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Independence and compliance orientations in families : background factors and descriptive behaviors Klein, Sheldon Richard 1989

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INDEPENDENCE AND COMPLIANCE ORIENTATIONS IN FAMILIES: BACKGROUND FACTORS AND DESCRIPTIVE BEHAVIORS by SHELDON RICHARD KLEIN B.A., The University of California at Berkeley, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this Thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1989 © Sheldon Richard Klein, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s i s a study of the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with f a m i l y environments o r i e n t e d towards independence or compliance. A sample of mothers with c h i l d r e n i n elementary s c h o o l , secondary s c h o o l , and community c o l l e g e i n New Westminster, B.C. was asked to complete the Family Environment Scale (FES) and a demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In a d d i t i o n , they were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a one and one h a l f hour i n t e r v i e w designed to e l i c i t i n c i d e n t s parents c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l i n the c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l development of t h e i r c h i l d . Two m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y ses were run, using the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES), gender composition of the s i b l i n g s , age of the c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n . The c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e f o r the f i r s t m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was independence o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y as measured by the independence subscale of the FES. The second a n a l y s i s used the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e of compliance o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y as measured by the c o n t r o l subscale of the FES. Analyses of v a r i a n c e and post hoc comparisons were employed i n a secondary a n a l y s i s . In a d d i t i o n , i n c i d e n t s from t r a n s c r i p t s of s e l e c t e d f a m i l i e s with high scores on the FES s u b s c ales were used to d e s c r i b e a t t i t u d e s and behaviors parents used to encourage independence or compliance i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s showed that f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n 14 years and o l d e r were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e s u b s c a l e o f t h e F E S . No o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s was f o u n d . I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n t s i n t h e i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r a l l m o t h e r s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d i n e n c o u r a g i n g , a t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t , i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , b u t t h e y d i d n o t a l w a y s a c t i n t h e s e w a y s . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t m o t h e r s f r o m f a m i l i e s w i t h d i f f e r i n g b a c k g r o u n d s b e l i e v e i n t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f e n c o u r a g i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e i n c h i l d r e n . A t t h e same t i m e s p e c i f i c p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s may go a g a i n s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d t h e means by w h i c h t h e y do t h i s c o u l d h e l p p a r e n t s t o s t r u c t u r e t h e i r f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t i n ways t h a t w o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e h e a l t h y c a r e e r a n d p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v f 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the Problem 3 Purpose of the Study 4 Rat i o n a l e 4 L i m i t a t i o n s 5 Summary 6 Def i n i t ions 6 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 I ndependence/Compl iance 8 Socioeconomic Status 20 St u d i e s Related to Independence/Compliance 24 Socioeconomic Status and Gender 24 P a r e n t / C h i l d I n t e r a c t i o n 34 Pa r e n t a l B e l i e f s and Behaviors 38 Family Environment 42 Hypotheses 48 V CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 50 The Sample 50 Instruments 54 Family Environment S c a l e 54 C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interview 56 Data C o l l e c t i o n 58 Data A n a l y s i s 59 Family Environment S c a l e 59 C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interviews 62 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 64 Q u a n t i t a t i v e (FES) 64 Q u a l i t a t i v e (Interviews) 73 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 89 Review of the R e s u l t s (FES) 89 Review of the R e s u l t s (Interviews) 98 L i m i t a t i o n s and F u r t h e r Research 101 REFERENCES 104 APPENDIX 116 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of the Continuous V a r i a b l e s 65 2 Frequencies and Percentages of the C a t e g o r i c a l V a r i a b l e s 65 3 Dummy Coding of C a t e g o r i c a l V a r i a b l e s 67 4 M u l t i p l e Regression of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s on FES Independence Subscale Scores 69 5 M u l t i p l e Regression of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s on FES C o n t r o l Subscale Scores 70 6 ANOVA Summary Tables 72 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank my t h e s i s committee f o r a l l the work they have done. My a p p r e c i a t i o n goes to the ch a i r p e r s o n of the committee, Dr. Ri c h a r d Young, who was always a v a i l a b l e and i n e v i t a b l y h e l p f u l , to Dr. Ha r o l d R a t z l a f f f o r h i s e x p e r t i s e and i n v a l u a b l e guidance, and to Dr. John F r i e s e n . In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to thank my mother-in-law, C e l i a Wynne, f o r a l l the b a b y s i t t i n g , and my mother f o r her emotional support. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , e x t r a s p e c i a l thanks goes to my wif e , E l a i n e , f o r the v i t a l h e lp and support she gave to me, and to my c h i l d r e n , Rachel and D a n i e l . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION There has been a general r e c o g n i t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d development that the f a m i l y has a great i n f l u e n c e on a l l a s p e c t s of human development and s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( G o s l i n , 1971). Research has shown t h i s i n f l u e n c e to be both i n the area of g e n e r a l developmental i s s u e s (Maccoby & M a r t i n , 1983) and i n the s p e c i f i c area of c a r e e r development (Borow, 1984; Luckey, 1974). While there i s s t r o n g t h e o r e t i c a l support f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n that the f a m i l y i n g e n e r a l i s r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l development (Otto, 1985; Schulenberg, Vondrocek, & Crouter 1984; S p l e t t e , 1 9 8 5 ) , much of the work i n t h i s area has been c o n c e n t r a t e d on the e f f e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y f a c t o r s . Kohn's (1977) res e a r c h on p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to c h i l d r e a r i n g s t y l e i s an example of t h i s type of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Since then, p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s (Sameroff,1985) and behaviors (Ownby,1982) have a l s o been connected to c h i l d r e a r i n g s t y l e s . Other f a m i l y f a c t o r s such as f a m i l y socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES) (Schulenberg,1984) and c h i l d r e n ' s gender (Devereux,1969) have been found as w e l l to have an i n f l u e n c e on young a d u l t s ' development. In the l a s t 15 y e a r s , there has been a r e c o g n i t i o n that a broader, m u l t i f a c t o r a n a l y s i s needs to be used to look at i n d i v i d u a l development i n the context of the f a m i l y . 2 Bronfenbrenner (1979) has been i n f l u e n t i a l i n expanding t h i s view with h i s e c o l o g i c a l theory. There has been r e s e a r c h on f a m i l i e s t hat has attempted to i n c o r p o r a t e m u l t i p l e f a c t o r s such as p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s , b e h a v i o r s , and SES (Schaefer & Edgerton, 1985). Moos (1983) and others have done much work on broadening t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e and l o o k i n g at the t o t a l f a m i l y environment. One example i s the attempt to d e f i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y c l i m a t e and behavior (Fowler, 1980; H i l t o n s m i t h , 1985). As the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of f a m i l y environment has developed, there have a l s o been s t u d i e s i n t o f a m i l y background f a c t o r s such as SES and gender that are a s s o c i a t e d with these f a m i l y environments (Moos, 1981). S i m i l a r l y , s p e c i f i c types of f a m i l y environments and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to development have been the s u b j e c t of recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . One focus of r e s e a r c h has been f a m i l y environments that are o r i e n t e d towards independence or compliance. These types of o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s have been shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e p t u a l l y and have been a s s o c i a t e d with important aspects of p a r e n t / c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . An independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n has been r e l a t e d to f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g (Moos & Moos, 1983) and s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Fowler, 1980). In t u r n a f a m i l y ' s o r i e n t a t i o n to independence and compliance has been a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t a l p r a c t i c e s (Kuczynski, 1987), b e l i e f s (Segal, 1985), and v a l u e s (Kohn, 1977). 3 In the l a s t few y e a r s , r e s e a r c h e r s have been i n v e s t i g a t i n g s p e c i f i c background f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s . SES has been r e l a t e d to independence o r i e n t e d r o l e s i n the fam i l y (Gecas, 1979; Kowalski, 1983). Likewise gender has been l i n k e d t o c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n i n mothers of 10-12 year o l d s (Kowalski, 1983). One area that has not been researched i n d e t a i l i s that combination of f a c t o r s which are r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c types of f a m i l y environments. Since independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n has been shown to be such an important aspect of f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , i t would be f r u i t f u l to develop a more complete p i c t u r e of the background f a c t o r s of these s p e c i f i c types of f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n . Background of the Problem In the s t u d i e s that were mentioned e a r l i e r , much of the re s e a r c h has suggested t h a t f a m i l y f a c t o r s are r e l a t e d to an independence or compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s . Kohn (1977) and others have shown that p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and behaviors are c o r r e l a t e d to s o c i a l s t a t u s , suggesting that high SES parents tend to b e l i e v e i n and encourage independence i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , while lower SES parents tend to b e l i e v e i n and encourage compliance. S i m i l a r l y , p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h suggests that parents tend to b e l i e v e i n and encourage male c h i l d r e n to be more independent and l e s s compliant than female c h i l d r e n (Huston, 1983). 4 Two o t h e r f a m i l y v a r i a b l e s , f a m i l y s i z e and age of c h i l d r e n , have been shown to be r e l a t e d to independence and compl iance o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s . S m a l l e r f a m i l i e s have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the encouragement of independence i n c h i l d r e n (Scheck & Scheck, 1976) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the o l d e r the c h i l d the l e s s p a r e n t s e x e r t c o n t r o l and the more independence p a r e n t s seem to expect (Maccoby & M a r t i n , 1983) . Purpose of the Study The p r e s e n t s tudy w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e what r e l a t i o n the f a c t o r s of f a m i l y SES and f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n ( c h i l d r e n ' s gender , age of c h i l d r e n , and f a m i l y s i z e ) have to f a m i l y environments tha t are o r i e n t e d towards independence or c o m p l i a n c e . A f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be conducted to see i f mothers of f a m i l i e s tha t are independence or compl iance o r i e n t e d s t r u c t u r e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s environment in ways tha t f o s t e r that p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n . Through the d e s c r i p t i o n of these s e l f - r e p o r t e d p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c environments a more complete p i c t u r e of f a m i l y environments tha t are o r i e n t e d towards independence / compl iance w i l l h o p e f u l l y emerge. R a t i o n a l e Research shows tha t a f a m i l y ' s o r i e n t a t i o n ( independence or compl iance ) can have s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on a c h i l d ' s development . E p s t e i n ( c i t e d in Goleman, 1988) 5 found that " c o n s t r u c t i v e t h i n k i n g " , the a b i l i t y to respond e f f e c t i v e l y to l i f e , i s r e l a t e d to p arents who t r a i n e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n independence. Other r e s e a r c h has a s s o c i a t e d independence o r i e n t e d f a m i l y environments with f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , a d a p t a t i o n , a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y (Moos & Moos, 1983). Overly c o n t r o l l i n g or compliance o r i e n t e d f a m i l i e s were found to be a s s o c i a t e d with depressed mood and poor treatment outcome (Moos & Moos, 1983). Hence, independence or compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i n the f a m i l y can have an important impact on the development of c h i l d r e n . The present study w i l l t r y to i d e n t i f y which types of f a m i l i e s are r e l a t e d to the encouragement of independence i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n and which types of f a m i l i e s are r e l a t e d to the encouragement of compliance. The study w i l l a l s o d e s c r i b e the s p e c i f i c b ehaviors and a t t i t u d e s that serve to c r e a t e such environments. In the long term, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d h e l p parents to a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l and c a r e e r development i n more p o s i t i v e ways. L i m i t a t i o n s The sample f o r the present study was l i m i t e d to v o l u n t e e r s , mothers of c h i l d r e n ages 10 to 25, from the New Westminster school d i s t r i c t and the l o c a l community c o l l e g e who s u p p l i e d f a m i l y SES i n f o r m a t i o n . 6 Summary A combination of s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s can be connected with f a m i l i e s t h at are o r i e n t e d towards independence and compliance. In the gen e r a l area of p e r s o n a l development and more s p e c i f i c a l l y c a r e e r development, independence o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l have a g r e a t e r chance of s u c c e s s f u l i d e n t i t y formation i n adolescence (Campbell, e t . a l . , 1984) and s u c c e s s f u l progress i n c a r e e r development (Berne, 1978). I t would be u s e f u l to i d e n t i f y which types of f a m i l i e s encourage independence and the means by which these f a m i l i e s s t r u c t u r e such an environment. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would h e l p parents choose how to s t r u c t u r e t h e i r f a m i l y environment i n ways that would encourage the h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l and c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n s of important terms w i l l be g i v e n . Chapter two w i l l present a review of pr e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d along with the hypotheses and re s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . T h i s w i l l be fo l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the study, the r e s u l t s , and a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s . D e f i n i t i o n s Independence: An o r i e n t a t i o n i n which a c h i l d i s d i r e c t e d t o be a s s e r t i v e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , s e l f - d i r e c t e d , and to make h i s or her own d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s study, parents are seen to promote independence by encouraging a c h i l d to base h i s or her behavior on i n t e r n a l standards or conduct. C h i l d r e n are encouraged to use t h e i r own judgment. Parents are 7 i n t e r e s t e d i n encouraging t h e i r c h i l d ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Compliance: An o r i e n t a t i o n i n which a c h i l d i s d i r e c t e d to f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of e x t e r n a l r u l e s and a u t h o r i t y . C h i l d r e n are expected to a t t e n d to the e x t e r n a l consequences of t h e i r a c t i o n s and have obedience to the l e t t e r of the law. In these f a m i l i e s , v e r b a l N g i v e and take' between the parents and the c h i l d i s d i s c o u r a g e d . Socieconomic Status (SES): The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y based on the consumption of goods as represented by l i f e s t y l e (Weber, 1946). The SES index used i n t h i s study was developed by B l i s h e n (1987) and ranks the s o c i a l s t a t u s of o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s s o c i a l s t a t u s index i s based on both education and income. In t h i s study the score of the parent with the higher ranking i s used. 8 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l begin by e x p l o r i n g the work that has been done in v a r i o u s f i e l d s on independence and compliance, both to c l a r i f y what these terms mean and to demonstrate t h e i r i n f l u e n c e and importance. Then the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t u rn to the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the concept of socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES). With t h i s background, the work that has been done l i n k i n g SES and gender with independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l be reviewed. The development of t h i s l i n k w ith SES and gender w i l l c ontinue with i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the more s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n and p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o r s . Having e x p l o r e d the ways SES and gender have been l i n k e d to p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y f a c t o r s , ways of l o o k i n g at the t o t a l f a m i l y environment and what these s t u d i e s t e l l us about a f a m i l y ' s o r i e n t a t i o n towards independence/compliance w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , i t w i l l be shown how f a m i l i e s with an o r i e n t a t i o n towards independence or compliance have been l i n k e d to demographic f a c t o r s such as SES and gender. Independence/Compliance At f i r s t glance the meaning of terms such as independence and compliance seems f a i r l y c l e a r . As one surveys the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i f one i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s f i e l d s such as s o c i o l o g y and psychology, i t i s 9 c l e a r that these concepts are extremely important i n r e l a t i o n to c h i l d development, but that p r e c i s i o n i s needed i n d e f i n i n g these terms. The process of e x p l o r i n g these concepts s t a r t s with the work of the s o c i o l o g i s t M e l v i n Kohn (1977), one of the p i o n e e r s i n the study of s o c i a l c l a s s and p a r e n t a l v a l u e s . Although Kohn uses the terms s e l f -d i r e c t i o n and c o n f o r m i t y , i t w i l l be seen that these terms correspond c l o s e l y to the concepts of independence and compliance. In g e n e r a l Kohn d e f i n e s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s e l f - d i r e c t i o n as the p o s s e s s i o n of i n t e r n a l standards of behavior. Conformity, on the other hand, i s behavior that i s based on e x t e r n a l l y imposed r u l e s . Kohn d e s c r i b e s s e l f -d i r e c t e d persons as attuned to i n t e r n a l dynamics, both t h e i r own and o t h e r s , whereas conforming type i n d i v i d u a l s are obedient to the d i c t a t e s of a u t h o r i t y . These d e f i n i t i o n s may be compared to those of Jean Piaget (1965). Moral r e a l i s m , a c c o r d i n g to P i a g e t , i s based on the b e l i e f that a person should be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the consequences of h i s or her a c t i o n s r e g a r d l e s s of i n t e n t . To the moral r e a l i s t , as to Kohn's c o n f o r m i s t , r i g i d obedience to a u t h o r i t y i s a moral good. Piaget bases h i s concept of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n on the idea of s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and an awareness of i n t e r n a l events. T h i s i s q u i t e s i m i l a r to Kohn's f o r m u l a t i o n . Piaget uses the concepts of autonomy, r e c i p r o c i t y , c o o p e r a t i o n , and mutual resp e c t to d e s c r i b e s e l f - d i r e c t e d a t t i t u d e s . Kohn a l s o used a group of a t t r i b u t e s - - c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s e l f - c o n t r o l , and 10 c u r i o s i t y to i l l u m i n a t e what he d e s c r i b e d as behavior based on i n t e r n a l standards of conduct. He c o n t r a s t e d these to the t r a i t s of obedience and neatness that are based on conformity to e x t e r n a l l y d e f i n e d standards. ' One may then wonder, are s e l f - c o n t r o l and obedience not both s t r e s s i n g c o n t r o l ? In other words, does the d i f f e r e n c e between s e l f - c o n t r o l and obedience r e s u l t from a d i f f e r e n t value p l a c e d on c o n t r o l i t s e l f , or from whether i t s source i s e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l ? In a study conducted i n T u r i n , I t a l y (Kohn, 1977) i t was found that s e l f - c o n t r o l was i n a c t u a l i t y a d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e than obedience. The r e s e a r c h e r s concluded that although obedience was valued by a l l f a t h e r s , what d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the middle c l a s s from working c l a s s , was that i n the middle c l a s s , s e l f - c o n t r o l as a separate t r a i t was a l s o valued. Kohn used l o g i c and "common acceptance" to d e f i n e h i s use of v a r i o u s other t r a i t s to d e s c r i b e c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . Kohn co n s i d e r e d i t " s e l f - e v i d e n t " why c o n s i d e r a t i o n , an i n t e r e s t i n how and why t h i n g s happen, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and s e l f -c o n t r o l r e f l e c t s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y he f e l t obedience, neatness, and manners r e f l e c t e d c o n f o r m i t y . He c o n t r a s t e d "being a good student, an emphasis on how one's performance was judged by others ( c o n f o r m i t y ) , with i n t e r e s t i n how and why t h i n g s happen ( s e l f - d i r e c t i o n ) . He d e f i n e d manners as being concerned with proper forms of behavior whereas c o n s i d e r a t i o n emphasized concern f o r o t h e r s . The idea that an a t t i t u d e or o r i e n t a t i o n of c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f -11 d i r e c t i o n can be d i s c o v e r e d through s p e c i f i c c h i l d - r e a r i n g g o a ls such as obedience or c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been c h a l l e n g e d by at l e a s t one reviewer (Silverman, 1971). Although there i s an e m p i r i c a l c l a r i t y and l o g i c to Kohn's d e f i n i t i o n s , they are not u n i v e r s a l l y accepted. In much of the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e c onformity i s equated with modeling one's behavior with an other, u s u a l l y a peer. (Arora, et a l . , 1985; Berndt, 1979; Henry, 1982). David Riesman (1950) used the concept of other d i r e c t e d n e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y with peers, to d e s c r i b e c o n f o r m i t y . He c o n t r a s t e d t h i s with an inner d i r e c t i o n t h a t was based on r i g i d p r i n c i p l e s from c h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g . I t i s c l e a r that these are terms that have a very d i f f e r e n t meaning, e s p e c i a l l y Riesman's inner d i r e c t i o n , than that d e s c r i b e d by Kohn. To summarize, Kohn (1977) d e s c r i b e d s e l f - d i r e c t i o n as encompassing the behaviors and a t t r i b u t e s of a c t i n g on the b a s i s of one's own judgment, a t t e n d i n