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Identified problems, preferred helpers, and helper qualities : a cross-cultural comparative study of… Paterson, David William Gilbert 1990

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IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS, PREFERRED HELPERS, AND HELPER QUALITIES: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERCEPTIONS by DAVID WILLIAM GILBERT PATERSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1982 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1990 (c) David W. Paterson, 1990 i 9 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e A p r i l 1, 1990 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s study examines two groups, Native and Non-Native Canadians, i n terms of three r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : (a) what do they i d e n t i f y as a problem or concern, (b) who do they seek out f o r a s s i s t a n c e , and (c) what are the p r e f e r r e d q u a l i t i e s of the h e l p e r . The sample group was comprised of 255 s u b j e c t s aged 13-15, and 108 s u b j e c t s aged 18-20 from P r i n c e Rupert, B r i t i s h Columbia. Native s u b j e c t s represented 25% of t h i s sample group. Though Native and Non-Native respondents i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r problems, d i f f e r e n c e s were noted in the s e l e c t i o n of helper and p r e f e r r e d q u a l i t i e s of a h e l p e r . Native respondents p r e f e r r e d h e l p e r s w i t h i n the f a m i l y and valued d i f f e r e n t h e l p e r q u a l i t i e s than t h e i r Non-Native c o u n t e r p a r t s . I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study are d i s c u s s e d with respect t o , (a) c o n t r i b u t i n g to e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g , (b) a s s i s t i n g p r a c t i s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and (c) c o n t r i b u t i n g to the development of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v Acknowledgements v i CHAPTER I Introduction 1 CHAPTER II Review of the Literature '. . 5 Counselling And Culture 5 Counselling Problems Across Cultures 7 Preferred Helpers Across Cultures 9 Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helpers Across Cultures 11 Non-Native vs Native Expectations of Counselling 14 Cross-Cultural Counsellor Education 18 CHAPTER III Research Methodology 21 Sample Characteristics 21 Development of the Measurement Instrument 22 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 23 Coding and Scoring 24 Inter-Rater R e l i a b i l i t y 25 Analysis of Data 25 Hypothesis 1 28 Hypothesis 2 28 Hypothesis 3 28 Hypothesis 4 28 A Summary Description of Id e n t i f i e d Problems 29 A n c i l l a r y Data 29 CHAPTER IV Research Findings 30 Presentation of Data 30 Hypothesis 1 30 Hypothesis 2 35 Hypothesis 3 39 Hypothesis 4 43 A Summary Description of Ide n t i f i e d Problems 48 A n c i l l a r y Data 56 CHAPTER V Discussion.. 68 Interpretation of Results 68 Limitations 71 Implications for Future Research 73 Implications for Counsellors 75 References 78 Appendix A - Instructions for Conducting the P i l o t Study..86 Appendix B - P i l o t Questionnaire 88 Appendix C - Letter From the School P r i n c i p a l 92 Appendix D - Instructions for the Collection of Data 93 Appendix E - Measurement Instrument 97 Appendix F - Scoring C r i t e r i a 102 Appendix G - Description of Prince Rupert 120 Appendix H - Table of C r i t i c a l Values of Chi Square 121 Appendix I - Values of Chi Square for Tables 1 to 12 122 iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1 - Identified Problem by Group for Age 13-15 Subjects 32 Table 2 - Choice Of Helper by Group for Age 13-15 Subjects 33 Table 3 - Qualities Of Helper by Group for Age 13-15 Subjects 34 Table 4 - Identified Problem by Age for Non-Native Subjects 36 Table 5 - Choice Of Helper by Age for Non-Native Subjects 37 Table 6 - Qualities Of Helper by Age for Non-Native Subjects 38 Table 7 - Identified Problem by Sex for Non-Native Subjects 40 Table 8 - Preferred Helper by Sex for Non-Native Subjects 41 Table 9 - Qualities Of Helper by Sex for Non-Native Subjects 42 Table 10 - Identified Problem by Sex for Native Subjects Age 13-15 45 Table 11 - Identified Helper by Sex for Native Subjects Age 13-15 46 Table 12 - Qualities Of Helper by Sex for Native Subjects Age 13-15 47 Table 13 - Identified Problem by Sex 59 Table 14 - Identified Problem by Age 60 Table 15 - Identified Problem by Group 61 Table 16 - Preferred Helper by Sex 62 Table 17 - Preferred Helper by Age 63 Table 18 - Preferred Helper by Group 64 Table 19 - Qualities Of Helper By Sex 65 Table 20 - Qualities Of Helper By Age 66 Table 21 - Qualities Of Helper By Group 67 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. Marv Westwood, advisor and thesis supervisor, for his support, guidance and constructive suggestions throughout the research and writing process. Thanks go also to the other committee members, Dr. B i l l Borgan and Dr. Ishu Ishiyama, who each contributed th e i r unique insights and perspective in a very supportive and stimulating manner. My gratitude and appreciation are also expressed to the staff and students of Booth Memorial Junior Secondary School in Prince Rupert who supported and contributed to thi s research from the beginning. In closing, I would l i k e to extend very special recognition and thanks to my parents in Edmonton and to Shirley and Andrew. vi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There have been a number of studies examining the way people of d i f f e r e n t cultures adapt to a North American Counselling situation (Atkinson, Maruyama and Matsui, 1978; Ruiz and P a d i l l a , 1977; Sue and Sue, 1977 and Marsella and Pedersen, 1981). However, "a r e l a t i v e l y neglected area of research has been knowledge about the minority status c l i e n t p rior to entry into counselling" (Westwood 1982). Herr (1987) emphasizes the importance the international c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y with respect to counselling theory and p r a c t i s e : Thus, in a nation of immigrants, where c u l t u r a l pluralism i s rapidly increasing rather than diminishing, the roots of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counseling are deeply entwined with international c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . Such a r e a l i t y provides the macro-environment in which a l l counseling approaches and assumptions need to be validated and tested, (p. 108) In discussing nine competences that should be incorporated into counsellor t r a i n i n g programs, Paradis (1981) states; "The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d counselor must possess s p e c i f i c knowledge and information about the p a r t i c u l a r group he/she i s working with" (p.137). If 1 2 Counsellors are to learn about how representatives of various cultures perceive problems, helpers, and helping q u a l i t i e s , comparative research must be c a r r i e d out to determine what these perceptions are. Unfortunately what t y p i c a l l y happens i s counsellors are working with a lack of knowledge concerning c u l t u r a l norms and they seem to have l i t t l e choice but to r e f l e c t the majority c u l t u r a l values in their p a r t i c u l a r counselling models. Too often, lacking an objective data base on minority group attitudes, counsellors w i l l tend to hold c u l t u r a l stereotypes which are given to them by self-appointed spokesmen for a p a r t i c u l a r group. (Westwood 1982, p. 283) Pederson (1983) i d e n t i f i e s three d i f f e r e n t ways that c u l t u r a l variables can intervene in a counselling interview: One way i s through the culture of a c l i e n t , another i s through the culture of the counselor and a t h i r d i s through the culture of the "problem" which defines the context of a counseling interview and takes on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from contributing c u l t u r a l aspects of the environment, (p. 180) Kleinman (1980) further elaborates on the importance of c l i e n t c u l t u r a l perception with respect to i l l n e s s : ... s o c i a l l y - l e g i t i m a t e d statuses, roles, power relationships, interaction settings, and i n s t i t u t i o n s ... Patients and healers are basic components of such systems and thus are imbedded in s p e c i f i c configurations of c u l t u r a l meanings and s o c i a l relationships. They cannot be understood apart from th i s context, (p. 24-25) Models of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling such as the one proposed by Christensen (1985) enable counsellors to 3 understand c l i e n t s from a cro s s - c u l t u r a l context. This sort of t h e o r e t i c a l framework is a st a r t i n g place to gathering insight about a c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l s e l f . To provide and u t i l i z e a contextual c u l t u r a l framework, an objective data base is necessary. This thesis is part of an international c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling study designed to determine what youths and young adults perceive as important problems, what methods they use to cope with these problems, what types of help they seek, and what they prefer and disfavor with respect to helper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The international study involves 19 countries, with data obtained from a questionnaire scored using a standardized coding system. It i s a jo i n t research project coordinated out of the University of Pittsburgh and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and supported by the International Round Table for the Advancement of Counselling. The two groups under study are drawn from an urban setting with a large (approximately 25%) Native Indian population. A Native and Non-Native sub-grouping has been i d e n t i f i e d within each of the two age groupings (13-15), (18-20). More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the purpose of the current study i s to examine the two groups, Native and Non-Native, in three areas, (a) What do they i d e n t i f y as a problem or 4 concern, (b) Who do they seek out for assistance, and (c) What are the preferred q u a l i t i e s of the helper. The results of t h i s study w i l l be analyzed in the context of other selected regions of the world and comparative analysis carr i e d out. This study w i l l help to widen the l i t e r a t u r e and theory of cross c u l t u r a l counselling but more p a r t i c u l a r l y i t i s intended to"assist counsellors in practise (within culture, between cultures and in counsellor education). CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The review of the l i t e r a t u r e relevant to t h i s study i s organized into the following six areas: (1) counselling and culture, (2) counselling problems across cultures, (3) preferred helpers across cultures, (4) preferred q u a l i t i e s of helpers across cultures (5) non-Native vs. Native expectations of counselling and (6) cr o s s - c u l t u r a l counsellor education. COUNSELLING AND CULTURE Cross-cultural counselling has been defined to include v i r t u a l l y a l l counselling encounters, If we consider the value perspectives of age, sex role , l i f e - s t y l e , socioeconomic status and other special a f f i l i a t i o n s as c u l t u r a l , then we may well conclude that a l l counseling is to some extent c r o s s - c u l t u r a l . (Pederson 1978, p.480) or only those encounters where a c u l t u r a l difference e x i s t s , Cross c u l t u r a l counseling has been defined as any counseling encounter in which two or more of the partici p a n t s are c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . (Atkinson, Morton & Sue 1983, p. 9) 5 6 While culture i s d i f f i c u l t to define, in 1948 L. K. Frank offered what i s now considered to be the standard d e f i n i t i o n (as interpreted by Vontress, 1969): Culture, as generally defined by anthropologists, consists of the t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of action, speech, b e l i e f , and feelings which each group of people has developed h i s t o r i c a l l y as i t s way of meeting the persistent tasks of l i f e . (p. 11) Many mental health professionals have concluded that r a c i a l or ethnic factors may act as impediments to counselling (Attheave, 1972; Carkhuff & Pierce, 1967; Ruiz & P a d i l l a , 1977; Sue 1975; Vontress 1971). Phenomenological Psychologists explain t h i s impediment as a function of the c l i e n t ' s and counsellor's world view or perceptual f i e l d . ... at any given moment, the perceptual f i e l d of each person in a cr o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling encounter is organized so that the se l f i s at the centre of the f i e l d , but perceptions of s i g n i f i c a n t others, the larger society and the universe, are present, simultaneously, at varying levels of awareness. (Christensen 1985, p. 67) While research into the f i e l d of cro s s - c u l t u r a l counselling has been p l e n t i f u l (Reviews in Atkinson, 1983 and Casis, 1984), missing has been systematic research into the nature and assessment of c l i e n t world views (Ibrahim & Kahn, 1987). If one accepts the following assertion: 7 The assumptions inherent in counseling and psychology are rooted in philosophical views of human nature and people's place in the universe (Wachtel 1977, p. 47), coupled with the view that, ... the l i t e r a t u r e available (in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counseling) does not address the philosophical assumptions that people hold. The focus of these approaches has been on theory and practice issues. (Ibrahim, 1984, p. 159), then studies designed to measure the counselling expectancies across cultures are needed. Sue (1977) further emphasizes the point with the following statement: The c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d counselor must possess s p e c i f i c knowledge and information about the p a r t i c u l a r group he/she i s working with. He/she must be aware of the history, experiences, c u l t u r a l values, and l i f e - s t y l e s of various ra c i a l / e t h n i c groups, (p. 108) Moreover, " i t i s surprising that a well organized study of how these (c l i e n t ) expectancies d i f f e r across c u l t u r a l groups i s lacking" (Yuen & Tinsley, 1981, p. 66). COUNSELLING PROBLEMS ACROSS CULTURES To be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling theory or model must deal with a l l pertinent c l i e n t and counsellor perceptions (Christensen 1985). Knowing c l e a r l y what is perceived as a problem within a c u l t u r a l group i s fundamental to a counselling relationship. At t h i s time 8 there i s l i t t l e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l data available d e t a i l i n g the c l i e n t ' s perception of what i s problematic. Warman (1960) reported that students, faculty, personnel workers, and even counsellors themselves considered educational and vocational topics more appropriate for counselling than topics related to personal adjustment. Strong', Hendel and Bratton (1971) found that students viewed the role of the counsellor as that of an advisor while Snyder, H i l l and Derksen (1972) reported that the individuals in their sample tended to seek help with personal problems from persons other than counsellors (eg. friends or r e l a t i v e s ) . Johnson (1977) conducted a survey of student attitudes towards Counselling at a predominantly black University. Results indicated that the predisposition to seek out counselling depended upon the type of problem. Most subjects in the study were w i l l i n g to discuss with the counsellor matters related to vocational and educational concerns; however, for personal adjustment problems there was a s i g n i f i c a n t decline in the frequency with which the counsellor's help was sought. Sue (1981) observed that many ethnocultural minority c l i e n t s have had l i f e experiences which lead them to believe that s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l systems are more 9 powerful forces than personal a t t r i b u t e s . Clients from d i f f e r i n g orientations have been shown to have vastly d i f f e r e n t expectations of the goals of counselling as well as d i f f e r i n g views of the problems that are appropriate to bring into a counselling s i t u a t i o n . PREFERRED HELPERS ACROSS CULTURES Much of the research in c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling i s limited by an assumption that counselling services are provided by professional "counselors". Torrey (1972) draws attention to "Witchdoctors" as e f f e c t i v e counsellors. This is but one example of a helper within a c u l t u r a l context. According to Torrey, understanding the c l i e n t ' s choice of helper a s s i s t s the counsellor in meeting her/his expectations within the counselling process. Webster (1979) found that undergraduate university students i d e n t i f i e d friends, r e l a t i v e s , and counseling centers as among the f i v e most preferred help sources from which they would seek assistance for either emotional or educational/vocational problems. Differences in these rankings did not vary across race, sex or problem type. Westwood (1982) set out to determine i f a d i s t i n c t minority group's (East Indian) expectations were similar or d i f f e r e n t from the majority group's attitudes. The results 10 of t h i s research demonstrated that the minority adolescents preferred a stronger emphasis be placed upon the vocational assistance of the counsellor than did the adolescents of a mainstream group. Further, the personal/social counsellor was highly valued by both groups. F i n a l l y that greater family involvement by the counsellor was favoured by the East Indian Group than i t was by their Anglo-European counterparts. Caravep-Ramos, Francis & Odgers (1985) surveyed 447 psychology students and found that in general, Mexican-American students knew less about helping professionals than their Anglo-American counterparts. Further, a s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of Mexican Americans stated that they would seek help with psychological problems from the clergy rather than from a p s y c h i a t r i s t or c l i n i c a l psychologist. Atkinson Ponterotto & Sanchez (1970) found Vietnamese College students hold a less p o s i t i v e attitude towards seeking professional psychological help than Anglo-American students attending the same College. Further, Vietnamese expressed less recognition of personal need for professional help, less tolerance of the stigma associated with psychological help, less interpersonal openness regarding their problems, and less confidence in the mental health professionals to be of assistance. PREFERRED QUALITIES OF HELPERS ACROSS CULTURES In the late 1960's Clemmont Vontress described the process of structuring a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling rela t i o n s h i p with lower-class (black) individuals: Another s i g n i f i c a n t barrier i s the c l i e n t ' s lack of f a m i l i a r i t y with counseling. Middle-class people have had from infancy a continuing series of relationships with professionals and friends who a s s i s t them in some way: the doctor, lawyer, and c e r t a i n l y parents and s i b l i n g s . These contacts are, in the main, verbalizing relationships. The roles of the assister and assisted are c l e a r l y understood. With lower-class individuals, such roles are not as clear-cut and, therefore, structuring the counseling relationship i s more important in counseling them. (Vontress, 1969, p. 14) The issue of helper s u i t a b i l i t y may also be addressed from the standpoint of the c l i e n t ' s expectation of what a counsellor is and does. Herr (1987) summarizes: Depending on where nations are in their own i n d u s t r i a l - p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l development, they may perceive counseling as means (a) to f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l goals or individual goals, (b) to promote the development of human c a p i t a l for achieving cert a i n state goals. (c) for gate-keeping or s o c i a l control, (d) for maintaining the status quo or (e) for purposes of s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and personal growth, (p. 14) Tan (1967) compared the counselling expectancies of students from five Asian cultures and their North American counterparts. He reported that the fiv e Asian n a t i o n a l i t y groups were similar in their counselling expectancies, whereas s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the Asian 1 2 and American samples. Results supported the following research hypothesis: Counseling expectancies of the subjects from cultures assumed to have an authoritarian orientation w i l l d i f f e r from those of the American subjects in the d i r e c t i o n of authority orientation, directiveness, submission, and nurturance. (Tan, 1967, p. 123) Additional experimental evidence has suggested that Asian-American c l i e n t s assign more c r e d i b i l i t y to counsellors who employ a d i r e c t i v e approach than to those who use non-d i r e c t i v e methods (Atkinson, Maruyama, & Matsui, 1978). Smith (1974) concluded that students in general prefer a counsellor's age, socioeconomic background, r e l i g i o u s be l i e f and sex to be similar to their own and that minorities prefer counsellors of the same race. Ka-Wai & Tinsley (1981) set out to investigate whether students from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds d i f f e r in their expectancies about counselling on a university campus. These authors concluded that American students expect a counsellor to be less d i r e c t i v e and protective and that they themselves expect to be more responsible for improvement. In contrast, Chinese, Iranian, and African students expect to assume a more passive role and that the counsellor w i l l be a more d i r e c t i v e and nurturing authority figure. 