Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Assessing the stages of group development using children's serial group drawings Majcher, Jo-Ann Marie 1990

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A8 M34.pdf [ 3.67MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0053739.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0053739-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0053739-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0053739-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0053739-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0053739-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0053739-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0053739-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0053739.ris

Full Text

ASSESSING THE STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT USING CHILDREN' SERIAL GROUP DRAWINGS By JO-ANN MARIE MAJCHER B.Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1990 © Jo-Ann Marie Majcher In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada j Date March 22. 1990.  DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The r e s e a r c h problem t h a t was examined i n t h i s study was t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , was the id e a t h a t the stages of group development c o u l d be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. Second, was t h a t by u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t was designed f o r t h i s purpose, t r a i n e d o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s c o u l d c l a s s i f y the stages of group development from the s e r i a l drawings completed by the c h i l d r e n . F i f t e e n s e t s o f drawings were gathered from f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. These drawings were then analyzed and c l a s s i f i e d by r a t e r s who had been t r a i n e d t o use the r a t i n g s c a l e . The r a t i n g s c a l e was d e v i s e d t o i d e n t i f y the stages of group development w i t h i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings. Q u a l i t a t i v e data a n a l y s i s showed t h a t the stages of group development were d e p i c t e d i n some of the s e t s o f s e r i a l group drawings. Q u a n t i t a t i v e data a n a l y s i s showed t h a t r a t e r s were ab l e t o use, wit h l i m i t e d success, the r a t i n g s c a l e designed t o c l a s s i f y the drawings i n t o the stages of group development. Many extraneous v a r i a b l e s e f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s . These i n c l u d e : the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each c h i l d , the l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e of each c o u n s e l l o r , the v a r y i n g group t o p i c s , the adequacy of the r a t e r t r a i n i n g procedure, the o b j e c t i v i t y i i of the r a t e r s , and the accuracy of the r a t i n g s c a l e . Due t o the many extraneous v a r i a b l e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t h i s study l e a v e s many q u e s t i o n s unanswered. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary t o more f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e the id e a t h a t the stages of group development can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups., I f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h proves t h a t the stages of group development can be d e p i c t e d and measured u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e , i t w i l l p r o v i d e group c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h a u s e f u l t o o l when e v a l u a t i n g group development. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 S t r u c t u r e d L e a r n i n g Group 4 S e r i a l Group Drawing 5 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 GROUP DEVELOPMENT 7 Overview of Group Process 7 Schutz's Theory of I n t e r p e r s o n a l Behavior 8 Group Dynamics 11 Group C o u n s e l l i n g with C h i l d r e n 13 The Stages of Group Development - 1 5 I n i t i a l Stage 15 T r a n s i t i o n Stage 17 Working Stage 18 F i n a l Stage 19 ART 2 0 A r t i s P i c t o r i a l Language 2 0 S e r i a l Drawing 2 3 Drawings as a P r o j e c t i v e Technique 2 5 i v The Draw-a-Family (D-A-F) Technique 27 The K i n e t i c - F a m i l y - D r a w i n g (K-F-D) Technique.3 1 Draw-a-Group T e s t 3 5 The K i n e t i c School Drawing (K-S-D) Technique.3 5 A k i n e t i c School Drawing Technique 3 7 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Group Drawings 37 DRAWINGS AND ASSESSMENT: CURRENT STATE OF THE RESEARCH 38 Purpose of Study 41 3. METHOD r 42 COLLECTION OF DRAWINGS 4 2 P i l o t Study 4 2 S e l e c t i o n of C o u n s e l l o r s 43 S e l e c t i o n o f Su b j e c t s 44 Formal Study 4 5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE RATING SCALE 4 6 TRAINING AND RATING PROCEDURE 47 S e l e c t i o n of Raters 47 S e l e c t i o n of Helpers 48 T r a i n i n g and Ra t i n g 48 H e l p e r T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n 48 Rater T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n 50 R a t i n g S e s s i o n 54 DATA ANALYSIS 54 v 4. RESULTS 56 Obj e c t i v e s 56 Q u a n t i t a t i v e Data A n a l y s i s 57 Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s 58 5. DISCUSSION 65 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 66 Q u a l i t y of the Drawing I n s t r u c t i o n s 67 Q u a l i t y o f the Drawings 67 Q u a l i t y of the Leader 68 Q u a l i t y of the Group 68 Q u a l i t y of the R a t i n g S c a l e 69 Q u a l i t y of the T r a i n i n g 7 0 Q u a l i t y o f the Raters 7 0 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Future Research 7 0 C o n c l u s i o n 71 REFERENCES 7 3 APPENDICES 7 6 A. The R a t i n g S c a l e 77 B. The S t r u c t u r e of the R a t i n g S c a l e 8 5 C. T r a i n i n g and R a t i n g Data Sheets 8 6 D. Random and S e q u e n t i a l Order Codes 89 E. V i s u a l Chart: The R a t i n g S c a l e C a t e g o r i e s 90 v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. I n t e r - r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s 60 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. Drawing Set 1 61 2. Drawing Set 4 63 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the members of my t h e s i s committee. To John A l l a n f o r h i s support and guidance, t o Barbara Holmes f o r her c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm, and t o Diane P o l l a r d who s t a r t e d me on t h i s journey. I would l i k e t o acknowledge the Research and E v a l u a t i o n Department of the Surrey School D i s t r i c t f o r a l l o w i n g me to conduct the r e s e a r c h component of my study and f o r a s s i s t i n g me w i t h the q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . With g r a t i t u d e I extend a s p e c i a l thanks t o my f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s who helped me w i t h t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . I v a l u e the time, energy and a s s i s t a n c e t h a t you so f r e e l y gave.. Thank you t o Bob Emerson f o r h e l p i n g me keep t h i n g s balanced and i n p e r s p e c t i v e and t o Donna O'Hara f o r b e l i e v i n g i n me and h e l p i n g me with the process along the way. And f i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t l o v e and encouragement. i x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION S t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group experiences can make an important c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the p e r s o n a l growth of the c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e . I t i s w i t h i n the con t e x t of a w e l l l e d group t h a t a c h i l d can f e e l v a l i d a t e d and worthwhile. The need t o belong, t o be c a r e d about, t o be r e c o g n i z e d and accepted by ot h e r s are a l l important t o how c h i l d r e n f e e l about themselves and about t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r people. I f these needs are met w i t h i n the group then the l i f e o f the group w i l l go through d i f f e r e n t developmental stages. Theory and r e s e a r c h i n the area of group p r o c e s s suggests a group w i l l move through f o u r developmental stages o f l i f e . (Corey, 1987; Gazda, 1984; Mahler, 1069; Schmuck, 1971). The group w i l l move from the i n i t i a l stage, through the t r a n s i t i o n stage, i n t o the working stage and then i n t o the f i n a l stage (Corey, 1987). The stages o f group development are seen as f o l l o w i n g an e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s . The development of a group i s c o n s i d e r e d s e q u e n t i a l and c y c l i c a l (Corey,1987; Schmuck, 1971; S t a n d f o r d , 1977) and although the stages are not c o n s i d e r e d d i s c r e e t nor mutually e x c l u s i v e (Corey, 1987; Stand f o r d , 1977) i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t each stage does have i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t h e l p s t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the other stages (Corey, 1987). 1 Each stage of group development i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e t of common o c c u r r i n g a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , and b e h a v i o r s of c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g i n a group (Gumaer 1984). C h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups w i l l e x h i b i t these a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , and b e h a v i o r s . By o b s e r v i n g how c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t w i t h i n the group, the stage of group development can be i d e n t i f i e d . A r t has long been c o n s i d e r e d a means of s e l f e x p r e s s i o n . Drawings are e s p e c i a l l y powerful i n c a p t u r i n g a person's thoughts, f e e l i n g s , and experiences (Klepsh & Logie, 1982). A drawing i s a unique and p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n of a person's i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e s (Oster & Gould, 1987). Because drawings have been used as a p r o j e c t i v e technique t o measure s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o others (Klepsh & Logie, 1982) i t would seem p o s s i b l e t o use drawings as a p r o j e c t i v e technique t o measure s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s over time w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group. Thus, the drawings become the avenue f o r o b s e r v i n g the f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and b e h a v i o r s of the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group. The m a t e r i a l w i t h i n the drawings w i l l then d i s t i n g u i s h the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development. T h i s study s e t s out to e x p l o r e the i d e a t h a t the stages o f group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups, and t h a t o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s can c l a s s i f y the 2 d i f f e r e n t stages of group development from c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e designed f o r t h i s purpose. E s t a b l i s h i n g a l i n k a g e between the stages o f group development and s e r i a l group drawings would be of importance t o both r e s e a r c h e r s and c l i n i c i a n s . I f t h i s were t o be e s t a b l i s h e d , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be a b l e t o modify and r e f i n e the r a t i n g s c a l e so t h a t i t would be a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e t o o l f o r measuring the stages of group development w i t h i n s e r i a l group drawings. C l i n i c a l l y the i n f o r m a t i o n gained u s i n g the r a t i n g s c a l e would h e l p c o u n s e l l o r s assess group development w i t h i n the groups they run, and enhance the p l a n n i n g and p r o g r e s s of t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g groups. To date, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done t o l i n k t o g e t h e r the i d e a t h a t the stages o f group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings. I t i s a r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n t h a t warrants e x p l o r a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h problem t o be examined i n t h i s study has the f o l l o w i n g two o b j e c t i v e s : 1 . To e x p l o r e the idea t h a t the stages of group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. 2. To determine the extent t o which o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s c o u l d c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development from c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e designed 3 f o r t h i s purpose. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Because of the complexity of the d e f i n i t i o n of terms used i n t h i s study a l l but two of these terms w i l l be d e a l t w i t h e x t e n s i v e l y i n Chapter 2. The two terms t o be c l a r i f i e d here are, S t r u c t u r e d L e a r n i n g Group, and S e r i a l Group Drawing. Structured Learning Group A s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group i s a sm a l l (4 t o 8 c h i l d r e n ) , c o u n s e l l o r l e d , group c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Gumaer (1984) puts f o r t h a d e f i n i t i o n o f growth-centered c o u n s e l i n g t h a t w i l l be used i n t h i s study t o e x p l a i n the term, s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group f Growth-centered group c o u n s e l i n g i n v o l v e s the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the necessary c o n d i t i o n s , dynamics, i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s e s , and t h e r a p e u t i c f u n c t i o n s of a c o u n s e l l i n g group. Group members are normal c h i l d r e n who use the group s t r u c t u r e and i n t e r a c t i o n s t o e x p l o r e and examine p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and d e c i s i o n s t o g a i n g r e a t e r awareness, understanding, and acceptance of s e l f and o t h e r s . Growth-centered c o u n s e l i n g groups are s t r u c t u r e d t o h e l p c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e and u t i l i z e t h e i r i n n e r r e s o u r c e s t o cope w i t h developmental problems and l e a d more s e l f - f u l f i l l e d l i v e s , (p.240) 4 S e r i a l Group Drawing S e r i a l group drawing r e f e r s t o the process of having the c h i l d r e n who are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group f o l l o w s t a n d a r d i z e d drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s t o complete a drawing o f t h e i r group a t the end of each s e s s i o n . Each c h i l d ' s drawing of the group i s c o l l e c t e d and a t the t e r m i n a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group, i n d i v i d u a l s e t s of c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings t h a t span the l i f e o f the group have been compiled. 5 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE T h i s chapter reviews the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t t o the p r e s e n t study. In the f i r s t s e c t i o n , the p r o c e s s of group development i s d i s c u s s e d , i n c l u d i n g an overview of group pr o c e s s , Schutz's theory of i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r , and group dynamics. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a look a t group c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n and ends wi t h an examination of the f o u r stages of group development t h a t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s are common t o both a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . In the next s e c t i o n the g e n e r a l concept t h a t a r t i s p i c t o r i a l language i s examined and supported. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by l o o k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the technique of s e r i a l drawing and at drawings as a p r o j e c t i v e technique. The l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the Draw-a-Family (D-A-F) Technique, the K i n e t i c - F a m i l y - D r a w i n g (K-F-D) Technique, the Draw-a-Group Te s t , the K i n e t i c School Drawing (K-S-D) Technique, the A k i n e t i c School Drawing Technique, as w e l l as the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of group drawings are d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . F i n a l l y , a summary i s g i v e n t h a t i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n on the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the f i e l d and the purpose f o r the p r e s e n t study. 