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The facilitation of career development of adolescents with parental involvement in a structured program Pierson, Brian Michael 1988

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THE FACILITATION OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS WITH PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN A STRUCTURED PROGRAM  By BRIAN M. PIERSON B.A. NORTHWEST COLLEGE, 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE 19 88 © Brian M. Pierson, 1988  standard  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or for  her  I  further  purposes  financial  gain  shall  It not  permission.  Department  of  £AOAJ  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  SC^^l  M  Columbia  L  that  agree  may  representatives.  requirements  ^Sjej^dC^  be is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  head  make  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ii ABSTRACT This  study  a reasonably describes,  comprehensive  their  participating  i n the  from nine  and  high  determine of  the  school  events  indicated  the  From an from the  categories  Partners  Program.  increasing planning  that  capabilities.  use  suggested  that there  Secondly,  and  i s a potency  counsellor.  of a  took of  emerged  parent  the to  development  from  suggested  302  place  by  the  two  in f r o m 44%  findings, theories  career  resources  to e l i c i t  career  the  -  61%  be  surfaced  t h r e e f o l d aim  i t fosters career  c o u n s e l l i n g which c o u l d  professional  the  agreement  the  adolescent  programs.  the  decision  i t strengthens the  of  development  a w a r e n e s s and  T h i r d l y , i t enables  of c a r e e r  of  categories.  reflected  Firstly  process  individually  rate varying  these  of t h e  self-awareness,  network.  was  showed 100%  examination  study  interviewed  categories  Participation  used  completion  facilitated  soundness of  the  consisted  This  after  Reliability  r a t e r s who  what  Program.  adolescent.  that  exploring  which  of a d o l e s c e n t s ,  E a c h dyad  Sixteen  reported.  categorization.  career  dyads.  adolescent.  independent  better  Partners  and  categories  development d u r i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  the  incidents  support  scheme o£  f o u r - m o n t h p e r i o d , and  program, the  developing  i n c i d e n t s T e c h n i q u e was  Incidents  over a  with  perspective  career  critical  their  concerned  from the  facilitates  The  was  It  by and  family t o make  Is  in family relationships in a powerful  ally  for  the  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I.  CHAPTER I I .  CHAPTER I I I .  vii  INTRODUCTION  1  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  2  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  2  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  5  OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY  6  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  8  THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS  8  CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY  8  PARENT-CHILD RELATIONS  10  FAMILY INFLUENCE ON THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADOLESCENT  11  PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS  12  THE PARTNERS PROGRAM AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS  15  REVIEW OF THE CRITICAL TECHNIQUE  16  INCIDENTS  METHODOLOGY  20  SUBJECTS  20  PROCEDURE  22  THE CRITICAL  INCIDENTS INTERVIEW  . . . .  22  iv  CHAPTER I I I .  (continued) THE INTERVIEW  23  CATEGORIZATION  24  INDEPENDENT  CHAPTER V.  CHAPTER VI.  RATERS' CATEGORIZATION  . . . .  RESULTS  28  CATEGORIES  29  RELIABILITY  36  INCIDENT FREQUENCY  36  CATEGORIES PARTICIPATION RATE  37  CASE STUDY  41  DISCUSSION  44  STATEMENT  OF THE RESULTS  44  LIMITATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS OF THE STUDY PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS SUGGESTIONS  .  FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  SUMMARY  48 49 50 50  REFERENCES APPENDICES  26  52 A.  A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE PARTNERS  PROGRAM  56  B.  CHURCH BULLETIN INSERT  59  C.  LETTER TO PARENT  60  D.  LETTER TO ADOLESCENT  61  E.  ACTIVITY SELF-EXPLORATION WORKBOOK CAREER GRID WORKBOOK  62 64  F.  V  APPENDICES  (continued) G.  PLANNING WORKBOOK  H.  PARENT CAREER GUIDANCE MANUAL  66 . . . .  68  vl L I S T OF TABLES TABLE 1. TABLE 2.  TABLE 3.  FREQUENCY & PERCENTAGE OF REPORTED INCIDENTS WITHIN EACH CATEGORY  38  NO. OF REPORTED INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY AS REPORTED BY PARENTS & ADOLESCENTS  39  PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS REPORTING INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY  40  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would Cochran  like  t o express  whose e n t h u s i a s m ,  immensely a s we w a l k e d In a d d i t i o n , friends  proceeded, support thanks  their  to Lori,  the  this  like  and r e a s s u r a n c e study together.  to express  family at Christian  my g r a t i t u d e  Life  p r a y e r s , encouragement,  B r e n t , Bonnie  helped  Assembly.  t o my As I  participation,  and t h e n i n e  Special  families  i n this research.  Finally,  time  through  t o Dr. L a r r y  and p a t i e n c e h e l p e d me t o keep g o i n g .  involved  three  guidance  I would  and c h u r c h  my a p p r e c i a t i o n  sons  I would  Owen, B r o c k  like  and P r e s t o n .  and o u r f a m i l y t i m e j o y of completing  l o v e and s u p p o r t  this  t o thank  my w i f e J u l i e  They s a c r i f i c e d  t o s e e me t h r o u g h .  the task. would  and my  Without  n o t have been  their  We a l l s h a r e i n  their  continual  possible.  1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The that  aim of t h i s  facilitate  during  the  Research how  study  the adolescent's  process  of  Olson,  make  their  1965;  children  how  Parents  (Lea,  (Anderson,  like  but  Cahrette,  to  report  Mawby,  help  that  their t h e y do  1976; B r a t c h e r , 1982; B r i g h o u s e , 1985).  uncertainty i s singularly  that  children  expect  who  explaining  Brosseau,  would  career planning  Their  individuals  decisions  1985).  (Cochran  difficulty  Trudeau-Brosseau,  in this  n o t know  perceived career maturity  s t u d e n t s have career  1982).  Boissiere,  the k i n d of events  the P a r t n e r s Program  has shown t h a t  they  i s to i d e n t i f y  their  influence  unfortunate, given parents  and  to  help with  be  the f a c t  the  primary  career plans  (Blrk  programs have been a t t e m p t e d :  "The  1979, M i t c h e l l , 1978). Other Career  parent-child  Conversation"  help parents and  work w i t h  "The C a r e e r  developed  to  (Osguthorpe, their  Development  increase the  1976)  children  P a r t n e r s h i p " (Myers,  children.  few  offer  little  effectiveness  (Anderson  to  1979)  was  p a r e n t ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e impact  career decision-making  exist  developed  i n career planning,  t h e y have on t h e The  was  parent-child  programs t h a t  empirical e t a l , 1965;  processes  evidence L e a , 1976;  1976; G r e e n o u g h , 1976; Thompson, 1978).  One  of t h e i r currently  of  their  osguthorpe,  indication  2 o£ the  their  utility,  however, seems t o be t h a t p a r e n t s  welcome  assistance. Research conducted  Partners  Program  significant  effective,  found  impact  adolescent.  by P a l m e r and C o c h r a n that this  on  the  p a r e n t - c h i l d p r o g r a m had a  career  I t demonstrated  development  that the Partners  but d i d not i n d i c a t e the kind  events  that  process  events  facilitate  helped  during  during a  of  the  P r o g r a m was  of s p e c i f i c  the program.  parent-child  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  (1987) on t h e  process  The d i s c o v e r y o f  career  o f why t h e p r o g r a m  program  could  is effective.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This  study  was c o n c e r n e d  with  developing  comprehensive  scheme o f c a t e g o r i e s t o e x p l o r e  designed  parents  for  planning  facilitates  maturity  during  This  assist  the  their  reasonably  how a p r o g r a m  adolescents  adolescent's  i n career  perceived  career  t h e program.  empirical  significant process  to  a  career  investigation  planning  of the Partners  events  aims  to  determine the  that  occur  during the  Program.  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The pilot  Partners  study  (1986).  P r o g r a m has shown i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e  and f u r t h e r Its  use  p a r t n e r s , and t h e r e  research  has  enhanced  seems  t o be  on  20 f a m i l i e s family  by P a l m e r  cohesion  a significant  gain  between i nthe  3 career  development  Cochran 1987). Career  three  1985b)  a  i s comprised  completed  by  accomplish  the  and  upon the  related  two  Manual  Grid  workbook  and  child It is  (Cochran  1985a)  workbook  Workbook  (Cochran  1985c). each  parent's  encourage the a d o l e s c e n t  Each unit  work t o g e t h e r  the  a  1985),  (Cochran  who  Set  &  (Cochran  self-Exploration  Career  tasks.  to the  influence  on  Osipow,  first  is  to  primary  role  i n the  completion  uses  type  choice  of  of  of  of a c h i l d ' s  Partners  Program i s  It  (1979) model o f  to  explain  According  relationship  to  the  the  demonstrated  adolescents, career &  and  the  Bronfenbrenner,  level,  The  persons a  Research that  have  great  (Bratcher,  1982;  Crouter,  1984).  human d e v e l o p m e n t s t r e s s e s  is progressive.  next  has  relational  ' o b s e r v a t i o n a l ' d y a d , where two At  adolescent.  Vondracek  o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  program.  another.  the  theory  figures  Schulenberg,  Bronfenbrenner's  The  of t h e o r y — p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s  primary  1983;  that  development  the  quality  asserts  kinds  career  the  dyadic  Guidance  Child  of a number of u n i t s and  (1985)  parents,  1985)  Your  (Palmer  task.  Cochran  the  "Helping  Activity  parent  career  facilitate  and  Career  Planning  adolescent  P a r t n e r s Program"  & Amundson, 1 9 8 5 ) ,  workbook  based  The  workbooks:  and  of each  participating  program,  of a P a r e n t  (Cochran  to  The  Direction:  consists and  of the  'joint  author portion the  of  quality  simplest pay  (Cochran  form  of  a  i s an  a t t e n t i o n to  activity'  his  dyad,  one two  4  persons work together in a l e v e l i s a 'primary' have enduring  common  activity.  dyad, and consists of two persons who  feelings  for one  another  influence each other even when apart. is  that  as  partners  (observational  The highest  dyad)  move  and  continue to  Bronfenbrenner's view  from  the  lowest  level  to the highest l e v e l (primary  dyad),  the developmental impact of a relationship w i l l be enhanced. In  the Partners  Program,  parents are instructed i n their  manual to work towards r e a l i z i n g the conditions of a primary dyad.  The workbook  'paying attention',  tasks were  designed to f a c i l i t a t e the  'perspective-taking',  •cooperation* aspects  of a  primary dyad  'discussion' and (Palmer & Cochran  1987). The derived  second from  development. career  Super's  (1957,  through  individual must  unique  to each  for t h i s  program was  1963, 1980) theory of career  To  complete  a progression of stages.  The focus i n the Partners  specify and  these  tasks,  s p e c i f i c behaviours and attitudes describes these  to be  exploration, Information Partners Program  implement a career  Super has i d e n t i f i e d  which are e s s e n t i a l .  planfulness, decision-making acquisition  emphasizes s e l f  well as decision-making  To  complete career developmental  stage.  Program i s to c r y s t a l l i z e , choice.  basis  According to Super, the conceptualization of a  i s conceived  progress, an tasks  theoretical  and  He  skills,  appraisal.  The  and career exploration as  competencies,  and by  doing so adds  5  support to the core The  program  developmental  used  Bronfenbrenner's  in  tasks in Super's theory.  this  study  has  and Super's theories,  integrated  both of which focus  on the parent-adolescent for working on career tasks. completion context  of  allows  relationships.  career  developmental  for  a  This  assumes  tasks  strengthening  in a  dyadic  of parent-child  that a s h i f t may occur from  observational dyad to a higher l e v e l , which in apt to Improve the  The  turn i s more  q u a l i t y in which workbook exercises are  done.  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Several parent-adolescent programs  been advanced  1976;  Thompson, 1 9 7 8 ) , and  while most have shown positive parental  reaction, there has  in the  1979;  have  past (Bearg,  Lea,  been l i t t l e evidence of the programs' effectiveness. Palmer and Cochran (1987) demonstrated effectively  i n fostering  children when the Partners  parents  can function  the career development of their  provided with Program.  that  a structured  However, they  program, such as  did not discover the  s i g n i f i c a n t features in the Partners Program that helped the adolescent through the provided a provisional facilitates  to plan Critical  a  career.  Incidents  The extraction of events Technique  (Flanagan 1954)  categorical framework to a s s i s t in supplying the answer  about  the career  how  development  the  Partners  Program  of the adolescent.  A  6  category scheme was developed that f a c i l i t a t e  in which  career development  perspective of the adolescents this  scheme  basis  is  for  that  the types  of events  were described from the  themselves.  The  value of  i t offers a reasonably comprehensive  conceptualizing  the  adolescent's  career  development within the context of the Partners Program. research offers a Integrating past  broader  frame  the Partner's Program.  and  reference  evaluation of  results  refinement  clearly  exploring  and  have  the elements of  Furthermore, i t offers some guidance  the category scheme could be used  continued  capable of  research (Palmer & Cochran 1987), and also  suggest a more comprehensive  on how  of  The  an  validating  of  the  Partners  important the  in the development Program.  heuristic  categories  as  value  The in  well as the  relationships between the categories.  OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY An introduction to the study This includes  is  found  in  Chapter 1.  a purpose and research question, a background  to the study, and the significance of the research. 2  contains  a  review  features f a c i l i t a t e the within  the  program. Incidents  framework  It  also  of  the  a  contains  Technique.  l i t e r a t u r e relevant to what  career of  development parent-child a  Chapter  design, s p e c i f i c a l l y including  Chapter  review 3 the  of adolescents career guidance  of  discusses population  the  Critical  the research and sample,  7  the  Critical  method and  o£ r e c o r d i n g  rater  includes  a  reliability  for  4  interview  and e x t r a c t i n g  contains  description Issues.  the r e s u l t s , a  research  Technique,  procedures, the  incidents,  categorization  reliability.  Chapter  of  Incidents  of  Chapter discussion  limitations,  further  the  research,  results the  of  category  5 concludes of  practical  the  and  schemes  and  with a statement  the f i n d i n g s , implications,  and a summary.  study  comments on suggestions  8 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Literature adolescent's of  a  relevant  to  i s reviewed  underlying  t h e o r y and development  will  reviewed  first.  