13 Recent studies of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l expectations of counsellors also include Cherbosque's (1987) study. One hundred Mexican undergraduates and one hundred United States undergraduates were asked to imagine an i n i t i a l counselling session, the counsellor's behaviour, their own behaviour as c l i e n t s , and the c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t interaction. Results indicated that Mexicans expected more openness from c l i e n t s and less from counsellors than did Americans. Exum & Lau (1988) conducted study to determine preferences of Cantonese-speaking Chinese college students from Hong Kong attending a large midwestern university for either a d i r e c t i v e or nondirective counselling approach to emotional adjustment problems. Their results showed that subjects strongly preferred a d i r e c t i v e counselling approach and attributed low c r e d i b i l i t y and u t i l i t y to videotaped counsellor using a nondirective approach. In general i t appears that d i f f e r e n t cultures do have d i f f e r e n t expectations for the q u a l i t i e s of preferred helpers. While the above-mentioned studies taken together are not d i r e c t l y generalizable to s p e c i f i c populations ( i e . Native), they do represent serious attempts to understand perceptions and expectations of d i s t i n c t minority groups. This serves to strengthen the understanding of how c u l t u r a l variables affect the counselling process. Moreover, studies 1 4 of t h i s nature help to provide a theoreti c a l and methodological framework upon which future studies of c l i e n t expectations can be based. NON-NATIVE VS NATIVE EXPECTATIONS OF COUNSELLING There have been very few studies designed to measure Native expectations and preferences of counsellors and the counselling process. Dauphinais, Dauphinais & Rowe (1981) summarize the gaps in the professional counselling l i t e r a t u r e : Published work related s p e c i f i c a l l y to counseling with American Indians has been infrequent and has seldom gone beyond a narrative description of ways in which common Indian c u l t u r a l values may interface with counseling practice. We are not aware of any empirical studies that attempt to examine the effectiveness or u t i l i t y of a s p e c i f i c counseling style with American Indians, (p. 72) A problem with studies of Native perceptions i s what L i t t r e l l (1982) referred to as the "recognized differences among Indian groups" (p. 54). Comparative research i s not available to assess the a b i l i t y to generalize from one Native community to another. Further, i t i s not clear that differences exist between the Native and Non-Native populations l i v i n g in the same geographical area. Sue and Sue (1977) found that 50% of Natives dropped out of counselling after the f i r s t session (versus 30% for 15 Anglos). According to Darou (1987) the f a i l u r e of treatment would seem to be related to the fact that counsellors often f a i l to take into account c u l t u r a l differences and as a result may unsettle Natives at a very deep emotional and psychological l e v e l . The following i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of how c u l t u r a l factors may effect a counselling relationship: ... many Native Americans view the person as harmonious with nature. The world i s accepted in i t ' s present form without undue attempts to change i t (Trimble 1976). Anglos however, are concerned with mastering the physical world. The more nature i s controlled, the better. Native American c l i e n t s exposed to counselors who stress individual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for changing and mastering the environment are, in e f f e c t , asking their c l i e n t s to vi o l a t e a basic value. This may be one reason why Native Americans have such a high drop-out rate in our educational system. (Sue, 1977, p. 76) In a survey study conducted by Blue (1977) i t was found that Native students generally were unwilling to u t i l i z e counselling services. The students tended to use the university counselling services for urban or guidance problems, such as finances and study s k i l l s . They used the Native elders, however, for c u l t u r a l and personal problems such as alcoholism, r e l i g i o n , and mental health. This p a r t i c u l a r study resulted in the h i r i n g of a Native elder for the counselling service. Dauphinais, Dauphainais, and Rowe (1981) taped counselling sessions were played to r e s i d e n t i a l high school 16 students in Oklahoma. The tapes included both Native and Non-Native counsellors and three methods, d i r e c t i v e , non-d i r e c t i v e and a Native culture-based method. The results showed that the Native counsellor was preferred and that non-directive counselling was rated the least e f f e c t i v e . The conclusions made from th i s study were, (1) that counsellors are perceived by Indians as more e f f e c t i v e in they are Indian, (2) that counsellors who use some sort of concrete approach are perceived to be the best counsellors for Native c l i e n t s . The authors comment that t h i s l a t t e r finding has serious implications for counsellors trained with a neo-Rogerian approach. Haviland et a l . (1983) found that Native Americans would be more l i k e l y to use a counselling center i f they could see a c u l t u r a l l y similar counsellor. On the other hand, LaFromboise and Dixon (1981) reported that c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y in a counsellor i s not as important as the counsellor's perceived c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y and trustworthiness. Darou (1987) asserts that counsellors need to focus on expressed values rather than preconceived images or notions about Indians. He goes on to state that based upon the existing data, as limited as i t i s , successful counselling 17 and psychotherapy would be enhanced by the recognition of several factors: (1) With a certa i n l e v e l of a b i l i t y , a Native therapist or an elder i s probably more e f f e c t i v e than a Non-Native, (2) Lacking a suitable Native, the Non-Native's knowledge of true versus idealized Native culture w i l l increase the li k e l i h o o d of success. (3) Native silence, often perceived as a problem by Non-Natives, needs to be reinterpreted as communicating high stress or respect, (4) A demand for s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e as i t is conceived in counselling i s resented, yet the Non-Native counsellor often misses even clear non-verbal disclosures, (4) It i s generally seen as intrusive and inappropriate to ask questions. (Darou, 1987, p. 37) These assertions are not conclusively supported nor refuted in the l i t e r a t u r e . There i s a need for studies of Native perceptions to f i l l t h i s gap. F i n a l l y , Sue (1981) devotes a chapter of his book to "Cultural and H i s t o r i c a l Perspectives in Counseling American Indians." This work d e t a i l s h i s t o r i c a l and present forces that have shaped the value system and world view of Native peoples. Among his more provocative conclusions i s the recommendation that counsellors working with Natives "become e c l e c t i c and adaptable" (p. 239). He concludes, Of the best dimensions of counseling for Native Americans, I would suggest the following: silence, acceptance, restatement, and general lead. At the end of the counseling session i t may be advisable to make a verbal summary of what has transpired, (p. 248) 18 CROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELLOR EDUCATION Torrey (1972) described fiv e p r i n c i p l e s (as interpreted by Pedersen, 1979) c r u c i a l to successful counselling or helping in any culture: (a) the c l i e n t ' s problem i s named; (b) the personal q u a l i t i e s of the counselor are extremely important; (c) the c l i e n t ' s s p e c i f i c expectations must be met; (d) the counselor must esta b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y through the use of symbols, s k i l l , or power; and (e) the counselor must apply certain techniques to bring about r e l i e f to the troubled c l i e n t , (p. 79) The current state of research in cross - c u l t u r a l counselling has done l i t t l e to address Torrey's p r i n c i p l e s . At the present time we know l i t t l e about counselling expectations across cultures, and less about i d e n t i f i e d problems of people throughout the world. Sue (1987) states, There i s a growing awareness that the human service professions, e s p e c i a l l y counseling and c l i n i c a l psychology have f a i l e d to meet the pa r t i c u l a r mental health needs of ethnic minorities. Most graduate programs give inadequate treatment to mental health issues of ethnic minorities. Cultural influences a f f e c t i n g personality formation, career choice, educational development, and the manifestation of behavior disorders are infrequently part of mental health t r a i n i n g programs, (p. 4) Authors have attempted to describe general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of cr o s s - c u l t u r a l counsellors: 19 ... that the counsellor must possess the wisdom of Solomon and the patients of Job i f he or she i s to ever es t a b l i s h a c r o s s - r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . (Helms 1985, p. 153) Others (Shapiro 1983; Wilber 1984) contend that regardless of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l context of the helping relationship, the personal q u a l i t i e s and t r a i t s of the helper are c r u c i a l to the successful outcome of the therapeutic encounter. Sue (1977) c a l l s for an evaluation of a l l current theore t i c a l frameworks: Counselors must take major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to examine and evaluate the relevance of their p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l framework with respect to the c l i e n t ' s needs and values. (Sue 1977, p. 423) Herr proposes a similar point of view: Thus in a nation of immigrants, where c u l t u r a l pluralism i s rapidly increasing rather than diminishing, the roots of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counseling are deeply entwined with international c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . Such a r e a l i t y provides the macro-environment in which a l l counseling approaches and assumptions need to be validated and tested. (Herr 1987) If one accepts the findings of Ka-Wai and Tinsley (1981) that, "Chinese, Iranian, and African students expect the counsellor to be an authority figure prescribing more d e f i n i t e and clear-cut solutions to their problems while they assume a more passive and dependent role" (p. 68), then a neo-Rogerian approach w i l l f a l l well short of these expectations. Some authors have suggested that nondirective 20 counselling approaches may be counterproductive (Banks, 1972; Exum, 1985; D.W. Sue & S. Sue, 1977). Yiu and Saner (1985) contend in their recent research that the value assumptions embedded in counselling approaches that are derived from an i n d i v i d u a l i s t culture are in c o n f l i c t with their adoption in a c o l l e c t i v i s t nation. Others addressing counselling in African and in Middle Eastern nations have indicated that many assumptions taken for granted in some cultures are simply not shared across cultures (Okon, 1983; Shanhirzadi, 1983). , -It seems clear from the research results presented above that c u l t u r a l differences of c l i e n t e l e do have an effe c t on the counselling process. Further, e f f e c t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l counselling w i l l be enhanced when a d i v e r s i t y of counselling approaches and models s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to meet the needs and expectations of the c l i e n t are u t i l i z e d . CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In t h i s chapter the author presents sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , development of the measurement instrument, data c o l l e c t i o n procedures, ' coding and scoring protocol, inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y and the procedures for analyzing and presenting the data. SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS Three hundred and sixty three subjects participated in this study. The subjects encompassed one hundred seventy males and one hundred ninety three females. Ninety three subjects made up the Native subgroup and two hundred seventy subjects made up the Non-Native subgroup. Age groupings included one hundred eight subjects in the adult group (age 18-20) and two hundred f i f t y f i v e subjects in the youth group (age 13-15). A l l subjects were residents of Prince Rupert, B r i t i s h Columbia at the time the questionnaires were administered. A l l subjects in the 13-15 age group were given the questionnaire at Booth Memorial Junior Secondary School during their Consumer Education c l a s s . In t h i s manner, a 21 22 questionnaire was administered to every grade nine student in Prince Rupert. Subjects in the 18-20 age group were contacted by l o c a l high school teachers and for the most part completed the questionnaire outside of a school setting. Because participants in the 18-20 age group were selected on the basis of their a v a i l a b i l i t y and willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e in an hour long exercise, t h i s age group must be viewed as a less representative sample than the 13-15 age group. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT There are two measurement instruments used for the data c o l l e c t i o n for this study. The f i r s t (Appendix B) was developed in November of 1988 to be used as a p i l o t study. The o r i g i n a l objectives for the research (to define what is problematic for the subjects and what actions they engage in to help resolve these problems) have grown somewhat as a result of widening research interests and p i l o t r e s u l t s . In Prince Rupert, the p i l o t questionnaire was administered to ten subjects in each grouping. On February 5 1989, these raw results were forwarded to Pittsburgh to a s s i s t with the development of administrative and scoring c r i t e r i a . Results and observations from a l l p i l o t studies were taken into consideration in developing the f i n a l version of 23 the Instructions for The Col l e c t i o n of Data (Appendix D) and the questionnaire (Appendix E). The questionnaire i s comprised of two demographic sheets and three i d e n t i c a l question pages. There are eight open-ended questions on each page. The following data description and comparison represents scored responses from the f i r s t page "Problem 1", the second page "Problem 2" and the t h i r d page, "Problem 3". DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES The author administered the questionnaire to a l l of the 13-15 year age group in a classroom s i t u a t i o n . Students were always allowed ample time to complete the task and e f f o r t s were made to insure comfort and privacy during the administration of the questionnaire. The 18-20 year age group questionnaires were administered in a variety of ways ranging from subjects completing the questionnaire at home, to classroom sessions, to meetings of small groups in the evening. It was the author's experience that very few subjects who took the questionnaire home would return i t for inclusion in the study. Because of t h i s , e f f o r t s were made to supervise the subjects as they completed the questionnaire and c o l l e c t the results from the subjects immediately upon completion. Every e f f o r t was made to 24 insure that the administration of the questionnaire remained as close as possible to the Standardized Instructions For Data C o l l e c t i o n (Appendix D). CODING AND) SCORING The demographic data of "Age" and "Sex" were obtained from the f i r s t page of the questionnaire. An additional page of information was obtained from the Prince Rupert respondents requesting their identity and the schools they have attended. This page was c o l l e c t e d separately and given a number corresponding to one on the questionnaire. The purpose of t h i s information was to insure that no respondents were able to complete more than one questionnaire as well as to determine e l i g i b i l i t y for the Native/Non-Native sub-grouping. This f i n a l demographic sub-grouping has been labeled "Group". The results presented in t h i s thesis represent Scale 1 (Human Problems), Scale 3 (Choice of Helper), and Scale 4 (Qualities of Helper) of the scoring c r i t e r i a (Appendix F). The procedure of coding s t r i c t l y adhered to the instructions presented in Appendix F. A l l items in Scale 1 through Scale 6 were coded by Category. The frequency of response in each Class was then recorded. It should be noted here the difference between "Category" and "Class". A coding "Class" 25 represents the broad structure of the taxonomy (an example is "Schooling") while the "Category" i s more s p e c i f i c (an example i s "Academic F a i l u r e " ) . INTER-RATER RELIABILITY The author scored and recorded a l l of the questionnaires used in t h i s study. In order to determine the degree of inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y , a second researcher randomly selected one hundred questionnaires and independently re-scored them. This test resulted in a 100% accuracy rating for "Class" (see Appendix F) on both Scale #1 - Human Problems, and Scale #3 - Choice of Helper. There was a 94% accuracy rating on Scale 4 - Q u a l i t i e s of Helper. R e l i a b i l i t y therefore, in a small number of occasions on Scale 4, i s p o t e n t i a l l y suspect due to possible scoring errors. ANALYSIS OF DATA The questionnaire i s designed to c o l l e c t categorical data representing frequency of response in each discrete c l a s s . Because of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square has been selected to carry out the s t a t i s t i c a l comparison. According to Christensen and Stoup (1986), the Chi-square test of independence i s used to 26 determine i f the paired observations obtained on two or more nominal variables are independent of each other or are associated (p. 445). If Chi-square i s s i g n i f i c a n t , variables are associated. If i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , the variables are independent. Christensen and Stoup (1986) d e t a i l the following "assumptions of and r e s t r i c t i o n s i n " the Use of Chi-square: (1) The observations must be independent of one another, (2) The categories should be established on a l o g i c a l or defensible basis, (3) The expected frequency should not be smaller than 5. (p. 448-449) In order to s a t i s f y these r e s t r i c t i o n s , the following measures have been employed: (1) Data from page 2, "Problem 2", and page 3, "Problem 3", of the questionnaire has not been combined with the data on page 1, "Problem 1" as t h i s would v i o l a t e the rule of independence, (2) The coding categories have been collapsed and in some cases dropped to insure that the frequency in each c e l l i s greater than f i v e , (3) The basis for a l t e r i n g the categories has followed the t h e o r e t i c a l guidelines proposed by Christensen (1985). This process is described below. The coding categories for "Identified Problem" were generalized by f i t t i n g each coded problem in one of the three following categories: (1) Self (included are, Material Desires, Extreme Poverty, Emotions and Feelings, Self 27 Fu l l f i l m e n t , Personal Identity and Self Concept), (2) Si g n i f i c a n t Others (included are, Family Issues, Sexuality, Courtship/Dating, Interpersonal and S o c i a l i z a t i o n Issues), and (3) Larger Society (included are, Schooling Issues, Altruism). The purpose for using these more general coding categories i s s t r i c t l y to s a t i s f y the above-mentioned requirements for s t a t i s t i c a l comparison. The number of coding categories for "Choice of Helper" was reduced. The categories "Supernatural", "Offender", Animate Creatures/lnnanimate Objects", and "No Response" were dropped. Taken together, these dropped categories accounted for 7.2% of the t o t a l responses for "Problem 1", 22.0% of the t o t a l responses for "Problem 2", and 36.7% of the t o t a l responses for "Problem 3". The coding categories for "Qualities of Helper" were also reduced. The category "No Response" was dropped representing 16.3% of the t o t a l responses for "Problem 1", 26.7% of the t o t a l responses for "Problem 2", and 39.1% of the t o t a l responses for "Problem 3". The comparative test, Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square was then u t i l i z e d to test the four n u l l hypotheses presented below. A significance l e v e l of p<0.05 was used to determine s t a t i s t i c a l grounds for rejecting each hypothesis. 28 Hypothesis J There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between Native and Non-Native subjects in the 13-15 year age group across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper) Hypothesi s 2 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the 13-15 year old non-Native subjects and the 18-20 year old non-Native subjects across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper). Hypothesis 3 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between male non-Native subjects and female non-Native subjects across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper). Hypothes i s 4 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the 13-15 year old male Native subjects and the 13-15 year old female Native subjects across the three 29 dependent v a r i a b l e s ( I d e n t i f i e d Problem, Choice of Helper, P r e f e r r e d Q u a l i t i e s of H e l p e r ) . A Summary D e s c r i p t i o n of I d e n t i f i e d Problems The most important themes and i s s u e s i n the " I d e n t i f i e d Problem" area are explo r e d i n g r e a t e r depth. Because the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s an open-ended format, there i s a tremendous r i c h n e s s and c o l o r i n the an e c d o t a l content. In t h i s s e c t i o n , the author p r o v i d e s examples of verbatim s u b j e c t responses. A n c i l l a r y Data T h i s s e c t i o n has been added without comment as a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the reader. I t i s made up of nine t a b l e s , (Age, Sex, Group) by each of the three dependent v a r i a b l e s , (1) Human Problems, (2) I d e n t i f i e d Helper, (3) Q u a l i t i e s of the Helper. In these t a b l e s , o r i g i n a l coding c l a s s e s are l e f t i n t a c t , and no s t a t i s t i c a l comparison i s c a r r i e d out. CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS This chapter consists of a restatement of each research hypothesis along with the corresponding s t a t i s t i c a l treatment. Following t h i s i s a summary description of i d e n t i f i e d problems and the A n c i l l a r y data. PRESENTATION OF DATA Hypot hesi s I There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between Native and Non-Native subjects in the 13-15 year age group across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper) This hypothesis was tested using the Likelihood Ratio Chi Square. The results of which are summarized in Tables 1, 2 and 3. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the groups was found in Problem 2 of the Choice of Helper variable and in Problem 3 of the Preferred Qu a l i t i e s of Helper variable. It i s noticed that Native and Non-Native subjects both i d e n t i f i e d most problems in the "Society" category and there was l i t t l e difference between the groups. Native 30 31 subjects however i d e n t i f i e d "Family" as their choice of helper more frequently across the three problems than their Non-Native counterparts. In a l l three of the Qu a l i t i e s of Helper problems, Non-Native subjects i d e n t i f i e d "Appealing Attributes" most frequently while Native subjects i d e n t i f i e d "Knowledgeable" most frequently for Problem 2 and 3. Table 1 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Group f o r Age 13-15 Subjects PROBLEM 1: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 0.807(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N OTHERS 31 .03 25.38 26.67 68 SELF 18.97 22.34 21 .57 55 SOCIETY 50.00 52.28 51 .76 132 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 58 197 255 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 3.777(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N OTHERS 38.78 24.73 27.66 65 SELF 24.49 27.42 26.81 63 SOCIETY 36.73 47.85 45.53 1 07 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 49 186 235 PROBLEM 3; 'LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 5.557(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N OTHERS 14.29 22.94 21 .23 45 SELF 35.71 18.82 22. 17 47 SOCIETY 50.00 58.24 56.60 120 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 42 1 70 212 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 33 Table 2 - Choice Of Helper by Group f o r Age 13-15 Subjects PROBLEM I: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 0.848(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N FAMILY 61 .82 54.84 56.43 1 36 NON-FAMILY 38. 18 45. 1 6 43.57 1 05 TOTAL N 100.00 55 100.00 186 100.00 241 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 5.213* NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N FAMILY 68.89 50.00 54.03 1 1 4 NON-FAMILY 31.11 50.00 45.97 97 TOTAL N 100.00 45 100.00 1 66 100.00 21 1 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE •-= 0.1I6(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N FAMILY 56.76 53.64 54.26 1 02 NON-FAMILY 43.24 46.36 45.74 86 TOTAL N 100.00 37 100.00 151 100.00 188 Note: Numbers in the table show times chosen (frequency) in percent. (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 34 Table 3 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper by Group f o r Age 13-15 Subjects PROBLEM 1; LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 3.689(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 57. 14 49.08 50.94 108 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 1 2.24 24.54 21.70 46 KNOWLEDGEABLE 30.61 26.38 27.36 58 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 49 1 63 212 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 5.892(ns) NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 38.89 41 .67 41.11 74 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 11.11 26.39 23.33 42 KNOWLEDGEABLE 50.00 31 .94 35.56 64 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 36 1 44 180 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 7.187* NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 32.26 42.74 40.65 63 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 6.45 20. 1 6 17.42 27 KNOWLEDGEABLE 61 .29 37. 10 41 .94 65 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 31 1 24 155 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) i n perc e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 35 Hypot hesi s 2 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the 13-15 year old non-Native subjects and the 18-20 year old non-Native subjects across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper). This hypothesis was tested using the Likelihood Ratio Chi Square. The results of which are summarized in Tables 4, 5 and 6. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the groups was found in Problem 2 and Problem 3 of the I d e n t i f i e d Problem variable, Problem 1 and Problem 3 of the Choice of Helper variable, and in Problem 2 of the Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper variable. It i s noticed that the 13-15 year age group consistently i d e n t i f i e d most problems in the "Society" category. The 18-20 age group i d e n t i f i e d most problems in the "Self" category on two of the three pages. On a l l three problems most adults chose helpers outside the family structure while most youth selected helpers within the family structure. The existing difference in the q u a l i t i e s of helper show a s l i g h t l y higher preference for "Knowledgeable" for the Adult group and "Appealing Attributes" for the Youth group. Table 4 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Age f o r Non-Native Subjects PROBLEM 1: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 4.432(ns) ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N OTHERS 13.89 25.38 22.30 60 SELF 27.78 22.34 23.79 64 SOCIETY 58.33 52.28 53.90 1 45 TOTAL N 100.00 72 100.00 1 97 100.00 269 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 7.209* ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N OTHERS 33.33 24.73 26.75 65 SELF 38.60 27.42 30.04 73 SOCIETY 28.07 47.85 43.21 1 05 TOTAL N 100.00 57 100.00 186 100.00 243 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 17.399* ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N OTHERS 25.64 22.94 23.44 49 SELF 48.72 18.82 24.40 51 SOCIETY 25.64 58.24 52. 1 5 109 TOTAL N 100.00 39 100.00 1 70 100.00 209 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) percent. (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 Table 5 - Choice Of Helper by Age f o r Non-Native Subjects PROBLEM I: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = • 9. 1 57* ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N FAMILY 33.33 54.84 49.21 1 24 NON-FAMILY 66.67 45. 1 6 50.79 1 28 TOTAL N 100.00 66 100.00 186 100.00 252 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE -= 1.747(ns) ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N FAMILY 39.62 50.00 47.49 1 04 NON-FAMILY 60.38 50.00 52.51 1 1 5 TOTAL N 100.00 53 100.00 166 100.00 219 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 4.194* ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N FAMILY 33.33 53.64 50.28 91 NON-FAMILY 66.67 46.36 49.72 90 TOTAL N 100.00 30 100.00 151 100.00 181 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 Table 6 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper by Age f o r Non-Native Subjects PROBLEM Ix LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 2.222(ns) ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 45.31 49.08 48.02 109 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 18.75 24.54 22.91 52 KNOWLEDGEABLE 35.94 26.38 29.07 66 TOTAL N 100.00 64 100.00 1 63 100.00 227 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE -- 8.339* ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 22.92 41 .67 36.98 71 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 22.92 26.39 25.52 49 KNOWLEDGEABLE 54. 1 7 31 .94 37.50 72 TOTAL N 100.00 48 100.00 1 44 100.00 1 92 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 2. I80(ns) ADULT YOUTH TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 45. 1 6 42.74 43.23 67 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 9.68 20. 1 6 18.06 28 KNOWLEDGEABLE 45. 1 6 37. 10 38.71 60 TOTAL N 100.00 31 100.00 124 100.00 155 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 39 Hypot hes i s 3 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between male non-Native subjects and female non-Native subjects across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper). This hypothesis was tested using the Likelihood Ratio Chi Square. The results of which are summarized in Tables 7, 8 and 9. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the groups was found in Problem 1 of the Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper variable. It i s noticed that both male and female subjects selected most problems in the "Society" category. This was an e s p e c i a l l y strong tendency for males. Family and non-family helpers were evenly s p l i t by both groups and both preferred "Appealing Attributes" as a helper qu a l i t y two out of the three times and "Knowledgeable" as a helper quality one out of the three times. In general there was l i t t l e male/female difference noted. Table 7 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Sex f o r Non-Native Subjects PROBLEM 1: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 1.426(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N OTHERS 23.29 21.14 22.30 60 SELF 26.03 21.14 23.79 64 SOCIETY 50.68 57.72 53.90 1 45 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 146 123 269 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 2.870(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N OTHERS 29.93 22.64 26.75 65 SELF 31 .39 28.30 30.04 73 SOCIETY 38.69 49.06 43.21 1 05 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 137 106 243 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = 3.941(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N OTHERS 26.05 20.00 23.44 49 SELF 27.73 20.00 24.40 51 SOCIETY 46.22 60.00 52. 15 109 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 N 119 90 209 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 Table 8 - P r e f e r r e d Helper by Sex f o r Non-Native Subje c t s PROBLEM I: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = • 2.406(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N FAMILY 53.57 43.75 49.21 1 24 NON-FAMILY 46.43 56.25 50.79 1 28 TOTAL N 100.00 1 40 100.00 1 12 100.00 252 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 2.441(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N FAMILY 51 .97 41 .30 47.49 1 04 NON-FAMILY 48.03 58.70 52.51 1 1 5 TOTAL N 100.00 1 27 100.00 92 100.00 219 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE •-= 0.485(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N FAMILY 48. 1 5 53.42 50.28 91 NON-FAMILY 51 .85 46.58 49.72 90 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 73 100.00 181 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 42 Table 9 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper by Sex f o r Non-Native Subjects PROBLEM I: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 6.884* FEMALE MALE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 52.55 41.11 48.02 109 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 24.82 20.00 22.91 52 KNOWLEDGEABLE 22.63 38.89 29.07 66 TOTAL N 100.00 1 37 100.00 90 100.00 227 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 2.756(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 32.77 43.84 36.98 71 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 28.57 20.55 25.52 49 KNOWLEDGEABLE 38.66 35.62 37.50 72 TOTAL N 100.00 1 19 100.00 73 100.00 1 92 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE •-= 5.164(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 50.54 32.26 43.23 67 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 16.13 20.97 18.06 28 KNOWLEDGEABLE 33.33 46.77 38.71 60 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 62 100.00 155 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) i n p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 43 Hypot hes i s 4 There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the 13-15 year old male Native subjects and the 13-15 year old female Native subjects across the three dependent variables (Identified Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Q u a l i t i e s of Helper) This hypothesis was tested using the Likelihood Ratio Chi Square. The results of which are summarized in Tables 10, 11 and 12. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the groups was found in Problem 1 of the Ide n t i f i e d Problem variable. It i s noticed that males tended to identif y more problems in the "Society" category than females. This result was also noted in the Non-Native sample (see Table 7). This finding seems to indicate a greater concern with schooling issues among male Natives and Non-Natives than the i r female counterparts. The Identified Helper variable was equally s p l i t between Family and Non-Family and the Quality of Helper variable favoured "Appealing Attributes" on two out of three of the questions and "Knowledgeable" on one out of three questions for both male and female respondents. This i s the i d e n t i c a l result to the Native male and female subgroups (see Table 9). In general the 44 male/female comparison for the Native subgroup was very similar to the male/female comparison for the Non-Native subgroup. Table 10 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Sex f o r Native Subjects Age 13-15 PROBLEM PROBLEM PROBLEM LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = • 7.251* FEMALE MALE TOTAL N OTHERS 36.96 1 3.33 25.27 23 SELF 1 9.57 20.00 19.78 18 SOCIETY 43.48 66.67 54.95 50 TOTAL N 100.00 46 100.00 45 100.00 91 LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 4.857(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL . N OTHERS 43.24 20.59 32.39 23 SELF 18.92 35.29 26.76 1 9 SOCIETY 37.84 44. 12 40.85 29 TOTAL N 100.00 37 100.00 34 100.00 71 LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 1.67B(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N OTHERS 21.21 13.04 17.86 10 SELF 39.39 30.43 35.71 20 SOCIETY 39.39 56.52 46.43 26 TOTAL N 100.00 33 100.00 23 100.00 56 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) percent. (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 46 Table 11 - I d e n t i f i e d Helper by Sex f o r Native Subjects Age 13-15 PROBLEM I: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 0.565(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N FAMILY 60.47 52.38 56.47 48 NON-FAMILY 39.53 47.62 43.53 37 TOTAL N 100.00 43 100.00 42 100.00 85 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 0.029(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N FAMILY 60.00 62.07 60.94 39 NON-FAMILY 40.00 37.93 39.06 25 TOTAL N 100.00 35 100.00 29 100.00 64 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 0.002(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N FAMILY 46.67 47.37 46.94 23 NON-FAMILY 53.33 52.63 53.06 26 TOTAL N 100.00 30 100.00 19 100.00 49 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) i n pe r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 Table 12 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper by Sex f o r N a t i v e Subjects Age 13-15 PROBLEM 1: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE = = 1.902(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 53.85 52.63 53.25 41 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 12.82 23.68 18.18 1 4 KNOWLEDGEABLE 33.33 23.68 28.57 22 TOTAL N 100.00 39 100.00 38 100.00 77 PROBLEM 2: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE --= 0.687(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 53.57 45.45 50.00 25 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 7.14 1 3.64 10.00 5 KNOWLEDGEABLE 39.29 40.91 40.00 20 TOTAL N 100.00 28 100.00 22 100.00 50 PROBLEM 3: LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI SQUARE •• = 1.295(ns) FEMALE MALE TOTAL N APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 41 .67 25.00 35.00 14 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 1 2.50 12.50 12.50 5 KNOWLEDGEABLE 45.83 62.50 52.50 21 TOTAL N 100.00 24 100.00 16 100.00 40 Note: Numbers i n the t a b l e show times chosen (frequency) p e r c e n t . (ns) Not S i g n i f i c a n t * p<.05 48 A Summary D e s c r i p t i o n of I d e n t i f i e d Problems The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to provide the reader with a n e c d o t a l content f o r the I d e n t i f i e d Problem v a r i a b l e . T h i s i s intended to a m p l i f y and e l a b o r a t e on the q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . The author has attempted to s e l e c t a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of c a t e g o r i c a l data that f a l l s w i t h i n each coded c l a s s . School (32%) The l a r g e s t coded c l a s s was "School" which c o n s t i t u t e d 32% of the t o t a l responses. School a l s o accounted f o r the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y of coding p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Students of a l l ranges of academic a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t responded i n t h i s c a t e g ory. The f o l l o w i n g responses r e p r e s e n t s u b j e c t s motivated to succeed with a fear of not r e a c h i n g high l e v e l s of academic success. These responses were coded under the Academic Achievement category. Academic Achievement "Achiev i n g my g o a l s - Overcoming a l l the o b s t a c l e s that are i n f r o n t of me and p a s s i n g a l l the work and t e s t s that the teachers g i v e me." "My Grades in School - I f e e l constant pressure by my own needs to do w e l l , to succeed at e v e r y t h i n g I do at s c h o o l . " 49 A strong fear of f a i l u r e was prevalent within each of the next group of subjects. Expectations of self and others account for a high degree of stress and anxiety. The f i n a l example in t h i s set is a 13 year old Native student known to the author to have quit school shortly after the questionnaire results were c o l l e c t e d . Academic Failur e "P.E. Classes - I'm not very f i t so I don't do things good and get bad grades." "Well, I'm an average student, but sometimes I think what i f I get a low grade and f a i l a subject, something just pressures me and pounds inside my stomach." "I am f a i l i n g school - I have low grades, I have trouble understanding, I have trouble reading." Time Pressure "School - Too much work and not enough time to do i t . B a s i c a l l y school puts pressure on me when I have too many things to get done and there i s not time because we must find time for homework and our friends too." "Math - The teacher I had at the beginning of the year quit so we missed a month of math. Now our new teacher is trying to get us caught up but i t is going too fa s t . " Mental D i s a b i l i t y "Tests, especially Math, my mind blocks off and I forget everything I know. " "Tests - Whenever there i s a test I sometimes forget i t and then I remember i t when I am going to bed and I feel stupid." 5 0 "I can't s p e l l properly - I l i k e to write but I can't s p e l l . What good i s a dictionary when you don't know where to look." The Subject's misconduct is the coding category for the next group of responses. In the f i r s t instance the concern is personalized while in the l a t t e r the subject i s troubled about the established code of conduct for the school. Subject's Misconduct "Going to see Mr. Loncaric - When you see Mr. Loncaric you don't know whether you w i l l be suspended or what." "Graduating t h i s year - I might get my cr e d i t s taken away because of my attendance record. If you miss 15 classes in one course throughout the year you lose i t . " Subjects concerned with teachers were also able to frame their frustrations in both s p e c i f i c and general terms. Teacher Related "Mr. W. in s u l t i n g me and others - Mr. W. seems to be the type of teacher who seems l i k e he has to be right in whatever subject even i f he has no idea what i t i s about." "Teacher's attitude towards students - Bad attitudes! Teachers shouldn't t e l l students they won't make a test or pass the year or discourage students." Social Success/Failure "Starting at a new school - meeting new friends, getting to know people you haven't met before." "(A Grade nine student) Being in two grade 8 classes - I don't f e e l right l i k e i t ' s uncomfortable so I feel l i k e skipping the classes but I don't." 51 Personal Identity and Self Concept (19%) The second largest coded class was "Personal Identity and Self Concept" which constituted 19% of the to t a l responses. Self Confidence "The way people see me (If I am a yutz or a loser) - When you are tal k i n g to a g i r l and you say something and she gets a weird look in her face, then you start thinking that she thinks that you are a yuk." Individualism vs. Conformity "Whether you should do drugs l i k e some of my friends. Friends have asked me i f I want to smoke a few joint s or do cocaine. I don't know what to say. " Growing Up "The fact that I don't know what I want to be." "I am worried about l i f e after high school." Physical Appearance "The problem is I want to grow my hair long so that I look good." "That I ' l l be fat for the rest of my l i f e . I've been fat for a while so i t would be nice to be slim." "Peer pressure - When people force you to smoke or drink or go to par t i e s . Or a l l your friends do this and you fee l l e f t out not doing i t . " 52 Family (17%) The t h i r d largest coded class was "Family" which constituted 17% of the t o t a l responses. Divorce/Separation/Melded Family "My mom not l e t t i n g me see my dad when I want to -My mom went to court a couple of days ago and she showed me these papers and the la s t one said "no concern with seeina father." And that got me mad. " "My dad's g i r l f r i e n d - always being bossy won't le t me near my dad. Doing everything she wants even though i t ' s not her house. Scratching my dad." "My mother's boyfriend who l i v e s with us. Mom treats him l i k e a king and me l i k e d i r t . So does he. I think he's a jerk and mom won't l e t me talk to her about i t . " Inter-generational Disagreement "Not getting along with my mother - She's always putting me down. Doesn't seem to care about me or how I do in school. Whenever I do something to try and please her she w i l l always try and find a f a u l t . " "Having a grandma saying that I can't sleep at a g i r l f r i e n d ' s place and talking about boys to each other. She t e l l s me that she would get police a f t e r me i f I did spend the night at her house. Thinks I won't come home." Domestic Quarreling "My problem i s not getting along with my parents. We fight and they say I am the cause of their f i g h t s . " "My parents fight (my mom drinks alot) - My mom i s never home and my dad always gets mad because she i s n ' t . " 53 Parental Strictness "My dad getting mad at me for everything I do. If I come home 5 minutes late he w i l l come home and maybe ground me." "Not allowed to stay out - my parents want me home by 11 o'clock." Welfare Among Family Members "I f e e l worried when my dad goes away. I worry that my dad won't come home." "My brother having Cystic F i b r o s i s - He doesn't l i v e past 20. Right now he i s 10." Misconduct or Problematic Behaviour of a Family Member "When my brother rides in his boat at night when drunk. Rides at night with l o t s of driftwood. He has a boat load." "Knowing my parents are drinking - that they might use a car when drinking." "My s i s t e r - She runs away a l l the time which ruins my family." Physical i s o l a t i o n from family i s a p a r t i c u l a r concern for Native students raised in V i l l a g e s . Often V i l l a g e schools do not offer courses beyond grade eight. Physical Isolation From Family "Living with my s i s t e r - I l i v e d with my s i s t e r because where my parents l i v e the school only goes up to grade 8. I only get to see my parents every three months." "My parents don't l i v e in town and I have been without them since I was 16. I could go l i v e with them, but I feel lonely and I don't know why. I seem to be depressed and stressed out about everything." 54 Self abuse among family members was mainly i d e n t i f i e d to be alcohol and drug related. Self Abuse Among Family Members "My mom's drinking - Every time she gets her cheque, s h e ' l l spend i t on booze. She always keeps me up when she comes home at night." "Smoking - seeing my mother smoke." • "My problem i s that I think my brother i s heavy into drugs. Sometimes I hear him talking about i t and I know who he hangs with do drugs l o t s . " Interpersonal and Socialization Issues (15%) The forth largest coded class was "Interpersonal and So c i a l i z a t i o n Issues" which constituted 15% of the t o t a l responses. Friendship "Friends who talk behind your back. People who say things about you and can't say i t to your face." Emotions and Feelings (4%) Emotions and Feelings as a s p e c i f i c coding category accounted for 4% of the to t a l subject responses. Generalized Anxiety "Waking up one morning to fin d that I am dead." "Sometimes I fee l worried and sick in my stomach, l i k e not able to do anything or care about what happens." 5 5 Grief "When I think about my grandfather. We were so close then he died. After he died I'd fight with my s i s t e r . And she would wonder why I would walk away and t e l l her that she never cared." Courtship and Dating (4%) Courtship and Dating also accounted for 4% of the t o t a l subject responses. Unrequited Feelings "I l i k e somebody and I can't t e l l him. He's popular and I am scared to t e l l him." "G i r l s - If they l i k e me or no't. What they think of me." Al t r ui sm ( 3% ) Altruism accounted for 3% of subject responses. War "I am a f r a i d that the people in power right now are going to wreck the world." The Environment "The problem about p o l l u t i o n - Water po l l u t i o n from the m i l l s . " Concern About Justice And Equal Rights In The World "Discrimination - I hate people who discriminate others l i k e the KKK. I fe e l l i k e I should do something but I don't get up enough nerve to say anything." 56 Material Desires (3%) Material Desires accounted for 3% of the t o t a l subject responses. Money "Lack of money - I need more." "When I have to pay someone back money but I don't have i t anymore." Sexuality (3%) The f i n a l coding class was Sexuality which also accounted for 3% of the to t a l subject responses. Becoming Sexually Active "Boyfriend/Sex I am a f r a i d that they may pressure me into doing something I don't want." "Friends t a l k i n g about sex - My boyfriend! He asks me i f I am ever going on the p i l l and s t u f f . He always talks about doing i t with my friends. This makes me fee l l i k e I have to prove my love to him or something." Sexually Transmitted Diseases "The f i r s t time. - I am a f r a i d that the f i r s t time that I ever have sex ( i f I ever do) that I w i l l contract a disease." A n c i l l a r y Data The following data i s provided as additional information for the reader. A l l tables in th i s section represent comparative frequency reported in percent. Data 57 is presented using o r i g i n a l coding classes (Appendix F) and of f e r s a comparison of the three demographic variables (Age, Sex, Group) across the three questionnaire pages (Problem #1, Problem #2, Problem #3) and three dependent variables (Id e n t i f i e d Problem, Choice of Helper, Preferred Qualities of the Helper). The author recognizes that the A n c i l l a r y Tables reveal interesting insights into the sample group. The following additional information i s worth noting. In Table 13 Schooling issues are consistently rated higher for males than females whereas Family issues are rated higher by females. In Table 14 one can observe the high drop off rate for the Adult subgroup across the three pages of the questionnaire. While only 16.8% of the Youth subgroup did not respond to the t h i r d question t h i s number was 50.9% for the Adults. In Table 15, one can observe how l i t t l e difference there was between the Native and Non-Native subgroups across the I d e n t i f i e d Problem variable. In Table 16, one can observe how Males tended to not complete the questionnaire (44.7% had no response for Problem 3). In Table 17, Adults demonstrate a similar pattern of a t t r i t i o n (59.3% had no response for Problem 3). In Table 18 a d i s t i n c t preference for Family as a helper can be observed for the Native respondents over the f i r s t two problems. In 58 Table 19, females are seen to prefer "Appealing Attributes" as a quality of a helper more strongly than their male counterparts. In Table 20 and Table 21, "Knowledgeable" and "Appealing Attributes" can be i d e n t i f i e d as c l e a r l y the most important Q u a l i t i e s of Helper for both Age and Native/Non-Native groupings. 5 9 Table 13 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Sex PROBLEM 1 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE . 5 2 1 . 16 . 83 A L T R U I S M 3 . 63 2 .94 3 . 3 1 COURTSH IP I DAT ING 2 . 07 3 . 53 2 . 7 5 EMOTIONS t F E E L I N G S S . 1 8 1 . 7 6 3 . 5 8 F A M I L Y I S S U E S 20 . 73 14 . 12 1 7 . 6 3 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 9 84 8 . 82 9 . 3 7 M A T E R I A L DES I RES t . 5 5 4 . 12 2 . 7 5 PERSONAL I DENT ITY 1 6 . 0 6 12 .94 1 4 . 6 0 EXTREME POVERTY 1 . 04 1 . 76 1 .38 SCHOOLING I S SUES 3 5 . 23 47 . 65 41 .05 S E L F F U L F I L L M E N T . 5 2 . 00 .28 S E X U A L I T Y 3 . 63 1 . 1 8 2 . 4 8 TOTAL N 100 . 0 0 193 1 0 0 . 0 0 170 1 0 0 . 0 0 363 PROBLEM 1 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 9 84 17 . 6 5 13 50 ALTRU I SM 1 55 1 76 1 65 COURTSH IP t DAT ING 6 22 2 .94 4 68 EMOTIONS 1 F E E L I N G S 3 . 1 1 1 . 7 6 2 .48 FAM I LY I S SUES 20 .21 14 . 12 17 . 36 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 12 . 9 5 14 .71 13 .77 MATER IAL DES I RES 2 . 59 2 .94 2 . 75 PERSONAL IDENT ITY 1 9 . 69 1 9 . 4 1 1 9 . 56 EXTREME POVERTY . 52 . 5 9 . 55 SCHOOLING I S SUES 20 .21 22 .94 21 . 49 S E X U A L I T Y 3 . 1 1 1 . 1 8 2 .20 TOTAL 100 . 0 0 100 . 0 0 100 .00 N 193 170 363 PROBLEM 3 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 2 1 .24 33 . 53 27 . 0 0 ALTRU I SM 2 . 59 4 .71 3 .58 C O U R T S H I P t DATING 3 . 1 1 3 .53 3 . 3 1 EMOTIONS I F E E L I N G S 4 . 66 1 . 76 3 . 3 1 F A M I L Y I S SUES 1 2 .44 7 . 06 9 .92 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 14 . 5 1 14 . 12 1 4 . 3 3 M A T E R I A L D E S I R E S 2 .07 . 59 1 . 38 PERSONAL I DENT ITY 1 7 . 10 1 1 . 76 I 4 60 EXTREME POVERTY .00 . 59 28 SCHOOL ING I S SUES 1 8 .13 2 0 . 5 9 1 9 . 28 S E X U A L I T Y 4 . 1 5 1 . 76 3 . 03 TOTAL 100 .00 100 . 00 100 . 0 0 N 193 170 363 60 Table 14 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Age PROBLEM I PROBLEM 7 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 2 . 7 8 .00 . 83 A L T R U I S M 2 . 7 8 3 .53 3 .31 COURTSH IP I DAT ING . 9 3 3 .53 2 . 75 EMOTIONS (r F E E L I N G S 2 . 7 8 3 .92 3 .58 F A M I L Y I S SUES 1 1 . 1 t 20 . 39 1 7 .63 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 2 . 7 8 12 . 1 6 9 .37 M A T E R I A L D E S I R E S e . 3 3 . 39 2 . 75 PERSONAL I D E N T I T Y 13 . 8 9 1 4 .90 1 4 .60 EXTREME POVERTY . 0 0 1 .96 1 .36 SCHOOLING I S SUES 52 . 7 8 36 .08 4 1 . 05 S E L F F U L F I L L M E N T . 0 0 .39 .28 S E X U A L I T Y 1 . 8 5 2 .75 2 .48 TOTAL 100 . 0 0 100 . 0 0 100 . 0 0 N 108 255 363 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 26 85 7 84 13 50 A L T R U I S M 2 78 1 1 8 1 65 COURTSHIP I DAT ING 10 1 9 2 35 4 68 EMOTIONS I F E E L I N G S 2 78 2 35 2 48 FAM ILY I S SUES 1 1 1 1 20 00 1 7 36 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 9 26 15 69 1 3 77 MATER IAL D E S I R E S 5 56 1 .57 2 75 PERSONAL I DENT ITY . IB .52 20 . 00 1 9 .56 EXTREME POVERTY . 00 .78 . 5 5 SCHOOLING I S SUES 1 2 . 96 25 . 10 21 . 4 9 S E X U A L I T Y . 0 0 3 . 1 4 2 . 2 0 TOTAL 100 . 00 100 . 00 100 . 