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An evaluation of a course on social and cultural issues in counselling Brooks, Geraldine Susan 1988

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AN EVALUATION OF A COURSE ON SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN COUNSELLING by GERALDINE SUSAN BROOKS B.A. (English), The University of British Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 © Geraldine Susan Brooks, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Th i s experimental res e a r c h study i n v e s t i g a t e d how e f f e c t i v e l y a Master's l e v e l course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e d students' l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness, sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s toward women. P r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o u n s e l l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have s t r o n g l y advocated that c o u n s e l l o r education programs i n c o r p o r a t e courses f o c u s i n g on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n t o t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . The study was based on the f o l l o w i n g general research q u e s t i o n . I t i s hypothesized that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between (on the one hand) c o u n s e l l i n g students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t r a i n i n g course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g and (on the other hand) t h e i r l e v e l s of et h n i c awareness, non-sexist a t t i t u d e s toward women, and non-t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s . The impact of the course was assessed through the use of the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure, the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory, and the T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e . These instruments were admi n i s t e r e d i n a pre- and p o s t - t e s t format to 16 students who were e n r o l l e d i n the experimental course and 15 students who were e n r o l l e d i n a comparable l e v e l course on c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Six months a f t e r the p o s t - t e s t , b r i e f follow-up i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with seven v o l u n t e e r s from the experimental group. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s of the data i n d i c a t e d that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness, sex r o l e behaviours or b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , or a t t i t u d e s toward women, between the experimental and the comparison groups at the time of the p o s t - t e s t . The r e s u l t s a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t , o v e r a l l , p a r t i c i p a n t s had r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness and r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s of f e m i n i s t consciousness based on p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s fo r the instruments used. These f i n d i n g s imply that the experimental course should be m o d i f i e d to more e f f e c t i v e l y address i t s t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they p e r t a i n to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s x Acknowledgements x i CHAPTER 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework 7 The Research Problem 11 CHAPTER 2: L i t e r a t u r e Review 12 Bi a s i n General 12 Gender Bia s 13 C u l t u r e Bias 17 E t h i c a l Issues 22 T r a i n i n g Issues 23 CHAPTER 3: Method 29 Sample 29 Procedure •. 30 Measures 33 Wayne E t h n i c Awareness. Measure 34 Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory 38 T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale 41 Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y Scale 43 Follow-up Interviews 44 Research Hypotheses 44 Hypotheses 1 and 2 44 V Hypothesis 3 45 Treatment of the Q u a n t i t a t i v e Data 45 CHAPTER 4: R e s u l t s 49 Sample 49 Group Eq u i v a l e n c y 50 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s P r e - t e s t .... 54 P o s t - t e s t 56 Analyses of Variance with Repeated Measures 56 Hypothesis 1 60 Hypothesis 2 60 Hypothesis 3 60 Main E f f e c t s R e s u l t i n g From Treatment by Time ANOVARs 63 ANOVARs. I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and Moderating V a r i a b l e s 63 Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s and Main E f f e c t s R e s u l t i n g From Three-Factor ANOVARs 68 C o r r e l a t i o n a l Analyses Between and Among Measures 68 Follow-up Interviews 68 CHAPTER 5: D i s c u s s i o n 70 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 70 Sample L i m i t a t i o n s 70 Measurement L i m i t a t i o n s 70 Design L i m i t a t i o n s 73 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 74 C o n c l u s i o n s .., 77 Recommendations 79 REFERENCES 88 APPENDIX A: Course O u t l i n e 95 APPENDIX B: Ve r b a l I n s t r u c t i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t s 99 APPENDIX C: Consent Form 101 APPENDIX D: Wri t t e n I n s t r u c t i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t s and P r e - t e s t Measures 102 Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure 103 Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory 109 T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale 119 APPENDIX E: O r g a n i z a t i o n of Pre- and P o s t - t e s t Booklets 125 APPENDIX F: I n s t r u c t i o n s and A d d i t i o n a l M a t e r i a l Included i n P o s t - t e s t Booklets 126 Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y Scale 128 APPENDIX G: Follow-up Interviews 133 APPENDIX H: D e f i n i t i o n s 139 APPENDIX I: Comparison of H i s p a n i c and Chinese C u l t u r e s 140 APPENDIX J : Sc o r i n g Procedure f o r the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure 143 APPENDIX K: Revised S c o r i n g f o r Men on the RBI 146 APPENDIX L: E f f e c t s of Treatment and Time on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: ANOVAR R e s u l t s .. 148 APPENDIX M: ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, v i i and Age ..... 153 APPENDIX N: ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and R e l i g i o n 156 APPENDIX 0: ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and E t h n i c i t y 159 APPENDIX P: Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s and Main. E f f e c t s R e s u l t i n g From Three-Factor ANOVARs 162 APPENDIX Q: Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between and For Each Measure 164 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Mean I n t e r r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure 37 Table 2: Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 51 Table 3: Summary of Pre- and P o s t - t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s 55 Table 4: D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r Pre-Test Measures ( T o t a l Sample) 57 Table 5: D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r P o s t - t e s t Measures 59 Table 6: E f f e c t s of Treatment and Time on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: Summary of ANOVAR R e s u l t s 61 Table 7: E f f e c t s of Treatment and Time on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI): ANOVAR Re s u l t s 62 Table 8: E f f e c t s of Treatment and Time on the T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e Toward Women Scale (TAWS): ANOVAR R e s u l t s . 64 Table 9: E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and Age on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI): Summary and Breakdown of ANOVAR R e s u l t s 65 Table 10: E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and R e l i g i o n on Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e #4: Summary and Breakdown of ANOVAR R e s u l t s 66 ix *Table 11: E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and E t h n i c i t y on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI): Summary and Breakdown of ANOVAR R e s u l t s 67 Table L.1: E f f e c t s of Treatment and Time on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: ANOVAR R e s u l t s ... 148 Table M.1: E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and Age on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI): ANOVAR Re s u l t s 154 Table .N.I: E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and R e l i g i o n on Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e #4: ANOVAR R e s u l t s 157 Table 0.1: E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and E t h n i c i t y on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI): ANOVAR R e s u l t s 160 Table Q.1: Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P r e - t e s t Measures f o r Experimental and Comparison Groups ... 167 Table Q.2: Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P o s t - t e s t Measures f o r Experimental and Comparison Groups ... 168 Table Q.3: Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Pre- and P o s t - t e s t f o r Each Measure 169 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: F a c t o r s determining a person's behaviour (adapted from Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1 980) 9 F i g u r e M.1: S i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n f o r treatment by time by age: Graph of means fo r experimental and comparison groups f o r the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI) 155 Fi g u r e N.1: S i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n f o r treatment by time by r e l i g i o n : Graph of means f o r experimental and comparison groups f o r Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e #4 .. 158 F i g u r e 0.1: S i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n f o r treatment by time by e t h n i c i t y : Graph of means f o r experimental and comparison groups f o r the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI) 161 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my a d v i s o r , Dr. Sharon Kahn, f o r her commitment to t h i s r e s e a r c h and her continued guidance and encouragement. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o the other member of my committee, Dr. Marv Westwood, f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c support of t h i s study. 1 Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In recent years, r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g i n the areas of g e n d e r - f a i r and c u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g have assumed i n c r e a s i n g importance w i t h i n the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Since the l a t e 1960's, s o c i o p o l i t i c a l movements and p r o f e s s i o n a l f a c t o r s have emerged which have c o n t r i b u t e d to c o u n s e l l o r s ' awareness of m i n o r i t y group i s s u e s i n g e n e r a l , and gender and c u l t u r a l group i s s u e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . These e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e : (a) the women's, c i v i l r i g h t s , and gay r i g h t s movements; (b) the implementation of a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , and programs; (c) demographic changes in North America; (d) the r e c o g n i t i o n by the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n that r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups are forming a more s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of c o u n s e l l o r s ' c l i e n t e l e s ; and (e) an i n c r e a s i n g s e n s i t i v i t y to i s s u e s of s o c i a l j u s t i c e among subgroups of the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n (Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , & G u t i e r r e z , 1986). The p r o f e s s i o n i s a l s o becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l nature of the c o u n s e l l i n g process i t s e l f ( C a y l e f f , 1986; C h e s l e r , 1972; H a l l e c k , 1971; Katz, 1985; S c h l o s s b e r g , 1977; Sue & Sue, 1977; Sue, 1978; Sue et a l . , 1982). Ch e s l e r (1972), f o r example, emphasized the r o l e that psychotherapy p l a y s in m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo i n our s o c i e t y , and H a l l e c k (1971) s t r e s s e d therapy's i m p l i c i t 2 p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . According to H a l l e c k , no theory of psychotherapy can ever be c o n s i d e r e d e t h i c a l l y or p o l i t i c a l l y n e u t r a l . By the very nature of h i s p r a c t i c e , the p s y c h i a t r i s t c o n s i s t e n t l y takes p o s i t i o n s on i s s u e s that i n v o l v e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power w i t h i n s o c i a l systems--i s s u e s that have p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . ... The p s y c h i a t r i s t e i t h e r encourages the p a t i e n t to accept e x i s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s of power or encourages the p a t i e n t to change them. Every encounter with any p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t , t h e r e f o r e , has p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . (1971, p. 32) Bart (1971) s i m i l a r l y s t a t e d that " v a l u e - f r e e psychotherapy i s a myth" ( c i t e d i n Rawlings & C a r t e r , 1977, p. 5), and as Katz (1985) and Sue and Sue (1977) i n d i c a t e d , the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s that are t r a n s m i t t e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h i n a western framework are g e n e r a l l y white m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s . Since these may be d i f f e r e n t from the values of m i n o r i t y group c l i e n t s or c l i e n t s from lower socioeconomic c l a s s e s , c o u n s e l l o r s may employ c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s i n a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r c l i e n t s ' l i f e s t y l e s . Such misunderstandings l e a d to poor communication, obscure e x p e c t a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n , and/or an i n a b i l i t y to develop t r u s t and rapport, and e a r l y t e r m i n a t i o n of therapy ( C a y l e f f , 1986; Sue, 1978). Furthermore, as Holiman and Lauver (1987) p o i n t e d out, c o u n s e l l o r s b r i n g to t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with c l i e n t s not only 3 t h e i r own and s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s , but a l s o v a l u e s p a r t i c u l a r to the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Counselors ... are enmeshed i n a c u l t u r e , c r e a t e d through t r a i n i n g programs and work s e t t i n g s , that makes c l i e n t -c e n t e r e d p r a c t i c e d i f f i c u l t . Counseling i s both a product of the s o c i e t y that s a n c t i o n s i t s e x i s t e n c e and a c u l t u r e i n i t s e l f , with i t s own b e l i e f systems, language, customs, governance, and norms—what c o u l d be c a l l e d the 'counseling c u l t u r e . ' (pp. 184-185) Sch l o s s b e r g (1977) a l s o c a u t i o n e d c o u n s e l l o r s not to "hide behind the t r a p p i n g s of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " (p. 483); that i s , not to use the concept of shared norms as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p e r p e t u a t i n g an i n e q u i t a b l e s t a t u s quo. As c o u n s e l l o r s , we are c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d by our own, our p r o f e s s i o n ' s , and our s o c i e t y ' s p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s . At the same time, we l i v e i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l , m u l t i l i n g u a l , and p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . Thus, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that we w i l l have contact with c l i e n t s who are c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from o u r s e l v e s . As Sue et a l . (1982) i n d i c a t e d , "we are bound to i n t e r a c t with i n d i v i d u a l s who can be c l a s s i f i e d as ' c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t , ' and i t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as p r a c t i s i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s to become more c u l t u r a l l y aware and s e n s i t i v e to our work with d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s " (p. 47). The importance of c o u n s e l l o r s ' s e n s i t i v i t y to c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s becomes even more s a l i e n t when a broad d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e such as that presented by Paradis (1981) i s 4 employed. Pa r a d i s suggested that c u l t u r e can be understood to i n c l u d e not only e t h n i c i t y , but a l s o other f a c t o r s such as gender, sexual o r i e n t a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , p r o f e s s i o n , socioeconomic s t a t u s , d i s a b i l i t i e s , f a m i l y , age, community, p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , v a l u e s , and l i f e s t y l e s i n g e n e r a l . A v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups have advocated the development of t r a i n i n g programs to h e l p c o u n s e l l o r s i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness of t h e i r own gender and c u l t u r a l b i a s e s , thereby i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n as e f f e c t i v e agents of change (APA, 1975; Casas, 1985; Lessner, 1976, c i t e d i n S c ott & McMillan, 1980; Parker, 1987; S c h l o s s b e r g & P i e t r o f e s a , 1973; Scott & M c M i l l a n , 1980; Sue, 1981; Sundal-Hansen & Watt, 1979; Westwood, 