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Effectiveness of a mini course career education program Hardie, Margaret Jean 1978

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EFFECTIVENESS.OF  A MINI COURSE  CAREER EDUCATION PROGRAM by MARGARET JEAN HARD IE B.S.N., University  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g  Psychology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1978  (c) Margaret Jean H a r d i e , 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Counsel 1ing Psychology  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  September 29,  1978  ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of a mini-career education program on students' career maturity as measured by Crites Career Maturity Inventory (CM I) Competence test, using a pretest/posttest design. The relationship of sex, grade point average (GPA), academic/vocational streaming (curriculum), and Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale scores with scores obtained on the Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests was analyzed. The location chosen for this study was a medium-sized city in the Interior of British Columbia. The sample consisted of ninety-five senior high school students from one of three local senior secondary schools. Fifty-one students were in the experimental group, the remainder (hk) formed the control group. The entire sample was administered both the Crites Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale and the five Competence subtests as a pretest. Only the five Competence subtests were given as a posttest. A review of the literature indicates that, although career education is being implemented, there is a continuing need to investigate what format career education should take to be most productive for the individual and for society. The career program was developed, in part, to be similar in content to career education materials available to schools in B.C. The theoretical background included Super's ideal/real occupational self concept theory, and emphasis was placed on personal assessment of abilities, interest, and experiences related to the world of work. There are a variety of tests available to measure the effectiveness of a career education program. Crites Career Maturity Inventory, in a study of six career development tests (Westbrook, 197*0, appeared to encompass cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains of career maturity more  i i. i completely than did other tests. The Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests relate to specific topics, eg. planning, knowing about jobs, which provides a framework for assessing areas of students' strength and weakness. Three objectives of this study were as follows: a) to compare the level of career maturity, using adjusted posttest mean scores, of a group of students receiving instruction (experimental group) with a similar group of students not receiving instruction (control group); b) to compare pretest and posttest scores, of the experimental group only, to determine if there was a statistically significant change following treatment (career education); c) to investigate whether sex, grade point average, academic/vocationa1 streaming, and Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale scores correlated with the career maturity level of the students. The analysis of results showed there was a statistically significant increase between pretest and posttest mean scores of the experimental and control groups (using adjusted posttest scores) for the Career Maturity Inventory subtests "Knowing Yourself" and "Knowing About Jobs". When comparing pretest mean scores and posttest mean scores of the students in the experimental group only, "Knowing About Jobs" was the only one of the five subtests to register a statistically significant gain. The individual items were analyzed to determine whether one item, or group of items, contributed specifically to the attained scores, however this did not appear to be the case. There was a positive relationship (Spearman r = .30) between all Competence subtests and the scores obtained on the Attitude Scale. Grade point average correlated positively (r = .31) with all of the Career Maturity Inventory subtests, except "Problem Solving"; the type of program  iv (curriculum) and career maturity scores showed statistically significant correlation (Pearson point biserial r = .22) for the subtests "Knowing Yourself" and "Choosing a Job" and there was no statistically significant correlation observed between sex and scores on the Career Maturity Inventory subtests. The relationships studied could suggest that grade point average and Attitude Scale scores may be used as predictors of students' career maturity levels, the higher the scores, the greater the career maturity level. Crites has indicated that gains can be expected on the Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests following career education. Although the Career Maturity Inventory subtest "Provlem Solving" could stand further research, it would seem that a mini, or short, career program of the nature implemented has limited usefulness in increasing the career maturity level of students. Future recommendations include lengthening the time of career programs, and enriching the content presented in this study. 1  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Nature of the Study Purpose of the Study Definition of Terms Implications of the Study Limitations of the Study Overview of the Study CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Theoretical Framework Used to Develop and Evaluate Career Education Vocational Theorists Super Ginzberg Ann,:Roe Tiedeman and O'Hara Crites Factors Which May Influence Career Maturity Grade Point Average and Curriculum Sex as a Variable Crites Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale Competence Test  1 h 5 6 8 9 11 12 12 13 13 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 23 2k 25  vi Literature Relevant to Career Maturity and Career Education Career Maturity Research Research Related to Testing Effectiveness of Career Education The Career Education Program for this Study Psychological and Theoretical Rationale for the Career Program Other Career Course Considerations Current Trends and Suggestions Hypotheses Derived from the Literature Review CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY SUBJECTS N I STRUMENT Career Maturity Inventory Competence Test Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale Student Information DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTION STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Comparison of Adjusted Posttest Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups T-tests of Significance for Differences Between Pretest Mean Scores and Posttest Mean Scores on Each of the Five CMI Subtests for the Experimental Group Only  29 30 32 35 36 39 41 43 45 45 47 47 48 49 49 51 54 54  60  vi i Significance of Relationship of Scores on the Five Competence Subtests to the Variables Sex, Streaming, GPA, Attitude Scale Scores Sex Curriculum (Program) Grade Point Average Attitude CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Results Implications of the Study Suggestions for Future Research REFERENCES APPENDIX A Career Education Course Outline APPENDIX A 1 - 7 Course Study Sheets APPENDIX B Career Action For Youth Centre APPENDIX C ITEM-ANALYSIS Table A Knowing Yourself Table B Knowing About Jobs Table C Choosing a Job Table D Looking Ahead Table E Problem Solving APPENDIX D Model of Career Maturity in Adolescence  62 63  64 64 65 66 66 71 74 78 84 87 113 115 115 116 117 118 119 120  vi i i  TABLES  LIST OF TABLES Description  1  Subject Sample Description  2  Averaged Scores by Grade on CM I Subtests Pretests Only Pretest and Posttest Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups on Five CMI Subtests Grades 11 and 12 Mean Scores and Standard Deviations as Presented in the CMI Administration Manual (1973) Adjusted Cell Means on Five Posttest for Experimental and Control Groups Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Knowing Yourself" Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Knowing About Jobs" Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Choosing a Job" Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Looking Ahead" Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Problem Solving" Experimental Group Pretest - Posttest Means, Standard Deviations and Dependent Measures T-Test Probabilities  3  4  5 6 7 8 9 10 11  12  Correlation Coefficients for Independent Variables in Relation to Pretest Scores for Experimental and Control Groups  PAGE 46 47 55  55  56 57 57 58 59 59 61  63  ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A great deal of co-operation and desire for family unity is required when a more-or-less traditional housewife and mother leaves home to further her education. I see the completion of the preceding course of studies and this thesis as being a family accomplishment and I thank my husband, Barrie, and my daughters, Teresa and Janet, for their patience, love, understanding and support. I am deeply grateful to my parents-in-law, Bess and Tugg Hardie. To Dr. Bill Borgen, my thesis chairman, a special thank you, for your encouragement, guidance, and availability for consultation much beyond that which would rightfully be anticipated. A sincere thank you to Dr. Harold Ratzlaff for your understanding counsel and for assistance in the preparation of the statistical portion of this thesis. To Dr. Richard Young, thank you for your contributions and advice. To my typists, Jeanette MacKenzie and Lee Ritchie, thank you for your long and diligent hours of work and for your interest and caring in this endeavor. Many friends offered moral, and tangible, support by helping myself and my family, and I thank all of you, particularly Jean Kuijt whose encouragement and assistance prompted the beginnings of this paper, and Kala MacKinlay for providing a home-away-from-home. The research for this thesis was made possible through the kindness and co-operation of the Director of Secondary Education of School District #2k, Mr. Ray Zacharias, and staff members of Kamloops Senior Secondary School. I am especially grateful to Mr. R. Johansen, Judy Johnson and Mr. M. Weatherhead. And a loving thank you, to my father, Mr. James Begg, who has always encouraged me and supported me in all my academic endeavors.  To B a r r i e and J a n e t , w i t h  x  love.  Chapter One INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Social conditions at the turn of the century stimulated research into the concept of vocational guidance, and today ever increasing numbers of people in the education system and in the work force are concerned about the process of realistic career planning and vocational decision making. Psychology Today (May, 1978) has devoted most of an issue to the world of work, and related behaviours and attitudes prevalent in our present economic environment. Crites (1965), in an article on vocational development, refers to the pioneer work of Parsons at the beginning of this century in the field of vocational psychology. Although vocational development has been studied extensively since Parsons' original contributions, there still appears to be confusion in the minds of educators as to the best method of helping youth select a career field that is congruent with his abilities and interests, that will ultimately be personally satisfying, and that will also be productive for society. In an attempt to provide answers to vocational choice problems, career education programs are springing up across the country in schools and colleges. The programs range in form from formal class structure, to workshops involving fairly in-depth personal psychological assessment (Tichenor,  1977),  to consulting with a computer (CHOICES, Canada Manpower).  Some school programs have been thoroughly investigated and planned, such as described by McKinnon and Jones  (1975),  where the need and  educational format were studied over a period of two years before implementation procedures commenced. This is in contrast to programs developed on a "crash" basis, which soon flounder and are discarded, as Leonard and Vriend  (1975)  have indicated, "this is a clear and present 1  2  danger in these days of career education" (p. 670). Prediger, Roth and Noeth (197*0 in a nation-wide (U.S.) study on career development of youth, focus on what students say about their career development and about current guidance needs. Over one-half of the students in this study indicated they received no help. "We (the authors) believe . . . many counsellors and administrators have failed to accept and communicate career planning as an appropriate responsibility of the school and that, as a result, students do not expect or request help with career planning" (p. 100). Prediger, et al (197*0 state "if we were speaking of physical development rather than career development, we would describe American youth as hungry, under-nourished and physically retarded" (p. 103). The authors urge teachers to make subjects more relevant to the real world, to avoid "floundering and prolonged states of indecision that are costly both to the individual and to.society" (p. 103)- They suggest that society may prefer to absorb these costs rather than the costs inherent in remedy of this situation. "This is the course of least resistance, and its acceptance may involve the least controversy, especially since the remedies currently receiving attention are largely untested" (p. 103). Many researchers recommend the need to develop career education programs and to measure their effectiveness in order to obtain the best possible method of implementing successful programs in schools. Crites (1970 states that "investigations should be conducted of the factors which facilitate vocational maturity, including counselling, occupation information, roleplaying, simulation games, programmed instruction, visits to business and industry, etc." (p. 69). Doctoral dissertations of Diana (197*0, LaBozetta (1973) and Cross (1975) have experimented with short term career interventions in high school settings, such as counselling and career  3  testing, and found that there was no significant change in their testing of career awareness levels. They recommend further attempts should be made to develop and implement career awareness in schools. Omvig, Tulloch and Thomas (1975) studied the effect of career teaching in grades 6 and 8 classes, and while the evaluation process indicated some growth of career maturity, there was no established curriculum that could be replicated by others. It does not seem particularly useful to know something works, if you do not know what the "something" is. Clinical observations by this researcher and school counsellors contacted in three British Columbia high schools corroborate what is found in the literature. Students in one high school received no career education, and guidance for future planning was available only upon request. Students who had no apparent scholastic or discipline problems rarely, if ever, saw a counsellor. Some of these students discovered, upon completing high school, that they did not have prerequisites necessary for admission to post-secondary learning institutions, or that the world of work was not prepared to employ young adults with inadequate work skills. Another school offered mini-career education packages, but whether this intervention changed the career maturity level of the students was not assessed. One school limited career planning to administration and self-interpretation of a general abilities test battery (Canada Manpower GATB). In the business sector, problems encountered by both employer and employee were similar to those documented in Psychology Today (May, 1978); women reentering the work force unprepared; people in the work force stating "years ago I made a bad mistake and now I'm trapped in it" (p. 67). This investigation has been involved with men and women in career planning courses and placement agencies who are now suffering from unsuitable and unrealistic  career decisions, but for them no direction had been available. To quote from Darcy Truax (1975) of Honeywel Corporation, "while some industrial representatives recognize that the total concept of education for life (career education) should relate to more than education for work, few have been able to design programs that effectively cover the employment aspect of career education within their own work forces. Evidence of this is the lack of ongoing programs to counsel present employees on career paths..." (p. 6 6 4 ) . Nature of the Study It is apparent that there is a need to develop career education programs to help individuals decide on a career future that will be satisfying for themselves and productive for society. Students in high school must make some decisions about their educational and career future, and current evidence suggests many students are confused and appear unable to make appropriate decisions. There are methods of predicting the career needs of students, such as vocational testing, career maturity inventories, and occupational questionnaires. One method of assessing where a student is in relation to the development of career maturity is to obtain scores for the student on the measurable variables of this construct. In this study the career maturity level of students before and after a mini-course career education program was of particular interest. A ten hour program in career education was developed (Appendix A), designed for senior high school students, to be instructed by this researcher. Grade 11 and 12 students were chosen because career education becomes more realistic for students at a time in their schooling when future planning decisions are imminent (Crites 1976). Crites Career Maturity Inventory (CMl) has been used in total, or in  5  part, by researchers testing for career maturity gains or levels in a student population (Omvig, et al, 1976; Westbrook, 1976b), or testing for the sensitivity of this instrument to measure career maturity (Crites, 1974). Crites (1973a) indicates gain scores can be expected on the Competence test subtests for students enrolled in a career education program, dependent to some degree upon direct focus of content on the world of work. The program was designed to include content that was representative of existing material available for counsellors and teachers instructing career education classes in high schools in an attempt to make the results of this study more meaningful to other career educators. The development of career maturity of students can be altered by a variety of factors not directly connected to any education process. Many studies have examined the effects of sex, age, grade, intelligence, home influence, socio-economic status, self-concept, and other variables on the level of career maturity. Of some interest in this study is the relationship of sex, intelligence, attitude, and curriculum to the initial assessment of the career maturity level of the student. Westbrook and Cunningham (1970) suggest two important uses for career maturity measures could be to assess pupil readiness to make education/vocational decisions, and to compare students' scores to norms to locate areas of need to focus vocational development. The method involved in doing this research eliminated any opportunity to conduct the teaching program differently to accommodate for group differences on the variables, but the availability of information regarding influences on career maturity as seen in this study, may provide useful information for implementation of other career education programs. Purpose of the Study Research evaluating career planning programs is minimal. The purpose  6  of this study was to obtain information about the specific effects of a career education course on the career maturity level of students in grades 11  and  12.  Three objectives of this study were: a) to compare the level of career maturity, using adjusted posttest scores, of the group of students receiving instruction (experimental group) with a similar group of students not receiving instruction (control group); b) to compare pretest and posttest scores, of the experimental group only, to observe whether career maturity levels of the students changed, and whether this change could be attributed to the treatment; and c) to investigate the effect of sex, Grade Point Average (GPA), academic/vocational streaming, and Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale scores to career maturity levels. Definition of Terms Terminology that may have ambiguous meanings are defined to enable the reader to understand the context in which they are used in this study. The definitions primarily are those used by Tolbert  (1974)  and Pietrofesa  (1975).  Career A career is the sequence of occupations engaged in over a lifetime, including those occupations involved in preparing for work or activities engaged in following retirement from paid work. Vocat ion This term is used interchangeably with "career". Streami ng Streaming in this study refers to the type of school program or curriculum the student has selected, eg. vocational or academic. This term was used interchangeably with vocationa1/academic program (or curriculum) and the context in which the terms are used with be self-explanatory.  7  Work A mental or physical activity for which remuneration is received; job is used as a synonym. Career Education and Guidance Career education is part of the process of career development occurring within, and outside, a school setting and involves learning how to live and earn a living, and career guidance is the process of aiding another person to accomplish this. In this study, career education and career guidance may be used synonomously. Vocational Development This is defined as a lifelong process of developing work values, crystallizing a vocational identity, learning about opportunities, and trying out plans. Career development at one point was thought to be continuous and primarily irreversible, much as any growth and development phase (Erikson, 1963), but it is assumed that in vocational or career development, the process is affected by the individual's freedom of choice, in relation to course of studies and career selection. Vocational Maturity Pietrofesa (1975, p. 1^5) defines vocational maturity as "an operational, normative concept which emanates from vocational choice and development theory. It is symbolized by maturity of behavior in the actual life stage (regardless of whether it is the expected life stage)". Super (1963) suggests that vocational maturity could be judged by the nature of the vocational development task with which a person is attempting to cope, and that "life stage" refers to where the individual is currently functioning, which may not be related to his chronological age. Super elaborated on the concept of vocational maturity as being a construct that  8  permits the observer to assess the rate and level of a person's vocational development. For purposes of this study, Crites  (1973a)  operational  definitions of the construct career maturity will be used. Crites divides this measure into Attitudes and Competencies. Attitudinal measures are to include: (Crites, 1971) (a) involvement in the process of vocational choice, (b) orientation toward the problem of vocational choice, (c) independence in decision-making, (d) preferences for factors in vocational choice, and .(e) conceptions of vocational choice Competency measures are primarily in the cognitive domain and include selfappraisal, occupational information, choosing a career, planning (or looking ahead), and problem solving. Implications of the Study It was hypothesized that if the results of this study indicate that there is no significant gain on the measures of career maturity following participation in the career education program, then two factors could be responsible: a) the mini-course program was insufficient to increase career maturity levels of the student, or b) the instrument used to measure the career maturity level of the students was not designed to reflect change on the course content presented. A third possibility would be that the program did affect the career maturity of the students, that the test was a sensitive instrument, but that for some reason, perhaps a time factor (short course), there was insufficient opportunity for the students to have obtained statistically significant gains. Finally, if statistically significant gains are realized, then it could be assumed mini-course career education programs can result in an  9  increased career maturity level as measured by the CM I Competence tests. The results appear on five different measures of career maturity and each of the above implications are taken as indicative of change on each individual test. The criterion for assessing change in career maturity was whether the experimental group achieves significantly higher scores on posttest measures. A second implication of this study was to discern on what individual subtests there has been a change in the students' career maturity level for the group receiving the education. If the experimental group showed a statistically significant gain on one of the subtests, then it could be assumed that the program was successful on that measure. This would allow career educators to assess the course content and reappraise the content to make adjustments in whatever, direction is desired. For example, if the students' mean score for "Planning" indicated no significant gain, and it seemed important that students improved their skills in this, course content could be suitably altered, taught, and tested. If the results indicate significantly positive correlations between the variables investigated and career maturity levels, then these measures could be considered when planning the method of implementation of a career education program, as predictive of learnings needs, eg. if sex should be found to be a significant factor in career maturity levels, then this variable could be considered when implementing a career education program. Limitations of the Study There were some differences between the students in this study that provide for limitations that may affect the generalizabi1ity of this study. 1.  