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The facilitation of career development of adolescents with parental involvement in a structured program 1988

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THE FACILITATION OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS WITH PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN A STRUCTURED PROGRAM By BRIAN M. PIERSON B.A. NORTHWEST COLLEGE, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE 19 88 © Brian M. Pierson, 1988 In p resen t ing th is thesis in partial f u l f i lm en t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e at t he Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a , I agree tha t t h e Library shall make it f reely available f o r re ference and s tudy . I fu r ther agree that pe rmiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis f o r scholar ly pu rposes may b e g r a n t e d by the head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thesis fo r f inancial gain shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f £AOAJ SC^^l M L ^Sjej^dC^ T h e Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a Vancouver , Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s study was concerned with d e v e l o p i n g and e x p l o r i n g a reasonably comprehensive scheme o£ c a t e g o r i e s which d e s c r i b e s , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a d o l e s c e n t s , what f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i r c a r e e r development d u r i n g the process of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the P a r t n e r s Program. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s Technique was used to e l i c i t 302 I n c i d e n t s from nine dyads. Each dyad c o n s i s t e d of a parent and t h e i r high s c h o o l a d o l e s c e n t . T h i s study took place over a four-month p e r i o d , and a f t e r completion of the program, the p a r t i c i p a n t s were interv i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y to determine the events t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d the c a r e e r development of the a d o l e s c e n t . S i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s emerged from the i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d . R e l i a b i l i t y was suggested by two independent r a t e r s who showed 100% agreement i n c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e v a r y i n g from 44% - 61% i n d i c a t e d the soundness of these c a t e g o r i e s . From an examination of the f i n d i n g s , t h e o r i e s s u r f a c e d from the c a t e g o r i e s that r e f l e c t e d the t h r e e f o l d aim of the P a r t n e r s Program. F i r s t l y i t f o s t e r s c a r e e r development by i n c r e a s i n g self-awareness, career awareness and d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . Secondly, i t strengthens the f a m i l y support network. T h i r d l y , i t enables the a d o l e s c e n t to make b e t t e r use of c a r e e r r e s o u r c e s and programs. I t Is suggested t h a t there i s a potency i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g which could be a powerful a l l y f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 6 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 8 CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY 8 PARENT-CHILD RELATIONS 10 FAMILY INFLUENCE ON THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT 11 PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS 12 THE PARTNERS PROGRAM AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS 15 REVIEW OF THE CRITICAL INCIDENTS TECHNIQUE 16 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY 20 SUBJECTS 20 PROCEDURE 22 THE CRITICAL INCIDENTS INTERVIEW . . . . 22 i v CHAPTER III. (continued) THE INTERVIEW 23 CATEGORIZATION 24 INDEPENDENT RATERS' CATEGORIZATION . . . . 26 CHAPTER V. RESULTS 28 CATEGORIES 29 RELIABILITY 36 INCIDENT FREQUENCY 36 CATEGORIES PARTICIPATION RATE 37 CASE STUDY 41 CHAPTER VI. DISCUSSION 4 4 STATEMENT OF THE RESULTS 4 4 LIMITATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS OF THE STUDY 4 8 PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS . 49 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 50 SUMMARY 50 REFERENCES 52 APPENDICES A. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE PARTNERS PROGRAM 56 B. CHURCH BULLETIN INSERT 59 C. LETTER TO PARENT 60 D. LETTER TO ADOLESCENT 61 E. ACTIVITY SELF-EXPLORATION WORKBOOK 62 F. CAREER GRID WORKBOOK 64 V APPENDICES (continued) G. PLANNING WORKBOOK 66 H. PARENT CAREER GUIDANCE MANUAL . . . . 68 v l LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. FREQUENCY & PERCENTAGE OF REPORTED INCIDENTS WITHIN EACH CATEGORY 38 TABLE 2. NO. OF REPORTED INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY AS REPORTED BY PARENTS & ADOLESCENTS 39 TABLE 3. PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS REPORTING INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY 40 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. L a r r y Cochran whose enthusiasm, guidance and reassurance helped immensely as we walked through t h i s study t o g e t h e r . In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to my f r i e n d s and church f a m i l y at C h r i s t i a n L i f e Assembly. As I proceeded, t h e i r p r a y e r s , encouragement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , support and pat i e n c e helped me to keep going. S p e c i a l thanks to L o r i , Brent, Bonnie and the nine f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my wife J u l i e and my three sons Owen, Brock and Pre s t o n . They s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r time and our f a m i l y time to see me through. We a l l share i n the j o y of completing the task. Without t h e i r c o n t i n u a l love and support t h i s would not have been p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The aim of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y the kind of events t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the a d o l e s c e n t ' s p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r m a t u r i t y d u r i n g the process of the P a r t n e r s Program (Cochran 1985). Research has shown t h a t students have d i f f i c u l t y e x p l a i n i n g how they make t h e i r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s (Anderson, Mawby, Olson, 1965; Trudeau-Brosseau, Brosseau, C a h r e t t e , B o i s s i e r e , 1982). Parents would l i k e to help t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h i s career p l a n n i n g but r e p o r t t h a t they do not know how (Lea, 1976; B r a t c h e r , 1982; Brighouse, 1985). T h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y i s s i n g u l a r l y u n f ortunate, given the f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n expect t h e i r parents to be the primary i n d i v i d u a l s who i n f l u e n c e and help with c a r e e r plans (Blrk 1979, M i t c h e l l , 1978). Other p a r e n t - c h i l d programs have been attempted: "The Career C o n v e r s a t i o n " (Osguthorpe, 1976) was developed to help parents work with t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n car e e r p l a n n i n g , and "The Career Development P a r t n e r s h i p " (Myers, 1979) was developed to i n c r e a s e the parent's awareness of the impact they have on the car e e r decision-making processes of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The few p a r e n t - c h i l d programs t h a t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t o f f e r l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l evidence of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Anderson et a l , 1965; Lea, 1976; osguthorpe, 1976; Greenough, 1976; Thompson, 1978). One i n d i c a t i o n 2 o£ t h e i r u t i l i t y , however, seems to be t h a t parents welcome the a s s i s t a n c e . Research conducted by Palmer and Cochran (1987) on the Par t n e r s Program found t h a t t h i s p a r e n t - c h i l d program had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the career development of the ad o l e s c e n t . I t demonstrated t h a t the P a r t n e r s Program was e f f e c t i v e , but d i d not i n d i c a t e the kind of s p e c i f i c process events t h a t helped d u r i n g the program. The d i s c o v e r y of process events d u r i n g a p a r e n t - c h i l d c a r e e r program could f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of why the program i s e f f e c t i v e . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Th i s study was concerned with d e v e l o p i n g a reasonably comprehensive scheme of c a t e g o r i e s to ex p l o r e how a program designed f o r parents to a s s i s t t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s i n career p l a n n i n g f a c i l i t a t e s the ad o l e s c e n t ' s p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r m a t u r i t y d u r i n g the program. T h i s e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n aims to determine the s i g n i f i c a n t c a r e e r p l a n n i n g events t h a t occur d u r i n g the process of the P a r t n e r s Program. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The P a r t n e r s Program has shown i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the p i l o t study and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on 20 f a m i l i e s by Palmer (1986). I t s use has enhanced f a m i l y cohesion between p a r t n e r s , and there seems to be a s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n i n the 3 c a r e e r development of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a d o l e s c e n t (Palmer & Cochran 1987). The program, "Helping Your C h i l d Set a Career D i r e c t i o n : The P a r t n e r s Program" (Cochran 1985), c o n s i s t s of a Parent Career Guidance Manual (Cochran 1985a) and three workbooks: A c t i v i t y s e l f - E x p l o r a t i o n workbook (Cochran & Amundson, 1985), Career G r i d Workbook (Cochran 1985b) and a P l a n n i n g workbook (Cochran 1985c). Each workbook i s comprised of a number of u n i t s and each u n i t i s completed by the parent and c h i l d who work together to accomplish c a r e e r t a s k s . I t i s the parent's primary r o l e to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage the a d o l e s c e n t i n the completion of each t a s k . Cochran (1985) a s s e r t s t h a t The P a r t n e r s Program i s based upon two kinds of t h e o r y — p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the c a r e e r development of the a d o l e s c e n t . Research r e l a t e d to the f i r s t type of theory has demonstrated t h a t p a r e n t s , the primary f i g u r e s of a d o l e s c e n t s , have great i n f l u e n c e on the choice of a c h i l d ' s c a r e e r (Bratcher, 1982; Osipow, 1983; Schulenberg, Vondracek & Crouter, 1984). Bronfenbrenner's (1979) model of human development s t r e s s e s the q u a l i t y of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the author (Cochran 1985) uses It to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n a l p o r t i o n of h i s program. According to Bronfenbrenner, the q u a l i t y of a d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r o g r e s s i v e . The s i m p l e s t form i s an ' o b s e r v a t i o n a l ' dyad, where two persons pay a t t e n t i o n to one another. At the next l e v e l , a ' j o i n t a c t i v i t y ' dyad, two 4 persons work together in a common activity. The highest level is a 'primary' dyad, and consists of two persons who have enduring feelings for one another and continue to influence each other even when apart. Bronfenbrenner's view is that as partners move from the lowest level (observational dyad) to the highest level (primary dyad), the developmental impact of a relationship will be enhanced. In the Partners Program, parents are instructed in their manual to work towards realizing the conditions of a primary dyad. The workbook tasks were designed to f a c i l i t a t e the 'paying attention', 'perspective-taking', 'discussion' and •cooperation* aspects of a primary dyad (Palmer & Cochran 1987). The second theoretical basis for this program was derived from Super's (1957, 1963, 1980) theory of career development. According to Super, the conceptualization of a career is conceived through a progression of stages. To progress, an individual must complete career developmental tasks unique to each stage. The focus in the Partners Program is to crystallize, specify and implement a career choice. To complete these tasks, Super has identified specific behaviours and attitudes which are essential. He describes these to be planfulness, decision-making s k i l l s , exploration, Information acquisition and appraisal. The Partners Program emphasizes self and career exploration as well as decision-making competencies, and by doing so adds 5 support to the core developmental tasks in Super's theory. The program used in this study has integrated Bronfenbrenner's and Super's theories, both of which focus on the parent-adolescent for working on career tasks. The completion of career developmental tasks in a dyadic context allows for a strengthening of parent-child relationships. This assumes that a shift may occur from observational dyad to a higher level, which in turn is more apt to Improve the quality in which workbook exercises are done. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Several parent-adolescent programs have been advanced in the past (Bearg, 1979; Lea, 1976; Thompson, 1978), and while most have shown positive parental reaction, there has been l i t t l e evidence of the programs' effectiveness. Palmer and Cochran (1987) demonstrated that parents can function effectively in fostering the career development of their children when provided with a structured program, such as the Partners Program. However, they did not discover the significant features in the Partners Program that helped the adolescent to plan a career. The extraction of events through the C r i t i c a l Incidents Technique (Flanagan 1954) provided a categorical framework to assist in supplying the provisional answer about how the Partners Program facilitates the career development of the adolescent. A 6 category scheme was developed in which the types of events that f a c i l i t a t e career development were described from the perspective of the adolescents themselves. The value of this scheme is that i t offers a reasonably comprehensive basis for conceptualizing the adolescent's career development within the context of the Partners Program. The research offers a broader frame of reference capable of Integrating past research (Palmer & Cochran 1987), and also suggest a more comprehensive evaluation of the elements of the Partner's Program. Furthermore, i t offers some guidance on how the category scheme could be used in the development and continued refinement of the Partners Program. The results clearly have an important heuristic value in exploring and validating the categories as well as the relationships between the categories. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY An introduction to the study is found in Chapter 1. This includes a purpose and research question, a background to the study, and the significance of the research. Chapter 2 contains a review of the literature relevant to what features f a c i l i t a t e the career development of adolescents within the framework of a parent-child career guidance program. It also contains a review of the C r i t i c a l Incidents Technique. Chapter 3 discusses the research design, specifically including the population and sample, 7 the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Technique, i n t e r v i e w procedures, the method o£ r e c o r d i n g and e x t r a c t i n g i n c i d e n t s , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Chapter 4 c o n t a i n s the r e s u l t s of the study and i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c a t e g o r y schemes and r e l i a b i l i t y Issues. Chapter 5 concludes with a statement of the r e s u l t s , a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s , comments on r e s e a r c h l i m i t a t i o n s , p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , and a summary. 