Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Family cohesion, control, social support, and the coping strategies of mothers of separated/divorced… Krause, Allison Mary 1991

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1991_A8 K72.pdf [ 6.48MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0053706.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0053706-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0053706-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0053706-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0053706-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0053706-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0053706-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0053706-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0053706.ris

Full Text

FAMILY COHESION, CONTROL, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND THE COPING STRATEGIES OF MOTHERS OF SEPARATED/DIVORCED OFFSPRING by ALLISON MARY KRAUSE B.Sc,  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1983  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the  required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September, ©  1991  A l l i s o n Mary Krause,  1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  thesis for by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  Counselling  Psychology  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  (2788)  September  26,  1991  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department of  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ii  Abstract T h i s s t u d y examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p cohesion,  perceived c o n t r o l ,  (emotional, strategies  informational,  between  family  received s o c i a l support  and t a n g i b l e ) ,  and the  types  coping  used by mothers o f s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d  offspring.  E i g h t y - f o u r mothers completed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p Index,  a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f the I n v e n t o r y of  S o c i a l l y S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o r s , the COPE s c a l e , control  item.  the  Two s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i p l e  and a s i n g l e  regression analyses  were conducted w i t h A v o i d a n t c o p i n g ( F o c u s i n g On And V e n t i n g Emotion, B e h a v i o r a l Disengagement, and Mental Disengagement) and A c t i v e c o p i n g ( A c t i v e C o p i n g , P l a n n i n g , and P o s i t i v e Reinterpretation cohesion, support,  and Growth)  perceived c o n t r o l ,  as c r i t e r i o n emotional  v a r i a b l e s , and  support,  and t a n g i b l e support as p r e d i c t o r  family  informational  variables.  The  r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r A v o i d a n t c o p i n g reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F(5,78)  = 7 . 6 8 , p_<.0001, and accounted f o r 33% of the  in Avoidant coping. control,  Three v a r i a b l e s , f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , p e r c e i v e d  and r e c e i v e d emotional  r e l a t e d to A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  support,  were  variable,  to A c t i v e c o p i n g .  The f i n d i n g s  variables  and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s  offspring.  One  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  clarify  related  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  ( f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , and s u p p o r t (perceived c o n t r o l ) ,  of s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s divorced  support,  Active  = 2 . 4 6 , p_<.05, and  14% of the v a r i a n c e i n A c t i v e c o p i n g .  r e c e i v e d emotional  environmental  significantly  The e q u a t i o n p r e d i c t i n g  c o p i n g a l s o reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , £ ( 5 , 7 8 ) accounted f o r  variance  between  types),  and the g r e a t e r use  i n mothers of s e p a r a t e d or  i i i Table o f  Contents Page  Abstract  ii  T a b l e o f Contents  iii  L i s t of Tables  vi  Acknowledgement  vi i  Introduction  1  Literature  7  Review  S t r e s s and Coping  7  Models o f c o p i n g  7  F u n c t i o n s o f coping  9  Coping measurement  10  Coping s t r a t e g i e s  17  Coping w i t h M a r i t a l Determinants Environmental Social  S t r e s s and D i v o r c e  o f Coping Variables  support  Family cohesion Personal V a r i a b l e Perceived control  23 33 35 35 45 49 49  Summary  54  Hypotheses  56  Method  57  Subjects  57  Procedure  61  Instruments  62  Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n  62  Predictor variables  62  iv Criterion variable  67  Data A n a l y s i s  70  Results  71  Descriptive s t a t i s t i c s  71  Grandmothers C o r r e l a t i o n s Between V a r i a b l e s  73 .  74  Preliminary Analysis  75  Hypotheses  77  Avoidant coping  78  A c t i v e coping  78  Post-hoc Analyses Discussion  81 85  P r e d i c t o r s o f A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t Coping  85  Avoidant coping  86  A c t i v e coping  88  Emotional Support R e c e i p t  90  Support Given To An A d u l t C h i l d  92  Grandmothers and A d u l t C h i l d S e p a r a t i o n / D i v o r c e  93  R e l a t i v e Scores Versus Raw Scores  94  Limitations  95  t o the Study  F u t u r e Research I m p l i c a t i o n s For C o u n s e l l o r s  97 100  References  104  Appendices  1 1 5  Appendix A.  Telephone S c r e e n i n g  Appendix B.  Telephone and Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S c r e e n i n g Items  115  116  V  Appendix C.  I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r to  Prospective  Subjects Appendix D.  117  Research R e s u l t s Form and L e t t e r  For  I n t e r e s t e d F r i e n d or R e l a t i v e  119  Appendix E.  Follow-up Letters  121  Appendix F.  Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n  123  Appendix G.  S t r e s s o r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Control  Appendix H.  Item  126  The M o d i f i e d V e r s i o n o f the I n v e n t o r y o f S o c i a l l y S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o r s (ISSB)  Appendix I.  FES P e r m i s s i o n L e t t e r  Appendix J .  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Dimension of  . . . .  128 131  the  F a m i l y Environment S c a l e (FES)  132  Appendix K.  The COPE S c a l e  134  Appendix L.  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  Grandmothers  138  Appendix M.  W r i t t e n Comments From Respondents  139  Appendix N.  C o r r e l a t i o n s of Demographic, S u p p o r t ,  and  Coping V a r i a b l e s Appendix 0 .  R e l a t i v e A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t Coping  145 . . . .  146  vi L i s t of Tables Page T a b l e 1.  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Sample  59  Table 2.  Questionnaire  63  Table 3.  Correlations  D i s t r i b u t i o n and Return F i g u r e s . . o f P r e d i c t o r and  Criterion  Variables Table 4.  Summary of F i n d i n g s from M u l t i p l e  72 Regression  A n a l y s i s o f P r e d i c t o r s o f A v o i d a n t Coping . . . . T a b l e 5.  Summary of F i n d i n g s from M u l t i p l e  79  Regression  A n a l y s i s o f P r e d i c t o r s o f A c t i v e Coping  80  vi i Acknowledgement I w i s h t o thank my s u p e r v i s o r , Bonnie Long, f o r her superb guidance and wisdom, and f o r the o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t she has p r o v i d e d me throughout the t h e s i s p r o c e s s . p r i v i i e d g e to work under her i n s t r u c t i o n .  It  has been a  I would a l s o l i k e  to  thank my o t h e r committee members, Beth Haverkamp and Wendy H a l l , f o r b e i n g i n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f knowledge and encouragement. Finally,  a s p e c i a l acknowledgement to two people whose l o v e and  s u p p o r t were u n i q u e l y v a l u a b l e . for  her f a i t h f u l n e s s ,  My a p p r e c i a t i o n to Barb Cowan  and f o r g i v i n g me the courage to see  beyond m y s e l f to the s c h o l a r I c o u l d be.  And my h e a r t f e l t  g r a t i t u d e to my husband, Wayne, whose i n f e c t i o u s  enjoyment  l i f e reminds me to not take t h i n g s q u i t e so s e r i o u s l y .  of  1 Introduction D i v o r c e i n Canada has r a p i d l y  i n c r e a s e d from an average of  11,000 d i v o r c e s per y e a r over the p e r i o d 1966-68 to 70,436 1982 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1989). marital  disruption  This dramatic increase in  has r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h on the  d i v o r c e p r o c e s s as i t d i v o r c e adjustment  in  r e l a t e s to p a r e n t s ' and c h i l d r e n ' s  and l e g a l c u s t o d y c o n c e r n s .  however, have i n v e s t i g a t o r s  Only  post  recently,  begun to look at the e f f e c t s  d i v o r c e on o t h e r f a m i l y members, p a r t i c u l a r l y  of  the p a r e n t s o f  d i v o r c e d a d u l t and the ways i n which they cope w i t h  the  the  experience. The e x p e r i e n c e o f having a son o r daughter d i v o r c e i n f a m i l y can have a s i g n i f i c a n t emotionally  impact on o l d e r p a r e n t s ,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ( G o t t l i e b ,  1988; H y a t t & Kaslow, 1985).  Gottlieb,  (Johnson, E . S . , 1981; Johnson & V i n i c k ,  & Slavin,  1982),  1982), and angry or depressed ( S t a r b u c k ,  the  painful,  1989).  (Matthews & S p r e y , 1984; P e a r s o n ,  (Brown,  A l t h o u g h a few 1988), even f o r  t h o s e p a r e n t s who are g l a d the m a r r i a g e i s o v e r , a s p e c t s o f d i v o r c e p r o c e s s can s t i l l 1988).  sad  disappointed  (Matthews & S p r e y , 1984), h e l p l e s s o r p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e  express r e l i e f  both  The m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s f i n d  event n e g a t i v e , e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s l i k e t r a u m a t i c ,  the  the  be d i s t r e s s i n g ( G o t t l i e b e t a l . ,  Indeed p a r e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e of s t r e s s has been l i n k e d  the p r e s e n c e o f g r a n d c h i l d r e n  (Johnson & V i n i c k ,  1988), p a r e n t a l  religious convictions  overinvolvement  i n the f a m i l y  (Pearson,  to  1982; S t a r b u c k , 1988),  emotional  (Hyatt & Kaslow, 1985), and  absence o f communication between p a r e n t and a d u l t c h i l d  about  2 existing marital  problems ( P e a r s o n , 1988).  C o n s i d e r i n g the  n e a r - n o r m a t i v e occurance o f d i v o r c e and i t s parents, exploration  impact on o l d e r  of the ways i n which p a r e n t s cope w i t h  l i f e event i s w a r r a n t e d .  this  T h e r e f o r e , the p r i m a r y purpose of  s t u d y was to e x p l o r e the ways i n which mothers cope w i t h e x p e r i e n c e o f an o f f s p r i n g ' s  this  the  s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e , and the  a s s o c i a t i o n o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t v a r i a b l e s , c o h e s i o n , and p e r c e i v e d control  to c o p i n g .  The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of c o p i n g used i n t h i s  s t u d y i s based  on a t h e o r y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and c o p i n g developed by Lazarus and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Lazarus & Launier,  1978).  transactional  The o v e r a l l  theoretical  framework o f c o p i n g  i n n a t u r e i n t h a t the person and the  are viewed as being i n a b i d i r e c t i o n a l ,  is  environment  reciprocal  relationship.  The environment o p e r a t e s on the p e r s o n , who i n t u r n a c t s upon the e n v i r o n m e n t , C o p i n g , from t h i s and b e h a v i o r a l  which then a c t s on the person and so p e r s p e c t i v e , r e f e r s to a p e r s o n ' s  e f f o r t s to manage the e x t e r n a l  demands o f the p e r s o n - e n v i r o n m e n t the r e s o u r c e s of an i n d i v i d u a l  and  forth.  cognitive  internal  t r a n s a c t i o n t h a t t a x or exceed  ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984).  This  emphasis on c o p i n g as a p r o c e s s i s i n c o n t r a s t to the more traditional  view of c o p i n g as a t r a i t or s t a b l e tendency a c r o s s  situations  (Vaillant,  1977).  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s  a p p r a i s a l of  the  event and what o p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r a c t i o n shapes h i s or her c o p i n g d e c i s i o n s .  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n f l u e n c e d by both the a c t u a l personality situation  f a c t o r s as w e l l  these p r o c e s s e s are  situational  context  and by  (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).  Both  v a r i a b l e s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s are presumed to  3 contribute  i n v a r y i n g degrees to the  transaction  by i n f l u e n c i n g  to a s t r e s s f u l 1984; P a r k e s , and p e r s o n a l  situation 1986).  person-environment  a p e r s o n ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f and response  ( F l e i s h m a n , 1984; Lazarus & Folkman,  Because of the i n f l u e n c e o f  factors  on i n d i v i d u a l  appraisal  environmental  and c o p i n g c h o i c e ,  r e s e a r c h examining c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s must be b r o a d l y to i n c l u d e those f a c t o r s  germane to a p a r t i c u l a r  structured  stressful  episode. The n a t u r e o f the environment stressful  i n which a  particular  event o c c u r s can be regarded as a p o t e n t i a l  t h a t may i n f l u e n c e  the types o f c o p i n g used ( L a z a r u s & Folkman,  1984).  Social  support  related  to l e v e l s o f c o p i n g r e p o r t e d  Dunkel-Schetter,  resource  in p a r t i c u l a r  has been found to be (Billings  Folkman, & L a z a r u s , 1987).  & Moos, 1981;  Interest in  support  and the c o p i n g p r o c e s s has l a r g e l y been sparked by s t u d i e s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t may be p o s i t i v e l y physical  and mental  Schooler, through  health  1978). S o c i a l  its  (Cohen & W i l l s ,  & Moos, 1987; T h o i t s ,  1986).  cope i n more a d a p t i v e ways i f to r e l y on, thus b e n e f i t t i n g marital  1985; P e a r l i n &  support may i n f l u e n c e  impact on a p p r a i s a l It  associated with  health  outcomes  and c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s (Fondacaro i s p o s s i b l e t h a t people w i l l  they have a s o c i a l s u p p o r t their  health.  With r e s p e c t  s t r e s s , f o r example, women who r e p o r t e d more  system to  family  s u p p o r t were found to engage i n l e s s avoidance c o p i n g and showed l e s s depressed mood and p h y s i c a l symptoms  ( C r o n k i t e & Moos,  1984).  To d a t e ,  few s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d  support  system o f mothers who have e x p e r i e n c e d the d i v o r c e  s e p a r a t i o n of an a d u l t  child  (Pearson,  1988).  the s o c i a l or  4 Definitional social  support.  clarity  i s a major c h a l l e n g e i n the study  Early theoretical  d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e d on the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t as a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l (Brown, 1986).  More r e c e n t l y i t  k i n d s of s t r e s s f u l  of  construct  has been argued t h a t  different  l i f e events may r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t components  of s o c i a l s u p p o r t to promote c o p i n g ( K r a u s e , 1986, 1987a). Evidence i s a c c r u i n g t h a t the use o f s p e c i f i c dimensions of social  s u p p o r t are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y  r e l a t e d to h e a l t h outcomes  (Krause,  1987a; Krause & M a r k i d e s , 1990; S c h a e f e r , Coyne, &  Lazarus,  1981).  S c h a e f e r et a l . (1981),  f o r example,  i n v e s t i g a t e d the h e a l t h - r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s o f s u p p o r t and found differential  e f f e c t s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l ,  e m o t i o n a l , and t a n g i b l e  support. The s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p among o l d e r mothers and a d u l t f a m i l y members appears to be another environmental  important  v a r i a b l e for consideration in understanding  ways i n which mothers cope w i t h t h e i r  adult c h i l d ' s divorce.  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c l o s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s p a r e n t s and t h e i r  the  between  adult c h i l d r e n f o s t e r coping s t r a t e g i e s  are f o c u s e d on p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e to the  that  adult  c h i l d d u r i n g the d i v o r c e p r o c e s s ( C h e r l i n & F u r s t e n b e r g , 1986). The m i d d l e g e n e r a t i o n p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the maintenance of g r a n d m o t h e r - g r a n d c h i l d c o n t a c t , identified  a concern t h a t has been  as a p r i m a r y s t r e s s o r f o r g r a n d p a r e n t s d u r i n g  d i v o r c e p r o c e s s (Friedman, 1990; S t a r b u c k , 1989).  the  This i s  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r g r a n d p a r e n t s on the s i d e o f the n o n custodial  adult c h i l d  ( C h e r l i n & F u r s t e n b e r g , 1986).  f a m i l y environments may reduce the o p p o r t u n i t y  Conflicted  f o r such c o n t a c t  5 (Brown,  1982).  Although no s t u d i e s as y e t have f o c u s e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y on c o p i n g and the f a m i l y divorced adult  children,  family  s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s  cohesion of parents  c o h e s i o n has been l i n k e d  in other population  groups  of to  (Billings  & Moos, 1982; Hanson e t a l . , 1989; Maynard, Maynard, McCubbin, & Shao,  1980). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the emphasis on c o g n i t i v e  Lazarus's transactional the r e l a t i o n s h i p stressful  s t r e s s model, r e s e a r c h has focused on  particularly  Compas, 1987).  as c o n t r o l l a b l e  the  or  (Compas, M a l c a r n e , & Fondacaro, 1988; F o r s y t h e & These s t u d i e s found s i g n i f i c a n t  between p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l control  the degree t o which  a p p r a i s e s the s i t u a t i o n  uncontrollable  in  between c o p i n g and the p e r s o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n of a  encounter,  individual  appraisal  appraisal  and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  relations used.  and c o p i n g have been i n v e s t i g a t e d  o f d i v o r c e d women ( P r o p s t ,  in  1985; F o r s y t h e & Compas, 1987)  known about the r e l a t i o n s h i p  students  little  is  children.  model o f s t r e s s and c o p i n g p o s i t s  a s p e c t s o f the environment  1986),  of these two v a r i a b l e s on mothers  o f s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d a d u l t The t r a n s a c t i o n a l  studies  P a r d i n g t o n , Ostrom, & W a t k i n s ,  a d o l e s c e n t s (Compas e t a l . , 1988), and undergraduate (Folkman & L a z a r u s ,  Although  and the person i n f l u e n c e s  that  appraisal  and s e l e c t i o n of c o p i n g responses (Lazarus & Folkman,  1984).  Given the n e g a t i v e impact s t r e s s can have on p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e i n g and because t h e r e adult  i s e v i d e n c e to suggest t h a t s t r e s s of an  c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e may a f f e c t  quality  well-  parental  (Johnson, E . S . , 1981; P e a r s o n ,  understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p  adjustment  1988), t h e r e  between e n v i r o n m e n t a l  and  life  i s a need to  and p e r s o n a l  6 v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t to p a r e n t s o f d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n and the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s they employ.  Environmental and p e r s o n a l  v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be i m p o r t a n t to mothers o f s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n are f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , s o c i a l s u p p o r t ,  and  perceived c o n t r o l . The purpose o f t h i s study was to examine the between f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , s o c i a l s u p p o r t components emotional, tangible,  and i n f o r m a t i o n a l )  and c o n t r o l  relationship (e.g., perceptions  f o r mothers o f s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n , w i t h the use o f d i f f e r e n t c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . expected t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t some o r a l l  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  i t was  l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between  o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s ; f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , s o c i a l  s u p p o r t components, and p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , a v o i d a n t c o p i n g mode ( b e h a v i o r a l  and the use of an  disengagement, mental  disengagement, and f o c u s i n g on and v e n t i n g emotions c o p i n g strategies).  Further,  it  was expected t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between some o r a l l variables;  of the  linear  predictor  f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , s o c i a l s u p p o r t components and  perceived c o n t r o l ,  and the use of an a c t i v e c o p i n g mode ( a c t i v e ,  p l a n n i n g , and r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  and growth c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s ) .  7 Literature The f o c u s of t h i s  study i s on the c o p i n g e f f o r t s of mothers  of s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d a d u l t s p e c i f i c environmental  Review  c h i l d r e n , and the i n f l u e n c e  of  and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s on c o p i n g . The  emphasis i s on females r a t h e r than males because o f g r e a t e r r o l e as ' k i n k e e p e r s ' w i t h i n the f a m i l y  their  (Troll,  Recent r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s  1971).  i n males  and females i n t h e i r ways of c o p i n g ( B i l l i n g s & Moos, 1981; Pearson,  1988; Stone & N e a l e , 1984), and i n t h e i r  receipt,  and s a t i s f a c t i o n of s o c i a l support  mobilization,  ( B e l l e , 1991;  Wohlgemuth & B e t z , 1991).  In a d d i t i o n , women may be more  s e n s i t i v e to i n t e r p e r s o n a l  conflict  The f o l l o w i n g  underpinnings  for this  s t u d i e s on m a r i t a l  content  study.  Through  o f r e s e a r c h i n the area o f c o p i n g , i s s u e s of  measurement and a d a p t i v e n e s s are d i s c u s s e d .  presented.  1990).  r e v i e w p r e s e n t s a model o f c o p i n g t h a t  p r o v i d e s the t h e o r e t i c a l a critique  than men (Long,  In  addition,  s t r e s s , d i v o r c e and c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s are  F i n a l l y , an o v e r v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on the  areas of environmental  v a r i a b l e s ; s o c i a l s u p p o r t and  f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , and the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e ; p e r c e i v e d  control  are r e v i e w e d . S t r e s s and Coping Models o f c o p i n g . interest  The concept of c o p i n g has been of  t o p s y c h o l o g i s t s f o r many y e a r s , y e t u n c e r t a i n t y  e x i s t s as to how i t  s h o u l d be d e f i n e d and measured.  still  From the  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c ego p s y c h o l o g y model, c o p i n g i s viewed as an aspect of p e r s o n a l i t y , a c t s and thoughts  and i s d e f i n e d as r e a l i s t i c and  flexible  t h a t s o l v e problems and t h e r e b y reduce s t r e s s  8 (Vaillant,  1977).  This t r a d i t i o n a l  approach  differentiates  among a number o f i n t r a p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s handle p e r s o n - e n v i r o n m e n t  relations;  use to  namely c o p i n g as mature ego  p r o c e s s e s and defenses as immature or n e u r o t i c modes o f adaptation.  The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s model to the measurement of  coping r e s u l t s  in a structural  d i s p o s i t i o n s across s i t u a t i o n s . c l a s s i f i e d as a c o n f o r m i s t  p e r s p e c t i v e of c o p i n g as s t a b l e For example, a person may be  or an o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e .  A major  c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s approach i s t h a t t r a i t measures seldom p r e d i c t how people a c t u a l l y cope i n a s t r e s s f u l Lazarus,  situation  (Cohen &  1983).  In c o n t r a s t Lazarus's  to p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approaches to c o p i n g ,  ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984) t r a n s a c t i o n a l  s t r e s s and c o p i n g emphasizes the dynamic and relationship  model  bidirectional  between the person and the e n v i r o n m e n t .  d e f i n e d as the p r o c e s s o f managing i n t e r n a l  of  and/or  Coping i s external  demands t h a t t a x or exceed the r e s o u r c e s o f the person (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).  T h i s emphasis on p r o c e s s i s a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  factor that differentiates Whereas t r a i t t h e o r i s t s situations  t h i s model from the t r a i t a p p r o a c h .  assume t h a t c o p i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s  ( G o l d s t e i n , 1973), the p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d  perspective  a s s e r t s t h a t c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s may change over time e i t h e r due to changes i n the environment or to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  coping  efforts.  T h i s change p r o c e s s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s c o p i n g i s not a c c i d e n t a l , but i s a f u n c t i o n  of an ongoing s e r i e s of a p p r a i s a l s and  r e a p p r a i s a l s of the p e r s o n - e n v i r o n m e n t Folkman, 1984).  transaction  A person a p p r a i s e s the p o t e n t i a l  (Lazarus & harm or  c h a l l e n g e i n an encounter and s u b s e q u e n t l y what c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s  9 are a v a i l a b l e to meet the demands of the s i t u a t i o n . person attempts  to cope w i t h a s t r e s s f u l  The way a  e n c o u n t e r i s to a l a r g e  degree a f f e c t e d by these a p p r a i s a l s . F u n c t i o n s of c o o i n g .  Lazarus and Folkman (1984),  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of c o p i n g , have i d e n t i f i e d functions: altering  (a)  in  their  two major  p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g d i r e c t e d at managing or  the source of s t r e s s e i t h e r by changing o n e s ' own  a c t i o n s or by changing the environment,  (b)  c o p i n g d i r e c t e d at managing the emotional stressor.  These two major f u n c t i o n s  emotion-focused  response to a  have a l s o been noted by  o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( B i l l i n g s & Moos, 1981; F e l t o n & Revenson, 1984; P e a r l i n & S c h o o l e r ,  1978).  P r o b l e m - f o c u s e d forms of c o p i n g i n c l u d e those c o g n i t i v e and behavioral  e f f o r t s t h a t are d i r e c t e d at a n a l y z i n g the  and t a k i n g a c t i o n . situation  They are g e n e r a l l y thought to be used when a  i s a p p r a i s e d as p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y  (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1980).  In c o n t r a s t ,  of coping include c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and r e a p p r a i s a l , and b e h a v i o r a l emotional  for  change  emotion-focused  like selective  strategies  s u p p o r t or v e n t i n g anger.  like  forms  attention  seeking  Emotion-focused e f f o r t s  more l i k e l y to o c c u r i n events t h a t are a p p r a i s e d as l i t t l e opportunity  problem  are  offering  f o r change (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1984).  In g e n e r a l , a c o m b i n a t i o n of both p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d and e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g are used by i n d i v i d u a l s stressor  i n response to a  (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1980, 1985), and the two forms  c o p i n g can f a c i l i t a t e encounter unfolds  of  or impede each o t h e r as a s t r e s s f u l  (Folkman, 1982; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).  example, a mother may t r y  to m i n i m i z e the a n x i e t y she i s  For  feeling  10 over her s o n ' s d i v o r c e because o f the shame she f e e l s over event.  T h i s attempt to reduce emotional  the mother not a c t i v e l y her f a m i l y . coping,  Although  d i s t r e s s may r e s u l t  seeking outside support  individuals  the  for  herself  g e n e r a l l y use both forms  in or  of  r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t one form o f c o p i n g may  predominate over another depending on the type of situation  e x p e r i e n c e d (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1980;  Wethington,  & Kessler,  Mattlin,  1990; P a t t e r s o n & McCubbin, 1984).  Coping measurement.  Lack o f consensus about how to measure  c o p i n g poses a major problem i n c u r r e n t purporting  stressful  research.  to measure c o p i n g o f t e n d i f f e r  in t h e i r  Studies theoretical  assumptions about c o p i n g , t h e i r  c h o i c e of c o p i n g measures and  the type o f s t r e s s f u l  to be s t u d i e d .  it  difficult  situation  T h i s o f t e n makes  to g e n e r a l i z e a c r o s s s t u d i e s t h a t measure the ways  that individuals  cope w i t h s t r e s s .  One o f the most w i d e l y used s e l f - r e p o r t  c o p i n g measure i s  the Ways o f Coping (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1980).  Embedded i n  Ways of Coping s c a l e are two i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l based on L a z a r u s ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n the use o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  assumptions  of s t r e s s and c o p i n g :  varies during a s t r e s s f u l  and a c r o s s a number of s i t u a t i o n s ,  the  (b)  t h e r e are two  (a)  encounter broad  c a t e g o r i e s o f c o p i n g ; p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d and e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d . These assumptions are the focus of two c u r r e n t issues.  First,  i s coping behaviour c o n s i s t e n t ,  measurement and s e c o n d , what  dimensions o f c o p i n g s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n an i n s t r u m e n t o r d e r to c a p t u r e the d i v e r s i t y a v a i l a b l e to a person?  of p o s s i b l e c o p i n g  in  activities  These two i s s u e s are i m p o r t a n t  in  11 understanding  the c o m p l e x i t y o f d e f i n i n g  and a s s e s s i n g c o p i n g  in  stress research. The i s s u e of c o n s i s t e n c y or v a r i a b i l i t y across s i t u a t i o n s  of coping  has been a t o p i c of much d e b a t e .  behaviour  Early  r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t the use of c o p i n g was more v a r i a b l e consistent across d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s f u l Lazarus,  1980).  e p i s o d e s (Folkman &  Folkman and Lazarus (1985),  f o r example,  t h a t c o p i n g was more v a r i a b l e than s t a b l e when during d i f f e r e n t periods of a s t r e s s f u l  These authors  students  2 days b e f o r e the e x a m i n a t i o n ,  examination,  and 5 days a f t e r  In c o n t r a s t ,  coped w i t h  Students responded to the Ways o f  Coping C h e c k l i s t (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1985) on t h r e e occasions:  found  investigated  episode.  s t u d i e d the ways i n which 108 undergraduate the s t r e s s o f an e x a m i n a t i o n .  than  separate  5 days a f t e r  the  grades were announced.  Stone and Neale (1984)  examined peoples ways  o f c o p i n g w i t h the same source o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s on different occasions.  In a study of 60 m a r r i e d c o u p l e s ,  r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t people tend to be c o n s i s t e n t  the in  their  manner of c o p i n g w i t h the same problem on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s . The c o u p l e s completed a c o p i n g assessment i n s t r u m e n t a 21 day p e r i o d . stressful  daily  S u b j e c t s were asked to d e s c r i b e the most  or bothersome event o f the day, which they then  on a s t r e s s s c a l e of 1 to 100 (1 being a l e s s s t r e s s f u l 100 being a more s t r e s s f u l  event).  they handled the s i t u a t i o n  by r e s p o n d i n g to e i g h t  More r e c e n t s t u d i e s 1986; V i t a l i a n o ,  over  rated  event,  Respondents i n d i c a t e d coping  how styles.  (Folkman, L a z a r u s , Gruen, & D e L o n g i s ,  K a t o n , Russo, M a i u r o , Anderson, & J o n e s ,  have found moderate c o n s i s t e n c y i n the use of c o p i n g  1987)  strategies  12 across diverse s i t u a t i o n s .  Vitaliano,  Katon e t a l .  (1987)  compared the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s of female p a t i e n t s w i t h one of three diagnostic c o n d i t i o n s ; panic.  panic d i s o r d e r ,  s i m p l e p a n i c and no  Respondents used the r e v i s e d Ways o f Coping C h e c k l i s t  (Vitaliano,  Russo, C a r r , Mai u r o , & B e c k e r , 1985) to f o c u s on a  primary s t r e s s o r in t h e i r  l i f e and to i d e n t i f y the ways i n which  they coped w i t h the s t r e s s o r .  F i v e s t r e s s o r c a t e g o r i e s were  s t u d i e d w i t h i n each g r o u p : f a m i l y , psychological differences  physical  h e a l t h , f i n a n c e s , and work.  health, The a u t h o r s found no  a c r o s s s t r e s s o r c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n each d i a g n o s t i c  group i n the use of p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d and w i s h f u l  thinking  coping  strategies. Folkman, L a z a r u s , Gruen et a l .  (1986)  found t h a t the  eight  s c a l e s o f the 6 6 - i t e m r e v i s e d Ways of Coping C h e c k l i s t (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1985) were more s t a b l e than a p p r a i s a l across d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s o r s i t u a t i o n s . ranged from .17 to coping s c a l e s ; planful were a l l  variables  Mean a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n s  .47 a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s o r e v e n t s .  seeking s o c i a l support,  confrontative  c o p i n g , and  problem s o l v i n g , had the lowest a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n s forms o f p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g .  Three  and  The r e s e a r c h e r s  c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d forms o f c o p i n g may be i n f l u e n c e d by the s i t u a t i o n a l  context.  Positive reappraisal, a  form o f e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g , had the h i g h e s t mean autocorrelation  (.47).  The authors suggested t h a t  emotion-  f o c u s e d forms of c o p i n g may be i n f l u e n c e d by more s t a b l e personality  factors.  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t c e r t a i n  of c o p i n g may be s t a b l e a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s , o f c o p i n g are more v a r i a b l e .  whereas o t h e r  types forms  The authors suggest t h a t t h e r e has  13 to be some s t a b i l i t y effect  i n c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r them to have an  on i m p o r t a n t outcomes l i k e p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ,  psychological well-being. s u p p o r t s the a u t h o r s '  work by B o l g e r  c o n c l u s i o n s by d e m o n s t r a t i n g  a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y strategies  Additional  (i.e.,  neuroticism)  self-blame, Finally,  that  certain  encounter.  the a u t h o r found t h a t h i g h - n e u r o t i c i s m  s t u d e n t s engaged i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (1990)  i n f l u e n c e s the coping  i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t during a s t r e s s f u l  Specifically,  or  more w i s h f u l  thinking  than those p r e - m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s low i n C a r v e r , S c h e i e r , and Weintraub  pre-medical and  neuroticism.  (1989)  provide a  novel approach to the assessment of c o p i n g t h a t may shed f u r t h e r l i g h t on the complex i s s u e of c o p i n g c o n s i s t e n c y and variability.  The authors argue t h a t p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s have  adopted two opposing v i e w s : (a) c o p i n g are i n t r i n s i c a l l y (McCrae, 1982), or (b)  t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s ways o f  t i e d to p e r s o n a l i t y  t h a t c o p i n g i s determined not by  p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s but by the i n t e r p l a y the environment  differences  (Folkman & L a z a r u s ,  between a person and  1980, 1985).  In  developing  a new measure o f c o p i n g , the COPE s c a l e ( C a r v e r e t a l . , the a u t h o r s suggest t h a t people tend to adopt c e r t a i n t a c t i c s t h a t are used r e l a t i v e l y  coping  c o n s i s t e n t l y a c r o s s a range of  situations.  These p r e f e r e n c e s may o r i g i n a t e  differences,  but may a l s o develop f o r o t h e r reasons  through  1989),  l e a r n i n g from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e ) .  from p e r s o n a l i t y (e.g.,  The 5 2 - i t e m COPE s c a l e  has been developed to a s s e s s both p r e f e r r e d c o p i n g s t y l e s , as well  as s i t u a t i o n a l  the r e s e a r c h e r .  c o p i n g responses depending on the needs of  14 In summary, the i s s u e o f c o p i n g c o n s i s t e n c y or c o n t i n u e s to be an ongoing p u r s u i t  variability  in coping r e s e a r c h .  In  the  p a s t , the emphasis had been on the changing n a t u r e o f c o p i n g as p a r t of an i n t e r a c t i o n Recent e m p i r i c a l more complex.  between the person and the  environment.  e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t the n a t u r e o f c o p i n g i s  The development of a s c a l e f o r a s s e s s i n g both  p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d c o p i n g and d i s p o s i t i o n a l t h e r e i s both s t a b i l i t y  coping recognizes that  and change i n c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s .  A second i s s u e i n c o p i n g measurement concerns t h a t attempt to measure the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y processes.  Although m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  t h a t they r e f l e c t  of  instruments coping  s c a l e s are advantageous  the enormous a r r a y of c o p i n g e f f o r t s  in  that  people use t o deal w i t h s t r e s s , they have been c r i t i c i z e d  for  l a c k i n g consensus on which dimensions to i n c l u d e i n an instrument  (Cohen, 1991).  