6 GROUP DEVELOPMENT Overview o f Group P r o c e s s Duncan and Gumaer (1980) d e f i n e Group Process as "the continuous, d i r e c t i o n a l , i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the group from i n i t i a t i o n through t e r m i n a t i o n " (p.32). T h i s p r o c e s s of changing from a c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o a c o h e s i v e working group i s known as group development (Standford, 1977) . Schmuck (1971) says t h a t groups move through developmental stages as they mature. Many group t h e r a p i s t s and group c o u n s e l l o r s , (Mahler, 1969; Schmuck, 1971; Gazda, 1984; Gumaer, 1984; Corey and Corey, 1987; P o l l a r d , 1989) have r e p o r t e d t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g and therapy groups go through f o u r developmental stages. Corey and Corey (1987) i d e n t i f y these stages as the: I n i t i a l Stage, T r a n s i t i o n Stage, Working Stage, and F i n a l Stage. I t i s important t o note t h a t the stages are not d i s c r e t e , nor are they mutually e x c l u s i v e . They do not flow n e a t l y and p r e d i c t a b l y but o v e r l a p between the stages (Corey & Corey, 1987; Standford, 1977). S t a n d f o r d (1977) s t a t e s t h a t as a group l e a r n s more p r o d u c t i v e ways of working together, of d e v e l o p i n g t r u s t i n each other, of being open t o new experiences, of improving communication and f e e l i n g f r e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e they w i l l undergo many s u c c e s s i v e changes t o reach the stage of a p r o d u c t i v e working group. And as Corey and Corey (1987) p o i n t out, once 7 a group has moved to an advanced stage i t would not be uncommon f o r i t t o s t a y a t a p l a t e a u f o r a p e r i o d of time or to t e m p o r a r i l y r e g r e s s t o an e a r l i e r stage. The reason f o r t h i s i s because the development of a group, as w e l l as b e i n g seen as s e q u e n t i a l , and s u c c e s s i v e , i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be c y c l i c a l (Corey & Corey, 1987; Schmuck, 1971; Standford, 1977). T h i s i s because the group must d e a l w i t h the same developmental i s s u e s of t r u s t and c l e a r communication t h a t a r i s e w i t h new s i t u a t i o n s (Schmuck, 1971) when the group d e a l s w i t h the f a c t o r s t h a t are i n f l u e n c i n g the d i r e c t i o n t h a t the group i s t a k i n g (Corey & Corey, 1987) . A good, group never f i n i s h e s d e a l i n g w i t h e a r l i e r i s s u e s , they come back t o them p e r i o d i c a l l y i n a more i n depth, s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner (Standford, 1977) . Schutz's Theory of I n t e r p e r s o n a l Behavior Schutz (1967, 1971) developed a Three-Dimensional Theory of I n t e r p e r s o n a l Behavior. The t h e o r y p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and how t h i s impacts on the p r o c e s s of group development. Schutz (1971) proposed t h a t t h e r e are t h r e e b a s i c i n t e r p e r s o n a l needs t h a t are common t o a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. These t h r e e needs of i n c l u s i o n , c o n t r o l , and a f f e c t i o n "form the b a s i s f o r e x p l o r i n g the realm of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and the methods whereby f u l l human p o t e n t i a l may be achieved between man and man" (Schutz, 1967, p.117). 8 At the b e g i n n i n g of a group's l i f e the predominant area o f i n t e r a c t i o n begins w i t h i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g i n c l u s i o n (Schutz, 1967). When people i n i t i a l l y come t o g e t h e r they must f i n d out where they f i t . T h i s w i l l i n c l u d e b e i ng i n or out of the group, e s t a b l i s h i n g one's s e l f as a d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l and s e e i n g whether one w i l l be p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o or ignored (Schutz, 1971) . When c o n f r o n t e d w i t h one another, i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l ask q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of i d e n t i t y , "How important w i l l I be i n t h i s s e t t i n g ? W i l l they know who I am and what I can do, or w i l l I be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from many o t h e r s ? " (Schutz, 1971, p.100). Another b a s i c problem at t h i s phase i s t h a t of commitment t o the group. P a r t i c i p a n t s must d e c i d e t o what ex t e n t they w i l l become members of the group and how much of themselves they w i l l i n v e s t i n t o t h i s new group (Schutz, 1967, 1971). A n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g i n c l u s i o n i s demonstrated by o v e r t a l k i n g , withdrawal, e x h i b i t i o n i s m and the t e l l i n g of hero s t o r i e s (Schutz, 1971). Energy and boundaries are the main concerns of the group a t the i n c l u s i o n phase. When i n d i v i d u a l s commit themselves t o the group, the group i s e n e r g i z e d . Lack of group energy w i l l r e s u l t i n the group t e r m i n a t i n g . The boundary problems d e a l w i t h the requirements f o r membership and f o r s t a y i n g o r l e a v i n g the group (Schutz, 1971). The i n c l u s i o n phase, u n l i k e the a f f e c t i o n phase, does not i n v o l v e s t r o n g p e r s o n a l bonds t o i n d i v i d u a l persons and i t i s 9 u n l i k e the c o n t r o l phase as the emphasis i s on prominence, not dominance (Schutz, 1971). Once the group has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f , i t begins t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e . People begin t o take on or seek r o l e s w i t h i n the group. C o n t r o l i s s u e s c e n t e r i n g around the decision-making p r o c e s s between people and the areas of power, i n f l u e n c e and a u t h o r i t y become dominant (Schutz, 1967). Problems i n v o l v e d w i t h the s h a r i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and c o n t r o l are e v i d e n t (Schutz, 1971). T y p i c a l b e h a v i o r a t t h i s phase w i l l i n c l u d e "a l e a d e r s h i p s t r u g g l e , c o m p e t i t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n of o r i e n t a t i o n t o the task, s t r u c t u r i n g , r u l e s of procedure, methods of decision-making, and s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the group's work" (Schutz, 1971, p.102). A n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g c o n t r o l c e n t e r s around having too much or too l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and too much or too l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e . Each person i s i n v o l v e d with e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h i n the group i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r group members wit h regard t o c o n t r o l , i n f l u e n c e , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Schutz, 1971) . When problems of c o n t r o l are r e s o l v e d i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o a f f e c t i o n become the focus. Because a f f e c t i o n i s based on the b u i l d i n g of emotional t i e s i t i s u s u a l l y the l a s t phase t o develop. I n d i v i d u a l s must d e a l with emotional i s s u e s surrounding a f f e c t i o n and c l o s e n e s s . Each person i s s t r i v i n g t o f i n d the o p t i m a l balance f o r g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g a f f e c t i o n . . Issues t h a t 10 come up have t o do wit h b e i n g l i k e d or d i s l i k e d , and b e i n g too i n t i m a t e o r not i n t i m a t e enough (Schutz, 1971). Schutz (19 67) s t a t e s t h a t : In the i n c l u s i o n phase, people must encounter each o t h e r and deci d e t o con t i n u e t h e i r r e l a t i o n ; c o n t r o l i s s u e s r e q u i r e them t o c o n f r o n t one another and work out how they w i l l be r e l a t e d ; then, t o c o n t i n u e the r e l a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n t i e s must form and people must embrace each other t o form a l a s t i n g bond. (p.174) Schutz (1971) views the stages of group development as s e q u e n t i a l , b e l i e v i n g t h a t i n the l i f e of a group the area of i n t e r a c t i o n begins with i n c l u s i o n f o l l o w e d by c o n t r o l and then a f f e c t i o n . He does not see i n c l u s i o n , c o n t r o l and a f f e c t i o n as b e i n g t h r e e d i s t i n c t phases, r a t h e r he emphasized t h a t a l l t h r e e i s s u e s are always present, but are not always of equal importance as each area i s emphasized at d i f f e r e n t times i n the growth of the group. Schutz b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s s e q u e n t i a l c y c l e may r e o c c u r many times d u r i n g the l i f e of the group. He a l s o suggests t h a t when the group i s ending the sequence i s r e v e r s e d w i t h a f f e c t i o n i s s u e s being d e a l t with f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by c o n t r o l and f i n a l l y ending with i n c l u s i o n . Group Dynamics Group dynamics has been d e f i n e d as "the i n t e r a c t i v e f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a group" (Glanz & Hayes, 1967, p. 274) which 11 i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o r of the group members (Gumaer, 1984). Group dynamics lo o k s a t the way people behave i n groups and attempts t o understand the f a c t o r s t h a t make a group more e f f e c t i v e (Standford, 1977). Yalom (1985) proposes t h a t t h e r a p e u t i c change i s an immensely complex process t h a t takes p l a c e through an i n t e r p l a y of many d i f f e r e n t guided human experiences, which he r e f e r s t o as " t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s . " He i d e n t i f i e s e l e v e n t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s t h a t are the mechanisms of change. They f u n c t i o n i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y and r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the change process, some r e f e r t o the a c t u a l mechanisms o f change and others can be d e s c r i b e d as the c o n d i t i o n s f o r change. These eleven t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : i n s t i l l a t i o n o f hope, u n i v e r s a l i t y , i m p a r t i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n , a l t r u i s m , the c o r r e c t i v e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the primary f a m i l y group, development of s o c i a l i z i n g t echniques, i m i t a t i v e behavior, i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , group cohesiveness, c a t h a r s i s , and e x i s t e n t i a l f a c t o r s . T h e r a p e u t i c f o r c e s t h a t must be r e c o g n i z e d and managed f o r the group t o be an e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c environment are i d e n t i f i e d by Ohlsen (1977) as being: l e a d e r s h i p e x p e r t i s e , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the group, acceptance by the group, e x p e c t a t i o n s , belonging, s e c u r i t y w i t h i n the group, c l i e n t r e a d i n e s s , c l i e n t commitment, c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c l i e n t acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , congruence, feedback, openness, 12 t h e r a p e u t i c t e n s i o n and t h e r a p e u t i c norms. St a n d f o r d (1977) i d e n t i f i e s l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e , p a t t e r n s of i n f l u e n c e , p r o c e s s by which d e c i s i o n s are made, norms, p a t t e r n s of communication, openness, and cohesiveness as the f a c t o r s t h a t i n t e r a c t w i t h i n a group. Although no d e f i n i t i v e agreement e x i s t s i n regards t o what the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n group process are, i t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t group dynamics do e x i s t (Gumaer, 1984) and t h a t i t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of these t h e r a p e u t i c f o r c e s t h a t guide, shape and d i r e c t a group's development. Group C o u n s e l l i n g w i t h C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n become members of a group a t b i r t h . I t i s w i t h i n the f a m i l y group t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n about themselves, t h e i r world and the people around them. They l e a r n t o become s o c i a l b e i n g s . As c h i l d r e n become more s e l f c o n f i d e n t they expand t h e i r s o c i a l world t o t h e i r peer group. I t i s the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t c h i l d r e n have w i t h i n the f a m i l y and the peer group t h a t h e l p them develop t h e i r s e l f - i d e n t i t i e s and l e a r n the s k i l l s n ecessary t o cope with l i f e . Gumaer (1984) emphasized t h a t c h i l d r e n who develop t h e i r sense of s e l f - w o r t h and become s e l f - f u l f i l l e d because of p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e i r two e a r l y group encounters become "group a d j u s t e d " . For those c h i l d r e n who do not f e e l they belong i n t h e i r groups because they l a c k the s k i l l s t o i n t e g r a t e 13 themselves i n t o v a r i o u s groups t h a t occur i n t h e i r l i v e s group c o u n s e l l i n g can be an e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n t o h e l p c h i l d r e n become "group-adjusted". Faust (19 68) has s t r e s s e d t h a t much of what c h i l d r e n l e a r n i s l e a r n e d i n groups so t h a t new l e a r n i n g and " u n l e a r n i n g 1 can be c a r r i e d out v i a group c o u n s e l l i n g . Group c o u n s e l l i n g ' p r o v i d e s c h i l d r e n w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth and problem s o l v i n g (Gumaer, 1984). Gazda, Duncan and Meadows (1967) capture i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n the essence o f what group c o u n s e l l i n g i s : Group c o u n s e l i n g i s a dynamic i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s f o c u s i n g on conscious thought and b e h a v i o r and i n v o l v i n g the therapy f u n c t i o n s of p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , o r i e n t a t i o n t o r e a l i t y , c a t h a r s i s , and mutual t r u s t , c a r i n g , understanding, acceptance, and support. The therapy f u n c t i o n s are c r e a t e d and n u r t u r e d i n a s m a l l group through the s h a r i n g of p e r s o n a l concerns w i t h one's peers and the c o u n s e l o r ( s ) . The group counselees are b a s i c a l l y normal i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h v a r i o u s concerns which are not d e b i l i t a t i n g t o the extent r e q u i r i n g e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y change. The group counselees may u t i l i z e the group i n t e r a c t i o n t o i n c r e a s e understanding and acceptance of v a l u e and g o a l s , and t o l e a r n and/or u n l e a r n c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s , (p.3 06) Gumaer (1984) says t h a t "group c o u n s e l i n g p r o v i d e s a 14 l i f e l i k e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s everyday world" (p.213). As Gumaer (1984) p o i n t s out, the r i c h n e s s and v a l u e of the sma l l group c o u n s e l l i n g experience comes because c h i l d r e n w i l l i n t e r a c t w i t h each other, s h a r i n g t h e i r l i v e s and r e c e i v i n g feedback from t h e i r peers about t h e i r f e e l i n g s , thoughts and b e h a v i o r s . I t i s w i t h i n the context of the group t h a t they l e a r n t o i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l s k i l l s . They l e a r n about themselves by h e a r i n g o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of them. They l e a r n t h a t they are sometimes s i m i l a r and sometimes d i f f e r e n t and t h a t i t i s okay t o be unique. C h i l d r e n l e a r n t h a t sometimes a person must conform and cooperate and t h a t a t o t h e r times o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i s v a l u e d and encouraged. The group i s a s a f e p l a c e t o e x p l o r e l i f e , t r y out i d e a s and b e h a v i o r because i t p r o v i d e s a sense of l o v e , s e c u r i t y and b e l o n g i n g . T h i s i s congruent w i t h Thompson and Rudolph (1983) who say t h a t group c o u n s e l l i n g i s important because c h i l d r e n can u n l e a r n i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r s and l e a r n new ways of r e l a t i n g through i n t e r a c t i o n and feedback i n a s a f e p r a c t i s e s i t u a t i o n with t h e i r peers. The Stages of Group Development I n i t i a l Stage The i n i t i a l stage of a group i s a time f o r o r i e n t a t i o n and determining the s t r u c t u r e of the group (Corey & Corey, 1987). 