will  considered  attempted  be  P a r t n e r s Program Incidents most  will  be  Technique w i l l  suitable  facilitate  facilitates  the  p e r c e i v e d c a r e e r development d u r i n g t h e process  p a r e n t - c h i l d program  be  what  of  other and  discussed.  be r e v i e w e d ,  for identifying  career  the  i n this  chapter.  the Partners parent-child research  Program programs  done  Finally,  The  on t h e  the C r i t i c a l  a s a method t h a t seems kinds  of events  that  planning.  THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF PARENT-CHILD CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS A review are  two m a j o r  family are  of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e  suggests  that  t h e o r i e s t h a t u n d e r l i e t h e Involvement  i n the adolescent's  career planning.  there of the  T h e s e two a r e a s  c a r e e r development t h e o r y and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s .  CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY This study  uses a program  their  theoretical  theory  (1957).  of  career  underpinnings  According  development  'developmental'  i n which  theory.  t o Super is  on  Super's  (1980,  lifelong  the  1984)  and t h u s  He d e s c r i b e s t h i s  authors  base  developmental the process he f o c u s e s on  as a process  that  9 has  three  c l e a r l y defined  Realistic  w h i c h he  Ginsburg,  Axelrad  c h o i c e s as  on-going,  states:  b a s e s on and  a  This  study  seemed  to  vocational  behaviour.  vocational  behaviour  developed  a  career  basic  In t h i s through to each  on a  underlying  i n c e r t a i n ways w i t h theory,  a career  various stages. stage,  are  completed  as a  years),  Exploration  Super  concept  years),  of  changes (p.  57).  progression unique  to progress.  Super  Growth  (birth-  (15-24 y e a r s ) , E s t a b l i s h m e n t  (45-64  Maintenance  of  tasks,  (1957) i d e n t i f i e s t h e v o c a t i o n a l s t a g e s a s : 14 y e a r s ) ,  this,  i n c r e a s i n g age"  order  boys.  predict  behaviour  developmental in  (Career  and  the  i s conceived  Career  study  From  "vocational  career  age.  assess  emerged.  assumption  views  understanding  to  and  Glnzberg,  grade nine  an  Techniques also  with  142  gain  by  super  longitudinal  involved  help  maturity:  systematically  (1951).  b e c o m i n g more c l e a r  1950-1971),  Study  Tentative  model d e v e l o p e d  Herma  Super's r e s e a r c h , based Pattern  Fantasy,  (25-44 (65  to  P r o g r a m i s on  the  and  Decline  death). The  major  exploration the  core  focus  stage.  In l a t e  tasks  implementing a c a r e e r the as  development  of  are  the  adolescence  and  an  Task  exploratory  early  adulthood  specifying completion  a t t i t u d e s and  planfulness, decision-making,  appraisal,  and  crystallizing,  preference.  of c e r t a i n  Partners  requires  competencies  information attitude.  and  gathering Self  and  such and  career  10 exploration, planning and decision competencies are stressed within  the Partner's  developmental  tasks  Program  which  of Super's  support  theory  the core  (Palmer & Cochran  1987).  PARENT-CHILD RELATIONS The second aspect of the Partners Bronfenbrenner's  (1979)  theory  Program i s based on  of human development which  stresses the q u a l i t y of human relationships. Bronfenbrenner's environmental  theory  i s based  interconnections  He views development as how the with h i s or her  environment.  as  accommodation  "progressive  on the impact of  on the developing person. person perceives  and deals  Human development  i s defined  throughout  the l i f e span,  between the growing organism and the changing environment i n which i t a c t u a l l y l i v e s and grows" (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, p. 513).  Bronfenbrenner's systems. setting  model  The microsystem contains  beyond  the developing  school,  church,  this etc.).  consists  (family), which  which contains the microsystem settings  (1979)  of three  i s the immediate  person.  The mesosystem  and Its interrelations with  ( i . e . child  and relationships at  The exosystem  contains  events  occurring i n settings i n which the developing person i s not present (i.e.) s i b l i n g ' s place of employment.  li As  used  provides  a  i n the  Partners  framework  microsystem.  The  quality  progressive  for  to  evolve complex. three  a As  This from the this  joint  occurs  FAMILY  primary  1979; has  activity  Mitchell,  stated  THE  in  1978; how  to the  that  process  since  agents  in  positions  influence  pay  our their  to  more  there  are  model--  attention  to  i n which  two  Dyad,  P r i m a r y Dyad, s u c h taking  i n d i c a t i o n s of the  primary  Partners  as and  movement  d y a d and  THE  ADOLESCENT  influence  (Osipow,  1979), b u t  society  are that  is  1983;  little  Birk,  Osipow  the  primary  they are  c h i l d r e n i n a l l areas  the  research  i s brought about.  parents  how  Program.  family  selection  Roberts,  this  potential  study,  CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF  career  established  perspective  indicate that  socializing to  Activity and  order  progressively  persons  reflects  of  In  1987).  dyad  process  studies  been done on  (1983)  partially  i n the  factor  Joint  & Cochran  INFLUENCE ON  Several  two  the  conceived  Bronfenbrenner's  discussion,  (Palmer  study  by  the  in this  common a c t i v i t i e s ,  attention,  cooperation  earlier  an  has  is  is  dyad.  be  dyad  that  i n which  activities,  p e r s o n s work on paying  relationship  Dyad,  of a  must  the  postulated  Observational each other's  here  discussed  dyads  relationship  there  From  into  of  transformation  occur,  relationship.  model  1  for understanding r e l a t i o n s h i p s in  through a this  Program, B r o n f e n b r e n n e r s  of  in  key  human  growth, (1973)  including suggested  development: children's providers  been  children  that  on  and  there  is little  would  were a s k e d  their  section  career like  look  as  informers  In a s t u d y who  influences.  they  Even  f o r them  thought  though  (Osguthorpe  had  i t has  influence  more  as  response  (Grotivant role  and  conducted  Their  are a s i g n i f i c a n t  this  Schoffner  Influence in career  c a r e e r growth.  to f u l f i l l  and  models, m o t i v a t o r s of  development  assistance  will  role  influence.  parents  children's  1985)  next  as  activities,  b o t h p a r e n t s were  found  their  serve and  Kleimer  of p a r e n t a l  environmental  influence  that  areas  they  interests of  t h e most was  four  (1979),  by Burke  c a r e e r development.  upon  & Cooper  effectively, 1976).  a t some programs t h a t a r e  The  currently  available.  PARENT-CHILD EFFECTIVENESS Few  CAREER  programs  p a r e n t s with the 1986).  (Palmer little  empirical  section child  will  DEVELOPMENT  have  been  career The  Careers"  programs  evidence  of  that their  review the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  program,  " C h o i c e s and  (Thompson 1978)  I n d i a n p a r e n t s and career  recently  development  programs b e s i d e s t h e one The  PROGRAMS  their  was  used  designed  of  their  to help  adolescents  currently  exist  have  effectiveness. o f some o t h e r  This parent-  study.  F r e e t o Choose t o be  used  adolescent daughters.  o p p o r t u n i t y i n f o r m a t i o n and  THEIR  developed  in this  Career:  AND  about  by  American  It  includes  o b s t a c l e s these g i r l s  may  face  in  finding  this  program's s u c c e s s The  1979) It  "Career  was  used  involved  parents all  the  of  on how  indicator  of  The  results 1)  and  program  schools  goal  was  t h e y have  their  to on  the  the  of s t u d e n t s  career The  at  decision-  success  not a s s e s s e d . by  which  increase parents'  children.  p r o g r a m was  (Myers  Education.  In  career education  w e l l r e c e i v e d i t was  parents  The as  and  authors the  only  i t s effectiveness.  designed  career  students  the  program,  was  Partnership"  students  Its  of  to  effectiveness.  Impact  processes  commented  no a s s e s s m e n t done as  on t h e Rhode I s l a n d D e p a r t m e n t o f  levels.  effectiveness  in  or  was  Development  parents,  awareness of  1976)  There  were i n v o l v e d i n t h e  school  making  work.  "The  Conversation"  to help parents  planning.  i n the  Career  A  pilot  n i n t h g r a d e and  (Osguthorpe  work w i t h  their  study  done on  their  was  parents.  children thirty  This  study's  were as f o l l o w s : In c a r e e r c h o i c e s , s t u d e n t s be most i n f l u e n t i a l .  expected  parents  to  2) P r i o r t o t h e p r o g r a m , p a r e n t s f e l t i l l - e q u i p p e d to help c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r career c h o i c e s . 3) P a r e n t s were p r o b a b l y most i n f l u e n t i a l i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s of their children, according to teachers, who recognized that counselling can a l s o p l a y a role in influencing students' career choices. Feedback the  from p a r e n t s  program's  who  participated  effectiveness.  was  encouraging  as  to  The  "Career  Olson  1965)  which  was  was  Occupational  d e s c r i b e d as an  built  on  a  the  connections  agencies, It's its  effectiveness  was  theme.  adolescents  and  This  become aware  universities,  industry  parents  government  the  work  world.  measured o n l y by v e r b a l s u p p o r t  from  users. Greenough  upcoming h i g h was  and  Mawby &  for  development"  between  private business,  (Anderson,  a c t i o n program  "youth  program sought to h e l p parents of  Guide"  to  (1976)  s c h o o l s e n i o r s and  implement  planning  conducted  parental  processes.  student's  This  Greenough  had  a  education  and  that they  occupation.  A  chance  20-60%  a c h i e v e m e n t s was to p a r t i c i p a t e counselled  found  i n the  post-high  school  occupations. strong parents  who  and  I t s purpose  the  six of  complete  student's high  school  years  after  parent-counselled post-high satisfied  probability  of  by  where p a r e n t s  students when  error  compared  program r e s u l t s  select  education  a  be  were i n v o l v e d i n t h e  parent  In  their  the  same  chose  with  not  parent-  major, r e c e i v e  satisfied  that there  between s t u d e n t s '  on  school  Indicated that i t  preplanned  and  Greenough c o n c l u d e d  relationship  with  were p r e s e n t l y  The  seemed t o h e l p s t u d e n t s  parents.  t h a t 90%  to  that involved  measured t h e  five  program  students.  their  study  found  students  program  guidance  accomplishments  graduation.  a  in  their  seemed t o  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  be  a  and  c o u n s e l l i n g program.  15 THE PARTNERS PROGRAM AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS A two  group p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t experimental  employed b y Partners  Palmer  (1986)  Program.  families—20 families  This  families  were  to was  were  Control  study  conducted  Group.  variables—family  cohesion,  career  maturity,  the  parents  reports  that  the  six  tended  results i n their  parental was  attempts  to  done  effects  support  provided  the  this  she  program  answer.  t h a t happens d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s effect  adolescent.  This  events  that  adolescent  on  the  current  facilitate  the  during the process  degrees  Palmer's r e s e a r c h  Questions  of  concluded  showed  marked  a strengthening  raised  i s what  She  on a l l  qualitative  varied  c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and  partially  significant  family  yielded significant  indicated that adolescents  on  20  career  after this  her study  recommended f u r t h e r  r e s e a r c h t h a t was more p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d t o is  and  formation,  adolescents  to  bonding.  research  Group  I n a d d i t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s done  by t h e a d o l e s c e n t s .  improvement of  and  that  improvement  time.  40 v o l u n t e e r  on  adaptability,  dyadic  The MANOVA r e s u l t s over  of the  A MANOVA was u s e d t o t e s t  on f i v e  for groups  effects  Experimental  improvement  orientation.  the  d e s i g n was  d i s c o v e r what i t  o f t h e program t h a t has a  career study career  development focuses  on t h e k i n d o f  development  of the Partners  of the  of the  Program.  16 REVIEW OF  THE  The study  C R I T I C A L INCIDENTS TECHNIQUE  research  is  Flanagan  the  design  used  Critical  (1954).  for data  Incidents  This technique  collection  Technique  grew  out  developed  of  research  i n the A v i a t i o n P s y c h o l o g y Program of the U n i t e d A i r F o r c e d u r i n g W o r l d War concerned  with  facilitate  development Partners  i s an  aim.  of  adolescents  during  Army  I n t e r v i e w method  specific  a specific  by  done  States  incidents  In t h i s study  which the  t h e k i n d of e v e n t s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the the  process  aim  career of  the  Program.  This technique to  It  obtaining  or h i n d e r  is to i d e n t i f y  II.  in this  c o l l e c t an  i s a form of  extensive  who  are  i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e p o r t what f a c i l i t a t e d o r h i n d e r e d  the  aim  o f an a c t i v i t y .  as  "...any  observable  complete i n i t s e l f  to  about  the  These I n c i d e n t s  are  to  made  Flanagan  the  general  I n c i d e n t s from  designed  people  be  range of  interview research  (1954) d e f i n e s  an " i n c i d e n t "  human a c t i v i t y t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y permit  person then  question  influences  and  performing  the a c t " (p.  categorized to  predictions to  provide  an  327). answer  o f what f a c i l i t a t e s o r h i n d e r s  this  activity.  and  Although  incidents collected  do  provide  Cohen and incidents activity,  not  Smith  (1976)  describe i t  provides  solutions pointed what a  represent  raw  data  only  to problems a u t o m a t i c a l l y , out  that  facilitates functional  if and  hundreds  of  hinders  an  description  of  the  17 Important critical for  requirements Incidents  developing  (1954,  pp.  of  improving  Technique  categories  344-5)  also  task  suggests  from  highlights  that  the  the  a t hand. the  procedures  basic data.  following  The  Flanagan  for  category  formulation: 1.  The for  2.  The s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c i t y — g e n e r a l i t y t o use i n r e p o r t i n g .  levels  3.  Tentative categories for review.  others  The  s e l e c t i o n of the g e n e r a l describing incidents.  value  of t h i s  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g is,  "The  other  Interview  methods  436).  of  incidents  the  phenomena under  situation  (1978)  that  permits research  a  rich  to  lies  i n the  depth  investigation.  much g r e a t e r (Borg  also states  provided  reference  submitted  method o f r e s e a r c h  of c o l l e c t i n g  Flanagan  are  frame o f  depth  & Gall,  valuable  than  1983,  that subjects and  That  p.  recalled source  of  information. The  Critical  applications history  of  1954)  and  also  been  nursing  since use.  measures,  i n c i d e n t s Technique  to  the I t has  improve  and  used  in  Flanagan this  the  design  (1954)  technique  had  a v a r i e t y of  and  has  of equipment  fields,  (Dachelet,  a  long  to develop p r o f i c i e n c y (Flanagan,  l e a r n i n g environment.  