The students were an intact group, not randomly assigned. Some. students selected to take a gymnastics option and others selected a career guidance option. This may in some way make the two groups  10  different. Differences are noticeable in the academic/vocational streaming and numbers of grade 12 students (See Table 1). A few of the students had some previous exposure to career education, one or two remembered having some career classes, but their "memory" was not sufficiently accurate to be able to assess this in light of the present program. The implementation of the career education program was unique for this group of students. Some of the factors involved included: a) poor physical setting: large cafeteria, large tables, resulting in a "spread out" group, too many students (up to kj> in one class); b) the posttest was written after mid-year school examinations, which may have caused test-fatigue; c) the instructor was not a member of the school staff. This could permit the instructor to direct group learning so as to "teach the test". To avoid this, the test (or instrument) was not used as a planning guide; d) the course had no credit or grade value. Students generally seem to be more attentive in class if it is a "pass/ fail" situation. Substitute teachers often complain that students are unruly. Some of this behavior was noted, although the teacher of these classes indicated the students were inclined to be rambunctious i n class. The CMI is a lengthy instrument, and some of the students expressed dissatisfaction on completing the Competence section a second time. Nine students were excluded from final statistical tabulation due to spoiled measures. The students were not individually identified in class. However, there were a similar number of unused tests between the experimental and control groups (5 experimental, k control).  11  Overview of the Study The introduction to the study included the rationale for the research and the purpose of the study. Chapter Two describes the theoretical base of understanding the developmental process of career maturity; a review of literature pertaining to career education and the factors affecting career maturity; the career program designed for this research; and a description of Crites CMI with emphasis on the Competence test. Chapter Three explains j  the method used to test the hypotheses postulated in Chapter Two, and concludes with a detailed presentation of these hypotheses. Chapter Four gives the results of the investigations and discussion of the implications, and the thesis concludes with a summary and recommendations for future study.  Chapter Two REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter is designed to present an overview of the theory of career development and the theoretical framework of Crites Career Maturity Inventory (CMl). It includes a review of literature related to career maturity, the rationale for and preparation of an education program, and a presentation of hypotheses arising from the literature and observations. Theoretical Framework Used to Develop and Evaluate Career Education There has been a great deal of research into the process involved in career development and factors which have an effect on career maturity. The ages and stages theory of growth and development (Erikson, 1963) is based on specific ages when children are best suited to learning certain developmental tasks. This developmental theory has been examined in relation to career maturity development by Super, Ginzberg, Tiedeman, and others, and they have identified specific career development tasks along an age continuum. It is also recognized that many variables affect the developmental process of career growth; such as individual characteristics and needs, self-concept, family, and environment (Pietrofesa, 1975). Although vocational theorists approach this topic in their own particular way, the fundamental principles are not mutually exclusive. Crites tends to draw on several of the developmental theorists in his attempt to formulate the process of career development into measurable variables. As a result, he has developed an inventory that enables researchers to observe more scientifically the effect of career education and guidance on an individual's development of career maturity, and to be able to examine a variety of variables, such as age, sex, and intelligence, that influence vocational development. 12  13  Gasper and Omvig (1976) refer to the recent theory that career choice is a process that spans a period from late childhood into early adulthood and interest in assessing career maturity has developed from the apparent need to help individuals make realistic career decisions. Hansen and Ansel 1 (1973) describe vocational maturity as one of the prime constructs of vocational development and say it provides a basis for assessment of an individual's development in career planning. Crites, as previously mentioned, studied various approaches to career development of several theorists, eg. Super, Ginzberg and Roe, and it is these theories that are fundamental to the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI). Their theories also provide a basis for formulation of career awareness intervention programs, involving education, testing and counselling. Vocational Theorists Super Super began to crystallize his ideas in the early 1950s. He was influenced by Carl Roger's ideas of self concept (ie, the ideal self and the self concept must be congruent in the healthy individual). Super's approach focuses on four major elements (Tolbert, 197^, p. 31): (a) vocational life stages (b) vocational maturity (c) translating the self-concept into a vocational self-concept (d) career patterns He feels that psychological, physiological and environmental conditions contribute to a person's vocational development, that the development progresses along a continuum, and that a career pattern may be predicted when sufficient data is available to the individual. Vocational self-concept is a part of the total self concept and is a continuously developing entity; awareness of the relationship to others, the  14 differences between self and others, which lead to decisions about education and work that, in an integrated person, are consistent with self concepts. This process of differentiation includes three stages (Osipow, 1973): (a) Identification: Awareness of simi1itarities between self and significant others. (b) Role-playing: Child takes on in play a particular occupational role, and as the child matures the role playing becomes more sophisticated. (c) Role modelling: Individual takes on and integrates characteristics of a role into his behavior. Super was influenced by writings of developmental psychologists; in particular, Charlotte Beuhler, who viewed life in terms of stages. Super has redefined these and called them vocational life stages (Super, 1957): 1. Growth Stage (Birth - 14 years): Self-concept develops through identification with key figures in family and at school. Interests and capabilities become more important with increasing social pa rt i c i pat i on. 2. Exploration Stage (15 - 24 years): From 15 - 17 years, needs, interests, capacities, values and opportunities are important. Tentative choices are made and tried out in fantasy, discussion, courses, work, etc. From 18 - 21 years, reality is important. The individual enters the world of work, training or education, attempting to implement his/her self-concept. At ages 22 - 24 a beginning job is obtained and tried out. 3. Establishment Stage (24 - 44 years): A suitable work field is found. The person has a desire to earn a permanent place in an occupation. There may be some trial periods (job changes) and some shifting within the occupation.  15 4.  Maintenance  Stage (45 - 65 years):  The individual builds his/her  place in the world of work (Tolbert, 1974, p. 33). From within the context of life stages, Super proposed vocational development tasks and defined them for late adolescence and early adulthood. These definitions have educational implications as they can be applied to a person at any life stage who is changing jobs or entering the work force for the first time. Crites required a specification of the variables to be quantified in the approach to a rationa1-empirica1 measurement of vocational maturity and drew from Super's proposal of developmental tasks and essential elements of vocational maturity (Crites,  1974).  Super's vocational developmental tasks are as follows (Super, 1.  Crystallisation  1963):  (14 - 18):  (a) The individual formulates ideas about work appropriate for him or herself, to develop occupational and self-concepts that will help make relevant educational decisions. (b) The individual has tentative vocational choice in mind. (c) The person possesses some information for preferred occupatibns. (d) The person makes some plans. Planning is an important element of al1 tasks. 2.  Specification  (18 - 21):  A general career direction is narrowed to  a specific one and necessary steps are taken to implement a decision, e.g., entering a university in a related field, or entering specific training courses. 3.  Implementation  (21 - 25):  Training is completed and a relevant  employment entered. Although the following are of less importance to development of the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), the CMI is designed to measure development tasks at any age as vocational age and chronological age may not be the same, and the CMI has been  16 effectively used in adult populations (Crites, 197**). k. Stabilization (25 - 35): There is a settling down in the field of work. The person will change positions during stabilization, but rarely his vocation. 5. Consolidation of Status and Advancement (35 - ): The individual establishes self, skills and seniority in order to generate a secure comfortable vocational position as career matures. Vocational maturity is defined as congruence between an individual's vocational behavior and expected vocational behavior. Super outlined five dimensions of vocational maturity (Crites, 1965, p. 4): 1. Orientation to vocational choice. 2. Information and planning about the preferred occupation. 3. Consistency of vocational preferences. 4. Crystallization of traits. 5. Ws idom of Vocational preferences. Super's (Super and- Overstreet, I960) research included a longitudinal study (25 years) of 142 ninth grade boys and summarized his findings. He found that vocational maturity in ninth grade boys is related to: degree of intellectual and cultural stimulation degree to which they are intellectually able to respond to that st i mulat i on their aspiration to higher rather than lower socio-economic levels ability to achieve reasonably well in a variety of activities. After a ten year follow-up it was concluded that vocational maturity was generally predictive of career satisfaction, self-improvement, and occupational satisfaction. Super suggested that school curricula should encourage planning and should be aimed at helping youth become aware of  17  their level of occupational aspiration and general amount of education required to achieve that level. Not only did Super's work provide a basis for Crites Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), but it also presents implications for career education; for example, to realize that individuals develop at differing rates, and apply relevant behaviors to the varying vocational tasks to avoid the pitfalls of incongruence, poor self-concept and stagnation, and to help individuals integrate data concerning cultural, social and biological background to aid in career decision making. Super's ideas were built upon Anne Roe's needs theory and Ginzberg's developmental theory. G i nzberg: At one time, Ginzberg (1951) felt the vocational choice process was irreversible, but after research on the work lives of men and women, thought it to be life-long and open-ended (Tolbert, 1974). The principal challenge to young people during their teens is to keep all avenues open for entrance into further education and admission to a desired field of work. Ginzberg asserted that it is more logical to believe that an occupational choice is the result of a development process, rather than of a single event. Ginzberg's three main developmental stages are summarized by Tolbert (1974, p. 1.  37 - 3 8 ) :  Fantasy Period:  (Preschool to 11 years)  In this time there is a change  from play orientation to work orientation. Ability, potentiality, and time perspectives are not important. 2.  Tentative  Period:  (11 - 18 years)  Crites Career Maturity Inventory  (CMI) is appropriate to assess career maturity of youth entering this period (Crites  1974).  There are four phases a child goes through in  the tentative stage of occupational choice:  18  Interest  (a)  - The i n d i v i d u a l becomes a w a r e o f h i s l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e s  f o r c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s , and c h o i c e  Capacity  (b)  - A student begins t o introduce the notion o f a b i l i t y  into vocational considerations. and (c)  i s made on t h i s b a s i s .  He b e g i n s  Value - The i n d i v i d u a l  incorporates h i s values  choice of occupation.  He becomes a w a r e o f o t h e r a s p e c t s o f  besides  satisfying  h i s own n e e d s .  a w a r e t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t s a n d v a l u e s may be  Transition he  At t h i s  Period:  Exploration  time  compatible.  Crystallization conflict  and v a l u e s  he u s u a l l y f a c e s c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e  into  or a job.  (18 - 25 years) - C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e between  t h e m s e l v e s and r e a l i t y , (b)  He a l s o becomes  i s able to integrate h i s interests, a b i l i t i e s  Realistic (a)  into h i s tentative  - The end o f t h e v a l u e s s t a g e m e e t s t h e t e e n a g e r when  reality.  3-  interests  activities.  occupation  (d)  to evaluate  make a d e c i s i o n b e t w e e n  interests.  - The p e r s o n i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a p o s s i b l e  between c a p a c i t i e s  and i n t e r e s t s a n d v a l u e s , a n d i s  a b l e t o make p l a n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e .  Specification  (c)  choice after Ginzberg's  theory  d e c i s i o n making optimal  - S e l e c t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c s o f an o c c u p a t i o n a l a general  i s that occupational  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l  choice  is a lifelong  Roe:  Ann  Roe was o n e o f t h e f i r s t  developmental  process  theorists  process o f  c o n s t a n t l y seeks t o f i n d t h e  f i t between c a r e e r g o a l s and r e a l i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d  Ann  labelled  c h o i c e h a s b e e n made.  o f work.  t o adopt a semblance o f a  to career maturity.  Although  Roe's t h e o r y i s  as a "needs t h e o r y " , she c o n t r i b u t e d t o subsequent  development  19  theorists Roe  (Osipow,  1973).  related genetic  vocational  behavior.  f a c t o r s and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  She l e a n e d  ( A p p e n d i x A-4) , a n d f e l t Her  research  differences scientists Roe  range.  school  years,  that while  The  relating  and then field  homes w o u l d  identified  by l e v e l  fulfill  classifications  o f work.  such as a b i l i t y ,  theory  example, a person w i t h a high in the f i e l d  d e v e l o p e d by Roe p r o v i d e s h e r Inventory  i s related to levels,  a person's d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  a person w i l l Inventory  (CMI).  that  Research  l o v i n g and c a s u a l t o look a t other  the intensity of the achieve  i n a chosen  (CMI) i t e m s  o f academic a b i l i t y  o f h e a l t h , working as a l a b o r a t o r y  field.  a r e designed  b e t w e e n an o c c u p a t i o n a l  level  in parent-child  groupings.  n e e d s and f r e e t h e i n d i v u a l  the level  that  toward o r not toward  Roe's h y p o t h e s i s  Some o f t h e C r i t e s C a r e e r M a t u r i t y  interest  or later.  a s r e l a t e d t o home  the indivual  occupational  occupational  personal  need s t r o n g l y a f f e c t i n g  assess  choice, eg.,  i n c o l l e g e years  f a c t o r s such as acceptance o r a v o i d a n c e  been more on f i e l d s  factors,  a career  i t i s the environment which determines the place w i t h i n  m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n ::to C r i t e s C a r e e r M a t u r i t y has  seemed t o be  h e r e d i t y d e t e r m i n e s t h e r a n g e o f man's  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as u l t i m a t e l y d i r e c t i n g persons,  intelligence,  She found t h e r e  psychologists  Roe d e v e l o p e d o c c u p a t i o n a l  climate,  i s t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e n s i t y o f needs.  i n t h e a g e when p e r s o n s c r y s t a l l i z e d  believed  abilities,  motivation  b a c k g r o u n d and a p t i t u d e .  i n high  to  h e a v i l y on Maslow's h i e r a r c h y o f needs  involved personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  environmental  experiences  to  level, for  and a p o t e n t i a l aide.  T i e d e m a n and O'Hara: A further contribution to career T i e d e m a n a n d O'Hara's c a r e e r (1963) s a y t h a t c a r e e r  development theory  development system.  development occurs  i s p o s t u l a t e d by  T i e d e m a n a n d O'Hara  as t h e i n d i v i d u a l  develops a  20  "vocational identity through differentiation and integration of the personality as one confronts the problems of work in living" (p. v) and goes on to develop a paradigm of the processes in problem solving, similar to that postulated by Super: exploration, crystallization, choice, and clarification. Time and discontinuity are elements in career development; for example, how much time a person puts into preparation for work, and how a person plans for and handles discontinuity in their life, eg., preparation for leaving high school. Tiedeman and O'Hara (1975) have drawn heavily upon Super and Ginzberg in formulation and testing of their theory. Studies indicate there are changes in the vocational self-concept with increasing age, that clarification of the self-concept and increased self-knowledge occurs, that steps in the differentiation and integration process can be identified, and different individuals approach vocational problem solving in their own unique way. Tiedeman has researched career decision making and has been involved in computerized career guidance systems (Tolbert, 197*0. Crites: Crites favours the developmental theory of vocational growth. His theoretical base is divided into two categories: a) vocational choice, and b) vocational adjustment. Career maturity is a construct related to general personal adjustment, intelligence, and scholastic achievement (Crites,  1971),  and Crites  (1976)  says girls seem more career mature than boys. Crites has drawn from Super's theory a model of career maturity that he calls Vocational Choice Competencies and Vocational Choice Attitudes. "Along with the Consistency and Ws idom variables, these dimensions were incorporated in the construct  21  of vocational maturity" (Crites, 1974, p. 27). Crites (1973c) states it is important to identify the career-immature as early in the decision making years as possible. Crites has examined a variety of factors which may influence career maturity. Factors Which May Influence Career Maturity In most of Crites research cited, there is an indication that a variety of variables influence the individual's level of career maturity. This would imply that career education or intervention is only one of several factors that could cause change on a career maturity measure. Family is one of the main influences (Pietrofesa, 1975) as it is the basic social and psychological unit in the transmission of culture and development of personality. Roe relates early determinants of vocational choice to family interactions. Crites refers to physique as related to bodily capabilities, race as occupational opportunity availability, and sex as role stereotyping. In this research, the relationship of sex, curriculum, (vocational/academic) and Attitude Scale scores and the level of career maturity as measured by Crites Career Maturity Inventory Competence tests is investigated. In the literature reviewed there was only one research dealing with the relationship of Attitude Scale to a measure of competence. Westbrook (1976a) in a study of interrelationship of Career Choice Competencies and Career Choice attitudes of ninth grade pupils found a positive correlation existed ( . 5 9 ) , between Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale and career choice competency variables (not Career Maturity Inventory Competence test). Grade Point Average and Curriculum: It appears that grade point average, or some other measure of intelligence (eg., Otis Lenon Mental Ability test, Lawrence and Brown, 1976) correlates  22  positively with scores obtained on career maturity tests. Crites (1971, 1973, 1976) found more intelligent students scored high on the Career Maturity Inventory. This is supported by studies of Lawrence and Brown (1976) and Maynard and Hansen (1970). Studies often equate intelligence with curriculum choice and find that academic students are often more intelligent, or have higher grade point averages, and therefore choose a curriculum content that is more intellectually demanding or stimulating. Echternacht (1976) attempted to identify variables from a lengthy omnibus questionnaire and a set of test scores that would distinguish students in high school vocational education programs from those in academic and general programs. The results indicated vocational students were lower than academic students in tested academic ability. Vocational students were as low as general students, although vocational students who achieved higher grades were more focused on the world of work. Herr and Enderlein (1976) in a study investigating the usefulness of the Career Maturity Inventory found that Career Maturity Inventory scores increased by grade level, (as Crites has stated), but the level of this increase is influenced by sex, school, and curriculum effects. Egner and Jackson (1978) found that career maturity was significantly related to decision making and more non-academic programs than academic groups increased their decision making scores. This could be attributed to the fact that the vocational students were about to enter the world of work and had made a decision. The appropriateness of the decision was not being tested. Banducci  (1970)  in a study of accuracy of occupational stereotypes of  grade 12 boys, found that boys with a high grade point average had more accurate stereotypes of high level j'obs, and low socioeconomic and low  23 g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e b o y s had He  felt  this  presents  a  more a c c u r a t e  limiting  stereotyping  f a c t o r on  of  low  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a  level  jobs.  particular  vocat ion. Sex  as  a Variable:  Several  studies  inventories. Crites  s e x on tenth  graders,  level  increase  Inventory  Gilrain  found  b o y s on  Omvig e t a l  he  career  (1976),  the grade 8 g i r l s  grade 8 boys, although  being  Attitude  of vocational  higher,  maturity using  in h i s study  f o u n d no  (1976) f o u n d  difference  increases  that  on  an  the  almost  f o r boys tends to  A t t i t u d e Scale  career  be  planned  (1975) s u g g e s t s t h e  Crites  eighth  Vocational  level  Career Maturity  sex  that  Inventory  girls,  and  linear  r a t e to grade  females'  o f f a f t e r g r a d e 10.  12, (Career  used).  (1974) i n d i c a t e s f u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d  programs should  associated  a t t i t u d e s among  as m e a s u r e d by  f o r b o t h b o y s and  development  be  l e v e l s o f m a l e s and  instituted f e m a l e s and  t o accommodate d i f f e r e n c e s v a r i a b l e , as  to  in  r e l a t e d to career  that  levels. maturity,  needs f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Crites The  development of  contribution relevant  were  Scale.  investigate vocational  Pietrofesa  this.  of maturation  girls  Enderlein  maturity  Maturity  study  used e q u a l l y w e l l  whereas the  t h a n do  (1972) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s  Inventory,  H e r r and  career  Herr  their  Development  m i g h t be  higher  level.  S m i t h and  and  Inventory,  mature than the  the grade 6  with  score  C r i t e s (1973c) s u p p o r t s  Career Maturity  more c a r e e r at  indicate girls  Career Maturity  the  t o p r o v i d i n g an  Career Maturity instrument  to the c o n s t r u c t , career  Inventory Inventory  is Crites  f o r measurement o f  maturity.  current  variables  2k  Super initially conceptualized and defined five major dimensions of vocational maturity during adolescence: a) orientation to vocational choice; b) information and planning; c) consistency of vocational preferences; d) crystallization of traits; and e) wisdom of vocational preferences. Crites (1965) further analyzed orientation, information, and crystallization into what he called Vocational Choice Competencies and Vocational Choice Attitudes. Along with Super's other two variables, consistency and wisdom, these dimensions were incorporated into the construct of vocational maturity (Appendix D). Built into this construct are items related to time that are comparable from one time unit to another to make it "possible to establish norms on the incidence of vocationally mature behaviors both within and between age and/or grade groupings" (Crites, 1974, p. 29). Crites prepared items that were understandable to the adolescent age group. The variables to be measured by Crites Career Maturity Inventory are as follows: Cons i stency of Choice Field Time Level  Rea1i sm  of Choice Social class Interests Personali ty Ab i1i t i es  Career Choice Competencies Self-appraisal Planning Goal selection Occupational information Problem solving  Career Choice Attitudes Orientation . Preference Involvement Conception Independence  Attitude Scale The purpose of the Attitude Scale was to construct a standardized measure of vocational development, which unlike interview derived indices, would be objective, easily administered to large numbers of subjects, and related to a measure of time (ie. age and/or grade). Its items were written from statements made by clients in vocational counselling and  25  concepts proposed in the vocational development theory to represent the dispositional response tendencies defined by the listed variables (right column, p. 2k). To standardize the Attitude Scale, 100 items were selected from a pool of 1,000. Both males and females were included in equal proportions to determine sex differences. Fifty true/false attitudinal statements were monotonica11y related to grade and consequently chosen as an index of time. Dimensions measured are: 1. Involvement in the Choice Process - Extent to which individual is actively participating in the process of making a choice. 