The Ways of Coping s c a l e ( L a z a r u s &  Folkman, 1984), f o r example, d i s t i n g u i s h e s between s t r a t e g i e s p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d and e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g . between t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s  The  distinction  of c o p i n g r e p r e s e n t s an i n i t i a l  i n c l a s s i f y i n g coping behaviours.  of  step  Some r e s e a r c h e r s have argued,  however, t h a t these two c a t e g o r i e s are too broad and s i m p l i s t i c (Fleishman,  1984; C a r v e r et a l . , 1989).  A l t h o u g h c o p i n g may  s e r v e an e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d or p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d f u n c t i o n , sufficient  to speak o f e i t h e r as i f  group of thoughts  or a c t i o n s .  o f an e v e n t .  is  not  they were a homogeneous  Emotion-focused coping,  example, ranges from d e n i a l of an event to reinterpretation  it  for  positive  These s t r a t e g i e s are v e r y  d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r and t h e i r  use may r e s u l t  d i f f e r e n t outcomes f o r an i n d i v i d u a l .  Based on the  in  very  assumption  15 t h a t i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s may not be v i s i b l e i f  different  s t r a t e g i e s are combined i n t o broader domains, r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted  to examine a l a r g e number o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  & McCrae,  1989).  At p r e s e n t ,  l i t t l e consensus e x i s t s i n the number o f  d i f f e r e n t ways o f c o p i n g . scale,  (Costa  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the Ways o f Coping  f o r example, has produced 3 s e p a r a t e c o p i n g s u b s c a l e s or  factors  ( P a r k e s , 1984), 5 f a c t o r s  ( V i t a l i a n o e t a l . , 1985), 7  factors  ( S c h e i e r , Weintraub & C a r v e r , 1986), 8 c o p i n g  factors  (Aldwin & Revenson, 1987; Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1985; Folkman, L a z a r u s , D u n k e l - S c h e t t e r , DeLongis & Gruen, 1986) and 28 f a c t o r s (McCrae, 1982). studied,  These s t u d i e s d i f f e r i n the p o p u l a t i o n  being  the type o f s t r e s s o r being i n v e s t i g a t e d and the way i n  which d a t a were a n a l y z e d , p o s s i b l y l e a d i n g to the factor structures. to m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  Different  different  f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s may a l s o be due  issues, particularly  the p o s s i b l e  limitation  o f items i n c l u d e d i n the Ways of Coping s c a l e . The i s s u e o f what items to i n c l u d e i n a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l instrument are c h o s e n .  i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the method i n which  items  In some i n s t a n c e s , c h o i c e of items and s t r a t e g i e s  are based on f a c t o r  a n a l y s i s of c o p i n g i t e m s ,  in other  instances  c h o i c e o f items are based on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h o r on some theoretical  framework.  Whereas some r e s e a r c h e r s argue t h a t  t h e o r y s h o u l d guide a s c a l e ' s c o n t e n t and t h a t c o p i n g e f f o r t s s h o u l d be determined b e f o r e sampling procedures begin ( C a r v e r et al.,  1989), o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s hold the view t h a t i t  i s best  to  sample w i d e l y and l e t e m p i r i c a l methods determine what c o p i n g d i m e n s i o n s are i m p o r t a n t (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1985).  The  16 m a j o r i t y o f c o p i n g s c a l e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d p r i m a r i l y e m p i r i c a l methods, r e s u l t i n g  by  i n l i t t l e consensus as to the how  c o p i n g s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d or measured (Aldwin & Revenson, 1987). The Cope s c a l e ( C a r v e r et a l . , 1989) i s one example of a coping instrument  t h a t has been developed u s i n g two  theoretical  m o d e l s ; L a z a r u s ' s model o f s t r e s s and c o p i n g ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984) and a model o f s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n 1985) .  It  attempts  to overcome some o f the a m b i g u i t y  present i n e x i s t i n g coping s c a l e s , potential  ( C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1983,  as w e l l  domains o f p r o b l e m - and e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g .  planful  scale,  includes  c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g , s u p p r e s s i o n of competing a c t i v i t i e s , c o p i n g as d i s t i n c t  activities coping.  that could f a l l  broader  For example,  i n c l u d e s the  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , the COPE i n s t r u m e n t  restraint  items  as expanding on  c o p i n g responses t h a t may be found under the  a l t h o u g h the Ways o f Coping i n s t r u m e n t  in  active and  scales representing several  under the domain,  problem-focused  In t h i s way, the COPE s c a l e acknowledges the  of c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s a v a i l a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l  diversity  in a stressful  encounter. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e i s a l a c k of consensus about how c o p i n g i s to be measured i n c u r r e n t  research.  measurement i s s u e s t h a t are f r e q u e n t l y  Two i m p o r t a n t  debated i n the  coping  l i t e r a t u r e concern the degree of c o n s i s t e n c y or s t a b i l i t y coping across d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ,  and the l e v e l o f  of c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r i n c l u d e d i n an i n s t r u m e n t .  of  generality  Recent e m p i r i c a l  e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t some c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s may be more s t a b l e than o t h e r s ,  and t h a t t h e r e may be both p r e f e r r e d modes o f  17 c o p i n g a c r o s s e p i s o d e s , and v a r i a t i o n episode. episode,  in coping w i t h i n a s i n g l e  S t u d y i n g ways of c o p i n g i n a s p e c i f i c  stressful  l i k e an a d u l t c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e , c o u l d p r o v i d e  information  about the c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t mothers employ to  deal w i t h m a r i t a l instrument  useful  crisis.  To t h i s end, the COPE s c a l e ,  as an  f o r a s s e s s i n g ways of c o p i n g seems a p p r o p r i a t e  for  such a s t u d y . Coping s t r a t e g i e s .  Much debate e x i s t s o v e r whether one  s t r a t e g y o f c o p i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d more a d a p t i v e than Lazarus and Folkman (1984)  hold the p o s i t i o n t h a t any one coping  s t r a t e g y may not be more a d a p t i v e than a n o t h e r because c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s may be used i n response to e n c o u n t e r s or at d i f f e r e n t  another.  times.  different  different  The v a l u e o f a p a r t i c u l a r  form o f c o p i n g s h o u l d be viewed w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a stressful  e p i s o d e (Folkman, L a z a r u s , Gruen e t a l . ,  Recently, this  1986).  p o s i t i o n has been c h a l l e n g e d , as both  e v i d e n c e and t h e o r y s u p p o r t s the p o s s i b i l i t y s t r a t e g i e s may be more a d a p t i v e than  empirical  t h a t some c o p i n g  others.  E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e e x i s t s to show t h a t c e r t a i n s o r t s c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s do d i f f e r stressful  encounters  in t h e i r  adaptiveness across various  ( B i l l i n g s & Moos, 1984;  Brennan, Fondacaro, & Moos, 1990).  of  Herth,  1990; Moos,  B i l l i n g s and Moos (1984)  a sample o f 424 men and women e n t e r i n g treatment  for  in  depression  found t h a t c o p i n g responses d i r e c t e d toward p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and affective  regulation  the s i t u a t i o n ,  (e.g., tried  to see the p o s i t i v e s i d e of  t o l d m y s e l f t h i n g s t h a t helped me f e e l  better)  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s s e v e r e d y s f u n c t i o n , whereas emotional d i s c h a r g e and avoidance s t y l e s of c o p i n g were l i n k e d to more  serious depression.  The H e a l t h and D a i l y L i v i n g Form (Moos,  C r o n k i t e , B i l l i n g s , & F i n n e y , 1984) was used to stressors,  assess  c o p i n g , s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and p a t i e n t ' s  Depression s e v e r i t y ,  p h y s i c a l symptoms and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e were  e v a l u a t e d as f u n c t i o n i n g In a l a t e r s t u d y , relationship  functioning.  criteria.  Herth  (1990)  investigated  between c o p i n g s t y l e and g r i e f  bereaved s p o u s e s , aged 65 to 94.  the  resolution  i n 75  Eight s p e c i f i c coping s t y l e s  were a s s e s s e d u s i n g the 6 0 - i t e m r e v i s e d J a l o w i e c Coping S c a l e (Jalowiec, (avoidant emotive  1987).  The a u t h o r found t h a t g r e a t e r use o f e v a s i v e  activities),  fatalistic  ( e x p r e s s i v e emotions)  lower l e v e l o f g r i e f  outlook), supportant better  confrontive  (rs = - . 6 6 , - . 7 5 and - . 6 8 ,  The use of o p t i m i s t i c  (constructive  (supportive  grief  c o p i n g s t y l e s were r e l a t e d to a  resolution  r e s p e c t i v e l y ; p_s<.001).  ( p e s s i m i s t i c a p p r o a c h ) , and  resolution  (positive  problem-solving),  and  systems) c o p i n g s t y l e s were r e l a t e d (rs = . 6 9 ,  . 7 5 , and . 5 5 ,  to  respectively,  p_s<.001). Moos e t a l .  (1990)  s t u d i e d the a s s o c i a t i o n between c o p i n g  responses and outcome i n d i c e s i n a sample o f 501 p r o b l e m drinkers,  and 609 nonproblem d r i n k e r s .  Coping was a s s e s s e d  u s i n g the 4 8 - i t e m Coping Responses I n v e n t o r y (Moos, 1988). Respondents s e l e c t e d a r e c e n t s t r e s s o r and r a t e d t h e i r the c o p i n g items on a 4 - p o i n t f a i r l y often (3).  s c a l e from not at a l l  Outcome i n d i c e s i n c l u d e d p h y s i c a l  d e p r e s s i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n stressful  (0)  s i t u a t i o n was r e s o l v e d or not  The a u t h o r s found t h a t p r o b l e m - d r i n k e r s  to  symptoms,  on whether  (4-point Likert compared w i t h  use of  the scale).  19 nonproblem-drinkers  were more l i k e l y  to r e l y on  a v o i d a n c e , r e s i g n e d a c c e p t a n c e , and emotional strategies. functioning emotional  discharge  Coping responses were s i g n i f i c a n t l y criteria.  related  More r e l i a n c e on c o g n i t i v e  .18 and . 3 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  positive  Emotional d i s c h a r g e was  problems  (r = . 1 4 , p_<.01).  r e a p p r a i s a l was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  d e p r e s s i o n (r = - . 1 2 , £<.01)  symptoms  p.s<.01) and d e p r e s s i o n ( r s =  p_s<.01).  a l s o r e l a t e d to more d r i n k i n g  to  a v o i d a n c e and  d i s c h a r g e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more p h y s i c a l  ( r s = .14 and . 1 9 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  contrast,  cognitive  In  less  and g r e a t e r s t r e s s o r r e s o l u t i o n  (r  = . 1 9 , p_<.01). A l t h o u g h each of the above s t u d i e s used d i f f e r e n t instruments  on d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s ,  coping e f f e c t i v e n e s s result  seems a p p a r e n t .  some common p a t t e r n s Coping s t r a t e g i e s  i n e x p r e s s i o n of emotion and avoidance or  from the s t r e s s o r appear to be m a l a d a p t i v e , positive  outcomes f o r an i n d i v i d u a l .  who are h i g h l y r u m i n a t i v e i n c r e a s e emotional stressful  It  it  In  individuals  adjustment  or  l i g h t and are focused on  These c o p i n g  strategies Positive  event.  in  that  by changing the meaning of a  e n c o u n t e r and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  c o p i n g w i t h the  that  resolving  appears to be an i m p o r t a n t c o p i n g s t r a t e g y  may f a c i l i t a t e  less  contrast,  i n more p o s i t i v e outcomes f o r an i n d i v i d u a l .  stressful  in  may be t h a t  t h a t are aimed at r e i n t e r p r e t i n g  problem s o l v i n g are more a d a p t i v e .  reappraisal  that  r e l y on c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  r e a p p r a i s i n g the s t r e s s o r i n a p o s i t i v e  result  resulting  (Fondacaro & Moos, 1989).  in  disengaging  a r o u s a l and h i n d e r a c t i v e ways of  encounters  coping s t r a t e g i e s  will  coping  appraised options  for  20 Support r e l a t e d c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s appear more ambiguous. A l t h o u g h Herth positively spouses,  (1990)  found a s u p p o r t a n t  associated with g r i e f Moos e t a l .  (1990)  c o p i n g s t y l e to be  r e s o l u t i o n among bereaved  found s e e k i n g s u p p o r t to be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor outcome measures among p r o b l e m - d r i n k e r s . These d i f f e r e n c e s  i n adjustment  outcomes r e l a t e d to  supportive  c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t  different  measures were used to a s s e s s support as a c o p i n g s t r a t e g y . Herth's study,  In  s e e k i n g s u p p o r t was measured u s i n g the J a l o w i e c  Coping S c a l e ( J a l o w i e c , 1987), whereas i n Moos e t  al.'s  r e s e a r c h , s u p p o r t c o p i n g was a s s e s s e d u s i n g the Coping Responses I n v e n t o r y (Moos, 1988). s u p p o r t may be b e n e f i c i a l  It  i s also possible that seeking  during c e r t a i n s t r e s s f u l  bereavement, and not b e n e f i c i a l The e m p i r i c a l  during  events,  like  others.  evidence presented suggests t h a t a c e r t a i n  set of coping s t r a t e g i e s  i s more a d a p t i v e than  another.  I n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e t h a t one group o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  (i.e.,  p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d , p o s i t i v e r e a p p r a i s a l ) may be more a d a p t i v e another  (i.e.,  emotional  d i s c h a r g e , disengagement)  r e s e a r c h t h a t has looked at c o r r e l a t i o n s strategies.  Scheier et a l .  (1986)  than  comes from  among d i f f e r e n t  coping  used the Ways o f Coping s c a l e  (Folkman & L a z a r u s , 1985) i n a study o f 181 male and 110 female undergraduates.  P r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g showed p o s i t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h s e e k i n g of s o c i a l s u p p o r t and w i t h reappraisal  (rs(283)  low  positive  = .15 and .19 r e s p e c t i v e l y , p_s<.05);  Disengagement and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s showed p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r  ( r ( 9 8 ) = . 2 4 , rj<.002).  Both  low  disengagement and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s were a l s o  negatively  c o r r e l a t e d with problem-focused coping. Carver et a l . administering  it  (1989)  i n d e v e l o p i n g the COPE s c a l e and  to 978 undergraduates i n group s e s s i o n s ,  found n o t a b l e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s  between a c t i v e c o p i n g ,  planning, positive reinterpretation, ( r s from .17 to behavioral  . 6 9 , JD<.01).  and s e e k i n g s o c i a l  A second c l u s t e r ;  disengagement, mental  also  support  denial,  disengagement and f o c u s i n g on  and v e n t i n g emotions were a l l m o d e r a t e l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d from .22 to  . 4 5 , p_s<.01).  Both c o r r e l a t i o n a l attention  (rs  and e m p i r i c a l  s t u d i e s have d i r e c t e d  toward the e x i s t e n c e o f p a t t e r n s  c e r t a i n coping s t r a t e g i e s .  o f a s s o c i a t i o n s among  F i n a l l y , theory a l s o plays a part  in  p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and support f o r the presence of s p e c i f i c patterns  of f u n c t i o n a l l y  s i m i l a r coping  T h e o r e t i c a l l y these a s s o c i a t i o n s f i t  efforts.  w i t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of  C a r v e r and S c h e i e r ' s (1983, 1985) s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n Briefly,  model.  t h i s model h o l d s t h a t a p e r s o n ' s s e l f - f o c u s d u r i n g a  stressful  event l e a d s to comparisons between p r e s e n t  behaviour  and whatever goal or s t a n d a r d i s s a l i e n t to the s i t u a t i o n . attempting  to match o n e ' s b e h a v i o u r w i t h a g o a l ,  a variety  c o n d i t i o n s can i n t e r r u p t the p r o c e s s ( e . g . , r i s i n g difficulty  in t a s k ) .  The i n t e r r u p t i o n  If  of o n e ' s e f f o r t s  a p e r s o n ' s expectancy i s u n f a v o r a b l e  anticipating  failure)  the r e s u l t  i s withdrawing  (i.e., from  attempts.  Often s o c i a l or temporal  individual  to withdraw p h y s i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e mental  of  anxiety, l e a d s to  an assessment about the l i k e l i h o o d of being a b l e to meet goal.  In  the  I'm further  c o n s t r a i n t s do not a l l o w an withdrawal  22 or disengagement o c c u r s . result  If  one's expectancy i s f a v o r a b l e ,  i s i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t s to reach the g o a l .  the  C a r v e r and  S c h e i e r ' s model i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h B a n d u r a ' s (1977) work on self-reflection,  efficacy,  and outcome e x p e c t a n c i e s , w i t h some  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g i n conceptual t e r m i n o l o g y behavioral  between the  two  approaches.  In a p p l y i n g the s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n model to c o p i n g , S c h e i e r e t al.  (1986)  p o s i t t h a t f o c u s i n g on o n e ' s emotional  l e a d to a n t i c i p a t i o n s  d i s t r e s s may  of n e g a t i v e outcomes i n a s t r e s s f u l  encounter.  These u n f a v o r a b l e e x p e c t a n c i e s (or  cognitions)  tend to l e a d a person to disengage or withdraw  a stressful  event.  a stressful  event s h o u l d encourage p o s i t i v e  expectancies.  negative from  C o n v e r s e l y , f o c u s i n g on p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of outcome  F a v o r a b l e e x p e c t a n c i e s l e a d to more a c t i v e  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g forms of c o p i n g . and f o c u s i n g on o n e ' s emotional a c t i v e c o p i n g and p o s i t i v e  Theoretically,  disengagement  d i s t r e s s are i n o p p o s i t i o n  reappraisal.  In sum, both r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r e x i s t e n c e o f two p a t t e r n s  to  the  of a s s o c i a t i o n s among c o p i n g  s t r a t e g i e s that occur across s i t u a t i o n s :  specifically  active  c o p i n g and p o s i t i v e r e a p p r a i s a l , and disengagement and f o c u s i n g on and v e n t i n g o n e ' s e m o t i o n s .  The former appears to be more  a d a p t i v e i n r e d u c i n g or managing p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s o m a t i c symptoms d u r i n g a s t r e s s f u l  e n c o u n t e r , whereas the l a t t e r  more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r e r adjustment social  outcomes.  is  Seeking  s u p p o r t has a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c t i v e c o p i n g and  positive reappraisal studies,  i n both c o r r e l a t i o n a l  however the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i t s  and e m p i r i c a l role  remains  23 uncertain.  C a r v e r et a l .  (1989)  found t h a t s e e k i n g s o c i a l  s u p p o r t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s ; c o p i n g , and f o c u s on and v e n t i n g e m o t i o n s . concluded t h a t the i n c l i n a t i o n  active  The a u t h o r s  to seek out s o c i a l s u p p o r t may be  both good and bad depending on the presence of o t h e r  coping  processes. Coping w i t h M a r i t a l  S t r e s s and D i v o r c e  Although patterns strategies stressful  of a s s o c i a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t  appears to be f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t episodes, i t  i s i m p o r t a n t to c o n s i d e r whether  a s s o c i a t i o n s h o l d t r u e f o r s t r e s s o r s i n the f a m i l y particularly  marital  and d i v o r c e r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r s .  s t u d i e s have attempted with marital  s t r e s s and c o p i n g (II f i e l d ,  in marital  by the d r a m a t i c  these  arena, Several  to look at the ways i n which c o u p l e s cope 1980; Menaghan, 1982;  P e a r l i n & S c h o o l e r , 1978; Whiffen & G o t l i b , interest  coping  1989).  This  s t r e s s and c o p i n g has been sparked  largely  i n c r e a s e i n d i v o r c e r a t e s over the l a s t decade  (Hagestad, Smyer, & S t i e r m a n , 1980).  F o l l o w i n g the r e v i e w  each s t u d y ,  be g i v e n to measurement  particular  attention will  i s s u e s and to the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f p a t t e r n s between d i f f e r e n t c o p i n g  between the ages o f 18 and 65. (a)  (c)  parenting,  2,300  people  Respondents were asked the l i f e strains,  (b)  to  they used i n d e a l i n g w i t h  to e x p r e s s the e x t e n t  d e p r e s s i o n and a n x i e t y . marriage,  interviewed  to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l  i d e n t i f y the c o p i n g r e p e r t o i r e s strains,  associations  strategies.  P e a r l i n and S c h o o l e r (1978)  following:  of  of  to which they  S t r a i n s were i d e n t i f i e d  o c c u p a t i o n , and home.  the  experience i n the areas of  The r e s e a r c h e r s  24 found t h a t each o f s i x c o p i n g f a c t o r s  ( s e l f - r e l i a n c e versus  a d v i c e s e e k i n g , c o n t r o l l e d r e f l e c t i v e n e s s v e r s u s emotional d i s c h a r g e , p o s i t i v e comparison, n e g o t i a t i o n ,  self-assertation  v e r s u s p a s s i v e f o r b e a r a n c e , and low s e l e c t i v e i g n o r i n g ) significant distress.  independent e f f e c t The most e f f e c t i v e  in reducing f e l t  had a  emotional  responses i n m a r r i a g e were those  t h a t were absent o f avoidance o r w i t h d r a w a l .  For example, the  r e f l e c t i v e p r o b i n g of a problem r a t h e r than emotional  discharge  was among the more e f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s . II f i e l d  (1980)  i n v e s t i g a t e d 1591 m a r r i e d a d u l t s u s i n g an  i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e to a s s e s s c o p i n g and c h r o n i c  marital  stress.  stressor  scale,  S u b j e c t s were asked to respond to a m a r i t a l  a d e p r e s s i o n s c a l e and a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s on c o p i n g  styles.  Four c o p i n g s t y l e s were a s s e s s e d :  resignation  rationalization-  ( e . g . , keep so busy you d o n ' t have time to  think),  s e e k i n g o u t s i d e h e l p ( e . g . , have you asked f o r the a d v i c e o f a friend),  optimistic  action  ( e . g . , t r y to f i n d a f a i r  compromise), and ongoing c o n f l i c t off  steam).  (e.g., yell  o r shout to  Whereas c h r o n i c s t r a i n i n the m a r i t a l  let  r o l e was  r e l a t e d to the use of s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g a v o i d a n c e and conflict,  the one c o p i n g s t y l e most p r e d i c t i v e of low m a r i t a l  s t r e s s was o p t i m i s t i c  action  ( r = - . 3 1 , p_<.01).  Optimistic  a c t i o n i n v o l v e d two a s p e c t s of c o p i n g ; having a hopeful  and  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about the m a r r i a g e , and t a k i n g a c t i o n aimed at problem s o l v i n g . A s t u d y by Menaghan (1982)  i n c l u d e d 758 a d u l t s from a panel  s t u d y o f 1,106 a d u l t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n 1972 and 1976. marital  Four  s t r a t e g i e s were examined f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s on ongoing  25 marital  d i s t r e s s and i n i t i a l  four s t r a t e g i e s  included:  discussion,  optimistic  relative  (b)  and l a t e r m a r i t a l  (a) attempts  problems.  at n e g o t i a t i o n  comparisons o f o n e ' s  t o the p a s t and to o n e ' s p e e r s ,  (c)  These  and  situation  selective  i n a t t e n t i o n to u n p l e a s a n t a s p e c t s and heightened a t t e n t i o n p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s of the s i t u a t i o n ,  and (d)  s u p p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g and withdrawal  to  a conscious  from i n t e r a c t i o n .  The  f i r s t two c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s are s i m i l a r to Folkman and L a z a r u s ' s (1980)  p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d and r e a p p r a i s a l e f f o r t s .  coping s t r a t e g i e s 1982).  The l a s t  i n v o l v e emotion-managing b e h a v i o u r (Menaghan,  R e s u l t s showed t h a t the two c o p i n g e f f o r t s ,  i n a t t e n t i o n and withdrawal distress.  two  significantly  selective  i n c r e a s e d ongoing  N e g o t i a t i o n d i d not reduce f e e l i n g s of d i s t r e s s  was e f f e c t i v e  in reducing l a t e r problems.  was found to have d i r e c t  effects  Optimistic  but  comparison  on both d i s t r e s s and  later  problems. Finally, maritally  c o p i n g r e s e a r c h by Whiffen and G o t l i b (1989)  on  d i s t r e s s e d and n o n d i s t r e s s e d c o u p l e s a l s o sheds l i g h t  on the ways i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h m a r i t a l  stress.  Respondents  were asked to d e s c r i b e the most s t r e s s f u l  event they e x p e r i e n c e d  d u r i n g the p a s t month and complete the 6 7 - i t e m r e v i s e d Ways of Coping C h e c k l i s t (Folkman & L a z a r u s ,  1985).  Marital  distress  was a s s e s s e d u s i n g the Dyadic Adjustment S c a l e ( S p a n i e r , The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t husbands' m a r i t a l significantly  d i s t r e s s was  r e l a t e d to both husband and w i v e s ' use of  avoidance, s e l f - c o n t r o l ,  and a c c e p t i n g  Accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  c o n s i s t e d of items l i k e  lectured myself",  1976).  escape-  responsibility. "critized  or  " r e a l i z e d I brought the problem on m y s e l f " .  Self-control myself",  "I  items i n c l u d e d "I  t r i e d to keep my f e e l i n g s  to  went over i n my mind what I would say o r d o " .  Non-  d i s t r e s s e d wives r e p o r t e d u s i n g l e s s s e l f - c o n t r o l  and s e e k i n g  more s o c i a l s u p p o r t than d i s t r e s s e d wives and a l l  the husbands.  There are s e v e r a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the f o u r s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y reviewed t h a t are i m p o r t a n t  to c o n s i d e r .  In P e a r l i n and S c h o o l e r ' s (1978) s t u d y the q u e s t i o n s aimed at eliciting parent,  the d a y - t o - d a y f e e l i n g s of people i n t h e i r  husband, w i f e ,  r o l e s as  and worker were v e r y g e n e r a l .  Respondents were asked how they u s u a l l y coped w i t h g e n e r a l strains,  life  not the ways they a c t u a l l y coped i n a s p e c i f i c  stressful  event.  Ilfield  (1980) and Menaghan (1982) a l s o used  more g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s to focus on the ways i n d i v i d u a l s cope with chronic d i f f i c u l t i e s . (1989)  In c o n t r a s t , W h i f f e n and G o t l i b  had s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e the ways i n which they coped w i t h a  s p e c i f i c s t r e s s f u l event.  S u b j e c t s were f r e e to nominate  either  an a c u t e o r c h r o n i c s t r e s s o r . Whereas I l f i e l d  (1980)  and Menaghan (1982)  ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h m a r i t a l  f o c u s e d on the  difficulties,  W h i f f e n and G o t l i b (1989) examined the c o p i n g p r o c e s s of maritally  d i s t r e s s e d c o u p l e s who were asked to nominate any  stressful  life  e v e n t , not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d to m a r r i a g e ,  had o c c u r r e d i n the l a s t month. latter  Couples p a r t i c i p a t i n g  in  that the  s t u d y were s e l e c t e d from a sample of women and t h e i r  husbands who were i n v o l v e d i n a study of adjustment pregnancy.  It  may r e f l e c t  some a s p e c t of pregnancy and not o f  distress.  i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n whether the  during findings  marital  For example, the r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t t h a t wives  27 e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of s t r e s s and r e p o r t e d t h e i r  l i v e s as  l e s s c o n t r o l l a b l e and more overwhelming than t h e i r husbands.  It  i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t the c o n d i t i o n of being pregnant i s more stressful  f o r w i v e s , not t h a t they are more overwhelmed by  life  events i n g e n e r a l . There appears to be some s i m i l a r i t i e s a c r o s s the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n the use of d i f f e r e n t  coping s t r a t e g i e s .  S c h o o l e r (1978) found t h a t the e f f e c t i v e m a r i t a l o p t i m i s t i c comparisons to i n t e r p r e t  coper used  h i s or her s t r e s s f u l  s i t u a t i o n more p o s i t i v e l y , and took a c t i o n through to t r y and change the s i t u a t i o n .  P e a r l i n and  IIfield  negotiation  (1980) a l s o found t h a t  o p t i m i s t i c a c t i o n , a c o m b i n a t i o n of p o s i t i v e assessment and a c t i o n aimed at p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , was p r e d i c t i v e o f low m a r i t a l stress.  In Menaghan's (1982) s t u d y , o p t i m i s t i c comparison was  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to lowered d i s t r e s s and fewer l a t e r p r o b l e m s . A c t i v e attempts at n e g o t i a t i o n were o n l y e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g later marital  problems.  to be an i m p o r t a n t across a l l  Whereas o p t i m i s t i c comparison appears  coping s t r a t e g y in f a c i l i t a t i n g  adjustment  t h r e e s t u d i e s , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i r e c t  c o p i n g i s not as c l e a r .  One p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d be t h a t  c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s may be r e l a t e d to t i m e .  action certain  Although o p t i m i s t i c  comparison i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r outcomes i n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f c o p i n g , d i r e c t a c t i o n may be more e f f e c t i v e i n l a t e r s t a g e s of c o p i n g .  Additional longitudinal  the  r e s e a r c h would  h e l p to shed l i g h t on the use of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s and adjustment o v e r t i m e . Research work by L o h r , Essex, and K l e i n (1988) on c o p i n g r e s p o n s e s among o l d e r women may a l s o add to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  28 about the u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f action coping.  These r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t  positive  comparisons lowered r e p o r t e d l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n a l r a i s e d s u b j e c t i v e h e a l t h assessments and l i f e levels.  impairment and  satisfaction  D i r e c t a c t i o n c o p i n g had no e f f e c t on l i f e  o r on h e a l t h s t a t u s i n d i c e s .  direct  satisfaction  Whereas p o s i t i v e comparison  appears to be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are c o n d u c i v e t o m o d i f i e d meaning, the r e s e a r c h e r s suggest t h a t d i r e c t a c t i o n c o p i n g may not be as e f f e c t i v e i n s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r s t h a t are not amenable to change. variables,  Environmental  l i k e appraised c h a n g e a b i l i t y or perceived c o n t r o l ,  p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the p e r s o n - e n v i r o n m e n t t r a n s a c t i o n ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984) and can a f f e c t ones c h o i c e of c o p i n g responses.  T a k i n g d i r e c t a c t i o n by n e g o t i a t i n g i n a m a r i t a l  s e t t i n g may not i n i t i a l l y especially if  be p e r c e i v e d as change i n d u c i n g ,  c o o p e r a t i o n from a p a r t n e r i s not f o r t h c o m i n g .  a d d i t i o n , o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l s may reduce f e e l i n g s o f and f r u s t r a t i o n ,  threat  thus g e n e r a t i n g p o s i t i v e e x p e c t a n c i e s , which  may l e a d to l a t e r attempts at a l t e r e d b e h a v i o u r . Scheier's  In  C a r v e r and  (1983, 1985) model o f s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n would suggest  t h a t t h i s may be s o . Thus f a r the s t u d i e s reviewed on c o p i n g and m a r i t a l  stress  have p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t i n t o g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o f c o p i n g responses t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o s i t i v e outcomes.  There are a l s o some  s i m i l a r i t i e s a c r o s s the s t u d i e s w i t h r e s p e c t to c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t are not e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms. marital  P e a r l i n and S c h o o l e r (1978) found t h a t  ineffective  c o p e r s used emotional d i s c h a r g e , s e l e c t i v e i g n o r i n g of  29 p r o b l e m s , and p a s s i v e endurance c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . d i d not seek h e l p or a d v i c e from o t h e r s .  They a l s o  Menaghan (1982)  found  t h a t s e l e c t i v e i g n o r i n g , and s u p p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g and withdrawal  from i n t e r a c t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ongoing d i s t r e s s  and p r o b l e m s .  IIfield  (1980)  found d i s t r e s s to be r e l a t e d  s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g a v o i d a n c e and c o n f l i c t , r e s i g n a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n of e m o t i o n s . Gotlib  to  specifically  S i m i l a r l y , Whiffen and  (1989) r e p o r t e d h u s b a n d - d i s t r e s s e d c o u p l e s used more  e s c a p e - a v o i d a n c e and a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o u p l e s i n which husbands were not d i s t r e s s e d .  (self-blame)  than  The g e n e r a l  p a t t e r n o f f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t w i t h d r a w i n g o r a v o i d i n g the stressful marital  situation  stress.  i s not e f f e c t i v e  i n a i d i n g adjustment  to  Some a s p e c t of f o c u s i n g on o n e ' s e m o t i o n s ,  e i t h e r by a t t e m p t i n g to suppress them o r by e x p r e s s i n g them a l s o appears to be i n e f f e c t i v e . and T u r k ' s  (1981)  This f i n d i n g  i s s u p p o r t e d by Berman  i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the r o l e o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  in mediating d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d d i s t r e s s .  A l t h o u g h the r e s e a r c h e r s  d i d not l o o k s p e c i f i c a l l y at w i t h d r a w a l  o r a v o i d a n c e as c o p i n g  strategies,  they d i d i n v e s t i g a t e e x p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n s .  E x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s was r e l a t e d to high mood d i s t u r b a n c e and low l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n among 65 female and 25 male d i v o r c e d volunteers. F u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g about why e x p r e s s i o n of emotion may not be b e n e f i c i a l needs to be e x p l o r e d i n l i g h t of the f a c t  that  there i s c o n s i s t e n t research that suggests that f r e e expression o f emotions d u r i n g a s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r i s b e n e f i c i a l r e v i e w by S i l v e r and Wortman, 1980).  (see  T h i s appears to be i n  c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the s t u d i e s t h a t were reviewed e a r l i e r .  A  30 c l o s e r look at C a r v e r and S c h e i e r ' s (1983,  1985)  self-regulation  model may h e l p to shed some l i g h t on t h i s  issue.  According  to  these authors,  s e l f - f o c u s on h i s  or  it  is a person's continual  her emotions t h a t l e a d s to an i n e f f e c t i v e  response t o  not n e c e s s a r i l y the a c t o f e x p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n .  stress,  In some  i n s t a n c e s the e x p r e s s i o n of emotion may l e a d to decreased intensity  of f e e l i n g s ,  may p e r p e t u a t e  in other s i t u a t i o n s  rumination  the c h a l l e n g e or g o a l .  It  expression of  about o n e ' s i n a b i l i t y  to cope or meet  i s the l a t t e r t h a t l e a d s to an  u n f a v o r a b l e assessment about the l i k e l i h o o d  o f meeting  goal and subsequent withdrawal  action.  from f u r t h e r  A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h on c o p i n g and m a r i t a l f a i r l y limited strategies  coping  o f p a r e n t s who are e x p e r i e n c i n g the s e p a r a t i o n  addressed t h i s  child.  Only one study has  issue empirically.  unpublished doctoral  dissertation,  the impact o f c o p i n g on p a r e n t s '  had an a d u l t  c h i l d who was m a r i t a l l y  a list  and p h y s i c a l  survey was m a i l e d to 43 p a r e n t s who s e p a r a t e d i n the l a s t  Respondents d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i r offspring's  strategies  c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n and  psychological  A questionnaire  coped w i t h t h e i r  i n an  s t u d i e d the c o p i n g  adjustment.  or  specifically  Pearson (1988),  o l d e r p a r e n t s use to deal w i t h an a d u l t  checked o f f  one's  s t r e s s may be  i n s c o p e , even l e s s i s known about the  d i v o r c e o f an a d u l t  years.  emotion  three  own words the ways they  separation,  in a d d i t i o n ,  of 36 c o p i n g p r e d i c a t e s .  they  The c o p i n g  p r e d i c a t e s were d e r i v e d from Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) Ways o f Coping s c a l e ,  and a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the Ways o f Coping  used among h o s p i c e nurses ( C h i r i b o g a , J e n k i n s , & B a i l e y , Coping responses from the m o d i f i e d s c a l e were s u b m i t t e d  1983). to  31 c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , y i e l d i n g two f a c t o r s ; avoidant coping.  