a v a r i e t y of  psychology  studies  been u s e d  to develop e f f e c t i v e  Kuhn, K e n t , K i t z m e n ,  using  initial  has  Including  Wemett,  It  has  commerce,  Garling, Craig-  1981). points  out  for research.  some i n h e r e n t He  strengths  s t a t e s , "The  in  Critical  18 Incidents  Technique  collecting  d i r e c t observations  way  facilitate  as  to  practical  problems  principles Critical rigid  ". .  out  that  both  that  and  He  adapted  done  and  free  expression  as  an  s t u d y because of shown t o  be  relevant  to a  the  i n such  not  a  in solving  that  consist  "... of a  the  single  . ."  a d i f f e r e n t set  of  s i t u a t i o n at  He  rules  hand  collected  by  this  (1964),  they  approach  is  F u r t h e r m o r e , Mayeske, Harmon & this  research  bias  because  found  that  Incidents  what  helps  to  method  i t i s based  on  is  actual  collected  and  give  hinders  the  Technique  was  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  of  states  for  psychological  Anderson & N l l s s o n  that  from  operational  provides  procedures  broad  t o meet t h e  by  state  They a l s o  suggests  also  valid.  experience.  selected  developing  information  (1966)  relatively  activity  of  potential influences  each study r e q u i r e s  reliable  Gllckman  set  human b e h a v i o u r  T e c h n i q u e does  research  concluded  of  a  335).  (p.  In  of  r u l e s governing such data c o l l e c t i o n .  . . modified . ."  and  Incidents of  their  327).  (p.  set  points  consists  a an  a  the  Critical  appropriate the  Incidents  means f o r t h e  f o l l o w i n g advantages:  valid  and  reliable  way  interview  phenomena under  for  method  an  category i n which  this  1)  been  I t has  to c o l l e c t  f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of procedure  purpose of  activity;  formulation; indepth  i n v e s t i g a t i o n may  be  incidents 2) 3)  It It  understanding  ascertained;  19 4) It  provides a  f l e x i b l e set of p r i n c i p l e s modifiable  adaptable to relevant use; 5) It In many f i e l d s of Investigation.  has been  and  used extensively  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY SUBJECTS A total participate parent  of 9 d y a d s — 1 8 i n this  In g r a d e s  exploration which  study.  Each  and one a d o l e s c e n t .  students  s u b j e c t s In a l l — v o l u n t e e r e d t o  t o twelve,  of  vocational  i s the primary  consisted  o f one  The a d o l e s c e n t s were h i g h s c h o o l  ten  stage  dyad  an age  group w i t h i n the  development  focus of the Partners  (Super  Program  1957), (Cochran  1985). The  sample  Langley church adherents. First, and  was  that  has  gave  a  introducing  church  brief  the  event youth  verbal of  had  his  After  name o f  their  adolescent  was  taken  home t o p e r u s e  Secondly, weekly church This  bulletin  following  the  insert  the Parent  (Appendix  this  on a  the church  ran  sign-up  A). who  meeting put  on  a  paper  The p a r e n t s attended the  they perused the  their  name  sheet.  and t h e  information  with the adolescent.  (Appendix  Night.  in  based  children  researchers  bulletin  members a n d / o r  Night  research  teenage  group.  a  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e aims o f t h e  P a r t n e r s Program  a l l  2600  within  v o l u n t e e r s was t w o f o l d .  a Parent  P a r t n e r s P r o g r a m and i f i n t e r e s t e d ,  then  volunteers  approximately  the researcher attended  this  from  The method o f s e l e c t i n g  P r o g r a m and t h e i n t e n t  at  selected  posted  information  B) t o r e c r u i t  f o r two A total  i n the  volunteers.  consecutive  Sundays  o f 15 d y a d s v o l u n t e e r e d  21  on the sign-up phone.  sheet  Subjects  and  were  were  subsequently  informed  that  conducted would explore the topic of the adolescent. take  contacted by  the study  to be  career development i n  The program would be self-administered and 10  approximately  hours  over  4-6  a  week  period.  Approximately 1 hour would be required from each participant for  individual  interviews  P a r t i c i p a t i o n was  upon  voluntary and  recorded.  Letters of  (Appendix  C)  and  consent  completion.  Interviews were to be tape  were  adolescent  program  given  (Appendix  to D),  both parent specifically  stating the nature and intent of the study. From  the  Initial  15  dyads  that  volunteered  participate in the study, 9 dyads completed were interviewed. study contacted  the program and  The s i x families that dropped  the researcher  and gave  incompletion.  Two parents reported that  uncooperative  and  refused  to carry  out of the  their reasons for the adolescent was  on.  Four families  indicated time pressure d i d not allow them to continue. remaining  nine  families  continue on  The  d i d not contact the researcher.  However, the researcher contacted two families them to  to  as they  went beyond  week period to complete the program.  to encourage  the a l l o t t e d 4-6  PROCEDURE This Upon  study  completion  arranged took  with  place  Interview parent  adolescent the  CRITICAL  were  career  identify,  interviewer  the  telephone.  times The  and  each  minutes  and  one  asked  were  interviews  office  subject's hour.  Identical  answered q u e s t i o n s  Technique  from t h e i r the  process  collected began  interview  September.  The  interview  p e r t a i n i n g to  INTERVIEW  facilitate  during  and  development.  incidents  D a t a were The  by  45  parent  INCIDENTS  Critical  maturity  subjects  between  but  between May  program,  lasted  THE  that  the  researcher's  adolescent's  events  o£ the  the  subjects  conducted  i n the  and  questions,  The  was  own  was  experiences,  adolescent's of  the  Partners  by means of  each  selected the  perceived  help  kind  of  career  Program.  individual  interview  to  with  interviews.  the  following  preamble: I want to thank you and your partner for c o m p l e t i n g the P a r t n e r s Program. From the o u t s e t I ' d l i k e t o r e m i n d you t h a t t h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be t a p e r e c o r d e d and t h a t what we discuss here i s strictly confidential and only used for the p u r p o s e of this research study. Your name w i l l not be attached to any of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we record. I'd l i k e to b r i e f l y r e a c q u a i n t you w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f my r e s e a r c h and t h i s i n t e r v i e w — t h e p u r p o s e i s t o t r y and d i s c o v e r what happens t h a t is significant in career planning during the process of the Partners Program. I w i l l be asking you a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s , s t a r t i n g f r o m the first workbook (the activities workbook), through until the last workbook (the p l a n n i n g workbook).  23  F o l l o w i n g the questions  p r e a m b l e , t h e s u b j e c t was  h e / s h e had  regarding  the  proceeded f o l l o w i n g  the preamble.  open-ended q u e s t i o n s  to  experiences The  d u r i n g the  interviews  guidelines defined  help  were  study.  subject  of the  interview  explore  his/her  program.  constructed  by F l a n a g a n  The  any  I t i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s of  the  process  a b l e t o ask  to  conform  to  the  (1954):  The interviewer should avoid asking leading questions after the main question has been stated. His remarks should be neutral and p e r m i s s i v e and show t h a t he a c c e p t s t h e o b s e r v e r as e x p e r t . By indicating that he u n d e r s t a n d s what i s b e i n g s a i d and p e r m i t t i n g t h e o b s e r v e r t o do most of the talking, the interviewer can u s u a l l y get unbiased i n c i d e n t s (p. 342).  THE  INTERVIEW A f t e r the  interviewer reacquainted  b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of  the  requested  events  negative elicited  specific impact  on c a r e e r  details  of  Subjects  rather than the  were  opinions  that  or  of  the  study,  had  a  positive  planning.  what  a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d t h a t was helpful.  purpose  led so  up  the s u b j e c t w i t h  The to  helpful  he  and  then  i n c i d e n t , what why  it  reminded to r e p o r t concrete t h e o r i e s throughout  was  so  events  the course  Interview. The  then  and/or  interviewer  the  a  a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w proceeded as f o l l o w s :  Now t h a t you've completed the P a r t n e r s Program, I would l i k e you t o t h i n k back t o the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the program. Think back t o when you were w o r k i n g on t h e a c t i v i t i e s w o r k b o o k and w h i l e you were on this, I'd l i k e you t o r e c a l l s o m e t h i n g  of  24 t h a t happened t o you career development, negatively." During hand and  the  i n t e r v i e w the  leafed  through  experiences during had  indicated  proceeded  t h a t had either  it  subject for  t h e workbook.  he/she  had  an  an  a  impact on positively had  your or  t h e workbook i n  recollection  of  their  When t h e p a r e n t / a d o l e s c e n t  event  In  mind,  the  interview  with the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  a) What e x a c t l y happened b) What were event?  that  had  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  incident  c ) How d i d t h i s planning?  s u c h an that  h e l p your  d) What e x a c t l y happened t h a t you a t t h a t t i m e ?  was  impact?  lead  up  this  career so  helpful  to  e) c a n you think o f a n o t h e r e v e n t t h a t happened while you were working on the activities workbook (or whatever book b e i n g d i s c u s s e d ) , whether i t be p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , t h a t had a s i g n i f i c a n t Impact i n y o u r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ? After questions  each cited  adolescent  was  significance, Workbook  incident above  were  unable the  (Appendix  was  to  t o P l a n n i n g Workbook  to  the  asked.  when  generate  further  interviewer E)  recalled,  proceeded  Career Grid  (Appendix  same the  five  parent/  Incidents  from  Workbook  of  Activities (Appendix  F)  G).  CATEGORIZATION Upon extracted recorded  completion  of  incidents  from  these  on  3"  x  the  interview,  the 5"  audiotape  note  cards.  the  researcher  recordings Data  and  analysis  involved  examining  factors.  These note cards contained  typically  recorded  paraphrased incident. comprised  incidents  in  in  accordance  Each note  s i m i l a r i t i e s and common one incident  Interviewer's to  their  card contained  each incident.  a) who  the  for  own  and were words  or  of  the  reporting  three components that  These three components were:  reported the incident  b) what happened c) what the s i g n i f i c a n t impact The f i r s t step in the date of the  incidents.  was  analysis was  classification  This process involved grouping incidents  into categories  and  developing  descriptive  each grouping.  The incidents were categorized according to  the impact the incident had upon the adolescent.  the career  of  development of  The aim of categorization was to determine  the optimal  balance between  This  was  aim  statements  sought  the general  by  following  guidelines i n the selection of category a) The headings must be organized and have structure. b) The t i t l e s require definitions.  and the s p e c i f i c . Flanagan's  (1954)  headings:  clear-cut, logically an e a s i l y remembered  meanings  without detailed  c) The headings should be homogeneous and in content and structure.  parallel  d) The headings should be comprehensive and should f a c i l i t a t e findings by being e a s i l y applied. After  a l l the  onto note cards,  the  incidents were summarized and recorded development  of  the  category system  began.  This  process  involved grouping  common e l e m e n t s i n t h e i m p a c t  section  i n c i d e n t s t h a t had of  The b e g i n n i n g  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was a t r i a l  small  of  sample  Incidents  the  note  made  to c l a s s i f y  initial  category  refined  s i m i l a r were p l a c e d .  process  complete.  was This  satisfactory  resulted  i n some  reviews,  the  Following  A  placing t h i s , the continued  The c a t e g o r i e s  a l l Incidents  actual incidents  repeated involved  categories.  process  sorted,  i n t o them.  until  card.  that  were  The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y were  re-examined i n terms of  ongoing  were  d e f i n i t i o n s and  a d d i t i o n a l Incidents  were r e v i e w e d a n d  note  classification.  t h a t seemed s i m i l a r t o g e t h e r .  researcher  this  cards  each  as  each  until  the  cycles  categories  were  review  scheme  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m seemed  categories  several  of  redefinitions.  category  w i t h i n them, and  the  to  develop  r e f i n e d i n an category  Finally, after became  were  clear  titles several  and t h e  complete.  INDEPENDENT RATERS' CATEGORIZATION Following  the  researcher's  were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d for  two  from  independent r a t e r s  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , three  each of  the sixteen  to categorize.  employed t o check t h e c a t e g o r y r e l i a b i l i t y . 28 y e a r  o l d male,  an e x p e r i e n c e d  Pastor  w o r k i n g on a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e i n t h e o l o g y . y e a r o l d f e m a l e who f o r m e r l y  served  cards  categories  The r a t e r s were Rater A  was a  who was c u r r e n t l y R a t e r B was a 32  10 y e a r s i n p o l i c e work  and  investigation.  their  task  gathered. it  Each  helped  raters  were  on  an  categories  how  take  to  t h e impact They  and a s k a n y q u e s t i o n s  categories,  clear  what  to  when t h e r a t e r do,  events  on t h e b a s i s  he/she  of  planning.  the w r i t t e n  were  oriented to  the  career  to  happened.  first  categorization.  of  i n his/her  them a c c o r d i n g  meaning o f on  were b r i e f l y  i n c i d e n t was c a t e g o r i z e d  instructed  what  raters  explanation  the adolescent  categorize not  with  The  cards  the event t o look as t o  were how The  and t o had and  over a l l the t h e n a t u r e or  Indicated proceeded  h e / s h e was with  the  28 CHAPTER IV RESULTS In  this  Critical  incidents study on what f a c i l i t a t e s  the perceived career development  of  the  Program,  process  reported  a  positive.  of  the Partners  total  of  302  the adolescent during  incidents,  18  participants  a l l of which were  No hindering or negative incidents were reported,  despite invitations to do so. The  nature  of  the Interview—working  workbook  during  the process—made  whether the program was i t was On  concluded that  the average,  ranging from  through  i t possible  completed.  each  to judge  From these interviews,  9 families had finished the program.  dyads  spent  6-14 hours.  10  hours  in the program,  A l l parents found the tasks to be  clear and easy to follow.  No families phoned the researcher  for assistance during the program. upon completion  of the Interviews, the incidents were  summarized from the audiotape Through  an  Inductive  recordings onto  process  of gradual  Index cards. refinement, 16  categories emerged. The 302 incidents were sorted and with common  meaning u n t i l  they formed  categorization, the researcher between the general and sorting  cards,  began.  