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An evaluation of a course on social and cultural issues in counselling Brooks, Geraldine Susan 1988

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AN EVALUATION OF A COURSE ON SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN COUNSELLING by GERALDINE SUSAN  BROOKS  B.A. (English), The University of British Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  October  1988  © Geraldine Susan Brooks,  1988  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  thesis for by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  i i ABSTRACT  This  experimental  effectively issues  attitudes  associations education  have s t r o n g l y  programs  between  ethnic  awareness, n o n - s e x i s t  traditional  Wayne E t h n i c  These  that  attitudes  after with  and c u l t u r a l  hand) t h e i r l e v e l s o f t o w a r d women, and non-  o f t h e c o u r s e was a s s e s s e d Awareness M e a s u r e ,  Attitudes  the post-test, seven v o l u n t e e r s  theories  t h r o u g h t h e use o f Behavioral  Toward Women  i n a pre-  t o 16 s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l l e d  on c o u n s e l l i n g  intentions.  the Robinson  c o u r s e a n d 15 s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l l e d course  students'  on s o c i a l  a n d (on t h e o t h e r  and t h e T h e r a p i s t s '  research  a positive relationship  i n s t r u m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  format  f o c u s i n g on  general  sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s a n d b e h a v i o u r a l  impact  that  into their c u r r i c u l a .  i n a t r a i n i n g course  i n counselling  i n t e n t i o n s , and  courses  (on t h e one hand) c o u n s e l l i n g  issues  Inventory,  l e v e l s of e t h n i c  advocated  incorporate  I t i s hypothesized  participation  the  and c u l t u r a l  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  s t u d y was b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g  question.  The  students'  Professional  and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s  The  i n v e s t i g a t e d how  c o u r s e on s o c i a l  influenced  t o w a r d women.  counsellor  exists  level  study  sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s a n d b e h a v i o u r a l  counselling  social  a Master's  in counselling  awareness,  research  and p o s t - t e s t  i n the experimental i n a comparable  and i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  b r i e f follow-up  Scale.  interviews  from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  S i x months  were  group.  level  conducted  Statistical were no  significant differences  awareness, attitudes  instruments course  of t h e p o s t - t e s t .  based  used.  on  These  there  had  relatively previously findings  and  the  The  results  relatively  high  low  l e v e l s of  reported imply  or  results  that  the  s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d t o more e f f e c t i v e l y  i t s training objectives,  to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  overall, participants  consciousness  experimental address  that,  that  or b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s ,  women, between time  indicated  i n l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l  of c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s and  feminist the  role behaviours  groups at the  revealed  levels  for  sex  toward  comparison also  a n a l y s e s of t h e d a t a  issues.  p a r t i c u l a r l y as  they  pertain  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  List  of T a b l e s  viii  List  of F i g u r e s  x  Acknowledgements CHAPTER  1:  xi  Introduction  1  Framework  7  The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m  11  CHAPTER 2:  12  Theoretical  Bias  L i t e r a t u r e Review  i n General  12  Gender B i a s  13  Culture  Bias  17  Ethical  Issues  22  Training  Issues  CHAPTER 3:  23  Method  29  Sample  29  Procedure  •. 30  Measures  33  Wayne E t h n i c Awareness. Measure  34  Robinson  38  Behavioral  Therapists'  Inventory  A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e  Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e Follow-up  41 43  Interviews  44  Research Hypotheses  44  Hypotheses  44  1 and 2  V  Hypothesis Treatment  3  45  of the Q u a n t i t a t i v e  CHAPTER 4:  Data  45  Results  49  Sample  49  Group E q u i v a l e n c y  50  Descriptive  Statistics  Pre-test  ....  54  Post-test  56  A n a l y s e s of V a r i a n c e w i t h Repeated Measures  56  Hypothesis  1  60  Hypothesis  2  60  Hypothesis  3  60  Main E f f e c t s R e s u l t i n g  From T r e a t m e n t  by Time  ANOVARs  63  ANOVARs. I n v o l v i n g  T r e a t m e n t , Time, a n d M o d e r a t i n g  Variables  63  Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s  and Main E f f e c t s  Resulting  From T h r e e - F a c t o r ANOVARs Correlational  A n a l y s e s Between a n d Among M e a s u r e s  68 68  Follow-up Interviews  68  CHAPTER 5:  Discussion  70  Limitations  of the Study  70  Sample L i m i t a t i o n s  70  Measurement L i m i t a t i o n s  70  Design  73  Limitations  Interpretation  74  Conclusions  ..,  77  Recommendations  79  REFERENCES  88  APPENDIX A:  Course O u t l i n e  APPENDIX B:  Verbal  APPENDIX C:  C o n s e n t Form  APPENDIX D:  Written  and  Pre-test  Wayne E t h n i c  Instructions  APPENDIX E :  to Participants  to Participants  Measures  102  Awareness Measure  103  Inventory  109  A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e  Organization  119  of P r e - and P o s t - t e s t  Booklets APPENDIX F: Included  99 101  Instructions  Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Therapists'  95  125 I n s t r u c t i o n s and A d d i t i o n a l in Post-test  Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y  Material  Booklets  126  Scale  128  APPENDIX G:  Follow-up Interviews  133  APPENDIX H:  Definitions  139  APPENDIX I :  Comparison of H i s p a n i c  and  Chinese Cultures APPENDIX J :  Scoring  140 Procedure  f o r t h e Wayne  Ethnic  Awareness Measure APPENDIX K:  Revised  APPENDIX L :  E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t a n d Time  Wayne E t h n i c APPENDIX M:  Scoring  143 f o r Men on t h e RBI  Awareness M e a s u r e :  ANOVARs  Involving  146  on t h e  ANOVAR  Results  T r e a t m e n t , Time,  .. 148  vii and Age  .....  APPENDIX N: ANOVARs  Involving  153 Treatment,  Time,  and R e l i g i o n APPENDIX 0:  ANOVARs  156 Involving  Treatment,  Time,  and E t h n i c i t y APPENDIX P:  Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s  Resulting APPENDIX Q:  159 a n d Main. E f f e c t s  From T h r e e - F a c t o r ANOVARs  Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s  E a c h Measure  Between  162 and F o r 164  vi i i L I S T OF TABLES  Table  1:  Mean I n t e r r a t e r  Reliabilities  f o r the  Wayne E t h n i c Awareness M e a s u r e  37  Table  2:  Sample  Table  3:  Summary o f P r e - and P o s t - t e s t Means  and Table  51  Standard Deviations  4:  Descriptive Statistics  Measures Table  Characteristics  5:  (Total  55 f o r Pre-Test  Sample)  Descriptive Statistics  57 forPost-test  Measures Table  6:  59  Effects  o f T r e a t m e n t and Time on t h e  Wayne E t h n i c Awareness M e a s u r e :  Summary o f  ANOVAR R e s u l t s Table  7:  Effects  Robinson  61  o f T r e a t m e n t a n d Time on t h e  Behavioral Inventory  (RBI):  ANOVAR  Results Table  8:  62  Effects  Therapists'  o f T r e a t m e n t a n d Time on t h e A t t i t u d e Toward Women S c a l e  ANOVAR R e s u l t s Table  9: on  Effects  .  64  o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, and Age  the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory  Summary a n d Breakdown Table  10:  Effects  (TAWS):  (RBI):  o f ANOVAR R e s u l t s  65  o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, and R e l i g i o n  on Wayne E t h n i c Awareness M e a s u r e V i g n e t t e Summary and Breakdown  o f ANOVAR R e s u l t s  #4: 66  ix *Table  11:  Effects  o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, a n d E t h n i c i t y  on t h e R o b i n s o n B e h a v i o r a l I n v e n t o r y  (RBI):  Summary a n d Breakdown o f ANOVAR R e s u l t s Table  L.1:  Effects  o f T r e a t m e n t a n d Time on t h e  Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s M e a s u r e : T a b l e M.1:  Effects  ANOVAR R e s u l t s  ... 148  o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, a n d Age on t h e  Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory  (RBI):  ANOVAR  Results T a b l e .N.I:  67  154 Effects  o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, a n d R e l i g i o n  on Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s Measure V i g n e t t e #4: ANOVAR R e s u l t s T a b l e 0.1:  Effects  157 o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, a n d E t h n i c i t y  on t h e R o b i n s o n B e h a v i o r a l I n v e n t o r y  (RBI):  ANOVAR R e s u l t s T a b l e Q.1:  P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between  Measures f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l T a b l e Q.2:  Q.3:  Pre-test  and C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p s  ... 167  P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P o s t - t e s t  Measures Table  160  f o rExperimental  and C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p s  P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between  Post-test  f o r E a c h Measure  ... 168  P r e - and 169  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure  1:  Factors determining  behaviour  (adapted  from  a  person's  Ajzen  & Fishbein,  1 980) F i g u r e M.1:  9 Significant  for  treatment  for  experimental  Robinson F i g u r e N.1: for  three-way  by t i m e  by a g e :  G r a p h o f means  and c o m p a r i s o n  Behavioral Inventory Significant  treatment  interaction  means f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l  f o r the  (RBI)  three-way  by t i m e  groups  155  interaction  by r e l i g i o n :  Graph of  and c o m p a r i s o n  groups  f o r Wayne E t h n i c Awareness M e a s u r e V i g n e t t e #4 F i g u r e 0.1:  Significant  treatment for  by t i m e  experimental  Robinson  three-way  interaction for  by e t h n i c i t y : and c o m p a r i s o n  Behavioral Inventory  .. 158  G r a p h o f means groups  (RBI)  f o r the 161  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n Dr.  S h a r o n Kahn, f o r h e r commitment  continued the  t o my  advisor,  to t h i s research  g u i d a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t .  I am a l s o  and h e r  grateful to  o t h e r member o f my c o m m i t t e e , D r . Marv Westwood, f o r h i s  enthusiastic  support  of t h i s  study.  1 Chapter 1  Introduction In  recent  gender-fair  and  increasing Since  the  years,  research  culture-fair  importance late  within  and  t r a i n i n g i n the  counselling the  profession.  movements  and  professional  f a c t o r s have emerged w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d  counsellors'  a w a r e n e s s of  and  g e n d e r and  external civil of  and  cultural  r i g h t s , and  gay  counselling  and  justice  profession  (e) an  sociopolitical  society,  and  of  1977;  Sue  (1972),  plays Halleck  the 1972;  & Sue,  (b)  (d)  the  the  the  and part  the  These  programs;  recognition  (c) by  minority  counsellors' to  issues  counselling  of  profession  1986). i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of  counselling Halleck, 1977;  process 1971;  Sue,  1978;  the  (1971) s t r e s s e d  status  therapy's  the  itself  Katz, Sue  f o r example, e m p h a s i z e d  in maintaining  general,  women's,  ethnic of  to  implementation  and  sensitivity  i s a l s o becoming  Chesler,  Chesler  psychotherapy  increasing  (a)  policies,  racial  & Gutierrez,  nature  1986;  Schlossberg, 1982).  that  among s u b g r o u p s of  profession  (Cayleff,  include:  legislation,  in  in p a r t i c u l a r .  in North America;  (Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , The  issues  f o r m i n g a more s i g n i f i c a n t  clienteles; social  group i s s u e s  r i g h t s movements;  affirmative action  groups are  group  internal influences  demographic changes the  minority  of  have assumed  counselling  1960's, s o c i o p o l i t i c a l  areas  1985; et a l . ,  the  quo  in  role our  implicit  that  2 political  context.  p s y c h o t h e r a p y can  According ever  be  to Halleck,  considered  no  theory  ethically  or  of politically  neutral. By  the  very  n a t u r e of  consistently the  t a k e s p o s i t i o n s on  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  issues  that  patient  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t o change them.  implications.  psychotherapy 5 ) , and  as  cultural western Since  values  or  be  may  clients'  and  early  a n d / o r an  F u r t h e r m o r e , as bring  "value-free  i n Rawlings & C a r t e r , and  Sue  in counselling  values  skills  of  H o l i m a n and  to t h e i r  group  classes,  inappropriate lead  to to  f e e l i n g s of  t o d e v e l o p t r u s t and ( C a y l e f f , 1986; Lauver  a  values.  of m i n o r i t y  Such m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  therapy  p.  the  within  white m i d d l e - c l a s s  socioeconomic  inability  1977,  (1977) i n d i c a t e d ,  obscure expectations,  termination  counsellors  Sue  that  transmitted  lifestyles.  political  32)  employ c o u n s e l l i n g  poor communication, alienation,  has  stated  lower  accept  any  generally  from  to  Every encounter with  d i f f e r e n t from t h e  clients  counsellors their  are  framework a r e  t h e s e may  clients  that  patient  The  the  (cited  (1985) and  ...  encourages  (1971, p.  i s a myth"  Katz  power or  involve  systems--  implications.  therefore,  (1971) s i m i l a r l y  that  social  e i t h e r encourages the  psychotherapist,  Bart  issues  power w i t h i n  have p o l i t i c a l  psychiatrist existing  h i s p r a c t i c e , the p s y c h i a t r i s t  rapport,  Sue,  1978).  (1987) p o i n t e d  i n t e r a c t i o n s with c l i e n t s  not  out, only  3 their the  own  and  society's values,  counselling  ...  are  enmeshed  p r o g r a m s and  centered  practice d i f f i c u l t .  product  of  culture  in i t s e l f ,  the  work s e t t i n g s , t h a t  society that with  sanctions  i t s own  norms—what  Schlossberg  (1977) a l s o c a u t i o n e d  the  not  for  perpetuating As  t o use  trappings  the an  profession's,  and  same t i m e , we  live  contact  our  As  Sue  psychologists  shared  norms as  status  who  are  differences culture  a  culturally  can  be  to  483);  that  by  our  own,  At  we  our  the  and will  have  d i f f e r e n t from "we  classified  are as  bound  to  'culturally  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as p r a c t i s i n g  counsellors'  (p.  presented  by  aware and  sensitive  to  47).  sensitivity  becomes even more s a l i e n t that  the  justification  i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that  t o become more c u l t u r a l l y  s u c h as  language,  not  (p.  defined  e t a l . (1982) i n d i c a t e d ,  of  a  quo.  culturally  Thus,  and  called  in a m u l t i c u l t u r a l , m u l t i l i n g u a l ,  i t i s our  importance  be  counsellors  of  are  a  184-185)  work w i t h d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s " The  could  professionalism"  i n d i v i d u a l s who  and  systems,  society's p a r t i c u l a r values.  society.  with  different,'  we  client-  i s both  of  inequitable  with c l i e n t s  ourselves. interact  concept  counsellors,  pluralistic  (pp.  makes  through  i t s existence  belief  culture.'  is,  of  Counseling  'counseling  behind  p a r t i c u l a r to  in a culture, created  training  c u s t o m s , g o v e r n a n c e , and  our  also values  profession.  Counselors  "hide  but  to  when a b r o a d Paradis  cultural definition  (1981) i s  4 employed.  Paradis  include  not  only  gender,  sexual  socioeconomic political  status,  in  of  change  own  their  ability  (APA,  1973;  & Watt,  1980;  Scott  1979;  attention  g e n d e r and  relevant  (Copeland,  1982;  example,  1987;  1982;  Gibbs,  biases,  as e f f e c t i v e 1976,  Schlossberg  &  Sue,  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , and literature  1986;  La  g r o u p s , and  1985; 1977,  Framboise,  Ponterotto  1981;  cited  Sundal-  to  despite issues  to the  have been to  rectify  the  of  programs mental  slow  to  this situation  Kenworthy, K o u f a c o s ,  & Sherman,  cited  in Casas, P o n t e r o t t o ,  1985;  Lopez & Cheek,  & Casas,  i n McFadden's and  increase  Lessner,  1980;  the  1983).  i n the  r e s p o n d e n t s t o a s u r v e y of reported  1985;  t r a i n i n g courses  McFadden & W i l s o n ,  Gutierrez, Myers,  cultural  inadequate a t t e n t i o n  needs of m i n o r i t y  implement  1976;  to give  as  general.  counsellors  function  & McMillan,  given  in  c u l t u r e b i a s , most g r a d u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g  have c o n t i n u e d health  to  to  community,  g r o u p s have a d v o c a t e d  Parker,  such  age,  lifestyles  Casas,  Westwood,  understood  f a c t o r s such  family,  g e n d e r and  1975;  However, d e s p i t e amount of  and  their  & McMillan,  Pietrofesa, Hansen  disabilities,  be  profession,  t r a i n i n g programs to h e l p  increasing  Scott  a l s o other  i n d i v i d u a l s and  a w a r e n e s s of  a g e n t s of  c u l t u r e can  orientation, religion,  o r i e n t a t i o n , values,  development  thereby  that  e t h n i c i t y , but  A v a r i e t y of  their  suggested  1987;  Wilson's  study,  counsellor  i n s t r u c t i o n a l requirements  Sue,  f o r the  1977;  1981).  For  l e s s than  1%  education  &  of  the  programs  study  of  non-white  5 cultures study  ( S u e , 1981).  psychology,  generally  relegated  courses  on c u l t u r a l l y  such  preparation  different  clients  increase issues  many i n d i v i d u a l s  & McMillan,  multicultural education:  1982; P e r r y ,  1980; Thomas,  (Korchin,  programs  be w i t h  McMillan all work  those  1980).  substantially  pay t o m i n o r i t y  group  1980, c i t e d i n  1982; S c h l o s s b e r g , 1977;  1985a).  Ivey  (1987) saw  to counsellor  by p l a c i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l  of c o u n s e l i n g c u r r i c u l a  There  & G u t i e r r e z , 1986;  c o u n s e l l i n g as e s s e n t i a l  "Only  t o be  politics,  (APA B o a r d o f E t h n i c M i n o r i t y A f f a i r s ,  1982; M y e r s ,  tend  a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s have  that counsellor t r a i n i n g  e t a l . , 1982; C a s a s , P o n t e r o t t o  Scott  apathy  t h e amount o f a t t e n t i o n t h e y  Copeland,  educators.  of c o u n s e l l i n g c u r r i c u l a .  c o n s t r a i n t s , and s t u d e n t  recommended  and  that  in their  and t r a i n i n g i n  a r e s u b j e c t t o the v a g a r i e s of f a c u l t y  Consequently,  core  (1982),  a t t e n t i o n from c o u n s e l l o r  to the periphery  budgetary  Sue  a l s o found  received l i t t l e  a rule,  they  and P a d i l l a  on t h e s t a t u s o f m i n o r i t y c u r r i c u l a  clinical  As  Bernal  counseling at the  c a n we a s c o u n s e l o r s  whom we would h e l p "  (p. 169).  truly  serve  S c o t t and  (1980) l i k e w i s e s t r e s s e d t h a t counselor  training  J~bn s e x - f a i r  counseling"]  counseling  department.  considered  as important  theory  institutions  and t e c h n i q u e s .  s h o u l d make  available  ... [_Sex b i a s  within the  issuesj  to basic counselor Unless  course  a l l students  s h o u l d be  t r a i n i n g as participate  6 in  this  will  training,  continue  Over t h e p a s t for  Counseling  the d i s s e r v i c e to the c l i e n t  to exist,  ( p . 89)  d e c a d e o r more, t h e A m e r i c a n  and Development  Accreditation  of Counseling  (CACREP)—along  with other  (AACD) t h r o u g h  and R e l a t e d  Association  Accreditation  of Teacher Education  and t h e C a n a d i a n  Canada—have position issues  responded  that  education.  concerning  be an i n t e g r a l  i t requires  studies  that  and c u l t u r a l  and c u l t u r a l  reflect  t h e needs o f  groups served  those  of s t u d i e s  of change, e t h n i c  among o t h e r  on w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t course  focus  foundations of c o u n s e l l i n g . groups,  issues  study  on s o c i a l  on t h e  These a r e t o  sub-cultures, mores, a n d d i f f e r i n g  (CACREP,  of the course at the U n i v e r s i t y  week r e q u i r e d  to include in  that  T h e s e AACD a c c r e d i t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s  (UBC)  by c o u n s e l l o r s .  institutions  r o l e s o f women, s e x i s m , c u l t u r a l  patterns,  in  gender and c u l t u r a l  a l l institutions i t  programs a common c o r e  creation  (CPA)  The AACD now r e q u i r e s  Furthermore,  life  Association  o f any c o u n s e l l o r ' s  ethnic  changing  Council for  part  different  include  i n c l u d i n g the American  t o s u c h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s by a d o p t i n g t h e  t o have o b j e c t i v e s  social  Programs  (NCATE) i n t h e U n i t e d  Psychological  accredits  their  i t s Council f o r  (APA) a n d t h e N a t i o n a l  information  should  Association  Educational  associations  Psychological  States,  population  1986). resulted  of B r i t i s h  i s based.  and c u l t u r a l  i n the Columbia  CNPS 508 i s a 13issues in  7 counselling, and  gender  (see Appendix  Given course,  with p a r t i c u l a r  the  the  of the  s u b j e c t matter  of p u b l i s h e d e m p i r i c a l  addressing  the e f f e c t s  increasing  numbers of c o u n s e l l o r  of  will  undoubtedly  in  accordance  w i t h AACD, APA,  of  UBC's p i l o t  course  ethnicity  training  the  fact  programs  guidelines,  subject area  throughout  an  i s both  courses evaluation  relevant  timely.  Theoretical The  Framework  theoretical  A j z e n ' s and seeks  to explain  usefulness  framework  for this  F i s h b e i n ' s (1980) t h e o r y of  theoretical  and  predict  framework was in integrating  reasoned  human b e h a v i o u r .  chosen  because  awareness  of  action  intention  to perform  t h e o r y of  (or b e l i e f ) ,  (or not  immediate d e t e r m i n a n t  intention,  in turn,  the person's  behaviour.  reasoned  to perform)  o f any  attitude,  attitude  toward  by  i s i n f a v o u r o f or o p p o s e d  behaviour)  and  (b) t h e p e r s o n ' s  instruments  a  A  person's  basic  factors:  (i.e.,  what t h e  (a)  whether  to performing  (i.e.,  is  person's  p e r c e p t i o n of t h e  r e s p e c t t o the b e h a v i o u r  factors.  a given behaviour  the b e h a v i o u r  individual  norm w i t h  two  The  action,  action.  i s determined  which  i t s potential  s t u d y were i n t e n d e d t o measure a l l t h e s e to the  by  This  used  According  actual  i s provided  intention,  i n the  and  study  behavioural  the  the  that  be d e v e l o p i n g s i m i l a r o r CPA  in this  of  research  s u c h c o u r s e s , and  North America  and  i s s u e s of  A).  significance  scarcity  e m p h a s i s on  the  the  subjective individual  8 perceives or not two  t o be  perform  the the  f a c t o r s may  Furthermore, norms a r e  (1980) t e r m e d "behavioural person's  and  affects the  beliefs.  Fishbein's  behaviour  This  a person's  attitude  subjective  norm w i t h  weights,  then  beliefs,  changes  According  influencing  a person's contain  various positive  or  to  i t .  that i t behaviour  to  In of  other changes  information  produce changes i n By  producing  a behaviour D e p e n d i n g on  theory,  t o be  outcomes  or  her/his  their  s u b j e c t i v e norms actual  effective  a persuasive  i n f o r m a t i o n which  negative  external  result  i n i n t e n t i o n s and  behaviour,  1).  i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n f l u e n c e  i n a t t i t u d e s and  t o the  attitudes  to i n f l u e n c e  beliefs.  toward p e r f o r m i n g respect  Fishbein  (see F i g u r e  of t h a t  to expose a person  l e a d to changes  should  extent  in order  normative  i n such  behaviours.  either  to the  communication") which w i l l  change  and  that underlie a  i s u l t i m a t e l y the  i t i s necessary  sufficient  should  Ajzen  normative b e l i e f s ) .  implies that  b e h a v i o u r a l and  relative  only  these  her/his subjective  (1980) v i e w , an  b e h a v i o u r a l and  "persuasive  her/his  beliefs  perform  individuals.  beliefs.  fundamental determinants  primary  behaviour, (or  the  to  w e i g h t s of  that u n d e r l i e a person's  and  words, b e h a v i o u r a l change in  her/him  relative  a t t i t u d e s and  f u n c t i o n s of  beliefs  on  s u b j e c t i v e norms " n o r m a t i v e b e l i e f s "  influences (i.e.,  The  put  i n t e n t i o n s or  a person's  beliefs,"  In A j z e n ' s variable  across  t o be the  pressures  behaviour).  vary  both  seen  social  links  (thereby  in  communication the  behaviour  affecting  to  9  Behavioural beliefs  Normative beliefs  Attitude  Subjective norm  Intention  Behaviour  Figure  1.  from A j z e n  Factors determining & Fishbein,  1980).  a person's  behaviour  (adapted  10 behavioural the  beliefs),  expectations  that  person For  Ajzen's  primary  course  study,  in social  intended  b e h a v i o u r a l and n o r m a t i v e  their  behaviour.  of reasoned  students  to apply  action to  issues in  c a n be s e e n as an  beliefs  about  women, sex  g r o u p s , and  thereby  c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e n t i o n s and o v e r t c o u n s e l l i n g the p r a c t i s e  c o u n s e l l i n g with  o f g e n d e r - f a i r and  various positive  of i n d i v i d u a l s  (e.g.,  the course  and  negative  the normative  and g r o u p s r e l e v a n t t o t h e instructor,  r e s e a r c h e r s , and o t h e r  mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) ,  the course  sought  students'  awareness,  so t h a t t h e y  counsel  social  and c u l t u r a l  i n a more u n b i a s e d  as a p e r s u a s i v e  manner.  communication  was a s s e s s e d  p r e - and p o s t - t e s t m e a s u r e s d e s c r i b e d  the  theory  of reasoned  instruments  a c t i o n holds  t o measure c h a n g e s  norms, and i n t e n t i o n s ought behaviour.  to increase would  The c o u r s e ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s  the  these  effort  to influence students'  outcomes, a n d by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about expectations  about  beliefs).  we c a n a t t e m p t  and m i n o r i t y c u l t u r a l  By l i n k i n g  culture-fair  information  or groups r e l e v a n t to  and c u l t u r a l  The c o u r s e  communication  provide  normative  (1980) t h e o r y  (CNPS 5 0 8 ) .  behaviours,  modify  affecting  and F i s h b e i n ' s  persuasive  should  individuals  the purpose of t h i s  counselling  role  of s p e c i f i c  (thereby  UBC's t r a i n i n g  at  or e l s e  through  i n Chapter  t r u e , then  changes  3.  If  t h e use of  in beliefs,  to predict  t h e use o f  attitudes,  in actual  11 The  Research The  Problem  purpose of t h i s research  effectively  a c o u r s e on s o c i a l  counselling  influenced  attitudes  intentions.  research  focusing the  other  attitudes  The s t u d y  question.  awareness,  i s b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g  I t i s hypothesized (on t h e one hand)  that  a positive  counselling  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CNPS 508, a t r a i n i n g c o u r s e on s o c i a l  and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s  hand) t h e i r l e v e l s o f e t h n i c  in counselling, awareness,  t o w a r d women, a n d n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  b e h a v i o u r s and b e h a v i o u r a l specific  and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ethnic  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between students'  i s t o e v a l u a t e how  t o w a r d women, and sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s a n d  behavioural general  study  research  intentions  hypotheses).  a n d (on  non-sexist  sex r o l e  (see Chapter  3 for  12 Chapter 2  Literature Bias  i n General Much r e s e a r c h  focused  carried  on t h e s p e c i a l  culturally  distinct  minorities  (Gibbs,  cited  out d u r i n g  groups such as r a c i a l  1982; Sue & Zane,  have n o t a l w a y s been a d e q u a t e l y  Task F o r c e  (Ponterotto  to  special  concern  ru.si] these The part  populations  special  1987; S p e c i a l  health  Populations  on M e n t a l  1987). As P e r r y  needs  Health,  (1982)  noted:  the d e l i v e r y of r e l e v a n t s e r v i c e s h a s been a f o c u s  o f mounting  within the helping p r o f e s s i o n s , i n n a t i o n a l legislation,  and i n t h e h e i g h t e n e d  diverse populations  negative  impact  researchers.  themselves,  awareness of  ( p . 50)  o f g e n d e r a n d c u l t u r e b i a s on t h e  Cayleff  (1986),  h a s been a d d r e s s e d  f o r example,  i s s u e t h a t women, m i n o r i t i e s , and p o o r p e o p l e  frequently from  ten years,  Much o f t h i s  these  o f c o u n s e l l o r s and p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s  various the  that  1983; K o r c h i n  met by t h e m e n t a l  & Casas,  i n Sue & Zane,  In t h e p a s t  and e t h n i c  1987).  o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission  cited  20 y e a r s h a s  c o u n s e l l i n g needs o f women and  has h i g h l i g h t e d t h e f a c t  professions  the past  1985; K a p l a n , M o f f i c & Adams,  i n Copeland,  research  1978,  Review  labelled  as " s i c k "  "normal" p a t t e r n s  or mentally  ill  o f b e h a v i n g and f e e l i n g  when  by  addressed have they  been ^vary  a s d e f i n e d by  13 those  who t a k e  white,  male, m i d d l e - c l a s s  beliefs  as the  n o r m a t i v e measure o f h e a l t h and d e s i r a b i l i t y . Given  the s i t u a t i o n  group c l i e n t s  tend  professionals, experience  Cayleff described,  t o be o v e r p a t h o l o g i z e d  i t i s ironic  reduced  McKinney, A l l e n ,  access  was a s i g n i f i c a n t indicated in  determinant  psychotherapy  According  than  other  minority  of t h i s  Whether b e c a u s e o f s e x , r a c e , circumstances,  of  1974 s t u d y o f  racial  origin  research,  blacks  & Adams,  1983).  