15 Group members get acquainted, they l e a r n how the group f u n c t i o n s , spoken and unspoken norms t h a t w i l l govern group b e h a v i o r are developed, f e a r s and hopes about the group are exp l o r e d , e x p e c t a t i o n s are c l a r i f i e d , p e r s o n a l g o a l s are i d e n t i f i e d and members determine whether the group i s a s a f e p l a c e . A c e n t r a l i s s u e a t the i n i t i a l stage i s t r u s t v e r s e s m i s t r u s t . At t h i s stage the b a s i c a t t i t u d e s o f r e s p e c t , empathy, acceptance, c a r i n g and responding are l e a r n e d . These promote the b u i l d i n g o f t r u s t . Group cohesion and t r u s t w i l l g r a d u a l l y occur i f members are ab l e t o express t h e i r thoughts and f e e l i n g s . I f mutual t r u s t and c a r i n g do not occur the group w i l l not reach the next stage of development (Gazda, 1984). Both p o s i t i v e and ne g a t i v e f e e l i n g s w i l l be expressed as members t e s t t o determine i f a l l f e e l i n g s are a c c e p t a b l e . Members w i l l be concerned with whether they are i n c l u d e d o r excluded and w i l l b egin t o d e f i n e t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n the group. A c c o r d i n g t o Gumaer (1984) c h i l d r e n w i l l be somewhat anxious and i n s e c u r e about the group and i t s members a t the i n i t i a l stage. They w i l l be e x c i t e d about the group and y e t unsure. They may manifest t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t i e s b e h a v i o r a l l y , "by g i g g l i n g , not a t t e n d i n g , being l a t e to group or by m i l d l y a c t i n g out" (p.222). These behaviors are not c o n s i d e r e d d i s r u p t i v e , but r a t h e r as the way of l e a r n i n g about the group and how i t f u n c t i o n s . C h i l d r e n depend on the c o u n s e l l o r a t t h i s stage. The c o u n s e l l o r e s t a b l i s h e s the group by: "(1) h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n 16 understand the purpose(s) and s t r u c t u r e of the group, (2) h e l p i n g them get b e t t e r acquainted, and (3) h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o b e g i n t o become aware of f e e l i n g s i n s e l f and o t h e r s " (Gumaer, 1984, p.222). T r a n s i t i o n Stage A c c o r d i n g t o Corey and Corey (1984) groups w i l l t y p i c a l l y go through a t r a n s i t i o n stage b e f o r e p r o g r e s s i n g t o a working stage. Gazda (1984) says t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n stage occurs when one or more members begin t o d i s c l o s e a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y deeper l e v e l than b e f o r e . Group members w i l l f e e l t h r e a t e n e d as the t y p i c a l s o c i a l group does not u s u a l l y f u n c t i o n i n t h i s manner. Groups w i l l be " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n x i e t y , d e f e n s i v e n e s s , r e s i s t a n c e , the ^struggle f o r c o n t r o l , member c o n f l i c t s , c o n f l i c t s w i t h or c h a l l e n g e s to the l e a d e r , and v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s of problem b e h a v i o r s " (Corey & Corey, 1987, p.140). These problems must be r e c o g n i z e d , acknowledged and d e a l t w i t h f o r the group t o move t o a working stage. I f r e s i s t a n c e i s by-passed or c o n f l i c t smoothed over and l e f t as an u n d e r c u r r e n t open group i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l be destroyed and the group's a b i l i t y t o move forward w i l l be c r i p p l e d (Corey & Corey, 1987). In the t r a n s i t i o n stage c h i l d r e n are no l o n g e r anxious about the new experience, r a t h e r they are a f r a i d of " g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n " (Gumaer, 1984). C h i l d r e n begin t o open up but because they do not y e t f e e l secure about t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the 17 , £ 0 a r they w i l l be judged, misunderstood, or might h u r t group and f e a love they f e e l threatened. Some c h i l d r e n w i l l people they contro- the group and move i t i n a s a f e r , more attempt t o • i dired- on by attempting to change the focus of the s u p e r f i c i a l a c t i n g u t , s t o r y t e l l i n g , withdrawing, o r c l a i m i n g group toy , s tr^/ acceptance, and cohesion develop c h i l d r e n boredom. ecmran<and support f o r t h e i r involvement w i t h i n the r e c e i v e as&u group (Gumaer, l) • Gumaer continu e s : They l e a r n t h a t o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n theup have the same f e a r s and t h a t they are as much a l i k e as tere unique (p.230). I t i s impct t o remember t h a t the group w i l l develop no Lan t h 1984) t e r tha i n g n e s s of i t s slowest member t o p a r t i c i p a t e Gumaer Stage Corey and(i987) s t a t e t h a t when a group reaches the . n stag^Level of t r u s t and c o h e s i o n i s high, worK-iny tcvmunicati°n and members share the l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s t>y i n t e r a c t i n and d i r e c t l y . The l e a d e r p r o v i d e s a , betvjert and c o n f r o n t a t i o n . He becomes the b a l a n c e gatekeeper f coups s a f e t y (Gazda, 1984) . Members are w i l l i n ^ t o r ^ p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t they can d i s c u s s and k.rstand themselves. When c o n f l i c t among Ttvembers o c c U d e a l t with d i r e c t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . Feedback i s l e c e i v e d i n a non-defensive manner and 18 c o n f r o n t a t i o n occurs i n a way t h a t i s non-judgmental. Members are w i l l i n g t o work o u t s i d e the group t o make b e h a v i o r a l changes because of the group support. They f e e l t h a t they can change i f they are w i l l i n g t o take a c t i o n and r i s k new b e h a v i o r (Corey & Corey, 1987). At the working stage c h i l d r e n have overcome t h e i r a n x i e t i e s about the group. They have developed a t t i t u d e s of c a r i n g and s e n s i t i v i t y towards one another. T h i s stage i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c h i l d r e n s h a r i n g t h e i r i n n e r most thoughts and f e e l i n g s . F e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y and be l o n g i n g have developed w i t h i n the group and members r e c o g n i z e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y and the need t o work on t h e i r own p e r s o n a l problems. I t i s a time of p e r s o n a l growth, a time when c h i l d r e n are w i l l i n g t o s e t p e r s o n a l g o a l s f o r b e h a v i o r change and take a c t i o n t o make the changes (Gumaer, 1984) . F i n a l Stage A c c o r d i n g t o Corey and Corey (1987) the f i n a l stages of a group are e s s e n t i a l because i t i s a t t h i s time t h a t members are a b l e t o c l a r i f y the meaning of t h e i r e x periences i n the group, c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r l e a r n i n g , and t r a n s f e r i t t o t h e i r everyday l i f e . The group l e a d e r r e i n f o r c e s the growth made by group members and ensures t h a t a l l members have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work out d i f f e r e n c e s with others (Gazda, 1984). The l e a d e r p r o v i d e s the s t r u c t u r e t h a t allows f o r t h i s p r o c e s s i n g (Corey 19 & Corey, 1987). Group members begin t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e s s i n t e n s e ways; t h e r e might be some sadness and a n x i e t y i n regards t o the dissolvement of the group, f e a r s of s e p a r a t i o n , and f e a r s about b e i n g a b l e t o c a r r y through i n t h e i r d a i l y l i f e what was l e a r n e d i n the group (Corey & Corey, 1987). Group members are r e l u c t a n t t o have the group experience t e r m i n a t e and sometimes p l a n s are made f o r a group reunion (Gazda, 1984). Mahler (1969) says t h a t the ending stage of a group can be seen as a "commencement" because i t i s at t h i s p o i n t t h a t the group members a c t u a l l y step out i n t o the world and are on t h e i r own. They must apply what they have l e a r n e d i n the p r o t e c t i v e environment of the group to t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Gumaer (1984) says t h a t when c h i l d r e n are a c t i v e l y working towards making p o s i t i v e behavior changes i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r thoughts and a c t i o n s , and becoming more s o c i a l l y ef-fective persons, the t e r m i n a t i o n stage of the group has begun. ART Art i s P i c t o r i a l Language In e a r l y times, long before w r i t t e n language was developed, men and women used drawings and other a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s t o express and r e c o r d t h e i r f e e l i n g s , needs and a c t i o n s (Klepsch & Log i e , 1982). These p i c t o r i a l symbols were permanent 20 e x p r e s s i o n s of t h e i r communication (Oster & Gould, 1987). O s t e r and Gould (1987) p o i n t out t h a t f o r a l o n g time now, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s l o o k i n g a t s o c i e t a l development have used works of a r t as examples of how e a r l y men and women endeavored t o express t h e i r thoughts and f e e l i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , they p o s t u l a t e t h a t , "drawings must be c o n s i d e r e d as the b a s i s f o r elemental communication" (p. 3). Klepsh and Logie (1982) d e f i n e language i n i t s broadest sense as "every a c t i o n which proceeds from the human body" (p. 5) . They m a i n t a i n t h a t not only do people communicate w i t h words but a l s o w i t h unconscious g e s t u r e s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t ways of s i t t i n g , s t a n d i n g and walking, with choreography and dance forms, w i t h h a n d w r i t i n g s t y l e s , with c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , and w i t h music and a r t . The s e l f , whether the person w i l l s i t or not i s p r o j e c t e d i n t o a l l of these a c t i v i t i e s . The a c t of drawing i s a powerful e x p r e s s i o n of s e l f t h a t h e l p s t o e s t a b l i s h s e l f - i d e n t i t y and g i v e s a way t o express f e e l i n g s (Oaklander, 1978). Ulman, (1961) b e l i e v e s t h a t a r t i s "the meeting ground of the i n n e r and outer world" (p. 93) and t h a t : I t s motive power comes from w i t h i n the p e r s o n a l i t y ; i t i s a way of b r i n g i n g order out of c h a o s — c h a o t i c f e e l i n g s and impulses w i t h i n , the b e w i l d e r i n g mass of impressions from without. I t i s a means to d i s c o v e r both the s e l f and the world, and t o e s t a b l i s h a 21 r e l a t i o n between the two. In the complete c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , i n n e r and outer r e a l i t i e s are fused i n t o a new e n t i t y . (Ulman, 1961, p. 20) A drawing s y m b o l i c a l l y captures a person's thoughts and f e e l i n g s on paper (Klepsch & Logie, 1982). I t i s the symbols and images t h a t become the " c o n t a i n e r s " f o r the emotions being e x p e r i e n c e d ( A l l a n , 1988). Rubin (1978) s a i d t h a t "the a r t i s t i c symbol i s a way f o r a c h i l d t o communicate t o h i m s e l f and o t h e r s about vague, non-verbal, e s s e n t i a l l y i n e f f a b l e f e e l i n g e x p e r i e n c e s " (p. 255) . I t i s the drawing t h a t becomes the v e h i c l e f o r i n s i g h t i n t o a s p e c t s o f a person's emotional l i f e . K l e psch and Logie (1982) s t a t e t h a t a person " l e a v e s an i m p r i n t , however, incomplete, o f h i s i n n e r s e l f upon h i s drawing" (p.6). The person may not even be drawing h i m s e l f y e t he u n c o n s c i o u s l y puts i n h i s own a t t i t u d e s , t r a i t s , b e havior c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s (Klepsh & Logie, 1982). A drawing l i k e o ther a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s i s a p e r s o n a l statement about a persons' s t r u g g l e t o make sense o f l i f e . I t i s a unique p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n of a person's i n n e r experiences (Oster & Gould, 1987). A r t has the s p e c i a l power t o not onl y symbolize i n t r a p s y c h i c events but a l s o i n t e r p e r s o n a l ones "and to c o l l a p s e m u l t i l e v e l l e d or s e q u e n t i a l happenings i n t o a s i n g l e v i s u a l statement. The a r t i s t i c symbol i s a condensation, a c a r r i e r o f many meanings" (Rubin, 1978, p.255). 22 Drawings can be used therapeutically to gain information about a person's inner thoughts and feelings. The next ' segment of t h i s chapter examines the s e r i a l drawing technique, and reviews the use of drawings as a projective technique. S e r i a l Drawing A l l a n (1978, 1988) i n his work with disturbed children has used a therapeutic approach c a l l e d S e r i a l Drawing. This approach involves the counsellor meeting with a c h i l d on a regular weekly basis for twenty to twenty-five minutes and asking the c h i l d to "draw-a-picture" (Allan, 1988). With time, as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and counsellor develops and the c h i l d ' s inner c o n f l i c t s are expressed and resolved, the healing process within the c h i l d occurs (Allan, 1988). The s e r i a l nature of t h i s approach and the sharing of the c h i l d ' s material with an understanding adult are the two key variables that promote growth. Three main stages, the i n i t i a l , middle and termination stages, have been i d e n t i f i e d when counsellors i n the public school system have used s e r i a l drawing with mildly to moderately disturbed children (Allan, 1988). A l l a n (1988) has suggested that within each stage d i s t i n c t themes and images occur. According to A l l a n (1988) drawings in the i n i t i a l stage ( f i r s t to fourth sessions) appear to: 23 (a) g i v e a view of the c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l world, o f t e n showing images t h a t r e f l e c t a cause of h i s or her problems, (b) r e f l e c t l o s s of i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l and the presence of f e e l i n g s of d e s p a i r and hopelessness, and (c) o f f e r a v e h i c l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the i n i t i a l r a p p o r t w i t h the c o u n s e l o r . . . . In the middle stage ( f i f t h t o e i g h t h s e s s i o n s ) , the drawing content seems to r e f l e c t (a) an e x p r e s s i o n of an emotion i n i t s pure form, (b) the s t r u g g l e between o p p o s i t e s ("good" vs. "bad") and the i s o l a t i o n o f ambivalent f e e l i n g s , (c) the deepening of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and the h e l p e r . At the end of t h i s phase, the c h i l d o f t e n uses the drawings as (d) a b r i d g e t o t a l k d i r e c t l y about a p a i n f u l i s s u e or t o d i s c l o s e a s e c r e t . ( p.26) Drawings i n the t e r m i n a t i o n stage ( n i n t h t o t w e l f t h s e s s i o n s ) show: "(a) images t h a t r e f l e c t a sense of mastery, s e l f - c o n t r o l , and worth, (b) scenes r e f l e c t i n g p o s i t i v e imagery ( i . e . , an absence of war, v i o l e n c e , and damage), (c) a c e n t r a l s e l f symbol ( i . e . , s e l f - p o r t r a i t or mandala forms), (d) humorous scenes, (e) p i c t u r e s r e f l e c t i n g a detachment from the h e l p e r " ( A l l a n , 1988, p.26). When a l l of the c h i l d ' s drawings are l a i d out i n a l i n e , i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, movement through the t h r e e stages can be seen ( A l l a n , 1978) . A l l a n (1978) admits t h a t , although t h i s 24 development through drawing i s d i f f e r e n t f o r each c h i l d , common p a t t e r n s can be seen. Drawings as a P r o j e c t i v e Technique The u n d e r l y i n g assumptions of p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s are t h a t because the m a t e r i a l s used are q u i t e ambiguous i n nature they a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o make responses t h a t they would normally f i n d d i f f i c u l t , and t h a t i n responding, they are a b l e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r m a t e r i a l s i n terms of t h e i r own m o t i v a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s (Klepsch & Logie, 1982) . The p r o j e c t i v e technique of drawings tap i n t o the dimension of f a n t a s y and im a g i n a t i o n (Gumaer, 1984; Klepsch & Logie, 1982). K l e p s c h & Logie (1982) are convinced t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s drawings b r i n g out i n f o r m a t i o n about themselves which no oth e r technique can do, t h a t "they d i g deeper i n t o whatever aspect i s be i n g measured; and they seem t o be abl e t o plumb the i n n e r depths of a person and uncover some of the otherwise i n a c c e s s i b l e i n s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n " (p.11). Gumaer (1984) f i n d s t h a t how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i n t h e i r l i v e s such as f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s and to t h e i r surrounding environments such as home and s c h o o l are p r o j e c t e d i n t o drawings and oth e r a r t works done d u r i n g a r t therapy s e s s i o n s . Drawings are co n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e c l i n i c a l t o o l s t h a t 25 p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i a g n o s t i c assessments, (Gumaer, 1984; O s t e r & Gould, 1987; Rubin, 1980) and enhance the t h e r a p e u t i c process o f psychotherapy (Oster & Gould, 1987). Mental H e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e l i e v e , " t h a t drawings can be c o n s i d e r e d a unique, p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n of i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e s which, when used a p p r o p r i a t e l y , can o f f e r c l u e s t h a t are of va l u e both d i a g n o s t i c a l l y and t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y (Oster & Gould, 1987, p .8). Klep s c h and Logie (1982) b e l i e v e t h a t much can be l e a r n e d about c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s from t h e i r drawings and t h a t the r i c h e s t source of i n f o r m a t i o n are the human f i g u r e drawings t h a t are done. They i d e n t i f y f o u r p r o j e c t i v e uses f o r c h i l d r e n ' s human f i g u r e drawings: As a Measure of P e r s o n a l i t y , As a Measure o f S e l f i n R e l a t i o n t o Others, As a Measure of Group Values, and As a Measure of A t t i t u d e s (Klepsch & Logie, 1982). Drawings As a Measure of S e l f i n R e l a t i o n t o Others i s the p r o j e c t i v e technique u s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s human f i g u r e drawings t h a t w i l l be expanded on because of i t s r e l e v a n c e t o the p r e s e n t study. Klepsch & Logie (1982) e x p l a i n t h a t As a Measure of S e l f , "Group drawings are u s e f u l i f one wants t o f i n d out how a c h i l d p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r group drawn" (p.12). They b e l i e v e t h a t when c h i l d r e n draw themselves t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , t e a c h e r or schoolmates they p r o j e c t i n t o t h e i r drawings t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f themselves i n 26 r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . i n the group. Koppitz (1968) b e l i e v e s t h a t human f i g u r e drawings are o b j e c t i v e and r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards others and t h a t these then are c e n t r a l t o t h e i r emotional adjustment. She s a i d t h a t s u c c e s s i v e human f i g u r e drawings of a c h i l d taken over a l o n g p e r i o d of time would show any change or l a c k of change i n a c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e toward h i m s e l f and o t h e r s . The Draw-a-Family (D-A-F) Technique The f a m i l y drawing technique was suggested by Hulse (1951) as g i v i n g i n s i g h t i n t o a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n . In h i s study with e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n he asked: " W i l l you draw your f a m i l y ( f o r me)?" (p.152). When the c h i l d r e n completed t h e i r drawing they were asked t o i d e n t i f y the f i g u r e s and to make any comments they wanted t o . Hulse, when examining the drawings took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s i z e of the f i g u r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o each ot h e r expressed i n r e l a t i v e s i z e , d i s t a n c e and d i s t r i b u t i o n over the paper. A t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o d e t a i l s such as s t r e n g t h o f p e n c i l s t r o k e , shading and c o l o r i n g , the sequence i n which the f a m i l y members appear, the c a r t o o n - l i k e exaggerations of c e r t a i n persons or body- f e a t u r e s and the omission of o t h e r s . What Hulse was most concerned with, however, was the t o t a l drawing, the G e s t a l t . I t was t h i s g e n e r a l concept t h a t he b e l i e v e d was the main source 27 A nforaation about the c h i l d ' s c o n f l i c t s and which gave of e a r i Y _ 4-ic va'ue to the method. I n arvotr study, Hulse (1952) looked a t how f a m i l y . t s mi' be p r o j e c t e d i n the drawings of c h i l d r e n who c o n f 3 - l C n i - a d t e d . He concluded t h a t normal c h i l d r e n p r o j e c t were ^ e x ^ o p o e r t i o n a l f e e l i n g s f o r the d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y members t h e i r deep i n t o ^ e i r cngs. X 9 7 - e n ( c i t e d i n Klepsh & Logie, 1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d i d i ^ t h e D-A-F technique as Hulse's f i n d i n g s were the v a i i *.