As many  sought  the s p e c i f i c .  the development as 26  of  resorted into groups categories.  During  the optimal balance i n the process of the category  system  categories were developed, but upon  29 closer  examination  of each note c a r d , The  researcher  incidents  o f common  16 c a t e g o r i e s  and  into  categorized  a sample  are  each category, that  16  seemed t o  incidents,  of  3  t h e 16 c a t e g o r i e s  with  and  by  illustrated  clearly  The  researcher  from a brief  two  were j u d g e d a s p r o t o t y p i c a l i n t h a t  emerge.  categorized  whereas  incidents  section  raters  categories.  302  a l l  i n t h e impact  t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t  the  categorized  Following  elements  the each  raters  category.  d e s c r i p t i o n of  concrete  incidents  category.  CATEGORIES 1.  (17  CRYSTALLIZED DIRECTION Some a d o l e s c e n t s  their  career  wanted  a  establish Gospel report  seemed t o  direction.  career that  singing  in  incidents)  F o r example, music.  He  experience  general  idea  one t e e n a g e r reported  evangelist.  These  he was a b l e t o  The a d o l e s c e n t or being  able  adolescents  was a n a r r o w i n g  felt  about  knew he  he wanted t o now n a r r o w t h i s down t o  i n c i d e n t s whereby t h e r e  direction.  have a  being  a  tended t o  to a  specific  something—having  an 'aha'  to say, "This  i s t h e one."  Through d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a f r i e n d , she r e a l i z e d she was on t h e r i g h t t r a c k and t h a t t h e c a r e e r was t h e one f o r h e r . Through completing the program s h e was able t o n a r r o w down career choices and p i c k t h e one f o r her.  30 2.  STRENGTHENED OR CONFIRMED DIRECTION Some  career  people  entered  direction.  reported already  to  This  pertain  the  category  (28 i n c i d e n t s )  program  with  contained  specifically  to  a  events  a  career  reasonable that  were  t h a t had  been e s t a b l i s h e d .  Through d i s c u s s i n g jobs besides my top choices t h i s d i d n o t sway my c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n b u t r a t h e r strengthened i t more. Through r e c e i v i n g career choice I further affirmed. 3.  some h a n d s - o n e x p e r i e n c e i n my felt my career d i r e c t i o n was  EXPANDED P O S S I B I L I T I E S Incidents  promising not  a  career  definite  person  their  career  category  from a  included  or career  direction,  not r e a l i z i n g  career  liberated  have s i n c e  this  direction  from e i t h e r  widening been  in  (28 i n c i d e n t s )  range.  possibility.  but  really  any c a r e e r  One a d o l e s c e n t  career  identifying  he t h o u g h t  This  prevented  a was the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s or reported  having  he was d e s t i n e d t o  childhood.  Through listing h e r wide activities, this helped her many c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  range of enjoyable r e a l i z e t h a t s h e has  Through d i s c u s s i n g activities, this unstuck him f r o m a c a r e e r he dreamed o f d o i n g s i n c e c h i l d h o o d and e n l a r g e d h i s c a r e e r p o o l . 4. GAINED INSIGHT INTO NATURE OF CHOICE (23 i n c i d e n t s ) Participants career program.  choices Closer  realized based  on  how what  the they  adolescent discovered  examination of personal  values,  would make d u r i n g the interests,  31 and  strengths,  combined  career  options  their  careers.  that  career  helped  them  They  choices  with  a c l o s e r s c r u t i n y of a v a i l a b l e  realize  realized,  will  how often  be made on t h e  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m s e l v e s and o f c a r e e r  they  could  choose  f o r the f i r s t basis  of  time,  their  own  possibilities.  Through examining s c o p e o f v a l u e s , I n t e r e s t s and s t r e n g t h s , she r e a l i z e d t h a t she s h o u l d choose a c a r e e r t h a t b e s t f i t t e d them a l l . Through comparing l i k e s w i t h predominant v a l u e s , I realized career choices will be made by what career values I hold highest. 5.  ESTABLISHED VALUES PRIORITY One  done  value  light  Is e s t a b l i s h e d over another  primarily  hierarchy  of  of t h e i r  (11 incidents)  by  comparison.  values  and  established  value.  Adolescents  examined c a r e e r  T h i s was  reported  a  possibilities in  values.  Through discussing job values she considered pursuing careers t h a t meet predominant values a t the expense o f other v a l u e s . By comparing t o p two c a r e e r choices, helping others was clearly established i n h i s primary value in a career, over and above a l l other values. 6.  CRYSTALLIZED VALUES OR PISVALUED This  reported they  category that  valued  there  contained was e i t h e r  or a c l a r i f i c a t i o n  (21 i n c i d e n t s )  incidents a  i n which the people  clarification  of values  of something  adhered t o .  Through l i s t i n g c a r e e r v a l u e s she r e a l i z e d minimal j o b p r e s s u r e was m a n d a t o r y a s a c a r e e r v a l u e .  32 T h r o u g h e x a m i n i n g e n j o y a b l e a c t i v i t i e s he r e a l i z e d e l e m e n t s he v a l u e d and elements he disvalued in the a c t i v i t i e s . 7.  STIMULATED EXPLORATION Incidents  and  not  just  t h e y would  in  this  thinking get a  on e x p e r i e n c e  (10 i n c i d e n t s )  category through.  'taste'  i n order  displayed active exploring Adolescents  indicated  of a c a r e e r by some k i n d of  t o see  whether  or n o t  they  Through comparing c a r e e r s and c a r e e r v a l u e s , stimulated exploration into a career v o l u n t e e r i n g f o r 'hands-on e x p e r i e n c e . '  that  hands-  liked i t . this by  Through r e a l i z i n g keen i n t e r e s t i n t h r e e c a r e e r s , I was s t i m u l a t e d to explore them by getting a t a s t e o f e a c h one. 8.  STIMULATED PREPARATION This  career  category  went  by  including  direction.  Definite  high school courses It  did  not,  (30 i n c i d e n t s ) beyond  events plans  were  however,  that  selected  'now'  for  the  of  encompassed  'taste' for  of a  a career  to prepare,  the  include planning  Events reported a l s o  a  prepared  were made  courses. field  getting  upcoming  for future  year.  college  job experience  interest.  Through d i s c u s s i n g c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o p r e p a r e f o r my career interest by p a r t - t i m e job i n the f i e l d .  and  I decided getting a  Through completing the program and discussing c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n , the parent and the a d o l e s c e n t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y planned out t h e n e x t two y e a r s of high school courses.  in  33 9. STIMULATED FURTHER EVALUATION OF OPTIONS This  encompassed  adolescent  weighed  options  for  careers  of  specifically  a thinking-through  out, pinpointed  a more i n f o r m e d interest  as  process  p r o b l e m s and  choice.  well  (21 i n c i d e n t s ) whereby t h e reconsidered  I t included  as  ones  evaluating  that  had  been  chosen.  Through d i s c u s s i o n with a p e r s o n who was i n t h e f i e l d of chosen c a r e e r , the d e t a i l s of the job were t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , which caused him t o r e c o n s i d e r and f u r t h e r e v a l u a t e t h i s c a r e e r . Through discussing strengths within enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s , he began w e i g h i n g t h e p r o s and c o n s o f specific careers more closely to decide on a s p e c i f i c career. 10. ELIMINATED OR QUESTIONED OPTIONS Upon  closer  attributes, were  the  examination adolescent  eliminated.  resulting  There  of  (20 i n c i d e n t s ) personal  realized  that  was no f o c u s  interests  and  certain  careers  on s p e c i f i c  options  from the p r o c e s s .  T h r o u g h e x a m i n i n g my activities, I eliminated a career p o s s i b i l i t y and r e a l i z e d an a c t i v i t y would o n l y r e m a i n a hobby. Through comparing c a r e e r v a l u e s , this resulted in a s h o r t e r j o b l i s t and e l i m i n a t e d c e r t a i n f i e l d s . 11. PLANNED FINANCES FOR FURTHER EDUCATION This  category  preparation reported paid  for  events  future  encompassed  financial  schooling.  that revealed  (11 i n c i d e n t s ) planning  Parents  and  how f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n  f o r - - s c h o l a r s h l p s , part-time  jobs,  parental  and  students would be  support.  Through realizing the high cost of p o s t - h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , the a d o l e s c e n t planned p a r t - t i m e employment now and t h r o u g h o u t c o l l e g e t o pay f o r her s c h o o l i n g . Through d i s c u s s i n g educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , the adolescent and parent did a cost-effective a n a l y s i s of each institution to d e t e r m i n e where he'd g e t t h e most f o r h i s money.  12.  EXPLORED EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND CONSIDERED EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS (23 i n c i d e n t s ) This  school.  category Educational  catalogues  to  locate  chosen c a r e e r s . the  r e f e r r e d to  schools  institutions  resources.  exploration had  process  not  was  One they  previously  Through checked prepared  and  that  cost  of e d u c a t i o n a l  were c h o s e n — t h i s  available  they  programs were examined  Location  consideration  future education  through  were common  college  factors  institutions.  No  that  in In  definite  e x p l o r a t i o n of  reported  discovered  high  offered training  m e r e l y an  dyad  beyond  through  the this  a l t e r n a t i v e education  considered.  realizing tentative career choices, I out institutions and programs that me f o r them.  Through researching career choices in college c a t a l o g u e s , I r e a l i z e d my career choices required t r a i n i n g offered only i n c e r t a i n schools.  13.  INCREASED MOTIVATION This  that  increased  planning. could  category  The  (14  encompassed  motivation adolescent  f o s t e r the  incidents)  was  realization  in  a broad the  a  incidents  adolescent's  motivated of  range of  t o do  career  something  potentially  that  fulfilling  career.  This  included  such  things  schoolwork, examining p o s s i b l e career about p e r s p e c t i v e  as  brushing  choices,  and  up on  inquiring  jobs.  T h r o u g h w o r k i n g i n a p a r t - t i m e j o b I h a t e d , I was f u r t h e r m o t i v a t e d t o work t o w a r d s a f u l f i l l i n g c a r e e r . T h r o u g h r e a l i z i n g what he c o u l d do t o r e a c h c a r e e r g o a l s , t h i s i n c r e a s e d h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o do w e l l i n the coming s c h o o l y e a r .  14.  (8  INCREASED CONFIDENCE This  learned  something  reported helped  category  that  incidents)  included events positive  the  them r e a l i z e  about  process 'they  i n which the him/herself.  adolescent Adolescents  of working through t h e program  could  do i t . '  T h r o u g h c o m p a r i n g c a r e e r s and r e a l i z i n g she c o u l d do many, this bolstered her c o n f i d e n c e i n her abilities. Through recognizing emerging patterns about herself throughout t h e program, this gave h e r self-confidence in pursuing career choices available to her. 15.  HELPED ASSESS QR PICTURE ONESELF In t h i s  category,  that d i f f e r e n t adolescent  as  adolescent  felt  picture  oneself  parts  both adolescents  of  he/she  (16 i n c i d e n t s )  the  program  really  ' i n touch'  was. with  and p a r e n t s helped  them  They r e p o r t e d self,  and  was  reported see the that the able to  more a c c u r a t e l y .  Through considering my likes, s t r e n g t h s , I f e l t I had a much more v i e w o f m y s e l f as a p e r s o n . Through completing t h e program, better understanding of h i m s e l f .  values and comprehensive  he f e l t  he had a  36 16.  STRENGTHENED FAMILY NETWORK This  Impact  category  on  the  t o enhance parents  contained  family.  family  and  of  that  had  were r e p o r t e d  t o g e t h e r n e s s and  a result  incidents)  events  Incidents  adolescents  t h e m s e l v e s as  (21  family  reported partner  a  a positive that  seemed  flexibility.  'freeing  Some  up'  to  be  discussions.  Through family discussion, she u n d e r s t o o d and t h i s h e l p e d clear conflicts.  began feeling up some f a m i l y  Through sharing and d i s c o v e r i n g more a b o u t e a c h other i n the A c t i v i t i e s Workbook, t h e adolescent knew p a r e n t s were b e h i n d her i n c a r e e r plans. RELIABILITY Two  independent  Incidents of  3  gathered  cards  According  by  the  selected  the  degree  categorization  reliability  of  c a t e g o r y scheme  researcher.  from  t o A n d e r s o n and  j u d g e d by the  raters categorized  each  Nilsson  100%. is a  This  of  A  and  of  can  be  judges  in  B  achieved  suggest  reflection  302  categories.  independent  figures  reliable  16  the  consisted  (1964), r e l i a b i l i t y  Raters  These  of  sample  the  of a g r e e m e n t by scheme.  a sample  that  the  the  reported  incidents. INCIDENT FREQUENCY The within  frequency  and  each c a t e g o r y  number of  reported  incidents  reported.  is  percentage found  in  i n c i d e n t s was As  can  be  of  reported  Table  1.  incidents  The  average  16.61, w i t h a r a n g e o f seen  by  the  range,  5-22 the  participants  varied  a great deal  i n the  number o f  incidents  reported. In  examining  this  with  range  incidents comparison, 11-22  a  adolescents  incidents  further, of  produced  147  5-22  incidents.  In  between  produced  (see  parents  Table  155  incidents,  2).  incidents  r e p o r t e d by t h e  number of  I n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by  The  parents  ranging  average  16.33.  was  from  number  The  t h e a d o l e s c e n t s was  of  average  17.22.  CATEGORIES PARTICIPATION RATE The  participation  represented category  i n each c a t e g o r y  is  formed  independently several  rate for  a  reporting  people  strengthens  as  percentage  reported result  the  r e p o r t the  the  is  the  same  of  that  a  Table  3.  different  kind  same k i n d o f  possibility  in  of s u b j e c t s  of  A  people  event.  When  Incident, i t greatly category  was  well-  founded . Participation  rate  is  soundness of a c a t e g o r y , people  1964). report  i s one  criterion  It Indicates the  analogous independent  one  the  for determining  the  use  observers  of  s i n c e agreement  extent  same k i n d o f e v e n t to  way  of  subjective  objectivity.  the  independent (Kalper,  different  facilitating  inter  to achieve  among  objectivity  to which  as  Indicating  an  aim  people and  is  agreement  by  38 TABLE 1 FREQUENCY  & PERCENTAGE OF REPORTED WITHIN EACH  CATEGORY  CATEGORY (n = 302 i n c i d e n t s ) 1. C r y s t a l l i z e d  Direction  2. S t r e n g t h e n e d  or Confirmed  Direction  3. Expanded P o s s i b i l i t i e s 4. G a i n e d  Insight  5. E s t a b l i s h  i n t o Nature  Values  6. C r y s t a l l i z e d  of c h o i c e  Priority  Values  INCIDENTS  or D i s v a l u e d  F.  % PERCENT  17  5.6  28  9.3  28  9.3  23  7.6  11  3.6  21  7.0  7. S t i m u l a t e d  Exploration  10  3.3  8. S t i m u l a t e d  Preparation  30  9.9  9. S t i m u l a t e d Options  Further  21  7.0  20  6.6  11  3.6  23  7.6  14  4.6  8  2.1  16  5.3  21  7.0  10. E l i m i n a t e d  E v a l u a t i o n of  or Questioned  11. P l a n n e d F i n a n c e s Education  Options  f o r Further  12. E x p l o r e d E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and C o n s i d e r e d E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements 13. I n c r e a s e d  Motivation  14. I n c r e a s e d  Confidence  15. H e l p e d  Assess  16. S t r e n g t h e n e d  or P i c t u r e Oneself Family  Network  39 TABLE 2 NO. OF REPORTED INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY AS REPORTED BY PARENTS & ADOLESCENTS CATEGORY (n = 302 i n c i d e n t s ) 1. C r y s t a l l i z e d  # OF INCIDENTS REPORTED BY ADOLESCENTS  Direction  # OF INCIDENTS REPORTED BY PARENTS  10  2. S t r e n g t h e n e d o r Confirmed D i r e c t i o n  16  12  3. Expanded  10  18  12  11  11  10  Exploration  6  4  8. S t i m u l a t e d P r e p a r a t i o n  13  17  9. S t i m u l a t e d F u r t h e r E v a l u a t i o n of Options  11  10  13  7  5  6  12. E x p l o r e d E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s and Considered Educational Requirements  13  10  13. I n c r e a s e d M o t i v a t i o n  11  3  4. G a i n e d Nature  Possibilities  Insight into of Choice  5. E s t a b l i s h Priority  Values  6. C r y s t a l l i z e d Disvalued 7. S t i m u l a t e d  V a l u e s or  10. E l i m i n a t e d o r Q u e s t i o n e d Options 11. P l a n n e d Further  Finances f o r Education  14. I n c r e a s e d  Confidence  15. H e l p e d A s s e s s Oneself 16. S t r e n g t h e n e d  or P i c t u r e  F a m i l y Network  3  5  8  8 14  40 TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS REPORTING INCIDENTS IN EACH CATEGORY  CATEGORY  PERCENTAGE PROPORTION FOR EACH CATEGORY - PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS REPRESENTED % OF ADOLESCENTS  % OF PARENTS  COMBINED PARENTS & ADOLESCENTS TOTAL  1. C r y s t a l l i z e d D i r e c t i o n  55.6  55.6  55.6  2. S t r e n g t h e n e d o r Confirmed Direction  77.7  55.6  66.7  3. E x p a n d e d P o s s i b i l i t i e s  66.7  66.7  66.7  4. G a i n e d Nature  55.6  55.6  55.6  44.4  55.6  50.0  6. C r y s t a l l i z e d V a l u e s or D i s v a l u e d  55.6  66.7  61.1  7. S t i m u l a t e d E x p l o r a t i o n  44.4  33.3  38.9  8. S t i m u l a t e d P r e p a r a t i o n  66.7  66.7  66 .7  9. S t i m u l a t e d F u r t h e r E v a l u a t i o n of Options  77.7  55.6  66.7  insight into of Choice  5. E s t a b l i s h Priority  Values  10.  E l i m i n a t e d or Questioned Options  77.7  44.4  61.1  11.  Planned Further  55.6  55.6  55.6  12.  Explored Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s and Considered Educational Requirements  77.7  55.6  66.7  13.  Increased Motivation  66.7  22.2  44.4  14.  Increased Confidence  33.3  55.6  44.4  15.  Helped A s s e s s or Picture Oneself  66.7  66.7  66.7  16.  Strengthened Network  44.4  55.6  50.0  Finances f o r Education  Family  41 CASE STUDY One was  of  of  Partners  their  exemplify  the P a r t n e r s Workbook  both  parent  adolescent's discussing  career  study  examination.  The  the  process  process  Activities  adolescent direction  a  Values  during the  #1—the and  realize  motivation  further  in this  of  the  experiences  in  Program.  his a c t i v i t i e s  direction.  for  experience  During  to  dyads t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d  selected  Program  completing  him  nine  arbitrarily  results  E),  the  and  Workbook—(Appendix reported  was  his  crystallized  values,  'singlemindedness'  Identified  in this  to pursue h i s c a r e e r  that  thereby  about  workbook  his  the after  helping career  increased his  direction.  I l o v e t h e c h a l l e n g e and r i s k i n v o l v e d i n p u r s u i n g my c a r e e r c h o i c e w h i c h m o t i v a t e s me t o p r a c t i c e my music more and to study harder to achieve the g o a l o f making i t In m u s i c m i n i s t r y . The  parent  crystallize before, be  his  stating  more  values  format  The  and  'more  initial  him  'work  he  exploration the  seemed  his  done  helped of  him  values,  adolescent  b e l i e v e d t h a t the  through'  had  to  to  workbook  thoughts  and  prospects. #2—The Career  adolescent  also  program.  than  workbook  strengths motivated  I n workbook  career  adolescent  depth'  in this  p r o g r a m b e c a u s e he  helped  f e e l i n g s about  In  t h a t the  likes  In t h e  exercises  the  r e p o r t e d t h a t the  specific.  activities, advance  also  The  Grid  participated  Workbook—(Appendix F ) , in  exercises in this  "Choices" workbook  computer challenged  42 him  to  look  at career  avenues t h a t and  would meet  adolescent  information choice,  reported  gained  even  from  after  They r e p o r t e d but  values  a  as  these  career  that  this  "Choices"  exploring  a result  of  of the  career  explore  Both  parent  and his  the  career  possibilities.  only career  options  exercises  to  workbook confirmed  other  career  him  values.  ' n a r r o w i n g down' of n o t  more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  field,  which m o t i v a t e d  within  i n Workbook  options the  same  #2.  By c o m p a r i n g s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s w i t h i n the f i e l d o f m u s i c i n t h e t a b l e of d i f f e r e n c e s , I r e a l i z e d t h a t I wanted to pursue the avenue of music t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e or r i s k f o r me and gave me t h e f r e e d o m t o c r e a t e and p e r f o r m . The  process  through the career in  of  completing  the  career  t a b l e o f d i f f e r e n c e s when  values  his career  helped  the  adolescent  direction.  The  grid  working  comparing c a r e e r s  realize  parent  and  parental  and  support  reported:  At t h i s p o i n t in the program, he r e a l i z e d our support even though I felt I had t o p l a y t h e ' d e v i l ' s advocate' i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c a r e e r s and what was i n v o l v e d i n e a c h one. The  tentative  motivated Planning adolescent career  the  career  adolescent  choice to  Workbook—(Appendix reported  direction  was  that  the  clarified.  arrived  carry C). cost The  at  on  Workbook  Here, of  i n workbook  &3--the  both parent  education  adolescent  #2,  and  for his  stated:  When examining the possible universities to attend, we realized the tremendous cost of education, which c h a l l e n g e d me t o a p p l y m y s e l f t o my studies and work towards complete academic scholarship.  T h i s workbook evaluating way.  The  seemed t o b r i n g new  institutions parent  in a  light  to the  more r e a l i s t i c  and  task  of  manageable  reported:  The p l a n n i n g workbook c a u s e d my s o n and I t o do a cost-effective a n a l y s i s of each i n s t i t u t i o n at length concerning his career choice, in effect, we seemed t o d e t e r m i n e where he'd g e t t h e most f o r his dollar value. The  exercises  examination  of  i n the  workbook r e s u l t e d  institutions  and  receiving  institution  institution  personnel.  After  together  decided  and  parent  institution schools  was  The  overall  development  in  Individual  felt  confirmed to  and  my  valuable  effect  me  the  particular  case  career  Partners and  choice.  I t o see  recognize  best  teamwork  In  t h a t the  f a t h e r and  helped The  his  campuses,  speaking  done, t h e the  thorough  with  adolescent choice  of  in researching  career.  his career d i r e c t i o n  pursue  helped  this  was  on  to  and  where  a d e c i s i o n based  in his specific  visits  calendars this  in a  my  adolescent's study  was  career that  Program s t r e n g t h e n e d Increased He  stated:  career plans  his  the and  motivation  "The  program  more  clearly  our d i f f e r e n c e s . "  parent  reported  t h a t t h e P a r t n e r s P r o g r a m was  In t h a t  i t provided  a structured setting  that  special a t t e n t i o n and focus on my s o n and t h i s h e l p e d him f o c u s on h i s c a r e e r p l a n s i n much more depth then we've e v e r done b e f o r e , e v e n t h o u g h we talked considerably about his career plans for a b o u t two or t h r e e y e a r s .  very gave,  44 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION STATEMENT OF THE RESULTS The  findings  this  empirical  investigation  some a n s w e r s t o t h e r e s e a r c h  question,  "What happens t h a t i s  significant Partners  in  of  career  during  the process  of the  Program?" 18  The  participants  incidents  out  interrater  reliability  all  planning  suggest  of  which  in 16  this  study  categories  demonstrated  produced  emerged;  strong  302  t h e 100'%  reliability in  categories. Each  This  category  was  received  indicated  by  the  represented  in  each c a t e g o r y  categories,  13 had 50% o r more  considerable high  proportion 3).  (Table  of the  represented  representation  of s u b j e c t s  within  t h e 16 c a t e g o r i e s was 38.9% ( T a b l e  were:  Crystallized  Direction, Nature Values  of  Choice,  or  Eliminated  Insight  Evaluation Planned  Educational  Requirements,  Into  Crystallized  Exploration,  Options,  Explored  Educational  Gained  the study  or Confirmed  Values P r i o r i t y ,  Further  Questioned  from  Strengthened  Stimulated  Stimulated  Education,  Considered  Reestablish  3).  emerged  Possibilities,  Disvalued,  or  that  Direction,  Expanded  Preparation,  Further  categories  o f 16  subjects  that category.  sixteen  of s u b j e c t s  From a t o t a l  within  The  The l o w e s t  representation.  Stimulated of  Options,  Finances  for  I n s t i t u t i o n s and  Increased  Motivation,  increased  confidence,  Strengthened reflect the  Family  Helped  Network.  what  Cochran  Partners  Program:  and  capabilities.  Self underlying experience helped applies  theme with  them  The  the  in  For  him  categories  Disvalued,  adolescent and  of  the  process  most of  seemed  help  them  with  seemed t h a t h e / s h e was  the as  in  a w a r e n e s s and  very  a  dyad  to hinge  a person,  that  youth and  his  reported  that  one  self  career.  awareness Values  or  This  of  the  that  one  during  the  aspect  reported  happened  adolescent  "platform"  planning  greater  the  Confidence,  that  adolescent  the  view" of  Increased  Parents  a  the  Crystallized  the  as i t  that  only  around  my  increased he  From t h a t , p a r e n t s  decision more t h e  on  the  awareness  reported  This  Oneself.  p r o g r a m was  be In  self  " b i r d ' s eye  fixated  strong.  to  of c h o i c e ,  a result,  things  the  seemed  decision  categories.  Motivation,  Picture  to give  development,  nature  Priority,  more aware of h i m / h e r s e l f . this  career  increased  the  as  being  thrilling  the  of  the  get  and  from  p r o g r a m seemed t o be  t h r e e f o l d aim  abilities.  Values  or  the  example, one  Increased  Helped Assess  of  into  t h a t seemed  Establish  to  aim,  adolescents,  himself,  liberated  were:  many  and  seemed  career  first  Insight  strengths  confidence this  these  to careers.  youth's  the  in  gain  program helped  foster  awareness,  awareness,  categories  s t a t e d as  to  self  or P i c t u r e o n e s e l f ,  These  (1985)  particular, planning  Assess  could their  was  becoming  reported  that  from which  capabilities. conceptualize ability  to  to It who  choose  46 careers.  This  examination Establish  conceptualization  of t h e i r  Values P r i o r i t y ,  —reflected  this.  dyad  reported  career that  point  the adolescents that  program  indepth  of  personal creating  the  adolescent the Partners  Program helped  nature.  It  rigorous  categories—  Values or Disvalued values a  had  a  Two  and e x a m i n i n g  values  when a p p r o a c h i n g c a r e e r  during  the Partners  values.  crystallized  Recognizing  them, e v e n t o t h e helped  perceived  included  hierarchy,  choices.  gone t h r o u g h  Program.  One  choices  They i n d i c a t e d  them g r e a t l y b e c a u s e  of i t s  a s s i s t e d them i n e x p l o r i n g t h e y o u t h ' s  personal  values  in light  of  career  reported  that  "Choices  just  choices,  spit  whereas  they  o u t a number o f c a r e e r  options." Categories  that  seemed t o r e f l e c t  capabilities  were:  Exploration,  stimulation  reported she  that  once s h e  the  obtained  a summer  motivation which  program  had r e a l i z e d  to  do  enabled  financial The  reported  the  support second  youths' some  participating  this  to  save  her parents major a i m  family  for  direction,  of  college.  i n the program.  The  from f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n  to  realize  the  limited  offer her.  network. family  the day  a p p l i e d and  o f t h e p r o g r a m was t o  support  measure  money  could  adolescent  that  the adolescent  was d e r i v e d  adolescent  one  stated  planning  Stimulated  her c a r e e r  Her p a r e n t  completion, job  Possibilities,  Preparation.  i m m e d i a t e l y made p l a n s .  after  the  Expanded  d e c i s i o n and  The  cohesion  Three  dyads  9  strengthen dyads a l l  as a r e s u l t of reported  that  47 throughout  the  program,  workbook e x e r c i s e s  discussions.  These d i s c u s s i o n s would  other  parent  and o f t e n  these  d i s c u s s i o n s brought  family  members  reported  better  that  the  "resource  base"  required.  Another  provided  a  firm  career  planning.  persons within  schools  was  first,  the  Considered a  strong  a  aware o f  One  family  program  and  resources  of  educational  requirements  institution  f o r career  Perhaps the Is best  for a  choice,  richness  reflected  Program  of  Two  young  categories Education  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  the second.  There i n these  Institutions  category  This  category  cost  active  weren't  of education, the  chosen c a r e e r , and e d u c a t i o n a l participating  by t h e r e p o r t  of  and programs  most a d o l e s c e n t s  the high  ever  process  the adolescents  rate.  a  and t h a t i t  f o r Further  Educational  Indicated  as:  planning  the ongoing  R e q u i r e m e n t s was  participation  such t h i n g s  i t were  Partners  (Cochran 1985).  Explored  that  provided  p r o g r a m was t o s t i m u l a t e  representation  incidents  i f  the  E x p l o r i n g and C o n s i d e r i n g  77.7%  produced  each o t h e r .  Planned Finances  Educational  categories:  Program  the  and c o l l e g e s aim:  helped  f o r career in  that  and  that  the adolescent  of  They r e p o r t e d  reference,  said  t h e dyad, t h e  together  the  t o make b e t t e r u s e o f c a r e e r  this  had  future  family  aim  reflected  was  family  of  foundation  them s t a r t  last  the  results  involve  siblings.  understand  for  helped  The  other  lead to family  the type of options.  i n the Partners  o f one  parent.  48 The P a r t n e r s P r o g r a m t a k e s a l o t o f t i m e t o do a good j o b on, b u t I t was t i m e w e l l s p e n t , e v e n t h o u g h we a r e a v e r y b u s y f a m i l y . LIMITATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS  OF THE STUDY  T h e r e a r e some f a c t o r s t h a t of  these  dropped  results. out of  volunteers dropout  in  the this  rate.  child the  tension  Partners  and  and  limitation  of  and formed a stages  to  of  the  small  families that  Thirdly,  this  the  findings: just  Were  strength.  