00 N 108 255 363 PROBLEM 3 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 50 . 93 16 .86 2 7 . 0 0 ALTRU I SM 3 . 70 3 .53 3 . 5 8 COURTSH IP t DATING 4 . 63 2 75 3 . 3 1 EMOTIONS (, F E E L I N G S 7 .41 1 57 3 . 3 1 F A M I L Y I S SUES 7 . 4 1 1 0 98 9 . 9 2 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 5 . 56 1 8 04 1 4 . 3 3 MATER IAL DES IRES 93 1 57 1 . 38 PERSONAL IDENT ITY 13 89 1 4 90 1 4 . 6 0 EXTREME POVERTY 00 39 .28 SCHOOLING I S SUES 4 63 25 49 1 9 . 2 8 S E X U A L I T Y 93 3 92 3 . 03 TOTAL 100 00 100 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 N 108 255 363 61 Table 15 - I d e n t i f i e d Problem by Group PROBLEM I NAT IVE NON-NAT IVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 2 1 5 .37 . 83 A L T R U I S M 1 08 4 .07 3.31 COURTSH IP I DAT ING 3 23 2 . 59 2 . 7 5 EMOTIONS t F E E L I N G S 2 15 4 .07 3 . 5 8 F A M I L Y I S SUES 20 43 1 6 .67 1 7 . 6 3 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 7 53 10 .00 9 . 3 7 M A T E R I A L D E S I R E S 4 30 2 .22 2 . 7 5 PERSONAL I DENT ITY 6 60 16 .67 1 4 . 6 0 EXTREME POVERTY 3 23 .74 1 .38 SCHOOLING I S SUES 45 1 6 39 .63 41 . 05 S E L F F U L F I L L M E N T 1 08 .00 . 28 S E X U A L I T Y 1 08 2 .96 2 . 4 8 TOTAL 100 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 N 93 270 363 PROBLEM 2 N A T I V E NON -NAT IVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 23 66 10 . 00 1 3 . 5 0 A L T R U I S M 1 08 1 . 8 5 1 . 65 COURTSH IP I DAT ING 4 30 4 . 8 1 4 . 6 8 EMOTIONS ( F E E L I N G S 1 08 2 . 96 2 . 4 8 F A M I L Y I S SUES 16 1 3 1 7 . 78 1 7 . 3 6 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S S U E S 1 1 83 14 .44 1 3 . 7 7 M A T E R I A L D E S I R E S 4 30 2 .22 2 . 7 5 PERSONAL I D E N T I T Y 12 90 21 . 85 1 9 . 5 6 EXTREME POVERTY 2 1 5 . 00 . 55 SCHOOLING I S S U E S 1 8 28 22 . 59 2 1 . 4 9 S E X U A L I T Y 4 . 30 1 .48 2 . 2 0 TOTAL N 100 . 0 0 93 100 . 00 270 1 0 0 . 0 0 363 PROBLEM 3 N A T I V E NON-NAT IVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 39 . 78 22 . 5 9 2 7 . 0 0 ALTRU I SM 2 . 15 4 .07 3 . 5 8 COURTSHIP t DATING 3 23 3 33 3.31 EMOTIONS i F E E L I N G S 2 15 3 70 3 .3 1 FAM ILY I S SUES 5 38 1 1 48 9 . 9 2 S O C I A L I Z A T I O N I S SUES 7 53 16 67 1 4 . 3 3 MATER IAL DES IRES 2 1 5 1 1 1 1 . 38 PERSONAL IDENT ITY 17 20 13 70 1 4 . 6 0 EXTREME POVERTY 00 37 .28 SCHOOLING I S SUES 18 28 1 9 63 1 9 . 2 8 S E X U A L I T Y 2 . 15 3 33 3 . 0 3 TOTAL N 100 . 00 93 1 0 0 . 0 0 270 1 0 0 . 0 0 363 Table 16 - P r e f e r r e d Helper by Sex PROBLEM 1 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 3.63 8.82 6.06 ANIMATE CREATURES .52 .59 .55 FAMILY 52.33 41 .76 47.38 NON-FAMILY 42.49 48.82 45.45 SUPERNATURAL 1 .04 .00 .55 TOTAL N 100.00 193 100.00 170 100.00 363 ROBLEM 2 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 14.51 28.82 21.21 ANIMATE CREATURES 1 .04 .00 .55 FAMILY 45.08 32.94 39.39 NON-FAMILY 38.86 38.24 38.57 SUPERNATURAL .52 .00 .28 TOTAL N 100.00 193 100.00 170 100.00 363 PROBLEM 3 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 27.98 44.71 35.81 ANIMATE CREATURES .52 .59 .55 FAMILY 34.20 28.24 31.40 NON-FAMILY •37.31 25.88 31 .96 SUPERNATURAL .00 .59 .28 TOTAL N 100.00 193 100.00 170 100.00 363 Table 17 - P r e f e r r e d Helper by Age PROBLEM 1 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 10.19 4.31 6.06 ANIMATE CREATURES .93 .39 .55 FAMILY 33.33 53.33 47.38 NON-FAMILY 55.56 41.18 45.45 SUPERNATURAL .00 .78 .55 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 255 100.00 363 ROBLEM 2 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 33.33 1 6.08 21.21 ANIMATE CREATURES .00 .78 .55 FAMILY 26.85 44.71 39.39 NON-FAMILY 39.81 38.04 38.57 SUPERNATURAL .00 .39 .28 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 255 100.00 363 PROBLEM 3 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 59.26 25.88 35.81 ANIMATE CREATURES .93 .39 .55 FAMILY 11.11 40.00 31 .40 NON-FAMILY 27.78 33.73 31 .96 SUPERNATURAL .93 .00 .28 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 255 100.00 363 Table 18 - P r e f e r r e d Helper by Group PROBLEM 1 NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 7.53 5.56 6.06 ANIMATE CREATURES .00 .74 .55 FAMILY 51.61 45.93 47.38 NON-FAMILY 39.78 47.41 45.45 SUPERNATURAL 1 .08 .37 .55 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 270 100.00 363 ROBLEM 2 NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 30. 1 1 18.15 21.21 ANIMATE CREATURES 1 .08 .37 .55 FAMILY 41 .94 38.52 39.39 NON-FAMILY 26.88 42.59 38.57 SUPERNATURAL .00 .37 .28 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 270 100.00 363 PROBLEM 3 NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 47.31 31 .85 35.81 ANIMATE CREATURES .00 .74 .55 FAMILY 24.73 33.70 31.40 NON-FAMILY 27.96 33.33 31 .96 SUPERNATURAL .00 .37 .28 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 270 100.00 363 Table 19 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper By Sex PROBLEM J FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 5.70 16.47 10.74 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 48. 19 33.53 41 .32 AVAILABILITY 1 .55 1.18 1 .38 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 20.21 1 5.88 18.18 KNOWLEDGEABLE 22.80 25.88 24.24 POWERFUL 1 .55 7.06 4.13 TOTAL N 100.00 193 100.00 170 100.00 363 PROBLEM 2 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 19.17 35.29 26.72 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 27.98 24.71 26.45 AVAILABILITY .00 .59 .28 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 18.65 10.59 14.68 KNOWLEDGEABLE 29.53 20.59 25.34 POWERFUL 4.66 8.24 6.34 TOTAL N 100.00 193 100.00 170 100.00 363 PROBLEM 3 FEMALE MALE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 32. 12 47.06 39. 12 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 29.53 14.12 22.31 AVAILABILITY .52 .59 .55 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 9.33 8.82 9.09 KNOWLEDGEABLE 21 .76 22.94 22.31 POWERFUL 6.74 6.47 6.61 TOTAL N 100.00 193 100.00 170 100.00 363 Table 20 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper By Age PROBLEM 1 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 12.04 10.20 10.74 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 38.89 42.35 41 .32 AVAILABILITY .00 1 .96 1 .38 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 18.52 18.04 18.18 KNOWLEDGEABLE 27.78 22.75 24.24 POWERFUL 2.78 4.71 4.13 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 255 100.00 363 PROBLEM 2 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 37.96 21 .96 26.72 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 20.37 29.02 26.45 AVAILABILITY .00 .39 .28 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 11.11 16.47 14.88 KNOWLEDGEABLE 25.93 25.10 25.34 POWERFUL 4.63 7.06 6.34 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 255 100.00 363 PROBLEM 3 ADULT YOUTH TOTAL NO RESPONSE 60. 19 30.20 39. 12 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 16.67 24.71 22.31 AVAILABILITY .93 .39 .55 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 5.56 10.59 9.09 KNOWLEDGEABLE 14.81 25.49 22.31 POWERFUL 1 .85 8.63 6.61 TOTAL N 100.00 108 100.00 255 100.00 363 Table 21 - Q u a l i t i e s Of Helper By Group PROBLEM 1 NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 9.68 11.11 10.74 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 44.09 40.37 41 .32 AVAILABILITY 3.23 .74 1 . 38 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 15.05 19.26 18.18 KNOWLEDGEABLE 23.66 24.44 24.24 POWERFUL 4.30 4.07 4.13 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 270 100.00 363 PROBLEM 2 NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 37.63 22.96 26.72 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 26.88 26.30 26.45 AVAILABILITY .00 .37 .28 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 5.38 18.15 14.88 KNOWLEDGEABLE 21.51 26.67 25. 34 POWERFUL 8.60 5.56 6. 34 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 270 100.00 363 PROBLEM 3 NATIVE NON-NATIVE TOTAL NO RESPONSE 50.54 35. 19 39. 1 2 APPEALING ATTRIBUTES 15.05 24.81 22.31 AVAILABILITY 2.15 .00 .55 CONCERN FOR OTHERS 5.38 10.37 9.09 KNOWLEDGEABLE 22.58 22.22 22.31 POWERFUL 4.30 7.41 6.61 TOTAL N 100.00 93 100.00 270 100.00 363 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION In t h i s chapter the author presents, (1) an interpretation of the results of thi s study, (2) li m i t a t i o n s of t h i s research, (3) implications for future research in this area, and (4) implications for counsellors. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS There was not a s t a t i s t i c a l Native/Non-Native difference for the Id e n t i f i e d Problem variable. By collapsing the classes in the taxonomy, th i s study uses a very coarse screen upon which to base comparison of the Ide n t i f i e d Problem. Subtle d i s t i n c t i o n s may have been lost to t h i s process. Data presented in Table 15 however, demonstrates a strong s i m i l a r i t y between the Native and Non-Native group across a l l classes in the Ide n t i f i e d Problem variable. For the most part, both groups had the greatest frequency of problems ori g i n a t i n g from "Schooling". This result demonstrates very l i t t l e difference between the types of issues that Native and Non-Native youth ident i f y as problematic. One could speculate that these two groups share similar problems and concerns. There i s no existing 68 69 l i t e r a t u r e to support or refute t h i s contention, so i t i s l e f t unchallenged at this point in time. When Age subgroups were compared within the " I d e n t i f i e d Problem" variable, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l difference in the Adult and Youth age groups for Problem 2 and Problem 3. In both of these cases most Adults responded with problems in the "Self" category while most Youth responded with problems in the "Society" category. One would expect that more-school problems would occur with a population that i s in school. This difference can therefore be explained by the prevalence of school related issues demonstrated throughout the results of the Youth subgroup. An possible explanation also exists within the context of adolescent psychology. According to Erikson "the normal adolescent w i l l turn away from parents and toward peers or other adults in order to develop his personal and unique sense of i d e n t i t y " (Erikson, 1968, p. 30). This theoretical position was supported by these findings in that a greater number of adolescents i d e n t i f i e d problems within the context of their s o c i e t a l group. Studies designed to measure preferred choice of helper (Blue, 1977; Westwood, 1982) have found s i g n i f i c a n t differences between mainstream and minority preferences. Minority c l i e n t s in these studies tended to seek help from 70 within the family structure. Based upon these findings, in the current study one would expect to see a greater percentage of "Family" selected for the "Choice of Helper" variable with the Native than with the Non-Native respondents. In fact, t h i s was the case. Native subjects rated "Family" most often across a l l three Problems with a s i g n i f i c a n t comparative difference (p<.05) demonstrated in Problem 2. Non-Native respondents also favoured "Family", but in each case there was a smaller percentage than demonstrated by the Native subjects. Studies designed to measure desired helper q u a l i t i e s (Cherbosque, 1987; Tan, 1967; Smith, 1974; Ka-Wai & Tinsley, 1981) have demonstrated differences between the preferred helper q u a l i t i e s of the minority c l i e n t and her/his mainstream counterpart. Based upon these studies, one would expect to find the Native subjects to value d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s in a counsellor than Non-Natives. This was consistent with the test r e s u l t s . "Appealing Attributes" was valued most across a l l three problems by Non-Natives. For Problem 2 and Problem 3 "Knowledge" was valued most by Native subjects representing a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p<.05) in Problem 3 from the Non-Native group. This finding supports Sue's juxtaposition of Anglo and Native values where he contends, "Honor your elders - they have 71 wisdom" to be a Native value as opposed to the Anglo view that, "The future l i e s with the youth" (Sue, 1977, p. 225). While the data does support some difference i t i s the opinion of t h i s researcher that both groups of adolescents (Native & Non-Native) seek help f i r s t from someone that they t r u s t . The way that trust is earned may be the true root of any c u l t u r a l variables that do ex i s t . This can be understood in terms of Torrey's second p r i n c i p l e of successful counselling or helping in any culture. Namely, "the personal q u a l i t i e s of the counselor are extremely important" (Torrey, 1972, p. 79). LIMITATIONS The "Qualities of Helper" variable and the "Choice of Helper" variable were considered irrespective of the "Id e n t i f i e d Problem" variable. It i s clear that i f the a subject i d e n t i f i e s " f a i l i n g math" as a problem, his/her choice of helper and the q u a l i t i e s of the helper w i l l be very d i f f e r e n t than i f the problem is something of a deeply personal nature. The way that the data i s analyzed in t h i s study i s based upon the assumption that the helpers and the q u a l i t i e s of the helpers w i l l be the same regardless of the problem. Clearly this w i l l not always be the case. Perhaps comparative analysis should only be carr i e d out on problems 72 of a similar nature. For example, i f one was to look only at students who were experiencing problems around the area of courtship and dating, i t would be interesting and relevant to compare the selected helper and q u a l i t i e s of the helper across cultures. For the current study t h i s i s not possible as the numbers of subjects within each category are not large enough to allow for a s t a t i s t i c a l comparison. The sample group of 18-20 year old respondents was not representative of the t o t a l Prince Rupert population. Subjects were selected based upon a v a i l a b i l i t y and willingness to parti c i p a t e in the study. This w i l l negatively effect the a b i l i t y to generalize of the results for t h i s age group. As with many studies involving Native subjects, t h i s study i s limited by a r e l a t i v e l y small number of Native respondents. The adolescent group (age 13-15) completed questionnaire in a school setting. This may have skewed the results of the "Choice of Problem" variable towards selection of school related problems or concerns. This was the most frequent response across a l l demographic groups. The questionnaire requires subjects to respond verbally either in writing or o r a l l y . It i s the author's experience that many northern subjects tend to have d i f f i c u l t y with 73 verbal expression. Psychoeducational assessments at Booth school u t i l i z i n g the WISC-R often characterize students with a High Performance, Low Verbal p r o f i l e . If t h i s observation is correct, t h i s research may be limited by the subject's i n a b i l i t y to adequately a r t i c u l a t e his/her problem or concern. Further to t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s the fact that the physical length of the questionnaire favoured subjects who were able to speak or write e a s i l y . A number of subjects did not respond to Problem 2 and Problem 3. This study has strong a b i l i t y to generalize within the Prince Rupert area. The degree to which the results presented here can be generalized to other regions is at present unknown. The fact that this study only deals with one geographical area stands as a l i m i t a t i o n . IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The most interesting future research to which th i s study w i l l contribute i s the international study involving 19 countries around the world. The real significance of the data presented here w i l l not be known u n t i l global cross-c u l t u r a l comparisons take place. Webster (1978), Snyder, H i l l & Derkson (1972) and Johnson (1972) have a l l conducted studies to determine how the Choice of Problem af f e c t s the selection and q u a l i t i e s of 74 helper. The results presented here could be re-examined to determine the degree to which they match the results of t h i s research. Many studies (Atkinson, Maruyama & Matsui, 1978; Dauphinais, Dauphinais, & Rowe, 1981; Exum & Lau, 1988; Fukuhara, 1973; Tan, 1967) have been car r i e d out to determine i f members from various cultures prefer d i r e c t i v e or non-directive counselling approaches. In order to make comparisons with this study, one would need to examine the s p e c i f i c coding categories to determine the amount of d i r e c t i o n the subjects expect or want from counsellors. A l l subjects who indicated that "knowledgeable" i s the most desirable quality for a counsellor may not necessarily have been seeking a d i r e c t i v e approach. Each subject response would need to be re-examined against t h i s construct (Directive/Non-Directive). This study would be well supplemented with research on the same population with a q u a l i t a t i v e design. If one i s concerned about the non-verbal nature of the sample, these concerns could be a l l e v i a t e d by examining c l o s e l y a small number of representatives from the sample in ongoing counselling or interview sessions. This research would necessarily involve a much smaller number of subjects and be car r i e d out over a longer period of time. Many of the 75 c u l t u r a l subtleties would be better understood with a study of t h i s methodological design. IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLORS The results for t h i s study present new data to support the contention that c u l t u r a l awareness i s v i t a l i f counsellors are to est a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e working relationships with minority c l i e n t s . Though the i d e n t i f i e d problem was very similar between the Native and Non-Native groups, the methods of coping with problems did show a discrepancy. Counsellors working in the Prince Rupert area would be well advised to involve the family structure of Native c l i e n t s . Also, Native c l i e n t s may be looking to a helper for knowledge. The second way that this study w i l l benefit p r a c t i s i n g counsellors i s to provide a global comparative picture of c l i e n t expectancies and concerns around the world. Communication i s an underpinning of any e f f e c t i v e counselling encounter. A counsellor possessing insight about the p a r t i c u l a r s of a c l i e n t ' s world view i s far more able to provide accurate empathic r e f l e c t i o n . This point can be i l l u s t r a t e d with a s p e c i f i c example. When a member of a Prince Rupert Native community dies, the grieving process i s shared by a l l members of the v i l l a g e , friends, 76 and family. It i s very common for large numbers of students to miss weeks of school to mourn a death. Clearly t h i s demonstrates the reason that a counsellor must know about, (1) the c l i e n t , (2) the c l i e n t ' s family, (3) the c l i e n t ' s community, (4) the c l i e n t ' s culture. A Rogerian counselling approach may or may not lead to counsellor insight about each of these factors. However, i f the c l i e n t does not have confidence in -the counsellor's c r e d i b i l i t y due to a discrepancy between the r e a l i t y of the helper and the expectations of the c l i e n t , then i t i s possible that the c l i e n t w i l l terminate contact before the process has had a chance to begin. For thi s example the counsellor's opening statement may be something l i k e , "I understand you have missed the past two weeks of school." The c l i e n t may fe e l his/her entire b e l i e f structure is being c a l l e d into question. The interview may be over before i t begins. There may be s i g n i f i c a n t c l i n i c a l applications to thi s questionnaire i t s e l f . In small group administrative sessions, subjects often were eager to share d e t a i l s about the i r responses with the person administering the questionnaire. The dire c t and straightforward layout make i t an excellent f a c i l i t a t o r for a counselling process. Further to t h i s , the results of this study w i l l be c l i n i c a l l y useful for counsellors at Booth Memorial School. 