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE L i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to what f a c i l i t a t e s the ad o l e s c e n t ' s p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r development d u r i n g the process of a p a r e n t - c h i l d program i s reviewed i n t h i s chapter. The u n d e r l y i n g t h e o r y and development of the P a r t n e r s Program w i l l be reviewed f i r s t . other p a r e n t - c h i l d programs attempted w i l l be con s i d e r e d and r e s e a r c h done on the Pa r t n e r s Program w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Technique w i l l be reviewed, as a method t h a t seems most s u i t a b l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the kinds of events t h a t f a c i l i t a t e c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS A review of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t there are two major t h e o r i e s t h a t u n d e r l i e the Involvement of the f a m i l y i n the ad o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . These two areas are c a r e e r development theory and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s . CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY Th i s study uses a program i n which the authors base t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings on Super's developmental theory (1957) . A c c o r d i n g to Super (1980, 1984) the process of c a r e e r development i s l i f e l o n g and thus he focuses on 'developmental' theory. He d e s c r i b e s t h i s as a process t h a t 9 has three c l e a r l y d e f i n e d s t a t e s : Fantasy, T e n t a t i v e and R e a l i s t i c which he bases on a model developed by Glnzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herma (1951). super views ca r e e r c h o i c e s as on-going, becoming more c l e a r with age. Super's r e s e a r c h , based on a l o n g i t u d i n a l study (Career P a t t e r n Study 1950-1971), i n v o l v e d 142 grade nine boys. T h i s study seemed to help g a i n an understanding of v o c a t i o n a l behaviour. Techniques to assess and p r e d i c t v o c a t i o n a l behaviour a l s o emerged. From t h i s , Super developed a b a s i c assumption u n d e r l y i n g the concept of c a r e e r m a t u r i t y : " v o c a t i o n a l behaviour changes s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n c e r t a i n ways with i n c r e a s i n g age" (p. 57). In t h i s theory, a c a r e e r i s conceived as a p r o g r e s s i o n through v a r i o u s s t a g e s . Career developmental t a s k s , unique to each stage, are completed i n order to p r o g r e s s . Super (1957) i d e n t i f i e s the v o c a t i o n a l stages as: Growth ( b i r t h - 14 y e a r s ) , E x p l o r a t i o n (15-24 y e a r s ) , Establishment (25-44 y e a r s ) , Maintenance (45-64 y e a r s ) , and D e c l i n e (65 to d e a t h ) . The major focus of the P a r t n e r s Program i s on the e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e . In l a t e adolescence and e a r l y adulthood the core tasks are c r y s t a l l i z i n g , s p e c i f y i n g and implementing a c a r e e r p r e f e r e n c e . Task completion r e q u i r e s the development of c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and competencies such as p l a n f u l n e s s , decision-making, i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g and a p p r a i s a l , and an e x p l o r a t o r y a t t i t u d e . S e l f and career 10 exploration, planning and decision competencies are stressed within the Partner's Program which support the core developmental tasks of Super's theory (Palmer & Cochran 1987) . PARENT-CHILD RELATIONS The second aspect of the Partners Program is based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) theory of human development which stresses the quality of human relationships. Bronfenbrenner's theory is based on the impact of environmental interconnections on the developing person. He views development as how the person perceives and deals with his or her environment. Human development is defined as "progressive accommodation throughout the l i f e span, between the growing organism and the changing environment in which i t actually lives and grows" (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, p. 513) . Bronfenbrenner's model (1979) consists of three systems. The microsystem (family), which is the immediate setting contains the developing person. The mesosystem which contains the microsystem and Its interrelations with settings beyond this (i.e. child and relationships at school, church, etc.). The exosystem contains events occurring in settings in which the developing person is not present (i.e.) sibling's place of employment. l i As used i n the P a r t n e r s Program, Bronfenbrenner 1s model provi d e s a framework f o r understanding r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the microsystem. The q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s conceived through a p r o g r e s s i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a dyad. In order f o r t h i s to occur, there must be an e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . From here the dyad has the p o t e n t i a l to evolve i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y more complex. As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s study, there are three dyads p o s t u l a t e d by Bronfenbrenner's model-- O b s e r v a t i o n a l Dyad, i n which two persons pay a t t e n t i o n to each other's a c t i v i t i e s , J o i n t A c t i v i t y Dyad, i n which two persons work on common a c t i v i t i e s , and Primary Dyad, such as paying a t t e n t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n (Palmer & Cochran 1987). T h i s study p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t s i n d i c a t i o n s of movement from the j o i n t a c t i v i t y dyad to the primary dyad and how t h i s occurs i n the process of the P a r t n e r s Program. FAMILY INFLUENCE ON THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT Se v e r a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e i s the primary f a c t o r i n c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n (Osipow, 1983; B i r k , 1979; M i t c h e l l , 1978; Roberts, 1979), but l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on how t h i s process i s brought about. Osipow (1983) s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e parents are the primary s o c i a l i z i n g agents i n our s o c i e t y t h a t they are i n key p o s i t i o n s to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n a l l areas of human growth, i n c l u d i n g c a r e e r development. Kleimer and Schoffner (1973) suggested four areas of p a r e n t a l I n f l u e n c e i n c a r e e r development: they serve as r o l e models, motivators of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s , as informers and as p r o v i d e r s of environmental i n f l u e n c e . In a study conducted by Burke ( 1 9 7 9 ) , c h i l d r e n were asked who they thought had the most i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r c a r e e r growth. T h e i r response was t h a t both parents were i n f l u e n c e s . Even though i t has been found t h a t parents are a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r development ( G r o t i v a n t & Cooper 1985) and would l i k e to f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e more e f f e c t i v e l y , t h ere i s l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e f o r them (Osguthorpe 1 9 7 6 ) . The next s e c t i o n w i l l look a t some programs t h a t are c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS Few programs have been r e c e n t l y developed to help parents with the c a r e e r development of t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t s (Palmer 1 9 8 6 ) . The programs that c u r r e n t l y e x i s t have l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l evidence of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l review the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of some other parent- c h i l d programs besides the one used i n t h i s study. The program, "Choices and Career: Free to Choose about C a r e e r s " (Thompson 1978) was designed to be used by American Indian parents and t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t daughters. I t i n c l u d e s c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t y i n f o r m a t i o n and o b s t a c l e s these g i r l s may face i n f i n d i n g work. There was no assessment done as to t h i s program's success or e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The "Career Development P a r t n e r s h i p " program (Myers 1979) was used on the Rhode I s l a n d Department of E d u c a t i o n . I t i n v o l v e d parents, students and s c h o o l s In which the parents were i n v o l v e d i n the c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n of students at a l l s c h o o l l e v e l s . I t s goal was to i n c r e a s e p a r e n t s ' awareness of the Impact they have on the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n - making processes of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The success and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program was not assessed. The authors commented on how w e l l r e c e i v e d i t was by parents as the o n l y i n d i c a t o r of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The program, "The Career C o n v e r s a t i o n " (Osguthorpe 1976) was designed to help parents work with t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . A p i l o t study was done on t h i r t y s tudents i n the n i n t h grade and t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h i s study's r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : 1) In c a r e e r c h o i c e s , students expected parents to be most i n f l u e n t i a l . 2) P r i o r to the program, parents f e l t i l l - e q u i p p e d to help c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . 3) Parents were probably most i n f l u e n t i a l i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a c c o r d i n g to t e a c h e r s , who r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g can a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g s t u dents' c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Feedback from parents who p a r t i c i p a t e d was encouraging as to the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The "Career O c c u p a t i o n a l Guide" (Anderson, Mawby & Olson 1965) was d e s c r i b e d as an a c t i o n program f o r parents which was b u i l t on a "youth development" theme. T h i s program sought to help parents and a d o l e s c e n t s become aware of the connections between u n i v e r s i t i e s , government agencie s , p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y and the work world. I t ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s was measured o n l y by v e r b a l support from i t s u s e r s . Greenough (1976) conducted a program t h a t i n v o l v e d upcoming high s c h o o l s e n i o r s and t h e i r p a r e n t s . I t s purpose was to implement p a r e n t a l guidance with the student's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h i s study measured the high s c h o o l student's accomplishments f i v e and s i x years a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . Greenough found t h a t 90% of p a r e n t - c o u n s e l l e d students had a chance to complete p o s t - h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and t h a t they were p r e s e n t l y s a t i s f i e d In t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . A 20-60% p r o b a b i l i t y of e r r o r on the same achievements was found by students where parents chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program when compared with parent- c o u n s e l l e d s t u d e n t s . The program r e s u l t s I n d i c a t e d t h a t i t seemed to help students s e l e c t a preplanned major, r e c e i v e p o s t - h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and be s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . Greenough concluded t h a t there seemed to be a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s ' job s a t i s f a c t i o n and parents who were i n v o l v e d i n the parent c o u n s e l l i n g program. 15 THE PARTNERS PROGRAM AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS A two group p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t experimental d e s i g n was employed by Palmer (1986) to study the e f f e c t s of the Pa r t n e r s Program. T h i s was conducted on 40 v o l u n t e e r f a m i l i e s — 2 0 f a m i l i e s were Experimental Group and 20 f a m i l i e s were C o n t r o l Group. A MANOVA was used to t e s t improvement on f i v e v a r i a b l e s — f a m i l y a d a p t a b i l i t y , f a m i l y cohesion, c a r e e r m a t u r i t y , dyadic formation, c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n . The MANOVA r e s u l t s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r groups over time. In a d d i t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s done on a l l the parents and s i x ad o l e s c e n t s provided q u a l i t a t i v e r e p o r t s t h a t tended to support the v a r i e d degrees of improvement by the a d o l e s c e n t s . Palmer's r e s e a r c h concluded t h a t the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s showed marked improvement i n t h e i r c a r e e r development and a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of p a r e n t a l bonding. Questions she r a i s e d a f t e r her re s e a r c h was done on t h i s program i s what t h i s study attempts to p a r t i a l l y answer. She recommended f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t was more p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d to d i s c o v e r what i t i s t h a t happens d u r i n g the process of the program that has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the career development of the ad o l e s c e n t . T h i s c u r r e n t study focuses on the kind of events that f a c i l i t a t e the career development of the ado l e s c e n t d u r i n g the process of the Pa r t n e r s Program. 16 REVIEW OF THE CRITICAL INCIDENTS TECHNIQUE The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Technique d e v e l o p e d by F l a n a g a n (1954). T h i s t e c h n i q u e grew out of r e s e a r c h done i n the A v i a t i o n P s y c h o l o g y Program of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army A i r F o r c e d u r i n g World War I I . I t i s an I n t e r v i e w method concerned w i t h o b t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s which f a c i l i t a t e or h i n d e r a s p e c i f i c aim. In t h i s s t u d y the aim i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e k i n d of e v e n t s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the c a r e e r development of a d o l e s c e n t s d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of the P a r t n e r s Program. T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s a form of i n t e r v i e w r e s e a r c h d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t an e x t e n s i v e range of I n c i d e n t s from people who a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e p o r t what f a c i l i t a t e d or h i n d e r e d the aim of an a c t i v i t y . F l a n a g a n (1954) d e f i n e s an " i n c i d e n t " as "...any o b s e r v a b l e human a c t i v i t y t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y complete i n i t s e l f t o p e r m i t i n f l u e n c e s and p r e d i c t i o n s t o be made about the p e r s o n p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t " (p. 327). These I n c i d e n t s a r e then c a t e g o r i z e d t o p r o v i d e an answer t o the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of what f a c i l i t a t e s or h i n d e r s t h i s a c t i v i t y . A l t h o u g h i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t raw d a t a o n l y and do not p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s t o problems a u t o m a t i c a l l y , Cohen and Smith (1976) p o i n t e d out t h a t i f hundreds of i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e what f a c i l i t a t e s and h i n d e r s an a c t i v i t y , i t p r o v i d e s a f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the 17 Important requirements of improving t h a t task a t hand. The c r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Technique a l s o suggests the procedures f o r d e v e l o p i n g c a t e g o r i e s from the b a s i c data. Flanagan (1954, pp. 344-5) h i g h l i g h t s the f o l l o w i n g f o r c a t e g o r y f o r m u l a t i o n : 1. The s e l e c t i o n of the g e n e r a l frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r d e s c r i b i n g i n c i d e n t s . 