k i n d o f t h e r a p e u t i c b i a s was n o t e d  1978 U.S. P r e s i d e n t ' s C o m m i s s i o n  on M e n t a l  age, d i s a b i l i t y ,  i n Myers,  1982).  all.minorities  mistreatment  the m i s t r e a t m e n t  of h i g h q u a l i t y The l i t e r a t u r e  o r economic  may v a r y  at  the p a r t i c u l a r  according  do n o t have reasonable  also  may w e l l be s u b j e c t e d  i n psychotherapy,  suggests t o some effects  t o the m i n o r i t y  form of  group i n  question. Gender  Bias  In therapy,  relation  t o women's e x p e r i e n c e s  S u n d a l - H a n s e n and Watt  by  Health.  a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f c i t i z e n s  t o mental h e a l t h care  while  Sue,  g r o u p members f o r t h e same  result  that,  may a l s o  seemed t o r e c e i v e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s  The  (cited  in their  to their  i n M o f f i c , Silverman,  cost  health  o f whether o r n o t s/he r e c e i v e d  (cited  access  minority  treatment.  that a c l i e n t ' s  problems  the  by m e n t a l  same c l i e n t s  f o r example,  found  psychotherapy.  particular  these  to appropriate  and H a l l ,  community h e a l t h c e n t r e s  that  i n which  and g e n d e r b i a s i n  (1979) and Guttman and Donn  1 4 (1979) have c o n d u c t e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e which c o n f i r m transmitted  both b l a t a n t  and a p p r o p r i a t e  & McMillan,  therapists'  role  emotional that  was c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f sex standards,  reported  that  sex r o l e  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , a n d Sherman, K o u f a c o s , a n d  considered  emotional  f o r example,  women l e s s  t h a n men. health  found  They a l s o  a double  standard  only  differ  of h e a l t h  as a  gender.  clinicians  less  found  were e q u a t e d w i t h  i s , the general  that  independent,  The r e s u l t s c o n f i r m e d  applied  patients  and t h e t h e r a p i s t ' s  health.  actually  that  a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r  of both the p a t i e n t ' s  women, t h a t  were  by Broverman e t a l . ,  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , have a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d  more e m o t i o n a l adult  there  o f women,  t h e r a p i s t s ' ' sex r o l e v a l u e s  Broverman e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  of  that  such as those  psychotherapists'  and  on  counselling.  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , D e l k a n d Ryan  generally  of the r e s e a r c h  i n mental h e a l t h  and t h a t  during  Studies  function  review  b e h a v i o u r s were c o n s i s t e n t l y j u d g e d a s more  maladjusted,  Kenworthy  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  a t t i t u d e s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g  stereotyping  operative  been  1980).  (1980) c o n c l u d e d  discrepant  messages have  b e h a v i o u r s o f e a c h sex ( c i t e d i n  In h e r c o m p r e h e n s i v e  Sherman  and s u b t l e  i n our c u l t u r e about  abilities, Scott  that  reviews of the research  competent,  that  standards  s t a n d a r d s o f male  their  hypothesis  e x i s t s f o r men a n d  standard  of h e a l t h i s  t o men, w h i l e h e a l t h y  women a r e  1 5 perceived  as s i g n i f i c a n t l y  standards, Although widely of  ( p . 6)  t h e Broverman e t a l . (1970) s t u d y  accepted  and c i t e d  psychotherapy  f o r women  (Strieker  Zeldow,  1980).  Strieker  findings overly  (1977),  & Shafran,  f o r example, c o n c l u d e d  i n h i s review  i n psychotherapy,  1983; S m i t h , that the  of the r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g  concluded  current research evidence" 1983).  professionals society still  (which  whether  g e n e r a l l y share  in this  behaviour.  cannot  flaws which a f f e c t e d  supported  b u t he s t r e s s e d t h a t i t attitudes  affect  therapy  to questionnaires r e f l e c t  of the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t i a l  serious  be  in Strieker &  (1979),  and p s y c h o t h e r a p y ,  but c a u t i o n e d  strident  t h e v a l u e s and norms o f t h e i r  Likewise, Whitely  health,  gender  t h a t mental h e a l t h  stereotypical  or not responses  field  (1978, c i t e d  i n d e e d may be s e x i s t ) ,  12 s t u d i e s on sex r o l e s  evidence  t h a t , " t h e most  Zeldow d i d a l l o w  n o t known how  therapeutic of  1977; W h i t e l y ,  dramatic.  Shafran,  and  e x i s t e n c e o f any sex  (Strieker,  in Strieker  c l a i m s o f sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  is  other  o f Broverman e t a l . (1970) were u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d and  Zeldow, bias  1978, c i t e d  1983),  t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn by Broverman  s t e r e o t y p i n g by t h e r a p i s t s  1979;  by  & Shafran,  her c o l l e a g u e s , as w e l l as t h e v e r y  role  h a s been  by many who c h a l l e n g e t h e v a l i d i t y  r e s e a r c h e r s have q u e s t i o n e d and  l e s s h e a l t h y by a d u l t  in a  found  standards  actual review  some of mental  t h a t many o f t h e s t u d i e s c o n t a i n e d their  validity.  And S m i t h  16 (1980), a f t e r her review attitudes, is  stereotypes,  no e v i d e n c e  the  research Although  remains  clients  the research  concluded  of counselor  t o warrant  stressed  on sex b i a s  that  "there  sex b i a s  (p.  when  404).  i n psychotherapy  enough e v i d e n c e h a s been c o l l e c t e d  i t s existence  1978 r e p o r t  Health  on c o u n s e l l i n g  r e s u l t s a r e t a k e n a s a whole"  of m e n t a l h e a l t h the  and b e h a v i o u r ,  f o r the existence  inconclusive,  concerning  of the research  and i t s d e t r i m e n t a l  serious  e f f e c t s On  c o n c e r n and a t t e n t i o n  professionals.  Consequently,  on t h e p a r t  the authors of  o f t h e U.S. P r e s i d e n t ' s  Commission  the profoundly  effects  negative  on M e n t a l  that  stereotyping  a n d sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c a n have, b o t h on an  individual's  functioning  is  prescribed  professional also  strongly  attitudes,  attention women.  (cited  i n Sobel  seeks h e l p & Cummings,  condemned s e x i s m  from a m e n t a l  health  1981).  (1981)  (including sexist  of gender b i a s  on t h e n e g a t i v e  However, Thomas  prescribes  Albee  prejudice, which  rigid  i n therapy  have  focused  their  e f f e c t s o f s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s on (1985b) p o i n t e d  i s ultimately  maximum f l e x i b i l i t y situations.  that  and dangerous t o o t h e r s .  studies  stereotyping it  when t h e p e r s o n  course  a n d b e h a v i o u r ) a s a form o f p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y  is delusional Most  a n d a l s o on t h e t r e a t m e n t  unfair  preconceived  out t h a t  sex r o l e  t o b o t h women and men, r o l e s and d e n i e s b o t h  and a d a p t a b i l i t y i n a v a r i e t y o f  since  sexes  17 Within and  the profession,  there  i s i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f ,  concern  about,  the p o t e n t i a l l y negative  therapists'  double  standard  prevent  on t h e S t a t u s  (1977) recommended foster  of mental h e a l t h .  s e x i s t p r a c t i s e s on t h e p a r t  Task F o r c e  that  impact  In an e f f o r t t o  o f t h e r a p i s t s , t h e CPA's  o f Women i n C a n a d i a n t h e CPA s h o u l d  Psychology  develop materials to  awareness of t h e problems of gender b i a s  stereotyping services,  i n psychotherapeutic  and that  psychotherapeutic  guidelines  practice.  and sex r o l e  p r a c t i c e and c o u n s e l l i n g  the A s s o c i a t i o n  standards t o include  o f some  should  regarding  revise  i t s ethical  sexism i n  The r e s u l t i n g g u i d e l i n e s  were  a p p r o v e d a n d a d o p t e d by t h e CPA i n 1980 (CPA, 1981). In  1978, t h e APA's Task F o r c e  Stereotyping list  i n Psychotherapeutic  of g u i d e l i n e s  f o r treatment  guidelines  were d e s i g n e d  continuing  professional practise.  Division  a similar The  i n t r a i n i n g and i n  The f o l l o w i n g  and t h e r a p y  year,  a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s o f women, a n d n o t e d  women c o n s t i t u t e a s p e c i a l s u b g r o u p r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d  skills,  a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge  Culture  Bias  In it  of female c l i e n t s .  f o r use both  the c o u n s e l l i n g  a n d Sex R o l e  Practice published  17 o f t h e APA a l s o p u b l i s h e d  concerning that  on Sex B i a s  addition  i s important  to developing  practise.  This  an a w a r e n e s s o f g e n d e r  f o r mental h e a l t h  a w a r e n e s s o f how c u l t u r a l requires  (1979).  issues  professionals pertain  t o both  issues,  t o d e v e l o p an r e s e a r c h and  t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o become  cognizant  18 of  her/his  culturally  own a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c l i e n t s d i f f e r e n t from h e r / h i m s e l f .  her/him t o recognize biased  with  the issue  presented  conflicting  existence  of r a c i a l  comprehensive  studies,  o f gender b i a s , findings with  and e t h n i c  review  psychotherapy,  It also  the prevalence within  a t t i t u d e s towards such c u l t u r a l  As  who a r e e t h n i c a l l y o r  s o c i e t y a t l a r g e of  differences. researchers  regard  bias  i n psychotherapy.  of t h e r e s e a r c h  on r a c e  Abramowitz and M u r r a y  i n t h e name of m e n t a l h e a l t h .  Murray  o u t , however, t h a t  contradicted  (blacks  i n p a r t i c u l a r ) and ignored  relationships patterns our  found  the r a c i s t  i n other  culture*]" (Sattler,  1983,  effects in  Abramowitz a n d  the conclusions  the fact  that  t h e same r a c i a l  forms o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l 1 970,  cited  several  pervasive  of these  e x p e r i e n c e s o f many  i n e v i t a b l y "provide  In a  (1983) d i s c u s s e d  discrimination  studies  have  t o the p o s s i b l e  a l l of which r e j e c t e d a l l e g a t i o n s of  pointed  requires  clients  therapeutic interaction  contacts  [in  i n Abramowitz & M u r r a y ,  p. 2 2 3 ) . Like  treatment  Cayleff  of c l i e n t s  norms o f h e a l t h , therapists thereby  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , who i d e n t i f i e d  Szaz  imputed  shortchanging  out that  portrayed  from w h i t e  (1971) f o u n d e v i d e n c e  greater  Abramowitz & M u r r a y , pointed  who d e v i a t e d  therapists'  maladjustment  and s t i g m a t i z i n g 1983).  that  white patients,  (cited in  S i m i l a r l y , Sue e t a l . (1982)  the c u l t u r a l l y  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  middle-class  to minority  them  biased  d i f f e r e n t were s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y  as " d e f i c i e n t " i n c e r t a i n  19 "desirable" generally  attributes.  As  a result,  minorities  have  been p e r c e i v e d  as  either genetically deficient  and/or c u l t u r a l l y d e f i c i e n t . A number of importance and  cultural  their and  own  counsellors' biases,  and  other  preparation  minority of  of  the  and  an  (Ibrahim,  their  cultural  that  a conceptual variations patterns,  e x i s t from one framework  culture  a f f e c t and  c o d i f i c a t i o n of  reality,  society,  clients,  and  lifestyles do  not  of  various  & Sue,  disorder  our  1977).  In  terms  in  Ivey, mental  He  proposed  for c u l t u r a l l y  ethnic  the  appreciate  taught  For  language  receive  mainstream  cultural  minority  Marsella  (1980).  b a s e d on  and s e l f - s t r u c t u r e .  described  skills  knowledge  from  therapists usually  f a m i l i a r with  they adequately  fundamental  of  differ  to another.  s t a n d a r d s of m e n t a l h e a l t h  the  including a  (1980, c i t e d  c o n c e p t s and by  understanding  t h e s e may Sue  in depressive  are  of  for understanding c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  p r i m a r i l y developed  Nor  how  1981;  stereotypes  d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of  training  1987)  of  ethnicity  culturally different  standards, Marsella very  to  own  the  Professional training  experiences,  Paradis,  the  their  knowledge and  w o r l d v i e w s of  In N o r t h A m e r i c a n  and  a  understanding 1985;  y e a r s have s t r e s s e d  sensitivity  groups.  include  and  highlighted  disorder  i n recent  a w a r e n e s s of  g r o u p c u l t u r e s and  of m e n t a l h e a l t h 1981)  and  must  realities  clients own  researchers  backgrounds  groups  (Sue  differences s u c h as  Zane,  in  those  example, empathy  to c o u n s e l l o r s .  &  Yet  i s one  of  empathy  is  usually  insufficient  minority  clients,  cultural  f r a m e s of  Lempathyl  i n and  because  understand  the  understand  their  the  (Cited Sue  the  of  i n Weinrach,  counselling  Historically,  with  take account  of  an  1987,  not  middle c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n s  l i m i t a t i o n s of  and  therapy  implicitly  are  when r e l a t e d t o o t h e r A s i a n s or  between c o u n s e l l o r indicate  that  American  group c e n t e r e d ,  and  and  and  white  sometimes  inculcate relatively  Even  the  considered  cultural  most  be  as  more  cultural to  the  factors  (b)  conduct  class-bound treatment  which  counselling  language b a r r i e r s which o f t e n  client,  counsellors  may  such  (p. v i i )  ( 1 9 8 1 ) , among t h e  (a)  culturally  systems  Indians that  seriously detrimental  therapy process are:  the  of c o u n s e l i n g - - f a c i l i t a t i n g  development--may be  p o t e n t i a l l y and  issue.  have been  into a  narrow p i c t u r e of m e n t a l h e a l t h .  t o Sue  an  the  backgrounds  According  processes.  533.)  diverse  or  also  p.  p e o p l e s of  family  must  we  immensely c o m p l i c a t e d  to a c c u l t u r a t e  t h o s e of  must  i t , seems t o me  serving  biased  only  cognitive  explicitly  individual  Ivey:  critical  approach.  counseling  hallowed concept  to  O t h e r , we and  commonly use  (1981) a l s o a d d r e s s e d  traditional  that  perceptual  oversimplification  to  when d e a l i n g  According  fact  w o r l d of  we  itself  it fails  reference.  misses  Empathy, as  of  values  within  the  exist  which value  system of the m i d d l e - c l a s s ,  and (c) c u l t u r e - b o u n d v a l u e s  are  and a b n o r m a l i t y .  When  t r a i n i n g and a w a r e n e s s , t h e y  often  used  lack  t o judge n o r m a l i t y  sufficient  recognize  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l  they are unable treatment.  Sue group  find  counsellor  (Wrenn,  encapsulated  values  differences  fosters  "cultural  minorities  lack  counseling function  middle-class  encapsulation"  of the  Culturally  sufficient  to appreciate  health  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  important  ethnic  and " n o r m a l c y " .  (1982):  d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r a l minority  minority  t r a i n i n g , they a r e  with the mental  i n concepts of "health" to Perry  clients  f o r e i g n , or  even when  i n Sue, 1981).  who d e a l  and a r e u n a b l e  According  ethnic  out that  from a w h i t e  1962, c i t e d  counsellors  problems of e t h n i c  result,  forms o f  minority  strange,  in counsellor  s e e n and a n a l y z e d This  do n o t  1987).  are addressed  perspective.  ethnic  therapists  As a  appropriate  services  and Sue (1977) p o i n t e d  generally  The  i s that  mental h e a l t h  (Sue & Zane,  issues  ethnic  culturally  The c o n s e q u e n c e  frequently unhelpful  to devise  issues.  which  groups"],  o r i e n t a t i o n s , £of r a c i a l and the goals  they  bring to  and t h e modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  must be t a k e n  i n t o account  w i t h which  i f counseling  they  and  g u i d a n c e a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e , ( p . 54) To  ignore  both p e r s o n a l l y and  t h e s p e c i a l needs o f s u c h g r o u p s , and t o remain and s o c i a l l y  one's own b i a s e s  toward  unaware o f c u l t u r a l  differences  these d i f f e r e n c e s , not only  limits  counselling also  effectiveness  contributes  Weinrach,  1987;  emphasized  by  publication, Ethical  1978).  considered Marsella,  S o b e l and  E t h i c a l S t a n d a r d s of  that  i s not  unethical 1982).  to  rooted  (Ivey  integrate  an  and  c i t e d i n Weinrach, (1986) f e l t  APA  been  in i t s  (1977).  "doing  t o more e x p l i c i t l y  values,  problem-solving to help  the  &  counsellors' own  belief  the  beneficence. preventing  to b e n e f i t  She  harm  the  to  client.  Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , AACD r e v i s e  I b r a h i m and  a broad c o n c e p t i o n  and  its ethical  counselling  function  view t h a t  lifestyles,  decision-making.  Arredondo  of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  assumed t o  determined world  b e l i e f systems,  and  Pedersen  a client's  of  be  address c r o s s - c u l t u r a l dimensions  wherein a l l people are  a culturally  particular  the  standards that  p r o p o s e d were b a s e d on counselling,  as  (1986) and  standards  The  of  good" by  (1986) recommended t h a t  counselling.  that  that  i n s u c h a way  Arredondo  that  1987;  e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e of  Gutierrez  designed  also  i n c u l t u r a l awareness s h o u l d  relationship:  acting  I b r a h i m and  of  the  Psychologists  appreciation  " b e n e f i c e n c e " as  client  basis  has  g r o u p s have s u g g e s t e d  Cayleff  counsellor/client  of  psychologist's  equality  (1981) and  but  c i t e d in  professional  Cummings  system v i o l a t e d a primary  the  The  (Ivey  1977),  Issues  counselling  defines  Schlossberg,  t o promote c o n c e p t s o f  Some i n d i v i d u a l s and  failure  1985;  to c u l t u r a l oppression Sue,  responsibility  (Katz,  These  profession  includes  and  modes of  standards to:  on  (a)  were  prepare  the  culturally ethical  effective  and  effective  immigrant,  refugee,  select  use  and  and  Thomas  that  racial  Gutierrez  result  from what  i n "a  should  could  Training The  be  regarded  (p.  result  and  Gutierrez  ethnic  minorities  licensing that  ethical  processes.  continued  racial  and  an  should Casas,  apathy  ethnic  minorities working  unethical position,  i n the  ethical  by  one  indictment  of  the  348).  Issues 1973  C o n f e r e n c e of  recommended  that  counsellors  t o work w i t h  backgrounds  i f they are  i s s u e of  effects  research.  number of c o u n s e l o r s  as  (c)  techniques;  and  toward  significant  eventually  profession"  assessment  more s p e c i f i c  suggested  provide  minority,  and  i n a c c r e d i t a t i o n and and  (b)  populations;  Ponterotto,  stronger  counselling profession  could  The  appropriate  Casas,  f o r work w i t h  Ponterotto,  that  f o r e i g n student  (1985a) and  reflected  the  and  s e r v i c e s to  c u l t u r a l l y appropriate  (1986), advocated  be  counselling  culturally  (d) c o n d u c t  guidelines  counselling professionals;  on  i t should  cultural  only  from t h e  APA  conferences  recommendations professional  be  APA  not  generated  culturally  and  (1975) and  training  strongly  for  diverse  (Korman,  1974).  i t s detrimental  training  Dulles  from t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s  psychology  so  V a i l C o n f e r e n c e , but  in Austin  Colorado  unethical  t r a i n e d t o do  encapsulation  1973  in V a i l ,  considered  p e r s o n s of  m i n o r i t i e s has  not  the  recommendations, also  from  (1978).  include:  (a)  other Selected  that  programs a t a l l l e v e l s  provide  information  practise value  of  and  content,  but  continuing any  professional  advanced degree Education  17  Counseling  cross-cultural  (Sue  advocated  i n t o t r a i n i n g programs Thomas  part  same v e i n ,  the  develop materials  gender  bias  practise ethical  beyond  and  and  sex  the  psychotherapeutic  the  adoption  for  (e)  that  receipt in  development  of  that  of  Report  to  that  that  of  the  The  APA  attitudes,  therapists" on  (p.  the  in  guidelines CPA  the  a  and 21).  Status  (1977) recommended t h a t  s e r v i c e s , and  The  cross-  "women c o n s t i t u t e  Task F o r c e  role stereotyping  practise.  in  of  and  be  a l l training  counselling.  f o s t e r a w a r e n e s s of  include  should  cross-sex  counsellors  specific  1981).  expertise  noting  of  psychotherapists  (Paradis,  (1985a) recommended  counselling  standards to  and  In a d d i t i o n ,  subgroup r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , the  relevant  graduates;  occur  in  that  only  e t a l . , 1982).  of Women i n C a n a d i a n P s y c h o l o g y CPA  their  the  their  involved  (d)  i n c l u d i n g nine competencies  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l , and  knowledge on the  of  "own"  be  not  n a t u r e of  T r a i n i n g Committee of APA's D i v i s i o n  (1979) made a s p e c i a l p o i n t  In  include  development  and  programs emphasize the  special  populations  c o u n s e l l i n g competencies  Similarly,  racial,  professionals  i s "done t o them;"  Psychology  counsellors,  incorporated  client  also evaluations  the  and  (c) t h a t  that  t r a i n i n g programs  1980, of  potentially political  (b)  t o d e t e r m i n e what  education  of  the  psychology;  positions;  helping  on  the  problems  of  psychotherapeutic  should  revise i t s  regarding  (1981) a l s o  sexism  in  addressed  the  issue  of c u l t u r a l  members t o " o b t a i n competent  b i a s more g e n e r a l l y training,  experience  s e r v i c e or r e s e a r c h  t o age, s e x , s o c i o e c o n o m i c  by e n c o u r a g i n g i t s or counsel  relating  and e t h n i c  to  people d i f f e r i n g as  backgrounds  More r e c e n t l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e APA's for  Counseling  Psychology  the  " P r i n c i p l e s Concerning  reaffirmed  Women" (APA, 1978) and t h e r e c e n t Committee  on Women a d v o c a t i n g  principles  a s an i n t e g r a l  counselling section  preparing and  that  students within  diversity faculty  training, Similarly,  formulate one a r e a  that a l l objectives for  of c u l t u r a l  with  respect  and t r a i n i n g ;  research  and p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n both the N a t i o n a l  diversity,  t o : (a)  (b) s t u d e n t  and Related  Council  f o r A c c r e d i t a t i o n of of A c c r e d i t a t i o n of  Programs  information  (CACREP) have  concerning  and g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s be p a r t (Lloyd,  (c)  (Meara, e t a l . , 1988).  Educational  of a c o u n s e l l o r  and  strategies, practical  (NCATE) and t h e C o u n c i l  adopted t h e p o s i t i o n that  education  recommended  programs  support,  development,  racial,  of these  and a c c r e d i t a t i o n  s e l e c t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , and support;  Teacher Education Counseling  by D i v i s i o n 17's  such programs, t h e i s s u e s of c u l t u r a l  recruitment,  curriculum  ethnic,  The t r a i n i n g  in at least  f o r both  and Psychotherapy of  statement  a n d g e n d e r be c o n s i d e r e d  recruitment,  support  of the preparation of  of the Conference a l s o psychology  " (p.7).  1987 C o n f e r e n c e  the implementation  part  psychologists.  counselling  their  the Counseling  t o assure  1987).  cultural,  of the  The groups  movement  i s not without  neither  Margolis  courses that  elderly,  separate  This,  particular  that  one  this  forgets  this  1987;  attending  that  studies Troy, Kahn  minority  total  experience. and R u n g t a ' s  or sexism.  simply  While  suggestions  Lloyd  & Chapman,  writers  (Hood & A r c e n e a u x ,  e d u c a t o r s and  curriculum such  cautions.  1, t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n implementing  perspectives.  wherein  on  other  have  programs d e s i g n e d t o  Moreover,  i n those cases  t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s have been d e v e l o p e d , of t h e i r  (1987)  an a p p r o a c h  to s e r i o u s l y consider  i n Chapter  subgroups.  result in a  in Margolis'  skills.  with Lloyd's  slow  might  " t r u t h s " and r e l i e s  1987), c o u n s e l l o r  was n o t e d  subgroup  t o t h e development of  and a d v o c a t e d  and c o u n s e l l i n g  issue  been g e n e r a l l y  relevant  lead  person's  concern,  p l a n n e r s would do w e l l  include  (e.g., the  e x c l u s i v e l y o r p r i m a r i l y t o one  forms o f r a c i s m  cultural  Parker,  As  could  that  out the danger  m i n o r i t i e s ) may a c c e n t u a t e  approach could,  latter  communication have t a k e n  suggest  by s u c h  populations  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a c l i e n t  v i e w , promote new echoed  served  (1986) p o i n t e d  on s p e c i f i c  in turn,  to recognize  Ultimately,  They  s e t o f s t a n d a r d s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r s u c h  They c a u t i o n e d  failure  focus  however.  are well  and Rungta  women, o r e t h n i c  differences. a  its critics,  t h e r a p i s t s nor c l i e n t s  training. that  towards s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r m i n o r i t y  where  few  evaluative  e f f e c t i v e n e s s have been c o n d u c t e d  (Sedlacek,  1976; S t a k e  (1984) o b s e r v e d ,  & Gerner,  1987).  As C a r n e y and  t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g movement t o  d a t e has  been  gathered  t o d e t e r m i n e what  counsellors Given  rather  as  d e c a d e s , and  culture-fair  given  the  little  changes occur  attention  counselling  many s p e c i f i c  these  issues,  i t appears  more t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s training into  programs  in t h i s  will  be  field,  to  over  past  the and  forward  or  of  two  training i n an  i n e v i t a b l e that developing  issues  attempt  more  and  specialized  i n t e g r a t i n g such t r a i n i n g  e x i s t i n g programs. Perry  Personnel that  the  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , w r i t i n g under and  1980's would b r i n g  appropriate are  to  the  subject  to v a r i o u s  i s every  auspices  (now  continued theories  u n i q u e needs of  decade to which P e r r y there  the  Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n  a p p l i c a t i o n 'of c o u n s e l l i n g  who  been  in  accorded  ethical  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h have been b r o u g h t to address  d a t a have  such t r a i n i n g .  l a r g e amount of  and  and  ( i f any)  a r e s u l t of  the  gender-fair  unsystematic,  the  development  and  i n d i c a t i o n that  American  predicted and  methods t h a t  those  i s now  the  AACD),  special  i n e q u i t i e s i n our  referred  of  are  populations  society.  The  more t h a n h a l f - o v e r ,  h i s p r e d i c t i o n has  and  proven  correct. Yet  there  is s t i l l  (1985) d e s c r i b e d more or  provide  the  field  of  more a p p r o p r i a t e  minority  done.  More r e c e n t l y ,  d e v e l o p m e n t s o u t l i n e d above as  l e s s t h a n a r e d e f i n i t i o n of  Transforming  and  the  much t o be  populations  counselling  counseling  Katz  nothing  standards.  psychology  professional  assistance  necessitates  the  to t o women  r e d e f i n i t i o n of  what  i t means t o be  professional. system  minorities reference This  are  p r o g r a m s be only  t o expand  counseling  the case,  own  of  cultural  that  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a i n i n g  Only  offered in gender-fair through  systematic  i m p r o v e d and new  meet t h e t r a i n i n g  counselling  their  i t i s imperative  t h r o u g h more and b e t t e r  educators  t h e framework  to include perspectives  and women w i t h i n  c u r r e n t l y being  counselling.  counseling  of frame o f  ( p . 621)  being  investigate  as a  ... The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new d e s c r i p t i v e  i s necessary  traditional  "qualified"  needs of t h e i r  and  researchers  programs  culture-fair  evaluation  can  existing  and b e t t e r ones d e s i g n e d . training  which  And  programs c a n c o u n s e l l o r  needs o f t h e i r varied client  students  and t h e  populations.  Chapter  3  Method Sample The  sample  f o r t h i s study  students e n r o l l e d program  (UBC).  Of  one-term course (CNPS 5 0 8 ) . sessions.  on  This  the  first  time  who  chose  to take  the e n t i r e  wish  to take  group f o r the  Master's  of  1987  during  in  13 w e e k l y  in a  counselling  students in  students was  term.  that  British  2-1/2-hour  level  i t . CNPS 508  i n the F a l l  of  16 were e n r o l l e d  program, a l t h o u g h  A l l 16  term,  may  offered  and  became t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  15 p a r t i c i p a n t s  among a l a r g e r  a comparable-level  level  the  at the U n i v e r s i t y  for a l l Master's  to take  As  in counselling,  Master's  graduate  for  students  who  took  group  study.  remaining from  of  31  c u l t u r a l issues  consists  the c o u r s e  interventions.  issues  wish  course  of  participants, and  13-week c o u r s e ,  voluntarily CNPS 578,  31  social  a t UBC  members f o r t h i s The  the  Psychology  c h o o s e when t h e y  courses  Psychology  It i s required  the C o u n s e l l i n g  and  in f i r s t - y e a r  in Counselling  Columbia  consisted  study.  