instability  in  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  to  career  is  not  two  weak  on  i s a relatively  of d i f f e r e n t However,  development  self-concept).  instability  construct  i t s relevance  career  new  construct  age  and  will  study's  thus  to researching  relevance  gender  i t appears  (confusion  This  Its  used  groups  to  reflect  strongly link around goal use  provide  of the  some  to  setting goal  information  women's e x p e r i e n c e s  of  indecision.  Finally, client  by  establishing  demographics  between  client  and  factors,  information  about  how  this  implementation rationale  of program o f new  f o r the  and  study  different  counselling. This  modification  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  levels  demographics  therapeutic  group  to  preferences.  established.  career  influential,  l e a r n i n g approaches  factors which vocational theorists  women's and  and  most  vocational research.  development  fully  t h o u g h t t o be  of goal  preferred provides clients  information content  screening  instability,  and  may  group specific  experience lead  career  to  delivery,  criteria,  c r e a t i o n o f more  and  and/or  homogeneous  a  groups.  13  Chapter Literature  2 Review  Women i n t h e W o r k f o r c e The  last  changes  two decades  I n 1985,  labour  force,  (Statistics labour  51.8%  women c o m p r i s e d  compared  Canada, force  with  1987).  i s also  i n 1 9 8 1t o 55.9%  Canada,  1988).  tremendous  participation rate  the  ages  continue  Women's  rate  t h e most  work  and family  with  children  from  3 2 % i n 1976.  proportions  under  has occurred  children  By 1986, years  o f women's ratio  three aged 1988).  from  Immigration  (Statistics  between  increasing  Canada,  f u l f i l l i n g  5 6 % of Canadian were  women  i n the workforce,  and from  s i x t o 15 (Canadian Vocational  1988).  both  up  period,  4 1 % t o 6 2 % a m o n g women  to five,  i n  i s expected t o  F o r t h e same t e n y e a r from  &  up  a m o n g women  women a r e a l s o  three  increased  aged  Development,  roles.  participation rate i n  s i g n i f i c a n t increase  and employment  working-age  and 2 9 % i n 1965  steadily increasing,  f o r women o f a l l a g e s  More  children  3 7 % i n 1975,  o f 25 and 44, t h e pattern  participation  labour  4 3 % o f t h e Canadian  i n 1 9 8 6 (Employment  Although  the  with  witnessed  i n women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n  force.  the  have  with  50 t o 68% f o r those Council  theorists  (e.g.,  on  Social  14 Fitzgerald continue that  t o pursue  current  "strongly in  the plans  the  life  enter  and stay  1981). or the et  prompted  and remain  a l . ; Robinson  rises  dependent  potential  by f a m i l y  rates  (Read,  Elliott,  later  Seligman, i n life,  also provided career  paths  as t h e cost  increase,  have  children to  marry  personal  standards  o f women  e t a l . , 1982;  have  et a l . ) .Finally,  and l i f e s t y l e  their  family s t r u c t u r e and  wage e a r n e r  childless,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o pursue  phenomenon  force. Divorce  single,  been  outside the  i n c r e a s i n g numbers  1988; R o b i n s o n t o remain  social  defined  i n contemporary  of primary  The t r e n d s  marry  those  Inthe  has probably  and develop  women w i t h  & Slaney,  This  changes  roles.  women t o w o r k  1984).  pursuits  ongoing  and domestic  i n t h e work  forcing  the role  Escobar,  than  Changes  a l s o have  increased, assume  & Betz,  women t o i d e n t i f y  commitments.  f o rthese  compelling  roles other  lifestyle  o f work  participation  85).  t h e women's movement  force  (Fitzgerald  reasons  force  (p.  will  plans, and  of occupational  o f women"  a r e numerous  strongest  encourages  to  and l i v e s  m o r e women  and career  t h e importance  two decades,  home  marriage  that  i n women's l a b o u r  women's a s s u m p t i o n  last  in  1983) i n d i c a t e  both  trends  suggest  There in  and Betz,  of  t h e second  women (Read living  15 household for  income  c o n t r i b u t e d b y women  establishing Despite  staying  stable and s u f f i c i e n t  the increased  i n the labour  patterns  o f movement  generally  According  throughout  predominantly  and  service occupations  commitment pay" in  employed  their  occupations.  full  range  (Employment  Vocational differences in  consulted explain  those  relatively that  (1981),  fairly  high  of  high  women  into  "women  semi-professional  status  men  levels i n  and throughout t h e market  Canada,  i s also  1988).  have  noted t h e  men's a n d women's e m p l o y m e n t and researchers  theories of career  d i f f e r e n c e s and t o study  and low  a r e "behind"  i n the labour  force. Theorists  levels  career  a l l hierarchical  & Immigration  traditional  rate.  i n occupational  and low levels  and f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s  between  the labour  require  movement  of occupations  Bielby  i n clerical,  across  Their  force are  on c a r e e r m o b i l i t y .  I t i s apparent  most  limited  offer  distribution  incomes.  participation  any r e d u c t i o n  which  education  and which  (p.237).  the labour  and D e l Vento  are  non-technical  household  o f women e n t e r i n g a n d  as t h e i r  or limitations  t o Perun  mandatory  f o r c e , women's p o s i t i o n s a n d  not experienced  stereotyping  of  numbers  not as impressive  Women h a v e  i s often  patterns  alike  have  development t o  women's  career  16  decision-making theories focus  processes.  are based  to  Kriger  complex two  than  men's.  role  Career  question  i s central to their  development  life,  adult  confound According  i s more  f o r women outside  requires t h e home  a n d (b) w h a t  Men n e e d  of occupational  that  a n d do n o t  development.  employment  pursue.  traditional  development  planning  i n a woman's  she w i l l  these  and issues  and career  (a) w h e t h e r  be a focus  latter  factors  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , women's c a r e e r  occupation  is  choices  decisions:  will  on men's c a r e e r  on t h e s p e c i f i c  women's c a r e e r  However,  only  choice, lives  address the  since  t h e work  and t h e family  role  secondary. Perun  the  and D e l Vento  addition  cycle  i n t h e female  development Vocational economic, experience Betz  they  cycle  life  processes  t h e o r i s t s have and personal of both  1980;  t r yt o a c c e s s  renders  identified  and work Farmer, 1981;  comprise the full  argue  scope  social,  t o women's  cycles  (Astin, 1984;  Fitzgerald &  Hackett  major  career  o f men.  specific  1985;  that  family  women's  those  factors unique  family  also  to the traditional  course  Gottfredson,  factors often  (1981)  d i f f e r e n t from  & F i t z g e r a l d , 1987;  Crites, These  o f a work  Bielby  & Betz,  1981).  b a r r i e r s t o women of existing  when  traditional  17 and also  nontraditional influence  potential specific most  opportunities.  women's p e r c e p t i o n s  and l i f e factors  vocational ...  career  role  agree  the determinants  o f t h e work  predictable of  synchronizing  adulthood men. Career  than  Counselling  Vocational efforts for  the cultural  encounter "social gender market,  during  i s less  work  and family difficult  the process  cycles  throughout  f o r women t h a n f o r  Bielby,  1981, p . 249)  theorists  their  career  has also  have  social  responded  by developing  barriers  arisen  demands.  governments,  that  development.  i n employment role  continue  theory  and intrapersonal  and i n l i f e  awareness  o f women  a comprehensive  differences  women's g r o u p s  o f men, t h a t t h e  f o r Women  conscience"  institutions,  development,  behavior of  o f men, a n d t h a t  and feminist  t o create  those  cycle  & D e l Vento  the  that:  that  may b e m o r e  (Perun  By c o n s i d e r i n g  of occupational  women a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m  factors  career  i n women's c a r e e r  theorists  trajectory  of their  priorities.  involved  These  career  accounts  women A  general  i n response  patterns  their  t othe  i n the  labour  Educational service  to this  agencies,  widespread  counselling  and  social  interventions  18 for  women. S p e c i a l i z e d c a r e e r  i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r women a r e  now  regarded  means o f h e l p i n g  with  as t h e p r i n c i p l e  a l l the factors involved  development Borman Read  (e.g.,  Betz,  & Guido-DiBrito,  i n their  1989; B e t z  career  women  deal  choices  and  & Fitzgerald,  1986; F i t z g e r a l d  e t a l . , 1988; W o o d , 1 9 8 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g  1987;  & Crites, to  1980;  Seligman  (1981) : ...  career  vehicles  counseling  f o rh e l p i n g  lifestyles. help  both  confidence  Vocational recommendations in  career  and  basic  systemic career with  women d e a l  troubled  with  their  and self-awareness, of the world  f o rCareer theorists  which can  acquire  o f work,  rewarding  greater formulate (p.26)  women  offer  and personal  development.  access  counselling  Counsellors  that  confound  must  resources,  s t r a t e g i e s which  needs  important  counsellors understand  barriers  to relevant  numerous  clients'  c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The most i s that  gain  f o r Women  and researchers meet  and  plans,  Counselling  o n how t o b e s t  expectation  changing  a n d w e l l - a d j u s t e d women  and p o t e n t i a l l y  Recommendations  t o be one o f t h e b e s t  I t i s a mode o f c o u n s e l i n g  understanding viable  seems  the  women's  also provide  and p r a c t i c e  c a n e m p o w e r women t o  clients  19 overcome b a r r i e r s  ( B e t z , 1 9 8 9 ; McGraw, 1982) .  However, c o u n s e l l o r s must a l s o be aware t h a t who s e e k c a r e e r group. C l i e n t s their  c o u n s e l l i n g do n o t c o m p r i s e a h o m o g e n e o u s vary  i n their  needs f o r s e r v i c e s ,  work o r e d u c a t i o n , into  a working  labour  personal  i n their  and i n t h e i r  role.  force after  v i e w s o f how t h e y f i t  Some c l i e n t s  are re-entering the  v a r i e d absences,  either  o r j o b changes. Bernard of this  Many a r e c l e a r l y experiences  client  and o t h e r s  are seeking  (1984) r e m i n d s u s  target  tuned i n t o t h e i r  group:  needs,  and work e x p e c t a t i o n s ; t h e y  nudge o f encouragement, of  time,  some a r e e n t e r i n g t h e  f o r the f i r s t  of t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y  circumstances, i n  reasons f o r seeking  labour market career  women  past  need a  a push i n t h e d i r e c t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n , and they're  off...Others,  however,  seem t o l a c k a s e n s e o f v o c a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . . . t h e i r self  knowledge i s scanty,  Because o f t h e i r and  different  employment e x p e r i e n c e ,  ideas  ( p . 139)  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  clients  career  of career  choices  options  can then  of  self-awareness  have a v a r i e t y  of occupations.  p r o g r a m s must t h e r e f o r e s t r i v e repertoire  levels  of  Counselling  t o expand  clients'  (Betz, 1989).  be b e t t e r i n f o r m e d  Clients' and b e t t e r  20 matched  t o personal  counsellors enter can  math  give  (Betz  In  with  work  & Betz,  1981),  and career  (e.g.,  Schlecker). clients  Finally, counselling client others'  (Wood,  c o u n s e l l o r s must  1989),  or  they  & Crites, can then  the limits  This  values  that  1980; more  and  effective  and empathy,  can  and c o n t r o l  and levels  and  about  Nevill  of  authors  alter  women a n d &  effectively  women's  c a n be  beliefs,  challenge  o n women's c a r e e r  and coping  overcome  1988) . S e v e r a l  a t t i t u d e s and biases  as t h e most  ideas  on t h e i r  self-efficacy  several researchers  support  clients  f e e l i n g s of mastery  Counsellors  impose  help  & Schlecker,  Fitzgerald  confront  processes  so that  counsellors and c l i e n t s  events  (Nevill  own s e x - t y p e d  work  programs  and education.  clients  Together,  stress that  their  t o continue  1987).  on i n c r e a s i n g c l i e n t s '  assertiveness also  & Fitzgerald,  systems.  life  clients  F o r example,  consideration t o nontraditional career  by working  (Hackett over  women  educational  and a n x i e t i e s about  belief  and interests.  a d d i t i o n , c o u n s e l l o r s must  achieved  work  encourage  and science  equal  options  fears  should  abilities  help  socialization  development. recommend means  group  f o r generating  and f o rensuring  strategies  career  (Amundson  exposure t o &  Borgen,  21 1988;  Berman  Goering, The of  e t a l . , 1977;  above  discussion  development  It  women  appear  barriers  a financial and program  incorporate  such  counselling  service  mandates  institutions, responsible women.  women  women  counselling for  high  career  agencies,  planners  arises  they  offer  decisions  of career  are not widely  challenge  given  educational  needs  of  help  f o r Women  interventions f o r  i n the vocational  evaluations women.  s t i l l  plans.  Interventions  reported  are  career  effectively and  to  the  and  the  to  directly  counselling  counselling  Most  and college  review  development.  and f a c i l i t a t o r s  as t o whether  Counselling  literature.  steps t o  o f recommendations  o f government,  range  The  i n the field  However,  make c a r e e r  school  meta-analytic  to their  administrators  interventions  of Career  "action"  interventions.  program  Evaluations adult  &  a wide  are derived.  f o rservicing the career  clients  Review  Rice  o f women's  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a variety  The q u e s t i o n  counselling  and theories  t o be l o g i c a l  counsellors  into  1983;  summarizes  from which they  overcome  i s likely  briefly  recommendations  recommendations help  & Ward,  1977).  counselling  career  Kahn  assess  In fact,  of intervention  outcome  i n a  programs major  studies  (Oliver  & Spokane,  reported Fretz on  on a d u l t - f o c u s e d  (1981),  students  appropriate world  on  The  " s o many c a r e e r  have  already  often  been  counselling  t o a broad  neglected"  base  of career  two were  produce  dismal  on c a r e e r  included  on c a r e e r  small  (1988)  interventions  these  a v a i l a b l e t o women. of interventions  choice, outcome  studies  These  on c l i e n t  studies not  s t i l l  report  does n o t  evaluations  does  However,  give  readers  counselling  studies  also  report  personality factors,  and program-satisfaction. studies  f o r adult  studies.  f o r women.  i n d i c a t i o n of the variety of career  programs  research.  interventions  o f program  group of published  to  i n O l i v e r and Spokane's  by O l i v e r and Spokane  reporting  specifically  w h e n we p e r u s e t h e  i n c l u s i o n o f outcome  a s u b s t a n t i a l body  more  are not able  evaluation  i n t e r v e n t i o n outcome  Unfortunately,  career  outcomes  ( p . 85). As a  of adults  of relevant  f o rreports  review  reviewed  needs  i s even more  only  effects  are focused  i n or about t o enter t h e  women:  an  interventions  to  t o persons  situation  this  interventions. According  p r a c t i t i o n e r s and t h e o r i s t s focusing  literature  studies  system that  the career  refer  5% o f r e v i e w e d  i n the educational  o f work  result,  1988), o n l y  The m a j o r i t y  on group c a r e e r  of  counselling  23  interventions. researchers  Given that  s e v e r a l t h e o r i s t s and  u p h o l d group c o u n s e l l i n g  format f o r m e e t i n g c l i e n t s ' (e.g.,  Amundson & Borgen,  a d d i t i o n t o t h e economic counselling  career  as t h e p r e f e r r e d  development  1988; R i c e  & G o e r i n g , 1977)  and d e l i v e r y e f f i c i e n c y  ( O l i v e r & Spokane,  1988), outcome  reported  here a r e f o r women's group c a r e e r  programs  and workshops  Outcome S t u d i e s  Berman e t a l . (1977) career  returned  to college,  studies  Interventions  examined  interventions  interventions  o f group  counselling  e f f e c t s o f two  f o r women who had e i t h e r  o r were c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n  from home t o t h e w o r k f o r c e . These r e s e a r c h e r s two  in  only.  of Multiple  distinct  needs  which f e a t u r e d  supportive  r e p o r t e d on learning  e n v i r o n m e n t s . Each i n t e r v e n t i o n  featured d i f f e r e n t  content  client  and s e r v e d two d i s t i n c t  g r o u p s . One group  was  composed o f e n t e r i n g  c o l l e g e women. The second group  was  formed by women from t h e community, who were  c u r r e n t l y not w o r k i n g and wanted Berman e t a l . (1977) women's s e l f - c o n c e p t s ,  to set vocational  goals.  sought t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s on  career  maturity,  attitudes  women, and r e c e p t i v i t y t o new i n f o r m a t i o n .  toward  In each  i n t e r v e n t i o n group, t h e a u t h o r s m a i n t a i n t h a t  group  24 leaders  provided  designed  a supportive  t o promote  relationships,  client  interventions,  adult  they  f o r women  significantly Although addressed associated  with  group,  formats.  clients  choice,  expect  counsellors  appear  t o have  and needs  i ti s d i f f i c u l t  Each  f o ra d i f f e r e n t and d e l i v e r y  how a n d why t h e a u t h o r s  counselling  environment"  interventions.  from  We  would  sensitive t o the issues  learning  to  either i n  interventions.  content  learning  development  intervention  varied  unclear  group  their  reported  interventions,  o r as s i n g l e  and featured  traditional  each  In t h e group  at a different location,  a "supportive  facilitate  designed f o r  interventions  of these  distinguish  women's c a r e e r  i n  some o f t h e b a r r i e r s  other  I t i s also  that  i n t h e group  women's c a r e e r  t o each  conducted  client  these  the results  comparison  maturity  o f both  self-concepts.  and s a t i s f i e d  interpret  increased  i n t h e community,  both  pre-post and  i n assessment  to university.  improved  interpersonal  Using  designs  decision-making  women r e t u r n i n g  designed  was  group found  environment  disclosure,  and goal-setting.  experimental-control  vocational  learning  would  support  experiences.  demonstrates  some  of  clients  Finally,  impact  on  and although  relevant  career  development  identify  which  responsible credit a  f o rc l i e n t  t h e supposed  Other  content  with  change.  i n inducing have  career  career  I t i s also learning client  latter  used  toward  employment  treatment  program  approaches. treatment clients screened  a cognitive  on m u l t i p l e the specific best  f o r women p a r t i c i p a n t s . a skills-based intervention  were  solicited  according  dissatisfied randomly  participants  faced  A nondirective  c o n t r o l group  Results  approach  combined  with  assigned  t o each  from pre-post  that  and they  status.  of the five  measures  third  and a no-  run. Forty  from t h e community  employment  A  and b e l i e f s  treatment group also  The  beliefs  b y women c l i e n t s .  to the criterion their  focused  skills.  t o improve  the skills  were  with  change.  and assertiveness  issues  to  environment  a b e l i e f s - f o c u s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n . The f o r m e r job search  were  impossible  counselling which  compared  to  o r both programs  reported  development  e t a l . (1983)  developing  were  o f each  i n attempts t o i d e n t i f y  o f group  facilitates  i ti s impossible  supportive  researchers  interventions  on  components  substantial role  Keller  variables,  volunteer selfwere  Eight  clients  groups.  