2. Orientation Toward Work - Extent to which individual is task or pleasure-oriented in his attitudes toward work and the values he places upon work. 3. Independence in Decision Making - Extent to which individual relies upon others in the choice of an occupation. k. Preference for Career Choice Factors - Extent to which individual bases his choice upon a particular factor. 5. Conceptions of the Choice Process - Extent to which individual has accurate or inaccurate conceptions about making a career choice. (Crites, 1973c, p. 12) Competence Test All twenty items in each subtest have a multiple choice format. Subject matter was drawn from real life sources to describe hypothetical problems, plans, or jobs of persons. I tern alternatives were based on responses of seventh to twelfth grade students in a city in Iowa. Included in all items multiple choice responses is "I don't know". The test consists of five parts:  26  1. 2.  Knowing Yourself (KY) Knowing About Jobs (KJ) Choosing a Job (CJ) Looking Ahead (LA) What Should They Do? (PS)  Self Appraisal Occupational Information  Goal Selection Planning 5. Problem Solving An effort was made in item preparation to represent different ethnic groups (not a factor in this study) and sex stereotyping and to make the item content familiar and interesting to young people. As these subtests form a major part of this study, each of the five will be described separately. Part 1 - Knowing Yourself: To know oneself is considered to be the prime factor in developing career maturity. This test is based on the assumptions that individuals who can accurately appraise the career-relevant capabilities of others are good self-appraisers. The item stems give a third person situation involving something a person has done, eg. taking a woodworking course in school, and being successful at it, then trying to decide what these skills and interests might mean to his career future. The alternative selections are: 1. a dependence upon others; 2. a need for certainty; 3- overestimation of one's capabilities; h. accurate self-appraisal, and 5- I don't know. (Crites, 1973b). Part 11 - Knowing About Jobs: In preparing this measure, it became apparent that occupational information can be assessed in many ways depending upon content covered, such as job requirements, employment opportunities, or occupational roles. The occupations chosen for these items were representative of frequently chosen occupations in which employment opportunities were good and for 3. k.  27  which commonly used vocational interest inventories are available. Roe's field and level classification was revised to develop the occupational classification. The items describe work a person is doing and from the description, the student selects the job from five alternatives, including "I don't know". Part 111 - Choosing a Job: This subtest is based on the theory that a career-mature adolescent should be able to select career goals relevant to his capabilities. Roe's field and level classification was adopted as a scoring criterion. Again, using a third person situation, this subtest operationally defines the ability to correctly match people with jobs. Each item lists job activities and skills related to something a person is doing, and the student is to identify which job it could be. Each situation combines a statement inferring a person's abilities and indicates an interest and skill level of some occupation. The student is expected to select the most appropriate occupation from the list provided. Part IV - Looking Ahead: This subtest asks the student how to go about attaining an occupational goal. There are many steps in planning, but this test restricts itself to the ordering of steps, eg. "Fred wants to be a policeman. Three steps he can take to become one are: 1. pass police qualifying tests; 2. go to a police academy for training; 3. take a general course in high school. What is the correct order of these steps? 1, 3, 2 . . . . and other combinations, including the usual "I don't know" (Career Maturity Inventory Competence test, p. 30). The correct alternative is related to something similar to the job steps identified in Volume Two of the Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations (CCDO) , distributed by Canada  28 Manpower. It involves a sequence of obtaining relevant training, gaining employment in the occupation, and then certifying in the field. Part V - Problem Solving: This subtest is involved with problems that may arise in the process of career decision making; the criteria for selecting the correct answer follows the general rationale that the best solution to a problem is one which minimizes denial and distortion of reality, trial-and-error, and escape, and maximizes using creative alternatives or seeking consultation. One measure of career maturity is how effectively an individual can solve problems in the career development task he is expected to accomplish. For example, "Betty wants to be a lawyer. But, her guidance tests indicate that she does not have enough ability. What should she do?". The answers offered are: get married; go into law anyway; tests can be wrong; increase her ability to be a lawyer; enter a related field at a lower level, like a legal secretary; and don't know. The correct answer according to Crites (1973a) is entering a related field. It is the opinion of this author that the suitability of the expected answer is open to a great deal of discussion. Although it does meet the criteria of minimizing denial and distortion of reality, it does not appear to maximize consideration of creative alternatives. Many of the indicated "right" answers in this subtest could be similarly challenged. I tern selection of the Competence test was completed with standardization of the test, using a middle-class suburban school system in California. No sex or ethnic information was obtained, and any differences in results were allocated to sources of variance error. Monotonic functions of. grade were noted, with spurts in early grades (6-7), levelling off in grades 8 - 10, and an upward trend, grades 11 - 12. The Problem Solving subtest  29 results  i n d i c a t e d some c o n f l i c t w i t h  suggesting this  a r e v e r s a l i n t h e i n c r e a s e by g r a d e t r e n d .  subtest  research  i s less secure,  (Crites,  The  findings f o r other  scores  and C r i t e s  acknowledges  t o be u s e d  f o r normative  into p e r c e n t i l e scores  w h e r e t h e t e s t s w e r e normed. converted normed  i n o n l y one S t a t e ,  purposes, a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the  and a r e r e c o r d e d  Relevant  to Career  are also  u n d e r g r a d e s o n l y , a s t h e t e s t was  M a t u r i t y and C a r e e r  has i n d i c a t e d t h e r e  instrument  f o r measuring  the construct of career maturity.  o f career maturity being  developmental  s t r u c t u r e f o r c r e a t i n g a framework For example, a c e r t a i n  i s a great  Education deal  level  anticipated  at a certain  research  effectiveness.  using  The more r e c e n t in nature,  career  some  concrete  measurement.  Inventory  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be v e r y  in assessing career  insufficient  programs  at a  t o w a l k u n s u p p o r t e d c a n be  education  assessment o f the  in literature.  This  section will  a s an a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e , a n d  p r o g r a m s t h a t h a v e had some e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o n  maturity o f students.  1950)  (since  has p r o v i d e d  i n which to design  t h e Competence t e s t  Maturity  theory  as i n d i c e s  o f m a t u r i t y c a n be a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r  There a l s o appears  look a t the Career  Some s t u d i e s  i n an a t t e m p t t o f i n d t h e  growth development age.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f many c a r e e r  of research  the v a r i a b l e s designated  p a r t i c u l a r a g e , o r g r a d e ; much a s a b i l i t y  career  scores  t o c a r e e r m a t u r i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n .  most s e n s i t i v e  little  under g r a d e and S t a t e s  The C o m p e t e n c e t e s t  i n v o l v e l o o k i n g a t c a r e e r m a t u r i t y measurements  of  i t requires further  California.  A review o f l i t e r a t u r e relevant  of  The A t t i t u d e S c a l e s c o r e s a r e  t o p e r c e n t i l e s , but recorded  Literature  The r e l i a b i l i t y  1974).  A t t i t u d e S c a l e and t h e Competence t e s t . converted  subtests,  career  30  Career Maturi ty Research Westbrook (1974) analyzed the content of six different career development tests. He categorized the results in terms of twelve major components, six classified in the cognitive domain, three in psychomotor, and three in the affective domain. The analysis consisted of 117 behavioral statements which described the behavior required of the learner and the situation in which the behavior occurs. His results show that the Career Maturity Inventory provides for an assessment of behaviors in all three domains, it deals with the ability to identify appropriate jobs for given individuals using twenty items, in relation to another test using only seven items. This study indicates that the Career Maturity Inventory is most involved with the cognitive domain: the learners' self-knowledge, occupational information, job selection, school and career planning and problem solving. There appears slight involvement with career planning activities. In the affective domain, the Career Maturity Inventory has items involving attitudes, preferences, and perceptions of the learner. Other tests analyzed for purposes of comparison are (Westbrook, 1974, p. 172): 1. Readiness for Vocational Planning (Gribbons and Lohnes, 1968) - few items, mostly cognitive domain. 2. Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test (Westbrook, 1970) - concerned totally with occupational information and job selection. 3. Career Development Inventory (Super, et al, 1 9 7 0 " primarily occupational choice and involvement in activities related to preferred occupat ions. 4.  Assessment of Career Development (American College Testing Program, 1972) - a wide range of item content, most heavily concentrated on occupational information.  31  Education Testing Service Guidance Inquiry (1958) - involving what the learner knows and course and curriculum information. Apart from the lengthy (267 items) Assessment of Career Development, the Career Maturity Inventory appears to cover a more comprehensive range of behaviors studies by Westbrook. Prior to his 1974 test content analysis (above), Westbrook and Cunningham (1970) were criticizing Crites Attitude Scale as yielding only one measure (total score out of 50 items) of career maturity instead of the five variables it purports to measure. They suggested a test should be developed that is able to assess pupil readiness to make educational/ vocational decisions; graph areas of pupils' maturity for diagnostic purposes and compare to norms to locate areas to focus vocational development. Westbrook (1976b) has utilized, among other tests, Crites Attitude Scale in a study to assess the maturity and appropriateness of vocational choices of ninth grade pupils. The Career Maturity Inventory has also been selected as a measurement of vocational maturity in many studies, including those of Lawrence and Brown (1976), Gasper and Omvig (1976). Crites (1973a) indicates that the Competence test in particular is "ready for use in research on the nature and course of career development" (p. 35). Norton (1970) in a study on the status of measurement of vocational maturity, included, among others, the Career Maturity Inventory. He says Crites talks about the consistency of choice and wisdom of choice, neither of which he measures. His results showed scores on the Career Maturity Inventory increase with each grade (except grade 11). Younger respondents answer "true" more frequently than do older students, but he generally found Crites' Career Maturity Inventory to be the most comprehensive 5.  32  test of its kind. It is to be noted that most of the research involves Crites Attitude Scale measure. When reviewing the literature often this does not seem to be totally clear. Research Related to Testing Effectiveness of Career Education Egner and Jackson (1978) developed a career decision making model and program designed to improve career maturity and found that students in the program significantly increased their career maturity scores, and that career maturity was significantly related to decision making. "The importance of career decision making skill has been underestimated in our educational system and in society" (p. 45). Egner and Jackson reviewed literature and found "no comprehensive research studies related to teaching decision making skills". The study was conducted by counsellors with ten to eighteen grade 11 students in twenty sessions. Crites Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale (1973b) was one measure used. They also tested grade point average and streaming as predictors of posttest decision making and found a significant correlation (GPA = .33; Streaming = .23; p < .02). The apparent success of this program in raising the level of career maturity in a relatively short period of time suggests that further investigation into this type of career education would be recommended. In a study by Omvig, Tulloch and Thomas (1975), the purpose was to assess the effects of a career education program on grade six and eight students' career maturity, using both sections of the Carejer Maturity Inventory as a measurement tool. Grade six students showed significantly higher scores on Competence subtests Planning and Occupational Information, and grade eight students on Planning only of the subtests. As Omvig et al acknowledge, it would be difficult to replicate the independent variable,  33  the career education program. The only guideline for the teachers implementing the career education program was a set of objectives for incorporating this teaching into regular classes. The program extended from October to April. Whereas it seems appropriate to implement career education into regular teaching classes, the weaknesses of this program are evident. Although Crites (1973a) says the Career Maturity Inventory test is suitable for grade six level, the questions, on the subtests particularly, involve good reading and integration skills that seem complex for that grade level. It would be of interest to know how the test was administered, numbers being tested simultaneously, and over what period of time. The authors state that the results are encouraging, but without documented career education curriculum, it would be difficult to replicate the factors involved in the study. If Egner and Jackson's (1978) study had used Crites Competence test to measure the results of their career education program, it would allow a more reliable comparison of this program to the research of Omvig, et al (1975), but on the surface it seems that the decision making approach to career teaching, partly because of the short program length, and mainly because of the curriculum control, would be more appropriate to pursue. Gasper and Omvig (1976) investigated the relationship between career maturity and occupational plans of high school juniors using the Career Maturity Inventory and an Occupational Plans Questionnaire developed by Hershenson. The authors are questioning at what point in a student's life is their maturity level appropriate to the task of making an occupational choice. They found that students with low career maturity chose occupations inconsistent with their abilities, values and interests, and those with high career maturity were able to be more congruent. Gasper and Omvig (1976) suggest that traditional education patterns are not oriented toward  34  helping student develop skills and attitudes necessary for career decision making. The results of their study supported the hypothesis that "there is no relationship between the career maturity and occupational plan scores of high school juniors" (p. 371). Babcok and Kaufman (1976) studied a group of undergraduate women enrolled in a career environment and individual development class, 14 hours in duration. There were two other groups: a) walk-in-counsel1ing only, no education, and b) control. The group receiving instruction showed significantly greater gains on self-knowledge and the relationship of this to occupations. The implications of the results are that a structured learning experience around values clarification and decision making is more effective than the informal counselling assistance received in a casual drop-in basis. Another study by Bogie and Bogie  (1976)  shows that the more counsellor contact, the less  the discrepancy between vocational aspiration and expectation. Babcock and Kaufman's research is supportive of this as their results showed the "walk-in" group scored higher on the career development inventory designed by Super, than did the control group, although the class group scored significantly higher than both, which implies that some form of career intervention is better than none. Studies on short term career intervention have given rise to concerns that short career orientations at the high school level are ineffective. For example: La Bozetta  (1973)  conducted research using four one-hour  career orientation periods, one session testing, a second release of aptitude scores with specific occupations, and lastly, investigation and reporting of three occupational preferences. Diana (1974) attempted to determine if tenth grade students had a better understanding of self,  35  c a r e e r s , and testing, varied  occupational  test  and  a w a r e n e s s f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  included self-report  an o c c u p a t i o n a 1 - a s p i r a t i o n  and  career exploration.  None o f  e i t h e r o f t h e s t u d i e s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y recommends f u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h and can  be  m e t h o d s by w h i c h  Career  Whereas c a r e e r be more e f f e c t i v e  treatment Are  f o r the  direction for  any  improvement o f c a r e e r  To  measure the e f f e c t o f  teachers  and  planning.  of general  (or y e a r s )  l e a s t an  process  may could  interim  ( A p p e n d i x A)  students,  developed  level  Programs c o u l d years.  of  g i v e some  be  developed  They c o u l d  be  curriculum, guidance c o u n s e l l o r s , or  t e n h o u r p r o g r a m was  grades eleven  For  and  purposes of designed  twelve,  and  this  f o r use t o be  research, by  a  senior  i n s t r u c t e d by  researcher. The  career  situations:  a)  education  view o n e s e l f  s i t u a t i o n s , and  program  lecturette,  s h a r i n g o f k n o w l e d g e and to  year  such programs w i l l  secondary school  system.  this  most awareness  i n c r e a s i n g the s t u d e n t s '  i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e the school  high school  Diana  Study  a school  programs a r e a t  the answer to  the elementary  i m p l e m e n t e d by  implement the  Program f o r t h i s  career  to f u t u r e career course  of  results.  in  problem.  these courses  career maturity?  to  implemented over  mini  scales,  the hypotheses t e s t e d  i n i n c r e a s i n g career m a t u r i t y , the planning  t a k e s e v e r a l y e a r s , and  were  schools.  Education  programs  differential  significant  be a t t e m p t e d  i n t e g r a t e d into secondary The  Measures used  i n v e n t o r i e s , semantic scale.  guidance,  implemented d i f f e r e n t  primarily  i d e a s ; c)  in relation  information giving;  r o l e - p l a y i n g and  to others, experience  l e a r n i n g through  s t y l e s of  imitation;  and  d)  b)  group  modelling,  simulated individual  an  learning activities, opportunity  real-life exercises,  36 reinforcement  o f classroom  Psychological  and T h e o r e t i c a l  The  curriculum  or  self-concept  vocational  realism  choice.  job  (Super,  skills,  f o r the Career  Program  e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e t h e o r y 1957) i s a n e c e s s a r y  Occupational  terms o f s u p e r v i s o r y other  Rationale  was p a r t i c a l l y  knows a b o u t j o b s ,  and  activities.  that  forerunner  knowledge i s important;  and e d u c a t i o n  expectancies,  related factors.  required,  working with  Then, f i n a l l y ,  r e q u i r i n g d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t i e s .  self-awareness of realistic  what t h e s t u d e n t  jobcharacteristics  others, "putting  The program  time  committments,  it all  length,  together",  i n terms o f time,  dictated  t h e way i n w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t was h a n d l e d .  adjusted  from t i m e t o t i m e t o accommodate t h e needs o f t h e g r o u p .  In B l o o m ' s t a x o n o m y o f e d u c a t i o n a l broad c a t e g o r i e s and  skills.  are defined:  behaviors  T h e p r o g r a m was  ( D e C e c c o , 1968), two  a) k n o w l e d g e , a n d b) i n t e l l e c t u a l  These a r e f u r t h e r d i v i d e d  in  into six classes of  abilities  behavior;  knowledge, c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s , and e v a l u a t i o n . All  o f these basic  program.  p r i n c i p l e s were  involved,  t o some e x t e n t ,  T h e i n t e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m was t o i n c r e a s e  i n the career  the students'  understanding o f the world-of-work. Teaching by  basic  techniques u t i l i z e d  psychological  p r i n c i p l e s put forward  Super, Roe, and o t h e r s . modification Carl  philosophies  Rogers'  i n t h e program a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y supported  Learning  principles of Adlerian  were a l s o  actualizing  tendency  people  i svigorously  enhancement and e n r i c h m e n t o f l i v i n g ,  and b e h a v i o r  i n t o two b r o a d expressed,  as opposed  i sprotectively, defensively  mere m a i n t e n a n c e o f l i v i n g "  Glasser,  involved.  theoretically divides  i n whom t h e a c t u a l i z i n g t e n d e n c y  by R o g e r s , M a s l o w ,  types,  leading  t o the people expressed,  ( M a d d i , 1972, p. 315)-  "people  to the  i n whom t h e  leading  Rogers b e l i e v e s  to the there  37  are degrees t owhich The  average person  involved  people  working  i ncareers.  individual's  (1968)  basic of physiological go on t o t h e n e x t has developed  parallel  heat,  light,  needs rung  ( s h e l t e r , food)  o f the  a pyramid  space.  to individual  c o n d i t i o n s and g o a l s  thinking. total  t o assess  t h e i r personal  that  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  o f working c o n d i t i o n s ,  needs and t o r e a l i s t i c a l l y  e x p e c t a t i o n s when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e w o r k f o r c e ; individual  as o n e w h o s e i d e a l  f o r the students  occupational  t o be k n o w l e d g e - o r i e n t e d ,  thereality  f o r the f u t u r e .  of their  of the  T h e p u r p o s e was t o s e t into  career  The l e c t u r e t t e p a r t s o f the c a r e e r program d e l i v e r e d  to t h e i r planning process  similar  on t h e r e a l i t i e s  t o mentally p r o j e c t themselves  t o b r i n g into focus  to the  t o encourage t h e  self-concept in relation  The i n d i v i d u a l  " t a k e home" e x e r -  c i s e s w o u l d be d i s c u s s e d w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r a l o n e , o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s . did  not permit  probably  t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s , s o t h a t any i n c o n g r u e n c i e s e x i s t e n t  be r e t a i n e d .  relate  occupational self-concept.  p a r t o f the c a r e e r program focused  group, were a l l designed  students  relates  Herzberg  P a r t o f t h e c a r e e r p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d t o  wor1d-of-work; how t o g o a b o u t o b t a i n i n g a j o b . the stage  t h e most  must be met b e f o r e a p e r s o n  t o t h e most b a s i c l e v e l  self-concept overlaps his real initial  a type o f  l a d d e r , s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y .  o f working  t o Super's theory o f the congruent  The  can a t t a i n  level.  Maslow's h i e r a r c h y o f needs, and H e r z b e r g  encourage students these  that person  with the  h i e r a r c h y o f needs t h e o r y , he p r o p o s e s  needs o f s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y eg.  then  two g r o u p s .  half a lifetime  I f the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n i s congruent  above Roger's " m a i n t e n a n c e "  In M a s l o w ' s  (1959)  one o r the o t h e r o f t h e s e  i n a j o b spends a p p r o x i m a t e l y  v a l u e s and a b i l i t i e s ,  l i f e s t y l e well  can  resemble  Rogers says  change depends on a p e r s o n ' s  h i s f e e l i n g s and the e x t e n t t o which  he owns a n d e x p r e s s e s  them.  Time would  awareness o f This  change  38  would probably  be d i f f i c u l t  Proponents a person  t h a t change w i l l  participates occur.  o r f i v e , worked  through  situation.  learning  The  situations, a s an This and  introduction  reinforced  P r a c t i c e was  i n t e r v i e w s and Glasser  by  encouraged  i n g r o u p s can  t o be " a c t i o n  police  training  to r o l e - p l a y  1973), and  assist  (Corsini,  (1969) f e e l s  b r i n g i n g g r o u p comments by  take-home  has  i d e a s and  force related  observe  provides another  expectations.  to goal permit  synthesis.  