g to i n t e r n a l dynamics, as w e l l as consequences, and having p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e moral standards. He d e f i n e d conformity as f o l l o w i n g the d i c t a t e s of a u t h o r i t y , a t t e n d i n g to e x t e r n a l consequences while e x c l u d i n g e x t e r n a l dynamics, and obedience to the l e t t e r of the law. At t h i s p o i n t i t would be u s e f u l to e x p l o r e what other d e f i n i t i o n s and terms have been used f o r these concepts. I t w i l l become c l e a r that these concepts are u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g behavior from many d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l 12 p e r s p e c t i v e s . Some commentators have used the b a s i c t h r u s t of Kohn's argument, but added d e s c r i p t i v e terms such as freedom, i n d i v i d u a l i s m , i n i t i a t i v e , c r e a t i v i t y , and s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n (Gecas & Nye, 1974), nurturance, s e l f -r e l i a n c e , independence (Barry, Bacon, & C h i l d , 1957), autonomous goal s e t t i n g and goal s t r i v i n g (Smith, 1968), and independent judgment f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n ( P o r t e r , 1970). Kerckhoff (1972) d e f i n e d s e l f - c o n t r o l as being a b l e to guide o n e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to some d e s i r e d g o a l . He f e l t that t h i s a llows a degree of independence as the c h i l d becomes an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n h i s / h e r own s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as opposed to conforming to e x t e r n a l l y imposed achievement standards. The f i e l d of p s y c h o l o g i c a l development c o n s i d e r s concepts s i m i l a r to the ones d e s c r i b e d as compliance/conformity and i n d e p e n d e n c e / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . E a r l y c h i l d development r e s e a r c h e r s , using parent i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , t r i e d to c o l l e c t data from parents on t h e i r d i s c i p l i n a r y techniques, r e a c t i o n s to s p e c i f i c b ehaviors, and general c h i l d r e a r i n g b e h a v i o r s . The r e s u l t s showed two major p a t t e r n s of t r a i t s : w a r m t h / h o s t i l i t y and control/autonomy ( C l i n e , R i c h a r d s & Needham, 1963; Schaefer 1959). F u r t h e r s t u d i e s (Burger & Armentrout, 1971; Schaefer, 1965) r e f i n e d t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n to 1) encouragement of p s y c h o l o g i c a l autonomy versus the keeping of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l ( i . e . c o n t r o l through g u i l t or a n x i e t y ) and 2) f i r m versus lax c o n t r o l . The core d i f f e r e n c e d e s c r i b e d i s between the 13 parents making themselves the source of c o n t r o l s , r e q u i r i n g c o n f o r m i t y , as opposed to communicating to the c h i l d t h a t r u l e s e x i s t . The l a t t e r communicates the requirements of the world i n which the c h i l d operates and supports independence. These dimensions of control/autonomy o r i g i n a l l y emerged from s t u d i e s of p a r e n t a l behavior with l i t t l e t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n . In the middle 1960's, Dianne Baumrind (1966) emerged as one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d of c h i l d development. Working with p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , she analyzed t h e i r behavior on two dimensions. One of these, r e f e r r e d to as "independent versus s u g g e s t i b l e behavior" corresponds q u i t e c l o s e l y to the c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n d e s c r i p t o r s . She d e s c r i b e s two types of behavior, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c (independent) and s u g g e s t i b l e (does not q u e s t i o n a d u l t a u t h o r i t y ) . Baumrind sees these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as c r u c i a l f o r the understanding of young c h i l d r e n ' s behavior, with her work on p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s f o l l o w i n g i n the same d i r e c t i o n . She d e s c r i b e s a u t h o r i t a r i a n parents as demanding obedience and respect f o r a u t h o r i t y . She d e s c r i b e s a u t h o r i t a t i v e , p e r m i s s i v e , and non-conforming parents as encouraging independence fo r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In her l a t e r s t u d i e s (Baumrind, 1971; Baumrind & Black, 1967) she d e l i n e a t e d these dimensions of p a r e n t a l behavior: A u t h o r i t a r i a n p a r e n t s : 1)attempt to c o n t r o l and shape behavior and a t t i t u d e s of 14 the c h i l d to an a b s o l u t e set of standards, 2) value obedience, r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y , work, t r a d i t i o n , and p r e s e r v a t i o n of order, 3) discourage v e r b a l g i v e and take between the parent and c h i l d . In g e n e r a l she d e s c r i b e s these parents as d i s p l a y i n g a low encouragement of a c h i l d ' s independence. A u t h o r i t a t i v e p a r e n t s : 1) expect mature behavior, 2) f i r m l y e nforce r u l e s , 3) encourage c h i l d ' s independence and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , 4) have open communication, 5) r e s p e c t the r i g h t s of both parents and c h i l d r e n . Baumrind sees these parents as encouraging the c h i l d ' s autonomy. Looking c l o s e l y at the above d e s c r i p t i o n s , one n o t i c e s that both s e t s of parents expect f a m i l y r u l e s to be f o l l o w e d . T h i s seems to suggest t h a t a u t h o r i t a t i v e parents encourage the compliance o r i e n t e d behavior of f o l l o w i n g e x t e r n a l r u l e s . Baumrind's p o i n t i s that a u t h o r i t a t i v e p a r e n t s , as opposed to p e r m i s s i v e p a r e n t s , do have r u l e s that are f o l l o w e d i n the f a m i l y , but that these r u l e s are developed i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the c h i l d and i n accordance with the other four a s p e c t s of a u t h o r i t a t i v e p a r e n t a l behavior d e s c r i b e d above. In c o n t r a s t , a u t h o r i t a r i a n parents simple make the f a m i l y r u l e s and expect the c h i l d r e n to f o l l o w them. 15 Schaefer and Edgerton (1985) f u r t h e r develop these id e a s , p o s t u l a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e of a c h i l d r e a r i n g world view. T h e i r p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t a r i a n ideology emphasizes p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y as opposed to a " p r o g r e s s i v e democratic i d e o l o g y " that focuses on i n d i v i d u a l autonomy. The former s t r e s s e s the kind of a c t i v i t y t h a t r e s u l t s i n accomplishments that are judged by standards that are e x t e r n a l to the i n d i v i d u a l . T h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e democratic ideology s t r e s s e s i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r what they p e r c e i v e as s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The two dimensions may be d e s c r i b e d as obedience and respect f o r a u t h o r i t y versus some type of i n d i v i d u a l autonomy or independence. The l i t e r a t u r e on s e l f - c o n t r o l and l o c u s of c o n t r o l as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , a l s o d e a l s with the i s s u e of independence/compliance. I t c o n s i d e r s whether the c o n t r o l a person e x h i b i t s on h i s or her behavior a r i s e s from e x t e r n a l sources or i s determined by i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s . One i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t o the areas of s e l f - c o n t r o l and s e l f - e s t e e m has p o s t u l a t e d that i n general low s e l f - e s t e e m leads to low pressure f o r achievement which i n t u r n leads to a high emphasis on compliance (Coopersmith, 1967). Kerckhoff (1972) reaches the c o n c l u s i o n that merely a s s e r t i n g p a r e n t a l power cannot provide a sense of competence. T h i s suggests that a f e e l i n g of c o n t r o l over one's world leads to an independence o r i e n t a t i o n . These ideas have been f u r t h e r developed i n the l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b i n g l o c u s of c o n t r o l - t h e degree to which a 16 c h i l d f e e l s i n t e r n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what happens i n one's l i f e or a t t r i b u t e s these events to sources beyond one's c o n t r o l (Harter, 1983). There have been v a r i o u s s t u d i e s that l i n k the development of an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l to a l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n autonomous a c t i v i t i e s and encouraging them to be independent (Chance, 1972; T z u r i e l & Haywood, 1985; Wichern & Nowicki, 1976). Maccoby and M a r t i n (1983) have suggested that parents of i n n e r - d i r e c t e d c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e mature behavior, i n c l u d i n g independence, i n the "sense that they allowed t h e i r c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s and to f i n d problem s o l u t i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s ( p . 5 4 ) . As shown above, the concept of independence, though not e x a c t l y the same as i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l , seems to be a f a c t o r i n i t s development. In the t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h e o r i e s of the s e l f have d e a l t with the i s s u e of s e l f - c o n t r o l and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to autonomy. Freud (1922) d e s c r i b e d s e l f -c o n t r o l as r e s i s t a n c e to temptation, a s s o c i a t e d with the development of the superego and the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of, p a r e n t a l values to determine one's conduct. L a t e r t h e o r i s t s spoke of ego c o n t r o l or impulse c o n t r o l (Block & Block, 1980). These f o r m u l a t i o n s seem to r e f e r to an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s , not a true e x e r c i s e of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . T h i s l a t e r concept seems to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the stage model of ego development p o s t u l a t e d by Loevinger and Wessler (1970). In t h i s model an e a r l y "conformist stage" e x i s t s where an i n d i v i d u a l obeys r u l e s 17 because they are r u l e s . One's impulses are c o n t r o l l e d to prevent condemnation from s o c i e t y , as the i n d i v i d u a l i s concerned with p o t e n t i a l d i s a p p r o v a l of o t h e r s . The next stage of development i s the " c o n s c i e n t i o u s stage" which i n v o l v e s a s h i f t towards inner r u l e s or moral i m p e r a t i v e s t h a t take precedence over r u l e s t h at are e x t e r n a l l y e n f o r c e d . T h i s i s a f o r m u l a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l development that i n v o l v e s concepts analogous to independence and compliance d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . In the s p e c i f i c area of sex r o l e s and s o c i a l i z a t i o n , r e s e a r c h e r s have examined concepts s i m i l a r to independence/compliance i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h on dependency behavior. U n f o r t u n a t e l y what the concept of dependency means i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r . I t has been used to mean r e l y i n g on others i n coping as w e l l as being i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s . Hoffman (1977) uses the former d e f i n i t i o n and concludes that s t u d i e s have found females to be l e s s independent i n t h e i r coping s t y l e s . D i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s of sex typed behavior have been e x p l o r e d by Huston (1983). In the Personal A t t r i b u t e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , one of the p o s i t i v e male a t t r i b u t e s i s independence, while a negative female t r a i t i s s u b o r d i n a t i n g s e l f to o t h e r s . Huston argues that although m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y are not p o l a r o p p o s i t e s , the above model supports the n o t i o n of b i p o l a r i t y between s o c i a l l y v a l u e d masculine q u a l i t i e s and s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (There i s a l s o a b i p o l a r i t y -between p o s i t i v e feminine and negative masculine v a l u e s . ) 18 L a s t l y , Block (1978) has d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the idea of independence i n boys and g i r l s . For boys, independence i s d e s c r i b e d as the "assumption of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " whereas f o r g i r l s i t i s seen as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from p a r e n t s . One t h i n g that can be concluded from the above d i s c u s s i o n , i s the importance of concepts s i m i l a r t o independence/compliance i n understanding sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . In summary, concepts that are s i m i l a r to independence/compliance have been seen to be e x t e n s i v e l y used by r e s e a r c h e r s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s to d e s c r i b e aspects of both p e r s o n a l development and p a r e n t a l behavior. As such u n i v e r s a l l y important terms, i t i s c l e a r that they have u t i l i t y and value f o r l o o k i n g at human development. The s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s f o r independence o r i e n t a t i o n and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n t hat are used i n t h i s paper are presented below. Independence O r i e n t a t i o n The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of independence o r i e n t a t i o n used i n t h i s study i s as f o l l o w s : F a m i l i e s that have higher standard scores on the independence subscale of the Family Environment Scale (FES) are c o n s i d e r e d more independence o r i e n t e d than f a m i l i e s with lower independence subscale s c o r e s . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n used f o r the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s i s as f o l l o w s : A f a m i l y i n which a c h i l d i s d i r e c t e d to be a s s e r t i v e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , s e l f -19 d i r e c t e d , and to make h i s or her own d e c i s i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d o r i e n t e d towards independence. In t h i s study, parents are seen to promote independence by encouraging a c h i l d to base h i s or her behavior on i n t e r n a l standards of conduct. C h i l d r e n are encouraged to use t h e i r own judgment. Parents are i n t e r e s t e d i n encouraging t h e i r c h i l d ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Compliance O r i e n t a t i o n The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of compliance o r i e n t a t i o n used i n t h i s study i s as f o l l o w s : F a m i l i e s that have higher standard scores on the c o n t r o l subscale of the FES are c o n s i d e r e d more compliance o r i e n t e d than f a m i l i e s with lower c o n t r o l subscale s c o r e s . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n used f o r the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s i s as f o l l o w s : A f a m i l y i n which a c h i l d i s d i r e c t e d to f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of e x t e r n a l r u l e s and a u t h o r i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d compliance o r i e n t e d . C h i l d r e n are expected to have obedience to the l e t t e r of the law. In these f a m i l i e s , v e r b a l N g i v e and take' between the parents and the c h i l d i s d i s c o u r g e d . 20 Socioeconomic Status Before we look at s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s , i t would be u s e f u l to e x p l o r e the idea of socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES). Although the concept i s u n i v e r s a l l y used, there i s no a c t u a l agreement as to what i t means and how i t should be measured. That there i s s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n our s o c i e t y i s obvious, there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of power, p r e s t i g e , and resources (Gecas, 1979). The d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t on a m a t e r i a l l e v e l are r e a d i l y apparent. In g e n e r a l , there are two major schools of thought. K a r l Marx d e f i n e d c l a s s as the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y based on the r e l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s ' labour to the p r o d u c t i o n of goods (Marx, 1867/1978). Max Weber saw s o c i e t y as d i v i d e d along l i n e s of s t a t u s , based on the consumption of goods as r e p r e s e n t e d by " s t y l e s of l i f e " (Weber, 1946). T h i s study w i l l f o l l o w the more c u r r e n t view of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h a t sees s t a t u s as more a p p r o p r i a t e to the modern North American context (Gecas, 1979; Otto, 1975). T h i s view i s based on the l o g i c that c l a s s or economic p o s i t i o n c r e a t e s income which r e s u l t s i n i n d i v i d u a l s i n the same c l a s s having s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e s . Powers (1982) maintains that these l i f e s t y l e s c o n t r i b u t e to the e v a l u a t i o n made of i n d i v i d u a l s and to the p r e s t i g e given to them by o t h e r s . In the l i t e r a t u r e , s o c i a l c l a s s i s sometimes used with a s p e c i f i c meaning and at other times used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y with socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES). In t h i s paper s t u d i e s w i l l 21 be i d e n t i f i e d where s o c i a l c l a s s r e f e r s to the s p e c i f i c concept of workers' r e l a t i o n s to the power s t r u c t u r e i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . While Hess (1970) q u e s t i o n s the value of l o o k i n g at s o c i e t y through a c l a s s p e r s p e c t i v e , d e c l a r i n g i t an u n c l e a r concept that emphasizes u n i f o r m i t y over a range of d i f f e r e n c e s , a more widely h e l d view i s that SES i s of c r u c i a l importance i n many f i e l d s . Radke-Yarrow, Zahn-Waxler and Chapman (1983) s t a t e the r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g such a concept to analyze s o c i e t y : The s o c i a l - c l a s s concept o r g a n i z e s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e c l u s t e r of l i f e c o n d i t i o n s , behavior s e t t i n g s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of parents and f a m i l i e s . A given c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s a set of c e n t r a l tendencies on these dimensions. Many of the c o n d i t i o n s or p r o p e r t i e s that d i s t i n g u i s h among c l a s s e s are those that d e f i n e the context of c h i l d r e a r i n g - p a r e n ts' e d u c a t i o n , parents' work l i v e s , neighborhood and housing, economic p l e n t y or s c a r c i t y . These dimensions t r a n s l a t e i n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , such as p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , g o a l s , a n x i e t i e s and so on, that one can assume i n f l u e n c e the experiences the parents p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s they r e l y on i n c h i l d r e a r i n g , and the views they have of the world. (P.499). In g e n e r a l , SES has been shown to overshadow other v a r i a b l e s such as e t h n i c i t y i n determining the nature of f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g (Geismar & Gerhart, 1968). Schulenburg, Vondracek & Crouter (1984) found i t the most v a l u a b l e s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n i n p r e d i c t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . SES can i n c o r p o r a t e one or more of the f o l l o w i n g : 1 ) p a t e r n a l and maternal e d u c a t i o n a l attainment, 22 2) f a m i l y income, 3) p a t e r n a l (sometimes maternal) o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s (Schulenberg, Vondracek & C r o u t e r , 1984). A c o n t r a s t i n g view sees o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e as the core f a c t o r summarizing s o c i a l standing i n the context of modern s o c i e t i e s . Otto (1975) q u e s t i o n s whether composite i n d i c a t o r s of s o c i a l s t a t u s , income, occ u p a t i o n , and education can be proven to show independent e f f e c t s . He p o s i t s one v a r i a b l e , o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , as a p r e f e r a b l e measure and has found that 87% of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i s education and income. He argues that composite i n d i c a t o r s mask r a t h e r than expose r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Kerckhoff (1972) agrees, when he s t a t e s that o ccupation i s the most v a l i d s i n g l e measure of the p o s i t i o n one holds i n our s o c i e t y . He sees e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l as a means of a t t a i n i n g s t a t u s , not a measure of i t . Kohn's (1977) data show c l a s s or s t a t u s to be m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , f i n d i n g that " c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y from the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of education and occupation"(p.133). O r i g i n a l l y he found them to have an independent and a d d i t i v e e f f e c t on values and o r i e n t a t i o n . In h i s l a t e r work, Kohn (1977) has r e v i s e d h i s t h i n k i n g , and although he s t i l l b e l i e v e s that SES i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , he i s l e s s c o n f i d e n t that one can p r e c i s e l y measure the independent e f f e c t s of two such c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . The Wrights (1976) on the other hand found education to be the c e n t r a l c r i t e r i o n f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c l a s s 23 d i f f e r e n c e s . Kohn i n v e s t i g a t e d income and s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s , but found them not to be s i g n i f i c a n t . L a s t l y , Kohn (1977) found the r e l a t i o n s h i p of v a l u e s and o r i e n t a t i o n to s o c i a l s t a t u s as a d i r e c t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , at l e a s t f o r these v a r i a b l e s , s o c i a l s t a t u s c o n s i s t s of a continuous h i e r a r c h y of p o s i t i o n s , not d i s c r e t e s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The o r i g i n a l study by Young and F r i e s e n (1986) used the B l i s h e n (1976) socioeconomic index f o r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s s c a l e i s based on income and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , which i s then c o r r e l a t e d to P i n e o - P o r t e r (1967) o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e s c o r e s . In t h i s way, the index i s based on a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l view of s t a t u s , education and income, but i s c o r r e l a t e d to the u n i d i m e n s i o n a l f a c t o r of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . R ecently there has been i n c r e a s i n g c r i t i c i s m of SES i n d i c e s i n terms of t h e i r adequacy and u n d e r l y i n g theory (Baker, 1980; Powell & Jacobs, 1984; Wright, 1984). Two of the main problems mentioned ar e : 1) the v a l i d i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e as a c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , and 2) b i a s that u n t i l r e c e n t l y excluded women as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Consequently, B l i s h e n adopted a s t r a t e g y that would 1) minimize the r o l e of p r e s t i g e scores i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of SES, and 2) c o n s t r u c t a s i n g l e index based on c h a r a c t i s t i c s of the e n t i r e employed labour f o r c e . The index makes minimal use of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e as 24 a c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , emphasizing income and e d u c a t i o n . Income i s based on the pooled median employment income i n each o c c u p a t i o n . Education i s based on the "net p r o p o r t i o n " of w e l l educated members—the p r o p o r t i o n with a u n i v e r s i t y degree minus the p r o p o r t i o n without a high s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma. The income and e d u c a t i o n a l components were e q u a l l y weighted. To provide c o n t i n u i t y with p r e v i o u s indexes, the index was c a l i b r a t e d to the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e scores of Pineo and P o r t e r (1967). S t u d i e s L i n k i n g SES and Gender to Independence/Compliance Research has shown SES to be r e l a t e d to v a r i o u s f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n s of independence and compliance. There has been work done showing the c o r r e l a t i o n between parents' SES and the v a l u e s of independence/compliance. The major work l i n k i n g SES to t h i s value o r i e n t a t i o n was done by Kohn (1977). He t i e d s o c i a l c l a s s to p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S p e c i f i c a l l y he sought to d i s c e