a c t i v e c o p i n g and  P a r e n t a l r e a c t i v e n e s s as a measure o f  o f s t r e s s f u l n e s s was determined  initially  to a l i s t  o f 19 r e a c t i o n s .  submitted  to c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , r e s u l t i n g  representing reactions.  by p a r e n t a l  response  Responses to the r e a c t i o n  factor of  Adjustment measures i n c l u d e d d e p r e s s i o n ,  symptoms and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n .  items were  in a s i n g l e  a measure o f r e a c t i v e n e s s or i n t e n s i t y  The authors  degree  physical  found t h a t the use  of a v o i d a n c e c o p i n g was r e l a t e d to lower l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n = - . 4 4 , p.<.001) f o r p a r e n t s . to h i g h e r r e a c t i v e n e s s and F o l k m a n ' s (1984)  Avoidance c o p i n g was a l s o  (r = . 3 6 , p_<.01).  transactional  (r  related  In c o n s i d e r i n g Lazarus  model of s t r e s s and c o p i n g ,  Pearson s u g g e s t s t h a t p a r e n t s who use avoidance c o p i n g behaviours  ( e . g . wished the s i t u a t i o n  a v o i d i n g the a p p r a i s a l  c o u l d go away) may be  and c o p i n g p r o c e s s a l l  together  with  the  outcome o f l i t t l e d e c r e a s e i n p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s . Pearson's parental  (1988)  adjustment  findings  on the e f f e c t s  o f c o p i n g on  need to be viewed w i t h c a u t i o n because  several methodological  problems e x i s t i n the s t u d y .  First,  it  i s u n c l e a r from the a u t h o r ' s work why v a r y i n g sample s i z e s were used f o r each s t a t i s t i c a l multiple  regression equation,  r e g r e s s i o n s were conducted on such a small sample s i z e .  Second, the a u t h o r p r o v i d e s no v a l i d i t y on the r e v i s e d c o p i n g s c a l e , nor i s i t certain  or why numerous  or r e l i a b i l i t y explicit  items were chosen from the two e x i s t i n g  instruments.  Third,  although  measures  how or why coping  the author c o n c l u d e s t h a t  increased a c t i v e coping i s p o s i t i v e l y  r e l a t e d to  adjustment  32 measures, her s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a as p r e s e n t e d i n the s t u d y does  not s u p p o r t such c o n c l u s i o n s . Finally,  it  i s important  to note t h a t respondents were  asked t o i n d i c a t e how they coped w i t h the m a r i t a l an open-ended response format r e a c t i o n to t h e i r instrument.  It  and then how they coped w i t h  may be argued t h a t f o c u s i n g on o n e ' s  things,  stress.  in  their  c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n u s i n g the Ways o f Coping  to a s t r e s s o r and f o c u s i n g on the a c t u a l different  separation  reactions  s t r e s s o r are two  and may not be t a p p i n g the same s o u r c e o f  Similiarly,  by a s k i n g "what s t r a t e g i e s  cope w i t h y o u r a d u l t c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n " , i t  have you used to  i s not c l e a r which  o f the many s o u r c e s of s e p a r a t i o n - i n d u c e d s t r e s s one i s referring  to.  been i d e n t i f i e d  A number o f s e p a r a t i o n - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r s have i n the l i t e r a t u r e  t h a t can be  upsetting for older parents: financial al.,  particularly  concerns ( G o t t l i e b  et  1988), concern about a g r a n d c h i l d ' s w e l l - b e i n g or l o s s of  contact 1989),  ( C h e r l i n & F u r s t e n b e r g , 1986; Friedman, 1990; S t a r b u c k , l o s i n g an i m p o r t a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h an i n - l a w  1988b), o n - g o i n g f a m i l y c o n f l i c t  (Johnson,  (Hyatt & Kaslow, 1985),  f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s (Brown, 1982), and the r e t u r n of a separated o f f s p r i n g 1987).  to the f a m i l y home (Okimoto & S t e g a l l ,  To understand what i t  i s t h a t i s b e i n g coped w i t h  r e q u i r e s a move away from g l o b a l s p e c i f i c demands o f a s t r e s s f u l  assessments to  isolating  encounter and a s s e s s i n g which  s t r a t e g i e s are used to deal w i t h the s p e c i f i c demand. mothers o f m a r i t a l l y - d i s r u p t e d identifying  what i s s t r e s s f u l  and the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  offspring,  t h i s would  about the s e p a r a t i o n o r  For entail divorce  used to manage the d e s c r i b e d s t r e s s o r .  33 In summary, s t u d i e s t h a t have focused on c o p i n g and m a r i t a l s t r e s s p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n c l u s t e r s of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t have d i f f e r e n t adaptive functions.  Although d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n the ways i n  which c o p i n g was a s s e s s e d , s e v e r a l o f the s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t some form o f o p t i m i s t i c r e l a t e d t o f a v o r a b l e outcomes.  or p o s i t i v e comparison was  D i r e c t a c t i o n was r e l a t e d  f a v o r a b l e outcomes i n most c a s e s , however i t s a f f e c t e d by time or by environmental  well,  situation  particularly  situation.  t h a t are aimed at i g n o r i n g or w i t h d r a w i n g  to  use may be  variables,  perceived changeability in a s t r e s s f u l  marital  reviewed  Strategies  from a s t r e s s f u l  were r e l a t e d to u n f a v o r a b l e outcomes.  As  f o c u s i n g on ones e m o t i o n s , e i t h e r by s u p p r e s s i o n or  v e n t i n g was a l s o not e f f e c t i v e .  The use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h elements of C a r v e r and S c h e i e r ' s s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n model.  S t u d i e s f o c u s e d on p a r e n t s and  d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n are s c a r c e , s u g g e s t i n g the need f o r investigations  on the ways i n which mothers cope w i t h  aspects of a c h i l d ' s m a r i t a l  stressful  disruption.  Determinants o f Coping The ways i n which an i n d i v i d u a l situation  appraises a s t r e s s f u l  i s i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y by the n a t u r e o f the  but a l s o by p e r s o n a l and environmental Folkman,  1984).  Both the environmental  event o c c u r s and a p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t i e s significant  factors context  (Lazarus & i n which an  or p e r c e p t i o n s  to the s t u d y o f c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s .  encounter,  are  Whereas p e r s o n a l  f a c t o r s are ones which o r i g i n a t e w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , s e l f - e s t e e m or p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l ,  environmental  factors  such as  34 o r i g i n a t e o u t s i d e the p e r s o n , such as s o c i a l s u p p o r t o r conflict.  O f t e n , p e r s o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  family  v a r i a b l e s are  spoken o f and measured i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f each o t h e r , y e t i t the way i n which t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y  is  influence  a p p r a i s a l t h a t i s of importance (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).  A  person i n a s t r e s s f u l encounter may p e r c e i v e something i n h i s or her environment t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r c a p a b i l i t i e s , thus i n f l u e n c i n g a p p r a i s a l . h a v i n g the s u p p o r t of s i g n i f i c a n t  beliefs  For example,  others during a d i f f i c u l t  task  may i n c r e a s e a p e r s o n ' s sense o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y o r c o n f i d e n c e , and s u b s e q u e n t l y h i s or her a p p r a i s a l o f the t a s k as a p o t e n t i a l challenge versus a t h r e a t . The f o l l o w i n g  i s a r e v i e w o f the p e r s o n a l and environmental  v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t  to t h i s s t u d y .  For purposes o f  d i s c u s s i o n , the v a r i a b l e s are reviewed i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h the understanding that i t that w i l l  ultimately  i s the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s e be o f i n t e r e s t  i n d e t e r m i n i n g the ways i n  which mothers cope w i t h d i v o r c e i n the f a m i l y . environmental  factors  v a r i a b l e , s o c i a l support w i l l  The  be d i s c u s s e d w i t h  p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on c u r r e n t problems w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n measurement o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t . literature will  Next, an o v e r v i e w o f  on f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , a second e n v i r o n m e n t a l  be p r e s e n t e d as i t  r e l a t e s to c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s .  the p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l w i l l particular attention control  and c o p i n g .  and  the variable, Finally,  be reviewed w i t h  p a i d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d  35 Environmental V a r i a b l e s Social support. appraisal  One v a r i a b l e which i s b e l i e v e d to  and adjustment outcomes i s s o c i a l s u p p o r t .  affect  Social  s u p p o r t i n g e n e r a l has been found to p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t dealing with s t r e s s f u l  l i f e events f o r o l d e r a d u l t s  R u s s e l l , & Rose, 1986; H e l l e r & Mansbach, 1984). (1988),  in  (Cutrona,  Pearson  f o r example, found t h a t low l e v e l s o f f a m i l y  support  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more d e p r e s s i v e symptoms i n 43 o l d e r parents of separated adult c h i l d r e n  ( r = - . 3 8 , p_<.01).  Family  s u p p o r t was a s s e s s e d as the percentage of f a m i l y members i n the p e r s o n ' s s u p p o r t  listed  network.  A l t h o u g h the presumed b e n e f i t s of s o c i a l s u p p o r t have been emphasized i n s o c i a l s u p p o r t r e s e a r c h , r e c e n t l y  investigators  have begun to pay more a t t e n t i o n to the p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e dimension o f s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s . may not be h e l p f u l ,  particularly  Too much s o c i a l  support  i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s where  o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t may a g g r a v a t e or p e r p e t u a t e problems (Coyne & DeLongis,  1986; Coyne, Wortman, & Lehman, 1988).  p e r s p e c t i v e i s supported by Krause (1987d) older adults.  This  i n a s t u d y o f 265  He s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t  affects  p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g by b o l s t e r i n g f e e l i n g s of  control.  There i s a t h r e s h o l d p o i n t f o r the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s support,  of  beyond which c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t may l e a d to decreased  f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , dependency, and enmeshment. Social  s u p p o r t has been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways  and r e s e a r c h e r s have used v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t measure d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l s u p p o r t c o n s t r u c t 1986; G o t t l i e b ,  1981; T u r n e r ,  (Barrera,  F r a n k l , & L e v i n , 1983).  Because  36 the n a t u r e and measurement of s o c i a l s u p p o r t i s s t i l l disputed in research l i t e r a t u r e about o p e r a t i o n a l  and l i t t l e consensus e x i s t s  and c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n s ,  it  is difficult  g e n e r a l i z e f i n d i n g s a c r o s s s t u d i e s t h a t use s o c i a l concepts.  Social  being  to  support  s u p p o r t has been d e f i n e d i n terms o f s o c i a l  embeddedness, enacted s u p p o r t ,  and p e r c e i v e d s u p p o r t ,  and has  been measured by l o o k i n g at the number o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s an individual  h a s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p p o r t ,  types o r f u n c t i o n s of s u p p o r t , behaviours (Barrera,  and the f r e q u e n c y o f  the  supportive  1986).  A l t h o u g h a number of dimensions o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t have been e x p l o r e d i n the p a s t , t h e r e appears to be f a i r l y  consistent  agreement t h a t c e r t a i n dimensions o f s u p p o r t are more as p r e d i c t o r s o f adjustment than o t h e r s .  important  S u b j e c t i v e assessments  o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n g e n e r a l , appear to be more  strongly  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h outcome measures than o b j e c t i v e measures, f o r example, s o c i a l network  (George, B l a z e r , Hughes, & F o w l e r , 1989;  S c h a e f e r et a l . , 1981; Wethington & K e s s l e r , c l e a r why t h i s  1986).  It  is  not  i s s o , a l t h o u g h some i n v e s t i g a t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t  the p e r c e p t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e s u p p o r t may p r o t e c t  individuals  from  the e f f e c t s o f exposure to s t r e s s by m e d i a t i n g a p p r a i s a l and c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s ( B a r r e r a , 1986; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). People who a p p r a i s e themselves as being r e l i a b l y connected to o t h e r s may be more l i k e l y to cope e f f e c t i v e l y  during a s t r e s s f u l  e n c o u n t e r , and thus have a p o s i t i v e h e a l t h o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l outcome ( D e l o n g i s , Folkman, & L a z a r u s , 1988). The f a i l u r e of o b j e c t i v e measures of s u p p o r t t o  predict  adjustment may be due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r e s s s e v e r i t y t h a t are  37 not c o n t r o l l e d f o r i n r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l s u p p o r t and c o p i n g . may be t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who r e c e i v e s o c i a l s u p p o r t  It  are  e x p e r i e n c i n g a more s e v e r e s t r e s s than those who do not r e c e i v e support.  B a r r e r a (1986)  found t h a t the p o s i t i v e  relationship  between r e c e i v e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t and measures o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s and p h y s i c a l symptoms approached z e r o when s t r e s s was held constant,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f r e c e i v e d  s u p p o r t i s reduced when d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r e s s s e v e r i t y are controlled.  These f i n d i n g s p o i n t out the importance o f  i n c l u d i n g a measure of s t r e s s s e v e r i t y i n c o p i n g s t u d i e s u s i n g r e c e i v e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t measures. t h a t r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t may a f f e c t indirectly,  It  has a l s o been r e p o r t e d  psychological  adjustment  by b o l s t e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of a n t i c i p a t e d s u p p o r t  in  the f u t u r e ( K r a u s e , L i a n g , & K e i t h , 1990; Wethington & K e s s l e r , 1986). The a s s o c i a t i o n between s o c i a l s u p p o r t and outcome measures may be even more c o m p l i c a t e d , i n p a r t because r e s e a r c h e r s have begun to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n  between s u b j e c t i v e and  o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l s u p p o r t measures may be too g e n e r a l 1989).  Recent s t u d i e s have emphasized the need to  between m u l t i p l e  stressful  e n c o u n t e r s than o t h e r s  Markides,  1990; W i l l s , 1985).  ( K r a u s e , 1987c; Krause &  Krause ( 1 9 8 7 c ) , f o r example,  e m o t i o n a l , and i n t e g r a t i o n .  types were a s s e s s e d both s u b j e c t i v e l y (received support).  types  i n r e d u c i n g the impact o f  i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of f o u r types of s u p p o r t ;  objectively  distinguish  types o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t because c e r t a i n  o f s u p p o r t may be more b e n e f i c i a l  informational,  (George,  tangible,  These s o c i a l  support  (support s a t i s f a c t i o n )  The author found t h a t  and  although  s u b j e c t i v e assessments were u s u a l l y more p o t e n t p r e d i c t o r s depressed a f f e c t  of  than o b j e c t i v e measures, t h e r e were some  e x c e p t i o n s , depending on the type of s o c i a l  support  investigated.  For example, o l d e r a d u l t s w i t h more r e c e i v e d  informational  s u p p o r t tended to have lower depressed a f f e c t  s c o r e s than those i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a l (Beta = - . 1 4 2 , p_<.05).  support  S a t i s f a c t i o n with informational  was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e p r e s s i v e outcomes.  support  Whereas o l d e r  a d u l t s w i t h more r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t tended to  report  fewer symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n than respondents w i t h l e s s r e c e i v e d support  (Beta = - . 1 6 0 , JJ<.05), those i n d i v i d u a l s who were not  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the amount o f emotional  s u p p o r t t h a t was  a v a i l a b l e t o them r e p o r t e d more p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s (Beta = . 2 5 3 , rj<.001).  Such f i n d i n g s suggest the need t o examine  o b j e c t i v e measures of s u p p o r t t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e  between support  type i n a s t u d y of mothers of d i v o r c e d or s e p a r a t e d a d u l t chiIdren. It  i s not known how p e r c e p t i o n s o f a v a i l a b l e s u p p o r t  arise  (Cohen & W i l l s , 1985), and t h i s p o i n t has l e a d some r e s e a r c h e r s to q u e s t i o n the use o f s u b j e c t i v e measures of Wethington and K e s s l e r (1986) perceived support,  support.  i n s t u d y i n g both r e c e i v e d and  found o n l y low c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e two  measures o f s u p p o r t ,  i n d i c a t i n g that perceptions of support  are  not n e c e s s a r i l y determined by support t h a t has a c t u a l l y been provided.  S a r a s o n , S h e a r i n , P i e r c e , and Sarason (1987)  also  found low c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures o f r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t and perceived a v a i l a b l e support.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s argue t h a t  p e r c e p t i o n s of s u p p o r t are contaminated by depressed a f f e c t  and  39 o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l outcomes (Gore, 1981; Henderson, 1984) and t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s about s o c i a l s u p p o r t s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d d a t a based on o b j e c t i v e measures.  to  Other r e s e a r c h e r s acknowledge  the importance and l i m i t a t i o n s o f both s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e dimensions o f s u p p o r t and advocate the use o f both dimensions i n s t u d y i n g s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( L i n , 1986; Sarason e t a l . , 1987). Most t y p o l o g i e s of s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n c l u d e : emotional support,  i n f o r m a t i o n o r c o g n i t i v e s u p p o r t , and m a t e r i a l  or  t a n g i b l e a i d (Cohen & W i l l s , 1985; House, 1981; Krause & Markides,  1990; S c h a e f e r e t a l . , 1981).  These s o c i a l s u p p o r t  t y p e s have l a r g e l y been measured u s i n g p e r c e i v e d o r enacted support instruments.  Support p r o v i d e d by o t h e r s i s l i k e l y to be  g i v e n when a person f a c e s a s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r .  In such a  c i r c u m s t a n c e , a measure of enacted s u p p o r t seems a p p r o p r i a t e  for  d e t e r m i n i n g the amount of s u p p o r t t h a t has a c t u a l l y been g i v e n to a person by h i s or her f a m i l y or f r i e n d s . Because enacted s u p p o r t measures r e l y on r e t r o s p e c t i v e recall,  they have been d e f i n e d by some r e s e a r c h e r s as a s s e s s i n g  ' p e r c e i v e d - r e c e i v e d ' s u p p o r t ( B a r r e r a , 1986). definitional  T h i s l a c k of  c l a r i t y has l e a d to the c o n f u s i n g o f p e r c e i v e d and  enacted s u p p o r t terms i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s .  For example,  S c h a e f e r e t a l . (1981) used s e p a r a t e measures to a s s e s s tangible,  e m o t i o n a l , and i n f o r m a t i o n a l  support.  Tangible  s u p p o r t was a s s e s s e d by d e t e r m i n i n g how o f t e n i n n i n e hypothetical  s i t u a t i o n s t h e r e was someone whom r e s p o n d e n t s c o u l d  count on to p r o v i d e t a n g i b l e a s s i s t a n c e .  The p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  t a n g i b l e s c o r e was the number o f i n c i d e n t s i n which he o r she c o u l d count on i n s t r u m e n t a l  a s s i s t a n c e from a n o t h e r  individual  40 (a measure o f p e r c e i v e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o r s u p p o r t ) . and i n f o r m a t i o n a l  support,  spouse, c l o s e f r i e n d s , supervisors,  For emotional  respondents were asked t o l i s t  their  r e l a t i v e s , c o - w o r k e r s , n e i g h b o u r s and  and r a t e each person on the l i s t  which they p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l  on the e x t e n t  and emotional  support  to  during  the l a s t month (a measure of enacted o r r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t ) . a u t h o r s r e f e r to a l l support.  t h r e e o f the s u p p o r t i n d i c e s as p e r c e i v e d  T h i s l a c k of d e f i n i t i o n a l  c l a r i t y makes i t  to compare s t u d i e s p r o p o r t i n g to measure d i f f e r e n t social  difficult  types  of  support.  One type of r e c e i v e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t may be more than a n o t h e r depending on the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n (George, 1989; K r a u s e ,  1986, 1987a).  important  encountered  For example, Krause  (1987a) found t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s who r e c e i v e d more social  The  informational  s u p p o r t r e p o r t e d fewer d e p r e s s i v e symptoms i n times  financial  s t r a i n than those who r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g  informational  support.  of  less  T a n g i b l e and emotional s u p p o r t were  found to be l e s s e f f e c t i v e when f i n a n c i a l  s t r a i n was p r e s e n t .  R e c e i v e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t was measured u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n (Krause & M a r k i d e s , 1990) of the I n v e n t o r y  of S o c i a l l y  S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o r s ( B a r r e r a , S a n d l e r , & Ramsey, 1981).  In  l i g h t o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c e r t a i n types of r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t may be more i m p o r t a n t  than o t h e r types i n a s t r e s s f u l  it  to a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t  would be i m p o r t a n t  encounter,  components of r e c e i v e d  s u p p o r t r a t h e r than combining s u p p o r t types i n t o a g l o b a l i n d i c a t o r of s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d . Only a few s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the a s s o c i a t i o n between r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t and c o p i n g e f f o r t s .  Manne and Z a u t r a  41 (1989)  i n v e s t i g a t e d the spouse s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d to 103 female  p a t i e n t s c o p i n g w i t h rheumatoid a r t h r i t i s .  R e c e i v e d s u p p o r t was  a s s e s s e d u s i n g 10 s o c i a l s u p p o r t items taken from the  Inventory  o f S o c i a l l y S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o r s ( B a r r e r a e t a l . , 1981). S u b j e c t s were asked to r a t e how f r e q u e n t l y t h e s e s u p p o r t b e h a v i o u r s o c c u r r e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r spouse ( e . g . , how f r e q u e n t l y was he r i g h t t h e r e w i t h you i n the s t r e s s f u l Coping was measured u s i n g a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of t h r e e (cognitive restructuring, thinking) 1980).  scales  i n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g , and w i s h f u l  from the Ways of Coping s c a l e (Folkman & L a z a r u s ,  These s c a l e s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d , r e s u l t i n g i n two  factors: cognitive restructuring/information-seeking, wishful  times).  thinking.  and  The former was c o n s i d e r e d an e f f e c t i v e coping  mode, whereas the l a t t e r was c o n s i d e r i n e f f e c t i v e .  The a u t h o r s  found t h a t the number of s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s engaged i n by the s u b j e c t ' s spouse was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use o f more c o g n i t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g c o p i n g ( r = . 4 3 , j><.001).  Husband s u p p o r t was n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  p s y c h o l o g i c a l maladjustment  (r = - . 2 5 , p_<.01).  Interestingly,  spouse c r i t i c i s m , as measured by the number o f c r i t i c a l  remarks  made by a husband d u r i n g a taped 20 q u e s t i o n i n t e r v i e w , was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use of w i s h f u l p_<.001).  thinking  (r = .36,  Spouse c r i t i c i s m was a l s o p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  p s y c h o l o g i c a l maladjustment  ( r = . 2 9 , p_<.001).  s u p p o r t appeared to be h e l p f u l  Received s o c i a l  i n a s s i s t i n g the p a t i e n t  to  engage i n more e f f e c t i v e c o p i n g , whereas c r i t i c i s m , a n e g a t i v e a s p e c t of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n appeared to promote an i n e f f e c t i v e  42 type o f c o p i n g . social  These r e s u l t s p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n  that  i n t e r a c t i o n i s not always b e n e f i c i a l .  Dunkel-Schetter, different  Folkman, and Lazarus (1987) found t h a t  c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  different  components o f r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t i n a sample o f 150 m i d d l e - a g e d residents.  Of the e i g h t forms of c o p i n g a s s e s s e d u s i n g the 6 7 -  item Ways of Coping s c a l e ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984), p r o b l e m solving,  s e e k i n g s u p p o r t , and p o s i t i v e r e a p p r a i s a l were more  c o n s i s t e n t l y associated with emotional, informational tangible support.  and  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the use o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  c o p i n g and s e e k i n g s u p p o r t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c e i v i n g more of all  three types of support.  Use of p o s i t i v e r e a p p r a i s a l  s t r a t e g i e s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c e i v i n g more emotional and informational assistance.  s u p p o r t , but not a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f  tangible  The use of e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g ( d i s t a n c i n g ,  a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y informational support.  less  s u p p o r t , and m a r g i n a l l y l e s s a i d and emotional  The a u t h o r s p o i n t out t h a t the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l n a t u r e  o f the s t u d y makes i t  difficult  e l i c i t s s o c i a l support or i f  to determine whether c o p i n g  s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n f l u e n c e s the way a  person c o p e s . In summary, s o c i a l s u p p o r t has been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d and measured i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t  ways.  Although s u b j e c t i v e  assessments o f s u p p o r t appear to be more s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h adjustment than o b j e c t i v e measures, r e s e a r c h e r s have begun to r e c o g n i z e t h a t d i f f e r e n t  types of s u p p o r t , measured  o b j e c t i v e l y o r s u b j e c t i v e l y , may have d i f f e r e n t i a l adjustment.  e f f e c t s on  Coping s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t need  43 to control different types  for stress severity,  and i n c l u d e measures a s s e s s i n g  components o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t .  (emotional,  informational,  associated with d i f f e r e n t  Received s o c i a l  and t a n g i b l e )  support  have been  types o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  There i s  some e v i d e n c e to suggest t h a t lower l e v e l s of s u p p o r t may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s , whereas h i g h e r l e v e l s of s u p p o r t type may be l i n k e d t o a c t i v e and r e a p p r a i s a l coping e f f o r t s .  Recent e v i d e n c e a l s o p o i n t s to  the  n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f too much s u p p o r t , which can undermine an individual's ability  to a c t .  For mothers c o p i n g w i t h the  s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e o f an o f f s p r i n g ,  lower l e v e l s o f r e c e i v e d  s u p p o r t would l i k e l y l e a d to g r e a t e r use o f a v o i d a n t types of coping.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e c e i v e d  s u p p o r t and ways o f c o p i n g i s c u r r e n t l y C u t r o n a (1990) social  unclear.  i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s o f the type of  s u p p o r t most b e n e f i c i a l to s p e c i f i c s t r e s s f u l  situations  proposed an o p t i m a l matching model o f s t r e s s and s o c i a l S p e c i f i c a l l y she suggests t h a t both c o n t r o l  and l i f e  important  d e t e r m i n a n t s of the type of s o c i a l s u p p o r t  receive.  Events t h a t are u n c o n t r o l l a b l e w i l l  support.  domain are individuals  require social  s u p p o r t components t h a t are aimed at m i n i m i z i n g the degree of n e g a t i v e emotion a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t r e s s f u l  encounter.  Emotional s u p p o r t ,  effective  following  then i s expected to be most  uncontrollable s t r e s s f u l events.  t h a t are p e r c e i v e d as c o n t r o l l a b l e w i l l  In c o n t r a s t ,  require social  that f o s t e r e f f e c t i v e problem-focused coping. t h a t c o n t r o l l a b l e events w i l l informational  events  supports  Cutrona p r e d i c t s  r e q u i r e e i t h e r o r both  and t a n g i b l e s u p p o r t components.  Because p a r e n t s  44 often feel  h e l p l e s s towards an a d u l t s c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e  1982; G o t t l i e b e t a l . , 1988) one might i n f e r t h a t support w i l l  be a more i m p o r t a n t  C u t r o n a p r e d i c t s t h a t l o s s e s i n the l i f e  loss of assets w i l l support.  support. domain  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r attachments w i l l  need f o r emotional  emotional  s o c i a l s u p p o r t type f o r  p o p u l a t i o n than t a n g i b l e o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l  intimate  (Brown,  this  Similiarly,  involving  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a  s u p p o r t and e x p r e s s i o n s o f c a r i n g , whereas a be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a need f o r  tangible  The l o s s o f an i n - l a w , g r a n d c h i l d , o r the image o f a  happy m a r r i a g e , e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t are t y p i c a l  o f mothers of a  d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d , suggest the need f o r r e c e i p t o f  emotional  support. One s o c i a l s u p p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s thought  to be  e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t to o l d e r a d u l t s i s the maintenance o f reciprocity;  the a b i l i t y  ( A n t o n n u c i , 1985).  to p r o v i d e s u p p o r t to  others  P r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t to f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s can  have b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s  f o r the h e l p p r o v i d e r ,  e i t h e r by  b o l s t e r i n g h i s o r her s e l f - e s t e e m o r by d i v e r t i n g  attention  towards o t h e r s and away from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e ( K r a u s e , 1986, 1987b).  Excessive g i v i n g to  others,  however, can have a n e g a t i v e impact on p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r s o m a t i c adjustment.  Krause (1986), f o r example, found t h a t o l d e r  adults  who p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t to o t h e r s w h i l e c o p i n g w i t h the death o f a f a m i l y member e x p e r i e n c e d more d e p r e s s i v e symptoms than those i n d i v i d u a l s who gave l e s s  support.  I n c l u d i n g a measure o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n a s t u d y o f mothers of separated or divorced o f f s p r i n g  seems e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t ,  l i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t most mothers come to t h e i r  adult  in  child's  45 a i d d u r i n g the d i v o r c e p r o c e s s (Johnson, 1988a, 1988b). help with tasks l i k e b a b y - s i t t i n g , and emotional s u p p o r t An i n s t r u m e n t  financial  Mothers  assistance, advice,  ( G l a d s t o n e , 1988; L e s s e r & Comet, 1987).  designed by B a r r e r a e t a l .  (1981)  attempts  t o measure the h e l p r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s by i n c l u d i n g  different  items t h a t a s s e s s the types o f s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t ; e m o t i o n a l , i n f o r m a t i o n a l supports.  and t a n g i b l e  Subsequent r e v i s i o n on the o r i g i n a l  instrument  by  Krause and M a r k i d e s (1990) y i e l d e d a f o u r s u b s c a l e measure t h a t i n c l u d e d the t h r e e o r i g i n a l  types of s u p p o r t ,  s u b s c a l e to a s s e s s s u p p o r t r e c i p r o c i t y .  and an a d d i t i o n a l  The r e v i s e d s c a l e was  d e s i g n e d f o r s p e c i f i c use i n s t u d i e s examining the between s t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t , U s i n g the r e v i s e d i n s t r u m e n t , significant  interactions  relationship  and w e l l - b e i n g i n o l d e r a d u l t s .  the a u t h o r s were a b l e to show  (bs r a n g i n g from - . 1 8 to 2 . 3 3 , ]DS<.05)  between l e v e l of s o c i a l s u p p o r t type and d e p r e s s i v e symptom i n d i c e s i n a community sample of 351 o l d e r a d u l t s e x p e r i e n c i n g bereavement. Family cohesion.  Another v a r i a b l e o f importance to c o p i n g  processes i s family cohesion.  Moos and Moos (1986)  define  f a m i l y c o h e s i o n i n terms of the amount of s u p p o r t and commitment f a m i l y members p r o v i d e t o one a n o t h e r . c o h e s i o n to the c o n s t r u c t ,  This d e f i n i t i o n  s o c i a l support.  Indeed,  links  family  c o h e s i o n has been viewed by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s as a measure of perceived f a m i l y support  ( F u l l e r & K a r l s o n , 1981; Holahan &  Moos, 1985, 1987; Sarason e t a l . , 1987). There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t c l o s e f a m i l y  relationships  between p a r e n t s and t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d r e n f o s t e r a c t i v e c o p i n g  46 s t r a t e g i e s aimed at p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e to adult c h i l d .  C h e r l i n and F u r s t e n b e r g (1986)  o f 510 g r a n d p a r e n t s  conducted a survey  (446 grandmothers and 64 g r a n d f a t h e r s )  p a r t o f a l a r g e r s t u d y on the w e l l - b e i n g o f c h i l d r e n marital  disruption.  the  as  during  Respondents were i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e  and asked a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s developed by the a u t h o r s .  The  r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t g r a n d p a r e n t s who r e p o r t e d having a very close r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r involved a c t i v e l y d u r i n g and a f t e r similar finding Additional an i m p o r t a n t  a d u l t c h i l d were more  in providing substantial the d i v o r c e p e r i o d .  i n an i n t e r v i e w  amounts o f a s s i s t a n c e  Johnson (1988)  s u r v e y of  often  reported a  grandmothers.  research that i n d i c a t e s that family cohesion i s  v a r i a b l e to c o n s i d e r i n a study o f mothers and  s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n , comes from Brown's work on d i v o r c e and the extended f a m i l y .  Based on c l i n i c a l  o b s e r v a t i o n s and s e l e c t e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r e n t s , the reported that parents in c o n f l i c t e d f a m i l i e s family  (1982)  author  i n which ongoing  i s s u e s remain u n r e s o l v e d may choose to deny or a v o i d  dealing with t h e i r  c h i l d ' s marital  breakup, p a r t i c u l a r l y  if  they  cannot deal w i t h f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s or p o w e r l e s s n e s s . P a r e n t s i n f a m i l i e s t h a t are not c l o s e or s u p p o r t i v e may choose a v o i d a n t ways o f c o p i n g to deal w i t h t h e i r  child's  marital  problems. E m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s view comes from the work B i l l i n g s and Moos (1982)  of  on f a m i l y environments and c o p i n g .  A  sample of 267 community f a m i l i e s were a s s e s s e d on measures of f a m i l y p e r c e p t i o n , c o p i n g , s t r e s s o r s , and p e r s o n a l Two measures o f c o p i n g were u t i l i z e d :  functioning.  avoidance c o p i n g , aimed at  avoiding confronting  the s t r e s s o r , and p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g  t h a t i n c l u d e d attempts 1981).  to modify the s t r e s s o r ( B i l l i n g s & Moos,  The F a m i l y Environment S c a l e (Moos & Moos, 1986) was  used to a s s e s s p e r c e p t i o n s of the f a m i l y m i l i e u , cohesion, c o n f l i c t ,  and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s .  