2. The s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c i t y — g e n e r a l i t y l e v e l s to use i n r e p o r t i n g . 3. T e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s are submitted to others f o r review. The value of t h i s method of r e s e a r c h l i e s i n the depth of understanding of the phenomena under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . That i s , "The Interview s i t u a t i o n permits much g r e a t e r depth than other methods of c o l l e c t i n g r e s e a r c h (Borg & G a l l , 1983, p. 436). Flanagan (1978) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d i n c i d e n t s t h a t provided a r i c h and v a l u a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n . The C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s Technique has had a v a r i e t y of a p p l i c a t i o n s s i n c e the i n i t i a l s t u d i e s and has a long h i s t o r y of use. I t has been used to develop p r o f i c i e n c y measures, to improve the d e s i g n of equipment (Flanagan, 1954) and to develop e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g environment. I t has a l s o been used i n a v a r i e t y of f i e l d s , I n c l u d i n g commerce, n u r s i n g and psychology (Dachelet, Wemett, G a r l i n g , C r a i g - Kuhn, Kent, Kitzmen, 1981). Flanagan (1954) p o i n t s out some inhe r e n t s t r e n g t h s i n u s i n g t h i s technique f o r r e s e a r c h . He s t a t e s , "The C r i t i c a l 18 I n c i d e n t s Technique c o n s i s t s of a s e t of procedures f o r c o l l e c t i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s of human behaviour i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e s i n s o l v i n g p r a c t i c a l problems and d e v e l o p i n g broad p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s (p. 3 2 7 ) . He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t " . . . the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Technique does not c o n s i s t of a s i n g l e r i g i d s e t of r u l e s governing such data c o l l e c t i o n . . ." He p o i n t s out t h a t each study r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t s e t of r u l e s ". . . modified and adapted to meet the s i t u a t i o n a t hand . . ." (p. 3 3 5 ) . In r e s e a r c h done by Anderson & N l l s s o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) , they concluded t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by t h i s approach i s both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . Furthermore, Mayeske, Harmon & Gllckman (1966) s t a t e t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h method i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from b i a s because i t i s based on a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . They a l s o found that I n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d g i v e o p e r a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n to what helps and hinders the a c t i v i t y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Technique was s e l e c t e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e means f o r the purpose of t h i s study because of the f o l l o w i n g advantages: 1) I t has been shown to be a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e way to c o l l e c t i n c i d e n t s r e l e v a n t to a f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of an a c t i v i t y ; 2) I t suggests a procedure f o r c a t e g o r y f o r m u l a t i o n ; 3) I t p r o v i d e s an i n t e r v i e w method i n which indepth understanding of the phenomena under i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be a s c e r t a i n e d ; 19 4) It provides a flexible set of principles modifiable and adaptable to relevant use; 5) It has been used extensively In many fields of Investigation. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY SUBJECTS A t o t a l of 9 d y a d s — 1 8 s u b j e c t s In a l l — v o l u n t e e r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. Each dyad c o n s i s t e d of one parent and one a d o l e s c e n t . The a d o l e s c e n t s were high s c h o o l students In grades ten to twelve, an age group w i t h i n the e x p l o r a t i o n stage of v o c a t i o n a l development (Super 1957), which i s the primary focus of the Pa r t n e r s Program (Cochran 1985). The sample was s e l e c t e d from v o l u n t e e r s w i t h i n a Langley church t h a t has approximately 2600 members and/or adherents. The method of s e l e c t i n g v o l u n t e e r s was t w o f o l d . F i r s t , the r e s e a r c h e r attended a Parent Night i n the church and gave a b r i e f v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the aims of the Program and the i n t e n t of h i s r e s e a r c h based on a paper i n t r o d u c i n g the P a r t n e r s Program (Appendix A). The parents at t h i s event a l l had teenage c h i l d r e n who attended the church youth group. A f t e r t h i s meeting they perused the Pa r t n e r s Program and i f i n t e r e s t e d , put t h e i r name and the name of t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t on a sign-up sheet. i n f o r m a t i o n was then taken home to peruse with the a d o l e s c e n t . Secondly, the r e s e a r c h e r s posted i n f o r m a t i o n i n the weekly church b u l l e t i n (Appendix B) to r e c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s . T h i s b u l l e t i n i n s e r t ran f o r two co n s e c u t i v e Sundays f o l l o w i n g the Parent Night. A t o t a l of 15 dyads v o l u n t e e r e d 21 on the sign-up sheet and were subsequently contacted by phone. Subjects were informed that the study to be conducted would explore the topic of career development in the adolescent. The program would be self-administered and take approximately 10 hours over a 4-6 week period. Approximately 1 hour would be required from each participant for individual interviews upon program completion. Participation was voluntary and Interviews were to be tape recorded. Letters of consent were given to both parent (Appendix C) and adolescent (Appendix D), specifically stating the nature and intent of the study. From the I n i t i a l 15 dyads that volunteered to participate in the study, 9 dyads completed the program and were interviewed. The six families that dropped out of the study contacted the researcher and gave their reasons for incompletion. Two parents reported that the adolescent was uncooperative and refused to carry on. Four families indicated time pressure did not allow them to continue. The remaining nine families did not contact the researcher. However, the researcher contacted two families to encourage them to continue on as they went beyond the allotted 4-6 week period to complete the program. PROCEDURE Th i s study was conducted between May and September. Upon completion o£ the program, i n t e r v i e w times were arranged with the s u b j e c t s by telephone. The i n t e r v i e w s took plac e i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o f f i c e and each s u b j e c t ' s I n t e r v i e w l a s t e d between 45 minutes and one hour. The parent and a d o l e s c e n t were asked I d e n t i c a l i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s , but the parent answered questions p e r t a i n i n g to the a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r development. THE CRITICAL INCIDENTS INTERVIEW The C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s Technique was s e l e c t e d to help s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f y , from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s , the kind of events t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the a d o l e s c e n t ' s p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r m a t u r i t y d u r i n g the process of the P a r t n e r s Program. Data were c o l l e c t e d by means of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w e r began each i n t e r v i e w with the f o l l o w i n g preamble: I want to thank you and your partner f o r completing the P a r t n e r s Program. From the outset I'd l i k e to remind you t h a t t h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be tape recorded and t h a t what we d i s c u s s here i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and o n l y used f o r the purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h study. Your name w i l l not be attached to any of the i n f o r m a t i o n we r e c o r d . I'd l i k e to b r i e f l y r e a c q u a i n t you with the purpose of my r e s e a r c h and t h i s i n t e r v i e w — t h e purpose i s to t r y and d i s c o v e r what happens t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g d u r i n g the process of the P a r t n e r s Program. I w i l l be a s k i n g you a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s , s t a r t i n g from the f i r s t workbook (the a c t i v i t i e s workbook), through u n t i l the l a s t workbook (the p l a n n i n g workbook). 23 F o l l o w i n g the preamble, the s u b j e c t was a b l e t o ask any q u e s t i o n s he/she had r e g a r d i n g the s t u d y . The i n t e r v i e w proceeded f o l l o w i n g the preamble. I t i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s of open-ended q u e s t i o n s t o h e l p the s u b j e c t e x p l o r e h i s / h e r e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s of the program. The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o conform t o the g u i d e l i n e s d e f i n e d by F l a n a g a n (1954): The i n t e r v i e w e r s h o u l d a v o i d a s k i n g l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s a f t e r the main q u e s t i o n has been s t a t e d . H i s remarks s h o u l d be n e u t r a l and p e r m i s s i v e and show t h a t he a c c e p t s the o b s e r v e r as e x p e r t . By i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s what i s b e i n g s a i d and p e r m i t t i n g the o b s e r v e r t o do most of the t a l k i n g , the i n t e r v i e w e r can u s u a l l y g e t u n b i a s e d i n c i d e n t s (p. 342). THE INTERVIEW A f t e r the i n t e r v i e w e r r e a c q u a i n t e d t h e s u b j e c t w i t h a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of the purpose of the s t u d y , he t h e n r e q u e s t e d s p e c i f i c e v e n t s t h a t had a p o s i t i v e and/or n e g a t i v e impact on c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The i n t e r v i e w e r t h e n e l i c i t e d d e t a i l s of what l e d up t o the i n c i d e n t , what a c t u a l l y happened t h a t was so h e l p f u l and why i t was so h e l p f u l . S u b j e c t s were reminded t o r e p o r t c o n c r e t e e v e n t s r a t h e r t h a n o p i n i o n s or t h e o r i e s t h r o u g h o u t the c o u r s e of t h e I n t e r v i e w . The a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w proceeded as f o l l o w s : Now t h a t you've completed the P a r t n e r s Program, I would l i k e you t o t h i n k back t o the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the program. Think back t o when you were w o r k i n g on the a c t i v i t i e s workbook and w h i l e you were on t h i s , I'd l i k e you t o r e c a l l something 24 t h a t happened to you t h a t had an impact on your ca r e e r development, e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y . " During the i n t e r v i e w the s u b j e c t had the workbook i n hand and l e a f e d through i t f o r a r e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e i r e xperiences d u r i n g the workbook. When the p a r e n t / a d o l e s c e n t had i n d i c a t e d he/she had an event In mind, the i n t e r v i e w proceeded with the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : a) What e x a c t l y happened that had such an impact? b) What were the circumstances t h a t lead up t h i s event? c) How d i d t h i s i n c i d e n t help your c a r e e r planning? d) What e x a c t l y happened t h a t was so h e l p f u l t o you a t t h a t time? e) can you t h i n k of another event t h a t happened while you were working on the a c t i v i t i e s workbook (or whatever book being d i s c u s s e d ) , whether i t be p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e , that had a s i g n i f i c a n t Impact i n your career planning? A f t e r each i n c i d e n t was r e c a l l e d , the same f i v e q u e s t i o n s c i t e d above were asked. when the parent/ a d o l e s c e n t was unable to generate f u r t h e r I n c i d e n t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e , the i n t e r v i e w e r proceeded from A c t i v i t i e s Workbook (Appendix E) to Career G r i d Workbook (Appendix F) to P l a n n i n g Workbook (Appendix G). CATEGORIZATION Upon completion of the i n t e r v i e w , the r e s e a r c h e r e x t r a c t e d i n c i d e n t s from the audiotape r e c o r d i n g s and recorded these on 3" x 5" note c a r d s . Data a n a l y s i s involved examining incidents for similarities and common factors. These note cards contained one incident and were typically recorded in the Interviewer's own words or paraphrased in accordance to their reporting of the incident. Each note card contained three components that comprised each incident. These three components were: a) who reported the incident b) what happened c) what the significant impact was The f i r s t step in the date analysis was classification of the incidents. This process involved grouping incidents into categories and developing descriptive statements of each grouping. The incidents were categorized according to the impact the incident had upon the career development of the adolescent. The aim of categorization was to determine the optimal balance between the general and the specific. This aim was sought by following Flanagan's (1954) guidelines in the selection of category headings: a) The headings must be clear-cut, logically organized and have an easily remembered structure. b) The t i t l e s require meanings without detailed definitions. c) The headings should be homogeneous and parallel in content and structure. d) The headings should be comprehensive and should fa c i l i t a t e findings by being easily applied. After a l l the incidents were summarized and recorded onto note cards, the development of the category system began. T h i s p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d g r o u p i n g i n c i d e n t s t h a t had common elements i n the impact s e c t i o n of each note c a r d . The b e g i n n i n g c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was a t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A s m a l l sample of the note c a r d s were s o r t e d , p l a c i n g I n c i d e n t s t h a t seemed s i m i l a r t o g e t h e r . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the r e s e a r c h e r made i n i t i a l c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s and c o n t i n u e d t o c l a s s i f y a d d i t i o n a l I n c i d e n t s i n t o them. The c a t e g o r i e s were r e v i e w e d and r e f i n e d u n t i l a l l I n c i d e n t s t h a t were s i m i l a r were p l a c e d . The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r each c a t e g o r y were re-examined i n terms of a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n them, and t h i s p r o c e s s was r e p e a t e d u n t i l the c a t e g o r i e s were com p l e t e . T h i s i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l c y c l e s t o d e v e l o p s a t i s f a c t o r y c a t e g o r i e s . c a t e g o r i e s were r e f i n e d i n an ongoing p r o c e s s as each r e v i e w of t h e c a t e g o r y t i t l e s r e s u l t e d i n some r e d e f i n i t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a f t e r s e v e r a l r e v i e w s , the c a t e g o r y scheme became c l e a r and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y stem seemed co m p l e t e . INDEPENDENT RATERS' CATEGORIZATION F o l l o w i n g the r e s e a r c h e r ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , t h r e e c a r d s were randomly s e l e c t e d from each of the s i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s f o r two independent r a t e r s t o c a t e g o r i z e . The r a t e r s were employed t o check the c a t e g o r y r e l i a b i l i t y . R a t e r A was a 28 y e a r o l d male, an e x p e r i e n c e d P a s t o r who was c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g on an advanced degree i n t h e o l o g y . R a t e r B was a 32 year o l d female who f o r m e r l y s e r v e d 10 y e a r s i n p o l i c e work and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The r a t e r s were b r i e f l y o r i e n t e d to t h e i r task with an e x p l a n a t i o n of how the events were gathered. Each i n c i d e n t was c a t e g o r i z e d on the b a s i s of how i t helped the ad o l e s c e n t i n h i s / h e r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . The r a t e r s were i n s t r u c t e d to take the w r i t t e n cards and to c a t e g o r i z e them a c c o r d i n g to the impact the event had and not on what happened. They were to look over a l l the c a t e g o r i e s f i r s t and ask any ques t i o n s as to the nature or meaning of c a t e g o r i e s , when the r a t e r I n d i c a t e d he/she was c l e a r on what to do, he/she proceeded with the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . 28 CHAPTER IV RESULTS In this C r i t i c a l incidents study on what facilitates the perceived career development of the adolescent during the process of the Partners Program, 18 participants reported a total of 302 incidents, a l l of which were positive. No hindering or negative incidents were reported, despite invitations to do so. The nature of the Interview—working through each workbook during the process—made i t possible to judge whether the program was completed. From these interviews, i t was concluded that 9 families had finished the program. On the average, dyads spent 10 hours in the program, ranging from 6-14 hours. A l l parents found the tasks to be clear and easy to follow. No families phoned the researcher for assistance during the program. upon completion of the Interviews, the incidents were summarized from the audiotape recordings onto Index cards. Through an Inductive process of gradual refinement, 16 categories emerged. The 302 incidents were sorted and resorted into groups with common meaning until they formed categories. During categorization, the researcher sought the optimal balance between the general and the specific. in the process of sorting cards, the development of the category system began. As many as 26 categories were developed, but upon 29 c l o s e r examination of common elements i n the impact s e c t i o n of each note c a r d , 16 c a t e g o r i e s seemed t o c l e a r l y emerge. The r e s e a r c h e r and the two independent r a t e r s c a t e g o r i z e d i n c i d e n t s i n t o the 16 c a t e g o r i e s . The r e s e a r c h e r c a t e g o r i z e d a l l 302 i n c i d e n t s , whereas the r a t e r s c a t e g o r i z e d a sample of 3 i n c i d e n t s from each category. F o l l o w i n g are the 16 c a t e g o r i e s with a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each category, and i l l u s t r a t e d by two concret e i n c i d e n t s t h a t were judged as p r o t o t y p i c a l i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . CATEGORIES 1. CRYSTALLIZED DIRECTION (17 i n c i d e n t s ) Some a d o l e s c e n t s seemed to have a ge n e r a l idea about t h e i r c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . For example, one teenager knew he wanted a care e r i n music. He r e p o r t e d he was abl e t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t he wanted to now narrow t h i s down to being a Gospel s i n g i n g e v a n g e l i s t . These a d o l e s c e n t s tended to r e p o r t i n c i d e n t s whereby there was a narrowing to a s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n . The a d o l e s c e n t f e l t s o m e t h i n g — h a v i n g an 'aha' experience or being a b l e to say, "This i s the one." Through d i s c u s s i o n with a f r i e n d , she r e a l i z e d she was on the r i g h t t r a c k and th a t the ca r e e r was the one f o r her. Through completing the program she was able t o narrow down ca r e e r c h o i c e s and pic k the one f o r her. 30 2. STRENGTHENED OR CONFIRMED DIRECTION (28 i n c i d e n t s ) Some people entered the program with a reasonable c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . T h i s c a t e g o r y contained events t h a t were re p o r t e d to p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y to a care e r t h a t had a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d . Through d i s c u s s i n g jobs besides my top ch o i c e s t h i s d i d not sway my care e r d i r e c t i o n but r a t h e r strengthened i t more. Through r e c e i v i n g some hands-on experience i n my career c h o i c e I f e l t my car e e r d i r e c t i o n was f u r t h e r a f f i r m e d . 3. EXPANDED POSSIBILITIES (28 i n c i d e n t s ) I n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d i d e n t i f y i n g a promising c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n or car e e r p o s s i b i l i t y . T h i s was not a d e f i n i t e c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n , but r e a l l y prevented the person from e i t h e r not r e a l i z i n g any care e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s or widening t h e i r c a r e e r range. One ado l e s c e n t r e p o r t e d having been l i b e r a t e d from a car e e r he thought he was d e s t i n e d to have s i n c e c h i l d h o o d . Through l i s t i n g her wide range of enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s helped her r e a l i z e t h a t she has many career p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Through d i s c u s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s unstuck him from a c a r e e r he dreamed of doing s i n c e c h i l d h o o d and enlarged h i s care e r p o o l . 4. GAINED INSIGHT INTO NATURE OF CHOICE (23 i n c i d e n t s ) P a r t i c i p a n t s r e a l i z e d how the ad o l e s c e n t would make car e e r c h o i c e s based on what they d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g the program. C l o s e r examination of pers o n a l v a l u e s , i n t e r e s t s , 31 and s t r e n g t h s , combined with a c l o s e r s c r u t i n y of a v a i l a b l e c a r e e r options helped them r e a l i z e how they c o u l d choose t h e i r c a r e e r s . They r e a l i z e d , o f t e n f o r the f i r s t time, t h a t c a r e e r c h o i c e s w i l l be made on the b a s i s of t h e i r own examination of themselves and of care e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Through examining scope of v a l u e s , I n t e r e s t s and s t r e n g t h s , she r e a l i z e d t h a t she should choose a caree r t h a t best f i t t e d them a l l . Through comparing l i k e s with predominant v a l u e s , I r e a l i z e d c a r e e r c h o i c e s w i l l be made by what care e r values I hold h i g h e s t . 5. ESTABLISHED VALUES PRIORITY ( 1 1 i n c i d e n t s ) One value Is e s t a b l i s h e d over another v a l u e . T h i s was done p r i m a r i l y by comparison. Adolescents r e p o r t e d a h i e r a r c h y of values and examined career p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n l i g h t of t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e s . Through d i s c u s s i n g job values she con s i d e r e d pursuing c a r e e r s t h a t meet predominant values a t the expense of other v a l u e s . By comparing top two care e r c h o i c e s , h e l p i n g others was c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s primary value i n a c a r e e r , over and above a l l other v a l u e s . 6. CRYSTALLIZED VALUES OR PISVALUED (21 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s c a t e g o r y contained i n c i d e n t s i n which the people r e p o r t e d t h a t there was e i t h e r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of something they valued or a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of values adhered t o . Through l i s t i n g c a r e e r values she r e a l i z e d minimal job pressure was mandatory as a care e r v a l u e . 32 Through examining enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s he r e a l i z e d elements he valued and elements he d i s v a l u e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s . 7. STIMULATED EXPLORATION (10 i n c i d e n t s ) I n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y d i s p l a y e d a c t i v e e x p l o r i n g and not j u s t t h i n k i n g through. Adolescents i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would get a ' t a s t e ' of a career by some kind of hands- on experience i n order to see whether or not they l i k e d i t . Through comparing c a r e e r s and career v a l u e s , t h i s s t i m u l a t e d e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o a c a r e e r by v o l u n t e e r i n g f o r 'hands-on experience.' Through r e a l i z i n g keen i n t e r e s t i n three c a r e e r s , I was s t i m u l a t e d to explore them by g e t t i n g a t a s t e of each one. 8. STIMULATED PREPARATION (30 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s c a t e g o r y went beyond g e t t i n g a ' t a s t e ' of a c a r e e r by i n c l u d i n g events t h a t prepared f o r a c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . D e f i n i t e plans were made 'now' to prepare, and high s c h o o l courses were s e l e c t e d f o r the upcoming year. I t d i d not, however, i n c l u d e p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e c o l l e g e c o u r s e s . Events r e p o r t e d a l s o encompassed job experience i n the f i e l d of i n t e r e s t . Through d i s c u s s i n g c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s I decided to prepare f o r my c a r e e r i n t e r e s t by g e t t i n g a part-time job i n the f i e l d . Through completing the program and d i s c u s s i n g c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n , the parent and the a d o l e s c e n t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y planned out the next two years of high s c h o o l courses. 33 9. STIMULATED FURTHER EVALUATION OF OPTIONS (21 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s encompassed a t h i n k i n g - t h r o u g h process whereby the ad o l e s c e n t weighed out, p i n p o i n t e d problems and r e c o n s i d e r e d o p t i o n s f o r a more informed c h o i c e . I t i n c l u d e d e v a l u a t i n g c a r e e r s of i n t e r e s t as w e l l as ones t h a t had been s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen. Through d i s c u s s i o n with a person who was i n the f i e l d of chosen c a r e e r , the d e t a i l s of the job were thoroughly i n v e s t i g a t e d , which caused him to r e c o n s i d e r and f u r t h e r evaluate t h i s c a r e e r . Through d i s c u s s i n g s t r e n g t h s w i t h i n enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s , he began weighing the pros and cons of s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s more c l o s e l y to decide on a s p e c i f i c c a r e e r . 10. ELIMINATED OR QUESTIONED OPTIONS (20 i n c i d e n t s ) Upon c l o s e r examination of pe r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and a t t r i b u t e s , the ad o l e s c e n t r e a l i z e d t h a t c e r t a i n c a r e e r s were e l i m i n a t e d . There was no focus on s p e c i f i c o p tions r e s u l t i n g from the proc e s s . Through examining my a c t i v i t i e s , I e l i m i n a t e d a ca r e e r p o s s i b i l i t y and r e a l i z e d an a c t i v i t y would o n l y remain a hobby. Through comparing ca r e e r v a l u e s , t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a s h o r t e r job l i s t and e l i m i n a t e d c e r t a i n f i e l d s . 11. PLANNED FINANCES FOR FURTHER EDUCATION (11 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s c a t e g o r y encompassed f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e s c h o o l i n g . Parents and students r e p o r t e d events t h a t r e v e a l e d how f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n would be paid f o r - - s c h o l a r s h l p s , part-time jobs, p a r e n t a l support. Through r e a l i z i n g the high c o s t of p o s t - h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , the a d o l e s c e n t planned p a r t - t i m e employment now and throughout c o l l e g e to pay f o r her s c h o o l i n g . Through d i s c u s s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the a d o l e s c e n t and parent d i d a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of each i n s t i t u t i o n to determine where he'd get the most f o r h i s money. 12. EXPLORED EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND CONSIDERED EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS (23 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s c a t e g o r y r e f e r r e d to f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n beyond high s c h o o l . E d u c a t i o n a l programs were examined through c o l l e g e catalogues to l o c a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t o f f e r e d t r a i n i n g i n chosen c a r e e r s . L o c a t i o n and c o s t were common f a c t o r s In the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . No d e f i n i t e s c h o o l s were c h o s e n — t h i s was merely an e x p l o r a t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . One dyad r e p o r t e d t h a t through t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n process they d i s c o v e r e d a l t e r n a t i v e education they had not p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . Through r e a l i z i n g t e n t a t i v e c a r e e r c h o i c e s , I checked out i n s t i t u t i o n s and programs t h a t prepared me f o r them. Through r e s e a r c h i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e s i n c o l l e g e c a t a l o g u e s , I r e a l i z e d my c a r e e r c h o i c e s r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d o n l y i n c e r t a i n s c h o o l s . 