1983). However, d e s p i t e such recommendations, and d e s p i t e the amount of a t t e n t i o n given i n the l i t e r a t u r e to i s s u e s of gender and c u l t u r e b i a s , most graduate c o u n s e l l i n g programs have continued to give inadequate a t t e n t i o n to the mental h e a l t h needs of m i n o r i t y groups, and have been slow to implement r e l e v a n t t r a i n i n g courses to r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n (Copeland, 1982; Gibbs, 1985; Kenworthy, Koufacos, & Sherman, 1976; McFadden & Wilson, 1977, c i t e d i n Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , & G u t i e r r e z , 1986; La Framboise, 1985; Lopez & Cheek, 1977; Myers, 1982; P o n t e r o t t o & Casas, 1987; Sue, 1981). For example, i n McFadden's and Wilson's study, l e s s than 1% of the respondents to a survey of c o u n s e l l o r education programs re p o r t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l requirements for the study of non-white 5 c u l t u r e s (Sue, 1981). Bernal and P a d i l l a (1982), i n t h e i r study on the s t a t u s of m i n o r i t y c u r r i c u l a and t r a i n i n g i n c l i n i c a l psychology, a l s o found that such p r e p a r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s . As a r u l e , courses on c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s tend to be r e l e g a t e d to the p e r i p h e r y of c o u n s e l l i n g c u r r i c u l a . There they are s u b j e c t to the v a g a r i e s of f a c u l t y p o l i t i c s , budgetary c o n s t r a i n t s , and student apathy (Korchin, 1980). Consequently, many i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s have recommended that c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e the amount of a t t e n t i o n they pay to m i n o r i t y group issu e s (APA Board of E t h n i c M i n o r i t y A f f a i r s , 1980, c i t e d i n Sue et a l . , 1982; Casas, P o n t e r o t t o & G u t i e r r e z , 1986; Copeland, 1982; Myers, 1982; Perry, 1982; Sch l o s s b e r g , 1977; Scott & M c M i l l a n , 1980; Thomas, 1985a). Ivey (1987) saw m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g as e s s e n t i a l to c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n : "Only by p l a c i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g at the core of c o u n s e l i n g c u r r i c u l a can we as co u n s e l o r s t r u l y serve and be with those whom we would h e l p " (p. 169). Scott and McMillan (1980) l i k e w i s e s t r e s s e d that a l l c o u n s e l o r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s should make course work J~bn s e x - f a i r counseling"] a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the c o u n s e l i n g department. ... [_Sex b i a s i s s u e s j should be c o n s i d e r e d as important to b a s i c counselor t r a i n i n g as theory and techniques. Unless a l l students p a r t i c i p a t e 6 in t h i s t r a i n i n g , the d i s s e r v i c e to the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n w i l l continue to e x i s t , (p. 89) Over the past decade or more, the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Counseling and Development (AACD) through i t s C o u n c i l f o r A c c r e d i t a t i o n of Counseling and Rel a t e d E d u c a t i o n a l Programs (CACREP)—along with other a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (APA) and the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r A c c r e d i t a t i o n of Teacher Education (NCATE) i n the Uni t e d S t a t e s , and the Canadian P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (CPA) i n Canada—have responded to such recommendations by adopting the p o s i t i o n that i n f o r m a t i o n concerning gender and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of any c o u n s e l l o r ' s e d u c a t i o n . The AACD now r e q u i r e s a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s i t a c c r e d i t s to have o b j e c t i v e s that r e f l e c t the needs of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups served by c o u n s e l l o r s . Furthermore, i t r e q u i r e s those i n s t i t u t i o n s to i n c l u d e i n t h e i r programs a common core of s t u d i e s that focus on the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l foundations of c o u n s e l l i n g . These are to in c l u d e s t u d i e s of change, e t h n i c groups, s u b - c u l t u r e s , changing r o l e s of women, sexism, c u l t u r a l mores, and d i f f e r i n g l i f e p a t t e r n s , among other i s s u e s (CACREP, 1986). These AACD a c c r e d i t a t i o n requirements r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of the course at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) on which the present study i s based. CNPS 508 i s a 13-week r e q u i r e d course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n 7 c o u n s e l l i n g , with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on i s s u e s of e t h n i c i t y and gender (see Appendix A ) . Given the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s u b j e c t matter of the course, the s c a r c i t y of p u b l i s h e d e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s i n g the e f f e c t s of such courses, and the f a c t that i n c r e a s i n g numbers of c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs throughout North America w i l l undoubtedly be developing s i m i l a r courses in accordance with AACD, APA, or CPA g u i d e l i n e s , an e v a l u a t i o n of UBC's p i l o t course i n t h i s s u b j e c t area i s both r e l e v a n t and t i m e l y . T h e o r e t i c a l Framework The t h e o r e t i c a l framework for t h i s study i s p r o v i d e d by Ajzen's and F i s h b e i n ' s (1980) theory of reasoned a c t i o n which seeks to e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t human behaviour. T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework was chosen because of i t s p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s i n i n t e g r a t i n g awareness (or b e l i e f ) , a t t i t u d e , b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n , and a c t u a l behaviour. The instruments used i n the study were intended to measure a l l these f a c t o r s . A c c o r d i n g to the theory of reasoned a c t i o n , a person's i n t e n t i o n to perform (or not to perform) a given behaviour i s the immediate determinant of any a c t i o n . A person's i n t e n t i o n , i n t u r n , i s determined by two b a s i c f a c t o r s : (a) the person's a t t i t u d e toward the behaviour ( i . e . , whether the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n favour of or opposed to performing the behaviour) and (b) the person's p e r c e p t i o n of the s u b j e c t i v e norm with respect to the behaviour ( i . e . , what the i n d i v i d u a l 8 p e r c e i v e s to be the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s put on her/him to perform or not perform the b e h a v i o u r ) . The r e l a t i v e weights of these two f a c t o r s may vary a c r o s s i n t e n t i o n s or i n d i v i d u a l s . Furthermore, both a person's a t t i t u d e s and h e r / h i s s u b j e c t i v e norms are seen to be f u n c t i o n s of b e l i e f s . Ajzen and F i s h b e i n (1980) termed the b e l i e f s that u n d e r l i e a person's a t t i t u d e s " b e h a v i o u r a l b e l i e f s , " and the b e l i e f s that u n d e r l i e a person's s u b j e c t i v e norms "normative b e l i e f s " (see F i g u r e 1). In Ajzen's and F i s h b e i n ' s (1980) view, an e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e a f f e c t s behaviour only to the extent that i t i n f l u e n c e s the fundamental determinants of that behaviour ( i . e . , primary b e h a v i o u r a l and normative b e l i e f s ) . In other words, b e h a v i o u r a l change i s u l t i m a t e l y the r e s u l t of changes i n b e l i e f s . T h i s i m p l i e s that i n order to i n f l u e n c e behaviour, i t i s necessary to expose a person to i n f o r m a t i o n (or "persuasive communication") which w i l l produce changes i n h e r / h i s b e h a v i o u r a l and normative b e l i e f s . By producing s u f f i c i e n t change in such b e l i e f s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n f l u e n c e a person's a t t i t u d e toward performing a behaviour or h e r / h i s s u b j e c t i v e norm with r e s p e c t to i t . Depending on t h e i r r e l a t i v e weights, changes in a t t i t u d e s and s u b j e c t i v e norms should then l e a d to changes in i n t e n t i o n s and a c t u a l behaviours. According to the theory, to be e f f e c t i v e i n i n f l u e n c i n g a person's behaviour, a p e r s u a s i v e communication e i t h e r should c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n which l i n k s the behaviour to v a r i o u s p o s i t i v e or negative outcomes (thereby a f f e c t i n g 9 B e h a v i o u r a l b e l i e f s A t t i t u d e Normative b e l i e f s S u b j e c t i v e norm I n t e n t i o n Behaviour F i g u r e 1. F a c t o r s determining a person's behaviour (adapted from A j z e n & F i s h b e i n , 1980). 10 b e h a v i o u r a l b e l i e f s ) , or e l s e should provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s or groups r e l e v a n t to that person (thereby a f f e c t i n g normative b e l i e f s ) . For the purpose of t h i s study, we can attempt to apply Ajzen's and F i s h b e i n ' s (1980) theory of reasoned a c t i o n to UBC's t r a i n i n g course i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g (CNPS 508). The course can be seen as an e f f o r t at p e r s u a s i v e communication intended to i n f l u e n c e students' primary b e h a v i o u r a l and normative b e l i e f s about women, sex r o l e behaviours, and m i n o r i t y c u l t u r a l groups, and thereby modify t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e n t i o n s and overt c o u n s e l l i n g behaviour. By l i n k i n g the p r a c t i s e of g e n d e r - f a i r and c u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g with v a r i o u s p o s i t i v e and negative outcomes, and by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the normative e x p e c t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups r e l e v a n t to the students (e.g., the course i n s t r u c t o r , r e s e a r c h e r s , and other mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) , the course sought to i n c r e a s e students' s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l awareness, so that they would counsel i n a more unbiased manner. The course's e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a p e r s u a s i v e communication was assessed through the use of the pre- and p o s t - t e s t measures d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3. I f the theory of reasoned a c t i o n holds t r u e , then the use of these instruments to measure changes i n b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , norms, and i n t e n t i o n s ought to p r e d i c t changes i n a c t u a l behaviour. 11 The Research Problem The purpose of t h i s research study i s to eval u a t e how e f f e c t i v e l y a course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e t h n i c awareness, a t t i t u d e s toward women, and sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s . The study i s based on the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . I t i s hypothesized that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between (on the one hand) c o u n s e l l i n g students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CNPS 508, a t r a i n i n g course f o c u s i n g on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g , and (on the other hand) t h e i r l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness, n o n - s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s toward women, and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s (see Chapter 3 f o r s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h hypotheses). 12 Chapter 2 L i t e r a t u r e Review Bias i n General Much r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out du r i n g the past 20 years has focused on the s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g needs of women and c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t groups such as r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s (Gibbs, 1985; Kaplan, M o f f i c & Adams, 1983; Korchin c i t e d i n Copeland, 1982; Sue & Zane, 1987). Much of t h i s r esearch has h i g h l i g h t e d the f a c t that these s p e c i a l needs have not always been adequately met by the mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s (Ponterotto & Casas, 1987; S p e c i a l P o p u l a t i o n s Task Force of the P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on Mental Health, 1978, c i t e d i n Sue & Zane, 1987). As Perry (1982) noted: In the past ten years, the d e l i v e r y of r e l e v a n t s e r v i c e s to s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s has been a focus of mounting concern w i t h i n the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s , i n n a t i o n a l ru.si] l e g i s l a t i o n , and i n the heightened awareness of these d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n s themselves, (p. 50) The negative impact of gender and c u l t u r e b i a s on the part of c o u n s e l l o r s and p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s has been addressed by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s . C a y l e f f (1986), f o r example, addressed the i s s u e that women, m i n o r i t i e s , and poor people have been f r e q u e n t l y l a b e l l e d as " s i c k " or mentally i l l when they ^vary from "normal" p a t t e r n s of behaving and f e e l i n g as d e f i n e d by 13 those who take white, male, m i d d l e - c l a s s b e l i e f s as the normative measure of h e a l t h and d e s i r a b i l i t y . Given the s i t u a t i o n C a y l e f f d e s c r i b e d , i n which m i n o r i t y group c l i e n t s tend to be o v e r p a t h o l o g i z e d by mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i t i s i r o n i c t h a t these same c l i e n t s may a l s o experience reduced access to a p p r o p r i a t e treatment. Sue, McKinney, A l l e n , and H a l l , f o r example, i n t h e i r 1974 study of community h e a l t h c e n t r e s found that a c l i e n t ' s r a c i a l o r i g i n was a s i g n i f i c a n t determinant of whether or not s/he r e c e i v e d i n d i c a t e d psychotherapy. Acc o r d i n g to t h e i r r e s e a r c h , blacks in p a r t i c u l a r seemed to r e c e i v e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s psychotherapy than other m i n o r i t y group members f o r the same problems ( c i t e d i n M o f f i c , Silverman, & Adams, 1983). The r e s u l t of t h i s kind of t h e r a p e u t i c b i a s was noted by the 1978 U.S. P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on Mental H e a l t h . Whether because of sex, race, age, d i s a b i l i t y , or economic circumstances, a s u b s t a n t i a l number of c i t i z e n s do not have access to mental h e a l t h care of high q u a l i t y at reasonable c o s t ( c i t e d i n Myers, 1982). The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o suggests t h a t , while a l l . m i n o r i t i e s may w e l l be subjected to some form of mistreatment i n psychotherapy, the p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t s of the mistreatment may vary a c c o r d i n g to the m i n o r i t y group i n q u e s t i o n . Gender Bias In r e l a t i o n to women's experiences and gender b i a s i n therapy, Sundal-Hansen and Watt (1979) and Guttman and Donn 1 4 (1979) have conducted comprehensive reviews of the re s e a r c h which c o n f i r m that both b l a t a n t and s u b t l e messages have been t r a n s m i t t e d i n our c u l t u r e about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a b i l i t i e s , and a p p r o p r i a t e behaviours of each sex ( c i t e d i n Sco t t & Mc M i l l a n , 1980). In her comprehensive review of the resear c h on t h e r a p i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g of women, Sherman (1980) concluded that there was c l e a r evidence of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n mental h e a l t h standards, that sex r o l e d i s c r e p a n t behaviours were c o n s i s t e n t l y judged as more maladjusted, and that therapists'' sex r o l e values were o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g c o u n s e l l i n g . S t u d i e s such as those reported by Broverman et a l . , (1970), Delk and Ryan (1975), and Sherman, Koufacos, and Kenworthy (1978), have a l s o demonstrated that p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r p a t i e n t s d i f f e r as a f u n c t i o n of both the p a t i e n t ' s and the t h e r a p i s t ' s gender. Broverman et a l . (1970), f o r example, found that c l i n i c i a n s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d women l e s s independent, l e s s competent, and more emotional than men. They a l s o found that standards of a d u l t emotional h e a l t h were equated with standards of male emotional h e a l t h . The r e s u l t s confirmed t h e i r hypothesis that a double standard of h e a l t h e x i s t s f o r men and women, that i s , the general standard of h e a l t h i s a c t u a l l y a p p l i e d only to men, while healthy women are 1 5 p e r c e i v e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s h e a l t h y by a d u l t standards, (p. 6) Although the Broverman et a l . (1970) study has been widely accepted and c i t e d by many who c h a l l e n