g r o u p of  course  on  w i t h the course t h i s course  s t u d e n t s , but  i t . These  i n the  study  were drawn  students e n r o l l e d  counselling on  social  i s required  s t u d e n t s may  in  theories  and c u l t u r a l  for a l l  c h o o s e when  15 p a r t i c i p a n t s became t h e  they  comparison  Of and  the  experimental  56.25% were s i n g l e .  group p a r t i c i p a n t s participants, mean age of  the  was  was  group p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  81.25% were women  The  experimental  mean age  33.88 y e a r s .  Of  93.33% were women and 35.80 y e a r s  sample  of t h e  the comparison  group  53.33% were s i n g l e .  (see Chapter  4 f o r a complete  Their summary  characteristics).  Procedure This design  study  was  (Campbell  experimental  based  & Stanley,  g r o u p and  a non-equivalent 1963).  The  a comparison  not  have p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l  are  given both  graphically  on  sampling  a p r e - t e s t and  control  design  group.  utilizes  The  two  equivalence.  a post-test.  group  The  an  groups  Both  do  groups  d e s i g n may  be  r e p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : A:  Q  X  1  0  2  .  where A represents X),  the  g r o u p t a k i n g CNPS 508  B r e p r e s e n t s the c o m p a r i s o n  represents  t h e p r e - t e s t , and  Because one  experimental  the  sample  of c o n v e n i e n c e ,  of  for  the  of  detailed  demographic  the  they  time  2  for this  g r o u p t a k i n g CNPS 578,  study  gathered  T h i s was  i n f o r m a t i o n from  completed  i s not  the e x p e r i m e n t a l study.  0  1  r e p r e s e n t s the p o s t - t e s t .  i n f o r m a t i o n was  assumed e q u i v a l e n c y the purposes  0  (Treatment  the p r e - t e s t s .  and  random, but to c o n f i r m  comparison  done by  a l l the The  is  the groups  collecting  participants  demographic  at  31 variables  of  background (e) UBC  interest  were  (ethnicity),  (a) age,  (d) r e l i g i o u s  C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  Psychology  clinical  training  team,  from  C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  specifically  w i t h g e n d e r and training  other c u l t u r e s . according form  t o whether  of t h e R o b i n s o n  Follingstad, For  in counselling  1985)  they  i s s u e s , and  out  the  participants  researcher introduced herself  investigator  carrying  of  to assess  first  out M a s t e r ' s  Participants  student  by  information sheet.  participation  was  v o l u n t a r y and  Appendix  C).  results,  the  the  first  one  was  study  the  married  &  was  hour of t h e  i f they  first  student  attitudes  would be  and to  three questionnaires plus  their time  to sign  that  involvement  would  (see Appendix  B).  a consent the  form  b e f o r e the  (see  pre-test  t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l  class,  purpose  willing  They were a d v i s e d that  1987  r e s e a r c h , the  to avoid p r e j u d i c i n g presented  in their  the F a l l  as a  level  hour of c l a s s  a l s o asked  In o r d e r  week of  completing  a demographic  Each p a r t i c i p a n t  or  (Robinson  counsellors'  were a s k e d  study  take approximately  determined  were a p p r o a c h e d  term.  take p a r t i n the  single  from  d e s c r i b e d below.  c l a s s e s d u r i n g the  values.  (i) previous  s t a t u s was  respective  w h i c h was  (h)  women a n d / o r c l i e n t s  Behavioral Inventory  the p r e - t e s t ,  The  experience  other c u l t u r e s ,  marital  filled  Counselling  courses dealing  culture  Participants'  (religion),  ( f ) UBC  (g) p r e v i o u s  p r e v i o u s UBC  (c) e t h n i c  affiliation  specialty,  counselling.women and/or c l i e n t s  specialized  (b) g e n d e r ,  group i n  students  had  been  introduced  signed consent immediately complete found an  t o any  of  forms had  the  sheet,  Awareness M e a s u r e  one  (Wayne,  Robinson  Toward Women S c a l e  easily  booklets  was  Each p a r t i c i p a n t  was  Robinson  Behavioral  1985), t h e  information a l s o asked  This  Therapists'  sheet  to  information  her/his pre-test results  were  c o n s i s t e d of  (TAWS; Sherman, K o u f a c o s ,  a demographic  were  i n s t r u c t e d to  booklet  each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s with  the  t h e Wayne E t h n i c  & Follingstad,  h e r / h i s m o t h e r ' s maiden name. allowed  Once  i n which they  Each t e s t  1981), t h e  Attitudes  Appendix D).  order  copy e a c h of  (RBI;  1978), and  i n the  booklet.  Inventory  Kenworthy,  test  Each p a r t i c i p a n t  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  instruction  material.  been c o l l e c t e d ,  distributed.  in her/his test  course  while  and (see  provide subsequently  t o be  matched  maintaining  confidentiality. In o r d e r the  pattern  particular  design  was  and  an  For  the  within  of  responses could  equal  The  i n one  of  number of  p r e - t e s t , these e a c h of  The  the  same 31  post-test.  of  the  sequence  two  three  to ensure that  not  later  be  questionnaires  six p o s s i b l e orders  booklets booklets  was  prepared  to  squares  i n each  booklet  (see Appendix i n each  E)  order.  distributed  groups.  p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d both The  any  attributed  were r a n d o m l y  participant  i n which  and  s e q u e n c e of p r e s e n t a t i o n , a L a t i n  employed.  were o r g a n i z e d  the  impact  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r e s e n t e d ,  overall one  to l e s s e n the  the  p o s t - t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  pre-test  and  carried  out  in  the  eleventh  as  c l o s e as  participant  w e e k l y c l a s s of  p r a c t i c a b l e t o the  end  r e c e i v e d a second  test  m o t h e r ' s maiden name. instruction in  the  sheet  same o r d e r  pre-test,  plus a  Masculinity  Scale  participants information related that of  to  they  the  sex may  as  the  fourth questionnaire (BMS;  Brannon, to  telephone  in follow-up the  research  from t h e  rest  data.  of  the  participate  in this  list  interview  the  provided  on  any  extra  of UBC  the  Brannon  course  to supply  i f they  interviews  and/or  voluntarily,  F). and  the  their  wished  to  receive  a  This separately  post-test,  a l l seven v o l u n t e e r s  the  the  in counselling  invited  indicated their  p h a s e of  in  training  during  S i x months a f t e r  were c o n d u c t e d w i t h g r o u p who  from t h e  f i n d i n g s (see Appendix  was  presented  supplementary  numbers,  telephone  information  experimental  a  P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o and  second  In a d d i t i o n ,  or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s  personal  of  out  a  r e c e i v e d them  derived  1985).  providing details  role  names, a d d r e s s e s ,  interviews  fill  her/his  questionnaires  t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t had  was  Each  bearing  c o n s i s t e d of  same t h r e e  which  each c o u r s e .  booklet  have r e c e i v e d o u t s i d e  study.  summary of  and  13-week c o u r s e ,  of  Each booklet  were a s k e d sheet  participate  each  from  the  w i l l i n g n e s s to  study  (see A p p e n d i x G  for a  questions).  Measures In  their  theory  (1980) s u g g e s t e d external  that  events w i l l  of  reasoned a c t i o n , Ajzen  the best  interaction be  between  understood  and  Fishbein  internal  and  if beliefs, attitudes,  behavioural  intentions,  separately.  The s t u d y  participants' (the  RBI),  indirectly—cultural Measure).  While  same a s a b e l i e f ,  behaviours  toward  ( t h e Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s  the concepts  example,  suggest  c o n s c i o u s , and b e l i e f statement,  consciousness.) a cognizance beliefs and  of being  as the mental or f a c t  According  (OED; 1971), f o r  informed, acceptance  The OED cognizant, of a  on t h e e v i d e n c e o f  t o Wayne  o f one's s t e r e o t y p e s  (1981),  (i.e.,  awareness i n c l u d e s  one's  ( s e e A p p e n d i x H f o r Wayne's d e f i n i t i o n  ethnic  i s not the  (The d e f i n i t i o n s  are related.  stereotypical of e t h n i c i t y  awareness).  Wayne E t h n i c Awareness M e a s u r e . Awareness M e a s u r e was u s e d participants' The  an a w a r e n e s s  do o v e r l a p .  these concepts  d e f i n e s awareness as t h e s t a t e  proposition,  that  English Dictionary  that  intentions  ( t h e TAWS), a n d - -  i t may be a r g u e d  by The O x f o r d  or  and b e h a v i o u r a l  women  beliefs  provided  are considered  i n c l u d e d s e p a r a t e measures of  sex r o l e  attitudes  and b e h a v i o u r s  in this  p r e - and p o s t - t e s t  instrument  was d e v e l o p e d  The Wayne E t h n i c  study  levels  by Wayne  to assess of e t h n i c awareness.  (1981) " t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  extent  t o w h i c h t h e r a p i s t s a r e aware o f t h e i n f l u e n c e  ethnic  factor  identify  ethnicity's  (p.  92).  for  clinical  presented  i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  I t attempts  role  by t h e i r  i n a person's  a b i l i t y to  p r e s e n t i n g problem"  t o measure e t h n i c a w a r e n e s s by a s k i n g  i m p r e s s i o n s of f i v e  in written  life  of the  form.  ethnically-oriented  problems  Wayne  (1981) s e l e c t e d  personal  communications  cultural  backgrounds  The  with p r o f e s s i o n a l s  who worked  five  Wayne,  h e l p e d Wayne  cases that  to the c u l t u r e  different  ethnic  N a t i v e American,  t o ensure  ethnic  counsellors. substituting American"  field.  individuals:  reflect  t h e g r e a t e r impact  community itself  originally  be t r a n s f e r r e d  (see Appendix  from  their  "clinical  a Hispanic i n order to  of the Chinese  modifications  t o the case  the r e s e a r c h e r found  vignette  could  quite  a Hispanic to a Chinese context  I for a fuller  In Wayne's o r i g i n a l  overall-by  f o r "Japanese-  female,  were n o t n e c e s s a r y , however, s i n c e of Wayne's f o u r t h  Canadian  for "college."  a Chinese  Major  cases to  t o Western  featured  and p r e s e n c e  i n Western Canada.  the substance  easily  modified the f i v e  and words s u c h a s " u n i v e r s i t y "  was c h a n g e d t o f e a t u r e  Black,  F o r the purposes of  such as "Japanese-Canadian"  female,  specific  cases represented  t h e c a s e s were " C a n a d i a n i z e d "  V i g n e t t e #4, w h i c h  a  (pp. 92-93).  i n d i v i d u a l s more f a m i l i a r  labels  According to  Japanese-American,  H i s p a n i c , and J e w i s h .  First,  a c c u r a c y of  case c o n t a i n  measure, t h e f i v e  Second,  give  services  the c u l t u r a l  of the c l i e n t "  study, the researcher s l i g h t l y  represent  that  i n t h e human  was t o have e a c h  In Wayne's o r i g i n a l  this  from v a r i o u s  make up h e r i n s t r u m e n t .  "the i n t e n t i o n  item unique  five  on t h e b a s i s of  i n f o r m a t i o n , s u g g e s t i o n s , and examples p r o v i d e d by t h e s e  professionals the  her case m a t e r i a l s  discussion  of t h i s  measure, p a r t i c i p a n t s  i m p r e s s i o n s " of each  subject). a r e asked to  vignette.  Because  the  UBC C o u n s e l l i n g  training  P s y c h o l o g y program does not emphasize  in clinical  instructions  diagnosis,  was c h a n g e d t o r e a d :  impressions as a c o u n s e l l o r Three Wayne  1 = no e t h n i c  modifications,  three  from  results  with Margolis'  values  from  awareness.  (1986) s l i g h t  guide  in this  This wording  study (see  procedure).  were n o t i n t e r p o l a t e d a s t h e y d i d  r a t e r s ' p r e - and p o s t - t e s t ranged  from  are consistent  which  .83 t o .98 f o r t h e p r e - t e s t  this  have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e  the  measure.  further  Despite  Wayne measure was used  These  interrater .89 t o .93.  as a l i m i t a t i o n that  does  awareness,  t o v a l i d a t e and r e f i n e  of e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the present  o f h e r own  the instrument  l e v e l s of e t h n i c  research  i t s lack  from  1).  t o e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of  She d i d , however, c o n c l u d e  she recommended  (see Table  ranged  Wayne f a i l e d  measure a n d she i d e n t i f i e d  and  on e a c h o f t h e  w i t h Wayne's o r i g i n a l  coefficients,  Unfortunately,  study.  scores  .83 t o .97 f o r t h e p o s t - t e s t  correlation  her  ethnic  ranged  P e a r s o n product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r  f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s and  system which  a f f e c t the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . The  the  a scoring  were u s e d a s a s c o r i n g  missing  initial  t h e Wayne m e a s u r e .  J f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s c o r i n g  Participants' not  your  o f e a c h o f t h e ... v i g n e t t e s . "  awareness t o 4 = h i g h  system, together  Appendix  "State  r a t e r s ' were t r a i n e d t o s c o r e  (1981) h a d d e v i s e d  scoring  the wording of the  study  v a l i d i t y , the  b e c a u s e an  Table 1 Mean I n t e r r a t . e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s Measure  Vignettes  P r e - t e s t mean  f o r t h e Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness  P o s t - t e s t mean  1  0.96  0.86  2  0.83  0.91  3  0.98  0.97  4  0.83  0.83  5  0.93  0.88  N o t e . Means were c a l c u l a t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g t h e 3 raters'  scores f o r each o f the 5 v i g n e t t e s .  exhaustive other  search  of  the  literature  study  to assess  Inventory  i n t e n t i o n s , and  traditional  or  R o b i n s o n and  Follingstad  instrument reported  i s p r e d i c a t e d on  i n t e n t i o n s and  her/his  threefold.  First,  rather  "the  than  any  tool  goal  was  less  subjects  (a)  deduced  that  i n such b e h a v i o u r s .  about  for  their  a  about  The  inventory  i n t e r m s of c o n c r e t e  "a b e h a v i o r a l  actual  information  the  report  The  information  from  by  to  accurately reflect that  in  and  developed  assumptions:  (b)  used  behaviours  was  understanding behaviors  opinions  and  about  s e x - r o l e s c a l e would  t o d e t e r m i n e whether a t t i t u d e s and  have a c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e or whether  behavioural  was  there  i s a discrepancy."  "needed  i s t o change  s t u d i e s have  relied  unstructured  interviews  (Robinson  asks  merely c o l l e c t i n g  sex-role behaviors  where t h e  was  measure would a l l o w  Second,  researchers  behaviors of  and  be  individuals  such b e h a v i o r s . " enable  RBI  rationale for developing  assessing  actions  two  i n t e n t i o n s t o engage  researchers'  and  can  role  RBI  actual behaviours.  behaviours  behaviours,  subject's behaviours  The  ( 1 9 8 5 ) , and  i n t e n t i o n s and  i n t e n t i o n s and  sex  The  r a t e them as more o r  non-traditional.  behavioural  (RBI).  participants'  behavioural  both  to unearth  r e l e v a n t e t h n i c awareness measures. Robinson B e h a v i o r a l  this  failed  on  such  & Follingstad,  ...  i n the Third, a  f o r e v a l u a t i n g outcome  studies  sex-role stereotyping, since informal and  1985,  techniques  participant p.  692).  area  as  observation"  past  The  RBI  form was was  consists  designed  designed  partner.  of  two  forms of a 3 4 - i t e m  for participants  for participants  T h e s e two  who  who  are  as  items  i n v e n t o r y come from a v a r i e t y  i n the  including typing  previously  scales.  behavioural  Items from  i n the  f o r t h e RBI  so.  and  as  married  192  scores  subjects and  of  and  scores  of  traditional.  Scores  which  traditional  and  non-  128  and fall  non-traditional  they  classify  traditional  or  results  non-traditional.  partner  be  classified  below s h o u l d  as  be  recommended  that  relationship) as  should  nonbe  classified between  unclassified. their  that  in a  i n the mid-range  F o l l i n g s t a d administered the  not  below  R o b i n s o n and d i d not  (1985) recommended  classified  remain  in  indicate t r a d i t i o n a l  above s h o u l d  be  sex-  scale  f o r women i n d i c a t e  in a partner  above s h o u l d  and  restated  Likert-type  S i m i l a r l y , they  (or those  sources,  will  and  and  The  so t o 9 =  163  a  RBI.  (or those  and  of  were t h e n  do  scores  with  equivalent,  t h i s study.  10-point  Follingstad  traditional.  183  traditional,  and  low  subjects  s c o r e s of  non-traditional,  as  scores  R o b i n s o n and  relationship)  of  High  female  a  d e f i n i t e l y not  behaviours  unmarried  scores  i s on  other  living  role belief scales  terms f o r i n c l u s i o n  behaviours.  classified  sex  scales  do  traditional  for  developed  from 0 = w i l l  definitely  for  f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of  such  Scoring ranging  such  or  t o be  were t r e a t e d  One  s i n g l e ; the  are married  forms were d e s i g n e d  scale.  instrument  f o r male s u b j e c t s as  Although to  men,  either  The  reliability  Follingstad  (1985) r a n g e d  correlations, estimates.  a n d from  Estimates  respectively inventory,  coefficients from  .82 t o .86 f o r t e s t - r e t e s t  f o r convergent  and e s t i m a t e s with  and  .83 t o .95 f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y  f o r the s i n g l e  correlations  p r o v i d e d by R o b i n s o n  validity  and m a r r i e d  were  forms o f t h e  fordiscriminant validity  three similar  .56 a n d .55  s c a l e s ) ranged  ( b a s e d on  from  .15 t o  .46. Having instrument, RBI  established Robinson  c o u l d be u s e d  changes that  and F o l l i n g s t a d  to identify  i n intended sex-typed  changes  changes  the r e l i a b i l i t y  in overall  in individual  treatments  variables  conclusions an  behaviours.  variable  in this  designed  to alter  assume t h a t be  to alter  dependent  t o e v a l u a t e t h e impact  female-role behaviour.  study.  sex-typed  Although  role  behaviour,  intended  by a t r e a t m e n t  a w a r e n e s s o f gender  concluded  These  i n c l u s i o n as  the treatment  (CNPS 508) was n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  participants'  influenced  affect  They a l s o  r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e RBI's  in this  study  might  that the  s c o r e s on t h e measure, a s w e l l a s  have d i r e c t  outcome measure  that  i t e m s c o r e s , c o u l d be u s e f u l  designed  of t h e i r  (1985) c o n c l u d e d  m e a s u r e s f o r outcome s t u d i e s d e s i g n e d of  and v a l i d i t y  i t i s reasonable to  sex-typed  designed  behaviours  might  to increase their  issues.  No m a j o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e RBI were made by t h i s researcher.  However, one s m a l l change was made i n t h e  instructions  on t h e m a r r i e d  form.  In the o r i g i n a l  v e r s i o n of  t h e RBI, p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a d v i s e d  to f i l l  of  or l i v i n g  t h e s c a l e i f they  For  this  study,  "in  a heterosexual  are "married  these  instructions  or l e s b i a n / g a y  this  study,  than  female p a r t i c i p a n t s .  general  with  relationship."  the  item  score  scores  closest  included  non-sexist developed  by R o b i n s o n a n d F o l l i n g s t a d  In t h e c a s e o f  f o r t h e R B I , p a r t i c i p a n t s were  t o t h e mean o f t h e i r  total  item  A t t i t u d e Toward Women S c a l e  in this  study  to identify  APA Task F o r c e  and  sex r o l e  scores.  (TAWS).  The TAWS  The s c a l e was  by Sherman, K o u f a c o s , a n d Kenworthy  The  assigned  the degree of s e x i s t or  a t t i t u d e s amongst p a r t i c i p a n t s .  B i a s and Sex R o l e  For  a n a l y s i s , however, no d i s t i n c t i o n was  response t o the c o n c l u s i o n s  (1978) i n  o f t h e 1975 APA T a s k F o r c e  Stereotyping identified  i n Psychotherapeutic four general  areas  on Sex  Practice.  o f sex b i a s  s t e r e o t y p i n g on t h e p a r t o f p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s  which c o u l d a d v e r s e l y  affect  female c l i e n t s :  traditional  sex r o l e s ;  devaluation  o f women; ( c ) s e x i s t  (b) b i a s  concepts;  a n d (d) r e s p o n s e  seduction  of c l i e n t s .  gain  differently  i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r men (see A p p e n d i x K ) .  Therapists' was  Also, f o r  slightly  made between male and f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s . missing  someone."  T h i s d e c i s i o n was made b e c a u s e t h e  s c o r i n g system p r o v i d e d  purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l  form  a l s o i n c l u d e d the phrase  male p a r t i c i p a n t s were s c o r e d  (1985) seemed  out the married  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  (a) f o s t e r i n g of  i n e x p e c t a t i o n s and use of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c  t o women a s sex o b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g  The TAWS was o r i g i n a l l y  developed  to  o f t h e r a p i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women,  and  t o compare  professions  responses  of s o c i a l  TAWS i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the e f f e c t i v e n e s s reasons:  developed  suitable  attitudes  of CNPS 508,  TAWS i s c o m p r i s e d  32  three  and  measuring  toward (b)  health  who  The  obvious  it  women, was  professionals, values  make up  scale  agree." less  items; responses  Low  r a n g i n g from  types:  (a) t e n  s t e r e o t y p e d views  reflecting  items about  nonegalitarian  attitudes,  these c a t e g o r i e s ,  and  that  i n f o r m a t i o n might 303).  (d) f o u r  and  and  and the  (e) two  chosen  "strongly more  o f women.  One-  one-half  set.  The  items a r e of  psychoanalytic ideas  feminist  traditional  sexuality,  i s recognized that  descriptive  involving  with contemporary  items  outlining  items  are  scores indicate  i n order to a v o i d a response  congruent  thirteen  p.  of  of t h e . i t e m s a r e worded p o s i t i v e l y  several  and  two  measures a t t i t u d e s  Likert-type  to "strongly  negatively  "It  for  t o s h a r e many common p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n f o r m e d , more l i b e r a l ,  In  f o r at least  of m e n t a l  the  psychiatry.  instrument  w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g  disagree"  three  and  and  i s intended to address;  from a f i v e - p o i n t  not  sexes  membership.  The  half  two  as an  u s i n g a sample g r o u p  are l i k e l y  course  the  work, p s y c h o l o g y ,  (a) i t d i r e c t l y  which the course  who  from  sex  viewpoints, role  (b)  attitudes,  (c)  items r e g a r d i n g items about  therapists.  t h e TAWS r e s e a r c h e r s n o t e d :  these content c a t e g o r i e s are  furthermore, be d i f f i c u l t  merely  i n some i n s t a n c e s , a t t i t u d e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e "  (1978,  Cronbach's Alpha  (a measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y a n d  h o m o g e n e i t y ) f o r t h e TAWS was e s t a b l i s h e d validity  data  Following  f o r t h e TAWS was p r e s e n t e d  their  therapists  initial  (including  psychiatrists),  the scale  "further  study  relate  social  workers,  psychologists,  and Kenworthy  as " s a t i s f a c t o r y , "  but they  i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e  t o behavior  by i t s d e v e l o p e r s .  o f t h e TAWS w i t h a sample o f 184  Sherman, K o u f a c o s ,  assessed  might  study  t o be .86. No  i n therapy"  and  (1978)  cautioned  how s c o r e s on t h i s (p.  that scale  311).  No m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o t h e TAWS f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of  this  study.  M i s s i n g i t e m s c o r e s were computed a s 3 =  neither  agree  missing  i t e m s c o r e s was h a n d l e d  it  nor d i s a g r e e .  was f o r t h e RBI, t h i s  significant missing .4%  impact  items  (Although  f o r t h e TAWS  than  d i s c r e p a n c y d i d n o t have a b e c a u s e t h e number o f  measure was so s m a l l — i . e . ,  less  than  of the t o t a l . ) Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e  BMS, was a l s o This  longer  110-item  16-item  this  scale  A f o u r t h measure, t h e  booklet  I t was i n c l u d e d i n t h e p o s t - t e s t  the fact  that  the t r u e purpose  was t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s p e r c e p t i o n c o u l d have  responses.  Neither  established  f o r t h e BMS.  f o r the post-test  was drawn by t h e r e s e a r c h e r from a  instrument.  order to d i s g u i s e  study  (BMS).  included i n the test  only.  in  differently  on t h e r e s u l t s  for either  the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of  influenced  reliability  of the  o f CNPS 508, s i n c e  the experimental  nor v a l i d i t y  I n any e v e n t ,  group's  h a s been  participants'  scores  on  t h i s measure were n o t i n c l u d e d  for  this  Interviews  No s t a t i s t i c a l interview  data.  study.  anecdotally,  a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d  The sample  s u c h an e x e r c i s e  this  was t o o s m a l l .  would have been w e l l Nevertheless, these  subjective  a w a r e n e s s and a t t i t u d e s  The  size  on t h e f o l l o w - u p Moreover,  beyond t h e s c o p e  responses  were  of t h e  used  as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l  participants'  Research  analyses  study.  Follow-up  present  i n the s t a t i s t i c a l  e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r as a r e s u l t  group  changes i n  of t a k i n g  the course.  Hypotheses following  r e s e a r c h study  comprise  the s p e c i f i c  hypotheses  tested in  ( a s measured by t h e Wayne E t h n i c Awareness  M e a s u r e , t h e RBI, a n d t h e TAWS). Hypothesis social  to  will  increase in ethnic  awareness over  the course of the  comprise  who have n o t t a k e n  t h e mean s c o r e s f o r e a c h  comparison  group.  Hypothesis  2.  such a c o u r s e .  of t h e f i v e v i g n e t t e s  f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group  Participants  and c u l t u r a l  issues  who have c o m p l e t e d in counselling  increase in non-traditional  behavioural  display a  t h e Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure w i l l  a greater extent  greater  a c o u r s e on  in counselling  than p a r t i c i p a n t s  social  who have c o m p l e t e d  issues  Operationally, that  Participants  and c u l t u r a l  greater study  1.  intentions  over  will  sex r o l e  than  increase  f o r the  a c o u r s e on display a  b e h a v i o u r s and  the c o u r s e of the study  than  participants  who have n o t t a k e n  the  mean s c o r e s  for  the experimental  Hypothesis social  increase  Treatment  of the study  experimental determined  to a greater  and comparison according  religion,  experience  previous other  t h e m e a n ' s c o r e s on t h e  extent  f o rthe  group. Data included  groups.  Their  examinations a t  (c) m a r i t a l  ( i ) previous  specifically  of the  equivalency  was  status,  (d) e t h n i c i t y , ( e )  Psychology  s p e c i a l t y , (g) UBC  clinical  training  team,  c o u n s e l l i n g women a n d / o r c l i e n t s UBC C o u n s e l l i n g  with  (h) p r e v i o u s  from  Psychology  gender and c u l t u r e  other courses  issues, ( j )  i n c o u n s e l l i n g women a n d / o r c l i e n t s  c u l t u r e s , and (k) e x t r a  and/or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s of UBC d u r i n g  experimental  t o the f o l l o w i n g moderating v a r i a b l e s :  Psychology  training  display a  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women  analyses  ( f ) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g  Counselling  group.  a c o u r s e on  to e s t a b l i s h the equivalency  (a) a g e , (b) g e n d e r ,  dealing  Operationally,  statistical  level  extent  t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s who have n o t  of the Q u a n t i t a t i v e  Preliminary  cultures,  in counselling will  f o r the comparison  pre-test  to a greater  f o r the comparison  in non-stereotypical  decrease  group than  the  issues  such a c o u r s e .  TAWS w i l l  increase  Operationally,  P a r t i c i p a n t s who have c o m p l e t e d  the course  taken  group than  and c u l t u r a l  greater over  3.  on t h e RBI w i l l  such a c o u r s e .  the course  background and r e l i g i o u s  training  r e l a t e d t o sex r o l e  in counselling  of the study. affiliation  from  received  (Although  outside  ethnic  were o r i g i n a l l y  free  46 response  items,  re-coded  as dichotomous v a r i a b l e s  First,  and age was an i n t e r v a l  a l l these  moderating  in t-tests  variable,  for this  they  analysis).  v a r i a b l e s were u s e d a s  grouping  variables  (ANOVAs)  f o r t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s where a p p r o p r i a t e .  a n d one-way  t h e p r e - t e s t m e a s u r e s were examined w i t h experimental variable)  or comparison  to establish  the independent  variables  the equivalency  variable.  variable respect  Third,  Second,  groups.  using  treatment  moderating  grouping  variables  i n the  the treatment interactions  with  to the pre-test scores. was e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e p r e - and p o s t t o be s u i t a b l y  according  t o t h e Kolmogorov-Smirnov  two t y p e s  of a n a l y s e s  the  five  one  between-subject  additional  The f i r s t  r e p e a t e d measures  interactions Between-subject  was a s i n g l e  (treatment)  series  between-subject  their  variables.  factor  A second  of n o r m a l i t y ,  f o r t h e RBI, t h e TAWS, and e a c h o f  Wayne v i g n e t t e s .  (time).  