77 Data in the "Ancillary Tables" combined with the "Summary Description of Id e n t i f i e d Problems" provides an excellent snapshot of issues of concern to the students at Booth as well as student expectancies of the counsellor and counselling process. This study along with others c i t e d here demonstrate that measurable differences do occur between d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups. The challenge for counsellor education i s not only to encourage " f l e x i b i l i t y on the part of counsellors" (Darou, 1987, p. 39), but to underscore t h i s with a counselling model based upon comparative factual information of c l i e n t s across a l l cultures. This study w i l l a s s i s t counsellor educators in the development of t h i s process. More s p e c i f i c a l l y counsellors w i l l be trained in what Sue (1977) refers to as " c u l t u r a l l y s k i l l e d " counselling where the goals of counselling as well as the process of attaining these goals are consistent with the c l i e n t ' s experience, world view, and expectations. 78 REFERENCES Atkinson, D.R. (1983). Ethnic s i m i l a r i t y in counseling psychology: A review of research. Counseling Psychologists, 1(3), 79-92. Atkinson, D.R., Ponterotto, J.G. & Sanchez, A.R. (1984). Attitudes of Vietnamese and Anglo-american students toward counseling, Journal of College Student Personnel, 448-452. Atkinson, Maruyama & Matsui (1978). Effects of counselor race and counseling approach on Asian Americans' perception of counselor c r e d i b i l i t y and unity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, 76-83. Atkinson, D.R., Morton, G. & Sue, D.W. (eds.) (1983). Introduction, defining terms. In Counseling American Minorities, 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. 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International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 11, 115-125. Wiersma, W. (1986). Research methods in education: an introduction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. 85 Wilbe r , K. (1984). The developmental spectrum and psychopathology-Part I I : Treatment m o d a l i t i e s . Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 16, 137-166. Wrenn, I. (1962). The c u l t u r a l l y encapsulated c o u n s e l o r . Harvard Educational Review, 32, 444-449. Wrenn, C.G. (1985). .Afterward: The c u l t u r a l l y encapsulated counselor r e v i s i t e d . In P. Pedersen (Ed.), Handbook of Cross-cultural Counseling and Therapy (pp. 323-329). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Youngman, G. & Sadongei, M. (1974).. Counseling the american i n d i a n c h i l d . Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 273-277. 86 APPENDIX A - INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONDUCTING THE PILOT STUDY 1. P r i o r to s e l e c t i n g the v o l u n t e e r s f o r the p i l o t , ask two or three t e a c h e r s / i n s t r u c t o r s to eva l u a t e the survey i n terms of reading l e v e l and grammatical s t r u c t u r e . Ask them to determine i f the reading l e v e l i s a p p r o p r i a t e to that age group. Make minor r e v i s i o n s as necessary, and cross-check them by asking two other t e a c h e r s to v e r i f y the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the r e v i s i o n s . 2. S e l e c t 12 i n d i v i d u a l s ( h a l f males and h a l f females), p r e f e r a b l y s i x from the age group of 13-15 and s i x from a group of 18-20 year o l d s . ( i f you can't get the exact number, get as many as you can. Any i n f o r m a t i o n you o b t a i n w i l l h e l p u s ) . These i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l need to be s i m i l a r to the major sample group who are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of your mainstream p o p u l a t i o n . These 12 v o l u n t e e r s w i l l not be i n c l u d e d l a t e r i n the major sample group when the formal study i s completed. 3. Arrange a meeting with the 12 i n d i v i d u a l s i n one p l a c e and read aloud the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s . At the end of the reading ask the students f o r any r e a c t i o n s or co n f u s i o n experienced i n the he a r i n g of the i n s t r u c t i o n s . Note these and go on to the next s t e p . TO BE READ ALOUD TO THE STUDENTS: "We would l i k e to know what your opinions/views are on what are the main c o n c e r n s / p r e s s u r e s / d i f f i c u l t i e s which people of your age o f t e n experience, and what you t h i n k you would do to help reduce these c o n c e r n s / p r e s s u r e s / d i f f i c u l t i e s . You w i l l be asked to read the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and then to w r i t e down what you thin k about the q u e s t i o n s . When you are f i n i s h e d we w i l l c o l l e c t these and summarize the i n f o r m a t i o n so we can b e t t e r understand how to a s s i s t students l i k e y o u r s e l f i n the f u t u r e . You w i l l have about 20-30 minutes to do t h i s . Thank you f o r your h e l p i n l e t t i n g us know what you t h i n k . " 87 4. Give the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and ask the i n d i v i d u a l s to read through from the beginning to the end. When they have f i n i s h e d t h i s , check t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the reading l e v e l and t h e i r understanding of the key words such as " i s s u e s , " " p r e s s u r e s , " "concerns," " a s s i s t i n g , " " h e l p i n g , " e t c . Any a d d i t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s should be noted as w e l l by you. T h e i r r e a c t i o n s to these words w i l l h e l p us determine i f the main c o n s t r u c t s are w i l l understood. Note r e a c t i o n s and go on to the next step. 5. Have the students complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Record the time r e q u i r e d f o r completing i t by the m a j o r i t y of them. 6. Next you (the res e a r c h e r ) w i l l need to do a content a n a l y s i s of the data you have c o l l e c t e d to make sure that the students understood the intended meaning of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items ( i . e . , c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n ) . Did the p a r t i c i p a n t s understand the terms and d e f i n i t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? Did they f o l l o w the format of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? 7. F i n a l l y , based on your judgement of the data c o l l e c t e d , make any necessary changes to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and/or procedure that would permit i t to be e a s i l y and e f f e c t i v e l y a d ministered to the major sample group in the formal study which w i l l f o l l o w . 8. Since there are many f a c t o r s which are unique to your own p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g , i t w i l l be up to you to make the m o d i f i c a t i o n s which, i n your judgement, are best fo r your s o c i a l / c u l t u r e c o n t e x t . T h i s may sound l i k e a l o t of work, but u s u a l l y i t i s not. Rather i t i s a check on what you plan to do and permits you to make the necessary c o r r e c t i o n s to your instrument and procedure i n order to e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of your study. 9 Forward the r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e as soon as p o s s i b l e to me i n E n g l i s h . Please i n d i c a t e a l l the changes you have made on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and procedure. APPEND I A B — r i u u t ^wu.w* /?£>1D THESE DIRECTIONS BEFORE YOU BEGIN People all over the world encounter various concerns, pressures, and difficulties in their lives. They respond to such upsetting situations and feelings in many different ways. We are interested in studying (discovering) how people like you and your friends deal with these concerns, pressures, and difficulties. What follows is a series of questions on this topic. We would like you to answer these questions as honestly as possible. With your help we can learn more about how people feel, think, and act in such situations. Please listen to the teacher's/proctor's instructions carefully, ff you have any questions, please ask him/her. He/she will be happy to help you. This information will be completely anonymous. Each person's survey sheet will be number-coded, and your name will not be attached to it. Thank you very much for your help. BA CKCRO UND INFORM A TION I. Dote of birth: Date Month Year Female 3. Fother"s occupation: 4. Mother's occupation: 5. Highest education degree obtained (father) 6. Highest education degree obtained (mother) YES NO YES NO Concern/Pressure #1 1. What is a concern, pressure, or difficulty in your life? 2. Please describe it: 3. What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? If you would take no direct action, how would you respond? 4. If you were to discuss this with anyone, whom would you choose? What is your relationship with each person? (List up to three persons.) 5. What is it about each person (characteristics/qualities) that you think would be helpful? 6. What do you think each person would do or say to help you? 7. What would you NOT like each person to do or say? Concern/Pressure #2 1. What is another concern, pressure, or difficulty in your life? 2. Please describe it: 3. What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? If you would take no direct action, how would you respond? 4. If you were to discuss this with anyone, whom would you choose? What is your relationship with each person? (List up to three persons.) 5. What is it about each person (characteristics/qualities) that you think would be helpful? 6. What do you think each person would do or say to help you? 7. What would you NOT like each person to do or say? Concern/Pressure #3 1. What is a third concern, pressure, or difficulty in your life? 2. Please describe it: 3. What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? If you would take no direct action, how would you respond? 4. If you were to discuss this with anyone, whom would you choose? What is your relationship with each person? (List up to three persons.) 5. What Is it about each person (characteristics/qualities) that you think would be helpful? 6. What do you think each person would do or say to help you? 7. What would you NOT like each person to do or say? APPENDIX D - INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COLLECTION OF DATA Welcome to participation i n the IRTAC Energetic Research Team Project! The present study w i l l evaluate the problems and concerns of student-aged individuals i n a variety of countries throughout the world. Its purpose i s to increase understanding of the needs of clients i n a l l countries and to provide information necessary to develop better methods of t r a i n i n g counselors. We are asking you to select individuals for this study fron what you define as both advantaged and disadvantaged segments of your society, i f t h i s i s possible. We would l i k e to present preliminary results from a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g countries at a special daylong workshop at the next IRTAC consultation i n Dublin i n July. This w i l l require collection of data i n each country as soon as possible and development of a coding procedure that a l l of us can use so that we w i l l be discussing comparable data at the Consultation. We plan to place a l l collected data i n a centralized computer bank for further analysis, and w i l l make plans for that process at IRTAC. Following are directions for the f i r s t phases of the study, including preparation of the questionnaires for use i n each country, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of subject populations, and methods for administering the questionnaires or col l e c t i n g interview data when the questionnaire method i s not possible. Ceding procedures w i l l be developed for a l l participants. Please l e t us know ASAP i f you are collecting data and what populations you are able to use for the study. (Send to J . Gibson, School of education, 5T01 Forbes Quadrangle, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15260, USA.) We w i l l keep each team member informed as t o the progress of the study. A. Preparation of questionnaire: The attached questionnaire i s i n English. In order to prepare i t f o r use i n your country, you w i l l need to take the following steps: 1. Translate the questionnaire into your language. 2 . To insure that your translation i s accurate, have someone who speaks both English and the language used i n your country translate the questionnaire back from your language to English. 3. I f the backtranslated form d i f f e r s i n any way from the o r i g i n a l English version, make necessary corrections. I f you have already followed t h i s procedure for the p i l o t study, check back over your work and make a l l changes necessitated by the f i n a l corrections. B. Subjects for the study: Select 100 individuals of both sexes from the age groups of 13-15 and 18-20 years for each population you wish to study. I f at a l l possible, we want you to select 50% males and 50% females. fi-nds would mean that, i f possible, you select the following groups for study: 100 advantaged young adolescent males 100 advantaged young adolescent females 100 disadvantaged college-age males 100 disadvantaged college-age females I f a l l of these populations are not available to you or i f you cannot study the number l i s t e d , select those you can. I f any of the populations you select i s i l l i t e r a t e or, for other reasons, they cannot respond i n writing, you may follow a separate set of directions for i l l i t e r a t e subjects. [We w i l l ask you for YOUR definition of "advantaged" or "disadvantaged" i n your country. We w i l l also use background information provided by subjects to compare individuals i n each category across countries.] C. Method: 1. For l i t e r a t e subjects: a. Arrange to meet your subjects i n groups and read aloud the following directions: We would l i k e to know your opinions on what are the main  problems which irdividuals your age often experience and what  you think you and others might do to help reduce these problems.  Read the directions on the f i r s t page of the questionnaire and  then write down what vou think about the questions. When you are finished we w i l l collect these and summarize the  information. We want vou to answer a l l questions honestly. We  do not want vou to put your names on your papers. We hope that  the answers w i l l help us find ways to help irriividuals l i k e you  i n the future. You w i l l have about 30 minutes to do t h i s .  Thank vou for your help in letting us knew what you think. b. Distribute the questionnaire and ask the individuals to read through from beginning to end. Before they begin, ask them i f they have any questions. When you have answered a l l questions, t e l l them to begin. I f you want to give them an example to help them understand, give i t at t h i s time. (The p i l o t study suggests that you can expect younger adolescents to need about 30 minutes and older subjects to need about 20 minutes.) c. I f subjects had comments or questions that you think might be important to the study/ record them. Also record the following information: 1) The definition you used to define the groups you characterized as "advantaged" or "disadvantaged" i n you country. 2) The group(s) i n your country that you studied. 2) The group(s) i n your country that you studied. 3) The number of individuals i n each of your group(s). (We expect that, i f data i s gathered o r a l l y from individuals, t h i s number may be smaller than i f i t i s collected i n groups. Please t r y to conduct as many interviews a possible.) 4) The average length of time of your interviews. 5) Whether counseling services are currently available to the individuals being questioned (If yes, describe.) 6) Any other information corx^rning the population you studied that you think might be relevant to t h i s study. 7) Procedures that you used that d i f f e r i n any way from the directions. D. CODING AND DATA ANALYSIS Once the data are a l l collected, they w i l l need to be coded i n a manner cxsiparable from country to country. PLEASE LET JAN GIBSON KNOW AS SCON AS POSSIBLE IF YOU ARE COLLECTING DATA AS PART OF THE STUDY. WE WILL SEND YOU CODING DIRECTIONS JUST AS SCON AS THEY ARE DEVELOPED. APPBCIX E - rCASURB^fT INBTRLM3vfT SURVEY OF STUDENT CONCERNS Name Address Telephone Number Please l i s t the schools that you have attended: SCHOOLS LOCATION u Note: This survey is being conducted by D. Paterson (Counsellor, Booth School) The results will be used for planning at Booth School as well as for a UBC study. You may refuse to participate in the UBC study at any time. By completing the survey i t is assumed that consent has been given. READ THESE DIRECTIONS BEFORE YOU BEGIN People all over the world encounter various problems; things in their lives that concern them. They respond to problems or worries in many different ways. We are interested in studying (discovering) how people like you and your friends deal with these concerns, pressures, and difficulties. What follows is a series of questions which ask you to identify three separate problems in your life and then indicate for each one how you would cope with it. The three problems and methods of dealing with them will be sought, one on each page of the questionnaire. We would like you to answer these questions as honestly as possible. Please describe whatever you perceive as a problem to you; that is, anything that makes you worry or feel uncomfortable. With your help we can learn more about how people feel, think, and act in such situations. Please listen to the teacher's/proctor's instructions carefully. If you have any questions, please ask him/her. He/she will be happy to help you. This information will be completely anonymous. Each person's survey sheet will be number-coded, and your name will not be attached to it. Thank you very much for your help. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1. Date of birth: Date Month Year Male Female 3. Please describe your father's occupation: 4 . Please describe mother's occupation: 5. Highest level of education obtained (father): 6. Highest level of education obtained (mother): 7. Was your father born in this country? YES NO YES NO Problem # 7 9. Name one problem that causes you to worry or to feel pressured. 10. Please describe this problem in more detail. 11. When you have this problem, what do you do about it? What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? 12. If you do not do anything to solve this problem, what do you do to make yourself feel better? 13. If you were to discuss this problem with anyone, whom would that person be? Please mention three persons you might like to discuss this problem with. 14. What qualities of these persons allow them to help you? 15. What would these persons say or do to help you? 16. Is there something you would not want them to say or do when you tell them about your problem? Problem #2 17. Name another problem that causes you to worry or to feel pressured. 18. Please describe this problem in more detail. 19. When you have this problem, what do you do about it? What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? 20. If you do not do anything to solve this problem, what do you do to make yourself feel better? 21. If you were to discuss this problem with anyone, whom would that person be? Please mention three persons you might like to discuss this problem with. 22. What qualities of these persons allow them to help you? 23. What would these persons say or do to help you? 24. Is there something you would not want them to say or do when you tell them about your problem? Problem #3 25. Name a third problem that causes you to worry or to feel pressured. 26. Please describe this problem in more detail. 27. When you have this problem, what do you do about it? What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? 28. If you do not do anything to solve this problem, what do you do to make yourself feel better? 29. If you were to discuss this problem with anyone, whom would that person be? Please mention three persons you might like to discuss this problem with. 30. What qualities of these persons allow them to help you? 31. What would these persons say or do to help you? 32. Is there something you would not want them to say or do when you tell them about your problem? Problem #3 25. Name a third problem that causes you to worry or to feel pressured. 26. Please describe this problem in more detail. 27. When you have this problem, what do you do about it? What are the things you would do in order to deal with this concern, pressure, or difficulty? 28. If you do not do anything to solve this problem, what do you do to make yourself feel better? 29. If you were to discuss this problem with anyone, whom would that person be? Please mention three persons you might like to discuss this problem with. 30. What qualities of these persons allow them to help you? 31. What would these persons say or do to help you? 32. Is there something you would not want them to say or do when you tell them about your problem? 102 APPENDIX F - SCORING CRITERIA Coding Instructions for Scale 1 - Human Problems RELATED QUESTIONS This scale relates to questions 9,10,17,18,25, and 26 on the research instrument DIRECTIONS FOR USING SCALE 1 1. Read the answers to question 9 (Problem 1) given by the subject whose responses you are coding. Identify only one human problem in the response. If the subject describes more than one human problem, select the first one that is listed. If there is not enough information provided in the response to Question 9, look for additional information in the response to Question 10. 2. Refer to the list of classes in the left hand column below. Read through the list carefully. Select the class that best describes the human problem mentioned in the subject's response. Code numbers for the categories within each class are listed in the right hand column. Turn to the coding scale. Find the code numbers for the class you have selected. Read through all of the categories listed within that class. Choose the single best possible category in which to place the human problem mentioned by the subject Code only one human problem. 3. Write the appropriate code number for the category you have chosen in the space provided on your coding sheet 4. When you are finished, go to Scale 2 to code the response to Question 11. (You will return to Scale 1 later to code Questions 17 and 18 of Problem 2 and Questions 25 and 26 of Problem 3.) 5. Turn to Scale 2. CLASS DEFINITION CATEGORY NUMBERS EXTREME POVERTY Lack of ability to meet basic physical or psychological needs 001 -003 WAR. . 004 - 007 CATASTROPHF Problems related to Ihe impact of catastrophe on the subject's life. 008 •013 MATERIAL DESIRES Unsatisfied desires for other than basic needs 014 -031 FAMILY ISSUES Problems associated with families or relationships within families 032 - 043 SCHOOLING ISSUES Problems related to school, academic learning, social leaning, and socialization within a school setting 044 - 054 PERSONAL IDENTITY AND SELF CONCEPT. Problems related to human development or perceptions of self.. 055 - 063 SEXUALITY Problems related to sexual activity _.. . 064 - 070 COURTSHIP AND DATING Problems related to courtship, dating and selection of marriage partner 071 -077 INTERPERSONAL AND SOCIALIZATION ISSUES Immediate concerns associated with working and also with interacting with otheis on a day-to-day basis _ _ 078 -086 EMOTIONS AND FEELINGS Problems described primarily as emotional rather than in terms of specific life events - 087 -095 SELF FULFILMENT Desire to understand life and play a meaningful role in lile 096 - 102 ALTRUISM Concerns regarding humanity and society 103 • 104 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 1 • Human Problems Scale 1 - Human Problems CLASS CATEGORY CODE NO. DEFINITION EXAMPLES EXTREME POVERTY Unmet basic physical needs 001 Inability to adequately satisfy basic needs due to conditions of poverty. • Food/starvation • Water/dehydration • Shelter/homelessness • Health care/disease • Overcrowded living conditions Unmet basic psychological needs 002 Poverty related anxiety; loss of persons important to subject. • Loss of family (street children) • Loss of self esteem • Loss of face/honor • Feeling of being a burden Other 003 WAR (impact on subject's own life) Physical harm 004 War-related physical harm, injury or torture that has already occurred to self, family, or friends. • Injury • Torture • Disability Fear of war 005 War-related fear for physical safety of self, family or friends. • Fear of going into the army • Fear of battle • Fear of injury/death •Fear of damage to home Loss 006 War-related loss of family, friends, loved ones. • Death of parents • Death of children • Death of friends or relations Other 007 CATASTRO-PHE Sudden disaster causing event (apart from war) 008 Natural disaster or accident that has already occurred. Also, loss or death that has resulted from such an event • Car crash • Plane crash • Rood • Earthquake • Financial loss •Death Fear of catastrophe 009 Catastrophe-related fear of death or lack of physical safety of self, family or friends. Other 010 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 1 • Human Problems MATERIAL DESIRES Money 011 Concerns about currency that will allow for the satisfaction of the subject's secondary needs, the continuation of education, or the improvement of standard of living. Also, frustration over lack of currency or fear/anxiety over having spent another person's money or money for the wrong purpose. • Saving money • Spending money • Cost of living • Tuition for education • Money lor small or large luxuries Tangible items 012 Subject's desire for material goods that are not required to satisfy a basic need. • Transportation •Land • New car • New clothing Other 013 FAMILY ISSUES Marriage 014 Concerns central to the mutual and currently existing relationship between husband and wife. • Expectations of spouse • Infidelity Divorce/ separation/ melded family 015 Concerns which derive from the divorce or separation of the subject or the subject's parents, that has already taken place. Also, concerns which arise when two families are joined through marriage or living arrangements. • Choosing the parent with whom to ive • Custody of children • Missing the absent parent • Authority issues • Loyalty difficulties • Sharing residence Inter-generational disagreement (subject involved) 016 Subject's disagreement with parents or older generation. Domestic quarreling 017 Verbal abuse or angry verbal exchanges between subject's family members. Also, lack of communication. • Yelling and screaming • Extended silences • Misunderstandings Domestic violence 018 Physical abuse or attacks upon one or more family members by another person within the subject's family. • Hitting, punching, slapping, etc. • Assault with a weapon Sexual abuse within the family 019 Inappropriate sexual advances or sexual relations within the subjects family. • Rape • Incest • Sexual molestation Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures I 05' Scale 1 • Human Problems Family status or honor 020 Problems related to ways in which the subject's family is perceived within the larger community; also, behavioral concerns related to maintaining the social status of one's family. • Disloyalty to family • Bringing disgrace to family • Being ashamed of one's family • Being embarrassed about one's family Psychological estrangement from family member(s) 021 Inaccessibility of family members who are busy or working. • Having no time for a family member in need • Being alone after school Lack of privacy 022 Inadequate personal space or time alone. • Sharing a room •Noise Parental strictness 023 Subject's frustration at what is perceived to be the inappropriate strictness of his or her parent's. (Does not relate to dating or courtship.) • Curfews • Rules and authority issues • Parent's disciplinary measures • Over protection Child rearing 024 Concerns related to parenting of the subject's children; also, the quality of the subject's relationship with his or her children. • Being a single parent • Discipline of one's children • Spending time with one's children Lack of love, feelings, or responsibility 025 Subject's feelings of being unloved or mistreated by family members; also, concern that a family member (usually a parent) is not fulfilling obligations. • Uncaring parent • Being picked on • Being the scapegoat • Being blamed unfairly Physical isolation from family 026 Anxieties arising from the subject living or moving a long distance from his or her family. • Homesickness Famiymove 027 Anxieties experienced when the subject is compelled to move with his or her family, leaving that which is familiar behind. • Missing one's friends, school, etc. • Adjusting to new surroundings Self-abuse among family members 028 Subject's concern for the self abusive or addictive behavior patterns of one or more family members. • Alcoholism of parents, siblings, etc. • Drug abuse among family members • Excessive gambling Welfare of family members 029 Subject's concern for a family member suffering from problems associated with physical, psychological, or mental disability or illness; also, concerns related to the normal aging of family members. • Where they will live • How they will be provided for • Who will care for them • Fear of their death Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Culture 10 Scale 1 • Human Problems Misconduct or problematic behavior of a family member 030 Misdemeanor or inappropriate/problematic behavior by a family member which causes worry, anxiety, or embarrassment for the subject. Also, behavior of a family member which results in his/her own problem. • Criminal or illegal activity of a family member • Embarrassing conduct of a family member Other 031 Academic achievement 032 Motivation lo succeed. Fear of not reaching high levels of academic success, and the implications for one's future. • Not receiving top honors • Not winning prizes • Not getting into best school Academic failure 033 Motivation to avoid failure. Fear of failure in an academic setting. • Repeating grades or courses • Not getting into desired school or university Time pressures 034 Not having adequate time to study, do homework, or prepare for exams. • Too much homework • Heavy activity load Mental disability 035 Inability to learn or concentrate in school. • Learning disability • Low l.Q. • Test anxiety/stress Language barrier 036 Difficulties related to subject matter being presented in an unfamiliar language. • Language acquisition • Course taught in a foreign language Subject's misconduct 037 Concerns or frustrations which stem from subject's anti-social or inappropriate behavior within the school setting. • Getting into trouble at school • Truancy • Delinquency Teacher related 039 Concerns or frustrations which stem from the subject's relationship with a teacher. • Teacher too strict • Teacher does not like subject • Personality conflict • Teacher is unreasonable • Teacher expects too much Social success/failure 040 Concerns related to the subject's popularity among schoolmates. Also, concerns related to the subject's inability or perceived inability to be socially effective within the school setting. • Lack of popularity • Social isolation by other student Extracurricular activities 041 Concerns related to organized non-academic activities within the school setting. • Athletics or sports • Pressure to win in a sport • Clubs • Fraternities or sororities SCHOOLING ISSUES Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 1 • Human Problems PERSONAL IDENTITY AND SELF CONCEPT School related abuse 042 Subject's fear of being or actually having been victimized by physical, sexual or verbal attacks within the school setting. • Being beaten up • Bullying by other students • Harassment by a teacher • Sexual abuse at school Other 043 Self confidence 044 Concerns related to confidence in ability of the self to interact successfully with others and to be perceived positively. • Introversion • Shyness • Feeling inferior • Feeling insecure • Self perceived personality deficits • Feeling misunderstood • Inability to communicate • Reputation Growing up (becoming an adult) 045 Concerns related to attainment of physical and social maturity and adult status. • Choice of career • Gender role • Educational choice • Becoming financially independent Aging (adulthood) 046 Concerns related to the process of aging throughout the adult years and the attendant loss of the subject's youth. • Age of marriage • Physical deterioration • Concern for mental acuity • Fear of being a burden to others Physical appearance 047 Concerns about how the subject is visually perceived by self or others. • Diet, exercise, or weight control • Eating related disorders • Blemishes on the lace or body • Eyeglasses, dental braces, or other corrective devices • Blushing Behavioral issues (non-school related) 048 Subject's concern lor his or her own anti-social behavior, personal misconduct, or bad habits; also, pressure on the subject to act or behave in an undesirable way. • Peer pressure • Delinquency • Getting into trouble • Inability to control temper, behavior, or hostilities • Procrastination • Disorganization • Being insincere or dishonest • Committing a crime or misdemeanor Individuality vs. conformity 049 Subject's struggle between being an independent thinker and conforming to familial or societal standards. Sometimes characterized by the individual's struggle between traditional and modern values. • Conforming to parent's wishes • Conforming to cultural mores Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 1 - Human Problems SEXUALITY Self expectations 050 Demand on the self. Sell criticism of one's behavior and motivation. • Pressure to succeed • Measuring up to one's own expectations • Measuring up to another's expectations • Failure to satisfy pressure to succeed Personal health 05 f Subject's concern about personal illness or threat to his or her perceived physical, mental, or psychological wellness. (Does not include sexually transmitted diseases.) • Menstruation Physical disability 052 Concerns related to subject's physical handicap. • Blindness • Deafness •Lameness • Infertility Self abuse 053 Self inflicted addiction or injury and difficulties associated with overcoming it. Also, peer pressure (to drink, smoke, or use drugs) which results in self abusive behavior. • Alcoholism • Drug addiction • Smoking • Overeating • Excessive gambling Other 054 Becoming sexually active 055 Subject's concerns associated with whether or not to engage in a sexual relationship (usually the first); also, anxieties arising from pressure to become sexually active, or not to become sexually active. Sexual knowledge 056 Concerns related to the subject's lack of information about sex or attempts to acquire information. • Sex education Sexual inhibition 057 Subject's fear of or shyness in sexual relationships. Sexual abuse (non-family and non-school) 058 Subject's concerns related to becoming a victim or perpetrator of sexual abuse; also, emotional consequences of subject having been victimized by a sexual offense. • Rape or sexual assault Sexual dissatisfaction/ dysfunction 059 Anxieties arising from subject's inability to have adequate sexual relationships. Human Problems and Methods o( Help Seeking Across Cultures I»1 Scale 1 • Human Problems Birth control 060 Concerns related to the prevention of pregnancy. • Learning about contraceptives or other methods to prevent pregnancy Pregnancy 061 Concern about self or other already having become pregnanL • Worries about becoming a parent • Abortion Sexually transmitted diseases 062 Subject's fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease; also fear of infecting another. • AIDS or other venereal diseases Other 063 COURTSHIP/ DATING Dating/marriage restrictions 064 Social or familial restrictions which limit subject's ability to freely choose a dating or marriage partner. • Conflict of values • Guilt Choice of marriage partner 065 Issues related to the subject's free selection of a spouse. • Whom to marry Unrequited feelings 066 Having romantic interest in another which is not mutual. Not dating 067 Not currently being in a relationship or (ear of never being in a relationship. Relationship pressures and fears 068 Pressure to be in a relationship or pressure to be more emotionally involved than is desired. Also, fear of being emotionally hurt. • Feeling of other person becoming a burden Separation 069 Being separated by physical distance from paramour/fiance. Other 070 INTER-PERSONAL AND SOCIALIZATION ISSUES (non-family and non-school related) Employment 071 Concerns related to present employment situation rather than choice of career. • Subject's job • Work place • Search for employment • Unemployment Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 1 • Human Problems Friendship 072 Concerns related to the making and keeping of friends; also, the quality of the relationship between friends. l • Number of friends • Lack of friends • Being excluded • Disagreement with friend(s) Role conflict 073 Role performance or expectations of the subject which are in conflict or mutually exclusive. Sharing of living