-w of a<al nature and contained l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on most-V2 i . r U c t "V- He s t u d i e d drawings of 2 39 members of cons^ 1-• l i e S i % those done by both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . ^ a W ^ _ n g s d^olack, Puerto Rican and white groups were cored f o r t a i l and number of f i g u r e s . E t h n i c i t y was e l a t e d t o n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s i z e o f the f i < 3 u r e S * b l a c k s d r e w t n e mother f i g u r e l a r g e r than other 1 was a l s o noted t h a t the f a m i l y drawn was t a l v j a y s of the c h i l d ' s a c t u a l f a m i l y . T h i s was e S p e c i a - l l V ^-member f a m i l i e s , who t y p i c a l l y produced ^ o r e than s > Deren concluded t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l i Y a v a l i d i t y of the D-A-F te c h n i q u e . "Rez^i^ikoff (1956) compared the f a m i l y drawings Q f t > l a c ^ a d r e n . They found t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e greaty ^ i f f e r e n c e s . Boys p l a c e d themselves i n ^ e c e r o u p and omitted the mother from the 28 f a m i l y group o r drew her without arms. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n economic s t a t u s were r e f l e c t e d i n the f a m i l y drawings t o a much g r e a t e r degree than sex or race d i f f e r e n c e s . C h i l d r e n from low income f a m i l i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n made themselves the s m a l l e s t f i g u r e i n the f a m i l y , omitted the mother f i g u r e , made an o l d e r s i b l i n g the l a r g e s t member, drew f a m i l i e s as i f suspended i n a i r and f r e q u e n t l y drew the f a t h e r f i g u r e without arms. In 1970, Shearn and R u s s e l l ( c i t e d i n Klepsh & Logie , 1982) adapted and expanded Hulse's f a m i l y drawing technique. Instead of h a ving the person draw h i s own f a m i l y , he was asked t o draw a f a m i l y . Drawings were obtained from the c h i l d and a l s o from one o r both p a r e n t s . The p a r e n t a l drawings compared wi t h the c h i l d ' s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the important aspects of f a m i l y dynamics. The authors used case s t u d i e s t o i l l u s t r a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these drawings. B r i t a i n (1970) found t h a t s t r e s s e f f e c t e d the f a m i l y drawings of f o u r and f i v e year o l d s . When compared t o the drawings of c o n t r o l s , the drawings of c h i l d r e n exposed t o s t r e s s were c o n s t r i c t e d , g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d , d i s o r g a n i z e d , fragmented and had poor l i n e q u a l i t y . She concluded t h a t dynamic defense p r o c e s s e s were r e f l e c t e d i n drawings. Koppitz (1968) b e l i e v e d t h a t a c h i l d ' s p o s i t i v e and ne g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards h i s f a m i l y can be seen when a c h i l d draws a p i c t u r e of h i s f a m i l y . In a drawing, "a c h i l d can 29 r e v e a l u n c o n s c i o u s l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards h i s f a m i l y by d i s g u i s i n g the shapes of h i s p arents and s i b l i n g s and by u s i n g s i g n s and symbols he may not be aware o f " (p. 128) . Her recommended i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g a f a m i l y p o r t r a i t a re: "I would l i k e you t o draw a p i c t u r e of your whole f a m i l y ; you can draw i t any way you want t o " (p. 134). When a n a l y z i n g the drawings Koppitz emphasized t h a t f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as p e r c e i v e d by the c h i l d w i l l be expressed by the r e l a t i v e s i z e and placement o f the f i g u r e s on the drawing as w e l l as by omissions of f a m i l y members, s u b s t i t u t i o n s , or exag g e r a t i o n s o f the f i g u r e s o r p a r t s of them. DiLeo (1973) c o n s i d e r e d f a m i l y drawings completed by c h i l d r e n as v a l u a b l e e x p r e s s i o n s of t h e i r f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g how they p e r c e i v e the dynamics o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the f a m i l y . When examining the drawings DiLeo c o n s i d e r e d the f o l l o w i n g t o be s i g n i f i c a n t : omission of a f a m i l y member, omission o f s e l f , the parent f i g u r e t h a t the c h i l d p l a c e d h i m s e l f c l o s e s t t o , s i m i l a r i t y i n c l o t h i n g t o another member, r e l a t i v e s i z e o f f a m i l y members, e f f e c t of d i v o r c e , r o l e i n the f a m i l y and i n t e r a c t i o n and i s o l a t i o n . When c h i l d r e n are o l d enough t o p o r t r a y movement i n t h e i r drawing, DiLeo, a f t e r having the c h i l d draw h i s f a m i l y t o determine i f and how the c h i l d sees h i m s e l f i n the f a m i l y group w i l l have the c h i l d complete a K i n e t i c Family Drawing. 30 The Kinetic-Family-Drawing (K-F-D) Technique The K i n e t i c - F a m i l y - D r a w i n g (K-F-D) technique i s a t o o l t h a t measures f a m i l y dynamics, i n c l u d i n g the development of the s e l f w i t h i n the v a r y i n g f a m i l y m a trixes (Burns & Kaufman, 1986). When Burns and Kaufman (1970) f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d the K i n e t i c Family Drawing technique based on t h e i r c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e they d i d not p r o v i d e formal evidence of r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y . However, they b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r k i n e t i c t e c h n i q u e d i f f e r e d from a k i n e t i c t e c h n i q u e s because w i t h the a d d i t i o n of movement to the a k i n e t i c drawings a c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d not o n l y t o s e l f concept would be addressed but a l s o t o the area of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s as w e l l . T h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g the K-F-D are: "Draw a p i c t u r e of everyone i n your f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g you, doing something. T r y t o draw whole people, not cartoons or s t i c k people. Remember, make everyone doing something - some k i n d of a c t i o n " (Burns & Kaufman, 1972, p.5). In t h e i r second book Burns and Kaufman (1972) p r o v i d e a more d e t a i l e d s c o r i n g system. An i n t e r p r e t i v e manual f o r K-F-D a c t i o n s , s t y l e s and symbols along with a g r i d and a n a l y s i s sheet are p r o v i d e d . When s c o r i n g the K-F-Ds the f o l l o w i n g are c o n s i d e r e d : s t y l e s such as compartmentalization, e n c a p s u l a t i o n , l i n i n g on the bottom, u n d e r l y i n g i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s , edging, l i n i n g on the top and f o l d i n g c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n ; symbols; a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s and a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l 31 f i g u r e s ; and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as e r a s u r e s , arm e x t e n s i o n s , o m i s s i o n o f body p a r t s and omission o f f i g u r e s ; h e i g h t of i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s , l o c a t i o n of s e l f , and the d i s t a n c e of the c h i l d from the mother and f a t h e r and o t h e r s . In t h e i r t h i r d book Burns and Kaufman (1982) focus on a p p l i c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h w i t h K-F-Ds and new dimensions o f K-F-D i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . They summarize and r e p o r t on s t u d i e s t h a t have been done r e g a r d i n g K-F-Ds. Included i n t h e i r book are the f o l l o w i n g i d e a s : t h a t o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s t h a t are r e l a t e d t o v i s u a l f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h K-F-D f i n d i n g s ; t h a t c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s u s i n g the K-F-D technique have demonstrated t h a t t h i s t e chnique i s c l i n i c a l l y u s e f u l a c r o s s the c u l t u r e s e x p l o r e d ; and t h a t data from s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h developmental norms, w i t h r e l i a b i l i t y , and w i t h v a l i d i t y f o r K-F-Ds are b e i n g a c q u i r e d . A dimension p r e s e n t l y b e i n g examined by Burns and Kaufman d e a l s w i t h p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r a computerized q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s c o r i n g procedures f o r the many K - F - D - v a r i a b l e s . A suggested d i r e c t i o n of f u t u r e study i n t h i s area d e a l s w i t h the development of a g r i d . T h i s g r i d superimposed over the KFD would be a b l e t o measure the s e l f v e r s e s o t h e r f i g u r e s and the d i s t a n c e of s e l f from o t h e r f i g u r e s . " S u p e r i o r i t y " or " i n f e r i o r i t y " c o u l d be d e f i n e d i n terms of s i z e o f s e l f or placement on the g r i d . A study done by Sims (1974) compared K-F-Ds w i t h responses 32 o b t a i n e d from the Family R e l a t i o n s I n d i c a t o r (F-R-I), a s t a n d a r d i z e d p i c t u r e p r o j e c t i v e t echnique f o r e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a m i l y members. I t was found t h a t the drawings and the responses were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d f o r the mother and f a t h e r f i g u r e s , but not f o r the s i b l i n g s . Sims proposed t h a t K-F-Ds are a v a l i d t e c h n i q u e f o r s t u d y i n g d i s t u r b e d p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s . S c h o r n s t e i n and Derr (1978) found K-F-Ds t o be h e l p f u l i n c h i d abuse cases. Parents, not c h i l d r e n were asked t o do the drawing. The drawings were h e l p f u l i n a s s e s s i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , d e t e r m i n i n g how the p a r e n t s regarded the abused c h i l d r e n , f i n d i n g out who perpetuated the abuse and e v a l u a t i n g whether o r not the abuse o c c u r r e d as a r e a c t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s . Levenberg (1975) had d o c t o r a l c l i n i c i a n s , p r e d o c t o r a l i n t e r n s and h o s p i t a l s e c r e t a r i e s judge 3 6 c h i l d r e n t o be normal o r d i s t u r b e d based on K-F-Ds by i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n each r a t i n g . A l l of the d o c t o r a l l e v e l c l i n i c i a n s and most o f the i n t e r n s were found t o perform b e t t e r than chance s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the K-F-D i s a v a l i d measure. S c o r i n g i s not the e a s i e s t p a r t of any t e c h n i q u e . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have t r i e d t o make the s c o r i n g system f o r the K-F-D more o b j e c t i v e . O'Brien and Patton (1974) d e v i s e d a computerized system t h a t compared c h i l d r e n ' s drawings w i t h t h e i r s c o r e s on a 33 q u e s t i o n n a i r e comprised of the Coopersmith S e l f - E s t e e m Inventory ( S - E - I ) , the C h i l d r e n ' s M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y S c a l e (C-M-A-S), and a School Behavior C h e c k l i s t completed by t h e i r t e a c h e r s . The K-F-Ds were an a l y z e d f o r m a n i f e s t a n x i e t y , g e n e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t , s o c i a l s e l f and peers, s c h o o l and academic s e l f concept, a g g r e s s i o n , and h o s t i l e i s o l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the a c t i v i t y l e v e l of the f a t h e r f i g u r e i s the most important v a r i a b l e f o r p r e d i c t i n g m a n i f e s t a n x i e t y . For s c h o o l and academic s e l f - c o n c e p t , the most important v a r i a b l e was the number o f f i g u r e s i n the drawing. The more members of the f a m i l y drawn, the g r e a t e r the s e l f concept. Reynolds (1978) developed a q u i c k s c o r i n g guide f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of K-F-Ds. He l i s t e d and d i s c u s s e d the meanings o f 32 p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c l i n i c a l i n d i c a t o r s gathered from a review of the l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as a d d r e s s i n g the pros and cons of t h i s guide. A* q u a n t i t a t i v e s c o r i n g system was developed by Myers (1978) t o s c o r e 21 measurable s t y l e s , a c t i o n s , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of K-F-Ds. T h i s system was used t o e v a l u a t e drawings from f o u r d i f f e r e n t groups of boys and t o t e s t i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among two age l e v e l s and two l e v e l s of emotional adjustment. The r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y support the use of t h i s s c o r i n g system t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d from the w e l l - a d j u s t e d . The system was a l s o , t o some degree s e n s i t i v e t o some age d i f f e r e n c e s , however, Myers c a u t i o n e d 34 a g a i n s t u s i n g the system f o r t h i s purpose. Draw-a-Group T e s t Hare and Hare ( 1 9 5 6 ) developed the Draw-a-Group T e s t t o r e v e a l the s t r u c t u r e o f a group and how an i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t s t o i t . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the t e s t a r e : Think of the c h i l d r e n you l i k e t o p l a y w i t h most on the playground. Now t h i n k of the t h i n g s you l i k e t o do b e s t w i t h t h i s group of c h i l d r e n . Then draw a p i c t u r e o f your group doing the t h i n g you l i k e t o do b e s t . When you are through, we w i l l w r i t e down what i s g o i n g on i n your p i c t u r e . (p.52) In t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study u s i n g 1 0 elementary s c h o o l classrooms the t e a c h e r s ' rankings o f the c h i l d r e n ' s s t a t u s i n c l a s s from l e a d e r s through f o l l o w e r s t o i s o l a t e s were compared w i t h the drawing r e s u l t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the r e s u l t s s u p p o r t i n g the hypothesis t h a t a c h i l d ' s drawing of h i s group i s r e l a t e d t o h i s p o s i t i o n i n the group. However, the i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e a l i z e d t h a t more s t u d i e s were needed b e f o r e t h i s approach c o u l d be used with confidence. The K i n e t i c School Drawing (K-S-D) Technique Prout and P h i l l i p s (1974) developed a v a r i a t i o n o f the K-F-D, the K i n e t i c School Drawing, t o f i n d out how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e themselves i n the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . C h i l d r e n were g i v e n the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : 35 I'd l i k e you t o draw a s c h o o l p i c t u r e . Put y o u r s e l f , your t e a c h e r , and a f r i e n d or two i n the p i c t u r e . Make everyone doing something. T r y t o draw whole people and make the b e s t drawing you can. Remember, draw y o u r s e l f , your teacher, and a f r i e n d or two and make everyone doing something. (p.303) When a s s e s s i n g the drawings, the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n of themselves i n s c h o o l , o f t h e i r t e a c h e r s and o f t h e i r peers were c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s technique has p o t e n t i a l , however, t h e r e was no s y s t e m a t i z e d s c o r i n g system p r o v i d e d nor was evidence r e g a r d i n g v a l i d i t y s u p p l i e d . Schneider (1977) used a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n procedure t o f i n d out i f a combination of the K-S-D s c o r e , K-F-D s c o r e , age and IQ would s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t f a m i l y and s c h o o l r a t i n g s t h a t he had completed beforehand. He found t h a t n e i t h e r the K-S-D s c o r e , nor the K-F-D s c o r e added t o the p r e d i c t i o n l e v e l t h a t was a c h i e v e d by age and IQ a l o n e . Although h i s r e s u l t s o f f e r l i t t l e support f o r K-S-Ds he d i d not f e e l t h a t the technique was u s e l e s s . He suggested t h a t more r e s e a r c h i n t o s c o r i n g procedures would be h e l p f u l . He a l s o suggested t h a t the c r i t e r i a used should be more s e n s i t i v e t o the degree of d i f f e r e n c e r a t h e r than t o j u s t the presence or absence of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . He c o n s i d e r e d a s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f and o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o being most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o K-S-D responses. 