distributed  (K-S) t e s t  of v a r i a n c e with  (ANOVARs) were p e r f o r m e d  assess  where  were i n c l u d e d w i t h  s c o r e s were d e t e r m i n e d  factor  o f t h e two  t o examine any p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t  Once e q u i v a l e n c y test  of v a r i a n c e  respect to  in a t-test  had emerged a s s i g n i f i c a n t  p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s , they  analyses  g r o u p membership ( t h e t r e a t m e n t  E a c h p r e - t e s t measure was a n a l y z e d as  were  with  introduced  one a t a t i m e  the treatment  factors  (b) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , ( c ) e t h n i c i t y ,  with  and one w i t h i n - s u b j e c t  o f ANOVARs  factors  ANOVAR  i n order to  and time  c h o s e n were (d) r e l i g i o n ,  (a) g e n d e r , (e)  experience  in counselling  clients-from issues, These  other c u l t u r e s ,  a n d (h) e x t r a  (g) e x t r a  training in cross-cultural  analyses,  t h e y were  influential  measures used a t t h e p r e - t e s t  ANOVARs were examined w i t h t h r e e - w a y a n d two-way were f o l l o w e d  in counselling  t r a i n i n g i n sex r o l e  f a c t o r s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g  preliminary the  women, ( f ) e x p e r i e n c e  level.  respect  t o the with  These  respect to secondary  to resulting significant  interactions.  up by u s i n g  issues.  S i g n i f i c a n t main  effects  t-tests.  B e c a u s e e a c h Wayne v i g n e t t e  i s d i f f e r e n t i n that i t  measures awareness about a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l group, a multivariate combination  analysis,  i n v o l v i n g the c a l c u l a t i o n of a l i n e a r  of the r e s u l t s of the f i v e  inappropriate.  S i m i l a r l y , because  and  intentions,  behavioural  multivariate  vignettes,  was deemed  t h e RBI m e a s u r e s  behaviour  and t h e TAWS m e a s u r e s a t t i t u d e s , a  approach t o these  two i n s t r u m e n t s was a l s o  ruled  out. Finally, the  pre-test  instruments.  c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h and p o s t - t e s t That  intercorrelated, for  i s , a l l pre-test  the experimental  pre-test  score  of each of t h e three scores  a s were a l l p o s t - t e s t  Correlational the  scores  and c o m p a r i s o n  were  scores.  groups  was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  scores.  That  i t s post-test  This  was done  separately.  a n a l y s e s were a l s o c o n d u c t e d  and p o s t - t e s t  both  between  i s , each  both  pre-test  counterpart.  T h i s was  done f o r t h e t o t a l groups  separately.  sample and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  comparison  Chapter  4  Results Sample The age  sample c o n s i s t e d o f 27 f e m a l e s  was 24 t o 49 y e a r s .  participants  were c o d e d  (For purposes  whether o r n o t t h e i r  their  age was l e s s  9 as F a m i l y ,  Adolescent/Secondary, participant  completed  houses they  a  course  a UBC c o u r s e  indicated  on g e n d e r  with c l i e n t s  as P o s t -  Five  indicated  participated  match up f o r e i g n  3 as  t h e y had  centres,  enrolled  transition indicated  over  that  i n , a UBC  a n d / o r had e x p e r i e n c e i n  other c u l t u r e s  that  i n a peer  (One  issues in counselling  participants  counselling  from  that  in specialized  ( e . g . , t e a c h i n g ESL t o J a p a n e s e women).  participants  listed  women i n s p e c i a l i z e d  o r were c u r r e n t l y  in intercultufal  settings  role  ( e . g . , women's s e x u a l a s s a u l t  f o r b a t t e r e d women).  working  specialty  than,  specialty.)  10 p a r t i c i p a n t s  had c o m p l e t e d ,  or g r e a t e r  3 as I n t e r c u l t u r a l ,  a n d / o r had e x p e r i e n c e c o u n s e l l i n g settings  than,  18  based  3 a s Women, and 1 a s E l e m e n t a r y .  d i d not l i s t  In t o t a l ,  analysis,  Eleven p a r t i c i p a n t s  UBC C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y  Secondary/Adult,  of l a t e r  a s " y o u n g e r " and 13 a s " o l d e r "  t h e median age o f t h e sample.)  had  The mean  was 34.81 y e a r s , t h e median age was 35.00 y e a r s , and t h e  range  on  and 4 m a l e s .  the course  counselling  students with Canadian  Eight  of the study  they  program d e s i g n e d t o students  f o r support  and  guidance.  participants adolescent  Other c o u n s e l l i n g included:  care;  (a) s o c i a l  (c) f a m i l y  (e)  counselling  (g)  community m e n t a l h e a l t h  geriatric  into  respect  care;  background as other American m a j o r i t y  respond of  intervention.  g r o u p members" and 10 i n t o t h e  g r o u p members."  than  that  fell  This  identified  latter  their  category  ethnic  of White European  or North  19 were c l a s s i f i e d  a s "non-  cultures.  t h e 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  and 10 a s " r e l i g i o u s . "  a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s who  This  identified  religious affiliation.  t o t h i s item;  see T a b l e  latter  category  t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g  (Two p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d n o t  2 f o r a more c o m p l e t e  summary  t h e sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . )  Group  Equivalency In  order  experimental it  a n d (k) c r i s i s  of " m a j o r i t y  a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s who  specific  ( i ) pregnancy,  t o e t h n i c i t y , 21 o f t h e 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s  includes  a  care;  (h) e l e m e n t a r y ,  counselling;  of " m i n o r i t y  includes  (f) psychiatric  counselling;  category  religious"  therapy;  b e r e a v e m e n t , and C h r i s t i a n c o u n s e l l i n g ; ( j )  the category  Of  by t h e  (d) o c c u p a t i o n a l  the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d ;  and p a l l i a t i v e  With  listed  work; (b) c h i l d and  therapy;  s e c o n d a r y and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y vocational,  experience  to assess  the basic  and c o m p a r i s o n  was n e c e s s a r y  equivalency  of the  groups a t the outset  to f i r s t  determine  variables  on t h e p r e - t e s t  measures.  following  variables  were u s e d  t h e impact  of the study,  of m o d e r a t i n g  Where a p p r o p r i a t e ,  i n t ^ - t e s t s and one-way  the  analyses  Table 2 Sample  Characteristics  Characteristics  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  C o m p a r i s o n Group  (n=16)  (n=15)  13  14  Men  3  1  Single  9  8  M a r r i e d o r l i v i n g w i t h someone  7  7  M i n o r i t y g r o u p members  6  4  4  6  Women  1  2  Intercultural  3  0  Women  1  0  Intercultural  3  0  3  1  ( T o t a l n=31)  Women  "  Religious Couns. Psych,  Couns. Psych,  specialty:  clinical  team:  T a k i n g UBC c o u r s e i n intercultural counseling  ( c o n t . on n e x t  page)  T a b l e 2 (cont.)  Characteristics  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  C o m p a r i s o n Group  (n=16)  (n=15)  5  4  0  0  0  3  Women .  2  4  Other c u l t u r e s  2  0  Both  0  0  Sex-role issues  1  0  Cross-cultural issues  7  1  Both  1  0  ( T o t a l n=31)  Prev. c o u n s e l l i n g  exp. w i t h :  Women o n l y Other c u l t u r e s  only  Both Specialized training for:  E x t r a t r a i n i n g between pre-  Age:  & post-test  related to:  Mean Standard Deviation  33.88 7.10  35.80 7.82  of v a r i a n c e (a)  (ANOVAs)  a g e , (b) g e n d e r ,  religion,  cultures, dealing  other  (c) marital  ( i ) previous  training  P_<.10 l e v e l :  with  respect  (a) g e n d e r  with found  significant  with  women c l i e n t s f o r  related to cross-  #2.  d i s t r i b u t e d within  TAWS a n d e x t r a  training  Wayne V i g n e t t e  #2 ( s e e T a b l e  #1 a n d #5;  r e l a t e d t o sex r o l e  training  and comparison  training  a t the  #3 a n d #5, RBI,  f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e s  training  outside  None o f t h e g r o u p  f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e s  status  from  r e l a t e d t o sex r o l e  g r o u p s were t h e n  t o a l l moderating v a r i a b l e s .  of extra  distribution  courses  i n counselling received  f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e  t o be e v e n l y  exception  other  issues, ( j )  t o t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were  #3; (d) e x t r a  experimental  respect  Psychology  training  f o r TAWS; a n d ( e ) e x t r a issues  (h) p r e v i o u s  from  gender and c u l t u r e  c o u n s e l l i n g experience  Wayne V i g n e t t e  The  team,  The f o l l o w i n g were s i g n i f i c a n t  (b) m a r i t a l  (c) p r e v i o u s  cultural  training  i n c o u n s e l l i n g women a n d / o r c l i e n t s  t h e 2<.05 l e v e l .  issues  s p e c i a l t y , (g) UBC  the course of the study.  comparisons with  TAWS;  Psychology  UBC C o u n s e l l i n g  c u l t u r e s , and ( k ) e x t r a  of UBC d u r i n g  and  (d) e t h n i c i t y , ( e )  c o u n s e l l i n g women a n d / o r c l i e n t s  and/or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s  at  status,  Psychology c l i n i c a l  specifically  previous  t h e Wayne measure, R B I , a n d TAWS:  ( f ) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g  Counselling experience  with  examined  A l l v a r i a b l e s were  t h e two g r o u p s w i t h t h e  r e l a t e d t o sex r o l e i s s u e s  f o r the  related to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l issues f o r 2).  Despite  t h e uneven  o f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , t h e o v e r a l l  equivalency  of not  t h e two  g r o u p s was  not a f f e c t e d  emerged a s s i g n i f i c a n t Next,  t-tests  g r o u p s were e q u i v a l e n t ;  on t h e p r e - t e s t  both p r e - and p o s t - t e s t  factors  along  factor  ANOVAs.  p_<. 1 0  level.  Descriptive  differences Table  of t h e measures  w h i c h had emerged as  with experimental T h e r e were no  3 at  significant  Total  Awareness  Measure  2.85,  their  and  ranging  from  sample  vignettes  .94  t o 1.28. test  to normalization, homoscedasticity.  original  form.  The  and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n standard deviation not be  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n s at the  means f o r t h e Wayne E t h n i c showed a s m a l l  standard deviations  not p a s s t h e K-S  amenable  g r o u p membership i n two-  Statistics  Pre-test.  could  The  i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s were e a c h s u b s e q u e n t l y  examined  their  measures.  (see T a b l e 3 ) .  The m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s  display  experimental  t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  standard deviations  had  t-tests.  t h e g r o u p means, even a t t h e p_<. 10 l e v e l .  shows t h e means and  did  i n the  these v a r i a b l e s  were p e r f o r m e d w h i c h compared  and c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p d a t a  between  factors  because  was  treated  a t the £<.05  level  As a r e s u l t ,  l a r g e due  as a g r o u p d i d t h e y were u s e d i n  Even  to a single  as an o u t l i e r  was  though  (and w h i c h  low  to  vignettes  and were n o t  mean f o r t h e RBI  47.10.  1.73  uniformity  of t h e f i v e  the v i g n e t t e s  was  from  showed a c l o s e  A l t h o u g h two  sample  spread  184.19  this  score  resulted  which in a  Table 3 Summary o f P r e - a n d P o s t - t e s t Means and S t a n d a r d  E x p e r i m e n t a l group Mean  Deviations  Comparison group  SD  Mean  SD  1.63  1 .01  2. 29  1 .02  2 ( B l a c k Male)  2.04  .88  2. 02  1 .03  3 (Native  2.79  1 .28  2. 91  1 .33  4 ( C h i n . Female)  2.71  1 .07  2. 60  1 .08  5 (Jewish  1.63  .82  1. 86  1 .17  176.13  56 .29  192. 80  34 .72  10 .00  63. 40  8 .77  1. 69  1 .03  1. 82  1 .03  2 ( B l a c k Male)  1.94  1 .21  1. 78  1 .06  3 (Native  2.48  1 .44  3. 04  1 . 17  4 ( C h i n . Female)  2.73  1 .07  2. 60  . 93  5 (Jewish  1.67  1 .02  1. 69  1 .03  177.19  57 .15  198. 33  40 .88  58.94  12 .94  61. 67  9 .51  Pre-test. Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s M e a s u r e Vig.1  (Jap.  Female)  Male)  Male)  RBI TAWS  64. 69  -  Post-test.  Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s M e a s u r e Vig.1  RBI TAWS  (Jap.  Female)  Male)  Male)  negative level.  skew),  t h e RBI s t i l l  t h e K-S t e s t  assessed  was 9.29, a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n by t h e K-S t e s t .  distributed  throughout  Post-test. vignettes  ranged  displayed  was n o r m a l a s  A l l o f t h e m e a s u r e s were  their  possible  ranges  from  Once a g a i n , t h e v i g n e t t e s  t h e y were u s e d  in their  test all  Both  a t t h e p_<.05 l e v e l  ranges  awareness,  distributed  Again,  their  on w h i c h  this  M e a s u r e s (ANOVARs) study  i s based p r e d i c t  will  reflect  sex r o l e  greater  attitudes  increases  toward  that  group  i n ethnic  women, a n d non-  b e h a v i o u r s and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s ,  than  i s the case  f o r comparison  that  prediction,  t w o - f a c t o r ANOVARs were c o n d u c t e d  variables  t h e K-S  throughout  i n mean s c o r e s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  feminist  traditional  187.42 and 60.26  (see Table 5 ) .  hypotheses  participants  The  a n d were n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d .  A n a l y s e s of V a r i a n c e With Repeated  the changes  form.  t h e RBI and t h e TAWS p a s s e d  o f t h e m e a s u r e s were w e l l  The  pre-test  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were 50.28 f o r t h e RBI a n d  f o r t h e TAWS.  possible  as a group  original  sample means f o r t h e RBI a n d t h e TAWS were respectively.  Wayne M e a s u r e  1.68 t o 2.75, t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y , and a s w i t h t h e i r  counterparts,  well  (see Table 4 ) .  The sample means f o r t h e f i v e  .99 t o 1.33.  11.31  a t t h e p_<.05  The sample mean f o r t h e TAWS was 64.07, t h e s t a n d a r d  deviation  from  passed  o f t r e a t m e n t and t i m e  group p a r t i c i p a n t s .  To t e s t f o r the  f o r a l l t h r e e of the measures.  Table  4  D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r P r e - t e s t Measures  ( T o t a l Sample)  Passed No. o f Measure  cases  Observed Mean  SD  Min.  Max.  K  -S  test  (£<.05)  Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: 1 ( J a p . Female)  31  1,.95  1 .05  1..0  4 .0 ,  No  2 ( B l a c k Male)  30  2. .03  .94  1, .0  4 .0 .  Yes  3 ( N a t i v e Male)  31  2. .85  1,.28  1, .0  4 .0 ,  No  4 ( C h i n . Female)  30  2. . 66  1..06  1. .0  4 .0 .  Yes  5 ( J e w i s h Male)  30  1. .73  .99  1..0  4 .o" .  Yes  N o t e . F o r Wayne M e a s u r e : E a c h v i g . s c o r e i s e q u a l t h e 3 r a t e r s ' s c o r e s . P o s s i b l e Range:  t o t h e mean o f  1-4.  Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory  (RBI)  31  184.19 47.10  54.0  N o t e . F o r RBI: P o s s i b l e r a n g e , 0-306; H i g h s c o r e s non-traditional sex-role  264.0  Yes  i n d i c a t e more  behaviours.  ( c o n t . on n e x t  page)  Table 4  (cont.)  Passed No. o f Measure  Observed  cases  Mean  SD  31  64.07  9.29  Min..Max.  K-S t e s t (p<.05)  Therapists  1  A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e (TAWS)  47.0  84.0  Yes  N o t e . F o r TAWS: P o s s i b l e r a n g e , 32-160; Low s c o r e s i n d i c a t e more liberal,  l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women.  Table 5 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r Post-test. Measures ( T o t a l  Sampled  Passed No. o f Measure  cases  Observed Mean  SD  Min.  Max.  K-S t e s t (p<.05)  Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: V i g . l ( J a p . Female)  31  1.75  1.02  1.0  4.0  No  2 ( B l a c k Male)  31  1.86  1.12  1.0  4.0  No  3 ( N a t i v e Male)  31  2.75  1.33  1.0  4.0  No  4 ( C h i n . Female)  31  2.67  0.99  1.0  4.0  Yes  5 ( J e w i s h Male)  30  1.68  1.00  1.0  4.0  No  50.28  54.0  11.31  30.0  Robinson B e h a v i o r a l I n v e n t o r y (RBI)  31  187.42  31  60.26  273.0  Yes  78.0  Yes  Therapists' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e (TAWS)  Hypothesis participants greater study  that to  hypothesis states  who have c o m p l e t e d  participants  comprise  of the  such a c o u r s e  o f t h e f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  group).  f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group than The ANOVAR  The h y p o t h e s i s must  results  indicate  ANOVAR  results  interaction  ANOVAR  results;  increase  f o r the  that  t h e r e f o r e be r e j e c t e d  6 f o r a summary o f t h e r e l e v a n t detailed  display a  the course  who have n o t t a k e n  d i d n o t emerge a s a s i g n i f i c a n t  measure.  that  t h e Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s M e a s u r e w i l l  a greater extent  time  CNPS 508 w i l l  awareness over  t h e mean s c o r e s f o r e a c h  comparison by  The f i r s t  increase in ethnic  than  (i.e.,  1.  treatment for this (see Table  f o r more  f o r t h e Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure  see A p p e n d i x L ) . Hypothesis participants greater  2.  The s e c o n d  who have c o m p l e t e d  CNPS 508 w i l l  increase in non-traditional  behavioural participants  intentions  experimental treatment  over  group than  sex r o l e  that  display a b e h a v i o u r s and  the course of the study  who have n o t t a k e n  s c o r e s on t h e RBI w i l l  for  hypothesis states  such a c o u r s e  (i.e.,  increase to a greater extent f o r the comparison  group).  by t i m e d i d n o t emerge a s a s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e RBI, so t h i s  h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o  rejected  than t h e mean f o r the Again,  interaction (see Table  7). Hypothesis participants greater  3.  The t h i r d  hypothesis states  who have c o m p l e t e d  CNPS 508 w i l l  that  display a  increase in non-stereotypical attitudes  toward  women  61  Table 6 Effects Measure:  o f T r e a t m e n t a n d Time on t h e Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s Summary o f ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Sum o f D e g r e e s o f Source  Mean  F  Squares  Ratio  1.08  1.08  1.19  0.2!  0.00  0.00  0.00  1.00  0 .77  0.77  1.24  0.21  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.97  0.18  0.18  0.57  0.46  Squares  freedom  Probability  Wayne V i a . #1 AB Wayne V i a . #2 AB Wayne V i a . #3 AB Wayne V i a . #4 AB Wayne V i a . #5 AB  Note. A = treatment; B = time  Table 7 E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t and Time on t h e R o b i n s o n Inventory  ( R B I ) : ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Source  Between s u b j e c t s A S - within Within subjects B AB BS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Behavioral  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  factors 5537.42  1  5537..42  1.19  0.28  134,517.00  29  4638.52  168.39  1  168.39  2.15  0.15  77.42  1  77.42  0.99  0.33  2270.00  29  78.28  142,570.23  61  factors  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = time.  over  the course of the study  taken  such a c o u r s e  decrease for  (i.e.,  group).  emerge a s a s i g n i f i c a n t t h e TAWS, t h i s Main E f f e c t s Across significant  measure,  f o r t h e TAWS  (see Table 8 ) .  by Time  ANOVARs  groups,  (F = 5.57;  f o r any o f  main e f f e c t p_ - ; =  no  f o r time  df=1,29).  0 3  For  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  s c o r e s on t h e p r e - t e s t  lower  f o r the t o t a l  (see Table 8 ) .  ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Three-factor moderating  Treatment,  Time, and M o d e r a t i n g  ANOVARs were a l s o c o n d u c t e d  variables  significant age,  than  results for  f o r treatment  s c o r e s on t h e p o s t - t e s t  more l i b e r a l )  sample  were f o u n d  However, a s i g n i f i c a n t  a l o n e was f o u n d  (i.e.  i n t h e ANOVAR  From T r e a t m e n t  than  by t i m e d i d n o t  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and comparison  the measures.  this  As t r e a t m e n t  interaction  main e f f e c t s  will  f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group  h y p o t h e s i s , t o o , was r e j e c t e d  Resulting  who have n o t  t h e mean s c o r e s on t h e TAWS  to a greater extent  the comparison  than p a r t i c i p a n t s  (i.e.,  those v a r i a b l e s  Variables  with  that  relevant  emerged a s  i n the e q u i v a l e n c y a n a l y s e s , p l u s the v a r i a b l e s of  religion,  and e t h n i c i t y ) .  Each  relevant  moderating  variable  was a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t r e a t m e n t  and  factors.  time  R e s u l t s were t h a t  i n t e r a c t i o n s , were f o u n d Vignette to  three-way  f o r age ( R B I , p<.05), r e l i g i o n  #4, p_<.10), and e t h n i c i t y  (RBI , p<.lO)  these  t o these  interactions;  interactions  more d e t a i l e d  are presented  (Wayne  (see Tables 9  11 f o r summaries and breakdowns o f t h e ANOVAR  relating for  significant  results  ANOVAR  i n Appendices  results  M to 0 ) .  Table 8 E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t and Time on t h e T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e  Source  (TAWS): ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A S - within  8.04  1  8.04  0.05  0.83  5225.38  29  180.19  216.77  1  216.77  5.57  0.03*  62.48  1  62.48  1.61  0.22  1127.94  29  38.89  6640.61  61  Within subjects factors B AB BS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = t i m e . * s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t Mean a t t i m e 2 = 6 0 . 2 6 ) .  f o r time  (Mean a t t i m e 1 = 64.07;  Table 9 E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, and Age on t h e R o b i n s o n B e h a v i o r a l Inventory  (RBI) :  Source  ABC  Summary and Breakdown o f ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  295.12  4.291  0.05*  295.12  N o t e . A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = age; C = t i m e . * represents significance  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  Participants  Mean  Younger  160.30  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Pre-test  Older Post-test  (n=6)  Younger Older  (n=10)  (n=10)  (n=6)  202.50 166.80 194.50  C o m p a r i s o n Group Pre-test  Younger Older  Post-test  (n=7)  Younger Older  (n=8)  (n=8)  (n=7)  190 .,88 195.00 194.88 202.29  Table  10  Effects  o f T r e a t m e n t . Time,  Awareness ANOVAR  Measure  Vignette  and R e l i g i o n on Wayne #4: Summary  Ethnic  and Breakdown o f  Results  Source  ABC  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  3.02  0.10*  2.57  1  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = r e l i g i o n ; * represents  2.57  C = time.  s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .10 l e v e l .  Participants  Mean  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Pre-test  Post-test  Comparison Pre-test  Post-test  N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=10)  3.00  Religious  2.50  (n=4)  N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=10)  2.47  Religious  3.50  (n=4)  Group N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=9)  2.52  Religious  2.73  (n=6)  N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=9)  2.63  Religious  2.53  (n=6)  T a b l e 11 E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, and E t h n i c i t y on t h e R o b i n s o n Behavioral  I n v e n t o r y ( R B I ) : Summary and Breakdown o f ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Source  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  ABC  269.52  1  269.52  3.52  Probability  0.07*  Note. A = treatment; B = e t h n i c i t y ; C = time. * represents significance  a t t h e .10  level.  Participants  Mean  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Pre-test  Post-test  Majority  (n=10)  168.67  Minority  (n=6)  190.50  Majority  (n=10)  166.67  Minority  (n=6)  196.83  Majority  (n=ll)  190 .27  Minority  (n=4)  199.75  Majority  (n=ll)  198.46  Minority  (n=4)  198.00  Comparison Group Pre-test  Post-test  68 Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s a n d Main E f f e c t s Factor  resulting  from  examined.  two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s  the preceding As t h e s e  research hypotheses, Appendix  do n o t r e l a t e  are presented  Analyses  measures.  One s e t were t h o s e  measure w i t h  directly  to the  and d i s c u s s e d i n  were p e r f o r m e d correlating  i t s corresponding  set looked at the a s s o c i a t i o n  of these  little  correlational  association  on t h e outcome  each p r e - t e s t  post-test counterpart.  measures a t t h e p r e - and p o s t - t e s t .  very  were  Between a n d Among M e a s u r e s  Two s e t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s  findings  effects  t h r e e - f a c t o r ANOVARs  results  they  and main  P (see Appendix P ) .  Correlational  second  Three-  ANOVARs  Significant  also  R e s u l t i n g From  between  A  different  The most p e r t i n e n t  a n a l y s e s were t h a t t h e r e was  among t h e Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness  Measure v i g n e t t e s a t t h e p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s f o r e i t h e r t h e experimental  or comparison  groups.  The r e s u l t s  of these  correlations  a r e d i s p l a y e d and d i s c u s s e d i n A p p e n d i x Q ( s e e  Appendix Q). Follow-up The  Interviews preceding  statistical  mean s c o r e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l significantly test.  from  those  Nevertheless,  conducted  group p a r t i c i p a n t s  of the comparison  follow-up  s i x months a f t e r  experimental  analyses demonstrate that the  telephone  group a t the post-  i n t e r v i e w s were  the p o s t - t e s t with  group p a r t i c i p a n t s  d i d not d i f f e r  t h e seven  who v o l u n t e e r e d  t o be  interviewed. the  class  their the  These  of s o c i a l  course.  the majority  counselling  issues.  ethnic  Fully  a positive  change  as a r e s u l t  experienced  a positive  women's r o l e s  said  that  for  change  in their  change  CNPS 508 had  reported  l e v e l s of  o f t h e c o u r s e ; 71% t o w a r d men o r  sensitive  responses).  attitudes  of the c o u r s e .  a summary o f t h e i n t e r v i e w  participants'  in their  their  they  t o w a r d women  Additionally,  57%  approach t o  of l e s s  counselling  results  this  and c u l t u r e - f a i r  attitudes  in their  i n the d i r e c t i o n  and c u l t u r a l l y  that  on  o f t h e c o u r s e ; and 57% r e p o r t e d  as a r e s u l t  clients  changes i n  86% o f r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o  t h e c o u r s e had i n f l u e n c e d  counselling socially  indicated  awareness as a r e s u l t  men's r o l e s  or  some s t u d e n t s i n  awareness as a r e s u l t of  them t o g e n d e r - f a i r  experienced a p o s i t i v e  or c u l t u r a l  reported  that  i n response to a l l questions  of respondents  sensitized  they  and c u l t u r a l  F o r example,  effectively  that  suggest  d i d e x p e r i e n c e m e a n i n g f u l and p o s i t i v e  levels  topic,  interviews  b i a s e d , more (see Appendix G  and e x c e r p t s  from  Chapter 5  Pi scussion Limitations  of t h e Study  A number o f f a c t o r s c o u l d a c c o u n t significant  results  Sample not  in this  limitations.  randomly  study.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s  s e l e c t e d , b u t were drawn  population  j u d g e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  first-year  Counselling  lack at  Psychology  o f random s e l e c t i o n ,  places  further limits  The  follow-up  voluntary,  students.  participants necessary  this  study  cultural  intentions, these  ideally  t o enable  limitations.  The t h r e e  study  (n=3l)  sex r o l e  l e v e l of  i n that  only  those  s u p p l i e d the them t o be  size  contacted  f o r the follow-up  behaviours  has l i m i t a t i o n s  instruments  used i n  a v a i l a b l e measures of  and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women.  appropriate  with  small.  were s e l e c t e d a s t h e b e s t  instruments  of t h i s  a second  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d  As w e l l , t h e sample  awareness,  the population  be made  t o random, s e l e c t i o n ,  (n=7) was e x t r e m e l y  Measurement  size  introduced  information  the researcher.  Because of the  on i t s g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n .  who w i s h e d  personal  interviews  sample  interviews  as opposed  were  t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about  Moreover, the small  study  from an a c c e s s i b l e  l a r g e of c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g should  caution.  by  f o r the lack of  and b e h a v i o u r a l Nevertheless,  w h i c h makes i t l e s s  f o r e v a l u a t i n g CNPS 508.  each of than  A major is  that  no v a l i d i t y  'developer. of  limitation  ethnic  Also, bias  limitation  o f t h e Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness Measure  f o r t h e measure was e s t a b l i s h e d  a s Wayne  (1981) p o i n t e d  on t h e p a r t  of the r a t e r s  by i t s  out, the p o s s i b i l i t y i sa further ,  of her instrument.  Similarly,  i ti spossible  TAWS may p r o v i d e  that  neither  t h e RBI n o r t h e  a d e q u a t e a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e sex r o l e  b e h a v i o u r s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n this its  study.  The v a l i d i t y  d e v e l o p e r s and so r e m a i n s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  f o u n d by i t s d e v e l o p e r s relationship sex  between  role behaviours A  further  transparency. or  o f t h e TAWS was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d by  t o be b o t h  reported  the motivation  instruments  (1967) p o i n t e d  t o make a "good" s c o r e  a p p e a r a n c e on a t e s t , i s a s i g n i f i c a n t bias.  As t h e i s s u e s  that  and v a l i d , t h e  established.  