g e the v a l i d i t y of psychotherapy f o r women ( S t r i e k e r & Shafran, 1983), other r e s e a r c h e r s have questioned the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn by Broverman and her c o l l e a g u e s , as w e l l as the very e x i s t e n c e of any sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g by t h e r a p i s t s ( S t r i e k e r , 1977; Whitely, 1979; Zeldow, 1978, c i t e d i n S t r i e k e r & Shafran, 1983; Smith, 1980). S t r i e k e r (1977), f o r example, concluded that the f i n d i n g s of Broverman et a l . (1970) were u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d and o v e r l y dramatic. Zeldow, i n h i s review of the re s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g gender b i a s i n psychotherapy, concluded t h a t , "the most s t r i d e n t c l a i m s of sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d cannot be supported by c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h evidence" (1978, c i t e d i n S t r i e k e r & Shafran, 1983). Zeldow d i d allow that mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s g e n e r a l l y share the valu e s and norms of t h e i r s o c i e t y (which indeed may be s e x i s t ) , but he s t r e s s e d that i t i s s t i l l not known how s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s a f f e c t therapy and whether or not responses to q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e f l e c t a c t u a l t h e r a p e u t i c behaviour. L i k e w i s e , Whitely (1979), i n a review of 12 s t u d i e s on sex r o l e s and psychotherapy, found some evidence of the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t i a l standards of mental h e a l t h , but cautioned that many of the s t u d i e s c o n t a i n e d s e r i o u s flaws which a f f e c t e d t h e i r v a l i d i t y . And Smith 16 (1980), a f t e r her review of the re s e a r c h on c o u n s e l l i n g a t t i t u d e s , s t e r e o t y p e s , and behaviour, concluded that "there i s no evidence f o r the e x i s t e n c e of counselor sex b i a s when the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s are taken as a whole" (p. 404). Although the resear c h on sex b i a s i n psychotherapy remains i n c o n c l u s i v e , enough evidence has been c o l l e c t e d concerning i t s e x i s t e n c e and i t s d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s On c l i e n t s to warrant s e r i o u s concern and a t t e n t i o n on the par t of mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Consequently, the authors of the 1978 r e p o r t of the U.S. P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on Mental Health s t r e s s e d the profoundly negative e f f e c t s that s t e r e o t y p i n g and sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can have, both on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f u n c t i o n i n g and a l s o on the treatment course that i s p r e s c r i b e d when the person seeks h e l p from a mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l ( c i t e d i n Sobel & Cummings, 1981). Albee (1981) a l s o s t r o n g l y condemned sexism ( i n c l u d i n g s e x i s t p r e j u d i c e , a t t i t u d e s , and behaviour) as a form of psychopathology which i s d e l u s i o n a l and dangerous to o t h e r s . Most s t u d i e s of gender b i a s i n therapy have focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the negative e f f e c t s of s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s on women. However, Thomas (1985b) p o i n t e d out that sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i s u l t i m a t e l y u n f a i r to both women and men, s i n c e i t p r e s c r i b e s r i g i d p reconceived r o l e s and denies both sexes maximum f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . 17 Within the p r o f e s s i o n , there i s i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f , and concern about, the p o t e n t i a l l y negative impact of some t h e r a p i s t s ' double standard of mental h e a l t h . In an e f f o r t to prevent s e x i s t p r a c t i s e s on the par t of t h e r a p i s t s , the CPA's Task Force on the Status of Women i n Canadian Psychology (1977) recommended that the CPA should develop m a t e r i a l s to f o s t e r awareness of the problems of gender b i a s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n psychotherapeutic p r a c t i c e and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , and that the A s s o c i a t i o n should r e v i s e i t s e t h i c a l standards to i n c l u d e g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g sexism i n psychotherapeutic p r a c t i c e . The r e s u l t i n g g u i d e l i n e s were approved and adopted by the CPA i n 1980 (CPA, 1981). In 1978, the APA's Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g i n Psychotherapeutic P r a c t i c e p u b l i s h e d a s i m i l a r l i s t of g u i d e l i n e s f o r treatment of female c l i e n t s . The g u i d e l i n e s were designed f o r use both i n t r a i n i n g and i n c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i s e . The f o l l o w i n g year, D i v i s i o n 17 of the APA a l s o p u b l i s h e d a set of p r i n c i p l e s concerning the c o u n s e l l i n g and therapy of women, and noted that women c o n s t i t u t e a s p e c i a l subgroup r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge (1979). C u l t u r e B i a s In a d d i t i o n to developing an awareness of gender i s s u e s , i t i s important f o r mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s to develop an awareness of how c u l t u r a l i s s u e s p e r t a i n to both rese a r c h and p r a c t i s e . T h i s r e q u i r e s the p r a c t i t i o n e r to become cognizant 18 of h e r / h i s own a t t i t u d e s towards c l i e n t s who are e t h n i c a l l y or c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from h e r / h i m s e l f . I t a l s o r e q u i r e s her/him to recognize the prevalence w i t h i n s o c i e t y at l a r g e of bias e d a t t i t u d e s towards such c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . As with the is s u e of gender b i a s , r e s e a r c h e r s have presented c o n f l i c t i n g f i n d i n g s with regard to the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e of r a c i a l and e t h n i c b i a s i n psychotherapy. In a comprehensive review of the res e a r c h on race e f f e c t s i n psychotherapy, Abramowitz and Murray (1983) d i s c u s s e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , a l l of which r e j e c t e d a l l e g a t i o n s of p e r v a s i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the name of mental h e a l t h . Abramowitz and Murray p o i n t e d out, however, that the c o n c l u s i o n s of these s t u d i e s c o n t r a d i c t e d the r a c i s t experiences of many c l i e n t s (blacks i n p a r t i c u l a r ) and ignored the f a c t that t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n e v i t a b l y "provide the same r a c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s found i n other forms of i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s [in our c u l t u r e * ] " ( S a t t l e r , 1 970, c i t e d i n Abramowitz & Murray, 1983, p. 223). L i k e C a y l e f f (1986), who i d e n t i f i e d t h e r a p i s t s ' b i a s e d treatment of c l i e n t s who d e v i a t e d from white m i d d l e - c l a s s norms of h e a l t h , Szaz (1971) found evidence that white t h e r a p i s t s imputed g r e a t e r maladjustment to m i n o r i t y p a t i e n t s , thereby shortchanging and s t i g m a t i z i n g them ( c i t e d i n Abramowitz & Murray, 1983). S i m i l a r l y , Sue et a l . (1982) p o i n t e d out that the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t were s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as " d e f i c i e n t " i n c e r t a i n 19 " d e s i r a b l e " a t t r i b u t e s . As a r e s u l t , m i n o r i t i e s have g e n e r a l l y been p e r c e i v e d as e i t h e r g e n e t i c a l l y d e f i c i e n t and/or c u l t u r a l l y d e f i c i e n t . A number of r e s e a r c h e r s i n recent years have s t r e s s e d the importance of c o u n s e l l o r s ' awareness of t h e i r own e t h n i c i t y and c u l t u r a l b i a s e s , and t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y to s t e r e o t y p e s of t h e i r own and other c u l t u r a l groups. P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n must i n c l u d e a knowledge and understanding of m i n o r i t y group c u l t u r e s and experiences, i n c l u d i n g a knowledge of the r e a l i t i e s and world views of c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t s and an understanding of how these may d i f f e r from our own (Ibrahim, 1985; P a r a d i s , 1981; Sue & Sue, 1977). In terms of mental h e a l t h standards, M a r s e l l a (1980, c i t e d i n Ivey, 1981) h i g h l i g h t e d the very d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of mental d i s o r d e r that e x i s t from one c u l t u r e to another. He proposed a conceptual framework f o r understanding c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n d e p r e s s i v e a f f e c t and d i s o r d e r based on language p a t t e r n s , c o d i f i c a t i o n of r e a l i t y , and s e l f - s t r u c t u r e . In North American s o c i e t y , t h e r a p i s t s u s u a l l y r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g p r i m a r i l y developed f o r c u l t u r a l l y mainstream c l i e n t s , and are not f a m i l i a r with the c u l t u r a l backgrounds and l i f e s t y l e s of v a r i o u s e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups (Sue & Zane, 1987) Nor do they adequately a p p r e c i a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n concepts and standards of mental h e a l t h such as those d e s c r i b e d by M a r s e l l a (1980). For example, empathy i s one of the fundamental s k i l l s taught to c o u n s e l l o r s . Yet empathy i s u s u a l l y i n s u f f i c i e n t i n and of i t s e l f when d e a l i n g with m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s , because i t f a i l s to take account of c r i t i c a l c u l t u r a l frames of r e f e r e n c e . A c c o r d i n g to Ivey: Lempathyl misses the f a c t that not only must we understand the world of the Other, we must a l s o understand t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l and c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . Empathy, as we commonly use i t , seems to me an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of an immensely complicated i s s u e . ( C i t e d i n Weinrach, 1987, p. 533.) Sue (1981) a l s o addressed the l i m i t a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g approach. H i s t o r i c a l l y , c o u n s e l i n g and therapy have been white middle c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n s i m p l i c i t l y and sometimes e x p l i c i t l y s e r v i n g to a c c u l t u r a t e and i n c u l c a t e peoples of d i v e r s e backgrounds i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y narrow p i c t u r e of mental h e a l t h . Even the most hallowed concept of c o u n s e l i n g - - f a c i l i t a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l development--may be c o n s i d e r e d c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d when r e l a t e d to other c u l t u r a l systems such as those of Asians or American Indians that may be more fa m i l y or group cent e r e d , (p. v i i ) A c c o r d i n g to Sue (1981), among the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which are p o t e n t i a l l y and s e r i o u s l y d e t r i m e n t a l to the c o u n s e l l i n g therapy process a r e : (a) language b a r r i e r s which o f t e n e x i s t between c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t , (b) class-bound values which i n d i c a t e that c o u n s e l l o r s conduct treatment w i t h i n the value system of the m i d d l e - c l a s s , and (c) culture-bound values which are used to judge n o r m a l i t y and abnormality. When t h e r a p i s t s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g and awareness, they o f t e n do not recognize the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l i s s u e s . As a r e s u l t , they are unable to devise c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e forms of treatment. The consequence i s that e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s f r e q u e n t l y f i n d mental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s strange, f o r e i g n , or u n h e l p f u l (Sue & Zane, 1987). Sue and Sue (1977) p o i n t e d out that even when m i n o r i t y group i s s u e s are addressed i n c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g , they are g e n e r a l l y seen and analyzed from a white m i d d l e - c l a s s p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s f o s t e r s " c u l t u r a l e n c a p s u l a t i o n " of the c o u n s e l l o r (Wrenn, 1962, c i t e d i n Sue, 1981). C u l t u r a l l y encapsulated c o u n s e l l o r s who de a l with the mental h e a l t h problems of e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t understanding of e t h n i c v a l u e s and are unable to a p p r e c i a t e important e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n concepts of " h e a l t h " and "normalcy". According to Perry (1982): The d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , £of r a c i a l and et h n i c m i n o r i t y groups"], the goals they b r i n g to c o u n s e l i n g and the modes of communication with which they f u n c t i o n must be taken i n t o account i f c o u n s e l i n g and guidance are to be e f f e c t i v e , (p. 54) To ignore the s p e c i a l needs of such groups, and to remain both p e r s o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y unaware of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and one's own bi a s e s toward these d i f f e r e n c e s , not only l i m i t s c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Katz, 1985; S c h l o s s b e r g , 1977), but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to c u l t u r a l o ppression (Ivey c i t e d i n Weinrach, 1987; Sue, 1978). The p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to promote concepts of e q u a l i t y has a l s o been emphasized by Sobel and Cummings (1981) and the APA i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , E t h i c a l Standards of P s y c h o l o g i s t s (1977). E t h i c a l Issues Some i n d i v i d u a l s and groups have suggested that c o u n s e l l i n g that i s not rooted i n c u l t u r a l awareness should be c o n s i d e r e d u n e t h i c a l (Ivey c i t e d i n Weinrach, 1987; Pedersen & M a r s e l l a , 1982). C a y l e f f (1986) f e l t that c o u n s e l l o r s ' f a i l u r e to i n t e g r a t e an a p p r e c i a t i o n of a c l i e n t ' s own b e l i e f system v i o l a t e d a primary e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e of the c o u n s e l l o r / c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p : that of b e n e f i c e n c e . She d e f i n e s "beneficence" as "doing good" by p r e v e n t i n g harm to the c l i e n t and a c t i n g i n such a way as to b e n e f i t the c l i e n t . Ibrahim and Arredondo (1986) and Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , and G u t i e r r e z (1986) recommended that the AACD r e v i s e i t s e t h i c a l standards to more e x p l i c i t l y address c r o s s - c u l t u r a l dimensions of c o u n s e l l i n g . The standards that Ibrahim and Arredondo proposed were based on a broad conception of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g , wherein a l l people are assumed to f u n c t i o n on the b a s i s of a c u l t u r a l l y determined world view that i n c l u d e s p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s , b e l i e f systems, l i f e s t y l e s , and modes of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and decision-making. These standards were designed to h e l p the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n t o : (a) prepare c u l t u r a l l y e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; (b) p r o v i d e e t h i c a l and e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s to m i n o r i t y , immigrant, refugee, and f o r e i g n student p o p u l a t i o n s ; (c) s e l e c t and use c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e assessment techniques; and (d) conduct c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h . Thomas (1985a) and Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , and G u t i e r r e z (1986), advocated that stronger and more s p e c i f i c e t h i c a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r work with r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s should be r e f l e c t e d i n a c c r e d i t a t i o n and l i c e n s i n g p r o c e s s e s . Casas, P o n t e r o t t o , and G u t i e r r e z suggested that continued apathy by the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n toward r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s c o u l d r e s u l t i n "a s i g n i f i c a n t number of c o u n s e l o r s working from what should be regarded as an u n e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n , one that c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n the e t h i c a l indictment of the p r o f e s s i o n " (p. 348). T r a i n i n g Issues The 1973 Conference of the APA i n V a i l , Colorado s t r o n g l y recommended that i t should be c o n s i d e r e d u n e t h i c a