s e t t i n g and p r a c t i c e and  goal  in several  The  Bandura  (Lindzey, Hall role-play  involvement  to a l l behavior.  The  from  their  of " l o o k i n g " at the r e a l i t y  techniques  employed  processes.  reinforcement of these  with  process  d e c i s i o n making, i n Bloom's  T i m e was  skills.  own, of  their  by G l a s s e r i n c l u d e  c a r e e r program presented  attainment  used  interview s k i l l s .  comes f r o m  l i n k w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l behaviors d e f i n e d  e g . a n a l y s i s , and  problems.  M o d e l l i n g was  behaviors d i f f e r e n t  way  Other  social  p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  e v a l u a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r , f u t u r e p l a n n i n g , and directly  been u s e d  1973)-  identity  i n a group r o l e - p l a y e x p e r i e n c e  b e h a v i o r s and  activities.  performance.  that a success  intrinsic  three  specific  r e i n f o r c e m e n t o c c u r s when t h e s t u d e n t s  of working  ultimately  to a  for developing  i s a primary  which  in groups of  in the s o l u t i o n of  t h e r a p y " and  learning  c r i t i q u e each o t h e r s '  to share  i t is  b e l i e v e t h a t human p r o b l e m s a r e p r i m a r i l y  o t h e r s and  students  that i f  t h e more l i k e l y  i s a t e c h n i q u e o f b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n , u s e d by Manosevitz,  situation.  suggest  the program, s t u d e n t s ,  p r o c e s s was  that working  including  1973)  a series of questions directed  therapists  Role play i s considered  in the treatment,  During  to the c l a s s as a whole.  i n n a t u r e and  in a c l a s s - l e a r n i n g  of behavior m o d i f i c a t i o n ( C o r s i n i ,  actively  Adlerian  to determine  which taxonomy,  made r e f e r e n c e  not  sufficient  to  39 Other Career As w e l l i t was  as  C o u r s e Cons i d e r a t i o n s  i n c o r p o r a t i n g v o c a t i o n a l and  decided  that  i f the  t e a c h e r s , the m a t e r i a l of e x i s t i n g  and  incorporated  programming  In o r d e r  research  in other  to accomplish  Manpower s p o n s o r e d  i n t o the program should  school  education  Their  packages".  districts.  Manpower o f f i c e  The  u s e o f m a t e r i a l s t o any  f o r t h e B.C.  research s t a f f  Manpower p e r s o n n e l  school  offer  requesting this.  The  c h a r t s and  career education.  C u r r e n t l y , the Vancouver School  the Career  and  R e g i o n has  is continually  provide brochures,  have c r e a t e d  to  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  c a r e e r education workshops f o r teachers The  "educational  r e s u l t s w e r e t o be m e a n i n g f u l  t h i s , Manpower Canada r e s o u r c e s w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d ,  counsellors attended. department.  psychological learning theories,  an a c t i v e  revising  instruction educational  i n the offices  other audio-visual aides to schools  A c t i o n f o r Youth  District  (C.A.Y.) C e n t r e  and  for  Manpower  i n Vancouver.  Their stated objectives are: 1.  To  b r i d g e t h e gap  between the p r o t e c t i v e s c h o o l  e n v i r o n m e n t and  the  r e a 1 i t i es o f w o r k . 2.  To  a c t as a c a r e e r  secondary  information resource  schools, parents, business  community a g e n c i e s .  (Note A p p e n d i x  f o r Canada Manpower  and  i n d u s t r y , and  social  B)  Because o f the widespread  use o f Manpower's c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n  the program i n t h i s  u s e d some o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  The  study  " p a c k a g e d " l e a r n i n g i s i n a 15  unit  format  and  was  "mini-packages",  exercises published  V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e as a home l e a r n i n g s e r v i c e d u r i n g 1978.  Centres,  provided. in the  the s p r i n g of  A s e c o n d m a j o r r e s o u r c e o f m a t e r i a l f o r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g was  Manitoba government's p u b l i c a t i o n guidance.  This provides  both  (1972) o f a r e s o u r c e  instructional  and  the  book f o r g r o u p s  in  experiential guidelines,  ko  and is a popular resource aide. The developed program was examined in relation to what changes, if any, could be anticipated on Crites Career Maturity Inventory Competence test subtests. The following is an assessment of content included in the program that could be related to each of the five subtests. 1. Knowing Yourself (KI): Several sections of the program deal with this topic and include: values clarification, self appraisal and goal setting; check list of personal aspects of a job; self-assessment questionnaire; and skill definitions. Apart from the listed specific items, all parts of the program could have an effect on the student's level of career self-awareness. 2. Knowing About Jobs (KJ): The kinds of skills that comprise a job were not specifically taught. A career interview assignment, interview role playing, and a library session looking at career information (which appeared to require updating), could serve as a contributory factor to any increased student awareness about jobs in general. Crites indicates students enrolled in a career education program should make "gains" on the five parts of the Competence test, and if the program covers only the acquisition of usable skills "as would be learned in more traditional industrial arts courses" (Crites 1973a, p.36), increases should at least appear on these first two subtests. It seems reasonable to predict some gain on Knowing Yourself but less, if any, 3  on Knowing About Jobs. 3.  (See Appendix A - 5 and A - 6 ) . The curriculum deals with the process of choosing a job or being chosen for a job, but not in as concrete terms as the items on this subtest require, that is, job titles and skills required were not matched.  Choosing a Job (CJ):  41  It Is recognized that an ability to plan realistically for future studies and career choice is one of the major goals of career education. It was anticipated in a short program that only some career education goals could be emphasized. This program concentrated less on specific occupations and more on realistic self-awareness in career planning. 5. Problem Solving (PS): Crites (1974) admits to some difficulties inherent in this subtest due to the different ways in which the same person will approach problem solving. Decision making processes were not an integral part of this career program, although the author recognizes the importance of this factor. The final three subtests would not likely show "gains". One of the criticisms of short career programs is that, of necessity, the content cannot be dealt with thoroughly, and if one allows for group participation, in a brief time span, the information component of the program is limited. Because of the general stimulation of a career intervention, it could be assumed that there may be slight increases on scores of each of the subtests from pretest to posttesting but there is not a strong likelihood of significant gains. Current Trends and Suggestions As previously mentioned, the Department of Manpower is continually studying career educational needs. The Goard Commission (1976) recommended that a one-semester course be provided in colleges for all students desiring help in this area. They further recommended that "more college counsellors provide group counselling on career decision making" (p. 1 1 ) . Breton (1972), with the co-operation of the Federal Department of Labour and the Provincial Departments of Education, has studied in detail the career development of adolescents which can provide career education planners with many guidelines. 4.  Looking Ahead (LA):  42 He s t a t e s " t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ' goal  f o r m u l a t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n and c a r e e r  i s based on h i s views o f the f u t u r e and of h i m s e l f in r e l a t i o n :to  it"  (p. 382). Daniel Yankelovich York,  states:  (1978), a r e s e a r c h p r o f e s s o r of psychology  in New  "A new breed of A m e r i c a n s , born out of the s o c i a l movement  of the 6 0 ' s and grown i n t o m a j o r i t y b e l i e f s so markedly d i f f e r e n t  in the 7 0 ' s , h o l d s a s e t o f v a l u e s and  from the t r a d i t i o n a l o u t l o o k t h a t  they  promise to t r a n s f o r m the c h a r a c t e r o f work in America in the 8 0 ' s " (p. 4 7 ) . Y a n k e l o v i c h goes on to r e f e r to A m e r i c a ' s m i d d l e c l a s s v a l u e s of the quarter century  t h a t have been a b l e to " d e l i v e r " ,  last  because of the economy,  some of the " p r o p s " of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g ; w e l l - d e f i n e d g o a l s , a sense of s e l f - e s t e e m , and a sense of c o n t r i b u t i n g others.  to the w e l l - b e i n g  The "New B r e e d " v a l u e s e x p r e s s e s w o r k - r e l a t e d v a l u e s  the i n c r e a s i n g importance of  of  in terms  l e i s u r e ; the s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of  of:  the  p a i d j o b ; and the i n s i s t e n c e t h a t j o b s become l e s s d e p e r s o n a l i z e d . (Psychology  Today, p.  48).  In a s u r v e y , quoted by Y a n k e l o v i c h , 21% o f the people surveyed  said  work means more to them than l e i s u r e , 60% s a i d work was not t h e i r main source of s a t i s f a c t i o n . individuality  "The New Breed person demands t h a t h i s or  be r e c o g n i z e d "  (p.  4 9 ) . The group surveyed were  her  Psychology  Today r e a d e r s , and as s u c h , these f i n d i n g s c o u l d be assumed to have a middle c l a s s b i a s . Gysbers and Moore (1975) propose t h a t the "meaning of c a r e e r be expanded to encompass i n d i v i d u a l s '  total  lives"  (p.  6 4 8 ) , and s h o u l d  c o n s i d e r " o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , how to l e a r n ,  l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s "  (p. 6 4 8 ) .  learning  They advocate  t h a t a " l i f e c a r e e r p e r s p e c t i v e of human growth and development"  (p.  649)  43  should be a conceptual framework for developing career education programs. The career education implementation of research findings for the New Breed of the 80's should be inclusive of the theoretical concepts developed earlier in the century, to make meaningful and effective contributions to the individual's development of career maturity. The challenge is to prepare pertinent career programs for youth, the method is to test for the effectiveness of their implementation. Hypotheses Derived From the Literature Review The research questions for this study arose because of the apparent and documented need for experimentation into the most effective career education programs, as it is evident that this type of education is required. Are mini-course career programs able to provide students with sufficiently appropriate knowledge about the occupational world, and to help students integrate this information with indivual self perception in order to develop congruence between self concept and career choice? Should career education planning consider the variables, sex, grade point average, attitude, and curriculum (vocationa1/academic) when implementing career education programs? Stated in the null form, the following hypotheses were formulated: 1.  There will be no statistically significant difference (cK. = .05) on adjusted posttest scores on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests, between the experimental group and the control group, using pretest scores as the covariate.  2.  There will be no statistically significant difference between the pretest and posttest mean scores on each of the five subtests in the experimental group only.  3.  There will be no statistically significant relationship between the independent variables (sex, program, grade point average, Attitude Scale scores) and the pretest scores on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory subtests.  Chapter Three METHODOLOGY Subjects In an Interior of B.C. community, population 60,000, the supervisor of secondary school education was approached as to the feasibility of conducting a research study on career education in a local high school. The high school assigned for this project was in School District #24, is one of three senior secondary schools in this city, and had a population of 934 students (1977-78); 395 of whom are in grade 12, 539 in grade 11. The school vice-principal decided one division of the guidance and physical education program would provide the most suitable group of students for this study, both in terms of student availability, and relativity of career course content to general guidance. The guidance portion of this part of the curriculum allows for flexibility of content and students have some choice as to what they select to attend, within guidance, and within the scope of courses offered; in this case, gymnastics or career education. A teacher from the physical education department arranged class times, location, obtained some information from student files and was available to assist if necessary. The guidance teacher informed the experimental group that they would receive ten hours of guidance class time. Both the experimental and control group received introductory information about the research study. Physical Education and Guidance is a mandatory program in either grade 11 or 12. Approximately 500 students were in the total program, and, of these, 148 students were given the option of a Career Guidance Program or Gymnastics. From this group 78 students selected career education, 60 students gymnastics, the latter forming the control group. Absence or 45  46  incomplete test results on either the pre or posttesting reduced the group numbers; the experimental group reduced by 35% to 51 students, the control group reduced by 28%, resulting in 44 students. The final sample group used for statistical purposes was as follows: Table 1 Subject Sample Description Experimental Sample Actual Percentage of N u m b e r Sample (n=51) Character i st i cs 70.6 36 Grade 11 29.4 15 Grade 12 17.6 Vocational Program 9 82.4 42 Academic Program 22 Males 43.1 Fema1es  Averages GPA (1978) Averaged Attitude Scores (CMI Pretest)  29  Control Actual Percentage of Number Sample (n=44)  56.9  4.60  36.6  36 8  81.8 18.2  22 22  50 50  18 26  40.9 59.1  4.20  34.3  It was decided to combine grades 11 and 12 for statistical purposes, although there is some evidence that Career Maturity Inventory Attitude scores increase with age and grade (Omvig, et al,  1975;  Crites,  1971).  The  normative mean scores comparison of the Competence Tests (Career Maturity Inventory Administration Manual), showed little difference between these two grades. The Attitude variable was of statistical importance only on the pretest scores. They were similar. The pretest averages of grade 11 and 12 scores on each of the five subtests were as follows:  47  Table 2 Averaged Scores by Grade on CMI Subtests - Pretests Only Competence Subtests 1  Grade 11 Grade 12  2  3  4  5  13.1  16.7  13.3  13-3  11.1  14.3  14.1  14.3  13.1  11.1  I nstrument The effectiveness of the career education program was measured by Crites Career Maturity Inventory (1973). All subsections of the test were used on the pretest, only the five Competence subtests were administered on the posttesting. The scores of the Attitude scale of the Inventory were used in assessing the relationship of Attitude scores to scores obtained on each of the five Competence subtests. Career Maturity inventory Competence Test The Competence Test consists of five parts that measure the following choice competencies: Self Appraisal 1 . KNOWN IG YOURSELF (KY) Occupational Information 2. KNOWN IG ABOUT JOBS (KJ) Goal Selection 3. CHOOSN I G A JOB (CJ) Planning 4. LOOKING AHEAD (LA) Problem Solving 5. WHAT SHOULD THEY DO? (PS) (The subtests are referred to by either symbols, eg. KY, or by numbers, 1  to  5.)  In each of the five subtests there are twenty questions. The items describe situations related in various ways to occupations, interests, and skills, and the correct answer is selected from multiple choices,  48  including "don't know". According to Crites (1973c), the more career mature the student, the fewer the "don't know" responses. The tests have been normed in the United States only, on grades 6 to 12 inclusive. The only reliability data available for the Competence Test are internal consistency coefficients. Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 values were calculated for each grade level, resulting in coefficients ranging from .72 to .90. Problem solving produced the lowest consistency. Crites (1973c) feels this m ay be due to using different approaches to solve problems, but this theory has not been tested. Crites (1973a) indicates that if the Competence Tests are administered to students, it can be immediately determined which curricular and guidance needs exist. Crites states, "Students enrolled in career education should make gains on the five parts of the Competence Test" (p. 35). He also suggests that this instrument is ready for research in terms of what kinds of activities and learning contribute to career maturity. (This instrument has been described in more detail in Chapter Two.) Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Seale The Attitude Scale consists of 50 items, which are scored as true or false. The items are designed to be age and grade related; the premise being, the higher the grade, the greater the number of correct responses. The dimensions measured in this scale are: involvement in the choice process; orientation toward work; independence in decision making; preference for career choice factors; conceptions of the choice process. The Attitude Scale has been researched more extensively than has the Competence Test. The average internal consistency estimate, using KR 20, gives a reliability coefficient of .74, consistent with expectation, as the items are related but not intended to be homogeneous as they are  49  measuring five different variables. The test re-test coefficient averages to .71 for students in grades 6 to 12 tested and retested over a one year interval. In a measure of content validity, 80% of ten judges agreed as to attitude items they considered more mature (Crites, 1973c). Test of criterion-related validity generally indicates that the Attitude Scale is useful as a measure of career maturity (Crites, 1971). The Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale and Competence Test was used by Omvig, Tulloch and Thomas (1975), in a similar study, and by Westbrook (1976a), where partial support was obtained for the interrelation of the two dimensions of Career Choice Aptitudes and Career Choice Competency, but less than the .30 to .49 predicted by Crites maturity model. Student Information From information available on the students' school report forms, the grade point average was obtained. Also the students' course list was reviewed to determine whether the student was on an academic or vocational program. This data, the sex of each student, and their Attitude Scale scores were documented to determine the relationship of these variables to Competence Test scores. Design and Data Collection The data was obtained using the non-equivalent control group design (Design No. 10, Campbel and Stanley, 1963, p. 47). Statistical Design: Non-Equivalent Control Group Posttest Program Pretest 0 X 0 0  0  This design is useful for intact groups such as are found in schools. The more similarity between groups both on pretest scores and overall  50  characteristics, internal v a l i d i t y  the more e f f e c t i v e  is t h i s design.  in main e f f e c t s of h i s t o r y ,  It c o n t r o l s  for  m a t u r a t i o n , t e s t i n g and  instrumentation. The p r e t e s t Career M a t u r i t y 1978,  Inventory data was o b t a i n e d in January  and the p o s t t e s t data f o u r weeks l a t e r .  s t u d e n t s over two c l a s s p e r i o d s .  The e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o n t r o l  group were t e s t e d in s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s . as i n s t r u c t e d  The p r e t e s t was g i v e n to the  The t e s t m a t e r i a l was e x p l a i n e d  in the Career M a t u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Manual  (1973a).  There were two c l a s s e s d e s i g n a t e d as the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t was i d e n t i c a l v a r i a t i o n s r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n t Appendix A ) .  in both c l a s s e s .  individual  The  The o n l y  responses to c o n t e n t  (note  The t e a c h i n g program was conducted i n seven one hour s e s s i o n s .  The f i v e Competence s u b t e s t s were then a d m i n i s t e r e d as p o s t t e s t s t o both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l  groups.  The t e s t s were hand marked and raw s c o r e t o t a l s o b t a i n e d f o r each o f the f i v e Competence s u b t e s t s and f o r the A t t i t u d e S c a l e , p r e t e s t  only.  The student f i l e s were made a v a i l a b l e in o r d e r to o b t a i n grade average i s not  (GPA), and a c a d e m i c / v o c a t i o n a l s t r e a m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  point  "Streaming"  i d e n t i f i e d as v o c a t i o n a l o r academic on the r e c o r d s and can o n l y be  determined by knowing the a d d i t i o n a l number of academic c o u r s e s for university  entrance requirements.  the two s e n i o r y e a r s .  required  T h i s c o u r s e c o n t e n t can a l t e r over  For example, a grade 11 s t u d e n t w i t h  insufficient  academic s u b j e c t s , c o u l d load h i s program a c a d e m i c a l l y in grade 12, a l t e r i n g h i s apparent grade 11 d i r e c t i o n .  For t h i s s t u d y ,  the  thereby  required  number of academic s u b j e c t s f o r "academic s t r e a m i n g " in whichever grade the s t u d e n t was r e g i s t e r e d was used as a " s t r e a m i n g " assessment. average was o b t a i n e d in l i e u of  ava i1able.  I.Q.  information.  I.Q.  Grade p o i n t  s c o r e s were not  51 Statistical The  d a t a was a n a l y z e d  comparison o f adjusted  in order  Analysis  to obtain the following  p o s t t e s t scores  f o r both  groups;  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t mean s c o r e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  information:  comparison o f  g r o u p ; and t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f o u r v a r i a b l e s t o p r e t e s t s c o r e s on t h e f i v e  Competence  subtests. Scores  on t h e f i v e  Career  Maturity  w e r e t a b u l a t e d w i t h means a n d s t a n d a r d experimental  and c o n t r o l  Inventory  Competence s u b t e s t s  deviations calculated  f o r the  groups.  A one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e  (ANCOVA) was u s e d =  .05)  to  determine  w h e t h e r t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  ( a d j u s t e d ) , on each o f t h e f i v e  Competence s u b t e s t s , between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  group  ( C ) , u s i n g p r e t e s t s c o r e s as t h e c o v a r i a t e .  (E) a n d t h e c o n t r o l HYPOTHESIS:  group H  :  ft  X_  0  H  To  provide  education  =  X  Eadj  *Eadj  :  ,.  r  Cadj  *  *Cadj  f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c a r e e r  program, dependent measures t - t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  were c a l c u l a t e d , to  l  ..  on p o s t t e s t s c o r e s  determine  u s i n g mean s c o r e s  .05)  Competence s u b t e s t s  w h e t h e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r e t e s t a n d p o s t t e s t mean  s c o r e s on e a c h o f t h e f i v e statistically  from each o f t h e f i v e  =  subtests  in the experimental  significant.  HYPOTHESIS:  H.  :  0  1  =  X_  Epre :  Hi  X_  X_  Epre  .  Epost ^  X  n  Epost  group were  52  An item analysis was done to determine whether or not any one item, or groups of items, contributed specifically to any change in group means between pretest scores and posttest scores on each of the five subtests. The method used was to record the number of correct responses for each of the 20 items on each of the five Competence subtests (Appendix C). Correlation coefficients were obtained between each of the independent variables (sex, program, grade point average (GPA), Attitude Scale scores) and each of the dependent variables (scores obtained on each of the five Competence subtests). The dichotomous variables, sex and program, were treated as nominal measures to obtain Pearson Product Moment point biserial coefficients. Grade point average and Attitude scale scores were treated as ordinal measures to obtain Spearman rho correlation coefficients. These were compared to the scores on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory pretest scores (interval measures) for both the experimental and the control group. T-tests were computed to determine whether there existed a statistically significant (<"<C= .05) relationship between the independent variables (sex, program, grade point average, Attitude Scale scores) and the dependent variables (pretest scores on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory subtests). The hypotheses to be tested were: i)  Between sex(S) and each of the 5 subtests (St) (r pb = point-biseria 1 correlation coefficient) H0 1  pbSst  r  pbSst  =  0  53  Between streaming (P = Program) and each of the 5 subtests (St) H  0  :  pbPst -  l  :  pbPst * °  H  r  0  r  Between GPA (G) and each of the 5 subtests (St) ( r = Spearman rho correlation coefficient) g  H  sGst  0  :  r  l  :  r  H  =  0  sGst * °  Between Attitude Scale scores (A) and each of the 5 subtests (St) H  0 = sAst ° °  H  r  l  :  sAst * °  r  Chapter Four RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The data were analyzed and the results tabulated and discussed in order (general to specific), as outlined in the previous chapter. Comparison of Adjusted Posttest Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups The major focus of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a career education mini-program by examining posttest scores for experimental and control groups on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests. An analysis of covariance, using pretest scores as the covariate, was used to mathematically equate the two groups on the pretest. Each of the subtests was considered separately for discussion of the first hypothesis. Although all are a measure of career maturity, each test measures a different learner behavior. Table 3 depicts the pretest and posttest mean scores and standard deviations for both groups on the five subtests. Table k shows the mean scores and standard deviations for grades 11 and 12 as presented in the Career Maturity Inventory Administration and Use Manual (1973a). Table 5 gives the adjusted posttest means on each of the five subtests. It can be observed that the means for the posttest of the experimental group increased on all subtests when compared with the mean scores on the pretests. For the control group, the mean scores decreased between pretest and posttest on subtests "KY" and "KJ", and showed a slight increase on the three subtests "CJ", "LA", and "PS". The variance of the scores appear similar, with the standard deviation being slightly higher on the posttests of the control group.  