included three indices of f u n c t i o n i n g ; functioning,  and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  conflict-oriented  specifically  Outcome measures depression, physical  The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t  f a m i l i e s w i t h low c o h e s i o n s c o r e s showed the  l e a s t use of p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g , whereas wives i n  conflicted  f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d the h i g h e s t use of a v o i d a n c e c o p i n g . contrast,  f a m i l i e s who were high on c o h e s i o n and e x p r e s s i v e n e s s  made f r e q u e n t  use of p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g and l i t t l e use of  avoidance c o p i n g . physical  In  These f a m i l i e s a l s o r e p o r t e d having  symptoms and l e s s d e p r e s s i o n than t h e i r  oriented counterparts. particularly  It  conflict-  would appear t h a t the f a m i l y  milieu,  the amount of c o h e s i o n amongst f a m i l y members i s  l i n k e d to both c o p i n g responses and p e r s o n a l Two a d d i t i o n a l  functioning.  s t u d i e s p r o v i d e support f o r the  o f f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and i t s  significance  r e l a t i o n s h i p to c o p i n g e f f o r t s  d i f f e r e n t sample p o p u l a t i o n s .  Maynard et a l .  i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o p i n g p a t t e r n s officers.  fewer  (1980)  of 42 wives m a r r i e d to  Coping was a s s e s s e d u s i n g a 5 8 - i t e m  using  police  questionnaire;  the I n v e n t o r y o f Coping S t r a t e g i e s , F a m i l y and P o l i c e C a r e e r Form W (McCubbin, Maynard, & Maynard, 1978).  Using the F a m i l y  Environment S c a l e (Moos & Moos, 1986) to examine functioning, positively  family  the a u t h o r s found t h a t f a m i l y c o h e s i o n was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h wives e f f o r t s to be s e l f - r e l i a n t  to a c t i v e l y develop themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s  and  ( r = . 4 3 , p_<.01).  Avoidance or d e n i a l  c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s were not a s s e s s e d i n  this  study. Hanson e t a l .  (1989) e v a l u a t e d f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , c o p i n g  s t r a t e g i e s and h e a l t h outcomes i n 135 a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h dependent d i a b e t e s m e l l i t u s .  F a m i l y c o h e s i o n was a s s e s s e d u s i n g  the 3 0 - i t e m F a m i l y A d a p t a b i l i t y (Olson, Portner, & B e l l ,  insulin-  and Cohesion E v a l u a t i o n S c a l e s  1982).  Coping was determined u s i n g the  54-item Adolescent-Coping Orientation ( P a t t e r s o n & McCubbin, 1987).  f o r Problem E x p e r i e n c e s  S u b j e c t s r a t e d how o f t e n  they  used each c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r when f a c e d w i t h problems or when f e e l i n g t e n s e from 1 ( " n e v e r " ) to 5 ("most of the F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the i n s t r u m e n t (a)  utilizing  time").  derived a two-factor  p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  resources,  The a u t h o r s found t h a t  solution:  (b)  ventilation  and a v o i d a n c e .  high  ventilation  and avoidance c o p i n g was p r e d i c t e d by high  life  s t r e s s and low l e v e l s of f a m i l y c o h e s i o n . In l i g h t o f the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , t h e r e i s some s u p p o r t i n d i c a t e t h a t low l e v e l s of f a m i l y c o h e s i o n i s r e l a t e d to use of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a v o i d the s t r e s s f u l  to  the  encounter,  whereas high f a m i l y c o h e s i o n may be r e l a t e d to problem s o l v i n g efforts.  S i m i l a r to o t h e r measures o f s u p p o r t ,  it  may be t h a t  too much c l o s e n e s s w i t h f a m i l y members i s not b e n e f i c i a l . r e v i e w of r e c e n t f a m i l y s u p p o r t l i t e r a t u r e  A  (Coyne, Wortman, &  Lehman, 1988) s u g g e s t s t h a t o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t  of f a m i l y members i n  s u p p o r t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l  event may l e a d to  during a s t r e s s f u l  i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s and c o n f l i c t adaptational  between members, r e s u l t i n g  i n poor  outcomes. Underinvolvement or l a c k o f s u p p o r t and  c a r i n g from f a m i l y members i s e q u a l l y not  beneficial.  49 In c o n c l u s i o n , f a m i l y c o h e s i o n appears to be an i m p o r t a n t environmental  v a r i a b l e to c o n s i d e r i n s t u d y i n g mothers  of  d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n because c l o s e f a m i l y environments appear to promote s u p p o r t r e c i p r o c i t y and the maintenance o f grandmother-grandchild r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on  d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t low l e v e l s o f  family  c o h e s i o n may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s aimed at a v o i d i n g the s t r e s s o r and e x p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n .  Although there  is  some e v i d e n c e to suggest t h a t high l e v e l s of f a m i l y c o h e s i o n are a s s o c i a t e d with a c t i v e coping e f f o r t s ,  too much s u p p o r t and  o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t by f a m i l y members may undermine a p e r s o n ' s ability Personal  to t a k e a c t i o n i n a s t r e s s f u l  encounter.  Variable  Perceived c o n t r o l .  P e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s p l a y a major r o l e  in  d e t e r m i n i n g the degree to which a person f e e l s c h a l l e n g e d o r t h r e a t e n e d i n a s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r , and s u b s e q u e n t l y what c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s he o r she u s e s . control,  The v a r i a b l e , p e r c e i v e d  has r e c e i v e d a f a i r amount o f a t t e n t i o n i n r e l a t i o n  to  a p p r a i s a l and c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Perceived control  r e f e r s to the degree to which an i n d i v i d u a l  b e l i e v e s he o r she can i n f l u e n c e a p a r t i c u l a r transaction  ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984).  person-environment  These c o n t r o l  appraisals  are r e a l l y p r o d u c t s of a p e r s o n ' s e v a l u a t i o n of a s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r and h i s o r her o p t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s to cope w i t h such an e n c o u n t e r . control  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , s i t u a t i o n a l  a p p r a i s a l s of  are not u n r e l a t e d to C a r v e r and S c h e i e r ' s (1983, 1985)  concept o f f a v o r a b l e and u n f a v o r a b l e e x p e c t a n c i e s . e x p e c t a n c i e s are s u f f i c i e n t l y  favorable ( i . e . ,  If  anticipating  that  50 a p o s i t i v e outcome w i l l individual potential  o c c u r ) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  and the environment i s a p p r a i s e d as h o l d i n g f o r more c o n t r o l .  The use of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  i n v o l v e a c t i o n s to change some a s p e c t of the s t r e s s f u l are implemented because the i n d i v i d u a l  unfavorable expectancies ( i . e . , occur)  that  episode  b e l i e v e s he o r she can  a c t u a l l y do something i n the s i t u a t i o n .  outcome w i l l  the  In  contrast,  a n t i c i p a t i n g that a negative  l e a d s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e i n g a p p r a i s e d as  l e s s c o n t r o l l a b l e and more f e a r f u l .  Coping e f f o r t s aimed at  changing o n e ' s e m o t i o n s , o r b e l i e f s are implemented i n o r d e r  to  reduce the f e l t d i s t r e s s r e l a t e d to the e n c o u n t e r . An a s s o c i a t i o n has been e s t a b l i s h e d between p e r c e p t i o n s control  of  and the use of e m o t i o n - and p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g  (Folkman, 1984; Folkman & L a z a r u s , stressful  situation  1980).  In g e n e r a l , when a  i s p e r c e i v e d as c o n t r o l l a b l e ,  r e l a t i v e l y more problem focused c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  the use o f prevail.  These s t r a t e g i e s are aimed at changing the n a t u r e of stressful  event.  uncontrollable,  When a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n  the  i s p e r c e i v e d as  r e l a t i v e l y more e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g  s t r a t e g i e s are used to change o n e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the  situation  and to manage e m o t i o n s . Most r e s e a r c h on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s and control stress  i s founded on the b e l i e f t h a t having c o n t r o l (see r e v i e w by A v e r i l l , 1973).  Yet, recent  reduces  studies  i n d i c a t e t h a t b e l i e v i n g t h a t an event i s c o n t r o l l a b l e does not always l e a d to a r e d u c t i o n i n s t r e s s (Folkman, 1984; Thompson, 1981).  Specifically, it  stressful  appears t h a t e f f e c t i v e  a d a p t a t i o n to a  event i s r e l a t e d to the match between a p p r a i s a l s of  51 the c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y  o f an event and the use o f p r o b l e m - and  e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g (Folkman,  1984).  The match between p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l ,  c o p i n g and  adjustment  outcomes have been examined i n a number of sample p o p u l a t i o n s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t age groups (Compas, M a l c a r n e , & Fondacaro, 1988; F o r s y t h e & Compas, 1987).  Compas e t a l .  (1988)  i n v e s t i g a t e d the p e r c e p t i o n o f a s t r e s s f u l controllable  f o r example,  encounter as  i n a study o f 130 c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s aged 10  to 14 y e a r s .  C o n t r o l over an i d e n t i f i e d  s t r e s s o r was a s s e s s e d  on a 5 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e (1 = "complete c o n t r o l " , control").  The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t  5 = "no  distress-related  b e h a v i o u r s were g r e a t e s t when t h e r e was a mismatch between perceived control  and p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g .  Specifically,  b e h a v i o u r problems were h i g h e s t when s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d they had control  over the s t r e s s o r , y e t generated few p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d  strategies,  or when many p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d a l t e r n a t i v e s  g e n e r a t e d when they b e l i e v e d they d i d not have c o n t r o l  were over  the  stressor. Additional  work by F o r s y t h e and Compas (1987)  provides  f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r the e v e n t - a p p r a i s a l - c o p i n g match. s t u d y o f 84 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ,  In a  the authors found t h a t the use of  r e l a t i v e l y more p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g was r e l a t e d to  lower  psychological  symptoms when encounters were p e r c e i v e d as  controllable.  The use of these same c o p i n g e f f o r t s when  individuals  b e l i e v e d they had l i t t l e c o n t r o l  w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms.  were a s s o c i a t e d The o p p o s i t e was  t r u e f o r the use of e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  These  c o p i n g e f f o r t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h lower symptoms i n events  52 p e r c e i v e d as l e s s c o n t r o l l a b l e , p e r c e i v e d as c o n t r o l l a b l e .  and h i g h e r symptoms i n events  Controllability  over a s t r e s s f u l  event was a s s e s s e d u s i n g dichotomous r a t i n g s deal o f c o n t r o l " v e r s u s "I  ("I  had a g r e a t  had v e r y l i t t l e c o n t r o l " ) .  Coping  was a s s e s s e d u s i n g the r e v i s e d Ways o f Coping C h e c k l i s t (Folkman & Lazarus, It  1985).  would appear t h a t a mismatch between c o n t r o l  appraisals  and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s ways o f c o p i n g are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r e r adjustment  outcomes.  The c o p i n g e f f o r t s used are not  i n m a s t e r i n g the s t r e s s f u l t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l as s t r e s s f u l  encounter.  effective  Not a c t i n g i n a s i t u a t i o n  f e e l s he or she can manage or c o n t r o l  may be  as t r y i n g to take a c t i o n to manage a s t r e s s f u l  e n c o u n t e r t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l  f e e l s he or she has l i t t l e  control  over. R e s e a r c h e r s have a l s o s t u d i e d c o n t r o l s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s (1989)  appraisal  used by i n d i v i d u a l s .  Carver et a l .  found t h a t the f e e l i n g o f b e i n g i n c o n t r o l  situation  and  in a s t r e s s f u l  showed low c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h r e e a s p e c t s o f c o p i n g ;  a c t i v e c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g , and p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n growth ( r s = . 2 1 , . 1 4 , control  . 1 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , p_s<.01).  and  Perceived  was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h f o u r s t r a t e g i e s ;  f o c u s on and v e n t i l a t i o n  of emotions, behavioral  and mental disengagement (rs = - . 1 9 , - . 1 6 , - . 2 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , p_s<.01).  Perceived control  was measured by a s i n g l e i t e m , you u s u a l l y f e e l . . . " .  disengagement, -.12,  over s t r e s s f u l  events  "When you are under s t r e s s , do  Respondents choose between f o u r  t o complete the stem, r a n g i n g from "you d e f i n i t e l y something about the s i t u a t i o n "  denial,  to  "you d e f i n i t e l y  answers  can do can do n o t h i n g  53 about the s i t u a t i o n " .  The COPE s c a l e ( C a r v e r e t a l . , 1989) was  used to a s s e s s a d i s p o s i t i o n a l u s u a l l y does under s t r e s s ) . perceived control  coping s t y l e  (i.e.,  what a person  The a u t h o r s d i d not examine  and s i t u a t i o n a l  coping  efforts.  A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of c o r r e l a t i o n s was found i n the Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-Schetter et a l .  (1986)  s t u d y on 85 m a r r i e d  c o u p l e s and the p e r c e i v e d c h a n g e a b i l i t y of a s t r e s s f u l encounter.  The c o n s t r u c t ,  changeability,  perceived c o n t r o l , with control  has been l i n k e d  to  b e i n g viewed as a s u b c a t e g o r y of  the l a r g e r , more g e n e r a l meaning a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  construct  changeable ( V i t a l i a n o ,  DeWolfe, M a i u r o , Russo, & K a t o n ,  1990).  Respondents i d e n t i f i e d  a s t r e s s o r and i n d i c a t e d on a 5 - p o i n t  L i k e r t s c a l e the e x t e n t to which the s i t u a t i o n was one " t h a t you c o u l d change o r do something a b o u t " ,  " t h a t you had to a c c e p t " ,  " i n which you needed to know more b e f o r e you c o u l d a c t " ,  and  "in  which you had to h o l d y o u r s e l f back from doing what you wanted to do" (Folkman & L a z a r u s ,  1980).  The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d  a d u l t s used more d i s t a n c i n g and escape a v o i d a n c e i n they a p p r a i s e d as having to be a c c e p t e d , and more  that  encounters  planful  problem s o l v i n g , p o s i t i v e r e a p p r a i s a l and c o n f r o n t i v e  coping  in  e n c o u n t e r s a p p r a i s e d as c h a n g e a b l e . A l t h o u g h s t u d i e s on p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l  and c o p i n g i n mothers  of s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n are at p r e s e n t n o n existent,  P r o p s t , P a r d i n g t o n , Ostrom, and Watkins (1986)  e x p l o r e p e r c e i v e d c h a n g e a b i l i t y as a p r e d i c t o r divorced s i n g l e mothers.  did  of c o p i n g i n 106  Coping was a s s e s s e d u s i n g the Ways of  Coping C h e c k l i s t (Folkman & L a z a r u s ,  1980), and c l a s s i f i e d  p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d and e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d e f f o r t s .  Perceived  into  54 c h a n g e a b i l i t y was measured u s i n g the same format developed by Folkman and L a z a r u s (1980), and reviewed i n the p r e v i o u s  study.  The a u t h o r s found t h a t the a p p r a i s a l o f a s p e c i f i c s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d to the m o t h e r ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of adjustment. described t h e i r  situation  one they c o u l d change.  However, most s u b j e c t s  as one they had to a c c e p t r a t h e r  A c c o r d i n g to p a s t r e s e a r c h ,  than  this  a p p r a i s a l would tend to l e a d to the use o f more e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d coping.  The a u t h o r s d i d f i n d t h a t the use o f e m o t i o n - f o c u s e d  c o p i n g was a much more s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f lower d e p r e s s i o n and a n x i e t y ,  than was the use of p r o b l e m - f o c u s e d c o p i n g .  use of a more a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y , when a s i t u a t i o n  The  l i k e emotion-focused coping,  i s a p p r a i s e d as unchangeable, s h o u l d l e a d to  b e t t e r adjustment outcomes (Folkman, 1984). In summary, p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o n t r o l l i n k e d with d i f f e r e n t coping f u n c t i o n s .  have been c o n s i s t e n t l y Problem-focused coping  s t r a t e g i e s tend to be used when s i t u a t i o n s are p e r c e i v e d as c o n t r o l l a b l e , when s i t u a t i o n s seem l e s s c o n t r o l l a b l e , emotion-focused coping s t r a t e g i e s p r e v a i l .  It  alternate  i s expected t h a t  t h e s e r e s u l t s would h o l d t r u e f o r mothers of d i v o r c e d o r separated adult  children.  Summary A c c o r d i n g to L a z a r u s ' s t r a n s a c t i o n a l model of s t r e s s and c o p i n g ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984), the e x t e n t to which a c e r t a i n c o p i n g s t r a t e g y i s used depends not o n l y on the needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l environmental  c o n c e r n e d , but a l s o on  r e s o u r c e s and c o n s t r a i n t s .  This study  is  concerned w i t h the c o p i n g e f f o r t s of mothers o f s e p a r a t e d o r  55 divorced o f f s p r i n g , (social  and the i n f l u e n c e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  variables  s u p p o r t types and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n ) and p e r s o n a l  variables  (perceived control)  At p r e s e n t ,  as p r e d i c t o r s of c o p i n g  behaviour.  no study has looked at the a s s o c i a t i o n between  t h e s e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s and the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  used by mothers  i n coming to terms w i t h an a d u l t c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e . Much o f the e v i d e n c e f o r p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s has come from other population groups, t y p i c a l l y v a r i a b l e l i k e perceived control strategies.  investigating  in r e l a t i o n  to s p e c i f i c c o p i n g  Although independent r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l information  v a r i a b l e s and c o p i n g p r o v i d e  on the p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n  work i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y  to p r e d i c t  between p e r s o n a l valuable  of c e r t a i n  none of t h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n  an independent  relationships,  on how t h e s e v a r i a b l e s  the use o f d i f f e r e n t  coping  strategies. However, on the b a s i s o f e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h on s e p a r a t e predictors  of coping, i t  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l informational  i s expected t h a t d i f f e r e n t  v a r i a b l e s ; emotional  support,  support,  combinations  tangible  support,  and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , and the p e r s o n a l  v a r i a b l e ; p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , would c o n t r i b u t e s p e c i f i c s e t s o f a c t i v e and a v o i d a n t c o p i n g  to the use of strategies.  Hypotheses H y p o t h e s i s 1.  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  between some or a l l social  o f the p r e d i c t o r  s u p p o r t components ( i . e . ,  tangible)  and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y ,  of A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  linear  relationship  v a r i a b l e s ; family cohesion,  informational,  emotional,  and the c r i t e r i o n  variable;  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g c o n s i s t s o f the  c o m p r i s i n g the f o c u s i n g on and v e n t i n g e m o t i o n s , disengagement and mental s c a l e (Carver et a l . , Hypothesis 2.  social  o f the p r e d i c t o r  and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y ,  of A c t i v e coping.  behavioral  1989).  s u p p o r t components ( i . e . ,  tangible)  items  disengagement s u b s c a l e s , from the COPE  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  between some o r a l l  linear  relationship  v a r i a b l e s ; family cohesion,  informational,  and the c r i t i e r i o n  A c t i v e c o p i n g c o n s i s t s o f the  emotional, v a r i a b l e ; use items  c o m p r i s i n g the a c t i v e c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g , and p o s i t i v e reinterpretation (Carver et a l . ,  and growth s u b s c a l e s , from the COPE s c a l e 1989).  use  57 Method The s t u d y employed a survey d e s i g n , i n v o l v i n g a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n to p a r t i c i p a n t s  at one p o i n t i n t i m e .  n a t u r e o f the study was c o r r e l a t i o n a l , thus a l l o w i n g  The  the  r e s e a r c h e r to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e v e r a l p e r s o n a l , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  v a r i a b l e s , and two f u n c t i o n a l l y  different  approaches t o c o p i n g used by mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g the s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e o f an o f f s p r i n g . Sub.iects The m a j o r i t y of the mothers were s o l i c i t e d v i a p o s t e r s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n announcements, and a r t i c l e s i n newspapers t h a t d e s c r i b e d the study and asked f o r These p o t e n t i a l Appendix A ) .  local  volunteers.  respondents were screened by t e l e p h o n e  (see  Other mothers were s o l i c i t e d through t a l k s  at l o c a l community and r e t i r e m e n t contact with a t h i r d party. including c r i t e r i a  given  c e n t r e s , o r through p e r s o n a l  These mothers were screened by  items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  E l i g i b l e respondents (N = 84) f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of b i o l o g i c a l mothers of a d u l t s who were s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d . Mothers were a c c e p t e d f o r the study a f t e r meeting the criteria:  following  (a) the women were a b l e to i d e n t i f y at l e a s t two  c u r r e n t d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r s , and (b) s c o r e d 2 o r above on a s t r e s s f u l  Likert scale.  they  See Appendix B  for screening questions. The respondents were p r i m a r i l y  Caucasian, protestant,  m a r r i e d , w i t h an age range of 45 to 78 (M = 6 1 . 2 ) . the r e s p o n d e n t s had been d i v o r c e d i n the p a s t .  A third  and of  Over h a l f had a  high s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n o r l e s s , w h i l e a t h i r d had some u n i v e r s i t y  58 or c o l l e g e .  O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was r o u g h l y e q u a l l y  among homemaker, employed p a r t - or f u l l - t i m e , majority  distributed  and r e t i r e d .  o f respondents had a household income o f over 20,000  Canadian per annum, and i d e n t i f i e d  themselves as grandmothers.  S l i g h t l y more mothers o f a d u l t daughters p a r t i c i p a t e d , mothers o f a d u l t s o n s . their  The  than  The range o f time t h a t mothers knew of  a d u l t c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e was w i d e , from 1 month  to 348 months, or 29 y e a r s (M = 3 9 . 2 ) .  Less than one q u a r t e r  the respondents had r e c e i v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l or l e g a l counsel  of  for  the s e p a r a t i o n - or d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r t h a t they were experiencing.  With r e g a r d s to s t r e s s o r s , 64.3% o f the mothers  s a i d t h a t w o r r y i n g about t h e i r was s t r e s s f u l .  a d u l t c h i l d and h i s or her f u t u r e  L o s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h g r a n d c h i l d r e n or  laws was i d e n t i f i e d  by 15.5% o f respondents as s t r e s s f u l ,  inwhile  6.0% o f mothers i n d i c a t e d t h a t having c o n f l i c t i n g  v a l u e s about  the d i v o r c e was s t r e s s f u l .  identified  financial  Only 3.6% o f mothers  s t r a i n as a major s t r e s s o r .  identified  Finally,  10.7% of mothers  and d e s c r i b e d o t h e r s t r e s s o r s r e l a t e d to the  or s e p a r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . grandchildren,  living  divorce  These i n c l u d e d having concerns about  at g r e a t d i s t a n c e from a d u l t  children,  l o s i n g t r u s t i n a c h i l d ' s former spouse, and being blamed the  for  divorce. The demographic makeup of the respondents  were s i m i l a r to P e a r s o n ' s  (1988)  (see T a b l e 1)  sample of p a r e n t s o f s e p a r a t e d  o f f s p r i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to age, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , and m a r i t a l  status,  however they d i f f e r e d  i n having  e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s , and h i g h e r household incomes.  ethnicity, lower  The sample i n  the p r e s e n t s t u d y was s i m i l i a r to Ahrons and Bowman's  (1982)  59 Table 1 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Sample (N=84)  Characteristic  Percent  Age (n-83) Education Less than Gr 12 High s c h o o l grad Some u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e B a c h e l o r s degree M a s t e r s degree D o c t o r a l degree Occupational  M  SD  Md  Range  61.2  7.4  61.0  45-78  22.6 31.0 31.0 7.1 7.1 1.2  Status  Homemaker Employed f u l l - t i m e Employed p a r t - t i m e Unemployed/Disability Retired Other  23.8 22.6 21.4 1.2 28.6 2.4  Income (n=79) Under $10,000 10,000 t o $19,999 120,000 t o S29.999 130,000 t o 1149,999 150,000 to $100,000 Over $100,000  7.6 10.1 21.5 31.6 26.6 2.5  E t h n i c Background Caucasian Other Religious  96.4 3.6  Preference  Catholic Protestant None Other  8.3 66.7 13.1 11.9 (table  continues!  60  Characteristic  Relationship  Percent  M  SD  Md  Range  49.0  24.0  1-348  Status  Married Living with partner Separated Divorced Widowed Separation/Divorce  60.7 1.2 6.0 13.1 19.0  History  Separated/Divorced Never s e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d  33.3 66.7  Adult C h i l d Status Son Daughter Grandmother  45.2 54.8 Status  Grandmother Not a grandmother Knowledge of  83.3 16.7  Separation/Divorce  Months  39.2  Legal o r P r o f e s s i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g (n=82) Received Never r e c e i v e d  24.1 75.9  S t r e s s o r Type Worrying about c h i l d Losing r e l a t i o n s h i p s Financial strain C o n f l i c t i n g values Other  Note.  64.3 15.5 3.6 6.0 10.7  D i f f e r e n t n ' s are the r e s u l t  of m i s s i n g d a t a .  61 sample o f mothers o f d i v o r c e d o f f s p r i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to age, p e r c e n t a g e o f mothers o f sons v e r s u s mothers o f d a u g h t e r s , time s i n c e the c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e however they d i f f e r e d  and  ( l e s s one y e a r to 24 y e a r s ) ,  i n having more m a r r i e d r e s p o n d e n t s ,  fewer  respondents who were widowed, and h i g h e r household incomes. Procedure An anonymous q u e s t i o n n a i r e package was d i s t r i b u t e d community and r e t i r e m e n t  c e n t r e s , or m a i l e d to  w i t h i n the lower m a i n l a n d . i n the f o l l o w i n g  order:  individuals  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e package i n c l u d e d  a covering l e t t e r ,  informed  consent  information,  demographic q u e s t i o n s , a c o p i n g i n v e n t o r y ,  item c o n t r o l  q u e s t i o n , s o c i a l s u p p o r t and f a m i l y  inventories. addition,  a single  cohesion  (See Appendix C f o r c o v e r i n g l e t t e r ) .  In  the l a s t page o f the s u r v e y i n c l u d e d two f o r m s .  form f o r r e q u e s t i n g m a i l e d r e s u l t s , resources and/or a mailed r e f e r r a l form i n t r o d u c i n g  a list  of  f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , and a second  i n the s t u d y  l e t t e r a l o n g w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l  i n 2 weeks.  Distribution  (see Appendix E f o r  A second,  the  similar self-  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  letters).  and c o l l e c t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s took p l a c e  between J a n u a r y 1991 and June 1991. distributed  respondent i f  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and stamped  addressed envelope was sent i n 4 weeks i f not r e t u r n e d  other  (see Appendix D ) .  A reminder l e t t e r was m a i l e d to each p o t e n t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was not r e t u r n e d  One  self-help  a l e t t e r t h a t respondents c o u l d g i v e to  mothers who might be i n t e r e s t e d  still  at  Of the 145 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  or m a i l e d , 103 (71.0%) were completed and r e t u r n e d .  Of the 103 r e t u r n e d ,  19 (18.4%) were not e l i g i b l e  Eleven of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i n c o r r e c t l y  or  for use. incompletely  62 filled  out.  Seven o f the mothers i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d  find their offspring's stressful.  s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e  not  currently  One respondent d i d not r e s i d e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  The r e m a i n i n g 84 were c o n s i d e r e d e l i g i b l e and were used i n analysis.  See T a b l e 2 f o r breakdown o f d i s t r i b u t i o n  the  s o u r c e s and  return rates. Instruments Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n .  A wide range o f demographic  i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d i n c l u d i n g age, e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income, e t h n i c i t y ,  r e l i g i o u s preference, relationship  and p r e v i o u s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e e x p e r i e n c e .  In  status,  addition,  i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered on grandparent s t a t u s , number o f g r a n d c h i l d r e n , degree o f c l o s e n e s s of relationship,  and c u s t o d y s t a t u s ,  Predictor variables. controllability,  grandparent/grandchild  (see Appendix F)  The p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s are  s o c i a l support,  and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n .  Respondents were asked to i d e n t i f y what was most s t r e s s f u l the d i v o r c e o r s e p a r a t i o n by c h o o s i n g from a l i s t stressors identified  These i n c l u d e d :  w o r r y i n g about o n e ' s c h i l d and h i s o r her f u t u r e ; ( e . g . , with grandchild, i n - l a w ) ;  financial  strain;  (d)  divorce;  (e) o t h e r ;  five  i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g common concerns  f o r p a r e n t s of d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n .  relationships  of  about  (c)  (b)  (a)  losing  experiencing  having c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s o r b e l i e f s describe b r i e f l y .  about  Identifying a specific  s e p a r a t i o n - o r d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r p r o v i d e d respondents w i t h a f o c a l p o i n t f o r answering q u e s t i o n s on p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , coping,  and s o c i a l s u p p o r t  (see Appendix G ) .  S e v e r a l mothers  i d e n t i f i e d more than one s t r e s s o r t h a t they were e x p e r i e n c i n g ,  63 Table 2 Questionnaire Distribution  Source  and Return F i g u r e s  Distribution  Returned  Return Rate  Media  75  65  86.7%  Community C e n t r e s  33  20  60.6%  Personal Contact  37_  18  48.6%  145  103  71.0%  Total  64 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e of an a d u l t c h i l d may p r e s e n t many d i f f e r e n t o f the m u l t i p l e  challenges f o r mothers.  One s t r e s s o r out  s t r e s s o r response was choosen to r e p r e s e n t  the  r e s p o n d e n t , based on the s t r e s s o r t h a t was o f p r i m a r y f o c u s  in  the m o t h e r ' s w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f her s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e . To a s s e s s c o n t r o l 1 a b i 1 i t v . i n d i c a t e how much c o n t r o l  respondents were asked to  they f e l t they had over the  s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e s t r e s s o r on a 5 - p o i n t from 0 (not at a l l ) Folkman and L a z a r u s  to 4 (a g r e a t d e a l ) . (1985)  identified  L i k e r t s c a l e ranging  The s c a l e was used by  i n a s s e s s i n g the c o n t r o l  f e l t they had o v e r the c o u r s e o f an e x a m i n a t i o n ,  students  (see Appendix  G) Social Inventory  s u p p o r t was measured u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of  o f S o c i a l l y S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o r s (ISSB; B a r r e r a ,  S a n d l e r , & Ramsay, 1981).  This s e l f - r e p o r t  s c a l e assesses  f r e q u e n c y of h e l p i n g b e h a v i o r s p r o v i d e d by n a t u r a l systems.  the  support  Krause and M a r k i d e s (1990) m o d i f i e d the s c a l e f o r use  i n examining the impact of s t r e s s f u l adults.  the  life  events on o l d e r  S p e c i f i c a l l y , they lengthened the response time  from one month to a y e a r , d i s c a r d e d 12 of the o r i g i n a l  items and  kept those items most r e l e v a n t to s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s . r e v i s e d 4 1 - i t e m s c a l e measures f o u r a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l informational  support,  tangible support,  s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d to o t h e r s . s u p p o r t item on a 4 - p o i n t 4 (very o f t e n ) .  emotional  frame  The  support:  s u p p o r t and  S u b j e c t s r a t e the f r e q u e n c y of each  L i k e r t s c a l e r a n g i n g from 1 (never)  G r e a t e r s c o r e s on a s u b s c a l e i n d i c a t e  f r e q u e n c y o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t type o v e r a y e a r .  greater  to  65 The o r i g i n a l interview,  s c a l e i n s t r u c t i o n s were d e s i g n e d f o r use i n an  and were m o d i f i e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y f o r use i n a  questionnaire.  Respondents were asked to t h i n k about the  s e p a r a t i o n - o r d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r they had e a r l i e r w h i l e r e s p o n d i n g to the s u p p o r t i t e m s . informational  identified The 8 - i t e m  s u p p o r t s u b s c a l e measured the p r o v i s i o n of  knowledge t h a t o t h e r s p r o v i d e to the respondent to h e l p her r e s o l v e the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n .  The 1 1 - i t e m e m o t i o n a l  support  s u b s c a l e a s s e s s e d the b e h a v i o u r o r p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f support person, i n c l u d i n g t r u s t ,  l o v e , c a r i n g and empathy.  g i v e n by a s u p p o r t person was measured u s i n g the 9 - i t e m subscale.  Aid  tangible  R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e s u b s c a l e s were p r e v i o u s l y  a s s e s s e d (Krause & M a r k i d e s , 1990) w i t h the f o l l o w i n g Cronbach's alphas: support  the  informational  support ( . 8 1 ) ,  ( . 8 3 ) , t a n g i b l e support ( . 6 7 ) .  obtained  emotional  In t h i s s t u d y the  s t a n d a r d i z e d item a l p h a s o f the s u b s c a l e s were c a l c u l a t e d at r s = .83 ( i n f o r m a t i o n a l  support),  .89 (emotional  (tangible support).  A fourth subscale,  s u p p o r t ) , and .86  i n t e g r a t i o n , measures  the degree o f embeddedness of a person i n a r e c i p r o c a l o f shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  For the purpose o f t h i s  network  study,  respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e how o f t e n they p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t to t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d by r e s p o n d i n g to the 13 i n t e g r a t i o n items.  The r e l i a b i l i t y  Markides,  o f t h i s s u b s c a l e was .81 (Krause &  1990).  Krause and M a r k i d e s (1990) have p r o v i d e d d a t a on the r e v i s e d s c a l e ' s p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y based on a s u r v e y o f i n d i v i d u a l s s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age and o l d e r . three s o c i a l support subscales of i n t e r e s t  Each o f  the  (informational,  66 tangible,  and e m o t i o n a l )  buffered  the impact of bereavement on  d e p r e s s i v e symptoms i n a sample of 351 o l d e r a d u l t s . instrument  The  has been used i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on s t r e s s  and s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n s 1987b, 1 9 8 7 c ) .  ( K r a u s e , 1986, 1987a,  (see Appendix H)  F a m i l y c o h e s i o n was measured u s i n g the Cohesion s u b s c a l e of the F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p Index the c u r r e n t  quality  (FRI).  The FRI i s a measure o f  of family s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and i s  d e r i v e d from the t h r e e s u b s c a l e s ( c o h e s i o n , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , and conflict)  t h a t form the r e l a t i o n s h i p domain o f the F a m i l y  Environment S c a l e (FES; Moos & Moos, 1986).  Family cohesion i s  the degree to which f a m i l y members are committed, s u p p o r t i v e of each o t h e r .  It  helpful  i s a s s e s s e d by 9 items  require forced choice (true-false)  responses.  and  that  The h i g h e r  the  s c o r e on the c o h e s i o n s u b s c a l e , the g r e a t e r the degree o f cohesion.  A minor m o d i f i c a t i o n was made on t h r e e o f the  to r e f l e c t  the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y  i n the same home as t h e i r  o f mothers do not  divorced o f f s p r i n g .  family.  