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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The conditions that facilitate or hinder adjustment for graduate students in counselling psychology Mah, Deveda Lynn 1991

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THE CONDITIONS THAT F A C I L I T A T E OR HINDER ADJUSTMENT FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS IN COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY by DEVEDA LYNN MAH B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s T h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1991 © DEVEDA LYNN MAH, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counsel 1 i ng Psychol ogy The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date October 2, 1991  DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t F l a n a g a n ' s (1954) c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was u t i l i z e d t o e x p l o r e what f a c i l i t a t e s o r h i n d e r s a djustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Twenty-two g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s from t h e Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia were r e c r u i t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . I n i n t e r v i e w s t h a t were a u d i o - t a p e d , each i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t e d e v e n t s t h a t e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d o r h i n d e r e d t h e i r adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Of 227 i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s , n i n e c a t e g o r i e s were formed. U s i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f agreement between judges i n p l a c i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s , r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s was a t 94.4%. i i i T a b l e o f Co n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v Acknowledgements v i D e d i c a t i o n v i i CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Background o f t h e Problem 1 R a t i o n a l e and S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study 2 D e f i n i t i o n s and Views o f Adjustment 3 Views o f S t r e s s 5 CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8 The P r o f e s s o r - S t u d e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p 8 T h e s i s - w r i t i n g 12 F a m i l y and M a r r i a g e I s s u e s 13 Gender I s s u e s 14 L o n e l i n e s s and D e p r e s s i o n 16 Maslow's H i e r a r c h y o f Needs 17 Summary 18 CHAPTER I I I . METHODOLOGY 2 0 Review o f t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique 20 Review o f t h e P r o c e d u r e and Mode o f Data C o l l e c t i o n . 22 P a r t i c i p a n t s 27 i v Background o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 27 C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s I n t e r v i e w 28 F o l l o w - u p I n t e r v i e w s 31 A n a l y s i s 32 CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 35 R e l i a b i l i t y 35 B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s 36 D e f i n i t i o n s o f B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s 36 P a r t i c i p a n t Rate o f t h e C a t e g o r i e s 57 CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION 59 Summary o f F i n d i n g s 5 9 L i m i t a t i o n s o f Re s e a r c h 60 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory and Re s e a r c h 62 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e 72 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 75 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 7 6 REFERENCES 80 APPENDICES A. I n i t i a l R e c r u i t m e n t L e t t e r 84 B. Consent Form 85 C. B i o g r a p h i c a l Sheet 8 6 D. D e f i n i t i o n L i s t 87 LIST OF TABLES Tab l e 1 P e r c e n t a g e o f P a r t i c i p a t o r s R e p r e s e n t e d i n Each C a t e g o r y ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i I would l i k e t o thank Dr. L a r r y Cochran f o r h i s encouragement, s u p p o r t , r e a s s u r a n c e and gu i d a n c e i n t h e c r e a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. Norman Amundson f o r h i s gui d a n c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e i d e a s , which h e l p e d immensely. S p e c i a l t h a n k s goes out t o B e v e r l y O g i l v i e , who t h r o u g h h e r encouragement and e x p e r t a d v i c e , a s s i s t e d me g r e a t l y i n p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o want t o thank t h e twenty-two c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , who w i t h t h e i r e n l i g h t e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , made t h i s p r o d u c t i o n p o s s i b l e . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , I would l i k e t o thank my f a t h e r Dong, and b r o t h e r D a v i d , f o r w i t h o u t t h e i r l o v e and encouragement, I would never have found my way. v i i D e d i c a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o my mother, Mai, t h e " g r e a t e s t Mom i n t h e whole wide w o r l d " , who, t h r o u g h h e r n e v e r - e n d i n g l o v e and encouragement, t a u g h t me about " g i v i n g and l o v i n g " , and who always b e l i e v e d i n me....Thanks, Mom!!.... I hope you a r e w a t c h i n g me from heaven. T h i s d e d i c a t i o n a l s o goes out t o my f a t h e r , Dong, who c o n t i n u e s t o encourage me, and t o my b r o t h e r , D a v i d , who, w i t h h i s n e v e r - e n d i n g s u p p o r t and l o v e , encourages me t h r o u g h "good t i m e s and i n bad". Thanks, Mom, Dad, and D a v i d , f o r h e l p i n g me t o get where I am....for w i t h o u t you a l l , g e t t i n g here would have been i m p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Background Of The Problem F o r many s t u d e n t s , adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l i s d i f f i c u l t . A c c o r d i n g t o Holmes and Rahe (1967), a l i f e e vent i s s t r e s s f u l i f i t u p s e t s a p e r s o n ' s normal r o u t i n e , r e q u i r i n g change and r e a d j u s t m e n t . I n t h i s r e g a r d , e n t e r i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l might i n v o l v e moving t o a new l o c a t i o n , making new f r i e n d s , l i v i n g on a s m a l l income, and c o p i n g w i t h t h e demands o f a new s e t t i n g . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (Holmes & Rahe, 1967), one would e x p e c t t h a t a djustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l would rank r e a s o n a b l y h i g h i n s t r e s s . E m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have de m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e g r a d u a t e s c h o o l as a s t r e s s f u l p e r i o d o f adjustment, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i t s t h r e a t o f p o t e n t i a l academic f a i l u r e (Berg & F e r b e r , 1983; de R o s e n r o l l , Norman, & S i n d e n , 1987; G u s t i t u s , Golden, & H a z i e r , 1986; H e i n s , Fahey, & L e i d e n , 1984; Leong, M a l l i n c k r o d t , & K r a l j , 1990; Munson, 1984; P h i l l i p s , Daubman, & W i l m o t h / 1986). 2 Fondacaro, H e l l e r , and R e i l l y (1984) found t h a t t h e s u i c i d e r a t e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s exceeded t h a t o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , and t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f g r e a t e s t r i s k was t h e f i r s t f o u r months, t h e t i m e when s t r i v i n g t o a d j u s t would be most d i f f i c u l t . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjustment might be r e l a t e d t o poor academic performance, i l l n e s s , and mental w e l l - b e i n g , among o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . G i v e n t h e im p o r t a n c e o f adjustment t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , t h i s s t u d y i s co n c e r n e d w i t h c o n d i t i o n s t h a t h e l p and h i n d e r . What c a t e g o r i e s o f e v e n t s f a c i l i t a t e o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e adjustment o f s t u d e n t s t o a g r a d u a t e program? R a t i o n a l e And S i g n i f i c a n c e Of The Study F e e l i n g s o f ease and or adequacy a r e i m p o r t a n t i n h e l p i n g one t o succeed a t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l (Berg & F e r b e r , 1983/ de R o s e n r o l l e t a l . , 1987; H e i n s , e t a l . , 1984; Munson, 1984). I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f such f a c i l i t a t o r s and h i n d r a n c e s w i l l i n c r e a s e awareness o f i s s u e s t h a t a r e o f c o n c e r n f o r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . A c t i o n s can t h e n be t a k e n t o d e v e l o p p r e v e n t i v e programs t h a t can h e l p f a c i l i t a t e a djustment f o r 3 g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , r e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y may p r o v i d e i n s i g h t and i d e a s on how t o h e l p g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t o not j u s t t h e i r academic s t u d i e s , but t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s as w e l l , s i n c e t h e s t r e s s o r s o f a t t e n d i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l w i l l c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e i r l i v e s . D e f i n i t i o n s And Views Of Adjustment D e f i n i n g adjustment has been p r o b l e m a t i c . Many r e s e a r c h e r s d i s a g r e e on how i t i s d e f i n e d ( A r k o f f , 1968; D e r l e g a & Janda, 1978; L a z a r u s , 1976; S c h n e i d e r s , 1965). They agree t h a t many l i f e s i t u a t i o n s can i n t e r f e r e w i t h a d justment, but t h e y cannot agree on what c o n s t i t u t e s "normal" a d j u s t m e n t . F i r s t l y , one's t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t o f t e n d e t e r m i n e s how adjustment may be d e f i n e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , a p e r s o n who b e l i e v e s i n t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c v iew w i l l d e f i n e adjustment d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e p e r s o n who b e l i e v e s i n t h e b e h a v i o u r i s t view, who, i n t u r n , may d e f i n e adjustment d i f f e r e n t l y t h e n t h e p e r s o n from t h e h u m a n i s t i c approach. 4 Sec o n d l y , t h e r e i s some disagreement on how adjustment s h o u l d be viewed; more s p e c i f i c a l l y , whether adjustment s h o u l d be viewed as a " p r o c e s s " o r an "achievement". V i e w i n g adjustment as a p r o c e s s , f o r example, i n v o l v e s b e i n g a b l e t o s e t g o a l s and t o be a b l e t o d e c i d e on how t o pursue them ( D e r l e g a & Janda, 1978; L a z a r u s , 1976). In o t h e r words, b e i n g " a d j u s t e d " i s b e i n g a b l e t o cope w i t h s e t b a c k s , and u n f o r e s e e a b l e d e l a y s . I t ' s b e i n g a b l e t o pursue d i f f e r e n t p l a n s o r o p t i o n s , i f n e c e s s a r y . Adjustment i f d e f i n e d as a " p r o c e s s " , i n v o l v e s b e i n g a b l e t o c o n t i n u o u s l y h a n d l e s t r e s s o r s and problems as t h e y a r i s e , t h r o u g h o u t l i f e . A n o t h e r view o f adjustment c o n c e i v e s i t as an "end" o r an "achievement". F o r example, f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s , adjustment may i n v o l v e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one's l i f e , d i s c o v e r i n g a meaning o r purpose i n l i f e , o r b e i n g f r e e t o be o n e s e l f ( D e r l e g a & Janda, 1978; L a z a r u s , 1976). F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , however, adjustment w i l l be seen as a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s t h a t o c c u r s i n one's l i f e . S t r e s s , t h e r e f o r e , i s e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r ; adjustment i n v o l v e s b e i n g a b l e t o han d l e p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s o r s as t h e y a r i s e . An example o f a c h a l l e n g i n g but a l s o s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e might be 5 " a t t e n d i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l " , which i s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . Views Of S t r e s s A c c o r d i n g t o L a z a r u s (1969, 1976), s t r e s s o c c u r s when t h e r e a r e demands on t h e p e r s o n t h a t t a x o r exceed h i s a d j u s t i v e r e s o u r c e s . When an i m p o r t a n t g o a l cannot be met, f r u s t r a t i o n o c c u r s . L a z a r u s f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t s t r e s s does not e x i s t by i t s e l f ; t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n has t o be t a k e n i n t o account as w e l l (1976). Examples o f s t r e s s o r s i n c l u d e : m i l i t a r y combat, d i a g n o s i s o f a t e r m i n a l i l l n e s s , o r l o s s o f a l o v e d one. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember, however, t h a t not a l l p e o p l e r e a c t t o t h e same s t r e s s o r i n t h e same way; some s t r e s s o r s a r e more s t r e s s f u l f o r some t h a n o t h e r s , depending on t h e p e r s o n and what i s i m p o r t a n t t o him o r h e r . B e i n g e v a l u a t e d i n an exam, f o r example, o r b e i n g r e j e c t e d by someone we h i g h l y r e g a r d o r l o v e may be more s t r e s s f u l f o r some t h a n o t h e r s ( L a z a r u s , 1976), depending on t h e degree o f t h r e a t t h a t one p e r c e i v e s i s happening and t h e amount o f c o n t r o l t h a t he o r she p e r c e i v e s t o have. 6 Mechanic's (1962) s t u d y on g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , f o r example, r e v e a l e d t h a t 1) degree o f s t r e s s r e a c t i o n i n c r e a s e d as t h e d a t e o f t h e comprehensive exam drew c l o s e r and 2) t h e t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r s used t o cope w i t h a n x i e t y changed as t h e danger grew n e a r e r . J o k i n g f o r example, i n c r e a s e d as t h e date o f t h e exam approached. S t u d e n t s a l s o sought out s o c i a l s u p p o r t and a v o i d e d o t h e r p e o p l e who a r o u s e d t h e i r a n x i e t y . P h y s i c a l c o m p l a i n t s , such as stomach aches, t i r e d n e s s , e t c . i n c r e a s e d around t h i s t i m e as w e l l . The e x p e r i e n c e o f a t t e n d i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , t h e r e f o r e , i s g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d by many as a n x i e t y -p r o v o k i n g and a l i e n a t i n g . A n x i e t y , however, i s not always p e r c e i v e d as n e g a t i v e , as i t has been shown t h a t a n x i e t y a c t u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e s t h e performance o f some s t u d e n t s i n t h a t i t h e l p s them t o adapt and t o a d j u s t ; comments l i k e " I work b e s t under p r e s s u r e " a r e examples o f t h i s . E v e n t s and o r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t h i n d e r adjustment f o r some may a c t u a l l y be a f a c i l i t a t o r f o r o t h e r s . One would e x p e c t t h a t i n t e r v i e w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s as t o t h e e v e n t s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r t h e i r adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l would p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s a r e a . B e f o r e t h i s i s a c c o m p l i an e x p l o r a t i o n o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y . 8 CHAPTER I I Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e There has been no d i r e c t r e s e a r c h on t h e f a c i l i t a t o r s o r h i n d r a n c e s t o adjustment i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . However, much r e s e a r c h has been done i n t h e ar e a o f s t r e s s and t h e gr a d u a t e s t u d e n t , and how i t r e l a t e s t o 1) t h e p r o f e s s o r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , 2) t h e s i s - w r i t i n g , 3) f a m i l y and m a r r i a g e i s s u e s , 4) gender i s s u e s , and 5) d e p r e s s i o n and l o n e l i n e s s . Each o f t h e s e a r e a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n . Maslow's (1970) t h e o r y o f human needs w i l l t h e n be d e s c r i b e d t o h e l p connect t h e above i d e a s . The P r o f e s s o r - S t u d e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p Munson (1984) i n v e s t i g a t e d s o u r c e s and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s t r e s s f o r s o c i a l work g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . A r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between f i e l d i n s t r u c t o r s u p e r v i s i o n and s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s e s . Graduate s t u d e n t s , who dreaded c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h f i e l d i n s t r u c t o r s , r e p o r t e d h a v i n g more c o l d s and s l e e p problems. I f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u c t o r 9 was d e s c r i b e d as unapproachable o r u n s u p p o r t i v e , c o l d s and g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l (GI) u p s e t s were more l i k e l y t o o c c u r . S t u d e n t s , who r e p o r t e d b e i n g angry a t c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t o r s and/or h a v i n g d i s a g r e e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g p erformance and/or u n f a i r e v a l u a t i o n s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y o f headaches, GI u p s e t s and s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s (Munson, 1984) . In a s t u d y o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n D e s c u t n e r and T h e l e n (1989) e x p l o r e d s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e department and f a c u l t y . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o e n t e r i n g c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s a t two p a r t i c u l a r t i m e s , once b e f o r e t h e semester began and once a t t h e end o f t h e semester. I t was found t h a t e n t e r i n g s t u d e n t s had "somewhat s i m i l a r " r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s t o t h o s e o f e x i s t i n g f a c u l t y . A f t e r one semester, s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s were even more s i m i l a r t o f a c u l t y p e r c e p t i o n s . What was i n t r i g u i n g was t h a t t h e s e same s t u d e n t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r sense o f d i m i n i s h e d c o n t r o l ( i . e . a need t o comply w i t h d i s l i k e d program p o l i c i e s ) a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t semester t h a n t h e y had b e f o r e t h e y e n t e r e d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . S i n c e h i s / h e r c a r e e r might be a t s t a k e , t h e s t u d e n t might f e e l a 10 g r e a t e r need t o comply with department r u l e s a f t e r one semester than b e f o r e he or she s t a r t e d . Hence, students may not f e e l t h a t they have c o n t r o l over t h e i r academic environment. Heins et a l . (1984) compared s t r e s s l e v e l s i n medical, law, and graduate students. Law students r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g the most s t r e s s , but both medical and graduate students r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t e n s e s t r e s s as w e l l . Intense a n x i e t y o f t e n a r i s e s from two areas: academic e x p e c t a t i o n s and the p r e s s u r e t o develop and maintain i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Heins, et a l . , 1984). When these students were asked t o r a t e the l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e programs, responses o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as " l i k e s " were: the s t i m u l a t i o n and c h a l l e n g e of t h e i r programs, and the s p e c i f i c content of t h e i r programs. Responses d e s c r i b e d as d i s l i k e s were: not having enough time to do a l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d of them, not having enough feedback r e g a r d i n g t h e i r performance, and having to d e a l with f a c u l t y members who were not s u p p o r t i v e . The q u a l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n between the students and the p r o f e s s o r s i s key to the sense of w e l l - b e i n g f o r the students (McLaughlin, 1985). I f growth and academic p o t e n t i a l a r e f o s t e r e d by p r o f e s s o r s , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e . Lack o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s may not o n l y i n c r e a s e t h e s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by s t u d e n t s but a l s o h i n d e r u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s as w e l l . Support and mutual r e s p e c t between i n s t r u c t o r and s t u d e n t appear c r u c i a l ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1985). In a s t u d y o f a n x i e t y , F r i e d l a n d e r , K e l l e r , Peco Baker, and 01k (1986) examined r o l e c o n f l i c t and i t s e f f e c t on s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . A sample of s t u d e n t s responded t o "dilemma" i n c o u n s e l l i n g and were exposed t o one o f f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s : 1) c o n f l i c t (the p r o f e s s o r recommended t h e s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l o r t a k e an a c t i o n t h a t was c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o what t h e s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l o r wanted t o d o ) , 2) no c o n f l i c t ( p r o f e s s o r s u p p o r t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g c o u n s e l l o r i n what he/she wanted t o d o ) , 3) n e u t r a l ( p r o f e s s o r s t a t e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r ' s i n t e n t and o p p o s i n g o p t i o n were e q u a l l y v a l i d ) and 4) a c o n t r o l group (no i n p u t by p r o f e s s o r ) R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t d i d not produce a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on b e g i n n e r c o u n s e l l o r s ' s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s , but d i d produce adv e r s e e f f e c t s on 12 advanced c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g ( F r i e d l a n d e r e t a l . , 1986). Reasons f o r t h i s may be t h a t b e g i n n e r c o u n s e l l o r s t e n d t o not t r u s t t h e i r own judgements, and w i l l more l i k e l y change t h e i r o p i n i o n t o conform t o t h a t o f t h e i r p r o f e s s o r . Advanced t r a i n e e s , however, may view t h e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r as a t e s t o f t h e i r competence and t h i s a t t i t u d e w i l l more l i k e l y l e a d t o f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y and or n e g a t i v e s e l f -comments. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t r a i n e e - p e r f o r m a n c e was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o a n x i e t y l e v e l s ; i n o t h e r words, t h e more a n x i o u s t h e t r a i n e e was t h e worse he o r she was l i k e l y t o p e r f o r m . T h i s phenomena i s s u p p o r t e d by what i s g e n e r a l l y known as t h e " i n v e r t e d U c u r v e " , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a s m a l l amount o f a n x i e t y i s good f o r performance, b u t t h a t once a n x i e t y exceeds a c e r t a i n l e v e l , p erformance w i l l b e g i n t o d e c l i n e ( S o l s o , 1988). T h e s i s - w r i t i n g A n o t h e r known s o u r c e o f s t r e s s f o r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i s t h e t a s k o f t h e s i s w r i t i n g . Rennie and Brewer (1987) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who s u f f e r e d from " t h e s i s - b l o c k " were o f t e n t o o a f r a i d t o t e l l t h e i r t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r s f o r f e a r t h a t t h e y would be tho u g h t 13 " l e s s o f " . These s t u d e n t s l a c k e d "time management s k i l l s " i n t h a t t h e y found i t d i f f i c u l t t o a b i d e by t h e i r own s e l f - i m p o s e d d e a d l i n e s . S t u d e n t s a l s o see t h e s i s - w r i t i n g as an enormous t a s k r e q u i r i n g an i n t e n s i v e amount o f t h o u g h t , work, and r e s e a r c h a b i l i t y . W i t h t h e s e t h o u g h t s i n mind, i t i s no wonder t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s , who o f t e n a r e c o m p l e t i n g r e s e a r c h f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , f e e l a n x i o u s and overwhelmed. C o r c o r a n (1984) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t l e s s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c o g n i t i v e model of r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s was r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t s e v a l u a t i n g t h e t h e s i s as a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . I n o t h e r words, because l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o b e i n g r i g i d and u n r e l e n t i n g , s t u d e n t s f e e l i n g t h i s way may be l e s s w i l l i n g t o make t h e s i s r e v i s i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e , may see t h e s i s - w r i t i n g as a burden. F a m i l y and M a r r i a g e I s s u e s A c c o r d i n g t o M c L a u g h l i n (1985), t h e d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r g r a d u a t e s c h o o l w i l l not o n l y a f f e c t t h e l i f e o f a s t u d e n t , but h i s or her f a m i l y members' l i v e s as w e l l . Lack o f t i m e , academic p r e s s u r e s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s e t c . a l l add up t o enormous p r e s s u r e s . Time c o n s t r a i n t s due t o academic p r e s s u r e s , f o r example, may a f f e c t and p o s s i b l y s t r a i n e x i s t i n g communication between t h e s t u d e n t and h i s o r h e r f a m i l y members. M a r r i e d women, who were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , were more l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e a f e e l i n g o f " d i v i d e d l o y a l t i e s " i n t h e i r attempt t o be committed t o b o t h f a m i l y and s c h o o l . Women are e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r " t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e h o l d t a s k s " w h i l e b e i n g s t u d e n t s . P r e s e n c e o f c h i l d r e n a l s o seems t o be a n e g a t i v e f a c t o r f o r t h e gra d u a t e s t u d e n t . C l o s e s c r u t i n y o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t arrangements f o r c h i l d c a r e appear t o be more o f an i s s u e t h a n t h e a c t u a l p r e s e n c e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1985) . Gender I s s u e s B e r g and F e r b e r (1983) i n v e s t i g a t e d whether s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n gr a d u a t e s c h o o l was r e l a t e d t o one's gender. Women were l e s s l i k e l y t h a n men t o complete o r pursue g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , and most degrees were i n t h e a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e s c i e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , female g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e 15 p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s r e p o r t e d a l a c k o f encouragement o r su p p o r t from male f a c u l t y . W i d n a l l (1988) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t drop-out r a t e s f o r women g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f men. Sur v e y s , d i s t r i b u t e d t o g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s e n r o l e d i n s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l c a r e e r s a t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y and M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f Technology (MIT), i n d i c a t e d t h a t male s t u d e n t s not o n l y e x p r e s s e d anger and rage a t t h e system but a l s o gave a d v i c e on how t h e system c o u l d be a l t e r e d . Female s t u d e n t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, e x p r e s s e d f r u s t r a t i o n and discouragement a t t h e system. W i d n a l l (1988) a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t more women t h a n men f e e l a sense o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . More female t h a n male s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e environment was d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r h e a l t h , 23% o f t h e women (v e r s u s 9% of t h e men) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e y were on t h e verge o f a nervous break-down ( W i d n a l l , 1988). Female s t u d e n t s (more so t h a n male s t u d e n t s ) d i d not f e e l f r e e t o d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e i r a d v i s o r s . Women may i n a d v e r t e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s by r e l i n q u i s h i n g power t o t h e i r a d v i s e r s ( W i d n a l l , 1988). 16 G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e n , females r e p o r t l o w e r l e v e l s o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , g r e a t e r f e a r s o f s p e a k i n g up i n c l a s s , and l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u b l i s h ( W i d n a l l , 1988). I t appears t h a t i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o gender i s s u e s i s i n o r d e r , and r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t i n t h e a r e a o f r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s . L o n e l i n e s s and D e p r e s s i o n Many s t u d e n t s s u f f e r from l o n e l i n e s s , a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n and f e e l i n g s t h a t one cannot meet academic e x p e c t a t i o n s . Many ar e u n a b l e t o cope w i t h t h i s p r e s s u r e and s u b s e q u e n t l y f a i l o r drop out (Booth, 1985; Ganz & Ganz, 1988, Head & L i n d s l e y , 1983; O ' N e i l & M i n g i e , 1988). I t has been shown t h a t absence of a t l e a s t one c o n f i d a n t e , l o s s o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n , changes i n l i v i n g arrangements, change i n academic s i t u a t i o n o r change i n f i n a n c i a l s t a t e a r e r i s k f a c t o r s f o r d e p r e s s i o n ( O ' N e i l & M i n g i e , 1988) . F e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s , a n x i e t y , and d e p r e s s i o n can a l l l e a d t o f e e l i n g s o f h o p e l e s s n e s s and h e l p l e s s n e s s . S u i c i d e i s c u r r e n t l y t h e second l e a d i n g cause o f d e a t h among u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s (Dashef, 17 1984). Not o n l y a r e s u i c i d e r a t e s h i g h e r f o r t h o s e who a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y t h a n f o r t h o s e who do n o t , but as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , s u i c i d e r a t e s o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s t y p i c a l l y exceed t h a t o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e s (Carson & Johnson, 1985; Fondacaro e t a l . , 1984). Maslow's H i e r a r c h y o f Needs Maslow's h i e r a r c h y o f needs can be u t i l i z e d t o d e s c r i b e how a p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e s g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . A c c o r d i n g t o Maslow (1970), e v e r y p e r s o n goes t h r o u g h a p r o g r e s s i v e s e r i e s o f needs t h a t clamour t o be met. These needs a r e a r r a n g e d i n an h i e r a r c h i a l f a s h i o n , from t h e l o w e s t t o t h e h i g h e s t and f u l f i l l e d i n t h a t o r d e r . F o r example, t h o s e l o w e s t i n t h e h i e r a r c h y , b e i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs (hunger, t h i r s t ) , must be f u l f i l l e d b e f o r e s a f e t y needs can be p u r s u e d . Maslow's needs, t h e n , i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r , a r e as f o l l o w s : p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s a f e t y , b e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e , esteem, a e s t h e t i c and c o g n i t i v e , and s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n . A s t u d e n t , l i k e a l l human b e i n g s , would r e q u i r e f o o d and s h e l t e r ( p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s ) , s t r u c t u r e and s e c u r i t y ( s a f e t y n e e d s ) , a f f i l i a t i o n and a f f e c t i o n 18 (belongingness and lo v e needs), s e l f r e s p e c t and esteem from others (esteem needs), awareness of knowledge and understanding ( a e s t h e t i c and c o g n i t i v e needs), and f i n a l l y , the need t o pursue one's p o t e n t i a l i n l i f e , t o be the best t h a t one can be ( s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs). Summary Much of the r e s e a r c h on graduate students focuses on the s t r e s s and c h a l l e n g e of the exp e r i e n c e . Many students e n t e r graduate s c h o o l with mixed emotions — excitement mingled with f e a r and/or a n x i e t y . P r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s such as Descutner and Thelen (1989), F r i e d l a n d e r et a l . (1986), McLaughlin (1985), and Munson (1984) examined the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s on students and a l l conclude t h a t adequate p r o f e s s o r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s were key to not j u s t academic success, but p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g as w e l l . Performing w e l l i n c l i n i c a l courses and b e i n g able t o w r i t e a t h e s i s were j u s t some of the concerns expressed by graduate students ( F r i e d l a n d e r et a l . , 1986, & Munson, 1984) . 