of a l l three  As G u i l f o r d  t h e RBI was  sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s a n d a c t u a l  i s not well  limitation  reliable  While  i s their  out, f a l s i f i c a t i o n , o r a "good"  source of response  the instruments address are very  contentious  i s s u e s , a n d a s t h e s e measures a r e c l e a r  expressions  of those  have been m o t i v a t e d desirable  ways.  particularly  issues, participants in this t o respond  A response b i a s  salient  in this  counsellors-in-training their  evolving  characteristics  t o t h e s e measures toward  social  in socially  desirability i s  c a s e b e c a u s e p a r t i c i p a n t s were  who, by v i r t u e o f t h e i r  professional  s t u d y may  identities,  of the study's academic  as w e l l  d i s c i p l i n e and a s t h e demand  s e t t i n g , may w i s h t o  be seen  to exhibit  values,  behaviours,  This  type  high l e v e l s  of response  effect  b u t one i n d i c a t o r  and  post-test  for  t h e sample on a l l t h r e e  ruling  may have  of s i g n i f i c a n t  desires  instrument a n s w e r s may  appropriateness,  an a b s t r a c t  r a t h e r than  respondents  engage  inventory.  Wayne  that  concept  i n the a c t u a l  time  change d i d o c c u r  on t h e TAWS s u g g e s t s  instrument  may  n o t have  d e g r e e a s i t may have Another concern extent  that  of t h e i r  that  i n c l u d e d i n the  some o f h e r  others.  The f a c t  that  over  of t h i s  t h e outcome t o t h e same measures.  r e g a r d t o a l l t h r e e measures  i s the  o b t a i n e d by t h e o r i g i n a l  r e s e a r c h e r s may o r may n o t p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l context  in their  with which  the transparency  f o r the other  t o which the r e s u l t s  appropriate  issue  f o r t h e sample a s a whole  influenced  with  manner.  o f sex r o l e  activities  (1981) a l s o warned  fashion  the respondents'  the frequency  v i g n e t t e s may be more t r a n s p a r e n t t h a n significant  this  the transparent nature  enhances the l i k e l i h o o d reflect  desirable  in a consistent  (1985) a d d r e s s e d  They c a u t i o n e d t h a t  t h e p r e - and  c o n s c i o u s or  in a socially  responses  t h e means  distributed--thus  effect--participants'  their  the p r e -  Although  instruments a t both  to respond  influenced  f o r t h e l a c k of  change between  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s n o r m a l l y  Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d study.  may a c c o u n t  means on a l l t h r e e m e a s u r e s .  out a c e i l i n g  unconscious  liberal  and a t t i t u d e s .  all  post-tests  o f a w a r e n e s s and  for understanding  and  the r e s u l t s  obtained i n  the present developers sample u s e d level  study. appear  of these  results  cannot  range  instruments  be r e l i e d  with  Follow-up primary these  upon f o r p u r p o s e s  i s less  employed  interviews i s limited  beliefs, those  beliefs,  relied  in this  and so t h e i r The  i n a wide  study.  t o supplement  in this  study.  the three  The v a l i d i t y o f  by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  that  i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i r own  and b e h a v i o u r s  attitudes,  However,  of comparison.  (undergraduates  used  obviously suitable f o r  participants'  attitudes,  Master's  program; t h e TAWS  h a s been v a l i d a t e d ,  i n t e r v i e w s were u s e d  about  with the  and p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  t h e sample u s e d  instruments  information  related  by t h e RBI d e v e l o p e r s  of d i s c i p l i n e s )  comparison  f o r comparison  The Wayne Measure u s e d  psychiatrists,  neither  sample u s e d  study.  in a counselling  workers,  r e p o r t e d by t h e Wayne and TAWS  t o be s u i t a b l e  in this  students  social  The r e s u l t s  may be t o o f a r removed  and b e h a v i o u r s  themselves  from  t o be  upon a s a means o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e c o u r s e ' s  effectiveness. Design control  Stanley  interaction sources and  Inherent  i n the non-equivalent  group design a r e l i m i t a t i o n s  considered and  limitations.  which  when a s s e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s (1963) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t of s e l e c t i o n  of i n t e r n a l  treatment,  of t h i s  interactions  study.  may be p o s s i b l e  I n t e r a c t i o n s between  between  Campbell  r e g r e s s i o n and the  and m a t u r a t i o n  invalidity.  s h o u l d be  selection  testing  and t r e a t m e n t ,  reactive  a r r a n g e m e n t s , and h i s t o r i c a l  sources of e x t e r n a l  factors  are a l l possible  invalidity.  Interpretation Changes o f an a n t i c i p a t e d the experimental toward  to  Their levels  behaviours  their  However, t h e s e Moreover,  changes o c c u r r e d  for  attitudes  (though  toward  again  and m a t u r a t i o n  of the  sex r o l e  became more non-  women became more  emerged a s a s i g n i f i c a n t  selection  their  group.  These r e s u l t s  attitudes  increased in relation  liberal.  significant.  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i n the comparison  t h e TAWS o n l y .  d i d occur i n  the course  c h a n g e s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  similar  whole, t i m e  over  of e t h n i c awareness  and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s  traditional;  nature  of e t h n i c awareness,  t h r e e o f t h e f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s ;  behaviours  of  group's l e v e l s  women, a n d sex r o l e  study.  and d e s i r e d  significant)  F o r t h e sample a s a  within-subjects factor  suggest  may a c c o u n t  that  the i n t e r a c t i o n  f o r changes  i n the  sample means on t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s . It  i s interesting  t o note  that  t h e sample means a t b o t h  t h e p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t s f o r two o f t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s and  t h e TAWS) seemed t o i n d i c a t e  feminist for that  consciousness,  these less  behaviours and  instruments. change  based  anticipated.  l e v e l s of results  i s s o , i t may be one r e a s o n  toward  and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s  treatment  high  on p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d  If this  in attitudes  relatively  ( t h e RBI  f o r the experimental  women a n d sex r o l e was d e t e c t e d o v e r  group than  m i g h t have  time been  Even t h o u g h t h e sample means c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  as  normally  d i s t r i b u t e d over both t h e s e measures, t h e p r e - t e s t  l e v e l s may have been treatment  during  so h i g h  that  the course could  only  t h e most  have r a i s e d  extraordinary  them  significantly. In c o n t r a s t , the  Wayne E t h n i c  tests.  Within  t h e sample g e n e r a t e d  a possible ranged  from  score  from  1.68 t o 2.75 on t h e p o s t - t e s t .  (1981) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ,  According  t h e s e means f a l l  explanation  of c u l t u r a l  instrument,  1.73 t o 2.85 on t h e p r e - t e s t , and t o Wayne's  between t h e l e v e l s o f  a w a r e n e s s and 3 = m o d e r a t e e t h n i c  One p o s s i b l e  f o r t h e sample's  awareness. r e l a t i v e l y low  a w a r e n e s s , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e Wayne  could  be t h a t  c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g a r e exposed  t o a wide v a r i e t y o f b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l When t h e y  encounter  Wayne v i g n e t t e s , ones  (e.g.,  issues  situations like  t h e y may  family  t o them.  to b e — i n s e n s i t i v e  differences. predicted  focus  This  specialized  issues)  to c u l t u r a l  and Rungta  between mean  scores  on t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  those  t h e y may  be—or  e f f e c t to that feared  that  differences  crucial  number o f low and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  cultural  c u e s and  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , who  t r a i n i n g environment, c u l t u r a l  i n the  than  because  As a r e s u l t ,  loom so l a r g e a s t o o b l i t e r a t e o t h e r The  other  i s p r e c i s e l y the opposite  by M a r g o l i s  influences.  those presented  on i s s u e s  or psychodynamic  a r e more s a l i e n t  may a p p e a r  post-  r a n g e o f 1 t o 4, means f o r t h e  vignettes  level  low means on  Awareness M e a s u r e a t b o t h t h e p r e - and  five  1 = no e t h n i c  relatively  in a  would  concerns.  correlations i s also  notable.  The  lack  of s i g n i f i c a n t  the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups combined cases,  unable  cultural  group, suggests  that  group t o another.  Vignette  #2  The  participants  i n most  participants in  sensitive to  t o be s e n s i t i v e  behaviours  t o V i g n e t t e #5 ( t h e J e w i s h  i t may a l s o  toward  and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s  counsellor trainees development.  According typically  Stage  that  women, o r sex may have  move t h r o u g h  1 in their  by s e l f - d i r e c t e d  Although  stages,  take  i t i s reasonable  trainees  participants  of changing  p o s t u r e s and  t o move t h r o u g h  t o assume t h a t  the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s i n t h i s  the p r o c e s s  5is  (1984) d i d n o t e s t i m a t e  would t a k e c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r t h a n  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  stages  values.  C a r n e y a n d Kahn  typically  activist  five  model i s  characterized  pluralistic  been  t o C a r n e y and Kahn  by e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s a n d S t a g e  culturally  that  p r e c l u d e d t h e d e t e c t i o n o f any  awareness, a t t i t u d e s  forparticipants.  be t r u e  characterized  would  t h a n any  T h i s h e l d t r u e a t both p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s .  of c u l t u r a l  it  from one  ( t h e B l a c k v i g n e t t e ) were no more l i k e l y  changes i n c u l t u r a l  (1984),  were,  e t h n i c awareness  preceding notwithstanding,  operative  a n d t h e two  F o r example, t h o s e  s h o r t d u r a t i o n of the study  role  group,  g r o u p who were p a r t i c u l a r l y  other p a r t i c i p a n t s vignette).  a t p r e - and p o s t - t e s t f o r  the comparison  to generalize their  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  the  correlations  their  these  in this beliefs,  five  f o r many t r a i n e e s , i t  11 w e e k s — t h e  study.  the time  That study  being  time  between  the case,  may have been i n  a t t i t u d e s , and  behaviours,  but c o l l e c t i v e l y  development  i n which they  those  may n o t have r e a c h e d  could articulate  or  a stage of  demonstrate  changes. For  example, S t a g e  characterized  by i n t e r n a l  w h i c h may be e x p r e s s e d differences.  they  levels  attempts  t h e RBI o r TAWS.  of f e m i n i s t  behaviours  i f tested  in levels  high  t h e Wayne  scale  c o u l d , however, be e x p e c t e d t o of awareness, a t t i t u d e s , and  at a later  date  t o a l l o w them t o i n t e g r a t e the g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e  participants  with  a w a r e n e s s on m e a s u r e s s u c h a s  Participants  changes  cultural  of the post-  to respond  a w a r e n e s s on a measure l i k e  demonstrate  attributed  t o deny  number of CNPS 508 p a r t i c i p a n t s  c o u l d n o t have been e x p e c t e d  or h i g h ( e r ) l e v e l s  (Indeed,  as a c t i v e  on. t h e p a r t o f t r a i n e e s  stage of development a t the time  of c u l t u r a l  elasped  conflicts  If a significant  were i n t h i s test,  3 i n C a r n e y and Kahn's model i s  after  enough t i m e had  the course  responses  material.  g i v e n by  i n t h e f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be  t o changes  in their  s t a g e s of c u l t u r a l  development.) Conclusions The  results  conclusions: of  p o i n t t o one o r b o t h  (a) CNPS 508 f a i l e d  g e n d e r and c u l t u r a l  instruments purposes  of t h i s  have r a i s e d  study;  students  to increase students'  awareness based  which a r e v a l i d ,  reliable,  and/or  levels  of t h e f o l l o w i n g  on r e s u l t s  general levels  from  and a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e  (b) CNPS 508 may o r may n o t  of gender  or c u l t u r a l  awareness,  but  in either  case,  the instruments  measuring  i t s effectiveness  concludes  that  the t r u t h  Beyond t h e s e conclusions Reference  broad  i n doing  lies  of s e l e c t i o n  itself  and m a t u r a t i o n  attitudes  Reference unreliability available  behaviours  that  of t h e  on t h e c h a n g e s  students' l e v e l s  which  program  of c u l t u r a l  a n d b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and  of the p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s of t h e t h r e e measures used that  of comparison  the study  feminist  impact  was a l s o made above t o t h e u n s u i t a b i l i t y  f o r each  purposes  the study.  women.  However, t o t h e e x t e n t for  from  i n t h e UBC C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y  sex r o l e toward  o f t h e two.  I n o t h e r words, t h e v e r y  may c h a n g e t o some d e g r e e  awareness,  This researcher  i n a combination  to the p o s s i b l e  were d e t e c t e d by t h e s t u d y . of being  so.  c a n a l s o be drawn  was made e a r l i e r  experience  were i n c a p a b l e o f  c o n c l u s i o n s , some a d d i t i o n a l  of i n t e r e s t  interaction  used  these  earlier  consciousness,  which a r e  i n the study.  r e s u l t s c a n be u s e d  and e v a l u a t i o n , i t would  sample d i s p l a y e d r e l a t i v e l y and r e l a t i v e l y  and/or  appear  h i g h l e v e l s of  low l e v e l s  of e t h n i c  awareness. The  moderating  were f o u n d  only  of age, r e l i g i o n ,  t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r l e v e l s  n e g a t i v e change over drawn from  variables  these  time,  results  of p o s i t i v e or  but the c o n c l u s i o n s that  are limited.  s p e c u l a t e a s t o how p a r t i c i p a n t s '  interacted  and e t h n i c i t y  with the treatment  variable  c a n be  T h i s researcher can personal values i n these cases.  It  w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g f o r f u t u r e  researchers  relationships  g r o u p membership, a n d sex r o l e  among a g e , e t h n i c  t o examine t h e  b e h a v i o u r s , a n d between r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s and e t h n i c awareness. Recommendations Based  on a r e v i e w  previously the with  discussed  social  and c u l t u r a l  studies  recommendations t h a t  To  were f l a w e d ,  are  will  such as t h i s flow  that  or t h e i r  t o improve  more a p p r o p r i a t e , be d e s i g n e d  cultural  issues  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  the i n s t r u m e n t s used  into For that  considerable  these  t o o l s so that  i t  is other,  t r a i n i n g courses  F o r example, m e a s u r e s o f reliability  More c o n t e m p o r a r y ,  less  and v a l i d i t y  transparent  measure l e v e l s o f g e n d e r b i a s  or gender  R e l i a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e  s t a n d a r d s must be a r r i v e d a t a s a b a s i s  Furthermore,  study  i n s t r u m e n t s and a l s o d e v e l o p  f o r maximum e f f e c t .  awareness a r e a l s o needed.  contextualizing  in this  a p p l i c a t i o n was i n a p p r o p r i a t e ,  evaluative  lacking.  instruments that  disposal  dealing  one, a n d t h e  from them, a r e o f  awareness with e s t a b l i s h e d  sorely  more c o u r s e s  such as  to the p r o f e s s i o n .  the extent  necessary  and the  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n t h e coming y e a r s .  reason alone,  importance  literature  recommendations of a s s o c i a t i o n s  AACD a n d t h e APA, i t i s c l e a r t h a t  counselling  can  of the r e l e v a n t  normative  f o r c o m p a r i n g and  the r e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s .  i t would be i d e a l  t o have a t t h e  a s e r i e s of i n s t r u m e n t s which c o u l d  researcher's  d i r e c t l y and  i n d e p e n d e n t l y measure, every  f o r both c u l t u r e  a n d g e n d e r , e a c h and  one o f t h e d i s c r e t e e l e m e n t s c o n t a i n e d  reasoned a c t i o n study;  that  formed  i.e., beliefs,  i n t h e theory of  the t h e o r e t i c a l basis  a t t i t u d e s , norms,  forthis  i n t e n t i o n s , and  behaviours. If  t h e s t u d y were t o be r e p l i c a t e d u s i n g  t h e same  theoretical  framework a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h ,  streamlined  i n several  religion, results  is  intended  and do n o t d i r e c t l y also  unlike  be e l i m i n a t e d ,  t o change a t t i t u d e s  because t h e  because:  The  (a) the c o u r s e  t o w a r d women r a t h e r  t h a n sex  (b) t h e RBI seems n o t t o have by t h e TAWS,  since  t h e TAWS, t h e RBI showed no s i g n i f i c a n t change o v e r .  modified  i n order  p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e RBI h a d t o be  t o accommodate male p a r t i c i p a n t s .  TAWS a p p e a r s more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d  there  (e.g., age,  t o the purpose of the  t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h were d e t e c t e d  time; and (c) t h e s c o r i n g  than  i t c o u l d be  a s s i s t i n course design.  b e h a v i o u r s and i n t e n t i o n s ;  detected  the  be e l i m i n a t e d ,  of such a n a l y s e s a r e p e r i p h e r a l  measure c o u l d  role  Sub-group a n a l y s e s  and e t h n i c i t y ) c o u l d  evaluation RBI  ways.  general  the RBI.  The BMS measure c o u l d  i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t  device.  A more s t r e a m l i n e d  administer  and a n a l y z e  minimize p a r t i c i p a n t There studies  i t served study  also  objectives  be e l i m i n a t e d ,  would a l s o  on an o n g o i n g  basis,  be e a s i e r t o and s h o u l d  resistance.  An i n s t r u m e n t  since  i t s purpose a s a "masking"  i s one e l e m e n t w h i c h m i g h t  of t h i s type.  with course  In s h o r t ,  be added t o f u t u r e which measures  participants'  levels  of information  what t h e TAWS c a n t e l l could  us a b o u t  be q u i t e h e l p f u l .  dissemination  of t h i s  This  their  t o look  kind of information  i n order  increased  to help  levels  so s i n c e t h e  i s one o f t h e  I t would a l s o be  for possible c o r r e l a t i o n s or discrepancies  between m e a s u r e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n topic,  supplement  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women—  i sespecially  primary o b j e c t i v e s of the course. interesting  a b o u t women--to  answer  and a t t i t u d e s on t h e same the question  of i n f o r m a t i o n  o f whether  can l e a d t o p o s i t i v e changes  in a t t i t u d e . Alternatively, follow-up  interviews  supplement—or used  in this  even  study.  a more r i g o r o u s a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e could  provide  replace--the  t o a l l students  course,  appropriate  that  implemented data the  three  primary  from them.  e v a l u a t i v e problem  interviews  the interviews Such  and e v a l u a t i n g t h e  interviews  would a l s o  i m p l i e d by C a r n e y and Kahn's  i . e . , that  course  may n o t y e t have had t i m e t o f u l l y  students  tested  i n the l a s t  address  (1984)  few weeks o f t h e  i n t e g r a t e what  they  learned. What  and  s h o u l d be  i n the c o u r s e — a s s u m i n g , of  model;  have  instruments  m e t h o d o l o g i e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d a n d  for conducting  collected  an a d d i t i o n a l measure t o  I d e a l l y , follow-up  administered  use of  i s ultimately required  instruments  Short  of t h i s ,  relationship  i s t h e development  t o measure a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g  o f methods  behaviour.  we need s t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e more c l e a r l y t h e  between c o u n s e l l o r s ' l e v e l s  o f s o c i a l and  cultural  awareness and t h e a c t u a l  culture-fair  counselling.  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y Fishbein's To valid, of  the extent  statistically  gender  levels  significant  the course,  provide  their  some a t t e n t i o n  results students  information, emotional  used  were  reliable,  and t h a t  suggest with  supported  that either  the course  come  While  i t may n o t  s t u d e n t s ' awareness of high  levels  of f e m i n i s t students'  d i d not  or appropriate  cultural  d i d n o t have a p o w e r f u l  to e f f e c t i v e l y  Two d e s i g n  alter  (1987),  training  their  changes t h a t c o u l d  of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c  levels  address  information  g r o u p s w i t h whom  students  of the c o u r s e .  to include culture-specific  Johnson,  enough  i n c o n t a c t ) and an i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s  component  by J o h n s o n  multicultural  were  s h o u l d be  the course  e m p h a s i s on t h o s e  suggestion  (1982).  that there  s h o u l d be p a i d t o r a i s i n g  on s t u d e n t s  the e x p e r i e n t i a l The  raise  relatively  i s s u e s a r e the i n c l u s i o n  would most l i k e l y  i t s design  i t s objectives.  sufficient  awareness.  (with p a r t i c u l a r  indicates  the lack  awareness.  and/or  impact  cultural  change  t o t r y and f u r t h e r  of c u l t u r a l  The  al.  o f A j z e n ' s and  action.  that the instruments  issues given  awareness,  on  of reasoned  t o better address  necessary  these  Such s t u d i e s would c o n f i r m o r deny  and a p p r o p r i a t e t o the purpose of the study,  modified  of  o f g e n d e r - f a i r and  i n a c o u n s e l l i n g context  (1980) t h e o r y  problems with  be  practise  information i s  Meara e t a l . ( 1 9 8 8 ) ,  f o r example, e m p h a s i z e d  and Sue e t  that  p r o g r a m s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d go  beyond t e a c h i n g t r a i n e e s exist  and move toward  to conduct array  their  Pedersen,  McDavis  (1979),  impact  backgrounds.  component  (1981),  participants  based  that  an " i n t e r a c t i o n  influence  of t h e i r  and P a r k e r and  s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g the  s t u d i e s were  that  respective treatments.  1980).  experience"  norms,  Pedersen's  primary  ultimately  action  (i.e.,  In t h i s m o d e l , t r a i n e d  on w h i c h t h i s  study  which  various o b j e c t s , people, form  of p e r s u a s i v e  experience  will  b e h a v i o u r a l and  normative  lead  in her/his  t o changes  and b e h a v i o u r s . model  for multicultural  i s an example o f a t r a i n i n g  culture-specific  i s also  an e x p e r i e n c e  interaction  intentions,  (1977) t r i a d  treatments  This theory postulates  observe  An e f f e c t i v e  and w i l l  counselling  by P a r a d i s  a w a r e n e s s and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  of these  to d i r e c t l y  a person's  attitudes,  both  (1978),  can serve as a s p e c i a l i z e d  communication.  beliefs,  cultural  (Ajzen & F i s h b e i n ,  events)  a wide  programs d e s i g n e d t o  by t h e t h e o r y o f r e a s o n e d  allows a person and  and S h a p i r o  value of e x p e r i e n t i a l l y - o r i e n t e d  supported  from  how"  e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e i n e t h n i c a n d c u l t u r a l  awareness as a r e s u l t The  i s supported  a l l o f whom c o n d u c t e d  The r e s u l t s  individuals  "know  The s u g g e s t i o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e  of the c o u r s e  Holwill,  participants'  competencies.  is  with  of e x p e r i e n t i a l l y - o r i e n t e d  increase  differences  t e a c h i n g them t o s p e c i f i c a l l y  work e f f e c t i v e l y  of c u l t u r a l  experiential  t o "know t h a t " c u l t u r a l  program t h a t  i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n t i a l clients  includes  exercises.  and " a n t i c o u n s e l l o r s "  from t h e  same c u l t u r a l  b a c k g r o u n d work w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g  from d i f f e r e n t interviews. potential client,  backgrounds  counselling  The r o l e o f t h e a n t i c o u n s e l l o r i s t o a c t o u t t h e  cultural  thereby  cultural  i n simulated  issues  conflicts  allowing  between t h e c o u n s e l l o r  t h e t r a i n e e t o work w i t h  in a "real-life"  and the  cross-  s i t u a t i o n (Johnson,  1987).  W h i l e CNPS 508 h a s a t h e o r e t i c a l a n d d i d a c t i c , r a t h e r than a c l i n i c a l information  or e x p e r i e n t i a l focus,  and e x p e r i e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s  incorporated  i n t o the course.  case p r e s e n t a t i o n s focus  on v a r i o u s  could  focus  attitudes, exercises evaluate  cultural  or c u l t u r a l  groups.  "experts"  in their  the duration  own and o t h e r s ' etc.  "Hands-on"  students  to  aware  p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d be  of the c o u r s e .  This  i s an example  f o r measuring a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g behaviour.  would a l s o h e l p  cultural  distinctions,  may f i n d  because they  (e.g.,  address the problem i tdifficult  i s s u e s and make a p p r o p r i a t e  t o an e x t e n t  differences  could  Experiential exercises  awareness of t h e i r  and changes  be  F o r example, c a s e examples a n d  myths, a n d s t e r e o t y p e s ,  counsellors-in-training  issues  easily  one a n o t h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e a s c u l t u r a l l y  a method  relevant  could  s u c h a s r o l e - p l a y s would a l s o a l l o w  measured o v e r  exercises  cultural  on s t u d e n t s '  counsellors,  of  by s t u d e n t s  both c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c  find  themselves  which b l u r s or ignores family  or psychodynamic  Such  that t o f o c u s on cultural  focusing  on  other  essential cultural issues).  When r e v i e w i n g t h e r e s u l t s , that a  the c l a s s  female  impact  w h i c h was t h e f o c u s o f t h i s  instructor  may have h a d a  on s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g  and/or  their  previous  research findings  evaluated  found  female  professors.  that  a male  instructor  L o n g , and H o l t  was v i e w e d  of  the i n s t r u c t o r  and  type of q u e s t i o n s asked  Holt  concluded  related either it  in their  that  i s suggested  improved  that  either  In l i g h t  be  improved,  this  purpose  evaluative  The g e n d e r t h e number  Gilbert,  L o n g , and  material  of t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n ,  o f CNPS 508 may be  s e p a r a t e l y or together. (a) t h a t  the e v a l u a t i v e  t o measure t h e c o u r s e ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s  (b) t h a t  other  should  i n s t r u m e n t s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o  s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d ,  results  than  o f b o t h male a n d f e m a l e  In g e n e r a l , i t i s recommended i n s t r u m e n t s used  psychology  be more e f f e c t i v e  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  instructors,  influenced  women a n d men who c o - t e a c h  t o women's e x p e r i e n c e s might  found  a more p o s i t i v e mood  by s t u d e n t s .  a woman o r a man a l o n e .  (1988)  instructor.  study a l s o  students  male  by u n d e r g r a d u a t e  a female  (1987),  college  f a v o u r a b l y than  Gilbert,  i n t h e s t u d e n t s , than  tothe  of i n s t r u c t o r s '  b o t h male a n d f e m a l e  s t u d e n t s a s more c o m p e t e n t , a n d a r o u s e d state  responses  Basow a n d S i l b e r g  professors less  Similarly,  significant  i s s u p p o r t e d by  on t h e e f f e c t  on s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s .  example,  that  This speculation  t o note  s t u d y was t a u g h t by  factor  instruments.  for  important  and t h a t  research  gender  i t i s also  s h o u l d be u s e d  and (c) t h a t t o modify  these  a n d improve  course  content. should  I t i s a l s o recommended  be u n d e r t a k e n  training  programs.  t h a t ongoing  o f CNPS 508 a n d s i m i l a r Better  instruments  go hand  improve  o f e v a l u a t i o n , we w i l l  better  courses  courses  and b e t t e r  evaluations clearly the q u a l i t y  evaluations i n other  course  i n hand, a n d i f we a r e a b l e t o be a b l e  t o meet t h e needs o f c l i e n t s ,  to design  c o u n s e l l o r s , and  the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i k e . Finally, conducted Since to  i t should  during  then,  monitor  be remembered  the f i r s t  the researcher and e v a l u a t e  objectives.  term t h a t  this  i t s success  In t h e p r o c e s s ,  ongoing c i r c u l a r  implementation, essential, courses,  is  course's  has  stages  the danger  continued  design  and t h e We b e l i e v e  design,  in fact,  and c u l t u r a l  concerns  in this  faces to teach  i s not a problem  chosen a r e ,  of t h e i r  inherent  which the i n s t r u c t o r  But t h i s  of r e s e a r c h written:  have  and i m p r o v e d .  of course  a valid  effectiveness in f u l f i l l i n g  Social area  refined  i n the e a r l y  Of c o u r s e ,  the temptation  instruments  was o f f e r e d .  i n reaching i t s  the course  process  was  f o r CNPS 508, b u t a l s o f o r a l l s i m i l a r  particularly  instruments.  both  study  and e v a l u a t i o n l e a d i n g t o r e - d e s i g n i s  not only  development.  the course  and t h e i n s t r u c t o r  e v a l u a t i v e methods have been that  that t h i s  process t o the  i f the e v a l u a t i v e measure o f t h e  i t s objectives.  continue  f o r counsellor educators.  