A copy of the l e t t e r  items reside  The t e r m ,  home, was r e p l a c e d by the p h r a s e , when w e ' r e t o g e t h e r  family  at  as a  of p e r m i s s i o n to modify and  reproduce the F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p Index i s g i v e n i n Appendix The Cohesion s u b s c a l e has an a c c e p t a b l e consistency of 2 months  .78, with a t e s t - r e t e s t  (Moos & Moos, 1986).  In t h i s  internal  reliability study the  of  validity  after  The FRI  c o n s i s t e n c y ( C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a = .89) w i t h a  median i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n construct  .86  standardized  item a l p h a f o r the s u b s c a l e was c a l c u l a t e d at r = . 8 7 . has high i n t e r n a l  I.  among the t h r e e s u b s c a l e s o f 0 . 4 3 .  of the FRI has been a s s e s s e d by examining  The its  67 relationship  to i n d i c e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l  (Holahan & Moos, 1983). relationship  symptoms  The FRI showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  negative  to i l l n e s s measures i n employed men, and unemployed  and employed women, and a s i g n i f i c a n t  negative r e l a t i o n s h i p  to  d e p r e s s i o n i n unemployed men. The F a m i l y Environment S c a l e (FES) has been used to differences  between the p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y c l i m a t e i n the n u c l e a r  f a m i l y and i n the f a m i l y of o r i g i n , families  i n samples of c l i n i c a l  (Carpenter, 1981). I t  study  and w i t h  intergenerational  and n o n c l i n i c a l  populations  1984; P a t t e r s o n , C h a r l e s , Woodward, R o b e r t s , & Penk,  has been used on respondents r a n g i n g i n age from 18 to  84 ( B a r r y & F l e m i n g , 1990).  (See Appendix J )  The f a m i l y c o h e s i o n s u b s c a l e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d past in r e l a t i o n  to o t h e r s u p p o r t i n d i c e s .  in  the  C o r r e l a t i o n of  the  s u b s c a l e to s u p p o r t i n d i c e s on the I n v e n t o r y o f S o c i a l l y S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o r s (ISSB; B a r r e r a e t a l . , 1981) an enacted s u p p o r t measure, were low, r a n g i n g from .18 information cohesion)  and c o h e s i o n ) to  .25 (emotional  (Sarason e t a l . , 1987).  correlations  (cognitive s u p p o r t and  In the f o l l o w i n g  between f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and s o c i a l  study,  support  s u b s c a l e s o f the r e v i s e d ISSB (Krause & M a r k i d e s , 1990) were as follows; .33  .05 ( t a n g i b l e  (emotional  support),  support)  and  support).  Criterion variable. was  .14 ( i n f o r m a t i o n a l  The COPE s c a l e ( C a r v e r e t a l . ,  used to measure s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c  coping responses.  The COPE i n s t r u m e n t  in three d i f f e r e n t formats:  (a)  1989)  c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l has been used i n the past  a 'traitlike'  v e r s i o n i n which  s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e the degree to which they t y p i c a l l y  do each of  68 the s t r a t e g i e s l i s t e d when under s t r e s s , (b) a  time-limited  v e r s i o n i n which respondents i n d i c a t e the degree to which they have been u s i n g each of the s t r a t e g i e s up to the p r e s e n t , and (c) a t i m e - l i m i t e d  v e r s i o n i n which s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e the degree  t o which they a c t u a l l y d i d use each o f the c o p i n g e f f o r t s a p e r i o d i n the p a s t .  during  In t h i s s t u d y , the p a s t t e n s e was used as  mothers were asked to c o n s i d e r a d i v o r c e - or  separation-related  s t r e s s o r they had e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p a s t y e a r .  With  this  s t r e s s o r as a frame o f r e f e r e n c e they then responded t o the 52 c o p i n g p r e d i c a t e s on a 4 - p o i n t d i d n ' t do t h i s at a l l " )  to 4 ("I  L i k e r t s c a l e r a n g i n g from 1 did t h i s a l o t " ) .  ("I  The  i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the COPE were m o d i f i e d to i n d i c a t e what the mothers g e n e r a l l y d i d and f e l t when they e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r child's  separation/divorce.  The COPE i n s t r u m e n t scales: support,  i n c o r p o r a t e s 13 c o n c e p t u a l l y  a c t i v e coping, planning, seeking instrumental s e e k i n g emotional s o c i a l s u p p o r t ,  competing a c t i v i t i e s , growth,  adult  restraint  religion,  distinct social  suppression of  positive reinterpretation  and  c o p i n g , a c c e p t a n c e , focus on and v e n t i n g  e m o t i o n , d e n i a l , mental disengagement, and b e h a v i o r a l disengagement.  T h i s study used s i x o f the s c a l e s :  three  a s s e s s i n g an a c t i v e c o p i n g mode ( a c t i v e c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g , and positive reinterpretation  and g r o w t h ) , and t h r e e a s s e s s i n g an  a v o i d a n t c o p i n g mode (mental  disengagement, b e h a v i o r a l  disengagement, and f o c u s on and v e n t i n g e m o t i o n ) . were chosen because o f t h e i r  These s c a l e s  importance both t h e o r e t i c a l l y  e m p i r i c a l l y i n the c o p i n g l i t e r a t u r e  ( C a r v e r e t a l . , 1989;  S c h e i e r e t a l . , 1986; H e r t h , 1990).  In t h i s s t u d y  active  and  69 c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g , and p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  and growth  found t o be m o d e r a t e l y to h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , w i t h r s from .31 to  .66.  Mental disengagement,  were  ranging  behavioral  disengagement, and focus on and v e n t i n g emotion were low to m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d , w i t h r s r a n g i n g from .26 to Data were a s s e s s e d u s i n g raw s c o r e s .  .35.  Raw s c o r e s from each  o f the t h r e e a v o i d a n t c o p i n g s c a l e s were summed.  Similarly,  s c o r e s from the t h r e e a c t i v e c o p i n g s c a l e s were summed. s c a l e s c o r e s can range from 4 to 16, w i t h high s c o r e s frequent little  use o f a c o p i n g s t r a t e g y ,  and low s c o r e s  Raw  indicating  reflecting  use.  Intercorrelations  among the COPE s c a l e s have been assessed  i n the p a s t and were low to moderate Cronbach's alpha r e l i a b i l i t y dispositional  (Carver et a l . ,  coefficients  response format were i n g e n e r a l a c c e p t a b l y high All  a l p h a s tended to be h i g h e r when the response format s p e c i f i c behavioral  Internal  1989).  f o r each s c a l e u s i n g a  ( r s > . 6 1 , e x c e p t mental disengagement, r = . 4 5 ) .  rating  situations  scale  required  ( C a r v e r et a l . ,  1989).  c o n s i s t e n c i e s based on the sample d a t a from t h i s  was c a l c u l a t e d on the s i x s u b s c a l e s of importance to the The s t a n d a r d i z e d item a l p h a s are as f o l l o w s : (.70), planning  (.80), active  ( . 6 5 ) , mental  al.  (1989)  d e s c r i b e d the mental  (.25),  emotion  f o r the mental  unexpected.  Carver et  disengagement s u b s c a l e as  f o r m i n g a d i v e r s e range of a c t i v i t i e s , s i n g l e c l a s s of b e h a v i o u r .  study.  disengagement  The low s t a n d a r d i z e d a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y  disengagement s u b s c a l e i s not e n t i r e l y  study  reinterpretation  b e h a v i o r a l disengagement ( . 7 1 ) , focus on and v e n t i n g (.85).  raw  r a t h e r than b e i n g a  The s t a n d a r d i z e d item a l p h a o f  the  70 A c t i v e c o p i n g mode and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g mode was c a l c u l a t e d at r s =.84 and . 7 5 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . evidence f o r t e s t - r e t e s t dispositional  C a r v e r et a l  reliability  response f o r m a t .  (1989)  provided  on two samples u s i n g a  In g e n e r a l  test-retest  c o r r e l a t i o n s were moderate to high ( r a n g i n g from r = .42 to r = .89).  T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were not g i v e n f o r  s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s ,  situation  (see Appendix K)  Data A n a l y s i s Two s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n (MR) a n a l y s e s were conducted i n o r d e r to examine the n a t u r e and s t r e n g t h o f  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and c o p i n g . Simultaneous MR was used because p a s t r e s e a r c h on the ways mothers cope w i t h t h e i r o f f s p r i n g ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e i s limited,  and p r o v i d e s no t h e o r e t i c a l  or e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r  e n t e r i n g any one p a r t i c u l a r independent v a r i a b l e p r i o r to any o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e . each MR:  f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , emotional s u p p o r t , t a n g i b l e  informational analysis,  F i v e p r e d i c t o r s were e n t e r e d i n  s u p p o r t and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y .  In the  support,  first  s c o r e s on the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were used to  predict  s c o r e s on the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , A v o i d a n t c o p i n g mode. In the second a n a l y s i s , s c o r e s on the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were used to p r e d i c t s c o r e s on the second c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , A c t i v e c o p i n g mode.  The r a t i o of s u b j e c t s to p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s was  s a t i s f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the r u l e of thumb s e t out by Borg and Gall  (1989)  (i.e.,  to i n c r e a s e sample s i z e by at l e a s t 15  s u b j e c t s f o r each p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e t h a t w i l l the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n ) .  be i n c l u d e d i n  Results Descriptive  Statistics  Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and p a i r - w i s e c o r r e l a t i o n s the p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n  for  v a r i a b l e s are g i v e n i n T a b l e 3 .  The  responses on the f a m i l y c o h e s i o n s u b s c a l e (M = 7 . 4 4 , SD = 2.36) o f the F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p Index ( F R I ) , are h i g h e r than those o b t a i n e d by Moos and Moos (1986)  f o r both normal and d i s t r e s s e d  p o p u l a t i o n groups (M = 6 . 6 1 , SD = 1.36; M = 5 . 0 3 , SD = 1.98, respectively).  The d i s t r e s s e d p o p u l a t i o n group was made up o f  both p s y c h i a t r i c - o r i e n t e d f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s o f a l c o h o l abusers.  F a m i l y c o h e s i o n responses i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y were  lower than those o b t a i n e d by wives o f 66 m a r r i e d c o u p l e s (M = 7 . 9 7 , SD = 1.65) (Carpenter,  who r a t e d t h e i r c u r r e n t f a m i l y  1984).  environment  C a r p e n t e r suggested t h a t the  figures  o b t a i n e d i n h i s s t u d y may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the o r d e r o f r a t i n g of p a s t and p r e s e n t f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s .  The r e s u l t s on  two o f the s o c i a l s u p p o r t s u b s c a l e s are d i f f e r e n t from those o b t a i n e d by Krause (1987c) i n a sample o f 351 o l d e r  adults.  Whereas t a n g i b l e s u p p o r t was lower than K r a u s e ' s f i n d i n g s 1 5 . 2 2 , SD = 4 . 5 8 ) , SD = 3 . 9 8 ) .  information  s u p p o r t was h i g h e r  (M = 1 1 . 2 4 ,  Emotional s u p p o r t was s i m i l i a r to K r a u s e ' s f i n d i n g s  (M = 2 4 . 4 8 , SD = 7 . 5 6 ) .  A l t h o u g h the p r e s e n t study  mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g a s p e c i f i c s t r e s s f u l event s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e of an a d u l t c h i l d ) ,  investigated  (i.e.,  K r a u s e ' s sample  i n c l u d e d both men and women e x p e r i e n c i n g a v a r i e t y o f stressors  (M =  (cf.  K r a u s e , 1986).  s u p p o r t s c o r e s may r e f l e c t  life  Differences in received social  the importance o f c e r t a i n s o c i a l  s u p p o r t t y p e s to the s t r e s s o r being i n v e s t i g a t e d .  With r e s p e c t  72 Table 3 C o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s (N=84)  Measure  Variable  Mean  SD  1  1 Cohesion  7.44  2.36  -  2 Control  1.26  1.33  .38  -  3 E-Support  26.05  7.78  .33  .17  4 I-Support  12.49  4.02  .14  -.06  .41  -  5 T-Support  12.98  4.75  .05  -.02  .34  .20  -  6 Act-Cope  32.58  7.60  .10  .19  .33  .15  .06  -  7 Av-Cope  24.62  6.17  -.31  -.37  .24  .24  .20  .12  Note.  E-Support i s emotional  support,  2  support,  T-Support i s t a n g i b l e support,  4  3  5  6  -  I-Support i s  informational  A c t - C o p e i s the summed  raw s c o r e A c t i v e c o p i n g , Av-Cope i s the summed raw s c o r e A v o i d a n t coping. r.01(80)=.28,  r.05(80)=.22.  A d j u s t e d r . 0 1 ( 8 0 ) = . 4 3 , r . 0 5 ( 8 0 ) = . 3 8 ( S h a v e l s o n , 1981).  73 to c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s , responses on i n d i v i d u a l  coping s c a l e s  v a r i e d i n comparison to r e s u l t s from C a r v e r e t a l . ' s s t u d y o f 1,030 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . strategies;  reinterpretation,  disengagement were a l l  (1989)  Whereas f o u r o f the c o p i n g  a c t i v e c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g and mental  lower than f i n d i n g s from C a r v e r ' s s t u d y ,  focus on and v e n t i n g e m o t i o n , and b e h a v i o r a l disengagement s u b s c a l e s were somewhat h i g h e r . Grandmothers.  Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n  g i v e n i n Appendix L.  on grandmothers  is  The m a j o r i t y o f grandmothers, who made up  83.3% o f the sample, r e p o r t e d having two o r more g r a n d c h i l d r e n . Over h a l f o f the grandmothers d e s c r i b e d t h e i r t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n as v e r y c l o s e (61.4%). o f the grandmothers  (67.1%)  relationship  S i m i l a r l y , over  indicated that t h e i r  the  Grandmothers' d e s c r i p t i o n s about  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p change were d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s ; (a) involved - distant,  and (b) More i n v o l v e d - c l o s e r .  category " l e s s involved - d i s t a n t "  half  relationship  w i t h t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n had changed as a r e s u l t o f s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e .  with  Less  The  i n c l u d e d grandmothers who  were r e s t r i c t e d access to t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , those whose g r a n d c h i l d r e n had moved away a f t e r  the d i v o r c e , and those who  f e l t t h a t they o r t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n no l o n g e r communicated as e a s i l y because o f the d i v o r c e .  "More i n v o l v e d - c l o s e r "  i n c l u d e d grandmothers who were a c t i n g as s u r r o g a t e m o t h e r s , those who f e l t c l o s e r e m o t i o n a l l y to t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , and those who f e l t communication was b e t t e r their  grandchildren.  that their  between themselves and  Of those grandmothers  (n=45) who r e p o r t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p had changed, 62.2% i n d i c a t e d t h a t  r e l a t i o n s h i p had become more d i s t a n t .  the  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 61% o f  these ' d i s t a n t '  grandmothers were mothers o f a d u l t s o n s .  r e m a i n i n g grandmothers  (37.8%) who i n d i c a t e d t h a t  The  their  r e l a t i o n s h i p had changed w i t h t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , f e l t i t become c l o s e r o r t h a t they were more i n v o l v e d w i t h grandchildren. 'closer'  A p p r o x i m a t e l y two t h i r d s  (64.7%)  grandmothers were mothers o f a d u l t  their  of t h e s e  daughters.  In response to a r e q u e s t f o r a d d i t i o n a l  comments about  s t u d y , o r about a m o t h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h an a d u l t divorce,  51 mothers r e p l i e d .  had  the  child's  These comments are summarized i n  Appendix M. C o r r e l a t i o n s Between V a r i a b l e s C o r r e l a t i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s between i m p o r t a n t demographic v a r i a b l e s , s u p p o r t i n t e g r a t i o n , i n Appendix N.  and c o p i n g are g i v e n  Age of the mother was found t o be n e g a t i v e l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h income ( r = - . 4 0 ) , and s u p p o r t g i v e n to adult c h i l d  (r = - . 3 1 ) ,  the  and p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the  number o f months known about the d i v o r c e o r s e p a r a t i o n ( r = .36).  S i m i l a r to P e a r s o n ' s  (1988) f i n d i n g s , e d u c a t i o n and  income were m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d  (r = . 3 3 ) .  Number o f months  known about the s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e was m o d e r a t e l y  negatively  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h degree of upset ( r = - . 3 3 ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a d i v o r c e s t r e s s o r i s more u p s e t t i n g e a r l i e r on i n the s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e p r o c e s s .  Degree o f upset was a l s o found to be  s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d with Avoidant coping (r = . 5 0 ) . finding  This  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Pearson (1988) who r e p o r t e d  g r e a t e r s t r e s s r e a c t i v e n e s s among p a r e n t s was c o r r e l a t e d with avoidance c o p i n g .  that  significantly  Degree o f upset was  moderately n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with perceived control  (r = -  75 . 3 9 ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t lower p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l  during a divorce-  o r s e p a r a t i o n - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r i s r e l a t e d to f e e l i n g more upset about the e x p e r i e n c e .  P r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t to an a d u l t  child  showed a low c o r r e l a t i o n to A c t i v e c o p i n g ( r = . 2 5 ) . With r e s p e c t to the p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n  variables  (see  T a b l e 3 ) , c o h e s i o n was m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r c e i v e d control  ( r = . 3 8 ) , and r e c e i v e d emotional  support  (r = . 3 3 ) .  I n f o r m a t i o n a l s u p p o r t and t a n g i b l e s u p p o r t showed l i t t l e o r low relations exception.  (all  r's  < .25) w i t h a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w i t h one  I n f o r m a t i o n a l s u p p o r t and t a n g i b l e s u p p o r t was  m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h emotional s u p p o r t respectively).  ( r s = .41 and . 3 4 ,  Both c o h e s i o n and p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l  were  m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h A v o i d a n t c o p i n g ( r s = - . 3 1 and - . 3 7 , respectively).  Emotional s u p p o r t showed a p o s i t i v e  correlation  w i t h both A c t i v e c o p i n g (r = .33) and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g ( r = . 2 4 ) . A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g c o r r e l a t e d at . 1 2 . mothers w i t h more s u p p o r t i n g e n e r a l and emotional  s u p p o r t from o t h e r s )  (i.e.,  In summary,  both f a m i l y  support  e x p e r i e n c e d more c o n t r o l  over  the s t r e s s f u l a s p e c t o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e . Those mothers w i t h l e s s f a m i l y s u p p o r t and commitment experienced less control  over the s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e s t r e s s o r  and were more l i k e l y to engage i n a v o i d a n t ways o f c o p i n g . Preliminary Analysis Three one-way m u l t i v a r i a t e  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVAs)  were conducted to examine s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s between those mothers who were d i v o r c e d i n the p a s t v e r s u s t h o s e who were n o t , t h o s e who were grandmothers v e r s u s those who were n o t ,  and those  who had a d u l t sons v e r s u s those who had a d u l t d a u g h t e r s ,  in  76 r e l a t i o n to the p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n c o h e s i o n , p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , emotional support,  tangible support,  the v a r i a b l e , degree u p s e t . multivariate  variables; support,  family  informational  a c t i v e c o p i n g , a v o i d a n t c o p i n g * and The a n a l y s i s found  significant  group d i f f e r e n c e s f o r mothers who had had a p a s t  d i v o r c e v e r s u s mothers who had n o t , £ ( 8 , 7 5 )  = 2 . 4 6 , p_<.02.  U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n terms o f f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , u n i v a r i a t e £ ( 1 , 8 2 ) = 1 0 . 5 7 , p_<.009, and r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t , £(1,82)  = 7 . 0 7 , p_<.002.  univariate  Mothers who had had a p a s t d i v o r c e  r e p o r t e d lower f a m i l y c o h e s i o n s c o r e s (M = 6 . 3 2 , SD = 2 . 8 3 , M = 8 . 0 0 , SD = 1.89, support  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and lower r e c e i v e d emotional  (M = 2 2 . 9 6 , SD = 7 . 7 3 , M = 2 7 . 5 9 , SD = 7 . 4 0 ,  respectively).  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e  effect  f o r e i t h e r gender of a d u l t c h i l d  status  (£(8,75)  group  ( £ < 1 ) , o r grandmother  = 1.13, £>.35) on the c r i t e r i o n  and p r e d i c t o r  variables. A one-way m u l t i v a r i a t e  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (MAN0VA) was  conducted to examine d i f f e r e n c e s between months known o f  the  s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e i n r e l a t i o n to the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , criterion  v a r i a b l e s , and degree u p s e t .  Months were d i v i d e d  two groups u s i n g the median (24 months) as a m i d p o i n t .  Months 1  t o 24 were coded as 1, months 25 to 348 were coded as 2 . multivariate differences  into  The  a n a l y s i s found no s i g n i f i c a n t between group (£<1).  An a d d i t i o n a l  one-way MAN0VA was conducted i n o r d e r  to  d e t e r m i n e whether d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s o r types were r e l a t e d to predictor variables, criterion  v a r i a b l e s and degree u p s e t .  the  77 S t r e s s o r e p i s o d e s were d i c h o t o m i z e d , w i t h the l a r g e s t "Worrying about y o u r a d u l t c h i l d " coded as 1 and s t r e s s o r s " coded as 2 (see Table 1 ) .  group,  "other  "Other s t r e s s o r s " was  comprised o f the f o u r s t r e s s o r c a t e g o r i e s ; l o s i n g  relationships,  experiencing financial  v a l u e s about  d i v o r c e , and o t h e r . group d i f f e r e n c e s child,  strain,  having c o n f l i c t i n g  The a n a l y s i s found s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r the s t r e s s o r , w o r r y i n g about y o u r  versus other s t r e s s o r s , £(8,75)  type was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different  support s c o r e s , u n i v a r i a t e  = 2 . 9 9 , p_<.006.  on the mean  F(l,82)  vs.  adult Stressor  informational  = 5 . 8 9 , j_<.02; w o r r y i n g  y o u r a d u l t c h i l d was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r informational  multivariate  about  received  s u p p o r t compared w i t h o t h e r s t r e s s o r s (Ms = 13.26  11.10, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  S i g n i f i c a n t between group  a l s o e x i s t e d on the mean c o h e s i o n s c o r e s , u n i v a r i a t e 6.87, £ < . 0 1 ; worrying  differences F(l,82) =  about an a d u l t c h i l d was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  h i g h e r f a m i l y c o h e s i o n (Ms = 7.93 v s . 6 . 5 7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . addition,  significant  In  group d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d on the mean  upset s c o r e s , u n i v a r i a t e  F (1,82)  = 7 . 1 0 , p_<.01; w o r r y i n g  about  an a d u l t c h i l d was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h lower upset s c o r e s compared w i t h o t h e r s t r e s s o r s (Ms = 3.06 v s . 3 . 6 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . summary, w o r r y i n g  In  about an a d u l t c h i l d was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  higher received informational  support,  and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , and  lower upset s c o r e s compared w i t h o t h e r s t r e s s o r s . Hypotheses To t e s t hypotheses 1 and 2, two s i m u l t a n e o u s r e g r e s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d . emotional  support,  multiple  Family cohesion, perceived  informational  s u p p o r t and t a n g i b l e  control,  support  78 were used as p r e d i c t o r  variables.  modes were used as c r i t e r i o n Avoidant coping. from the m u l t i p l e coping s c o r e s .  A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t  variables.  T a b l e 4 shows the summary o f  = 7 . 6 8 , p_<.0001.  - 2 . 9 1 , p_<.005), and emotional were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  perceived control  support  r e l a t e d to A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  Entering  the  v a r i a b l e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n produced an  . 3 3 , w i t h an a d j u s t e d R-squared o f  r e c e i v e d emotional Avoidant coping.  .29.  In indicate  and high  s u p p o r t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r use o f The f i n d i n g s  Active cooing.  p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r H y p o t h e s i s 1.  Table 5 shows the summary o f f i n d i n g s  from  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of p r e d i c t o r s of A c t i v e coping  The t o t a l e q u a t i o n p r e d i c t i n g A c t i v e c o p i n g reached  s i g n i f i c a n c e , £(5,78) Hypothesis 2.  prediction  = 2 . 4 6 , p_<.05.  Thus, t h e r e i s s u p p o r t  However, o n l y one of the p r e d i c t o r  r e c e i v e d emotional  support,  contributed  significantly  o f the v a r i a b i l i t y  Altogether  to  the  None of  informational  emotional  support.  the  14% (8%  i n A c t i v e c o p i n g c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d  by s c o r e s on the f i v e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s ; f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , perceived c o n t r o l ,  for  variables,  o f A c t i v e c o p i n g , 1 ( 1 , 7 8 ) = 2 . 5 4 , p_<.01.  o t h e r v a r i a b l e s reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . adjusted)  (1(1,78) =  (1(1,78) = 2 . 8 5 , p_<.006),  t h a t low f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , low p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l ,  scores.  coping  Three v a r i a b l e s ,  summary, the r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s f o r A v o i d a n t c o p i n g  the m u l t i p l e  Avoidant  The t o t a l e q u a t i o n p r e d i c t i n g A v o i d a n t  c o h e s i o n (1(1,78) = - 3 . 0 3 , £ < . 0 0 3 ) ,  R-squared o f  findings  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of p r e d i c t o r s o f  reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , £ ( 5 , 7 8 )  five predictor  coping  support,  tangible support,  and  79 Table 4 Multiple  R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s o f P r e d i c t o r s o f A v o i d a n t Coping  (N=84)  B  Source  t  P.  (df=l,78)  Cohesion Tangible  Support  Informational  Support  Control Emotional  Note.  Support  -.32  -3.03  .08  .85  ns  .12  1.12  ns  -.30  -2.91  <.005  .32  2.85  <.006  <.003  B i s the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .  Percentage  o f v a r i a n c e i n A v o i d a n t c o p i n g accounted f o r by the r e g r e s s i o n equation  (R-squared)  7 . 6 8 , p_<.0001.  i s .33 ( A d j u s t e d  .29).  Overall  F(5,78) =  80 Table 5 Multiple  R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s o f P r e d i c t o r s o f A c t i v e Coping  (N=84)  B  Source  t  J2  (df=l,78)  Cohesion Tangible  Support  Informational  Support  Control Emotional  Note.  Support  -.08  -.68  ns  -.05  -.46  ns  .05  .42  ns  .17  1.50  ns  .32  2.54  <.01  B i s the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .  Percentage  o f v a r i a n c e i n A c t i v e c o p i n g accounted f o r by the r e g r e s s i o n equation  (R-squared)  2 . 4 6 , p_<.05.  i s .14 ( A d j u s t e d  .08).  Overall  F(5,78) =  81 Post-hoc Analyses Additional following:  a n a l y s e s were conducted to i n v e s t i g a t e  (a) the i n t e r a c t i o n  the  e f f e c t s of perceived control  and  emotional s u p p o r t on c o p i n g , (b) the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t r e s s o r type on c o p i n g , (c) criterion  the use of r e l a t i v e c o p i n g s c o r e s as the  v a r i a b l e , and (d) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g w i t h the s u b s c a l e , mental disengagement removed. Because both c o n t r o l significantly  and emotional s u p p o r t were found to be  r e l a t e d to the use o f A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , and based  on C u t r o n a ' s (1990) r e s e a r c h on the i n t e r a c t i o n perceived control  and emotional s u p p o r t .  e f f e c t s of perceived  F o l l o w i n g the s t a n d a r d procedure  f o r t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the i n t e r a c t i o n equation a f t e r 1983).  of  and s o c i a l s u p p o r t t y p e , r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s  was conducted to examine the i n t e r a c t i o n control  effects  in  term was e n t e r e d i n t o  the  the main e f f e c t s had e n t e r e d (Cohen & Cohen,  C o n t r o l x Emotional Support was not  r e l a t e d to A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , t ( l , 7 7 )  significantly  = - 1 . 0 5 , £>.29.  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have emphasized the importance  of  c o n s i d e r i n g s t r e s s o r type i n r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s and c o p i n g because t h e i r differentially Lazarus,  f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t c e r t a i n s t r e s s o r s may predict different  1980; P a r k e s ,  1986).  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i f f e r e n t have an i m p o r t a n t strategies  coping s t r a t e g i e s  Theoretically,  the  (Folkman & situational  s t r e s s o r e p i s o d e s are thought  to  i n f l u e n c e on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e o f c o p i n g  ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984).  Preliminary analysis  showed t h a t mothers who p r e d o m i n a n t l y w o r r i e d about t h e i r  adult  82 child significantly  differed  from those who r e p o r t e d  s t r e s s o r s on two of the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s ; informational literature  s u p p o r t and c o h e s i o n .  and on t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y  received  Based on the r e s e a r c h findings,  a regression  a n a l y s i s was conducted to examine the main and effects  other  interactive  of s t r e s s o r type w i t h each o f the f o u r v a r i a b l e s ;  c o h e s i o n , emotional support,  support,  on the c r i t e r i o n  standard m u l t i p l e  informational  variable,  support,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e r a c t i o n  effects,  In  S u p p o r t , and S t r e s s o r Type x  had e n t e r e d (Cohen & Cohen, 1983).  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the main  S t r e s s o r type was  r e l a t e d to A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , t < l .  none o f the i n t e r a c t i o n  terms;  Support,  T a n g i b l e Support were e n t e r e d i n t o the e q u a t i o n a f t e r effects  the  the  the i n t e r a c t i o n s  S t r e s s o r Type x C o h e s i o n , S t r e s s o r Type x Emotional S t r e s s o r Type x I n f o r m a t i o n a l  and t a n g i b l e  avoidant coping.  r e g r e s s i o n procedure f o r t e s t i n g  family  Furthermore,  terms reached s i g n i f i c a n c e ( a l l  w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ; S t r e s s o r Type x C o h e s i o n , t ( l , 7 3 )  ts<l,  = -1.16,  p_>.24). Based on the argument t h a t r e l a t i v e different  s c o r e s may y i e l d a  p e r s p e c t i v e on c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s than raw s c o r e s  (Vitaliano,  M a i u r o , Russo, & B e c k e r , 1987), f u r t h e r  multiple  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted to examine the s t r e n g t h n a t u r e o f the l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the variables support,  (perceived c o n t r o l , tangible support,  predictor  f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , emotional  and i n f o r m a t i o n a l  support)  r e l a t i v e A v o i d a n t c o p i n g or r e l a t i v e A c t i v e c o p i n g .  and e i t h e r Whereas  c o p i n g s t u d i e s u s i n g raw s c o r e s f o c u s on the importance s p e c i f i c coping s c a l e s ,  and  studies using r e l a t i v e  of  scores are  83 interested relation  i n the r e l a t i v e  strength of a p a r t i c u l a r  to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l  coping e f f o r t s .  r e s u l t s of the d a t a a n a l y s e s , c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , results,  strategy  in  For the  and r e g r e s s i o n  see Appendix 0 .  Carver et a l .  (1989)  found t h a t the mental  disengagement  s u b s c a l e o f the COPE s c a l e had a low C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a reliability  coefficient,  r = . 4 5 , compared w i t h the  subscales.  The a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d t h i s  category of several a c t i v i t i e s , behaviour.  s u b s c a l e as b e i n g a  r a t h e r than a s i n g l e c l a s s  Because the s u b s c a l e showed low i n t e r n a l  ( s t a n d a r d i z e d item a l p h a = .25) this  other  study,  c o p i n g mode.  consistency  based on the sample d a t a from  the s u b s c a l e was removed from the t o t a l  Avoidant  The s t a n d a r d i z e d item a l p h a o f the A v o i d a n t  mode, w i t h the mental c a l c u l a t e d at r = . 7 8 .  t a n g i b l e support)  The n a t u r e and s t r e n g t h  emotional  variables  support,  of  s i n g l e simultaneous m u l t i p l e  the  (family cohesion,  informational  and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g ( b e h a v i o r a l  and f o c u s on and v e n t i n g emotion)  support,  and  disengagement,  were i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g a  regression.  The t o t a l  equation  p r e d i c t i n g A v o i d a n t c o p i n g reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F ( 5 , 7 8 ) rj<.0001.  coping  disengagement s u b s c a l e removed was  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r perceived c o n t r o l ,  of  Three v a r i a b l e s , p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l  = 8.66,  (1(1,78) = - 3 . 7 2 ,  JD<.0004), c o h e s i o n ( 1 ( 1 , 7 8 ) = - 2 . 7 6 , p_<.007), and emotional support  (t(l,78)  Avoidant coping.  = 2 . 8 1 , £ < . 0 0 6 ) , were s i g n i f i c a n t l y E n t e r i n g the f i v e p r e d i c t o r  r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n produced an R-squared o f a d j u s t e d R-squared of  .32.  related  variables in  the  . 3 6 , w i t h an  In summary, the r e g r e s s i o n  f o r A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , w i t h the s u b s c a l e mental  to  results  disengagement  removed, were s i m i l i a r to the p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s which i n c l u d e d mental disengagement as p a r t o f A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  The  a s s o c i a t i o n between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g may be somewhat s t r e n g t h e n e d w i t h the removal o f the mental disengagement s u b s c a l e . variability  In t h i s a n a l y s i s , 36% o f  the  i n A v o i d a n t c o p i n g c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d by s c o r e s on  the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , whereas i n the p r i o r a n a l y s i s , 33% of the v a r i a b i l i t y  i n A v o i d a n t c o p i n g c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d by s c o r e s  on the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s .  85 Discussion The goal of t h i s study was to examine the  relationship  between a number of e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s , and the use o f s p e c i f i c c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g the s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e o f an a d u l t c h i l d .  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  was expected t h a t low l e v e l s of p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , social  s u p p o r t types ( e m o t i o n a l ,  informational,  it  received  and t a n g i b l e ) ,  and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r use o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s aimed at d i s e n g a g i n g from the  divorce-related  s t r e s s o r , o r at f o c u s i n g on and v e n t i n g e m o t i o n s .  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s ( f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , perceived c o n t r o l ,  and s o c i a l s u p p o r t t y p e s )  was more e x p l o r a t o r y . control  and A c t i v e c o p i n g  Although g r e a t e r l e v e l s of perceived  were expected to be r e l a t e d to g r e a t e r use o f c o p i n g  s t r a t e g i e s aimed at t a k i n g a c t i o n o r r e i n t e r p r e t i n g stressful  situation  i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t ,  the  no d i r e c t i o n a l  p r e d i c t i o n s were made i n r e g a r d to s o c i a l s u p p o r t t y p e s ,  family  c o h e s i o n , and the use o f a c t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s because o f lack of previous r e s e a r c h .  It  was a l s o expected t h a t r e c e i v e d  emotional s u p p o r t would be a more i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r of c o p i n g f o r m o t h e r s , than e i t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a l  or t a n g i b l e s o c i a l  supports. P r e d i c t o r s o f A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t Coping The m u l t i p l e variables  r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s showed t h a t  environmental  ( r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n ) , and  personal v a r i a b l e s (perceived c o n t r o l ) ,  were  significantly  r e l a t e d to A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , as a s s e s s e d by s p e c i f i c s c a l e s from the COPE s c a l e .  