19 M c L a u g h l i n (1985) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a t t e n d i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l not o n l y a f f e c t s t h e l i f e o f t h e s t u d e n t , but h i s o r her f a m i l y members as w e l l . B e r g and F e r b e r (1983) and W i d n a l l (1988) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t females were more l i k e l y t o drop out t h a n males. I n a d d i t i o n , f e males were a l s o l e s s encouraged by male p r o f e s s o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a o f s c i e n c e . Many g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a l s o s u f f e r from f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s and d e p r e s s i o n and many f e a r t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o meet academic e x p e c t a t i o n s (Booth, 1985; Ganz and Ganz, 1988; Head and L i n d s l e y , 1983; O ' N e i l and M i n g i e , 1988) . Maslow's h i e r a r c h y o f needs can be u t i l i z e d t o d e s c r i b e how a p e r s o n a d j u s t s t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . B e f o r e t h e p u r s u i t o f knowledge can a d e q u a t e l y t a k e p l a c e , needs f o r f o o d and s h e l t e r , b e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e , esteem, e t c . need t o be met. What i s m i s s i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , however, i s an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . T h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l h o p e f u l l y b r i n g f o r t h i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s a r e a . 20 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY The Critical Incident Technique d e v e l o p e d by Fl a n a g a n (1954), was used t o e l i c i t e v e n t s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and h i n d e r adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Twenty-two c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d . Review o f t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e (Flanagan, 1954) was d e v e l o p e d t o s t u d y a c t i v i t i e s and or j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s by t h e Army A i r F o r c e i n World War I I , u s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r s ( c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s ) t o d e v e l o p c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s . The " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s " would t h e n be put i n t o s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s and i n f e r e n c e s / i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made. Ande r s s o n and N i l s s o n (1964) checked t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e by a n a l y z i n g t h e j o b o f s t o r e managers. The average r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was .83. In a d d i t i o n , t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e 21 c a t e g o r i z a t i o n system appeared t o be q u i t e h i g h when s t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o r e - c a t e g o r i z e t h e d a t a . F l a n a g a n (1954) d e f i n e s an i n c i d e n t as "...an o b s e r v a b l e human a c t i v i t y t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y complete i n i t s e l f t o p e r m i t i n f e r e n c e s and p r e d i c t i o n s t o be made about t h e p e r s o n p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t " (p. 327). A p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t i s c r i t i c a l i f i t makes a " s i g n i f i c a n t " o r i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , e i t h e r i n a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e way (Broughton, 1984; F l a n a g a n , 1954). I n t h i s c a s e , i t would be "adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l " . The word " s i g n i f i c a n t " r e f e r s t o any event i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as h a v i n g e i t h e r a f a c i l i t a t i n g o r h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t on t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t . F l a n a g a n ' s C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique i n v o l v e s t h e c o l l e c t i n g o f d a t a t h a t h e l p s t o r e s o l v e p r a c t i c a l p r o blems. I t ' s use, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l produce i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t t h e d a t a t o be c o l l e c t e d s h o u l d come from p a r t i c i p a n t s who have some knowledge o f e x p e r t i s e i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a b e i n g s t u d i e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e asked c o n c i s e q u e s t i o n s t o e nsure t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e s g i v e n meet s p e c i f i c 22 c r i t e r i a . The d a t a a r e a n a l y z e d and " c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " a r e t h e n d i s c o v e r e d and o r g a n i z e d . A " c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t " i s d e f i n e d as a s i t u a t i o n o r event i d e n t i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s as making a d i f f e r e n c e i n b e i n g a b l e t o complete a c e r t a i n t a s k ( i . e . b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n c l i n i c , c o m p l e t i n g a r e s e a r c h paper e t c . ) . Review o f t h e P r o c e d u r e and Mode o f Data C o l l e c t i o n There a r e no r i g i d r u l e s i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s t a g e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e . Only r e p o r t s from q u a l i f i e d o b s e r v e r s , however, a r e t o be u t i l i z e d . S u b j e c t i v e d a t a w i l l be o b t a i n e d , a l t h o u g h i t has been shown t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s do make s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s (Flanagan, 1954) . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y o r o v e r l a p i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e p o r t s s u p p o r t s a sense o f o b j e c t i v i t y . One must ensure t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t s a r e d e f i n e d i n a c l e a r and c o n c i s e manner, so t h a t competence i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be a c h i e v e d . I n c i d e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s . No l i m i t s on how many e v e n t s o r c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d ; however, t h r e e o r f o u r examples o f each 23 c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r o r i n c i d e n t i s s u g g e s t e d (Flanagan, 1954). Four t y p e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n are s u g g e s t e d by F l a n a g a n : i n t e r v i e w s , group i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and r e c o r d forms (p. 342-343). The i n t e r v i e w method w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Once t h e e v e n t s / i n c i d e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d , t h e d a t a w i l l be d e s c r i b e d and summarized i n a way t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can be drawn. Three i m p o r t a n t a r e a s , a c c o r d i n g t o F l a n a g a n (1954), need t o be a d d r e s s e d when a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a . They a r e 1) frame o f r e f e r e n c e , 2) f o r m u l a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s , and 3) g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r . 1) frame o f r e f e r e n c e : D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what i n c i d e n t f a l l s i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y depends on i t s use. C a t e g o r i e s t o be used s h o u l d meet t h e s t a tement o f r e q u i r e m e n t s (Broughton, 1984, & F l a n a g a n , 1954). 2) F o r m u l a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s : a. C a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f e v e n t s / i n c i d e n t s i n t o p i l e s . b. D e f i n i t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s and placement o f i n c i d e n t s i n t o t h e p i l e s . c. Development of new c a t e g o r i e s , and/or r e -d e f i n i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , u n t i l a l l o f 24 t h e i n c i d e n t s o r e v e n t s are c l a s s i f i e d . d. O p t i o n t o s u b - d i v i d e l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s c r e a t i n g n a r r o w e r ones. e. R e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s and h e a d i n g s , e n s u r i n g t h e b e s t match between t h e i n c i d e n t s and t h e h e a d i n g s . One c o u l d t h e n d e c r e a s e " s u b j e c t i v i t y " , by h a v i n g o t h e r p e o p l e r e v i e w t h e c a t e g o r i e s . 3. G e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r : I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e how s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l each i n c i d e n t s h o u l d be. A b a l a n c e between s p e c i f i c i t y and g e n e r a l i t y , however, can be o b t a i n e d . I n o r d e r f o r t h i s t o be a c h i e v e d , one must ensure t h a t any h e a d i n g s , t i t l e s , sub-headings and r e q u i r e m e n t s be c l e a r -c u t , o r g a n i z e d and w e l l - d e f i n e d . Once t h i s i s done, t h e whole p r o c e d u r e i s t o be examined a g a i n , t o ensure a l l p o s s i b l e b i a s i s removed. And e r s s o n and N i l s s o n (1964) i n v e s t i g a t e d whether c a t e g o r i e s a r e e x h a u s t i v e by f i r s t c o l l e c t i n g 5% o f t h e i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by each p e r s o n ; t h e y t h e n grouped t h e s e i n c i d e n t s t o g e t h e r and t o o k t h e n e x t 5% o f t h e i n c i d e n t s o f each p e r s o n and group t h o s e t o g e t h e r . T h i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 20 groups o f e v e n t s were formed. These i n c i d e n t s were t h e n c l a s s i f i e d . When a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s were c l a s s i f i e d , 95% o f t h e s u b c a t e g o r i e s appeared. In o t h e r words, s u b c a t e g o r i e s i n c r e a s e d a t a q u i c k pace u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2/3 o f t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d . A f t e r t h a t t i m e , o n l y 5% new s u b c a t e g o r i e s appeared. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was adequate enough t o d e t e r m i n e what was e s s e n t i a l t o meet r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s a l e s manager p o s i t i o n s (Andersson & N i l s s o n , 1964; Broughton, 1984) . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was a l s o a s s e s s e d and a n a l y z e d by Andersson and N i l s s o n ' s (1964) s t u d y . They t e s t e d two t y p e s o f c o l l e c t i n g p r o c e d u r e s (the i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d a d i f f e r e n t number o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s v i a t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n by t h e i n t e r v i e w method. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Kolomogorov-Smirnov two-sample t e s t . However, t h e rank c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s i z e s o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s from each method was .85 (Andersson and N i l s s o n , 1964) . They t h u s c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s 26 between t h e s i z e o f c a t e g o r i e s between t h e s e two modes of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . C o n t r o l o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was done by a s k i n g 24 p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s t o s o r t out 2 s e t s o f 100 i n c i d e n t s , t h a t had been randomly chosen from each a r e a . They were t o l d t o s o r t t h e s e i n c i d e n t s i n t o s u b c a t e g o r i e s , which were g i v e n t o them. Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t r o n g t e n dency f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e t o p l a c e t h e i n c i d e n t i n t h e same c a t e g o r y and t h u s s t a t e d t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was " p l a u s i b l e " and not "too s u b j e c t i v e " . A n d e r s s o n and N i l s s o n (1964) a l s o examined t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e d a t a (whether t h e i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d a c t u a l l y p e r t a i n e d t o what d e t e r m i n e d t h e making o f a good s t o r e manager). They examined t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e t o ensure no c o n t e n t was m i s s i n g , and came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t had been t h o r o u g h and c o n c i s e and had c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . They t h e n wanted t o v e r i f y i f t h e i n c i d e n t s o b t a i n e d were a c t u a l l y i m p o r t a n t as wo r k a b l e t o o l s . The average r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was .83 27 when 86 s u b c a t e g o r i e s were r a t e d (on a l i c k e r t s c a l e from 1-6) (Andersson and N i l s s o n , 1964). Because of the above d e t a i l e d a n alyses, Andersson and N i l s s o n both conclude t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique was both a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d instrument f o r the purposes of t h e i r study. P a r t i c i p a n t s Twenty-two f u l l - t i m e graduate students from the department of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study. P a r t i c i p a t i o n was s o l i c i t e d through p e r s o n a l networking and a t t e n d i n g f i r s t and second year c l a s s e s . The proposed r e s e a r c h was then d e s c r i b e d t o f e l l o w students and i n t e r v i e w s were arranged f o r those t h a t were i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Background of P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s ranged i n age from b e i n g i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s t o t h e i r f i f t i e s , with a median of 35-39 years of age. A t o t a l of 22 graduate students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study, 16 female, and 6 male. Seven were Master of E d u c a t i o n candidates and 15 were Master of i 28 A r t s c a n d i d a t e s . Seven were e n r o l e d i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r , w h i l e 15 were i n t h e i r second y e a r . E l e v e n s t u d e n t s were m a r r i e d , seven were s i n g l e , t h r e e were s e p a r a t e d and o r d i v o r c e d , and one was widowed. Average number o f dependents were 2.25. I n terms o f academic s p e c i a l t i e s w i t h i n t h e department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , f o u r were r e g i s t e r e d i n a d u l t c o u n s e l l i n g , f i v e were i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , two were i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g , seven were i n a d o l e s c e n c e c o u n s e l l i n g , one was i n g e n d e r - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g , one was i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g , and two were i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i r t e e n s t u d e n t s e n t e r e d t h e program i n 1989, two i n 1988, and seven i n 1990. T h i s sample was q u i t e b r o a d i n t h a t s t u d e n t s came from v a r i o u s backgrounds and e n t e r e d v a r i o u s s p e c i a l t i e s ; not a l l s p e c i a l t i e s , however, were e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s I n t e r v i e w Twenty-two f u l l - t i m e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l e d i n t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y program a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia were i n t e r v i e w e d . These i n t e r v i e w s t o o k p l a c e a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The i n t e r v i e w s were a u d i o - t a p e d so t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r was more f o c u s e d on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e s p o n s e s , r a t h e r t h a n on " t a k i n g n o t e s " w h i l e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t was s p e a k i n g . A l l i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was d e l e t e d from t h e t a p e s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e purpose o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y was summarized; s t u d e n t s were t h e n t o l d t h a t t h e y d i d not have t o share any i n f o r m a t i o n o r answer any q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e y f e l t u n c o m f o r t a b l e about. Consent form and b i o g r a p h i c a l sheet were t h e n c o m p l e t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . I s s u e s t o do w i t h c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were e x p l a i n e d . The i n t e r v i e w t h e n began: The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were t h e n asked t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s : "Think back t o a t i m e , s i n c e coming t o UBC, when something happened t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e l p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e your adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l " . The q u e s t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by a s k i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g : "What was an event t h a t h e l p e d you t o f e e l adequate o r a t ease w h i l e a t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l ? " Once t h e p a r t i c i p a n t had a p a r t i c u l a r event i n mind, t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were asked: 1. What were the g e n e r a l circumstances around the event? 2. What e x a c t l y f a c i l i t a t e d your adjustment? 