indicated  that  i n t h e s k i l l s - f o c u s e d and b e l i e f s - f o c u s e d  groups  reported  satisfaction  significantly  from  the  non-directive  the  hypotheses,  beliefs-focused greater  goals  singular any  group  found  career  they  that  cancel time one  out each  must  clear  to  group  i n either of the  no t r e a t m e n t  effectsf o r  general  conclude  that  expectations  of  t h e two content  both c a n be  these  c o u n s e l l i n g programs.  However,  areas  may  maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A d e q u a t e  i n each  area  i fthey  and t h e r a t i o n a l e s of each  a r e combined i n must  be  made  clients.  Unfortunately,  despite  design  and c o n t r o l featured  study,  the results  differing  workshop  workshops  with  small,  significantly  and b e l i e f s - f o c u s e d content  client  one's  t o one o f  skills-and-  clients  The r e s e a r c h e r s  combining  be spent  program,  Contrary  f o rparticipants'  content  experimental  than  goals-  d i dparticipants i n  d i dnot report  Further,  i n meeting  caution  personal  members o f t h e c o m b i n e d  t o work.  skills-focused  than  and c o n t r o l groups.  statisfaction  were  orientation  effective  t h e programs  approaches.  groups  greater  the careful i n Keller  regarding content  other  clients.  and the volunteer  et al.'s  the relative  cannot  experimental (1983)  efficacy  be g e n e r a l i z e d  The sample  p a r t i c i p a n t s may  size  of  to  other  i stoo  n o t have  been  27  representative with  their  with  larger  necessary  o f women  employment groups  before  beliefs-focused effective In  entry  another  women  broad  treatment  need  to identify  plus  f o rv o c a t i o n a l  i n t h e video-VCS  the other  recommend  motivated  Undecided  them  sort, which  Results  than  promoted  reported  subjects  t o gain also  more  minimal  choice. greater  clients.  more  that  strongly  they  and that  they  would  their  information  claimed  a  opinionnaire,  d i ddecided agreed  One  and t h e other  expressed  t o others,  students  group.  and occupational  subjects  group  f o r r e -  randomly  satisfaction  condition  the intervention  experience careers.  treatment  card  scale,  services  and Dickson  and a c o n t r o l  a video  options.  Slaney  C l i e n t s were  a vocational  career  i s more  interventions  groups  e f f e c t s on a program with  either  the relative  content,  college.  sort  that  women.  s u r p r i s i n g l y , undecided  Subjects than  card  research  variables i s  can suggest  two c o u n s e l l i n g  of career  satisfaction Not  effort  featured  range  similar  or s k i l l s - f o c u s e d content  attending  vocational  outcome  any researchers  t o two treatment  treatment a  a n d more  who a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d  Additional  of intervention  compared  assigned  status.  f o rc o u n s e l l i n g  effectiveness (1985)  at large  on  had gained  clarification  about i n a p p r o p r i a t e f u t u r e work f o r  t h e m s e l v e s , and t h a t they occupations.  felt  They d i s a g r e e d  subjects that personal  motivated  l e s s s t r o n g l y than  This suggests that although  had  these  clients'  the intervention  u n d e c i d e d women, they may s t i l l  been e x p e r i e n c i n g career-decided  considerable  confusion  women. However, on a one-year  of Single  have  compared t o  comments f o r b o t h t r e a t m e n t s were  Outcome S t u d i e s  decided  r e s u l t s o f t h e program were  confusing. helped  to research  follow-up,  positive.  Interventions  A number o f outcome s t u d i e s on s i n g l e c a r e e r / l i f e planning  c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r e n t r y and r e -  e n t r y women have been r e p o r t e d . described the i n i t i a l planning labour  R i c e and G o e r i n g  and f o l l o w - u p  Initial  workshop f o r women c o n s i d e r i n g r e - e n t r y t o t h e were  one o f which i n c l u d e d two male p a r t i c i p a n t s . and f o l l o w - u p  measures a s s e s s e d  m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f workshop c o n t e n t from b o t h groups showed h i g h e s t speakers,  the r e l a t i v e  to clients.  Results  ratings for the lectures,  and homework a s s i g n m e n t s .  outcome measures o f 4 2 c l i e n t s they  of a l i f e -  f o r c e . Two groups o f 2 3 and 19 c l i e n t s  studied,  guest  effects  (1977)  Follow-up  i n c l u d e d r e p o r t s on how  r e s t r u c t u r e d time and a c t i v i t i e s  to facilitate  career  and  skills  taught  variables reported  life  as  in  the  workshops.  of  role  models  successful group  means  of  around  of  very  of  participants around  respondents  of  reported  self-knowledge,  authors  suggest  speakers)  were  for counselling  solving  effects  of  and  Rice's  i m p r e s s i v e . The aspects  post-workshop  change  model,  of  the  probably  as  groups  both  respectively), men  were  the  workshop  and  and  Goering's appear  workshop  processes.  were  very  they  differed  i n c l u d e d i n one according to  influences the  most  Further,  a  crucial  exchange  support.  content  However,  small  group,  (1977) to  apparently experienced  groups  84%  presented  change.  i s upheld  authors  of  and  models  that  for generating client  client-valued  treatment  75%  providing opportunities for client  problem  The  attitudinal  using decision-making  (guest  format  and  decision-making  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a s s e r t i v e n e s s ,  The  method  of  predominantly  reported increased levels examples  are  percent of  quoted  the  workshop,  changes,  Thirty levels  application  s e l f - e s t e e m . Over  activity  increased  the  during the  such  schooling.  35%  goals,  (23  identify and  the and  different  each  subsequent  although  in several (b)  workshop  same  two  workshop  19 ways:  group  meeting  the  (a)  two  attended  schedules  30 over  d i f f e r e n t time  interviews one  group  Despite  were and  the  scheduled  group two  should  therefore  sample  size,  program before  and  career  covered  search  re-entry  scope  Goering's  values  groups  respectively  attended  also  A  waitlist  included.  levels  of  of  The  job/training  entry.  the  conclusions A  larger  consistent  be  incorporated  i n i t i a l  and  women p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  i n t e r v e n t i o n . This  content  similar  skills,  and  self and  nine  and  did  not  (i.e.,  job  Two  clients  counselling  were  indecision, anxiety, Results  featured  setting).  eight  measures  that  career  re-entry  of  that  model  goal  twelve-week  dependent  to  a  intervention  e x p e r i e n t i a l components  (1977) w o r k s h o p  12  other.  valid.  c o n t r o l group  vocational  and  for  have  caution.  reported  clarification  experimental  program.  of  assertiveness  awareness,  also  the  Their  must  considered  (1983)  for  authors  groups,  frames  d i d a c t i c and  and  and  be  from  broad  the  i n t o one.  time  follow-up  post-workshop  interpreted with  counselling  both  Rice's  the  months  homogeneous  Ward  data  a  sets  follow-up  group  featured  in  be  more  and  follow-up  ten  (c)  differences,  data  r e s u l t s can  Kahn  and  s i x months post-workshop  these  combined  periods,  reveal  clients  was  clients' self-esteem any  and  31 significant effects. up  treatment  However,  interviews  Seventeen found that  result most  clients  career  information aspects  patterns  of their  member  evaluators decisions  should  appropriate  women o v e r c o m e t o which  clients'  women's  t o assess  career  as a  Unfortunately,  clients  support  anxiety cited  as t h e most  They  o f some they  suggest  that  employment  Instead,  well  program  of clients'  career  interventions are helping  barriers t o career career  development,  criteria f o r  i n d i c a t o r s o f how  needs.  whether  change  do e m p h a s i z e t h e  outcome  at the quality  resulting  reported  experience.  However,  research.  look  or  are careful not to  results.  meet  training  experiencing  Finally,  v a r i a b l e s are inadequate  interventions  extent  (1983)  of choosing  i n evaluation  status  s t i l l  group  positive.  had increased  the positive direction  i n their  importance  issues.  were  follow-  contacted  participation. were  from  had pursued  levels  and group  and Ward  overemphasize  use  decision  interaction  derived  of the clients  at follow-up  career  data  contacted  workshop  around  Kahn  Half  nor any  post-program,  self-confidence  of their  helpful  months  clients  employment. their  qualitative  three  o f 20  effects,  decisions decisions  i fc l i e n t s '  (i.e.,  the  further the  socioeconomic  32 status  i s i m p r o v e d , a n d how c a r e e r  long-term  career  Bruyere sponsored facing The  e t a l . (1984)  evaluated  i n t e r v e n t i o n f o re n t r y  planning  hardship  and re-entry  and change  support format  groups.  Group  authors  their  career  employed  status  i n their  inadequacy  status).  participants  with  Further,  intervention  f o rimpact  they  reflect  (i.e.,  and l i f e  and job search  outcome  limited  planning  skills.  the evaluators'  measures  employment training,  The p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d  career  on  on t h e  o f t h e outcome  program enrollment,  self-exploration measures  delivery  d i dnot use a c o n t r o l  program e v a l u a t i o n  pre-employment  non-change  o f group and  workshops, and peer  t h e program  and inappropriateness  i n their  life  at a three-month follow-up, the  because they  study.  and  components.  hesitate to credit  employment  status,  a multi-faceted  60% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s  being  women  c o u n s e l l i n g was t h e c o r e  f o ra l l program  reported  meet  c o u n s e l l i n g components,  Although  group  women c l i e n t s  state-  i nmarital status.  n e e d s . The p r o g r a m was c o m p r i s e d  individual  with  a thirty-hour  p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m was t o p r o v i d e t o help  align  goals) .  financial  service  used  decisions  or  t o help  by focusing  However, t h e ability  to  on  assess Kahn  a l l t h e program's elements  a n d Ward  importance  of choosing  assessment. studies  (1983), t h e s e  They  use multiple  vocational,  valued The  outcome  (1980)  p r o g r a m was t a r g e t e d who w e r e  home t o p a i d  women  factors  involved  Content  was o r g a n i z e d  imagery  (b) p e r s o n a l i z i n g  exercises,  presentations participants of  them  claimed  exploration  they  four  client-  workshop. i n their  from t h e  o f work,  the  process.  that  (a) e x p l o r i n g  options,  are central career  (c) t r a n s l a t i n g  self-  a n d (d) c a r e e r / l i f e  of panel  these  explored  themes  presentations, and  four  a l l activities  themes. that  Feedback  their  from  the majority  t o be h e l p f u l .  t h e workshop developed  guided  instructional  i n one workshop i n d i c a t e d  considered that  to identify  exploration  goal-setting,  addressed  functioning.  a transition  career  change process:  A combination  reflect  women c l i e n t s  while  around  planning.  outcome  The w o r k s h o p was d e s i g n e d t o  i n their  t o the world  program  attempted  support  knowledge  variables f o r  measures that  toward  employment.  these  options,  future  contemplating  provide  the career  outcome  i n a career  Asd i d  emphasize t h e  and interpersonal  also  program content  thirties  to  that  psychological,  Sandmeyer  authors  relevant  suggest  and o b j e c t i v e s .  They  self-esteem,  34  and  helped  them  t o explore  their  values,  skills  and  goals. Shortcomings  and Possible  Improvements  of  Evaluation  Studies The of  above  client  program and  outcome  studies  characteristics,  materials  program  speaking,  group  and content,  objectives  counselling  reflect  i tappears  membership  i n career  f o radult  that  not  However,  the reviewed  practically  results  from  results small  have  studies  of findings been  sizes.  Questions  how c a r e e r  group  in  d i f f e r e n t kinds  helping  career By  counselling  exploration focusing  preceding  review,  do  have  e x p l o r a t i o n and  positive findings, sound  i t i s  to generalize  occur  Further,  part  design,  Generally  programs  t o unevaluated  cannot  assessed.  a r e f o r t h e most  sample  these  or theoretically  outcome  Generalization programs  despite  criteria,  group  women.  some p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o n women's c a r e e r planning.  variety  d e l i v e r y formats,  featured  interventions  t h e wide  programs.  because  outcome  t o o few  studies'  unduplicated  and based  s t i l l  remain  as t o i f and  interventions  areeffective  o f women  and planning  facilitate  their  processes.  on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d i e s i ti s possible  on  t o suggest  i nt h e  reasons  why  35 these  outcome  studies  have  relative  effectiveness  content,  on v a r i e d  shortcomings First, is  client  for  career  are  associated  content  counselling with  and with  least  ambiguous  for  interventions  second  studies.  know t h a t social  are derived  leader then,  career  The studies  second i s that  types,  Positive  outcomes  single  (Kahn  or  Oliver  multiple  components.  ideal  structure  and Spokane's  intervention that  after  interventions  f o rcareer  counselling  there  t o apply  indicate  group/class  (Robbins  group  career  discussion.  approach  regarding  of career  results  and community  modeling  women's  review  e t a l . , 1987),  that  women.  arethe  counselling.  provides & Ward,  & Tucker,  1986).  1983;  I t i s likely,  i s an e f f e c t i v e format f o r  counselling. emerging  their criteria  from  a review  variables  We  a context f o r  and f o r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e and  counselling  point  and  major  treatment  from  e f f e c t i v e approach  support  delivery,  merit  of either  conclusions  Their  group  Kivlighan  studies  of adult  counselling,  most  Three  or counselling  coverage  (1988) m e t a - a n a l y t i c  individual  design,  e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o g n i t i v e  The  outcome  groups.  e f f o r t s t o compare  no p r e f e r r e d  to identify the  o f programs'  of the preceding  despite  topics,  failed  of these  are very  36 similar.  Evaluations  training  status,  career  change  suggest  not always  that  chosen  clients  (Bruyere  result,  outcome measures  e t a l . , 1984;  impact  client  have  needs  Reconsideration  this  possible This  relevant  1985;  Robbins  "that  part  elements  by c l i e n t s ,  of the self  and whether  applied i n  t o be one means  1986).  recent  which  purposes  Goal  of  outcome  variable i s goal from  o f an  addressed.  of college students  & Tucker,  age-appropriate  Furthermore, the  of published  outcome  elements  e x e r c i s e s ) , have t h e  which  adequately  i s derived  development  1983). A s a  dispensing,  o f outcome measures  shortcoming  construct  career  outcomes.  e v a l u a t i o n appears  second  & Ward,  information  valued  been  to reflect the  d e c i s i o n needs o f  Kahn  do n o t i d e n t i f y  a r e most  of  variables  do n o t i n d i c a t e w h i c h  on which  intervention  outcome  enough  w r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s , group  outcome measures  program  common  or the career  an i n t e r v e n t i o n (e.g.,  greatest  to  these  and l e v e l s  Some e v a l u a t o r s a n d  carefully  o f programs  discussion,  employment and  i n self-concept,  content  of  on f o l l o w - u p  i n d e c i s i o n and maturity.  researchers are  focus  studies.  (Robbins  instability  or objectives"  A  instablity.  research  i s expressive  addressing  on t h e &  Patton,  reflects  o f commitment (Robbins  &  37  Patton, not  p. 226). P e r s o n s  have  plan  a clear  f o rt h e i r  career  construct  with  weak  sense  depletion organize  suggest  accompanied one's  self-esteem  instability experience  with  interventions instability research career that  and  barriers. have  as an outcome  on t h e c a r e e r  into  They  of  personal  f o r isolating  of i t s  relationship a sense o f  of goals  career goal  that  could  decisions are  setting.  the struggles However,  of goal  that  goal  women  goal Most  instability  class,  instability  goal  instability  In a  Robbins  scores  predicting  to  designs  of college students.  equation  found  Goal  evaluations of  quasi-experimental  of a college career  a regression  decidedness.  instability i s  not featured  plans  (1985) e n t e r e d  to  underlies  or predictor variable.  has used  of the effects  Patton  career  around  t o subsume  f o r women  development  students  t o women's  and confusion  both  do  ( p . 226).  exploring the relevance  focus  study  because  by t h e absence  barriers  appears  goal  thus  " i t may b e t a p p i n g  activities"  Two p r i m a r y  or the confidence  responsible  that  of self,  instability  and perception  The r e s e a r c h e r s  this  goal  instability  In addition,  t o low self-esteem  competency.  high  of goals  f u t u r e s . Goal  indecision.  related  low  system  with  from  level  of  t o be a  88  38 significant career  p r e d i c t o r of  class to  for very  equation.  In  students,  goal  indecision  l i t t l e  another  into  an  equation  but  minor  Robbins  and  Tucker  explore  the  relationship and  interactional  instability  performed  indicated  significant  instability, study  that  approaches  career  demonstrates  instability attribute The  as  and  a  from  the  class  for  107  an  between  students  better to  experimental levels  of  with  i n the  high  a  workshop of  to  and These  versus  also  goal formats.  levels  This  of  blocking variable for exploring  p r e l i m i n a r y work  was  design  interactional  p o t e n t i a l use  intervention  career  goal  i n t e r a c t i o n s between  the  were  goal  for students.  and  a  career indecision.  counselling. Results  maturity  in  instability  for self-directed  students  used  i t  in  goal  p r e d i c t o r of  workshops  found  career  Again,  preferences  career  However,  f o r p r e d i c t i n g changes  (1986) u s e d  researchers  individual  a  students  variance  scores  1987).  significant  the  of  instability  that  choices.  of  study  (Robbins,  instability  extent  make c a r e e r  accounted  entered  the  goal  client  interactions.  with  goal  instability  promising  i n establishing i t s relevance  students'  career  decision-making.  to  However,  has  college i t is  a  been  relatively its is  new c o n s t r u c t  validity needed  f o rstudying  i n which  exploratory  age groups.  two  theoretically  decision-making  Since  instability  goal  defined  (i.e.,  of career  totally  confirm  development.  instability barriers  confusion  More  i s featured  of different  appears  around  work  as an  populations to  t o women's  self-concept), i t s application  experiences and  goal  cannot  career  variable i n studies  and  weak  a n d we  reflect  career  g o a l - s e t t i n g and  i n studies  i n t e r v e n t i o n s appears  o f women's  appropriate  promising. The  their  third  shortcoming  outcome  factors  that  Research  group  1987;  and group  and change  Yalom's  group  process  (e.g.,  Butler  counselling, indicates that  facilitate  client  & Fuhriman,  1983; M a c D e v i t t  1983; &  Sanislow,  1985) . (1985) m o d e l  i s probably  investigating model  experiences  1987; L i e b e r m a n ,  Yalom,  change  o f psychotherapy,  and s e l f - h e l p / s u p p o r t groups  Kellermann,  i s that  contribute to intervention effectiveness.  