13. INCREASED MOTIVATION (14 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s c a t e g o r y encompassed a broad range of i n c i d e n t s t h a t i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n i n the a d o l e s c e n t ' s career p l a n n i n g . The a d o l e s c e n t was motivated to do something t h a t c o u l d f o s t e r the r e a l i z a t i o n of a p o t e n t i a l l y f u l f i l l i n g c a r e e r . T h i s i n c l u d e d such t h i n g s as brushing up on schoolwork, examining p o s s i b l e c a r e e r c h o i c e s , and i n q u i r i n g about p e r s p e c t i v e j o b s . Through working i n a part-time job I hated, I was f u r t h e r motivated to work towards a f u l f i l l i n g c a r e e r . Through r e a l i z i n g what he could do to reach c a r e e r g o a l s , t h i s i n c r e a s e d h i s m o t i v a t i o n to do w e l l i n the coming s c h o o l year. 14. INCREASED CONFIDENCE (8 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s category i n c l u d e d events i n which the ado l e s c e n t l e a r n e d something p o s i t i v e about h i m / h e r s e l f . Adolescents r e p o r t e d t h a t the process of working through the program helped them r e a l i z e 'they c o u l d do i t . ' Through comparing c a r e e r s and r e a l i z i n g she co u l d do many, t h i s b o l s t e r e d her confidence i n her a b i l i t i e s . Through r e c o g n i z i n g emerging p a t t e r n s about h e r s e l f throughout the program, t h i s gave her s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n pursuing c a r e e r c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e to her. 15. HELPED ASSESS QR PICTURE ONESELF (16 i n c i d e n t s ) In t h i s category, both a d o l e s c e n t s and parents r e p o r t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the program helped them see the ado l e s c e n t as he/she r e a l l y was. They r e p o r t e d t h a t the ado l e s c e n t f e l t ' i n touch' with s e l f , and was ab l e to p i c t u r e o n e s e l f more a c c u r a t e l y . Through c o n s i d e r i n g my l i k e s , values and s t r e n g t h s , I f e l t I had a much more comprehensive view of myself as a person. Through completing the program, he f e l t he had a b e t t e r understanding of h i m s e l f . 36 16. STRENGTHENED FAMILY NETWORK (21 i n c i d e n t s ) T h i s c a t e g o r y contained events t h a t had a p o s i t i v e Impact on the f a m i l y . I n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t h a t seemed to enhance f a m i l y togetherness and f a m i l y f l e x i b i l i t y . Some parents and a d o l e s c e n t s r e p o r t e d a ' f r e e i n g up' to be themselves as a r e s u l t of partner d i s c u s s i o n s . Through f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n , she began f e e l i n g understood and t h i s helped c l e a r up some f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s . Through s h a r i n g and d i s c o v e r i n g more about each other i n the A c t i v i t i e s Workbook, the a d o l e s c e n t knew parents were behind her i n c a r e e r p l a n s . RELIABILITY Two independent r a t e r s c a t e g o r i z e d a sample of the 302 I n c i d e n t s gathered by the r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s sample c o n s i s t e d of 3 cards s e l e c t e d from each of the 16 c a t e g o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g to Anderson and N i l s s o n (1964), r e l i a b i l i t y can be judged by the degree of agreement by independent judges i n the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n scheme. Raters A and B achieved r e l i a b i l i t y of 100%. These f i g u r e s suggest t h a t the c a t e g o r y scheme i s a r e l i a b l e r e f l e c t i o n of the r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s . INCIDENT FREQUENCY The frequency and percentage of r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n each categ o r y i s found i n Table 1. The average number of r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s was 16.61, with a range of 5-22 i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d . As can be seen by the range, the p a r t i c i p a n t s v a r i e d a great d e a l i n the number of i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d . In examining t h i s f u r t h e r , parents produced 147 i n c i d e n t s with a range of between 5-22 i n c i d e n t s . In comparison, a d o l e s c e n t s produced 155 i n c i d e n t s , ranging from 11-22 i n c i d e n t s (see Table 2). The average number of i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by the parents was 16.33. The average number of I n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by the a d o l e s c e n t s was 17.22. CATEGORIES PARTICIPATION RATE The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r the percentage of s u b j e c t s represented i n each c a t e g o r y i s r e p o r t e d i n Table 3. A c a t e g o r y i s formed as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t people independently r e p o r t i n g the same kind of event. When s e v e r a l people r e p o r t the same kind of I n c i d e n t , i t g r e a t l y strengthens the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a c a t e g o r y was w e l l - founded . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s one way of I n d i c a t i n g the soundness of a category, s i n c e agreement among independent people i s one c r i t e r i o n f o r determining o b j e c t i v i t y (Kalper, 1964). I t I n d i c a t e s the extent to which d i f f e r e n t people r e p o r t the same kind of event as f a c i l i t a t i n g an aim and i s analogous to the use of i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e agreement by independent observers to achieve o b j e c t i v i t y . 38 TABLE 1 FREQUENCY & PERCENTAGE OF REPORTED INCIDENTS WITHIN EACH CATEGORY CATEGORY F. % PERCENT (n = 302 i n c i d e n t s ) 1. C r y s t a l l i z e d D i r e c t i o n 17 5.6 2. Strengthened or Confirmed D i r e c t i o n 28 9.3 3. Expanded P o s s i b i l i t i e s 28 9.3 4. Gained I n s i g h t i n t o Nature of choice 23 7.6 5. E s t a b l i s h Values P r i o r i t y 11 3.6 6. C r y s t a l l i z e d Values or Di s v a l u e d 21 7.0 7. Stimulated E x p l o r a t i o n 10 3.3 8. Stimulated P r e p a r a t i o n 30 9.9 9. Stimulated F u r t h e r E v a l u a t i o n of 21 7.0 Options 10. E l i m i n a t e d or Questioned Options 20 6.6 11. Planned Finances f o r Fu r t h e r 11 3.6 Edu c a t i o n 12. Explor e d E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s 23 7.6 and Considered E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements 13. Increased M o t i v a t i o n 14 4.6 14. Increased Confidence 8 2.1 15. Helped Assess or P i c t u r e Oneself 16 5.3 16. Strengthened Family Network 21 7.0 39 TABLE 2 NO. OF REPORTED INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY AS REPORTED BY PARENTS & ADOLESCENTS CATEGORY (n = 302 i n c i d e n t s ) 1. C r y s t a l l i z e d D i r e c t i o n 2. Strengthened or Confirmed D i r e c t i o n 3. Expanded P o s s i b i l i t i e s 4. Gained I n s i g h t i n t o Nature of Choice 5. E s t a b l i s h Values P r i o r i t y 6. C r y s t a l l i z e d Values or Dis v a l u e d 7. Stimulated E x p l o r a t i o n 8. Stimulated P r e p a r a t i o n 9. Stimulated F u r t h e r E v a l u a t i o n of Options 10. E l i m i n a t e d or Questioned Options 11. Planned Finances f o r Fu r t h e r Education 12. Explor e d E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s and Considered E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements 13. Increased M o t i v a t i o n 14. Increased Confidence 15. Helped Assess or P i c t u r e Oneself # OF INCIDENTS REPORTED BY ADOLESCENTS 10 16 10 12 11 6 13 11 13 5 13 11 3 8 # OF INCIDENTS REPORTED BY PARENTS 12 18 11 10 4 17 10 7 6 10 3 5 8 16. Strengthened Family Network 14 40 TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS REPORTING INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY CATEGORY PERCENTAGE PROPORTION FOR EACH CATEGORY - PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS REPRESENTED - % OF % OF ADOLESCENTS PARENTS COMBINED PARENTS & ADOLESCENTS TOTAL 1. C r y s t a l l i z e d D i r e c t i o n 55.6 2. Strengthened or 77.7 Confirmed D i r e c t i o n 3. Expanded P o s s i b i l i t i e s 66.7 4. Gained i n s i g h t i n t o 55.6 Nature of Choice 5. E s t a b l i s h Values 44.4 P r i o r i t y 6. C r y s t a l l i z e d Values 55.6 or D i s v a l u e d 7. Stimulated E x p l o r a t i o n 44.4 8. Stimulated P r e p a r a t i o n 66.7 9. Stimulated F u r t h e r 77.7 E v a l u a t i o n of Options 10. E l i m i n a t e d or 77.7 Questioned Options 11. Planned Finances f o r 55.6 Fu r t h e r E d u c a t i o n 12. E x p l o r e d E d u c a t i o n a l 77.7 I n s t i t u t i o n s and Considered E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements 13. Increased M o t i v a t i o n 66.7 14. Increased Confidence 33.3 15. Helped Assess or 66.7 P i c t u r e Oneself 16. Strengthened Family 44.4 Network 55.6 55.6 66.7 55.6 55.6 66.7 33.3 66.7 55.6 44.4 55.6 55.6 22.2 55.6 66.7 55.6 55.6 66.7 66.7 55.6 50.0 61.1 38.9 66 .7 66.7 61.1 55.6 66.7 44.4 44.4 66.7 50.0 41 CASE STUDY One of the nine dyads t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study was a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r examination. The r e s u l t s of t h e i r experience d u r i n g the process of the P a r t n e r s Program e x e m p l i f y the process experiences i n completing the P a r t n e r s Program. During Workbook #1—the A c t i v i t i e s Workbook—(Appendix E ) , both parent and a d o l e s c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n was c r y s t a l l i z e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s and h i s v a l u e s , thereby h e l p i n g him to r e a l i z e a 'singlemindedness' about h i s c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . Values I d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s workbook i n c r e a s e d h i s m o t i v a t i o n to pursue h i s c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . I love the c h a l l e n g e and r i s k i n v o l v e d i n pursuing my c a r e e r c h o i c e which motivates me to p r a c t i c e my music more and to study harder to achieve the g o a l of making i t In music m i n i s t r y . The parent a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t seemed to c r y s t a l l i z e h i s values In 'more depth' than he had done bef o r e , s t a t i n g t h a t the format i n t h i s workbook helped him be more s p e c i f i c . The i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n of v a l u e s , a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e s and s t r e n g t h s motivated the a d o l e s c e n t to advance In the program because he b e l i e v e d t h a t the workbook e x e r c i s e s helped him 'work through' h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s about p r o s p e c t s . In workbook #2—The Career G r i d Workbook—(Appendix F ) , the a d o l e s c e n t a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n "Choices" computer car e e r program. The e x e r c i s e s i n t h i s workbook c h a l l e n g e d 42 him to look a t c a r e e r values which motivated him to explore avenues t h a t would meet these c a r e e r v a l u e s . Both parent and a d o l e s c e n t r e p o r t e d that t h i s workbook and the i n f o r m a t i o n gained from "Choices" confirmed h i s career c h o i c e , even a f t e r e x p l o r i n g other c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . They r e p o r t e d a 'narrowing down' of not o n l y c a r e e r options but more s p e c i f i c a l l y , of c a r e e r o p t i o n s w i t h i n the same f i e l d , as a r e s u l t of the e x e r c i s e s i n Workbook #2. By comparing s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s w i t h i n the f i e l d of music i n the t a b l e of d i f f e r e n c e s , I r e a l i z e d t h a t I wanted to pursue the avenue of music t h a t provided the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e or r i s k f o r me and gave me the freedom to c r e a t e and perform. The process of completing the c a r e e r g r i d and working through the t a b l e of d i f f e r e n c e s when comparing c a r e e r s and c a r e e r values helped the a d o l e s c e n t r e a l i z e p a r e n t a l support i n h i s c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . The parent r e p o r t e d : At t h i s p o i n t i n the program, he r e a l i z e d our support even though I f e l t I had to p l a y the ' d e v i l ' s advocate' i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c a r e e r s and what was i n v o l v e d i n each one. The t e n t a t i v e c a r e e r choice a r r i v e d a t i n workbook #2, motivated the a d o l e s c e n t to c a r r y on Workbook &3--the Pl a n n i n g Workbook—(Appendix C). Here, both parent and a d o l e s c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t the c o s t of education f o r h i s c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n was c l a r i f i e d . The a d o l e s c e n t s t a t e d : When examining the p o s s i b l e u n i v e r s i t i e s to a t t e n d , we r e a l i z e d the tremendous c o s t of e d u c a t i o n , which c h a l l e n g e d me to a p p l y myself to my s t u d i e s and work towards complete academic s c h o l a r s h i p . T h i s workbook seemed to b r i n g new l i g h t to the task of e v a l u a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a more r e a l i s t i c and manageable way. The parent r e p o r t e d : The p l a n n i n g workbook caused my son and I to do a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of each i n s t i t u t i o n a t l e n g t h concerning h i s career c h o i c e , i n e f f e c t , we seemed to determine where he'd get the most f o r h i s d o l l a r v a l u e . The e x e r c i s e s i n the workbook r e s u l t e d i n a thorough examination of i n s t i t u t i o n s and v i s i t s to campuses, r e c e i v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n c a l e n d a r s and speaking with i n s t i t u t i o n p e r s o n n e l . A f t e r t h i s was done, the a d o l e s c e n t and parent together decided where the best c h o i c e of i n s t i t u t i o n was a d e c i s i o n based on teamwork i n r e s e a r c h i n g s c h o o l s i n h i s s p e c i f i c c a r e e r . The o v e r a l l e f f e c t In the a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r development i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case study was t h a t the I n d i v i d u a l f e l t t h a t the P a r t n e r s Program strengthened and confirmed h i s career d i r e c t i o n and Increased h i s m o t i v a t i o n to pursue h i s c a r e e r c h o i c e . He s t a t e d : "The program helped my f a t h e r and I to see my c a r e e r plans more c l e a r l y and helped me r e c o g n i z e our d i f f e r e n c e s . " The parent r e p o r t e d t h a t the P a r t n e r s Program was v e r y v a l u a b l e In t h a t i t provided a s t r u c t u r e d s e t t i n g t h a t gave, s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n and focus on my son and t h i s helped him focus on h i s c a r e e r plans i n much more depth then we've ever done be f o r e , even though we t a l k e d c o n s i d e r a b l y about h i s career plans f o r about two or three y e a r s . 