l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s to work with persons of c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e backgrounds i f they are not t r a i n e d to do so (Korman, 1974). The issue of c u l t u r a l e n c a p s u l a t i o n and i t s d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on m i n o r i t i e s has generated t r a i n i n g recommendations, not only from the 1973 V a i l Conference, but a l s o from other APA conferences i n A u s t i n (1975) and D u l l e s (1978). S e l e c t e d recommendations from these conferences i n c l u d e : (a) that p r o f e s s i o n a l psychology t r a i n i n g programs at a l l l e v e l s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the p o t e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l nature of the p r a c t i s e of psychology; (b) that p r o f e s s i o n a l s "own" t h e i r value p o s i t i o n s ; (c) that c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s be i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g to determine what i s "done to them;" (d) that education and t r a i n i n g programs i n c l u d e not only r e l e v a n t content, but a l s o e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r graduates; and (e) that c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l development occur beyond the r e c e i p t of any advanced degree (Sue et a l . , 1982). In a d d i t i o n , i n 1980, the Education and T r a i n i n g Committee of APA's D i v i s i o n 17 of Counseling Psychology advocated the adoption of s p e c i f i c c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g competencies for p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s and c o u n s e l l o r s , i n c l u d i n g nine competencies that should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t r a i n i n g programs (Pa r a d i s , 1981). S i m i l a r l y , Thomas (1985a) recommended that a l l t r a i n i n g programs emphasize the development of e x p e r t i s e i n c r o s s -r a c i a l , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l , and c r o s s - s e x c o u n s e l l i n g . The APA (1979) made a s p e c i a l p o i n t of n o t i n g that "women c o n s t i t u t e a s p e c i a l subgroup r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge on the part of c o u n s e l l o r s and t h e r a p i s t s " (p. 21). In the same v e i n , the Report of the Task Force on the Status of Women i n Canadian Psychology (1977) recommended that the CPA develop m a t e r i a l s to f o s t e r awareness of the problems of gender b i a s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n psychotherapeutic p r a c t i s e and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , and should r e v i s e i t s e t h i c a l standards to i n c l u d e g u i d e l i n e s regarding sexism in p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c p r a c t i s e . The CPA (1981) a l s o addressed the i s s u e of c u l t u r a l b i a s more g e n e r a l l y by encouraging i t s members to "ob t a i n t r a i n i n g , experience or counsel to assure competent s e r v i c e or resear c h r e l a t i n g to people d i f f e r i n g as to age, sex, socioeconomic and e t h n i c backgrounds " (p.7). More r e c e n t l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s at the APA's 1987 Conference for Counseling Psychology r e a f f i r m e d t h e i r support f o r both the " P r i n c i p l e s Concerning the Counseling and Psychotherapy of Women" (APA, 1978) and the recent statement by D i v i s i o n 17's Committee on Women advocating the implementation of these p r i n c i p l e s as an i n t e g r a l part of the p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s . The t r a i n i n g and a c c r e d i t a t i o n s e c t i o n of the Conference a l s o recommended that a l l c o u n s e l l i n g psychology programs formulate o b j e c t i v e s f o r prep a r i n g students i n at l e a s t one area of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , and that w i t h i n such programs, the is s u e s of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and gender be co n s i d e r e d with r e s p e c t t o : (a) f a c u l t y r e c r u i t m e n t , support, and t r a i n i n g ; (b) student recruitment, s e l e c t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , and support; and (c) cu r r i c u l u m development, r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s , p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , and program e v a l u a t i o n (Meara, et a l . , 1988). S i m i l a r l y , both the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r A c c r e d i t a t i o n of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the C o u n c i l of A c c r e d i t a t i o n of Counseling and Related E d u c a t i o n a l Programs (CACREP) have adopted the p o s i t i o n that i n f o r m a t i o n concerning c u l t u r a l , e t h n i c , r a c i a l , and gender d i f f e r e n c e s be par t of the education of a c o u n s e l l o r ( L l o y d , 1987). The movement towards s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r m i n o r i t y groups i s not without i t s c r i t i c s , however. They suggest that n e i t h e r t h e r a p i s t s nor c l i e n t s are w e l l served by such t r a i n i n g . M a r g o l i s and Rungta (1986) p o i n t e d out the danger that courses that focus on s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s (e.g., the e l d e r l y , women, or e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s ) may accentuate subgroup d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s , i n t u r n , c o u l d l e a d to the development of a separate set of standards and s t r a t e g i e s f o r such subgroups. They cautioned that a t t e n d i n g e x c l u s i v e l y or p r i m a r i l y to one p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a c l i e n t might r e s u l t i n a f a i l u r e to recognize that person's t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e . U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s approach c o u l d , i n M a r g o l i s ' and Rungta's view, promote new forms of racism or sexism. L l o y d (1987) echoed t h i s l a t t e r concern, and advocated an approach wherein one f o r g e t s c u l t u r a l " t r u t h s " and r e l i e s simply on communication and c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s . While other w r i t e r s have taken i s s u e with L l o y d ' s suggestions (Hood & Arceneaux, 1987; Parker, 1987), c o u n s e l l o r educators and c u r r i c u l u m planners would do w e l l to s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r such c a u t i o n s . As was noted i n Chapter 1, t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s have been g e n e r a l l y slow i n implementing programs designed to in c l u d e m i n o r i t y p e r s p e c t i v e s . Moreover, i n those cases where r e l e v a n t t r a i n i n g courses have been developed, few e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s have been conducted (Sedlacek, Troy, & Chapman, 1976; Stake & Gerner, 1987). As Carney and Kahn (1984) observed, the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g movement to date has been rather unsystematic, and l i t t l e data have been gathered to determine what ( i f any) changes occur in c o u n s e l l o r s as a r e s u l t of such t r a i n i n g . Given the l a r g e amount of a t t e n t i o n accorded to i s s u e s of g e n d e r - f a i r and c u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g over the past two decades, and given the many s p e c i f i c e t h i c a l and t r a i n i n g recommendations which have been brought forward in an attempt to address these i s s u e s , i t appears i n e v i t a b l e that more and more t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g programs in t h i s f i e l d , or i n t e g r a t i n g such t r a i n i n g i n t o e x i s t i n g programs. Perry (1982), w r i t i n g under the a u s p i c e s of the American Personnel and Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n (now the AACD), p r e d i c t e d that the 1980's would b r i n g continued development and a p p l i c a t i o n 'of c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s and methods that are a p p r o p r i a t e to the unique needs of those s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s who are s u b j e c t to v a r i o u s i n e q u i t i e s i n our s o c i e t y . The decade to which Perry r e f e r r e d i s now more than h a l f - o v e r , and there i s every i n d i c a t i o n that h i s p r e d i c t i o n has proven c o r r e c t . Yet there i s s t i l l much to be done. More r e c e n t l y , Katz (1985) d e s c r i b e d the developments o u t l i n e d above as nothing more or l e s s than a r e d e f i n i t i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g standards. Transforming the f i e l d of c o u n s e l i n g psychology to p r o v i d e more a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e to women and m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e s the r e d e f i n i t i o n of what i t means to be " q u a l i f i e d " as a c o u n s e l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l . ... The development of a new d e s c r i p t i v e system i s necessary to expand the framework of t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g to i n c l u d e p e r s p e c t i v e s of m i n o r i t i e s and women w i t h i n t h e i r own c u l t u r a l frame of re f e r e n c e (p. 621) T h i s being the case, i t i s imperative that r e s e a r c h e r s i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a i n i n g programs which are c u r r e n t l y being o f f e r e d i n g e n d e r - f a i r and c u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g . Only through systematic e v a l u a t i o n can e x i s t i n g programs be improved and new and b e t t e r ones designed. And only through more and b e t t e r t r a i n i n g programs can c o u n s e l l o r educators meet the t r a i n i n g needs of t h e i r students and the c o u n s e l l i n g needs of t h e i r v a r i e d c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . Chapter 3 Method Sample The sample for t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of 31 graduate students e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t - y e a r courses of the Master's program i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC). Of the 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s , 16 were e n r o l l e d i n a one-term course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g (CNPS 508). T h i s course c o n s i s t s of 13 weekly 2-1/2-hour s e s s i o n s . I t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a l l Master's l e v e l students i n the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology program, although students may choose when they wish to take i t . CNPS 508 was o f f e r e d f o r the f i r s t time at UBC i n the F a l l 1987 term. A l l 16 students who chose to take the course during that term, and who took the e n t i r e 13-week course, became the experimental group members f o r t h i s study. The remaining 15 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were drawn v o l u n t a r i l y from among a l a r g e r group of students e n r o l l e d i n CNPS 578, a comparable-level course on c o u n s e l l i n g t h e o r i e s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s . As with the course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g , t h i s course i s r e q u i r e d f o r a l l Master's l e v e l students, but students may choose when they wish to take i t . These 15 p a r t i c i p a n t s became the comparison group fo r the study. Of the experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s , 81.25% were women and 56.25% were s i n g l e . The mean age of the experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s was 33.88 y e a r s . Of the comparison group p a r t i c i p a n t s , 93.33% were women and 53.33% were s i n g l e . T h e i r mean age was 35.80 years (see Chapter 4 f o r a complete summary of the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) . Procedure This study was based on a non-equivalent c o n t r o l group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The design u t i l i z e s an experimental group and a comparison group. The two groups do not have pre-experimental sampling e q u i v a l e n c e . Both groups are given both a p r e - t e s t and a p o s t - t e s t . The design may be g r a p h i c a l l y represented as f o l l o w s : A: Q1 X 0 2 . where A re p r e s e n t s the experimental group t a k i n g CNPS 508 (Treatment X), B r e p r e s e n t s the comparison group t a k i n g CNPS 578, 0 1 r e p r e s e n t s the p r e - t e s t , and 0 2 represents the p o s t - t e s t . Because the sample f o r t h i s study i s not random, but i s one of convenience, i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered to c o n f i r m the assumed eq u i v a l e n c y of the experimental and comparison groups f o r the purposes of the study. T h i s was done by c o l l e c t i n g d e t a i l e d demographic i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s at the time they completed the p r e - t e s t s . The demographic 31 v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t were (a) age, (b) gender, (c) e t h n i c background ( e t h n i c i t y ) , (d) r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n ( r e l i g i o n ) , (e) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology s p e c i a l t y , ( f ) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g team, (g) p r e v i o u s experience counselling.women and/or c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s , (h) p r e v i o u s UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology courses d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with gender and c u l t u r e i s s u e s , and ( i ) p r e v i o u s s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g women and/or c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s ' m a r i t a l s t a t u s was determined a c c o r d i n g to whether they f i l l e d out the s i n g l e or the married form of the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (Robinson & F o l l i n g s t a d , 1985) d e s c r i b e d below. For the p r e - t e s t , p a r t i c i p a n t s were approached i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s e s d u r i n g the f i r s t week of the F a l l 1987 term. The researcher i n t r o d u c e d h e r s e l f as a student i n v e s t i g a t o r c a r r y i n g out Master's l e v e l r e s e a r c h , the purpose of which was to assess student c o u n s e l l o r s ' a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked i f they would be w i l l i n g to take part i n the study by completing three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p l u s a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet. They were ad v i s e d that p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y and that t h e i r involvement would take approximately one hour of c l a s s time (see Appendix B). Each p a r t i c i p a n t was a l s o asked to s i g n a consent form (see Appendix C ) . In order to a v o i d p r e j u d i c i n g the p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s , the study was presented to the experimental group in the f i r s t hour of the f i r s t c l a s s , before the students had been i n t r o d u c e d to any of the course m a t e r i a l . Once the signed consent forms had been c o l l e c t e d , t e s t b o o k l e t s were immediately d i s t r i b u t e d . Each p a r t i c i p a n t was i n s t r u c t e d to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the order i n which they were found i n h e r / h i s t e s t b o o k l e t . Each t e s t booklet c o n s i s t e d of an i n s t r u c t i o n sheet, one copy each of the Wayne Et h n i c Awareness Measure (Wayne, 1981), the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI; Robinson & F o l l i n g s t a d , 1985), the T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale (TAWS; Sherman, Koufacos, and Kenworthy, 1978), and a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet (see Appendix D). Each p a r t i c i p a n t was a l s o asked to provide h e r / h i s mother's maiden name. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n subsequently allowed each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s to be matched e a s i l y with h e r / h i s p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s while m a i n t a i n i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . In order to l e s s e n the impact of the sequence in which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were presented, and to ensure that any o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of responses c o u l d not l a t e r be a t t r i b u t e d to one p a r t i c u l a r sequence of p r e s e n t a t i o n , a L a t i n squares design was employed. The three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n each booklet were org a n i z e d i n one of s i x p o s s i b l e orders (see Appendix E) and an equal number of b o o k l e t s was prepared i n each order. For the p r e - t e s t , these b o o k l e t s were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n each of the two p a r t i c i p a n t groups. The same 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d both the p r e - t e s t and the p o s t - t e s t . The p o s t - t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n the e l e v e n t h weekly c l a s s of each 13-week course, which was as c l o s e as p r a c t i c a b l e to the end of each course. Each p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e d a second t e s t booklet b e a r i n g h e r / h i s mother's maiden name. Each booklet c o n s i s t e d of a second i n s t r u c t i o n sheet and the same three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s presented in the same order as that p a r t i c i p a n t had r e c e i v e d them in the p r e - t e s t , p l u s a f o u r t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e r i v e d from the Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y Scale (BMS; Brannon, 1985). In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to f i l l out a supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n sheet p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l s on any e x t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to sex r o l e or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g that they may have r e c e i v e d o u t s i d e of UBC d u r i n g the course of the study. P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o i n v i t e d to supply t h e i r names, addresses, and telephone numbers, i f they wished to p a r t i c i p a t e i n follow-up telephone i n t e r v i e w s and/or r e c e i v e a summary of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s (see Appendix F ) . T h i s p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was provided v o l u n t a r i l y , and s e p a r a t e l y from the r e s t of the data. Six months a f t e r the p o s t - t e s t , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with a l l seven v o l u n t e e r s from the experimental group who i n d i c a t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s phase of the study (see Appendix G f o r a l i s t of the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s ) . Measures In t h e i r theory of reasoned a c t i o n , Ajzen and F i s h b e i n (1980) suggested that the i n t e r a c t i o n between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l events w i l l best be understood i f b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and behaviours are c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . The study i n c l u d e d separate measures of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s (the RBI), a t t i t u d e s toward women (the TAWS), and--i n d i r e c t l y — c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s (the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure). While i t may be argued that an awareness i s not the same as a b e l i e f , the concepts do o v e r l a p . (The d e f i n i t i o n s p r ovided by The Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (OED; 1971), f o r example, suggest that these concepts are r e l a t e d . The OED d e f i n e s awareness as the s t a t e of being informed, c o g n i z a n t , or c o n s c i o u s , and b e l i e f as the mental acceptance of a p r o p o s i t i o n , statement, or f a c t on the evidence of consciousness.) According to Wayne (1981), awareness i n c l u d e s a cognizance of one's s t e r e o t y p e s ( i . e . , one's s t e r e o t y p i c a l b e l i e f s (see Appendix H f o r Wayne's d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c i t y and e t h n i c awareness). Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure. The Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure was used i n t h i s study to assess p a r t i c i p a n t s ' pre- and p o s t - t e s t l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness. The instrument was developed by Wayne (1981) "to determine the extent to which t h e r a p i s t s are aware of the i n f l u e n c e of the e t h n i c f a c t o r i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e by t h e i r a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y e t h n i c i t y ' s r o l e i n a person's p r e s e n t i n g problem" (p. 92). I t attempts to measure e t h n i c awareness by ask i n g fo r c l i n i c a l impressions of f i v e e t h n i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d problems presented i n w r i t t e n form. Wayne (1981) s e l e c t e d her case m a t e r i a l s on the b a s i s of pe r s o n a l communications with p r o f e s s i o n a l s from v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l backgrounds who worked i n the human s e r v i c e s f i e l d . The i n f o r m a t i o n , suggestions, and examples p r o v i d e d by these p r o f e s s i o n a l s helped Wayne to ensure the c u l t u r a l accuracy of the f i v e cases that make up her instrument. A c c o r d i n g to Wayne, "the i n t e n t i o n was to have each case c o n t a i n a s p e c i f i c item unique to the c u l t u r e of the c l i e n t " (pp. 92-93). In Wayne's o r i g i n a l measure, the f i v e cases represented f i v e d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c i n d i v i d u a l s : Japanese-American, Black, Native American, H i s p a n i c , and Jewish. For the purposes of t h i s study, the resear c h e r s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d the f i v e cases to represent e t h n i c i n d i v i d u a l s more f a m i l i a r to Western Canadian c o u n s e l l o r s . F i r s t , the cases were "Canadianized" o v e r a l l - b y s u b s t i t u t i n g l a b e l s such as "Japanese-Canadian" f o r "Japanese-American" and words such as " u n i v e r s i t y " f o r " c o l l e g e . " Second, V i g n e t t e #4, which o r i g i n a l l y f e a t u r e d a H i s p a n i c female, was changed to f e a t u r e a Chinese female, i n order to r e f l e c t the g r e a t e r impact and presence of the Chinese community i n Western Canada. Major m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the case i t s e l f were not necessary, however, s i n c e the resear c h e r found that the substance of Wayne's f o u r t h v i g n e t t e c o u l d q u i t e e a s i l y be t r a n s f e r r e d from a H i s p a n i c to a Chinese context (see Appendix I f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t ) . In Wayne's o r i g i n a l measure, p a r t i c i p a n t s are asked to giv e t h e i r " c l i n i c a l impressions" of each v i g n e t t e . Because the UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology program does not emphasize t r a i n i n g i n c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s i s , the wording of the i n s t r u c t i o n s was changed to read: "State your i n i t i a l impressions as a c o u n s e l l o r of each of the ... v i g n e t t e s . " Three r a t e r s ' were t r a i n e d to score the Wayne measure. Wayne (1981) had dev i s e d a s c o r i n g system which ranged from 1 = no e t h n i c awareness to 4 = high e t h n i c awareness. T h i s s c o r i n g system, together with M a r g o l i s ' (1986) s l i g h t wording m o d i f i c a t i o n s , were used as a s c o r i n g guide i n t h i s study (see Appendix J f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s ' missing v a l u e s were not i n t e r p o l a t e d as they d i d not a f f e c t the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s of the data. The Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the three r a t e r s ' pre- and p o s t - t e s t scores on each of the f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s ranged from .83 to .98 f o r the p r e - t e s t and from .83 to .97 f o r the p o s t - t e s t (see Table 1). These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with Wayne's o r i g i n a l i n t e r r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , which ranged from .89 to .93. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Wayne f a i l e d to e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of her measure and she i d e n t i f i e d t h i s as a l i m i t a t i o n of her own study. She d i d , however, conclude that the instrument does have the p o t e n t i a l to d i s c r i m i n a t e l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness, and she recommended f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to v a l i d a t e and r e f i n e the measure. Despite i t s lack of e s t a b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y , the Wayne measure was used i n the present study because an Table 1 Mean Interrat.er R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e s P r e - t e s t mean P o s t - t e s t mean 1 0.96 0.86 2 0.83 0.91 3 0.98 0.97 4 0.83 0.83 5 0.93 0.88 Note. Means were c a l c u l a t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g the 3 r a t e r s ' s cores f o r each of the 5 v i g n e t t e s . exhaustive search of the l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d to unearth any other r e l e v a n t e t h n i c awareness measures. Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI). The RBI was used i n t h i s study to assess p a r t i c i p a n t s ' sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and r a t e them as more or l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l . The RBI was developed by Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d (1985), and asks s u b j e c t s to r e p o r t both b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s and a c t u a l behaviours. The instrument i s p r e d i c a t e d on two assumptions: (a) that r e p o r t e d i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t a c t u a l i n t e n t i o n s and behaviours, and (b) that i n f o r m a t i o n about a s u b j e c t ' s behaviours can be deduced from i n f o r m a t i o n about h e r / h i s i n t e n t i o n s to engage i n such behaviours. The r e s e a r c h e r s ' r a t i o n a l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g the i n v e n t o r y was t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t , "the measure would allow f o r understanding and a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n terms of concrete behaviors and a c t i o n s r a t h e r than merely c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s about such b e h a v i o r s . " Second, "a b e h a v i o r a l s e x - r o l e s c a l e would enable r e s e a r c h e r s to determine whether a t t i t u d e s and behaviors have a c l o s e correspondence or whether i n the area of s e x - r o l e behaviors there i s a d i s c r e p a n c y . " T h i r d , a b e h a v i o u r a l t o o l was "needed for e v a l u a t i n g outcome s t u d i e s where the goal i s to change s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , s i n c e past s t u d i e s have r e l i e d on such i n f o r m a l techniques as u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s ... and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n " (Robinson & F o l l i n g s t a d , 1985, p. 692). The RBI c o n s i s t s of two forms of a 34-item s c a l e . One form was designed f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s who are s i n g l e ; the other was designed f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s who are married or l i v i n g with a p a r t n e r . These two forms were designed to be e q u i v a l e n t , and were t r e a t e d as such f o r the purposes of t h i s study. The items i n the inventory come from a v a r i e t y of sources, i n c l u d i n g p r e v i o u s l y developed sex r o l e b e l i e f s c a l e s and sex-t y p i n g s c a l e s . Items from such s c a l e s were then r e s t a t e d i n b e h a v i o u r a l terms f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the RBI. S c o r i n g f o r the RBI i s on a 10-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ranging from 0 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y not do so to 9 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y do so. High scores f o r women i n d i c a t e non-t r a d i t i o n a l behaviours and low scores i n d i c a t e t r a d i t i o n a l behaviours. Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d (1985) recommended that f o r unmarried female s u b j e c t s (or those not i n a partner r e l a t i o n s h i p ) scores of 192 and above should be c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , and scores of 163 and below should be c l a s s i f i e d as t r a d i t i o n a l . S i m i l a r l y , they recommended that f o r married s u b j e c t s (or those i n a partner r e l a t i o n s h i p ) scores of 183 and above should be c l a s s i f i e d as non-t r a d i t i o n a l , and scores of 128 and below should be c l a s s i f i e d as t r a d i t i o n a l . Scores which f a l l i n the mid-range between t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l remain u n c l a s s i f i e d . Although Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e i r instrument to men, they d i d not c l a s s i f y the r e s u l t s f o r male s u b j e c t s as e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s p r o v i d e d by Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d (1985) ranged from .82 to .86 f o r t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s , and from .83 to .95 f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s . Estimates f o r convergent v a l i d i t y were .56 and .55 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the s i n g l e and married forms of the inv e n t o r y , and estimates f o r d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y (based on c o r r e l a t i o n s with three s i m i l a r s c a l e s ) ranged from .15 to .46. Having e s t a b l i s h e d the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of t h e i r instrument, Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d (1985) concluded that the RBI c o u l d be used to i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s that might a f f e c t changes i n intended sex-typed behaviours. They a l s o concluded that changes i n o v e r a l l scores on the measure, as w e l l as changes i n i n d i v i d u a l item scores, c o u l d be u s e f u l dependent measures f o r outcome s t u d i e s designed to evaluate the impact of treatments designed to a l t e r f e m a l e - r o l e behaviour. These c o n c l u s i o n s have d i r e c t relevance f o r the RBI's i n c l u s i o n as an outcome measure i n t h i s study. Although the treatment v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study (CNPS 508) was not s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to a l t e r sex-typed behaviour, i t i s reasonable to assume that p a r t i c i p a n t s ' intended sex-typed behaviours might be i n f l u e n c e d by a treatment designed to i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness of gender r o l e i s s u e s . No major m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the RBI were made by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . However, one small change was made i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the married form. In the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the RBI, p a r t i c i p a n t s are ad v i s e d to f i l l out the married form of the s c a l e i f they are "married or l i v i n g with someone." For t h i s study, these i n s t r u c t i o n s a l s o i n c l u d e d the phrase " i n a he t e r o s e x u a l or les b i a n / g a y r e l a t i o n s h i p . " A l s o , f o r t h i s study, male p a r t i c i p a n t s were scored s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y than female p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s d e c i s i o n was made because the gener a l s c o r i n g system p r o v i d e d by Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d (1985) seemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r men (see Appendix K). For purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , however, no d i s t i n c t i o n was made between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s . In the case of mis s i n g item scores f o r the RBI, p a r t i c i p a n t s were assig n e d the score c l o s e s t to the mean of t h e i r t o t a l item s c o r e s . T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e Toward Women Scale (TAWS). The TAWS was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study to i d e n t i f y the degree of s e x i s t or non-s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s amongst p a r t i c i p a n t s . The s c a l e was developed by Sherman, Koufacos, and Kenworthy (1978) i n response to the c o n c l u s i o n s of the 1975 APA Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g i n Psychotherapeutic P r a c t i c e . The APA Task Force i d e n t i f i e d four general areas of sex b i a s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g on the par t of p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s which c o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t female c l i e n t s : (a) f o s t e r i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s ; (b) b i a s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s and de v a l u a t i o n of women; (c) s e x i s t use of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c concepts; and (d) response to women as sex o b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g seduction of c l i e n t s . The TAWS was o r i g i n a l l y developed to gain an understanding of t h e r a p i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward women, and to compare responses from the two sexes and the three p r o f e s s i o n s of s o c i a l work, psychology, and p s y c h i a t r y . The TAWS i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e as an instrument f o r measuring the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of CNPS 508, f o r at l e a s t two obvious reasons: (a) i t d i r e c t l y measures a t t i t u d e s toward women, which the course i s intended to address; and (b) i t was developed using a sample group of mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , who are l i k e l y to share many common p r o f e s s i o n a l v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s with the c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g who make up the