that  mode  this  for this terminated  reduce  study,  parent-  participationin  over  f i n d i n g s was t h e The s u b j e c t s  of a d o l e s c e n t s  development. only  to  the  The  the  incidents  felt  good?  results, class,  represented. were  r a i s e questions developmental  were  i n the  middle  these volunteers  the r e s u l t s  obtained  concerning  or  were t h e  Do t h e r e s u l t s o f  time?  the categories  of each  group  could  r e p o r t i n g what  program h o l d  value  fact  self-report  Fourthly, the  in  sample.  career  church-attending  subjects  comprised the  the program r e q u i r e s a  the research  generallzable  the  that  Therefore,  are  through  that  6 dyads  Program.  exploratory therefore,  that  parent-child tension  t i m e commitment  composition  volunteers  dyads  was  Two r e a s o n s were g i v e n  was  t i m e commitment.  the g e n e r a l i z a b l l i t y  limitation 15  study.  Another  A second size  initial  One was t h a t  participation. sizable  A primary  limit  category  were e x p l o r a t o r y could  be s t u d i e d  i n n a t u r e and under  i t s own  49 Fifthly, these  career  findings  development  only report  is  results  an  ongoing process  within  a specific  and time  frame.  PRACTICAL  IMPLICATIONS  The  findings  practical be  a  this  implications.  potency  counselling. provide  of  of  Most  family  Family  a powerful  counselling.  That  career  counselling,  can  courses  little  no  or  experience powerful  ally  implementing and  in  don't  know how  adolescents  to  structure of t h e s e  children  1976;  Bratcher,  adequate  a tradition,  in  oversight.  to 1979;  be  t o work t o g e t h e r  i n career  find  a  and  Program  relieves  areas.  the  Furthermore, d e c i s i o n s but  Brighouse,  influences  for  my  Involvement  Partners  that  is  on  encouraging time  1982;  there  could  In c a r e e r  Mitchell,  framework  but  Career  Based  by  can in  counsellors  Due  to  adolescents  families.  their  parents  an  of c o u n s e l l i n g , the  from both  (Lea,  been  counselling  counselling  decisions (Birk, an  with  of  seems  get-togethers  programs a r e a v a i l a b l e  career  want t o h e l p  provides  not  considered  families,  costs  a career  C h i l d r e n expect career  has  number  there  f o r working with  this be  a  involved i n career  family  f a m i l y involvement.  school counsellor parents  and  these  escalating  provides  and  involvement  with  Interestingly,  insight  career  suggest  relationships  framework  counselling  study  and  1978). both planning.  1985).  helpers This  In  program  parents  and  50 SUGGESTIONS FOR The  FUTURE RESEARCH  results  value  t o the  the  findings  of t h i s  developing of  generalizabllity, the  results  study  field  this  be  in this  to  for  conducting  of s t u d y ,  the  results  just could  be  what  examined  unique c a t e g o r y . categories, facilitate  &  evaluate  themes  emerge  been  for adolescents*  1987),  further  research  v a r i o u s combinations  integrations  of parent  and  of  time.  By  whether  emerged  value  conducted  that  of on  could career  career  planning be  these  planning?  parents  could  each  further  that  s e r v i c e s In  counselor  this  s u b j e c t s were  the  adolescent  determined  of  categories that  determine  in assisting  has  resource  Cochran  to  of  the  a  longitudinal  determined  or whether The  confirm  effects  periods be  to  their  sample w i t h A  i f the  Since  in  required A larger  I t may  good.  order  limited  I f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was  parents it  felt  in  would  Since valuable  extended  were d e v e l o p m e n t a l  reporting  is  see  heuristic  counselling.  recommended.  program remain potent type  enormous  are  study.  is  conducted  this  an  of c a r e e r study  composition  could  have  further research  reported  more v a r i e d  study  are  (Palmer  launched  the  a  to  effective  resources.  SUMMARY In  this  effective, reported  as  study  examining  how  s i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s emerged process  events  for career  the  Partners  from the planning.  Program i s  302  incidents  Each  51 category  demonstrated  considerable  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from  the  subjects' reporting. The  results  a l m s of  the  indication career the  Partners  planning  and  adolescent's  The  the  potential  planning  upon  categories Partners  plans  very  the  Family  confidence parents  the  strong  adolescent's  .involvement  both  the  in choosing in  a  stated  in  family  careers.  adolescent  career  potent.  results  t h a t emerged  the  strengthens  involving  P r o g r a m i s an  from  of the  effective  the  interviews  reported  tool  and  the  i n c i d e n t s , the  In t h e  career  planning  adolescents. This  study  church-attending to v e r i f y whether that  be  i s only  the  generalizable  population.  whether t h e  point  process to  increases  d e c i s i o n making.  adolescent's of  seem t o v e r i f y  T h e r e seems t o be  awareness  career  seems t o be  Based  research  Program.  that self  network and  of  of t h i s  process  s u b j e c t s were in  and  the  further  significance.  time.  Further  just  Career  process studied  events to  events  to  a  middle  research are  class,  Is r e q u i r e d  developmental  or  r e p o r t i n g what f e l t  good  development  ongoing  reported discover  is  In t h i s their  an  study  at  need  enduring  REFERENCES Amundson, N. & C o c h r a n L . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Analyzing experiences u s i n g an a d a p t a t i o n o f a h e u r i s t i c a p p r o a c h . Canadian C o u n s e l l o r , 18, 183-186. Amundson, N. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Career c o u n s e l l i n g with primary involvement. C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 18, 180-183.  group  A n d e r s o n , R., Mawby, R., O l s o n , A. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Parental ozinations: A key t o the e d u c a t i o n a l achievements of youth. A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , 14, 8-10. A n d e r s o n , B. & N l l s s o n , s . S t u d i e s i n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s technique. Journal o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1964, 4_8 ( 6 ) , 398-403. Bearg, E. (1979). S e l e c t e d aspects of p a r e n t a l Influence high school s e n i o r s ' career development. Doctoral Dissertations. F a l r l e g h Dickinson University.  on  Birk,  J . (1977). P a r e n t a l Impact on c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e e r development. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the American P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n .  Birk,  J . (1979). H e l p i n g p a r e n t s t o h e l p a d o l e s c e n t s In career exploration. Educational Information Research C e n t e r , ERIC Document ED182671.  B o r g , W. R. & G a l l , M. D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . i n t r o d u c t i o n ( 4 t h ed . ) . New  Educational Research: York: Longman.  Brighouse, E. (1985). H e l p i n g s t u d e n t s make w i s e decisions. B.C. C o u n s e l l o r , 1_, 6-13.  An  career  B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The e c o l o g y o f human development: E x p e r i m e n t s by n a t u r e and d e s i g n . C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: Howard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . o f human d e v e l o p m e n t . 531.  Toward an e x p e r i m e n t a l American P s y c h o l o g i s t ,  ecology 1, 513-  B r u t c h e r , W. E . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The i n f l u e n c e s o f f a m i l y on c a r e e r selection: A family perspective. P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 10, 17-19. B u r k e , R. J . & W e i r , T. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Helping responses of p a r e n t s and p e e r s and a d o l e s c e n t w e l l - b e i n g . Journal of P s y c h o l o g y , 102, 49-62. Cochran, L. (1985a). V a n c o u v e r , B.C.:  Parent Career Guidance Buchman-Kells.  Manual.  53 C o c h r a n , L. & Amundson, N. E x p l o r a t i o n Workbook. C o c h r a n , L. B.C.:  (1985). Activity V a n c o u v e r , B.C.:  (1985b). Career Grid Buchman-Kells.  Workbook.  C o c h r a n , L. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A brief introduction program. U n p u b l i s h e d document.  SelfBuchman-Kells. Vancouver,  t o the  partners  Cohen, A. M. & S m i t h , R. D. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e c h n i q u e i n growth groups: t h e o r y and t e c h n i q u e . La Jolla: University Associates. C o o p e r , C. R., G r o t e v a n t , H. D., Moore, M. S. & Condon, S. (1982). F a m i l y s u p p o r t and c o n f l i c t : Both f o s t e r a d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i f y and r o l e t a k i n g . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D.C. D o c h e l e t , C. Z., Wemett, M. F., G a r l i n g , E . J . , C r a i g - K u h n , K., K e n t , N. & K i t z m a n , H. J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e c h n i q u e a p p l i e d t o the e v a l u a t i o n of the c l i n i c a l practicum setting. The J o u r n a l o f N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n , 11, 15-3 0. F l a n a g a n , J . C. ( 1 9 4 7 ) . The a v i a t i o n p s y c h o l o g y p r o g r a m the Army A i r F o r c e s . Washington, D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e .  in  F l a n a g a n , J.C. (1954). The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e c h n i q u e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 51 ( 4 ) , 327-357. F l a n a g a n , J . C. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . R e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h t o i m p r o v i n g our q u a l i t y of l i f e . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 33 ( 2 ) , 138147 . G i n i z b e r g , A., G i n s b u r g , S. W., A x e l r u d , S., & Herma, J . L. (1951). Occupational choice: An a p p r o a c h t o a g e n e r a l theory. New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . G r e e n o u g h , D. R. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Parent c o u n s e l l i n g — A guidance function. Educational Research Information Center, ERIC Document ED124841. G r o t e v a n t , H. & C o o p e r , C. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . P a t t e r n s of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i d e n t i t y exploration in adolescent. C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 56, 415-428. G u l i c k , E. (1978). S t u d y o f p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on c a r e e r development of a d o l e s c e n t y o u t h . Grove C i t y , O h i o : W. C i t y S c h o o l .  S.  54 K a p l a n , A. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The C o n d u c t of I n q u i r e Behavioural Science. San F r a n c i s c o : P u b l i s h i n g Company. Lea,  Methodology f o r Chandler  D. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . A p e r s o n a l i z e d p a r e n t ' s workshop on vocational choice. V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 373-375.  Mayeske, G., Hormon, F. L., & G l i c k m a n , A. S. c a n c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e l l management? Development J o u r n a l , 20 ( 4 ) , 20-34.  24,  (1966). What T r a i n i n g and  M i t c h e l l , A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t needs o f s e v e n t e e n year o l d s . Washington: American P e r s o n n e l and Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n . o s i p o w , A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e o r i e s of c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . Englewood c l i f f s : Prentice-Hall. O s g u t h o r p e , R. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The c a r e e r c o n v e r s a t i o n : Training p a r e n t s t o h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n make c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s I n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e , ERIC Document ED159534. Palmer, s. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Parent involvement i n c a r e e r development o f c h i l d r e n . D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P a l m e r , s . & C o c h r a n , L. c a r e e r development. 35., 71-76.  (1988). Journal  P a r e n t s as a g e n t s o f of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ,  R o b e r t s , J . P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S u r v e y shows l i t t l e change i n s t u d e n t s c o l l e g e a s p i r a t i o n s . P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , 14, 3.  1-  S c h o f f n e r , J . & K l e i m e r , R. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Parent education for the p a r e n t a l r o l e i n c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . The F a m i l y C o o r d i n a t o r , 22, 419-427. s c h u l e n b e r g , J . , v o n d r a c e k , F., & c r o u t e r , A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y on v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 46, 129-143. S u p e r , D. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The p s y c h o l o g y of c a r e e r s . Harper & B r o t h e r s .  New  York:  S u p e r , D. ( 1 9 6 3 ) . V o c a t i o n a l development i n adolescence and e a r l y adulthood: t a s k s and b e h a v i o u r s . In D. S u p e r , R. S t a r i s h e v s k y , N. M a t l i n & J . J o r d a a n ( E d s . ) , C a r e e r development: s e l f - c o n c e p t t h e o r y , (pp. 7 9 - 9 5 ) . New York: C o l l e g e Entrance Examination Board.  S u p e r , D. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A l i f e - s p a n , l i f e - s p a c e approach to c a r e e r development. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , 16., 282-298. S u p e r , D., Thompson, A., L i n d e m a n , R., J o r d a a n , R. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . C a r e e r Development I n v e n t o r y . Consulting Psychologists Press. Thompson, M. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . C h o i c e s and c a r e e r : about c a r e e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l Resources C e n t e r , ERIC document ED 197884.  J . & Myers, Palo A l t o :  Free t o choose Information  Trudeau-Brosseau, L., B r o s s e a u , P., C a h r e t t e , c , & B o i s s i e r e , J . (1982). What w i l l t h e y do? Quebec: E n t e r p r i s e s C u l t u r e l l e s Enc.  Les  HELPING YOUR CHILD SET A CAREER DIRECTION:  56  IHCftWttRSPOOGAAM  APPENDIX A  A B r i e f Introduction to the Partner's Program Larry Cochran, Ph.D.  