55  Table 3 Pretest and Posttest Means and Standard Deviations for Experimental and Control Groups on Five CMI Subtests Experimental Group (51 subjects) Pretest Posttest Subtests Mean S.D. Mean S.D. KY 3.02 13.90 13.49 3.53 KJ 16.67 2.47 2.33 17.37 CJ 13-92 2.94 2.59 14.29 LA 13-60 14.04 3.61 3.43 PS 3.16 3.00 11.29 11.65  Control Group (44 subjects) Pretest Posttest S.D. Mean Mean S.D. 13-86  3.14  12.59  3.58  16.23  2.63  15.80  3.21  12.98  2.77  13.77  3.04  11.91  3.35  12.07  4.28  9.57  2.82  9.66  3.19  Comparing the mean scores observed with the standardized mean scores in the Career Maturity Inventory Manual, the posttest mean scores of the students tested in this school generally exceed the mean scores of the United States population used for standardization (Table 4). Table 4 Grades 11 and 12 Mean Scores and Standard Deviations as Presented in the CMI Administration Manual (1973) Grade 11 Subtest KY KJ CJ LA PS  Mean  Grade 12 S.D.  Mean  S.D.  13.63  3.99  14.15  3.48  13-79  4.86  14.43  4.67  12.74  5.00  12.90  5.43  11.08  5.71  11.89  5-59  8.96  4.25  9.50  4.45  56  When Crites first developed the Career Maturity Inventory tests, he attempted to provide a range of items that would be effective for testing career maturity from grades 6 to 12. He found that the items did not have a oe%Zing effect when testing adults. The fact that the sample in this study obtained mean scores on the subtests higher than those of the normative group could possibly suggest that there is less room for growth in maturity measurement at this point, therefore changes upward, however small, may be more meaningful. Table 5 shows the posttest mean scores for the experimental and control groups when the pretest scores were treated as a covariate. In all subtests, the experimental group means exceed those of the control group means, except in "Choosing a Job" where the control group mean is slightly higher. Table 5 Adjusted Cell Means on Five Posttests for Experimental and Control Groups Subtests KY KJ CJ LA PS  Experimental Group (n = 51) Control Group (n = 44) 13-99  12.49  17.25  15-93  14.03  14.07  13.63  12.54  11.13  10.26  Tables 6 to 10 show the results of the five one-way analyses of covariance. The hypothesis to be tested was: there is no statistically significant difference (oC= .05) on the posttest scores (on each of the five Competence subtests) between the experimental group and the control group, using pretest scores as a covariate. Acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis is stated after each tabulated subtest.  57  Table 6 Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Knowing Yourself" Source Between Groups Within Groups Total  df  SS  MS  1  52.91  52.91  92  953.11  10.36  93  1006.02  The null hypothesis was rejected in favour of than aC= .05.  F 5.1074  P 0.0262  because p(0.0262) is less  Following the item stem situation, this subtest asked the students: "What do you think?" One of the five multiple choice answers is to be selected, the correct one implying the student is capable of accurate selfappraisal. The other selections reflect the student has a need to be dependent on others, or overestimates his/her abilities, and other less appropriate choices including the final choice, "I don't know", which Crites has found is used less often as the student's age increases (Crites,1973c). Career self-awareness was an underlying concept in the instituted career education program and if any of the subtests were to show gain it would be anticipated in "KY". It was felt that a short term career program would not provide the student with sufficient depth to obtain statistically significant gain scores. These results indicate mini-course career programs probably increase a student's ability for accurate self-appraisal. Table 7 Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Knowing About Jobs" Source  df  SS  MS  Between Groups Within Groups  1  40. 91  40.91  92  510. 35  5.55  Total  93  561 . 25  F 7.375  P 0.0079  58  The  null  was r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f H j b e c a u s e p(0.0079) i s l e s s  hypothesis  t h a n c?C =  .05-  From a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i s asked  to identify  students  entered  " g a i n s " on t h i s to  the correct occupation.  i n a career education subtest.  observed  g a i n was n o t a n t i c i p a t e d .  the p o t e n t i a l  Crites  theory  1  df  1  Between g r o u p s groups  Total  The  subtest  involved being  able  i n t e r e s t s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , and b e i n g most a p p r o p r i a t e j o b f r o m a l i s t the previous question  to assess  i s worded  P  0.0061  0.9375  i s g r e a t e r t h a n oC=  .05.  s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s , and  able to apply  of job t i t l e s .  one i n t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n a l  F  5.08  n u l 1 ' h y p o t h e s i s was n o t r e j e c t e d as p(0.9375)  This  program.  "Choosing a J o b "  0.0310  467 70  knowledge  and i s s u p p o r t i v e a l s o o f  0 0310  93  statistically  in occupational  MS  467 67  t o show  therefore a  SS  92  that  was n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d  The i n c r e a s e  Table 8 A n a l y s i s of Covariance Subtest  Within  (1973a) s t a t e d  e f f e c t i v e n e s s on t h i s v a r i a b l e o f a s h o r t c a r e e r  Source  i n , the student  p r o g r a m w o u l d be e x p e c t e d  in different occupations,  i n t h i s subtest supports  i s engaged  Crites  The program c o n t e n t  identifying job s k i l l s  significant  a person  these  This  material  to choosing  subtest d i f f e r s  the from  i s more a b s t r a c t and t h e  i n t h e f o r m o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , "Which one o f t h e  following occupations  w o u l d be b e s t  f o r him?"  concentrate  on t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  t h e r e would  be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i t w o u l d be a d e s i r a b l e  result.  significant  The t r e a t m e n t  given d i d not  I t was n o t a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t g a i n on t h i s  subtest,  although  59  Table 9 Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Looking Ahead" Source Between groups Within groups Total  df  SS  MS  F  P  1  26.62  26.62  2.2819  0.13^3  92  1073.28  93  1099.90  11 .67  The null hypothesis was not rejected as p(0.1343) is greater than <?C= .05. The items in this section ask the student to be able to correctly order three given steps a person could complete to prepare for entering a specific occupation. The test questions seem pertinent and appropriate for assessing the effectiveness of a career program. This type of content was not included in the career education program. In a mini-course it was expected that time constraints would require the course to exclude some aspects of career education. The ability to plan for a satisfying career choice is a major goal of career education and the fact that no statistically significant gains were obtained seems to reflect an aspect of inadequacy in the career program presented, but was an anticipated result. Table 10 Analysis of Covariance, Subtest "Problem Solving" Source Between groups Within groups Total  df  SS  MS  1  16. 4o  16.40  92  6 0 5 . 22  6.58  93  6 2 1 . 62  F 2.4932  P 0.1178  The null hypothesis was not rejected as p(0.1178) is greater than©0= No statistical gain was expected on this subtest.  .05-  60  The items in this subtest deal with problem situations (eg. "Betty wants to be a lawyer. But her guidance tests indicate that she does not have enough ability. What should she do?). The student is asked to make a decision given a set of circumstances. It is difficult to assess whether or not this subtest is appropriate for assessing the effectiveness of a career eduction program. The situations presented involve weighing alternatives. Crites (1973c) has suggested this subtest should be submitted to further testing. Results obtained could reflect an inadequacy of the testing instrument rather than a reflection of short comings of a career course. In summary, whereas the experimental group consistently displayed higher adjusted posttest mean scores, only "Knowing Yourself" and "Knowing About Jobs" scores were statistically significant at©C= .05. Crites (1973a) indicates that students in a career education program should make gains on the five Competence subtests. If the program content focuses primarily on the acquisition of skills, Crites states an increase in career competence should be reflected on these two subtests. He indicates a gain would be expected on the remaining subtests, "Choosing a Job", "Looking Ahead", and "Problem Solving" when course content focuses more directly on the world of work and how to progress in it. The results of this research appear to support this concept. T-tests of Significance for Differences Between Pretest Mean Scores and Posttest Mean Scores on Each of the Five CMI Subtests for the Experimental Group Only Presented in Table Eleven are the experimental group mean scores, standard deviations and t-test results. The null hypothesis to be tested stated: There is no statistically significant difference (<?C= .05) between  61  the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on each of the f i v e Career Inventory subtests  in the e x p e r i m e n t a l  Maturity  group.  T a b l e 11 E x p e r i m e n t a l Group P r e t e s t - P o s t t e s t Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and Dependent Measures T - T e s t P r o b a b i l i t i e s Pretest Subtest  Posttest  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S D.  KY  13.49  3.02  13.90  3 53  0.390  KJ  16.67  2.47  17-37  2 33  0.026*  CJ  13.92  2.94  14.29  2 60  0.334  LA  13-61  3.61  14.04  3- 43  0.405  PS  11 .29  3.00  11.65  3- 16  0.342  p  <  .05  n  =  51  The h y p o t h e s i s , H. '0  '  "Epre  ^Epost  f o r the s u b t e s t s "Knowing Y o u r s e l f " ,  a  t  °C  =  -05, f a i l e d t o be  P  rejected  "Choosing a J o b " , " L o o k i n g A h e a d " , and  "Problem S o l v i n g " . For the s u b t e s t "Knowing About J o b s " , i n f a v o u r o f H'1  X_  Epre  =  X_ Epost  at  the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  aC= .05. ^  rejected  The f o u r Competence s u b t e s t s where t h e r e was not a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference  ( oC=  .05) do show movement in the d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n .  When n o n - a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means a r e used as a c r i t e r i o n of " g a i n " f o r the career education group, "Knowing About J o b s " .  the o n l y s u b t e s t  i n d i c a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t gain  is  T h i s r e s u l t c o u l d suggest t h a t the c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n  program was more e f f e c t i v e  in i n c r e a s i n g the s t u d e n t s '  than i t was in i n c r e a s i n g the s t u d e n t s '  knowledge about j o b s  knowledge of s e l f  (which showed  62  statistically  significant  Considering gains  the  w e r e made on  of " r i g h t s " Solving",  from p r e t e s t  i t e m #18,  the  students  r e s u l t s of  lowest  although  only  s o l v e problems  The  Because  consistency  observed  some i t e m s d e c r e a s e d c o n t r o l group,  e i g h t c o r r e c t a n s w e r s on  posttest.  internal  covariance).  i t e m a n a l y s i s , i t was  to p o s t t e s t .  scored the  a n a l y s i s of  the  a l l subtests,  c o r r e c t a n s w e r s on found  g a i n on  in r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficients  i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s , and  in the  in  the  on  the  posttest, rather  intervening  Significarice of  the  pretest,  studies, Crites  in t h i s  subtest,  the observed  sex,  several  R e l a t i o n s h i p of  s t u d i e s h a v e been done on  maturity,  population Table  used 12  decided  in t h i s  study.  state:  there  a v e r a g e and the  five  research  are  individual  i s no  between e a c h o f  the  to o b t a i n  felt  r e s u l t s could same  information  and  A t t i t u d e Scale  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of scores  similar  n o t e d , a t oC  null  statistically  assimilated  scores)  Competence s u b t e s t s .  As  =  .05  this  these hypotheses w i l l  (sex,  pretest i s an be  the  variables  construct  student  f o r these v a r i a b l e s , and ^ =  scores,  ancillary a  and  .01.  tested, which  streaming,  t r e a t e d as  of  f o r the  basically  r e l a t i o n s h i p {&C=  significant  and  to the  to  Scores  information  h y p o t h e s e s t o be  independent v a r i a b l e s  A t t i t u d e Scale  study,  he  F i v e Competence S u b t e s t s  the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  significant  T h e r e a r e 20  the  A t t i t u d e Scale  i t was  depicts  those that are  S c o r e s on  S t r e a m i n g , GPA,  g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e , and  career  specific  23  time.  t h e V a r i a b l e s Sex, As  t h a n t o any  number  in "Problem  be a t t r i b u t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h t o w a r d t h e question  that  .05)  grade  point  obtained  on  part of  this  group.  each  of  63  Table 12 Correlation Coefficients for Independent Variables in Relation to Pretest Scores for Experimental and Control Groups  Variables Sex (r ) Stream (r pb ,) (Curriculum) GPA (Srho) pb  Attitude (Srho)  KY  KJ  Subtests CJ  LA  PS  o . 158  0.046  0.010  0. 072  0.168  0.034  0.216*  0.227*  0. 148  0.234*  0.253**  0.278**  0.320**  0. 392**  0.120  0.287**  0.342**  0.234*  0. 366**  0.270**  * p < .05 ** p < .01 rpb , = Pearson Product Moment point biserial Srho = Spearman's rho The correlations across all variables are positive and range between almost no relationship between the sex of the student and "Choosing a Job" subtest, to a correlation of 0.39 between "Looking Ahead" and grade point average. Sex The sex of the student seems to have no significant relationship to the scores on the five Competence subtests; the girls and boys obtained similar pretest mean scores averaged over each of the five Career Maturity Inventory subtests (girls 13-49; S.D. 2.98, and the boys 13.23; S.D. 3-05). The null hypotheses were supported for this variable. It is of interest to note that in the developmental concept of career maturity, girls would be expected to be more mature than boys and should produce higher scores on the Career Maturity Inventory tests as indicated in the literature review. Crites (1976)  64 has found this to be true for scores on the Attitude scales. However, Crites also indicates that the Competence test items were designed to eliminate sex bias, and it is this concept that is supported in this study. Curriculum (Program) As shown in Table 12, the null hypotheses were supported for subtests, "Knowing Yourself" and "Looking Ahead". The null hypotheses were rejected, atoC = .05, for subtests "Knowing About Jobs", (p = 0.035), "Choosing a Job", (p = 0.027), and "Problem Solving", (p = 0.023). There is little documentation regarding academic and vocational students in relation to scores on career maturity tests, although a study by Herr and Enderlein (1975) using grade 9 students, demonstrated that academic students score significantly higher than do students in general vocational programs. The present study did not discriminate between various types of non-academic curricula. However, the academic group pretest mean score average over the five Career Maturity Inventory subtests was 13.74 (S.D. 2.91); for the five subtests, and for the vocational group 12.55 (S.D.  3.08).  A study by Echternacht (1976) showed that academic students achieved higher grades than did vocational students, which could be a relevant factor in these results when grade point average relationships are examined. The literature suggests students with higher grade point average and intelligence tend to select academic curricula. Grade Point Average The null hypotheses were rejected at a significant level (<?C= .01) for four of the five subtests. "Problem Solving" correlation coefficient was statistically non-significant at<?C= .05, thus accepting the null hypothesis. These results agree with research to date, that correlate results of  65 some m e a s u r e s o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y p o s i t i v e l y w i t h point average,  although  no  correlational  values  f i v e Competence s u b t e s t s were a v a i l a b l e . student  achieves  L a w r e n c e and  Brown  (1976) and  This  he  relationship  s c o r e s was  can  expect  others.  related  to score  inference i s supported I t would  s t u d e n t w o u l d be more a b l e t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s . when t h e  specifically  grade to  the  It appears that the b e t t e r a  i n high s c h o o l , the h i g h e r  a measure o f c a r e e r m a t u r i t y .  i n t e l l i g e n c e and/or  by  on  Crites  (1976),  seem t h a t t h e b r i g h t e r T h i s was  b e t w e e n " p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " and  not s u b s t a n t i a t e d  Competence  subtest  statistically non-significant. Attitude  The  null  significant  hypotheses were r e j e c t e d i n a l l f i v e  atc^T  =  .01; " C h o o s i n g  and  these  results  support  other  significant  at<?C=  .05-  career maturity  is well  documented  a J o b " was  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f A t t i t u d e S c a l e s c o r e s and  s u b t e s t s , f o u r were  findings (Crites,  197**, W e s t b r o o k ,  In summary, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y t h e s c o r e o b t a i n e d on have a s i g n i f i c a n t  the Career  positive  relationship  I n v e n t o r y Competence s u b t e s t s . tend  to achieve  Maturity  student  does not  subtests.  the student  to the f i v e  Career  than  do  for significant  In t h i s  and  Maturity  I t c o u l d be a s s u m e d t h a t a c a d e m i c  w h i c h c o u l d be p o s t u l a t e d t o a c c o u n t  1975b).  Inventory A t t i t u d e Scale g e n e r a l l y  higher grade p o i n t averages  curriculum subtests variable.  of  The  study,  students  vocational students, relationships  i n the  i t appears the sex o f  c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on  the  the five  Chapter Five SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This chapter is designed to present a summary of the results of the study, to draw implications from the findings of the research, and to offer considerations for future research. Summary of Results The major purpose of this study was to ascertain whether a mini-course career education program would increase the career maturity level of senior high school students. The research was approached in two ways: (a) by testing two groups of students, one group to be given treatment (career education), the other students to serve as a control group, (continuing their physical education classes). The pretest scores were used as a covariate to mathematically equate the two groups on the pretest, and the posttest adjusted mean scores were compared between the two groups on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests. (b) by comparing the pretest and posttest mean scores, of the experimental group only, using non-adjusted mean scores on each of the five Competence subtests. This study was also designed to investigate the relationship between sex, curriculum, grade point average, and scores on Crites Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale and scores obtained on each of the five Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests. Students in a medium-sized B.C. Interior city senior high school were invited to participate in this study. The students most available to participate were.enrol led,in-a physical education and guidance program, 66  67  those students who received the treatment elected to do so, the remainder continued with their regular school program but served as a control group for testing purposes. Differences that may have existed initially between the two groups were examined and the results are in Chapter Three. Of the differences examined, the only one of note was that more students in the control group were on a vocational curriculum. Research suggests academic students are probably more intelligent and therefore probably more career mature (Herr and Enderlein, 1975). Also Egner and Jackson (1978) suggest vocational students think they have made a career choice. This could have been a contributing factor to the increased numbers of vocational students in the control group. The measure selected as a testing instrument to assess career maturity levels was Crites Career Maturity Inventory Competence test (1973), using all f ive subtests: (a) Knowing Yourself (KY), (b) Knowing About Jobs (KJ), (c) Choosing a Job (CJ), (d) Planning (LA) , and (e) Problem Solving (PS). The Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale was administered as a pretest only, and the scores were used in the study to investigate variables considered to affect career maturity. The results of the first hypothesis (differences between experimental and control groups) were obtained by analysis of covariance and tabulated separately for each subtest, as each subtest is designed to measure a different variable related to career maturity (Crites, 1973a). The findings can be summarized as follows:  68  there was a statistically significant difference (p <C 5 ) between the experimental group and the control group. This result agrees with Crites (1973a) expectations and seems realistic in view of the career program content. However, this result should be treated cautiously as this subtest did not show a statistically significant gain when only the experimental group was tested for pretest/posttest gains (see Table eleven). Knowing About Jobs: there was also a statistically significant difference (p ^ .05) between groups, which again concurs with Crites expectations of students enrolled in a career education program. There was less reason to expect the career education program to give rise to significant results on this subtest, but it could be assumed that students studying about careers would be more receptive.to the world of work in general; for example, television programs and literature involving careers may trigger greater interest. Knowing Yourself: ,u  Choosing a Job and  there were no statistically significant differences (p <^ .05) found between the experimental group and the control group on these subtests. There is no base with which to compare these findings for senior high school students, although Omvig, et al (1975) did obtain significant group difference on the "Planning" subtest for grades 6 and 8 students, the career program lasting approximately one school year. Crites (1973a) does imply that "gains" may not be as readily anticipated on the last three subtests as on the first two. Gains were not anticipated to be a result of the education program, primarily due to the brevity of the treatment.  Looking Ahead:  69  (e)  again there was no statistically significant difference (p ^ .05) between the two groups. The null hypothesis was expected to be supported, as this subtest required the learner to make creative and integrative decisions. It would be reasonable to assume a career education program would need to involve the decision making process in some depth to effect change on this variable. When comparing pretest mean scores and posttest mean scores of the students in the experimental group only, Knowing About Jobs was the only one of the five subtests to register a statistically significant gain. In the other subtests there was some statistically non-significant increase in posttest mean scores. It could be postulated that a longer, more in-depth career education program would effect a more significant gain in career maturity levels. Table 3 lists the pretest and posttest mean scores for the control group, and comparing these to the same information for the experimental group, it is of interest to note that all posttest mean scores are higher than pretest mean scores in the experimental group, but there is no consistent similar movement in the control group. Whereas non-significant gains can be attributed to change alone, the consistency of movement in the experimental group is encouraging. The results of an item analysis were obtained to ascertain whether any individual items within the subtests contributed in any specific way to the results obtained on the tests. There appears to be no single item, or group of items, that would specifically affect the mean scores. This is to be expected as Crites' (1973a) research findings indicate an homogeneity of individual items of the subtests. Investigation of the relationship between the four variables, sex, curriculum, grade point average, and Attitude Scale scores, yielded the followi ng results: Problem Solving:  70  There was no statistically significant relationship (Pearson r point biserial) between sex and the pretest scores on each of the five subtests. Crites prepared the items for the subtests in such a way as to try to avoid sex bias and these results indicated he may have been successful. The literature indicated grade 8 girls scored significantly higher on Knowing Yourself but not on the other subtests (Omvig, et al, 1975)- The literature indicates that sex is not always significantly correlated with career maturity, but when it is, girls seem to be more career mature than boys. The type of program (curriculum) and career maturity scores showed statistically significant correlations (analyzed using Pearson r point biserial) for subtests Knowing Yourself (r = . 