36 Akinetic School Drawing Technique K u t n i c k (1978) gave the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s t o elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n : " W i l l you p l e a s e draw me a p i c t u r e of a classroom w i t h people i n i t " (p.177). Upon completing t h e i r drawing c h i l d r e n were que s t i o n e d about the con t e n t o f t h e i r p i c t u r e . The a n a l y s i s o f the drawings focused on human f i g u r e s , the classroom and o b j e c t s found w i t h i n , and the t e a c h e r . A l s o , c o r r e l a t i o n s were made r e g a r d i n g c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f what the c h i l d r e n had s a i d w i t h what they had drawn. The a n a l y s i s , which was dependent on the developmental a b i l i t y o f the c h i l d t o draw human f i g u r e s and classroom c o n t e n t showed; sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the drawing of human f i g u r e s ; developmental d i f f e r e n c e s i n drawing human f i g u r e s and classroom content; and c h i l d r e n who put a t e a c h e r i n t h e i r p i c t u r e p e r c e i v e d the t e a c h e r not o n l y as a presence i n the classroom but f o r the t e a c h e r s d i s c i p l i n a r y f u n c t i o n s . K u t n i c k concluded t h a t the drawings were i n d i c a t i v e o f the c h i l d ' s own s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t e a c h e r i n s c h o o l . Interpretation of Group Drawings When i n t e r p r e t i n g group drawings K l e p s c h and Lo g i e (1982) suggest t h a t t o get the o v e r a l l i mpression o f the drawings you shou l d ask q u e s t i o n s such as, "Are the members o f the group a l l engaged i n the same or s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? Are they doing something d i f f e r e n t ? Is t h e r e t o t a l i n t e r a c t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n 37 between o n l y a few, or completely independent f u n c t i o n i n g ? " (p.86). The answers w i l l h e l p you t o determine whether a group o r a f a m i l y i s c o h e s i v e or not c o h e s i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e or d e s t r u c t i v e , happy or unhappy. S p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r s t h a t K lepsch and L o g i e (1982) suggest are important t o l o o k f o r are: omission of f i g u r e s , i n c l u s i o n of e x t r a f i g u r e s , placement of f i g u r e s on the page, r e l a t i v e s i z e of f i g u r e s , s i m i l a r treatment of f i g u r e s , d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment o f f i g u r e s , u n d e r l i n i n g or b a s e l i n i n g , s e p a r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l by l i n e s or e n c a p s u l a t i o n , two i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n an a c t i v i t y t h a t shows r i v a l r y , and a c t i o n s i n k i n e t i c drawings t h a t take on s i g n i f i c a n c e . DRAWINGS AND ASSESSMENT: CURRENT STATE OP THE RESEARCH Research has shown t h a t the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of hypotheses and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o-f drawings have met w i t h i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s (Koppitz, 1968). However, t o the many mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s who employ t h i s technique i n both assessment and t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n s the use of drawings i s a v a l u a b l e , n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g way t o g a i n much needed i n f o r m a t i o n about a person's c o n f l i c t s , wish f u l f i l m e n t s and f a n t a s i e s (Oster & Gould, 1986). The impact of u s i n g drawings as p r o j e c t i o n s of a person's i n n e r experiences has been immense (Kopp i t z , 1968). I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t comes from drawings t e l l s us "the way a person 38 r e a l l y i s " (Klepsch & Logie, 1982, p.174). Research v e r y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s the o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n gained a t the f i r s t s i g h t of a drawing t h a t i s more important than a s i n g l e s i g n or i n d i c a t o r . When s e v e r a l s i g n s b e g i n t o p o i n t i n the same d i r e c t i o n , then a person i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o say something about the c h i l d . I n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d from a drawing t e l l s us something about the way t h a t person i s on a p a r t i c u l a r day (Klepsch & L o g i e , 1982). Gumaer (1984) s t a t e s : " I t a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t o express the t r u t h of the moment, t h a t which i s r e a l f o r them at t h a t time" (p.97). To check t o see i f a c h i l d i s l i k e t h i s a l l the time, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o gather drawings over time. By examining s e v e r a l drawings, enduring themes and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be s e p a r a t e d from temporary ones (Klepsch & Logie, 1982) . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s o f t e n looked a t the drawings of abnormal groups, however, more r e c e n t l y r e s e a r c h e r s have begun t o look a t l e s s a t y p i c a l groups. Drawings done by c h i l d r e n who are e x p e r i e n c i n g normal adjustment problems can be used t o b e t t e r understand and h e l p them. Group drawings, i n p a r t i c u l a r can p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about how c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e the normal a n x i e t i e s , j e a l o u s i e s and f r u s t r a t i o n s t h a t occur i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s (Klepsch & L o g i e , 1982). The work of Burns and Kaufman and t h e i r K i n e t i c Family Drawing Technique has acted as a c a t a l y s t f o r o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o do r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o both f a m i l y and s c h o o l 39 group drawings. Research i n the area of group drawings, where the focus i s on r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e as c h i l d r e n are o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o the mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r h e l p i n t h i s a r e a . As K l e p s c h and Logie (1982) s t a t e , " i n thes e times o f m a r i t a l d i s c o r d , s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , h i g h m o b i l i t y , second marriages, e t c . i t i s extremely important t o have i n s i g h t i n t o c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of themselves r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s " (p.175) . Most r e s e a r c h i n the p a s t u s i n g human f i g u r e drawings has focused on measuring p e r s o n a l i t y . A v a l u a b l e area t h a t needs t o be e x p l o r e d i s c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g f a m i l y , s c h o o l and peer groups. C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s drawings r e v e a l much about t h e i r i n n e r thoughts and f e e l i n g s ; and t h a t analyzed over time, r e f l e c t c h i l d r e n ' s changing p e r c e p t i o n s . S e r i a l drawings g i v e i n s i g h t i n t o how c h i l d r e n see themselves i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . I t i s understood t h a t when c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group, the group w i l l go through the d i f f e r e n t stages o f group development. Each stage o f group development w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t i v e b e h a v i o r s and expressed thoughts and f e e l i n g s . L i n k i n g t o g e t h e r the idea t h a t the stages o f group development can be r e f l e c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings i s a new 40 d i r e c t i o n t h a t i s t o be e x p l o r e d i n t h i s study. To date, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done t o l i n k these two concepts. The d i f f i c u l t y i n doing r e s e a r c h of t h i s n ature l i e s i n t r y i n g t o s e t up s t u d i e s t h a t can s t a t i s t i c a l l y measure and a n a l y z e the i n f o r m a t i o n found i n drawings. T h i s study w i l l attempt t o develop a method f o r a n a l y z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings i n r e l a t i o n t o the stages of group development and i n doing so l i n k the two concepts. Purpose o f Study The purpose of the p r e s e n t study i s t w o - f o l d . F i r s t l y , i t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e the i d e a t h a t the s t a g e s of group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. Secondly, t o determine the extent t o which o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s can c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development from c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e designed f o r t h i s purpose. 41 CHAPTER 3 METHOD T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h procedures i n f o u r s e c t i o n s : c o l l e c t i o n o f drawings, development o f the r a t i n g s c a l e , t r a i n i n g and r a t i n g procedure, and data a n a l y s i s . I n c l u d e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n of drawings s e c t i o n i s the c o u n s e l l o r and s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n along w i t h how the drawings were c o l l e c t e d i n both the p i l o t study and the formal study. In the development of the r a t i n g s c a l e s e c t i o n the e v o l u t i o n o f the r a t i n g s c a l e i s d i s c u s s e d . The t r a i n i n g and r a t i n g procedure s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s how the r a t e r s and h e l p e r s were s e l e c t e d , the t r a i n i n g procedures f o r both the r a t e r s and h e l p e r s and, the procedures f o r the r a t i n g p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , the data a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n concludes w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was used. COLLECTION OF DRAWINGS P i l o t S t u d y S i x c h i l d r e n , aged 6 t o 8 years o l d , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group d e a l i n g w i t h f r i e n d s h i p s k i l l s . The 3 g i r l s and 3 boys met wi t h the c o u n s e l l o r f o r 10 s e s s i o n s and l e a r n e d t e c h n i q u e s and s k i l l s t h a t would h e l p them t o become 42 b e t t e r f r i e n d s . At the end of each s e s s i o n the c h i l d r e n were asked t o t h i n k about how i t had f e l t t o be i n t h e i r group t h a t day and then were asked t o draw a p i c t u r e of t h e i r group. The request f o r the drawing was phrased i n a d i f f e r e n t way each s e s s i o n u n t i l a s t a n d a r d method of i n s t r u c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s standard method of i n s t r u c t i o n was used i n the f i n a l study. For the f i r s t t h r e e s e s s i o n s each c h i l d was asked a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r p i c t u r e . T h i s p r o c e s s took a l o n g time and was, t h e r e f o r e , judged not t o be f e a s i b l e i n the formal study. From the f o u r t h s e s s i o n up t o and i n c l u d i n g the e i g h t h s e s s i o n each c h i l d was asked t o choose a word from a c h a r t of s e l e c t e d " f e e l i n g words" t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e d how he o r she f e l t w h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the group. A f t e r .much thought and c o n s u l t a t i o n , i t was decided t h a t the f e e l i n g word i n f o r m a t i o n would not add f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o the o b j e c t i v e s of the formal study. In the l a s t t h r e e s e s s i o n s the c h i l d r e n were simply asked t o draw a p i c t u r e of t h e i r group without any v e r b a l r e p o r t i n g . S e l e c t i o n o f C o u n s e l l o r s In the f a l l o f 1988, 15 elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s from the Surrey School D i s t r i c t i n B.C. p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a 60 hour t r a i n i n g program on how to run s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. T h i s t r a i n i n g program was e x p e r i e n t i a l i n d e s i g n and was run.as 43 a s m a l l group e x p e r i e n c e . As p a r t of the t r a i n i n g program each c o u n s e l l o r conducted a s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group w i t h i n one o f t h e i r s c h o o l s . The t o p i c of each group was determined by the i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l o r s who i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c needs w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n they s e r v i c e d . In the formal study f i v e c o u n s e l l o r s implemented the r e s e a r c h component of s e r i a l group drawings i n t o t h e i r group d e s i g n . Drawings c o l l e c t e d from w i t h i n these groups were used i n t he r a t i n g p r o c e s s . These c o u n s e l l o r s a l l h o l d Master's l e v e l degrees i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology and have a t l e a s t one yea r o f ex p e r i e n c e as an elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s Elementary s c h o o l students i n the Surrey School D i s t r i c t , were s e l e c t e d by t h e i r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. The students came from v a r y i n g r a c i a l and socioeconomic backgrounds. Of the 48 c h i l d r e n t h a t were i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group o n l y 15 c h i l d r e n and t h e i r s e r i a l group drawings were used f o r the study. The 12 female and 3 male students ranged i n age from 7 years t o 13 y e a r s (mean: 11 y e a r s ) . Drawings from the ot h e r c h i l d r e n were not used f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: l o s s o f group members i n some groups; c o u n s e l l o r changes, i n the format and s t r u c t u r e o f the group; 44 c h i l d r e n c o p y i n g from each o t h e r s drawings because space was cramped; and c o u n s e l l o r l o s s of p i c t u r e s e t s . Formal Study The r e s e a r c h component of the study was n o n - i n t r u s i v e . The drawing a c t i v i t y t h a t the c h i l d r e n completed a t the end of each s e s s i o n as p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the d e s i g n o f each s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group. The s t r u c t u r e o f each group was determined by the i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l o r w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n time and l e n g t h a c c o r d i n g t o the age of the students, the t o p i c s p r e s e n t e d and the a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d . Each c o u n s e l l o r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g v e r b a l and/or w r i t t e n p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n f o r each c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n h i s or her group. S i n c e the s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups were e s t a b l i s h e d by the elementary sc h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o meet the needs of p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s and not f o r r e s e a r c h purposes, a d d i t i o n a l p e r m i s s i o n f o r the drawing component was not judged necessary. At the end of each s e s s i o n c h i l d r e n were s u p p l i e d w i t h an 8x11 i n c h p i e c e o f paper, a p e n c i l and an e r a s e r by t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r . ' They were asked t o f i n d a q u i e t p l a c e i n the room t o work. The standard i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t were d e l i v e r e d were: C l o s e your eyes and go i n s i d e of y o u r s e l f . . . I want you t o t h i n k about how i t f e l t t o be i n our group today. . . In a minute I am going t o ask you t o open 45 y o u r eyes and draw a p i c t u r e o f our group When you a r e r e a d y open y o u r eyes and b e g i n y o u r p i c t u r e . The c o u n s e l l o r s were a b l e t o r e p e a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a second t i m e i f t h e y f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y . The d r a w i n g s t o o k t h e c h i l d r e n 5 t o 10 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e . The c h i l d r e n were f r e e t o l e a v e when t h e y had c o m p l e t e d t h e i r work. To e n s u r e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n had enough t i m e t o complete t h e i r d r a w i n g s t h e s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups were s c h e d u l e d so t h a t t h e y ended on a b r e a k t i m e , f o r example, r e c e s s . T h i s gave t h e c h i l d r e n e x t r a t i m e t o complete t h e i r d r a w i n g s as w e l l as t h e freedom t o l e a v e when t h e y were f i n i s h e d . A l l t h e d r a w i n g s completed