space 074 Anxieties arising from cohabitation with a non-family member. • College dormitory Prejudice/ discrimination 075 Subject's sense of being regarded by others with suspicion, intolerance, or hatred because of his or her gender, race, religion, ethnicity, occupation, etc. • Racism •Chauvinism • Bigotry • Religious zealotry Time pressures 076 Subject's frustration over not having enough time to do all that which is desired for the self or expected by others. • Time management issues • Lack of time Other 077 Loneliness 078 Subject's unhappy psychological isolation from others; also, lack of love and affection in the subject's life. Generalized fear or anxiety 079 Subject's painful apprehension of some impending event or evil; also, chronic restlessness and agitation of the subject's mind resulting in a state of painful uneasiness. • Phobia • General anxiety • Fear of death Grief 080 Intense emotional suffering of the subject caused by loss, misfortune, death, or injury. • Bereavement Serious depression 081 A chronic emotional condition characterized by discouragement, despondency, feelings of inadequacy, etc. • Suicidal thoughts Boredom 082 Perceived lack of stimulation or challenge to the subject resulting in a state of general disinterestedness. • Lack of competition • Mediocrity Stress 083 Strained exertion resulting in psychological and/or physical tension. EMOTIONS AND FEELINGS (responses in which emotions appear as prime concern) Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures hi. Scale 1 • Human Problems Envy/guilt 084 Resentment of another; feeling of having done wrong. Anger 085 Strong negative feelings excited by a real or supposed injury or insult often accompanied by a desire to take vengeance. Other 086 SELF FULLFILMENT Search for knowledge, understanding or wisdom 087 Intellectual pursuit of the truth. Struggle between good and evil 089 Dealing with personal values, questions of a moral nature or subject's personal moral development Creativity 090 Subject's desire to enhance creative or intellectual inventiveness. Search for meaning/purpose in life 091 Subject's quest to realize meaningful ambitions and potentialities in life. Having adequate time and faith for religion and spirituality 092 Concerns related to having the time, faith or motivation to intensify one's religious or spiritual life. Includes the desire to abide more closely by the rules of a particular religion and anxiety over not being able to do so. • Lack of time for prayer • Lack of faith Seeking a fundamentalist religious experience 093 Subject's search for spirituality based on orthodox religious beliefs and literal interpretations of holy writings. Seeking a liberating religious experience 094 Subject's search for spirituality based on progressive, reformist, and broad-minded religious beliefs. Other 095 ALTRUISM (Societal level concerns) Concern about war 096 Worry about the social impact of war on cultures, societies, or humanity as a whole. • Conventional war • Nuclear war Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 1 - Human Problems Concern about the environment 097 Earnest regard lor the earth and atmosphere. Worry about potential despoiling of the natural world. Concern about hunger in the world 098 Care or worry for those who lack adequate food or food resources. Concern about materialism 099 Concern about the societal effect of the general trend toward acquisition of material goods. Concern about poverty in the world 100 Care or worry for those who lack means of basic subsistence. Concern about justice and equal rights in the world 101 Regard or quest for equity among all human beings. Other 102 No problem 888 Response indicates that the subject does not have any problems. No response 999 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 3 • Choice of Helper Coding Instructions for Scale 3 - Choice of Helper RELATED QUESTIONS This scale relates to questions 13,21, and 29 on the research instrument i DIRECTIONS FOR SCALE 3 1. Read the answers to question 13 (Problem 1) given by the subject whose responses you are coding. Identify the first three helpers mentioned in the response. 2. Turn to the list of classes in the left hand column below. Read through this list carefully. Select the dass(es) that best describe(s) the helper(s) mentioned in the subject's response. Code numbers for the categories within each class are listed in the right hand column. Tun-to the coding scale. Find the code number for the class you have selected. Read through all of the categories listed within that class Choose Ihe best possible category in which to place each helper mentioned by the subject. If up to three helpers are mentioned, code eacr in succession. Do not code more than three. 3. Write the appropriate code numbers for your choices in the spaces provided on your coding sheet Code in the order of the subject's list 1 «first helper listed; 2» second helper listed; 3 - third helper listed. 4. When you are finished, go to Scale 4 to code the response to Question 14. (You will return to Scale 3 later to code Questions 21 c Problem 2 and Question 29 of Problem 3.) 5. Turn to Scale 4. CLASS DEFINITION CATEGORY NUMBER FAMILY Persons related through birth or marriage 01 • 20 NON-FAMILY Persons not related through birth or marriage 21 - 33 OFENDER Person causing the problem 34-35 SUPERNATURAI God or other deities (not animal deities) 36 • 37 ANIMATE CREATURES/ IN AN IMATE OBJECTS Animal, element or object 38 • 42 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures I K Scale 3 • Choice of Helper Scale 3 - Choice of Helper CLASS CATEGORY CODE NO. DEFINITION FAMILY Mother 01 Father 02 Grandmother 03 Grandfather 04 Brother 05 Sister 06 Eldest sibling 07 Spouse 08 Child 09 Step-parent 10 Mother-in-law 11 Father-in-law 12 Aunt 13 Uncle 14 Niece 15 Nephew 16 Cousin 17 Other extended family members 18 Parents/family 19 Response does not specify which parent or lamily member. Other 20 NON-FAMILY Personal friend 21 Schoolmate/ classmate 22 Gang mate 23 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 3 • Choice ol Helper Friend of family 24 Acquaintance 25 Paramour/fiance/ boyfriend/girlfriend 26 Teacher/instructor 27 Clergy person 28 Boss or employer 29 Political leader 30 Professional counselor 31 Person possessing desired qualities necessary for help 32 Response does nor list relationship, but describes a quality of the helper. Other 33 OFFENDER Person who is source or cause of the problem 34 Other 35 S U P E R -NATURAL BEING God 36 Other 37 ANIMATE CREATURES OR INANIMATE OBJECTS Animal, bird 38 Earth, sky, ocean 39 Natural element (wind, rain, sun, etc.) 40 Natural object (rock, tree, etc.) 41 Other 42 Non-specific 77 Names of persons without specification of relationship. Nobody 86 Response indicating that the subject would not speak with anyone. No response 99 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures \\(o Sale 4 • Qualities of a Helper Coding Instructions for Scale 4 - Qualities of a Helper RELATED QUESTIONS This scale relates to questions 14,22, and 30 on the research instrument DIRECTIONS FOR USING SCALE 4 1. Read the answers to question 14 (Problem 1) given by the subject whose responses you are coding. Identify the helper qualities described in the response. If the subject has mentioned specific persons, identify the first helper quality listed for each person. If specific persons are NOT mentioned, identify up to the first three helper qualities that the subject has listed. 2. Refer to the list of classes in the left hand column below. Read through the list carefully. Select the class that best describes the helper qualities mentioned in the subject's response. Code numbers for the categories within each class are listed in the right hand column. Turn to the coding scale. Find the code numbers for the class you have selected. Read through all of the categories listed within that class. Choose the best possible category in which to place each helper quality mentioned by the the subject. If up to three helper qualities are mentioned, code each in succession. Do not code more than three. 3. Write the appropriate code number(s) for your choice(s) in the space(s) provided on your coding sheet. 4. When you are finished, go to Scale 5 to code the response to Question 15. (You will return to Scale 4 later to code Question 22 of Problem 2 and Question 30 of Problem 3.) 5. Turn to Scale 5. CLASS DEFINITION OF CLASS CODE NUMBERS POWERFUI _ Has strength to solve problem _ _ _ 01 -03 KNOWLEDGEABLE ,. Has information available that can provide help/willing to assist 04 - 10 AVAILABILITY _ Physical proximity/accessibility to subjed 11-13 APPEALING PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES _ Description of personality of desired helper— _. 14-26 CONCERN FOR OTHERS „ Description of personal characteristics of helper that relate to his/her ability to care lor the subject 27-30 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures 117 Scale 4 • Qualities of a Helper Scale 4 - Qualities of a Helper C L A S S CATEGORY CODE NO. DEFINITION EXAMPLES POWERFUL Can exercise authority or amend a situation 01 Possessing power to alter or solve the subject's problem or situation or prevent it from happening. Can fulfill a material need 02 Can give something (usually of a material nature) to the subject for the purpose of directly satisfying a particular need. Other 03 KNOWLEDGE-ABLE Experienced 04 Having had much life experience, as in an occupation, activity, or type of relationship. Also, having extensive professional knowledge in a field related to the subject's problem. • Can offer a valuable opinion • Can teach the subject • Can guide the subject Similarity to subject 05 Has had a similar experience as the subject or has similar characteristics. • Same age, gender, or sex • Same concern Content area knowledge 06 Personally knows the subject or has useful information about subject's particular problem and circumstances. Intelligent/ wise 07 Possessing the faculty to make the best use of knowledge, experience, and understanding. Characterized by good judgement Informative 08 Willing to share information with the subject. Gives advice 09 Serves in an advisory way so as to guide the subject Other 10 -AVAILABILITY Available 11 In close proximity to the subject or able to be reached for help. Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Culture'. Scale 4 - Qualities of a Helper Distant 12 Person is removed enough from the subject that he/she cannot or will not tell parents, friends or others that the subject knows. Other 13 APPEALING PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES Trustworthy U Discrete. Not likely to tell another person that which the subject has shared in confidence. • Displays confidentiality Loyal 15 Faithful. Feeling an obligation to defend or support the subject. Honest 16 Straightforward, sincere, and truthful. Approachable/ good listener 17 Inviting, friendly, and informal. One who readily extends to the subject the opening for conversation and listens in eamesL Patient 18 Steadiness, endurance, or perseverance in dealing with other persons. Forbearing and tolerant. Not easily provoked or angered. •Calm Generous/ willing to help 19 Extending toward others. Willing to devote with one's time, energy, or resources on behalf of the subject. Good sense of humor 20 Is light hearted and optimistic. Able to bring joy or humor to the subject. Mature 21 Exhibiting adult-like behavior characterized by sensible thought Stable 22 Firm in conviction. Steadfast in one's purposes and beliefs. • Serious Objective 23 Able to view a situation without bias or prejudice. Emphasizing the features and characteristics of the object or situation dealt with, rather than the thoughts and feelings of the persons involved. • Logical • Rational • Non-judgmental Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures Scale 4 - Qualities of a Helper Moral 24 Highly principled. Exhibiting judgement based on an ethical regard for that which is morally good. Keenly discerning of right and wrong. Religious/spiritual 25 Displaying a deep commitment to religious principles. Also, exhibiting a high degree of spirituality (not necessarily related to a specific religion). Other 26 CONCERN FOR OTHERS Understanding/ attentive/ empathetic 27 To be perceptive and accepting of the nature, character, and functioning of another. Possessing the ability to grasp the meaning, import, or motive of another (sometimes requiring emotional or intel lectual iden t i f i ca t ion) . C h a r a c t e r i z e d by comprehension and discernment. • Sensitivity • Perception • Sympathy Caring/loving 28 Feeling concern about or interest in another. Displaying watchful regard and attention. • Kindness • Thoughtfulness • Friendship • Compassion Supportive 29 Upholding and encouraging. Communicating belief and confidence in the abilities of another. Knows how to "go along*. • Reassure • Go along • Say subject is right Other 30 Does not know 77 Response which indicates that the subject is uncertain or does not know what qualities the helper has. Nothing (or nothing in particular) 88 Response which indicated that there are no helper qualities which the subject wishes to list. No response 99 Human Problems and Methods of Help Seeking Across Cultures 120 APPENDIX G - DESCRIPTION OF PRINCE RUPERT (from The Canadian Encyclopedi a 1988) P r i n c e Rupert B.C. i s s i t u a t e d on Kaien I s l a n d at the mouth of the Skeen R i v e r i n the c o a s t mountain Range of B.C. Kaien I s l a n d was once the meeting p l a c e of the Tsimshian and Haida Indians and the c i t y has p e r s e r v e d numerous r e l i c s of i t s n a t i v e p a s t . The western terminus of the Yellowhead Hwy and, as a seaport, a l i n k between the US, Vancouver and A l a s k a , i t i s the i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c e n t r e f o r BC's northwest c o a s t . P r i n c e Rupert was e n v i s i o n e d i n the e a r l y 1900's as the western terminus of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway and a r i v a l of Vancouver as Canada'a P a c i f i c o u t l e t , but the hoped f o r boom never m a t e r i a l i z e d . The f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y became important t o the c i t y ' s economy a f t e r WWI. During WWII the p o r t became a s h i p b u i l d i n g c e n t r e and was used by the American army as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n base f o r men and m a t e r i a l s to A l a s k a , the P a c i f i c I s l a n d s and the Far E a s t . New i n t e r e s t i n the c o a l f i e l d s of n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. and s t a t e g i e s t o speed up g r a i n movement t o the P r a i r i e s ' P a c i f i c Rim markets have a f f e c t e d the c i t y and l e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the P r i n c e Rupert G r a i n T e r m i n a l , funded l a r g e l y by the government of A l b e r t a . P r i n c e Rupert i s the most important f i s h - l a n d i n g p o r t on the North Coast and the terminus of the B.C. and A l a s k a f e r r y systems. 121 APPENDIX H - TABLE OF CRITICAL VALUES OF CHI SQUARE TABLE I Table of critical values of chi souare Probability under Ha that \~ 2 chi square .99 .98 .95 .90 .80 .70 .50 .30 .20 .10 .05 .02 .01 .001 1 .00016 .00063 .0039 .016 .064 .15 .46 1.07 1.64 2.71 3.84 5.41 6.64 10.83 • 2 .02 .04 .10 .21 .45 .71 1.39 2.41 3.22 4.60 5.99 7.82 9.21 13.82 3 .12 .18 .35 .58 1.00 1.42 2.37 3.66 4.64 6.25 7.82 9.84 11.34 16.27 4 .30 .43 .71 1.06 1.65 2.20 3.36 4.88 5.99 7.78 9.49 11.67 13.28 18.46 s .55 .75 1.14 1.61 2.34 3.00 4.35 6.06 7.29 9.24 11.07 13.39 15.09 20.52 6 .87 ' l . l 3 1.64 2.20 3.07 3.83 5.35 7.23 8.56 10.64 12.59 15.03 16.81 22.46 7 1.24 1.56 2.17 2.83 3.82 4.67 6.35 8.38 9.80 12.02 14.07 16.62 18.48 24.32 8 1.65 2.03 2.73 3.49 4.59 5.53 7.34 9.52 11.03 13.36 15.51 18.17 20.09 26.12 9 2.09 2.53 3.32 4.17 5.38 6.39 8.34 10.66 12.24 14.68 16.92 19.68 21.67 27.88 10 2.56 3.06 3.94 4.86 6.18 7.27 9.34 11.78 13.44 15.99 18.31 21.16 23.21 29.59 11 3.05 3.61 4.58 5.58 6.99 8.15 10.34 12.90 14.63 17.28 19.68 22.62 24.72 31.26 12 3.57 4.18 5.23 6.30 7.81 9.03 11.34 14.01 15.81 18.55 21.03 24.05 26.22 32.91 13 4.11 4.76 5.89 7.04 8.63 9.93 12.34 15.12 16.98 19.81 22.36 25.47 27.69 34.53 14 4.66 5.37 6.57 7.79 9.47 10.82 13.34 16.22 18.15 21.06 23.68 26.87 29.14 36.12 IS 5.23 5.98 7.26 8.55 10.31 11.72 14.34 17.32 19.31 22.31 25.00 28.26 30.58 37.70 16 5.81 6.61 7.96 9.31 11.15 12.62 15.34 18.42 20.46 23.54 26.30 29.63 32.00 39.29 17 6.41 7.26 8.67 10.08 12.00 13.53 16.34 19.51 21.62 24.77 27.59 31.00 33.41 40.75 18 7.02 7.91 9.39 10.86 12.86 14.44 17.34 20.60 22.76 25.99 28.87 32.35 34.80 42.31 19 7.63 8.57 10.12 11.65 13.72 15.35 18.34 21.69 23.90 27.20 30.14 33.69 36.19 43.82 20 8.26 9.24 10.85 12.44 14.58 16.27 19.34 22.78 25.04 28.41 31.41 35.02 37.57 45.32 21 8.90 9.92 11.59 13.24 15.44 17.18 20.34 23.86 26.17 29.62 32.67 36,34 38.93 46.80 22 9.54 10.60 12.34 14.04 16.31 18.10 21.24 24.94 27.30 30.81 33.92 37.66 40.29 48.27 23 10.20 11.29 13.09 14.85 17.19 19.02 22.34 26.02 28.43 32.01 35.17 38.97 41.64 49.73 24 10.86 11.99 13.85 15.66 18.06 19.94 23.34 27.10 29.55 33.20 36.42 40.27 42.98 51.18 23 11.52 12.70 14.61 16.47 18.94 20.87 24.34 28.17 30.68 34.38 37.65 41.57 44.31 52.62 26 12.20 13.41 15.38 17.29 19.82 21.79 25.34 29.25 31.80 35.56 38.88 42.86 45.64 54.05 27 12.88 14.12 16.15 18.11 20.70 22.72 26.34 30.32 32.91 36.74 40.11 44.14 46.96 55.48 28 13.56 14.85 16.93 18.94 21.59 23.65 27.34 31.39 34.03 37.92 41.34 45.42 48.28 56.89 29 14.26 15.57 17.71 19.77 22.48 24.58 28.34 32.46 35.14 39.09 42.56 46.69 49.59 58.30 30 14.95 16.31 18.49 20.60 23.36 25.51 29.34 33.53 36.25 40.26 43.77 47.96 50.89 59.70 Tabic 1 it liken from Table IV of Fisher and Yates: Statistical Tables for Biological. Agricultural: and Medical Research, published by Longman Croup Lid. London (previously published by Oliver and Boyd Lid. Edinburgh! by permission of the authors arid publishers. APPENDIX I - VALUES OF CHI SQUARE FOR TABLES 1 TO 12 PROBLEM 1 Table 1 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 2 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Ta b l e 3 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 4 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Tabl e 5 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 6 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 7 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 8 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 9 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 10 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 11 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 PROBLEM 1 Table 12 PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 3 Chi Square DF P r o b a b i l i t y 0.807 2 0.668 3.777 2 0.151 5.557 2 0.062 0.848 1 0.357 5.213 1 0.022 0.116 1 0.733 3.689 2 0.158 5.892 2 0.053 7.187 2 0.028 4.432 2 0.109 7.209 2 0.027 17.399 2 0.000 9.157 1 0.002 1 .747 1 0.186 4.194 1 0.041 2.222 2 0.329 8.339 2 0.015 2.180 2 0.336 1 .426 2 0.490 2.870 2 0.238 3.941 2 0.139 2.406 1 0.121 2.441 1 0.118 0.485 1 0.486 6.884 2 0.032 2.756 2 0.252 5.164 2 0.076 7.251 2 0.027 4.857 2 0.088 1 .678 2 0.432 0.565 1 0.452 0.029 1 0.866 0.002 1 0.962 1 .902 2 0.386 0.687 2 0.709 1 .295 2 0.523 

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