events  learning  studies  v a r i a b l e s do n o t i d e n t i f y  on a v a r i e t y  encounter,  o f outcome  features  of group  t h e best-known  client  perceptions  11 t h e r a p e u t i c  therapy  and  client  approach t o o f group  factors:  processes.  (a)  This  instillation  40 of  hope,  (d)  (b)  universality,  altruism,  primary  family  techniques, learning,  mechanisms.  different  and  to  therapy  according  stage  and  1983;  Kivlighan  Yalom).  factors  of  the  operate  out  by  in  acknowledge  the  change  Goering,  counselling  of  employing  the  studies  role  and  1977).  of  client his  However,  outcome  Yalom's factors group  1983;  emerged that has  for a l l been  model. and  researchers'  reviewed  processes  (e.g.,  on  Fuhriman,  groups  feedback  learning  only  &  hypothesis  previously  group  interventions  have  leader  problems,  Lieberman,  Yalom's  a l l kinds  supports  client  different patterns  qualitative client  assumptions  &  1988;  to  these  (k)  to  Research  of  Butler  and  related  clients,  groups  group,  & Mullison,  in  are  valuing  (e.g.,  factors,  interpersonal  interventions.  of  the  catharsis,  between  clients'  type  information,  socializing  (h)  (j)  counselling  that  research  General  and  of  of  factors  behaviour  Although  rankings  client  and  to  leader  These  types  hypothesis  varies  development  within  of  r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of  cohesiveness,  occurring  behaviours  (f)  imparting  imitative behaviour,  (i) group  processes  borne  corrective  group,  (g)  existential  (1985)  (e)  (c)  Kahn  in  & Ward,  studies  recently  facilitating  of  have  1983;  Rice  career evaluated  group  programs  responses (1987)  to  used  by  group  to  mechanisms  in a  with  and  occupational Students from  to  sessions.  development factors, valued  to  (b)  dependent  and  Among t h e  feelings,  group,  responsibility  (c)  values  and  was  the  f o r one's  a  sense  decision,  counselling highest,  cognitive  approach  to  encompass  the  range  to  clients.  full  Kivlighan  career  et  of  two-hour career  highly of  existential  group  the  in  most  components  that  ranging  possible therapeutic  the  suggest  ranked  typically  factor  and  (d)  of  group  emotional these  rational  c o u n s e l l i n g may  and  not  counselling techniques  a l . suggest  (c)  making.  change  Since  researchers  a  lifestyle,  for four  cohesiveness. of  students  in  groups,  clients (b)  change  identification  decision  eleven  that  valued  Forty-seven  (a)  running  variable  indicated  in a  of  participated  career  et a l .  change  areas:  (d)  nine  members  expressing  universality taking  topic  abilities,  assigned  results (a)  primary  status.  group  counselling class.  college students  seven  The  of  clients'  Kivlighan  perceptions  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  were  four  variables.  client  career  four  interests  assessing  (1985) m o d e l  assess  career-undecided  of  process  Yalom's  mechanisms  program  specifically  that  although  useful  42  practical  information  to  decision-making,  career  career  and t e a c h i n g  c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be  process  factors like of inclusion  personal  responsibility  Robbins  to  variable and  indicated  strong  counselling Although  level  of group  students  found  results  among  was  used  preferences  interpersonal Amundson client-valued unemployed 77  elements  aspects  blocking  of career  maturity  regardless  d i d not apply they  and respond  (1988)  of  goal  501  programs. Yalom's  noted  (1985)  that  to the  settings. attempted  o f membership  named  career  self-directed  a d u l t s . Through clients  assigned  f o r interactional  o f group  and Borgen  to  outcomes, p a r t i c i p a n t s  mechanisms,  t o value  similar  students  as a  i n levels  and i n d i v i d u a l  researchers  appeared  reporting,  changes  change  encouraging  or interactional  s e t t i n g s versus  these  group  fostering  and  exploration. Surprisingly,  instability  for  (1986)  instability  t o assess  to  f o r decisions.  and Tucker  Goal  career  model  and belonging,  self-directed  workshops.  necessary  by a t t e n d i n g  affect,  o f K i v l i g h a n e t a l . (1987)  either  are  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n group  increased  expressing  feelings  those  their  skills  i n a  critical helping  to  identify  job search  group  incident f a c t o r s and  only  44  hindering  helping group  factors to their  f a c t o r s were  content  (1985) m o d e l  several  of their  in  Yalom's  (e)  clearly  and  Amundson  fell  increased  clients'  acquisition.  provided group  but factors  encouragement  (instillation  of  (d) l e a d e r s h i p from  and  leader),  ( c a t h a r s i s ) , and (f)  the helping and Borgen  This  factors (1988)  groups:  related to task f i n d i n g thus content  curriculum.  specific  noted  that  and  that  that  these  clients  and respond  interactional  processes  and dynamics  t h e 19  which  self-esteem, and  skills  clients  and p r e s e n t a t i o n  recognize  setting.  19  (a) f a c t o r s  confirms  In addition,  evidence  to  accomplishment  clearly  counselling  and  feelings of support  the practical  counselling  d i d not use  therapeutic  advice/suggestions  i n t o two major  (b) f a c t o r s  value  support  of  (altruism).  assigning  categories,  parallel  The  categories  the categories,  (universality),  ventilating  contribution  authors  (b) p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k  (modeling,  emotional  After  to create  (a) m u t u a l  (c) b e l o n g i n g  information  experiences.  t o 19 g e n e r a l These  categories  model:  (cohesiveness), hope),  assigned  and processes.  Yalom's  group  of a  group  researchers  i n a  job  search  positively  to  inherent  i n a  group  44 Yalom's clients has  (1985) h y p o t h e s i s  respond  also  McGovern  partial  groups.  (1981)  d i f f e r e n t kinds  d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e 11 t h e r a p e u t i c  received  counselling  that  support  Kivlighan,  assigned  Hagaseth,  college  of  students  interaction  o r i n d i v i d u a l and s e l f - d i r e c t i v e assigned  t o groups  personality  type  showed  counselling  with  that  personality  approaches who  that  (people  types  were  than  elements  more e f f e c t i v e  Robbins  and Tucker  by treatment  in  group  directed  and assign career  instability  than type.  Clients  t o respond  to the  very d i f f e r e n t l y  also  sought  a  client  interaction f o rcollege  & Patton,  them  used  1985)  students  levels  of  goal  to distinguish  interactional or  Clients  better  workshops.  They  to either  workshops.  performed  self-directed  (1986)  counselling.  (Robbins  congruent  task-focused.  attribute  clients  appeared  Results  were  o f one g r o u p - t y p e  who w e r e  instability  to their  d i d not match p e r s o n a l i t y  clients  career  that  member  activities.  vs. task-oriented).  a r e more p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d  interpersonal  either  according  approaches  and  t o group  environments  were  emphasized  factors career  Tipton  counselling  Members  that  i n studies  of  with  high  self-  goal  i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l than i n  Clients  with  low  goal  45  instability  d i d equally  well  i n b o t h t y p e s o f workshops.  Goal i n s t a b i l i t y  thus appears t o be a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f  personality  may d e t e r m i n e how c l i e n t s r e s p o n d t o  that  group e n v i r o n m e n t s . Taken t o g e t h e r , (Kivlighan that  t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e above  e t a l . , 1981; Robbins & Tucker,  a t l e a s t two p e r s o n a l i t y  task-oriented,  l e v e l of goal  1986) i n d i c a t e  characteristics instability)  studies  (people v s .  may p r e d i s p o s e  c l i e n t s t o r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e numerous a s p e c t s o f group c o u n s e l l i n g counselling  c o n t e x t s . More r e s e a r c h  groups i s needed t o c l a r i f y  between c l i e n t  characteristics  on  career  relationships  (personality  t r a i t s and  demographics) and c l i e n t s '  p e r c e p t i o n s o f group  counselling.  use c l i e n t  Studies could  either predictor to  or b l o c k i n g  identify clients'  therapeutic  variables,  respective  f a c t o r s . Results  and t h e n  attempt  p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e 11  would have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  maximizing the q u a l i t y of career variety  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  group c o u n s e l l i n g ,  for a  of c l i e n t - t y p e s .  Summary It  i s evident  that  increasing  numbers o f women w i l l  c o n t i n u e t o e n t e r and move t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n a v a r i e t y of occupational  areas  (Statistics  Canada,  1988). to  In order  access  within  the full  the  Career  of providing  face  women m u s t  counselling women w i t h  o f two prominent  support  (e.g.,  Betz,  1989; B e t z  1989) . C a r e e r  group  counselling  effective 'in helping pursue  (e.g.,  Rice  outcome for  career  women  exploration  & Goering,  studies  of career  o r group  outcomes. whether their  Such  outcome  career  group  & Ward,  i s needed  regarding  experiences  of career  group  counselling  outcomes  However,  interventions of  program  counselling  respond d i f f e r e n t l y  counselling  are relevant would  to  More  women c l i e n t s '  information  goals  do n o t i n d i c a t e  counselling experiences.  This  motivated  1983).  kinds  on w h i c h  also  of clients  that  and  counselling  impact  information  decision-making.  i s reportedly  i n d i c a t e what  studies  d i f f e r e n t kinds  a n d (b) weak  and t o s e t career  group  processes  career  & F i t z g e r a l d , 1987;  supported  1977; K a h n  women d o n o t c l e a r l y  content  setting goals,  feel  a r e one  and d i r e c t i o n i n  barriers to their  self-concept  cultural,  career  interventions  (a) d i f f i c u l t y  to  overcome  barriers to their  development:  Wood,  and  of hierarchical opportunities  areas,  and personal  development.  non-traditional occupations  range  occupational  social,  means  t o enter  specific  i n relation t o women's allow  to career  counsellors  to  emphasize  program  d i f f e r e n t group  content  counselling  according  needs.  processes  to clients'  and/or varied  different career  48 Chapter 3 Method Design This e x p l o r a t o r y study focused p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s i n t e r v e n t i o n . The  of a c a r e e r group c o u n s e l l i n g  study used a c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n ,  pre-and-post i n t e r v e n t i o n t e s t i n g , follow-up telephone The  on women's  and  with  a two-month  survey.  i n d e p e n d e n t o r p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were p r e -  t e s t g o a l i n s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , group, group l e a d e r , c l i e n t - p r e f e r r e d g r o u p change mechanisms, and  14  six client  demographic v a r i a b l e s . Composite independent v a r i a b l e s were a l s o c r e a t e d , i n o r d e r t o g r o u p t h e  change  mechanisms a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r emphasis on  affective,  c o g n i t i v e , and b e h a v i o u r a l l e a r n i n g components. dependent o r c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e was  The  p o s t - t e s t GIS  T h i s s t u d y d i d not a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h  scores.  causal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e d and on an outcome measure. T h e r e f o r e , program e v a l u a t i o n . Rather, any  i t was  t h e s t u d y was designed  to  not  change a  identify  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a s e t o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s  and v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s on t h e dependent measure. A l s o , t h e s t u d y was  not designed  t o a l l o w g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  49 f i n d i n g s beyond t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t o other  interventions or c l i e n t  groups.  Sample Data were c o l l e c t e d from women c l i e n t s who participated  i n a two-day C a r e e r  Planning  workshop (see  Appendix A f o r agenda o f workshop) o f f e r e d a t t h e Women's Employment C o u n s e l l i n g U n i t  (W.E.C.U.) i n Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s U n i t i s a s p e c i a l i z e d c o u n s e l l i n g and  resource  centre operated  Immigration Commission clients  by t h e Canada Employment and  (C.E.I.C.) f o r  and any o t h e r women r e s i d i n g  C.E.I.C.-referred i n the Metro-  Vancouver a r e a . W.E.C.U. c l i e n t s may be p r e p a r i n g  for  f i r s t - t i m e e n t r y t o t h e l a b o u r market, r e - e n t r y t o t h e l a b o u r market, and c a r e e r changes. P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f W.E.C.U. c l i e n t s and  study  was on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s ,  no d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n was made on  clients' The data 10  i n this  government employment  records.  sample s i z e was 108 c l i e n t s .  s e t s were o b t a i n e d  Complete  from 99 c l i e n t s .  c l i e n t s p e r workshop p a r t i c i p a t e d  pre-post  Between f o u r and  i n t h e study  over a  f o u r month p e r i o d . Client  Screening.  participation  A l l c l i e n t s were s c r e e n e d  i n t h e workshop. W.E.C.U. r e c e p t i o n  for staff  50  conducted  Service  potential  r e g i s t r a n t s t o ensure  referrals.  after  Factors  registration commitment planning career how  direction  first-come  effective  Group  criteria  were  assigned  client  workshop  were  than  Random  leaders  knowledge  i n a group  the entire  some  according  others.  assignment  No  setting,  "walk-ins"  groups to  This  into  to  on a  personal  systematic  This  biases  to  of clients  not feasable.  clients  of  workshop.  were  t o workshop  vacancies.  was  (a)  i n the career  involved i n assigning clients  groups.  booking  were:  e x p l o r a t i o n , (d)  Clients  basis,  with  and i n d e c i s i o n about  participate  Assignment.  service a l l clients It  career  and workshop  different  workshops  employment  interviews  (c) l i m i t e d  to attend  first-served  availability  required  planning  workshop  by  appropriate  and options,  to actively  W.E.C.U.. T h e y  with  a l s o made  (b) c o n f u s i o n  (e) a v a i l a b i l i t y  particular  appropriate  assessment  determining  process,  Client  to  in-depth  interviews with a l l  t o l e a r n i n g and a c t i v e engagment  willingness  or  were  f o r the career  t o conduct  and  Determination  Some r e f e r r a l s  counsellors clients.  Needs  t o groups  would  have  later-scheduled  contravenes  office  mandates  as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e  a c o n t r o l group f o r  51 this  study.  Data  from  would  have  needed  group as  for treatment  control-group occasions.  of  Groups. a  two-day  objective  address low  The  The  career  or  workshop to  provide  12  study.  each  Each  counsellor. group  and  developing  were  and  the  same  an  on  five  unreasonable and  workshop  so at  covers  career  a  processes labour  rejected. W.E.C.U.  planning  career  of  scheduled was  workshop  was  skills),  comprised  homework  short  values  that  topics  strategies).  one of  of  month  maximum of  the  employment experiential  lecturettes,  exercises. Content  self-awareness,  changing  (e.g.,  each by  who  changes,  and  comprised  during  activities,  role  planning  facilitated  or  topics  (e.g.,  workshops  The  f o r women  of  i s  career  market,  variety  times  required  facilitate  planning  Planning  individual  discussion,  be  goal-setting, research  workshop The  to  i s to  structure to  Career  clients  office  underestimation  decision-making, Three  the  control  counselling intervention.  r e e n t e r i n g the  barriers  have  Planning  workshop  at  would  participants,  of  and  wait-list  collected  considered  Career  the  be  visit  volunteer  self-esteem,  that  to  group  entering  careers.  was  in a  This  career  exploration are  to  groups.  clients  This  expectation  clients  focused  clarification,  on  interest  and  skills  identification,  utilization,  c a r e e r awareness,  resource  g o a l s e t t i n g , and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  (see  A p p e n d i x A f o r agenda o f workshop and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f activities). Leaders.  Two  W.E.C.U. employment c o u n s e l l o r s  f a c i l i t a t e d t h e w o r k s h o p s . B o t h had e x t e n s i v e employment c o u n s e l l i n g experience had  w i t h C.E.I.C.. B o t h c o u n s e l l o r s  a l s o been t r a i n e d i n g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g .  Data C o l l e c t i o n Upon a r r i v a l f o r Day  One  o f t h e workshop,  checked i n w i t h r e c e p t i o n s t a f f .  clients  They r e c e i v e d a p a c k a g e  o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l and were a s k e d t o be s e a t e d and  to  r e a d t h e m a t e r i a l . Three documents were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s package:  (a) an I n f o r m a t i o n / c o n s e n t  letter  (b) a P a r t i c i p a n t ' s I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet (c) t h e G o a l 1985)  Instability  (Appendix C l i e n t s who  Scale  (GIS)  (Appendix B),  (Appendix C), (Robbins  & Patton,  D). v o l u n t e e r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t then  s i g n e d the consent form  proceeded immediately  t o answer t h e P a r t i c i p a n t ' s  Information  S h e e t , f o l l o w e d by t h e GIS.  This  i n t e r v e n t i o n p a c k a g e r e q u i r e d 15 m i n u t e s f o r In t h e l a s t  and  15 m i n u t e s o f Day  Two  and  precompletion.  o f t h e workshop,  53  group leaders d i s t r i b u t e d  a second package o f  to  research  Three instruments  in  this  (b)  participants.  package:  (a) a n I n s t r u c t i o n S h e e t  t h e G I S , a n d ( c ) t h e How C a r e e r  (HCGWS)  ( K i v l i g h a n e t a l . , 1987)  were  Sheet d i r e c t e d c l i e n t s  instruments  i n t h e above o r d e r .  included  (Appendix E ) ,  G r o u p s Work  ( A p p e n d i x F)'.  Instruction  p a c k a g e r e q u i r e d 15 m i n u t e s  instruments  Scale The  t o complete the  This p o s t - i n t e r v e n t i o n  f o r completion.  Measures Participant's  Information  page document a s k i n g c l i e n t s information  Goal  Instability  Scale  goals. According  to this  life  self-psychology  correlate p_ <  goals  concept of goal  The  single  demographic vs. secondary and work  (see Appendix C ) .  instability  The  f o r basic  i s a  e n t r y / r e - e n t r y / c a r e e r changer,  measures g e n e r a l  realistic  This  (e.g., m a r i t a l s t a t u s , primary  wage e a r n e r , history)  Sheet.  (GIS). This  instrument  o r absence o f o r i e n t i n g  scale, difficulty  also reflects instability  life  creating  a weak s e n s e o f s e l f .  i s d e r i v e d from  Kohut's  (Kohut 1971, 1 9 7 7 ) .  s c a l e has moderate c o n c u r r e n t moderately with  self-esteem  .0001) a n d w i t h t h e f e e l i n g s o f  validity.  Scores  (r_ = - .64, self-competency  (r  = - . 4 8 , p_ <  college scale the  students.  may  activities" This  score  1985)  suggested  of depletion  could  among  organize  that "the  accompanied  by  one's  ( p . 226) . 