2 2 ) , and Choosing a Job (r = .23). it could be anticipated that these relationships may have been stronger, as literature indicates a positive correlation between intelligence (or grade point average) and career maturity and curriculum choice is sometimes related to grade point average and intelligence, as previously indicated. There was a positive relationship of grade point average to the scores on four of the five subtests as measured by Spearman r, the averaged correlation coefficient for the four subtests was .31. There was not a significant relationship between grade point average and Problem Solving which seems somewhat surprising as it could be assumed that students who achieve well in school subjects would be able to solve problems more easily. This may be another indication that the Problem Solving items need further investigation. There was a consistently positive relationship (Spearman r) between all Competence subtests and the scores obtained on the Attitude Scale 1  }  71  (averaged for the five subtests, r = .30). There is no comparison base available for the Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests, but in studies using other measures of career competence (e.g. Westbrook, 1976a), Attitude Scale scores correlate positively with career maturity. Implicat ions of the Study As was revealed in Chapters Two and Three, there are many types of career programs but very few of them have been subjected to adequate assessment regarding the effect on career maturity. Educators within school systems are aware that career education should be part of the curriculum, and many school districts are making tangible strides to include career teaching, (e.g. The Vancouver School District in co-operation with C.A.Y.). Some schools, such as the one involved in this research, either do not have staff prepared to teach this subject or have school counsellors who recognize the need and would like to institute programs, but are overworked dealing with their present tasks. The reluctance of educators to become involved in extensive career education is understandable in light of the time, energies and expense required to build the framework for a successful program. Also, some schools are governed by policies that regulate against teaching any course content which has "personal" or "family" connotations. If career education.and "education for life and living" (Hansen and Tennyson, 1975, p. 6h0) are to be equated, the curriculum would require careful design and research and would need to be implemented by a qualified and competent person. Pietrofesa (1975) outlines a model for career education needs, commencing with kindergarten (p. 7). Obviously qualified career educators cannot be in every classroom. In point of fact, career educators tend to be clustered at the college level, there to pick up the pieces and deal with  72  the confusion of the career immature adult. It would be possible to include career education as part of teacher training, making present curriculum relevant to the world of work. There is a widespread difference between the methods used to implement career education in schools, from short term methods described in Chapter Two, to the Minnesota Career Development Project, which took over two years to research and more to prepare and implement in schools, from kindergarten to grade 12 (Hansen and Tennyson, 1975)- Benson and Blocher (1975) in a review of this program, indicated minimal change in terms of measured student outcome the first year which necessitated more change, and this was only the pilot project. Leonard and Vriend (1975) participated in the above career guidance project and stress that programs must be "soundly conceived and organized before implementation can begin" (p. 671). The results of this research give encouragement to educators planning career programs based on similar content. It appears that the career maturity of the students did increase, but not enough, with only two of the five measures showing statistically significant difference. The career curriculum content should be re-examined, enriched, perhaps by inclusion of some decision making career theory, as described by Egner and Jackson (1978), and lengthened. The instrument used to measure the career maturity level of the students (Career Maturity Inventory Competence test) was sensitive to the change in career maturity levels, pretest and posttest. Crites (1973c), asserts that the Career Maturity Inventory is a reliable and valid test. One could assume then that the differences noted are realistic. However, if the "gains" were minimal and if the treatment in this study is representative of the only career education available to students, it would fall under the category of  73  "too 1ittle, too late". Investigations into the relationship of the four variables to the five Career Maturity Inventory subtests indicated that sex is not significantly related to scores on the subtests. The literature indicates that girls are sometimes found to be more career mature than boys (Egner and Jackson, 1978; Smith and Herr, 1972) but this was not supported in this study. This may be reflective of the changing role of women within the work force. Girls may be approaching the world of work and future education with similar attitudes to boys, they may be looking at career selection as a life long process, instead of as a stop-gap between school and marriage, thus adding increased:, importance to the process of career choice. A study by Tesla (1978) had similar results on a population of grade 9 girls. It will be interesting to observe if this is a developing trend, and whether it relates equally across differing socio-economic stratas. Although the attitude of girls to careers may be changing, Osipow (1976) stresses that stereotyping of careers continues and "sex continues to play an important role in the occupational realm" (p. 130). Career education planners should be cognizant of this fact. Correlation between type of curriculum and career maturity tends to vary in different studies. In this study it was not particularly significant. There is sometimes a tendency to think vocational students do not need career education because they seem to have already made a choice, and this may affect their responses on a career maturity inventory. Longitudinal studies to determine the appropriateness of their choice would be of interest. Osipow (1976) reported on a study involving 1400 male students, where boys who expected to leave school before graduation displayed more career realism, but less vocational maturity than the boys who planned to remain in school.  Possibly the best approach is to develop career education suitable for students, regardless of their apparent curriculum orientation. One of the underlying purposes of investigating the relationship of Attitude Scale scores to Competence test scores was to determine whether students could be "sorted" into career education groups on the basis of scores from administration of the Attitude Scale. Upon examination of the results, and comparing them to grade point average correlational values in this study, a more simplistic measure may be to group using grade point average as a guideline as there was a similarity between the correlational values for grade point average and Career Maturity Inventory Attitude Scale scores in relation to scores achieved on the Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests. If it were desirable to separate students into similar groups, another approach could be to test students, using the Career Maturity Inventory Competence subtests. Those students scoring at low maturity levels on occupational information, for example, could then be grouped together. A similar grouping process could be applied, according to the student's scores on the other four subtests. Suggestions for Future Research As has been stated throughout this study, career programs need to be developed, implemented, and tested for effectiveness. If, in the interests of time and public costs, mini-courses are to continue to be a bandaid treatment, then different forms of short courses should be devised and taught. Several approaches could be considered. The career program as developed for this study could be implemented by regular school teachers in a classroom setting, and student performance be evaluated for usual reward purposes, such as attaining units toward graduation needs. Students seem geared to learn what they have to learn. Varying the approach could  75  help to determine if there would be a difference in career maturity gains under different circumstances. Another research project could be to expand on all aspects covered in the career program outlined in this study; allow time for more individual participation and feedback, and include a decision making component, much as proposed by Egner and Jackson (1978). The prog ram-could be implemented by school counsellors, delivered to small groups (15 - 20 students) over the school year. Crites Career Maturity Inventory Competence tests could be used as a pretest and posttest measure, or another measure of career maturity could be used if deemed more appropriate. Short courses emphasizing decision making skills, and departing from the more traditional format for career education, could be implemented and measured for effectiveness. Career courses could be developed that are designed to enhance career maturity levels in different grades. These courses could be implemented and tested to observe whether one grade responds more to career teaching than another, in an attempt to determine when career education seems most relevant in a student's life. CHOICES, Canada Manpower's computerized career education program, has been used by counsellors and students in B.C., New Brunswick, and Ontario. Its program content is currently being altered as a result of revision suggested following pilot testing in 1977, but The Career Action for Youth centre in Vancouver is looking forward to its return. Apparently it serves as an excellent motivating force for students to look at their career life, and it focuses quickly, both for the student and for the counsellor, the congruence that exists between the current education program and future studies planning of the student and his/her career goals. The C.A.Y.  76  counsellors say the computer program does not replace counsellors, but rather emphasizes career counsellor need. An interesting research project would be to develop a career intervention program around CHOICES and test for effectiveness. Longitudinal research is needed to determine whether students who participated in career education programs were able to make career choices that were more satisfying to themselves, and more productive for society. Apart from experimenting with different career courses, another suggestion for research arising from.this study, would be to devise methods to test the Problem Solving subtest, to ascertain if it has a place in measurement of career maturity for high school students. The future research possibilities in terms of developing effective career education programs are unlimited. Career development has investment potential for everyone.  REFERENCES  77  78  REFERENCES Babcock, R. J., & Kaufman, M. A. Effectiveness of a career course. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1976, 2 4 ( 3 ) , 261-66. Banducci, R. Accuracy of occupational stereotypes of grade 12 boys. 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Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, 9^(1), 105-118. Cross, E. G. The effects of a vocational exploration group program with middle and high school students (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Florida, 1975) • Dissertation Abstracts International , 1976, 3_6, (University Microfilm No. 76-12,058) 7 8 6 3 A -  7 8 6 4 A .  DeCecco, J. P. The psychology of learning and instruction: Educational psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1968. Diana, J. W. A study of the effects of a counseling and guidance program designed to foster career awareness in tenth grade students (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1973) . Dissertation Abstracts International, 1974, 34.. 4735A. (University Microfilms No. 74-2641) Echternacht, G. Characteristics distinguishing vocational educational students from general and academic students. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1976, H_(4) , 477-491. Egner, J. R., & Jackson, D. J. Effectiveness of a counseling intervention program for teaching career decision-making skills. Journa1 of Counselirig Psychology, 1978, 2 5 ( 1 ) , 45~52. Erikson, E. H. Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1963Gasper, T. H., & Omvig, C. P. The relationship between career maturity and occupational plans of high school juniors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, 9(3), 367-375. Gilrain, J. B. A study of the facilitation of 7th grade students' vocational maturity through the integration of vocational development material into existing curricula, utilizing regular teachers and required subjects in lieu of special courses, special programs, and special personnel (Doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1974, 3_5, 5812A-5813A. (University Microfilm No. 75"3247) Ginzberg, E., Ginsburg, S., Alexrad, S., & Herma, J. L. Occupational Choice: An approach to general theory. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951 .  Glasser, W. Schools without failure. New York: Harper & Row, 1969. Goard, D. H. (Ed.). Vocational, technical, and trade training. Victoria: Canada Manpower, 1976. Gribbons, W. D., & Lohnes, P. R. Emerging Careers. New York: Teachers College Press, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1968. Gysbers, N..C, & Moore, E. J. Beyond career development — Life career development. Personnel and Guidance Journa 1 , 1975, ' 53_(9) , 647-652.  80  Hansen, J. C, S Ansel 1 , E. M. Assessment of vocational maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1973, 3.0), 89-94. Hansen, L. S., & Tennyson, W. W. A career management model for counselor i nvolvement. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1975, 53_(9), 638-645. Herr, E. L., & Enderlein, T. E. Vocational maturity: The effects of school, grade, curriculum and sex. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, 8(2), 227-238.  ~  -  Herzberg, F. M. , Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. The motivation to work. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1959. Janis, I., S Wheeler, D. Thinking clearly about career choices. Psychology Today, 1975, H_(12), 67~76; 121-122. LaBozetta, W. C. Effect of brief aptitude-occupational career orientation on development of congruity of career interests with aptitudes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1973, 34, 3064A-3065A. (University Microfilms No. 73-2b,b77)  Lawrence, W., & Brown, D. An investigation of intelligence, self-concept, socioeconomic status, race and sex as predictors of career maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, £ ( 1 ) , 43-52. Leonard, G. E., S Vriend, T. J. Update: The developmental career guidance project. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1975, 53_(9) , 668-671. Lindzey, G., Hall, C, & Manosevitz, M. Theories of personality: Primary sources and research. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1973. McKinnon, B. E., & Jones, G. B. Field testing a comprehensive career guidance program, K-12. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1975, 5 3 ( 9 ) , 663-667.  ~  Maddi, S. R. Personality theories: A comparative analysis. Georgetown, Ontario: Irwin-Dorsey, 1972. Maslow, A. Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand, 1968.  Maynard, P. E.,.& Hansen, J. C. Vocational maturity among inter-city youth. Journal of Counsel ing Psychology, 1970, J_7_(5) , 400-404. Norton, J. L. Current status of the measurement of vocational maturity. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1970, J_8_( 1) , I65-I69. Omvig, C. P., Tulloch, R. W., & Thomas, E. G. The effect of career education on career maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1975, 7.(2), 265-273. Osipow, S. H. Theories of career development (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1973.  81  Osipow, S.H. Vocational behavior and career development, 1975, a review. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, S_{2) , 129-145. Pietrofesa, J. J., & Splete, H. Career development: Theory and research. New York: Green and Stratton, 1975. Prediger, D. J., Roth, J. D., & Noeth, R. J. Career development of youth: A nationwide study. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1974, 53(2) , 97-104.  Rogers, C. R. On becoming a person, a therapists view of psychotherapy (Sentry ed.T Boston: Houghton Miff 1 in, 1970. Smith, E. D., & Herr, E. L. Sex differences in the maturation of vocational attitudes among adolescents. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1972, 20(3) , 177-182.  Super, D. E. The psychology of careers. New York: Harper £ Row, 1957Super, D. E., SOverstreet, P. L. The vocational maturity of ninth grade boys. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, I960. Super, D. E., Stariskevsky, R., Matlin, N. , & Jordaan, J. P. Career development: Self concept theory. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1963• Tesla, G. J. Career maturity of grade nine students in British Columbia a rural/urban comparison. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Columbia, 1978. Tichenor, J. M. Life work planning: A group career program evaluated. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1977, 2 ^ 0 ) , 54-59. Tiedeman, D. V. Structuring personal integration into career education. Personnel Guidance Journal , 1975, 53_(9), 706-709. Tiedeman, D. V., & O'Hara, R. P. Career development: Choice adjustment. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1963. Tolbert, E. L. Counselihg for career development. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 197"^ Truax, D. Contribution to a career guidance series. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1975, 5 3 ( 9 ) , 662. Westbrook, B. W. Content analysis of six career development tests. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 1974, 7_(3) , 172-180. Westbrook, B. W. Interrelationship of career choice competencies and career choice attitudes of ninth grade pupils: Testing hypotheses derived from Crites model of career maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1976, 8(1) , 1-12. (a)  82 Westbrook, B. W. Maturity and appropriateness of vocational choices of ninth grade pupils. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 1976, 9(2) , 75-80. (b) Westbrook, B. W. & Cunningham, J. W. The development and application of vocational maturity measures. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1970, 18(1), 171-175-  Yankelovich, D. The new psychological contracts at work. Psychology Today, 1975, 11(12), 46-50.  APPENDICES  83  84 Appendix A ( i ) Career Education  Course O u t l i n e  Object ive To i n c r e a s e t h e c a r e e r m a t u r i t y students. Contributory  Career  school  Objectives  To s t i m u l a t e s t u d e n t s o f work.  2.  To p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h p r a c t i c a l which to approach the job market.  3.  To i n c r e a s e t h e s t u d e n t s ' occupat i ons.  range  of  4.  To e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s t o be s e l f - a w a r e and t o d i s c o v e r ways implement s e l f - k n o w l e d g e to j o b s e l e c t i o n .  to  5.  To g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r o l e p l a y and s t u d y a c t u a l j o b b e h a v i o u r s and s i t u a t i o n s .  t o p l a n ahead f o r c a r e e r s  general  and  i n f o r m a t i o n and  the  world  skills  knowledge about the  with  group  Education hours)  Implementation of Objectives of  II  of s e n i o r high  1.  ( T i m e - 10  j_  level  Outline  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o o b j e c t i v e s of the program I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h aspect of program P r e s e n t a t i o n of C r i t e s M a t u r i t y Inventory Completion of A t t i t u d e Scale Competence T e s t s I & I I C o m p l e t i o n o f Competence T e s t B r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on s t u d e n t s ' program  S e c t i o n s I I I , IV and V e x p e c t a t i o n s of a c a r e e r  education  85 Append i x A ( i i )  Practical a) b) c)  aspects  o f Seeking  Employment -  Resume Covering L e t t e r A r r a n g i n g an i n t e r v i e w  Task:  Prepare  Handout:  Resume f o r m a t ( A p p e n d i x A-1) B o o k l e t " G u i d e f o r t h e J o b H u n t e r " Canada Manpower Resume p r a c t i c e  Values a) b)  Clarification  a personal  and Goal  resume by e n d o f p r o g r a m .  Setting -  L e c t u r e t t e on d e f i n i t i o n s and how i t i s a p p l i e d t o c a r e e r search. O p p o r t u n i t y t o l o o k a t some o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t e r m s o f the students' v a l u e s . In  c l a s s , "What do y o u w a n t  To t a k e home a n d r e v i e w job t r a i t s . " (Appendix Note:  in a job?"  individually, A-2)  (Appendix  " C h e c k l i s t of personal  C l a s s e s were t o o l a r g e t o handle t h e check l i s t i n c l a s s s e s s i o n s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Some w e r e n o t c o m p l e t e d . The s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o keep them t o u s e as p e r s o n a l r e v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n when a c t u a l l y s e e k i n g a j o b o r f i e l d o f study. T h i s a p p l i e s a l s o t o " S e l f A s s e s s m e n t " below.  Importance o f R e c o g n i z i n g  S k i l l s when J o b S e e k i n g  L e c t u r e t t e - a d a p t i v e , f u n c t i o n a l and s p e c i f i c F i n e , Handout. ( A p p e n d i x A-3) Group A c t i v i t y group i d e n t i f y  - T r i a d s - share s k i l l s used.  Class - share  Occupational  some s k i l l s  self-appraisal  Lecturette - Theoretical i) ii)  -  skills,  (Bolles &  identified.  -  approach  Factors in occupational s e l f - a p p r a i s a l M a s l o w / S u p e r Needs ( A p p e n d i x A-4)  Open D i s c u s s i o n .  (Sidney  a successful experience  Guide - "Your F u n c t i o n a l T r a n s f e r a b l e S k i l l s " , 1977)• ( A p p e n d i x A-3) Total  A-2)  A.  a n d have  Zenoff,  86 Appendix A ( i i i )  VI I  Researching a)  an o c c u p a t i o n a l  interest -  Introduction to library  facilities  - Careers  Canada  - Careers Province - O t h e r C a n a d a Manpower m a t e r i a l on s p e c i f i c j o b t i t l e s - T a p e s , a n d how t o u s e b)  How t o u s e CCDO e f f e c t i v e l y .  c)  Occupational c l u s t e r charts curriculum subjects.  i d e n t i f y i n g jobs  r e l a t e d t o school  A s s i gnments i) ii) VIM  I n t e r v i e w a p e r s o n i n t h e w o r k f o r c e ( A p p e n d i x A-5) Do a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f an o c c u p a t i o n a l s t u d y ( A p p e n d i x  Role-Play students)  - a mock b u s i n e s s - a p p o i n t - Hire a President  A-5(iii))  a Board o f D i r e c t o r s  (k  Practice Interview s i t u a t i o n s - involve class teacher, divide into two g r o u p s . Lecturette: Importance o f t h e i n t e r v i e w - arrange a demonstration interview. Have g r o u p a s s e s s b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h i n t e r v i e w e r and i n t e r v i e w e e ( A p p e n d i x A-6) i) ii) iii)  E v a l u a t i n g i n t e r v i e w performances R o l e - p l a y i n g j o b i n t e r v i e w s and s a m p l e R o l e - p l a y s i t u a t i o n s #1 - #5 i n c l u s i v e  Role-play 5 s i t u a t i o n s using Handout, " H a n d l i n g d i f f i c u l t IX  a)  Role-play  a mock  guides. interview  questions  questions".  business.  A p p o i n t a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s (5 s t u d e n t s ) Assign the "Board" the task of h i r i n g a)  A  b)  A secretary.(students  Discuss b)  president f r e e " t o a p p l y " on own  as r e l a t e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n  Job s i t u a t i o n  gained  initiative)  in practice interviews.  - "What w o u l d y o u d o ? "  D i v i d e i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s and d i s c u s s t h e s i t u a t i o n s , suggestions, appoint a spokesperson. Report b r i e f l y X  to class  (Appendix  P o s t t e s t - CMI C o m p e t e n c e T e s t s  (5)  A-7)  make  87 Append i x A -  1(i)  Resume Out 1ine NAME: ADDRESS: TELEPHONE NUMBER: (any o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s JOB:  The e x a c t  EDUCATION:  title  AGE: MARITAL STATUS: nature  that  is specified  i n t h e j o b ad)  o f the j o b f o r w h i c h you a r e a p p l y i n g  G i v e d a t e s , name c o l l e g e s and l a s t h i g h s c h o o l a t t e n d e d , d e g r e e s a n d / o r d i p l o m a s o b t a i n e d and s t a t e m a j o r s u b j e c t ( s ) . P u t i n most r e c e n t o r d e r . ( E g . 1979 - Cariboo College, 1978 - K a m l o o p s H i g h S c h o o l )  WORK EXPERIENCE:  a) b) c)  F u l l time P a r t time Volunteer  p a i d work work work  L i s t t h e above under d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e h e a d i n g s . State most r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s f i r s t , w o r k i n g b a c k w a r d s t o l a s t relevant experience A C T I V I T I E S OR HOBBIES:  SPECIAL SKILLS:  REFERENCES:  This area i s p a r t i c u l a r l y experience limited.  2. 3. k.  Covering  i f work  T h e s e may r e f e r t o s k i l l s o b t a i n e d i n w o r k e x p e r i e n c e o r i n a c t i v i t i e s and h o b b i e s . Be c e r t a i n t h e s e a r e r e l e v a n t t o the j o b f o r which you a r e a p p l y i n g .  