Aims  The aims of the program are t h r e e f o l d . One major objective i s to foster career development. In p a r t i c u l a r , the program concentrates on s e l f awareness, on career awareness, and on decision and planning c a p a b i l i t i e s . The second major objective i s to strengthen a youth's family network of support as he or she seeks to implement a career. The l a s t aim i s to stimulate young persons to make better use of career resources and programs within schools and c o l l e g e s . Description of Workbooks The Partner's Program consists of a parent manual and three workbooks. The manual o r i e n t s parents to the program, stressing the quality of communication and involvement necessary for a successful partnership and stressing c e r t a i n safeguards. The exercises of each workbook were designed both to stimulate parent-child discussions and to forward basic steps of career planning. A c t i v i t i e s Self-Exploration Workbook This workbook attempts to heighten awareness of the known (one's current range of a c t i v i t i e s ) i n order to begin exploring the unknown (work a c t i v i t i e s ) . Once a l i s t of enjoyable a c t i v i t i e s i s developed, the parent asks what h i s or her c h i l d l i k e s about each, what values are involved and what strengths are shown. From notes, both partners search through the l i s t s of l i k e s , values, and strengths to i d e n t i f y ones that recur. These c e n t r a l themes are used as an i n i t i a l basis for brainstorming a l i s t of p o t e n t i a l occupations and launching a search. Career Grid Workbook A career grid i s a v i s u a l frame f o r organizing a d e c i s i o n (See Cochran, Measurement and Evaluation i n Guidance, 1983, p.67-77). F i r s t , through t e s t s , career information, and so on, partners are d i r e c t e d to expand and then narrow a l i s t of s u i t a b l e occupations. Second, through t e s t s , consultation, and so on, they are d i r e c t e d to expand and then narrow a l i s t of career values. Expansion and contraction i s a strategy that allows major p r i n c i p l e s of d e c i s i o n making to be incorporated into the program, i n c l u d i n g use of a v a i l a b l e resources, and that f o s t e r s a sense of working together. After occupations are rated on each value, partners are guided through systematic comparison and reasonably thorough d e l i b e r a t i o n . The workbook ond9 with a tentative) d e c i s i o n . For many, this decision 13 apt to bo a form of practice, but for those who muat act noon, i t might be n f l r n t step toward implementing a d i r e c t i o n .  57 P l a n n i n g Workbook T h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f s t e p s , t h e workbook g u i d e s p a r t n e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or education, determining entrance requirements, estimating c o s t s and r e s o u r c e s , and i m p r o v i n g o n e s e l f . The workbook a l s o i n c l u d e s t h r e e s c e n a r i o s t o s t r e n g t h e n a w a r e n s s s o f key t e r m s l i k e means, o b s t a c l e s , c o n t i n g e n c i e s , f a l l - b a c k o p t i o n s , and s o o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , p a r e n t and c h i l d work t o g e t h e r t o f o r m a reasonable career plan. Development o f Program The p r o g r a m i s b a s e d upon two t h e o r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . In U r i e Bronfenbrenner's t h e o r y o f human d e v e l o p m e n t , d e v e l o p m e n t i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n p a r t by t h e q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s a p e r s o n h a s . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l impact o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e n h a n c e d i f members o f a d y a d pay a t t e n t i o n t o one a n o t h e r , f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t o g e t h e r , d e v e l o p s t r o n g and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f e e l i n g s f o r one another, and move t o w a r d r e c i p r o c i t y and more e v e n b a l a n c e o f power. The e x e r c i s e s o f t h e p r o g r a m r e q u i r e p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n and working t o g e t h e r . In the manual, p a r e n t s are i n s t r u c t e d t o s t r i v e f o r warmth, r e c i p r o c i t y , and m u t u a l i t y o f power. I n s h o r t , the program i s d e s i g n e d t o enhance c o n d i t i o n s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a p a r t n e r s h i p or primary dyad around the youth's c a r e e r development. In Donald Super's t h e o r y of c a r e e r development, a c a r e e r i s c o n c e i v e d as a p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a g e s . P r o g r e s s i o n d e p e n d s upon t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c a r e e r d e v e l p m e n t t a s k s t h a t are unique f o r each s t a g e . In l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e and e a r l y a d u l t h o o d , which i s the f o c u s o f t h i s program, the c o r e ta.-.ks a r e c r y s t a l l i z i n g , s p e c i f y i n g , and i m p l e m e n t i n g a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . To c o m p l e t e t h e s e t a s k s a d e q u a t e l y r e q u i r e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and competencies i n v o l v i n g p l a n f u l n e s s , decison s k i l l s , i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p r a i s a l , and an e x p l o r a t o r y a t t i t u d e . I f a p e r s o n emerges w i t h a d e q u a t e a w a r e n e s s o f s e l f and o c c u p a t i o n s , d e c i s i o n and p l a n n i n g c o m p e t e n c y , h i s o r h e r c a p a c i t y t o c r y s t a l l i z e , s p e c i f y and i m p l e m e n t , a v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i s a p t t o be e n h a n c e d . In the P a r t n e r ' s Program, t h e e x e r c i s e s c o n c e r n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t t a s k s . However, t h e e x e r c i s e s a l s o a r e a v e h i c l e f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s a t l e a s t on t h e t o p i c o f c a r e e r . The c o m p l e x and p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e workbook e x e r c i s e s i n v i t e t h o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e a h i g h e r q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t u r n , a s t r o n g e r p a r t n e r s h i p i s a p t t o i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y w i t h which- t h e workbook e x e r c i s e s a r e c o m p l e t e d . The a c t u a l p r o g r a m was r o f i n o d t h r o u g h f i e l d t e s t a w i t h s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s , i n v o l v i n g 20-25 h o u r s w i t h e a c h f a m i l y .  These f a m i l i e s helped the authors to e l i m i n a t e complexity,  simplify,  and  unnecessary  e l a b o r a t e . Subsequently,  the  58  r e v i s e d f o r m o f t h e p r o g r a m was o f f e r e d t o a g r o u p o f t w e n t y f a m i l i e s who w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t w e n t y c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s (who l a t e r completed the program as w e l l ) . U s i n g the Career D e v e l o p m e n t I n v e n t o r y , t h e F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed to assess the q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r t n e r s h i p a n d , c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , and i n t e r v i e w s , t h e s t u d y f o u n d t h a t y o u t h who w o r k e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o g r a m w i t h a p a r e n t showed s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and p a r e n t a l b o n d i n g . The a n t i c i p a t e d c h a n g e s , f o l l o w i n g B r o n f e n b r e n n e r and S u p e r , w e r e b o t h confirmed. A l s o , a wide v a r i e t y of p r a c t i c a l career a c t i v i t i e s were s t i m u l a t e d . Role of the C o u n s e l l o r W h i l e t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f ways a c o u n s e l l o r m i g h t u s e the P a r t n e r ' s Program t o s u p p o r t a b r o a d e r c a r e e r program i n s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e , and i n t u r n , t h e r e a r e many ways one m i g h t s u p p o r t p a r e n t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t , l e t us c o n s i d e r a minimum. F i r s t , s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e s h o u l d be a w a r e o f w h a t c a r e e r resources are a v a i l a b l e . I d e a l l y , a l i s t of resources could be h a n d e d o u t i n c l u d i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , H o l l a n d ' s S e l f - D i r e c t e d S e a r c h , DISCOVER, CHOICES, b o o k s , o r w h a t e v e r i s a v a i l a b l e . Throughout the P a r t n e r ' s Program, p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o make u s e o f r e s o u r c e s , a n d i n t h e s t u d i e s n o t e d a b o v e , t h e y d i d s e e k o u t a n d u s e many r e s o u r c e s . S e c o n d , be a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n o r r e f e r r a l . M o s t f a m i l i e s w i l l c o m p l e t e t h e p r o g r a m on t h e i r own, and t a k e p r i d e i n d o i n g s o . I t t e n d s t o become a v e r y m e a n i n g f u l a c t i v i t y f o r them. H o w e v e r , t h e m a n u a l a l s o i n s t r u c t s them t o t e r m i n a t e t h e p r o g r a m and r e f e r , s h o u l d i t become o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y c a n n o t work t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s a n e e d e d s a f e g u a r d s i n c e some p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s a r e s t r a i n e d a n d p r o b l e m a t i c . Some p a i r s o v e r c o m e p r o b l e m s and d r a m a t i c a l l y i m p r o v e . O t h e r s s i m p l y become i n c r e a s i n g l y a w a r e t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o b l e m . I n any c a s e , i f a c o u n s e l l o r was a v a i l a b l e , e v e n on a l i m i t e d b a s i s , t h e r e w o u l d be someone t o whom p a r e n t s o r y o u t h c o u l d turn.  APPENDIX B CHURCH BULLETIN INSERT MAY  24, 1987  Youth ADOLESCENTS * .... UNSURE OF YOUR CAREER DIRECTION? Volunteers needed (a parent & t h e i r adolescent, Grade 10 t o j u s t our o f high school) f o r the "Partners Program", a CAREER GUIDANCE PROGRAM f o r adolescents and t h e i r parent, f o r a t h e s i s research p r o j e c t done with Pastor B r i a n . Please leave names and phone number at the Church o f f i c e .  62 APPENDIX E  ACTIVITY SELF-EXPLORATION WORKBOOK  Larry Cochran, Ph.D. and Norm Amundson, Ph.D.  This workbook is for those people who are unsure of what they want in a career. By systematically exploring your current activities, it is intended to help you to identify important interests, values, and strengths that might clarify career directions.  Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran and Norm Amundson Published by Buchanan—Kells, 1985 Vancouver, B.C., Salem, Oregon  2  INTRODUCTION  63  When faced with setting a career direction, one of the most important tasks is to find out what one's options are. One could quickly gather a number of options, but finding a viable set of options is much more difficult. There are over twenty thousand occupations and the number is growing each year. Which ones might be right for you? What makes this question so difficult is that you are trying to judge an unknown. You probably have not experienced what many jobs are like and are probably not even sure what is involved in most jobs. The plan of this workbook is to use the known to judge the unknown. One of the things you know a lot about is the variety of activities that make up your life now. For example, you might study, play sports, tend a garden, belong to organizations, try to fix machines, help coach children, or just hang around with friends. Probably the three most important questions in planning a career are: What do I like to do? What do I value doing? What am I able to do well? By finding out your likes, values, and strengths within your current range of activities, you can establish a personal basis for exploring and judging occupations. Certainly, not every like, value, or strength could or should become a basis for career exploration, but there are apt to be enduring qualities of what you do now that can focus your search for a career direction. The aim of this workbook is to help you to discover what those more important and enduring qualities are. In this program, there are six small units or steps. The aims of these units are listed below.  UNIT ONE: UNIT T W O : UNIT T H R E E : UNIT FOUR: UNIT FIVE: UNIT SIX:  Develop a list of ten enjoyable activities. Find out what you like about each activity. Find out what values are involved in each activity. Find out your strengths in each activity. Identify likes, values, and strengths that are listed over and over across activities. Find out which occupations are apt to satisfy central likes, values, and strengths.  64 APPENDIX F  CAREER GRID WORKBOOK  Larry R. Cochran, Ph.D.  This workbook is for those people who have a number of occupations in mind,.but do not really know which one is best. It is intended to help you to clarify your thinking, to systematically compare the occupations you might pursue, and to decide upon their value for the life you wish to live.  Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran Published by Buchanan-Kells. 1985 Vancouver, B.C.; Salem, Oregon  INTRODUCTION In trying to plan a career, one might take interest tests, look up occupational information, talk to other people, and so on. However, there always comes a time when you must try to put your thoughts together and figure out which occupations you prefer the most. This can be one of the most difficult tasks to accomplish. With so many things to keep in mind, deciders sometimes neglect important values. Key issues are missed. Comparisons between jobs are faulty and fragmented. In short, deciders can make decisions they will regret later. The career grid program is intended to help you to organize your thoughts and to make better decisions. It provides an opportunity to become clear on what you really think about the occupational possibilities you have in mind. In this program, there are four units. Each unit involves an important step in making a decision. UNIT ONE: UNIT T W O : UNIT THREE: UNIT FOUR:  Develop a list of possible occupations. Develop a map of career values, what you want in a job for the life you wish to live. Judge occupations on these values. Evaluate and decide upon the desirability of your occupations.  66  APPENDIX G  PLANNING WORKBOOK  Larry R. Cochran, Ph. D .  This workbook is for those people who are planning education or training in preparation for a career. It is intended to help you specify entrance requirements, financial support, and other important parts of a sound plan.  Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran Published by Buchanan—Kells, 1985 Vancouver, B.C., Salem, Oregon  2  INTRODUCTION  b  /  A bad plan can be an pven more important determinant of one's future than a decision. A person tends to live out the weaknesses of a plan rather than the consequences of a decision. The aim of this chapter is to create a plan, based upon accurate information. It is assumed that you will need further education and training. If you require no further education or training, and are ready to start a job hunt, then turn immediately to one of the following books. Bolles, R. The Quick Job-Hunting Map. Ten Speed Press. (There is both a beginning and an advanced version). Bolles, R. Tea Leaves: A New Look at Resumes. Ten Speed Press. Crystal, J., & Bolles, R. Wltere Do I Go From Here With My Life? Ten Speed Press. Lathrop, R. WIto's Hiring W7?o?Ten Speed Press. Bolles, R. Wliat Color Is Your Parachute?'Ten Speed Press. It is also assumed that you have a number of resources for gaining information: counselling center library, unions or work associations, government agencies, personnel offices, and even people in one's career. There are not only innumerable sources of information, but guides for obtaining information such as Bolles' last book above, and others on career and occupational information. The counsellors in your school, college, or university are experts to consult, particularly on local information. Also, provided at the end of this workbook are three case illustrations of bad planning. While the cases are made up, they are not fictional. Rather, they are based upon composites of different people who have gone astray in a similar fashion. You may refer to these cases to heighten awareness, increase motivation, or to simply add credibility to the tasks that have been set. They are real. Bad plans and their consequences happen. Unfortunately, they happen too frequently in my experience. Planning, of course, is not a guarantee of a bright future. Rather, it is a guide for what one can try to do in an uncertain environment. In a way, it is a resolve to take whatever control one can to make things happen the way one wants. For some people, things might work out nicely without any planning. However, planning is an effort to put the odds in one's favor. In the tasks below, I shall simply state what it is that needs to be done. In each case, I mean that you and your parents should discuss how to find out and then decide who will do what. For example, you might consult with the counsellor, use CHOICES, or send off for a pamphlet. Your parents might check with a local association or personnel office. The distribution of work depends entirely on you and your time. However, it is important for you to do as much as you can. Finding and using information resources is increasingly becoming an essential life skill, one that is worth cultivating now.  68 APPENDIX H  PARENT CAREER GUIDANCE M A N U A L  Larry R. Cochran, Ph.D.  