10-item  s c a l e s . Each  agree"  reliability item  that  i s a self-report,  i s 10,  & Patton,  and Patton  a sense  of goals  response  "strongly  (Robbins  Robbins  be t a p p i n g  absence  Likert  .0001)  measure  scale  i s anchored  and " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " .  a n d t h e maximum i s .76  consistency  i s 60.  (two-week  (alpha  with  The  6-point  by minimum  Test-retest  interval),  coefficient)  of  with .80  internal(see Appendix  D) . How assesses group  Career  Groups  participants'  experience  learning  Work  that  and change.  perceptions  These  are derived  therapeutic  f a c t o r s which  of and  t h e 11  i n group  This  o f 14  elements,  from  Yalom's  account  across  scale  Encounter  Groups  Work  or  Kivlighan  e t a l . , 1987).  scale  elements  of the  change  (1985) m o d e l  f o r client  (Lieberman,  of  change  settings.  different  i s a modified  Scale  This  participants'  therapy/counselling  factors vary  clients.  (HCGWS).  contribute to  mechanisms,  learning  Scale  types  version Yalom,  11 and  Ratings  of  groups  of the  How  & Miles i n  Kivlighan et a l . applied the  55 instrument word  to researching  "encounter"  career  to "career"  groups  by changing  the  when d e s c r i b i n g t h e g r o u p i n  question. This Likert which are  i s a self-report,  response  facilitates  asked  Each  not  t o my  apply  There this a  excellent analyses  i s no r e p o r t e d  of items  factor  was  i s anchored a n d "One  mechanisms  reliability  provided  i n a group.  Clients  to  their  by " D i d  o f t h e two  reliability f o r  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e reported  (Yalom,  varied  (fair  studies of good t o  1985).  t o good)  of the 60-item  on t h e e l e v e n  were p l a n n e d  complete  week  clients  scale  factor  Factor itempool.  factors.  Interviews  Participants tenth  each  scale correlations  Interviews provided  a  test-retest  c o n s i s t e n t l y loaded  Follow-up  represents  4-point  (see Appendix F ) .  Q-sort  o f change  test-retest  to-individual  item  l e a r n i n g i n group" experiences"  pool  with  important  response  s c a l e . However,  60-item  Items  item  important  measure  l e a r n i n g and change  t o r a t e how  learning.  most  s c a l e s . Each  14-item  who  were  after could  pre-post contacted completion  with  participants  testing  data  by telephone  sets. i n the ninth or  of t h e workshop.  n o t be r e a c h e d  who  Those  i n the ninth or  tenth  weeks  were  collected reflect  dropped beyond  be  phase  Data  limit  opportunities collected  of the analysis.  assess  period.  at this  The purpose  t h e extent  or formulated  stability  t o which career  of their  later  of this  plans.  goals  were  found employment,  current  jobfits  with  their  desired  clients  were  asked  f o r their  evaluations  t h e y were  o f t h e workshop  time would  was t o through  perceptions also  asked  thus  i n the post-  had followed  clients  Finally,  i n career  follow-up  Client  Data  be e x p e c t e d t o  earlier  clients  current  could  t o engage  incomparable t o those collected  workshop  on  this  t h e t e n week  increased  activities.  from  of the  sought. I f i f their  career  direction.  retrospective  (see Appendix  G f o r interview  format). Statistical 1.  Clients  Hypotheses w i l l  contributions  rate  t h e 14 c h a n g e  t o client  measured  b y t h e HCGWS.  2.  w i l l  There  by  demographics,  t h e HCGWS,  their  and change  be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  among t h e i n d e p e n d e n t client  learning  group  abilities  variables  t o account  f o r variance  as  differences  GIS  mechanisms  and group  f o r their  equally,  significant  of pre-test  t h e 14 c h a n g e membership,  mechanisms  as  scores, measured  leader, i n  i n p o s t - t e s t GIS  57 scores. 3. C l i e n t d e m o g r a p h i c s (as a s s e s s e d by t h e P a r t i c i p a n t ' s Information  Sheet) w i l l n o t account f o r a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of variance  i n p o s t - t e s t GIS  scores. 4. The 14 change mechanisms  (as measured by t h e HCGWS)  w i l l not account f o r a s t a t i s t i c a l l y proportion of variance  significant  i n p o s t - t e s t GIS s c o r e s .  5. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between  sets  o f c l i e n t d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s e t s o f g r o u p change mechanisms v a r i a b l e s . Treatment o f t h e Q u a n t i t a t i v e Data P r e l i m i n a r y p s y c h o m e t r i c a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e GIS a n d on t h e HCGWS. H y p o t h e s i s 1. Mean r a t i n g s on change mechanisms  were  computed f o r a l l g r o u p s . T h i s p r o d u c e d a r a n k o r d e r i n g o f i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e mechanisms  f o r a l l subjects.  A Spearman r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n was computed t o compare t h e r a n k o r d e r o f a l l 14 HCGWS change  mechanisms  as d e s c r i b e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , w i t h d e s c r i b e d by a c o l l e g e c a r e e r  class  that  (Kivlighan et a l . ,  1987) . H y p o t h e s i s 2. A s i m p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n  model  58 regressing tested. GIS  post-test  This  scores  GIS  equation  could  be  on  was  pre-test  constructed  expected  variance  in post-test  GIS  equation  were  verify  scores  as  a  was  leader,  and  model,  in  between  were  groups  model  leader to  based  the  of  this GIS multiple  tested  in post-test a f t e r the  partialled  independent  GIS  variables  to  previous  HCGWS i t e m s  for  group,  variables,  were any  membership  determine  scores  The  of  research were  the  full  leader. GIS  amount  The  scores.  by GIS  of  other scores  pre-selected  the  equation,  r e s u l t s and into  Group  regression  pre-test  into  grouped  in  and  the  researcher  entry  change  differences  explained  the  14  post-test  model m u l t i p l e to  group  variables.  included  was  equation  and  possible  model  effect out.  regression  predictor  their  i n the  variance  rationale.  to  subsequent  scores,  (N=2)  on  was  variables,  also  GIS  identify  variable  according  in  multiple  as  hierarchical full  been  pre-test  including pre-test  demographic  equation  had  Results  covariate  entered  group order  dependent  first  because  contribute  scores.  Pre-test  six client  mechanisms  A  full  tested.  (N=13)  to  was  equations.  standard  then  to  significant  regression A  used  GIS  theoretical  three  categories  59 according  t o content:  11,  a n d 14);  (c)  behavioral  independent  (b) a f f e c t i v e (items  equation  GIS  scores;  (Beh);  employment  history. was  Pre-test  next,  them  were  steps:  could  account  above  and beyond that  into  (Aff), change  status,  c o u n s e l l i n g , and  s e t a t 3.00,  entered  and  as they  were  the dependent v a r i a b l e  (r =  o f members'  set of client  i n order  and  (a) p r e - t e s t  status, marital  was  t o assess  first,  could  were  potentially  demographic  demographics were  whether i n d i v i d u a l  differences  f o r any d i f f e r e n c e i n p o s t - t e s t GIS accounted  entered  f o r by t h e former  scores, two  sets.  Hypothesis  3.  A  9,  E ) . The  and b e h a v i o u r a l  career  8,  a n d 13);  o f change mechanisms  regardless  The  7,  (see Appendix  a l l g r o u p members  last,  was  (Cog),  6,  1.00.  Categories since  10,  1,  simultaneously  three  F-to-enter  set at  4,  change mechanisms  correlated with  .05).  differences.  variable  entered  (c) c a r e e r  GIS s c o r e s  significantly  experience  3,  s t a t u s , age, p r e v i o u s  F-to-remove  entered  and  (items  a n d 12)  i n the following (b) a f f e c t i v e  wage-earner  p_ <  5,  change mechanisms  mechanisms  .71,  2,  (items  v a r i a b l e s were  the  cognitive  (a) c o g n i t i v e  standard  t e s t e d . P r e - t e s t GIS  multiple regression  scores  and s i x c l i e n t  model  60 d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s were e n t e r e d as variables. Post-test  GIS  predictor  s c o r e s were t h e  dependent  variable. H y p o t h e s i s 4. A s t a n d a r d m u l t i p l e was  tested.  Pre-test  GIS  scores,  and  regression  the  14  change  mechanisms were e n t e r e d as p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . t e s t GIS  a n a l y s i s was  performed  s e t o f s i x c l i e n t d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and  o f 14  change mechanisms. The  t o examine t h e  strength  and  purpose of the c o m p l e x i t y of  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two  (canonical canonical  variates)  the  the The  variables  from each set of v a r i a b l e s .  The  c o r r e l a t i o n i s t h u s t h e maximum c o r r e l a t i o n  between p a i r s o f c a n o n i c a l different variable Treatment of the  variates derived  from  Q u a l i t a t i v e Data  R e s p o n s e s t o c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s were reported  as f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s  q u e s t i o n s l b , 2,  two  sets.  Telephone I n t e r v i e w  3a,  4a,  4b,  4d,  totalled  (see A p p e n d i x 4f,  4g,  5a,  5b).  R e s p o n s e s t o open-ended q u e s t i o n s were a s s i g n e d general descriptive categories  b a s e d on  G,  to  conceptual  on  set  analysis  sets of v a r i a b l e s .  a n a l y s i s g e n e r a t e s l i n e a r composites of  and  Post-  s c o r e s were t h e dependent v a r i a b l e .  H y p o t h e s i s 5. A c a n o n i c a l the  model  was  analysis 3b,  4e,  of their 4g,  compared  by  in  each  or  responses  general  6,  7,  content 8).  (see Appendix  These  response  r e p o r t i n g the frequency  category. which  Responses that were  responses.  were  of clients'  were  were  questions l a ,  categories  reported  not c l a s s i f i a b l e  descriptive categories,  G,  responses only  within  reported  as  once,  the "other"  62 Chapter  4  Results Sample Data  were  13 w o r k s h o p s , description As  shown,  last  sample  percent  i n their  women w e r e partner.  career  history Those  households.  ranged  o f women half  participants i n A  biodemographic  failed  were  were  also  different,  unrelated  wage  percent  ages  25  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had to their  (32%)  o f many  counted jobs.  ofthe  contact a paid  with  years. a n d 34. received  W.E.C.U..  h i s t o r y . The  different,  their  unrelated o r more  work jobs.  job-type  a s h a v i n g h a d many  Eight  a  j o b , a n d one  indicated that  o f fthree  with  25 t o 60  between  The status.  married or living  were  who c h e c k e d  categories  change.  primary  1.  their  on w a g e - e a r n i n g  t o i n d i c a t e h e r work  was c o m p r i s e d  respondents  a career  Forty-eight  had not held  of participants  i n Table  t o leave  i n age from  (61%)  (42.6%)  one respondent  majority  divided  of respondents  counselling prior  respondent  had chosen  considering  equally  Respondents  Almost  female  period.  s i n g l e , a n d 37% w e r e  majority  Only  o f t h e sample  was a l m o s t  earners  a four-month  j o b and were  Fifty-one  The  over  108  of these participants i s provided  52%  paid  c o l l e c t e d from  respondents  (7.5%).  63 Table  1  Demographic  Variables  Variable  Career  n  of Workshop P a r t i c i p a n t s  of participants  (N =  108)  % of participants  status  Entry  1  Reentry Career Marital  changers  .01  16  14.8  75  69.4  52  48.6  15  14.0  40  37.0  55  51.0  status  Single Separated/divorced Married/ living Wage e a r n e r Primary Age  with  partner  status wage  earner  25 -  29  39  36.0  30 -  34  27  25.0  35 -  39  17  15.7  40 -  44  16  14.8  45 -  60  9  8.3  Prior  career  counselling  Group Individual Both  65 p r o v i d e d u n c a t e g o r i z a b l e data because they checked o f f two  j o b - t y p e c a t e g o r i e s . These r e s p o n s e s were  out  f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s p o n s e o p t i o n s and dummy c o d e d  f o r subsequent r e g r e s s i o n analyses  (see T a b l e  summary o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' employment Psychometric Goal t h e GIS  histories).  ( G I S ) . An  i t e m - a n a l y s i s of  p e r f o r m e d u s i n g p o s t - t e s t GIS  t o t a l sample. Table d e v i a t i o n s , and The  2 for a  Analyses  I n s t a b i l i t y Scale  was  separated  scores from  3 r e p o r t s t h e i t e m means,  sub-test c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the  s u b - t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s are p o i n t - b i s e r i a l  standard instrument. coefficients  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on e a c h and t h e t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e , w i t h o u t t h e t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e . The i n d i c a t e how  item  t h e i t e m removed f r o m  sub-test c o e f f i c i e n t s  thus  w e l l e a c h i t e m d i s c r i m i n a t e s between  s u b j e c t s . R e s u l t s showed t h a t a l l i t e m s met  a minimum  c r i t e r i a o f r = .3, r a n g i n g f r o m r = .44  .78.  GIS  s c o r e f o r t h i s sample was  to  The  40.44 (SD = 1 0 . 2 3 ) .  r a n g e d f r o m 14 t o 59, w i t h l o w e r  scores i n d i c a t i n g  g o a l i n s t a b i l i t y and h i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g l o w e r instability. How  the  The  Career  Hoyt e s t i m a t e  o f r e l i a b i l i t y was  Groups Work S c a l e  a n a l y s i s f o r t h e HCGWS was  (HCGWS). An  mean  Scores high goal .88.  item  performed u s i n g data from the  Table 2 Distribution (N  =  of P a r t i c i p a n t s  by Most T y p i c a l  Job Worked  106)  Occupational  n of  area  participants  % of participants  Clerical  19  17.9  Sales  13  1 2 .2  4  3.'8  Finance  4  3.8  Teaching  0  0.0  Health  7  6.6  17  16.0  34  3 2 .1  Social  services  care  Other Many d i f f e r e n t , unrelated Uncategorizeda  jobs  8  a 2 c a t e g o r i e s were checked o f f .  7.5  67 Table 3 GIS T e s t Item A n a l y s i s (N =  Item  M  108)  SD  Sub-test  1  5.16  1.31  .44  2  4.36  1.40  .64  3  4.31  1.44  .63  4  3.68  1.50  .43  5  3.60  1.41  .70  6  3.88  1.61  .60  7  4.19  1.38  .66  8  3.40  1.62  .59  9  4.16  1.40  .78  10  3.71  1.49  .73  r  68 total the  sample.  Ninety-nine  analysis.  with  sample  Table  Nine  completed  incomplete  mean v a l u e s  surveys  entered  4 reports theitem coefficients  f o r each  Sub-test  coefficients  were  estimate  were  standard  also  used f o r used,  missing  data.  deviations, and  of thescale's  adequate  14  items.  f o r a l l i t e m s . The  was .86.of  of reliability  were  t o replace  means,  sub-test  Hoyt  surveys  reliability  was  .86. Hypothesis  Testing  Hypothesis mechanisms ordering  of  o f t h e change  for  (see Table  that  group  universality,  involved  group  one's  life,  seeing  t h e group  mechanisms 4 f o r item  feelings,  of thecareer as one's  things  about  group  (a) a  process  an  Least  were (a) (b) r e v e a l i n g  (c) f e e l i n g o f one's  personal  sense  responsibility  o f hope.  (d) a w a r e n e s s  o f t h e 14 c h a n g e  Results  (c)b e i n g  family of origin, oneself,  rank,  t o their  rankings).  (d) t a k i n g p e r s o n a l  a n d (e) u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Rankings  according  a  highly valued  (b) e x p r e s s i n g  t r y new b e h a v i o u r s ,  others,  t o produce  a n d (e) i n s t a l l a t i o n  aspects  embarrassing  used  members most  member,  valued  to  r a t i n g s f o r t h e 14 c h a n g e  o n t h e HCGWS w e r e  importance showed  1. T h e m e a n  encouraged impact  on  "hang-ups".  mechanisms  o f t h e HCGWS b y  69 Table 4 HCGWS Test Item A n a l y s i s and Item Rankings  Sub-test Item  M  SD  r  (N = 108)  Therapeutic Rank  factor  1  2.69  .91  .39  6  information  2  2.56  .93  .55  7  altruism  3  2.79  .86  .41  3  cohesiveness  4  2.89  .83  .51  2  catharsis  5  2.48  .85  .57  8  modelling  6  1.92  .93  .59  13  family reenactment  7  2.17  .88  .54  11  interpersonal learning  8  3.06  .81  .38  1  9  2.22  .88  .54  10  universality selfunderstanding  10  2.71  .79  .54  5  hope  11  2.72  .95  .33  4  existential  12  2.09  .89  .59  12  information  70 13  1.92  .92  .53  13  14  2.34  .90  .63  9  cohesiveness selfunderstanding  71  t h i s sample and a sample o f s t u d e n t s i n a c o l l e g e class  ( K i v l i g h a n e t a l . , 1987) were compared. The  obtained  Spearman r a n k o r d e r  statistically .85,  c o r r e l a t i o n was  s i g n i f i c a n t using a one-tailed test,  r  =  p_ <.05. H y p o t h e s i s 2. Sample mean v a l u e s  for  career  missing  data.  were s u b s t i t u t e d  B e c a u s e p r e - t e s t GIS s c o r e s  were  assumed t o c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e v a r i a n c e i n p o s t - t e s t GIS s c o r e s , was f i r s t  post-test scores, accounting  were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f  F (1, 106) = 106.25, p_ < .001,  f o r 50.1% o f t h e v a r i a n c e  i n t h e dependent  ( a d j u s t e d R - s q u a r e = .496) .  A standard  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n model was t h e n  t o d e t e r m i n e how much v a r i a n c e  i n p o s t - t e s t GIS  c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e p r e - t e s t and 22 variables. scores,  equation  and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was p r e - t e s t GIS  P r e - t e s t scores  variable  linear regression  t e s t e d . The dependent v a r i a b l e was p o s t - t e s t  GIS s c o r e s scores.  a simple  tested  scores  other  I n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were p r e - t e s t GIS  g r o u p membership, g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p ,  client  d e m o g r a p h i c s , and t h e 14 change mechanisms. P o s t - t e s t GIS scores  were t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . A l l a s s u m p t i o n s o f  normality  o f t h e l i n e a r model were u p h e l d ; a n a l y s i s o f  72 the in  residual  plot  distribution  multiple 4.65,  .01.  accounted  variance  an  with  for  41.2% The  f o r by  The  full  hierarchical  were  F  3.00. change  (2, 96) —  =  54.27, p_ <  p r e - t e s t GIS  had  mechanisms dependent  been  measure  hierarchical  alone  (by  and  of only  failed  to  f o r only  account  equation  .001.  two.  Only  was two  i n step None  value,  one  of the set at  the set of cognitive  after  3.5%  3.5%  variable.  of the variance the effects  the set of cognitive  (see Table  model).  scores  scores  i n step  f o r 53.1%  However,  removed,  accounted  the  the F-to-enter  scores  accounted  dependent v a r i a b l e .  pre-test  above  increase  therefore  mechanisms  pre-test  mechanisms  GIS  =  this  and  i n the dependent  demographics achieved Together,  over  (23,75)  dependent  However,  multiple regression  entered  c o g n i t i v e change  client  model  an  F  combination,  i n the  8.7%  pre-test  R-squares,  The  significant,  .461).  of only  of the variance  variables  the  R-square =  increase  significant,  was  of the variance  adjusted  reported).  abnormalities  predictor variables, i n  accounted  was  and  The  (adjusted  represented  significant  of residuals or i n l i n e a r i t y .  f o r 58.8%  variable  also  no  regression equation  p_ <  working  revealed  data  of the  change  of the variance  5 f o r summary  i n  i n the  from  the  Table 5 H i e r a r c h i c a l M o d e l : P r e d i c t i n g P o s t - t e s t GIS S c o r e  (N =  108)  Independent variable  Step entered  Simple r  Cumulative  R  multiple R  change  F  Pretest GIS s c o r e  1  .71  .496  2  .10  .531  95.4*  Cognitive change mechanisms  *p_ < .001.  .35  54.27*  74 Hypothesis was  performed  3.  