3. Why was t h i s event so h e l p f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g your adjustment? Once the f i r s t i n c i d e n t has been f u l l y e x p l o r e d , I then asked the f o l l o w i n g : "Can you t h i n k of another event t h a t h e l p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e your adjustment t o graduate s c h o o l ? " T h i s p r o c e s s was continued, u n t i l a l l f a c i l i t a t i n g events were e x p l o r e d . I then asked the f o l l o w i n g : "Think back t o a time, s i n c e coming t o UBC, when something happened t h a t h i n d e r e d your adjustment t o graduate s c h o o l . " The above q u e s t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by a s k i n g the f o l l o w i n g : "What was an event t h a t h i n d e r e d you from f e e l i n g adequate or at ease while at graduate s c h o o l ? " Once the p a r t i c i p a n t had a p a r t i c u l a r event i n mind, the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were asked: 1. What were the g e n e r a l circumstances around t h i s event? 2. What e x a c t l y h i n d e r e d your adjustment? 31 3. Why was t h i s event so h i n d e r i n g t o your adjustment? Once the f i r s t h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t had been explored, the f o l l o w i n g was asked: "Can you t h i n k of another event t h a t h i n d e r e d your adjustment t o graduate s c h o o l ? " T h i s p r o c e s s was continued, u n t i l a l l h i n d e r i n g events were e x p l o r e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t was asked i f he or she had any t h i n g e l s e t o add or c l a r i f y . Once t h i s was d i s c u s s e d , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were then t o l d t h a t the i n t e r v i e w was over. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , was again ensured, and p a r t i c i p a n t s were guaranteed t h a t audio-tapes would be erased, upon completion of the study. Follow-up Interviews Approximately s i x months a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w , a sample of ten p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o n t a c t e d f o r a v e r i f i c a t i o n check. The purpose of t h i s v e r i f i c a t i o n check was t o v e r i f y t h a t events were c o r r e c t l y r e c o r d e d as t o meaning and context. The p a r t i c i p a n t ' s e x periences (as recorded on index c a r d s ) , were read out t o the i n d i v i d u a l . Each of the ten p a r t i c i p a n t s 32 c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s were c o r r e c t l y r e c o r d e d . * A n a l y s i s Once t h e i n t e r v i e w s were completed, t h e e v e n t s / i n c i d e n t s from t h e a u d i o - t a p e s were t h e n r e c o r d e d on c o l o u r e d i n d e x c a r d s ; d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g e v e n t s and f o r h i n d e r i n g ones. One i n c i d e n t was r e c o r d e d on each c a r d . To ensure f o r comprehensive r e c o r d i n g , each i n c i d e n t was r e c o r d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. "Agent" (who pe r f o r m e d t h e event) 2. "Event" ( b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e event) 3. "Outcome" (what happened as a r e s u l t o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t ) . The p a r t i c i p a n t ' s i n i t i a l s were t h e n r e c o r d e d a t t h e c o r n e r on t h e back o f each c a r d . The i n c i d e n t number was a l s o r e c o r d e d ; f o r example, "LM-2", meaning t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t was t h e second one mentioned by LM. Once a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s were r e c o r d e d and coded f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t , t h e a u d i o - t a p e was r e v i e w e d a g a i n , t o ensure t h e i n c i d e n t s were c o r r e c t l y r e c o r d e d . T h i s 33 p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e d , u n t i l a l l i n c i d e n t s were coded, r e c o r d e d , and checked. Cards were t h e n t e n t a t i v e l y s o r t e d i n t o p i l e s t h o u g h t t o have common meanings. C a t e g o r y names such as "Reassurance 1', " C o n n e c t i v e Support", e t c . were t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d . To ensure f o r c o n c i s e n e s s and c l a r i t y , f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were i n i t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d i n t o t h e i r own c a t e g o r i e s . F o r example, " r e a s s u r a n c e " was a d i f f e r e n t p i l e from i t ' s p o l a r o p p o s i t e , " i n v a l i d a t i o n " . A t f i r s t , twenty-two c a t e g o r i e s emerged, most h a v i n g b i - p o l a r p a r t n e r s . C a t e g o r i e s were t h e n examined t o ensure t h a t each c a t e g o r y was "unique" enough t o s t a n d a l o n e . A few c a t e g o r i e s were combined t o g e t h e r , due t o s i m i l a r meanings, so t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s were s h o r t e n e d t o 17, s i x t e e n b i p o l a r and one u n i p o l a r . C a t e g o r y names were t h e n "sharpened" and r e -worded, f o r c o n c i s e n e s s o f meaning. I n c i d e n t s were r e -checked, t o ensure t h e y were i n t h e c o r r e c t c a t e g o r y . Each b i p o l a r c a t e g o r y was amalgamated w i t h i t s p a r t n e r ; t h u s 9 c a t e g o r i e s emerged, 8 b i p o l a r and 1 u n i p o l a r . I n c i d e n t s were t h e n checked a g a i n , t o ensure t h e y were i n t h e r i g h t c a t e g o r y . 34 A l i s t of d e f i n i t i o n s was then c r e a t e d , l i s t i n g " c r i t i c a l requirements" of each category (see appendix D). P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s ( i n terms of a percentage), were then c a l c u l a t e d f o r each category. R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the conciseness of the c a t e g o r i e s was then checked by a separate r a t e r and percentages f o r i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t e d . 35 CHAPTER IV RESULTS In t h i s c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t u d y on what f a c i l i t a t e s o r h i n d e r s adjustment f o r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y , t h e 22 p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d a t o t a l o f 227 i n c i d e n t s - 120 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 107 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . The average number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d p e r p e r s o n was 10.31. R e l i a b i l i t y One r a t e r , a female g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t e n r o l e d i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, was used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . A sample of 27 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 27 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s from t h e 227 i n c i d e n t s were randomly s e l e c t e d from a c r o s s t h e c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t r a t e r t o c l a s s i f y . A d e f i n i t i o n l i s t (as t o t h e meaning of each c a t e g o r y ) was p r o v i d e d so " c o n s i s t e n c y " i n meaning c o u l d be r e a c h e d . The g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a c h i e v e d a r e l i a b i l i t y o f 94.4%, which i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g r e l i a b i l i t y . 36 B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s The 227 i n c i d e n t s were s o r t e d and c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o groups w i t h s i m i l a r meaning u n t i l b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s were formed. Each c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s a number o f e v e n t s / i n c i d e n t s t h a t had s i m i l a r meanings. Nine b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s appeared, e i g h t o f which were b i - p o l a r i n n a t u r e . 1. C o n n e c t i v e s u p p o r t 2. Reassurance of A b i l i t y 3. P r a c t i c a l A s s i s t a n c e 4. F l e x i b i l i t y 5. S a f e Environment/Atmosphere 6. I n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r o v i d e d 7. U n i v e r s i t y or department s e r v i c e s 8. S e l f p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s 9. C r i s i s - l i k e e v e n t s D e f i n i t i o n s o f B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s The c a t e g o r i e s were b i p o l a r . Each c a t e g o r y was d e f i n e d i n a p o s i t i v e manner; t h e n e g a t i v e , however, was i m p l i e d as i t s o p p o s i t e . Examples of f a c i l i t a t o r s and h i n d r a n c e s a r e g i v e n f o r each c a t e g o r y . 37 1. Connective Support There are 22 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 10 h i n d e r i n g events w i t h i n t h i s category. F a c i l i t a t i n g events range from e x p e r i e n c i n g a sense of comradery or "connection" with f e l l o w students t o e x p e r i e n c i n g a sense of empathy from p r o f e s s o r s , f r i e n d s , and or f a m i l y members. "Comradery" i s o f t e n expressed as b e i n g with others who are i n the same boat, almost l i k e "misery l o v e s company". H i n d e r i n g events range from a d j u s t i n g t o b e i n g alone, t o being unconnected, and t o a d j u s t i n g t o a move t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y . The c r i t i c a l meaning of t h i s category seems t o i n v o l v e a sense of f e e l i n g "connected" and or "being supported" by o t h e r s . The common meaning i s a sense of f e e l i n g " i n tune", "understood", "supported", or "one of the team". Lack of c o n n e c t i v e support i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with f e e l i n g s 38 of l o n e l i n e s s , inadequacy, i s o l a t i o n , a sense of d i s c o n n e c t i o n , a sense t h a t one was an " o u t s i d e r " . A f f i l i a t i o n with others e x p e r i e n c i n g s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s and e x periences, t h e r e f o r e , appears t o be important t o a sense of comfortableness and w e l l - b e i n g . Below are p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l of t h i s category. "At the o r i e n t a t i o n , I was with other students who a l s o d i d not having the f o g g i e s t i d e a of what they were doing....I wasn't alone." "Being able t o t a l k t o the department head whenever I need t o ; h i s p o s i t i v e manner, h i s open-door p o l i c y . " "Having someone to t a l k t o , t o complain about c e r t a i n p r o f s , t o go out with, having a support, was good.... helps me t o f e e l connected." "I don't t h i n k my background i s l i k e those of other s t u d e n t s . . . I don't f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e . . . I 39 don't f e e l I f i t i n . " "I'm from a c i t y up north...when I got here, I f e l t unconnected, frustrated, I didn't know anyone...it was lonely." 2. Reassurance of A b i l i t y There are 25 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 19 hindering incidents in th i s category. F a c i l i t a t i n g events range from being encouraged that one had the s k i l l s to become a good counsellor to ac t u a l l y being evaluated to t h i s e f f e c t . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , getting feedback framed in a constructive positive manner that validates the person, helps one to keep going, to keep plugging away, to be inspired to learning more. Hindering events range from being discouraged and undermined regarding one's s k i l l s and or c a p a b i l i t i e s to a c t u a l l y being evaluated to t h i s e f f e c t . 40 The c r i t i c a l meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e b e i n g a s s u r e d t h a t one had t h e s k i l l s t o be a good c o u n s e l l o r . I n a d d i t i o n , i t appears t h a t b e i n g e v a l u a t e d was a n x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g f o r many s t u d e n t s ; t h u s , any v e r b a l o r w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g one's c o u n s e l l i n g , w r i t t e n s k i l l s o r i d e a s , were t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y . The common meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a sense o f n e e d i n g t o be r e a s s u r e d t h a t one i n d e e d , d i d have t h e s k i l l s t o not j u s t be a good c o u n s e l l o r , but a good g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t as w e l l . A l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d r e p o r t i n some way o r a n o t h e r , t h a t t h e y v a l u e and need a s s u r a n c e from p r o f e s s o r s t h a t t h e y a r e e f f e c t i v e , and t h a t t h e y b e l o n g i n t h e program. T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by what o c c u r s i f "discouragement o r i n v a l i d a t i o n " o f one's a b i l i t i e s o c c u r s . S t u d e n t s o f t e n r e p o r t s a y i n g t h i n g s l i k e , " I t must have been a fluke...maybe I f o o l e d m y s e l f and o t h e r s t h r o u g h t h e c o u r s e s so f a r . . . " T h i s n e g a t i v e s e l f - t a l k o c c u r s when s t u d e n t s f e e l undermined by p r o f e s s o r s and o r p e e r s . N i n e t e e n h i n d e r i n g e v e n t s were r e p o r t e d . 41 Below are p o s i t i v e and negative examples t y p i c a l of t h i s category. "I was reassured t h a t I belonged.... t h a t I c o u l d succeed i n grad s c h o o l . " "Through feedback, the p r o f e s s o r assured me t h a t I c o u l d be a good c o u n s e l l o r . " "My s u p e r v i s o r i s s u p p o r t i v e . . . . i n h e l p i n g me to put my t h e s i s together; she v a l i d a t e s me; assures me t h a t I'm on the r i g h t t r a c k . . . I need t h a t pat on the back." "In c l i n i c my s u p e r v i s o r undermined me as *a person', and t o l d me I d i d not belong." "I got poor comments i n c l i n i c ; he degraded me; I f e l t a t t a c k e d . " "When I was n o t i f i e d t h a t I got i n t o the program, I was so happy, then a f e l l o w student t o l d me t h a t the o n l y reason I got i n t o the graduate 42 program was because of my 'race'; t h a t the department was l o o k i n g f o r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s . . . t h a t r e a l l y popped my bubble." 3. P r a c t i c a l Assistance There are 16 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 15 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e gory. F a c i l i t a t i n g events range from b e i n g able t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e f o r academic papers and course a d v i s i n g , t o being able t o o b t a i n f i n a n c i a l a i d . I t i s important t o note t h a t i t ' s the a c t u a l " h e l p " t h a t i s c r i t i c a l here. Students o f t e n r e p o r t f e e l i n g g r a t e f u l and more at ease, a sense of comfort t h a t "help" i s o f f e r e d . H i n d e r i n g events range from not be i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , such as course a d v i s i n g , g e t t i n g a pr a c t i c u m placement, e t c . t o not be i n g able t o get c h i l d care or not be i n g able t o o b t a i n f i n a n c i a l a i d . Students who r e p o r t not be i n g able t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e when needed o f t e n express f e e l i n g s of 43 discouragement and f r u s t r a t i o n , t h a t "nobody c a r e s " e t c . An event r e p o r t e d t h a t i s commonly r e p o r t e d as d i s c o u r a g i n g i s t h a t one i s not a b l e t o o b t a i n a d v i s i n g from one's a s s i g n e d pro-tern. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note a g a i n , t h a t i t i s not t h e " i n f o r m a t i o n " t h a t can be s u p p l i e d t h a t i s c r i t i c a l h e r e , r a t h e r , i t ' s t h e " a s s i s t a n c e " o r h e l p t h a t i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as l a c k i n g . The c r i t i c a l meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n a c t u a l " a s s i s t a n c e " o f some k i n d , be i t f o r term p a p e r s , h o u s i n g , c h i l d c a r e o r money problems. The common meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i s t h a t b e i n g a b l e t o g e t some s o r t o f " h e l p " g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s a sense o f ease and adequacy. Below a r e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . " O b t a i n i n g e x p e r t h e l p w i t h f r a m i n g a t o p i c f o r my major pap e r ; i t was g i v e n i n a very r e l a x e d and non-threatening way." "I was able t o get b a b y s i t t i n g f o r my k i d s , from my neighbours... t h a t was a great h e l p . " "I was able t o get a b u r s a r y and r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t p o s i t i o n from the u n i v e r s i t y . " "I wanted to meet my pro-tern, and t r i e d t o get an appointment with her...she s n a r l e d at me." "My husband i s unsupportive at t i m e s . . . . I need h e l p with the k i d s . " 4. F l e x i b i l i t y There are 10 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 6 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i t h i s category. F a c i l i t a t i n g events range from p r o f e s s o r s a l l o w i n g students the freedom to develop t h e i r own c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e t o i n s t r u c t o r s p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i o n s due to c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . 45 H i n d e r i n g e v e n t s range from b e i n g f o r c e d t o f o l l o w a c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h y o f c o u n s e l l i n g t o b e i n g p e n a l i z e d f o r h a v i n g one's own i d e a s . The c r i t i c a l meaning of t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e t h a t a sense t h a t " f l e x i b i l i t y " i s a l l o w e d f o r , i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . The common meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e a sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s when p r o f e s s o r s e x p r e s s " c o n c e r n " by o f f e r i n g f l e x i b i l i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, however, s t u d e n t s o f t e n r e p o r t f e e l i n g angry and f r u s t r a t e d when p r o f e s s o r s do not a l l o w f o r f l e x i b i l i t y , o r t h e freedom t o d e v e l o p one's own i d e a s . Below a r e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . " I t o l d t h e department head t h a t I was g o i n g t h r o u g h a m e d i c a l c r i s i s . . . I needed c a n c e r s u r g e r y . . . e x t e n s i o n s were g i v e n . " " I n c l i n i c , my p r o f a l l o w e d me t o grow and t o d e v e l o p . . . t o l d us a l l t o a l l o w our p e r s o n a l i t i e s t o s h i n e t h r o u g h i n c o u n s e l l i n g . " 46 " I was f o r c e d t o f o l l o w t h e c l i n i c s u p e r v i s o r ' s c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e and was shot down f o r my s t y l e . " 5. Safe Environment/Atmosphere There a r e 9 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 12 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . F a c i l i t a t i n g e v e n t s range from b e i n g i n a s a f e s u p p o r t i v e l e a r n i n g environment where one was encouraged t o " b e l i e v e i n one's a b i l i t i e s " t o b e i n g i n an environment where i t was okay t o make m i s t a k e s . A sense o f b e i n g s a f e i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Freedom t o d i s c l o s e r e : s e l f , f o r example, w i t h o u t i t b e i n g h e l d a g a i n s t them, i s commonly e x p e r i e n c e d . I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p h y s i c a l p l a c e t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t , but r a t h e r , t h e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l environment", f e e l i n g t h a t t h e p r o f e s s o r (or spouse o r f r i e n d ) c o u l d h e l p one t o f e e l s a f e and out o f harm's way, out o f a danger zone. Danger zones a re p l a c e s where one c o u l d not d i s c l o s e w i t h o u t f e a r o f p e n a l t y , where one was not t r e a t e d as an e q u a l , o r where one c o u l d not e x p r e s s one's own i d e a s . H i n d e r i n g e v e n t s range from b e i n g i n a u n s a f e l e a r n i n g environment where d i s c l o s u r e was h a r m f u l t o b e i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where v i o l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t o o k p l a c e . The c r i t i c a l meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e a f e e l i n g o f s a f e t y , where one f e l t f r e e t o e x p r e s s i d e a s and not f e e l "put down"; where one f e l t okay about making m i s t a k e s , where one c o u l d f e e l f r e e t o be o n e s e l f . The common meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e f e e l i n g s a f e and c o m f o r t a b l e , w h i l e e x p r e s s i n g o n e s e l f . Below a r e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . " P r o f e s s o r made t h e p l a c e f e e l s a f e . . . I was encouraged t o ' b e l i e v e i n m y s e l f , t h a t I c o u l d be a good c o u n s e l l o r . " " B e i n g a b l e t o be a t a s a f e p l a c e , a t home w i t h my w i f e , who h e l p s me w i t h i d e a s r e g a r d i n g my term p a p e r s . " 48 " O r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n was a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g e n vironment... i t was an o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet p e o p l e so names c o u l d be a t t a c h e d t o f a c e s ; i t was g r e a t i c e - b r e a k e r . " " I s e l f - d i s c l o s e d t o him, and i t came back t o haunt me...in terms of how he e v a l u a t e d me." " B e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t because I was a man....I f e l t I had t o t i p t o e around h e r , and had t o be c a r e f u l as t o what I s a i d . " " I v o l u n t e e r e d t o r o l e - p l a y i n c l a s s . . . . I t h o u g h t my c l a s s m a t e s would be e d u c a t e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e , but t h e o p p o s i t e o c c u r r e d ; I f e l t abused." 6. Information Being Provided There a r e 7 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 5 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . F a c i l i t a t i n g e v e n t s range from b e i n g n o t i f i e d t h a t one was a c c e p t e d i n t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l t o o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p r o f e s s o r s . B e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n empowering and o f t e n r e l i e v e s one o f a n x i e t y and s t r e s s . Even e v e n t s l i k e w a i t i n g f o r t h e m a i l f o r t h a t one l e t t e r , o r a w a i t i n g t h a t one phone c a l l r e : b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f some k i n d , appears t o be c r u c i a l t o t h e w e l l -b e i n g o f many s t u d e n t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , s t u d e n t s who r e p o r t b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e : who t h e p r o f e s s o r s " r e a l l y " a r e , e n a b l e d t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o r e l a x ; s t u d e n t s r e p o r t f e e l i n g a n x i o u s because t h e y do not r e a l l y know who t h e y a r e r e g i s t e r i n g w i t h , t h a t a name was o n l y a name; one wanted i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p e r s o n ; h i s / h e r l i k e s o r d i s l i k e s , p e r s o n a l i t y e t c . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was deemed c r u c i a l , e s p e c i a l l y when i t came t o r e g i s t e r i n g f o r c l i n i c a l c o u r s e s . H i n d e r i n g e v e n t s range from not b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n a d m i s s i o n s i n f o r m a t i o n t o not b e i n g g i v e n p r i o r w a r n i n g about t h e s t r e s s e s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . The c r i t i c a l meaning of t h i s category seems t o i n v o l v e b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n c r u c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n of some kind, deemed important t o the student. The common meaning of t h i s category seems t o i n v o l v e a b e l i e f t h a t " i n f o r m a t i o n i s power"; t h a t with knowledge r e g a r d i n g c e r t a i n i s s u e s or c e r t a i n people, one would be able t o f e e l l e s s i n t i m i d a t e d . Below are p o s i t i v e and neg a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t egory. "Being informed t h a t I was accepted i n t o graduate s c h o o l . " "At the o r i e n t a t i o n , I was able t o get t o know who the p r o f e s s o r s were, and what t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were, so t h a t I knew who I was r e g i s t e r i n g w i t h . " " F i r s t time I a p p l i e d t o get i n t o graduate s c h o o l I was reje'cted, but the t h i n g i s , I wasn't n o t i f i e d by m a i l . . . I had to phone t o f i n d out." " P r i o r t o being admitted, I attempted t o get an 51 i n - p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w t o d i s c u s s a d m i s s i o n s i n f o r m a t i o n ; I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t nobody wanted t o t a l k t o me..." " I was not i n f o r m e d as t o how heavy c o u r s e s were g o i n g t o b e . . . l o t s o f r e a d i n g , a n a l y z i n g e t c . ; i t ' s h a r d on my husband and k i d s t o o . . . . " 7. University/Department Services There a r e 13 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 23 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . F a c i l i t a t i n g e v e n t s range from b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e department o r u n i v e r s i t y t o b e i n g happy w i t h t h e c o n t e n t and o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n c o u r s e s . T h i s c a t e g o r y encompasses a wide v a r i e t y o f i n c i d e n c e s r e : g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s about t h e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d , s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l environment of t h e u n i v e r s i t y . H i n d e r i n g e v e n t s range from b e i n g d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e c o n t e n t or m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d t o b e i n g 52 r e q u i r e d t o t a k e s t a t i s t i c s and o r h a v i n g t o do a t h e s i s . The c r i t i c a l meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e s a t i s f a c t i o n o r l a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e department and o r s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The common meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e t h a t b e i n g t r e a t e d " w e l l " by v a r i o u s p e r s o n n e l h e l p s t o i n c r e a s e s a t i s f a c t i o n . Below a r e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . "I'm i m p r e s s e d by t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e o f f e r e d by t h e l i b r a r y . . . " " I t ' s g r e a t . . . b e i n g a b l e t o s e l e c t when you can t a k e c o u r s e s , mornings, a f t e r n o o n s o r e v e n i n g s . . . a l s o i t ' s good t h a t t h e y a r e 3 hours l o n g and o n l y once a week." " I t ' s good...not h a v i n g t o t a k e exams." 53 "The o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s very organized, e f f i c i e n t and f r i e n d l y too...I t r u s t her, and b e l i e v e she i s "watching over us' ensuring we are a l l okay." "Being r e q u i r e d to do a t h e s i s as p a r t of the M.A; i t has no r e l e v a n c e to being a c o u n s e l l o r . " "Having to buy u g l y textbooks of no use whatsoever." " S t a f f member at l i b r a r y was rude; I f e l t l i k e a cow i n a c a t t l e i i n e . . . " . 8. Self Planned A c t i v i t i e s There are 18 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 3 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . F a c i l i t a t i n g events range from being i n v o l v e d i n hobbies, e x e r c i s e , time management e t c . to o b t a i n i n g p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g . D i f f e r e n t events are o b v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s , 54 because d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s have d i f f e r e n t " s e l f h e l p " i d e a s t h a t h e l p them t o get t h r o u g h each day. H i n d e r i n g e v e n t s range from r e l a t i v e s / f r i e n d s i n f r i n g i n g on s t u d e n t s c h e d u l e s t o h a v i n g t o make wedding p l a n s a t t h e same t i m e one i s a t t e m p t i n g t o complete a s s i g n m e n t s . N e g a t i v e i m p a c t s on one's p r e - p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , a f f e c t s t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f c o n t r o l o v er t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . The c r i t i c a l meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e t h e s t u d e n t b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s t o enhance a sense o f c o n t r o l o v er t h e i r environment. The common meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e a sense o f " w e l l - b e i n g " and s a t i s f a c t i o n when t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n . 55 Below a r e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . " I got my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r ' e a r l y ' . . . . y o u know, . . . b e f o r e somebody e l s e grabbed h e r . " "Having an a t t i t u d e t h a t I am t h e e x p e r t . . . n o t t o second guess m y s e l f . . . . not t o have any n e g a t i v e s e l f - t a l k . . . h e l p s a l o t . " " G e t t i n g up a t 4:00 a.m. everyday t o do homework, so I can f i t i n o t h e r p a r e n t a l d u t i e s t h e r e s t o f t h e day..." " S e e k i n g c o u n s e l l i n g r e a l l y h e l p s me t o cope." " S t a y i n g i n shape by e x e r c i s i n g . . . h e l p s me t o r e l a x and d e a l w i t h s t r e s s . " " I have t o make wedding p l a n s and work on my major paper and p r a c t i c u m a t t h e same t i m e . . . i t ' s h a r d . " 9 . C r i s i s - l i k e Events There a r e 12 h i n d e r i n g and 0 f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . H i n d e r i n g e v e n t s range from l o s i n g a l o v e d one, g e t t i n g d i a g n o s e d w i t h a l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g d i s e a s e t o e x p e r i e n c i n g extreme exam a n x i e t y . There a r e no f a c i l i t a t i n g e v e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The c r i t i c a l meaning o f t h i s c a t e g o r y seems t o i n v o l v e a sense o f f e a r , a n x i e t y and sometimes h e l p l e s s n e s s t h a t s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e when c r i s e s o c c u r . The common meaning g e n e r a t e d by t h i s c a t e g o r y i s an o v e r a l l sense o f b e w i l d e r m e n t , f e a r , and l o s s o f c o n t r o l e x p e r i e n c e d by t h o s e i n c r i s i s . Below a r e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e examples t y p i c a l o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . "Mother d i e d s u d d e n l y . . . . h a d t o f l y home..." " I found out I had c a n c e r . . . a n d had t o be put on a w a i t l i s t f o r t r e a t m e n t . . . . " " I f r o z e d u r i n g t h e exam...I p a n i c k e d , t h e s c r a t c h i n g o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' pens made i t worse; I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d q u e s t i o n s on t h e p a p e r . . . t h e y d i d n ' t l o o k l i k e t h e y were i n e n g l i s h ! " P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate o f t h e C a t e g o r i e s The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each c a t e g o r y i s shown i n T a b l e 1. P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n d i c a t e s t h e s t r e n g t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y , i n terms o f how o f t e n p a r t i c u l a i n c i d e n t a r e r e p o r t e d . F o r example, 91% o f t h e s t u d e n t s mention i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o " r e a s s u r a n c e a b i l i t y " , an i m p o r t a n t need. P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o " c o n n e c t i v e s u p p o r t " and " p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e " c a t e g o r i e s were s u b s t a n t i a l as w e l l , a t 86% and 73%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 58 Table 1 Percentage of P a r t i c i p a t o r s Represented i n Each Category. Cateqories N(%) F(%) H(%) Reassurance of A b i l i t y 91 68 64 Connective Support- 86 82 36 P r a c t i c a l Assistance 73 55 50 Self Planned A c t i v i t i e s 64 55 9 University/Department Services 55 27 55 F l e x i b i l i t y 50 45 23 C r i s i s - l i k e Events 41 0 41 Safe Environment/Atmosphere 41 32 23 Information Being Provided 36 32 14 KEY: N = Percentage of t o t a l participants that reported an event in a category F = Percentage of t o t a l participants that reported a f a c i l i t a t i n g event to do with that category H = Percentage of t o t a l participants that reported an hindering event to do with that category CHAPTER V DISCUSSION . Summary o f F i n d i n g s T h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y was done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Through t h e use o f F l a n a g a n ' s (1954) " C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique", 22 c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o o b t a i n t h e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Two hundred and twenty-seven i n c i d e n t s were o b t a i n e d and c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 9 c a t e g o r i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s f o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s ranged from 91 t o 36 p e r c e n t (Table 1 ) , depending on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a t e g o r y . H i g h e s t r a t e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was f o r "Reassurance o f A b i l i t y " , a t 91%, t o be f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by " C o n n e c t i v e Support", a t 86%. T h i r d i n l i n e was " P r a c t i c a l A s s i s t a n c e " , a t 73%. At t h e o t h e r end, l o w e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were " I n f o r m a t i o n B e i n g P r o v i d e d " a t 36%, " C r i s i s - l i k e e v e n t s " , a t 41%, and Safe Environment, a t 41%. A l t h o u g h t h e s e - p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were l e s s t h a n 50%, t h e i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d were unique enough t o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s . 