The e n v i r o n m e n t a l  v a r i a b l e , r e c e i v e d emotional  86 s u p p o r t , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e l a t e d to A c t i v e c o p i n g .  These  f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Lazarus and F o l k m a n ' s (1984) theoretical  emphasis on the i n f l u e n c e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  and  p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f and response to a s t r e s s f u l empirical  situation.  They are a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  r e s e a r c h ( F l e i s h m a n , 1984; P a r k e s ,  t h a t p e r s o n a l and environmental  encounter.  1986) t h a t showed  v a r i a b l e s are i m p o r t a n t  p r e d i c t o r s o f the ways i n which an i n d i v i d u a l stressful  copes d u r i n g a  The f i n d i n g s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e  knowledge about the v a r i a b i l i t y  prior  of coping.  to  recent  Because mothers  responded to s e p a r a t i o n - o r d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t coping e f f o r t s ,  one can c o n c l u d e t h a t women cope  d i f f e r e n t l y i n coming to terms w i t h t h e i r c h i l d ' s  marital  disruption. Avoidant cooing.  Multiple regression analysis revealed  t h a t most o f the i n d i v i d u a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s between s p e c i f i c  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g p r e d i c t e d a p r i o r i significant.  were  As e x p e c t e d , low f a m i l y c o h e s i o n s c o r e s were  r e l a t e d t o the f r e q u e n t  use o f A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  This f i n d i n g  is  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Hanson e t a l . ' s (1989) work; t h a t i s , t h a t low f a m i l y c o h e s i o n p r e d i c t e d the use o f an a v o i d a n c e c o p i n g s t y l e among d i a b e t i c y o u t h s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , A v o i d a n t c o p i n g was  p r e d i c t e d by low l e v e l s of p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l ,  suggesting that  mothers who b e l i e v e they cannot shape o r i n f l u e n c e a s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r tend to f o c u s on and vent  their  e m o t i o n s , o r disengage from the s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r .  The  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t  indicates  t h a t g r e a t e r emotional s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s p r e d i c t s  the  use o f A v o i d a n t c o p i n g by m o t h e r s .  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f  the  s t a n d a r d i z e d b e t a w e i g h t s s u g g e s t s t h a t not one o f the  three  predictor v a r i a b l e s , family cohesion, perceived c o n t r o l , r e c e i v e d emotional  support,  c o p i n g than a n o t h e r .  is a better  p r e d i c t o r of Avoidant  The t h r e e v a r i a b l e s appear to  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal magnitude. findings  for perceived c o n t r o l ,  predict Both the  and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n are  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) framework.  or  theoretical  They p o s i t t h a t avoidance c o p i n g o c c u r s when t h e r e  are few p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s ( b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l ) , environmental  r e s o u r c e s ( f a m i l y s u p p o r t and commitment),  a v a i l a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l interesting,  and  during a s t r e s s f u l encounter.  but not unexpected f i n d i n g was t h a t h i g h e r  One levels  o f r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t p r e d i c t e d g r e a t e r use o f A v o i d a n t coping.  A l t h o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l l y one would expect t h a t having few  environmental  r e s o u r c e s , such as s o c i a l s u p p o r t , would be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v o i d a n c e c o p i n g , Lazarus and Folkman (1984) c o n c l u d e t h a t p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h knowledge i s too r u d i m e n t a r y  in  the ways t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t o p e r a t e s to be a b l e to theoretically  understand i t s e f f e c t s and modes o f  operation.  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e c e n t r e s e a r c h t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t too much r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t may not be helpful, ability  and may i n f a c t be d e t r i m e n t a l  to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to take a c t i o n i n a s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r (Coyne &  Delongis,  1986; Coyne, Wortman, & Lehman, 1988).  The s o c i a l  s u p p o r t f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r under the s e c t i o n Emotional Support R e c e i p t .  88 Because o f the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f the s t u d y ,  caution  must be taken i n s p e c u l a t i n g on the d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , emotional s u p p o r t ,  and a v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  family cohesion,  For example, whereas  h a v i n g fewer s u p p o r t s and commitment from o n e ' s f a m i l y may encourage mothers to withdraw from a d i v o r c e s t r e s s o r , i t may a l s o be t r u e t h a t mothers who are u s i n g a v o i d a n t c o p i n g  efforts  may be p r e s e n t i n g themselves i n ways t h a t f o s t e r l e s s  support  and commitment from f a m i l y members.  family  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  environment may c o n s t r a i n the k i n d of c o p i n g used by m o t h e r s . Mothers may not be supported i n t h e i r  attempts to a c t i v e l y cope  i n f a m i l i e s i n which a c t i v e c o p i n g i s not a c c e p t a b l e . Active coping.  For A c t i v e c o p i n g , r e c e i v e d emotional  s u p p o r t was a s i g n i f i c a n t  predictor;  t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t mothers  who are r e c e i v i n g emotional s u p p o r t from o t h e r s are u s i n g more a c t i v e ways o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e i r d i v o r c e - o r stressor.  Because o f the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h i s  the d i r e c t i o n  i n which r e c e i v e d emotional  c o p i n g i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r i s u n c e r t a i n . al.  (1987)  separation-related study,  s u p p o r t and a c t i v e Dunkel-Schetter et  suggest t h a t the way i n which a person copes p r o v i d e s  cues to the h e l p e r r e g a r d i n g the need f o r s u p p o r t . as l i k e l y t h a t a c t i v e c o p i n g may e l l i c i t  It  is  just  emotional s u p p o r t  from  o t h e r s , as r e c e i v i n g emotional s u p p o r t from o t h e r s may encourage an i n d i v i d u a l  to a c t i v e l y cope.  Support f o r the former view  comes from a s t u d y by Schwarzer and Weiner (1991) who i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of p a t i e n t s ' ways o f c o p i n g w i t h c a n c e r on s u p p o r t e r s ' w i l l i n g n e s s to p r o v i d e s u p p o r t .  They found  p a t i e n t s who a c t i v e l y coped w e l l on t h e i r own were more  likely  89 to be r e c e i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l Thus, a m o t h e r ' s  h e l p from t h e i r  instrumental  social  a c t i o n s d u r i n g an  networks. offspring's  s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e may be a major d e t e r m i n a n t  of  support  receipt. U n e x p e c t e d l y , h i g h e r l e v e l s of p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l significantly  was not  r e l a t e d to the use o f A c t i v e c o p i n g , as was  expected based on Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model; that i s , in s t r e s s f u l  situations  s t r e s s and c o p i n g  t h a t are a p p r a i s e d as  h o l d i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r change, t h e r e b y h o l d i n g p o t e n t i a l control,  an i n d i v i d u a l  d i r e c t e d at a l t e r i n g was not a s i g n i f i c a n t contrast  will  use more a c t i v e c o p i n g  the s i t u a t i o n . predictor  strategies  F i n a l l y , family  of A c t i v e coping.  to B i l l i n g s and Moos (1982)  results,  but  for  cohesion  This i s  in  consistent  w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t found f a m i l y s u p p o r t to be more significantly  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h avoidance c o p i n g than approach  c o p i n g f o r women (Holahan & Moos, In summary, the o v e r a l l  1985).  findings  i n d i c a t e t h a t mothers w i t h  fewer p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y s u p p o r t s and commitment, perceived control stressor will  over the s e p a r a t i o n - or  and l e s s  divorce-related  respond u s i n g more a v o i d a n t ways of c o p i n g .  Moreover, the amount and type o f r e c e i v e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t has implications  f o r the e x t e n t  i s used to a l l e v i a t e s t r e s s . s u p p o r t was a more i m p o r t a n t  to which A c t i v e or A v o i d a n t  As e x p e c t e d , r e c e i v e d emotional predictor  o f both A c t i v e and  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g than e i t h e r t a n g i b l e or i n f o r m a t i o n a l As C u t r o n a (1990)  coping  support.  p o s t u l a t e d , the type of s o c i a l s u p p o r t  was r e l a t e d to the n a t u r e of the l o s s e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e e n c o u n t e r .  For l o s s e s  involving  given the  90 relationships,  emotional s u p p o r t  most c r u c i a l .  It  (expressions of caring)  are  may be argued t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who r e c e i v e d  h i g h e r l e v e l s o f emotional s u p p o r t were e x p e r i e n c i n g a more s e v e r e s t r e s s o r than those respondents who r e c e i v e d lower l e v e l s of emotional support  ( B a r r e r a , 1986).  attempted to c o n t r o l  f o r s t r e s s s e v e r i t y by s c r e e n i n g  i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d not f i n d t h e i r stressful,  However, the  study  c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e  and by h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s  respond to a o n e - i t e m  measure i n d i c a t i n g how u p s e t t i n g the s e p a r a t i o n / d i v o r c e s t r e s s o r was f o r them.  Degree o f upset was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h the t h r e e types o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t ; informational,  or  emotional,  tangible.  Emotional Support R e c e i p t The f i n d i n g t h a t r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t  significantly  p r e d i c t e d the use o f both A c t i v e c o p i n g and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g deserves greater a t t e n t i o n .  These r e s u l t s l e n d s u p p o r t t o  dual n a t u r e o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t .  the  Whereas some mothers may f e e l  r e a s s u r e d by r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p r e s s i o n s of c a r i n g and comfort,  e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e mothers w i t h the c o n f i d e n c e  and s t r e n g t h to take a c t i o n , o t h e r mothers may f i n d  that  emotional o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t by o t h e r s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h ability  to problem s o l v e .  Coyne et a l .  their  (1988) suggest t h a t  p r o v i d i n g too much emotional s u p p o r t t o an i n d i v i d u a l may l e a v e the r e c i p i e n t f e e l i n g incompetent,  o r dependent on o t h e r s .  Such  i n v o l v e m e n t d i s c o u r a g e s p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and autonomy, and may r e s u l t  in withdrawal  from a s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e .  F u r t h e r , the type o f c a r i n g and concern t h a t i s g i v e n as emotional  s u p p o r t may a l s o be an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of  the  91 ways i n which a mother copes w i t h a d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d For example, C a r v e r e t a l .  (1989)  p o i n t out t h a t  stressor.  receiving  sympathy from a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e may not be a d a p t i v e , particularly  if  the f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e  f o c u s i n g on o n e ' s e m o t i o n s .  i s used as an o u t l e t  F o c u s i n g on o n e ' s  feelings,  particularly  f o r extended p e r i o d s o f t i m e , may l e a d to  anticipation  o f u n f a v o r a b l e outcomes.  Scheier's  A c c o r d i n g to C a r v e r and  (1983, 1985) s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n model, a n t i c i p a t i o n s  u n f a v o r a b l e outcomes i n a s t r e s s f u l disengagement.  Similiarly,  situation  negative aspects of  emotional  (Manne & Z a u t r a , 1989). F i n a l l y ,  amounts o f r e c e i v e d emotional recipient identified  greater if  the  R e c i p r o c i t y has been  as an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of s o c i a l s u p p o r t exchange  among o l d e r a d u l t s  (Lee, 1985).  during a s t r e s s f u l  encounter may be a l l  because i t  active  s u p p o r t may not be h e l p f u l  i s unable to r e c i p r o c a t e .  of  tend to l e a d to  i n t e r a c t i o n may a l s o p r e v e n t people from e x e r c i s i n g coping s t r a t e g i e s  for  Not b e i n g a b l e to  may t h r e a t e n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  reciprocate  the more s t r e s s f u l , s e l f - e s t e e m , and h i s or  her sense o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e and independence ( S h i n , Lehmann, & Wong, 1984). withdrawal  This in turn,  from a s t r e s s f u l  In summary, emotional  may l e a d to an  individual's  encounter. support i s more l i k e l y to be g i v e n  to  mothers i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high degree o f commitment and c l o s e n e s s . support  i s not always b e n e f i c i a l  to take a c t i o n during a s t r e s s f u l t h a t r e c e i v i n g emotional ability  However, r e c e i v e d emotional  in f a c i l i t a t i n g encounter.  It  an  individual  is  speculated  support may undermine a m o t h e r ' s  to problem s o l v e and t a k e a c t i o n , depending on the  92 n a t u r e o f s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d and on the a b i l i t y reciprocate.  o f the mother  Such f i n d i n g s u n d e r s c o r e the importance  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s o f s u p p o r t i v e  to  of  relations,  not j u s t the amount o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d , o r the l e v e l s u p p o r t p e r c e i v e d by an i n d i v i d u a l . on the q u a l i t a t i v e  of  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of support given t o ,  and  p r o v i d e d by mothers i n r e l a t i o n to the ways i n which they cope with t h e i r  c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e .  Support Given To An A d u l t C h i l d In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , g i v i n g g r e a t e r s u p p o r t t o an a d u l t c h i l d was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more f r e q u e n t use o f A c t i v e c o p i n g . G i v i n g s u p p o r t to t h e i r o f f s p r i n g d u r i n g m a r i t a l form o f c o p i n g f o r m o t h e r s .  c r i s i s may be a  The p r o v i s i o n o f s u p p o r t may a l s o  h e l p p a r e n t s deal w i t h f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s about divorce i t s e l f  (Brown, 1982).  the  G i v i n g s u p p o r t to an a d u l t  child  was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age; younger mothers gave g r e a t e r s u p p o r t to t h e i r  a d u l t c h i l d r e n than o l d e r m o t h e r s .  Considering  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of women i n t h i s study were grandmothers, t h e s e r e s u l t s are not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p a s t r e s e a r c h by Johnson (1988a, 1988b) on grandmothers.  Younger women p r o v i d e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e r v i c e s and s u p p o r t to t h e i r  a d u l t c h i l d and  young g r a n d c h i l d r e n , than o l d e r women who had o l d e r grandchildren.  It  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t age d i f f e r e n c e s  in  g i v i n g o f s u p p o r t may be r e l a t e d to aging i n g e n e r a l , and not n e c e s s a r i l y t o grandparenthood s p e c i f i c a l l y . sample o f a d u l t s aged 50 and o v e r , A n t o n u c c i  In a n a t i o n a l (1985)  o l d e r respondents reported g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y their  s o c i a l networks than younger r e s p o n d e n t s .  found t h a t  l e s s support  to  93 Grandmothers and A d u l t C h i l d S e p a r a t i o n / D i v o r c e C o n t r a r y to f i n d i n g s by Ahrons and Bowman (1982) who found t h a t most grandmothers d i d not see the d i v o r c e o f t h e i r h a v i n g an e f f e c t  on t h e i r  c h i l d as  r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r grandchild,  in  the p r e s e n t s t u d y o v e r h a l f o f the grandmothers i n d i c a t e d t h a t their  r e l a t i o n s h i p had changed as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r  s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e .  child's  A g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e (62.2%)  of  grandmothers d e s c r i b e d the change as b e i n g more d i s t a n t  and one  which meant t h a t the grandmother was l e s s i n v o l v e d w i t h her grandchildren.  S i m i l i a r to Ahrons and Bowman's (1982)  mothers o f daughters d i f f e r e d their  from mothers o f sons  r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r grandchildren.  work,  regarding  These d i f f e r e n c e s  are most l i k e l y e x p l a i n e d by the g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t y of  the  d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d daughter h a v i n g c u s t o d y o f the c h i l d r e n . Mothers o f daughters who i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n had changed were more l i k e l y t o  indicate  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p was c l o s e r and more i n v o l v e d . sons who i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  Mothers o f  their  g r a n d c h i l d r e n had changed were more l i k e l y to i n d i c a t e t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p was more d i s t a n t  and l e s s i n v o l v e d .  the  The p r e s e n t  s t u d y found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mothers o f sons and mothers o f daughters on the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , cohesion, social  family  s u p p o r t t y p e s , and p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l ,  the v a r i a b l e , degree u p s e t .  and on  S i m i l a r l y , mothers o f sons d i d  not  d i f f e r from mothers o f daughters on the use o f e i t h e r A c t i v e o r Avoidant coping.  Ahron and Bowman (1982) a l s o found no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mothers o f sons and mothers daughters i n t h e i r  of  f e e l i n g s towards t h e i r c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e , o r  in  94 their  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e f f e c t  on the l i f e  of t h e i r  child.  It  o f d i v o r c e on t h e i r  would appear t h a t gender o f an  a d u l t c h i l d i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t  variable that  mothers who are e x p e r i e n c i n g an o f f s p r i n g ' s d i v o r c e , except in r e l a t i o n  own l i v e s or  differentiates  s e p a r a t i o n or  to c o n t a c t w i t h g r a n d c h i l d r e n .  R e l a t i v e S c o r e s Versus Raw Scores Post-hoc a n a l y s i s using r e l a t i v e s c o r e s found d i f f e r e n t predictor  s c o r e s i n s t e a d o f raw  p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s between  the  v a r i a b l e s and r e l a t i v e A c t i v e or A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  Perceived control  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  associated with  both  r e l a t i v e A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s control  of  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use of r e l a t i v e A c t i v e c o p i n g , and  lower l e v e l s o f c o n t r o l Avoidant coping.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use o f  relative  None o f the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were  significantly  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r r e l a t i v e A c t i v e or A v o i d a n t c o p i n g . Thus, r e l a t i v e  s c o r e s were l e s s e f f e c t i v e  defining significant environmental  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l and  v a r i a b l e s and c o p i n g .  have found r e l a t i v e  than raw s c o r e s i n  Other s t u d i e s ,  s c o r e s to be more e f f e c t i v e  in  contrast,  than raw s c o r e s  (Folkman, L a z a r u s , P l i m l e y , & Novacek, 1987; V i t a l i a n o e t a l . , 1987).  The p r e s e n t study d i f f e r e d  from the o t h e r s i n u s i n g the  COPE s c a l e ( C a r v e r e t a l . , 1989) to a s s e s s c o p i n g  efforts,  i n s t e a d o f the Ways of Coping s c a l e ( L a z a r u s & Folkman, 1984). The COPE s c a l e has equal numbers o f items i n each s u b s c a l e thereby e l i m i n a t i n g differences  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b i a s r e s u l t i n g  from  i n s u b s c a l e items when u s i n g the raw s c o r e method.  A s m a l l e r range o f s u b s c a l e s i n r e l a t i o n  to t o t a l  coping  6 out o f 13 s u b s c a l e s ) was used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n  (i.e., contrast  95 to Folkman e t a l . (1987) who used f i v e s u b s c a l e s out o f a t o t a l of e i g h t ,  and to V i t a l i a n o e t a l . (1987) who used one s u b s c a l e  out o f t h r e e .  T h i s may account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n  i n t h a t r e l a t i v e s c o r e s may d e f i n e s i g n i f i c a n t more c l e a r l y when a f u l l e r r e l a t i o n to t o t a l  results  relationships  range o f c o p i n g s u b s c a l e s are used i n  coping.  L i m i t a t i o n s To The Study Considered together, that environmental  the f i n d i n g s from t h i s s t u d y suggest  v a r i a b l e s l i k e emotional  s u p p o r t and f a m i l y  c o h e s i o n , and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s l i k e p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , each contribute  u n i q u e l y to the p r e d i c t i o n o f m o t h e r s ' use o f  Avoidant coping.  Mothers' a c t i v e coping e f f o r t s  by g r e a t e r r e c e i v e d emotional s u p p o r t .  are p r e d i c t e d  The g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y of  these f i n d i n g s are l i m i t e d by the s e l f - s e l e c t e d n a t u r e o f sample, however, the f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t t h a t adds to c u r r e n t cope d u r i n g m a r i t a l  the  d a t a base  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the ways o l d e r mothers c r i s i s i n the f a m i l y .  The p o p u l a t i o n  r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y was p r i m a r i l y c a u c a s i o n , m i d d l e and u r b a n . particularly  C e r t a i n mothers may be u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d , those from o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s , lower s o c i o e c o n o m i c  backgrounds, and r u r a l  areas.  A second l i m i t a t i o n design.  to t h i s s t u d y i s r e l a t e d to the  Data r e s u l t s were based on s e l f - r e p o r t  questionnaire. information  class,  study  answers to a  S e v e r a l of the measures i n v o l v e d r e c a l l i n g  o v e r the p a s t y e a r t h a t may be prone to b i a s  stemming from r e c e n c y e f f e c t s .  However, Krause (1989)  e v i d e n c e t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s have l i t t l e i n r e c a l l i n g s t r e s s f u l events t h a t are i m p o r t a n t  provides difficulty  to them, and  96 that i t  is l i k e l y that i f  s o c i a l s u p p o r t and the ways i n which  i n d i v i d u a l s coped w i t h the event i s i m p o r t a n t stress,  then they too w i l l  be r e c a l l e d .  mothers i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l  in  alleviating  In a d d i t i o n ,  several  comments how v i v i d  their  c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e was to them. A third limitation  to the s t u d y i s t h a t o n l y  three  dimensions o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t were a s s e s s e d ; types o f r e c e i v e d social  support,  a measure o f p e r c e i v e d f a m i l y s u p p o r t ,  s u p p o r t p r o v i s i o n to an a d u l t c h i l d .  and  R e c e i v e d s u p p o r t measures  a s s e s s the amount of s u p p o r t t h a t r e c i p i e n t s r e c e i v e d , not what they may have wanted, or needed. t h a t they do not t e l l  These measures are l i m i t e d  the r e s e a r c h e r whether the  in  recipient  a c t i v e l y sought s u p p o r t o r whether the r e c i p i e n t p a s s i v e l y a c c e p t e d s u p p o r t t h a t was g i v e n . dimensions have been i d e n t i f i e d (i.e.,  Other i m p o r t a n t i n the r e s e a r c h  negative support i n t e r a c t i o n ,  investigating  investigating  s u p p o r t s h o u l d i n c l u d e s e v e r a l measures t h a t tap two or  three aspects of s o c i a l support r e l a t i o n s , social  that  s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e .  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have argued t h a t s t u d i e s social  literature  support s a t i s f a c t i o n )  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a s t u d y mothers c o p i n g w i t h an o f f s p r i n g ' s  support  in recognition  that  s u p p o r t o p e r a t e s i n complex ways (Schwarzer & L e p p i n ,  1991; W i l l s ,  1985).  Mothers who are u s i n g more a v o i d a n t ways o f c o p i n g , and who f i n d the s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e o f t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d may be r e l u c t a n t study.  to come forward and p a r t i c i p a t e  This fourth l i m i t a t i o n  stigmatizing  in a research  may mean t h a t the sample o f  mothers i n t h i s study u n d e r e s t i m a t e s the number o f mothers who  97 are u s i n g a v o i d a n t ways o f c o p i n g to come to terms w i t h adult c h i l d ' s marital  disruption.  their  T h i s sample may a l s o  u n d e r e s t i m a t e those mothers who f e e l d i s t r e s s e d because o f p e r c e i v e d n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s about d i v o r c e t h a t may be r e i n f o r c e d by f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ,  and by s o c i e t y at  large.  A f i f t h l i m i t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the f o c u s o f the It  study.  s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the s t u d y f o c u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on  the i n d i v i d u a l ,  the i d e n t i f i e d  mother,  and her e x p e r i e n c e of  h a v i n g a son o r daughter s e p a r a t e or d i v o r c e i n the f a m i l y .  The  s t u d y d i d not f o c u s on the f a m i l y as a whole, or on the mother as p a r t o f a l a r g e r f a m i l y s y s t e m .  F a m i l y i s s u e s were o n l y  i m p o r t a n t as they r e l a t e d to a m o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d ' s marital w i t h i n the  disruption,  and the s u p p o r t o f f e r e d  to her  family.  Finally,  because the p r e s e n t study i s c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l , no  c o n c l u s i o n s can be made w i t h r e s p e c t to c a u s a l i t y . one cannot say whether m o t h e r s ' emotional  her  s u p p o r t from o t h e r s ,  For example,  use o f a c t i v e c o p i n g or whether emotional  ellicits support  g i v e n by o t h e r s causes mothers to cope i n more a c t i v e ways. Moreover, i t  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n  a c t i v e ways of c o p i n g and emotional uncontrolled variable.  between  s u p p o r t i s due t o some t h i r d  Other p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e s t h a t have been  r e s e a r c h e d i n p a s t c o p i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e optimism e t a l . , 1986), e x t r a v e r s i o n (Kobasa & P u c c e t t i ,  (Scheier  ( P a r k e s , 1986), and h a r d i n e s s  1983).  F u t u r e Research The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study p o i n t to a number o f areas future research.  for  For one, the q u e s t i o n o f whether A c t i v e or  Avoidant coping i s b e n e f i c i a l  to mothers or l e a d s to  p o s t - d i v o r c e adjustment w a r r a n t s  investigation.  poorer  Theoretically,  the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t make up A v o i d a n t c o p i n g are c o n s i d e r e d to be l e s s a d a p t i v e than those s t r a t e g i e s t h a t make up A c t i v e c o p i n g ( C a r v e r et a l . , 1989). indication  There i s some  t h a t A v o i d a n t c o p i n g may be l e s s h e l p f u l  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e i n g more upset about the s e p a r a t i o n - or stressor  (r = . 5 0 ) .  for  mothers;  associated with  divorce-related  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t i n c l u d e s a measure of  adjustment would help to determine what ways o f c o p i n g are beneficial  t o mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g a son or d a u g h t e r ' s  marital  disruption. One f i n d i n g o f i n t e r e s t was t h a t mothers who had had a p r e v i o u s d i v o r c e themselves r e c e i v e d lower amounts o f  emotional  s u p p o r t and had lower l e v e l s o f f a m i l y c o h e s i o n than mothers who had had no p r i o r d i v o r c e h i s t o r y . have a l r e a d y gone through t h e i r need as much s u p p o r t  (either  a s s i s t them through t h e i r  It  may be t h a t mothers who  own e x p e r i e n c e o f d i v o r c e do not  emotional  or from t h e i r  c h i l d ' s experience.  The impact  having e x p e r i e n c e d a p r i o r d i v o r c e on a m o t h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f an o f f s p r i n g ' s investigation.  marital  Pearson (1988)  social  support,  to  of  current  d i s r u p t i o n warrants  found t h a t a p a r e n t ' s  e x p e r i e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  family)  further  separation  r e l a t e d to ways o f c o p i n g ,  however having a high percentage o f people  or in  o n e ' s s u p p o r t network who a l s o had a c h i l d who was s e p a r a t e d was r e l a t e d t o l e s s s t r e s s r e a c t i v e n e s s , and g r e a t e r use o f coping.  Respondents' a d d i t i o n a l  t h a t i n c l u d e d r e f e r e n c e s to t h e i r  comments i n the p r e s e n t  active study  previous d i v o r c e suggests that  99 f o r some mothers having e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r own d i v o r c e made t h e i r c h i l d ' s marital  disruption  mothers t h e i r o f f s p r i n g ' s f e e l i n g s making t h e i r stressful  f o r them.  clarification  l e s s s t r e s s f u l , whereas f o r  other  s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e brought up p a s t  c h i l d ' s divorce experience a l l F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed to  the more  provide  as to the impact o f p r i o r d i v o r c e on a m o t h e r ' s  r e c e i v i n g of s o c i a l support, c h i l d ' s marital  and on her ways o f c o p i n g w i t h her  disruption.  A n o t h e r f i n d i n g of i n t e r e s t was t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t  group  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between s t r e s s o r t y p e s ; t h a t i s , t h a t  the  s t r e s s o r , w o r r y i n g about y o u r a d u l t c h i l d , was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h higher received informational  support,  and f a m i l y c o h e s i o n , and  lower upset s c o r e s compared w i t h o t h e r s t r e s s o r s . f o r such f i n d i n g s  is unclear, p a r t i c u l a r l y  The reason  because the c a t e g o r y ,  o t h e r s t r e s s o r , i s made up o f a d i v e r s e range o f s t r e s s o r t y p e s . P o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t s t r e s s o r type was not significantly  r e l a t e d to A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  Such f i n d i n g s are i n  c o n t r a s t t o p a s t r e s e a r c h t h a t found s t r e s s o r type to be a significant Lazarus,  p r e d i c t o r of d i f f e r e n t coping s t r a t e g i e s  1980; P a r k e s ,  1986).  (Folkman &  These f i n d i n g s may r e f l e c t  the  complex n a t u r e of the e x p e r i e n c e of having a son o r daughter separate or d i v o r c e .  S e v e r a l s t r e s s o r types d e s c r i b e d by  mothers d i d not always f a l l mothers had d i f f i c u l t i e s  into d i s t i n c t  identifying  c a t e g o r i e s , and some  a s i n g l e s t r e s s o r out  what they p e r c e i v e d as being a m u l t i p l e  of  stressor experience.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t h a t f o c u s e s on e x p l i c i t l y c a t e g o r i z i n g s t r e s s o r e p i s o d e s t h a t mothers e x p e r i e n c e , i n o r d e r  100 to c l a r i f y  the a s s o c i a t i o n between s t r e s s o r t y p e , and c o p i n g  p r o c e s s e s used by mothers o f s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d Investigating  offspring.  the a s s o c i a t i o n between age and  different  dimensions o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t i s a f u r t h e r a r e a f o r research.  additional  Because d i v o r c e may be more s t i g m a t i z i n g f o r  older  m o t h e r s , they may not reach out f o r s u p p o r t as r e a d i l y as younger m o t h e r s .  A l t h o u g h t h i s study found  nonsignificant  c o r r e l a t i o n s between age and r e c e i v e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t t y p e s , age was s i g n i f i c a n t l y an a d u l t c h i l d  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the amount o f s u p p o r t g i v e n to  ( r = - . 3 1 , rj<.01).  These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h A n t o n u c c i ' s (1985) study on a n a t i o n a l aged 50 and o v e r .  sample o f  Whereas o l d e r respondents r e p o r t e d  adults providing  l e s s s u p p o r t to o t h e r s than younger r e s p o n d e n t s , no age d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n amount of r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t . Finally,  because l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on t h i s  p o p u l a t i o n group w i t h r e s p e c t to ways o f c o p i n g , and because of the s e l f - s e l e c t e d n a t u r e of t h i s sample, i t to r e p l i c a t e the p r e s e n t study to see i f between p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n sample o f m o t h e r s .  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  future longitudinal  Implications  found  research  d a t a on the p r o c e s s o f c o p i n g w i t h an  a d u l t c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e , and the r o l e environmental  important  v a r i a b l e s hold t r u e on another  In a d d i t i o n ,  could provide important  would be  of  and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s on c o p i n g over t i m e . for Counsellors  This study hypothesized that f a m i l y cohesion, perceived control,  and s o c i a l s u p p o r t t y p e s , would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  use o f two f u n c t i o n a l l y Overall,  different  approaches to c o p i n g .  the r e s u l t s p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r the h y p o t h e s e s .  101 These f i n d i n g s  have s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r a d u l t and f a m i l y  c o u n s e l l o r s who work w i t h women who may be e x p e r i e n c i n g d i v o r c e o f an o f f s p r i n g .  D i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n o f an  can have a number o f d i f f e r e n t by t h i s  study.  concerns f o r m o t h e r s ,  Given t h a t t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n  the  offspring as r e v e a l e d  that  s e p a r a t i o n - or d i v o r c e - r e l a t e d s t r e s s o r s d i f f e r  on how u p s e t t i n g  they might be to mothers,  to  it  would be i m p o r t a n t  delineate  what a s p e c t o f the d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e i s particularly  d i s t r e s s i n g to the c l i e n t .  One outcome o f  the  p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t was unexpected was the number o f mothers who still  found some a s p e c t of t h e i r  s t r e s s f u l , years a f t e r  c h i l d ' s divorce  currently  the d i v o r c e had a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d .  i s consistent with p r i o r  This  r e s e a r c h t h a t found a p e r c e n t a g e o f  mothers whose d i s t r e s s c o n t i n u e d y e a r s a f t e r d i v o r c e d ( J o h n s o n , E . S . , 1981).  their  Such a f i n d i n g  c h i l d had  u n d e r s c o r e s the  importance of v i e w i n g d i v o r c e i n the f a m i l y as a p r o c e s s , not an event.  It  s h o u l d not be assumed by a c o u n s e l l o r t h a t an a d u l t  c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e s h o u l d no l o n g e r be o f concern a mother i f some c u r r e n t  it  o c c u r r e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago.  family  There may s t i l l  mothers use t o deal w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e . c o p i n g r e p e r t o i r e s may be b e n e f i c i a l  effective  individual  f o r those mothers who do  p r e s e n t ways of c o p i n g h e l p f u l .  intervention  coping  Broadening  In d e s i g n i n g an  to a l l e v i a t e a c l i e n t ' s d i s t r e s s ,  be e s p e c i a l l y e f f i c a c i o u s to a s s e s s the c l i e n t ' s r e s p e c t to s o c i a l support from f a m i l y or f r i e n d s , client's  be  i s s u e s stemming from the d i s s o l v e d m a r r i a g e .  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n to the types o f  not f i n d t h e i r  for  i t may  resources with as w e l l  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the amount of r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t  as the they  102 are g e t t i n g . the c l i e n t  Similiarly,  a s s e s s i n g the amount o f s u p p o r t  i s g i v i n g to her a d u l t c h i l d i s i m p o r t a n t  determining  if  child.  C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d be aware o f how much c o n t r o l they have over the s t r e s s f u l  s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e . less control upsetting,  aspect of t h e i r  child's  Given t h a t t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n  may be i m p o r t a n t  For example, f o r those mothers who f e e l  l i t t l e control it  that  to p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s o r ways t h a t  would i n c r e a s e a m o t h e r ' s sense of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l  divorce,  mothers  i s r e l a t e d to e x p e r i e n c i n g the d i v o r c e as more  it  efficacy.  