A  with  standard  post-test  multiple regression GIS  variable.  Pre-test  scores  variables  were  independent  normality  f o r the  was £  the  linear  statistically <  .001  test  and  GIS  demographic variance  f o r by  4.  A  with  variable.  Pre-test  model  upheld.  significant, 58%  of  square  the =  accounted  F  variance  .50). for  In 8%  This  increase  that  contributed  equation.  of  GIS  =  7.65,  i n the  the  However,  the  as  14  was £  in  post-  However,  1.3%  of  above  the  the  that  regression the  <  the  dependent  change  .01,  and  mechanisms of  linear  change  (adjusted  demographics as  for R-  mechanisms  in post-test  such  the  accounted  measure  i s considerably  increase  was  statistically  dependent  variance  client an  equation  variance  and  of  15.03,  .479).  over  scores  and  i n variance by  =  multiple  combination, of  the  =  for only  equation  (15,83)  demographic  The  v a r i a b l e s . Assumptions  The  dependent  alone.  scores  independent  were  51.3%  standard  post-test  upheld.  (7,100)  scores  pre-test  performed  the  F  R-square  GIS  the  six client  were  variables accounted  Hypothesis  were  for  as  v a r i a b l e s . Assumptions  model  (adjusted  in post-test  accounted  the  significant,  accounted  scores  and  scores  model  GIS  scores.  greater  i n the this  can  than  preceding be  75 expected, the in  given  equation R-square  the  (Pedhazur, values  statistical  was of  variables.  One  client  A  the  (d)  age  (f)  employment Marr  levels,  comprised  8  of  analysis  variables  variables: (Marr), previous  on  two  sets  comprised career  (EH). Earn  of  There  were  four  l e v e l s , s i x Age second  set  change mechanisms  of  and  six (Stat),  role  counselling  of  of  status  wage-earner  career  l e v e l s . The 14  was  (a)  (c)  a  equation.  sets  history  the  i s only  two  (e)  EH  to  increase  into  change  r e l a t i o n s h i p between of  out  l e v e l s , two  and  this  large  canonical  non-significant  strength  status  (Age),  that  entered  the  demographic  marital  a  The  (15)  determine  set  (b)  three  5.  variables  1982).  of  carried  complexity  of  confirms  artifact  Hypothesis variables  number  (Earn), (CC),  Stat  and  levels,  levels, 2 variables  identified  by  CC was  the  HCGWS. An  examination  of  the  relevant  to  a  canonical  kurtosis  of  a l l variables  unacceptable. also  upheld.  dropped  from  correlation  The  was  analysis  were  6  analysis far  from  was  except  assumption  There the  assumptions  of  of  normality  upheld;  Marr  were  skewness not  non-multicollinearity  outliers, because achieving  but  the  and  these  were  canonical  significance.  not  was  76 Exclusion  of outliers  would  not impact  on  analysis  results. None  of the canonical  statistically  significant.  correlation  was  square  f o r the f i r s t  test  statistically p_ =  .51,  with  The  first  canonical  an e i g e n v a l u e canonical  s i g n i f i c a n t , If  of  .26.  correlation  (84, N = 108)  =  The c h i was  not  73.38,  .79.  Telephone  Interview  Telephone interview  Results  follow-up  format)  were  interviews  conducted  respondents  who  respondents  were  weeks  the workshops.  30  c o r r e l a t i o n s were  after  minutes  clients  each,  who  interview. reported  provided  were A  with  below  most  contacted  summary  with  complete  contacted  (see Appendix  data  of  99  sets.  These  i n either the ninth Interviews  ranged  lasting  t o 20  agreed  15  t o order  or  from  71 tenth 10  to  minutes. A l l  t o complete  of interviewees'  according  71  G for  the  comments  of questions  are during  the  interviews. Question workshop The oriented.  1.  i n terms most  What  have you been doing  o f employment  commonly  Almost  82%  reported  since  the  or training? activities  of respondents  had  were  research-  researched  77 occupations  a n d / o r e d u c a t i o n programs a t W.E.C.U. o r t h e  public libraries,  contacted i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  conducted  i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s , o r a t t e n d e d C.E.I.C. p r o g r a m o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s . Many r e s p o n d e n t s been engaged i n j o b s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s working (38%)  (43.7%) h a d a l s o and 5 1 % were  at t h e time of the i n t e r v i e w . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  had a c t i v e l y pursued  education a c t i v i t i e s  ( 2 1 % had  c o m p l e t e d o r were r e g i s t e r e d f o r c o u r s e w o r k and 17% had applied or r e g i s t e r e d f o r college, u n i v e r s i t y , or p r e employment p r o g r a m s ) . Several interviewees  (25%) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y h a d  completed or reviewed m a t e r i a l s assigned during the w o r k s h o p , o r had done t h e s u g g e s t e d  r e a d i n g s . A l m o s t 13%  had done work on CHOICES (a c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n m i c r o computer s o f t w a r e p r o g r a m ) . T h i r t y p e r c e n t had done o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s . interviewees  indicated  they  O n l y 4 o f t h e 71  (5.6%) s a i d t h e y had done n o t h i n g i n t e r m s  o f employment o r t r a i n i n g s i n c e t h e workshop. T h r e e o f these four i n d i c a t e d that personal p r e c l u d e d d o i n g any s u c h a c t i v i t i e s , f o l l o w through convenience.  circumstances and t h e y i n t e n d e d t o  with career planning at t h e i r  Forty-three percent  earliest  o f t h e sample  attended  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e workshop g r o u p f o l l o w - u p m e e t i n g s (see  78 Table  6 for a Question  since  the  of Question  1  2.  you  career  Have  19  career  o f t h e 71  counselling since  3.  long-term  career  direction  you  Almost workshop  d i d not  further more  half  to  (48%)  depart  had  received  either  at  college counselling  the workshop  or ideas  about what  centre,  had  the workshop  career  plans  from the  18  with  i n relation  of these  some  themselves,  and  reported four  said  to actively Eight  ideas,  feeling  engage  the  37  34  that ideas  they for  feeling i n the  increased  abilities o f work.  and Six  more p o s i t i v e  benefited  the  workshop  said  reported  to their  they  34  Of  the workshop  r o l e s and/or the world also  or  occupational  left  left  or ideas.  benefited  and m o t i v a t e d  respondents  had  plans  exploration process.  occupational  any  career  long-term  e x p l o r a t i o n . Twelve  self-awareness  with  take?  of the respondents  with  they  leave  For example,  hopeful  career  plans  long-term  that  nonetheless. left  (26.8%)  the workshop,  (e.g.,  D i d you  wanted  with  confirmed  had  counselling  counsellor) .  Question  who  any  respondents  W.E.C.U. o r e l s e w h e r e personal  had  responses).  workshop?  Only any  summary  about  from being  i n a  Table  6  Interview  <n =  Respondents'  Two  Month  Post-workshop  %  respondents  71)  Activity  Researching  of  in  occupations  education  activity  and/or  programs  81.7  Employment  50.7  Job  43.7  search  Coursework  or  school  program  application/registration Other  38.0 28.2  Completion/review materials readings CHOICES No  Activities  activity  or  of  workshop  suggested 25.3 12.7 5.6  engaging  80 group and l e a r n i n g they experience  o f unemployment  respondents s a i d research. without  t h a t they  Only two c l i e n t s  long-term plans  discouraged  f o r your  F o r t y respondents career plans Question  change. Seven  l e a r n e d how t o do o c c u p a t i o n a l who d e p a r t e d  reported  t h e workshop  feeling  confused  and  or goals  do you have any c o n c r e t e  career? (56.3%)  reported having  4B. ( I f 'yes' t o 4A). A r e t h e s e  answer  concrete  a t t h e time o f t h e i n t e r v i e w .  t h e same ones you had when you l e f t  please  g o a l s and  t h e workshop?  'yes' o r 'no' .  Thirty-five  o f 40 r e s p o n d e n t s  their  career plans  those  they  (87%) c o n f i r m e d  o r g o a l s were s i m i l a r  that  or i d e n t i c a l t o  had i n mind a t t h e end o f t h e workshop.  Question occupational term  and/or c a r e e r  4A.' At p r e s e n t ,  or plans  plans  in their  and d i d not r e p o r t any a p p a r e n t b e n e f i t s .  Question goals  were not a l o n e  4C. ( I f 'no' t o 4A). Do you have any i d e a s t h a t you a r e c o n s i d e r i n g f o r a l o n g  career? Thirty-one  respondents s t a t e d that they  long-term career plans However,  d i d n o t have  a t t h e time o f t h e i n t e r v i e w .  2 6 o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d have a t l e a s t  possible career  i d e a they  were p l a n n i n g  one  to explore.  81 Question  4D.  D i d the workshop c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g  t h e development o f your c u r r e n t c a r e e r p l a n s please  answer  'yes'  Fifty-nine  or  or  ideas?  'no'.  respondents  (89%) c r e d i t e d the  w i t h h e l p i n g them t o d i s c o v e r or d e v e l o p goals,  or  to  workshop  career  plans,  ideas.  Question  4E.  Can  the workshop h e l p e d  you  you  g i v e me  develop  some examples of  these  how  career plans  or  ideas? All least  interviewees  one  way  responding  v  yes'  t o 4D  r e p o r t e d at  i n which the workshop c o n t r i b u t e d t o  p l a n s . Many o f the comments r e f e r r e d d i r e c t l y respondents' Specifically, and  experiences 20  of being  respondents  (34%)  i d e a s about t h e m s e l v e s and  shared  life  (information/guidance),  interviewees  aspects  feedback  t h a t were  o f Yalom's  ideas provided  by  experiences,  and  members p e r c e i v e d each o t h e r Since  setting.  Responses i n t h i s  (a) i n f o r m a t i o n and  about work and  to  the  seemed t o c o n s i s t e n t l y o v e r l a p two  (1985) f a c t o r s : others  valued  occupations  d u r i n g group i n t e r a c t i o n s .  category  i n a group  their  (b) feedback about  how  (interpersonal learning).  almost always d e s c r i b e d t h e s e  o f l e a r n i n g as a s i n g l e e x p e r i e n c e ,  such  two  82 r e s p o n s e s were i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e r e s p o n s e Fourteen  respondents  encouragement and s u p p o r t l e a d e r as s i g n i f i c a n t . being  (24%) d e s c r i b e d t h e f r o m o t h e r members and t h e  Seventeen  i n a group helped  (29%) a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t  them t o f e e l b e t t e r a b o u t  t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s confidence  category'.  and s e l f - e s t e e m )  (i.e.,  increased  and b e l i e v e d t h a t  self-  their  i n c r e a s e d s e l f - r e g a r d had made them more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r career planning process.  According  r e s p o n s e s d e s c r i b i n g group support, increased self-esteem cohesiveness.  (1985),  encouragement, and  a r e a l l outcomes o f g r o u p  Ten r e s p o n d e n t s  (17%) r e p o r t e d t h a t  o t h e r s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e same i s s u e s and helped  t o Yalom  them f e e l l e s s i s o l a t e d  s t a t e d that t h i s helped  seeing  circumstances  ( i . e . , u n i v e r s a l i t y ) and  them w i t h t h e i r c a r e e r  planning.  Several of the interviewees valued the s e l f a s s e s s m e n t components o f t h e workshop t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d to f a c i l i t a t e greater self-knowledge understanding.  and s e l f -  F o r example, 24 r e s p o n d e n t s  (41%) c r e d i t e d  t h e i n t e r e s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l and 17 (29%) m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e skills  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n work was a l s o b e n e f i c i a l .  7 f o r a summary o f Q u e s t i o n  See T a b l e  4E's r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s and  83 Table  7  Workshop F a c t o r s Respondents'  Contributing  Career  Plans  Client-identified factor  Group  of  Interview  (n = 4 7 )  Corresponding  n of clients  factor  citing  factor  information/  discussion/feedback  interpersonal  learning  15  skills/  occupational  infor-  mation Learning  and Ideas  therapeutic  members'  Research  t o Development  information  18  information  11  cohesiveness  12  cohesiveness  13  how t o  structure/manage career  plans  Encouragement/support from  group  Increased and  members  self-regard  self-confidence  Seeing  other  with  similar  Seeing  other  worse  members concerns  universality  members  o f f than  self  universality  84 Interests Skills  assessment  assessment  self-understanding  19  self-understanding  13  85  Yalom's  (1985) c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Question are f i r m l y  therapeutic  factors.  4F. Do you t h i n k y o u r c u r r e n t  plans/ideas  s e t , o r do you t h i n k t h a t t h e y w i l l change?  Over h a l f  (61%) o f t h e 66 r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h  career  p l a n s o r i d e a s s a i d t h a t t h e i r p l a n s / i d e a s were  firmly  set,  and 12% s a i d t h e i r s were "somewhat" s e t . Twenty-two  r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r p l a n s o r i d e a s were n o t at a l l f i r m l y s e t . Question  4G. Do y o u r c u r r e n t c a r e e r p l a n s o r i d e a s  move you i n a d i r e c t i o n Most c l i e n t s  away f r o m y o u r p r e v i o u s  (51) c o n f i r m e d  career?  t h e y were m o v i n g away  from t h e i r p r e v i o u s c a r e e r areas. F o r t y - n i n e of these career changers d e s c r i b e d the nature  of t h e i r  career  c h a n g e s . O n l y 12 were e n t e r i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l occupations occupation  and 18 had d e c i d e d t o s t a y i n t h e same area.  Question  5A. A r e you e m p l o y e d a t t h i s  Thirty-six the time  o f t h e 71 r e s p o n d e n t s were e m p l o y e d a t  of the i n t e r v i e w .  Question this  5B.  ( I f 'yes' t o 5A and 'yes' t o 4A) Does  job f i t i n t o your career  plans?  O n l y 12 o f 36 employed r e s p o n d e n t s working  time?  (33%) were  i n p o s i t i o n s that f i t into t h e i r career plans.  86 Question the  What  was  most  beneficial  to  you  about  workshop? All  interviewees responded  identified  in total,  experiences. reflected their  experiences  similar  about  women.  each  responses  being a  valued  other, (9%)  encouragement,  (48%)  sense as  a  the  ideas and  and  positive  reactions to,  Over  23%  of  being  of  feedback  occupations). group  the  that  in a  (16%)  d i s c u s s i o n and  tone  clearly  universality  hearing  about  or  i n , and  responses  group  and  responses  group. of  question  aspects  result  described the and  of  in a  Twenty-four  exchanging  this  involvement  experienced  respondents  (i.e.,  of  to  beneficial  half  pertained to  respondents  that  Almost  153  respondents'  responses  of  6.  group  indicated sharing from  others  Fourteen  support,  of  others  as  being  aspects  of  the  very  helpful. The workshop  cognitive, were  Specifically, personal  self-awareness  referred  to  i n 18  self-assessment  barriers  Several  responses  changes  toward  process  (i.e.,  to  change  (10%)  responses  (12%).  skills,  interests  of  were  concerned  themselves positivity,  and  d e s c r i b e d as  hope,  beneficial.  respondents'  toward and  the  and  career  attitude change  motivation).  87 Finally, was  gaining research  referred  summary  of  to  Question  Question the  i n 13%  7.  resource  comments  (see  information  Table  8  for  a  least  beneficial  to  you  about  workshop?  comments, one  only  interviewees provided  some o f  respondent.  introduction lengthy. pace  to  begin  and  and  i t would  have  What  Forty-five  requests  materials,  (d)  with  that was  than the  too  i n i t i a l  the  core  focused  break  on  the  workshop  so  needs?  were  search the at  privileges  suggestions  more  lunch/coffee  suggestions  attendance  for sign-out  and  your  opportunities into  f o r improved  with  time  done  job  was  of  research materials.  suggestions of  by  quicker  the  with  c o u l d be  made  a  more  range  workshop  sooner  disliked  b e t t e r met  These  the  requested  work  for integration  work-placement  of  wanted  clients  workshop.  requests  part  hands-on  8.  wide  were mentioned  working  few  a  common c r i t i c i s m  Others a  Question  requests  most  initial  material.  instruction  the  which  Some r e s p o n d e n t s  arrangements,  that  The  and  i n order  workshop  (c)  the  and  6 responses) .  W h a t was  Forty-seven  of  of  skills  for  improvement  varied:  (a)  materials workshop,  follow-up of  (b) meetings,  resource  f o r managing  and  and  88 Table  8  Beneficial  Elements  o f the Workshop  Client-identified elements  Being of  i n a  (n =  Corresponding  comments (N  =  group  similar  others  universality  Instruction  23.5  information/ interpersonal  learning  15.7  i n  research/resources Self-assessment  information  13.1  self-understanding  11.8  of  skilis/interests/etc. Motivation/hope group  % of  therapeutic factors  Group d i s c u s s i o n  in  71)  fostered  setting  hope  9.8  Support/encouragement from  leader/members  Learning career  steps  information  7.2  cohesiveness  3.9  catharsis  1.3  self-esteem/  self-confidence Expressing  9.1  of  planning  Increased  cohesiveness  feelings  153)  Taking  personal  responsibility Other  existential  structuring made  t h e groups  b y more  longer  than  the  (b) s c r e e n  a s p i r a t i o n s and/or  Some  during  clients  activities  into  t h e workshop,  t h e groups language  and  to integrate results the occupational  comments  were  (a) make t h e w o r k s h o p  one-on-one c o u n s e l l i n g time  leader  helping  one r e s p o n d e n t :  two days,  professional include  than  differently.  according  abilities,  f o reach  client  (d) f o c u s of  more  to  (c) with on  self-assessment  exploration  process.  Chapter  5  Discussion Assumptions  o f t h e Study  A primary women  assumption  who p r e s e n t  representative (re)entry  major  researcher would  and  with  women  the barriers  (i.e.,  development.  This  The  participants i n this t o career  low self-esteem, setting  options.  t o be grounded i n  t h e o r i e s o f women's  goal  changing or  study  development career  and confusion  due t o c o m b i n a t i o n s  and o f home  work, r o l e s ) . A second  do  that  by major  development  of career  study  o f women's c a r e e r  experience  difficulty  the present  assumed  identified  was t h a t t h e  who a r e c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e e r  allowed  theories  study  f o r c o u n s e l l i n g a t W.E.C.U. a r e  of the population  women  assumption  of this  operate  included process  assumption  during  i n this  the career study.  was t h e r e f o r e  assessing  was t h a t  workshop  group  process  factors  counselling intervention  Yalom's  considered  participants'  (1985) m o d e l  o f group  appropriate f o r experiences  o f group  process. Finally, conceptually  although  goal  instability  c a n be  defended  a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f women's e x p e r i e n c e  of  92  career  transition,  instability applied  i s also  study  an a p p r o p r i a t e  criteria  limitations.  were  participants  used  Although  either  clients  were  not randomly  Therefore,  results  of this  ( r e ) e n t r y women  addition,  sample  receiving career  i f a n d how p a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r  seek  career  implications  f o rprogramming,  and promotion  a  general  findings  of career  cannot  changing  counselling. In drawn  only  counselling unit,  know  counselling. This  workshop  a n d ( r e ) e n t r y women.  