r n i f s o c i a l c l a s s had an e f f e c t on people's v a l u e s (e.g. what they saw as d e s i r a b l e ) . He wanted to t e s t the hypothesis t h a t the b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and i d e o l o g i e s people h e l d and t h e i r b e h a v i o r a l e x p r e s s i o n s of these were a r e s u l t of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . He saw v a l u e s as a l i n k between s o c i a l c l a s s p o s i t i o n and c h i l d r e a r i n g b ehavior. The l i n k between o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and s o c i a l c l a s s v a l u e s was based on " c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e " that were d i f f e r e n t f o r each c l a s s . T h i s theory has been e x p l a i n e d and t e s t e d by v a r i o u s 25 r e s e a r c h e r s ( G e c a s , 1979; Kohn, 1977; M o r t i m e r , 1976; W r i g h t & W r i g h t , 1 9 7 6 ) . The t h r u s t o f K o h n ' s a r g u m e n t may be d i a g r a m m e d a s f o l l o w s : S o c i a l C l a s s > C o n d i t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l l i f e > V a l u e s o f C o n f o r m i t y / S e l f - d i r e c t i o n > P a r e n t a l B e h a v i o r s . Of most i n t e r e s t t o us i s t h e c o n n e c t i o n Kohn t e s t e d b e t w e e n v a l u e s a n d p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s a s d e t e r m i n e d by c l a s s . A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s work w i l l p r e c e d e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s r e s u l t s . Kohn b a s e d h i s t h e o r y on t h r e e s t u d i e s - i n t e r v i e w s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. w i t h 339 w h i t e m o t h e r s ; i n T u r i n , I t a l y w i t h 341 f a t h e r s a n d 520 m o t h e r s ; a n d a n a t i o n a l s u r v e y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h 1,500 men r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l t h e e m p l o y e d f a t h e r s i n t h e U.S. The W a s h i n g t o n s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s t o p a r e n t a l v a l u e s a n d what i m p l i c a t i o n s c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l v a l u e s m i g h t h a v e f o r c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s . Kohn d e v e l o p e d a l i s t o f t r a i t s p a r e n t s d e s i r e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n by a s k i n g t h e p a r e n t s d i r e c t l y what t h e y v a l u e d . T h i s m e thod o f d e v e l o p i n g a m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s o f p a r e n t s e i t h e r b e i n g u n a b l e t o a n s w e r s u c h an o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n o r n o t b e i n g t o t a l l y f r a n k i n t h e i r a n s w e r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n f e r i n g v a l u e s f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r must be s u b j e c t t o an o u t s i d e r a n a l y z i n g t h e i n t e n t o f a n d n a t u r e o f a n o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o r . Kohn was a b l e t o d e v e l o p an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t h a t was t o be p r o v e n a r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t i n a l l 26 three s t u d i e s . For example, on the Washington study, the i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was equal to or gr e a t e r than .90 on a l l but thr e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Kohn's r e s e a r c h was very w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d . For example he c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of non-respondents to make sure he had a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. T h i s was b a s i c a l l y a p r e l i m i n a r y study to see i f there was an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r h i s hyp o t h e s i s . The f i n d i n g s showed that middle c l a s s mothers tended to value s e l f - d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n whereas working c l a s s mothers tended to value conformity to e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y . The sample of f a t h e r s ' responses was s i m i l a r to that of the mothers. The second study was conducted i n T u r i n , I t a l y to i n v e s t i g a t e whether c o n c l u s i o n s of the f i r s t study c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d beyond the time and s o c i a l circumstances of the United S t a t e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y Washington, DC. S i m i l a r l y conducted, t h i s c r o s s - n a t i o n a l comparison found that c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s were g r e a t e r between the U.S. and I t a l y than were c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s , but that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p of parents v a l u e s to c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . Kohn concluded that c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l v a l u e s were not j u s t a f u n c t i o n of the a f f l u e n c e i n the U.S. or i d i o s y n c r a c i e s of the Washington, DC p o p u l a t i o n . The n a t i o n a l study used a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of 1,500 f a t h e r s of c h i l d r e n ages 3 through 15 ye a r s , l i v i n g at home i n the US. Th i s study was designed to t e s t the 27 g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the previous f i n d i n g s and i n c l u d e d a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s and a l l major segments of s o c i e t y . The f i n d i n g s supported the same general c o n c l u s i o n s as the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , Kohn was able to i n v e s t i g a t e other v a r i a b l e s . He looked at age and sex of c h i l d , wondering i f c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n values d i f f e r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t ages and f o r each sex. He found that although there was some r e l a t i o n between f a t h e r ' s v a l u e s and these v a r i a b l e s , the " r e l a t i o n s h i p of c l a s s to v a l u e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n v a r i a n t , whatever the c h i l d r e n ' s age and sex."(p.56). Kohn then i n v e s t i g a t e d v a r i o u s other f a c t o r s : race, r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l background, the combination of these t h r e e , region of the country, r u r a l versus urban, f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and process ( s i z e , m a r i t a l happiness, e t c . ) , and the combination of a l l these f a c t o r s . He found that the r e l a t i o n s h i p remained the same, c o n c l u d i n g that " s o c i a l c l a s s stands out as more important f o r men's values than does any other l i n e of s o c i a l demarcation, u n a f f e c t e d by a l l the r e s t of them, and a p p a r e n t l y more important than a l l of them t o g e t h e r . " ( p . 7 2 ) . Kohn then compared men's o r i e n t a t i o n s to work, s o c i e t y and s e l f . He found that the higher the s o c i a l c l a s s , the more s e l f - d i r e c t e d were men's value s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own thoughts and a c t i o n s . He found that the higher the c l a s s , the more men v a l u e d i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t i s t i c s of work such as i n t e r e s t and freedom allowed, whereas the lower the s t a t u s the more men valued e x t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as 28 pay, hours and s e c u r i t y . L a s t l y , the lower the c l a s s , the more men were r i g i d l y c o n s e r v a t i v e and l e s s t o l e r a n t of non-c o n f o r m i t y . Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to t h i s study, Kohn then i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p a r e n t a l v a l u e s to b e havior. Kohn wanted to know i f the value d i f f e r e n c e s found e x p r e s s i o n i n b e h a v i o r . He looked at two s p e c i f i c areas of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . F i r s t , he wanted to know under what c o n d i t i o n s parents of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s punish t h e i r c h i l d r e n . He found that the p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e between the c l a s s e s was i n the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s under which par e n t s , g e n e r a l l y mothers, punished t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Working c l a s s parents were more l i k e l y to punish or not to punish t h e i r c h i l d r e n based on the d i r e c t consequences of the c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s . Middle c l a s s parents punished or r e f r a i n e d from p u n i s h i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s of t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s i n t e n t of t h e i r a c t i o n s . Kohn argued that these parents a c t on the b a s i s of d i f f e r e n t g o a l s , middle c l a s s parents value s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and judge t r a n s g r e s s i o n s on the b a s i s of why c h i l d r e n misbehave. Working c l a s s parents value c o n f o r m i t y and judge t r a n g r e s s i o n s on whether or not the a c t i o n s v i o l a t e e x t e r n a l l y imposed r u l e s . In the second i n v e s t i g a t i o n of values and p a r e n t a l behavior, Kohn asked what r o l e s mothers d e s i r e d t h e i r husband to p l a y , s u p p o r t i n g or c o n s t r a i n i n g . Here we are approaching the idea of f a m i l y c l i m a t e , the type of 29 environment parents would l i k e to e s t a b l i s h f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Kohn e x p l o r e d what type of r o l e , and by i m p l i c a t i o n what type of environment mothers would l i k e t h e i r husbands to c r e a t e i n the home. Middle c l a s s mothers wanted t h e i r husbands to support t h e i r c h i l d r e n and pla y e d down t h e i r r o l e i n s e t t i n g l i m i t s . T h i s corresponds to t h e i r d e s i r e that c h i l d r e n be a b l e to decide f o r themselves how to a c t , the parents s u p p o r t i n g the c h i l d ' s d e c i s i o n s but not d i r e c t i n g t h e i r behavior. Working c l a s s mothers saw t h e i r husband's primary r e s p o n s i b l i t y as g u i d i n g and d i r e c t i n g the c h i l d r e n , h e l p i n g them to conform to e x t e r n a l l y imposed r u l e s . The r e s u l t s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as d e s c r i b i n g f a c t o r s making up an environment o r i e n t e d towards independence through the f a t h e r ' s support of the c h i l d ' s d e c i s i o n s versus an environment o r i e n t e d towards compliance through the f a t h e r s e t t i n g f i r m l i m i t s on the c h i l d . The l a s t p a r t of Kohn's study i n v e s t i g a t e d the cause of the c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e . He t e s t e d and found support f o r the idea that the type of working c o n d i t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d the values a man h e l d . Middle c l a s s men needed to d i s p l a y s e l f -d i r e c t i o n on the job, whereas working c l a s s men must conform to a u t h o r i t y , and t h e r e f o r e each comes to value f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e i r work l i f e (Kohn, 1977; Mortimer, 1976; Mortimer & Kumka, 1982). Gecas (1979) analyzed Kohn's f i n d i n g s and d i s c o v e r e d that although only 14% to 25% of the v a r i a t i o n i n p a r e n t a l v a l u e s of conformity and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n was e x p l a i n e d by 30 SES, a m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n , i t was c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s s t u d i e s , age a n d s e x . More i m p r e s s i v e l y , o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . r a c e ) h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t on p a r e n t a l v a l u e s when c l a s s was c o n t r o l l e d . G e c a s c o n c l u d e d t h a t K o h n ' s t h e o r y was " i m p r e s s i v e " a n d a p p e a r e d t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , many c o m m e n t a t o r s h a v e been i m p r e s s e d w i t h Kohn's w e l l d e s i g n e d a n d c a r e f u l l y d o c u m e n t e d work ( P o r t e r , 1 9 7 0 ; S i l v e r m a n , 1 9 7 1 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , M i l l e r q u e s t i o n s t h e p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Kohn's f i n d i n g s , s i n c e t h e l a r g e s a m p l e i n t h e N a t i o n a l s t u d y r e s u l t e d i n p a r e n t a l v a l u e s b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t h o u g h i t a c c o u n t e d f o r l e s s t h a n 10% o f t h e v a r i a n c e . S i l v e r m a n q u e s t i o n s e x t r a p o l a t i n g upon an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n f o r m i t y a n d s e l f - d i r e c t i o n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e w o r l d v i e w o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e a c t i o n s t o Kohn's work, t h e r e h a v e been r e p l i c a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f h i s s t u d y . Kohn h i m s e l f c i t e s v a r i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h h i s work. O l s e n ' s s t u d y ( c i t e d i n Kohn, 1977) o f s o c i a l c l a s s a n d v a l u e s i n T a i w a n r e p l i c a t e d Kohn's o r i g i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s a n d c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . A n o t h e r s t u d y , by S t . P e t e r ( c i t e d i n Kohn, 1 9 7 7 ) , f o u n d s o c i a l c l a s s t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h " i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " a n d t h e d e s i r a b l i t y o f " b e h a v i o r a l c o n f o r m i t y " i n c h i l d r e n . L a s t l y , a C a n a d i a n s t u d y s u p p o r t e d Kohn's f i n d i n g s t h a t s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n t h e w o r k p l a c e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h v a l u e s o f 31 s e l f - d i r e c t i o n / c o n f o r m i t y or obedience in boys (Coburn & Edwards, 1976). More recent r e s e a r c h has supported these f i n d i n g s . Hess, e t . a l . (1980) found that SES s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to v e r b a l a s s e r t i v e n e s s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . S t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n v o l v i n g a d o l e s c e n t s have found SES to be a s s o c i a t e d with independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l (Morgan, 1978) as w e l l as h e a l t h y i d e n t i t y formation ( Adams & Jones, 1983; Campbell, e t . a l . , 1984). The most comprehensive r e p l i c a t i o n of Kohn's work was c a r r i e d out by Wright and Wright (1976). They i n v e s t i g a t e d t h r e e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by Kohn's study. F i r s t , they wanted to weigh the e f f e c t s of non-class v a r i a b l e s on v a l u a t i o n s of c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . Secondly, they wanted to d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n of education versus o c c u p a t i o n on the e f f e c t s of SES. L a s t l y , they sought to d i s c o v e r the r o l e of the mothers not j u s t the f a t h e r s . They were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g an e q u i v a l e n t index to Kohn's with t h e i r sample da t a . They p o s t u l a t e d e i t h e r that Kohn's index was not r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the v a r i a b l e s to be s t u d i e d or that the t r a i t s had changed over the l a s t ten y e a r s . They concluded that t h e i r data tended to support the l a t t e r . T h e i r f i n d i n g s r e v e a l that while s o c i a l c l a s s accounts f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a n c e , i t overlooks at l e a s t 2/5's and perhaps 3/5's of the e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e . The other v a r i a b l e s they c o n s i d e r e d were r e g i o n , race, r e l i g i o n , r e l i g i o u s attendance, e t h n i c i t y , and c i t y s i z e . They found l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between f a t h e r s and mothers. L a s t l y , they 32 found that education was a more important c r i t e r i o n of s o c i a l s t a t u s and values than o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . The Wrights concluded that there had been a c l e a r t r e n d towards s e l f - d i r e c t e d v a l u e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1964 to 1973. They c l a i m e d . t h a t although s o c i a l c l a s s was the primary source of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n v a l u e s of c o n f o r m i t y / s e l f -d i r e c t i o n , the explanatory power of the model was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d when non- c l a s s v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d . L a s t l y , they f e l t more emphasis should be p l a c e d on education r a t h e r than on occupation when d i s c o v e r i n g s o c i a l c l a s s e f f e c t . Kohn responded by q u e s t i o n i n g c e r t a i n aspects of the Wrights' r e s e a r c h . Although he acknowledged that they confirmed the primacy of s o c i a l c l a s s as the main determinant of s e l f - d i r e c t i n g v a l u e s , by r e f a c t o r i n g t h e i r data to take i n t o account a more c l o s e l y analogous sample, he claimed that the r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y supported h i s f i n d i n g s both i n parents s t a t u s and the e f f e c t s of education versus o c c u p a t i o n . The Wrights c o n s i d e r e d " c h i l d r e n i n g e n e r a l " not a s k i n g about a s p e c i f i c age of c h i l d s i m i l a r to the parents' own, i g n o r i n g m a t u r i t y versus immaturity f a c t o r s that were c o n s i d e r e d by Kohn. When the r e s u l t s are r e f a c t o r e d , t h i s accounted f o r the Wrights' i n a b i l i t y to index the new data, and accounted f o r the change i n values over time. Regardless of the above debate, Kohn has l a i d a s t r o n g foundation to support the idea that SES i s r e l a t e d to at 33 l e a s t some f a m i l y f a c t o r s o r i e n t e d towards independence/compliance. A recent study ( M o r t i m e r , e t . a l . , 1986) sought to i n v e s t i g a t e and expand the a n a l y s i s of the processes of value t r a n s m i s s i o n as demonstrated by Kohn. A panel of 650 freshmen who entered u n i v e r s i t y i n 1962 and 1963 was s e l e c t e d , supplimented four years l a t e r by 150 a d d i t i o n a l s e n i o r s . In 1976, 610 of these men were again i n t e r v i e w e d . The r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t with Kohn's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l c l a s s on s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r s reasoned that SES would be an approximate measure of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , and that p a r e n t a l support would be a n a t u r a l b e h a v i o r a l outcome of s e l f - d i r e c t e d v a l u e s . As a r e s u l t , they expected a p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between these two c o n s t r u c t s , and t h i s was confirmed i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s . In other words, they found higher SES f a t h e r s to be more s u p p o r t i v e of sons, e n a b l i n g the development of s e l f - d i r e c t e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , they found that p a r e n t a l support, a l i k e l y e x p r e s s i o n of s e l f - d i r e c t e d p a r e n t a l v a l u e s , f o s t e r e d the development of work r e l a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n and values of work autonomy were a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t a l support. I t i s c l e a r that Kohn has developed a very strong t h e o r e t i c a l argument to support h i s theory. There has been e m p i r i c a l c o n f i r m a t i o n of h i s f i n d i n g s . Kohn's work i s m e t i c u l o u s , he a n t i c i p a t e s any q u e s t i o n s that might weaken 34 h i s study and then goes on to answer these. His c o r r e l a t i o n s are not high .20 to .38, but c o n s i s t e n t with other s t u d i e s and i n r e l a t i o n to other f a c t o r s . S i m i l a r l y to SES, c h i l d r e n ' s gender has been found to be r e l a t e d to f a m i l y f a c t o r s which are o r i e n t e d towards independence/compliance. There has been c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence that young g i r l s ( p r e s c h o o l or younger) were more l i k e l y than boys to conform to d i r e c t i o n s from an a d u l t (Maccoby & J a c k l i n , 1974). These r e s u l t s were supported by l a t e r s t u d i e s (Block & Block,1980; Kuczynski, et a l . , 1987). Research s t u d i e s a l s o suggested t h a t parents tended to make more demands of boys f o r independent task performance and encouraged dependent behavior in g i r l s . Z i e g l e r and Dusek (1985) found adolescent females to p e r c e i v e t h e i r parents as more c o n t r o l l i n g than males d i d . T h i s f i n d i n g expanded p r e v i o u s work that found females are s u b j e c t to g r e a t e r p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l (Adams & Jones, 1983). Other s t u d i e s showed that while mothers encourage boys to be independent, they a l s o want them to conform to e x t e r n a l standards (Block, 1978). L a s t l y , a review of s t u d i e s conducted p r i o r to the e a r l y 1980's, found that males f e e l a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l t h e i r l i v e s and d i s p l a y l e s s " l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s " in achievement s i t u a t i o n s than females (Huston, 1983). P a r e n t / c h i l d I n t e r a c t i o n , SES and Gender Looking at other s p e c i f i c f a m i l y f a c t o r s , there have been s t u d i e s that have i n v e s t i g a t e d the l i n k between 35 p a r e n t a l behaviors and SES. Gecas and Nye (1974) researched the e f f e c t of v a l u e s on p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s . They t e s t e d Kohn's theory that middle c l a s s parents s t r e s s the development of i n t e r n a l standards of conduct i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and t h e r e f o r e are more l i k e l y to d i s c i p l i n e on the b a s i s of t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s motives. Kohn a l s o p o s t u l a t e d that working c l a s s parents put more emphasis on conformity to e x t e r n a l standards and t h e r e f o r e are more l i k e l y to r e a c t to the consequences of the c h i l d ' s behavior. The r e s e a r c h e r s t r i e d to r e p l i c a t e t h i s study, but c r e a t e d a d i f f e r e n t context of answering f o r the p a r e n t s . Instead of a s k i n g what behaviors they would punish a c h i l d f o r , they asked parents what they would do i f 1) a c h i l d a c c i d e n t l y breaks something of value to the parents, and 2) w i l l f u l l y d i s o b e y s . They found that there was modest support f o r Kohn's t h e s i s , namely, that middle c l a s s parents d i s p l a y e d a wider d i f f e r e n c e to the above two s i t u a t i o n s . They concluded that although working c l a s s parents were, i n g e n e r a l , s e n s i t i v e to circumstances and i n t e n t i o n s , middle c l a s s parents seem more f i n e l y attuned. These r e s u l t s g i v e some support to the idea that c l a s s a f f e c t s not j u s t p a r e n t a l v a l u e s , but p a r e n t / c h i l d behavior as w e l l . The r e s u l t s must be viewed with c a u t i o n , however, as there were some weaknesses i n the sample. The sample proved to be d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the s t a t e (Washington) as w e l l as the n a t i o n , mother's occupation was not i n c l u d e d , and no check was made on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 36 of p a rents who d i d not r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A r e l a t e d study by Zegiob and Forehand (1975), i n v e s t i g a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s a t t r i b u t e d to s o c i a l c l a s s , race and gender i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n s between mother and c h i l d r e n . These mothers were observed i n a c l i n i c , both with t h e i r c h i l d i n a f r e e p l a y p e r i o d and a s i t u a t i o n where they were expected t o get t h e i r c h i l d to cooperate i n c l e a n up. These r e s u l t s showed that SES was the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n determining maternal i n t e r a c t i v e b e havior. Middle c l a s s mothers tended to use i n d i r e c t commands or q u e s t i o n s to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Working c l a s s mothers were more d i r e c t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y with t h e i r daughters. Although t h i s was not a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and the s p e c i f i c commands were given to the mothers, these f i n d i n g s tend to support the idea that middle c l a s s mothers t r y to encourage s e l f - d i r e c t e d behavior, t h i n k i n g f o r themselves, whereas working c l a s s mothers encourage the more obedient behavior of f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s . Gender has a l s o been s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n to p a r e n t / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . Parents are c o n s i d e r e d the major s o c i a l i z a t i o n agents f o r sex r o l e s , and i t i s b e l i e v e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s that parents t r e a t c h i l d r e n of the two sexes d i f f e r e n t l y so as to shape them towards behavior they deem a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r sex (Brooks-Gunn, 1985; S i e g a l , 1987). These f i n d i n g s have been d i s p u t e d by Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1974) when they looked at the s t u d i e s p r i o r to the middle 1970's. In g e n e r a l , they found that r e s e a r c h showed 37 that the t o t a l i n t e r a c t i o n between mother and c h i l d was the same f o r both sexes. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the s t u d i e s were l i m i t e d i n that they i n v o l v e d f o r the most p a r t only p r e -school aged c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s tended to suggest that there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n treatment of boys and g i r l s as f a r as encouragement of independent behavior or i n r e a c t i o n to a c h i l d ' s dependency. These f i n d i n g s were d i s p u t e d by Block (1976) on many grounds. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , she claimed that sex typed d i f f e r e n c e s would be expected to become more apparent i n s t u d i e s based on adolescent and a d u l t samples. Block p o i n t e d out that many s t u d i e s that were l e f t out of Maccoby and J a c k l i n ' s work had s t r o n g l y supported a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s to t h e i r s . For example, there were s t u d i e s that supported the idea t h a t g i r l s show gr e a t e r compliance than boys and g r e a t e r dependency. Hoffman (1977) i n her review s t a t e d that o b s e r v a t i o n of parents confirmed that there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way parents t r e a t sons and daughters. Other s t u d i e s have a l s o found sex r e l a t e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s from both the parents as w e l l as the c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view. For i n s t a n c e , Z i e g l e r & Dusek (1985) found that a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s see t h e i r parents as more c o n t r o l l i n g , which the r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t f o s t e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s and dependence. In c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears that "parents t r e a t boys and g i r l s d i f f e r e n t l y i n ways that appear to have long-term 38 i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n t e r e s t , s k i l l s , independence , ach ievement , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " (Huston , 1 9 8 3 , p . 4 3 8 ) . From the above d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e has been e m p i r i c a l support f o r the idea t h a t s p e c i f i c p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s are r e l a t e d to the SES of the p a r e n t s and the gender of the c h i l d . P a r e n t a l b e l i e f , B e h a v i o r , SES and Gender The above s t u d i e s d e a l w i t h on ly one a spec t of f a m i l y l i f e , p a r e n t a l v a l u e s or p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r . There i s a growing tendency of r e s e a r c h e r s to use a more m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l view of the f a m i l y . V a r i o u s s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n of p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and s e l f - r e p o r t s of b e h a v i o r w i t h o ther v a r i a b l e s . Schae fer and Edgerton(1985) have s t u d i e d the above v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h academic competence and p a r e n t a l S E S . They r e v i s e d Kohn' s rank order of p a r e n t a l v a l u e s for c h i l d r e n and sought to r e f l e c t the i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s e s between parent and c h i l d . One of t h e i r s t u d i e s found tha t s e l f -d i r e c t i n g v a l u e s and r e p o r t s of p a r e n t ' s s h a r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h SES. P a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t a r i a n b e l i e f s and conforming v a l u e s were found to c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y w i th SES. E d u c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s of the p a r e n t s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h SES a l o n g wi th conforming v a l u e s . Schae fer and Edger ton c o n c l u d e d that c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s e x p e r i e n c e v e r y d i f f e r e n t 39 e d u c a t i o n a l environments i n the home. They concluded that parents' b e l i e f i n s e l f - d i r e c t i n g v a l u e s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and r e p o r t s of s h a r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s with the c h i l d were c o r r e l a t e d with SES and the c h i l d ' s academic competence. T h e i r s t u d i e s a l s o found a c o r r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s and c u r i o s i t y / c r e a t i v i t y . The authors concluded t h a t parent ideology and s e l f - r e p o r t s of behavior are s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with c h i l d academic competence. They went on to s t a t e i f parents b e l i e v e they can and do p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l experiences f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , they are more l i k e l y to behave i n that way. In other words, the parent's p e r c e p t i o n of the environment they c r e a t e f o r t h e i r f a m i l y a f f e c t s t h e i r b e havior. The authors d i s c o v e r e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between what parents b e l i e v e , what they do, and t h e i r e f f e c t on the c h i l d . In a d d i t i o n , they found that the d i f f e r e n c e s were c o r r e l a t e d to the SES of the p a r e n t s . Segal (1985) conducted two s t u d i e s that e x p l o r e d p a r e n t a l behavior and SES. In her f i r s t study of mothers i n an e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n program, using a Q-sort instrument, she concluded that working c l a s s parents gave more value to obedience, with middle c l a s s parents g i v i n g i t a low v a l u e . V a r i o u s other v a l u e s were e x p l o r e d (e.g.cooperation) but obedience scores appeared to be the best d i s c r i m i n a t o r between demographic v a r i a b l e s . T h i s leads to the q u e s t i o n of whether parents who p l a c e a high value on obedience behave d i f f e r e n t l y toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n than parents who p l a c e a lower value on obedience. She i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s i n 40 e x p l o r i n g the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l v a l u e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n program. She found that parents who were l e s s concerned about d i s c i p l i n e and obedience spent more time on program sponsored p a r e n t - c h i l d a c t i v i t i e s . Segal concluded that there was a l i n k between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , and behavior, and that t h i s was c o r r e l a t e d with the f a m i l y ' s s t a t u s . In the same way, gender has been s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n to f a m i l y f a c t o r s . Most parents t h i n k that the t y p i c a l behavior of boys and g i r l s i s d i f f e r e n t i n many ways (Block, 1976; Maccoby and J a c k l i n , 1974) . Barnett (1981) s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these p a r e n t a l c h i l d - r e a r i n g values and p a r e n t a l sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s . She found that parents with n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s , tended to grant t h e i r c h i l d r e n independence at an e a r l y age. She d i d not f i n d t h i s t o d i f f e r between boys and g i r l s . On the other hand, many s t u d i e s have found a d i f f e r e n c e i n c h i l d r e a r i n g g o als and behaviors based on the gender of the c h i l d . Brooks-Gunn (1985) found that maternal b e l i e f s about sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n were r e l a t e d to maternal behavior i n home o b s e r v a t i o n and i n a f r e e - p l a y s e t t i n g . Adolescent g i r l s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s have been shown to be r e l a t e d not only to p a r e n t a l f a c t o r s , but to SES as w e l l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Johnson and F l a c k (1985) claimed that g i r l s are taught to i n h i b i t autonomy. Review of the re s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e shows that parents allow boys more independence in t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n s both i n and away from the 41 home and t h a t parents s t a t e d that they valued independence more f o r sons than daughters (Hoffman, 1977; Huston, 1983). A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of 700 c h i l d r e n ages 4 to 7 years i n Nottingham, England confirmed these f i n d i n g s (Newson & Newson, 1976). The authors f e l t t h a t c h i l d r e n kept under c l o s e r watch must n e c e s s a r i l y come under g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e to conform to a d u l t standards and v a l u e s . Block (1983) a l s o surveyed the f i e l d of s e x - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n and found that i n parents' s e l f - r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e a r i n g , there were s e x - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r e n t a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n behaviors that i n c r e a s e with the age of the c h i l d . Parents r e p o r t e d that they encouraged t h e i r sons, among other t h i n g s , to be more independent and s e l f - r e l i a n t . G i r l s were expected to be more obedient. The same study a l s o found evidence that boys were allowed freedom to e x p l o r e independently. In s t u d i e s on problem s o l v i n g behavior, mothers were found to react p o s i t i v e l y to b i d s f o r h e l p from g i r l s and n e g a t i v e l y when boys asked f o r h e l p (Fagot, 1978). I t i s suggested that t h i s handicaps the g i r l s , f o r when an a d u l t c r e a t e s " d i s t a n c e " from the c h i l d independent problem s o l v i n g and c o g n i t i v e development i s promoted ( S i g e l & Cocking, 1976). In summary, v a r i o u s s t u d i e s show that boys more than g i r l s are reared i n ways that encourage c u r i o s i t y , independence, and e x p l o r a t i o n of the environment (Block, 1983). F i n a l l y , two other f a m i l y v a r i a b l e s have been c o n s i d e r e d : f a m i l y s i z e and the age of the c h i l d r e n . Smaller f a m i l i e s have been a s s o c i a t e d with l e s s c o n s t r a i n t s 42 on the c h i l d r e n (Scheck & Scheck , 1976), more support f o r c a r e e r development ( S p l e t e & Freeman-George , 1985) , and h i g h independence / low c o n t r o l s cores on the FES s u b s c a l e s (Moos & Moos, 1981) . S i m i l a r l y , the o l d e r the c h i l d the more a s s o c i a t i o n t h e r e i s w i t h an independence o r i e n t a t i o n i n the f a m i l y (Young & S c h o r r , 1986), and the f o r m a t i o n of an independent i d e n t i t y in a d o l e s c e n t s (Adams, 1983) . In g e n e r a l , the o l d e r the c h i l d , the l e s s c o n t r o l p a r e n t s seem to e x e r t and the more they encourage autonomy and independent judgment (Maccoby & M a r t i n , 1983) . E x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d out i n v e s t i g a t i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of how f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y p a r e n t s , i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and whether these are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f a m i l y ' s SES and the c h i l d ' s gender . P a r e n t a l b e l i e f s have been shown to i n f l u e n c e p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r . The i n t e r a c t i o n between parent and c h i l d has been shown to be r e l a t e d to the SES of the f a m i l y and gender of the c h i l d . SES and gender have an i n f l u e n c e on v a l u e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n v o l v i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e / c o m p l i a n c e . F i n a l l y , SES and gender have been shown to be r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s such as the methods of d i s c i p l i n e and the c r e a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l environments i n the home. The above d i s c u s s i o n shows tha t SES and gender are r e l a t e d to a number of d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y d i m e n s i o n s . The q u e s t i o n now becomes, does t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p h o l d up when the f a m i l y i s viewed from a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e ? 43 Family Environment Family s o c i a l c l i m a t e has been seen to be very i n f l u e n t i a l on c h i l d r e n ' s development. From the viewpoint of the ad o l e s c e n t , f a m i l y environment has been shown to a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward s e l f , parents and e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s (Amoroso & Ware,1986) as w e l l as e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s (Marjoribanks, 1983). The f a m i l y s o c i a l c l i m a t e has a l s o been r e l a t e d to behavior i n the home s e t t i n g ( H i l t o n s m i t h , 1985). H i l t o n s m i t h concludes that "environments have x p e r s o n a l i t y ' that can be r e l i a b l y i n f e r r e d from the p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s and that these p e r c e p t i o n s i n f l u e n c e subsequent behavior i n the environment"(p.979). While the fa m i l y environment i n general has been shown to be of s i g n i f i c a n t importance, the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s about the e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c f a m i l y s o c i a l c l i m a t e s . Of relevance to the present study, r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d f a m i l y environments that are s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d towards independence and compliance. Family environments with a high independence o r i e n t a t i o n have been c o r r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c c a r e e r d e c i s i o n making stages (Berne, 1978) and the formation of a h e a l t h y i d e n t i t y i n a d o l e s c e n t s (Campbell, Adams, & Dobson, 1984). F a m i l i e s with a low emphasis on independence have been r e l a t e d to a n o r e x i c and b u l i m i c p a t i e n t s (Johnson & F l a c k , 1985; St r a u s s & Ryan, 1987), c o l l e g e dropouts ( S e a r i g h t & Openlander, 1986) and i s o l a t e d or r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n (Peery, Jensen, & Adams, 44 1985). Environments h i g h i n compliance o r i e n t e d f a c t o r s have been seen to be r e l a t e d to o b e s i t y (Beck & T e r r y , 1985) , l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s ( M a r g a l i t & Heiman, 1986) and acute medical problems (Rogers, 1983). In s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a d o l e s c e n t s , independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n has been connected with SES (Scheck & Scheck, 1976), adjustment t o d i a b e t e s ( H a u s e r , e t . a l . , 1985; W e r t l i e b , 1986) , and running away from home (Steinbock, 1978). The above s t u d i e s demonstrate the importance of i n v e s t i g a t i n g independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s . While most of the above s t u d i e s were at l e a s t p a r t l y based on Family Environment Scale (FES) s c o r e s , the q u e s t i o n remains of whether an independence/compliance dimension i s a v a l i d way of i n t e r p r e t i n g the FES. These s t u d i e s show that the s u b s c a l e s of independence and c o n t r o l have been l i n k e d to other important v a r i a b l e s . L o g i c a l l y , a case can be made fo r using s p e c i f i c s ubscales of the FES to determine o r i e n t a t i o n towards independence or compliance. Moos & Moos (1986) d e f i n e the most r e l e v a n t s u b s c ales as f o l l o w s : Independence--An o r i e n t a t i o n i n which f a m i l y members are a s s e r t i v e , are s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . Control--An o r i e n t a t i o n i n which set r u l e s and procedures are used to run f a m i l y l i f e . The d e f i n i t i o n s of the independence and c o n t r o l s u b s c ales correspond to the d e f i n i t i o n s presented e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper. Both d e f i n i t i o n s of independence are p r i m a r i l y 45 based on the extent to which f a m i l y members are encouraged to be a s s e r t i v e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r c o n t r o l and compliance are both based on f a m i l y members f o l l o w i n g e x t e r n a l r u l e s , a u t h o r i t y and procedures that are determined s t r i c t l y by the pa r e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , the d e f i n i t i o n of independence used i n t h i s paper i n c l u d e s the encouragement of a c h i l d ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . I t i s l o g i c a l l y c l e a r that a s s e r t i v e and s e l f - d i r e c t e d c h i l d r e n need to be a b l e to express themselves. S i m i l a r l y there i s l i t t l e p l a c e f o r e x p r e s s i o n when c h i l d r e n are encouraged to s t r i c t l y f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t y . As shown above, these d e f i n i t i o n s are d e s c r i b i n g very s i m i l a r concepts. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h by B i l l i n g s and Moos (1982) l e d to the development of a typology of f a m i l y environments based on a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l assessment of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of community f a m i l i e s . T h e i r r e s e a r c h shows that each f a m i l y type has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r "members' p a t t e r n s of pe r s o n a l and s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n and h e a l t h outcomes."(p.27). Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to t h i s paper are the "independence-oriented f a m i l i e s " which correspond to the d e f i n i t i o n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper. These f a m i l i e s have a major emphasis on independence and do not emphasize r u l e s and c o n t r o l s . Members of these f a m i l i e s are d e s c r i b e d as a s s e r t i v e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and abl e to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s (Moos & Moos, 1976). In t h i s e a r l i e r work, Moos & 46 Moos a l s o i d e n t i f i e d f a m i l y t y p e s t h a t emphasized c o n t r o l , f o r example a c h i e v e m e n t - v i a - c o n f o r m i t y f a m i l i e s . In t h e s e s t u d i e s , Moos and Moos have demonstrated the u t i l i t y of l o o k i n g a t s p e c i f i c f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s , most i m p o r t a n t l y ones t h a t have an o r i e n t a t i o n towards independence or c o n t r o l / c o m p l i a n c e as one of t h e i r c o r e f a c t o r s . These environments have been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s o r s and c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s , as w e l l as f a m i l y members' l e v e l of f u n c t i o n i n g ( B i l l i n g s & Moos, 1982). There a r e e m p i r i c a l p r e c e d e n t s f o r l o o k i n g a t the f a m i l y a l o n g the l i n e s of an independence or c o m p l i a n c e o r i e n t a t i o n as shown by FES s c o r e s . S t r a u s s and Ryan (1987) i n t h e i r s t u d y on a n o r e x i a used s i x s u b s c a l e s of the FES t o s tudy autonomy i n the f a m i l y : c o h e s i o n , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , c o n f l i c t , independence, o r g a n i z a t i o n , and c o n t r o l . More i m p o r t a n t l y , F owler (1981, 1982a) and Boake (1983) have done work d e v e l o p i n g a f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r the FES. I n F o w l e r ' s work, he p r o v i d e d s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t the FES can be s c a l e d a l o n g two o r t h o g o n a l d i m e n s i o n s ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( c o h e s i o n v e r s u s c o n f l i c t ) and o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l . Fowler d e s c r i b e s the second d i m e n s i o n as "the e x t e n t t o which the f a m i l y environment i s an o r g a n i z e d , c o n t r o l l i n g one or one t h a t a l l o w s f a m i l y members c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy and independence" (1982, p.805). He found t h i s s t r u c t u r e t o be s t a b l e a c r o s s samples, and when c o n t r o l l e d f o r s o c i a l d e s i r a b l i t i y . The second f a c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d 47 to the c o n t r o l and o r g a n i z a t i o n s u b s c a l e s , showing a negative r e l a t i o n to independence and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . The g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s were supported i n subsequent r e s e a r c h by Boake (1983). L a s t l y , when Fowler (1982b) compared t h i s f a c t o r s c a l e with the items on the P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form, they were most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the Dependency vs. Autonomy s c a l e (.72 c a n o n i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t ) . The FES has been shown to possess a c c e p t a b l e psychometric q u a l i t i e s (Boake, 1983; Moos, I n s e l , & Humphrey, 1974), a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e (Fowler 1981, 1982) and meaningful demographic c o r r e l a t e s (Boake, 1983). Whether one agrees with the view that the s u b s c a l e s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y independent to a l a r g e extent-(Moos & Moos, 1981), or that they measure only the two orthogonal dimensions of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n / c o n t r o l (Fowler, 1981), an independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n e i t h e r case. In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e body of r e s e a r c h has s u b s t a n t i a t e d the value of viewing the f a m i l y along these l i n e s . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s of b e n e f i t to use a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l view of the f a m i l y s i n c e t h i s can provide more i n f o r m a t i o n than i s obtained from the a d d i t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s i n g l e dimensions. The f a m i l y types that r e s u l t from such a conception have been shown to have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the members' development and f u n c t i o n i n g ( B i l l i n g s & Moos, 1982). Such o r i e n t a t i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n 48 the area of independence/compliance, have been a s s o c i a t e d with f a c t o r s ranging from the s u c c e s s f u l formation of i d e n t i t y i n adolescence (Campbell,et a l . , 1984) to the development of ca r e e r d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y i n young a d u l t s (Berne, 1978). By understanding the background f a c t o r s , such as SES and gender, that are a s s o c i a t e d with the development of these f a m i l y types and the behaviors by which parents h e l p to c r e a t e such c l i m a t e s , we may be able to exert some c o n t r o l over t h e i r development and t h e r e f o r e h e lp i n f l u e n c e our c h i l d r e n i n more p r o d u c t i v e ways. Hypotheses 1) There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y SES, s i b l i n g gender composition, age of c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n i n the fa m i l y , and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e of independence o r i e n t a t i o n of the fa m i l y as measured by the mother's score on the independence subscale of the FES. 2) There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y SES, s i b l i n g gender composition, age of c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y , and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e of compliance o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y as measured by the mother's score on the c o n t r o l subscale of the FES. 49 The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e b a s e d on t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a : 1) Do m o t h e r s w i t h h i g h s c o r e s on t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e s u b s c a l e o f t h e FES r e p o r t p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o r s t h a t e n c o u r a g e i n d e p e n d e n c e ? 2) Do m o t h e r s w i t h h i g h s c o r e s on t h e c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e o f t h e FES r e p o r t p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o r s t h a t e n c o u r a g e c o m p l i a n c e ? 