by t h e c h i l d r e n were c o l l e c t e d by t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r a f t e r each s e s s i o n . A t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e group, t h e c o u n s e l l o r r e p l a c e d t h e names o f t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h a number code t h a t was s u p p l i e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r so t h a t t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g was a s s u r e d . DEVELOPMENT OF THE RATING SCALE The R a t i n g S c a l e (Appendix A) was c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e d r a w i n g s i n t h e P i l o t Study and based on Group Stage Theory and E x p r e s s i v e A r t Therapy. The p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e R a t i n g S c a l e began w i t h t h e l a y i n g o u t o f a l l t h e drawings i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r and t h e n 46 examining them f o r c e r t a i n themes. The drawings were then d i v i d e d i n t o the f o u r stages of group development t h a t are d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2. These stages, I n i t i a l , T r a n s i t i o n , Working, and T e r m i n a t i o n became the f o u r components w i t h i n the R a t i n g S c a l e . Common p i c t o r i a l themes were then i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the f o u r components and arranged i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s . These s i x c a t e g o r i e s : Grouping, Body R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , A c t i o n , Communication, Symbols/Metaphors, and S t y l e , are common t o a l l f o u r stage components. A l i s t o f d e s c r i p t e r s f o r each catego r y was then d e f i n e d . These d e s c r i p t e r s i d e n t i f i e d p i c t o r i a l d e t a i l s t h a t were s p e c i f i c t o each of the f o u r components. The r e s u l t was the development of a f o u r component R a t i n g S c a l e t h a t c o n t a i n e d the same s i x c a t e g o r i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t d e s c r i p t e r s f o r each stage of Group Development (Appendix B). TRAINING AND RATING PROCEDURE S e l e c t i o n o f Raters The f o u r r a t e r s chosen to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r a t i n g p r o c e s s were ex p e r i e n c e d elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n the Surrey School D i s t r i c t . They had a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the same 60 hour t r a i n i n g program on how t o run s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups as the c o u n s e l l o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a r t c o l l e c t i o n phase 47 of the study. S e l e c t i o n o f H e l p e r s Four people were asked t o a c t as h e l p e r s f o r the r a t i n g procedure. I t was the h e l p e r ' s job t o r e c o r d the r a t e r ' s placement o f each s e t of p i c t u r e s . T r a i n i n g and R a t i n g Both the t r a i n i n g and r a t i n g procedures took p l a c e d u r i n g a one day workshop. The f o l l o w i n g i s an account of the t r a i n i n g and r a t i n g procedures. T o t a l time f o r the day was s i x hours. The workshop began with an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the r a t e r s and h e l p e r s . T h i s i n c l u d e d the purpose of the study, purpose of the day, p r o c e s s and procedure of the day, time schedule, assignment of h e l p e r s t o r a t e r s , assignment of r a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers, d i v i s i o n of r a t e r s and h e l p e r s i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e groups f o r t r a i n i n g purposes, and assignment of m a t e r i a l t o be read by the r a t e r s w h i l e the h e l p e r s were b e i n g t r a i n e d . H e l p e r T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n The purpose of the Helper T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n was t o e x p l a i n t o the h e l p e r s t h e i r r o l e i n the r a t i n g s e s s i o n . Each h e l p e r was a s s i g n e d t o one r a t e r f o r the d u r a t i o n of the r a t i n g s e s s i o n . Each h e l p e r was g i v e n a package t h a t c o n t a i n e d the t r a i n i n g and r a t i n g data sheets (Appendix C), the decoding f o r the symbols 48 (Appendix D), and f o u r separate cards on which were p r i n t e d the words: " I n i t i a l " , " T r a n s i t i o n " , "Working", and "Termination". The h e l p e r s were shown a sample of the drawings and the co d i n g on the back was d i s c u s s e d . There were two d i f f e r e n t codes Used; one f o r the Random Order and one f o r the S e q u e n t i a l Order. Random Order was the order i n which the drawings were l a i d out f o r each r a t e r t o look at i n i t i a l l y . S e q u e n t i a l Order was the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n which the p i c t u r e s had been drawn by the s t u d e n t s . For both the t r a i n i n g and r a t i n g s e s s i o n s the h e l p e r s were t o l d t h a t i t was t h e i r job t o ensure t h a t the drawings were p l a c e d i n random order a c c o r d i n g t o the cod i n g on the back of each drawing b e f o r e the r a t e r looked a t them. The h e l p e r s were i n s t r u c t e d not t o d i s c u s s the drawings w i t h the r a t e r i n any way, but t o wa i t u n t i l the r a t e r had completed h i s o r her e v a l u a t i o n o f the s e t of drawings. I t was e x p l a i n e d t o the h e l p e r s t h a t the r a t e r s would use the f o u r cards t o d i v i d e the s e t o f drawings i n t o the f o u r stages. The h e l p e r s were t o c o l l e c t the data a c c o r d i n g t o how the r a t e r grouped the drawings by r e c o r d i n g the s e q u e n t i a l code symbols found on the back of each drawing i n the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on the data sheet. The h e l p e r s were then t o rearrange the drawings back i n t o random o r d e r f o r the next r a t e r . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r f i n a l job was t o tr a n s p o s e the s e q u e n t i a l symbols i n t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g number v a l u e s and r e c o r d these i n the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on the 49 data sheet. Rater T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n The purpose of the Rater T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n was t o spend time d i s c u s s i n g and r e v i e w i n g the stages of group development and s e r i a l a r t drawing and t o i n t r o d u c e and f a m i l i a r i z e the r a t e r s w i t h the c a t e g o r i e s o f the f o u r component R a t i n g S c a l e . Each r a t e r had been g i v e n two s e l e c t e d p i e c e s o f m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o the t h e o r y of group stage development t o read. The e x c e r p t from Corey and Corey (1987, p.229) summarizes the f o u r stages o f group development. The s e l e c t i o n from Gumaer (1984, p.222) d e s c r i b e s the stages of group development as w e l l as the b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n i n each of the stages. T h i s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l was then d i s c u s s e d by the r a t e r s and t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . The r a t e r s then read an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by A l l a n (1978) f o c u s i n g on s e r i a l drawing. Again, t h i s m a t e r i a l was d i s c u s s e d by the r a t e r s and the t r a i n e r . A s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n u s i n g the I n t e g r a t e d Model by Borgen, P o l l a r d , Amundson, and Westwood (1989, p. 274) summarized and p u l l e d t o g e t h e r the i n f o r m a t i o n from the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . A f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n about the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , the R a t i n g S c a l e was examined. Each of the f o u r components of the R a t i n g S c a l e was p r e s e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y by the t r a i n e r ; b e g i n n i n g w i t h the I n i t i a l Stage, f o l l o w e d by the T r a n s i t i o n Stage, the Working 50 Stage, and ending w i t h the Termi n a t i o n Stage. The same procedure f o r examining each of the f o u r components of the R a t i n g S c a l e was f o l l o w e d . Each began wi t h the r a t e r s l o o k i n g a t a c o l l a g e of magazine p i c t u r e s which had been put t o g e t h e r by the t r a i n e r t o g i v e the sense o f the p a r t i c u l a r stage being looked a t . The r a t e r s were asked t o b r a i n s t o r m words t h a t would d e s c r i b e the stage b e i n g examined. The t r a i n e r added these words t o the c o l l a g e . The r a t e r s then drew a p i c t u r e , added i t t o the c o l l a g e and e x p l a i n e d why they i n c l u d e d i t i n the stage. During the t r a i n i n g f o r the I n i t i a l Stage component the r a t e r s were i n t r o d u c e d t o the s i x c a t e g o r i e s t h a t would be found i n each component of the R a t i n g S c a l e . These c a t e g o r i e s were summarized on a v i s u a l c h a r t (Appendix E ) . T h i s v i s u a l c h a r t was reviewed when each of the subsequent Stage Components were pre s e n t e d . * A handout d e s c r i b i n g i n d e t a i l the s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f the s p e c i f i c component was then g i v e n t o each r a t e r (Appendix A ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n the handout had been reproduced on a l a r g e v i s u a l c h a r t f o r t r a i n i n g purposes. In a d d i t i o n t o the w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h a r t , were samples of c h i l d r e n ' s drawings which i l l u s t r a t e d the s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t e r s i n each category. These drawings were chosen by the t r a i n e r from s e t s o f drawings t h a t were not i n c l u d e d i n the formal study. The c h a r t was used by the t r a i n e r t o p r e s e n t t o the r a t e r s , 51 i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner, the d e s c r i p t e r s found i n each of the s i x c a t e g o r i e s . During t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n key f a c t o r s w i t h i n the component were p o i n t e d out and emphasized. During the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the I n i t i a l Stage component i t was emphasized t h a t d e s c r i p t e r s i n the S t y l e Category were important. In the T r a n s i t i o n Stage component, the Symbols/Metaphors Category with d e s c r i p t e r s t h a t emphasized movement were important. In the Working Stage Component, the Symbols/Metaphor Category w i t h d e s c r i p t e r s t h a t emphasized t a s k and a c t i v i t y were important. In the T e r m i n a t i o n Stage component, the Symbols/Metaphors Category w i t h d e s c r i p t e r s t h a t emphasized the end of the group were important t o note. To conclude t h i s p a r t of the T r a i n i n g S e s s i o n , the t r a i n e r p r e s e n t e d the r a t e r s w i t h g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r them t o keep i n mind when r a t i n g the drawing s e t s . They were t o l d t o l o o k a t each drawing as a whole and i n d e t a i l , t o l o o k a t the drawings i n t u i t i v e l y and c o n c r e t e l y , and t o l o o k f o r symbols, metaphors, and s u b t l e t i e s . The t r a i n e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t the p i c t u r e s would have d i f f e r e n t combinations of d e s c r i p t e r s t h a t would h e l p determine which stage the p i c t u r e should be p l a c e d i n . As w e l l , they were t o l d t h a t the p i c t u r e s might not d i v i d e evenly i n t o the f o u r stages and t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r stage might not be apparent a t a l l i n a s e t of drawings. For example, the group might have gone from the i n i t i a l stage t o the working stage, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e 52 might not be any drawings r e p r e s e n t i n g the t r a n s i t i o n stage; o r the group might have continued i n the working stage even i n the l a s t s e s s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e might not be an apparent t e r m i n a t i o n stage i n some of the s e t s of drawings. The r a t e r s and h e l p e r s then worked through f i v e sample s e t s of drawings. The purpose of having the R a t e r s do the sample s e t s was t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n l o o k i n g a t and r a t i n g the drawings. The f i r s t t h r e e sample s e t s were examples drawn by the t r a i n e r . These s e t s were used t o t r a i n the r a t e r s t o a h i g h l e v e l o f accuracy. The r a t e r s were g i v e n Sample Set One t o r a t e on t h e i r own. A f t e r they r a t e d Sample Set One, t h e i r h e l p e r s r e c o r d e d the data on the T r a i n i n g Data Sheet. The r a t e r s then came back t o g e t h e r as a group and saw the c o r r e c t placement of the drawings. R a t i n g s were d i s c u s s e d and compared. U n c e r t a i n t i e s about the drawings, the R a t i n g S c a l e and the process were d i s c u s s e d . The same procedure was repeated f o r Samples Two and Three. The l e v e l o f accuracy i n c r e a s e d as the r a t e r s worked through the t h r e e sample s e t s . On the t h i r d s e t of drawings, the r a t i n g accuracy amongst the r a t e r s was w i t h i n one e r r o r of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . Sample Sets Four and F i v e were s e t s of c h i l d r e n ' s drawings from the P i l o t Study. The same procedure as f o r the f i r s t t h r e e sample s e t s was f o l l o w e d . The purpose of i n c l u d i n g these two 53 sample s e t s i n the p rocess was t o f a m i l i a r i z e the r a t e r s w i t h a c t u a l examples of c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings. R a t i n g S e s s i o n F i f t e e n s e t s of drawings were l a i d out i n d i f f e r e n t rooms. Each s e t o f p i c t u r e s was d i s p l a y e d i n random o r d e r . Rater One began the r a t i n g p rocess w i t h Set One and moved s e q u e n t i a l l y through the remaining s e t s . When Rater One had completed r a t i n g Set One and had moved t o a d i f f e r e n t room t o b e g i n r a t i n g Set Two, R ater Two began r a t i n g Set One. A l l f o u r r a t e r s c o n t i n u e d t h i s p r o c e s s f o r the f i f t e e n s e t s . The R a t e r s a l l f o l l o w e d the same s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r when r a t i n g the s e t s of drawings. The purpose f o r t h i s was t o ensure uniform p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s e t s , g i v i n g the r a t e r s a common exp e r i e n c e . The r a t e r s were a b l e to work at t h e i r own pace moving from one s e t t o the next. However, none of the r a t e r s were a b l e t o r e t u r n t o a p r e v i o u s s e t of drawings and change t h e i r r a t i n g c h o i c e s . To ensure t h a t r a t e r s d i d not d i s c u s s the drawings nor see what another r a t e r had done, only one r a t e r was a llowed i n a room a t a time. DATA ANALYSIS The data c o l l e c t e d from the r a t i n g s of the drawings were 54 ranked. The ranks 1, 2, 3, and 4 were a s s i g n e d t o the I n i t i a l , T r a n s i t i o n , Working and T e r m i n a t i o n Stage c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The data was entered on a VAX computer system i n the Research and E v a l u a t i o n Department of the Surrey School D i s t r i c t . Spearman's Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s , were c a l c u l a t e d between each p o s s i b l e p a i r of r a t e r s on each s e t of drawings. T h i s generated a matrix of s i x c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each s e t . 55 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS T h i s study p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e the i d e a t h a t the stages o f group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. F u r t h e r , t h a t t h e r e are o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a t h a t can be e s t a b l i s h e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the v a r i o u s stages o f group development. For the study, 15 s e t s of drawings were c o l l e c t e d from 15 c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. Raters were t r a i n e d t o c l a s s i f y the drawings based on a r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t was developed f o r the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g the stages of group development i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l a r t drawings. T h i s c hapter o u t l i n e s the two o b j e c t i v e s f o r the study, and i n c l u d e s both a q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . -O b j e c t i v e s 1. To e x p l o r e the i d e a t h a t the stages of group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. 2. To determine the extent t o which o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s can c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development from 56 c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e designed f o r t h i s purpose. Q u a n t i t a t i v e Data A n a l y s i s The Spearman product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was used t o o b t a i n i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r ranked d a t a . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each p a i r of r a t e r s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s e t of drawings. A measure of i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y among the 4 r a t e r s f o r each s e t of drawings are shown i n T a b l e 1. As can be seen, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y e v i d e n t i n T a b l e 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s range from -.51 t o 1.00 w i t h most of them being p o s i t i v e . For d i s c u s s i o n purposes a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .5 or h i g h e r was adopted as an a c c e p t a b l e standard. There are t h r e e s e t s of drawings t h a t met t h i s c r i t e r i o n . Sets 1, 5, and 7 show reasonable c o n s i s t e n c y among r a t e r s . These s e t s are c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s the range w i t h Set 1 showing most agreement. For Set 1 the c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s show a range of .73 t o .95. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h . Although lower, the c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r both Set 5 and Set 7 are c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s the range and are above the adopted standard. C o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h i s are Sets 4, 15, and 6 which do not show adequate c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s the range with Set 4 having the p o o r e s t i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . 57 Set 4, i n c o n t r a s t t o Set 1, has v e r y low r e l i a b i l i t y . F i v e o f the 6 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are way below the adopted s t a n d a r d o f .5 w i t h 3 of them being n e g a t i v e . The c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s some l i m i t e d support f o r o b j e c t i v e 2, t h i s i n t u r n a l l o w s f o r a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f o b j e c t i v e 1. Set 1 and Set 4 w i l l form the b a s i s f o r the Q u a l i t a t i v e D i s c u s s i o n below. Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s The drawings of Sets l and 4 w i l l be used t o form the b a s i s of t he q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s because they produced the h i g h e s t and lowest range of i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y . Set 1 has the b e s t i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a c r o s s the range as can be seen i n Table 1. The drawings from Set 1 can be seen i n f i g u r e 1. Each drawing w i t h i n t h i s s e t c l e a r l y d e p i c t s the c h i l d ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g what went on i n the group. The drawings show t h a t the drawer i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the group and the t a s k s o f the group. The c h i l d has i n t e r n a l i z e d what has gone on i n the group and has p e r s o n a l i z e d the experience i n the drawings. Each drawing c r e a t i v e l y expresses the essence of the group p r o c e s s . The d e t a i l s t h a t a re e v i d e n t i n the drawings o f f e r c l u e s t o h e l p i d e n t i f y the group p r o c e s s . Set 4 has the po o r e s t i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y as seen i n Tabl e 1. The drawings from Set 4 can be seen i n f i g u r e 2. In 58 c o n t r a s t t o the drawings i n Set 1 the drawings i n Set 4 are not p e r s o n a l i z e d o r d e t a i l e d . The drawings are more a summary o r r e p o r t on what l e a r n i n g t a s k s were presented t o the group then on the thoughts and f e e l i n g s the c h i l d had about the group. There i s not a sense t h a t the c h i l d was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the group p r o c e s s . A l l o f the v e r b a l communication i s i n the t h i r d p erson w i t h no ownership of f e e l i n g s or thoughts o f what o c c u r r e d i n the group. There i s l i t t l e i f any d i f f e r e n c e i n the d e t a i l s and content o f the drawings from the f i r s t drawing t o the l a s t . In summary, O b j e c t i v e 1 holds f o r some st u d e n t s , t h a t the stages o f group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l drawings completed by some c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. The r e s u l t s a l s o show q u a l i f i e d support f o r o b j e c t i v e 2, l i m i t e d by a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n o b j e c t i v e 1. T h e r e f o r e , o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s may be a b l e t o c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development from c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e designed f o r t h i s purpose, however, the many extraneous v a r i a b l e s t h a t are p r e s e n t c o m p l i c a t e the r e s u l t s . The v a r i a b l e s t h a t impact t h i s study w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5. 59 T a b l e 1 I n t e r - r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s Rater P a i r s Drawing AB AC AD BC BD CD S e t s 1 .78 .95 .73 .80 .80 .82 2 .45 .55 .61 .92 .30 .61 3 -.02 .01 .14 .55 .85 .61 4 .06 -.10 .22 -.22 -.34 .57 5 .53 .57 .53 .92 1.0 .92 6 .16 .48 .20 -.45 .33 .16 7 .63 .64* .68 .60 .68 .38 8 .97 .85 .09 .88 .16 -.06 9 .60 .44 .60 .16 .46 .79 10 .34 .11 .66 .69 .35 .35 11 .95 .04 1.0 .09 .95 .04 12 .67 -.35 .71 .28 .20 -.51 13 .71 .22 -.32 .70 .00 .00 14 .46 .56 .29 .56 .71 .40 15 .03 .62 .65 -.23 .37 .02 60 F i g u r e l : Drawing Set l 61 F i g u r e 1: Continued 62 abaft our friends andiTwas -fun. 1. 2. 9 f ? 1 Figure 2: Drawing Set 4 F i g u r e 2: Continued 64 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION T h i s f i n a l chapter i n c l u d e s a summary of the r e s e a r c h problem, the method and the r e s u l t s . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the many extraneous v a r i a b l e s t h a t impacted and l i m i t e d t h i s study, the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and the c o n c l u s i o n . The r e s e a r c h problem examined i n t h i s study was t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , was the i d e a t h a t the stages of group development c o u l d be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by c h i l d r e n who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. Second, t h a t by u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t was developed f o r t h i s purpose, o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s c o u l d c l a s s i f y the stages of group development from the s e r i a l drawings completed by the c h i l d r e n . F i f t e e n s e t s of drawings were gathered from f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n whcu had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. These drawings were then analyzed and c l a s s i f i e d by r a t e r s t h a t had been t r a i n e d t o use a r a t i n g s c a l e . The r a t i n g s c a l e was designed t o i d e n t i f y the stages of group development w i t h i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings. The r e s u l t s showed q u a l i f i e d support f o r both of the o b j e c t i v e s which were: 1. To e x p l o r e the idea t h a t the stages of group development c o u l d be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings completed by 65 c h i l d r e n who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups. 2. To determine the extent t o which o b j e c t i v e r a t e r s c o u l d c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development from c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l drawings u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e designed f o r t h i s purpose. Some support f o r o b j e c t i v e 2 was found as r a t e r s were a b l e t o use, wit h l i m i t e d success, the r a t i n g s c a l e designed t o c l a s s i f y the drawings i n t o the stages of group development. The r e s u l t s may have been a f f e c t e d by v a r i a b l e s such as the adequacy of the r a t e r t r a i n i n g procedures, the o b j e c t i v i t y of the r a t e r s , and/or the accuracy of the r a t i n g s c a l e i t s e l f . The r e s u l t s were a l s o l i m i t e d because o b j e c t i v e 2 was c o n t i n g e n t on q u a l i t i e s i n o b j e c t i v e 1, as d i s c u s s e d i n the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i n Chapter 4. From the q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s a s s o c i a t e d with o b j e c t i v e 2, q u a l i f i e d support f o r o b j e c t i v e 1 can be found. In some s e t s of c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings the stages of group development were d e p i c t e d t o some extent. O b j e c t i v e 1 had in h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s such as the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each c h i l d , the l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e of each c o u n s e l l o r , and the v a r y i n g t o p i c s of each group. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study I t i s apparent t h a t t h i s study l e a v e s many qu e s t i o n s 66 unanswered due to the presence of a number of extraneous v a r i a b l e s . I t i s important t o d i s c u s s these confounding elements p r e s e n t and to understand t h a t they impacted the r e s u l t s of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study. Q u a l i t y of the Drawing I n s t r u c t i o n s I t i s important t o c o n s i d e r the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t were d e l i v e r e d t o the c h i l d r e n . Each drawing r e f l e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s understanding of the i n s t r u c t i o n s . I t i s the i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t must tap i n t o the essence of the group p r o c e s s . The d i f f i c u l t y of c a p t u r i n g t h i s essence makes the wording of the i n s t r u c t i o n s a v a r i a b l e t h a t must be contended with. The words may need t o be experimented w i t h and m o d i f i e d so t h a t the c h i l d r e n understand more c l e a r l y what they are being asked t o draw. Q u a l i t y of the Drawings The q u a l i t y of the drawings produced by c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups w i l l have been a f f e c t e d by many v a r i a b l e s . These i n c l u d e : age, sex, and the reason f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g group. Along with these v a r i a b l e s the c h i l d ' s drawing a b i l i t y , the d e s i r e t o draw, understanding the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s , and having adequate time and space t o complete the drawings w i l l have a f f e c t e d the q u a l i t y and content of the drawings. 67 Q u a l i t y of the Leader Le a d e r s h i p s t y l e p l a y s an important p a r t i n how a group w i l l f u n c t i o n . The l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e of the c o u n s e l l o r w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e the group p r o c e s s . Each c o u n s e l l o r has h i s / h e r own approach. In t h i s study a c o u n s e l l o r ' s l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e w i l l have impacted the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the c h i l d r e n and although the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g the drawings were s t a n d a r d i z e d the l e v e l of importance t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s put on the t a s k may have v a r i e d and t h e i r t i m i n g i n p r e s e n t i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s may have d i f f e r e d . For f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i t w i l l be important t h a t t o g e t h e r , a l l of the group l e a d e r s r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g so t h a t the d e l i v e r y of the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l be as uniform as p o s s i b l e . I t i s recommended t h a t they be s u p p l i e d w i t h s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the study, thus g i v i n g them the o p p o r t u n i t y t o become committed t o the study and i t s outcome. As w e l l , housekeeping d e t a i l s such as s e t t i n g up the p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g and s e t t i n g the tone f o r d e l i v e r i n g the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s should be i n c l u d e d . A f i n a l recommendation i s to coach the group l e a d e r s on t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y of the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s . Q u a l i t y of the Group I n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study chose the t o p i c s f o r t h e i r s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups, the method of implementation, and the c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 68 them, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e were no c o n t r o l s w i t h i n the study f o r s u b j e c t matter, nor f o r implementation p r o c e s s e s , such as the l e n g t h of group l i f e , s e s s i o n l e n g t h , time of day, or the r e g u l a r i t y of s e s s i o n s , nor was group composition c o n t r o l l e d . C h i l d r e n of v a r y i n g ages, sexes, and i n t e r e s t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s m a l l groups and, t h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s study. Q u a l i t y o f the R a t i n g S c a l e The R a t i n g S c a l e t h a t was d e v i s e d t o enable r a t e r s t o c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development w i t h i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings i s i n i t s e a r l y stages of e v o l u t i o n . I t was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the drawings from the P i l o t Study and was based on Group Stage Theory and E x p r e s s i v e A r t Theory. As w i t h d e v e l o p i n g any new method, v a l i d a t i n g i t i s of major concern. The q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s whether or not the R a t i n g S c a l e i s an a c c u r a t e instrument f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the stages of group development i n s e r i a l group drawings. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study p r o v i d e hope f o r the idea t h a t the stages of group development can be d e p i c t e d i n s e r i a l group drawings and t h a t a r a t i n g s c a l e can be a v i a b l e way of measuring t h i s . What must f o l l o w are f u r t h e r refinements and a d a p t a t i o n s t o the s c a l e as the r e s e a r c h procedure f o r a c q u i r i n g the drawings changes and improves. 69 Quality of the Training There are many v a r i a b l e s t o c o n s i d e r when l o o k i n g a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a i n i n g t h a t the r a t e r s r e c e i v e d and how these t h i n g s may have impacted the study. Being an e x p l o r a t o r y study t h i s was the f i r s t time r a t e r s were t r a i n e d t o use a r a t i n g s c a l e t o c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t stages of group development i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings. Inherent i n t h i s are the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t r y i n g something f o r the f i r s t time. Questions i n regards t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a i n i n g program must be c o n s i d e r e d . Length of t r a i n i n g time, a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of m a t e r i a l s and method of p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l have a l l e f f e c t e d the outcome of the study. Quality of the Raters The l e v e l o f understanding with regards t o group stage t h e o r y and e x p r e s s i v e a r t theory w i l l have v a r i e d amongst the r a t e r s . A l s o , the l e v e l of understanding w i t h regards t o the r a t i n g s c a l e a f t e r being t r a i n e d w i l l be d i f f e r e n t because of the d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s of each person. These v a r i a b l e s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the l e v e l of commitment t h a t each r a t e r had f o r the p r o j e c t w i l l e f f e c t the f i n d i n g s of the study. Implications for Future Research F u r t h e r q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e the n o t i o n t h a t w i t h i n s e r i a l group drawings, 70 completed by c h i l d r e n who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g groups, the stages of group development can be i d e n t i f i e d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o both the p r e s e n t a t i o n and wording of the drawing i n s t r u c t i o n s and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the r a t i n g s c a l e . Along with t h i s i t w i l l be important t o use o t h e r measures, such as s e l f - r e p o r t s , s t o r y t e l l i n g and check l i s t s , t o h e l p determine whether or not the i d e a of measuring the stages of group development u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e i s v i a b l e . I f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h proves t h a t the stages of group development can be d e p i c t e d and measured u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e i t w i l l p r o v i d e group c o u n s e l l o r s with a p r o j e c t i v e technique t h a t w i l l be u s e f u l when they e v a l u a t e group p r o c e s s . C o n c l u s i o n I t i s v e r y c l e a r t h a t , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t h i s study l e a v e s many q u e s t i o n s unanswered due t o the number of extraneous v a r i a b l e s . The i n c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e s u l t s confirms the d i f f i c u l t y of engaging i n r e s e a r c h of t h i s k i n d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between what has been experienced by c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a group and the drawings they produce i s a complex and v a r i a b l e one. Combine t h i s w i t h d e v e l o p i n g an instrument t o measure the experience captured i n the drawings i n terms of the stages of group development and i t becomes an even more i n t r i c a t e p r o c e s s . At the same time, because t h e r e 71 was l i m i t e d support f o r the idea t h a t the stages of group development can be seen i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e r i a l group drawings and because the r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t was developed t o q u a n t i f y t h i s was somewhat h e l p f u l t h e r e i s a b a s i s t o pursue f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area. 72 REFERENCES A l l a n , J . (1978). S e r i a l Drawing. Canadian C o u n s e l l o r . 