t o be an  important  As C o p e l a n d  (1982)  As  our  society continues  as  racial,  low-socioeconomic,  groups c o n t i n u e problems, skills but At to  how  and  very  not  their  from d i s s i m i l a r  least, in this  i t might  only c l i e n t s  be  this  study  field,  by  u n i q u e needs  to  encounter  along  the  way.  193)  h e l p p o i n t the  suggesting  f o r - - a n d perhaps a v o i d — t h e  themselves  groups.(p.  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(1978) A c r o s s c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g procedure f o r c l a s s e s i n counselor e d u c a t i o n . C o u n s e l o r E d u c a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 17, 233-237. P e d e r s e n , P., & M a r s e l l a , A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The e t h i c a l c r i s i s f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g and t h e r a p y . P r o f e s s i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , J_3, 492-500. P e r r y , L . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s : The demands o f d i v e r s i t y . In E . L . H e r r & N.M. P i n s o n ( E d s . ) , F o u n d a t i o n s f o r p o l i c y i n g u i d a n c e & c o u n s e l i n g ( p p . 50-697"^ A l e x a n d r i a , VA: A m e r i c a n P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e Association. P o n t e r o t t o , J.G., & C a s a s , J.M. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . In s e a r c h o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l competence w i t h i n c o u n s e l o r education p r o g r a m s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t , 65, 430-434. R a w l i n g s , E . I . , & C a r t e r , D.K. f o r women. S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 :  ( E d s . ) . (1977). Psychotherapy C h a r l e s C. Thomas.  R o b i n s o n , E.A., & F o l l i n g s t a d , D.R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t and v a l i d a t i o n of a b e h a v i o r a l s e x - r o l e i n v e n t o r y . Sex R o l e s , 23, 691-713. S c h l o s s b e r g , N.K. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . H i d e and seek w i t h and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 55, 481-484.  bias.  Personnel  S c h l o s s b e r g , N., & P i e t r o f e s a , J . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . P e r s p e c t i v e s on counseling bias: Implications f o r counselor education. C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 4, 44-54. S c o t t , N.A., & M c M i l l a n , J . L . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t r a i n i n g f o r s e x - f a i r c o u n s e l i n g . C o u n s e l o r E d u c a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 20, 84-91. S e d l a c e k , W.E., T r o y , W., & Chapman, T. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . An e v a l u a t i o n of t h r e e methods of r a c i s m - s e x i s m t r a i n i n g . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 55, 196-198. Sherman, J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e r a p i s t a t t i t u d e s and s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . In A B r o d s k y and R. H a r e - M u s t i n ( E d s . ) . Women and p s y c h o t h e r a p y : An a s s e s s m e n t of r e s e a r c h and  practice,  (pp. 35-66).  New Y o r k :  Guilford  Press.  Sherman, J . , K o u f a c o s , C , & Kenworthy, J . A . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e r a p i s t s : T h e i r a t t i t u d e s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t women. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 2, 299-313. S m i t h , M.L. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Sex b i a s i n c o u n s e l i n g and p s y c h o t h e r a p y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 87, 392-407. S o b e l , S.B., & Cummings, N.A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The r o l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n promoting e q u a l i t y . P r o f e s s i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 12, 171-179. S t a k e , J . E . , & G e r n e r , M.A. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The women's s t u d i e s e x p e r i e n c e : P e r s o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l g a i n s f o r women and men. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 11, 277-284. S t r i e k e r , G. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h f o r t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c t r e a t m e n t o f women. A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 32, 14-22. S t r i e k e r , G., & S h a f r a n , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Gender a n d p s y c h o t h e r a p y : A r e v i e w o f t h e e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . In J . M u r r a y & P.R. Abramson ( E d s . ) , B i a s i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y ( p p . 192-214) New Y o r k : P r a e g e r . Sue, D.W. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . E l i m i n a t i n g c u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n i n c o u n s e l i n g : Toward a g e n e r a l t h e o r y . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 25, 419-428. Sue, D.W. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C o u n s e l i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l y New Y o r k : John W i l e y & S o n s .  different.  Sue, D.W., B e r n i e r , J . E . , D u r r a n , A., F e i n b e r g , L . , P e d e r s e n , P., S m i t h , E . J . , & V a s q u e z - N u t t a l l , E . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P o s i t i o n p a p e r : C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g c o m p e t e n c i e s . The C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 10, 45-52. Sue, D.W., & K i r k , B.A. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , J_9, 471-478. Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . B a r r i e r s t o e f f e c t i v e c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g . J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g Psychology, 24, 420-429. Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . C o u n s e l i n g C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n s . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 50, 637-644. Sue, S., & Zane, N. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The r o l e o f c u l t u r e and c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y : A c r i t i q u e and r e f o r m u l a t i o n . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 42,' 37-45.  S u n d a l - H a n s e n , L.S., & Watt, M.A. (1979). C o u n s e l o r renewal i n sex e q u a l i t y . C o u n s e l o r E d u c a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 18, 274-287. Thomas, C.W. Counseling  (1985a). C o u n s e l i n g i n a c u l t u r a l P s y c h o l o g i s t , 13, 657-663.  Thomas, C. ( 1 9 8 5 b ) . The age o f a n d r o g y n y : The p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s . Sex R o l e s , 13, 381-392.  context.  new  views  The of  Wayne, N.S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c a w a r e n e s s and c o u n s e l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 42, 2513-A. W e i n r a c h , S.G. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . M i c r o c o u n s e l i n g and b e y o n d : A d i a l o g u e w i t h A l l e n I v e y . J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t , 65, 532-537. Westwood, M.J. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g : Some s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n c o u n s e l l o r . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 17, 62-66. W h i t e l y , B.E. appraisal.  ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Sex b i a s and p s y c h o t h e r a p y : A c u r r e n t P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 86, 1309-1321.  APPENDIX A  Course  Outline  DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Counseling Psychology 508  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN COUNSELLING Course Outline CNPS 508 (1.5)  Description  of the Course  The purpose of this course i s to develop knowledge and understanding of the fundamental r o l e of s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l factors which channel individuals i n their development. differences, presented.  Awareness of a wide variety of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on ethnicity and gender w i l l be ;  Theory, research, and experiential learning, d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l  expectations and changing roles w i l l be evaluated i n l i g h t of how can be sensitive to a m u l t i p l i c i t y of differences  counsellors  i n the counselling process.  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS COURSE OBJECTIVES The general aim i s to provide basic knowledge and awareness of a wide variety of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l differences, with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on e t h n i c i t y and gender. In p a r t i c u l a r , a student i n this program i s expected to demonstrate the following: a.1.  understanding of the relationship between s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l difference and the human development of i n d i v i d u a l s .  a.2.  understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r o l e opportunities development.  and i n d i v i d u a l  a.3.  competence i n being s e n s i t i v e to r o l e structure, opportunities and i n d i v i d u a l growth patterns.  a.*,  knowledge of a general model of human development which i d e n t i f i e s the s o c i a l c u l t u r a l factors which shape development and provide a ground f o r understanding difference i n counselling.  1  b. 1.  knowledge of concepts and models about s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l differences including t h e i r e f f e c t on the counselling process.  b.2.  competence to define terms relevant to e t h n i c i t y , gender, socio-economic c l a s s , r e l i g i o n , d i s a b i l i t y , and other s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l differences.  b. 3 .  competence to evaluate models for c u l t u r e - f a i r and gender-fair counselling.  c. 1.  knowledge of personal values and attitudes about s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l differences including t h e i r e f f e c t on the counselling process.  C..2.  competence to d i s t i n g u i s h values from biases.  0.3.  competence to use these awarenesses and a b i l i t i e s s e n s i t i v e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n counselling.  c. H.  knowledge of how to encorporate a s e n s i t i v i t y to differences into a philosophy of counselling and s k i l l r e p e r t o i r e .  d. 1.  knowledge of h i s t o r y , trends and changes i n human r o l e s , including changing roles of men and women i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l society.  d.2.  competence to i d e n t i f y the implications of these changes, to discern discrepancies and c o n f l i c t s , to r e l a t e these to personal and s o c i a l meaning and values.  d. 3 .  competence to design counselling programs, to implement a variety of strategies and techniques f o r e f f e c t i v e gender-fair and c u l t u r e - f a i r counselling.  e. 1.  knowledge of a general model of counselling with differences of many kinds and the problems associated with development of such models.  e.2.  competence to apply t h i s general model to a wide variety of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l differences including one not s p e c i f i c a l l y dealt with in course work.  Relevant Coursework;  CNPS 5 0 8 , CNPS 5 3 1 . CNPS 5 9 4  97  Topical  Outline  1.  The S o c i o p o l i t i c a l Context o f C o u n s e l l i n g  2.  D e f i n i t i o n s and U n d e r s t a n d i n g D i f f e r e n c e s Dominance/Subordination Ethnicity Gender Minority/Majority Multicultural  Murray  & Abramson,  Chapter 5  Power Prejudice Race Roles Sex Stereotype  3.  V a l u e s , P e r s o n a l i t y , and B e h a v i o r  Murray  & Abramson,  Chapter 4  A.  S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s i n the C o u n s e l l i n g P r o c e s s - E t h n i c i t y Murray & Abramson, Chapter 9 H i s t o r y and change Changing r o l e s i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y Racism E x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s Culture-fair counselling  5.  S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s i n the C o u n s e l l i n g P r o c e s s - Gender Murray & Abramson, C h a p t e r s 1 , 2 , 6, 8, 7, & 11 H i s t o r y and change Changing r o l e s o f women and men Sexism E x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s Gender-fair counselling  6.  Other S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s  Murray  & Abramson,  Socio-economic Religion D i s a b i l i t y ( P h y s i c a l and Mental) Sexual o r i e n t a t i o n / p r e f e r e n c e 7. Reducing B i a s 8.  Murray  Future D i r e c t i o n s  & Abramson,  Murray  Chapter  & Abramson,  13  Chapter  14  Chapters  3,(0,  98  Course Requirements 1.  We e x p e c t each s t u d e n t to a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y , h a v i n g p r e - r e a d the a s s i g n e d t e x t , r e a d i n g s , and to d i s c u s s and p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n class a c t i v i t i e s .  2.  There w i l l be a comprehensive, two-hour w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n h e l d i n c l a s s a t the end o f the term. T h i s exam w i l l i n c l u d e s h o r t answer and case s t u d y q u e s t i o n s c o v e r i n g the t e x t , r e a d i n g s , c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , and c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s .  3.  A 12-15 page r e s e a r c h paper i s due one week f o l l o w i n g the l a s t c l a s s . paper, w r i t t e n i n APA s t y l e , s h o u l d summarize, s y n t h e s i z e and a n a l y z e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as c o n t r i b u t e your own i d e a s . We s u g g e s t the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s :  This  - D i s c u s s the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n b i a s r e s e a r c h . Give examples from the l i t e r a t u r e and suggest s o l u t i o n s f o r these problems i n future research. - D i s c u s s the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e - a t t r i b u t i o n theory to u n d e r s t a n d i n g b i a s i n c o u n s e l l i n g .  and  research  - D i s c u s s how the c o u n s e l l o r ' s view of c l i e n t s ' "problems i n l i v i n g " e i t h e r as symptoms o f i n d i v i d u a l p a t h o l o g y or of s o c i e t a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a f f e c t s the c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o u n s e l l i n g outcome. - U s i n g the framework i n Abramowitz and Murray's c h a p t e r "Race E f f e c t s i n P s y c h o t h e r a p y , " r e v i e w t h r e e types of b i a s — d i a g n o s t i c , treatment u t i l i z a t i o n , and e f f e c t i v e n e s s — w i t h r e g a r d to c o u n s e l l i n g women or a p a r t i c u l a r Canadian e t h n i c group.  Grading Class p a r t i c i p a t i o n F i n a l Examination Paper  10% 40% 50% 100%  APPENDIX B  Verbal  Instructions to Participants  Pre-test Hello. in  My name i s G e r r i e B r o o k s .  the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  r e s e a r c h on t h e a t t i t u d e s and  I requested  into for  this class your  demographic class of  t o gather  from  in f i l l i n g  Participation  y o u who a g r e e  your  course  research data.  information sheet.  time.  I'm c u r r e n t l y  student  conducting  and v a l u e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s  permission  cooperation  Dept.  I'm a M a s t e r ' s  instructor  I would  like  t o come t o ask  out 3 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p l u s a This w i l l  take  about  i s v o l u n t a r y and I w i l l  t o t a k e p a r t t o r e a d and s i g n  1 hour o f  ask those  a consent  form.  Does anyone have any q u e s t i o n s ? (Answer q u e s t i o n s and d i s t r i b u t e volunteers. distribute All  Collect test  signed consent  and c o m p l e t e  into set  i s f o r people  either to  the booklet  two p a r t s :  The  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  You w i l l  n o t i c e as you  t h a t one q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i v i d e d  who a r e m a r r i e d  one f u l l  read  t o you.  one s e t i s f o r p e o p l e  in a heterosexual  complete  Please  booklet.  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the order i n  have been p r e s e n t e d  work t h r o u g h  forms and r a n d o m l y  are i n the t e s t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e not timed.  which they  forms t o  booklets.)  instructions  carefully  consent  who a r e s i n g l e  or l i v i n g  with  someone,  or l e s b i a n / g a y r e l a t i o n s h i p .  s e t of q u e s t i o n s — w h i c h e v e r  and one  Be s u r e  set applies  to  you.  test  When you a r e f i n i s h e d ,  booklets  please  raise  up t o t h e f r o n t . y o u r hand.  Thank  please  bring  your  I f you have any you.  Please  completed  questions,  begin.  101 APPENDIX C  Consent  Form  COUNSELLORS' ATTITUDES AND I voluntarily understand  agree  that  to p a r t i c i p a t e  the aim of t h i s  VALUES SURVEY  in this  research project.  study i s to g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n  concerning c o u n s e l l i n g students' a t t i t u d e s the study i s b e i n g conducted  to p a r t i a l l y  f o r a Master's  University  degree  I f u r t h e r understand that and  I complete that  t h a t my  aware t h a t  that  I may  I may  withdraw my  consent  confidentiality  form which i s h a n d l e d on any  other  requirements  Columbia.  in this project  requires  three b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . take a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  and  d i s c o n t i n u e my  hour. and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n at  academic s t a n d i n g .  i s assured since,  except  s e p a r a t e l y , t h e r e i s no  for this  consent  r e q u e s t f o r my  name  forms.  All  questions regarding this  may  be d i r e c t e d  form or any  other aspect of t h i s  to the s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r named below.  I have r e a d and u n d e r s t a n d  the c o n t e n t s o f t h i s  Date Student  the  r e f u s e to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d  time w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g my  I know my  fulfill  that  a form r e q u e s t i n g c e r t a i n demographic i n f o r m a t i o n  o f the p r e c e d i n g t a s k s w i l l  I am  and v a l u e s and  of B r i t i s h  involvement  I w i l l be asked to complete  Completion  any  at The  I  Signature Investigator:  Gerrie  Brooks  consent  form.  study  APPENDIX D  Written  I n s t r u c t i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t s  Dear Research  Participant:  Thank you f o r a g r e e i n g Attached  and P r e - t e s t M e a s u r e s  to this  Co p a r t i c i p a t e  l e t t e r you w i l l  i n this  f i n d four  brief  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t . COMPLETE THE QUESTIONNAIRES AND  INFORMATION  study.  PLEASE  SHEET IN THE  ORDER IN WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO YOU.  None o f the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e timed,  probably  but i n t o t a l they w i l l  take you about one hour t o complete. questions  to the b e s t o f your a b i l i t y .  I am sure you w i l l interesting raise  f i n d completion  and e n j o y a b l e .  your hand and I w i l l  Gerrie Student  P l e a s e answer a l l  Brooks Investigator  o f the a t t a c h e d  I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , a s s i s t you.  forms just  103 WAYNE ETHNIC AWARENESS  Recognizing your  initial  following to  five  Che b r e v i t y impressions  o f the f o l l o w i n g c a s e s , p l e a s e  state  as a c o u n s e l l o r o f each o f the  five vignettes.  minutes.  MEASURE  Please  limit  each o f your  responses  1.  A 26 y e a r o l d J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n female i s r e f e r r e d  clinic  by h e r d o c t o r .  Complaints,  primarily  headaches, a n x i e t y , and c h e s t p a i n .  As a t e a c h e r f o r t h r e e y e a r s ,  she enjoys  teaching s t y l e , accepts  She a l s o s t a t e s t h a t  t e a c h e r makes a recommendation about h e r she t r i e s  responsiblity  l i v e s alone, c h i l d with  her j o b .  even though  to change.  She t r i e s  to c r e a t e  something from a l l the comments; i t becomes jumbled; she  have  bad l a t e l y when  she has t o c o n f r o n t the p r i n c i p a l about a n y t h i n g she works more hours than h e r p e e r s .  these  s i x months they  However h e r symptoms have become p a r t i c u l a r l y  whenever another  include  She has e x p e r i e n c e d  symptoms f o r a few y e a r s , but i n the l a s t worsened.  somatic,  Co Che  for failure.  She i s s i n g l e ,  and has a few c l o s e f r i e n d s .  two s i b l i n g s  - a sister,  and then dating,  She i s the o l d e s t  24, and a b r o t h e r , 18.  105  2.  A 17 y e a r o l d B l a c k male i s r e f e r r e d Co Che  psychologist high  school  because he appears d e p r e s s e d . s t u d e n t who p r i o r t o t h i s  grades and was i n v o l v e d  school  He i s a Grade 12  time was making e x c e l l e n t  i n a t h l e t i c s and s c h o o l  clubs.  Now h i s  grades are. s l i p p i n g , he i s l o s i n g weight, and he i s g e n e r a l l y disinterested  i n school  activities.  He s t a t e s  t h a t he i s f e e l i n g  u n s u p p o r t e d by h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s i n h i s d e s i r e t o a c c e p t a scholarship  f o r u n i v e r s i t y where he wants t o major i n pre-med.  They a r e i g n o r i n g the t o p i c o f u n i v e r s i t y and some o f h i s f r i e n d s have been o s t r a c i z i n g him from t h e i r groups. likes he  the neighbourhood where he l i v e s ,  stays,  father  and has a g i r l f r i e n d .  He s t a t e s  t h a t he  has been o f f e r e d j o b s i f  He i s f e e l i n g a m b i v a l e n t .  His  i s a p a i n t e r , h i s mother, a homemaker, and he has two  sisters,  19 and 15-, and one b r o t h e r ,  13.  3.  A ten year  principal's are  o l d Native  o f f i c e by h i s t e a c h e r .  t h a t he g i v e s h i s p e r s o n a l  b r i n g s a l a r g e lunch she  Her c o m p l a i n t s  about him  t h i n g s away t o o t h e r  to s c h o o l a t l e a s t  e t c . ) , using  latter  children;  f o u r times a week; and  caught him t a k i n g t h i n g s o f f h e r desk ( p e n c i l s ,  tapes, This  Canadian boy i s taken to the  markers,  them, and then p u t t i n g them i n h i s desk.  complaint  has o c c u r r e d  s c h o o l s t a r t e d one month ago. he admits t o t a k i n g the o b j e c t s  at l e a s t  three  When c o n f r o n t e d  times  since  by the t e a c h e r ,  f o r h i s own use.  4..  A 20 y e a r o l d C h i n e s e  her doctor. little  female  i s referred  Her complaints i n c l u d e  anxious.  The o n s e t  feeling  t o t h e c l i n i c by depressed  o f t h e s e symptoms o c c u r r e d when s h e  made a d e c i s i o n t o move i n t o h e r own a p a r t m e n t w i t h y o u n g woman s h e w o r k s w i t h a t a d a y c a r e c e n t r e . are  very upset  a b o u t t h e move - t e l l i n g time, she had never  this  family.  S h e i s d a t i n g a 25 y e a r o l d C h i n e s e  supportive.  sisters,  another  Her parents  h e r she i s u n g r a t e f u l .  Up u n t i l very  and a  had a bad argument w i t h h e r l a w s t u d e n t who i s  S h e h a s two b r o t h e r s , 19 a n d 2 5 , a n d t w o  23 a n d 16.  108  5.  A 20 y e a r o l d J e w i s h male comes to therapy w i t h  of f e e l i n g ; a p a t h e t i c and d e p r e s s e d .  He  r e p o r t s the onset  these symptoms began when h i s 19 y e a r o l d J e w i s h broke up- w i t h him gave him was different  a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of d a t i n g .  t h a t she f e l t  directions:  he  their  complaints of  girlfriend  The  reason  she  l i v e s were g o i n g i n two  i s a t h i r d y e a r a r t s t u d e n t at a  p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l ; and  she  a local university.  f e e l s h i s c a r e e r c h o i c e i s an u n d e s i r a b l e  one.  She  H i s p a r e n t s , who  i s a second y e a r E n g l i s h major a t  have been upset  from the b e g i n n i n g w i t h h i s  d e c i s i o n not to go to u n i v e r s i t y , have t o l d t h e i r understand art  his girlfriend's  - winning  s c h o o l - and  feelings.  p r o v i n c i a l awards i n elementary  started  to l o s e i n t e r e s t  vocational choice. and he has university.  a sister,  His f a t h e r 20,  talents.  i n a r t and  can  always e x c e l l e d i n s c h o o l and  i s g e t t i n g honours and b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d at  professional school for his a r t i s t i c he has  He has  son they  high the  S i n c e the breakup,  to q u e s t i o n h i s  i s a lawyer, h i s mother a homemaker,  and a b r o t h e r , 18, both o f whom are i n  109 ROBINSON BEHAVIORAL INVENTORY  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s Please  indicate  a r e concerned  your answer by p l a c i n g  w i t h your  behaviour.  a t the end o f each  q u e s t i o n the number which b e s t e x p r e s s e s  your  position.  IMPORTANT: I f you a r e SINGLE, p l e a s e answer q u e s t i o n s  1 to 34 ONLY.  I f you a r e MARRIED OR LIVING WITH SOMEONE ( i e : i n a h e t e r o s e x u a l or l e s b i a n / g a y r e l a t i o n s h i p ) , p l e a s e answer q u e s t i o n s ONLY.  35 to 68  1 10 IF  SINGLE, PLEASE ANSWER QUESTIONS 1 TO 34.  IF MARRIED OR LIVING  WITH SOMEONE, PLEASE GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 35. For  Che f i r s C  0 = will  C e n (10) q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e use Che f o l l o w i n g  definicely  1 = extremely 2 = very  not do so  unlikely  unlikely  3 = moderately  unlikely  4 = somewhat  unlikely  5 = somewhat  likely  6 = moderately 7 = very  1.  likely  definitely  I f trying use  likely  likely  8 = extremely 9 = will  scale:  do so  to g e t your own way, how l i k e l y  a r e you t o  t e a r s w i t h a p e r s o n o f the o p p o s i t e sex w i t h i n the  next y e a r a t l e a s t once? 2.  How l i k e l y the f i r s t  I  a r e you to pay 50% o r more o f the expenses time you go out w i t h a p e r s o n o f the o p p o s i t e  sex d u r i n g the next year? 3.  4.  How l i k e l y  |  a r e you to s t a y home from an a c t i v i t y ( e . g .  p a r t y o r c o n c e r t ) t h a t you want t o go t o i f you don't  I  have a date d u r i n g the next year?  [  How l i k e l y someone  a r e you, w i t h i n the. next y e a r , to ask  to r e f e r  to you as a woman/man  i f they r e f e r to  you as a g i r l / b o y ? 5.  How l i k e l y  I  a r e you to read a book on the new r o l e s f o r  women ( e . g . Free and Female, The Feminine  Mystique)  d u r i n g the next year? 6.  I |  When g o i n g out w i t h a person o f the o p p o s i t e sex d u r i n g the next y e a r , how l i k e l y will  7.  I  i s i t that  the o t h e r p e r s o n  always d r i v e ?  How l i k e l y  are you to be the f i r s t  I I  to engage i n g e n i t a l  t o u c h i n g w i t h a date d u r i n g the next year?  I I  8.  When wich a p e r s o n o f Che o p p o s i t e sex d u r i n g the next y e a r , how l i k e l y  i s i t t h a t he/she w i l l  the minor d e c i s i o n s 9.  10.  r e g u l a r l y make  (e.g. where t o go on an evening out)?  How l i k e l y  a r e you to e a t l u n c h o r d i n n e r a l o n e i n a  restaurant  d u r i n g the next  How l i k e l y  a r e you to a c c e p t a date w i t h a p e r s o n o f  year?  the o p p o s i t e sex and c a n c e l p l a n s you had a l r e a d y made w i t h f r i e n d s o f the same sex d u r i n g the next For  the next n i n e  year?  (9) q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g  scale  0 = never 1 = once 2 = twice 3=3  times  4=4  times  5=5  times  6=6  times  7=7  times  8=8  times  9=9  times o r more  11.  How f r e q u e n t l y have you gone out w i t h a person o f the o p p o s i t e sex t h a t you d i d n ' t  like  v e r y much because you  d i d n ' t know how to say no when asked d u r i n g the p a s t year? 12.  How f r e q u e n t l y have you r e a d Ms. o r New Woman magazine in  13.  the p a s t year?  How f r e q u e n t l y  d u r i n g the p a s t year have you s t a y e d home  from an a c t i v i t y  t h a t you wanted to a t t e n d (e.g. p a r t y or  c o n c e r t ) because you d i d n ' t have a date? 14.  How many books have you read on the new r o l e s  f o r women  (e.g.  d u r i n g the  past 15.  Free and Female, The Feminine year?  How f r e q u e n t l y  have you w a i t e d i n the c a r f o r a person o f  the o p p o s i t e sex to open the door year?  Mystique)  f o r you i n the past  16.  How f r e q u e n t l y have you p r e t e n d e d r e a l l y knew t o p r o t e c t  to know l e s s  than you  the ego o f a p e r s o n o f the  o p p o s i t e sex d u r i n g the p a s t year? 17.  How f r e q u e n t l y in  18.  d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r have you gone out  the e v e n i n g w i t h f r i e n d s of the same sex?  How many meetings o r i e n t e d group  have you a t t e n d e d o f a f e m i n i s t -  (e.g. church group  on the s t a t u s o f  women, f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f sex r o l e s ,  consciousness  r a i s i n g ) d u r i n g the p a s t year? 19.  In the p a s t y e a r how f r e q u e n t l y have you d e c i d e d to keep a s t r o n g o p i n i o n to y o u r s e l f because talking  For  you were  to a p e r s o n o f the o p p o s i t e sex?  the next s i x (6) q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g  scale  0 = 0% 1 = 107. 2 = 20% 3 = 30% 4 »• 40% 5 = 50% 6 = 60% 7 = 70% 8 = 80% 9 = 90% o r more 20.  What p e r c e n t o f time have you, r a t h e r than your p a r t n e r , been the f i r s t past  21.  to engage i n g e n i t a l  year?  What p e r c e n t o f the time have you p a i d 50% o r more o f the expenses the f i r s t of  22.  t o u c h i n g d u r i n g the  time you went o u t w i t h a person  the o p p o s i t e sex d u r i n g the past year?  