60 L i m i t a t i o n s o f R e s e a r c h S i n c e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y were u t i l i z e d , t h e sample i s t h e r e f o r e , not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y . In a d d i t i o n , c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e ev e n t s t h a t p e o p l e a re a b l e t o remember d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . Many e x p e r i e n c e s may not have been mentioned. F u r t h e r m o r e , c e r t a i n d e t a i l s may be l o s t due t o poor memory. A l s o , most o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y were fe m a l e ; t h e r e f o r e , r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d may not a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t males, s i n c e t h e r a t i o o f women t o men i n t h i s s t u d y was 15 t o 6. O b t a i n i n g a sample r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f b o t h genders, however, may be d i f f i c u l t , s i n c e t h e department's s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s m o s t l y o f f e m a l e s . In a d d i t i o n , g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were p r o b a b l y o l d e r t h a n o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r departments, s i n c e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y department r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t 3 y e a r s work e x p e r i e n c e as one o f t h e p r e - r e q u i s i t e s t o e n t e r t h e program. The s t u d e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r 61 g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who e n t e r e d d i r e c t l y t o o t h e r departments from t h e i r u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were v o l u n t e e r s . V o l u n t e e r s may d i f f e r from s t u d e n t s who do not v o l u n t e e r , i n t h a t t h o s e who do not choose t o p a r t i c i p a t e may be t o o busy w i t h s c h o o l and a r e i n t h e m i d s t of a t t e m p t i n g t o " a d j u s t " t o t h e i r e n vironment. As a r e s u l t , t h e 22 s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e program. A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n may be t h a t s t u d e n t s may have a n x i e t i e s about b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d by t h e r e s p o n s e s t h e y had g i v e n . These a n x i e t i e s may have t h u s a f f e c t e d what t h e y s u b s e q u e n t l y chose t o s h a r e . The s t u d e n t s , however, were a s s u r e d t h a t " i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " would be d e l e t e d from t h e i n c i d e n t s t h e y s h a r e d , t o e nsure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and anonymity. T h i s s t u d y was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d from one p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t i s , t h e s t u d e n t s ' p o i n t o f view. P r o f e s s o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s were not e x p l o r e d . However, s i n c e t h e purpose o f t h e s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and h i n d e r a djustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e was u t i l i z e d . 62 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory and Re s e a r c h Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s t h e view t h a t g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s o f s t r e s s , f e a r , and a n x i e t y (Berg & F e r b e r , 1983; C o r c o r a n , 1984; M c L a u g h l i n , 1985; Munson, 1983; Rennie & Brewer, 1987). F o r example, i n t h i s s t u d y , b e i n g " r e a s s u r e d " t h a t one had t h e a b i l i t y t o be a good c o u n s e l l o r and a good g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t was deemed t o be an i s s u e o f c o n c e r n . Examples o f s t a t e m e n t s made i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s i s s u e were as f o l l o w i n g : " P r o f e s s o r X r e a l l y r e a s s u r e d me t h a t I c o u l d be a good c o u n s e l l o r . . . he r e a l l y h e l p e d me t o b e l i e v e i n m y s e l f . . . . a s a r e s u l t , I wanted t o l e a r n more". The need t o be r e a s s u r e d o r " b e l i e v e d i n " , was a common theme. S t u d e n t s a l s o r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n v a l i d a t e d and o r u n f a i r l y e v a l u a t e d by c e r t a i n p r o f e s s o r s w h i c h t h e y d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a major h i n d r a n c e t o t h e i r a d justment t o gr a d u a t e s c h o o l . Many s t u d e n t s f e l t undermined and p e r s o n a l l y a t t a c k e d by t h e i r p r o f e s s o r s ; i n f a c t , 64% o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d r e p o r t e d a t l e a s t one i n c i d e n t . As a r e s u l t , many s t u d e n t s s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s t u d e n t s who were d i s c o u r a g e d by a p r o f e s s o r , o f t e n f e l t i t was a f l u k e t h a t t h e y got "A's" i n o t h e r c o u r s e s , and t h a t t h e p r o f e s s o r who undermined them was p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t ! S t u d e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , t o o k t h e i r " n e g a t i v e feedback" s e r i o u s l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n c l i n i c c o u r s e s where c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s were o b s e r v e d . S t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t not o n l y were t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s b e i n g e v a l u a t e d , but t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s as w e l l . Y e t , because c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l i t y i s so i n t e r t w i n e d , e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e s k i l l s w i l l a lways be d i f f i c u l t . B e i n g " e n c o u r a g i n g " , f o r example, c o u l d be a c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l , but a l s o a p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n ' s make-up o r p e r s o n a l i t y ; i f t h i s i s c r i t i c i z e d , t h e n t h e s t u d e n t would n a t u r a l l y f e e l "put down", because t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s p a r t o f h i s or h e r " c o r e s e l f " . On t h e o t h e r hand, how c o u l d a p r o f e s s o r " s a f e l y " o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e feedback w i t h o u t m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ? Perhaps an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e dynamics o f b e i n g e v a l u a t e d i n c l i n i c needs t o be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r , t o h e l p r e s o l v e t h i s c o n t i n u i n g dilemma. As c i t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Berg & F e r b e r , 1 9 8 3 ; M c L a u g h l i n , 1 9 8 5 ; and Munson, 1 9 8 3 ) , adequate p r o f e s s o r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n i s c r u c i a l t o not j u s t 64 f e e l i n g s o f adjustment, but a l s o p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l -b e i n g . I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s needed t o f e e l c o n n e c t e d and or s u p p o r t e d by f e l l o w s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s . A f f i l i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s who " u n d e r s t o o d " s t r e s s o r s t h e y were g o i n g t h r o u g h h e l p e d them t o a d j u s t . F o r example, s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n h e l p e d because " i t f e l t good t o be w i t h o t h e r s who a l s o d i d not have t h e f o g g i e s t i d e a o f what t h e y were d o i n g " . Many s t u d e n t s e n t e r g r a d u a t e s c h o o l w i t h mixed emotions, such as e x c i t e m e n t and j o y m i n g l e d w i t h f e a r and a n x i e t y . Many a l s o f e a r t h a t t h e y a r e t h e o n l y ones e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e emotions. H a v i n g a chance t o e x p r e s s them t o o t h e r s who were i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n eased t h e a n x i e t y somewhat. B e i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e "same b o a t " a l s o h e l p s t o b u i l d f r i e n d s h i p s and a sense of b e l o n g i n g n e s s and c o n n e c t i v e n e s s (de R o s e n r o l l e t a l . , 1987; P h i l l i p s e t a l . , 1986; Quevedo-Garcia, & G o n z a l e z , 1985). P r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e was a l s o mentioned by many s t u d e n t s , as an i s s u e o f c o n c e r n . B e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n 65 a s s i s t a n c e w i t h 1) c o u r s e a d v i s i n g , 2) w r i t i n g t h e s e s / major p a p e r s , 3) f i n a n c i a l a i d , and 4) c h i l d c a r e , h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o f e e l a t ease. F i r s t l y , many s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d b e i n g u p s e t about not b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n c o u r s e a d v i s i n g from t h e i r pro-tern a d v i s o r . I n f a c t , o n l y one p e r s o n r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Leong and S e d l a c e k ' s (1989) s t u d y c o n f i r m s t h i s need by d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t " h e l p w i t h s e l e c t i n g c o u r s e s " was ra n k e d as t h e "no. 1" need by c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s . S e c o n d l y , b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e w i t h f r a m i n g a t o p i c f o r a t h e s i s o r major paper was a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t many s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g l o s t and c o n f u s e d when u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s t a s k . S t u d i e s by C o r c o r a n (1984) and Rennie and Brewer (1987) s u p p o r t t h i s n o t i o n w i t h t h e i r d i s c o v e r y t h a t s t u d e n t s who pe r f o r m e d w e l l e x p e r i e n c e d s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e from t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . However, t h e y a l s o found t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s were a l s o open t o s u p e r v i s o r y feedback. T h i r d l y , s t u d e n t s a l s o r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g a n x i o u s because o f t h e l a c k o f f i n a n c e s . C o m p l a i n t s were made about t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , and b u r s a r i e s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s by Malaney (1987), O ' N e i l and M i n g i e (1988), and We i s s b e r g , B e r e n t s e n , Cote, Cravey, and Heath (1982) c o n f i r m t h e s e r e s u l t s , t h a t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was o f t e n mentioned as a major need, and t h a t once t h e f i n a n c i a l p r o b lem was s o l v e d , t h e p e r s o n c o u l d t h e n be f r e e d up t o f o c u s on academics. F o u r t h l y , b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c h i l d c a r e was deemed t o be i m p o r t a n t t o s t u d e n t s who were p a r e n t s . I n f a c t , many r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , were burdensome. They c o m p l a i n e d o f f a t i g u e , a n x i e t y , and f e a r t h a t one c o u l d not do " e v e r y t h i n g " . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by M c L a u g h l i n (1985), who r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y women, were more l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e a f e e l i n g o f d i v i d e d l o y a l t i e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o be a "super p a r e n t " and "do e v e r y t h i n g " and "be e v e r y t h i n g t o everybody". The c a t e g o r y o f " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n v o l v e d f e e l i n g f r e e t o d e v e l o p one's own c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e , and t o be o n e s e l f . D e s c u t n e r and Thelen's (1989) r e s e a r c h , as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , p a r t i a l l y a d d r e s s e d t h i s need i n 67 t h a t t h e y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s , who wanted t o be s u c c e s s f u l f e l t t h e y had t o comply w i t h r u l e s t h e y d i s l i k e d . T h i s was a l s o t h e case i n t h i s s t u d y . One p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t commented: " i f anyone wants t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l t h e y have t o *go w i t h t h e f l o w ' . . . . y o u have t o ask t h e p r o f e s s o r s what t h e y want...then g i v e i t t o them.... o t h e r w i s e , i f you don't you w i l l be ^ a s k i n g f o r i t ' . " A d justment, f o r t h i s s t u d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , meant c o m p l i a n c e . Many s t u d e n t s , t h e n , d i d not f e e l a sense o f c o n t r o l o ver t h e i r academic e n v i r o n m e n t s , and f r u s t r a t i o n o c c u r r e d . T h i s i s a p t l y p o r t r a y e d i n L a z a r u s ' s (1976) d e f i n i t i o n o f s t r e s s , where a p e r s o n f e e l s h e l p l e s s o r p o w e r l e s s t o c o n t r o l t h e outcome o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , o r where one " p e r c e i v e s " t h a t one has no c o n t r o l o ver t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n a t hand. In a l l o w i n g f o r t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g one's own c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e , p r o f e s s o r s h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t t o not j u s t f e e l a t ease, but t o a l s o p e r f o r m b e t t e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, s t u d e n t s who were f o r c e d t o conform t o l e a r n i n g a s p e c i f i c c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e f e l t 68 angry and f r u s t r a t e d and g a i n e d l i t t l e from t h e p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s . F l e x i b i l i t y a l s o r e f e r r e d t o p r o f e s s o r s a l l o w i n g f l e x i b i l i t y f o r d e a d l i n e s f o r term p a p e r s when c r i s e s o c c u r r e d . S t u d e n t s were a p p r e c i a t i v e t h a t a l l o w a n c e s were o f f e r e d , and hence, a t t e m p t e d t o p e r f o r m even b e t t e r f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s o r s . I t appears, t h e n , t h a t when f l e x i b i l i t y was o f f e r e d , a f e e l i n g o f adequacy and ease r e s u l t s , which i n t u r n , c o n t r i b u t e s t o a d e s i r e f o r b e t t e r performance. The c a t e g o r y o f " s a f e e n vironment" i n v o l v e d f e e l i n g s a f e t o e x p r e s s o n e s e l f i n an environment where he/she would not be p e n a l i z e d f o r making e r r o r s . Some s t u d e n t s f e l t s a f e i n a " f l e x i b l e " v a r i a b l e e nvironment, whereas o t h e r s t u d e n t s f e l t s a f e i n a more s t r u c t u r e d one. Kagan and Fasan (1988), however, d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a n x i o u s s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d s t r u c t u r e d c o n t r o l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t s , whereas c o n f i d e n t s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d f l e x i b l e ones. In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s f i n d i n g , s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y who r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g some a n x i e t y a l s o were t h e ones who p r e f e r r e d a f l e x i b l e e n v ironment. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l o r e t h i s a r e a . R e g a r d l e s s o f whether an environment i s s t r u c t u r e d o r u n s t r u c t u r e d , s t u d e n t s wanted an environment t h a t a l l o w e d f o r "freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n " and "freedom t o grow and d e v e l o p " . S t u d e n t s , who r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g s a f e were more l i k e l y t o r i s k t r y i n g out new c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . Other s t u d i e s by B e r g and F e r b e r ( 1 9 8 3 ), D e s c u t n e r and T h e l e n ( 1 9 8 9 ) , M c L a u g h l i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Munson ( 1 9 8 3 ) , and W i d n a l l (1988) , c o n f i r m t h e need t o have academic e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . The need t o have i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o s t u d e n t s . As an example, some s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c o u r s e s e q u e n c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s heet t h a t was d i s t r i b u t e d d u r i n g t h e o r i e n t a t i o n was "skimpy and c o n f u s i n g " . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d have been p r o v i d e d t o s t u d e n t s b e f o r e r e g i s t r a t i o n , not a f t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c e d a n x i e t y and t e n s i o n . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by Leong and S e d l a c e k ' s (1989) i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s t u d e n t needs, where i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e most "asked f o r " i n f o r m a t i o n was i n r e f e r e n c e t o c o u r s e p l a n n i n g . The c a t e g o r y o f " u n i v e r s i t y / d e p a r t m e n t s e r v i c e s " i n v o l v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s e r v i c e s 70 t h a t were o f f e r e d . More h i n d e r i n g t h a n f a c i l i t a t i n g e v e n t s were r e p o r t e d , as s t u d e n t s were o f t e n d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h u n i v e r s i t y b u r e a u c r a c y . Such e v e n t s as d e a l i n g w i t h rude l i b r a r y p e r s o n n e l , o r b e i n g f o r c e d t o buy t e x t b o o k s (judged t o be o f l i t t l e use) were o t h e r examples. T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by W i d n a l l ' s (1988) s t u d y where some s t u d e n t s commented t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n b u r e a u c r a c y was needed. The c a t e g o r y o f " s e l f p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s " , d e s c r i b e d s t u d e n t s who i n v o l v e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r a djustment t o gr a d u a t e s c h o o l . Many s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t h o b b i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s h e l p e d them t o r e l a x . Other " s e l f h e l p " i d e a s i n c l u d e d h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , o r u t i l i z i n g v a r i o u s " t h o u g h t - s t o p p i n g " t e c h n i q u e s t o e l i m i n a t e n e g a t i v e s e l f - s t a t e m e n t s . These i d e a s on s t r e s s r e d u c t i o n have been s u p p o r t e d by A r c h e r (1986), and M a l l i n c k r o d t , Leong, and F r e t z (1985), who i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l approaches were t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e i n managing s t r e s s . A r c h e r (1986), f o r example, d e v e l o p e d a "whole p e r s o n " approach t o s t r e s s management. E x e r c i s e , r e l a x a t i o n , d i e t , p o s i t i v e s e l f -71 s t a t e m e n t s , c h a l l e n g i n g i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s e t c . were j u s t some o f t h e i d e a s posed t o h e l p s t u d e n t s a d j u s t . The c a t e g o r y o f c r i s i s - l i k e e v e n t s ranged from b e i n g d i a g n o s e d w i t h a s e r i o u s d i s e a s e t o exam a n x i e t y . A l l were d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y t a x i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o Grayson (1985) t h e most s t r e s s f u l t i m e o f t h e semester was a t t h e b e g i n n i n g (when p s y c h i a t r i c emergencies o c c u r r e d ) and a t t h e end, when academic p r e s s u r e s were at t h e g r e a t e s t . A l t h o u g h c r i s e s such as deaths i n t h e f a m i l y , b e i n g d i a g n o s e d w i t h a s e r i o u s d i s e a s e e t c . can o c c u r a t any t i m e , t h e b e g i n n i n g and end t i m e s o f t h e semester s t i l l p l a c e s t u d e n t s under t h e most p r e s s u r e . Grayson (1985) a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h o s e who seek c o u n s e l l i n g e i t h e r e a r l y o r l a t e i n t h e semester were more l i k e l y t h e ones t h a t were i n " c r i s i s " . The i n t e n s i t y o f academic p r e s s u r e s near t h e end o f t h e term a l s o added t o e x i s t i n g s t r e s s e s . P r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by Heins (1984), Ganz and Ganz (1988), and O ' N e i l and M i n g i e (1988) s u p p o r t t h e need f o r s t r e s s management programs and c o u n s e l l i n g , t o h e l p g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s d e a l w i t h f e a r , a n x i e t y , and h e l p l e s s n e s s . Maslow's (1970) h i e r a r c h y o f needs can a l s o be u t i l i z e d t o h e l p anchor t h e n i n e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t emerged i n t h i s s t u d y . Most s t u d e n t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n d i c a t e needs f o r f o o d and s h e l t e r ( p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s ) , s t r u c t u r e , o r d e r , and p r o t e c t i o n from harm ( s a f e t y n e e d s ) , s u p p o r t t h r o u g h a f f i l i a t i o n and a f f e c t i o n ( b e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e n e e d s ) , r e s p e c t from p r o f e s s o r s and f e l l o w s t u d e n t s (esteem n e e d s ) , knowledge ( a e s t h e t i c and c o g n i t i v e n e e d s ) , and f i n a l l y , needs t o meet one's p o t e n t i a l i n l i f e ( s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n n e e d s ) . The h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r , however, was d i f f e r e n t f o r everyone, because o f t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f each p e r s o n t h a t was i n t e r v i e w e d . D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , however, s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d needs t o s e l f -a c t u a l i z e ; t o be t h e b e s t c o u n s e l l o r s t h a t t h e y can be. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e R e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y can s e n s i t i z e c o u n s e l l o r s t o f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . S i n c e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s make up a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n , knowledge o f t h e s e t r e a t m e n t i s s u e s w i l l h e l p t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o b e t t e r meet t h e needs o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . Many o f t h e f a c t o r s r e p o r t e d by g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s as f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r adjustment (such as " r e a s s u r a n c e o f a b i l i t y , c o n n e c t i v e s u p p o r t , and p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e " ) a r e a l s o r e l e v a n t f o r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s as w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e a t t e n d i n g f i r s t y e a r . R e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y may a l s o a s s i s t c o u n s e l l o r s who c o u n s e l s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r u n d e r g r a d u a t e y e a r s . R e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y can a l s o b e n e f i t f a c u l t y a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , b o t h a t t h e g r a d u a t e and u n d e r g r a d u a t e l e v e l s . Knowledge o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and o r h i n d e r adjustment w i l l h e l p f a c u l t y t o c r e a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . F o r example, i f t h e no. 1 f a c i l i t a t o r i s " r e a s s u r a n c e o f a b i l i t y " , and t h e no. 1 h i n d r a n c e i s " i n v a l i d a t i o n o f one's a b i l i t y " , t h e n , perhaps a key t o h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o a d j u s t may be t o e x p l o r e how one c o u l d o f f e r feedback i n such a way t h a t i s r e a s s u r i n g , y e t c o n s t r u c t i v e . On t h e o t h e r hand, when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h c r i t i c i s m / f e e d b a c k , no m a t t e r how c o n s t r u c t i v e and r e a s s u r i n g i t i s , our n a t u r a l d e f e n s i v e mechanisms are c a l l e d t o a c t i o n . Perhaps i d e a s c o u l d be g e n e r a t e d as t o how t o h e l p s t u d e n t s d e a l w i t h t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d " n e g a t i v e feedback", t h e r e f o r e , may need t o change. Feedback and e v a l u a t i o n i s p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y system and w i l l always e x i s t . E x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t h e h a n d l i n g o f c o n f l i c t and d i s a g r e e m e n t , perhaps t h r o u g h t h e use o f r e - f r a m i n g e x e r c i s e s , r e l a x a t i o n e t c . i s needed. In o t h e r words, i t would be e x c e l l e n t i f adequate p r o f e s s o r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s always o c c u r , but s i n c e i t does n o t , e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o how t o h a n d l e c o n f l i c t and o r s t r e s s may be i n o r d e r , t o a l l e v i a t e t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y . M u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l s t r e s s management programs s u g g e s t e d by A r c h e r (1986), Ganz and Ganz (1988), and M a l l i n c k r o d t e t a l . (1985) c o u l d be implemented f o r t h i s purpose. I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e c o n n e c t i v e s u p p o r t was a l s o seen as c r u c i a l , o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n s and s u p p o r t groups can be d e v e l o p e d t o f a c i l i t a t e " b e l o n g i n g n e s s " . Knowledge o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and h i n d e r adjustment f o r s t u d e n t s i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l may a l s o h e l p i n c o m i n g s t u d e n t s t o b e t t e r p r e p a r e f o r t h e i r l i v e s as g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , knowledge 75 t h a t o t h e r s have gone t h r o u g h s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l p r o v i d e them w i t h a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e y were not a l o n e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed i n many a r e a s . F o r example, s e l f - e s t e e m l e v e l s o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s appear t o r o l l e r - c o a s t e r , depending on what o c c u r s . S t u d e n t s make s t a t e m e n t s l i k e " I knew I wasn't s u i t a b l e f o r gr a d u a t e s c h o o l . . . maybe i t was a f l u k e t h a t I got "A's" i n t h e o t h e r c o u r s e s . . I must have f o o l e d t h e p r o f e s s o r s . . . I guess I am a p r e t t y bad s t u d e n t and c o u n s e l l o r . . . " . One i n v a l i d a t i n g comment can t h e r e f o r e , send s t u d e n t s i n t o d i s t r e s s . Why do s t u d e n t s o v e r - g e n e r a l i z e ? I s i t something t h a t t h e y b r i n g i n w i t h them? Or i s something e l s e i n t h e environment t h a t i s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r judgement? These a r e o n l y some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t can be e x p l o r e d . Gender i s s u e s can a l s o be e x p l o r e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . Does b e i n g female r e a l l y make a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t - p r o f e s s o r i n t e r a c t i o n s ? Does i t depend on t h e department i n v o l v e d , such as s c i e n c e v e r s u s c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y ? F i n a l l y , do g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s from o t h e r 76 departments s u f f e r s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y and s t r e s s o r do c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s have unique i s s u e s ? F u t u r e s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g t h i s same t e c h n i q u e t h e n , c o u l d be done i n o t h e r departments. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and h i n d e r adjustment t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . F l a n a g a n ' s (1954) c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was u t i l i z e d . Nine c a t e g o r i e s emerged from t h e 227 i n c i d e n t s t h a t were c o l l e c t e d . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y , " r e a s s u r a n c e o f a b i l i t y " , was mentioned as a c o n c e r n by many s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s who were i n v a l i d a t e d by a p r o f e s s o r o r f e l l o w s t u d e n t r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g s o f discouragement and f a i l u r e . " C o n n e c t i v e s u p p o r t " , t h e second c a t e g o r y , h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o f e e l " p a r t o f t h e crowd". S t u d e n t s who d i d not f e e l c o n n e c t e d f e l t l o n e l y , a l i e n a t e d , and " o u t s i d e o f t h e c l i q u e " . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y , " p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e " , i n v o l v e d b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e w i t h w r i t i n g o f t h e s e s / m a j o r p a p e r s , f i n a n c i a l a i d , and c h i l d c a r e . The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y , " f l e x i b i l i t y " , i n v o l v e d 77 p r o f e s s o r s a l l o w i n g f l e x i b i l i t y f o r s t u d e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e . The f i f t h c a t e g o r y , " s a f e environment", i n v o l v e d b e i n g i n p l a c e s where s t u d e n t s f e l t " r e l a x e d " and a t ease, where t h e y d i d not f e a r b e i n g p e n a l i z e d f o r making m i s t a k e s . The s i x t h c a t e g o r y , " i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r o v i d e d " , i n v o l v e d t h e r e c e i v i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o p r o f e s s o r s , c o u r s e s e q u e n c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t h e l i k e . The s e v e n t h c a t e g o r y , " u n i v e r s i t y / d e p a r t m e n t s e r v i c e s " , i n v o l v e d b e i n g s a t i s f i e d o r d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The e i g h t h c a t e g o r y , " s e l f p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s " , i n v o l v e d s e l f - h e l p i d e a s t h a t s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s u t i l i z e d t o a d j u s t t o gr a d u a t e s c h o o l . The n i n t h c a t e g o r y , " c r i s i s - l i k e e v e n t s " , c o v e r e d a wide range o f s t r e s s e s and c r i s e s t h a t range from b e i n g d i a g n o s e d w i t h a s e r i o u s d i s e a s e t o exam a n x i e t y . P r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s have o u t l i n e d o r i e n t a t i o n programs, p e e r s u p p o r t groups, and s t r e s s management programs t o h e l p s t u d e n t s t o a d j u s t t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l 78 ( A r c h e r , 1986, Grayson, 1985; P h i l l i p s e t a l . , 1986; Quevedo-Garcia, & G o n z a l e z , 1985). S t u d i e s by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s such as B e r g and F e r b e r (1983), C o r c o r a n , 1984; D e s c u t n e r and T h e l e n (1989), F r i e d l a n d e r e t a l . (1986), Ganz and Ganz (1988), Heins e t a l . (1984), M a l l i n c k r o d t e t a l . (1985), Leong and S e d l a c e k (1989), M c L a u g h l i n (1985), Munson (1984), O ' N e i l and M i n g i e (1988) Rennie and Brewer (1987), and W i d n a l l (1988) s u p p o r t t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . U t i l i z i n g Maslow's (1970) t h e o r y o f needs, i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s need t o have t h e i r needs met, such a s : f o o d and s h e l t e r , s a f e t y , b e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e , esteem, knowledge, and t o r e a c h t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n l i f e , one o f which i s , t o become b e t t e r c o u n s e l l o r s . T h i s s t u d y i s o n l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l i n t h e department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , i s needed t o c o n f i r m t h e r e s u l t s found i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s hoped, however, t h a t d e s p i t e t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , r e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y can s t i l l be u t i l i z e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t o u n d e r g r a d u a t e s c h o o l as w e l l as g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . 80 R e f e r e n c e s A n d e r s s o n , B.K., & N i l s s o n , S.G. (1964). S t u d i e s i n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique. J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y , 48, 398-403. A r c h e r , J . (1986). S t r e s s management: E v a l u a t i n g a p r e v e n t i v e approach f o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l  o f American C o l l e g e H e a l t h , 34, 157-160. A r k o f f , A. (1968). Adjustment and M e n t a l H e a l t h . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l . B e r g , H.M., & F e r b e r , M.A. (1983). Men and women gr a d u a t e s t u d e n t s : Who succeeds and why? J o u r n a l  o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 54, 629-648. Booth, R. (1985). Would you know a l o n e l y s t u d e n t i f you saw one? Community, T e c h n i c a l , and J u n i o r  C o l l e g e J o u r n a l . 