Name t h r e e p e o p l e , t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s , a d d r e s s e s , a n d t e l e p h o n e numbers. S e l e c t t h o s e t h a t know y o u w e l l enough t o recommend y o u . I n c l u d e b o t h b u s i n e s s and c h a r a c t e r r e f e r e n c e s . Obtain each i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r m i s s i o n before s u b m i t t i n g h i s / h e r name.  YOUR COMPLETED RESUME SHOULD MEET THE 1.  valuable  FOLLOWING STANDARDS:  I t s h o u l d be o r i e n t e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b f o r w h i c h you a r e a p p l y i n g . I t s h o u l d be v e r y c l e a r l y s p a c e d on t h e p a p e r . I t s h o u l d be b r i e f and c o n c i s e . I t MUST be f r e e o f s p e l l i n g , g r a m m a t i c a l , and t y p o g r a p h i c a l errors. Letter  You a l w a y s accompany if appropriate.)  a resume w i t h a c o v e r i n g  letter.  (And a p h o t o g r a p h ,  The l e t t e r s h o u l d c o n t a i n an i n t e r e s t i n g - t o - t h e - e m p 1 o y e r c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s t h e j o b f o r w h i c h you a r e a p p l y i n g . I t s h o u l d c o n t a i n a SUMMARY o f t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s y o u r resume.  opening,  which  you have d e s c r i b e d i n  88 Appendix A - 1 ( i i ) Covering It  Letter  should  (Continued)  REQUEST AN  I t MUST be  s e t up  INTERVIEW!  in a recognized business  To g i v e y o u some p r a c t i c e o f y o u r own, a c a s e s t u d y follow.  in t a i l o r i n g i s presented  letter  a p p l i c a t i o n s b e f o r e you w r i t e one b e l o w , and q u e s t i o n s f o r d i s c u s s i o n  F o r t h e p a s t two y e a r s , G a r y has been w o r k i n g Kamloops S t a t i o n e r y S u p p l i e s L t d . He has had dut i es: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  form.  as a d e s k o r d e r c l e r k f o r to perform the f o l l o w i n g  W r i t e and t o t a l i n v o i c e s Keep r e c o r d s o f s u p p l i e s s o l d M a i n t a i n inventory counts Some t y p i n g and f i l i n g P r e p a r e bank d e p o s i t s O p e r a t e t h e c a s h r e g i s t e r and a d d i n g m a c h i n e S p e a k w i t h c u s t o m e r s on t h e t e l e p h o n e and a t t h e Answer m a i l i n q u i r i e s Recommend p u r c h a s e s t o c u s t o m e r s Prepare s u p p l i e s f o r d e l i v e r y C o u n t and r e c o r d c a s h r e c e i p t s  counter  G a r y now w a n t s t o c h a n g e j o b s , and has f o u n d t h e f o l l o w i n g two o p e n i n g s w h i c h o f f e r more s a l a r y and g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t : JOB #1 Bookkeeper t r a i n e e f o r a manufacturing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  56. 7. 8. 9.  The  duties will  include:  M a k i n g and c h e c k i n g j o u r n a l e n t r i e s f r o m i t e m s s u c h as s a l e s s l i p s , i n v o i c e s , and c h e q u e s t u b s T o t a l l i n g and b a l a n c i n g l e d g e r s a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s P r e p a r i n g r e c e i p t s and s t a t e m e n t s o f a c c o u n t s C a l c u l a t i n g and p r e p a r i n g p a y r o l l c h e q u e s Preparing f i n a n c i a l statements at q u a r t e r l y i n t e r v a l s  JOB #2 Salesperson 1. 2. 3. k.  company.  in a l a r g e department s t o r e .  The  duties w i l l  include:  S e l l i n g merchandise to customers R e c e i v i n g o r d e r s f o r m e r c h a n d i s e by t e l e p h o n e o r m a i l A d v i s i n g c u s t o m e r s on t h e use and c a r e o f m e r c h a n d i s e S u g g e s t i n g p u r c h a s e s t o c u s t o m e r s by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r or needs Demonstrating merchandise Arranging displays Wr i t i ng s a l e s s l i p s O b t a i n i n g payment o r c r e d i t a u t h o r i z a t i o n Operating cash r e g i s t e r s  wants  89 Appendix A - 1(i i i )  Questions For Discussion 1.  In p r e p a r i n g a resume f o r t h e b o o k k e e p e r t r a i n e e ' s p o s i t i o n , w h a t d u t i e s s h o u l d G a r y e m p h a s i z e when he d e s c r i b e s t h e j o b he h e l d a t the s t a t i o n e r y s t o r e ? Why?  2.  When p r e p a r i n g a resume f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f s a l e s p e r s o n i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , w h a t d u t i e s s h o u l d G a r y h i g h l i g h t ? Why?  90 Appendix  A - 2( i )  WHAT DO YOU WANT IN A JOB?  Pi r e c t i o n s : S u r v e y s h a v e been c o n d u c t e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t o f i n d o u t w h a t p e o p l e r e a l l y want from t h e work t h e y do. The f o l l o w i n g items appeared i n a recent survey. E m p l o y e e s w e r e a s k e d t o r a n k them f r o m 1 t o 10 i n o r d e r of importance. How w o u l d y o u r a n k t h e i t e m s ? When y o u d e c i d e w h i c h o n e i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o y o u , mark a "1" i n t h e column on t h e r i g h t . T h e n , d e c i d e on t h e s e c o n d most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g f o r y o u t o h a v e i n a j o b . M a r k i t w i t h a "2". Continue u n t i l you h a v e r a n k e d a l l t h e i t e m s f o r m 1 t o 10. .When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d , c o m p a r e your answers t o t h e r e s u l t s o f the survey.  IMPORTANCE TO ME  EXPECTATIONS FROM WORK a)  Good wages  b)  Job s e c u r i t y  c)  Promotion  d)  Good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s  e)  Work t h a t  f)  Personal loyalty  g)  Tactful  h)  Full  i)  S y m p a t h e t i c h e l p on p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s  j)  F e e l i n g " i n " on t h i n g s  _^  keeps you i n t e r e s t e d t oworkers  discipline  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w o r k done  The f o l l o w i n g  i s notdistributed with  t h e a b o v e b u t i s g i v e n on c o m p l e t i o n .  T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s t o t h i s s h o r t s u r v e y . For your i n f o r m a t i o n , h e r e i s t h e way t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s who w e r e o r i g i n a l l y surveyed ranked t h e items:  1. 2. 3. k. 5.  Are  h  J b a  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  there other things  e c f d g  t h a t y o u want from w o r k ?  List  them.  91 Append i x A - 2 ( i i ) Personal  Job T r a i t s  SomeAlways 1. Is y o u r  personal  times  Never  appearance neat?  2. A r e y o u c o n s c i o u s o f a p p r o p r i a t e d r e s s ? 3. A r e y o u n e a t k.  and o r d e r l y  i n your work?  .  Do y o u g e t t o w o r k on t i m e ?  5. Do y o u f e e l  responsible f o r jobs assigned  6. Do y o u s e e k t o p e r f o r m the best o f your  jobs assigned  t o you?  t o you t o  ability?  7. Do y o u f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s w i l l i n g l y ? 8. Can y o u w o r k w i t h o u t 9. A r e y o u f r i e n d l y and  constant  supervision?  t o o t h e r members o f t h e s t a f f  employer?  10. Do y o u c o m p l e t e  jobs which  11.  to learn  Are you w i l l i n g  12. Can y o u c o n t i n u e  you s t a r t ?  new s k i l l s ?  t o work w i t h o u t  becoming  bored  or discontented? 13- Can y o u s t a n d p r e s s u r e ? 14.  A r e you u s u a l l y  calm  and r e l a x e d ?  15- Do y o u r e s p e c t f e l l o w w o r k e r s 16. Can y o u c o o p e r a t e  and t h e i r j o b s ?  with f e l l o w workers?  17-  I f you don't understand i n s t r u c t i o n s , a r e you w i l l i n g t o a s k f o r more d e t a i l s ? 18. Do y o u r e s p e c t y o u r s u p e r v i s o r and t h e j o b he has  t o do?  19. Can y o u a c c e p t  criticism?  20. Can y o u a c c e p t  praise?  _^  92 Appendix A - 3 ( i )  S E L F ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE  1.  What a r e t h e t h i n g s  2.  What a r e some o f t h e t h i n g s  3-  What t h i n g s you c a n . )  have  I done s u c c e s s f u l l y ?  k.  What t h i n g s  have  I done f o r w h i c h o t h e r  5.  What t h i n g s  have  I done t h a t o t h e r s  6.  List qualities, STRENGTHS.  7.  List  8.  What do I w a n t t o be a) b) c)  9.  things  that  I really  that  abilities, skills  l i k e t o do?  I do n o t l i k e  (List  t o do?  as many t h i n g s as  p e o p l e have p r a i s e d  have s u g g e s t e d  t h a t you c o n s i d e r  about y o u r s e l f t h a t you would  I do  me?  differently?  t o be y o u r  l i k e t o improve.  doing:  One y e a r f r o m now? T h r e e y e a r s f r o m now? F i v e y e a r s f r o m now?  Beside each o f the f o l l o w i n g personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w r i t e " y e s " o r " n o " i f y o u f e e l i t a p p l i e s , o r does n o t a p p l y , t o y o u :  93  Appendix A - 3 ( i i) S e l f Assessment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Continued)  My appearance i s neat I am c a r e f u l  t o use s u i t a b l e language  I am c o n f i d e n t of myself I have f a i r l y  in most s i t u a t i o n s _  good s e l f - c o n t r o l  I u s u a l l y appear a l e r t I am u s u a l l y  reliable  I u s u a l l y complete a s s i g n e d t a s k s I am a m b i t i o u s I am t r u s t w o r t h y 1 am l o y a l I am courteous I am u s u a l l y c h e e r f u l  and p l e a s a n t  I am u s u a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e I l i k e being w i t h people I prefer  to be alone most of the time  I am p u n c t u a l I am honest I u s u a l l y do what I never t r y  I have s a i d I w i l l  to d e l i b e r a t e l y embarrass  do others  Appendix A - 3(iii) SIDNEY A. FINE'S D E F I N I T I O N OF  SKILLS*  *As a d a p t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f Work-Content s k i l l s . ADAPTIVE Self-Management Rooted  Skills  i n temperament  Acquired in e a r l y years, by i n t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n .  among  f a m i l y , peers,  school; or, later  in l i f e ,  R e l a t e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o r demands f o r c o n f o r m i t y and c o n t i n u i t y v s . r i s k and d i s c r e t i o n and c h a n g e .  Examp1es: Management o f o n e s e l f ,  in relation to:  author i ty  se1f-routing  space & time d i r e c t i o n moving t o w a r d s , away f r o m , o r against others s e l f - p a c i ng  dress care of property impulse c o n t r o l  In E v e r y d a y  punctua1i t y  Speech:  Regularity Dependabi1i t y In i t i a t i v e  Resourcefulness Etc.  FUNCTIONAL Instrumental Rooted  or Transferable  Skills  in aptitudes  A c q u i r e d e i t h e r a s n a t u r a l - b o r n t a l e n t , r e f i n e d by e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n ; o r by s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l o r a v o c a t i o n a l s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . Related fashion  t o P e o p l e , D a t a and T h i n g s , i n g e n e r a l i z a b l e o r t r a n s f e r a b l e ( f r o m one f i e l d , p r o f e s s i o n , o c c u p a t i o n o r j o b , t o a n o t h e r ) .  Examples: T e n d i n g and o p e r a t i n g m a c h i n e s Comparing, compiling or a n a l y z i n g data Exchanging information w i t h , or c o n s u l t i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g  people.  95 A p p e n d i x A - 3(iv) Functional In E v e r y d a y  (Continued) Speech:  Artistic talent A born problem s o l v e r A n a t u r a l salesman o r saleswoman A gifted writer E f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h many k i n d s o f p e o p l e B r i n g i n g new l i f e t o t r a d i t i o n a l a r t f o r m s Etc. S P E C I F I C CONTENT OR WORK-CONTENT Particular Rooted  Job C o n d i t i o n s , Vocabulary  i n personal  experience  and  & Artifacts  preference  A c q u i r e d by p r i v a t e r e a d i n g , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , s c h o o l , o r ( o f t e n ) on t h e j o b . Related to performing occupation, according emp1 o y e r .  technical training  a job in a particular f i e l d , profession, or t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r  Examples : D e t a i l e d knowledge o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f a c a r K n o w i n g t h e names o f a l l t h e m u s c l e s i n t h e human body U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f human m o t i v a t i o n . In E v e r y d a y  institute,  Speech:  F i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g a n d management A ski1 l e d eng i n e e r T h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and management M a r k e t r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s M a k i n g r a d i o and TV p r e s e n t a t i o n s Personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Etc.  96 Appendix A -  Factors  In O c c u p a t i o n a l  Achievement Tests School Records Subjects p r e f e r r e d or best at  k('\)  Self Appraisal  Check L i s t Inventory Test Stated Preferences Manifest Preferences  Work E x p e r i e n c e School Records Trade Tests  A p t i tude T e s t s Impli c i t o r man i f e s t c a p a b i1i t i e s r ab i1i t i e s  Money R e q u i r e d K i n d o f 1i f e des i r e d Material Ambitions S o c i a l & Economic s i t u a t i on w i t h wh i c h f a m i l i a r  Hobbies Extra-Curri cul a c t i v i t i es Part-time pursu i t s A v o c a t i ons  School Records P e r s o n a 1i t y Temperament E s t i m a t e s Motivation, determination, etc.  Doctors Reports O b s e r v e d o r known physical c a p a b i l i t i e s Energy Level  97  Appendix A - k{i i) "The average, normal, well-adjusted person often has not the slightest idea of what he is, of what he wants, of what his own opinions are" (Fromm) Maslow's Hierarchy of needs  r i ty  Super's Theory of self concept Congruence between: Job aspi rat i onexpectat i on  Man is a wanting animal - as soon as one of his needs is satisfied, another appears in its place A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations.  98  Appendix A - 5 ( i )  CHECKLIST FOR  THE  STUDY OF AN  1.  Name o f o c c u p a t i o n :  2.  Employment P r o s p e c t s :  OCCUPATION  A r e w o r k e r s i n demand t o d a y ? Is e m p l o y m e n t expected to increase or decrease? 3.  in this occupation  N a t u r e o f t h e Work: What i s t h e w o r k o f a t y p i c a l d a y , week, m o n t h , y e a r ? What a r e a l l t h e t h i n g s a w o r k e r may have t o do i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n , t h e p l e a s a n t t h i n g s , t h e u n p l e a s a n t t h i n g s , t h e b i g and l i t t l e t a s k s , t h e i m p o r t a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and l e s s g l a m o r o u s details? W i t h w h a t k i n d s o f t o o l s , m a c h i n e s , and m a t e r i a l s d o e s he w o r k ? M u s t he w a l k , j u m p , r u n , b a l a n c e , c l i m b , c r a w l , kneel, stand, turn, stoop, crouch, s i t , reach, l i f t , carry, throw, push, h a n d l e , f i n g e r , f e e l , t a l k , hear or see? Where and when?  k.  Work  Environment: In w h a t k i n d o f s u r r o u n d i n g s i s t h e w o r k d o n e ? Hot, c o l d , humid, d r y , wet, d i r t y , n o i s y ? Indoor o r o u t d o o r ? Is t h e w o r k e r exposed t o sudden changes o f t e m p e r a t u r e , o f f e n s i v e o d o r s , v i b r a t i o n , m e c h a n i c a l h a z a r d s , moving o b j e c t s , b u r n s , e l e c t r i c shock, e x p l o s i v e s , radiant energy, t o x i c c o n d i t i o n s , or other hazards? Does he w o r k i n c r a m p e d q u a r t e r s , i n h i g h p l a c e s , o r i n any o t h e r u n u s u a l l o c a t i o n ? Are l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n , and s a n i t a t i o n a d e q u a t e ? Does he w o r k w i t h o t h e r s , near o t h e r s , or alone? I f w i t h o t h e r s , what i s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e m , and d o e s i t p l a c e him i n a p o s i t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y , i n f e r i o r i t y , e q u a l i t y , c o n f l i c t , or s t r e s s ?  99 Appendix A - 5(i i )  Quali fi cat ions: a)  Age:  What a r e t h e u p p e r and l o w e r a g e l i m i t s and r e t i r e m e n t ?  b)  Sex:  Is t h i s a p r e d o m i n a t e l y m a l e o r f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n ? Are t h e r e reasonable o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r both? Is t h e r e any more a c t i v e demand f o r one t h a n t h e o t h e r ?  c)  Height  d)  Other  e)  Apt i tudes: Has t h e r e been any r e s e a r c h on a p t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d , e . g . , minimum o r maximum i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t , p e r c e n t i l e r a n k on s p e c i f i c t e s t s o f m e c h a n i c a l a p t i t u d e , clerical aptitude, finger dexterity, pitch discriminat i o n , reaction time, etc.?  f)  Interests: Have any v o c a t i o n a l against workers i n t h i s  g)  T o o l s a n d E q u i p m e n t : M u s t t h e s e be s u p p l i e d by t h e w o r k e r a t h i s own e x p e n s e ? What i s t h e a v e r a g e c o s t ? Can t h e y be r e n t e d o r b o u g h t on c r e d i t ?  and W e i g h t : ments.  f o r entrance  A r e t h e r e any minimum o r maximum  require-  P h y s i c a l Requirements: A r e t h e r e any o t h e r m e a s u r a b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s , e . g . , 20/20 v i s i o n , f r e e d o m f r o m c o l o u r b l i n d n e s s , average o r s u p e r i o r h e a r i n g , p h y s i c a l strength, etc.?  interest tests occupation?  been  validated  Preparation: a)  Distinguish clearly i nd i spensab1e.  b e t w e e n what  b)  How much and w h a t k i n d o f p r e p a r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o meet l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and e m p l o y e r ' s standards?  c)  How l o n g does i nclude?  d)  Where c a n one g e t a l i s t  e)  What k i n d o f h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m s h o u l d p r e c e d e e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l ? What s u b j e c t s must o r s h o u l d be t a k e n ?  f)  What p r o v i s i o n s , i f a n y , a r e made f o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r o t h e r t r a i n i n g on t h e j o b ?  g)  Is e x p e r i e n c e o f some k i n d p r e r e q u i s i t e  i t take?  What does  i s d e s i r a b l e and what i s  i t cost?  o f approved  What does i t  schools?  to entrance?  100 A p p e n d i x A - 5(i i i ) 7.  Entrance: How d o e s o n e g e t h i s f i r s t applying t o employers? By w i t h employment a g e n c i e s ? o p e n i n g h i s own b u s i n e s s ?  8.  9.  10.  job? By t a k i n g an e x a m i n a t i o n ? By j o i n i n g a union? By r e g i s t e r i n g By s a v i n g t o a c q u i r e c a p i t a l a n d How much c a p i t a l i s r e q u i r e d ?  Advancement: a)  What p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s a d v a n c e ? To w h a t ? and w h a t a d d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o r e x p e r i e n c e  b)  What a r e t h e r e l a t e d any?  occupations  t o which  this  A f t e r how l o n g i s required? may  lead, i f  Earnings: a)  What a r e t h e most d e p e n d a b l e a v e r a g e f i g u r e s on e a r n i n g s week, month, o r y e a r ?  b)  What i s t h e r a n g e o f t h e m i d d l e  c)  A r e e a r n i n g s h i g h e r o r lower i n c e r t a i n c e r t a i n branches o f the occupation:  A d v a n t a g e s and  50  by  percent? p a r t s o f Canada o r i n  Disadvantages:  a)  What do w o r k e r s s a y t h e y jobs?  b)  Are hours r e g u l a r o r i r r e g u l a r , long o r s h o r t ? Is t h e r e frequent overtime o r n i g h t work? Sunday a n d h o l i d a y w o r k ?  c)  What a b o u t v a c a t i o n s ?  d)  Is e m p l o y m e n t s t e a d y , s e a s o n a l , o r i r r e g u l a r ? more o r l e s s w i t h a d v a n c i n g a g e ?  e)  Is t h e w o r k i n g l i f e - t i m e professional athletes?  f)  Are the s k i l l s  g)  Is t h e w o r k h a z a r d o u s ? di seases?  h)  In c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a b o u t t h e same l e v e l o f a b i l i t y and t r a i n i n g , i n w h a t ways i s t h i s one more or less a t t r a c t i v e ?  acquired  like  and d i s l i k e  Maternity  t h e most a b o u t  their  leave?  s h o r t e r than  Does o n e e a r n  a v e r a g e , e . g . , as f o r  t r a n s f e r a b l e to other  occupations?  What a b o u t a c c i d e n t s , o c c u p a t i o n a l  101 Appendix A - 5 ( i v )  A Career  Interview  Guide  The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i s t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t w o r k , t h e w o r k e r , t h e w o r k s e t t i n g , and t h e g e n e r a l a f f e c t o f t h e w o r k on t h e individual's life-style. B o t h " l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e s " s h o u l d be b r o u g h t out. U s e t h i s g u i d e , b u t t r y t o be somehwat i n f o r m a l . When y o u b e g i n y o u r i n t e r v i e w , i n f o r m t h e p e r s o n b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d o f the r e a l purpose o f the i n t e r v i e w . Encourage the person t o t a l k f r e e l y a b o u t h i s o r h e r j o b and l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y . Ask q u e s t i o n s that encourage the person t o t h i n k about t h e important t h i n g s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e j o b o r c a r e e r which they have. Use t h e s e q u e s t i o n s b u t d o n ' t l i m i t y o u r i n q u i r y t o t h e s e m i g h t n o t w a n t t o u s e a l l o f them w i t h e v e r y person. title  o f your  q u e s t i o n s ; you  1.  What i s t h e o f f i c i a l  2.  How  3.  How d i d y o u f i r s t  k.  What a r e some o f t h e m a j o r t a s k s  5.  What o t h e r j o b s h a v e y o u had? t h e j o b y o u now h a v e ?  6.  What t r a i n i n g  7-  What do y o u l i k e most a b o u t y o u r j o b ?  8.  How d o e s y o u r j o b a f f e c t w h a t y o u do o r d o n ' t do o f f t h e j o b ?  9.  I f y o u c o u l d do i t a l l o v e r a g a i n , w o u l d y o u s t i l l k i n d o f work? Why o r why n o t ?  10.  What g i v e s y o u t h e most s a t i s f a c t i o n do i ng?  11.  What f u t u r e w o r k o r c a r e e r g o a l s do y o u h a v e ? What j o b o r w o r k do you hope t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h t e n y e a r s f r o m now?  12.  What do y o u t h i n k a r e some i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h a t a p e r s o n who i s c o n s i d e r i n g g o i n g i n t o t h i s k i n d o f w o r k s h o u l d know?  13.  Do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u h a v e a c a r e e r ? I f s o , a r e y o u happy w i t h i t ? What c a u s e s y o u t o f e e l t h e way y o u do a b o u t i t ?  14.  What o t h e r  l o n g h a v e y o u been on t h i s get involved  or education  job?  job? in this  kind o f work?  t h a t y o u do i n y o u r w o r k ?  How a r e t h e y  related,  i s required f o r this  comments w o u l d y o u l i k e  i fat a l l ,  to  job?  What do y o u l i k e  least?  select  this  i n t h e w o r k y o u a r e now  t o make?  102 Append i x A Role-Playing Directions:  Job  6(i)  Interviews  You h a v e l i s t e n e d t o t h e ways i n w h i c h o t h e r j o b a p p l i c a n t s conducted themselves during personal i n t e r v i e w s . You h a v e a l s o e x a m i n e d some o f t h e common p i t f a l l s o f a p p l i c a n t s i n job interviews. Now, y o u w i l l p r a c t i c e an i n t e r v i e w o f your own. W o r k i n g i n g r o u p s o f t h r e e , one o f you s h o u l d t a k e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s r o l e , one o f y o u s h o u l d be t h e job-seeker, and one o f you s h o u l d assume t h e r o l e o f o b s e r v e r and evaluator. E v e r y o n e s h o u l d h a v e a t l e a s t one t u r n i n e a c h of these r o l e s . F i v e r o l e - p l a y s i t u a t i o n s are d e s c r i b e d below. E a c h one b u i l d s on t h e p r e v i o u s one u n t i l you h a v e c o m p l e t e d an e n t i r e job interview. Complete i n s t r u c t i o n s are given below.  Instructions  t o the  Job-Seeker  1.  B e f o r e any o f t h e r o l e - p l a y s b e g i n , you s h o u l d show t h e o t h e r two g r o u p members t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e j o b you a r e a p p l y i n g f o r . You s h o u l d a l s o g i v e t h e p e r s o n who i s i n t e r v i e w i n g you a c o p y o f y o u r resume.  2.  You s h o u l d r e a d t h e e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e you begin a r o l e - p l a y . I t i s p r e s e n t e d a t t h e end o f t h i s p r o j e c t . Then g i v e y o u r c o p y o f t h i s c h e c k l i s t t o t h e p e r s o n who w i l l be e v a l u a t i n g you.  3.  When a r o l e - p l a y b e g i n s , interviewer's office.  Instructions Role-Play  to the  wait  until  you  are  invited  to enter  the  Interviewer  #1  T h i s r o l e - p l a y i s a b o u t g r e e t i n g an i n t e r v i e w e r . Y o u r s e c r e t a r y has j u s t t o l d you t h a t an a p p l i c a n t i s w a i t i n g o u t s i d e . Ask t h e j o b - s e e k e r t o come i n . O f f e r y o u r h a n d . S i t down, b u t DON'T a s k t h e j o b - s e e k e r t o s i t r i g h t away. S t a r t a c o n v e r s a t i o n as i f you w e r e b e g i n n i n g the interview. Role-Play  #2  In t h i s r o l e - p l a y , t h e j o b - s e e k e r i s e v a l u a t e d on how w e l l s/he c a r r i e s on a c o n v e r s a t i o n d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . Ask t h e a p p l i c a n t t o come i n and o f f e r y o u r h a n d . D i r e c t t h i s person to a c h a i r in your o f f i c e . Then a s k t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . Make s u r e t h a t t h e j o b - s e e k e r a n s w e r s e a c h q u e s t i o n b e f o r e you p r o c e e d t o t h e n e x t one.  103 A p p e n d i x A - 6(i  i)  #3  Role-Play  T h i s r o l e - p l a y i s a b o u t s e l l i n g y o u r s e l f i n an i n t e r v i e w . O f f e r t h e applicant a chair. Then a s k t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , m a k i n g s u r e t h a t t h e j o b - s e e k e r a n s w e r s e a c h one b e f o r e you p r o c e e d t o t h e n e x t one. 1.  