This program is intended for parents who would like to become more involved in helping their children to set a career direction. The aim of the program is to facilitate a beginning foundation for your child's career development. Through exercises in the workbooks, you will help your child to explore interests, values, and strengths, and in general, try to make clear what your child wants in a career and what he or she is capable of doing. You will help your child to evaluate occupational possibilities and to make a tentative decision. And you will help to make a plan to gain entrance to an occupation. A second aim is to strengthen family bonds that support a young person's passage into the adult world. Many families have good relationships, but oddly enough, not good working relationships. Parents care a great deal, but are often strangely isolated from their child's efforts to launch a career. In making a career plan, your child is entering one of the most difficult transitions in life, a transition some never fully make and spend much of their adult lives trying to correct. If there is a time for parental involvement, support, and guidance, this is it.  Copyright 1985 by Larry Cochran Published by Buchanan-Kells, 1985 Vancouver, B.C.. Salem, Oregon  2 69  Program Description  The program includes three workbooks. Each workbook has several units or tasks to accomplish. Below is an outline of the program. ACTIVITIES WORKBOOK UNIT ONE: UNIT T W O : UNIT T H R E E : UNIT FOUR: UNIT FIVE: UNIT SIX:  Generate ten activities your child finds enjoyable. List what he or she finds enjoyable about each activity. List what values are involved in each activity. List what strengths are shown in each activity. Identify likes, values, and strengths that occur over and over across activities. Use these likes, values, and strengths to brainstorm suitable jobs and begin finding out more about them. CAREER GRID WORKBOOK  UNIT ONE: UNIT T W O : UNIT T H R E E : UNIT FOUR:  Expand and then narrow occupations to the ten best possibilities. Expand and then narrow desirable features of occupations to the ten most important ones. Rate or grade each occupation on each desirable feature. Use a decision procedure to evaluate and rank occupations from most to least desirable. PLANNING WORKBOOK  UNIT ONE: UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT UNIT  TWO: THREE: FOUR: FIVE: SIX: SEVEN: EIGHT:  Find out what training is required for an occupation and where one can get it. Find out the entrance requirements for training. Plan education to meet those requirements. Estimate financial costs and resources for training. Decide which educational or training institution is best. Plan how to keep options open. Anticipate ways to minimize risks. Decide upon personal characteristics to improve.  In the Activities Workbook, the parent should pose the question of each unit and take notes on the appropriate tables. For example, once you have ten activities listed, you would ask (In Unit Two): What are the things you like about the first activity? As your child mentions things, you would take notes. Sometimes you will have things to suggest as well. Sometimes, your child will talk rather vaguely and you might try to accurately summarize or pinpoint what it is he or she likes. And sometimes, your child might need encouragement to expand upon his or her likes. The tasks of this workbook are quite simple, but do require some help to do well. Often, the experience of completing the Activities Workbook is that of a fast-paced discussion. You could complete the whole workbook in a few hours but it would probably be better to use a few sessions.  3  70  When you finish the Activities Workbook, you will be directed to find out about occupations that seem suitable. However, a search for information should be on-going. While it starts here, it should continue throughout the program. If you arrange, for instance, to meet with your child for an hour or so once or twice a week, your child could look up information, complete interest tests, or whatever, between these sessions. In the Career Grid Workbook, you will not take notes, but will continue to suggest, clarify, direct, pose the tasks, discuss, and generally help to do whatever needs to be done. For this workbook particularly, read each unit before you get together with your child. For Unit Three, it would probably be best to cut out the career grid. Unit Four should involve considerable discussion as your child will be weighing one value against another, a task that can benefit from the broader perspective and experience of a parent. In the Planning Workbook, the units are directed toward your child primarily, but it really requires both parent and child. The reason for this is that planning partially involves financial support, a topic that is apt to involve parents quite heavily. The Planning Workbook is a rather straightforward frame for gathering information and organizing it into a plan, so that everyone knows who is responsible for what if the plan is to succeed. During the program, you and your child have a number of basic controls: 1. You can decide how much time, effort, and concentration to place on each unit. Each unit can be completed in one session or spaced over several sessions. Be guided by the needs of yourself and your child. For example, if your child has a clear interest area, there may be no need to concentrate on the Activity Workbook. If your child is vague and uncertain, you might want to spend a lot of time on this Workbook. 2. You can decide what parts of a unit will be stressed. What will be placed in focus and what will be unstressed? 3. You can decide on the level of focus that is most appropriate. Sometimes, you might help your child with a focus on precise detail in order to gain clarity. At other times, you will want to step back and get the whole in perspective. 4. You can highlight reasons for focusing on one thing or another. Your reasons will help to co-ordinate the way you and your child approach the task. 5. You can maintain a unifying focus by relating aspects of one unit to aspects uncovered in preceding units. 6. You can decide to make additions to units if you wish. For example, you could create exercises, consult a counsellor, use test results and so on. 7. You can decide on the pace. It is probably best to get together once or twice a week. This depends a lot on you and your time. Generally, too slow a pace is apt to hinder interest in the project, but if delicate issues arise, you might deliberately slow things down. Parental Counselling Role Parental involvement adds immensely to the quality with which these workbooks are completed, the benefit gained from completing them. Certainly, your child could complete many units on his or her own, and if you are really pressed for time, you could leave a unit for your child to complete alone. However, to maintain interest, enthusiasm, and effort, parent involvement is very important. The workbooks are intended to be a co-operative venture, to cultivate a sense of partnership, a sense of 'we' rather than 'me'. The success of this program depends, to a large extent, upon the quality of the working relationship you and your child form. For this reason, I will cover some of the basic principles that should guide your involvement.  71  4  Pay Attention. Be engaged. Be fully there, without letting your mind wander to unpaid bills, work problems, vacation plans, and so on. Really try to discover what your child's likes, values, strengths, and ideas are. In particular, attend to what your child is saying, not to what you wish or want him or her to say. Not only should you give your full attention to the task, you should put attention to use. You might paraphrase what your child has said to make sure you understand it. You might summarize lengthy statements and try to clarify vague ones. Active attention will keep you much more involved than passive attention, and will be much more helpful to your child. Strive for reciprocity. Like a friendship, partners should be able to give and take without fear of giving offense. Advise and be advised. Correct and be corrected. Encourage and be encouraged. Disagree and accept disagreement. You have a perspective and your child has a perspective. Both must be respected. However, differences are transcended by caring, trust, and mutual respect, an acknowledgement really that each is different. You can cultivate more reciprocity (more giving and taking in a co-operative spirit) by encouraging openness, by showing acceptance (not belittling, criticizing, condescending, or forcing), and by emphasizing positive and constructive comments before focusing on disagreements. In a partnership, there is no room for a tyrant, nor for a neutral observer. To be a partner, there must be a free give and take, and this must often be earned, even if you have a very good relationship with your child already. Strive for a mutual balance of power. This is similar to reciprocity, but different. For example, one could say: Now that we have had our little give and take, do as I want! Ideally, you will influence your child, and in turn, be influenced by him or her. That is, there will be a balance of power or influence. On some topics, you will have more influence. For example, it is you who must eventually decide how much financial support you can give. On other topics, your child should have more influence. For example, you can advise, but your child is responsible for deciding upon which occupation to pursue. After all, he or she will be living that decision. You cannot take responsibility for your child's career, but can influence it. Like reciprocity, a balance of power requires respect, trust, and openness. It requires taking the other into account. It requires good faith rather than hidden agendas. The fact is that you do care what your child thinks, values, and does. There is no point in hiding behind a phony neutrality. However, it is also true thatyour child is a person in his or her own right, and you cannot command or demand forever. It is this type of situation that calls for balance, a willingness to influence and to be influenced. Create warimth. A partnership of this nature is not like a business transaction. A warm, supportive relationship is essential for the type of exploration, evaluation, and planning that this program requires. If the climate is like that of a final examination, a trial, or an execution, the partnership is more apt to be destructive than constructive. It is warmth that will allow discussion to flow freely, for a working alliance on the issue of career development to occur, and for the program to work. If you cannot establish a reasonable partnership, terminate the program. With a poor working relationship, it is doubtful if anyone would benefit. For most people, there will be moments of discouragement, but many more moments of meaningful achievement. And most people will have little trouble forming a working relationship, but if not, there is apt to be a good reason and one should attend to this reason rather than the program.  72  Goals of the Program It is commonly assumed that there is one right job for each person and the goal of career counselling is to discover that job. Then, the person works hard presumably, succeeds in getting the right job, and lives a happy, contented life. While this might happen once in a while, it is largely nonsense. There is no one right job. A person has a variety of potentials and a variety of options that might be satisfying. People should continue to explore until they have to make a definite commitment. It would be perfectly natural for your child to change his or her mind within ? week, month or year. People change. They find out new information. They lose interest. Other occupations might arise as better options. Even if your child stuck with the decision made during this program, people change occupations frequently. Let us consider a more realistic story from which we might set more reasonable goals. Pursuing a career is filled with uncertainties, risks, opportunities, setbacks, decisions, compromises, adjustments, and sometimes crises. The job market is in flux. New jobs are arising while some old jobs are dwindling and vanishing. People have more difficulty finding an anchor. There is a large element of chance in a career, being in the right place at the right time or being in the wrong place at the wrong time. In this shifting, uncertain environment, some people flounder from job to job without much sign of progress. They can't get what they want, or think they want, and don't want what they can get. Some people drift aimlessly, unsure of what they want and where they are going. Some people become stuck in jobs and stagnate, wondering how they ever fell into such a trap. And some people do indeed progress in a career that is meaningful, satisfying, and productive. Given this situation, the aim of this program is to tilt the odds more in one's favor, to minimize chance and increase purposeful direction. How can the odds be tilted in one's favor? This program involves four ways to improve one's chances for a meaningful career. First, this program was intended to improve self-understanding. Without a better understanding of oneself, there is little basis for making wise decisions now or in the future. Does you child have a better grasp of his or her wants and strengths? If so, he or she is in a better position to pursue a career. Second, a person might have some self-understanding, but little awareness of viable options that would be optimal or even just suitable. It requires knowledge to match one's interests, values, and capabilities to appropriate occupations. The key question is: Does your child have viable options in mind? Third, one might have knowledge of oneself and occupations, but lack competence in decision making. Even with knowledge, one must be able to use that knowledge to evaluate options and to make good decisions. Does your child have greater competence in making decisions? Last, on-going support and encouragement from one's family is an important basis for successfully pursuing a career. Perhaps it is not always necesary, but it is a decided advantage that can make a difference in your child's future. The question here is: Did you achieve a good working relationship on the issue of career development? These four goals provide more enduring grounds for the future development of your child. Certainly, I hope that your child will also emerge with a reasonable decision and a workable plan, but these are really quite secondary. Of much more importance at this time is whether your child has established a foundation for the road ahead.  

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