of  i s r e c e i v i n g , and the amount o f s u p p o r t she i s  g i v i n g to her a d u l t  feel  in  t h e r e i s an imbalance between the amount  support a c l i e n t  that  over t h e i r  and s e l f they have  a d u l t c h i l d ' s r e t u r n home a f t e r a  may be b e n e f i c i a l  to look a t ways i n which  communication can be enhanced between mother and a d u l t  child.  T h i s may i n c l u d e drawing up household p o l i c i e s , d e v e l o p i n g a m o t h e r ' s a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and h e l p i n g her to c l a r i f y the f a m i l y .  Suggestions for appropriate  roles within  a c t i o n t h a t a mother  can t a k e may h e l p to reduce her f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , and g i v e her g r e a t e r sense of p e r s o n a l  control.  D i v o r c e i n s o c i e t y has become f o r many f a m i l i e s a new way of l i f e .  Research and c l i n i c a l  the d i v o r c i n g c o u p l e and t h e i r  attention  has l a r g e l y focused on  c h i l d r e n , with l i t t l e  attention  g i v e n to o t h e r f a m i l y members, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the mother of  divorcing adult.  emotional,  financial,  Y e t , t h e r e may be s e v e r a l  l e g a l or k i n s h i p i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g  the p r o c e s s o f her o f f s p r i n g ' s  marital  breakup.  a mother  the  during  The ways i n  which a mother copes and a c c e s s e s s u p p o r t s f o r h e r s e l f  during  t h i s p r o c e s s may p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e , not o n l y i n her own adjustment to m a r i t a l as w e l 1 .  d i s r u p t i o n , but i n her f a m i l y ' s  adjustment  104 References A h r o n s , C . R . , & Bowman, M.E. (1982). Changes i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o l l o w i n g divorce of adult c h i l d : Grandmother's p e r c e p t i o n s . J o u r n a l of D i v o r c e . 5, 4 9 - 6 8 . A l d w i n , C M . , & Revenson, T . A . (1987). Does c o p i n g help? A r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between c o p i n g and mental health. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 53, 337-348. A n t o n u c c i , T. (1985). P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l support and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . In R. B i n s t o c k & E. Shanas ( E d s . ) , Handbook o f aging and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (pp. 9 4 - 1 2 8 ) . New York: Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d . Averill J.R. (1973). its relationship 286-303.  P e r s o n a l c o n t r o l over a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i and to s t r e s s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 80,  Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. NJ: Prentice-Hall.  Englewood C l i f f s ,  B a r r e r a , M. (1986). D i s t i n c t i o n s between s o c i a l s u p p o r t c o n c e p t s , measures and models. American J o u r n a l of Community P s y c h o l o g y . 14, 4 1 3 - 4 4 5 . B a r r e r a , M . , S a n d l e r , I., & Ramsay, T. (1981). Preliminary development o f a s c a l e of s o c i a l s u p p o r t : S t u d i e s on college students. American J o u r n a l o f Community P s y c h o l o g y . 9, 4 3 5 - 4 4 7 . B a r r y , K . L . , & F l e m i n g , M.F. (1990). Family cohesion, e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and c o n f l i c t i n a l c o h o l i c f a m i l i e s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n . 8 5 . 8 1 - 8 7 . B e l l e , D. (1991). Gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s o c i a l moderators of s t r e s s . In A. Monat & R . S . Lazarus ( E d s . ) , S t r e s s and c o p i n g (pp. 2 5 8 - 2 7 4 ) . New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Berman, W . H . , & Turk, D.C. (1981). Problems and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . and the F a m i l y . 4 3 , 179-189.  Adaptation to d i v o r c e : Journal of Marriage  B i l l i n g s , A . G . , & Moos, R.H. (1981). The r o l e o f c o p i n g responses and and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n a t t e n u a t i n g the of l i f e events. J o u r n a l of B e h a v i o r a l M e d i c i n e . 4, 139-157.  stress  B i l l i n g s , A . G . , & Moos, R . H . (1982). F a m i l y environments and adaptation: A c l i n i c a l l y applicable typology. American J o u r n a l o f F a m i l y Therapy. 10, 2 6 - 3 8 .  B i l l i n g s , A . G . , & Moos, R . H . (1984). C o p i n g , s t r e s s and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s among a d u l t s w i t h u n i p o l a r d e p r e s s i o n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 46, 8 7 7 - 8 9 1 . B o l g e r , N. (1990). Coping as a p e r s o n a l i t y p r o c e s s : A prospective study. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 59, 525-537. Borg, W.R., & G a l l , introduction.  M.D. (1989). Educational research: New Y o r k : Longman.  An  Brown, E.M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . D i v o r c e and the extended f a m i l y : A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . J o u r n a l o f D i v o r c e . 5, 159-171. Brown, M.A. (1986). S o c i a l s u p p o r t d u r i n g pregnancy: A u n i d i m e n s i o n a l or m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t . Nursing R e s e a r c h . 35, 4 - 9 . C a r p e n t e r , P . J . (1984). The use of i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l family ratings: M e t h o d o l o g i c a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology. 40(2), 505-512. C a r v e r , C . S . , & S c h e i e r , M.F. (1983). A c o n t r o l - t h e o r y model o f normal b e h a v i o r , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r models o f s e l f management. In P . C . K e n d a l l ( E d . ) , Advances i n c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h and t h e r a p y (pp. 1 2 7 - 1 9 4 ) . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s . C a r v e r , C . S . , & S c h e i e r , M.F. (1985). Self-consciousness, e x p e c t a n c i e s , and the c o p i n g p r o c e s s . In T . M . F i e l d , P.M. McCabe, & N. Schneiderman ( E d s . ) , S t r e s s and c o o i n g (pp. 3 0 5 - 3 3 0 ) . H i l l s d a l e , N J : Laurence Erlbaum Associates. Carver, C . S . , S c h e i e r , M . F . , & Weintraub, J . K . (1989). Assessing coping s t r a t e g i e s : A t h e o r e t i c a l l y based approach. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 56, 2 6 7 - 2 8 3 . C h e r l i n , A . J . , & Furstenberg, F.F. (1986). grandparent. New Y o r k : B a s i c Books.  The new American  Chiriboga, D.A., Jenkins, G . , & Bailey J . (1983). S t r e s s and c o p i n g among h o s p i c e n u r s e s : Test o f an a n a l y t i c model. N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h . 32, 294-300. Cohen, F. (1991). Measurement o f c o p i n g . In A. Monat & R . S . Lazarus ( E d s . ) , S t r e s s and c o o i n g : An a n t h o l o g y (pp. 2282 4 4 ) . New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Cohen, J . , & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/ c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s f o r the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s (2nd e d . ) . H i l l s i d e , N . J . : Erlbaum.  106 Cohen, F . , & L a z a r u s , R . S . (1983). Coping and a d a p t a t i o n and h e a l t h and i l l n e s s . In D. Mechanic ( E d . ) , Handbook o f h e a l t h , h e a l t h c a r e and the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s ( D P . 6086 3 5 ) . N e w York: Free P r e s s . Cohen, S . , & W i l l s , T . A . (1985). S t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t and the buffering hypothesis. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 98, 310-357. Compas, B . E . , M a l c a r n e , V . L . , & Fondacaro, K.M. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . w i t h s t r e s s f u l events i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n and young adolescents. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 56, 4 0 5 - 4 1 1 .  Coping  C o s t a , P . T . , & McCrae, R.R. (1989). P e r s o n a l i t y , s t r e s s and coping: Some l e s s o n s from a decade o f r e s e a r c h . In K . S . M a r k i d e s & C . L . Cooper ( E d s . ) , A g i n g . S t r e s s and H e a l t h (pp. 2 6 9 - 2 8 5 ) . New Y o r k : John W i l e y . Coyne, J . C . , & D e L o n g i s , A. (1986). Going beyond s o c i a l support: The r o l e of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a d a p t a t i o n . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 54, 454-460. —  Coyne, J . C . , Wortman, C . B . , & Lehman, D.R. (1988). The o t h e r s i d e of support: Emotional o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t and m i s c a r r i e d helping. In B . H . G o t t l i e b ( E d . ) , M a r s h a l i n g s o c i a l support (pp. 3 0 5 - 3 2 9 ) . B e v e r l y H i l l s , CA: Sage. C r o n k i t e , R . C . , & Moos, R . H . (1984). The r o l e o f p r e d i s p o s i n g and moderating f a c t o r s i n the s t r e s s - i l l n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 25, 3 7 2 - 3 9 3 . C u t r o n a , C . E . (1990). optimal matching. Psychology. 9(1),  S t r e s s and s o c i a l s u p p o r t - In s e a r c h o f J o u r n a l of S o c i a l and C l i n i c a l 3-14.  C u t r o n a , C , R u s s e l l , D., & Rose J . (1986). S o c i a l s u p p o r t and a d a p t a t i o n t o s t r e s s by the e l d e r l y . J o u r n a l o f Psychology and A g i n g . 1, 4 7 - 5 4 . D u n k e l - S c h e t t e r , C , Folkman, S . , & L a z a r u s , R . S . (1987). C o r r e l a t e s of s o c i a l s u p p o r t r e c e i p t . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 5 3 , 7 1 - 8 0 . F e l t o n , B . J . , & Revenson, T . A . (1984). Coping w i t h c h r o n i c illness: A study of i l l n e s s c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and the i n f l u e n c e o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s on p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 52, 343-353. Fleishman, J . A . (1984). P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o p i n g patterns. J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 25, 2 2 9 244.  107 Folkman, S . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . An approach to the measurement o f c o p i n g . J o u r n a l o f O c c u p a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r . 3, 9 5 - 1 0 7 . Folkman, S. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P e r s o n a l c o n t r o l and s t r e s s and c o p i n g processes: A t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 46, 8 3 9 - 8 5 2 . Folkman, S . , & L a z a r u s , R . S . (1980). An a n a l y s i s o f c o p i n g i n a m i d d l e - a g e d community sample. J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 2 1 , 219-239. Folkman, S . , & L a z a r u s , R . S . (1985). I f i t changes i t must be a process: Study of emotion and c o p i n g d u r i n g t h r e e s t a g e s of a college examination. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 48, 150-170. Folkman, S . , L a z a r u s , R . S . , D u n k e l - S c h e t t e r , C , D e L o n g i s , A . , & Gruen, R . J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Dynamics o f a s t r e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r : C o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l , c o p i n g , and encounter outcomes. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 50, 992-1003. Folkman, S . , L a z a r u s , R . S . , Gruen, R . J . , & D e L o n g i s , A. (1986). A p p r a i s a l , c o p i n g , h e a l t h s t a t u s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 50. 571-579. Folkman, S . , L a z a r u s , R . S . , P l i m l e y , S . , & Novacek, J . (1987). Age d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r e s s and c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s . P s v c h o l o g y and A g i n g . 2, 171-184. Fondacaro, M . R . , & Moos, R . H . (1987). S o c i a l s u p p o r t and coping: A l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s . American J o u r n a l o f Community P s y c h o l o g y . 14, 653-673. Fondacaro, M . R . , & Moos, R . H . (1989). L i f e s t r e s s o r s and coping: A l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s among depressed and nondepressed a d u l t s . J o u r n a l of Community P s y c h o l o g y . 17_, 330-340. F o r s y t h e C . J . , & Compas B . E . (1987). I n t e r a c t i o n of cognitive a p p r a i s a l s o f s t r e s s f u l events and c o p i n g : T e s t i n g the goodness o f f i t h y p o t h e s i s . C o g n i t i v e Therapy and R e s e a r c h . 11, 4 7 3 - 4 8 5 . Friedman, L. (1990). Why c a n ' t I s l e e p at Nana's any more? Death, d i v o r c e and the grandparents^ South Melbourne: Matchbooks. F u l l e r , S . S . , & K a r l s o n , S . M . (1981). S o c i a l support, personal autonomy, and the w e l l - b e i n g of family-member c a r e g i v e r s . In I . G . Mauksch ( E d . ) , P r i m a r y c a r e : A contemporary n u r s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e (pp. 9 1 - 1 1 0 T London: Grune & S t r a t t o n .  108 George, L . K . (1989). S t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t , and d e p r e s s i o n over the l i f e - c o u r s e . In K . S . Markides & C . L . Cooper ( E d s . ) , A g i n g , s t r e s s and h e a l t h (pp. 2 4 1 - 2 6 7 ) . New Y o r k : John W i l e y . George, L . K . , B l a z e r , D . G . , Hughes, D . C . , & F o w l e r , N. (1989). S o c i a l s u p p o r t and the outcome o f major d e p r e s s i o n . British J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y . 154. 4 7 8 - 4 8 5 . Gladstone, J.W. (1988). P e r c e i v e d changes i n grandmotherg r a n d c h i l d r e l a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g a c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or divorce. G e r o n t o l o g i s t . 28, 6 6 - 7 2 . Goldstein M.J. (1973). I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n response to stress. American J o u r n a l o f Community P s y c h o l o g y . I, 113-137. Gore, S . (1981). S t r e s s - b u f f e r i n g functions of s o c i a l support: An a p p r a i s a l and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h methods. In B . S . Dohrenwend & B . P . Dohrenwend ( E d s . ) , S t r e s s f u l l i f e events and t h e i r c o n t e x t s (pp. 2 0 2 - 2 2 2 ) . New Y o r k : Prodist. G o t t l i e b , B.H. (1981). S o c i a l networks and s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n community mental h e a l t h . In B . H . G o t t l i e b ( E d . j , S o c i a l networks and s o c i a l s u p p o r t (pp. 1 1 - 4 2 ) . Beverly H i l l s : Sage. G o t t l i e b , D.W., G o t t l i e b , I . B . , & S l a v i n , M.A. (1988). What to do when your son or daughter d i v o r c e s . Toronto: Bantam Books. Hagestad, G . O . , Smyer, M . A . , & S t i e r m a n , K. (1980). The impact o f d i v o r c e i n m i d d l e age. In R. Cohen, S . Weissman, & B. C o h l e r ( E d s . ) , P a r e n t h o o d : A psvchodvnamic p e r s p e c t i v e (pp. 247-262). New Y o r k : G u i l f o r d P r e s s . Hanson, C . L . , C i g r a n g , J . A . , H a r r i s , M . A . , C a r l e , D . L . , R e l y e a , G . , & Burghen, G . A . (1989). Coping s t y l e s i n youths w i t h insulin-dependent diabetes n i e l l i t u s . Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 57. 6 4 4 - 6 5 1 . H e l l e r , K . . & Mansbach, W.E. (1984). The m u l t i f a c e t e d nature s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n a community sample of e l d e r l y women. Journal of S o c i a l Issues. 40(4), 99-112.  of  Henderson, A . S . (1984). I n t e r p r e t i n g the e v i d e n c e on s o c i a l support. S o c i a l P s y c h i a t r y . 19, 4 9 - 5 2 . H e r t h , K. (1990). R e l a t i o n s h i p o f hope, c o p i n g s t y l e s , c o n c u r r e n t l o s s e s and s e t t i n g to g r i e f r e s o l u t i o n . Research i n N u r s i n g H e a l t h . 1 3 ( 2 ) , 109-117. H o l a h a n , C . J . , & Moos, R.H. (1983). The q u a l i t y o f s o c i a l support: Measures o f f a m i l y and work r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 22, 157-162.  109 Holahan, C . J . , & Moos, R . H . (1985). L i f e s t r e s s and h e a l t h : P e r s o n a l i t y , c o p i n g , and f a m i l y s u p p o r t i n s t r e s s resistence. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 49, 739-747. H o l a h a n , C . J . , & Moos, R.H. (1987). P e r s o n a l and c o n t e x t u a l determinants of coping s t r a t e g i e s . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 52, 9 4 6 - 9 5 5 . House, J . S . (1981). Work s t r e s s and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . MA: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y .  Reading,  H y a t t , R., & Kaslow, F. (1985). The impact o f c h i l d r e n s ' d i v o r c e on p a r e n t s : And some c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . Journal o f D i v o r c e . 9, 7 9 - 9 2 . I I f i e l d , F.W. (1980). Understanding m a r i t a l s t r e s s o r s : The importance o f c o p i n g s t y l e . The J o u r n a l o f Nervous and Mental D i s e a s e . 168. 3 / 5 - 3 8 1 . J a l o w i e c , A. (1987). J a l o w i e c Coping S c a l e ( r e v i s e d ) . Unpublished manuscript. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Chicago. Johnson, C . L . (1988a). A c t i v e and l a t e n t f u n c t i o n s o f g r a n d p a r e n t i n g d u r i n g the d i v o r c e p r o c e s s . Gerontologist. 28, 185-191. Johnson, C . L . Press.  (1988b).  J o h n s o n , E . S . (1981). c h i l d ' s divorce.  Ex F a m i l i a .  London:  Rutgers  Older mother's perceptions of G e r o n t o l o g i s t . 2 1 . 395-401  University their  Johnson, E . S . , & V i n i c k , B.H. (1982). Support o f the parent when an a d u l t son or daughter d i v o r c e s . Journal of Divorce. 5, 6 9 - 7 7 . Kobasa, S . O . , & P u c c e t t i , M.C. (1983). P e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n s t r e s s r e s i s t a n c e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology. 45, 839-850. K r a u s e , N. (1986). S o c i a l s u p p o r t , s t r e s s , and w e l 1 - b e i n g among o l d e r a d u l t s . J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y . 4 1 , 512-519. K r a u s e , N. (1987a). Chronic f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n , s o c i a l support, and d e p r e s s i v e symptoms among o l d e r a d u l t s . P s y c h o l o g y and A g i n g . 2 , 185-192. K r a u s e , N. (1987b). L i f e s t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t , and s e l f - e s t e e m i n an e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g y and A g i n g . 2 , 349-356. K r a u s e , N. (1987c). S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l s u p p o r t and s e l f - r a t e d health in older adults. The G e r o n t o l o g i s t . 27, 3 0 1 - 3 0 8 .  110 K r a u s e , N. (1987d). U n d e r s t a n d i n g the s t r e s s p r o c e s s : Linking s o c i a l s u p p o r t w i t h l o c u s of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s . Journal of G e r o n t o l o g y . 42, 589-593. K r a u s e , N. (1989). Issues of measurement and a n a l y s i s i n s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t , aging and h e a l t h . In K . S . M a r k i d e s & C . L . Cooper ( E d s . ) , A g i n g , s t r e s s and h e a l t h (pp. 4 3 - 6 6 ) . New Y o r k : John W i l e y . K r a u s e , N . , L i a n g , J . , & K e i t h , V. (1990). Personality, s u p p o r t , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s i n l a t e r l i f e . P s y c h o l o g y and A g i n g . 5, 315-326.  social  K r a u s e , N . , & M a r k i d e s , K. (1990). Measuring s o c i a l s u p p o r t among o l d e r a d u l t s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Aging and Human Development. 3 0 ( 1 ) , 3 7 - 5 3 . L a z a r u s , R . S . , & Folkman. S . (1984). c o o i n g (pp. 3 2 8 - 3 3 3 ) . New Y o r k :  Stress, appraisal Springer.  and  L a z a r u s , R . S . , & L a u n i e r , R. (1978). Stress-related t r a n s a c t i o n s between person and the e n v i r o n m e n t . In L . A . P e r v i n & M. Lewis ( E d s . ) , P e r s p e c t i v e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l p s v c h o l o g y (pp. 2 8 7 - 3 2 7 ) . New Y o r k : Plenum. Lee, G . R . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . K i n s h i p and s o c i a l s u p p o r t o f the e l d e r l y : The case o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Ageing and S o c i e t y . 5, 19L e s s e r , E . K . , & Comet, J . J . (1987). Help and h i n d r a n c e : Parents of d i v o r c i n g c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f M a r i t a l and F a m i l y Therapy. 13, 197-202. Lin,  N. (1986). Conceptualizing s o c i a l support. In N. L i n , A. Dean & W. Ensel ( E d s . ) , S o c i a l s u p p o r t , l i f e e v e n t s and d e p r e s s i o n (pp. 1 7 - 3 0 ) . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s .  L o h r , M . J . , E s s e x , M . J . , & K l e i n , M.H. (1988). The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o p i n g responses t o p h y s i c a l h e a l t h s t a t u s and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n among o l d e r women. J o u r n a l o f Gerontology. 43, 54-60. Long, B . C . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . R e l a t i o n between c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s , s e x typed t r a i t s , and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : A comparison o f male and female managers. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . 37, 185-194. Manne, S . L . , & Z a u t r a , A . J . (1989). Spouse c r i t i c i s m and support: T h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c o p i n g and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment among women w i t h rheumatoid a r t h r i t i s . Journal o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 56. 608-617. Matthews, S . H . , & S p r e y , J . (1984). grandparenthood: An e x p l o r a t o r y 24, 4 1 - 4 7 .  The impact o f d i v o r c e on study. Gerontologist.  Ill M a t t l i n , J . A . , Wethington, E . , & K e s s l e r , R.C. (1990). S i t u a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c o p i n g and c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 3 1 , 103-122. Maynard, P . , Maynard, N . , McCubbin, H . I . , & Shao, D. (1980). F a m i l y l i f e and the p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n : Coping p a t t e r n s wives employ i n managing j o b s t r e s s and the f a m i l y environment. F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s . 29, 4 9 5 - 5 0 1 . McCrae, R.R. (1982). Age d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use o f c o p i n g mechanisms. J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y . 3Z, 4 5 4 - 4 6 0 . McCubbin, H . I . , Maynard, P . E . , & Maynard, N . E . (1978). Inventory of coping s t r a t e g i e s . S t . P a u l , MN: Department o f F a m i l y S o c i a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a . Menaghan, E. (1982). Measuring c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s : a n a l y s i s o f m a r i t a l problems and c o p i n g e f f o r t s . H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 2 3 , 220-234.  A panel Journal of  Moos, R. (1988). L i f e s t r e s s o r s and c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s i n f l u e n c e h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Assessment. 4, 133158. Moos, R . H . , Brennan, P . L . , Fondacaro, M . R . , & Moos, B . S . (1990). Approach and avoidance c o p i n g responses among o l d e r problem and nonproblem d r i n k e r s . P s y c h o l o g y and A g i n g . 5, 3 1 - 4 0 . Moos, R . H . , C r o n k i t e , R., B i l l i n g s , A . , & F i n n e y , J . (1984). H e a l t h and D a i l y L i v i n g Form manual. P a l o A l t o , CA: S o c i a l Ecology L a b o r a t o r y , S t a n d f o r d U n i v e r s i t y and Department of Veteran A f f a i r s Medical Center. Moos, R . H . , & Moos, B . S . (1986). F a m i l y Environment S c a l e manual. Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Consulting Psychologists Press. Okimoto, J . D . , & S t e g a l l , P . J . (1987). Boomerang k i d s : l i v e w i t h a d u l t c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n home. Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown.  How to  O l s o n , D . H . , P o r t n e r , J . , & B e l l , R. (1982). Family a d a p t i b i l i t y and c o h e s i o n e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e s . In D.H. O l s o n , J . Portner & R . B e l l ( E d s . ) , Family i n v e n t o r i e s : Inventories used i n a n a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f f a m i l i e s a c r o s s the l i f e c v c l e (pp. 5 - 2 4 ) . St. Paul: U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . P a r k e s , K . R . , (1984). Locus o f c o n t r o l , c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l , and c o p i n g i n s t r e s s f u l e p i s o d e s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 46, 655-668. P a r k e s , K . R . , (1986). Coping i n s t r e s s f u l e p i s o d e s : The r o l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , environmental f a c t o r s , and situational characteristics. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 5 1 , 1277-1292.  of  112 P a t t e r s o n , E . T . , C h a r l e s . H . L . , Woodward, W . A . , R o b e r t s , W . R . , & Penk, W.E. (1981). D i f f e r e n c e s i n measures o f p e r s o n a l i t y and f a m i l y environment among b l a c k and w h i t e alcoholics. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 49, 1-9. P a t t e r s o n , J . M . , & McCubbin, H . I . (1984). Gender r o l e s and coping. J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y . 46, 9 5 - 1 0 4 . P a t t e r s o n , J . M . , & McCubbin, H . I . (1987). Adolescent coping s t y l e and b e h a v i o r s : C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and measurement. J o u r n a l of A d o l e s c e n c e . 10, 163-186. P e a r l i n , L . I . , & S c h o o l e r , C. (1978). The s t r u c t u r e o f c o p i n g . J o u r n a l of H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 19, 2 - 2 1 . Pearson, J . L . (1988). O l d e r p a r e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s and adjustment to t h e i r c h i l d ' s m a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n . (Doctoral dissertation, M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1987). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 49, 548B. P r o p s t , L . R . , P a r d i n g t o n , A . , Ostrom, R., & W a t k i n s , P. (1986). P r e d i c t o r s of coping in divorced s i n g l e mothers. J o u r n a l of D i v o r c e . 9_(3), 3 3 - 5 3 . Sarason, B . R . , Shearin, E . N . , P i e r c e , G . R . , & Sarason, I.G. (1987). I n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t measures: t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 52, 8 1 3 - 8 3 2 . S c h a e f e r , C , Coyne, J . C . , & L a z a r u s , R . S . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The h e a l t h - r e l a t e d functions of s o c i a l support. Journal B e h a v i o r a l M e d i c i n e . 4 ( 4 ) , 381-406.  of  S c h e i e r , M . F . , Weintraub, J . K . , & Carver, C . S . (1986). Coping with s t r e s s : D i v e r g e n t s t r a t e g i e s of o p t i m i s t s and pessimists. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 51, 1257-1264. S c h w a r z e r , R., & L e p p i n , A. (1991). S o c i a l s u p p o r t and h e a l t h : A t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l o v e r v i e w . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l and P e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 8, 9 9 - 1 2 7 . S c h w a r z e r , R.., & Weiner, B. (1991). Stigma c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and c o p i n g as p r e d i c t o r s o f emotions and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l and P e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 8, 133-140. S h a v e l s o n , R . J . (1981). S t a t i s t i c a l r e a s o n i n g f o r the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . B o s t o n , MA: A l l y n and Bacon. S h i n , M . , Lehmann, S . , & Wong, N.W. (1984). Social interaction and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s s u e s . 40, 5 5 - 7 6 .  113 S i l v e r , R . L . , & Wortman, C . B . (1980). Coping w i t h u n d e s i r a b l e l i f e events. In J . Garber & M. Seligman ( E d s . ) . Human helplessness: Theory and a p p l i c a t i o n (pp. 2 7 9 - 3 4 0 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c Press. S p a n i e r , G . B . (1976). Measuring d y a d i c a d j u s t m e n t : New s c a l e s f o r a s s e s s i n g the q u a l i t y o f m a r r i a g e and s i m i l i a r d y a d s . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y . 38, 1 5 - 2 8 . S t a r b u c k , R . P . (1989). The l o s s o f a g r a n d c h i l d through divorce. ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Texas Woman's U n i v e r s i t y , 1988). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 50, 1104A. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (1989). Canada year book 1990. M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada.  Ottawa:  S t o n e , A . A . , & N e a l e , J . M . (1984). New measure of d a i l y c o p i n g : Development and p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 46, 892-906. T h o i t s , P.A. (1986). S o c i a l s u p p o r t as c o p i n g a s s i s t a n c e . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 54, 416-423. Thompson, S . C . (1981). W i l l i t h u r t l e s s i f I can c o n t r o l A complex answer to a s i m p l e q u e s t i o n . Psychological B u l l e t i n . 90, 8 9 - 1 0 1 .  it?  T r o l l , L. (1971). The f a m i l y i n l a t e r l i f e : A decade r e v i e w . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y . 3 3 , 2 6 3 - 2 9 0 . T u r n e r , R . J . , F r a n k l , B . G . , & L e v i n , D.M. (1983). Social support: C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , measurement and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r mental h e a l t h . Research i n Community and Mental H e a l t h . 3, 6 7 - 1 1 1 . V a i l l a n t , G . E . (1977). Brown.  A d a p t a t i o n to l i f e .  B o s t o n , MA:  Little,  V i t a l i a n o , P . P . , DeWolfe, D . J . , M a i u r o , R . D . , Russo, J . , & K a t o n , W. (1990). A p p r a i s e d c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f a s t r e s s o r as a m o d i f i e r o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o p i n g and d e p r e s s i o n : A t e s t o f the h y p o t h e s i s o f f i t . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 59, 582-592. V i t a l i a n o . P . P . , K a t o n , W., Russo, J . , M a i u r o , R . D . , Anderson, K., & J o n e s , M. (1987). Coping as an index o f i l l n e s s behavior in panic d i s o r d e r . J o u r n a l o f Nervous and Mental D i s e a s e . 175. 7 8 - 8 4 . V i t a l i a n o , P . P . , M a i u r o , R . D . , Russo, J . , & B e c k e r , J . (1987). Raw v e r s u s r e l a t i v e s c o r e s i n the assessment o f c o p i n g strategies. J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r a l M e d i c i n e . 1 0 ( 1 ) , 1-18.  V i t a l i a n o , P . P . , Russo, J . , C a r r , J . E . , M a i u r o , R . D . , & B e c k e r , J . (1985). The ways o f c o p i n g c h e c k l i s t : R e v i s i o n and psychometric p r o p e r t i e s . M u l t i v a r i a t e Behavioral Research. 20, 3 - 2 6 . W e t h i n g t o n , E . , & K e s s l e r , R . C . (1986). Perceived support, r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t and adjustment to s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s . J o u r n a l of H e a l t h and S o c i a l B e h a v i o r . 27, 7 8 - 8 9 . Whiffen, V . E . , & G o t l i b , I.H. (1989). S t r e s s and c o p i n g i n m a r i t a l l y d i s t r e s s e d and n o n d i s t r e s s e d c o u p l e s . J o u r n a l S o c i a l and P e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 6, 327-344.  of  W i l l s , T.A. (1985). Supportive functions of interpersonal relationships. In S.Cohen & S . L . Syme ( E d s . ) , S o c i a l s u p p o r t and h e a l t h (pp. 6 1 - 8 2 ) . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s . Wohlgemuth, E . , & B e t z , N . E . (1991). Gender as a moderator of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s t r e s s and s o c i a l s u p p o r t to p h y s i c a l health in college students. Journal of Counseling P s y c h o l o g y . 38, 367-374.  Appendix A:  Telephone S c r e e n i n g  Telephone s c r e e n i n g Of the 98 p o t e n t i a l  participants  r e s p o n d i n g to media  a d v e r t i s i n g by t e l e p h o n e , 75 were found to be s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d y , 23 were u n s u i t a b l e . currently  the  Three o f the mothers were not  s t r e s s e d by t h e i r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e and  two r e s i d e d o u t s i d e o f the p r o v i n c e .  One mother was found  u n s u i t a b l e based on her emotional response at the time o f telephone contact.  She was e x t r e m e l y d i s t r e s s e d by r e c e n t  f a m i l y i s s u e s u n r e l a t e d to her c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e .  The r e m a i n i n g  17 u n e l i g i b l e persons were not mothers o f s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d offspring;  12 were mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e i r own d i v o r c e o r  s e p a r a t i o n , 3 were f a t h e r s e x p e r i e n c i n g s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e , 1 was an a d u l t c h i l d having grown up i n a d i v o r c e d home, and 2 were mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g a d e a t h , o r a l i e n a t i o n from an a d u l t child.  The 75 s u i t a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s were s e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e  packages.  116 Appendix B:  Telephone and Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S c r e e n i n g Items  I f you have more than one c h i l d who has s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d , p l e a s e answer a l l q u e s t i o n s i n response t o one c h i l d . 1.  P l e a s e i n d i c a t e to what e x t e n t you f i n d y o u r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e s t r e s s f u l ? By " s t r e s s f u l " we mean how d i f f i c u l t or t r o u b l i n g i s your c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n / d i v o r c e to y o u , e i t h e r because i t upsets you or because i t t a k e s c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t to deal w i t h i t . ( C i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e number).  Not at all Stressful  Somewhat Stressful  Considerably Stressful  What i s s t r e s s f u l or u p s e t t i n g f o r you about y o u r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e ? P l e a s e l i s t t h r e e examples. a. b. c.  3.  Is y o u r a d u l t c h i l d a son ( P l e a s e check one)  or a daughter  ?  Appendix C:  I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r to P r o s p e c t i v e S u b j e c t s The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia F a c u l t y Of E d u c a t i o n Department Of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y 5870 Toronto Road Vancouver, B . C . V6T 1L2 COPING WITH ADULT CHILD SEPARATION/DIVORCE  Dear  Participant:  Thank you f o r b e i n g w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g c a r r i e d out by m y s e l f and my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . Bonnie Long, i n the Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The aim o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s to examine the d i f f e r e n t ways mothers cope w i t h t h e i r a d u l t c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e and some o f the f a c t o r s t h a t might a f f e c t the types o f c o p i n g they use. I t i s hoped t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d through t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l e n a b l e people to b e t t e r understand and be more s e n s i t i v e t o the concerns and needs of extended f a m i l y members e x p e r i e n c i n g d i v o r c e i n the f a m i l y . I t i s hoped t o o , t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l help i n d e s i g n i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t h a t w i l l b e s t meet the needs o f p a r e n t s coming to terms w i t h t h e i r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e . We are a s k i n g you to v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h by c o m p l e t i n g the a t t a c h e d s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y and w i l l i n no way a f f e c t your e l i g i b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n any o t h e r programs sponsored by U . B . C . A l l information i s s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous. To ensure anonymity, we ask t h a t you do not w r i t e your name anywhere on t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l take a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 minutes to complete. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, o n l y p e r s o n a l choices. You a r e , o f c o u r s e , c o m p l e t e l y f r e e to choose not to answer s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s or to r e f u s e to r e t u r n the questionnaire. However, because the q u a l i t y o f the r e s e a r c h depends on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e being f u l l y c o m p l e t e d , we urge you to answer a l l q u e s t i o n s . I f you do complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and r e t u r n i t i n the stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope which i s p r o v i d e d , t h i s w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t you have consented to your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t u d y . We hope t h a t you w i l l f i n d answering t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r e s t i n g , and t h a t the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l both to you and to o t h e r s . I f you would l i k e a copy of the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r i n t e r e s t on the i n s t r u c t i o n sheet at the back of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d as soon as p o s s i b l e .  119 Appendix D:  Research R e s u l t s Form and L e t t e r f o r Friend or R e l a t i v e .  Interested  I f you are i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c e i v i n g a copy of the r e s e a r c h a b s t r a c t summarizing the f i n d i n g s , p l e a s e f i l l out the i n f o r m a t i o n below and detach i t from the r e s t of the questionnaire. Name: Street: City: P o s t a l Code: Would you l i k e a l i s t of s e l f - h e l p r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d to the t o p i c o f p a r e n t s and a d u l t c h i l d d i v o r c e ? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e i f you would l i k e a l i s t m a i l e d to the above a d d r e s s . Yes  No  Would you l i k e a c o u n s e l l i n g r e f e r r a l i n y o u r a r e a to d i s c u s s y o u r f e e l i n g s about y o u r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e ? Please i n d i c a t e i f you would l i k e a r e f e r r a l s e n t to the above a d d r e s s . Yes  No  Appendix F:  Demographic  Information  P l e a s e read a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g . are no r i g h t or wrong answers, o n l y p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s . P l e a s e p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about y o u r s e l f by c i r c l i n g the number which best d e s c r i b e s your s i t u a t i o n . 