44 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION STATEMENT OF THE RESULTS The f i n d i n g s of t h i s e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggest some answers to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , "What happens t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n car e e r p l a n n i n g d u r i n g the process of the Pa r t n e r s Program?" The 18 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study produced 302 i n c i d e n t s out of which 16 c a t e g o r i e s emerged; the 100'% i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y demonstrated s t r o n g r e l i a b i l i t y i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s . Each c a t e g o r y r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d by the high p r o p o r t i o n of s u b j e c t s represented i n each catego r y (Table 3 ) . From a t o t a l of 16 c a t e g o r i e s , 13 had 50% or more of the s u b j e c t s represented w i t h i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . The lowest r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the 16 c a t e g o r i e s was 38.9% (Table 3 ) . The s i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s t h a t emerged from the study were: C r y s t a l l i z e d D i r e c t i o n , Strengthened or Confirmed D i r e c t i o n , Expanded P o s s i b i l i t i e s , Gained I n s i g h t Into Nature of Choice, R e e s t a b l i s h Values P r i o r i t y , C r y s t a l l i z e d Values or D i s v a l u e d , Stimulated E x p l o r a t i o n , Stimulated P r e p a r a t i o n , Stimulated F u r t h e r E v a l u a t i o n of Options, E l i m i n a t e d or Questioned Options, Planned Finances f o r Fur t h e r Education, Explored E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s and Considered E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements, Increased M o t i v a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e , Helped Assess or P i c t u r e o n e s e l f , and Strengthened Family Network. These c a t e g o r i e s seemed to r e f l e c t what Cochran (1985) s t a t e d as the t h r e e f o l d aim of the P a r t n e r s Program: to f o s t e r career development, i n p a r t i c u l a r , s e l f awareness, career awareness and d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . S e l f awareness, the f i r s t aim, seemed to be the u n d e r l y i n g theme i n many of the c a t e g o r i e s . In my experience with these a d o l e s c e n t s , i n c r e a s e d s e l f awareness helped them ga i n I n s i g h t i n t o the nature of c h o i c e , as i t a p p l i e s to c a r e e r s . For example, one dyad r e p o r t e d t h a t the program helped the a d o l e s c e n t get a " b i r d ' s eye view" of the youth's s t r e n g t h s and a b i l i t i e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n h i m s e l f , and as a r e s u l t , he r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s l i b e r a t e d him from being f i x a t e d on o n l y one c a r e e r . The c a t e g o r i e s that seemed to hinge around s e l f awareness were: E s t a b l i s h Values P r i o r i t y , C r y s t a l l i z e d Values or D i s v a l u e d , Increased M o t i v a t i o n , Increased Confidence, Helped Assess or P i c t u r e Oneself. T h i s aspect of the program seemed to be very s t r o n g . Parents r e p o r t e d t h a t one of the most t h r i l l i n g t h i n g s t h a t happened d u r i n g the process of the program was that the a d o l e s c e n t was becoming more aware of h i m / h e r s e l f . From t h a t , parents r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s seemed to g i v e the youth a " p l a t f o r m " from which to help them with d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . I t seemed t h a t the more the a d o l e s c e n t c o u l d c o n c e p t u a l i z e who he/she was as a person, the g r e a t e r t h e i r a b i l i t y to choose 46 c a r e e r s . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e d a r i g o r o u s examination of t h e i r p e r c e i v e d v a l u e s . Two c a t e g o r i e s — E s t a b l i s h Values P r i o r i t y , c r y s t a l l i z e d Values or D i s v a l u e d — r e f l e c t e d t h i s . Recognizing p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and examining them, even to the p o i n t of c r e a t i n g a values h i e r a r c h y , helped the a d o l e s c e n t s when approaching c a r e e r c h o i c e s . One dyad r e p o r t e d t h a t the ad o l e s c e n t had gone through c h o i c e s c a r e e r program d u r i n g the P a r t n e r s Program. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Par t n e r s Program helped them g r e a t l y because of i t s indepth nature. I t a s s i s t e d them i n e x p l o r i n g the youth's p e r s o n a l values i n l i g h t of car e e r c h o i c e s , whereas they r e p o r t e d t h a t "Choices j u s t s p i t out a number of ca r e e r o p t i o n s . " C a t e g o r i e s that seemed to r e f l e c t d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s were: Expanded P o s s i b i l i t i e s , S t i m u l a t e d E x p l o r a t i o n , s t i m u l a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n . one ado l e s c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t once she had r e a l i z e d her car e e r d i r e c t i o n , she immediately made p l a n s . Her parent s t a t e d t h a t the day a f t e r the program completion, the a d o l e s c e n t a p p l i e d and obtained a summer job to save money f o r c o l l e g e . The m o t i v a t i o n to do t h i s was d e r i v e d from f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n which enabled the ado l e s c e n t to r e a l i z e the l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l support her parents c o u l d o f f e r her. The second major aim of the program was to strengthen the youths' f a m i l y support network. The 9 dyads a l l r e p o r t e d some measure of f a m i l y cohesion as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program. Three dyads r e p o r t e d t h a t 47 throughout the program, workbook e x e r c i s e s lead to f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n s . These d i s c u s s i o n s would i n v o l v e the dyad, the other parent and o f t e n other s i b l i n g s . They repo r t e d t h a t these d i s c u s s i o n s brought the f a m i l y together and helped f a m i l y members b e t t e r understand each o t h e r . One f a m i l y r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s of the program provided a "resource base" f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e , i f i t were ever r e q u i r e d . Another f a m i l y s a i d t h a t the P a r t n e r s Program provided a f i r m foundation f o r care e r p l a n n i n g and t h a t i t helped them s t a r t the ado l e s c e n t i n the ongoing process of ca r e e r p l a n n i n g . The l a s t aim of the program was to s t i m u l a t e young persons to make b e t t e r use of care e r resources and programs w i t h i n s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s (Cochran 1985). Two c a t e g o r i e s r e f l e c t e d t h i s aim: Planned Finances f o r Furth e r E d u c a t i o n was the f i r s t , and Explor e d E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and Considered E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements was the second. There was a s t r o n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the ad o l e s c e n t s i n these c a t e g o r i e s : E x p l o r i n g and C o n s i d e r i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s c a t e g o r y had a 77.7% p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e . T h i s a c t i v e category produced i n c i d e n t s t h a t I n d i c a t e d most a d o l e s c e n t s weren't aware of such t h i n g s as: the high c o s t of ed u c a t i o n , the e d u c a t i o n a l requirements f o r a chosen c a r e e r , the type of i n s t i t u t i o n f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e , and e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s . Perhaps the r i c h n e s s of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Pa r t n e r s Program Is best r e f l e c t e d by the r e p o r t of one parent. 48 The P a r t n e r s Program takes a l o t of time to do a good job on, but I t was time w e l l spent, even though we are a very busy f a m i l y . LIMITATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS OF THE STUDY There are some f a c t o r s t h a t l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b l l i t y of these r e s u l t s . A primary l i m i t a t i o n was t h a t 6 dyads dropped out of the i n i t i a l 15 dyads t h a t comprised the v o l u n t e e r s i n t h i s study. Two reasons were given f o r t h i s dropout r a t e . One was t h a t p a r e n t - c h i l d t e n s i o n terminated p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Another was t h a t the program r e q u i r e s a s i z a b l e time commitment. T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s study, parent- c h i l d t e n s i o n and time commitment reduce p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P a r t n e r s Program. A second l i m i t a t i o n to the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s was the s i z e and composition of the sample. The s u b j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s and formed a smal l group of a d o l e s c e n t s i n the e x p l o r a t o r y stages of career development. The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , are g e n e r a l l z a b l e o n l y to the middle c l a s s , c h u r c h - a t t e n d i n g f a m i l i e s t h a t these v o l u n t e e r s r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i r d l y , the f a c t t h a t the i n c i d e n t s were obtained through s e l f - r e p o r t mode cou l d r a i s e q u e s t i o n s concerning the f i n d i n g s : Were the r e s u l t s developmental or were the s u b j e c t s j u s t r e p o r t i n g what f e l t good? Do the r e s u l t s of t h i s program hold over time? F o u r t h l y , the c a t e g o r i e s were e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature and the value of each catego r y c o u l d be s t u d i e d under i t s own s t r e n g t h . 49 F i f t h l y , c a r e e r development i s an ongoing process and these f i n d i n g s o n l y r e p o r t r e s u l t s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c time frame. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggest a number of p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Most I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there seems to be a potency of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n career c o u n s e l l i n g . Family i n s i g h t and f a m i l y g e t - t o g e t h e r s can provide a powerful framework f o r working with a d o l e s c e n t s i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g . That t h i s has not been a t r a d i t i o n , i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , can be c o n s i d e r e d an o v e r s i g h t . Career c o u n s e l l i n g courses and programs are a v a i l a b l e but there i s l i t t l e or no involvement with f a m i l i e s . Based on my experience with these f a m i l i e s , c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d f i n d a powerful a l l y i n c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g by encouraging and implementing f a m i l y involvement. Due to time Involvement and e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s of c o u n s e l l i n g , the P a r t n e r s Program pr o v i d e s a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s t r u c t u r e t h a t r e l i e v e s the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r from both of these a r e a s . Furthermore, parents want to help t h e i r c h i l d r e n In c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s but don't know how (Lea, 1976; B r a t c h e r , 1982; Brighouse, 1985). C h i l d r e n expect parents to be i n f l u e n c e s and h e l p e r s In c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s ( B i r k , 1979; M i t c h e l l , 1978). T h i s program pr o v i d e s an adequate framework f o r both parents and a d o l e s c e n t s to work together i n career p l a n n i n g . 50 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have an enormous h e u r i s t i c value to the d e v e l o p i n g f i e l d of career c o u n s e l l i n g . Since the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r g e n e r a l i z a b l l i t y , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to c o n f i r m the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s study. A l a r g e r sample with a more v a r i e d composition i s recommended. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study could be conducted to see i f the e f f e c t s of t h i s program remain potent f o r extended p e r i o d s of time. By conducting t h i s type of study, It may be determined whether the r e s u l t s were developmental or whether the s u b j e c t s were j u s t r e p o r t i n g what f e l t good. The c a t e g o r i e s t h a t emerged could be examined i n order to determine the value of each unique category. I f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was conducted on these c a t e g o r i e s , would themes emerge t h a t c o u l d f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e parents i n a s s i s t i n g a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r planning? Since i t has been determined t h a t parents are a v a l u a b l e resource f o r a d o l e s c e n t s * c a r e e r p l a n n i n g (Palmer & Cochran 1987), f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be launched to e v a l u a t e v a r i o u s combinations of s e r v i c e s In the e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n s of parent and counselor r e s o u r c e s . SUMMARY In t h i s study examining how the P a r t n e r s Program i s e f f e c t i v e , s i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s emerged from the 302 i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d as process events f o r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . Each 51 c a t e g o r y demonstrated c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the s u b j e c t s ' r e p o r t i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h seem to v e r i f y the s t a t e d alms of the P a r t n e r s Program. There seems to be a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s e l f awareness i n c r e a s e s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making. Family .involvement i n the a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r e e r plans strengthens both the f a m i l y network and the a d o l e s c e n t ' s confidence i n choosing c a r e e r s . The p o t e n t i a l of i n v o l v i n g parents i n a d o l e s c e n t c a r e e r p l a n n i n g seems to be v e r y potent. Based upon the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w s and the c a t e g o r i e s t h a t emerged from the r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s , the P a r t n e r s Program i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l In the c a r e e r p l a n n i n g of a d o l e s c e n t s . T h i s study i s o n l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e to a middle c l a s s , c h u r c h - a t t e n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n . 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The career c o n v e r s a t i o n : T r a i n i n g parents to help t h e i r c h i l d r e n make care e r d e c i s i o n s . E d u c a t i o n a l Resources Information c e n t r e , ERIC Document ED159534. Palmer, s . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Parent involvement i n c a r e e r development of c h i l d r e n . D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Palmer, s . & Cochran, L. (1988). Parents as agents of c a r e e r development. J o u r n a l of Counseling Psychology, 35., 71-76. Roberts, J . P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Survey shows l i t t l e change i n students c o l l e g e a s p i r a t i o n s . P u b l i c Education, 14, 1- 3. S c h o f f n e r , J . & Kleimer, R. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Parent education f o r the p a r e n t a l r o l e i n c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . The Family C o o r d i n a t o r , 22, 419-427. schulenberg, J . , vondracek, F., & c r o u t e r , A. (1984). The i n f l u e n c e of the f a m i l y on v o c a t i o n a l development. J o u r n a l of Marriage and the Family, 46, 129-143. Super, D. (1957). The psychology of c a r e e r s . New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s . Super, D. (1963). V o c a t i o n a l development i n adolescence and e a r l y adulthood: tasks and behaviours. In D. Super, R. S t a r i s h e v s k y , N. M a t l i n & J . Jordaan (Eds.), Career development: s e l f - c o n c e p t theory, (pp. 79-95). New York: C o l l e g e Entrance Examination Board. Super, D. (1980). A l i f e - s p a n , l i f e - s p a c e approach to c a r e e r development. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l Development, 16., 282-298. Super, D., Thompson, A., Lindeman, R., Jordaan, J . & Myers, R. (1979). Career Development Inventory. Palo A l t o : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s . Thompson, M. (1978). Choices and c a r e e r : Free to choose about c a r e e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l Resources Information Center, ERIC document ED 197884. Trudeau-Brosseau, L., Brosseau, P., C a h r e t t e , c , & B o i s s i e r e , J . (1982). What w i l l they do? Quebec: Les E n t e r p r i s e s C u l t u r e l l e s Enc. HELPING YOUR CHILD SET A CAREER DIRECTION: IHCftWttRSPOOGAAM 56 APPENDIX A A Brief Introduction to the Partner's Program Larry Cochran, Ph.D. Aims The aims of the program are threefold. One major objective is to foster career development. In particular, the program concentrates on self awareness, on career awareness, and on decision and planning capabilities. The second major objective i s to strengthen a youth's family network of support as he or she seeks to implement a career. The last aim i s to stimulate young persons to make better use of career resources and programs within schools and colleges. Description of Workbooks The Partner's Program consists of a parent manual and three workbooks. The manual orients parents to the program, stressing the quality of communication and involvement necessary for a successful partnership and stressing certain safeguards. The exercises of each workbook were designed both to stimulate parent-child discussions and to forward basic steps of career planning. Activities Self-Exploration Workbook This workbook attempts to heighten awareness of the known (one's current range of act i v i t i e s ) in order to begin exploring the unknown (work a c t i v i t i e s ) . Once a l i s t of enjoyable activities i s developed, the parent asks what his or her child likes about each, what values are involved and what strengths are shown. From notes, both partners search through the l i s t s of likes, values, and strengths to identify ones that recur. These central themes are used as an i n i t i a l basis for brainstorming a l i s t of potential occupations and launching a search. Career Grid Workbook A career grid i s a visual frame for organizing a decision (See Cochran, Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 1983, p.67-77). Fi r s t , through tests, career information, and so on, partners are directed to expand and then narrow a l i s t of suitable occupations. Second, through tests, consultation, and so on, they are directed to expand and then narrow a l i s t of career values. Expansion and contraction i s a strategy that allows major principles of decision making to be incorporated into the program, including use of available resources, and that fosters a sense of working together. After occupations are rated on each value, partners are guided through systematic comparison and reasonably thorough deliberation. The workbook ond9 with a tentative) decision. For many, this decision 13 apt to bo a form of practice, but for those who muat act noon, i t might be n flrnt step toward implementing a direction. 57 P l a n n i n g Workbook Through a s e r i e s of s t e p s , the workbook guides p a r t n e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or e d u c a t i o n , d e t e r m i n i n g entrance requirements, e s t i m a t i n g c o s t s and r e s o u r c e s , and improving o n e s e l f . The workbook a l s o i n c l u d e s t h r e e s c e n a r i o s to s t r e n g t h e n awarensss of key terms l i k e means, o b s t a c l e s , c o n t i n g e n c i e s , f a l l - b a c k o p t i o n s , and so on. E s s e n t i a l l y , parent and c h i l d work together to form a reasonable c a r e e r p l a n . Development of Program The program i s based upon two t h e o r i e s of development. In U r i e Bronfenbrenner's t h e o r y of human development, development i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n p a r t by the q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s a person has. The developmental impact of a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s enhanced i f members of a dyad pay a t t e n t i o n to one another, f e e l t h a t they are doing something t o g e t h e r , develop s t r o n g and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f e e l i n g s f o r one another, and move toward r e c i p r o c i t y and more even balance of power. The e x e r c i s e s of the program r e q u i r e paying a t t e n t i o n and working t o g e t h e r . In the manual, parents are i n s t r u c t e d t o s t r i v e f o r warmth, r e c i p r o c i t y , and m u t u a l i t y of power. In s h o r t , the program i s designed t o enhance c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a p a r t n e r s h i p or primary dyad around the youth's c a r e e r development. In Donald Super's theory of c a r e e r development, a c a r e e r i s c o n c e i v e d as a p r o g r e s s i o n through v a r i o u s s t a g e s . P r o g r e s s i o n depends upon the completion of c a r e e r develpment tasks t h a t are unique f o r each stage. In l a t e adolescence and e a r l y adulthood, which i s the focus of t h i s program, the core ta.-.ks are c r y s t a l l i z i n g , s p e c i f y i n g , and implementing a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . To complete these t a s k s adequately r e q u i r e s the development of c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and competencies i n v o l v i n g p l a n f u l n e s s , d e c i s o n s k i l l s , i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p r a i s a l , and an e x p l o r a t o r y a t t i t u d e . I f a person emerges with adequate awareness of s e l f and o c c u p a t i o n s , d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g competency, h i s or her c a p a c i t y t o c r y s t a l l i z e , s p e c i f y and implement, a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i s apt t o be enhanced. In the P a r t n e r ' s Program, the e x e r c i s e s concern c a r e e r development t a s k s . However, the e x e r c i s e s a l s o are a v e h i c l e f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s a t l e a s t on the t o p i c of c a r e e r . The complex and p e r s o n a l nature of the workbook e x e r c i s e s i n v i t e those q u a l i t i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e a h i g h e r q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t u r n , a s t r o n g e r p a r t n e r s h i p i s apt to improve the q u a l i t y with which- the workbook e x e r c i s e s are completed. The a c t u a l program was r o f i n o d through f i e l d t e s t a with s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s , i n v o l v i n g 20-25 hours with each f a m i l y . These families helped the authors to eliminate unnecessary complexity, s i m p l i f y , and e l a b o r a t e . Subsequently, the 58 r e v i s e d form of the program was o f f e r e d t o a group o f twenty f a m i l i e s who were compared w i t h twenty c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s (who l a t e r completed the program as w e l l ) . U s i n g t h e C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y , t h e F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and C o h e s i o n E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d t o a s s e s s t h e q u a l i t y o f the p a r t n e r s h i p a n d , c a r e e r development, and i n t e r v i e w s , t h e s t u d y found t h a t y o u t h who worked t h r o u g h t h e program w i t h a p a r e n t showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n c a r e e r development and p a r e n t a l b o n d i n g . The a n t i c i p a t e d changes, f o l l o w i n g B r o n f e n b r e n n e r and S u p e r , were b o t h c o n f i r m e d . A l s o , a wide v a r i e t y o f p r a c t i c a l c a r e e r a c t i v i t i e s were s t i m u l a t e d . R o l e o f t h e C o u n s e l l o r W h i l e t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f ways a c o u n s e l l o r might use the P a r t n e r ' s Program t o s u p p o r t a b r o a d e r c a r e e r program i n s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e , and i n t u r n , t h e r e a r e many ways one m i g h t s u p p o r t p a r e n t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t , l e t us c o n s i d e r a minimum. F i r s t , s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e s h o u l d be aware o f what c a r e e r r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . I d e a l l y , a l i s t o f r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be handed out i n c l u d i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , H o l l a n d ' s S e l f - D i r e c t e d S e a r c h , DISCOVER, CHOICES, bo o k s , o r whatever i s a v a i l a b l e . Throughout t h e P a r t n e r ' s Program, p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e encouraged t o make use o f r e s o u r c e s , and i n t h e s t u d i e s n o t e d above, t h e y d i d seek o u t and use many r e s o u r c e s . Second, be a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n o r r e f e r r a l . Most f a m i l i e s w i l l complete t h e program on t h e i r own, and t a k e p r i d e i n d o i n g so. I t t e n d s t o become a v e r y m e a n i n g f u l a c t i v i t y f o r them. However, t h e manual a l s o i n s t r u c t s them t o t e r m i n a t e the program and r e f e r , s h o u l d i t become o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y cannot work t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s a needed s a f e g u a r d s i n c e some p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s a r e s t r a i n e d and p r o b l e m a t i c . Some p a i r s overcome problems and d r a m a t i c a l l y improve. O t h e r s s i m p l y become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware t h a t t h e r e i s a p roblem. I n any c a s e , i f a c o u n s e l l o r was a v a i l a b l e , even on a l i m i t e d b a s i s , t h e r e would be someone t o whom p a r e n t s o r y o u t h c o u l d t u r n . APPENDIX B CHURCH BULLETIN INSERT MAY 24, 1987 Youth ADOLESCENTS * .... UNSURE OF YOUR CAREER DIRECTION? Volunteers needed (a parent & their adolescent, Grade 10 to just our of high school) for the "Partners Program", a CAREER GUIDANCE PROGRAM for adolescents and their parent, for a thesis research project done with Pastor Brian. Please leave names and phone number at the Church o f f i c e . 62 APPENDIX E ACTIVITY SELF-EXPLORATION WORKBOOK Larry Cochran, Ph.D. and Norm Amundson, Ph.D. This workbook is for those people who are unsure of what they want in a career. By systematically exploring your current activities, it is intended to help you to identify important interests, values, and strengths that might clarify career directions. Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran and Norm Amundson Published by Buchanan—Kells, 1985 Vancouver, B.C., Salem, Oregon 2 INTRODUCTION 63 When faced with setting a career direction, one of the most important tasks is to find out what one's options are. One could quickly gather a number of options, but finding a viable set of options is much more difficult. There are over twenty thousand occupations and the number is growing each year. Which ones might be right for you? What makes this question so difficult is that you are trying to judge an unknown. You probably have not experienced what many jobs are like and are probably not even sure what is involved in most jobs. The plan of this workbook is to use the known to judge the unknown. One of the things you know a lot about is the variety of activities that make up your life now. For example, you might study, play sports, tend a garden, belong to organizations, try to fix machines, help coach children, or just hang around with friends. Probably the three most important questions in planning a career are: What do I like to do? What do I value doing? What am I able to do well? By finding out your likes, values, and strengths within your current range of activities, you can establish a personal basis for exploring and judging occupations. Certainly, not every like, value, or strength could or should become a basis for career exploration, but there are apt to be enduring qualities of what you do now that can focus your search for a career direction. The aim of this workbook is to help you to discover what those more important and enduring qualities are. In this program, there are six small units or steps. The aims of these units are listed below. UNIT ONE: UNIT TWO: UNIT T H R E E : UNIT FOUR: UNIT FIVE: UNIT SIX: Develop a list of ten enjoyable activities. Find out what you like about each activity. Find out what values are involved in each activity. Find out your strengths in each activity. Identify likes, values, and strengths that are listed over and over across activities. Find out which occupations are apt to satisfy central likes, values, and strengths. 64 APPENDIX F CAREER GRID WORKBOOK Larry R. Cochran, Ph.D. This workbook is for those people who have a number of occupations in mind,.but do not really know which one is best. It is intended to help you to clarify your thinking, to systematically compare the occupations you might pursue, and to decide upon their value for the life you wish to live. Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran Published by Buchanan-Kells. 1985 Vancouver, B.C.; Salem, Oregon INTRODUCTION In trying to plan a career, one might take interest tests, look up occupational information, talk to other people, and so on. However, there always comes a time when you must try to put your thoughts together and figure out which occupations you prefer the most. This can be one of the most difficult tasks to accomplish. With so many things to keep in mind, deciders sometimes neglect important values. Key issues are missed. Comparisons between jobs are faulty and fragmented. In short, deciders can make decisions they will regret later. The career grid program is intended to help you to organize your thoughts and to make better decisions. It provides an opportunity to become clear on what you really think about the occupational possibilities you have in mind. In this program, there are four units. Each unit involves an important step in making a decision. UNIT ONE: UNIT TWO: UNIT THREE: UNIT FOUR: Develop a list of possible occupations. Develop a map of career values, what you want in a job for the life you wish to live. Judge occupations on these values. Evaluate and decide upon the desirability of your occupations. 66 APPENDIX G PLANNING WORKBOOK Larry R. Cochran, Ph. D. This workbook is for those people who are planning education or training in preparation for a career. It is intended to help you specify entrance requirements, financial support, and other important parts of a sound plan. Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran Published by Buchanan—Kells, 1985 Vancouver, B.C., Salem, Oregon 2 INTRODUCTION b / A bad plan can be an pven more important determinant of one's future than a decision. A person tends to live out the weaknesses of a plan rather than the consequences of a decision. The aim of this chapter is to create a plan, based upon accurate information. It is assumed that you will need further education and training. If you require no further education or training, and are ready to start a job hunt, then turn immediately to one of the following books. Bolles, R. The Quick Job-Hunting Map. Ten Speed Press. (There is both a beginning and an advanced version). Bolles, R. Tea Leaves: A New Look at Resumes. Ten Speed Press. Crystal, J., & Bolles, R. Wltere Do I Go From Here With My Life? Ten Speed Press. Lathrop, R. WIto's Hiring W7?o?Ten Speed Press. Bolles, R. Wliat Color Is Your Parachute?'Ten Speed Press. It is also assumed that you have a number of resources for gaining information: counsel- ling center library, unions or work associations, government agencies, personnel offices, and even people in one's career. There are not only innumerable sources of information, but guides for obtaining information such as Bolles' last book above, and others on career and occupational information. The counsellors in your school, college, or university are experts to consult, particularly on local information. Also, provided at the end of this workbook are three case illustrations of bad planning. While the cases are made up, they are not fictional. Rather, they are based upon composites of different people who have gone astray in a similar fashion. You may refer to these cases to heighten awareness, increase motivation, or to simply add credibility to the tasks that have been set. They are real. Bad plans and their consequences happen. Unfortunately, they happen too frequently in my experience. Planning, of course, is not a guarantee of a bright future. Rather, it is a guide for what one can try to do in an uncertain environment. In a way, it is a resolve to take whatever control one can to make things happen the way one wants. For some people, things might work out nicely without any planning. However, planning is an effort to put the odds in one's favor. In the tasks below, I shall simply state what it is that needs to be done. In each case, I mean that you and your parents should discuss how to find out and then decide who will do what. For example, you might consult with the counsellor, use CHOICES, or send off for a pamphlet. Your parents might check with a local association or personnel office. The distribution of work depends entirely on you and your time. However, it is important for you to do as much as you can. Finding and using information resources is increasingly becoming an essential life skill, one that is worth cultivating now. 68 APPENDIX H PARENT CAREER GUIDANCE MANUAL Larry R. Cochran, Ph.D. This program is intended for parents who would like to become more involved in helping their children to set a career direction. The aim of the program is to facilitate a beginning foundation for your child's career development. Through exercises in the workbooks, you will help your child to explore interests, values, and strengths, and in general, try to make clear what your child wants in a career and what he or she is capable of doing. You will help your child to evaluate occupational possibilities and to make a tentative decision. And you will help to make a plan to gain entrance to an occupation. A second aim is to strengthen family bonds that support a young person's passage into the adult world. Many families have good relationships, but oddly enough, not good working relationships. Parents care a great deal, but are often strangely isolated from their child's efforts to launch a career. In making a career plan, your child is entering one of the most difficult transitions in life, a transition some never fully make and spend much of their adult lives trying to correct. If there is a time for parental involvement, support, and guidance, this is it. Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran Published by Buchanan-Kells, 1985 Vancouver, B.C.. Salem, Oregon 2 Program Description 69 The program includes three workbooks. Each workbook has several units or tasks to accomplish. Below is an outline of the program. ACTIVITIES WORKBOOK UNIT ONE: UNIT TWO: UNIT T H R E E : UNIT FOUR: UNIT FIVE: UNIT SIX: Generate ten activities your child finds enjoyable. List what he or she finds enjoyable about each activity. List what values are involved in each activity. List what strengths are shown in each activity. Identify likes, values, and strengths that occur over and over across activities. Use these likes, values, and strengths to brainstorm suitable jobs and begin finding out more about them. CAREER GRID WORKBOOK UNIT ONE: UNIT TWO: UNIT THREE: UNIT FOUR: Expand and then narrow occupations to the ten best possibilities. Expand and then narrow desirable features of occupations to the ten most important ones. Rate or grade each occupation on each desirable feature. Use a decision procedure to evaluate and rank occupations from most to least desirable. PLANNING WORKBOOK UNIT ONE: UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT TWO: T H R E E : FOUR: FIVE: SIX: SEVEN: EIGHT: Find out what training is required for an occupation and where one can get it. Find out the entrance requirements for training. Plan education to meet those requirements. Estimate financial costs and resources for training. Decide which educational or training institution is best. Plan how to keep options open. Anticipate ways to minimize risks. Decide upon personal characteristics to improve. In the Activities Workbook, the parent should pose the question of each unit and take notes on the appropriate tables. For example, once you have ten activities listed, you would ask (In Unit Two): What are the things you like about the first activity? As your child mentions things, you would take notes. Sometimes you will have things to suggest as well. Sometimes, your child will talk rather vaguely and you might try to accurately summarize or pinpoint what it is he or she likes. And sometimes, your child might need encouragement to expand upon his or her likes. The tasks of this workbook are quite simple, but do require some help to do well. Often, the experience of completing the Activities Workbook is that of a fast-paced discussion. You could complete the whole workbook in a few hours but it would probably be better to use a few sessions. 3 7 0 When you finish the Activities Workbook, you will be directed to find out about occupa- tions that seem suitable. However, a search for information should be on-going. While it starts here, it should continue throughout the program. If you arrange, for instance, to meet with your child for an hour or so once or twice a week, your child could look up information, complete interest tests, or whatever, between these sessions. In the Career Grid Workbook, you will not take notes, but will continue to suggest, clarify, direct, pose the tasks, discuss, and generally help to do whatever needs to be done. For this workbook particularly, read each unit before you get together with your child. For Unit Three, it would probably be best to cut out the career grid. Unit Four should involve considerable discussion as your child will be weighing one value against another, a task that can benefit from the broader perspective and experience of a parent. In the Planning Workbook, the units are directed toward your child primarily, but it really requires both parent and child. The reason for this is that planning partially involves financial support, a topic that is apt to involve parents quite heavily. The Planning Work- book is a rather straightforward frame for gathering information and organizing it into a plan, so that everyone knows who is responsible for what if the plan is to succeed. During the program, you and your child have a number of basic controls: 1. You can decide how much time, effort, and concentration to place on each unit. Each unit can be completed in one session or spaced over several sessions. Be guided by the needs of yourself and your child. For example, if your child has a clear interest area, there may be no need to concentrate on the Activity Workbook. If your child is vague and uncertain, you might want to spend a lot of time on this Workbook. 2. You can decide what parts of a unit will be stressed. What will be placed in focus and what will be unstressed? 3. You can decide on the level of focus that is most appropriate. Sometimes, you might help your child with a focus on precise detail in order to gain clarity. At other times, you will want to step back and get the whole in perspective. 4. You can highlight reasons for focusing on one thing or another. Your reasons will help to co-ordinate the way you and your child approach the task. 5. You can maintain a unifying focus by relating aspects of one unit to aspects uncovered in preceding units. 6. You can decide to make additions to units if you wish. For example, you could create exercises, consult a counsellor, use test results and so on. 7. You can decide on the pace. It is probably best to get together once or twice a week. This depends a lot on you and your time. Generally, too slow a pace is apt to hinder interest in the project, but if delicate issues arise, you might deliberately slow things down. Parental Counselling Role Parental involvement adds immensely to the quality with which these workbooks are completed, the benefit gained from completing them. Certainly, your child could complete many units on his or her own, and if you are really pressed for time, you could leave a unit for your child to complete alone. However, to maintain interest, enthusiasm, and effort, parent involvement is very important. The workbooks are intended to be a co-operative venture, to cultivate a sense of partnership, a sense of 'we' rather than 'me'. The success of this program depends, to a large extent, upon the quality of the working relationship you and your child form. For this reason, I will cover some of the basic principles that should guide your involvement. 71 4 Pay Attention. Be engaged. Be fully there, without letting your mind wander to unpaid bills, work problems, vacation plans, and so on. Really try to discover what your child's likes, values, strengths, and ideas are. In particular, attend to what your child is saying, not to what you wish or want him or her to say. Not only should you give your full attention to the task, you should put attention to use. You might paraphrase what your child has said to make sure you understand it. You might summarize lengthy statements and try to clarify vague ones. Active attention will keep you much more involved than passive attention, and will be much more helpful to your child. Strive for reciprocity. Like a friendship, partners should be able to give and take without fear of giving offense. Advise and be advised. Correct and be corrected. Encourage and be encouraged. Disagree and accept disagreement. You have a perspective and your child has a perspective. Both must be respected. However, differences are transcended by caring, trust, and mutual respect, an acknowledgement really that each is different. You can cultivate more reciprocity (more giving and taking in a co-operative spirit) by encouraging openness, by showing acceptance (not belittling, criticizing, condescending, or forcing), and by emphasizing positive and constructive comments before focusing on disagreements. In a partnership, there is no room for a tyrant, nor for a neutral observer. To be a partner, there must be a free give and take, and this must often be earned, even if you have a very good relationship with your child already. Strive for a mutual balance of power. This is similar to reciprocity, but different. For example, one could say: Now that we have had our little give and take, do as I want! Ideally, you will influence your child, and in turn, be influenced by him or her. That is, there will be a balance of power or influence. On some topics, you will have more influence. For example, it is you who must eventually decide how much financial support you can give. On other topics, your child should have more influence. For example, you can advise, but your child is responsible for deciding upon which occupation to pursue. After all, he or she will be living that decision. You cannot take responsibility for your child's career, but can influence it. Like reciprocity, a balance of power requires respect, trust, and openness. It requires taking the other into account. It requires good faith rather than hidden agendas. The fact is that you do care what your child thinks, values, and does. There is no point in hiding behind a phony neutrality. However, it is also true thatyour child is a person in his or her own right, and you cannot command or demand forever. It is this type of situation that calls for balance, a willingness to influence and to be influenced. Create warimth. A partnership of this nature is not like a business transaction. A warm, supportive relationship is essential for the type of exploration, evaluation, and planning that this program requires. If the climate is like that of a final examination, a trial, or an execution, the partnership is more apt to be destructive than constructive. It is warmth that will allow discussion to flow freely, for a working alliance on the issue of career development to occur, and for the program to work. If you cannot establish a reasonable partnership, terminate the program. With a poor working relationship, it is doubtful if anyone would benefit. For most people, there will be moments of discouragement, but many more moments of meaningful achievement. And most people will have little trouble forming a working relationship, but if not, there is apt to be a good reason and one should attend to this reason rather than the program. 72 Goals of the Program It is commonly assumed that there is one right job for each person and the goal of career counselling is to discover that job. Then, the person works hard presumably, succeeds in getting the right job, and lives a happy, contented life. While this might happen once in a while, it is largely nonsense. There is no one right job. A person has a variety of potentials and a variety of options that might be satisfying. People should continue to explore until they have to make a definite commitment. It would be perfectly natural for your child to change his or her mind within ? week, month or year. People change. They find out new information. They lose interest. Other occupations might arise as better options. Even if your child stuck with the decision made during this program, people change occupations frequently. Let us consider a more realistic story from which we might set more reasonable goals. Pursuing a career is filled with uncertainties, risks, opportunities, setbacks, decisions, compromises, adjustments, and sometimes crises. The job market is in flux. New jobs are arising while some old jobs are dwindling and vanishing. People have more difficulty finding an anchor. There is a large element of chance in a career, being in the right place at the right time or being in the wrong place at the wrong time. In this shifting, uncertain environment, some people flounder from job to job without much sign of progress. They can't get what they want, or think they want, and don't want what they can get. Some people drift aimlessly, unsure of what they want and where they are going. Some people become stuck in jobs and stagnate, wondering how they ever fell into such a trap. And some people do indeed progress in a career that is meaningful, satisfying, and productive. Given this situation, the aim of this program is to tilt the odds more in one's favor, to minimize chance and increase purposeful direction. How can the odds be tilted in one's favor? This program involves four ways to improve one's chances for a meaningful career. First, this program was intended to improve self-understanding. Without a better under- standing of oneself, there is little basis for making wise decisions now or in the future. Does you child have a better grasp of his or her wants and strengths? If so, he or she is in a better position to pursue a career. Second, a person might have some self-understanding, but little awareness of viable options that would be optimal or even just suitable. It requires knowledge to match one's interests, values, and capabilities to appropriate occupations. The key question is: Does your child have viable options in mind? Third, one might have knowledge of oneself and occupations, but lack competence in decision making. Even with knowledge, one must be able to use that knowledge to evaluate options and to make good decisions. Does your child have greater competence in making decisions? Last, on-going support and encouragement from one's family is an important basis for successfully pursuing a career. Perhaps it is not always necesary, but it is a decided advantage that can make a difference in your child's future. The question here is: Did you achieve a good working relationship on the issue of career development? These four goals provide more enduring grounds for the future development of your child. Certainly, I hope that your child will also emerge with a reasonable decision and a workable plan, but these are really quite secondary. Of much more importance at this time is whether your child has established a foundation for the road ahead.

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