Did you  know t h e r e ' s  2.  You  the s a l a r y l i s t e d ?  3.  We had t o f i r e t h e wasn't competent.  k.  I f I a s k e d you  5.  Well, we?  Role-Play  saw  a  l o t of competition What do you  l a s t p e r s o n who (Pause)  to work evenings  I g u e s s we  have a l l t h e  and  for this  job?  t h i n k of the  held this job.  pay?  S/he  w e e k e n d s , w o u l d you  i n f o r m a t i o n we  need on  just  do i t ?  you,  don't  #h  T h i s r o l e - p l a y i s about h a n d l i n g j o b o f f e r s i n the i n t e r v i e w . Ask the j o b - s e e k e r t o come i n , o f f e r y o u r h a n d , and a s k h i m / h e r t o s i t down. D e s c r i b e y o u r company, as w e l l as t h e j o b ( t h e one named by t h e j o b seeker). Then a s k t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , m a k i n g s u r e t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t a n s w e r s e a c h one b e f o r e you p r o c e e d t o t h e n e x t one. 1.  Do  2.  Why  3.  Do  k.  I'm w i l l i n g t o t a k e a c h a n c e on y o u . You seem w e l l q u a l i f i e d . w o u l d l i k e you t o b e g i n n e x t Monday m o r n i n g .  you  have the e d u c a t i o n a l  do you you  t h i n k you  t h i n k you'd, be  qualify happy  requirements  for this  job?  f o r the p o s i t i o n ? here? We  104 Appendix A - 6(i i i) Role-Play #5 This role-play is about leaving the interview. Have the job applicant come in and sit down. Then ask the following questions, making sure that each one is answered before you proceed to the next one. 1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6.  What makes you think that this is the type of work you'd like to do? Would you be willing to start at the bottom and work your way up? How do you spend your spare time? When could you start? Do you have any questions? Well, that seems to be all the information we need. Thank you for coming to see us.  105 Appendix A - 6(iv) Evaluating Interview Performances Most interviews follow a regular pattern. There is an opening stage when you and the interviewer greet one another. Then the interviewer begins asking you questions about your qualifications and interest in the job. This is called the information-gathering stage. When the interviewer is through questioning you, the i nformat i ongiving stage begins. Here you have a chance to provide further useful information on yourself, and to ask some questions about the company and the job. During the closing stage, you find out when a decision is going to be made on the job opening, thank the interviewer, and say good-bye. Your success in getting a job depends highly on how well you prepare yourself for the job interview, and the way in which you conduct yourself during it. You will now have a chance to listen to the way in which three applicants conducted themselves during their job interviews. Pay careful attention to each interview. Then answer the following questions about each applicant and discuss your evaluation of their performance with the rest of your classmates. Interview #1: Applicant Charlie Read 1. Did Charlie introduce himself properly to the interviewer? 2. Did he identify the job he was applying for? 3. Did he use the interviewer's name? k. Was Charlie prepared for the interview? 5. Did he answer the questions directly without avoiding the topic? 6. Did he ask questions to find out about the job? 7.  Did he appear to be serious about wanting the job?  8.  Did he thank the interviewer for taking the time to see him?  9.  Would you hire Charlie Read if you were the employer? Why or why not?  1 0 6  Appendix A -  Group  Interview Guide  6(v)  Questions  Did  the job-seeker:  a)  Answer q u e s t i o n s  b)  Speak  c)  Speak i n complete appropriate?  d)  Use good a t t e n d i n g  e)  Listen  f)  Not i n t e r r u p t  the interviewer?  g)  Seem p r e p a r e d were asked?  f o r the questions  Did  the job-seeker:  a)  D e s c r i b e a t l e a s t one s e l l i n g  b)  Look i n t e r e s t e d ?  i n a p o s i t i v e way?  clearly? sentences  where  behaviours?  carefully?  that  point?  I f a j o b was o f f e r e d , d i d t h e j o b - s e e k e r : a)  A c c e p t , s o u n d p o s i t i v e and t h a n k t h e interviewer? OR  b)  Ask f o r time t o t h i n k i t o v e r , s t a t e when s/he w o u l d d e c i d e , and t h a n k the i n t e r v i e w e r ?  107 Appendix A - 6(vi) Handling Difficult Interview Questions Key questions are often asked to test your alertness and self awareness. Below are some key question examples. KNOW HOW YOU WILL ANSWER THESE BEFORE YOUR INTERVIEW 1. What is the mn im i um salary you would accept? 2. Why do you want this job? 3. Will you work wherever a position is available? k. What skills and abilities do you have that are directly related to the job for which you are applying? 5- What position do you hope to obtain with this company? 6. Where did you learn about this position? 7. What kind of boss do you prefer? 8. What did you like and dislike about your past employment? 9. What kind of a person are you? 10. Why did you leave your last job?  108 Appendix  A - 7(i)  G e o r g e w o r k e d as a s a l e s p e r s o n i n t h e f u r n i t u r e d e p a r t m e n t o f a l a r g e store. S a t u r d a y i s t h e b u s i e s t day i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . When G e o r g e began w o r k i n g , h i s s u p e r v i s o r t o l d h i m t h a t h i s r e g u l a r day o f f w o u l d be Monday, u n l e s s s o m e t h i n g e x c e p t i o n a l came u p , and he and t h e o t h e r s a l e s p e r s o n s w o u l d a l w a y s be e x p e c t e d t o w o r k on S a t u r d a y . A c o u s i n o f G e o r g e ' s was g e t t i n g m a r r i e d on a S a t u r d a y . He meant t o a s k h i s s u p e r v i s o r f o r t i m e o f f t o a t t e n d t h e w e d d i n g , b u t he k e p t f o r g e t t i n g t o make h i s r e q u e s t . F i n a l l y , t h e day b e f o r e t h e w e d d i n g and j u s t as t h e s t o r e was c l o s i n g , G e o r g e a s k e d f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o be away t h e  fol1owing day. "I'm s o r r y " , h i s s u p e r v i s o r s a i d , " b u t I've a l r e a d y t o l d L y n d a s h e c o u l d t a k e t o m o r r o w o f f . She a s k e d me a b o u t two weeks a g o . We j u s t c a n ' t a f f o r d t o be s h o r t two s a l e s p e r s o n s on a S a t u r d a y . " G e o r g e became v e r y a n g r y . be b a c k .  As he w a l k e d  o u t , he s a i d  t h a t he w o u l d  not  The Q u e s t i o n s :  1.  Was t h e s u p e r v i s o r u n f a i r w i t h G e o r g e ? answer.  2.  Was G e o r g e j u s t i f i e d i n b e i n g a n g r y ? over t h i s matter? Why o r why n o t ?  3.  What b e h a v i o u r s w i l l keep f u t u r e j o b s ?  Give  reasons  f o r your  S h o u l d he have q u i t  George have t o change  the j o b  i f he w a n t s t o g e t and  109 Appendix A - 7(i i) Chris is offered a job he really wants in a field that has always interested him. There is a chance for advancement and he likes the people with whom he would be working. But the salary is very small and is not likely to increase for some time. His uncle has also offered him a fairly important, though boring, job at a high salary. He does not 1i ke his unc1e. Chris has a wife and two children to support. If he takes the first job, there will be enough money for essentials, but not for any luxuries for quite a while. The second job would support them very well. The Questions 1.  In deciding which job to take, what factors related to job satisfaction is Chris having to consider?  2.  Do you think that job satisfaction is less or more important than responsibility to your family? Give reasons for your answer.  110 Append i x A -  Directions:  7(iii)  When an e m p l o y e r r e c e i v e s a w r i t t e n t w o - p a r t a p p l i c a t i o n , s/he f i r s t r e a d s t h e c o v e r l e t t e r . If i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , s/he w i l l r e a d t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s resume. You a r e t o p l a c e y o u r s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r , who has a d v e r t i s e d t h i s o p e n i n g i n t h e J o b I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e a t C a n a d a Manpower:  PRODUCTION TRAINEE - FULL TIME Young p e r s o n , 18 o r o v e r , t o l e a r n p r o d u c t i o n techniques in food products p l a n t . This opport u n i t y w i l l lead to production s u p e r v i s o r y position. M u s t be i n good h e a l t h , have driver's licence. G r a d e 12 p e r f e r r e d . $3-50 per hour t o s t a r t , w i l l i n c r e a s e w i t h proven ability. Send resume w i t h c o m p l e t e d e t a i l s t o Good P r o d u c t s L t d . , Box 1435, C a l g a r y .  You must r e a d e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o v e r l e t t e r s and d e c i d e whose r e s u m e ( s ) you w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n examining. A l s o answer the q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e s e l e t t e r s , and be p r e p a r e d t o d i s c u s s y o u r r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e r e s t of your classmates.  Letter  #1  Gentlemen: You a d v e r t i s e d a j o b as apply f o r i t .  production  trainee.  I would  like  to  I am 20 y e a r s o l d and f i n i s h e d h i g h s c h o o l i n 1973. My j o b s have been: (1) d a i r y f a r m w o r k e r , (2) h a r d w a r e s t o r e c l e r k , and (3) t r u c k d r i v e r . As y o u r e q u e s t e d , my resume i s e n c l o s e d . I hope you w i l l c o n s i d e r me f o r t h e j o b . a t any t i m e f o r an i n t e r v i e w .  I can  Sincerely  be  reached  yours,  at  111 Appendix A - 7 ( i v )  Letter  #2  Gentlemen: The p o s i t i o n o f P r o d u c t i o n T r a i n e e w h i c h you a r e a d v e r t i s i n g a t Canada Manpower's J o b I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s o u n d s most i n t e r e s t i n g . I b e l i e v e t h a t my b a c k g r o u n d and e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f o o d i n d u s t r y w o u l d e n a b l e me t o do t h i s j o b f o r y o u . As t h e e n c l o s e d resume i n d i c a t e s , I c o m p l e t e d G r a d e 12 a t t h e A l b e r t a V o c a t i o n a l C e n t r e i n 1974. S i n c e t h e n , I h a v e been w o r k i n g f o r M u r p h y ' s Food M a r t L t d . I s t a r t e d as a s t o c k c l e r k b u t b e c a u s e I e n j o y t h e f o o d b u s i n e s s and l e a r n q u i c k l y , I r e c e n t l y have been p r o m o t e d t o the p o s i t i o n of Produce Manager. My e a g e r n e s s t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e i n d u s t r y w o u l d , I b e l i e v e , h e l p me t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s you h a v e o f a production trainee. I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s my q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i t h you p e r s o n a l l y . W o u l d y o u p l e a s e c o n t a c t me a t e i t h e r 2 5 3 - 9 3 1 4 (home) o r 258-2191 ( b u s i n e s s ) r e g a r d i n g a t i m e when I m i g h t come f o r an i n t e r v i ew? Sincerely  Letter  yours,  #3  Gent 1emen: Would you p l e a s e c o n s i d e r me as an a p p l i c a n t f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f Production Trainee? F o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f my q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r this job. I am 24 y e a r s o l d , m a r r i e d , and h a v e two c h i l d r e n . I completed G r a d e 11 and some G r a d e 12 s u b j e c t s a t F o r t McLeod H i g h S c h o o l . For the p a s t two y e a r s , I h a v e been e m p l o y e d as a l a b o u r e r f o r Q u a l i t y B u i l d i n g Supplies. I h a v e a l s o done o t h e r l a b o u r i n g j o b s and w o r k e d as a t a x i driver. My c o m p l e t e resume i s e n c l o s e d . I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e j o b w i t h you your convenience. I c a n be c o n t a c t e d a t Sincerely  yours.  at  112 Appendix  Questions  A - 7(v)  For Discussion  1.  As a r e s u l t o f r e a d i n g t h e t h r e e c o v e r l e t t e r s , whose w o u l d y o u be MOST i n t e r e s t e d i n e x a m i n i n g . Why?  2.  What i s m i s s i n g f r o m t o you?  3.  L e t t e r #3 c o n t a i n s f i v e s e n t e n c e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w o r d , "I". What c h a n g e s i n p h r a s i n g w o u l d y o u s u g g e s t f o r m a k i n g t h i s l e t t e r less "I-oriented"?  k.  The a p p l i c a n t who w r o t e L e t t e r #1 has w o r k e d as a t r u c k d r i v e r , a n d t h e one who w r o t e L e t t e r #3 h a s w o r k e d as a t a x i driver. T h e r e f o r e , y o u c o u l d assume t h a t t h e y b o t h h a v e t h e v a l i d d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e y o u h a v e l i s t e d as a j o b r e q u i r e m e n t . The p e r s o n who w r o t e L e t t e r #2 has s a i d n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s/he h o l d s a l i c e n c e . S h o u l d s/he h a v e done s o ? Why o r why n o t ?  the l e t t e r ( s )  resume(s)  t h a t were not i n t e r e s t i n g  113 Appendix B ( i )  CAREER ACTION FOR YOUTH  CENTRE  936 K i n g s w a y , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  (604) 873-5491 WHAT IS CAY? . . . The CAREER ACTION FOR YOUTH CENTRE p r o v i d e s an i n t e n s i f i e d c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e f o r i n - s c h o o l y o u t h , p o t e n t i a l d r o p - o u t s , and v e r y r e c e n t d r o p - o u t s , (90 d a y s o r j e s s ) , o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e C e n t r e a r e : 1.  To b r i d g e t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e p r o t e c t i v e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d o f w o r k b y ; a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h e development o f r e a l i s t i c c a r e e r g o a l s and a t t i t u d e s , a p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e , a n d by t e a c h i n g t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d and keep a j o b .  2.  To a c t a s a c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e f o r Canada Manpower C e n t r e s , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , p a r e n t s , b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y , and s o c i a l a n d c o m m u n i t y a g e n c i e s .  The C e n t r e i s a j o i n t v e n t u r e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Manpower a n d I m m i g r a t i o n and t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . I t s aim i s t o concentrate e x p e r t i s e and r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e c a r e e r g u i d a n c e t o t h e y o u t h o f t h e Vancouver School D i s t r i c t .  THE CAY CENTRE Services A)  IN ACTION.  . .  O f f e r e d T h r o u g h The CAY C e n t r e :  The D e v e l o p m e n t o f C a r e e r (i)  (ii)  (iii)  Education  Programs  C a r e e r e d u c a t i o n " m i n i - c o u r s e s " h a v e been d e s i g n e d f o r grades nine through twelve. The CAY C e n t r e has a s a m p l e c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h may be t a i l o r e d t o s u i t t h e n e e d s o f s p e c i f i c s c h o o l s . S c h o o l t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s a r e c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g t h e c o u r s e s w h i l e t h e CAY C e n t r e s t a f f a r r a n g e s f o r speakers from i n d u s t r y , p r o v i d e s r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s , a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , and a c t s a s r e s o u r c e p e r sonnel . Where f o r m a l c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s c u r r e n t l y e x i s t , t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e C e n t r e a r e a v a i l a b l e on demand. F o r t h o s e s c h o o l s who do n o t r u n f o r m a l c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , b u t may w i s h i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s on s u c h t o p i c s as C r e a t i v e J o b S e a r c h T e c h n i q u e s , o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a C a n a d a Manpower C e n t r e , a S c h o o l L i a i s o n C o u n s e l l o r has been i d e n t i f i e d i n e a c h C a n a d a Manpower C e n t r e t o a s s i s t t h e CAY C e n t r e i n p r o v i d i n g t h i s s e r v i c e .  114 Appendix B(i i )  Testing  S e r v i c e s f o r A p t i t u d e and I n t e r e s t A s s e s s m e n t  Individual  Vocational  Counselling  Through a s e r i e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s , students e x p l o r e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u t d e s and e x a m i n e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s and c u r r e n t l a b o u r m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e s i n e d u c a t i o n and employment a r e s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n the w o r l d o f work. J o b h u n t i n g s k i l l s may be d i s c u s s e d t o a i d t h e s t u d e n t i n p r e p a r i n g f o r s a t i s f y i n g and s u c c e s s f u l e m p l o y m e n t . In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r r a l s t o t h e CAY C e n t r e , we h a v e d e s i g n e d a c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t w h i c h has been f o r w a r d e d to a l l s c h o o l s . We r e q u e s t t h a t , i n a l l c a s e s , t h e r e f e r r i n g c o u n s e l l o r c a l l t h e C e n t r e t o b r i e f l y d i s c u s s t h e c l i e n t and t o c o n f i r m an a p p o i n t m e n t d a t e . W o r k s h o p s , S e m i n a r s and G r o u p  Discussions  A s e r i e s o f s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k s h o p s and i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n s a r e h e l d a t t h e CAY C e n t r e d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s i s t o h e i g h t e n t h e c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r t i s e of school personnel. Many r e s o u r c e p e o p l e from t h e community a r e i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e s e s s i o n s , and i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h e s e w o r k s h o p s p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x c h a n g e i d e a s and e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Resource L i b r a r y The r e s o u r c e l i b r a r y i n t h e C e n t r e i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o n ; c a r e e r p l a n n i n g , community r e s o u r c e s , C a n a d i a n e m p l o y e r s , C a n a d i a n Community C o l l e g e s , I n s t i t u t e s o f T e c h n o l o g y , and U n i v e r s i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , e m p l o y e r r e c r u i t i n g p r a c t i c e s , F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l government, f i n a n c i a l a i d , i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , j o b h u n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , c u r r e n t labour market c o n d i t i o n s , o c c u p a t i o n s , p r i v a t e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , resume w r i t i n g , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s . The l i b r a r y a l s o i n c l u d e s a s e c t i o n f o r t e a c h e r and c o u n s e l l o r r e f e r e n c e , i n c l u d i n g sample c u r r i c u l a f o r c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n programs, a u d i o - v i s u a l r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s , c a r e e r games, r e f e r e n c e t e x t s , e t c . Community L i a i s o n The CAY C e n t r e i n i t i a t e s and c o - o r d i n a t e s a c t i v i t i e s t o p r o m o t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s c h o o l s and t h e c o m m u n i t y . The C e n t r e i s p u b l i s h i n g a B u s i n e s s R e s o u r c e G u i d e f o r S c h o o l s , w h i c h w i l l i d e n t i f y e m p l o y e r s f o r ; s p e a k i n g engagements i n s c h o o l s , p l a n t and o f f i c e t o u r s , o b s e r v a t i o n a l j o b s t u d y , w o r k e x p e r i e n c e , fi1ms, e t c .  115 Appendix C ( i ) Table A Item A n a l y s i s  Pretest  27  41 15 47 33 49 34 39 44 33 45 31 24 35 17  25 38 39  Yourself  (n=5l)  Experimental  +49 26  - Knowing  Control  Posttest  -2 25 24 10 36 4 18 2 17 12 10 18 6 20  +47 26 35 37 35 41 35 45 34 37 43  27  16 34 26 13 12  -4 25 16* 14 16** 10* 16 6 17 14 8  28  23  47 41 24 39  4 10* 27 12 28* 26 19* 14  23  25 32  37  Pretest  +42 28 22 35 22 40  Posttest  2  38  22 9 22 4 15 6  +39 16 19 33 25 35 28 34  28  16  23  34 39 26 40 30  28  34  10 5 18 4 14 21 10  13  31  29  23  27  36 27  16  17 8 17  = d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t  and p o s t t e s t  o f 6 o r more  ** = d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r e t e s t  and p o s t t e s t  o f 15 o r more  *  + = number o f c o r r e c t  responses  - = number o f i n c o r r e c t  responses  (n=44)  38 27 35 30 26 36 21 22 29 25  -5 28-  25 11 19 9 16 10 21 16* 6 17 9 14 18 18 23*  22 15* 19  116 Append i x C ( i i ) Table B Item A n a l y s i s  Experimental  (n=5l)  Pretest  *  - Knowing About J o b s  Control  Posttest  Pretest'  (n=44) Posttest  +37  -14  +33  -18  +22  22  +26  49  2  45  6  41  3  35  34  17  37  14  38  6  33  11  36  15  46  5*  32  12  24  20*  50  1  48  3  38  6  35  9  50  1  49  2  38  6  38  6  51  0  51  0  42  2  42  2  42  9  45  6  37  7  39  5  37  14  41  10  41  3  38  6  40  11  42  9  37  7  32  12  40  11  43  8  34  10  30  14  37  14  46  5*  28  16  38  6*  48  3  49  2  39  5  38  6  51  0  51  0  43  1  40  4  45  6  36  15-  32  12  31  13  47  4  49  2  44  0  37  7-  51  0  49  2  43  1  41  3  22  29  37  14**  23  21  31  13*  46  5  47  4  40  4  34  10*  39  12  42  9  24  20  28  16  = d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t  ** = d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r e t e s t  + = number o f c o r r e c t  and p o s t t e s t  and p o s t t t e s t o f 15 o r more  responses  - = number o f i n c o r r e c t  o f 6 o r more  responses  -18 9  *  117  Appendix C(i i i) Table C Item Analysis - Choosing A Job Experimental (n=5l) Pretest Posttest +45  - 3  +42  28  23  34  45  6  15  36  42 14  - 9  Control (r =44) Pretest Posttest +40 - 4 +41 - 3 33  11*  42  2  17*  25  19  9  38  6  37  9  35  6  38  39  5  35  9  46  5  45  6  32  19  33  18  20  21  23  33  18  24  34  17  31  13  34  10  5  44  7  4  37  7  39  12  37  14  12  35  9  50  1  45  6  4  38  6  33  18  42  40  9*  28  16  26  18  35  16  39  12  25  19  33  11*  44  7  40  11  33  11  39  5*  34  17  36  15  26  18  23  21  38  13  39  12  29  15  33  11  35  16  42  30  14  31  13  29  22  28  23  18  26  22  22  43  8  43  8  38  6  34  10  36  15  37  31  13*  37  14  24  20  14  14 37  10  34  14  30  46  9*  40 32  * = difference between pretest and posttest of 6 or more ** = difference between pretest and posttest of 15 or more + = number of correct responses - = number of incorrect responses  118 Appendix C ( i v ) Table D I tern A n a l y s i s  Experimental  *  Ahead  Control  (n=5l)  (n=44) Posttest  Pretest  Posttest  Pretest  - Looking  + 11  33  +17  -27  12  35  9  38  14  47  4  35  9  37  7  4  48  3  37  7  39  5  23  28  24  27  17  27  10  34*  40  11  40  11  25  19  24  20  43  8  44  7  36  8  32  12  35  16  34  17  27  17  33  11*  25  26  26  25  24  20  18  26*  45  6  44  7  36  8  40  4  28  23  34  17*  19  25  26  18*  24  27  30  21*  19  25  26  18*  43  8  40  11  29  15  30  14  34  17  42  9*  31  13  36  8  29  22  36  15*  21  23  25  19  39  12  32  19*  25  19  22  22  34  17  26  25*  22  22  17  27  19  32  21  30  16  28  23  21*  42  9  44  7  29  15  34  10  37  14  47  32  12  25  19*  +20  -31  +14  43  8  39  46  5  47  -37*  = d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t  ** = d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r e t e s t  + = number o f c o r r e c t - = number o f i n c o r r e c t  and p o s t t e s t o f 6 o r more and p o s t t e s t o f 15 o r more  responses responses  119 Appendix C(v) Table E Item A n a l y s i s  Experimental  Solving  Control  (n=5l)  (n=44) Posttest  Pretest  Posttest  Pretest  *  - Problem  +13  31  + 17  7  33  11  31  13  22  29*  17  27  10  34*  29  27  24  14  30  18  26  20  31  24  27  14  30  20  24*  30  21  27  24  22  22  25  19  30  21  40  11*  26  18  31  13  31  20  34  17  16  28  21  23  17  34  29  22*  9  35  19  25*  36  15  36  15  24  20  27  17  34  17  25  26*  31  13  25  19*  45  6  41  10  37  7  28  • 16*  16  35  22  29*  14  30  9  +20  -31  +14  42  9  44  28  23  22  -37*  -27  35  26  25  28  23  8  36  23  21**  21  30  18  33  14  30  12  32  23  28  30  21*  25  19  28  16  36  15  37  14  30  14  16  28*  33  18  34  17  27  17  27  17  37  14  30  21*  25  19  28  16  29  22  28  23  20  24  20  24  = d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t  ** = d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r e t e s t  + = number o f c o r r e c t  and p o s t t e s t  and p o s t t e s t o f 15 o r more  responses  - = number o f i n c o r r e c t  o f 6 o r more  responses  Figure 1. A model of career maturity in adolescence. Degree of Career Development GENERAL FACTOR GROUP FACTORS I  Consistency of Career Choices  Realism of Career Choices _L  Career Choico Competencies  Career Choice Attitudes  VARIABLES Field  Interests  Level  Time  1.  Abilities  Adapted  Career  from  Maturity  Social Clau  Planning  Problem Solving  Personality  Crites,  J.O.  Inventory.  SelfAppraisal  Occupational Information  T h e o r y and  Monterey,  Goal Selection  Research  California:  Involvement  Independence  Orientation  Handbook  Conception  Preference  f o r the  CTB/McGraw-Hill,  1973.  

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