study's  at a career  or  research  s e l e c t e d from  because p a r t i c i p a n t s were  of clients  biases  to particular  generalized to a larger population  groups,  variable i n  no s y s t e m a t i c  o r f o ra s s i g n i n g them  of career-changing  group  goal  outcome  f o rs e l e c t i n g  population  or  that  o f t h e Study  Sample  be  assumed  research.  Limitations  groups,  this  from  information  from  a  we d o n o t  women who d o n o t could  establishment  have  of target  o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o women  i n the  community. Measurement this  study  instability known  were  limitations. the only  The two i n s t r u m e n t s  paper/pencil  measures  and t h e r a p y / c o u n s e l l i n g group  t o the researcher.  Although  used i n  of goal  process  factors  administration of  these  93 instruments instrument external  was  h a s some  validity  A major to  simple  Yalom  respective  weaknesses  of this  limitation  (1985),  and time  an  interaction  subsumed by Yalom's  of  on t h e s u r v e y .  factors  equally  values  This infrequent studies GIS  factors the  study's  their  experience  an e x p e r i e n c e  myself  their  that  and  reads  s t i l l  the therapeutic  cohesiveness.  i fa client  i n the item,  and  i n the presentation  things•about  and group  &  of factors  the item  combines  of  mechanisms  (Butler  For example,  i m p o s s i b l e t o know  or both  factors  i s evident  by t h e group"  of catharsis  therefore one  embarrassing  accepted  likely  The i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e  change mechanisms  being  and  one o f t h e change  individual  specific  "revealing  according  do n o t r e p r e s e n t a b s o l u t e l y  i s most  o f more t h a n  and  results.  of h e l p f u l n e s s . Rather,  one t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r  items  internal  t h e 11 t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s  dimensions  1983).  limit  each  o f t h e HCGWS i s t h a t ,  of  Fuhriman,  which  study's  change mechanisms  independent  efficient,  I ti s  i s responding  and i f t h e  to  client  factors.  use o f t h e GIS i s c o n f o u n d e d  use of the instrument  relevant to counselling  i s psychometrically strong  i n previous psychology.  (Robbins  by t h e  research Although  & Patton,  the  1985),  94 it  was  i n i t i a l l y  undergraduate only.  developed  college students  The s c a l e ' s n o r m i n g  therefore  and used  limit  among  American  f o r research  and c o n s t r u c t i o n process  t h e c o n s t r u c t and content  instrument  when  used  experience  of l i f e  purposes  t o assess  other  transitions  may  validity  of the  populations'  (e.g.,  career  change).  Interpretation Ranking  of therapeutic factors.  participants placed  i n t h e W.E.C.U. c a r e e r  g r e a t e s t emphasis  (a)  universality,  and  (d) t h e e x i s t e n t i a l  (see  Appendix  F,  are  t h e same t o p f o u r  had  participated  intervention  corresponds  with  participants  support, (Amundson The being  8,  3,  of personal  & Borgen, participants  responsibility factors who  group c o u n s e l l i n g  of group  job search  outlook,  of  cohesiveness,  and 11). These  e t a l . , 1987).  the l i s t  positive  i n a group  4,  (c) g r o u p  i n the present  i n a  workshop  r e p o r t e d by c o l l e g e students  (Kivlighan factors  by  factor  i n a career  therapeutic  planning  on t h e t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s  (b) c a t h a r s i s ,  items  Research  The r a n k i n g o f  study  also  factors  group  deemed  (e.g.,  and belonging  partly helpful  group  i n t h e group)  1988). i n the present  of similar  others.  study Given  clearly that  valued  these  95 group or  participants  (re)entry  transition probably that  1986;  experienced  a forum  and  feelings.  "in  t h e same b o a t "  career  Rice  going  feelings  & Goering,  change  life  1977),  they  o f u n i v e r s a l i t y upon through  i n which  Recognizing  career  as a s i g n i f i c a n t  a sense  women w e r e  provided  clients'  experiencing  t o the workforce (Kahn,  other  group  are likely  that  similar  t o share other  undoubtedly  served  and concerns  to  regarding  changes.  common  group  seeing The  issues  members  were  normalize unemployment  and  indecision.  Research (Butler class  on o u t p a t i e n t  & Fuhriman,  (Kivlighan  catharsis  Catharsis  workshops  likely  that  were  they  doubt  (Hackett  Wood,  1989)  not alone & Betz,  Bielby,  1981). A have  valued  from  1981;  and concerns  (Fitzgerald  most  with  their Nevill  feelings  reports  study's realization of  self-  & Schlecker,  Perun  sense  of universality  freed  participants  and concerns  career  i n this  multiple  1983;  groups  therapeutic  participants'  around  & Betz,  group  consistently  among p a r t i c i p a n t s  resulted  options  m e m b e r s may  and a college  e t a l . , 1987)  among t h e t h r e e  factors.  feelings  1983)  counselling/therapy  roles  1988;  and  career  & D e l Vento among  group  to disclose  such  i n an atmosphere o f empathy,  trust,  96 and on  common u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  Research  participants'  expression of feelings  suggests  that  embarking not  on c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n  necessarily  occupational  clients  who a r e  and planning processes  consider information and guidance  and t r a i n i n g  decision-making  and goal  setting)  as t h e most  to their  learning  counselling.  In fact,  research participants  workshops  ranked  information/guidance  do  (e.g.,  information, direction i n  contributors  career  emphasis  items  factor  during  career  important group  i n these  representing the  only  sixth  and t w e l f t h  of  thirteen. Participants cohesiveness learning effect  o f intermember  1985).  Members  acceptance,  validated  encourage  common b a r r i e r s This  their  Cohesiveness  f o reffectiveness  feel  behaviour.  group  of their  group  i s a determinant and as such,  o f group  workshops  and support  work  and  i s a (Yalom,  informally  report  i n t h e groups.  one another  as they  face  decision-making.  participants  f o r h e l p i n g them  ranked  and accepted  t o career  study's  also  aspect  Women a t t e n d i n g t h e s e  they  groups  study  as an important  experience.  precondition  that  i n this  also  t o assume  I t i s very  common  valued  t h e workshop  responsibility f o r t o s e e women  clients  present the  at these  group  leader,  test/exercise, they  should  study's  planning  regard  results  f o r each  frequently than  when  feel  career  change  more  to  with  a group i n their  the group herself.  f o r one's  Such  of  changes  i s related  (1985)  members'  mutual  positive  an i n d i v i d u a l h e r more  feedback  This,  may highly  results  i n an  i n t u r n , makes t h e  of taking responsibility  rated  life.  feedback,  i n themselves  installation  factor  cohesiveness.  positive  faith  Yalom  evaluates  this  this  significant  development  F o r example,  capable  f o r personal  i s cohesive,  the existential  of group  with  have  become  that  group  by which  cohesiveness.  participants  responsibility product  have  choices  f o rher  process.  Research equally  means  that  particular  I t i s notable  responsibility One  hoping  what o c c u p a t i o n a l  make.  i n her self-esteem.  client  other  how  she e v a l u a t e s  increase  may  other.  hear  or a  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  of group  that  acceptance  were  factor  them  and/or  processes.  the factor  suggests  members,  tell  t o accept  existential to  will  clients  c o u n s e l l i n g workshops  other  pursue  experiences and  group  Hope  o f hope  of taking  personal  i s likely  also  Members support,  provided and  and t o pursue  a  each  encouragement their  98  life/career about to  the  Clients  future. This  accept  solely  goals.  the  felt  hopeful  positive  existential  affect  challenge  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her  own  and may  that  positive help  each  l e a r n i n g and  clients  client  i s  change  processes. Interestingly, self-understanding understanding abilities, program  survey were  refers  and  ways  strives  ranked  to of  items  being  self-awareness.  The  content  life  interests,  abilities, personal did  not  they  value  valued  affective  program.  After  activities, process  items two  clients any  new  The  factors  (i.e.,  lower  l i f e  skills  i s related  that  days may  However,  of not  aspects  to  intense yet of  the  the  client  had  of  roles, to  participants as to  highly  as  group  expressing  i t i s possible  •  self-  duration  group  have  of  relating  relating  of  Self-  self-assessment  universality,  ranking  of  workshop  levels  systems,  I t appears  cohesiveness).  participants'  understanding  world.  emphasizes  coping  factor  tenth.  self-understanding factor  processes  group  and  the  one's p e r s o n a l i t y ,  increased  value  processes.  the  the  and  feelings,  to  barriers  change  dynamics  that  and  about  i n the  facilitate  career  n i n t h and  insights  to  and  reflecting  of  the  discussion the  self-awareness.  and  opportunity  99 Yalom's therapeutic  (1985) d e f i n i t i o n factor  identification  may a l s o  because The  HCGWS  F, i t e m s  understanding levels  study  may h a v e  broader  two items  rated  Appendix  factor  7) a l s o  (eleventh  workshop  and timing  clients'  ratings  t o recognition,  client  i sperceived  feedback  through  i sdiscrepant  with  o f new i n f o r m a t i o n ,  more  two days  integrate  highly  the information  i f i t  item factor (see  i n a low ranking f o r of the  likely  confounded  Interpersonal  learning  member e x c h a n g e ,  people.  However,  self-perceptions,  o f workshop  on any  i n the present more  learning  factor.  by other  on  o n t h e HCGWS.  resulted  comprised than  Clients  of t h i r t e e n ) . Duration  of this  factor (see  are focused  of thepost-test  refers  this  of t h e survey  theinterpersonal  F, i t e m  i s inconsistent  of self-knowledge.  self-understanding  ratings  that  a n d do n o t f o c u s  representation  Participants' representing  problems  of self-knowledge.  item  agrees  reflecting  9 a n d 14). B o t h  one's  other  that  Yalom  of self-understanding  contained  as a  inhibited participants'  i t s u b s u m e s many d i m e n s i o n s  Appendix  had  have  of thefactor.  operationalization  of self-understanding  clients time  would  before  and acknowledge  o f how a  i f members' or i s  have they  required could  the relevant  100 survey  items.  The  ranking  o f t h e 14 c h a n g e  computed  for this  reported  by t h eonly  a  c o u n s e l l i n g group  career  similarity groups  experience  educational  components.  of and as  and group  they In  operate  Such  that  group  o f therapy  al.  (1987)  were  differences  of this  on  do  (1985)  considered kinds  affective corroboration  remind  researchers  of therapeutic  than  factors  may i d e n t i f y a n d clients  The s e to f t o p - r a t e d study  and that  h i g h l y and p o s i t i v e l y  i ntheir  clients  t o other  study's  clients  kinds  groups  counselling  groups.  t h e 11 f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t l y  career  This  emphasize  focus  should  t o be c o g n i z a n t  groups.  t h e HCGWS i n  areoften  This  value  the  group  i ncomparison  dynamics.  addition, career  using  because by  groups  groups  i ncareer  t o that  f a c t o r s o f Yalom's  Kivlighan et al.'s results leaders  career  c o u n s e l l i n g groups  counselling/therapy  group  study  finding  counselling contexts  components  identical  t h e two career  that  i san important career  o n t h e HCGWS  ( K i v l i g h a n e t a l . , 1987).  between  evidence  definition,  of  known  t h e 11 t h e r a p e u t i c  This  benign  i salmost  other  of rankings  i sstrong  model.  sample  mechanisms  respective client  i n other factorsi n  of Kivlighan et  correlated despite groups and  101 workshop that  programs.  career  group  consistently.  This  clients  the highly  factors  i n t h e above  types  1983;  Yalom,  two c a r e e r  These  hypothesis  operate  i n a l l therapy  type  of  importance  study's  pre-post  participants'  unsuccessful. levels  therefore  t h e same  c a n be e x p e c t e d  of post-test goal testing levels  standard  efforts of goal  instability,  from  Fuhriman, support  11  factors  interaction t o vary  and  according  to  t o account instability  This  f o r variance were  mechanisms  and  client  instability,  the construct  were a l l  validity  Nonsignificant results  multiple regressions  pre-test  change  and between  of goal  d i d not uphold  linear  instability.  n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . The p r e d i c t i v e m o d e l s  the hypotheses.  using  (Butler &  their  differences  and rankings  two o b s e r v a t i o n s  groups,  factors  of therapeutic  groups  although  and l e v e l s  statistically  simple  are several  C o r r e l a t i o n s between  of goal  demographics  by  that  evidence  group.  Predictions  in  there  of c o u n s e l l i n g groups 1985).  some  the therapeutic  correlated rankings  Yalom's  relative  provides  value  Furthermore,  between  other  finding  regression GIS scores  from t h e  indicated that  equation  need  as t h e only  assumed  have  only been  significant  a tested,  102 predictor It  i s possible,  validity can  variable.  i n this  suggest any  two-day  pre-post  10  factors  too  to  items,  i n part  responses  from  due  two  impact  termination  of  significant  results.  days  the  of  of  group  and  the  safety  of  explain of  why  change  the  mechanisms  of  GIS  The  brief  for  and  levels  of  goal  i s comprised on  of  the  pre-test  are  This  after  precluded  finding  have  generally and  workshop,  must  return  immediately  to  fatigued in  i t i s likely  from  the  detach their  re-orienting  account  very  discussion  change mechanisms to  too  responded  their  withdrawn  to  group.  cognitive  have  activity  leave the  prepare  hypotheses.  experience  the  researcher  prevented  post-test  also  e x p e r i e n c e s . They  group,  The  perhaps  HCGW s c a l e  may  intense  already partly  the  was  on  may  Clients  they  group  f o r the  because  the  As  their  have  construct  earlier.  workshop. have  they  may  group  t o memory  days  Administration  two  their  participants  post-test  after  period  Furthermore,  t h e r e was  i t s hypotheses. which  testing  brief  that  support  to process  instability. only  and  statistical  participants therefore  study  three  finding  however,  f o r any  the  that  immediacy  themselves lives  the  from  outside  process  were  of  may  only  set  variance i n post-  103 test  l e v e l s of  goal  Relationships factors.  Results  statistically of  client  In  other  age,  do  not  from  in this  to  failed  the  set  kinds  counselling  Yalom's  of  of  differences  identify  people  change  (e.g.,  the  respond  were  hypothesis to  set  mechanisms. status, not  f a c t o r s . These  (1985)  any  career  history)  different therapeutic  corroborate  to  therapeutic  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  and  client  status,  c l i e n t - t y p e s and  study  significant  words,  different group  between  demographics  marital  related  instability.  results  that  different things  in  counselling/therapy. Yalom's  (1985)  studies  that  group/interactive personality Robbins  &  suggested  Tucker, that  present  in  general  to  career  received  clients  interventions  1986)  . Results with  respond career  client  from  different  differently  to  counselling.  differences  personality  client  distinguish  assigned  clients  group  study,  according  have  has  were  information  participants. It  support  according  to  a l . , 1981,;  these  studies  personality the  elements  However, not  characteristics.  demographic  some  to  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Kivlighan et  characteristics inherent  hypothesis  was  is possible  in  the  identified Instead, used  that  to  only  104 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n o t d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s predispose  c l i e n t s t o respond d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e r a p e u t i c  factors. However, t h e l a c k o f any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e f e r r e d  therapeutic  f a c t o r s i n t h i s s t u d y may be g r o u n d s f o r r e c o n s i d e r i n g the r o l e o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n career counselling. Results  group  indicate that s i g n i f i c a n t  individual  d i f f e r e n c e s may have become " i n v i s i b l e " b e c a u s e members were c a r e f u l l y s c r e e n e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g needs, p e r s o n a l  motivation,  and l i f e / c a r e e r  were w e l l - m a t c h e d t o t h e w o r k s h o p ' s c o n t e n t  circumstances and g o a l s .  Women's common c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g needs may be  powerful  enough t o o v e r r u l e any i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and t h u s any  possible preferences  (Lieberman,  among t h e 11 t h e r a p e u t i c  factors  1983).  F o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e two-month post-workshop follow-up  interviews provide  strong  e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e workshop had a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t on sample members. Two months a f t e r t h e workshop, t h e majority of p a r t i c i p a n t s interviewed reported were s t i l l  that  they  b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e i r workshop l e a r n i n g and  group e x p e r i e n c e s .  A l m o s t a l l t h e sample members h a d  105 embarked on some a s p e c t  o f c a r e e r p l a n n i n g o r employment.  C l i e n t s ' most common a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d r e s e a r c h .  This  f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t s f o l l o w - u p r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by women workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a 1977 s t u d y by R i c e and Goering.  I n R i c e and G o e r i n g ' s s t u d y ,  70% o f c l i e n t s  r e p o r t e d a t s i x and 10 months p o s t - w o r k s h o p t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g  they  their return to  school. I t i s possible that l a t e r follow-up interviews i n the present  study would f i n d s i m i l a r  results,  p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e many o f t h i s s t u d y ' s already researching education  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  options.  Workshop f o l l o w - u p d a t a a l s o show t h a t up t o 50% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s interviewed f e l t higher l e v e l s of s e l f r e g a r d due t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s interventions Similarly,  i n career  group  (Kahn & Ward, 1983; R i c e & G o e r i n g ,  interviewees i n the present  study  1977).  reported  i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s o f s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . However, i n t e r v i e w e e s r e p o r t e d n o t o n l y a change i n a t t i t u d e about t h e m s e l v e s , b u t a l s o a p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e toward t h e career planning process.  Such a  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e may have h e l p e d t h e s e c l i e n t s t o make t h e l i f e s t y l e and r o l e changes n e c e s s a r y c a r e e r change  processes.  