50 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The Sample The data came from a study of 190 f a m i l i e s conducted by Dr. R. Young and Dr. J . F r i e s e n which was designed to c o n s t r u c t a category system based on the i n t e r v e n t i o n s used by parents i n the ca r e e r and p e r s o n a l development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The sample of 190 f a m i l i e s y i e l d e d 207 parent-c h i l d dyad i n t e r v i e w s , with only the parents as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the r e s e a r c h . At the time of the i n t e r v i e w s , the ages of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ranged from 10 to 25 ye a r s . The above sample represented v o l u n t e e r s from the p o p u l a t i o n of a l l parents with c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g elementary school (grades 5-7), secondary s c h o o l , and the l o c a l community c o l l e g e i n the community of New Westminster, B.C.. T h i s i s a small m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area of Vancouver with a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 40,000 people (Province of B.C., 1986). The c h i l d r e n of the parents i n t h i s study were between the ages of 10 to 25 y e a r s . Parents of c h i l d r e n i n the 10-18 year o l d group were r e c r u i t e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n with the New Westminster School D i s t r i c t . L e t t e r s were sent (Appendix A) to a l l the parents of grades 5 to 12 students i n the one secondary and e i g h t elementary schools (school p o p u l a t i o n : 3,545) i n v i t i n g them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . 51 Of the approximately 2,186 l e t t e r s t h a t were d i s t r i b u t e d , many were to parents having more than one c h i l d a t t e n d i n g school i n the d i s t r i c t . Of these l e t t e r s , 707 were sent to parents of elementary school students (grades 5-7) and 1,479 to parents of secondary school s t u d e n t s . The parents of o l d e r c h i l d r e n , ages 19-25, were r e c r u i t e d through the d i s t r i c t ' s community c o l l e g e . Approximately 850 a d d i t i o n a l l e t t e r s were sent to parents of students through a random s e l e c t i o n of c l a s s e s i n the f o l l o w i n g three of the four major d i v i s i o n s of the c o l l e g e . They were: 1)Mathematics, Science, Psychology, E n g l i s h and Communications, Modern Languages, Music, Theatre, and H i s t o r y ; 2)Nursing, C h i l d Care C o u n s e l l i n g , Community S o c i a l S e r v i c e , E a r l y Childhood Education, Mental R e t a r d a t i o n Worker, Business Management, and Economics; and 3)Adult Basic E d u c a t i o n , Reading and Study S k i l l s , L i b r a r y S k i l l s , and Human Development. The l e t t e r of i n v i t a t i o n d e s c r i b e d the p r o j e c t to the parents and i n v i t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a two-hour i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n . In t h i s s e s s i o n they would be asked to d e s c r i b e how they helped one of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n h i s or her caree r development and to take a f a m i l y environment q u e s t i o n n a i r e . They would r e c e i v e $20.00 f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t . Parents who were i n t e r e s t e d were asked to f i l l out and r e t u r n the a p p l i c a t i o n form (Appendix B) and would then be c a l l e d to set up an appointment. 52 Two hundred and f i f t y - o n e a p p l i c a t i o n forms were i n i t i a l l y r e t u r n e d . The sample f o r the o r i g i n a l study was 207 and c o n s i s t e d of parents who v o l u n t e e r e d and subsequently decided to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. A d d i t i o n a l l e t t e r s of i n v i t a t i o n were sent to parents (with a p p r o p r i a t e l y aged c h i l d r e n ) from groups that were f a m i l i a r to the r e s e a r c h team such as churches and s e r v i c e c l u b s . These parents were s o l i c i t e d i n order to o b t a i n as wide a p a r e n t / c h i l d dyad range as p o s s i b l e . These subsequent dyads came from a wide range of socioeconomic groups. The present study c o n s i s t s of only the m o t h e r - c h i l d dyads of f a m i l i e s that l i s t e d the parent's o c c u p a t i o n , as e x p l a i n e d i n the Data C o l l e c t i o n s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p ter. The sample of 187 parents who answered the q u e s t i o n s on f a m i l y SES represented a range of socioeconomic l e v e l s as measured by B l i s h e n ( B l i s h e n , C a r r o l l , & Moore, 1987) from 23.66 to 75.28 with a mean of 51.57 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 13.63. The l e v e l was determined by the higher of the mother's or f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n . The o c c u p a t i o n a l range was from wood saw operator (23.66) to academic dean (75.28). T h i s range was confirmed by the examination of the 129 f a m i l i e s who r e p o r t e d annual f a m i l y income. On a s c a l e from l e s s than $10,000 to over $70,000 ($10,000 increments), the average was 3.71 ($37,100) with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 1,7($16,700). T h i s i s comparable to the S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1983) f i g u r e f o r average f a m i l y income i n 1981—$35,767. 53 The sample f o r the present study c o n s i s t e d of only the m o t h e r / c h i l d dyads who r e p o r t e d the parent's o c c u p a t i o n (n=114). D e s c r i p t i v e data from t h i s smaller sample were compared to data f o r the more g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The mean score f o r the FES independence subscale was 49.52 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 10.18. For the c o n t r o l subscale the mean was 51.48 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 10.67. These scores compare with the sample scores from the normative p o p u l a t i o n of a mean of 50 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 10 (Moos & Moos, 1986). The mean f a m i l y income was $34,432 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 17.48. T h i s compares with the 1981 Canadian census means of $34,160 f o r New Westminster and $35,767 f o r the g e n e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983). The above three v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d using a one-sample, non-d i r e c t i o n a l t - t e s t and showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , there are s i m i l a r i t i e s , at l e a s t f o r these v a r i a b l e s , between the sample and the more gen e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The f a m i l y SES index scores of the sample had a mean of 51.56 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 15.71. T h i s compares to B l i s h e n ' s (1987) Canadian mean score of 42.74. The average number of c h i l d r e n i n the sample f a m i l e s was 2.43 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 1.11 (277 c h i l d r e n , 114 f a m i l i e s ) . In the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983) the average number of c h i l d r e n was 2.14. These d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t a c c o r d i n g to the t - t e s t . The f a m i l i e s i n t h i s 54 study had higher SES scores than the Canadian average. They a l s o had s l i g h t l y l a r g e r f a m i l i e s than the Canadian average. Since p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study r e q u i r e d a f a i r l y l a r g e p e r s o n a l commitment (a two hour i n t e r v i e w ) , the sample was made up of s e l f - s e l e c t i n g v o l u n t e e r s . T h e r e f o r e the sample cannot be s a i d to represent the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of the community of New Westminster. At the same time, a n a l y s i s of the above data suggests that the sample was s i m i l a r to the p o p u l a t i o n i n New Westminster and the g e n e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n i n regards to income. I t was s i m i l a r to the normative sample used f o r the FES which i n turn was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the U n i t e d S t a t e s p o p u l a t i o n (Moos & Moos, 1981). The present sample c o n s i s t e d of s l i g h t l y l a r g e r f a m i l i e s than the Canadian average with higher average SES s c o r e s . In summary, the sample i s of v o l u n t e e r parents from New Westminster. B.C. that have s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t h at correspond to those of the more gen e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s of Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Instruments On the a p p l i c a t i o n form, the respondents were asked f o r mother's c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n , f a t h e r ' s c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n , age and gender of the c h i l d r e n , p a r e n ts' age, and annual f a m i l y income. The l a s t two q u e s t i o n s were o p t i o n a l and not everyone responded to them. 55 Family Environment Scale (FES) The Family Environment Scale c o n s i s t s of 90 items or g a n i z e d i n t o 10 su b s c a l e s , each with 9 t r u e / f a l s e items. A c c o r d i n g to the developers (Moos, et a l . , 1974), " I t focuses on the measurement and d e s c r i p t i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f a m i l y members, on the d i r e c t i o n s of pe r s o n a l growth that are emphasized i n the f a m i l y , and on the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y " (p.3). T h i s s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t p r o v i d e s a n o n - i n t r u s i v e means of g a t h e r i n g f a m i l y members' impressions of themes that are present i n t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e . The normative sample c o n s i s t e d of 1,125 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and 500 d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s from a l l areas of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n c l u d e d a sample of 294 f a m i l i e s drawn randomly from census t r a c t s i n the San F r a n c i s c o area. The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s from the San F r a n c i s c o sample were s i m i l a r to the o r i g i n a l sample of normal f a m i l i e s , s u p p o r t i n g the authors' c l a i m that the normative sample t r u l y represented the range of normal f a m i l i e s . The d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s were c l i e n t s i n f a m i l y c l i n i c s , g eneral p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s , f a m i l i e s of a l c o h o l abusers, and f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . The FES has been found to have good psychometric q u a l i t i e s (Busch-Rossnagel, 1987; Lambert, 1987). The 10 subscales of the FES have moderate to high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s (.61-.78) and a c c e p t a b l e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s (.68-.86). The 8-week t e s t r e t e s t ranged from 56 .73 to .86, and the 12-month s t a b i l i z a t i o n ranged from .52 to .89. The face v a l i d i t y of the FES i s c o n s i d e r e d by Busch-Rossnagel (1987) to be good, with the wording of each item r e f l e c t i n g the subscale and the u n d e r l y i n g dimension. The evidence f o r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i s based on c o r r e l a t i o n s with other s t u d i e s and t e s t s that c l a i m to measure the same t h i n g s . T h i s s c a l e has been used i n over 50 d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s (Moos & Moos, 1986). Chapter Two d e t a i l e d cases that are r e l e v a n t to t h i s paper t h a t support the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the FES. C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interview The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t r e p o r t c o n s i s t e d of a semi-s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w designed to capture s p e c i f i c events and experiences parents had that they c o n s i d e r e d to have had an e f f e c t on the c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w was d e s c r i b e d to the parent and they were then asked to s i g n an agreement to take p a r t i n the study. The i n t e r v i e w was audio tape-recorded. The i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t e d of two p a r t s . In the p r e l i m i n a r y s e c t i o n , u s u a l l y 15-20 minutes i n l e n g t h , the parent was asked to t a l k about one c h i l d i n the f a m i l y i n a general way. He or she was asked to d e s c r i b e the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s , hobbies, c u r r e n t school or work s i t u a t i o n , and plans f o r the f u t u r e . The p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d had been chosen beforehand by the r e s e a r c h team as f i t t i n g i n t o the age and 57 gender requirements of the sample. T h i s segment of the i n t e r v i e w was not analyzed, but was used to present the c h i l d c l e a r l y i n the parent's awareness. The second p a r t of the i n t e r v i e w was approximately 60-70 minutes i n l e n g t h . In t h i s segment, parents were asked to r e c a l l s p e c i f i c events that they engaged i n t h a t were intended to encourage the c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d . Career development was broadly d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g not only e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s , but a l s o the behaviors of p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making, the sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over one's g o a l s , and the meaning these v a r i o u s elements were seen to have i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e . The i n t e r v i e w e r helped to e l i c i t and c l a r i f y i n c i d e n t s by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . Each i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t e d of about 10 i n c i d e n t s . The i n t e r v i e w e r s were two male and two female graduate students i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. In a d d i t i o n to t h e i r normal course of s t u d i e s , each had r e c e i v e d 20 hours of s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n the i n t e r v i e w procedures used i n t h i s study. The parents were randomly assig n e d to the i n t e r v i e w s . One i n t e r v i e w e r d i d i n t e r v i e w about twice as many parents as any of the other three i n t e r v i e w e r s . The second p a r t of the i n t e r v i e w was t r a n s c r i b e d d i r e c t l y from audio tape to the u n i v e r s i t y ' s main frame computer. In the t r a n s c r i p t i o n p r o c e s s , the i n t e r v i e w s were d i v i d e d i n t o s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s and c o n s e c u t i v e l y numbered on each t r a n s c r i p t . 58 Data C o l l e c t i o n The 207 parents i n the o r i g i n a l sample who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w d e s c r i b e d above were given the FES to complete, and asked to p r o v i d e the needed demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . Since a c r u c i a l part of t h i s study i n v o l v e d knowing the parent's socioeconomic s t a t u s , only the parents that had s u p p l i e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n the sample (n=187). S i m i l a r l y , i n order to s i m p l i f y the a n a l y s i s of the data, data only from the mothers were used (n=114). T h i s i s i n keeping with a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s area (e.g. Hess, 1970; Zegiob,1975). In a d d i t i o n , two r e l a t e d s t u d i e s found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mothers' or f a t h e r s ' FES s u b s c a l e scores (Boake,1983; Moos, et a l . , 1974). The FES r e s u l t s were c a l c u l a t e d f i r s t as raw scores and then as standard scores f o r a l l 10 s u b s c a l e s . The i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s f o r the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s (Chapter Two) were s e l e c t e d from the f a m i l i e s with the h i g h e s t scores on the independence or c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e s of the FES. I t was b e l i e v e d t h at these f a m i l i e s would be the ones most o r i e n t e d towards independence or compliance, and t h e r e f o r e they would tend to show the most c l e a r l y d e f i n e d behaviors by which these o r i e n t a t i o n s were expressed i n the f a m i l i e s . 59 Data A n a l y s i s F a m i l y Environment S c a l e (FES) I n i t i a l l y , d e s c r i p t i v e data on the p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were c o l l e c t e d . F o r the c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s of FES s c o r e s , SES, and f a m i l y s i z e , means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d . For the c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s of s i b l i n g gender c o m p o s i t i o n and age of c h i l d r e n , f r e q u e n c i e s and percentages are r e p o r t e d . A s t a n d a r d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was performed between FES s c o r e s on the independence s u b s c a l e as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e and f a m i l y SES, s i b l i n g gender c o m p o s i t i o n , ages of c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n as the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . A second m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was performed between the FES scores on the c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e and the above p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . For the purposes of t h i s s t u d y , f a m i l y SES s c o r e s were based on B l i s h e n ' s index (1987), u s i n g the s core of the parent w i t h the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g . Whereas the o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h used an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of B l i s h e n ' s index (1976), the p r e s e n t s c o r e s were updated u s i n g the more c u r r e n t i n d e x . O c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o the four d i g i t index number by the r e s e a r c h e r . A v o l u n t e e r r e s e a r c h e r then s c o r e d a sample c o n s i s t i n g of t h i r t y - o n e of these t i t l e s . An i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .99 was then computed u s i n g the Pearson p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n f o r m u l a . 60 A n o t h e r p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e c o n s i d e r e d was f a m i l y s i z e . T h i s was t r e a t e d a s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d i s c r e t e v a r i a b l e o f t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y . The r a n g e was f r o m one t o e i g h t c h i l d r e n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e d a t a f r o m t h e FES were b a s e d on t h e m o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y . I n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s g e n d e r t o t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t , a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y n e e d e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e , i t w o u l d h a v e been d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r m a l e c h i l d t o t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t i f t h e r e were b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e s i b l i n g s i n t h e f a m i l y . T h e r e f o r e , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were d e v e l o p e d ; f a m i l i e s w i t h o n l y f e m a l e c h i l d r e n , f a m i l i e s w i t h o n l y m a l e c h i l d r e n , a n d f a m i l i e s w i t h b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e c h i l d r e n . The v a r i a b l e o f age o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d a s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a . The s a m p l e was d i v i d e d i n t o f a m i l i e s w i t h o n l y c h i l d r e n b e l o w f o u r t e e n y e a r s , f a m i l i e s w i t h o n l y c h i l d r e n f o u r t e e n y e a r s a n d a b o v e , a n d f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n b o t h a b o v e and b e l o w f o u r t e e n y e a r s . The age o f f o u r t e e n was c h o s e n a s s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t h o u g h t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s u n c l e a r a b o u t t h e e x a c t a g e s c h i l d r e n e n t e r v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . Kohen-Raz ( 1 9 7 1 ) s e e s t h e a g e s b e f o r e f o u r t e e n y e a r s , p r e a d o l e s c e n c e ( 9 - 1 2 ) a n d e a r l y p u b e r t y ( 1 2 - 1 3 ) , a s s e p a r a t e a n d i m p o r t a n t t i m e s . P h y s i o l o g i c a l l y t h e r e i s a d e c e l e r a t i o n o f g r o w t h b e f o r e t h e peak o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t 61 growth spurt and the r e s u l t i n g fundamental changes i n hormonal e q u i l i b r i u m . The average age of menarche i s now t h i r t e e n and the average age of a boy's f i r s t e j a c u l a t i o n i s around f o u r t e e n years with a corresponding r i s e i n t e s t o s t e r o n e l e v e l s between 12 and f o u r t e e n years ( S t e i n b e r g , 1981). S o c i a l l y , t i e s to the f a m i l y are loosened but c h i l d r e n are s t i l l i n p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l . In other c u l t u r e s , f o r example the Jewish and Zuni Indian, t h i s time i s r e c o g n i z e d by t r a d i t i o n a l r i t e s of passage; the Bar Mitzvah-13 years, and Zuni puberty r i t e s - 1 4 years (Benedict, 1934). E m o t i o n a l l y e a r l y puberty, the years up to f o u r t e e n , c o n s i s t s of the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e experiences of c h i l d h o o d . I t "provides a b a s i s f o r and i s a p r e c o n d i t i o n of the succeeding s t a g e s . " (p.22, Kohn-Raz). Burns (1986) sees e a r l y adolescence (11-13) as a time of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l but a l s o of a r e c o g n i t i o n of a c h i l d ' s autonomy. The years f o l l o w i n g t h i r t e e n are c o n s i d e r e d a time of more independence. While some s t u d i e s show other ages such as f i f t e e n as a time of r e l a t i v e independence from p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l (Cole, 1970; F i s h e r , 1986), s e v e r a l recent s t u d i e s have shown fourt e e n years as a s i g n i f i c a n t developmental cut o f f p o i n t ( B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s , 1986; Burns, Green, & Chase, 1986; Hauch, Martens, & Wetzel, 1986). 62 I n t e r v i e w s The t r a n s c r i p t s o f m o t h e r s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d s c o r e s ( 7 0 ) on t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o r t h e c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e s o f t h e FES were i d e n t i f i e d . A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e s e t r a n s c r i p t s , t h r e e f r o m t h e h i g h i n d e p e n d e n c e o r i e n t e d m o t h e r s a n d t h r e e f r o m t h e h i g h c o m p l i a n c e ( c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e ) o r i e n t e d m o t h e r s were s e l e c t e d . The r e s e a r c h e r d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s e t r a n s c r i p t s were t h e most c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f t h e r a n g e o f a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s . As t h i s was a d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y , n o t meant t o r e a c h q u a n t i f i a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s , i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s m e t hod o f t r a n s c r i p t s e l e c t i o n was t h e most e f f e c t i v e i n p r e s e n t i n g a f u l l r a n g e o f t h e m o t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o r s . The s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s i n e a c h t r a n s c r i p t h a d been p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . The t r a n s c r i p t s were t h e n r e r e a d by t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h e r a n d i n c i d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g a t t i t u d e s o r b e h a v i o r s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s i n d e p e n d e n c e o r c o m p l i a n c e were i d e n t i f i e d . The t r a n s c r i p t s w e r e t h e n u s e d t o p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e i n c i d e n t s were u s e d t o show w h e t h e r t h e s e l e c t e d h i g h i n d e p e n d e n c e o r i e n t e d m o t h e r s e n c o u r a g e d i n d e p e n d e n c e o r c o m p l i a n c e by t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o r s . A s i m i l a r p r o c e s s was c a r r i e d o u t f o r t h e h i g h c o m p l i a n c e o r i e n t e d m o t h e r s . 