12(4), 223-228. A l l a n , J . (1988). Inscapes of the c h i l d ' s world: J u n q i a n  c o u n s e l i n g i n s c h o o l s and c l i n i c s . D a l l a s , TX: S p r i n g . Borgen, W. A., P o l l a r d , D. E., Amundson, N. E., & Westwood, M. J . (1989). Employment Groups: The C o u n s e l l i n g Connection. Canada: Lugus. B r i t a i n , S. D. (1970). E f f e c t of M a n i p u l a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s a f f e c t on t h e i r family-drawings. J o u r n a l of P r o j e c t i v e  Techniques and P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment. 34., 234-237. Burns, R. C. (1982). S e l f - g r o w t h i n f a m i l i e s : K i n e t i c Family  Drawings (K-F-D) r e s e a r c h and a p p l i c a t i o n . New York: Brunner/Mazel. Burns, R. C. , & Kaufman, S. H. (1970). K i n e t i c F amily Drawings  (K-F-D): An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o understanding c h i l d r e n through  k i n e t i c drawings. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Burns, R. C. , & Kaufman, S. H. (1972). A c t i o n s , s t y l e s and  Symbols i n K i n e t i c Family Drawings CK-F-D-): An i n t e r p r e t i v e  manual. New York: Brunner/Mezel. Corey, M. S., & Corey, G. (1987). Groups: Process and p r a c t i s e (3rd e d . ) . P a c i f i c Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Di Leo, J . H. (1973). C h i l d r e n ' s drawings as d i a g n o s t i c a i d s . New York: Brunner/Mazel. Duncan, J . A., & Gumaer, J . (1980). Developmental groups f o r c h i l d r e n : An overview. In J . A. Duncan & J . Gumaer (Eds.), Developmental groups f o r c h i l d r e n (pp. 3-35). S p r i n g f i e l d , IL : C h a r l e s C. Thomas. Faust, V. (1968). The c o u n s e l o r - c o n s u l t a n t i n the elementary  s c h o o l . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Gazda, G. M. (1984). Group c o u n s e l i n g : A developmental approach (3rd e d . ) . Boston: A l l y n and Bacon. Gazda, G., Duncan, J . , & Meadows, M. (1967). Group c o u n s e l i n g and group procedures - r e p o r t of a survey. Counselor  E d u c a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n . 6, 305-310. Glanz, E. , & Hayes, R. (1967). Groups i n guidance (2nd ed.). Boston: A l l y n and Bacon. 73 Gumaer, J . (1984). Counseling and therapy for children. New York: Free Press. Hare, A. P., & Hare R. T. (1956). The Draw-a-Group t e s t . The  Journal of Genetic Psychology, 89, 51-59. Hulse, W. C. (1951). The emotionally disturbed c h i l d draws h i s family. Quarterly Journal of Child Behavior. 3./ 152-174. Hulse, W. C. (1952). Childhood c o n f l i c t expressed through family drawings. Journal of Projective Techniques, 16, 66-79. Klepsch, M. , & Logie, L. (1982). Children draw and t e l l : An  introduction to the projective uses of children's human  figure drawings. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Koppitz, E. M. (1968). Psychological evaluation of children's  human drawings. New York: Grune Se Stratton. Kutnick, P. (1978). Children's drawings of t h e i r classrooms: Development and s o c i a l maturity. Child Study Journal. 8.(3) , 175-186. Levenberg, S. B. (1975). Professional t r a i n i n g , psychodiagnostic s k i l l , and k i n e t i c family drawings. Journal of Personality  Assessment. 39., 389-393. Mahler, C. (1969). Group counseling i n the schools. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Myers, D. V. (1978). Toward an objective evaluation procedure of the Ki n e t i c Family Drawings (KFD). Journal of Personality  Assessment. 42., 358-365. Oaklander, V. (1978). Windows to our children. Moab, UT: Real People Press. O'Brien, R. P. Se Patton, W. F. (1974). Development of an objective scoring method for the Ki n e t i c Family Drawing. Journal of Personality Assessment. 38. 156-164. Ohlsen, M. M. (1977). Group counseling (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Oster, G. D., & Gould, P. (1987). Using drawings i n assessment  and therapy: A guide for mental health professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Prout, H. T. & P h i l l i p s , P. D. (1974) . A c l i n i c a l note: The Ki n e t i c School Drawing. Psychology i n the Schools, 11, 74 3 0 3 - 3 0 6 . Reynolds, C. R. (1978). A q u i c k - s c o r i n g guide t o the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s K i n e t i c Family Drawings (KFD). Psychology i n Schools, 15, 489-492. R e z n i k o f f , M. & R e z n i k o f f , H. R. (1956). The f a m i l y drawing t e s t : A comparative study o f c h i l d r e n ' s drawings. J o u r n a l o f  C l i n i c a l Psychology. 12. 167-169. Rubin, J . A., (1978). C h i l d a r t therapy: Understanding and  h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n grow through a r t . New York: Van N i s t r a n d R e i n h o l d . Rubin, J . A., (1980). A r t i n Co u n s e l i n g : A New Avenue. C o u n s e l i n g and Human Development, 3J3(3) , 1-12. Schmuck, R. A., & Schmuck, P. A. (1971). Group p r o c e s s e s i n the  classroom. Dubuque, IA: WM. C. Brown. Schneider, G. B. (1977). A p r e l i m i n a r y v a l i d a t i o n study o f the K i n e t i c School Drawing. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f North Colorado, Greeley, CO. S c h o r n s t e i n , H. M. & Derr, J . (1978). The many a p p l i c a t i o n s o f K i n e t i c Family Drawings i n c h i l d abuse. The B r i t i s h J o u r n a l  o f P r o j e c t i v e Psychology and P e r s o n a l i t y Study, 23. 33-35. Sims, C. A. (1974). K i n e t i c Family Drawings and the Family R e l a t i o n s I n d i c a t o r . J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l Psychology. 30, 87-88. St a n d f o r d , G. (1977). Developing e f f e c t i v e classroom groups. New York: Hart. Thompson, C. L., & Rudolph, L. (1983). C o u n s e l i n g c h i l d r e n . Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. Ulman, E. (1961). A r t therapy: Problems of d e f i n i t i o n . B u l l e t i n  o f A r t Therapy. 1(2), 10-20. Ulman, E. (1971). The power of a r t i n therapy. In I. Jakab (Ed.), P s y c h i a t r y and A r t , Vol.3, (pp. 93-102). New York: Karger, B a s e l . Yalom, I. (1975). The the o r y and p r a c t i s e of group psychotherapy (2nd e d . ) . New York: B a s i c Books. Yalom, I. (1985). The theory and p r a c t i s e o f group psychotherapy (3rd e d . ) . New York: B a s i c Books. 75 APPENDICES 76 Appendix A The Rating Scale  THE INITIAL STAGE A. GROUPING 1. An aggregate of human f i g u r e s i s seen. One f i g u r e i s prominent and d i s t i n c t . F i g u r e s are i n a c l u s t e r . One f i g u r e i s separated from the aggregate. No f i g u r e s i n the p i c t u r e . 2. S t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l of the room i s emphasized r a t h e r than the i n d i v i d u a l human f i g u r e s . 3. There may not be a sense of o r g a n i z a t i o n . B. BODY REPRESENTATION 1. The human f i g u r e s are not d e t a i l e d . The f i g u r e s are f a c e l e s s . Backs of heads are seen. Hands and f e e t are seen. C l o t h i n g l a c k s d e t a i l . 2. S p a t i a l l y , the human f i g u r e s do not g i v e the sense of being grounded. C. ACTION 1. The human f i g u r e s are s t a t i c . D. COMMUNICATION 1. Fears and wishes are v e r b a l i z e d . 2. I n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n and recorded. Names i d e n t i f y the f i g u r e s . Rules are o u t l i n e d . 3. V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s not d e f i n e d . 77 SYMBOLS/METAPHORS Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the b a s i c needs w i t h i n the i n i t i a l stage i s e v i d e n t . The need f o r o r i e n t a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e i s e v i d e n t . The need f o r s a f e t y i s e v i d e n t . Concern about being focused on and exposed i s e v i d e n t . Concern about b e l o n g i n g i s e v i d e n t . Concern about e x p e c t a t i o n s i s e v i d e n t . Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f e a r i s e v i d e n t . E r a s i n g i s e v i d e n t . Overwork, the process of going over and over something t h a t has been drawn, i s e v i d e n t . STYLE At the i n i t i a l stage, s a f e t y i s the g o a l f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . S t r u c t u r e i s the process t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s the f e e l i n g of s a f e t y . In the drawings t h i s can be seen i n the s t y l e s t h a t occur. Compartmentalization i s e v i d e n t . Human f i g u r e s are separ a t e d by b a r r i e r s . T a b l e s , c h a i r s and w a l l s are b a r r i e r s . Boxes and r e c t a n g l e s are b a r r i e r s . F i g u r e s t h a t are back t o back are b a r r i e r s . E n c a p s u l a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . Human f i g u r e s are en c l o s e d . F i g u r e s are c i r c l e d . 78 THE TRANSITION STAGE A. GROUPING 1. Groupings are forming. One f i g u r e i s prominent and d i s t i n c t a t the be g i n n i n g of the t r a n s i t i o n stage. T h i s f i g u r e may not be e v i d e n t at the end of the stage. The f i g u r e s are seen i n : i s o l a t i o n , p a i r s , s m a l l groups or a l a r g e group. B. BODY REPRESENTATION 1. The human f i g u r e s are not w e l l d e f i n e d . There i s not a sense of the f u l l human being. The s i z e and shape of the f i g u r e s v a r y . There i s a mixture of f u l l shaped people and s t i c k people. One f i g u r e i s dominant. 2. S p a t i a l l y , some of the human f i g u r e s g i v e the sense of bei n g grounded and others do not. C. ACTION 1. There i s a sense of change. Some f i g u r e s are face t o f a c e . Some f i g u r e s are i n a c i r c l e . Some p a r t s of the f i g u r e s are t o u c h i n g each other. D. COMMUNICATION 1. There i s the beginning of d i a l o g u e . C o n v e r s a t i o n does not g i v e the sense of p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . 2. W r i t t e n v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . Words such as b o r i n g , dumb and yuck r e p r e s e n t c o n t r o l i s s u e s . 79 E. SYMBOLS/METAPHORS 1. At the t r a n s i t i o n stage symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s prominent. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of time i s e v i d e n t . Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of movement i s e v i d e n t . Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of balance between the i n d i v i d u a l and the group i s e v i d e n t . Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the need t o be heard and understood i s e v i d e n t . 2. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n x i e t y i s e v i d e n t . S c r i b b l i n g i s e v i d e n t . F. STYLE 1. Compartmentalization i s not e v i d e n t . 2. E n c a p s u l a t i o n i s not e v i d e n t . 80 THE WORKING STAGE GROUPING Group comes to g e t h e r . A prominent f i g u r e i s not e v i d e n t 1 The f i g u r e s are c l o s e t o g e t h e r . F i g u r e s t h a t are i n p a i r s are f a c i n g and/or t o u c h i n g each o t h e r . F i g u r e s t h a t are i n a group are i n a c i r c l e or are p o s i t i o n e d h o l d i n g hands. BODY REPRESENTATION The human f i g u r e s are w e l l d e f i n e d . The f i g u r e s have b i g s m i l e s . Feet, f i n g e r s , h a i r and c l o t h i n g are d e t a i l e d . Body p a r t s used t o communicate wi t h are i n t a c t . Eyes, mouths and ears are e v i d e n t . ACTION The p i c t u r e s have k i n e t i c p r o p e r t i e s . The f i g u r e s are engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s . The f i g u r e s are working t o g e t h e r . There i s a sense o f the f i g u r e s h e l p i n g each other. Verbs are used i n the w r i t t e n language. COMMUNICATION There i s i n t e r a c t i v e d i a l o g u e between the human f i g u r e s . A l l members of the group may not be rep r e s e n t e d , however, t h e r e i s a c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between a few group members engaged, i n a task. V e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the f i g u r e s i s t a s k o r i e n t e d . The f i g u r e s use names i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . W r i t t e n v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s ta s k o r i e n t e d . 81 3. There i s w r i t t e n v e r b a l i z a t i o n of f e e l i n g s . E. SYMBOLS/METAPHORS 1. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the working staged i s focused on the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the group i s engaged i n r a t h e r than on the group p r o c e s s . Work accomplishment i s e v i d e n t . Demonstration of s k i l l s i s e v i d e n t . 2. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f e a r and a n x i e t y i s not e v i d e n t . 3. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a c t i o n o r i e n t e d . T a l k i n g i s e v i d e n t . P u r p o s e f u l c o n v e r s a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . The s h a r i n g of thoughts and f e e l i n g s i s e v i d e n t . F. STYLE 1. Compartmentalization i s not e v i d e n t . 2. E n c a p s u l a t i o n i s not e v i d e n t . 82 THE TERMINATION STAGE GROUPING Group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n F i g u r e s are seen i n i s o l a t i o n , p a i r s and sm a l l groups. Focus i s on the i n d i v i d u a l . No f i g u r e s are e v i d e n t . BODY REPRESENTATION Human f i g u r e s may be d e t a i l e d , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , or d i s t o r t e d . Human f i g u r e s w i t h i n a p i c t u r e are not c o n s i s t e n t l y drawn. The s i z e and shape of f i g u r e s vary. The body d e t a i l s vary. Only f a c e s are e v i d e n t . ACTION There i s a sense of ending. COMMUNICATION W r i t t e n v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e l f statements. Fears and a n x i e t i e s are v e r b a l i z e d . Enjoyment i s v e r b a l i z e d . There i s w r i t t e n r e f l e c t i o n on what was important a t the moment. W r i t t e n v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s i n the past tense. Good-bye i s w r i t t e n . SYMBOLS/METAPHORS Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e l e b r a t i o n and good f e e l i n g s i s e v i d e n t . 83 Concrete s y m b o l i z a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . A b s t r a c t s y m b o l i z a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . 2. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n x i e t y and f e a r i s e v i d e n t . S c r i b b l i n g i s e v i d e n t . F i g u r e s are c r o s s e d out. 3. Symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of ambivalence i s e v i d e n t . Ambivalence between excitement and f e a r i s e v i d e n t . Ambivalence between happiness and sadness i s e v i d e n t . The ambivalence between the ending of the group and the beg i n n i n g of something new i s e v i d e n t . F. STYLE 1. Compartmentalization i s e v i d e n t . 2. E n c a p s u l a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . 84 Appendix B The Structure of the Rating Scale The Rating Scale 4 Components I n i t i a l Stage A.Grouping D e s c r i p t e r s B.Body Repre-s e n t a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s C . A c t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s D.Communi-c a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s E.Symbols/ Metaphors D e s c r i p t e r s F . S t y l e D e s c r i p t e r s Transition Stage A.Grouping D e s c r i p t e r s B.Body Repre-s e n t a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s C . A c t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s D.Communic-c a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s E.Symbols/ Metaphors D e s c r i p t e r s F . S t y l e D e s c r i p t e r s Working Stage A.Grouping D e s c r i p t e r s B.Body Repre-s e n t a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s C . A c t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s D.Communi-c a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s E.Symbols/ Metaphors D e s c r i p t e r s F . S t y l e D e s c r i p t e r s Termination Stage A.Grouping D e s c r i p t e r s B.Body Repre-s e n t a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s C . A c t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s D.Communic-c a t i o n D e s c r i p t e r s E.Symbols/ Metaphors D e s c r i p t e r s F . S t y l e D e s c r i p t e r s 85 Appendix C TRAINING: Data Sheet Rater #: SAMPLE SET # INITIAL TRANSITION WORKING TERMINATION Record S e q u e n t i a l Code Symbols Transpose Symbols i n t o Corresponding Number Values 86 RATING: Data Sheet Rater #: GROUP # CHILD # INITIAL TRANSITION WORKING TERMINATION 87 Rater #: GROUP # CHILD # ' INITIAL TRANSITION WORKING TERMINATION 88 Appendix D Random and S e q u e n t i a l Order Codes Random Order S e q u e n t i a l Order 3 = 4 = 7 = 5 = 6 = 1 = 10 = 2 = 8 = 1 = 2 = • A 3 = r\j 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = o o X 9 = 10- = X A 89 Appendix E Visual Chart: The Rating Scale Categories GROUPING These are the people. BODY REPRESENTATION T h i s i s what they look l i k e . ACTION T h i s i s what they are doing. " the how " COMMUNICATION T h i s i s what they are s a y i n g about i t . " the what " SYMBOLS/METAPHORS T h i s i s what i t a l l means. STYLE T h i s i s how i t i s emphasized, e m b e l l i s h e d c a t e g o r i z e d . 90 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0053739/manifest

Comment

Related Items