course membership. The TAWS i s comprised of 32 items; responses are chosen from a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ranging from " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " to " s t r o n g l y agree." Low scores i n d i c a t e more informed, more l i b e r a l , l e s s s t ereotyped views of women. One-h a l f of the.items are worded p o s i t i v e l y and one-half n e g a t i v e l y i n order to a v o i d a response s e t . The items are of s e v e r a l types: (a) ten items i n v o l v i n g p s y c h o a n a l y t i c ideas not congruent with contemporary f e m i n i s t v i e w p o i n t s , (b) t h i r t e e n items r e f l e c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s , (c) three items about s e x u a l i t y , (d) four items r e g a r d i n g n o n e g a l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s , and (e) two items about t h e r a p i s t s . In o u t l i n i n g these c a t e g o r i e s , the TAWS r e s e a r c h e r s noted: " I t i s r e c o g n i z e d that these content c a t e g o r i e s are merely d e s c r i p t i v e and that furthermore, i n some i n s t a n c e s , a t t i t u d e and i n f o r m a t i o n might be d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e " (1978, p. 303). Cronbach's Alpha (a measure of r e l i a b i l i t y and homogeneity) f o r the TAWS was e s t a b l i s h e d to be .86. No v a l i d i t y data f o r the TAWS was presented by i t s developers. F o l l o w i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l study of the TAWS with a sample of 184 t h e r a p i s t s ( i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l workers, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and p s y c h i a t r i s t s ) , Sherman, Koufacos, and Kenworthy (1978) assessed the s c a l e as " s a t i s f a c t o r y , " but they cautioned that " f u r t h e r study i s needed to determine how scores on t h i s s c a l e might r e l a t e to behavior i n therapy" (p. 311). No m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made to the TAWS fo r the purposes of t h i s study. M i s s i n g item scores were computed as 3 = n e i t h e r agree nor d i s a g r e e . (Although the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of mis s i n g item scores was handled d i f f e r e n t l y f o r the TAWS than i t was f o r the RBI, t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the r e s u l t s because the number of mis s i n g items f o r e i t h e r measure was so s m a l l — i . e . , l e s s than .4% of the t o t a l . ) Brannon M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e (BMS). A f o u r t h measure, the BMS, was a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the t e s t booklet f o r the p o s t - t e s t o n l y . T h i s 16-item s c a l e was drawn by the researcher from a longer 110-item instrument. I t was i n c l u d e d i n the p o s t - t e s t in order to d i s g u i s e the f a c t that the true purpose of the study was to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of CNPS 508, s i n c e t h i s p e r c e p t i o n c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d the experimental group's responses. N e i t h e r r e l i a b i l i t y nor v a l i d i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the BMS. In any event, p a r t i c i p a n t s ' scores on t h i s measure were not i n c l u d e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a nalyses f o r t h i s study. Follow-up Interviews No s t a t i s t i c a l a nalyses were performed on the follow-up i n t e r v i e w d ata. The sample s i z e was too s m a l l . Moreover, such an e x e r c i s e would have been w e l l beyond the scope of the present study. N e v e r t h e l e s s , these responses were used a n e c d o t a l l y , as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r changes i n awareness and a t t i t u d e s as a r e s u l t of t a k i n g the course. Research Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g comprise the s p e c i f i c hypotheses t e s t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h study (as measured by the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure, the RBI, and the TAWS). Hypothesis 1. P a r t i c i p a n t s who have completed a course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l d i s p l a y a gr e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n e t h n i c awareness over the course of the study than p a r t i c i p a n t s who have not taken such a course. O p e r a t i o n a l l y , the mean scores f o r each of the f i v e v i g n e t t e s that comprise the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure w i l l i n c r e a s e to a gre a t e r extent f o r the experimental group than f o r the comparison group. Hypothesis 2. P a r t i c i p a n t s who have completed a course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l d i s p l a y a gr e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s over the course of the study than p a r t i c i p a n t s who have not taken such a course. O p e r a t i o n a l l y , the mean scores on the RBI w i l l i n c r e a s e to a g r e a t e r extent f o r the experimental group than f o r the comparison group. Hypothesis 3. P a r t i c i p a n t s who have completed a course on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l d i s p l a y a great e r i n c r e a s e i n n o n - s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s toward women over the course of the study than p a r t i c i p a n t s who have not taken such a course. O p e r a t i o n a l l y , the mean'scores on the TAWS w i l l decrease to a gr e a t e r extent f o r the experimental group than f o r the comparison group. Treatment of the Q u a n t i t a t i v e Data P r e l i m i n a r y s t a t i s t i c a l a nalyses i n c l u d e d examinations at the p r e - t e s t l e v e l to e s t a b l i s h the equivalency of the experimental and comparison groups. T h e i r equivalency was determined a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g moderating v a r i a b l e s : (a) age, (b) gender, (c) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , (d) e t h n i c i t y , (e) r e l i g i o n , ( f ) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology s p e c i a l t y , (g) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g team, (h) previous experience c o u n s e l l i n g women and/or c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s , ( i ) previous UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology courses d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with gender and c u l t u r e i s s u e s , ( j ) previous t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g women and/or c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s , and (k) e x t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to sex r o l e and/or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g r e c e i v e d o u t s i d e of UBC du r i n g the course of the study. (Although e t h n i c background and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n were o r i g i n a l l y f r e e 46 response items, and age was an i n t e r v a l v a r i a b l e , they were re-coded as dichotomous v a r i a b l e s f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s ) . F i r s t , a l l these moderating v a r i a b l e s were used as grouping v a r i a b l e s i n t - t e s t s and one-way analyses of v a r i a n c e (ANOVAs) f o r the p r e - t e s t scores where a p p r o p r i a t e . Second, the p r e - t e s t measures were examined with r e s p e c t to experimental or comparison group membership (the treatment v a r i a b l e ) to e s t a b l i s h the equivalency of the two groups. Each p r e - t e s t measure was analyzed i n a t - t e s t u s ing treatment as the independent v a r i a b l e . T h i r d , where moderating v a r i a b l e s had emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t grouping v a r i a b l e s i n the prev i o u s a n a l y s e s , they were i n c l u d e d with the treatment v a r i a b l e to examine any p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s with respect to the p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . Once equivalency was e s t a b l i s h e d and the pre- and post-t e s t scores were determined to be s u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) t e s t of nor m a l i t y , two types of analyses of v a r i a n c e with repeated measures (ANOVARs) were performed f o r the RBI, the TAWS, and each of the f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s . The f i r s t was a s i n g l e ANOVAR with one between-subject f a c t o r (treatment) and one w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r ( t i m e ) . A second s e r i e s of ANOVARs in t r o d u c e d a d d i t i o n a l between-subject f a c t o r s one at a time i n order to assess t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with the treatment and time v a r i a b l e s . Between-subject f a c t o r s chosen were (a) gender, (b) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , (c) e t h n i c i t y , (d) r e l i g i o n , (e) experience i n c o u n s e l l i n g women, ( f ) experience i n c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t s - f r o m other c u l t u r e s , (g) e x t r a t r a i n i n g i n sex r o l e i s s u e s , and (h) ex t r a t r a i n i n g i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s . These f a c t o r s were chosen because, a c c o r d i n g to the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s , they were i n f l u e n t i a l with res p e c t to the measures used at the p r e - t e s t l e v e l . These secondary ANOVARs were examined with res p e c t to r e s u l t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t three-way and two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were f o l l o w e d up by using t - t e s t s . Because each Wayne v i g n e t t e i s d i f f e r e n t i n that i t measures awareness about a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l group, a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , i n v o l v i n g the c a l c u l a t i o n of a l i n e a r combination of the r e s u l t s of the f i v e v i g n e t t e s , was deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e . S i m i l a r l y , because the RBI measures behaviour and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and the TAWS measures a t t i t u d e s , a m u l t i v a r i a t e approach to these two instruments was a l s o r u l e d out. F i n a l l y , c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l yses were conducted with both the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t scores of each of the three instruments. That i s , a l l p r e - t e s t scores were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , as were a l l p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . T h i s was done for the experimental and comparison groups s e p a r a t e l y . C o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses were a l s o conducted between both the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . That i s , each p r e - t e s t score was c o r r e l a t e d with i t s p o s t - t e s t c o u n t e r p a r t . T h i s was done f o r the t o t a l sample and the experimental and comparison groups s e p a r a t e l y . Chapter 4 R e s u l t s Sample The sample c o n s i s t e d of 27 females and 4 males. The mean age was 34.81 years, the median age was 35.00 ye a r s , and the range was 24 to 49 years. (For purposes of l a t e r a n a l y s i s , 18 p a r t i c i p a n t s were coded as "younger" and 13 as " o l d e r " based on whether or not t h e i r age was l e s s than, or g r e a t e r than, the median age of the sample.) Eleven p a r t i c i p a n t s l i s t e d t h e i r UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology s p e c i a l t y as Post-Secondary/Adult, 9 as Family, 3 as I n t e r c u l t u r a l , 3 as Adolescent/Secondary, 3 as Women, and 1 as Elementary. (One p a r t i c i p a n t d i d not l i s t a s p e c i a l t y . ) In t o t a l , 10 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d that they had completed a UBC course on gender r o l e i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g and/or had experience c o u n s e l l i n g women i n s p e c i a l i z e d s e t t i n g s (e.g., women's sexual a s s a u l t c e n t r e s , t r a n s i t i o n houses f o r b a t t e r e d women). F i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d that they had completed, or were c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n , a UBC course i n i n t e r c u l t u f a l c o u n s e l l i n g and/or had experience i n working with c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s i n s p e c i a l i z e d s e t t i n g s (e.g., t e a ching ESL to Japanese women). E i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d that over the course of the study they had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a peer c o u n s e l l i n g program designed to match up f o r e i g n students with Canadian students f o r support and guidance. Other c o u n s e l l i n g experience l i s t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d : (a) s o c i a l work; (b) c h i l d and adolescent c a r e ; (c) f a m i l y therapy; (d) o c c u p a t i o n a l therapy; (e) c o u n s e l l i n g the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d ; ( f ) p s y c h i a t r i c c a r e ; (g) community mental h e a l t h c o u n s e l l i n g ; (h) elementary, secondary and post-secondary c o u n s e l l i n g ; ( i ) pregnancy, v o c a t i o n a l , bereavement, and C h r i s t i a n c o u n s e l l i n g ; ( j ) g e r i a t r i c and p a l l i a t i v e c a r e ; and (k) c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n . With respect to e t h n i c i t y , 21 of the 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l l i n t o the category of "maj o r i t y group members" and 10 i n t o the category of "m i n o r i t y group members." T h i s l a t t e r category i n c l u d e s a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s who i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r e t h n i c background as other than that of White European or North American m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e s . Of the 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s , 19 were c l a s s i f i e d as "non-r e l i g i o u s " and 10 as " r e l i g i o u s . " T h i s l a t t e r category i n c l u d e s a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s who i d e n t i f i e d themselves as having a s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . (Two p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not respond to t h i s item; see Table 2 f o r a more complete summary of the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ) Group Eq u i v a l e n c y In order to assess the b a s i c e q uivalency of the experimental and comparison groups at the outset of the study, i t was necessary to f i r s t determine the impact of moderating v a r i a b l e s on the p r e - t e s t measures. Where a p p r o p r i a t e , the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s were used i n t^-tests and one-way analyses Table 2 Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Experimental Group Comparison Group ( T o t a l n=31) (n=16) (n=15) Women 13 14 Men 3 1 Si n g l e 9 8 M a r r i e d or l i v i n g with someone 7 7 M i n o r i t y group members 6 4 R e l i g i o u s " 4 6 Couns. Psych, s p e c i a l t y : Women 1 2 I n t e r c u l t u r a l 3 0 Couns. Psych, c l i n i c a l team: Women 1 0 I n t e r c u l t u r a l 3 0 Taking UBC course i n i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g 3 1 (cont. on next page) Table 2 (cont.) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Experimental Group Comparison Group ( T o t a l n=31) (n=16) (n=15) Prev. c o u n s e l l i n g exp. with: Women only 5 4 Other c u l t u r e s only 0 0 Both 0 3 S p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r : Women . 2 4 Other c u l t u r e s 2 0 Both 0 0 E x t r a t r a i n i n g between pr e - & p o s t - t e s t r e l a t e d t o : Se x - r o l e i s s u e s 1 0 C r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s 7 1 Both 1 0 Age: Mean 33.88 35.80 Standard D e v i a t i o n 7.10 7.82 of v a r i a n c e (ANOVAs) with the Wayne measure, RBI, and TAWS: (a) age, (b) gender, (c) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , (d) e t h n i c i t y , (e) r e l i g i o n , ( f ) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology s p e c i a l t y , (g) UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g team, (h) prev i o u s experience c o u n s e l l i n g women and/or c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s , ( i ) pre v i o u s UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology courses d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with gender and c u l t u r e i s s u e s , ( j ) pre v i o u s t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g women and/or c l i e n t s from other c u l t u r e s , and (k) e x t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to sex r o l e and/or c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g r e c e i v e d o u t s i d e of UBC durin g the course of the study. None of the group comparisons with respect to these v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 2<.05 l e v e l . The f o l l o w i n g were s i g n i f i c a n t at the P_<.10 l e v e l : (a) gender f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e s #3 and #5, RBI, and TAWS; (b) m a r i t a l s t a t u s f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e s #1 and #5; (c) p r e v i o u s c o u n s e l l i n g experience with women c l i e n t s f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e #3; (d) e x t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to sex r o l e i s s u e s f o r TAWS; and (e) e x t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to c r o s s -c u l t u r a l i s s u e s f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e #2. The experimental and comparison groups were then examined with r e s p e c t to a l l moderating v a r i a b l e s . A l l v a r i a b l e s were found to be evenly d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the two groups with the exce p t i o n of e x t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to sex r o l e i s s u e s f o r the TAWS and ex t r a t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e #2 (see Table 2). Desp i t e the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of these two v a r i a b l e s , the o v e r a l l e q uivalency of the two groups was not a f f e c t e d because these v a r i a b l e s had not emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the t - t e s t s . Next, t - t e s t s were performed which compared experimental and comparison group data on the p r e - t e s t measures. The groups were e q u i v a l e n t ; there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the group means, even at the p_<. 