during  their  106 Comparison workshop and by  cited  post-test  participants'  factors member  combined),  affective  resources  t h e group  planning  cohesiveness, ranked  over  the long  more  been  that  of career  have  far-reaching  two  cognitive on  tangible  possible  components  to  benefits  career  shift i n  indicates that the group  benefits that  more  After  applicable  informational  be n o t e d  (c) group  information  of factors  i tshould  post-  powerful  evaluation  t h e most  at  self-  have  found  This  (e)  The  participants'  However,  factors  a r e t h e most  term.  (c)  responsibility.  self-understanding,  and therefore  helpful  and  (b) c a t h a r s i s ,  f a c t o r s may  and occupations)  of the  t h e most  to participants at post-test.  (e.g.,  i n  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  p a r t i c i p a n t s had probably  factors  (as measured  discrepancies  (d) e x i s t e n t i a l  therapeutic  interviews,  (b) i n f o r m a t i o n ,  highly  (a) u n i v e r s a l i t y ,  obvious  months,  (d) g r o u p  The most  and  of the  factors  that  interaction (information  were  aspects  of f a c t o r s . At the time  (a) u n i v e r s a l i t y ,  cohesiveness,  of  possible  participants reported  understanding.  and  of therapeutic  revealed valuing  were  learning  test  beneficial  by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n follow-up ratings  t h e HCGWS),  follow-up,  o f t h e most  at  counselling  may  f o r participants. follow-up,  107 participants felt  while  earlier. through term  s t i l l  i n a group  Knowing similar  source  that  there  life/career  purpose  to establish  participants'  t h e comfort  of similar  o f comfort  A major was  valued  and motivation  planning  the  program  -- o r p a r t i c i p a n t s '  the  program  —  that  of their  and  interests  could  their  (i.e.,  (i.e.,  indicate that  talents,  f a c t o r was  knowledge  learning the steps  career  career  interviewees  be a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y  frequently  in  of being i n  contributed tothe  of skills,  mentioned  may h a v e  components o f  self-  successfully provided participants  The i n f o r m a t i o n / g u i d a n c e  factor  researcher  of self-knowledge  planning.  occupations,  The  or ideas,  responses  self-awareness which  interviews  contributed to  experiences  plans  aspects These  activities  greater  on t h e p a r t i c u l a r  career  self-understanding).  with  follow-up  how t h e w o r k s h o p  frequently cited  assessment  long-  participants applied to their  When a s k e d  going  f o r participants.  processes.  information  most  may b e a  i f a n d how t h e w o r k s h o p  seeking  development  g r o u p members  transitions  of conducting  career  they  women t w o m o n t h s  are other  was  planning.  and v a l i d a t i o n  values,  t o career also  of resources  of career  facilitated  participants'  development  processes.  and  planning). second  This  "step"  Participants could  108 use to  newly acquired  integrate the results  into  their  career  Although referred  most  their  were  of their  and  able  to cognitive factors  information/guidance)  planning,  to incorporate  processes. credited  support, This  both  making  skills  self-assessment  they  also  of the group cohesiveness  confidence,  for  career-management  work  planning.  often  career  outcomes  and  participants i n the follow-up  understanding to  research  and  finding  (selfas c o n t r i b u t i n g  valued  the  affective  factor. Participants  increased  self-regard,  self-  hope  their  planning  into  confirms  c o g n i t i v e and  significant  interviews  career  that participants  affective  therapeutic  contributions to their  factors  career  planning. It could  i s notable  identify  factors it  facilitated processes. applying  that  they  career  e x a c t l y how  participants' Yalom  (1985)  the therapeutic  that  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  and p e r s o n a l  i s unclear  states  that  planning  any  group  therapeutic  processes.  o f t h e 11  l e a r n i n g and  factors  actually  dilemma  f a c t o r s i n outcome  function variably according  However,  planning  acknowledges t h i s  the f a c t o r s are not t r u l y  study  of  research.  i n d e p e n d e n t and to a  largely  He  109 unknown  variety  researcher  of client  can suggest  therapeutic  factors  contributed  t o career  have  derived  feelings  planning  process  participants left  stability  one means  identified  about from  felt  more  thoroughly  have  by which  secure than  when  permitted  and e f f e c t i v e l y  organize  of research  plans  abilities, According  values  223).  efforts  career Perhaps stable  had begun.  when  This  t o more  and i n t e g r a t e (e.g.,  strategies) into  life  t o Robbins  determined and goals,  result These  to formulate  presumably  skills,  alternatives will  and  self-knowledge,  their  career  processes.  Clients'  also  have  appeared t o  factors.  participants  knowledge  is  and t h e  they  b e n e f i t s of t h e workshop  career  may  and e m o t i o n a l l y  cognitive  planning  study  self-understanding,  themselves  This  t h e group  Participants  the therapeutic  t h e workshop may  characteristics.  i n this  planning.  information,  positive  they  and group  require roles,  self-awareness and work  and Patton  (1985),  by t h e presence which  considered.  and a c t i v e l y  directs Absence  "career  of a coherent  the type  of  of a system a career  researchers  goal  define  of  preferences.  i n i n d e c i s i v e n e s s about thus  pursue  planning set of  career of  goals  choice"  instability  (p. as a  110  lack  of,  or  weakness  abilities. to  The  i n value  follow-up  operationalize goal  "long-term" career the  career  ideas,  and  instability  plans  i n t e r v i e w s has  up  respondents  and  goal  instability  articulate  their  demonstrating organizing clients making  This  and  finding  evidence impact  on  In  goals  their  their  be  s e v e r a l group  and  during  pre-post  career testing,  plans  of  levels  of  were by  actively these  factors  with  planning  instability.  cautiously interpreted  of  goal  factors  as  did  instability,  as  transition. however,  therapeutic  f a c t o r s and  measured  the  levels  Four  follow-  could  career  goal  If  follow-  Furthermore,  their  predictive relationship  GIS).  and  therapeutic  significant  by  low  self-esteem  plans.  plans.  the  clients  therapeutic  levels  of  to  of  i n the  73%  These  levels  therefore  career  relatively  contributions to  interviewees'  experienced  have  c r e d i t e d group  hence may  that  career  references  instability  validity,  follow-up.  pursuing  specific and  to  attempted  establishment  current  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and  readily  processes  of  goal  construct  at  goal-setting  through  goals,  "firmness"  appeared  and  interview questions  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o nof  up  systems  of  no was  goal  f a c t o r s may  statistically found  between  instability be  the  (as  responsible  for  I l l  the  discrepancy  First,  i t i s possible  instability have the  applied  construct data  testing  with  during  may  be more  easily  Third,  represent  t o career  how  dependent  between time  linear clients  post-test  and c l i e n t s ' articulated  Pre-post solicit  data  gathered  information  experiences  i n dialogue  clients  were  post-test  regression  analyses  d i d not  more  than  t h e two-month provides  and process  evaluations  to  the factors i n relation  Finally,  their  are perhaps  evaluations  more  solicited  to  period  clients  group  a  which  However,  valued  of a  with  asked  of the workshop  and follow-up  upon  Second,  planning.  Retrospective thorough  may  qualitative  aspects  variable.  to reflect  instruments  at follow-up  identify  from  different.  goal  d i d not  o f t h e GIS.  interviews. Furthermore, processes  contributed  interviews  to that  were  those  group  specifically  findings  methods  than  results.  the operationalization of  equal  paper/pencil  follow-up  researcher.  the  validity  results  concerning  that  and follow-up  i n the follow-up  collection  different  group  i n post-test  with  experiences.  concise  and  at post-test.  Conclusions The group  results  therapeutic  indicate that  Yalom's  (1985)  f a c t o r s c a n be a p p l i e d  to  model  o f 11  researching  112 career  c o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p s . The  mechanisms that  from t h i s  i n the only  sample  other  study of career  of the therapeutic  1987).  significant  that  the  study.  current  Taken  strongly important  aspects  Client in  levels  different highly also  together,  results  of goal  failed  s e l e c t i o n of client  only  levels  study failed  of goal  on  outcome  instability.  outcome  variables like  maturity,  self-esteem,  for  variance a  demographics  more  would  be  instability.  that  group  It i s are  therapeutic  i n the post-test  B e r m a n e t a l . , 1977)  client  are  at p o s t - t e s t . Perhaps  Other  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  numerous  studies  factors  to account  to confirm  measure  identify  earlier  instabilitiy.  accounted f o r variance  a l . , 1983;  the  counselling.  of goal  factors  et  replicated  indicates  personality characteristics  predictors of goal  This  with  members'  of rankings  f r o m t h e two  group  instability  correlated with  change  ( K i v l i g h a n eta l . ,  therapeutic  of career  demographics  possible that  viable  correlation  group  group  factors  study effectively  suggest that  of group  i s highly consistent  perceptions This  ranking  studies have  workshop  (e.g.,  also  content or  indecision,  or assertiveness  Keller  failed  v a r i a b l e s . Perhaps  career  outcome  may  to type  other  career have  been  113 more  s e n s i t i v e t o any i n f l u e n c e  o f t h e 11  therapeutic  factors. Contrary strongly factors  t o post-test  support  factors  f o rt h e i r  participants of  their  group  In  general,  counselling settings  interviewees'  career  valued  more  that  cognizant  experiences  than  they  f o r women  should  thereby  planning.  planning  were  b e n e f i t i n g from  these and  value  career i n group  to interact with group  and  at post-test.  that  be conducted  are free  T h e 71  the therapeutic  o f t h e meaning  results confirm  clients  data  therapeutic  at follow-up,  follow-up  where  group  contribution t o career  I t appears were  follow-up  that  participants clearly  goal-setting.  other,  the hypothesis  influenced  interview  results,  each  processes and  dynamics. Furthermore, kinds  o f women  post-test  i n this  analysis  study  o f t h e group  majority  of participants i n this  o f change  process  counselling environment.  mechanisms  f a c t o r s . This  counselling  groups  therapeutic  factors  different  d i dn o t p r e f e r d i f f e r e n t  elements  range  show t h a t  study  representing  f i n d i n g suggests  should  not differ  according  valued  a  several that  i n their  to client  The wide group  career emphasis  differences  as  on  114 examined i n t h i s study. E s t a b l i s h i n g group  members'  workshop e x p e c t a t i o n s and c o u n s e l l i n g g o a l s may be sufficient  f o r r e d u c i n g member d i f f e r e n c e s i n  responsiveness Finally,  t o group  process.  the importance of follow-up i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  workshop c l i e n t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . The expected  researcher  f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s t o l a s t no l o n g e r t h a n  m i n u t e s . However, most i n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d a t l e a s t m i n u t e s , and some e x t e n d e d t o 30 m i n u t e s .  10  15  Follow-up  i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s were g e n e r a l l y v e r y r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s , and s e l d o m l i m i t e d  their  d i s c u s s i o n t o r e s p o n s e s t o i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . Many voiced t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the opportunity t o d i s c u s s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h e i r c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g activities.  S e v e r a l sought t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a d v i c e and  f e e d b a c k on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s  t o date.  The f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s a p p e a r e d t o f u n c t i o n as a c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r most o f t h o s e contacted. C l i e n t s ' of,  another's  clients  a p p a r e n t need f o r , and a p p r e c i a t i o n  i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t has  implications f o r scheduling follow-up contact clients.  with  115 Recommendat i o n s The  present  study  investigated the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  among s e l e c t e d c l i e n t d e m o g r a p h i c s , t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s , and  levels of goal i n s t a b i l i t y .  Although  no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were f o u n d i n p r e - p o s t  testing,  f o l l o w - u p data suggest that the c o n s t r u c t o f goal instability  a n d Yalom's  (1985) model o f t h e r a p e u t i c  f a c t o r s m e r i t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n women's c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g groups. F o l l o w i n g a r e recommendations f o r r e s e a r c h w h i c h may s t r e n g t h e n d e s i g n , measurement, a n d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods o f outcome s t u d i e s o f women's career  groups:  1. The HCGWS was t h e o n l y known w r i t t e n for  instrument  assessing the therapeutic factors i n career  c o u n s e l l i n g g r o u p s . The i n s t r u m e n t weaknesses:  has two m a j o r  (a) t h e i t e m s o f t e n p r e s e n t  aspects  o f more  t h a n one t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r , a n d (b) t h e r e i s u n e q u a l item representation f o r a l l f a c t o r s .  I ti s necessary t o  r e s t r u c t u r e t h e HCGWS by c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g i t e m s (a) r e p r e s e n t  that  one f a c t o r e a c h , a n d (b) a r e r e l a t e d t o  c a r e e r group c o n t e n t / g o a l s .  In order t o give  item  c o v e r a g e t o a l l f a c t o r s , t h e s u r v e y may need t o be lengthened.  V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f any new v e r s i o n s  116 of  the scale  should  2 . Since between  client  therapeutic consider client  no  a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  statistically  demographics  f a c t o r s was  significant relationship  and preferences  discovered,  future  f o r research  might  substituting personality characteristics f o r  demographics  (e.g.,  clients'  levels  of  goal  instability). 3. be  The  linear  equations  rewritten f o r future  role  tested  outcome  i n this  studies.  study  could  F o r example,  of goal  instability  as a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e c o u l d  investigated  i n relation  t o workshop  application  of goal  information  on t h e u t i l i t y  explaining addition, reflect during  t h e outcome  clients'  results  responsiveness  Future  research  groups  might  of career  more  on workshop  transitions.  be c h a n g e d outcomes  yielded valuable  t o group  therapeutic  on t h e f a c t o r s ' o p e r a t i o n s  also  benefit  methods.  solicit  This  In  to provided  interviews.  client  might  provide  be  instability for  variable could  reports  Follow-up  collection  could  of goal  women's e x p e r i e n c e s  follow-up  4.  instability  outcomes.  the  more  by u s i n g  Personal  i n s i g h t s on factors. i n  qualitative  interviews  detailed information  with  career data clients  regarding  (a)  how  117 and  when  why  clients  what to  their  the  The  follow-up GIS.  goal  the  ways  was  believe the  change  quite  I t would  factors, and  factors contribute  processes. instability  possibly different  than  t h e GIS  assessment  t o a s c e r t a i n whether  clients'  follow-up  testing  qualitative clients'  instability.  had  changed  Combining on  t h e GIS  information workshop  between  follow-up would about  post-test interviews  provide  used  that  useful to administer  instability  (b)  (c) i n  be  testing.  between  clients  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o nof goal  follow-up  and  the therapeutic  factors differently,  l e a r n i n g and  follow-up of  experience  value  specific  5. at  clients  of  at levels and with  quantitative  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  experiences  and  levels  of  goal  118 References Astin,  H.  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D i e s  Advances  i n group  research  and practice  1986Ottawa:  Services.  (1983). C o m p a r a t i v e  mechanisms.  force:  analyses  & K. M a c K e n z i e  psychotherapy:  o f change (Eds.),  Integrating  ( p p . 191-208). New  York:  123 International MacDevitt,  J . , & Sanislow,  offenders' McGraw,  L.  groups.  C.  Small  Press.  (1987). Group  Personnel D.,  interventions and Guidance  & Schlecker,  self-efficacy engage  D.  Curative  Behavior,  (1982). A s e l e c t i v e r e v i e w  counseling  Nevill,  Universities  (1988).  60,  and assertiveness  Psychology  72-81.  woman. T h e  469-472.  The r e l a t i o n  of  to willingness t o  i ntraditional/nontraditional  activities.  18,  o f programs and  f o rt h e reentry  Journal,  factors i n  career  o f Women Q u a r t e r l y ,  12,  91-98. Oliver,  L. & Spokane,  outcome: of  E.  research  (1988).  What c o n t r i b u t e s  Counseling  Pedhazur,  A.  Career-intervention  to client  Psychology,  35,  Journal  447-462.  (1982). M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n ( 2 n d e d . ) . New Y o r k :  gain?  Holt,  i n behavioral Rinehart  and  Winston. Perun,  P. & D e l V e n t o  of  female  approach.  Bielby,  occupational Psychology  D.  (1981) . T o w a r d s a m o d e l  behavior:  A human  o f Women Q u a r t e r l y ,  development 6,  234-251. Read,  N., E l l i o t t , The  M.,  Escobar,  effects of marital  M.,  status  & Slaney,  R.  and motherhood  (1988). on t h e  124 career  concerns  Development Rice,  Quarterly,  J . & Goering, life-planning National 40f  of reentry  M.  (1977).  workshop  Association  S.  (1987).  Women  model.  i ntransition:  Journal  P r e d i c t i n g change  from  The  Development  Career  Robbins,  A  of the  and  Counselors,  and  32,  career  Robinson,  counseling 33,  contemporary  (1989).  careers:  Employment  (1986).  workshops.  M.,  career  Personnel  288-296. and  of the superiority  Journal  of  Counseling  Relation  of goal  and i n t e r a c t i o n a l Journal  of  Counseling  418-424.  S., R o t t e r ,  M.  K.  t o self-directed  Psychology,  35,  Self-psychology  Construction scales.  perspective.  221-231.  S., & T u c k e r ,  instability  Quarterly, (1985).  instability  Psychology, Robbins,  M.  development:  goal  i n career  a self-psychology  S., & P a t t o n ,  career  of  46-55.  o f Women D e a n s  indecision  Sagaria,  The C a r e e r  57-61.  Robbins,  The  37,  women.  & Wilson, decisions:  and Guidance Toward  The q u i l t Counseling,  J . (1982). Impact  Journal,  metaphor. 2 6,  on t h e f a m i l y .  60,  a woman-centered  535-538. perspective  Journal of  11-15.  Mothers'  125 L . (1980).  Sandmeyer, women.  Choices  The V o c a t i o n a l  andchanges: A workshop f o r  Guidance  28,  352-  counseling  with  Quarterly,  359. L . (1981).  Seligman,  women. Deans Slaney,  Journal  Outcomes  oftheNational  t ocareer  Counseling  Spokane,  vocational (Eds.),  Handbook  Statistics  Canada.  Selected Supply Statistics their  data  Canada.  71-205).  32,  with  reentry  study.  355-362.  ofVocational  (1987).  