In t r y i n g you used  to get your way, what p e r c e n t o f the time have t e a r s w i t h a person o f the o p p o s i t e sex d u r i n g  the past year? 23.  What p e r c e n t o f the meals you have eaten i n r e s t a u r a n t s d u r i n g the p a s t year have you e a t e n alone?  24.  When wich a p e r s o n o f Che o p p o s i c e sex d u r i n g Che pasc y e a r , whaC p e r c e n t o f Che Cime has he/she made Che minor d e c i s i o n s  25.  (e.g. where Co go on an evening  When you have f e l t  ouc)?  angry aC a p e r s o n o f Che o p p o s i c e  sex f u r i n g Che pasc y e a r , whaC percenc o f Che Cime have you e x p r e s s e d i t ? For  the next n i n e  0 = will  definitely  1 = extremely 2 = very  (9) q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g not do so  unlikely  unlikely  3 = moderately  unlikely  4 = somewhat  unlikely  5 = somewhat  likely  6 = moderately 7 = very  26.  likely  likely  8 = excremely 9 = will  scale  likely  definiCely  How l i k e l y  do so  a r e you Co ask one o r more people o f Che  o p p o s i t e sex t o go out wich you i n Che e v e n i n g o r on a weekend w i c h i n the next 27. ; How l i k e l y  year?  a r e you to wait  i n the c a r f o r a person o f  the o p p o s i t e sex to open the door f o r you d u r i n g the next 2.8.  year?  How l i k e l y  a r e you to p r e t e n d to know l e s s  r e a l l y know to p r o t e c t  the ego o f a p e r s o n o f the  o p p o s i t e sex w i t h i n the next 29.  How l i k e l y  than you  a r e you to agree  year? to s e x u a l i n c e r c o u r s e chac  you don'c want Co engage i n i f p r e s s u r e d by a person o f Che 30.  o p p o s i t e sex?  How l i k e l y  a r e you Co keep a scrong o p i n i o n Co y o u r s e l f  i f you are c a l k i n g w i c h i n the next 31.  How l i k e l y  to a person o f the o p p o s i c e sex  year?  a r e you to express  i t i f you f e e l  a person o f the o p p o s i t e sex w i t h i n  the next  angry at year?  11 4 32.  How  Likely  I  a r e you t o r e a d Ms. or New Woman magazine  i n the next year? 33.  How  likely  1  a r e you to go out w i t h a person o f the  o p p o s i t e sex t h a t you don't  like  v e r y much because you  don't know how to say no when asked d u r i n g the next  f  year? 34.  How  I  likely  a r e you to a t t e n d a meeting  o r i e n t e d group  (e.g. church sponsored  of a feministprogram on the  s t a t u s o f women, f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n o f sex r o l e s ,  I  c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g ) w i t h i n the next year? IF  SINGLE, STOP HERE.  IF MARRIED OR LIVING WITH SOMEONE ( I E : IN A  HETEROSEXUAL OR LESBIAN/GAY RELATIONSHIP) ANSWER QUESTIONS 35 TO 6 8 . For  the f i r s t  0 = will  ten (10) q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g  definitely  1 = extremely 2 = very  scale:  not do so  unlikely  unlikely  3 = moderately  unlikely  4. = somewhat u n l i k e l y 5 = somewhat  likely  6 = moderately 7 = very  likely  8 = extremely 9 = will "55.  likely likely  definitely  If trying  do so  to get your own way, how l i k e l y  a r e you to use  t e a r s w i t h your p a r t n e r d u r i n g the next year? 36.  How  likely  buy  clothing  j  a r e you to ask your p a r t n e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n to (e.g. shoes,  slacks) f o r yourself during  the next year? 57.  How  likely  I  '  are you to s t a y home from an a c t i v i t y ( e . g .  p a r t y , e v e n i n g w i t h f r i e n d s ) t h a t you r e a l l y want to go to w i t h i n the next y e a r i f your p a r t n e r can't go w i t h you? }8.  How  I likely  are you to ask someone t o r e f e r  woman/man i f they r e f e r next year?  t o you as a  to you as a g i r l / b o y  d u r i n g the 1  '  1  39.  How l i k e l y  a r e you to read a book on the new r o l e s f o r  women (e.g. F r e e and Female, The Feminine d u r i n g the next 4.0.  Mystique )  year?  When i n the c a r t o g e t h e r w i t h your p a r t n e r d u r i n g the next y e a r how l i k e l y  i s i t t h a t your p a r t n e r w i l l  always, d r i v e ? 41.  How l i k e l y  a r e you to i n i t i a t e  your p a r t n e r d u r i n g the next 42.  sexual a c t i v i t i e s  with  year?  D u r i n g the next y e a r , how l i k e l y  i s your p a r t n e r to  r e g u l a r l y make t h e minor d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t you both 43.  (e.g. where to go on an e v e n i n g o u t ) ?  How l i k e l y  a r e you, r a t h e r than your p a r t n e r , to take  the c a r to the garage i f i t needs r e p a i r i n g next 44_  d u r i n g the  year?  How l i k e l y  a r e you to use your p a r t n e r ' s l a s t  name as  your own For  the next  0 = never 1 = once 2 = twice 3 = 3 times 4 = 4 times 5 = 5 times 6 = 6 times 7 = 7 times 8  - 8 times  9 = 9 times 45_  How f r e q u e n t l y have you agreed  to s e x u a l  intercourse  t h a t you d i d n ' t want to engage i n i n response  to p r e s s u r e  from your p a r t n e r d u r i n g the past year? 45_  How f r e q u e n t l y  have you asked  someone to r e f e r  a woman/man r a t h e r than a g i r l / b o y  to you as  d u r i n g the p a s t year?  47.  How f r e q u e n t l y have you s t a y e d home from an a c t i v i t y (e.g. p a r t y , evening go  w i t h f r i e n d s ) t h a t you wanted to  to d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r because your p a r t n e r  couldn't  go w i t h you? 48.  How many books have you read on the new r o l e s f o r women (e.g. Free and Female, The Feminine M y s t i q u e )  49.  during  the p a s t  year?  During  the past y e a r , how many n i g h t s have you been  away from home w i t h o u t 50.  During  the p a s t y e a r how f r e q u e n t l y have you gone out  i n the evening 51.  your p a r t n e r and c h i l d r e n ?  with  f r i e n d s but w i t h o u t  How many meetings have you a t t e n d e d o r i e n t e d group women, c o u p l e s '  (e.g. church  52.  partner?  of a feminist-  program on t h e s t a t u s o f  group on sex r o l e s ,  r a i s i n g ) d u r i n g the p a s t  your  consciousness  year?  In the p a s t y e a r , how- f r e q u e n t l y have you d e c i d e d to keep a s t r o n g o p i n i o n to y o u r s e l f because you were talking  to a person  F o r the next  o f the o p p o s i t e  seven (7) q u e s t i o n s  sex?  p l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g s e a l  0 = 0% 1 = 107. 2 = 207, 3 = 307. 4 = 407, 5 = 507. 6 = 607. 7 = 707. 8 = 807. 9 = 907. o r more 53.  Within  the l a s t  y e a r , what p e r c e n t  r a t h e r than your p a r t n e r , 54.  What p e r c e n t partner,  initiated  o f the time have you, sexual intercourse?  o f the time have you, r a t h e r than  taken  d u r i n g the past  your  the c a r to the garage to have i t r e p a i r e d year?  55.  What p e r c e n t cooking,  56.  o f the d a i l y housework  (e.g. d i s h e s ,  c l e a n i n g ) have you done d u r i n g t h e p a s t  In t r y i n g t o g e t your own way, what p e r c e n t  year?  o f the  time have you used t e a r s w i t h your p a r t n e r d u r i n g the past 57.  year?  When i n the c a r t o g e t h e r d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r , percent  58.  o f the time has your p a r t n e r  What p e r c e n t  what  driven?  o f the time have you, as compared  with  your p a r t n e r , done the major c l e a n i n g j o b s around the house ( e . g . d e f r o s t  the r e f r i g e r a t o r ,  f l o o r s ) d u r i n g the p a s t 59.  What p e r c e n t last  0 = will  o f the time have you used your p a r t n e r ' s  nine  (9) q u e s t i o n s  unlikely unlikely  4 = somewhat  unlikely  5 = somewhat  likely  6 = moderately  60.  likely  definitely  W i t h i n t h e next with  i s your p a r t n e r t o h e l p  a r e you t o go out w i t h  b a s i s without  62.  y e a r how l i k e l y  cleaning)?  How l i k e l y next  do so  the d a i l y housework on a d a i l y b a s i s ( e . g . d i s h e s ,  cooking, 61.  likely  likely  8 = extremely 9 = will  p l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e  unlikely  3 = moderately  7 = very  year?  d e f i n i t e l y riot do so  1 = extremely 2 = very  years?  name as your own d u r i n g t h e l a s t  For the next  c l e a n oven, wax  your p a r t n e r  f r i e n d s on a r e g u l a r  i n the evening  d u r i n g the  year?  How l i k e l y without  a r e you to be away from home o v e r n i g h t  your p a r t n e r and c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the next  year?  How l i k e l y  are you t o p r e t e n d to know l e s s  r e a l l y know to p r o t e c t  than you  the ego o f a p e r s o n o f the  o p p o s i t e sex d u r i n g the next year? How l i k e l y  a r e you t o agree  to s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e •  t h a t you don't want t o engage i n i f p r e s s u r e d by your p a r t n e r d u r i n g the n e x t year? W i t h i n the next y e a r , how l i k e l y s t r o n g o p i n i o n s to y o u r s e l f  a r e you t o keep  i f you a r e t a l k i n g  to a  p e r s o n o f the o p p o s i t e sex? D u r i n g the next y e a r , how l i k e l y  a r e you, as compared  w i t h your p a r t n e r , to do the major c l e a n i n g j o b s around  the house (e.g. d e f r o s t  oven, wax How l i k e l y during  the r e f r i g e r a t o r ,  clean  floor)? are you t o r e a d Ms. o r New Woman magazine  the next year?  How l i k e l y  a r e you to a t t e n d a meeting  o r i e n t e d group.(e.g. women, c o u p l e s ' group  of a feminist-  church program on the s t a t u s o f on sex r o l e s ,  r a i s i n g ) d u r i n g the next year?  consciousness  THERAPISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN SCALE The  statements  Please  below express  a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s .  i n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by p l a c i n g a t the end o f each  statement  the number which b e s t e x p r e s s e s  your  position.  P l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : 1 = Strongly  disagree  2 = Disagree 3 = N e i t h e r d i s a g r e e n o r agree 4 = Agree 5 = S t r o n g l y agree  * ** 1.  Dependency s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d more  characteristic  o f a h e a l t h y woman than o f a h e a l t h y man. 2.  The cure o f f r i g i d i t y  i s an important  g o a l f o r women  clients . 3.  A g g r e s s i v e women a r e l i k e l y  t o be s u f f e r i n g  from  penis  envy. 4.  I t i s e a s i e r f o r a woman t o r e l a t e than  5.  t o a male  therapist.  of their  Women f e e l attitudes  7.  therapist  Women more than men s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the happiness  6.  t o a female  families.  they a r e b e i n g taken  selfish  f o r b e h a v i o u r s and  f o r g r a n t e d by men.  A c c e p t a n c e o f one's sex r o l e  i s not n e c e s s a r y  f o r mental  health. 8.  The a b i l i t y  t o a t t a i n v a g i n a l orgasm i s one c r i t e r i o n o f  a woman's mental h e a l t h . 9.  10.  Aggressiveness  s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as more  characteristic  o f a h e a l t h y man than a h e a l t h y woman.  Women must important  11.  l e a r n to look o u t s i d e themselves f o r sources  A woman's f i r s t  of their  duty  difficulties.  i s t o h e r husband and c h i l d r e n .  Sharing  personal  helpful  Co Chem.  experiences  Sexual  intimacy  client  i sunlikely  Taking  sexist  wich c l i e n t s  c a n be v e r y .  becween a male t h e r a p i s t and a female t o be h e l p f u l t o h e r .  remarks s e r i o u s l y i n d i c a t e s l a c k o f a  s e n s e o f humour. A little her  f l i r t a t i o n w i t h a woman c l i e n t  since  i shelpful to  i t raises her spirits.  A nonauthoritarian a t t i t u d e i s important  i n dealing  w i t h women i n t h e r a p y . Achieving progress  a feminine  appearance  i n women.  A r a d i c a l woman i s more l i k e l y disturbed  Therapists  need  if  counter  i t runs  It One  t o be e m o t i o n a l l y  t h a n a r a d i c a l man.  Women a r e no more e m o t i o n a l  Clients  to support  i n therapy  t h a n men. individual  Co t r a d i t i o n a l  to her/his  o f Cherapy  Women a r e no more m a s o c h i s t i c regarding  expectations. f o r them.  i s Co g e e t h e  circumstances.  Women n e e d t o l e a r n t o b e p a s s i v e  Decisions  sex-role  even  y o u n g c h i l d r e n Co be a c home.  o f Che mosC i m p o r C a n C g o a l s to adjust  development  u s u a l l y know w h a t i s b e s t  i s b e t t e r f o r women w i t h  client  i sa sign of therapeutic  and dependent.  t h a n men.  abortion should  b e made s o l e l y b y  t h e women a n d h e r d o c t o r . Helene Deutsch c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y t o understanding women  clients.  Being  g i v i n g i s more n e c e s s a r y  healthy  of  i n the personality of a  woman t h a n a h e a l t h y man.  O l d e r women have Co expect less  interested  t h a t a t h e r a p i s t w i l l be  i n them than i n a younger woman.  M a r r i a g e o r i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d an important g o a l f o r women i n t h e r a p y . While e x t r a m a r i t a l a f f a i r s have l e s s need f o r these Getting a client  a r e normal f o r men, women  outlets.  to accept i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  important p a r t o f t h e r a p y .  i s an  1 22  DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 1.  F o r purposes o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f your q u e s t i o n n a i r e and fill  responses  Co p r o t e c t y o u r a n o n y m i t y as a r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t ,  please  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g b l a n k w i t h y o u r MOTHER'S MAIDEN NAME AND  INITIAL:  2.  What i s y o u r age?  3.  A r e you:  4.  What i s y o u r e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d ?  5.  What i s y o u r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n ?  6.  What i s y o u r C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y  Male?  o r Female?_  ( p l e a s e c h e c k one)  program s p e c i a l t y ?  Have y o u c o m p l e t e d o r a r e y o u c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d ( i e : d u r i n g the  1987/88 F a l l / W i n t e r term) i n any one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g CNPS 588  clinic  teams?  ( P l e a s e check a p p r o p r i a t e box)  Q  Elementary  D  Secondary  Q  Post-secondary  •  Intercultural  Q •  Women Family  Have y o u c o m p l e t e d o r a r e y o u c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d ( i e : d u r i n g the F a l l  1987 term) i n any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e s ?  check a p p r o p r i a t e  boxes)  •  362 ( B a s i c I n t e r v i e w i n g  Skills)  •  363 ( C a r e e r  •  364 ( F a m i l y E d u c a t i o n  •  365 ( I n t r o ,  •  426 (The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n G u i d a n c e )  Counselling) and C o n s u l t a t i o n )  to Theories  of Counselling)  (Please  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  427  (Guidance: P l a n n i n g  and  D e c i s i o n Making)  433  ( P e r s o n a l and  504  (Elem. S c h o o l  508  ( S o c i a l and  514  (Counselling Adolescencs)  524 531  (Counselling Adults) ( I n t . and N o n - S t a n d a r d i z e d M e a s u r e s i n  532  (Tests  534  (Gender and  544  (Family C o u n s e l l i n g  I)  545  (Family C o u n s e l l i n g  II)  564  (Group  Counselling)  574  (Career  Planning  578  (Counselling Theories  584  ( P r o g r a m Development i n  594  (Cross-cultural  S o c i a l Dev.  o f Che  Counselling)  C u l t u r a l Issues  i n P u p i l Personnel Sex  in  Role Issues  and  Please  Counselling)  Counselling)  Services) in  Counselling)  Decision-Making and  Counselling)  Interventions) Counselling)  counselling)  What t y p e o f c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e program?  Adulc)  l i s t job t i t l e s  and  have you  had  outside  j o b s h e l d as w e l l  this  as  volunteer positions.  . Have you  taken s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g courses or workshops  ( o u t s i d e o f UBC the  C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s ) i n any  f o l l o w i n g areas?  (Please  check a p p r o p r i a t e  •  Elementary school  counselling  Q  Secondary s c h o o l  Q  Posc-secondary/career c o u n s e l l i n g  •  Family  •  Counselling  •  C o u n s e l l i n g women  C  Cross-cultural counselling  counselling  Counselling adults  boxes)  of  124  FINAL NOTE Please  ensure t h a t you have answered a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e  and t h a t your demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet Thank you a g a i n  f o r your  participation.  items  i s complete.  APPENDIX E  Organization Thirty-six used.  test  Sixpre-test  following  of P r e - and P o s t - t e s t booklets  booklets  were p r e p a r e d , o f w h i c h 31 were were p r e p a r e d  i n each of t h e  orders:  A:  RBI  TAWS  Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness  Measure  B:  RBI  Wayne E t h n i c  A w a r e n e s s Measure  TAWS  C:  TAWS  RBI  D:  TAWS  Wayne E t h n i c  E:  Wayne E t h n i c  A w a r e n e s s Measure  TAWS  F:  Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness Measure  RBI  For  the post-test,  Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness  Measure  A w a r e n e s s Measure  the order  above a n d t h e BMS was i n c l u d e d case.  Booklets  of t h e measures  as a f i n a l  measure  RBI RBI TAWS  remained as i n every  APPENDIX F  Instructions  and in  My into my  class  research now  study.  t o ask  booklet  of my  two  you  once my of  will  When we  extra  you'll forms:  in a brief  would l i k e study  like  take  booklet  study..  time  participate  of  all  other  instructions  any  questions,  begin.  you  are  booklet  please  of  my four  first  time.  45 m i n u t e s t o  identified please  for  here  out  d i d the  f o r e v e r y o n e who  ready,  I'm  to f i l l  I came  data  i n P a r t Two  approximately  These are  volunteered by  your  p i c k up  the  one for  mother's test  you.  n o t i c e that at one  to f i l l  follow-up  is finished.  test  now?  values.  the  out  end  at are  you  raise  of  the  your hand.  (Answer q u e s t i o n s  the  and  one  the  booklet  to to f i l l  research  have c o m p l e t e d  i n these  front  inside  agree  i n t e r v i e w and  After  the  of y o u r  i f you  t o r e c e i v e a summary of  from y o u r  Please  remember t h a t  term to c o l l e c t  t o ask  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p l e a s e hand  questions  will  same manner t h a t you  that a p p l i e s to  This  if  these  I have a t e s t One  beginning  I would  i n the  of  maiden name.  are  the  You  f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n  T h i s time  Completion  Part  at  Included  Booklets  i n t o c o u n s e l l o r a t t i t u d e s and  questionnaires  hour.  Post-test  name i s G e r r i e B r o o k s .  this  again  Additional Material  out  results  the  rest  forms s e p a r a t e l y room. As  booklet,  but  before, i f you  Does anyone have distribute  have any  'booklets.)  Dear Research P a r t i c i p a n t : Thank you f o r agreeing to p a r t i c i p a t e i n P a r t Two of t h i s study. Attached  to t h i s l e t t e r you w i l l  p l u s three supplementary q u e s t i o n s . items  f i n d four questionnaires You may r e c a l l some of the  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; some o f them w i l l be new to you.  As b e f o r e , PLEASE COMPLETE ALL QUESTIONNAIRES IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO YOU.  None o f the q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e s are timed, but i n t o t a l they w i l l probably about one hour t o complete. best o f your a b i l i t v  take you  Please answer a l l items  to the  and when you are f i n i s h e d , r e t u r n your  completed booklet i n the'.envelope  provided.  I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , j u s t r a i s e your hand and I w i l l a s s i s t you.  Thank you again f o r your cooperation.'  Gerrie. Brooks Student I n v e s t i g a t o r  BRANNON MASCULINITY The  SCALE  statements below express a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s .  Please i n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by p l a c i n g at the end of each statement  the number which best expresses your o p i n i o n .  Please use the f o l l o w i n g  scale:  1. = S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 2 = Disagree 3 = N e i t h e r d i s a g r e e nor  agree  4 = Agree 5 = S t r o n g l y agree  * * * 1.  A man  whose hobbies are cooking, sewing,  and going  to the b a l l e t probably would not appeal to 2.  me.  I would not o b j e c t i f a young son of mine wanted a doll.  3.  Unless he was a man  r e a l l y desperate, I would probably a d v i s e  to keep l o o k i n g r a t h e r than accept a job as a  secretary. 4.  I f I heard about a man  who  was  a h a i r d r e s s e r and a  gourmet cook, I might wonder how 5.  masculine he  was.  I t h i n k i t ' s extremely good f o r a boy to be taught to cook, sew,  c l e a n the house, and take care of younger  children. 6.  I might friend  7.  find-.it a l i t t l e s i l l y  Nobody r e s p e c t s a man  very much who  I t h i n k a man  A man  should know how  talks  problems. t i r e d of i t ,  financially.  I t ' s much more important i n l i f e than f o r him to be f i n a n c i a l l y  10.  frequently  should change h i s job i f he's  even i f h i s f a m i l y w i l l s u f f e r 9.  i f a male  of mine c r i e d over a sad love scene i n a movie.  about h i s w o r r i e s , f e a r s , and 8.  or embarassing  f o r a man  to be  liked  successful.  to f i x almost anything that goes  wrong i n a house so he won't have to c a l l a plumber or electrician.  11.  In an emergency a man  12.  A businessman who  should be able to take charge.  should be tough enough to f i r e an employee  i s h u r t i n g the company, even i f the employee has  been s i c k and has p e r s o n a l problems. 13.  A man  should not be too a f r a i d to walk the s t r e e t s at  night. 14.  I don't l i k e a man who  jokes around a l o t and doesn't  act grown up. 15.  Having w i l d adventures and doing e x c i t i n g things b r i n g s out the glamor and manliness of a  16.  A man  man.  should always r e f u s e to get i n t o a f i g h t , even i f  there seems to be no way  to a v o i d i t .  SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION SHEET  During the f a l l  1987 term have you completed, or ar.e you  c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n , any courses,  workshops, or programs  o u t s i d e o f o f f i c i a l UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology c l a s s e s which deal with c r o s s - c u l t u r a l issues program administered  During the f a l l  (eg. the peer p a i r i n g  by Dr. Marv Westwood)?  1987 term  I f so, please  list:  have you completed, or are you  c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n , any courses,  workshops, or programs  o u t s i d e o f o f f i c i a l UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology c l a s s e s which d e a l with  sex-role issues  t r a i n i n g program)?  (eg. the UBC Women's Resources Centre  I f so, p l e a s e  list:  RESEARCH RESULTS  The  preceding  questionnaires  are p a r t of an on-going  study  of c o u n s e l l o r a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s .  R e s u l t s may not be  a v a i l a b l e u n t i l the summer o f 1988.  I f you would l i k e to  r e c e i v e a copy of the r e s u l t s when they are a v a i l a b l e , p l e a s e complete the f o l l o w i n g form, t e a r t h i s sheet t e s t booklet  Name: Address:  P o s t a l Code:  out of your  and hand i t i n s e p a r a t e l y at the f r o n t as you leave.  As p a r t of t h i s r e s e a r c h  some i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s  follow-up  are planned.  contacted  i n the f u t u r e please  t e a r t h i s sheet  I f you would be w i l l i n g to be fill  out  the f o l l o w i n g form,  out of your t e s t booklet  s e p a r a t e l y at the f r o n t as you  leave.  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b r i e f interview  and hand i t i n  Your consent to  (perhaps over the phone) and/or  l a t e r s t u d i e s would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  Name: Address:.  P o s t a l Code: Telephone  No:  and  Thank  you.  APPENDIX G  Follow-up These t e l e p h o n e the  post-test  Interviews  interviews  were c o n d u c t e d  6 months a f t e r  (n = 7 ) .  Script Hello.  This  i s Gerrie  Psychology.Dept. You  may  that  from t h e C o u n s e l l i n g  Do y o u have a few m i n u t e s t o t a l k  remember t h a t  were i n t o do some d a t a research  Brooks  on c o u n s e l l o r  last  fall  collection  is  why I'm c a l l i n g  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s .  in  an i n t e r v i e w  now a good t i m e time  now.  that  f o r that  f o r me t o c a l l  you?  take about  This  one and I have a s p e c i f i c  B e c a u s e my  research  interviews  with  the  questions  finished, Also,  other  in detail  until you'll  OK?  another  be a f o r you.  conducting  I can't  discuss  any o f  a l l of the i n t e r v i e w s a r e find  be w r i t i n g down y o u r  succinctly.  will  s e t of q u e s t i o n s  as w e l l ,  And i s  to schedule  o n g o i n g and I am  students  b u t I'm s u r e  I will  answer  is still  That  to p a r t i c i p a t e  10 t o 15 m i n u t e s ?  interview  structured  interview.  willing  o r would y o u l i k e ...  thesis  You a g r e e d a t  follow-up  A r e you s t i l l  will  now?  I came i n t o a c l a s s y o u  f o r my M a s t e r ' s  time t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b r i e f  right  Ready?  them q u i t e responses,  I will  begin  straightforward. so p l e a s e  t r y to  now.  Question 1 You  t o o k CNPS 508, S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l I s s u e s i n  Counselling  with  D r . S h a r o n Kahn  i n the F a l l  term.  Thinking  about  t h a t . c o u r s e now, what y o u l i k e d  didn't  like  about  t h i n g s about  Question If course  i t , would y o u s a y t h a t  that  Responses.  about  course  that  i t and what y o u  t h e r e were some  were v a l u a b l e t o you?  Y e s : 6 (86 % ) ; No: 1 (14 %)  2 y e s , what would y o u s a y was t h e main v a l u e o f t h e  f o r you?  Sample r e s p o n s e counselling  1.  I t made me aware o f how c u l t u r e  i s and how u n a v o i d a b l e  be aware o f i t and a c c o u n t free,  for i t .  b u t y o u c a n be aware o f y o u r  Sample  response  b i a s e s and better  2.  that  bound  is.  But y o u c a n  I t can't  be c u l t u r e -  own b i a s e s .  [ i t i n c r e a s e d ^ my a w a r e n e s s o f my  l e t me s e e  steps that  c o u n s e l l o r when w o r k i n g  I c o u l d take  with a c l i e n t  own  t o be a  from  another  culture. Sample  response  insidious himself  t o be u n b i a s e d  actions,  Question The  i n someone who b e l i e v e s  and n o n j u d g e m e n t a l .  t o a l w a y s be v i g i l a n t  behaviours,  and t h o u g h t s  It underlined  i n watching  t o make s u r e my  my  biases  creeping i n .  course  gender.  level  f o r me  expose how s u b t l e and  3  differences and  I t helped  b i a s c a n be even  t h e need  aren't  3.  f o c u s e d on t h e s t u d y  with a p a r t i c u l a r  of s o c i a l  e m p h a s i s on e t h n i c i t y  Do y o u t h i n k y o u e x p e r i e n c e d  of e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l  and c u l t u r a l  any change  awareness as a r e s u l t  i n your  of the  1 35 course? Responses. Question If  Yes:  6  % ) ; No:  1 (14  %)  4 yes,  change as  i n what way  a result  of  Sample r e s p o n s e that  I was  the 1.  a  impose t h a t  their  cultural  beliefs line  w i t h the  illustrated  than the  this  and  2.  from another  only  I saw  own  see  not  easily of  values  and  more i n  own. in c l a s s  any  more f r e e  of  I was  surprised  at  aware of  when I'm  how  are  presented  are  value  that i t ' s  t h a n my  population.  bias  now  approaches that  studies  fact  regardless  each c l i e n t ' s  t o make me  3.  I think  entering  u n d e r s t a n d him  a counsellor.  awareness  i t i n the  dealing  future  with a  client  culture.  Sample Response of  s y s t e m and  I can  counsellors  i t ' s going  dominant c u l t u r e  framework  The  general  watch f o r my  cultural  a l l women c l i e n t s  client's  that  bias  better  on  value  treatment  Sample Response  necessity  from my  background.  use  or  I became more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e  t o become aware of  and  ethnic  course?  feminist  could  important  d i d your  operating  s y s t e m and  and  (86  Before  peripherally.  i t reinforced  i n t o the or her the  client's  f o r me  the  w o r l d view  to  and  t o be  more e f f e c t i v e  course  I was  aware of  this  as  I  Question 5 Do toward  y o u t h i n k y o u e x p e r i e n c e d any change men o r men's r o l e s a s a r e s u l t  Responses. Question If  i n your  of the c o u r s e ?  Y e s : 5 (71 % ) ; No: 2 (29 %)  6 y e s , i n what way d i d y o u r  men's r o l e s change a s a r e s u l t Sample  response  socialization this  1.  attitudes  toward  men o r  of the course?  It reinforced  and c o n s t r a i n t s  f o r me t h e  under w h i c h men f u n c t i o n i n  society.  Sample  response  2.  I h a d a l w a y s r e c o g n i z e d women's  i s s u e s a n d women's o p p r e s s i o n , b u t I a l s o the  attitudes  restrictions  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  optimum between t r a d i t i o n a l somewhere Sample  began t o s e e  male r o l e  male a n d f e m a l e  and the  roles i s  i n between.  response  3.  My u n d e r s t a n d i n g  r o l e s was h e i g h t e n e d already  understanding  greater  clarity  o f men a n d men's  along  t h e same c o n t i n u u m t h a t  I was  i t .  I saw t h e same p r o b l e m s  with  and w i t h a broader p e r s p e c t i v e .  Question 7 Do toward  you t h i n k you e x p e r i e n c e d women o r women's r o l e s  Responses.  any change  as a r e s u l t  i n your  attitudes  of t h e course?  Y e s : 4 (57 % ) ; No: 3 (43 %)  Question 8 If  y e s , i n what way d i d y o u r  women's r o l e s  change a s a r e s u l t  attitudes  toward  of the c o u r s e ?  