63 In order to strenghten the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s , the t r a n s c r i p t s and a n a l y s i s were checked by two r e a d e r s . One i s c u r r e n t l y employed as a sch o o l c o u n s e l l o r , has a graduate degree i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, and a background working with c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s . The other i s a medical doctor whose p r a c t i c e i n c l u d e s a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of c o u n s e l l i n g with parents and f a m i l i e s . The a s s i s t a n t s read through the t r a n s c r i p t s and the summary m a t e r i a l , checking to see whether the a n a l y s i s was a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t r a n s c r i p t s . There was b a s i c agreement among the three readers that t h i s was the case. 64 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS Q u a n t i t a t i v e F i n d i n g s : Family Environment S c a l e (FES) The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the continuous p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of SES and f a m i l y s i z e (Table 1). As s t a t e d i n Chapter Three, the SES scores are higher than those of the gen e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n and the average f a m i l y s i z e of the sample i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r than the Canadian average. The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , FES independence subscale s c o r e s and c o n t r o l subscale s c o r e s , f a l l w i t h i n the range of Moos' (1986) normative sample. Frequencies and percentages f o r the c a t e g o r i c a l p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of s i b l i n g gender composition and age of c h i l d r e n are given i n Table 2. The c a t e g o r i e s of age of c h i l d r e n have h i g h l y unequal numbers, the f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n a l l 14 years or o l d e r outnumbering the f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n l e s s than 14 years by almost two to one. The two s e t s of hypotheses i n t h i s study were i n v e s t i g a t e d u sing standard m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . Assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the an a l y s e s were examined through an i n s p e c t i o n of r e s i d u a l p l o t s f o r l i n e a r i t y , o u t l i e r s , homogenity of v a r i a n c e , and n o r m a l i t y . The r e s u l t s were s a t i s f a c t o r y i n a l l cases. 65 TABLE 1: Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of the Continuous V a r i a b l e s (n=114) V a r i a b l e s Means Standard D e v i a t i o n Socioeconomic s t a t u s 51.56 15.71 Family S i z e 2.43 1 . 1 1 Family Environment S c a l e : Independence 49.52 10. 18 Family Environment S c a l e : C o n t r o l 51 .48 10. 67 TABLE 2: Frequency and Percentages of the C a t e g o r i c a l V a r i a b l e s (n=114) V a r i a b l e N % Gender Composition: A l l male 27 24 ( S i b l i n g s ) Mixed 64 56 A l l female 23 20 T o t a l : 1 1 4 100 Age of C h i l d r e n : Less than 14 28 25 Mixed 32 28 Equal/Over 14 54 47 T o t a l : 1 1 4 100 The t o t a l sample i n c l u d e d nineteen cases that were m i s s i n g data needed to determine the SES scores as measured by the B l i s h e n index (1987), a combination of income and ed u c a t i o n . These cases were c l u s t e r e d on the lower end of the income s c a l e , mainly c o n s i s t i n g of s i n g l e parents at home with t h e i r c h i l d r e n , e a r n i n g l e s s than $10,000 per year. In order to check on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these cases, an estimate of t h e i r SES scores was made. I t was argued that a score of 25.53, which corresponds to the SES score of c h i l d care a t t e n d e n t s , homemakers, and f o s t e r mothers, would be a reasonably accurate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the income and job d e s c r i p t i o n of these mothers. Two s e t s of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l yses were run, the f i r s t e x c l u d i n g the cases where data were mi s s i n g and the second i n c l u d i n g these c a s e s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e s u l t s of these a n a l y s e s . In order to i n c l u d e both c a t e g o r i c a l and continuous v a r i a b l e s i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , dummy coding of the c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s was used. Simply s t a t e d , i n dummy coding one generates a number of v e c t o r s such t h a t , i n any given v e c t o r , i n d i v i d u a l s of a given category are ass i g n e d a one, while a l l others are assign e d a ze r o . In t h i s way the numbers only r e f l e c t membership i n d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s and do not r e f l e c t q u a n t i t i e s or a rank o r d e r i n g of the c a t e g o r i e s to which they are as s i g n e d . The coding used i n t h i s study f o r the v a r i a b l e s of age of c h i l d r e n and s i b l i n g gender composition i s presented i n Table 3. 67 TABLE 3: Dummy Coding of C a t e g o r i c a l V a r i a b l e s Age C a t e g o r i e s : S i b l i n g Gender <14 >14 Mixed Age1 Age2 1 0 0 1 0 0 C a t e g o r i e s : A l l Male A l l Female Mixed Sib1 Sib2 1 0 0 1 0 0 The v e c t o r of Age 1 r e p r e s e n t s f a m i l i e s with only younger c h i l d r e n ( l e s s than 14 years) versus f a m i l i e s with o l d e r c h i l d r e n (14 years and o l d e r ) and f a m i l i e s with both o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r l y , Age 2 r e p r e s e n t s f a m i l i e s with o l d e r c h i l d r e n versus a l l other f a m i l i e s . The v e c t o r of S i b 1 r e p r e s e n t s f a m i l i e s with only male c h i l d r e n versus f a m i l i e s with only female c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s with both male and female c h i l d r e n . L i k e w i s e , S i b 2 r e p r e s e n t s f a m i l i e s with only female c h i l d r e n versus a l l other f a m i l i e s . The hypotheses presented i n Chapter 2 are repeated f o r the reader's convenience along with the r e s u l t s i n t a b u l a r form, f o l l o w e d by a general d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of each r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . Two m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses were run, one using the FES independence subscale scores as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e and one using the FES c o n t r o l subscale s c o r e s . 68 Hypothesis 1 There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y SES, s i b l i n g gender composition, age of c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y , and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e of independence o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y as measured by the mother's score on the independence subscale of the FES. The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n are presented i n Table 4. Included are the un s t a n d a r i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (B), the s t a n d a r i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (Beta), p r o b a b i l i t i e s ( p ) , R, and R-squared. Since R-squared can never take on negative v a l u e s , chance f l u c t u a t i o n s w i l l only be i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e R-squared tends to be overestimated and adjustments should be made. Adjusted R-squared i s a l s o p r esented i n Table 4. D i s c u s s i o n I t was p r e d i c t e d i n the hyp o t h e s i s that a l l four of the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s would make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the v a r i a n c e i n the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . O v e r a l l the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the v a r i a n c e i n independence o r i e n t a t i o n of the mother (p<.05), although i n t o t a l they accounted f o r a r e l a t i v e l y small p r o p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e ( 9 % ) . T h i s was due to only one v a r i a b l e , namely, age ( f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n >14). 69 As e x p l a i n e d i n the pr e v i o u s s e c t i o n , the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e of age of c h i l d r e n was represented by two v e c t o r s . The v e c t o r Age 2, r e p r e s e n t i n g f a m i l i e s of c h i l d r e n f o u r t e e n years or o l d e r versus a l l other f a m i l i e s , was the only v a r i a b l e v e c t o r that c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n of independence o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y ( p < . 0 l ) . I t accounted f o r 14% (9% adjusted) of the v a r i a b i l i t y on FES independence subscale s c o r e s . Hypothesis 1 was p a r t i a l l y supported i n that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . The f i n d i n g s p r e d i c t that f a m i l i e s with only o l d e r c h i l d r e n (14 years and above) w i l l have higher scores on the FES independence subscale than a l l other types of f a m i l i e s . TABLE 4: M u l t i p l e Regression of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s on FES  Independence Subscale Scores (n=114) V a r i a b l e s B SES -.019 Family S i z e -.563 Age 1 -1.822 Age 2 6.532 Si b 1 .144 Si b 2 -1.416 BETA -.029 -.062 -.077 .322 -.006 -.056 P r o b a b i l i t i e s .765 .560 .490 .005 .953 .582 R SQUARE=.14 Adjusted R-SQUARE=.09 R=.37 F=2.917 p=.0 1 1 70 Hypothesis 2 There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y SES, s i b l i n g gender composition, age of c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n i n the fa m i l y and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e of compliance o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y as measured by the mother's score on the c o n t r o l subscale of the FES. The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n are presented i n Table 5. Included are the un s t a n d a r i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (B), the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Beta), p r o b a b i l i t i e s (p), R, R-squared, and a d j u s t e d R-squared. It was p r e d i c t e d i n the hypothesis that the four p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s would make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the v a r i a n c e of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . O v e r a l l , the F-value of 1.85 was not s i g n i f i c a n t , showing that the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e to the va r i a n c e of the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . T h e r e f o r e Hypothesis 2 was not supported by the data. In order to f u r t h e r examine the data, and i n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t none of the continuous p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t , a n a l y ses of v a r i a n c e (ANOVAs) were run f o r the c a t e g o r i c a l p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s (Table 6) show that the ANOVA f o r FES independence subscales scores versus age of c h i l d r e n was the only s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y s i s (p<.00l). A Scheffe''method of post hoc comparison was then used with an alpha l e v e l set at 71 .10, r e s u l t i n g i n a c r i t i c a l t - r a t i o value of 2.19. The r e s u l t s show that there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , with the value of the c o n t r a s t equal to 4.16, between f a m i l i e s that have only o l d e r c h i l d r e n (14 years and above) and f a m i l i e s that have c h i l d r e n younger than 14 y e a r s . There were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , with the value of the c o n t r a s t equal to 3.46, between f a m i l i e s with o l d e r c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s with both o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , the value of the c o n t r a s t equal to .70, between f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n below 14 years and f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n of mixed ages (q=70). These r e s u l t s c o n f i r m those of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . TABLE 5: M u l t i p l e Regression of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s on FES C o n t r o l Subscale Scores (n=114) V a r i a b l e s B BETA P r o b a b i l i t i e s SES .037 .055 .574 Family S i z e -.011 -.001 .991 Age 1 -.209 -.008 .941 Age 2 -5.394 -.254 .030 S i b 1 -1.298 -.052 .624 S i b 2 -6.097 -.230 .029 R-SQUARE= Adjusted R=SQUARE= R= .09 .09 .31 F=1.849 p=.097 Table 6: ANOVA Summary Tables A) FES (Independence) vs. Age: Source SS df MS F _ age 1580.5 2 790.2 8.65* E r r o r 10138.0 1_U 91.3  *P<.001 (.95 F (2,100)=3.09) B) FES (Independence) vs. S i b l i n g Gender Composition: Source SS df MS F s i b 92 2 46 0.44 E r r o r 11627 111 105 C) FES ( C o n t r o l ) v s . Age: Source SS df MS F age 552 2 240 2.49 E r r o r 12317 111 111 D) FES ( C o n t r o l ) vs. S i b l i n g Gender Composition: Source SS df MS F s i b 480 2 240 2.15 E r r o r 12389 111 112 73 Q u a l i t a t i v e F i n d i n g s : C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interviews The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t data c o n s i s t e d of the t r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s from each of the mothers i n the sample. Of the t r a n s c r i p t s , there were seven from f a m i l i e s t h at had the h i g h e s t standard scores on the FES independence su b s c a l e (70) and nine from f a m i l i e s t h at had the h i g h e s t standard scores on the FES c o n t r o l subscale (70). A f t e r reading through these t r a n s c r i p t s , three from each category were chosen as the most i l l u s t r a t i v e of the range of a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of the mothers (see Data A n a l y s i s s e c t i o n ) . These a t t i t u d e s and behaviors were seen s p e c i f i c a l l y to encourage independence or compliance i n c h i l d r e n . The t r a n s c r i p t s show both behavior that i s congruent with the f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n determined by the mother's FES s c o r e s , i . e . both are independence o r i e n t e d , and behavior that i s at odds with f a m i l y o r i e n t i o n . Of the f a m i l i e s with h i g h independence o r i e n t a t i o n , c l i e n t #188 demonstrated c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a t t i t u d e s and behaviors that were o r i e n t e d towards independence as d e f i n e d in Chapter One. At the o u t s e t , t h i s mother s t a t e d that the a c t i v i t i e s the f a m i l y d i d serve to " f o s t e r . . . b a s i c independence i n them(the c h i l d r e n ) . " The parents f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s independence by not being " p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o t e c t i v e of our kids...we've j u s t encouraged them to get out and enjoy t h i n g s on t h e i r own." T h i s b e l i e f i n the value of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n , a core concept i n the d e f i n i t i o n of independence o r i e n t a t i o n , i s combined with 74 encouraging the c h i l d to base h i s or her behavior on i n t e r n a l standards not e x t e r n a l r u l e s : "we're a f a m i l y of very few r u l e s and very few s t r u c t u r e s about how t h i n g s are done." As d e f i n e d i n Chapter One, independence o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s i s found where c h i l d r e n are encouraged to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . The mother i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t endeavored to he l p her c h i l d r e n do t h i s i n very p r a c t i c a l ways. As she s t a t e d : "The year t h a t they (the c h i l d r e n ) d i d p l a n a ghost town t r i p . . . t h e y planned the roads, they t o l d us where we were going to go. We were t o l d where to stop, they l e d the route i n terms of the e x p l o r a t i o n s that we undertook at that p a r t i c u l a r stage of the game." The mother b e l i e v e d that by t r u s t i n g the c h i l d r e n to have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n making, she helped them develop independence o r i e n t e d t r a i t s : "They had a r e a l sense of power with t h a t . " The d e f i n i t i o n of independence o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s i n c l u d e s the idea that parents' encouragment of the development and ex p r e s s i o n of t h e i r c h i l d ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s i s important. The mother i n t h i s f i r s t t r a n s c r i p t demonstrates t h i s when she s t a t e s t h a t her goal was to "...h e l p him(her son) develop h i s own p e r s p e c t i v e " . Her d e s c r i p t i o n of how she react e d when she di s a g r e e d with her son i s an example of behavior that i s based on t h i s b e l i e f . She s a i d to him: "Well, why do you th i n k t h a t ? " E x p l a i n i n g to the i n t e r v i e w e r that she s p e c i f i c a l l y d i d not say: " of 75 course you don't think t h a t ! That's an impossible t h i n g ! How c o u l d you p o s s i b l y t h i n k t h a t ! " Her s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e was to " l e t him come to h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s " . In summary, t h i s mother c l e a r l y b e l i e v e s that her son should develop independence o r i e n t e d t r a i t s . She b e l i e v e s i n few f a m i l y r u l e s , a l l o w i n g the c h i l d r e n to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s , be s e l f - d i r e c t e d , and f r e e l y express t h e i r own thoughts and f e e l i n g s . The mother c o n s i s t e n t l y a c t s i n ways that are congruent with these b e l i e f s . She s t r u c t u r e s her behavior i n ways that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e her c h i l d ' s independence. The independence o r i e n t e d mother i n the next t r a n s c r i p t ( C l i e n t #27) s i m i l a r l y b e l i e v e s that she d i r e c t s her daughter to be independent by encouraging her to make her own d e c i s i o n s . The c l e a r e s t example of t h i s b e l i e f i s when the mother s t a t e s that she l e t s her c h i l d "take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her own a c t i o n s and the only way she gets to do that i s by doing i t " . The mother a c t s on t h i s b e l i e f i n v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t i n v o l v e s what the c h i l d w i l l wear, and demonstrates t h a t the mother encourages her c h i l d r e n t o use t h e i r own judgment, an important aspect i n the d e f i n i t i o n of independence o r i e n t a t i o n : I looked at her and s a i d , "Is that what you're going t o wear to school today?...Do you th i n k y o u ' l l be warm enough?" And she says "Yes". " A l r i g h t " , I responded. "Mom, I'm c o l d . " I s a i d , " I t ' s not as warm today as i t l o o k s . " 76 She s a i d "tommorrow I'm wearing a blouse and a s k i r t . " "Okay", I s a i d . Not only does the mother l e t the c h i l d make the de c i s o n of what to wear, but she a l s o l e t s the c h i l d come to her own c o n c l u s i o n s about the i n c i d e n t . S i m i l a r l y with school homework the mother b e l i e v e s i n l e t t i n g the c h i l d take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her a c t i o n s : " i t ' s not my problem. I t ' s between them and the s c h o o l " Again, t h i s i s f o l l o w e d through with c o n s i s t e n t behavior: "She's had a couple of times where she's come home with l i n e s that she's had to do f o r misbehaving, and she's not bothered doing them. Then she was sent home with twice as much to do the next day because she d i d n ' t do them." The mother l e t s the i n t e r a c t i o n be between her daughter and the s c h o o l . In regard to money the daughter i s expected to develop s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , another aspect of independence: " i f you want pocket money then you've got to f i g u r e out a way y o u r s e l f to earn i t " . The mother c l e a r l y a c t s on the b e l i e f : "She looked at me and she s a y s , x Mom today a f t e r s chool I'm going to see a lady about walking her l i t t l e g i r l to s c h o o l . ' And I t o l d her that was okay. I f i g u r e d she was r e s p o n s i b l e enough a person and she c o u l d handle i t . " The daughter i s a l s o expected to make her own d e c i s i o n s about saving money and d e a l with the consequences. In the f o l l o w i n g exchange the mother e x p l a i n s to her daughter why she can't have a s p e c i a l d o l l : 77 Mother: "you were to decide whether you wanted to spend i t a l l or spend some and g i v e some to me to put away and save f o r something you wanted." Her daughter responds: "I decided I wanted to spend i t . " Mother: "Okay. Now you're going to have to wait because you have to save more money." While the mother allows her daughter to make her own d e c i s i o n s about her l i v i n g a r e a: " I t ' s her room and i t ' s her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . " , she has, i n the pa s t , been f i r m about c e r t a i n r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g to c l e a n i n g . The r u l e s are enforced, but the daughter i s informed of the consequences i f she chooses not to f o l l o w them and the d e c i s i o n i s l e f t up to her: "Your room i s to be c l e a n e d by the weekend. A l l the t h i n g s that I f i n d t h a t aren't put where they belong go i n t o t h i s box and you can have them again next week." By a l l o w i n g the daughter to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the broad l i m i t s set by the mother, she i s g r a d u a l l y t e a c h i n g her c h i l d independence. T h i s i s confirmed by the mother's re p o r t that now she very seldom has to put her foot down and t e l l her daughter to c l e a n her room. L a s t l y , the mother encourages her daughter to express her thoughts and f e e l i n g s . The mother asks her daughter about her f e e l i n g s and ideas and l e t s her daughter take r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r the c o n c l u s i o n s : "There are times when she's been r e a l l y upset with what her f r i e n d s have done and I ask: "You sound l i k e you're mad at her...Have you thought about what you want to do about i t ? She'd e i t h e r say yes or she'd say I'm t h i n k i n g on i t . I'd say f i n e , get back to me l a t e r on i t i f you want to t a l k . " In t h i s way the mother 78 all o w s the daughter to develop s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and i n t e r n a l standards of behavior. In summary, t h i s mother b e l i e v e s i n encouraging her daughter to be independent by d i r e c t i n g her to make her own d e c i s i o n s , take r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r her a c t i o n s , develop s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y , express her f e e l i n g s , and a r r i v e at her own c o n c l u s i o n s . The mother a c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y with these b e l i e f s , s u p p o r t i n g her daughter but a l l o w i n g her to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her own thoughts, f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s . When the mother does impose l i m i t s on her daughter, she does i t i n such a way that there i s s t i l l room f o r her daughter to make d e c i s i o n s and take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the outcomes. The l a s t t r a n s c r i p t from a mother with high scores on the independence subscale of the FES, C l i e n t #31, shows i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between her a t t i t u d e s and behavior. She s t a t e s that her daughter should be independent i n her f i n a n c e s and c a r e e r : "Most what I want f o r her as my daughter i s the o p p o r t u n i t y to have the type of l i f e where she can go i n any d i r e c t i o n she wants, where f i n a n c i a l l y she can get a job and support h e r s e l f and not be dependent on somebody e l s e . That's my main goal f o r her." At the same time, t h i s mother makes many d e c i s i o n s f o r her c h i l d , d i s c o u r a g i n g independent judgment. For example, when the c h i l d r e n wanted to q u i t t h e i r paper route, the parents decided that "they couldn't q u i t . . . ( t h e c h i l d r e n ) had signed up and wanted the money." When the mother does l e t her daughter make some d e c i s i o n s , they are w i t h i n set l i m i t s . 