5 6 ( 2 ) , 22-25. Broughton, B. (1984). The c o n d i t i o n s t h a t h e l p o r  h i n d e r s u c c e s s f u l adjustment f o l l o w i n g a move:  A c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s s t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d masters t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Carson, N.D., & Johnson, R.E. (1985). S u i c i d a l t h o u g h t s and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r e p a r a t i o n among c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e Student  P e r s o n n e l , 26, 484-487. C o r c o r a n , K . J . (1984). I s t h e r e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e i n t h e m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s ? J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n f o r  S o c i a l Work, 2 0 ( 3 ) , 30-35. 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The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 51, 327-358. Fondacaro, M.R., H e l l e r , K., & R e i l l y , M.J. (1984). Development o f f r i e n d s h i p networks as a p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y i n a u n i v e r s i t y megadorm. The P e r s o n n e l  and Guidance J o u r n a l , 52, 520-523. F r i e d l a n d e r , M.L., K e l l e r , K.E., Peca-Baker, T.A., & Oik, M.E. (1986). E f f e c t s o f r o l e c o n f l i c t on c o u n s e l o r t r a i n e e s ' s e l f - s t a t e m e n t s , a n x i e t y l e v e l , and performance. J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 33, 73-77. Ganz, B.C. & Ganz, M.N. (1988). Overcoming t h e problem of l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s . C o l l e g e T e a c h i n g , 3 6 ( 2 ) , 82-84. Grayson, P.A. (1985). C o l l e g e t i m e : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . 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S t r e s s and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment. C o l l e g e T e a c h i n g , 3 6 ( 2 ) , 75-81. L a z a r u s , R.S. (1969). P a t t e r n s o f Adjustment and Human  E f f e c t i v e n e s s . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l . L a z a r u s , R.S. (1976). P a t t e r n s o f Adjustment (3 e d . ) . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l . Leong, F.T.L., M a l l i n c k r o d t , B., & K r a l j , M.M. (1990). C r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r e s s and adjustment among a s i a n and Caucasian g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f M u l t i - c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l i n g and  Development, 18, 19-28. Leong, F.T.L., S e d l a c e k , W.E. (1989). Academic and c a r e e r needs o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l and U n i t e d S t a t e s c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e Student  Development, 30, 106-111. Malaney, G.D. (1987). Who r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o p ursue g r a d u a t e s t u d y ? R e s e a r c h i n H i g h e r  E d u c a t i o n , 2 6 ( 1 ) , 85-97. M a l l i n c k r o d t , B., Leong, F.T.L., F r e t z , B.R. (1985). A s t r e s s management program f o r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e Student P e r s o n n e l , 26, 471. Maslow, A.H. (1970). M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . (2nd e d . ) . New York: Harper and Row. M c L a u g h l i n , M.C. (1985). Graduate s c h o o l and f a m i l i e s : I s s u e s f o r academic departments and u n i v e r s i t y m e ntal h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e  Student P e r s o n n e l , 2 6 ( 6 ) , 488-491. 83 Mechanic, D. (1962). S t u d e n t s Under S t r e s s : A Study i n t h e S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f A d a p t a t i o n . New York: F r e e P r e s s o f Glencoe. Munson, C.E. (1984). S t r e s s among g r a d u a t e s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s : An e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Work, 20, 20-29. O ' N e i l , M.K., & M i n g i e , P. (1988). L i f e s t r e s s and d e p r e s s i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s : C l i n i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h . J o u r n a l o f  American C o l l e g e H e a l t h , 36, 235-240. P h i l l i p s , M.S., Daubman, K.A., & Wilmoth, D. (1986). A g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t o r i e n t a t i o n program. J o u r n a l o f  C o l l e g e Student P e r s o n n e l , 27, 280-281. Quevedo-Garcia, E.L. & G o n z a l e z , J.E. (1985). The welcome program: A d u a l - f o c u s s e d r e t e n t i o n e f f o r t . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e Student P e r s o n n e l , 26, 355-356. Rennie, D.L., & Brewer, L. (1987). A grounded t h e o r y o f t h e s i s b l o c k i n g . T e a c h i n g o f P s y c h o l o g y , ±, 10-15. S c h n e i d e r s , A.A. (1965). P e r s o n a l i t y Dynamics and  M e n t a l H e a l t h . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Win s t o n . S o l s o , R.L. (1988). C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y (2nd e d . ) . M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A l l y n and Bacon. W e i s s b e r g , M.; B e r e n t s e n , M.; Cote, A.; Cravey, B.; H e a l t h , K. (1982). An assessment o f t h e p e r s o n a l c a r e e r , and academic needs o f un d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e Student P e r s o n n e l , 23, 115-122. W i d n a l l , S.E. (1988). AAAS p r e s i d e n t i a l l e c t u r e : V o i c e s from t h e p i p e l i n e . S c i e n c e , 241, 1725-1868. 84 Appendix A I n i t i a l Recruitment L e t t e r Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. January 2 1 , 1 9 9 1 Dear My name i s Deveda Mah. I am c u r r e n t l y c o n d ucting a study on adjustment f o r my masters t h e s i s i n the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology at UBC. My s u p e r v i s o r i s Dr. L a r r y Cochran and h i s telephone number i s XXX-XXXX. I wish t o d i s c o v e r the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e or h i n d e r adjustment f o r graduate students i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. I p l a n t o c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n by conducting p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . I need 20 people t o be v o l u n t e e r s f o r t h i s study and I hope that- you are able t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y and you can withdraw from the study at any time. The i n t e r v i e w w i l l take approximately 30 - 60 minutes. I t w i l l be audio-taped; however, a l l i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be d e l e t e d t o ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The audio-tapes w i l l be era s e d once the study i s completed. You have the r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n . I t i s hoped t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n gained from t h i s study w i l l p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t and ideas i n t o h e l p i n g students t o a d j u s t t o graduate s c h o o l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l who p a r t i c i p a t e . I w i l l c o n t a c t you by telephone over the next two weeks, t o d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up an i n t e r v i e w time. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l and v a l u a b l e t o my r e s e a r c h . P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c a l l me at XXX-XXXX i f you have any q u e s t i o n s . Thank you very much. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Deveda Mah Graduate Student Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 85 Appendix B Consent Form I consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study that i n v e s t i g a t e s the Conditions That F a c i l i t a t e And Hinder Adjustment For  Graduate Students i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. This study i s conducted by Deveda Mah, a master's degree student i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and supervised by Dr. L a r r y Cochran, P r o f e s s o r . This study w i l l examine what c o n d i t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e and what c o n d i t i o n s hinder adjustment f o r students attending graduate school i n the department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. Information w i l l be audio-taped during an i n t e r v i e w . Some of the in f o r m a t i o n w i l l be t r a n s c r i b e d from the tapes and placed i n t o index cards at a l a t e r date. I d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be d e l e t e d from a l l t r a n s c r i p t s to ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The person's i d e n t i t y w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . The tapes w i l l be erased upon completion of the study. The amount of time r e q u i r e d by you i s between 30 to 60 minutes. You have the r i g h t to refuse to answer any question and may a l s o withdraw from the study at any time without consequences of any ki n d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y . I HAVE READ AND UNDERSTOOD THE ABOVE AND HEREBY CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS STUDY. I ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIPT OF THE CONSENT FORM AND ALL ATTACHMENTS. Signature of P a r t i c i p a t o r : Researcher: 86 Appendix C B i o g r a p h i c Data PLEASE CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE ANSWERS: 1. Gender: M F 2. Age: 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 3. M a r i t a l S t a t u s : S i n g l e M a r r i e d Common-law S e p a r a t e d D i v o r c e d Widowed 4. Number o f Dependents: 5. T i t l e o f degree you are p u r s u i n g : M a s t e r o f A r t s M a s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n 6. A r e a o f f o c u s i n your degree: - E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l i n g - Secondary S c h o o l / A d o l e s c e n c e C o u n s e l l i n g - Community and Agency: A d u l t - Community and Agency: F a m i l y - Community and Agency: Gender F a i r - Community and Agency: C r o s s - C u l t u r a l - H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 7. Student S t a t u s : F u l l - t i m e P a r t - t i m e 8. I s t h i s y o u r: - f i r s t y e a r o f gr a d u a t e s c h o o l - second y e a r o f gr a d u a t e s c h o o l 9. Year o f e n t r y i n t o Graduate s t u d i e s 1988 1989 1990 87 Appendix D D e f i n i t i o n L i s t 1. Connective Support - A sense o f comradery w i t h f e l l o w s t u d e n t s - Sense o f su p p o r t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g from p r o f e s s o r s f r i e n d s and o r f a m i l y members. - B e i n g w i t h o t h e r s who a r e i n t h e same boat as t h e y a r e , l i k e " m i s e r y l o v e s company". - Lack o f comradery - H a v i n g t o a d j u s t t o a move t o Vancouver t o a t t e n d UBC C r i t i c a l meaning: a sense o f f e e l i n g c o n n e c t e d and o r b e i n g " s u p p o r t e d " by o t h e r s . Common meaning: a sense o f f e e l i n g " i n t u n e " , " u n d e r s t o o d " , " s u p p o r t e d " , o r "one o f t h e team". Lack o f c o n n e c t i v e s u p p o r t i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s , inadequacy, i s o l a t i o n , a sense o f d i s c o n n e c t i o n , a sense t h a t one i s an " o u t s i d e r " . A f f i l i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e x p e r i e n c i n g s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e r e f o r e , appears t o be i m p o r t a n t t o a sense of c o m f o r t a b l e n e s s and w e l l - b e i n g . 2. Reassurance of A b i l i t y - B e i n g encouraged t h a t one had t h e s k i l l s t o be a good c o u n s e l l o r - B e i n g e v a l u a t e d i n such a way t h a t one had t h e s k i l l s t o be a good c o u n s e l l o r . - G e t t i n g feedback framed i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e p o s i t i v e manner t h a t v a l i d a t e s t h e p e r s o n . - B e i n g d i s c o u r a g e d , o r undermined r e g a r d i n g one's s k i l l s and o r c a p a b i l i t i e s - B e i n g u n f a i r l y e v a l u a t e d C r i t i c a l meaning: B e i n g a s s u r e d t h a t one had t h e s k i l l s t o be a good c o u n s e l l o r . Common meaning: n e e d i n g t o be r e a s s u r e d t h a t one d i d not j u s t had t h e s k i l l s t o be a good c o u n s e l l o r , but t o be a good g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t as w e l l . I f d iscouragement o r i n v a l i d a t i o n o f one's a b i l i t i e s o c c u r s , n e g a t i v e s e l f - t a l k o f t e n s e t s i n , when s t u d e n t s f e e l undermined by p r o f e s s o r s and or p e e r s . 88 3. P r a c t i c a l Assistance - O b t a i n i n g " a c t u a l a s s i s t a n c e " f o r academic p a p e r s - A s s i s t a n c e w i t h c o u r s e a d v i s i n g - A s s i s t a n c e w i t h f i n a n c e s ( b u r s a r y , s c h o l a r s h i p e t c . ) - A s s i s t a n c e w i t h c h i l d c a r e - A s s i s t a n c e w i t h l o o k i n g f o r a p r a c t i c u m placement C r i t i c a l Meaning: b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n " a c t u a l " a s s i s t a n c e o f some k i n d , be i t f o r term p a p e r s , h o u s i n g , c h i l d c a r e o r money problems. Common Meaning: b e i n g a b l e t o get h e l p g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s a sense o f ease and adequacy. 4. F l e x i b i l i t y - p r o f e s s o r s a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s freedom t o d e v e l o p one's own c o u n s e l l i n g s t y l e - p r o f e s s o r s p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i o n s due t o c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s - b e i n g f o r c e d t o f o l l o w a c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h y o f c o u n s e l l i n g (narrow f o c u s ) - b e i n g p e n a l i z e d f o r h a v i n g one's own i d e a s C r i t i c a l meaning: f l e x i b i l i t y i s a l l o w e d f o r , i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . Common meaning: s a t i s f a c t i o n o c c u r s when p r o f e s s o r s e x p r e s s " c o n c e r n " by o f f e r i n g f l e x i b i l i t y . 5. Safe Environment - s a f e s u p p o r t i v e l e a r n i n g environment - environment where i t was s a f e t o make m i s t a k e s - freedom t o d i s c l o s e r e : s e l f - not n e c e s s a r i l y " p h y s i c a l " environment, but " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " environment, g e n e r a t e d by a p e r s o n ( p r o f o r f a m i l y member) where one c o u l d f e e l s a f e and out o f harm's way, out o f a danger zone. C r i t i c a l meaning: a f e e l i n g o f s a f e t y , where one f e l t f r e e t o e x p r e s s one's i d e a s and where t h e y f e l t f r e e t o be " o n e s e l f " . Common meaning: f e e l i n g s a f e and c o m f o r t a b l e , w h i l e e x p r e s s i n g o n e s e l f . 6. Information being provided - b e i n g n o t i f i e d t h a t one was a c c e p t e d i n t o g r a d s c h o o l - o b t a i n i n g i n f o about p r o f e s s o r s - b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f some k i n d , 89 appears t o be c r u c i a l t o t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f many s t u d e n t s . C r i t i c a l meaning: b e i n g a b l e t o o b t a i n c r u c i a l "needed" i n f o o f some k i n d , t h a t i s deemed i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s t u d e n t . Common meaning: t h a t i n f o i s power; t h a t w i t h knowledge about c e r t a i n i s s u e s o r c e r t a i n p e o p l e , t h e p e r s o n t e n d s t o f e e l l e s s i n t i m i d a t e d . 7. University/department services - b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by e i t h e r t h e department o r u n i v e r s i t y - b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h t i m i n g o f c o u r s e s - b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o u r s e s , such as w r i t i n g p a p e r s i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g t o w r i t e exams. C r i t i c a l meaning: s a t i s f a c t i o n o r l a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e department and o r s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y . Common meaning: b e i n g t r e a t e d w e l l by v a r i o u s p e r s o n n e l h e l p s t o i n c r e a s e s a t i s f a c t i o n . 8. S e l f pre-planned a c t i v i t i e s - b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n h o b b i e s , e x e r c i s e , t i m e management - p l a n n i n g one's own i d e a s r e : a d j u s t i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y and academic p r e s s u r e s C r i t i c a l meaning: s e l f - p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s enhances a sense o f c o n t r o l o v er t h e i r environment. Common meaning: h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o f e e l b e t t e r , p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y - s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s when t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n . H e l p s one t o d e a l w i t h t h e s t r e s s e s o f s c h o o l . 9. C r i s i s - l i k e events - l o s i n g a l o v e d one - b e i n g d i a g n o s e d w i t h a l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g d i s e a s e - e x p e r i e n c i n g exam a n x i e t y C r i t i c a l meaning: i n v o l v e s a sense o f f e a r , a n x i e t y , and h e l p l e s s n e s s t h a t s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e when c r i s e s o c c u r . Common meaning: o v e r a l l sense o f b e w i l d e r m e n t , f e a r and l o s s o f c o n t r o l . 

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