Hillsdale,  Associates. Women  i n the workplace:  No. 71-534).  Ottawa:  Canada.  (1988).  Ottawa:  & S.H. O s i p o w  Psychology:  (pp. 99-136).  (Catalogue  labour  Journal  L . (1983). T h e o u t c o m e s o f  Erlbaum  & Services  1986  andfollow-up  ( V o l . 2)  Lawrence  o f Women  o f career  i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n W.B. W a l s h  Applications N.J.:  Relation  exploration  Psychology,  A., & O l i v e r ,  Association  25-32.  R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) .  R., & D i c k s o n ,  women: A t r e a t m e n t of  44,  a n dCounselors,  indecision  o f career  Canada's  market Supply  women:  experience & Services  Tinsley,  D., & F a u n c e ,  P. ( 1 9 8 0 ) .  and  precipitating  factors  A profile of  (Catalogue Canada.  Enabling,  associated  No.  facilitating,  with  women's  126 career 17,  orientation. Journal  P. ( 1 9 8 8 ) .  perspective Psychology  Women, w o r k ,  on t h e past, o f Women  C. ( 1 9 8 9 ) .  Learned  Employment  Counseling,  psychotherapy  12,  helplessness:  for displaced  I . (1985).  andfamily:  present,  Quarterly,  counseling  Yalom,  Behavior,  183-194.  Voydanoff,  Wood,  ofVocational  The theory (3rd e d . ) .  andfuture. 269-280. A factori n  homemakers.  2 6,  Bernard's  Journal o f  4-10.  and p r a c t i c e o f group New Y o r k :  Basic  Books.  127 Appendix Agenda  and A c t i v i t i e s  Career Day  A  Planning  o f W.E.C.U. Workshop  I A)  B)  C)  1.  Introductions  2.  Client  3.  Presentation  4.  Norm s e t t i n g  1.  B a r r i e r s t o change  2.  Employment  3.  Life  roles  1.  Work  values  2.  Skills  3.  Interests  4.  Closing  expectations o f agenda  needs  and  employment  assessment  identification identification:  activities  CO.1.1.  - Day I  Day I I D)  1. O p e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s :  review  o f Day I a n d  homework 2.  Interests  and  Holland  3.  labour  CO.1.1,  results  i n t e r e s t codes  Introduction  and 4.  identification:  t o career  market  planning/exploration  information  Decision-making/problem-solving  resources models  128 E)  1. G o a l s e t t i n g : a c t i o n 2. D e a l i n g to 3.  plans  with discounting  and  other b a r r i e r s  action Termination  activity Activities  1. B a r r i e r s t o change and  employment:  a) A w a l l o f b l a n k b r i c k s i s drawn by a board. C l i e n t s are  g r o u p p r e s e n t s i t s f i n d i n g s and  discussion  leader  i n v i t e d to i d e n t i f y i n small  t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s t o l i f e  wall according  the  on  groups  changes. Each  l a b e l s t h e b r i c k s on  the  t o t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d b a r r i e r s . Group  follows regarding  o r i g i n s of b a r r i e r s ,  and  means o f o v e r c o m i n g them. b)  General discussion regarding  confounding issues e x p l o r a t i o n or 2.  involved  f e a r s , concerns,  in clients'  and  career  changes.  Employment needs a s s e s s m e n t : C l i e n t s a r e a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y and  needs and  s t a n d a r d s f o r p o t e n t i a l employment. S m a l l g r o u p  discussion consider  priorize their  f a c i l i t a t e s e x p l o r a t i o n and  "dreams" and  personal  motivation  to  potential.  3. L i f e r o l e s : An  individual written roles exercise  i s completed  by  129  all  clients  potential  regarding  current  and p r e f e r r e d l i f e  s h a r i n g around " s e l f v e r s u s priorities  i s facilitated  life  roles,  and t h e n  r o l e s . D i s c u s s i o n and other"  commitments and  by t h e group l e a d e r . A f e m i n i s t  o r i e n t a t i o n t o understanding  t h e r o l e s o f women i n  s o c i e t y and t h e w o r k f o r c e i s i n t r o d u c e d  to clients.  4. Work v a l u e s : Group d i s c u s s i o n s u p p o r t e d  with  flip  charts  focuses  on t h e meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f work v a l u e s . A questionnaire  f o c u s i n g on p r i o r i z i n g  r e l a t e d values  i s assigned  and d e s c r i b i n g work-  f o r homework c o m p l e t i o n and  subsequent d i s c u s s i o n on Day I I o f t h e workshop. 5. S k i l l s  identification:  A v a r i e t y o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s and w r i t t e n are p r e s e n t e d occupational priorized  (e.g.,  skills  checklists,  descriptions). Skills  exercises  sample  a r e i d e n t i f i e d and  as self-management, f u n c t i o n a l , o r work  specific. 6. I n t e r e s t s a)  The Canadian O c c u p a t i o n a l  administered group  identification: I n t e r e s t Inventory i s  t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , and d e b r i e f e d i n t h e  context. b)  The H o l l a n d  P a r t y Game i s p r e s e n t e d  as a means o f  130 s e l f - i d e n t i f y i n g interest-codes. 7. R e s o u r c e s and  research:  A v a r i e t y of l a b o u r market i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s occupational d e s c r i p t i o n resources participants.  introduced  to  Instructions i n research s t r a t e g i e s  according to c l i e n t s ' accompanied by 8.  are  and  r e s e a r c h needs are p r e s e n t e d  s u p e r v i s e d hands-on  and  use.  Decision-making: A five  step decision-making  model i s  C l i e n t s are i n v i t e d to e i t h e r analyse significant project  life  a  presented.  personal  d e c i s i o n i n terms of t h e model, or  t h e model's s t r u c t u r e onto an e v e n t u a l  to  career  decision. 9. G o a l  setting:  C l i e n t s break i n t o s m a l l groups f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f goal-setting  f o r t h e i r c a r e e r s , and  circumstances p o i n t s are  the  issues  and  requiring consideration. A variety  identified  for ensuring  "good" g o a l s .  of Clients  complete a c o n t r a c t f o r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g which i n c l u d e s both 10.  s h o r t and  long-term  goals.  Discounting: Group d i s c u s s i o n i s f o c u s e d  d i s c o u n t i n g o f the t o o l s and  on c l i e n t s '  positive  potential  approaches t o  131 career  planning  provide  one  much o f  which  assumptions  introduced  another  with  involves  and  during  the  workshop.  trouble-shooting  cognitive  attitudes.  reframing  Clients  techniques, of  negative  132 Appendix Client Dear  Workshop At  are  this  about  Consent  Letter  Participant: time  the Career  to attend  conducting  B  this  planning  i s undergoing  career  c o u n s e l l i n g needs.  and  i t may  help  research  evaluation.  which you I  am  e v a l u a t i o n t o see i f t h e workshop  women's how  Workshop  i s being  women m a k e  done  I also  career  f o r a Masters  want  t o know i f  decisions. degree  meets  This  thesis  from  U.B.C. . I this  am  requesting  workshop.  This  questionnaires  now,  on  the last  group the  telephone I  will  will  participation mean  will  i n my  that  you f i l l  (ten minutes)  and two  day o f t h e workshop  leader  last  your  give  you time  (fifteen  i n two months.  In a brief  a s k y o u some s i m p l e  out two  minutes).  contact  The  t h e forms  on  you by  telephone  questions  on  questionnaires  t o complete  day. In a d d i t i o n , I w i l l  research  about  interview,  your  career  plans. Your purely  participation  voluntary.  participate services  You a r e under  and are free  from  this  i n this  t o deny  office,  from  research  project i s  no o b l i g a t i o n consent. other  Your  to access  government  to  134 I have r e a d t h i s this  research project.  i s v o l u n t a r y and t h a t s t u d y a t any Date  Phone Number  form and consent I understand I am  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  t h a t my  participation  f r e e t o withdraw from  time. Name  Signature  this  135 Appendix C Participant's  Information  Sheet  F o l l o w i n g are a number o f q u e s t i o n s about your life  situation.  as you  can.  The  better identify  P l e a s e respond i n f o r m a t i o n you  f o r your  1. P l e a s e  the l e t t e r  d e s c r i b e s your p r e s e n t A.  You  as a c c u r a t e l y  provide w i l l  h e l p us  to  and meet women's c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g  needs. Thank you circle  t o a l l items  present  cooperation. of t h e s e n t e n c e  that best  situation.  are e n t e r i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e f o r t h e  first  time . B.  You  are r e t u r n i n g t o the l a b o u r f o r c e a f t e r  absence when you the C.  were busy w i t h a c t i v i t i e s  l a b o u r f o r c e e.g., You  have l e f t  are  c o n s i d e r i n g a c a r e e r change. D.  2. Are  Other  you:  outside  r a i s i n g your f a m i l y .  your l a s t p a i d job and  (please describe)  m a r r i e d / l i v i n g with a partner single separated/divorced  an  now  3.  At  this  time,  a r e you  the main  wage-earner i n your  household? yes 4.  How  o l d are  5.  Have  to  this  you  no  you?  25 - 29  40 - 44  30 - 34  45 - 49  35 - 39  50 - 60  received  any  career  counselling before  coming  office? yes If  "yes",  no was  i t  group  counselling?  individual  counselling?  both? 6.  I f you  which  one  typical  have  held  paid  jobs  of the following  work  you  have  done?  a t any  time  would best Check  i n your  describe  one:  Clerical  Sales  Social  Finance  Services  _Teaching Other  (please  Health name)  _Many d i f f e r e n t ,  the  unrelated  jobs  Care  life, most  137 Appendix  D  SELF-EXPRESSION INVENTORY Directions:  F o l l o w i n g are a number o f statements t h a t r e f l e c t v a r i o u s ways i n which we can d e s c r i b e o u r s e l v e s . A f t e r r e a d i n g each statement, one a t a time, c i r c l e a number along the s c a l e which ranges from L ( S t r o n g l y Agree) to 6 ( S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) . There are no r i g h t o r wrong answers, so p l e a s e J u s t make your best judgement. Simply t r y t o r a t e the e x t e n t t o which you agree w i t h each statement. Do not spend too much time w i t h any one statement. C i r c l e the number which b e s t f i t s f o r each statement and do n o t leave any unanswered. P l e a s e C i r c l e a Number f o r Each Statement, a l o n g :  Strongly Agree  Moderately Agree  1  2  1.  2  2  I have c o n f u s i o n about who 1  4.  I l o s e my 2  I t ' s e a s i e r f o r me  6  4  5  6  -  3  4  5  6  3  4  5  6  3  4  5  6  3  4  5  6  5  6  4  5  6  4  5  6  4  5  6  4  5  6  t o s t a r t than to f i n i s h  2  3  2  I wonder where my  projects: 4  3 l i f e i s headed:  2  3  I don't seem to have the d r i v e to get my work done: 1  10.  5  I don't seem to get going on a n y t h i n g i m p o r t a n t :  1 9.  4  sense o f d i r e c t i o n :  I 8.  Strongly Disagree  am:  2  1 7.  Moderately Disagree  I have more ideas than energy:  1 6.  I  2  1 S.  3  I don't seem to make d e c i s i o n s by m y s e l f : 1  3.  3  Slightly Disagree  I t ' s h a r d co f i n d a reason f o r working: I  2.  Slightly Agree  2  A f t e r a w h i l e I l o s e s i g h t of my 1  2  3 goals: 3  138 Appendix Instruction Dear Workshop  E  Sheet  (Day II)  Participant:  T h i s i s t h e second s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r you t o complete.  It will  t a k e l e s s than f i f t e e n minutes  t o do b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P l e a s e complete  f o r you  them i n t h i s  order: 1. S e l f - E x p r e s s i o n  Inventory  2. How C a r e e r Groups Work S c a l e P l e a s e complete  a l l items on each  questionnaire.  When you have f i n i s h e d b o t h i n s t r u m e n t s , p l e a s e p u t them back i n t h e e n v e l o p e and hand i t t o t h e r e c e p t i o n i s t you  leave. Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n .  Diana Mawson Researcher  as  139 . Appendix F HOW CAREER CROUPS WORK Directions:  The f o l l o w i n g items a r e some a s p e c t s o f the career group e x p e r i e n c e which o t h e r s i n the past have found u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g them l e a r n . P l e a s e review In your mind the time you have spent i n t h i s Career P l a n n i n g workshop. Read a l l these Items, then make a d e c i s i o n and i n d i c a t e f o r each item whether i t was an aspect of your group that was Important f o r your l e a r n i n g . P l e a s e CIRCLE THE NUMBER that corresponds o f your l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  t o the best d e s c r i p t i o n  Respond to ALL items u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e :  Did not apply t o my l e a r n i n g i n the group  1  Applied somewhat  One o f the two most important experiences.  D e f i n i t e l y an important p a r t o f my experience leading to learning  2  4  3  1.  The group members and/or l e a d e r gave me some d i r e c t a d v i c e o r suggestions about how t o d e a l w i t h some c a r e e r / l i f e problems or with some important r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  .  1  2.  Helpine o t h e r s , being important t o o t h e r s , g i v i n g p a r t o f myself t o o t h e r s has been an important e x p e r i e n c e f o r me and has r e s u l t e d i n a change i n my a t t i t u d e toward myself.  3  4  3  4  3.  The Important i s s u e was that I was an i n v o l v e d member o f a group: I f e l t c l o s e t o the other members.  3  4  4.  I was a b l e t o e m r p s s f e p U n w v e r y f u l l y : I was a b l e t o say what I f e l t r a t h e r than h o l d i n g i t i n ; I was a b l e t o express negative and/or p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about myself, c a r e e r and other p e o p l e .  1  2  3  4  5.  I was a b l e t o use o t h e r s as models. t o p a t t e r n myself a f t e r another member and/or l e a d e r . Seeing how others approach problems or make d e c i s i o n s gave me i d e a s of how I could.  1  2  3  4  6.  The group was, In a sense, l i k e my f a m i l y . Rather than pass through b l i n d l y , however, I was a b l e t o understand o l d hang-ups w i t h parents, b r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s . I t was l i k e r e l i v i n g , o n l y i n a more aware manner, my early family experience.  1  2  3  4  1  2  2  140  - 2 -  D i d not a p p l y Co my l e a r n i n g i n che group  Applied aomewhac  D e f i n i t e l y an important p a r t of my experience l e a d i n g to l e a r n i n g  The group helped me understand the type o f impact I have on o t h e r s ; they c o l d me h o n e s t l y what Chey thought o f me and how I come a c r o s s .  1  2  I l e a r n e d Chac "we're a l l i n the same b o a t . " My problems, f e e l i n g s , f e a r s , a r e not unique and I share much w i t h o t h e r s I n Che group.  1  2  G e c t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o the- causes and s o u r c e s o f my hang-ups; l e a r n i n g t h a t some o f Che t h i n g s I chink or f e e l a r e r e l a c e d co e a r l i e r periods i n my l i f e . '  1  2  10.  The group gave me hope: I saw Chat ochers w i t h s i m i l a r problems and e x p e r i e n c e s were a b l e to grow and overcome C h e i r hang-ups.  1  2  11.  The e x p e r i e n c e Chat d e s p i t e che a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o c h e r s , I muse s t i l l face l i f e alone and take u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the way I l i v e .  1  2  12.  The group h e l p e d me by encouraging me t o experiment w i t h new forms o f behavior.  1  2  13.  I was a b l e t o r e v e a l embarrassing t h i n g s about myself and s t i l l be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r group members.  1  2  14.  I l e a r n e d some o f Che causes and sources o f my problems. Now I understand b e t t e r why I t h i n k and f e e l t h e way T d o .  1  2  One o f the two most important experiences  141 Appendix Follow-up  G  Interview  S c r i p t : H e l l o . May I speak w i t h My n a m e i s D i a n a M a w s o n . I'm c a l l i n g a b o u t t h e C a r e e r P l a n n i n g w o r k s h o p y o u t o o k a t t h e Women's E m p l o y m e n t C o u n s e l l i n g U n i t two months Ago. Do y o u r e m e m b e r a t t e n d i n g ? . . . ( n a m e ) w a s your g r o u p l e a d e r . You w i l l r e c a l l t h a t you v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e w o r k s h o p a t t h a t t i m e . I am t h e p e r s o n who i s conducting that evaluation. I am c a l l i n g y o u t o d a y / n i g h t t o d o t h e f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w f o r the e v a l u a t i o n . This telephone i n t e r v i e w w i l l take about ten minutes. I s i t c o n v e n i e n t f o r you t o a n s w e r s o m e q u e s t i o n s f o r me n o w ? O r s h o u l d I c a l l you back at another time? (If convenient, proceed) B e f o r e we b e g i n , I w a n t t o r e m i n d y o u t h a t a l l y o u r a n s w e r s t o my q u e s t i o n s w i l l b e k e p t strictly c o n f i d e n t i a l . The g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s a r e n o t i n any way c o n n e c t e d w i t h my e v a l u a t i o n p r o j e c t . T h e r e w i l l b e e i g h t q u e s t i o n s . I w i l l r e a d each q u e s t i o n t o you t w i c e . P l e a s e t r y t o make y o u r a n s w e r s as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e . I w i l l b e w r i t i n g n o t e s a s y o u t a l k . Do y o u h a v e a n y questions b e f o r e we begin?...  Questions: 1. a) W h a t h a v e y o u b e e n d o i n g s i n c e t h e w o r k s h o p i n terms of employment or t r a i n i n g ? b) D i d y o u a t t e n d t h e w o r k s h o p f o l l o w - u p m e e t i n g ? 2. Have you had any c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s i n c e workshop? P l e a s e answer yes or no.  the  3. a) D i d y o u l e a v e t h e w o r k s h o p w i t h a n y long-term s p e c i f i c c a r e e r p l a n s or i d e a s about what c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n you w a n t e d t o t a k e ? P l e a s e answer yes or no. b)  I f no:  What,  i f anything,  d i d you  come  away  with?  4. a) A t p r e s e n t , d o y o u h a v e a n y c o n c r e t e g o a l s o r p l a n s f o r your c a r e e r ? P l e a s e answer yes (b f o l l o w s ) o r no ( c f o l l o w s ) .  142 b) A r e t h e s e g o a l s and p l a n s t h e same ones y o u h a d when you l e f t t h e workshop? P l e a s e answer y e s o r no. c) Do y o u have any i d e a s t h a t y o u a r e c o n s i d e r i n g f o r a long term career? d) D i d t h e workshop c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g t o t h e development o f your c u r r e n t c a r e e r p l a n s / i d e a s ? P l e a s e answer y e s o r no. e) ( i f y e s t o 4 d ) : Can you g i v e me some s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s o f how t h e workshop h e l p e d you d e v e l o p t h e s e career plans/ideas? f ) Do y o u t h i n k y o u r c u r r e n t c a r e e r p l a n s / i d e a s a r e f i r m l y s e t , o r do y o u t h i n k t h e y w i l l change? P l e a s e answer y e s o r no. g) Do y o u r c u r r e n t c a r e e r p l a n s o r c a r e e r i d e a s move you i n a d i r e c t i o n away f r o m y o u r p r e v i o u s c a r e e r ? 5.  a) A r e you employed a t t h i s  time?  b) ( i f y e s t o 5a and t o 4 a ) : Does t h i s j o b f i t i n t o y o u r c a r e e r p l a n s ? P l e a s e answer y e s o r no. Now I w i l l a s k you some q u e s t i o n s a b o u t y o u r o p i n i o n s o f t h e w o r k s h o p . Would y o u l i k e me t o r e f r e s h y o u r memory a b o u t t h e workshop by naming some o f t h e t h i n g s t h e workshop c o v e r e d ? . . . 6.  What was most b e n e f i c i a l  7.  What was l e a s t b e n e f i c i a l  t o you about t h e workshop? t o you a b o u t t h e workshop?  8. What c o u l d be done w i t h t h e workshop so t h a t i t w o u l d have b e t t e r met y o u r needs?  

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