79 In the area of d i s c i p l i n e , the mother t r i e s " . . . l e t t i n g her have more c h o i c e s i n her consequences i f i t ' s not a biggy". In the area of homework, t h i s mother b e l i e v e s t h a t her daughter, i n the case of a p a r t i c u l a r assignment, "should do i t on her own. I t was her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and I thought she should be a b l e to do t h a t . . . " While t h i s expresses a b e l i e f in encouraging her daughter to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and be s e l f - d i r e c t e d , the mother a c t s i n c o n s i s t e n t l y when, with great resentment, she takes her daughter to the l i b r a r y and helps her with the assignment. In r e l a t i o n to the p r e v i o u s t r a n s c r i p t s , t h i s mother seems more compliance o r i e n t e d i n behavior and a t t i t u d e , encouraging her c h i l d to f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of e x t e r n a l r u l e s and a u t h o r i t y . For example she s t a t e s that "there are c e r t a i n r u l e s i n t h i s home about when the TV can't be on and she has to be doing her homework". T h i s mother b e l i e v e s that c h i l d r e n should s t r i c t l y obey p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , as demonstrated i n another i n c i d e n t where the mother: "showed her I was i n charge". The parents a l s o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r determining the c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s . On homework, the mother noted that at times she t o l d her daughter that "she c o u l d n ' t p l a y or watch TV u n t i l i t was done...I have to be there and enforce that she d i d i t . " In compliance o r i e n t e d f a m i l i e s , v e r b a l give and take between parent and c h i l d i s d i s c o u r a g e d . T h i s mother a c t s i n t h i s way when she makes the d e c i s i o n to take her daughter out of piano l e s s o n s . The mother d i d not allow her daughter 80 to express her wishes or f e e l i n g s : "At that p o i n t we weren't s i t t i n g down d i s c u s s i n g " . Although the mother s t a t e d that she encouraged f i n a n c i a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n : " i f you want i t (money) you're going to have to get a j o b " . She ended up phoning to arrange f o r employment f o r her daughter and making her do the job at times when she r e f u s e d . . Her b e l i e f i n encouraging independence o r i e n t e d behavior seems at odds with her subsequent a c t i o n s that serve to discourage the c h i l d ' s development of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and a s s e r t i v e n e s s . In summary, the mother i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t while d i s p l a y i n g some independence o r i e n t a t i o n , tends to b e l i e v e and a c t i n ways that encourage compliance. The mother expressed a b e l i e f that the daughter should develop independence through f i n a n c i a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , making some of her own d e c i s o n s , and being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her own school work. While i n minor ways the mother's behavior encourages these a t t r i b u t e s , f o r example l e t t i n g her daughter decide to q u i t s k a t i n g l e s s o n s , f o r the most p a r t the mother d i s p l a y s a t t i t u d e s and behavior that encourage compliance. She makes sure her daughter s t r i c t l y f o l l o w s p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y and d i s c o u r ages v e r b a l g i v e and take. L a s t l y , she discourages s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and the development of independent decison making by d i r e c t i n g her c h i l d to act i n c e r t a i n ways. Of the t r a n s c r i p t s from mothers who scored h i g h on the c o n t r o l subscale of the FES, one mother ( C l i e n t #244) 81 d e s c r i b e d her f a m i l y as having "...more of a s t r i c t household, compared to the average f a m i l y " . T h i s suggests a compliance o r i e n t a t i o n : the encouragement of c h i l d r e n to f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of e x t e r n a l r u l e s and a u t h o r i t y . As the mother s t a t e s "we have been very f i r m on c e r t a i n i s s u e s " . T h i s mother does not t r u s t her c h i l d to use her own judgment because the mother b e l i e v e s " a l l human beings have the tendency towards bad or towards negative,...bad s i t u a t i o n s (the c h i l d ) would a u t o m a t i c a l l y say yes". T h i s compliance o r i e n t e d a t t i t u d e i s expressed by behaviors that demonstrate that the mother makes d e c i s i o n s f o r her daughter: "She probably w i l l say no, f o r i n s t a n c e , to t e n n i s . . . s o , I make her go anyway", or " i t was her f i r s t year at C r o f t o n House ( S c h o o l ) , and she d i d n ^ t want to go. But we p e r s e r v e r e d . . . " . At the same time, t h i s mother i s i n the process of l e t t i n g her c h i l d make more d e c i s i o n s "So I f e l t at that age i t ' s b e t t e r to l e t her d e c i d e . I w i l l g i ve her a d v i c e , and she w i l l f i n d out afterwards on her own". Although i t was hard f o r the parents, "we argued back and f o r t h . . . " , they allowed the daughter to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her own homework, on t r i a l " u n t i l Christmas we won't bother you. You can go out and do whatever. I won't even check your homework". Although t h i s i s a b i g change f o r the parents, they s t i l l are ready to take over and enforce consequences f o r the daughter's behavior: " i f at Christmas i t s a 'D' a g a i n , then 82 we w i l l e n f o r c e , and from Christmas to E a s t e r , t h a t ' s i t . There's no more". T h i s ambivalence about l e t t i n g her c h i l d be more independent but s t i l l e n f o r c i n g some c o n t r o l i s a r e o c c u r i n g theme i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t . The mother s t a t e s t h a t i n g e n e r a l : "I do t r u s t her, but there are c e r t a i n t h i n g s that I would l i k e to prevent her from". T h i s ambivalence can a l s o be seen i n the mother's encouragemnt of the daughter's e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s . The mother c l e a r l y s t a t e s that she b e l i e v e s i n open communication: "I'm q u i t e open with her, she can come and t a l k t o me about a n y t h i n g " . She complimented her daughter on v o l u n t a r i l y c o n f e s s i n g to having t o l d a l i e , "I'm r e a l l y proud of you, th a t you came home and you were honest," but s t i l l c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y , "and f o r that reason I w i l l not punish you. .. " . Another time the daughter asked the mother "what i f I dated a negro?" The mother s t a t e d that she would discourage her daughter from using her own judgment about t h i s s i t u a t i o n : "I would be very determined and I would say no...I f e e l very s t r o n g l y about t h a t " . At the same time the mother d i d encourage v e r b a l give and take on t h i s i s s u e : "I think i t ' s very important to speak and e x p l a i n . I t does not mean that she s t i l l b e l i e v e s me...explanation i s very important...you d i s c u s s your f e e l i n g s back and f o r t h , and maybe come to a mutual agreement...". 83 In summary, t h i s mother demonstrates v a r i o u s compliance o r i e n t e d a t t i t u d e s and be h a v i o r s . Her daughter i s d i r e c t e d to f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of e x t e r n a l r u l e s and a u t h o r i t y . She i s d i s c o u r a g e d from making her own d e c i s i o n s or u s i n g her own judgment. At the same time, while the mother wants to keep c o n t r o l , she i s i n the process of a l l o w i n g her c h i l d more independence. She does t h i s by a l l o w i n g the daugther some t r i a l s on doing her homework h e r s e l f . In a d d i t i o n , the mother b e l i e v e s and seems to act i n ways that encourage her daughter's expr e s s i o n of her thoughts and f e e l i n g s . T h i s serves to encourage her daughter's development of independence and i s at odds with her compliance o r i e n t a t i o n as determined by her FES subscale s c o r e s . Another compliance o r i e n t e d mother ( c l i e n t #70) tends to s t r u c t u r e the l i f e of her son by making d e c i s i o n s f o r him. While she wants to encourage her son to be s e l f -r e l i a n t , s a ying that he had to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i y f o r earning h i s own money f o r e x t r a s : "You want something other than t h a t , you earn i t " . When i t came to the a c t u a l e f f o r t to get a job, a paper route, she made the arrangements and " t o l d him to do i t . . . " . She e x p l a i n s her a c t i o n by c l a i m i n g t h a t : " i f I don^t do i t , nobody w i l l " . T h i s mother i n d i r e c t l y undermines her son's a b i l i t y to develop s e l f -d i r e c t i o n and a s s e r t i v e n e s s ; aspects of independence o r i e n t a t i o n . In a s i m i l a r way, the mother takes r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r h i s schoolwork. She "asked the teacher to give him e x t r a 84 homework...(and) as a punishment what I u s u a l l y do i s make him do some kind of reading and then w r i t e me a l i t t l e book r e p o r t on i t i n s t e a d of no TV or take the bik e away". The son does not develop s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n t h i s way, he obeys o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t y as evidenced by the mother's r e p o r t of h i s response to these assignments: "he j u s t wanted to get i t over and done wit h . . . he d i d n ' t want to l i s t e n to what I s a i d . He d i d n ' t want to t a l k about i t anymore". O r i g i n a l l y she allowed her son some scope f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n : "I gave him the c h o i c e of reading m a t e r i a l . . " but now she even p i c k s the books. In regards to s c h o o l , the mother a l s o took over d i s c i p l i n i n g r e s p o n s i b l i t y by t e l l i n g the sc h o o l s t a f f t o suspend him f o r "four days...he doesn't l e a r n with two days". Subsequently she enf o r c e d the school day r o u t i n e at home: "He would s i t i n h i s room ...at the end of each day I checked h i s work". Here the mother endeavors to have her son f o l l o w the r u l e s of e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y , compliance o r i e n t e d b ehavior. On the other hand t h i s mother s t i l l a llowed room f o r the boy to make some of h i s own c h o i c e s w i t h i n the l i m i t s she s e t s . Although she sends him to camp every year even though "the f i r s t year of course he had never been, so he r e a l l y d i d n ' t want to go," now "he p i c k s the one he wants to go t o " . Along the same l i n e , t h e mother allowed her son to take r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r h i s c l a s s assignment: "he decided on h i s 85 own to get t h i s t h i n g (assignment) done and to get a decent mark...". In some ways the mother seemed to a l l o w t h i s independence more out of i n d i f f e r e n c e than b e l i e f . When she was asked about h i s marks she s a i d "I never found out". In summary, the mother in t h i s t r a n s c r i p t o r i e n t s her son's l i f e so that he w i l l f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s of e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n the ways the mother imposes d u t i e s and punishments on her son i n regards to h i s s c h o o l work. While she a l l o w s him to make some small d e c i s i o n s , the m a j o r i t y of her r e p o r t e d behaviors are congruent with her compliance o r i e n t a t i o n as shown by the FES c o n t r o l subscale s c o r e s . The l a s t mother ( c l i e n t #212) o r i g i n a l l y d i r e c t e d her c h i l d r e n to be compliant and f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of a u t h o r i t y : "I r a i s e d my c h i l d r e n with the theory that when you go to school you get along, the t e a c h e r ' s r i g h t " . She now f e e l s t h a t t h i s was the "biggest mistake" and has changed to a d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h y : "we've drummed i n t o our kid s to stand up f o r your r i g h t s " . In the t r a n s c r i p t the mother s t i l l d i s p l a y s some ambivalence about whether to encourage independent or compliant behavior. At home, she: " i n t e r v e n e s between her son and daughter to stand up f o r h i s r i g h t to b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l s : "I t h i n k i f I hadn't i n t e r v e n e d he would have given her the two sugar coated ones...". Although she does t h i s "to drum i n t o him t h a t , okay, your f e e l i n g s count too!" the process does not allow her son to develop a s s e r t i v e s k i l l s , that are important i n a c q u i r i n g 86 independence. At the uncle's farm she d i d not want him s e l l i n g produce by the s i d e of the road. Although she cla i m s that she would l i k e to encourage h i s independence, her own f e e l i n g s got i n the way: "I'm not going to have my e i g h t - y e a r - o l d out there on the road doing t h i s . . . i t was awful! That's my l i t t l e boy!". In the end, with r e l u n c t a n c e , she allowed him to do i t while she watched from a window. The above i n c i d e n t demonstrates that the mother b e l i e v e s she should encourage her son to be independent, but that she s t i l l has a need to exert her c o n t r o l . T h i s s t r u g g l e i s manifested i n her i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t her son making h i s own d e c i s i o n s f o l l o w e d by an acceptance of the boy's wishes. For i n s t a n c e , when the i s s u e of h i s membership i n the church band f i r s t came up, she pushed him to j o i n : "I took him to p r a c t i c e s , I encouraged, I sweet t a l k e d , I b r i b e d . I d i d e v e r y t h i n g I c o u l d to get that k i d to go i n the band." She "would t a l k and t a l k and t a l k . . . " L a t e r she accepted that "he s a i d no and I'm going to respe c t what he's s a i d " . Although the above i n c i d e n t s show the mother's ambivalence, other i n c i d e n t s show more c l e a r l y an encouragement of independence f o r her son. She s t a t e s that she encourages her son to express h i s f e e l i n g s : "I b e l i e v e stamp your f e e t and be mad, be d i s a p p o i n t e d , be f r u s t r a t e d , say i t . " She makes i t safe f o r the son to open up to her by t e l l i n g him: "to come to her and t a l k and i t won't go no 87 f u r t h e r than the house..." and by sa y i n g that "your f e e l i n g s count". The mother a l l o w s her son to develop h i s own judgment by d i r e c t i n g him to "take r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r your a c t i o n s " . She showed how s t r o n g l y she f e e l s about t h i s when he chose h i s own job i n the church p l a y : she was " r e a l l y t h r i l l e d t h a t he had the courage to take r e s p o n s i b l i t i y and the con f i d e n c e i n h i s own c a p a c i t i e s to do i t " . T h i s encouragement of independence i s demonstrated i n a c t i o n s that f o r c e her son to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s beh a v i o r . When he doesn't do h i s homework, the mother says "he's going to have to go to school and take h i s own". Another time he d i d not do an assignment u n t i l the l a s t day when he asked h i s mother "could he stay home to work on i t ? " and she j u s t s a i d no. When another c h i l d s t e a l s h i s lunch he asked h i s mother not to go to school to complain about i t . She agrees to h i s wishes: "okay i f i t ' s worth him to go hungry over having me say something I won't go to school and say an y t h i n g . But I'm s t i l l mad...". The mother al l o w s the son to make h i s own d e c i s i o n s about the s i t u a t i o n even though i t ' s at odds with her judgment. In summary, t h i s mother s t a t e s that o r i g i n a l l y she taught her son to be compliant and obey o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t y completely. While some of her a c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t i a l l y , are s t i l l compliance o r i e n t e d , the m a j o r i t y of her r e p o r t e d behavior and a t t i t u d e s are designed to h e l p her son take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own a c t i o n s , express h i s 88 thoughts and f e e l i n g s , and make h i s own judgments. These are a l l at odds with her hig h c o n t r o l subscale s c o r e s on the FES. Summary The i n c i d e n t s from the above t r a n s c r i p t s produced a general d e s c r i p t i o n of v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s and behaviors a s s o c i a t e d with independence or compliance. While i n gene r a l the mothers tended to d e s c r i b e a t t i t u d e s and behavior that were congruent with t h e i r scores on the FES subscales of independence or compliance, there were s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t i o n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a l l the mothers i n these t r a n s c r i p t s from h i g h independence and high compliance o r i e n t e d f a m i l i e s r e cognized, to a v a r y i n g extent, the value of encouraging independence i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . At the same time t h e i r a c t i o n s may or may not have been o r i e n t e d i n that way. 89 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION T h i s study e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l e c t f a m i l y v a r i a b l e s (SES, s i b l i n g gender composition, age of c h i l d r e n , number of c h i l d r e n ) to the independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a m i l y as measured by the mother's Family Environment Scale (FES) s c o r e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviors r e p o r t e d by mothers from high independence o r i e n t e d and high c o n t r o l o r i e n t e d f a m i l i e s were presented. T h i s f i n a l chapter begins with a review of the f i n d i n g s , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Review of the R e s u l t s (FES) The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d that the f a m i l y f a c t o r s of SES, s i b l i n g gender composition, age of c h i l d r e n , and number of c h i l d r e n would account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the v a r i a n c e of the mothers' independence subscale scores on the FES. Except f o r the v a r i a b l e of age of c h i l d r e n , t h i s was not supported by the data i n t h i s study. Only the category of f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n 14 years or o l d e r (versus a l l other f a m i l i e s ) was found to account f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n c e i n the independence subscale s c o r e s , and i t only accounted f o r 9% of the v a r i a n c e . The second hypothesis s t a t e d that the f a m i l y f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d above would account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the 90 v a r i a n c e of the mothers' c o n t r o l subscale s c o r e s on the FES. These f a c t o r s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y account f o r the v a r i a n c e i n the subscale s c o r e s . Although there has been a body of l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y from the 1960's and 70's that suggested that these v a r i a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y SES and gender, are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s , v a l u e s , and behaviors i n f a m i l i e s , recent r e s e a r c h suggests that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p needs to be looked at more c l o s e l y . These c o n f l i c t i n g views w i l l be examined in the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. The r e s e a r c h i n the area of independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n order to p l a c e these r e s u l t s i n the context of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . There are separate d i s c u s s i o n s c e n t e r i n g around each of the independent v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n . Socioeconomic Status (SES) As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two, the major work in the area connecting SES with independence and compliance was done by Melvin Kohn (1977). He found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between SES and p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and behaviors r e l a t e d to independence and compliance. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been supported by subsequent s t u d i e s (Morgan, 1978; Schaefer & Edgerton, 1985; Segal, 1985). 91 There have been s t u d i e s that have questioned the r e l a t i o n s h i p between SES and independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n . Henggler, Ureg and Borduin (1982) i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area have concluded that many of the s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e r s r e s u l t e d from u n c o n t r o l l e d c o v a r i a t e s of s o c a l c l a s s r a t h e r than s o c i a l c l a s s per se. S e v e r a l recent s t u d i e s (Borduin, et a l . , 1986; Harmon & Kagan, 1980; L y t t o n , 1980) have found no s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n mothers' behaviors toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n . L a s t l y , Shapiro (1988) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between FES subscale s c o r e s and s p e c i f i c measures of SES such as income and e d u c a t i o n . The study c o n s i s t e d of f i f t y - e i g h t parents of c h i l d r e n , ages 3 to 5, i n day care i n the Vancouver lower mainland a r e a . The r e s u l t s showed that the independence subscale s c o r e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d with the SES v a r i a b l e s (p>.1). For the independence subscale, c o r r e l a t i o n s such as .08 f o r f a m i l y income and .02 f o r maternal ed u c a t i o n were found. The c o n t r o l subscale scores d i d show s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) but r e l a t i v e l y small c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging from -.18 f o r f a m i l y income to -.29 f o r maternal occupations . The above review demonstrates that the r e l a t i o n s h i p or l a c k of r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s needs f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . What the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s or whether i t has changed over the past twenty years s t i l l has not been c l e a r l y r e s o l v e d . 92 S i b l i n g Gender Composition As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have shown that the gender of the c h i l d r e n a f f e c t s parents' o r i e n t a t i o n toward independence and compliance. Researchers have found parents to value independence more f o r boys than g i r l s (Block, 1983; Hoffman, 1977; Huston, 1983). At the same time there are s t u d i e s that have r e f u t e d these c o n c l u s i o n s . Block (1978) showed that while parents want t h e i r sons to be independent, they a l s o want them to conform to e x t e r n a l standards. Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1974) surveyed s t u d i e s p r i o r to the mid 1970's and found l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the treatment of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n of boys and g i r l s i n regard to encouragement of independent behavior or c h i l d r e n ' s dependency. L a s t l y , Barnett (1981) found that p a r e nts' views of sex r o l e s ( t r a d i t o n a l or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ) , not sex of c h i l d , were the important f a c t o r s behind the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes. The above s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s and v a l u e s . Whether f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n s towards independence or compliance are d i f f e r e n t f o r boys and g i r l s i s u n c e r t a i n . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t these a t t i t u d e s have gone through s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the l a s t twenty years. A note of c a u t i o n must be expressed i n regards to r e s u l t s of the present study. The percentage of s u b j e c t s i n the category of f a m i l i e s with mixed male and female c h i l d r e n was approximately twice as l a r g e as the percentages i n the 93 c a t e g o r i e s of f a m i l i e s w i t h a l l male c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s w i t h a l l female c h i l d r e n , as the p r o b a b i l i t i e s would p r e d i c t . At the same t ime , i t i s not known how these p e r c e n t a g e s compare to the exact percentages of these c a t e g o r i e s in the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . In order to o b t a i n mean ing fu l r e s u l t s i n a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the subgroups of c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s shou ld be r e p r e s e n t e d in accordance w i t h t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s i n the p o p u l a t i o n (Pedhazur , 1982). A c c o r d i n g to the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , the a n a l y s i s of the data was a p p r o p r i a t e . F a m i l y S i z e There has been r e s e a r c h t h a t s u p p o r t s the idea tha t s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s are more independence o r i e n t e d than l a r g e r ones (Scheck & Scheck, 1976; S p l e t e & Freeman-George , 1985) . These r e s u l t s must be looked upon w i t h c a u t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , r ecent work i n the area of f a m i l y s i z e and i n t e l l e c t u a l performance has found t h a t , in c o n t r a s t to p r e v i o u s work, there i s no apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s i n c h i l d r e n born i n the 1950's or l a t e r (Kennet , 1973; Zajonc & B a r g h , 1980). S e c o n d l y , some r e s e a r c h e r s have made a s t r o n g case tha t f a m i l y s i z e e f f e c t s are r e a l l y an e x t e n s i o n of SES, and that l a r g e r s i z e d e c r e a s e s the e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l c l a s s l e v e l (Wagner & S c h u b e r t , 1985) . I f t h i s i s t r u e , then i n the case of t h i s presen t s t u d y , the l a c k of r e l a t i o n s h i p between SES and independence /compl iance 94 o r i e n t a t i o n s would a l s o determine the r e s u l t s based on f a m i l y s i z e . Another i s s u e concerned with the e f f e c t s of f a m i l y s i z e i s that of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s as small or l a r g e . In the present study, 97% of the f a m i l i e s (111/114) f i t the c r i t e r i o n of a small f a m i l y as d e f i n e d by Blau and Duncan (1967), c o n s i s t i n g of four or fewer c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r l y , 88% of the s u b j e c t s came from small f a m i l i e s as d e f i n e d by N i s b e t (1961), c o n s i s t i n g of three or fewer c h i l d r e n . These percentages correspond to those of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada, where 95% of the f a m i l i e s have four or fewer c h i l d r e n ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983). One t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n that can be drawn i s that the smaller s i z e of f a m i l y i n the general p o p u l a t i o n has s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of the number of members i n a f a m i l y . For example, Moos & Moos (1981) found f a m i l y s i z e to be r e l a t e d to FES subscale s c o r e s . On c l o s e r examination, the d i f f e r e n c e of the means on the independence subscale scores between three member f a m i l i e s (1 or 2 c h i l d r e n ) and s i x or more member f a m i l i e s (4 or more c h i l d r e n ) was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , 6.65 to 6.27. As the above d i s c u s s i o n demonstrates, there i s some qu e s t i o n about f a m i l y s i z e e f f e c t s i n and of themselves as r e l a t e d to SES f a c t o r s . S o c i e t a l change, i n t h i s case the t r e n d towards smaller f a m i l i e s , a l s o seems to p l a y a p a r t i n these r e s u l t s . 