women o r  137 Sample r e s p o n s e disadvantaged  1.  I became more s y m p a t h e t i c  r o l e o f women i n s o c i e t y .  I would be much  more s e n s i t i z e d a s a c o u n s e l l o r  now w i t h women  and  a f f e c t women.  to issues  that  Sample r e s p o n s e emotionally hadn't  before. know  f o r women.  I  I knew t h e i s s u e s  how s e n s i t i v e women a p p e a r e d  them. 3.  play  this culture. it  that  I didn't  response  differences  clients  I became more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e  charged nature of the issues  but  t o be a b o u t Sample  2.  understood  existed,  specifically  t o the  I began t o s e e how s u b c u l t u r a l  a role  i n the l i v e s  I need t o a c c e p t  comes t o t h e i r  own v a l u e s  superimpose mine.  o f women who l i v e i n  where women a r e a t when  and b e l i e f s .  I became a l e s s r a d i c a l  became a more l i b e r a l  I can't f e m i n i s t and  feminist.  Question 9 Has t h e c o u r s e  i n any way i n f l u e n c e d  y o u r own a p p r o a c h t o  counselling clients? Responses. Question If didn't  Y e s : 4 (57 % ) ; No: 3 (43 %)  10 s o , how?  do b e f o r e  Sample  What  do y o u do d i f f e r e n t l y  y o u took  response  1.  now t h a t y o u  the course? I t a k e a more s e n s i t i v e a p p r o a c h now.  I'm more aware o f my own b i a s e s - - c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and gender.  F o r example,  I'm aware now o f t r a n s f e r e n c e and  countertransference  issues with  how  me.  t h a t might  Sample  bias  r e s p o n s e 2.  perspective counsel  I don't  i s the i d e a l .  someone  opposite  immediately Now  t o be i n a way  American  middle-class  than  response  myself,  3.  ability  t o work w i t h  culture  and e v e r y t h i n g  want  to a v a i l  myself  that's  o f more  p e r s o n ' s c u l t u r e — e i t h e r from resources.  than  them t o  values. someone  different  presumptuous about  them w i t h o u t  my  I can  anymore o r c o u n s e l  If encountering  I ' d be much l e s s  and  them t o be N o r t h  on N o r t h A m e r i c a n m i d d l e - c l a s s  Sample  that  that's different  I d o n ' t have t o c o u n s e l  take  assume  I c a n see t h a t  myself.  people  sex c l i e n t s  understanding  related  their  t o them.  information the c l i e n t  about  my  Now  I'd  that  o r from  outside  APPENDIX H  Definitions Ethnic ity Wayne  (1981) u s e d F e i n s t e i n ' s (1974) d e f i n i t i o n o f  ethnic i t y : A sense of commonality of  family relations  generations Ethnicity, thus  o r community d e r i v e d  w h i c h have o v e r  been t h e c a r r i e r s  from  a number o f  o f common  experiences.  i n s h o r t , means t h e c u l t u r e o f p e o p l e  critical  for values,  modes o f e x p r e s s i o n s ,  attitudes, perceptions,  behavior  networks  and i d e n t i t y .  and i s needs,  (Cited in  Wayne, p . 9-10)  Ethnic  Awareness  Wayne's Ethnic  (1981)  definition:  awareness  i s an a b i l i t y  recognize  the importance  behavior,  values,  one's s t e r e o t y p e s question is  of e t h n i c i t y  i n shaping  one's  and m e n t a l h e a l t h ; t o be c o g n i z a n t o f about d i f f e r e n t  ethnic  whether a p r o b l e m a c l i e n t  idiosyncratic  cultural  and a s e n s i t i v i t y t o  of the person  significance.  ( p . 10)  g r o u p s ; and t o  presents  o r whether  i n therapy  i t has  broader  140 APPENDIX I  Comparison  of  Traditionally, stress  the  loyalty familial serious Kramer  offence (1970),  Similarly, defined  family  parents  (Sue  before  r o l e s and  the  extended Both  the  patriarchal accorded  family  family  as  one  for  the  example,  i t is a  kin.  the  self"  173).  1972;  together cited  Sue,  under  to  1981). is placed one  in Margolis,  Chinese c u l t u r e s a l s o  systems  rigidly  children  in Chinese c u l t u r e  1973,  roof  than are  the  traditional  i s the  the  mystery  of  value  sons.  (1986) d e s c r i b e s  on  1986).  i n which daughters g e n e r a l l y mobility  to  in a h o s t i l e  families stress  & Sue,  (Fong,  very  According  (p.  o b l i g a t i o n s of  living  primary  i n d i v i d u a l achievement;  Chinese  the  l e s s freedom and  example, A b a l o s  t h o s e of  and  cultures  i s a sanctuary  above any  emphasis  Hispanic  society,  o b l i g a t i o n to  197-2; Sue  and  Chinese  i n d i v i d u a l owing h e r / h i s  family  traditional  solidarity  and  Cultures  such s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t  Hispanic  & Kirk,  Chinese  In H i s p a n i c  has  Furthermore, a great family  the  i s valued  put  and  Hispanic  t o v i o l a t e an the  " it  needs a r e  of  family.  solidarity  w o r l d and its  both the  importance  to the  Hispanic  are  For Latino  family  i n which  the  father  eldest  son  replaces  women e x i s t t o household.  s o u r c e of  The  serve  the  father  the  father  i n h i s a b s e n c e , and  needs of  can  the  coerce,  the  men  and  the  the  c a j o l e , mediate,  and  bargain, family  but he  will  n o t a l l o w f e m a l e members o f  to p h y s i c a l l y  isolate  themselves  area  o f autonomous j u r i s d i c t i o n  that  a l l o w s them t h e i r  schedules.  (p.  the  father,  p.  66)  would q u i c k l y  The  or to develop  such as a l i f e  jobs, paychecks,  "a v e i l  attempt  patriarchal  one  guilt"  described  family,  system  the household, role  of  by  age,  Sue  i n the  family  (1981) a l s o  the Chinese  reports  family  of  of  ...  domestic  bear  children,  norms a r e t h e  that  used  and  to  inculcation  of  obligation, "If  to act independently, contrary  the p a r e n t s , they are t o l d  head  of  t o keep members i n l i n e  appeals to f a m i l i a l  attempt  that  t h e p r i m a r y means  guilt  children  was  and  from  shame and  the  121)  that  family  ...  t o m a r r y , become o b e d i e n t  suppress d e v i a t i o n s and  behavior.  i s unquestioned.  performance  (p.  generational  is traditionally  mother-in-law,  male o n e s .  dissimilar  (1981):  sex, and  his authority  Women were e x p e c t e d  especially  within  father  t o m a l e s and  h e l p e r s of t h e i r  Sue  and  females  subservience duties.  the  (Abalos,  i s not  s t a t u s a r e p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t s of r o l e Being p a t r i a r c h a l ,  authority  her.  Hispanic family  In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  The  style  and  to q u e s t i o n the  o f s i n , shame, and  surround  t o the A s i a n American  of  an  66)  Should a H i s p a n i c daughter of  own  the  t o the  they are s e l f i s h  and  wishes  inconsiderate have done In the  f o r them"  light  subject  to a Chinese appropriate "ungrateful" Chinese  and n o t showing g r a t i t u d e  parents  (p. 122).  of these  of V i g n e t t e  similarities #4 was  to a Hispanic  "wicked"  c o n t e x t ) was  t o more a c c u r a t e l y system.  between t h e two c u l t u r e s ,  c h a n g e d from a H i s p a n i c  f e m a l e and t h e word  family  for a l l their  reflect  (which  replaced  female  was by t h e word  the r e a l i t y  of t h e  143 APPENDIX J  Scoring  Procedure  f o r t h e Wayne E t h n i c  ( B a s e d on M a r g o l i s ,  Awareness Measure  1986 a n d Wayne, 1981)  Level 1 1 = no e t h n i c There  awareness  i s no m e n t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y o r t h e r e f e r e n c e i s  derogatory. Level 2 2 = low e t h n i c Participant family's  values  awareness  mentions e t h n i c i t y of c l i e n t  or relevance  of  but these a r e not e x p l o r e d .  Level 3 3 = moderate e t h n i c Participant problem b r i e f l y , explored  and/or  response being Level  awareness  questions  r o l e of e t h n i c i t y i n p r e s e n t i n g  b u t e i t h e r t h e impact the subject  that  continues  of e t h n i c i t y i s not with  focus  of the  of i n t r a p s y c h i c f a c t o r s .  4 4 = high  ethnic  Participant presenting  For  explores  t h e impact  of e t h n i c  f a c t o r on t h e  problem.  this  Wayne m e a s u r e . Counselling  awareness  study,  three  These  Psychology  j u d g e s were t r a i n e d t o s c o r e t h e  j u d g e s were a d v a n c e d  students  i n t h e UBC  p r o g r a m who had c o m p l e t e d most  or a l l  of  their  Master's degree course  trained  together,  lasting  approximately  included  as defined  discussion  They  were  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , i n a t r a i n i n g three  a definition  ethnicity  requirements.  The t r a i n i n g  and d i s c u s s i o n by Wayne  of the f i v e  responses of f i v e  hours.  of e t h n i c  session  session  a w a r e n e s s and  ( s e e A p p e n d i x H ) , a r e v i e w and  cases,  and p r a c t i c e r a t i n g t h e  p a r t i c i p a n t s from t h e s t u d y c h o s e n a t  random. In rated  the p r a c t i c e  rating session,  the responses t o Vignette  chosen) p a r t i c i p a n t s .  e a c h of t h e t h r e e  1 of the f i v e  i n order  consensus as t o the c r i t e r i a  f o r r a t i n g that  result  of t h i s  individual of  the remaining  practice of was  consensus,  ratings.  the remaining  each  judges'  After ratings  averaged  judge  to obtain  the f i r s t  a final  five  f o r each  a f t e r the the responses  vignettes.  or m o d i f i c a t i o n  There  of these the three  i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e were summed and  response t o each v i g n e t t e . analysis,  Immediately  t h e r a t i n g p r o c e s s was c o m p l e t e d , f o r each  As a  were made t o  i n d i v i d u a l l y rated  discussion,  were  vignette.  repeated  26 p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a l l f i v e  no c o m p a r i s o n ,  ratings.  p r o c e s s was t h e n  vignettes.  judges  t o e s t a b l i s h a group  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s  This  four  session,  (randomly  The r a t i n g s o f a l l t h r e e  t h e n compared and d i s c u s s e d ,  judges  score  ( F o r p u r p o s e s of s t a t i s t i c a l  data  the remaining  f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  included  with  received  d i f f e r e n t and g r e a t e r  sets  data,  rated even  by t h e j u d g e s  were  though they had  rating attention  than  the other  26  sets.  in  this  T h i s was study.)  necessary  b e c a u s e of t h e  small  sample  size  APPENDIX K  Revised Using  Scoring  f o r Men on t h e RBI  R o b i n s o n a n d F o l l i n g s t a d ' s (1985) method, a h i g h  score  on any i t e m  would  i n d i c a t e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l behaviour  same h i g h  score  behaviour  f o r men.  reads: use year  on c e r t a i n  "If trying  tears with at least  Follingstad's  ( t a k i n g i n t o account  a person  participants,  Issues  Item  #1 i n t h e s i n g l e  of the opposite  sex w i t h i n  t h e next  criteria  f o rdesignating certain  of t r a d i t i o n a l  total  f o r male  participants. the scores  j u d g e s who s c o r e d  discussed  to r e v e r s e  the rating  applicable  t o male b e h a v i o u r .  each  o f male  t h e Wayne E t h n i c  ( a l l o f whom had c o m p l e t e d a c o u r s e  i n Counselling)  score  or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  t o more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s the three  form  a r e you t o  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , R o b i n s o n ' s a n d  forms o f t h e RBI and r e a c h e d  scoring  indicate traditional  once?")  Awareness S c a l e Role  items)  f o r women, b u t t h a t  t o g e t y o u r own way, how l i k e l y  have l e s s v a l i d i t y  In o r d e r  would  ( F o r example,  ranges as i n d i c a t i v e behaviour  items  reverse-scored  item  i n Gender  on t h e two  a c o n s e n s u s a s t o whether o r n o t  s c a l e i n each This  f o r men f o r a l l b u t f i v e  instance  t o make i t more  r e s u l t e d i n r e v e r s i n g the  items  i n e a c h o f t h e two  forms o f t h e i n v e n t o r y . Single  Form  Reverse and 34.  s c o r i n g f o r a l l items  b u t numbers  12, 14, 18, 32  147 Married  Form  Reverse and  68.  scoring  f o r a l l i t e m s but numbers  39, 48, 51,  67  APPENDIX  L  T a b l e L. 1 E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t and Time on t h e Wavne E t h n i c  Awareness  M e a s u r e : ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Source  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  Wayne V i a . # 1 Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A S - within Within  2.47  1  2.47  34.13  29  1.78  2.10  0.16  subjects factors  B  0.63  1  0.63  0.70  0.41'  AB  1.08  1  1.08  1.19  0.28  26.34  29  0.91  64.65  61  BS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = time.  ( c o n t . on n e x t page)  Table  L. 1  (cont.)  Source  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  0.01  0.95  Wayne V i a . # 2 Between s u b j e c t s A S - within Within  subjects  factors 0.01  1  0.01  42.30  28  1.51  factors  B  0.90  1  0.90  1.52  0.23  AB  0.00  1  0.00  0.00  1.00  16.55  28  0.59  59.76  59  BS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = time,  ( c o n t . on n e x t page)  150  Table  L. 1  (cont.)  Source  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  Wayne V i g . #3 Between s u b j e c t s A S - within Within  subjects  factors 1.82  1  1.82  81.34  29  2.81  0. 65  0.43  factors  B  0.12  1  0.12  0.20  0.66  AB  0.77  1  0.77  1.24  0.28  18.03  29  0.62  102.08  61  BS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Note. A = treatment; B = time.  ( c o n t . on n e x t page)  Table  L. 1  (cont.)  Source  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  Wayne V i a . # 4 Between s u b j e c t s A S - within Within  subjects  factors 0.23  1  0.23  36.71  28  1.31  0.17  0.68  factors  B  0.00  1  0.00  0.00  0.97  AB  0.00  1  0.00  0.00  0.97  24.94  28  0.89  61.88  59  BS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Note. A = treatment; B = time  ( c o n t . on n e x t page)  152  Table  L. 1  (cont.)  Source  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  Wayne V i a . #5 Between s u b j e c t s A S - within Within subjects  factors 0.50  1  0.50  47.43  27  1.76  0.29  0.60  factors  B  0.07  1  0.07  0.22  0.64  AB  0.18  1  0.18  0.57  0.46  BS - w i t h i n  8.39  27  0.31  56.57  57  TOTAL  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = time.  APPENDIX M  ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g T r e a t m e n t , Time, and Age As i s shown differential RBI  effect  ( s e e T a b l e M.1  participants RBI  i n T a b l e M.1  over  and F i g u r e M.1).  time  time.  non-traditional intentions.)  respect to treatment  i n the experimental  s c o r e s over  increase  with  and F i g u r e M.1,  That  and t i m e  f o r the  i s , the older  g r o u p showed a d e c r e a s e i n  whereas a l l o t h e r  participants  ( F o r t h e RBI, h i g h e r  sex r o l e  age showed a  behaviours  scores  showed an  indicate  and b e h a v i o u r a l  more  Table  M.l  Effects  o f Treatment,  Behavioural  Inventory  Source  Between s u b j e c t s  Time, and Aae on t h e R o b i n s o n (RBT): ANOVAR  Results  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  factors  A  3248.69  1  3248. 69  0 .70  0 .41  B  6203.18  1.  6203. 18  1 .34  0 .26  AB  3186.95  1  3186. 95  0 . 69  0 .41  125,106.00  27  4633. 56  89.33  1  89. 33  1 .30  0 .26  AC  153.41  1  153. 41  2 .23  0 . 15  BC  117.86  1  117 .86  1 .71  0 .20  ABC  295.12  1  295. 12  4 .291  0 . 05*  1857.00  27  140,257.54  61  s - within thin  subjects  C  CS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  factors  N o t e . A - t r e a t m e n t ; B = age; C = t i m e . * represents  significance  a t t h e .05  level.  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group 205 (202.50)  200  CO  195  w o o  (194.50)  190  GO  185 180 175 170 (166 . 80)  165 160  (160.30)  155 150  Pre-test Note• years pants,  Solid  line  (younger  TIME  Post-test  r e p r e s e n t s younger p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  participants:  n=8); d o t t e d l i n e  ( i . e . , those over 35 y e a r s  i . e . , t h o s e under 35  represents older  partici-  (older p a r t i c i p a n t s : n=6).  Comparison Group 205 _ (202.29)  200 _ £J  195 _  (195.00)  O o  190-  (190.88)  CO  (194.88)  185 _ 180 _ 175 _ 170 _ 165 _ 160 _ 155 _ 150 _  Pre-test Note. years pants,  Solid  line  (younger  Post-test  r e p r e s e n t s younger p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  participants:  n=8); d o t t e d l i n e  i . e . , those over 35 years  F i g u r e M.1.  TIME  Significant  i . e . , those under 35  represents older  partici-  (older p a r t i c i p a n t s : n=7).  three-way i n t e r a c t i o n  t i m e b y a g e : g r a p h o f means f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o r t h e Robinson B e h a v i o r a l  Inventory  f o r t r e a t m e n t by  and c o m p a r i s o n (RBI).  APPENDIX N  ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g As  T r e a t m e n t , Time, and R e l i g i o n  i s shown i n T a b l e N.1 a n d F i g u r e  N.1, r e l i g i o n  showed a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t  with  time  The r e l i g i o u s  f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e  experimental over  #4.  group i n c r e a s e d  respect  their  t i m e whereas t h e n o n - r e l i g i o u s  decreased  their  scores.  remained e s s e n t i a l l y  scores  also  t o treatment and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the for this  vignette  participants in this  The c o m p a r i s o n  t h e same f o r t h i s  group's vignette.  scores  group  1 57  Table N . l E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t , Time,  and R e l i g i o n on Wayne E t h n i c  A w a r e n e s s M e a s u r e V i g n e t t e #4: ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Source  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A  0.84  1  0.84  0.59  0.45  B  0.32  1  0.32  0.23  0.64  AB  0.13  1  0.13  0.09  0.77  34.19  24  1.43  S - within  thin subjects factors C  0.11  1  0 .11  0.13  0.73  AC  0.23  1  0.23  0.27  0.61  BC  1.13  1  1.13  1.33  0.26  ABC  2.57  1  2.57  3.02  0.10*  20.42  24  60.11  55  CS - w i t h i n  TOTAL  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = r e l i g i o n ;  0 . 85  C = time.  * r e p r e s e n t s s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .10 l e v e l .  1 58  Experimental  oocc H  Group 4.0 _ 3.8 -  w 2 < 2  3.6 _  DJ OS D CO <  3.0 _  a w a  2. 6 _  < s  .• (3.50)  3.4 _ 3.2 _ (3.00)  2. 2. 4 _  (2.50) •  (2.47)  2. 2. 0 Pre-test  Post-test TIME  Note.  S o l i d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s n o n - r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=10); d o t t e d  l i n e represents  r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=4).  Comparison Group 4.0 3.8  o o  3.6  CO  %  3.4  w 2  3.2 _  CO  2.8 -  < w 2  2  3.0 _ 2.6 2.4 _  (2.73)  (2.63) (2.53)  (2.52)  2.2 _  ,o Pre-test  Post-test TIME  Note.  S o l i d l i n e r e p r e s e n t s n o n - r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=9)  represents  line  r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=6)  F i g u r e N.1. time  dotted  Significant  by r e l i g i o n :  graph  three-way i n t e r a c t i o n o f means  f o r treatment  f o r experimental  by  and  c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s f o r Wayne E t h n i c A w a r e n e s s M e a s u r e V i g n e t t e #4.  APPENDIX  0  ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g T r e a t m e n t , Time, and Similarly,  ethnicity  respect  to treatment  0.1  Figure  and  experimental comparison reverse  0.1,  and  showed a d i f f e r e n t i a l time  minority  group i n c r e a s e d  group,  pattern  their  i s seen  Ethnicity  f o r the  RBI.  As  effect shown  culture p a r t i c i p a n t s in their  scores  RBI  scores,  changed very  for majority  with  in the  whereas  little.  Table  in  The  culture participants.  the  1 60 T a b l e 0.1 E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t , Time, and E t h n i c i t y on t h e R o b i n s o n B e h a v i o u r a l I n v e n t o r y ( R B I ) : ANOVAR R e s u l t s  Source  Between s u b j e c t s  Sum o f  Degrees o f  Mean  F  Squares  freedom  Squares  Ratio  Probability  factors  A  3290. 84  1  3290. 84  0 .67  0 .42  B  3009. 60  1  3009. 60  0 .61  0 .44  AB  1492. 68  1  1492. 68  0 .30  0 .59  128,575. 00  26  4945. 19  93. 75  1  93. 75  1 .22  0 .28  AC  3. 64  1  3. 64  0 .48  0 .83  BC  2. 02  1  2. 02  0 .03  0 .87  269. 52  1  269. 52  3 .52  0 .07*  1992. 00  26  76. 62  • 138,729.05  59  s - within thin subjects C  ABC CS -- w i t h i n  TOTAL  -  factors  Note. A = t r e a t m e n t ; B = e t h n i c i t y ;  C = time.  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group 200 _ H O O  CO  (196.83)  195 190 _  (190.50)  •-•  185 _ 180 175 170 -  (168.67) (166.67)  165 160 Pre-test  Post-test TIME  Note. line  Solid line  represents majority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s  represents minority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s  (n=10); d o t t e d  (n=6).  Comparison Group 200 _ CO  w « o o CO  (199 .75)  195 190 _  Maj.  (198.46)  Min.  (198.00)  (190.27)  185 _ 180 175 170 165 160 Pre-test  Post-test TIME  Note. line  Solid line  represents minority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s  F i g u r e 0.1. time  represents majority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s  by  Significant  ethnicity:  (n=ll);  dotted  (n=4).  three-way i n t e r a c t i o n  f o r treatment  g r a p h o f means f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l  by  and  comparison groups f o r the Robinson B e h a v i o u r a l Inventory  (RBI).  APPENDIX P  Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s a n d Main Resulting The  only  treatment and  two-way  significant  were f o u n d  marital  status  Wayne V i g n e t t e  TAWS  analyzed  #4, p/C'05). were  #3, p_<.1fJ) a n d g e n d e r were  0 3  found  df=1.26).  using  #4, p<.05)  Significant found f o r (RBI,  p<.05).  forreligion for  d f = 1 , 26) a n d  A l l main e f f e c t s  it-tests.  because unequal c e l l  were  Gender was a l s o  size  analyzed  p r o h i b i t e d i t s use  in  ANOVARs. Involving  Selected Moderating V a r i a b l e s .  As a f o l l o w -  t o t h e ANOVARs, w h e r e v e r m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s were f o u n d t o  have  significant  these  analyses,  main e f f e c t s , the t o t a l  means were c r e a t e d of  (Wayne V i g n e t t e  f o r t h e RBI (F=3.82; p_= . 06; =  t-tests  T-tests up  interactions involving  #5 (F=4.63; p_=.04; d f = 1 , 2 3 ) , and f o r e x p e r i e n c e  (F=5.60; p _ « ?  subsequently  the  (Wayne V i g n e t t e  main e f f e c t s  women c l i e n t s  using  forethnicity  (Wayne V i g n e t t e  Significant  the  two-way  ANOVARs  i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g time alone  religion  with  From T h r e e - F a c t o r  Effects  t-tests  were p e r f o r m e d .  For  sample was u s e d a n d a p p r o p r i a t e  by a v e r a g i n g  pre-  and p o s t - s c o r e s  f o r each  the measures. With  Vignette  respect  t o t h e main e f f e c t  of r e l i g i o n  #5, p a r t i c i p a n t s who i d e n t i f i e d  religious identified  had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  themselves as r e l i g i o u s  f o r Wayne  themselves as non-  mean s c o r e  (2<.05).  than  With  those  who  respect to  t h e main e f f e c t those  of c o u n s e l l i n g  participants  experience  who had s u c h e x p e r i e n c e  with  women  clients,  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  mean s c o r e s  on t h e RBI (p_<.lO) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  scores  on t h e TAWS  (p_<.05) t h a n  experience. for RBI,  With  respect  those  t o gender,  t h e RBI ( 2 < . 0 0 l ) and f o r t h e TAWS men had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  scores  than  higher  (i.e.,  lower  who d i d n o t have results  (i.e.,  more  liberal)  scores.  such  significant  (p_<.lO) o n l y .  women, a n d f o r t h e TAWS, t h e y less  were  lower  For the  traditional)  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  APPENDIX Q  P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between At  the pre-test,  the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the greatest  magnitude  among t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  Vignettes  #3 and #4 where r=.41 (£=.06)  g r o u p and between V i g n e t t e s the of  comparison  for  group.  group.  #2 a n d t h e RBI (r=.37,  f o r the comparison  group.  were f o u n d f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e  p_=.04) f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l (r=-.45, £ = . 0 5 )  f o r the comparison  group.  (£=.10)  f o r the experimental  the  the  Wayne v i g n e t t e s  were  g r o u p a n d r=-.47  the only  significant  f o r the experimental  #2 and #4, where r=.46  greatest  #1  r=-.35  (£=.04)  f o r the  magnitude  c o r r e l a t i o n among  g r o u p was between  (£=.04).  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f  among t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p was between V i g n e t t e s (£=.07).  (r=-.45,  group.  the post-test,  Vignettes  #4  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  t h e RBI and t h e TAWS a t t h e p r e - t e s t  At  and t h e TAWS  g r o u p a n d f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e  between  comparison  a n d t h e RBI a t  The s t r o n g e s t  between any o f t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  the p r e - t e s t  £=.09)  T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  the  at  for  and t h e RBI a t t h e p r e - t e s t was  between any o f t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  correlations  (p_=.0l)  c o r r e l a t i o n between any  correlations pre-test  between  f o r the experimental  #2 and #5 where r=.58  between Wayne V i g n e t t e  the experimental  were a c h i e v e d  The s t r o n g e s t  t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  achieved  Measures  f o r the  #2 a n d #5 where  The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t e s t  magnitude  r=.42  between  any  o f t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  between V i g n e t t e experimental  #3 and t h e RBI (r=-.30, £ = . 1 3 )  g r o u p and between V i g n e t t e  g=.06) f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n greatest the  magnitude  post-test  where r=-.46  group.  (£=.04)  f o r the  The c o r r e l a t i o n  between V i g n e t t e  of the  a n d t h e TAWS a t  #5 a n d t h e TAWS  f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  correlated  were  #5 a n d t h e RBI (r=.43,  between t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  was a c h i e v e d  Wayne v i g n e t t e s post-test  a n d t h e RBI a t t h e p o s t - t e s t  None o f t h e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e TAWS a t t h e  f o r the comparison  group.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  the  RBI a n d t h e TAWS a t t h e p o s t - t e s t  the  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d r=-.72  between  were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f o r  (£=.001)  f o r the comparison  group. The  correlations  i n t h e two p r e c e d i n g  paragraphs a r e  significant  a t the £<.15 l e v e l .  rather  .10, i s u s e d h e r e due t o t h e s m a l l  (see  than  l e v e l o f .15, sample  size  T a b l e s Q.1 and Q . 2 ) . Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s  test  A significance  F o r Each  Each p r e - t e s t  measure was a l s o  counterpart.  These c o r r e l a t i o n s  sample  as a whole,  comparison  groups.  correlations  then s e p a r a t e l y F o r t h e whole  (£<.05)  Measure  correlated  were c a l c u l a t e d  sample,  the s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r t h e Wayne v i g n e t t e s  were e f f e c t i v e l y 0.  ranged  from  #1 a n d #4, t h e  F o r t h e RBI, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  was r=.97, and f o r t h e TAWS, r=.64.. correlations  f o r the  f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and  r=.44 t o r=.70, a l t h o u g h f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e s correlations  with i t s post-  T h e r e were  f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r i s o n  comparable g r o u p s when  calculated #2  and  #4  separately, (see T a b l e  except Q.3).  i n t h e c a s e s of Wayne  Vignettes  Table Q.l P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P r e - t e s t M e a s u r e s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p s Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Vig. 1  Vig. 2  Vig. 3  Vig. 4  Vig. 5  RBI  TAWS  Wayne Vig. 1  31°  Wayne 37'  Vig..2 Wayne Vig.3  -.38*  41*  -.38*  -.29°  -.28°  Wayne Vig.4  34°  -.45'  Wayne 58  Vig..5  31°  A  - . 35'  RBI  TAWS  -.45  A  .35*  -.47  Note.Upper t r i a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s e x p e r i m e n t a l group; angle r e p r e s e n t s comparison  group.  °p = .11 t o .15; *p = .06 t o .09; p = .01 t o A  .05.  A  lower  tri-  T a b l e Q.2 P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P o s t - t e s t M e a s u r e s and C o m p a r i s o n  Groups  Wayne Vig.  for Experimental  1  Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Vig. 2  Vig. 3  Vig. 4  Vig. 5  RBI  TAWS  Wayne Vig.  1  Wayne Vig. 2  .46"  Wayne Vig. 3  -.30°  Wayne Vig. 4  .36*  Wayne Vig. 5  RBI  .42*  .32°  .28°  -.46"  -.38*  TAWS N o t e . Upper t r i a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ; t r i a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s comparison group. °p =.11 t o .15; *p = .06 t o .10; p = .01 t o A  .05.  lower  Table  Q.3  Pearson Correlations  Wayne  Between P r e - and P o s t - t e s t  f o r Each  Measure  Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Wayne  Vig. 2  Vig. 3  Vig. 4  Vig. 5  RBI  TAWS  A  .44  .63  .70  .97  .64  B  .56  .53  .72  .98  . 65  .70  .95  .68  Group V i g . 1  C  Note. A = t o t a l  .78  sample;  .59  B = experimental group; C =  g r o u p . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s shown a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  comparison  a t t h e .05  level.  

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