1.  Age:  2.  What i s y o u r h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n ? Less than Grade 12 High school graduate Some u n i v e r s i t y / c o l l e g e B a c h e l o r s degree Masters degree D o c t o r a l degree  3.  What i s your c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l Homemaker Employed f u l l - t i m e Employed p a r t - t i m e Unemployed/Disability Retired Student Other Please s p e c i f y :  4.  What i s the approximate y e a r l y income, b e f o r e o f y o u r household? Under $10,000 $10,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to S29.999 $30,000 to S49.999 $50,000 to $100,000 Over $100,000  5.  status?  What i s y o u r e t h n i c background? Oriental Black Caucasian Native Indian East I n d i a n Other Please s p e c i f y :  1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 .5 6 7  taxes, 1 2 3 4 5 6  1 2 3 4 5 6  There  124 6.  What i s y o u r r e l i g i o u s p r e f e r e n c e ? Catholic Jewish Protestant None Other Please s p e c i f y :  7.  What i s y o u r c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s ? Married Living with partner S i n g l e (never m a r r i e d ) Separated Divorced Widowed  8.  Have you e v e r been s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d ? Yes  9.  1 2 3 4 5  1 2 3 4 5 6  No  The f o l l o w i n g are some q u e s t i o n s f o r grandmothers. I f are not a grandmother, p l e a s e go on to q u e s t i o n 10.  you  How many c h i l d r e n does y o u r s e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d a d u l t have?  child  One  Two  Three  Four o r more  C i r c l e the number which b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h these g r a n d c h i l d r e n . Very c l o s e and warm Close Somewhat c l o s e Indifferent D i s t a n t and cool  1 2 3 4 5  Has y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h y o u r g r a n d c h i 1 d / r e n changed as a r e s u l t of y o u r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e ? Please d e s c r i b e :  Does y o u r a d u l t c h i l d have c u s t o d y o f y o u r g r a n d c h i 1 d / r e n ? Yes  No  125 10.  I n d i c a t e the number o f y e a r s a n d / o r months t h a t y o u ' v e known about your c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e ? Years  11.  Months  Have you e v e r r e c e i v e d any p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , belonged to a s u p p o r t group or o b t a i n e d l e g a l a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g your c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e ? Yes  No  126 Appendix G:  Stressor identification  and c o n t r o l  item.  We are i n t e r e s t e d i n how people respond when they c o n f r o n t d i f f i c u l t or s t r e s s f u l events i n t h e i r l i v e s . There are l o t s ways to t r y to deal w i t h s t r e s s .  of  Take a few moments and t h i n k about the most s t r e s s f u l a s p e c t o f y o u r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n / d i v o r c e t h a t you have e x p e r i e n c e d i n the past year. By s t r e s s f u l we mean an a s p e c t o f y o u r c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n / d i v o r c e t h a t was d i f f i c u l t or t r o u b l i n g f o r y o u , e i t h e r because you f e l t bad about what happened, or because you had to use c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t to deal w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . If n o t h i n g comes to mind t h a t was s t r e s s f u l f o r you i n the p a s t y e a r , t h i n k o f the most c u r r e n t s t r e s s f u l a s p e c t o f y o u r c h i l d ' s separation/divorce. Below are some examples o f s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t many p a r e n t s o f s e p a r a t e d or d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d r e n f i n d they must deal w i t h . C i r c l e the c a t e g o r y t h a t you have found to be the most s t r e s s f u l to deal w i t h i n terms of c o p i n g w i t h your c h i l d ' s separation or d i v o r c e . Worrying about my c h i l d and h i s / h e r f u t u r e . . . . Losing r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( e . g . , with g r a n d c h i l d , in-law etc.) Experiencing f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n in helping my c h i l d Having c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s or b e l i e f s about d i v o r c e Other Please describe  D e s c r i b e i n more d e t a i l  1 2 3 4 5  what you have found to be s t r e s s f u l .  In t h i n k i n g about t h i s s t r e s s f u l a s p e c t o f your c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n / d i v o r c e , i n g e n e r a l , to what degree do you f e e l you have c o n t r o l over i t ? P l e a s e c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e number. 0 Not at a l l  1  2  3 Somewhat  4 A G r e a t Deal  127 How u p s e t t i n g has t h i s e x p e r i e n c e been f o r you? the a p p r o p r i a t e number. 0 Not at a l l upsetting  1  2  3 Somewhat upsetting  Please c i r c l e 4 Very upsetting  128 Appendix H:  The M o d i f i e d V e r s i o n o f the I n v e n t o r y o f S u p p o r t i v e B e h a v i o u r s (ISSB)  Socially  Now read each item below and i n d i c a t e , by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e number, the f r e q u e n c y of s u p p o r t vou r e c e i v e d i n past year.  the  Where the statement i n d i c a t e s a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n o r problem t r y t o t h i n k of the s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e vou have i d e n t i f i e d i n d e a l i n g with your c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n / d i v o r c e . P l e a s e c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e number. Never 1 Once i n a w h i l e . . . 2 F a i r l y often . . . . 3 Very o f t e n 4 H o w often h a s s o m e o n e (friend, relative,  1.  2.  etc.):  T o l d you what they d i d i n a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n t h a t was s i m i l a r to one you were experiencing Suggested some a c t i o n t h a t you s h o u l d take d e a l i n g w i t h a problem you were having  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  in  3.  Gave you i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t made a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n c l e a r e r and e a s i e r to u n d e r s t a n d .  4.  Helped you understand why you d o n ' t do something wel 1  1  2  3  4  T o l d you who you s h o u l d see f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a problem t h a t you were having  1  2  3  4  Commented on how you were d e a l i n g w i t h a problem w i t h o u t s a y i n g i t was good or bad . . . .  1  2  3  4  Checked back w i t h you to see i f you f o l l o w e d a d v i c e you were g i v e n on how to deal w i t h a problem  1  2  3  4  P r o v i d e d you w i t h a p l a c e where you c o u l d get away f o r a w h i l e  1  2  3  4  were away  1  2  3  4  10.  Gave or loaned you over $25  1  2  3  4  11.  P r o v i d e d you w i t h some t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  1  2  3  4  5. 6. 7.  8. 9.  . . .  Watched a f t e r y o u r p o s s e s s i o n s w h i l e you  129 Never 1 Once i n a w h i l e . . . 2 F a i r l y often . . . . 3 Very o f t e n 4 H o w often h a s s o m e o n e (friend, relative  12.  etc.):  Loaned or gave you something (a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t o t h e r than money) t h a t you needed  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  w h i l e you were away  1  2  3  4  16.  Helped you w i t h shopping  1  2  3  4  17.  R i g h t t h e r e w i t h you ( p h y s i c a l l y )  1  2  3  4  13.  P r o v i d e d you w i t h a p l a c e t o s t a y o v e r n i g h t  14.  P i t c h e d i n to help you do something t h a t needed to get done, l i k e household chores o r yardwork  15.  Looked a f t e r  stressful  . . .  a f a m i l y or household member  in a  situation  18.  T o l d you you were OK j u s t the way you are . . . .  1  2  3  4  19.  Comforted you by showing you p h y s i c a l affection L i s t e n e d to you t a l k about your p r i v a t e  1  2  3  4  feelings  1  2  3  4  21.  T o l d you they f e l t v e r y c l o s e to you  1  2  3  4  22.  Joked and kidded to t r y  1  2  3  4  23.  E x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t and concern i n your well-being Went w i t h you to see someone who helped you w i t h a problem t h a t you were having T o l d you t h a t they would keep the t h i n g s you t a l k e d about p r i v a t e l y j u s t between the two o f you Did some a c t i v i t y t o g e t h e r w i t h you to h e l p you get your mind o f f t h i n g s  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  T o l d you how they f e l t i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t was s i m i l a r to y o u r s  1  2  3  4  20.  24. 25. 26. 27.  to cheer you up  130 Now we would l i k e to know how o f t e n you p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t to y o u r s e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d a d u l t c h i l d i n the p a s t y e a r . Please c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e number. Never 1 Once i n a w h i l e . . . 2 F a i r l y often . . . . 3 Very o f t e n 4 H o w often has your  child:  1.  Depended on you f o r y o u r guidance  1  2  3  4  2.  Depended on you f o r f i n a n c i a l  1  2  3  4  3.  T a l k e d o v e r h i s / h e r problems and p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s w i t h you  1  2  3  4  4.  Depended on you f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  1  2  3  4  5.  Depended on you f o r something he/she needed (a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t o t h e r than money)  1  2  3  4  3  4  H o w often have  help  you:  6.  Helped y o u r c h i l d w i t h h i s / h e r household c h o r e s . 1 2  7.  Helped y o u r c h i l d w i t h h i s / h e r shopping  1  2  3  4  8.  Been r i g h t t h e r e w i t h y o u r c h i l d ( p h y s i c a l l y ) when h e / s h e was e x p e r i e n c i n g a s t r e s s f u l situation  1  2  3  4  Comforted y o u r c h i l d by showing h i m / h e r physical affection  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  9. 10.  Expressed i n t e r e s t and concern i n y o u r well-being  11.  T o l d y o u r c h i l d what you d i d i n a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n t h a t was s i m i l a r to one he/she was g o i n g through  1  2  3  4  Suggested some a c t i o n y o u r c h i l d s h o u l d take to deal w i t h a problem h e / s h e was having . . . .  1  2  3  4  T o l d y o u r c h i l d where h e / s h e c o u l d go f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a problem they were having . . .  1  2  3  4  12. 13.  child's  Is t h e s u p p o r t y o u p r o v i d e d t o y o u r a d u l t c h i l d l i m i t e d b y d i s t a n c e ? (i.e. child d o e s n ' t live c l o s e to  Yes  you)  No  ( P l e a s e check one)  your  Appendix J :  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Dimension of the F a m i l y Environment S c a l e (FES) I n c l u d i n g the Cohesion S u b s c a l e  We would l i k e to know about y o u r f a m i l y l i f e i n g e n e r a l . Below are s t a t e m e n t s about f a m i l i e s . You are to d e c i d e which of t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s are t r u e o f y o u r f a m i l y and which are f a l s e . I f you t h i n k the statement i s t r u e o r m o s t l y t r u e o f y o u r f a m i l y , c i r c l e the T f o r t r u e . I f you t h i n k the statement i s f a l s e o r m o s t l y f a l s e o f y o u r f a m i l y , c i r c l e the F f o r f a l s e . You may f e e l t h a t some o f the statements are t r u e f o r some f a m i l y members and f a l s e f o r o t h e r s . C i r c l e T i f the statement i s t r u e f o r most members. C i r c l e f a l s e i f the statement i s f a l s e f o r most members. Remember, we would l i k e to know what y o u r f a m i l y seems l i k e to y o u . So do not t r y to f i g u r e out how o t h e r members see y o u r f a m i l y , but do g i v e us y o u r g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of y o u r f a m i l y f o r eacn s t a t e m e n t . 1. 2.  F a m i l y members r e a l l y h e l p and s u p p o r t one a n o t h e r F a m i l y members o f t e n keep t h e i r f e e l i n g s  T  F  T  F  T  F  T  F  to  themselves 3.  We f i g h t a l o t  4.  We o f t e n seem to be k i l l i n g time when w e ' r e t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y We say a n y t h i n g we want to when w e ' r e t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y  T  6.  F a m i l y members r a r e l y become o p e n l y angry  T  7.  We put a l o t o f energy i n t o what we do when w e ' r e t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y  8.  I t ' s hard to "blow o f f steam" when w e ' r e t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y w i t h o u t u p s e t t i n g somebody . .  T  F a m i l y members sometimes get so angry they throw t h i n g s  T  5.  9.  i n our f a m i l y  10.  There i s f e e l i n g o f t o g e t h e r n e s s i n our f a m i l y .  11.  We t e l l  12.  F a m i l y members h a r d l y e v e r l o s e t h e i r tempers . . .  T  13.  We r a r e l y v o l u n t e e r when something has t o be done when w e ' r e t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y  T  14.  . .  T  each o t h e r about our p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . . .  T  I f we f e e l l i k e d o i n g something on the spur o f the moment we o f t e n j u s t p i c k up and go . . . ,  133 15.  F a m i l y members o f t e n c r i t i c i z e each o t h e r  T  F  16.  F a m i l y members r e a l l y back each o t h e r up  T  F  17.  Someone u s u a l l y gets upset i f you complain T  F  T  F  T  F  T  F  hard to smooth t h i n g s over and keep the peace . . .  T  F  22.  We r e a l l y get along w e l l w i t h each o t h e r  T  F  23.  We are u s u a l l y c a r e f u l about what we say to each o t h e r F a m i l y members o f t e n t r y to one-up or o u t - d o each o t h e r There i s p l e n t y o f time and a t t e n t i o n f o r everyone i n our f a m i l y  T  F  T  F  T  F  There are a l o t o f spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n s i n our f a m i l y  T  F  In our f a m i l y , we b e l i e v e you d o n ' t get anywhere by r a i s i n g your v o i c e  T  F  i n our f a m i l y 18.  F a m i l y members sometimes h i t  19.  There i s v e r y l i t t l e group s p i r i t  20.  Money and p a y i n g b i l l s i s openly t a l k e d about i n our f a m i l y I f t h e r e ' s a disagreement i n our f a m i l y ,  21.  24. 25. 26. 27.  each o t h e r i n our f a m i l y  . .  we t r y  ever  134 Appendix K:  The COPE s c a l e  We are i n t e r e s t e d i n what vou g e n e r a l l y d i d o r f e l t when you e x p e r i e n c e d the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n t h a t y o u ' v e j u s t d e s c r i b e d . Respond to each of the f o l l o w i n g items by c i r c l i n a the a p p r o p r i a t e number f o r e a c h , u s i n g the response c h o i c e s l i s t e d j u s t below. P l e a s e t r y to respond to each item s e p a r a t e l y i n your mind from each o t h e r i t e m . Choose y o u r answers t h o u g h t f u l l y , and make y o u r answers as t r u e FOR YOU as you c a n . P l e a s e answer every i t e m . There are no " r i g h t " o r "wrong" answers, so choose the most a c c u r a t e answer f o r YOU—not what you t h i n k "most p e o p l e " would say o r do. I n d i c a t e what YOU d i d i n the o a s t year whan YOU e x p e r i e n c e d the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n vou have .just d e s c r i b e d bv c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e number. I I I I 1. 2.  d i d n ' t do t h i s at al 1 did this a l i t t l e b i t d i d t h i s a medium amount . . . did this a l o t  I t r i e d to grow as a person as a r e s u l t the e x p e r i e n c e I t u r n e d to work o r o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e to t a k e my mind o f f  1 2 3 4  of 1 2  3 4  activities  things  1  2  3  4  3  4  3.  I got upset and l e t my emotions out  1 2  4.  I t r i e d to get a d v i c e from someone about what to do I c o n c e n t r a t e d my e f f o r t s on d o i n g something  1  2  3  4  about i t  1  2  3  4  5.  6.  I s a i d to myself " t h i s  isn't  real."  7.  I put my t r u s t i n God  8.  I a d m i t t e d to m y s e l f t h a t I c o u l d n ' t deal w i t h and q u i t t r y i n g I r e s t r a i n e d m y s e l f from doing a n y t h i n g too  1 2 3 4 1 2  3 4  it, 1  2  3  4  quickly  1  2  3  4  10.  I d i s c u s s e d my f e e l i n g s w i t h someone  1 2  3  4  11.  I got used to the i d e a t h a t i t  1 2  3  4  12.  I t a l k e d to someone to f i n d out more about the s i t u a t i o n  3  4  9.  happened  1  2  135 I I I I 13.  d i d n ' t do t h i s at a l 1 did this a l i t t l e b i t d i d t h i s a medium amount . . . did this a l o t  I kept m y s e l f from g e t t i n g d i s t r a c t e d by o t h e r thoughts o r a c t i v i t i e s  1 . . .  2  14.  I daydreamed about t h i n g s o t h e r than t h i s .  15.  I got u p s e t , and was r e a l l y aware o f i t  1 2  16.  I sought G o d ' s h e l p  1  17.  I made a p l a n o f a c t i o n  1  18.  I a c c e p t e d t h a t t h i s had happened and t h a t i t c a n ' t be changed I h e l d o f f d o i n g a n y t h i n g about i t u n t i l the s i t u a t i o n p e r m i t t e d  19.  1 2 3 4  3  4  1 2 3 4 3  4  2  3  4  2  3  4  1 2 3 4 1  2  3  4  or r e l a t i v e s  1  2  3  4  21.  I j u s t gave up t r y i n g to reach my goal  1 2  3  4  22.  I took a d d i t i o n a l  3  4  20.  I t r i e d to get emotional s u p p o r t from f r i e n d s  a c t i o n to t r y  to get  rid  of the problem  1  23.  I r e f u s e d to b e l i e v e t h a t i t  24.  I l e t my f e e l i n g s out  1 2  25.  I t r i e d t o see i t i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t , t o make i t seem more p o s i t i v e I t a l k e d t o someone who c o u l d do something  1  c o n c r e t e about the problem  1 2  27.  I s l e p t more than usual  1  2  3  4  28.  I t r i e d t o come up w i t h a s t r a t e g y about what to do I f o c u s e d on d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s problem, and when necessary l e t other things s l i d e a l i t t l e . . . . I got sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g from someone  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  26.  29. 30. 31.  had happened. . . .  2  I gave up the attempt to get what I wanted . . .  1 2 3 4 3 4 2  3  4 3 4  1 2 3 4  136 I I I I 32. 33.  d i d n ' t do t h i s at a l l did this a l i t t l e b i t d i d t h i s a medium amount . . . did t h i s a l o t  I l o o k e d f o r something good i n what was happening  34.  I pretended t h a t  35.  I made s u r e not to make m a t t e r s worse by a c t i n g too soon I t r i e d hard to p re ve nt o t h e r t h i n g s from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h my e f f o r t s at d e a l i n g with t h i s  37. 38. 39. 40. 41.  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  I thought about how I might b e s t handle the problem  36.  1 2 3 4  it  h a d n ' t r e a l l y happened . . .  I went to movies o r watched TV, to t h i n k i t less I a c c e p t e d the r e a l i t y o f the f a c t i t happened  1 2 3 4 1 2  3 4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  about  that  I asked p e o p l e who had had s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s what they d i d I f e l t a l o t o f emotional d i s t r e s s and I m y s e l f e x p r e s s i n g those f e e l i n g s a l o t  found 1 2  3 4  I took d i r e c t a c t i o n to get around the problem  1  2  3  4  42.  I t r i e d to f i n d comfort i n my r e l i g i o n  1  2  3  4  43.  I f o r c e d m y s e l f to w a i t f o r the r i g h t time to do something I reduced the amount of e f f o r t I was p u t t i n g  1  2  3  4  i n t o s o l v i n g the problem  1  2  3  4  45.  I t a l k e d to someone about how I f e l t  1 2  3  4  46.  I learned to l i v e with  1  2  3  4  47.  I put a s i d e o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t e on t h i s  1  2  3  4  48.  I thought hard about what s t e p s to t a k e  1 2  3  4  49.  I a c t e d as though i t  44.  it in order  to  h a d n ' t even happened. . . .  1 2 3 4  137 I I I I  d i d n ' t do t h i s at a l l did t h i s a l i t t l e b i t d i d t h i s a medium amount . . . did t h i s a l o t  50.  I d i d what had to be done, one s t e p at a t i m e .  51. 52.  1 2 3 4  . 1 2  3  4  I l e a r n t something from the e x p e r i e n c e  1 2  3  4  I prayed more than usual  1 2  3 4  138 Appendix L Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Grandmothers  Characteristic  Number o f  (N=70)  Percent  grandchildren  One Two Three Four or more Relationship  28.6 47.1 20.0 4.3  quality  Very c l o s e Close Somewhat c l o s e Distant No c o n t a c t Grandmother r e l a t i o n s h i p  61.4 21.4 10.0 4.3 2.9 changed  Yes No  64.3 35.7  Q u a l i t y o f change (n=45) Less i n v o l v e d - d i s t a n t More i n v o l v e d - c l o s e r  62.2 37.8  Custody F u l l custody No c u s t o d y Joint D o n ' t know  47.1 31.4 17.1 4.3  Appendix M:  Written  Comments from Respondents  Responses R e l a t e d To F e e l i n g H e l p l e s s or  Guilty  S t r e s s has been m o s t l y over f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s i n the Could o n l y m o s t l y s t a n d - b y and l i s t e n . over b e i n g the mother and f a i l u r e  A l s o f e l t some g u i l t  as a p a r e n t .  F e e l s i n a d e q u a t e or r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o f f s p r i n g ' s marriage.  "failure"  Has doubts about what she d i d n ' t  done d i f f e r e n t l y  situation.  in  do or c o u l d have  to help her c h i l d .  Q u e s t i o n s whether she i s h e l p i n g her a d u l t c h i l d enough and whether c h i l d s h o u l d move i n w i t h h e r , or be s u p p o r t e d financially. As a mother one s u f f e r s d i f f e r e n t  g u i l t f e e l i n g s , but we t a l k  about them and t h a t h e l p s to r e s o l v e them. A d u l t c h i l d wishes to handle s i t u a t i o n parents f e e l i n g t o t a l l y  on her own,  h e l p l e s s and u s e l e s s .  Feel at l o s s to h e l p , as a d u l t c h i l d s t i l l until  it  is  leaving  l i v e s i n f a m i l y home  sold.  Responses R e l a t e d To Past D i v o r c e Own p a s t d i v o r c e i n t e n s i f i e d  c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e f o r mother.  through p a s t f e e l i n g s around own d i v o r c e a l l  Went  over a g a i n .  Emotional s t r e s s over d i v o r c e i s l e s s than some mothers because o f own d i v o r c e , c h i l d ' s unhappy m a r r i a g e ,  and  continued contact with grandchildren. Having grown up i n a s p l i t family  succeed.  family  it  was v e r y i m p o r t a n t  t h a t my  Responses R e l a t e d to Abuse Glad t h a t a d u l t c h i l d found the s t r e n g t h destructive  relationship.  to get out o f a  S t r e s s comes from the p r o c e s s of  w a t c h i n g c h i l d disengage from an a b u s i v e p a r t n e r and the emotional  effects  o f abuse on g r a n d c h i l d .  The d i v o r c e came about because o f s p o u s e ' s h a b i t o f s u b s t a n c e abuse. Feel concern over my a d u l t c h i l d who has an a l c o h o l / d r u g He i s n ' t  violent  problem.  or a b u s i v e .  Responses R e l a t e d to the P a i n o f D i v o r c e A p a r e n t c a n ' t take over and s o l v e t h e i r  c h i l d ' s problems.  p a r e n t s can do i s be s u p p o r t i v e and l o v i n g , but i t h u r t s when they  All  really  hurt.  Focused on a d u l t c h i l d ' s p a i n , y e t p a i n o f g r a n d c h i l d and l o s s o f c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c h i l d - i n - l a w are not f a r  behind.  Sometimes t h e s e p a i n s are worse. No one u n l e s s they have had t h i s e x p e r i e n c e can t r u l y r e l a t e the h e a r t a c h e and s a d n e s s .  It  affects  b r e a k i n g up a f a m i l y u n i t .  It  tears children a part.  to  so many l i v e s ,  Responses R e l a t e d to the C h i l d or C h i l d - I n - L a w R e l a t i o n s h i p Will  always have concerns over r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my c h i l d - i n - l a w and her new l i f e ,  and over my c h i l d ' s l o s s o f a meaningful  r e l a t i o n s h i p. Feel l o s s o f c l o s e n e s s and l o s s o f r e s p e c t and t r u s t toward  adult  child. A d u l t c h i l d has moved back home and mother ends up w i t h chores of c l e a n i n g h i s room, d o i n g h i s l a u n d r y e t c . adult c h i l d ' s infringement  on her  F e e l s angry  territory.  at  141 P r o v i d e d a home and a s s i s t a n c e to a d u l t c h i l d and g r a n d c h i l d r e n f o r y e a r and a h a l f . to h e r s e l f ,  Regrets not keeping o p i n i o n o f spouse  a l t h o u g h communication was encouraged between  mother and d a u g h t e r . Have always been fond o f c h i l d - i n - l a w and he o f me. each  We s t i l l  see  other.  Have a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h my c h i l d - i n - l a w .  We get  together  and laugh a l o t . Its  a shame t h a t a spouse can d i s r u p t so many l i v e s .  Have b e t t e r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f problems c u r r e n t to own c h i l d r e n ' s  and g r a n d c h i l d r e n ' s g e n e r a t i o n because o f the d i v o r c e . Responses R e l a t e d to G r a n d c h i l d r e n Person s h o u l d t h i n k about w h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t - the g r a n d c h i l d r e n so no l a y i n g o f blame, and remain f r i e n d l y  to a l l .  -  Must  s u p p o r t the g r a n d c h i l d r e n . Had no i d e a i t  would be so hard to a d j u s t to t h i s  situation.  Went through e v e r y emotion p o s s i b l e , y e t am t h a n k f u l were no c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d .  there  I d o n ' t know how I would have  coped not s e e i n g them. Find i t it  u p s e t t i n g when o t h e r s , who know of m a r r i a g e breakup, say i s a b l e s s i n g t h e r e were no c h i l d r e n because we longed  for a grandchild. Responses R e l a t e d to D i s t a n c e Feel somewhat detached from c h i l d ' s d i v o r c e s i t u a t i o n due to distance,  both p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y .  Other c h i l d r e n who were s e p a r a t e d l i v e d f a r t h e r have c l o s e f e e l i n g s about t h e i r c h i l d who l i v e s c l o s e by.  situation  away so d i d not compared to  adult  Responses R e l a t e d to Legal Concerns Doesn't feel  l e g a l department  r e a l l y cares.  p e r s o n ' s money and judges d o n ' t enough.  Lawyers want a  look i n t o m a t t e r s  good  The w e l l - b e i n g o f the c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be number  one. F e e l s c o u r t s are not aware o f the harmful spouse's r e l a t i o n s h i p  future effects  to a c h i l d and t h a t a p a r e n t s h o u l d be  f o r b i d d e n to see a c h i l d i f  abuse o r d e v i a n t h a b i t s  There s h o u l d be changes i n the c o u r t s y s t e m . seem t o m a t t e r  of a  exist.  Honesty d o e s n ' t  any more as o t h e r p a r t n e r can make up s t o r i e s  i n c o u r t and get away w i t h  it.  S u p p o r t - R e l a t e d Responses Support g i v e n to a d u l t c h i l d was not monetary as c h i l d independent.  Mother o f f e r e d emotional  is  and p h y s i c a l  support.  Mother was helped by the a d v i c e o f her a d u l t c h i l d d u r i n g  the  separation. Husband has been a tower of s t r e n g t h child.  to respondent and a d u l t  T h e y ' v e made f i n a n c i a l  and a s s i s t a n c e d e c i s i o n s  together. Own f a i t h was comfort and s u p p o r t to mother,  e l i m i n a t i n g much  f r e t t i n g and w o r r y i n g . Was dumbfounded by news of d i v o r c e .  Saw c o u n s e l l o r t o f i n d  how t o b e s t support a d u l t c h i l d e m o t i o n a l l y , A c h i l d does not need a d v i c e or i n t e r f e r e n c e support,  l o v e and a c c e p t a n c e .  out  and read books.  from her mother,  but  Mothers s h o u l d keep an open  mind about m a r r i a g e breakup, s i n c e they do not know much about c h i l d ' s m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r ' s  s i d e i n the  dispute.  D i v o r c e In General And Need For P r o f e s s i o n a l Help Need to l e a r n about o u r s e l v e s b e f o r e s t r a i g h t e n i n g other.  out each  Would l i k e to see s u p p o r t groups and c o u n s e l l i n g .  D i v o r c e s are too e a s y .  Stability  seems an o l d f a s h i o n v i r t u e now  and s o c i e t y i s p a y i n g h e a v i l y f o r these broken homes as c h i l d r e n need both p a r e n t s . A s i m i l i a r divorce situation their  families.  c o u l d a r i s e among young people and  Much more p r o f e s s i o n a l  h e l p i s needed.  Responses R e l a t e d To Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Support t o a d u l t c h i l d q u e s t i o n s 'in-law',  (p. 9) c o u l d be r e p e a t e d u s i n g  as mother has had to s u p p o r t a d u l t  child-in-law  more o f t e n than own o f f s p r i n g . Most q u e s t i o n s a p p l y to f a m i l i e s who l i v e c l o s e by, y e t many mothers do not l i v e c l o s e to t h e i r A d u l t c h i l d l i v e s on e a s t c o a s t so i t  adult  children.  was d i f f i c u l t to answer  some o f the q u e s t i o n s . Pages 10 and 11 were d i f f i c u l t Had t r o u b l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  to answer.  f a m i l y now and g e n e r a l  family  life  when c h i l d r e n were growing up. Found many a s p e c t s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e f r u s t r a t i n g e s p e c i a l l y s e c t i o n on  last  family.  This questionnaire i s l i k e others.  C a n ' t r e a l l y answer t r u e or  f a l s e because t h e r e are so many v a r i a b l e s . Mistrust validity  o f u s i n g an American t e s t f o r a Canadian  situation. T h i s i s a good q u e s t i o n n a i r e . survey.  Thank you and good l u c k on your  144 Found q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r e s t i n g as i t  and a form o f t h e r a p y to  complete  f o c u s e d mother on her f e e l i n g s .  Pages 4, 5, and 6 a r e n ' t  e x a c t l y c o r r e c t as emotions or  change d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f a s t r e s s f u l  reactions  situation.  Responses R e l a t e d To Study Very w o r t h w h i l e  effort.  Good l u c k !  Thank you f o r t h i s g r e a t o p p u r t u n i t y . q u e s t i o n s and hope r e s u l t s w i l l  Have enjoyed answering the b e n e f i t you i n your c a r e e r  and be of h e l p to many. Good l u c k .  If  need a n y t h i n g more she i s w i l l i n g  t o be c o n t a c t e d .  Other Responses Believe s o c i e t y i s ignorant is therefore  of natural  mechanics o f emotions and  unable to respond to emotional  interactions  adequately  Note.  The above comments were made by 51 mothers i n response to  a request f o r a d d i t i o n a l questionnaire.  comments i n c l u d e d at the end o f  the  145  Appendix N Correlations of Demographic. Support, and Coping Variables  (N=84)  Measure  Variable  1  1 Age  -  2  3  4  2 Education  -.14  -  3 Income  -.40  .33  -  .36 -.12  -.07  -  -.06  -.33  4 Div-Knowl  5  6  7  9  8  10  11  12  -  5  Upsetting  -.09  6  In-Support  -.31 -.05  .11 - . 1 4  7 Control  -.14  .12  .11  .07 -.39  .15  -  8 Cohesion  -.19  .11  .24  .03 -.20  .20  .38  -  9 E-Support  -.18  .13  .09 -.02  .20  .17  .33  -  10 I-Support  -.19  .10 -.05  -.05  .03  .19 -.06  .14  .41  -  11 T-Support  -.06  .07 -.04  -.02  .09 -.02  -.02  .05  .34  .20  -  12 Act-Cope  -.17  .07  .06  .19  .10  .33  .15  .06  -  13 Av-Cope  -.12  -.23  -.12  .11 -.37  -.31  .24  .24  .20  .12  Note.  Div-Knowl  divorce.  -.13  -.08  i s mothers'  .11 -.02 -.16  .50  -  .25  knowledge of the separation or  Upsetting i s how upsetting the s e p a r a t i o n - or d i v o r c e -  related s t r e s s o r was to mothers. integration, emotional  .21  In-Support i s support  the support provided to an adult c h i l d .  support,  tangible support.  I-Support i s informational  support, and T-Support i s  Act-Cope i s the summed raw score Active coping.  Av-cope is the summed raw score Avoidant coping, r.01(80)=.28,  E-Support i s  r.05(80)=.22.  Adjusted r.01(80)=.52,  r.05(80)=.47  (Shavelson, 1981).  146 Appendix 0 :  R e l a t i v e A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t Coping  Procedure R e l a t i v e s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the procedure proposed by V i t a l i a n o et a l .  (1987).  s c o r e s o f the mental disengagement, b e h a v i o r a l  scoring  The raw mean disengagement, and  f o c u s on and v e n t i n g emotion s u b s c a l e s were summed to y i e l d a total  avoidant coping s c o r e .  T h i s s c o r e was then d i v i d e d by the  total  summed raw means o f the 13 COPE s u b s c a l e s .  Similarly,  the  raw means o f the a c t i v e c o p i n g , p l a n n i n g , and p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and growth s u b s c a l e s were summed to y i e l d an a c t i v e coping score.  T h i s s c o r e was then d i v i d e d by the  total  coping s c o r e . C o r r e l a t i o n s Between V a r i a b l e s Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and p a i r - w i s e c o r r e l a t i o n s given in Table 0 - 1 .  With r e s p e c t to the r e l a t i v e  use of  and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g i n comparison t o the use o f a l l strategies,  are  Active  coping  A c t i v e c o p i n g accounted f o r 26% o f the c o p i n g used,  whereas A v o i d a n t c o p i n g accounted f o r 20%.  Pearson (1988) a l s o  found t h a t p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g an a d u l t c h i l d ' s s e p a r a t i o n used more a c t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s than a v o i d a n t s t r a t e g i e s . c o r r e l a t i o n s were observed amongst c r i t e r i o n relative  Similiar  v a r i a b l e s and  use o f A c t i v e o r A v o i d a n t c o p i n g as was observed f o r  the  summed raw s c o r e A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g modes, w i t h two exceptions.  Emotional support showed no or low c o r r e l a t i o n s  both r e l a t i v e A c t i v e c o p i n g ( r = - . 0 3 ) , coping (r = - . 1 1 ) .  and r e l a t i v e  with  Avoidant  I n f o r m a t i o n a l s u p p o r t a l s o showed low  c o r r e l a t i o n s with r e l a t i v e A c t i v e coping (r = - . 1 2 ) , Avoidant coping (r = - . 0 3 ) .  and  R e l a t i v e A c t i v e c o p i n g had a  relative  147 Table  0-1  Correlations  o f P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s and R e l a t i v e Coping (N=84')  Measure  Variable  Mean  SD  1  1 Cohesion  7.44  2.36  -  2 Control  1.26  1.33  .38  -  E-Support  26.05  7.78  .33  .17  4 I-Support  12.49  4.02  .14 - . 0 6  .41  -  5 T-Support  12.98  4.75  .05 - . 0 2  .34  .20  -  6 Act-Cope  32.58  7.60  .10  .19  .33  .15  .06  -  7 Av-Cope  24.62  6.17  -.31  -.37  .24  .24  .20  .12  8 Rel-Act  .26  .04  .17  9 Rel-Av  .20  .04  3  Note.  T-Support  3  4  .28 - . 0 3 - . 1 2 - . 0 9  support,  is tangible  5  6  7  support,  -  .74 - . 3 5  .13 - . 4 4  I-Support i s  Rel-Act is relative  Avoidant  coping,  r.01(80)=.28,  -  .76 - . 5 5  informational  A c t - C o p e i s the summed  raw s c o r e A c t i v e c o p i n g , Av-Cope i s the summed raw s c o r e coping,  8  -  -.34 -.45 -.11 -.03  E-Support i s emotional  support,  2  Active coping, Rel-Av i s  r.05(80)=.22.  Adjusted r.01(80)=.46, r.05(80)=.41 (Shavelson,  1981).  Avoidant  relative  148 moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e l a t i v e A v o i d a n t c o p i n g ( r = - . 5 5 ) . M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses Using the same format as was used f o r the summed raw s c o r e A c t i v e and A v o i d a n t c o p i n g , two s e p a r a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s  multiple  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were conducted w i t h r e l a t i v e A v o i d a n t and r e l a t i v e A c t i v e c o p i n g as the c r i t e r i o n R e l a t i v e Avoidant cooing. findings  from the m u l t i p l e  r e l a t i v e Avoidant coping.  variables.  Table 0-2 shows the summary o f  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of p r e d i c t o r s The t o t a l  equation p r e d i c t i n g  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F (5,78) (t(l,78)  = 5.36,  One v a r i a b l e ,  perceived control  significantly  r e l a t e d to r e l a t i v e Avoidant coping.  v a r i a b l e s d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . regression coefficient  p_<.0003.  = - 3 . 4 7 , p_<.0009) was A l l the  The s t a n d a r d i z e d  of the v a r i a b i l i t y  in  five  predictor  v a r i a b l e s ; family cohesion, perceived c o n t r o l ,  emotional  support,  tangible support,  Relative Active coping.  and i n f o r m a t i o n a l  A c t i v e c o p i n g d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e (F (5,78) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  = 2 . 0 5 , p_<.04).  v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  relative  = 1.79,  r e l a t e d to  None of the  relative  other  r e l a t e d to r e l a t i v e A c t i v e c o p i n g .  The s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  Active coping.  support.  T a b l e 0-3 shows the r e s u l t s o f  Although the t o t a l e q u a t i o n p r e d i c t i n g  perceived control  is  relative  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d by s c o r e s on the  A c t i v e coping ( t ( l , 7 8 )  other  g r e a t e r use o f A v o i d a n t c o p i n g .  A l t o g e t h e r 26% (21% a d j u s t e d )  p_>.12), p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l  of  relative  suggests that l e s s perceived control  associated with r e l a t i v e l y  regressions.  coping  indicates that  i s associated with greater r e l a t i v e  greater use o f  T a b l e 0-2 Multiple  Regression A n a l y s i s of P r e d i c t o r s of R e l a t i v e  Avoidant  Cooing CN=84)  Source  B  t  P.  (df=l,78)  Cohesion Tangible  Support  Informational  Support  Control Emotional  Note.  Support  -1.76  ns  .15  1.43  ns  -.05  -.44  ns  -.37  -3.47  <.0009  -.05  -.41  ns  B i s the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .  of variance in r e l a t i v e regression equation F(5,78)  -.20  A v o i d a n t c o p i n g accounted f o r by the  (R-squared)  = 5.36 p.<.0003.  Percentage  is  .26 ( A d j u s t e d  .21).  Overall  150 T a b l e 0-3 Multiple  Regression A n a l y s i s of P r e d i c t o r s of R e l a t i v e A c t i v e  Cooing (N=84)  Source  t  B  p.  (df=l,78)  Cohesion Tangible  Support  Informational  Support  Control Emotional  Note.  Support  .11  .92  ns  -.05  -.46  ns  -.09  -.72  ns  .24  2.05  <.04  -.05  -.41  ns  B i s the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .  Percentage  of v a r i a n c e i n A c t i v e c o p i n g accounted f o r by the r e g r e s s i o n equation  (R-squared)  1.79 p_>.12.  i s .10 ( A d j u s t e d  .05).  Overall  F(5,78) =  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0053706/manifest

Comment

Related Items