95 Age of C h i l d r e n A common assumption i s that the o l d e r the c h i l d r e n , the more independent they are and the l e s s c o n t r o l the parents e x e r t . T h i s b e l i e f i s supported by the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e (Adams & Jones, 1983; Fu, H i n k l e & Hanna, 1986; Maccoby & M a r t i n , 1983; Young & Shorr, 1986). At the same time, some e a r l y s t u d i e s found i n d i v i d u a l dependency to be s t a b l e over one's l i f e - s p a n (Emmerich, 1959; Kagan & Moss, 1960, 1962). More r e c e n t l y , Fu, H i n k l e and Hanna (1986) found dependency to be a q u a l i t y that was t r a n s m i t t e d from one g e n e r a t i o n to another, implying that i t i s a s t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c over t ime. In the present study, the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e and S c h e f f e ' p o s t hoc t e s t s show that the only s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s were f a m i l i e s that only had c h i l d r e n f o u r t e e n years or o l d e r , and only f o r the v a r i a b l e of independence o r i e n t a t i o n . Perhaps the g r a n t i n g of more independence by the parents develops when a l l the c h i l d r e n are c l e a r l y reaching the age of m a t u r i t y . At the same time, the a s s o c i a t i o n of age with the t r a n s i t i o n from p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l to a g r a n t i n g of more independence i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . The r e s u l t s show that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with the v a r i a b l e of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n , as opposed to the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n with independence o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s suggests that there may be c o n f l i c t between the c o n t i n u a t i o n of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and an o l d e r c h i l d ' s s t r u g g l e f o r autonomy. 96 The above d i s c u s s i o n examined the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e i n order to put i n t o context the f i n d i n g s of t h i s c u r r e n t study. There i s a l a c k of consensus as to the extent of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these independent v a r i a b l e s and independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s . T h e r e f o r e the f i n d i n g s of t h i s present study add new i n f o r m a t i o n to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The next s e c t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e the nature and theory of SES, and the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s . L a s t l y , p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s w i l l be examined. Socioeconomic Status There i s s t i l l much debate on what e x a c t l y SES i s and how best to measure i t . Although most SES i n d i c e s w i l l p l a c e a p a r t i c u l a r occupation in a h i e r a r c h y of o c c upations, i t i s u n c l e a r what t h i s means t h e o r e t i c a l l y . L i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t i n g the n o t i o n of SES as an i n d i c a t o r of s o c i e t a l s t a t u s i n d i c a t e s that SES p l a c e s people i n an a p p r o p r i a t e h i e r a r c h y i n r e l a t i o n to the means of consumption and that t h i s i s the v a l i d way to determine the l e v e l s of s o c i a l s t a t u s i n modern s o c i e t y . Other r e s e a r c h e r s s t a t e that SES i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r i n d i v i d u a l experience i n r e l a t i o n to f a c t o r s such as p r o d u c t i o n a u t h o r i t y and work autonomy (Wright, 1984). Michael Lewis (1983) d e s c r i b e s an a l t e r n a t i v e view of SES: 97 I t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h socioeconomic status (SES), i n which people are merely c l a s s i f i e d i n t o v a r i o u s groups on the b a s i s of the f o r e g o i n g indexes, from c l a s s - r e l a t e d process variables, such as n u t r i t i o n , p a t t e r n s of m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n , language experience, e t c . , which tend to be a s s o c i a t e d with s o c i a l c l a s s and may have a more d i r e c t e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n ' s development.(p.348) T h i s p o i n t s out that the broad term of SES i s perhaps not as h e l p f u l or c l e a r as one would l i k e . T h i s d i f f f i c u l t y extends to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i n d i c e s themselves. There i s a l a r g e body of r e s e a r c h t h a t c l a i m s that the v a l i d i t y of SES i n d i c e s based on u n i d i m e n s i o n a l p r e s t i g e s cores i s q u e s t i o n a b l e (Baker, 1980; Guppy & Siltanen,1977; Powell & Jacobs, 1984). As an a l t e r n a t i v e , composite i n d i c e s such as the one used i n t h i s study ( B l i s h e n , 1987) are based on c r i t e r i a such as education and income. Although these have dominated the recent l i t e r a t u r e , they are not without problems. By combining e m p i r i c a l l y r e l a t e d but c o n c e p t u a l l y d i s t i n c t dimensions, the a n a l y s i s of s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of each v a r i a b l e i s s a c r i f i c e d ( B l i s h e n , 1987; Campbell & Parker, 1984). In a d d i t i o n , SES i n d i c e s vary i n r e l a t i o n to each other as w e l l as i n r e l a t i o n to other v a r i a b l e s . One study compared v a r i o u s i n d i c e s of SES and mental development, t r a d i t i o n a l l y one of the v a r i a b l e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with SES. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t s f o r the d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s showed a wide range of r e l a t i v e l y small values (.19 f o r S i e g e l P r e s t i g e s c a l e to .39 f o r H o l l i n g s h e a d Four-Factor i n d e x ) . 98 In the present study, the p o s s i b l i l i t y emerges that s p e c i f i c aspects of s o c i a l s t a t u s have an e f f e c t on independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s i n f a m i l i e s , but that they are masked by other index f a c t o r s . Without d i r e c t recourse to these other background v a r i a b l e s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these scores must be viewed with c a u t i o n . An e x p l o r a t i o n of other f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s i n f a m i l i e s would h e l p to e x p l a i n the r o l e , or lack of r o l e , SES p l a y s . Review of the R e s u l t s ( C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Interview) The d e s c r i p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and behaviors from the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s show t h a t , to a gr e a t e r or l e s s e r extent, there i s a general acceptance of the need to encourage c h i l d r e n to be independent. At the same time, there can be and sometimes are d i f f e r e n c e s between the way parents p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a m i l y environment and the a t t i t u d e s and behaviors they d i s p l a y i n that environment. The above summary suggests that there i s a g e n e r a l b e l i e f i n our s o c i e t y of the value of encouraging independence i n young people. At the same time there can be d i f f e r e n c e s between what people say they do or b e l i e v e i n and how they act i n t h e i r every day environment, the f a m i l y . Since t h i s study was d e s c r i p t i v e i n nature, a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s was not p o s s i b l e . At the same time, although the parents were not d i r e c t l y asked about 99 independence or compliance, they d e s c r i b e d a t t i t u d e s and behaviors that were c l e a r l y o r i e n t e d i n these ways. T h i s serves to r e a f f i r m the importance of these concepts, and suggests that t h i s i s an area i n need of more systematic study. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l suggest e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the r e s u l t s that were obtained i n t h i s study. T h i s study seems to add to a body of l i t e r a t u r e t h a t , while i n some ways p o i n t s to a r e l a t i o n s h i p among these v a r i a b l e s , l eaves much room f o r doubt. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , much of the work l i n k i n g v a r i a b l e s such as SES and gender to independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s i n f a m i l i e s was done i n the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's. The Wrights (1977) p o i n t out that t h e i r data c o l l e c t e d i n the mid-70's , ten years a f t e r Kohn's, had shown a g e n e r a l s h i f t towards independence v a l u e s . Borduin, Henggler, and Sanders-Walls (1986) found that t h e i r r e s u l t s , which showed no d i f f e r e n c e s between middle and lower c l a s s mothers as to t h e i r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , were c o n s i s t e n t with recent r e s e a r c h but c o n t r a s t e d with e a r l i e r r e p o r t s . I t seems that there has been a s o c i e t a l change of v a l u e s i n the l a s t twenty years towards independence and away from compliance and that t h i s c u t s a c r o s s SES and c e r t a i n l y gender. T h e o r i e s on c h i l d r e a r i n g tend to suggest to parents ways to f o s t e r more independence i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The women's movement has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n 100 encouraging more equal treatment of the sexes. L y t t o n (1980) has p o i n t e d out that SES d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e a r i n g and c h i l d s o c i a l development have narrowed as s o c i e t y has become more uniform. Kohn's (1977) theory s t a t e d that the d i f f e r e n t demands of occupations l e d to d i f f e r e n t value o r i e n t a t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Middle c l a s s occupations were seen to r e q u i r e independent judgment and autonomy and t h e r e f o r e people i n these occupations would value these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and attempt to t r a n s m i t them to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . C onversely, working c l a s s occupations were seen to r e q u i r e c o n f o r m i t y to e x t e r n a l standards and these p a r t i c i p a n t s would tend to v a l u e these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Along with, or perhaps because of, the p r o g r e s s i v e u n i f o r m i t y of contemporary s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , the m a j o r i t y of jobs i n the c u r r e n t job market are s i t u a t e d i n the s e r v i c e , managerial, and i n f o r m a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s . At the same time, the number of t r a d i t i o n a l l y blue c o l l a r jobs i n manufacturing and s i m i l a r areas are d e c l i n i n g . T h i s would suggest that the i n c r e a s e i n middle c l a s s occupations would f a c i l i t a t e an i n c r e a s e i n middle c l a s s v a l u e s . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have suggested that mass c u l t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t e l e v i s i o n , has l e d to the u n i f o r m i t y of f a m i l i a l and s o c i o c u l t u r a l experiences of young c h i l d r e n . Harmon and Kagan (1980) suggest that TV may p r o v i d e a l l mothers with s i m i l a r l e a r n i n g experiences about d i s c i p l i n e and the t e a c h i n g of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The i n c r e a s e d 101 a v a i l a b i l i t y of p r e s c h o o l s and daycares f o r c h i l d r e n of a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y may be a f a c t o r (Borduin, Henggeler, & Sanders-Walls, 1986). L a s t l y , there has been an i n c r e a s e i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r e n t i n g . Courses such as Parent E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g (Gordon, 1975), books, magazines, and TV programs have a l l p r o l i f e r a t e d i n the past few y e a r s . T h i s has perhaps l e d to more uniform ideas and values about p a r e n t i n g a c r o s s l e v e l s of SES and i n r e l a t i o n to gender. L i m i t a t i o n s and F u r t h e r Research The two major l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study i n v o l v e the nature of the sample and the way the data on the v a r i a b l e s were c o l l e c t e d . The sample c o n s i s t e d only of people from New Westminster, B.C. who were w i l l i n g to v o l u n t e e r f o r the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w , answer the demographic qu e s t i o n s and f i l l out the FES q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Care must be e x e r c i s e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these r e s u l t s and the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of them to the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. According to Rosenthal and Rosnow (1975), v o l u n t e e r s tend to be b e t t e r educated and more unco n v e n t i o n a l . More impo r t a n t l y , v o l u n t e e r s were shown to be l e s s a u t h o r i t a r i a n and l e s s conforming. T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n of range or v a r i a n c e i n a sample can have the e f f e c t of reducing the value of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h i s might have had the r e s u l t of masking d i f f e r e n c e s i n independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n i n the sample as compared to a more random sample. 1 02 The second major l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i n v o l v e s the nature of the v a r i a b l e s themselves. In regards to SES, the data c o n s i s t e d of o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d the use of an index such as B l i s h e n ' s . S p e c i f i c components of SES such as education might be r e l a t e d to independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s , but be masked by other f a c t o r s such as income. The study of the v a r i a b l e s of s i b l i n g gender composition and age presented some methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s . In order to examine the environment of the e n t i r e f a m i l y , one i s l i m i t e d to s e p a r a t i n g the data to f a m i l i e s t h at have, f o r example, c h i l d r e n below 14, c h i l d r e n at or above 14, and c h i l d r e n of mixed ages. T h i s might serve to l i m i t the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t can be found s i n c e the c a t e g o r i e s are so broad. L a s t l y , the study would have b e n e f i t t e d from having another measure of independence/compliance o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s would have served to s u b s t a n t i a t e the r e s u l t s and broaden t h e i r meaning. Although the FES has e x c e l l e n t psychometric p r o p e r t i e s , the nature of the f a m i l y environment i s extremely complex. There can be d i f f e r e n c e s between the way parents p e r c e i v e t h e i r environment and the way they behave i n that environment. S e l f - r e p o r t s , while being very u s e f u l , are only one way of a n a l y z i n g a s i t u a t i o n . At the same time, the nature of independence and compliance o r i e n t a t i o n s i n f a m i l i e s i s f a r from c l e a r . How much do p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s come i n t o play? Do more 103 subscales need to be c o n s i d e r e d i n the FES c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of independence and compliance? Do the f a c t o r s such as freedom of e x p r e s s i o n and f a m i l y r u l e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n need to be considered? A l l these q u e s t i o n s are areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 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American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 35, 662-668. Zegiob, L., & Forehand, R. (1975). Maternal i n t e r a c t i v e behavior as a f u n c t i o n of race, socioeconomic s t a t u s , and sex of the c h i l d . C h i l d Development, 46, 564-568. Z i e g l e r , C , & Dusek, J . (1985). P e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e a r i n g and adolescent sex r o l e development. J o u r n a l  of E a r l y Adolescence, 5(2), 215-227. r i g h t to l i m i t the number of a p p l i c a n t s s e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . Your involvement i s very much a p p r e c i a t e d . S i n c e r e l y , R i c h a r d A. Young, Ed.D John D. F r i e s e n , Ph.D. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. 118 APPENDIX B APPLICATION FORM PARENTAL INTERVENTIONS IN THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN PARTICIPANT APPLICATION FORM I have read your l e t t e r about the p r o j e c t on the i n t e r v e n t i o n s parents use i n the c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s study i s being undertaken so that the ways in which parents help t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h i s important task may be b e t t e r understood. T h i s study i s under the d i r e c t i o n of Drs. R i c h a r d A. Young and John D. F r i e s e n of the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Approximately 250 parents w i l l be s e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e so that there are equal numbers of mothers and f a t h e r s , parents of boys and g i r l s of a v a r i e t y of ages and r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l areas and occupation groups. NAMEj You are ADDRESSj mother — f a t h e r - -TELEPHONE j guardian — MOTHER'S CURRENT OCCUPATION; FATHER'S CURRENT OCCUPATION; AGE OF CHILDREN MALE OR FEMALE MALE OR FEMALE MALE OR FEMALE MALE OR FEMALE 119 APPENDIX C THE CRITICAL INCIDENTS INTERVIEW The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be to e l i c i t a number of i n t e r v e n t i o n s , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e , which parents used to i n f l u e n c e the c a r e e r development of at l e a s t one of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The i n i t i a l p a r t of the i n t e r v i e w w i l l focus on e s t a b l i s h i n g rapport and o r i e n t a t i n g the s u b j e c t , f o l l o w e d by the a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n c i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g i s the b a s i c o u t l i n e of the i n t e r v i e w : "Thank you f o r v o l u n t e e r i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. I t i s being conducted under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Drs. R i c h a r d A. Young and John D. F r i e s e n of the c o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. What we are t r y i n g to f i n d out are the types and degree of i n f l u e n c e t hat parents have had on the c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . We t h i n k of c a r e e r development i n the broad sense to i n c l u d e not only the o c c u p a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l routes your son or daughter has chosen, but a l s o the way he or she has gone about p l a n n i n g and d e c i d i n g -- h i s or her sense of c o n t r o l and r e s p o n s i b l i t l i y over the goals or l a c k of goals he/she has had. In a d d i t i o n , we would l i k e to suggest that c a r e e r development i n c l u d e s the meaning that your son or daughter has a t t a c h e d to h i s / h e r g o a l s . " 120 "This i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l h e l p us to understand the r o l e parents have i n the c a r e e r development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and h o p e f u l l y to h e l p parents to be more e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s a r e a . " "This i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t up to two hours, and I w i l l audiotape our d i s c u s s i o n . L a t e r t h i s audiotape w i l l be t r a n s c r i b e d , i n which i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , such as your name, w i l l be d e l e t e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n you g i v e w i l l be t r e a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y and used f o r r e s e a r c h purposes. You may withdraw from t h i s i n t e r v i e w at any time. T h i s p e r m i s s i o n form s t a t e s the c o n d i t i o n s I have e x p l a i n e d . Please take time to read i t and understand i t f u l l y b efore s i g n i n g i t . " "To begin, c o u l d you t e l l me something about your son or daughter, p a r t i c u l a r l y where he or she i s i n h i s or her c a r e e r development?" Follow t h i s up with such c l a r i f i e r s as: "How d i d he/she get to that p o s i t i o n . . . c o u l d you t e l l me a b i t about the routes he/she has f o l l o w e d ? " "What were the important steps on the way?" "How has your son or daughter gone about the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making r e g a r d i n g t h i s c a r e e r ? " and/or "What are the most meaningful goals your son or daughter has? How do these r e l a t e to what he/she i s a c t u a l l y doing on a d a i l y b a s i s ? " "What are your hopes f o r him/her?" 121 "Well, we have spent a l i t t l e time s i t u a t i n g your son/daughter i n the car e e r world, but what I am more i n t e r e s t e d i n i s the i n f l u e n c e s both p o s i t i v e and negative t h a t you have had over him/her d u r i n g h i s / h e r l i f e t i m e that have helped ( f a c i l i t a t e d ) or hindered h i s / h e r c a r e e r development ( a l l the t h i n g s you have j u s t d e s c r i b e d about him/her)." (Wait a few moments.) "How have you wanted to i n f l u e n c e him or her?" "Can you r e l a t e an i n c i d e n t — s o m e t h i n g that stands out as an important i n f l u e n c e that you have had or d i d not have on him/her?" "Can you t e l l me s p e c i f i c a l l y what happened?" (If a ge n e r a l i n f l u e n c e , ask the s u b j e c t to r e l a t e a s p e c i f i c example of i t . ) "Can you t e l l me how your son/daughter r e a c t e d to the i n c i d e n t ? Can you be s p e c i f i c about what he s a i d or d i d ? " "In your own judgment, what l e d up to t h i s e x p e r i e n c e ? " "How was i t h e l p f u l / h a r m f u l ? How d i d i t a f f e c t your son/daughter? How d i d i t a f f e c t you? How d i d i t a f f e c t your r e l a t i o n s h i p ? " Repeat t h i s sequence u n t i l you have approximately f i v e f a c i l i t a t i n g and f i v e h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . 122 APPENDIX E FES SUBSCALES AND DIMENSION DESCRIPTIONS D e f i n i t i o n o f FES s u b s c a l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a n u a l , a r e a s f o l l o w s : R e l a t i o n s h i p D i m e n s i o n s 1) C o h e s i o n t h e d e g r e e o f c o m m i t m e n t , h e l p an s u p p o r t f a m i l y members p r o v i d e f o r one a n o t h e r . 2) E x p r e s s i v e n e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f a m i l y members a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o a c t o p e n l y a n d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s d i r e c t l y . 3) C o n f l i c t t h e amount o f o p e n l y e x p r e s s e d a n g e r , a g g r e s s i o n a n d c o n f l i c t among f a m i l y members. P e r s o n a l G r o w t h D i m e n s i o n s 4) I n d e p e n d e n c e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f a m i l y members a r e a s s e r t i v e , a r e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , a n d make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . 123 5) Achievement O r i e n t a t i o n the extent to which a c t i v i t i e s (such as school and work) are c a s t i n t o an achievement-oriented framework. 6) I n t e l l e c t u a l -C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n the degree of i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . 7) A c t i v e -R e c r e a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n the extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 8) M o r a l - R e l i g i o u s the degree of emphasis on e t h i c a l and Emphasis r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s and v a l u e s . System Maintenance Dimensions 9) O r g a n i z a t i o n the degree of importance of c l e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e i n plann i n g f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 10) C o n t r o l the extent to which set r u l e s and procedures are used to run f a m i l y l i f e . (Moos & Moos, 1986, p.2) 

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