10 l e v e l . Table 3 shows the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the measures at both pre- and p o s t - t e s t (see Table 3). The moderating v a r i a b l e s which had emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the p r e v i o u s a nalyses were each subsequently examined along with experimental group membership i n two-f a c t o r ANOVAs. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s at the p_<. 1 0 l e v e l . D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s P r e - t e s t . T o t a l sample means for the Wayne Et h n i c Awareness Measure v i g n e t t e s showed a small spread from 1.73 to 2.85, and t h e i r standard d e v i a t i o n s showed a c l o s e u n i f o r m i t y ranging from .94 to 1.28. Although two of the f i v e v i g n e t t e s d i d not pass the K-S t e s t at the £<.05 l e v e l and were not amenable to n o r m a l i z a t i o n , the v i g n e t t e s as a group d i d d i s p l a y h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y . As a r e s u l t , they were used i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form. The sample mean f o r the RBI was 184.19 and the standard d e v i a t i o n was 47.10. Even though t h i s standard d e v i a t i o n was l a r g e due to a s i n g l e low score which c o u l d not be t r e a t e d as an o u t l i e r (and which r e s u l t e d in a Table 3 Summary of Pre- and P o s t - t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s Experimental group Comparison group Mean SD Mean SD P r e - t e s t . Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g . 1 (Jap. Female) 1.63 1 .01 2. 29 1 .02 2 (Black Male) 2.04 .88 2. 02 1 .03 3 (Native Male) 2.79 1 .28 2. 91 1 .33 4 (Chin. Female) 2.71 1 .07 2. 60 1 .08 5 (Jewish Male) 1.63 .82 1. 86 1 .17 RBI 176.13 56 .29 192. 80 34 .72 TAWS 64. 69 10 .00 63. 40 8 .77 P o s t - t e s t . -Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g . 1 (Jap. Female) 1. 69 1 .03 1. 82 1 .03 2 (Black Male) 1.94 1 .21 1. 78 1 .06 3 (Native Male) 2.48 1 .44 3. 04 1 . 17 4 (Chin. Female) 2.73 1 .07 2. 60 . 93 5 (Jewish Male) 1.67 1 .02 1. 69 1 .03 RBI 177.19 57 .15 198. 33 40 .88 TAWS 58.94 12 .94 61. 67 9 .51 negative skew), the RBI s t i l l passed the K-S t e s t at the p_<.05 l e v e l . The sample mean f o r the TAWS was 64.07, the standard d e v i a t i o n was 9.29, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n was normal as assessed by the K-S t e s t . A l l of the measures were w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e i r p o s s i b l e ranges (see Table 4 ) . P o s t - t e s t . The sample means f o r the f i v e Wayne Measure v i g n e t t e s ranged from 1.68 to 2.75, the standard d e v i a t i o n s from .99 to 1.33. Once again, the v i g n e t t e s as a group d i s p l a y e d h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y , and as with t h e i r p r e - t e s t c o u n t e r p a r t s , they were used i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form. The sample means f o r the RBI and the TAWS were 187.42 and 60.26 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Standard d e v i a t i o n s were 50.28 f o r the RBI and 11.31 f o r the TAWS. Both the RBI and the TAWS passed the K-S t e s t at the p_<.05 l e v e l and were normally d i s t r i b u t e d . Again, a l l of the measures were w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e i r p o s s i b l e ranges (see Table 5). Analyses of Va r i a n c e With Repeated Measures (ANOVARs) The hypotheses on which t h i s study i s based p r e d i c t that the changes i n mean scores f o r the experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l r e f l e c t g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e s i n e t h n i c awareness, f e m i n i s t a t t i t u d e s toward women, and non-t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , than i s the case f o r comparison group p a r t i c i p a n t s . To t e s t that p r e d i c t i o n , two-factor ANOVARs were conducted f o r the v a r i a b l e s of treatment and time f o r a l l three of the measures. Table 4 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r P r e - t e s t Measures ( T o t a l Sample) Passed No. of Observed K-S t e s t Measure cases Mean SD Min. Max. ( £ < . 0 5 ) Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: 1(Jap. Female) 31 1, .95 1 .05 1. .0 4 , .0 No 2 (Black Male) 30 2. .03 .94 1, .0 4 . 0 Yes 3 (Native Male) 31 2. .85 1, .28 1, .0 4 , .0 No 4 (Chin. Female) 30 2. . 66 1. .06 1. .0 4 . 0 Yes 5 (Jewish Male) 30 1. .73 .99 1. .0 4 . .o" Yes Note. For Wayne Measure: Each v i g . score i s equal t o the mean of the 3 r a t e r s ' s c o r e s . P o s s i b l e Range: 1-4. Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI) 31 184.19 47.10 54.0 264.0 Yes Note. For RBI: P o s s i b l e range, 0-306; High scores i n d i c a t e more n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - r o l e behaviours. (cont. on next page) Table 4 (cont.) Passed No. of Observed K-S t e s t Measure cases Mean SD Min..Max. (p<.05) T h e r a p i s t s 1 A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e (TAWS) 31 64.07 9.29 47.0 84.0 Yes Note. For TAWS: P o s s i b l e range, 32-160; Low scores l i b e r a l , l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s toward women. i n d i c a t e more Table 5 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r Post-test. Measures ( T o t a l Sampled Measure Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure: V i g . l ( J a p . Female) 2 (Black Male) 3 (Native Male) 4 (Chin. Female) 5 (Jewish Male) Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI) No. of cases Mean SD 31 1.75 1.02 31 1.86 1.12 31 2.75 1.33 31 2.67 0.99 30 1.68 1.00 31 187.42 50.28 Passed Observed K-S t e s t Min. Max. (p<.05) 1.0 4.0 No 1.0 4.0 No 1.0 4.0 No 1.0 4.0 Yes 1.0 4.0 No 54.0 273.0 Yes Yes T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Sc a l e (TAWS) 31 60.26 11.31 30.0 78.0 Hypothesis 1. The f i r s t h y p o t hesis s t a t e s that p a r t i c i p a n t s who have completed CNPS 508 w i l l d i s p l a y a gr e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n e t h n i c awareness over the course of the study than p a r t i c i p a n t s who have not taken such a course ( i . e . , the mean scores f o r each of the f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s that comprise the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure w i l l i n c r e a s e to a g r e a t e r extent f o r the experimental group than f o r the comparison group). The ANOVAR r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that treatment by time d i d not emerge as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h i s measure. The hypothesis must t h e r e f o r e be r e j e c t e d (see Table 6 f o r a summary of the r e l e v a n t ANOVAR r e s u l t s ; f o r more d e t a i l e d ANOVAR r e s u l t s f o r the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure see Appendix L ) . Hypothesis 2. The second hypothesis s t a t e s that p a r t i c i p a n t s who have completed CNPS 508 w i l l d i s p l a y a gre a t e r i n c r e a s e i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s over the course of the study than p a r t i c i p a n t s who have not taken such a course ( i . e . , the mean scores on the RBI w i l l i n c r e a s e to a gr e a t e r extent f o r the experimental group than f o r the comparison group). Again, treatment by time d i d not emerge as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n for the RBI, so t h i s h y p o thesis was a l s o r e j e c t e d (see Table 7). Hypothesis 3. The t h i r d h ypothesis s t a t e s that p a r t i c i p a n t s who have completed CNPS 508 w i l l d i s p l a y a gre a t e r i n c r e a s e i n n o n - s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s toward women Table 6 E f f e c t s o f Treatment and Time on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness  Measure: Summary of ANOVAR R e s u l t s 61 Source Sum of Degrees of Mean F Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Wayne V i a . #1 AB Wayne V i a . #2 AB Wayne V i a . #3 AB Wayne V i a . #4 AB Wayne V i a . #5 AB 1.08 0.00 0 .77 0.00 0.18 1.08 1.19 0.2! 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.77 1.24 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.97 0.18 0.57 0.46 Note. A = treatment; B = time Table 7 E f f e c t s o f Treatment and Time on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l  Inventory (RBI): ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 5537.42 1 5537..42 1.19 0.28 S - w i t h i n 134,517.00 29 4638.52 Wit h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 168.39 1 168.39 2.15 0.15 AB 77.42 1 77.42 0.99 0.33 BS - w i t h i n 2270.00 29 78.28 TOTAL 142,570.23 61 Note. A = treatment; B = time. over the course of the study than p a r t i c i p a n t s who have not taken such a course ( i . e . , the mean scores on the TAWS w i l l decrease to a gr e a t e r extent f o r the experimental group than f o r the comparison group). As treatment by time d i d not emerge as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n i n the ANOVAR r e s u l t s f o r the TAWS, t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , too, was r e j e c t e d (see Table 8 ) . Main E f f e c t s R e s u l t i n g From Treatment by Time ANOVARs Across the experimental and comparison groups, no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r treatment f o r any of the measures. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r time alone was found f o r the TAWS (F = 5.57; p_ =- 0 3; df=1,29). For t h i s measure, scores on the p o s t - t e s t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower ( i . e . more l i b e r a l ) than scores on the p r e - t e s t f o r the t o t a l sample (see Table 8). ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and Moderating V a r i a b l e s T h r e e - f a c t o r ANOVARs were a l s o conducted with r e l e v a n t moderating v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , those v a r i a b l e s that emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t i n the equ i v a l e n c y a n a l y s e s , p l u s the v a r i a b l e s of age, r e l i g i o n , and e t h n i c i t y ) . Each r e l e v a n t moderating v a r i a b l e was analyzed s e p a r a t e l y with respect to the treatment and time f a c t o r s . R e s u l t s were that s i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n s , were found f o r age (RBI, p<.05), r e l i g i o n (Wayne V i g n e t t e #4, p_<.10), and e t h n i c i t y (RBI , p<.lO) (see Tables 9 to 11 f o r summaries and breakdowns of the ANOVAR r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g to these i n t e r a c t i o n s ; more d e t a i l e d ANOVAR r e s u l t s f o r these i n t e r a c t i o n s are presented i n Appendices M to 0 ) . Table 8 E f f e c t s o f Treatment and Time on the T h e r a p i s t s ' A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Sca l e (TAWS): ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 8.04 1 8.04 0.05 0.83 S - w i t h i n 5225.38 29 180.19 Wi t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 216.77 1 216.77 5.57 0.03* AB 62.48 1 62.48 1.61 0.22 BS - w i t h i n 1127.94 29 38.89 TOTAL 6640.61 61 Note. A = treatment; B = time. * s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r time (Mean at time 1 = 64.07; Mean at time 2 = 60.26). Table 9 E f f e c t s o f Treatment, Time, and Age on the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI) : Summary and Breakdown of ANOVAR R e s u l t s Source Sum of Degrees of Mean F Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y ABC 295.12 295.12 4.291 0.05* Note. A = treatment; B = age; C = time. * r e p r e s e n t s s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l Experimental Group P r e - t e s t P o s t - t e s t P a r t i c i p a n t s Younger (n=10) Older (n=6) Younger (n=10) Older (n=6) Mean 160.30 202.50 166.80 194.50 Comparison Group P r e - t e s t Younger (n=8) 190 .,88 Older (n=7) 195.00 P o s t - t e s t Younger (n=8) 194.88 Older (n=7) 202.29 Table 10 E f f e c t s of Treatment. Time, and R e l i g i o n on Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e #4: Summary and Breakdown of  ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y ABC 2.57 1 2.57 3.02 0.10* Note. A = treatment; B = r e l i g i o n ; C = time. * r e p r e s e n t s s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .10 l e v e l . P a r t i c i p a n t s Mean Experimental Group P r e - t e s t N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=10) 3.00 R e l i g i o u s (n=4) 2.50 P o s t - t e s t N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=10) 2.47 R e l i g i o u s (n=4) 3.50 Comparison Group P r e - t e s t N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=9) 2.52 R e l i g i o u s (n=6) 2.73 P o s t - t e s t N o n - r e l i g i o u s (n=9) 2.63 R e l i g i o u s (n=6) 2.53 Table 11 E f f e c t s o f Treatment, Time, and E t h n i c i t y on the Robinson Behav- i o r a l Inventory (RBI): Summary and Breakdown of ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y A B C 269.52 1 269.52 3.52 0.07* Note. A = treatment; B = e t h n i c i t y ; C = time. * r e p r e s e n t s s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .10 l e v e l . P a r t i c i p a n t s Mean Experimental Group P r e - t e s t M a j o r i t y (n=10) 168.67 M i n o r i t y (n=6) 190.50 P o s t - t e s t M a j o r i t y (n=10) 166.67 M i n o r i t y (n=6) 196.83 Comparison Group P r e - t e s t M a j o r i t y (n=ll) 190 .27 M i n o r i t y (n=4) 199.75 P o s t - t e s t M a j o r i t y (n=ll) 198.46 M i n o r i t y (n=4) 198.00 68 Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s and Main E f f e c t s R e s u l t i n g From Three- F a c t o r ANOVARs S i g n i f i c a n t two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s and main e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from the preceding t h r e e - f a c t o r ANOVARs were a l s o examined. As these r e s u l t s do not r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the re s e a r c h hypotheses, they are presented and d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix P (see Appendix P). C o r r e l a t i o n a l Analyses Between and Among Measures Two se t s of c o r r e l a t i o n s were performed on the outcome measures. One set were those c o r r e l a t i n g each p r e - t e s t measure with i t s corresponding p o s t - t e s t c o u n t e r p a r t . A second set looked at the a s s o c i a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t measures at the pre- and p o s t - t e s t . The most p e r t i n e n t f i n d i n g s of these c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses were that there was very l i t t l e a s s o c i a t i o n among the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure v i g n e t t e s at the pre- and p o s t - t e s t s f o r e i t h e r the experimental or comparison groups. The r e s u l t s of these c o r r e l a t i o n s are d i s p l a y e d and d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix Q (see Appendix Q). Follow-up Interviews The preceding s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s es demonstrate that the mean scores of experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those of the comparison group at the post-t e s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , follow-up telephone i n t e r v i e w s were conducted s i x months a f t e r the p o s t - t e s t with the seven experimental group p a r t i c i p a n t s who vo l u n t e e r e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d . These i n t e r v i e w s suggest that some students i n the c l a s s d i d experience meaningful and p o s i t i v e changes i n t h e i r l e v e l s of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l awareness as a r e s u l t of the course. For example, i n response to a l l q u e s t i o n s on t h i s t o p i c , the m a j o r i t y of respondents i n d i c a t e d that CNPS 508 had e f f e c t i v e l y s e n s i t i z e d them to g e n d e r - f a i r and c u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g i s s u e s . F u l l y 86% of respondents a l s o r e p o r t e d that they experienced a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r l e v e l s of et h n i c or c u l t u r a l awareness as a r e s u l t of the course; 71% report e d a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward men or men's r o l e s as a r e s u l t of the course; and 57% repor t e d they experienced a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward women or women's r o l e s as a r e s u l t of the course. A d d i t i o n a l l y , 57% s a i d that the course had i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r approach to c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t s i n the d i r e c t i o n of l e s s b i a s e d , more s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g (see Appendix G fo r a summary of the i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s and excerpts from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses). Chapter 5 P i s c u s s i o n L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study A number of f a c t o r s c o u l d account f o r the lack of s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n t h i s study. Sample l i m i t a t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were not randomly s e l e c t e d , but were drawn from an a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n judged by the researc h e r to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of f i r s t - y e a r C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology students. Because of the lack of random s e l e c t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e of c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g should be made with c a u t i o n . Moreover, the small sample s i z e of t h i s study (n=3l) p l a c e s f u r t h e r l i m i t s on i t s g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The follow-up i n t e r v i e w s i n t r o d u c e d a second l e v e l of v o l u n t a r y , as opposed to random, s e l e c t i o n , i n that only those p a r t i c i p a n t s who wished to be in t e r v i e w e d s u p p l i e d the necessary p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to enable them to be con t a c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . As w e l l , the sample s i z e f o r the follow-up i n t e r v i e w s (n=7) was extremely s m a l l . Measurement l i m i t a t i o n s . The three instruments used i n t h i s study were s e l e c t e d as the best a v a i l a b l e measures of c u l t u r a l awareness, sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s toward women. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , each of these instruments has l i m i t a t i o n s which makes i t l e s s than i d e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e v a l u a t i n g CNPS 508. A major l i m i t a t i o n of the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure i s that no v a l i d i t y f o r the measure was e s t a b l i s h e d by i t s 'developer. A l s o , as Wayne (1981) p o i n t e d out, the p o s s i b i l i t y of e t h n i c b i a s on the par t of the r a t e r s i s a f u r t h e r , l i m i t a t i o n of her instrument. S i m i l a r l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e that n e i t h e r the RBI nor the TAWS may pro v i d e adequate assessments of the sex r o l e behaviours and a t t i t u d e s toward women of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study. The v a l i d i t y of the TAWS was not e s t a b l i s h e d by i t s developers and so remains q u e s t i o n a b l e . While the RBI was found by i t s developers to be both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between re p o r t e d sex r o l e behaviours and a c t u a l sex r o l e behaviours i s not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n of a l l three instruments i s t h e i r t r ansparency. As G u i l f o r d (1967) p o i n t e d out, f a l s i f i c a t i o n , or the mo t i v a t i o n to make a "good" score or a "good" appearance on a t e s t , i s a s i g n i f i c a n t source of response b i a s . As the i s s u e s that the instruments address are very c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s , and as these measures are c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n s of those i s s u e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study may have been motivated to respond to these measures i n s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e ways. A response b i a s toward s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t i n t h i s case because p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g who, by v i r t u e of t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e and t h e i r e v o l v i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s , as w e l l as the demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the study's academic s e t t i n g , may wish to be seen to e x h i b i t high l e v e l s of awareness and l i b e r a l v a l u e s , behaviours, and a t t i t u d e s . T h i s type of response e f f e c t may account f o r the lack of a l l but one i n d i c a t o r of s i g n i f i c a n t change between the pre-and p o s t - t e s t means on a l l three measures. Although the means f o r the sample on a l l three instruments at both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t s can be co n s i d e r e d as normally d i s t r i b u t e d - - t h u s r u l i n g out a c e i l i n g e f f e c t - - p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c o n s c i o u s or unconscious d e s i r e s to respond i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e f a s h i o n may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r responses i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner. Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d (1985) addressed t h i s i s s u e i n t h e i r study. They c a u t i o n e d that the transparent nature of t h e i r instrument enhances the l i k e l i h o o d that the respondents' answers may r e f l e c t an a b s t r a c t concept of sex r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , rather than the frequency with which respondents engage i n the a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n the in v e n t o r y . Wayne (1981) a l s o warned that some of her v i g n e t t e s may be more tr a n s p a r e n t than o t h e r s . The f a c t that s i g n i f i c a n t change d i d occur f o r the sample as a whole over time on the TAWS suggests that the transparency of t h i s instrument may not have i n f l u e n c e d the outcome to the same degree as i t may have f o r the other measures. Another concern with regard to a l l three measures i s the extent to which the r e s u l t s o b tained by the o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h e r s may or may not pr o v i d e a meaningful and a p p r o p r i a t e context for understanding the r e s u l t s obtained i n the present study. The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by the Wayne and TAWS developers appear to be s u i t a b l e f o r comparison with the sample used i n t h i s study. The Wayne Measure used Master's l e v e l students i n a c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t e d program; the TAWS used s o c i a l workers, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and p s y c h o l o g i s t s . However, n e i t h e r of these instruments has been v a l i d a t e d , and so t h e i r r e s u l t s cannot be r e l i e d upon f o r purposes of comparison. The sample used by the RBI developers (undergraduates i n a wide range of d i s c i p l i n e s ) i s l e s s o b v i o u s l y s u i t a b l e f o r comparison with the sample used i n t h i s study. Follow-up i n t e r v i e w s were used to supplement the three primary instruments employed i n t h i s study. The v a l i d i t y of these i n t e r v i e w s i s l i m i t e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n about p a r t i c i p a n t s ' impressions of t h e i r own b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and behaviours may be too f a r removed from those b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and behaviours themselves to be r e l i e d upon as a means of e v a l u a t i n g the course's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Design l i m i t a t i o n s . Inherent i n the non-equivalent c o n t r o l group design are l i m i t a t i o n s which should be co n s i d e r e d when a s s e s s i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. Campbell and S t a n l e y (1963) p o i n t e d out that r e g r e s s i o n and the i n t e r a c t i o n of s e l e c t i o n and maturation may be p o s s i b l e sources of i n t e r n a l i n v a l i d i t y . I n t e r a c t i o n s between t e s t i n g and treatment, i n t e r a c t i o n s between s e l e c t i o n and treatment, r e a c t i v e arrangements, and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s are a l l p o s s i b l e sources of e x t e r n a l i n v a l i d i t y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Changes of an a n t i c i p a t e d and d e s i r e d nature d i d occur i n the experimental group's l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness, a t t i t u d e s toward women, and sex r o l e behaviours over the course of the study. T h e i r l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness i n c r e a s e d i n r e l a t i o n to three of the f i v e Wayne v i g n e t t e s ; t h e i r sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s became more non-t r a d i t i o n a l ; t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward women became more l i b e r a l . However, these changes were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Moreover, s i m i l a r (though again not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ) changes occ u r r e d i n the comparison group. For the sample as a whole, time emerged as a s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s f a c t o r f o r the TAWS o n l y . These r e s u l t s suggest that the i n t e r a c t i o n of s e l e c t i o n and maturation may account f o r changes i n the sample means on the three measures. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the sample means at both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t s f o r two of the three measures (the RBI and the TAWS) seemed to i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s of f e m i n i s t c onsciousness, based on p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f o r these instruments. If t h i s i s so, i t may be one reason that l e s s change i n a t t i t u d e s toward women and sex r o l e behaviours and be h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s was d e t e c t e d over time and treatment f o r the experimental group than might have been a n t i c i p a t e d . Even though the sample means can be con s i d e r e d as normally d i s t r i b u t e d over both these measures, the p r e - t e s t l e v e l s may have been so high that o n l y the most e x t r a o r d i n a r y treatment d u r i n g the course c o u l d have r a i s e d them s i g n i f i c a n t l y . In c o n t r a s t , the sample generated r e l a t i v e l y low means on the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure at both the pre- and post-t e s t s . Within a p o s s i b l e score range of 1 to 4, means f o r the f i v e v i g n e t t e s ranged from 1.73 to 2.85 on the p r e - t e s t , and from 1.68 to 2.75 on the p o s t - t e s t . According to Wayne's (1981) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , these means f a l l between the l e v e l s of 1 = no e t h n i c awareness and 3 = moderate e t h n i c awareness. One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the sample's r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of c u l t u r a l awareness, as measured by the Wayne instrument, c o u l d be that c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g are exposed to a wide v a r i e t y of both t h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l i n f l u e n c e s . When they encounter s i t u a t i o n s l i k e those presented i n the Wayne v i g n e t t e s , they may focus on i s s u e s other than c u l t u r a l ones (e.g., f a m i l y or psychodynamic i s s u e s ) because those i s s u e s are more s a l i e n t to them. As a r e s u l t , they may b e — o r may appear to b e — i n s e n s i t i v e to c u l t u r a l cues and d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the opposite e f f e c t to that p r e d i c t e d by M a r g o l i s and Rungta (1986), who feared that i n a s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g environment, c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s would loom so l a r g e as to o b l i t e r a t e other c r u c i a l concerns. The number of low and n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between mean scores on the Wayne v i g n e t t e s i s a l s o n o t a b l e . The lack of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s at p r e - and p o s t - t e s t f o r the experimental group, the comparison group, and the two groups combined suggests that p a r t i c i p a n t s were, i n most cases, unable to g e n e r a l i z e t h e i r e t h n i c awareness from one c u l t u r a l group to another. For example, those p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the experimental group who were p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to V i g n e t t e #2 (the Black v i g n e t t e ) were no more l i k e l y than any other p a r t i c i p a n t s to be s e n s i t i v e to V i g n e t t e #5 (the Jewish v i g n e t t e ) . T h i s h e l d t r u e at both pre- and p o s t - t e s t s . The preceding notwithstanding, i t may a l s o be true that the short d u r a t i o n of the study precluded the d e t e c t i o n of any changes i n c u l t u r a l awareness, a t t i t u d e s toward women, or sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s that may have been o p e r a t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . According to Carney and Kahn (1984), c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n e e s t y p i c a l l y move through f i v e stages of c u l t u r a l development. Stage 1 i n t h e i r model i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e t h n o c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e s and Stage 5 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e l f - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i s t p ostures and c u l t u r a l l y p l u r a l i s t i c v a l u e s . Although Carney and Kahn (1984) d i d not estimate the time i t would t y p i c a l l y take t r a i n e e s to move through these f i v e stages, i t i s reasonable to assume that f o r many t r a i n e e s , i t would take c o n s i d e r a b l y longer than 11 week s — t h e time between the pre- and p o s t - t e s t s i n t h i s study. That being the case, the experimental p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study may have been i n the process of changing t h e i r b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and behaviours, but c o l l e c t i v e l y may not have reached a stage of development i n which they c o u l d a r t i c u l a t e or demonstrate those changes. For example, Stage 3 i n Carney and Kahn's model i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s on. the part of t r a i n e e s which may be expressed as a c t i v e attempts to deny c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I f a s i g n i f i c a n t number of CNPS 508 p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t h i s stage of development at the time of the post-t e s t , they c o u l d not have been expected to respond with high l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness on a measure l i k e the Wayne s c a l e or h i g h ( e r ) l e v e l s of f e m i n i s t awareness on measures such as the RBI or TAWS. P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d , however, be expected to demonstrate changes i n l e v e l s of awareness, a t t i t u d e s , and behaviours i f t e s t e d at a l a t e r date a f t e r enough time had elas p e d to allow them to i n t e g r a t e the course m a t e r i a l . (Indeed, the g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e responses given by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the follow-up i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t e d to changes i n t h e i r stages of c u l t u r a l development.) Co n c l u s i o n s The r e s u l t s p o i n t to one or both of the f o l l o w i n g general c o n c l u s i o n s : (a) CNPS 508 f a i l e d to in c r e a s e students' l e v e l s of gender and c u l t u r a l awareness based on r e s u l t s from instruments which are v a l i d , r e l i a b l e , and a p p r o p r i a t e to the purposes of t h i s study; and/or (b) CNPS 508 may or may not have r a i s e d students l e v e l s of gender or c u l t u r a l awareness, but i n e i t h e r case, the instruments used were incapable of measuring i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n doing so. T h i s researcher concludes that the t r u t h l i e s i n a combination of the two. Beyond these broad c o n c l u s i o n s , some a d d i t i o n a l c o n c l u s i o n s of i n t e r e s t can a l s o be drawn from the study. Reference was made e a r l i e r to the p o s s i b l e impact of the i n t e r a c t i o n of s e l e c t i o n and maturation on the changes which were d e t e c t e d by the study. In other words, the very experience of being i n the UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology program i t s e l f may change to some degree students' l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness, sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s toward women. Reference was a l s o made above to the u n s u i t a b i l i t y and/or u n r e l i a b i l i t y of the p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s which are a v a i l a b l e f o r each of the three measures used i n the study. However, to the extent that these e a r l i e r r e s u l t s can be used f o r purposes of comparison and e v a l u a t i o n , i t would appear that the study sample d i s p l a y e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s of f e m i n i s t consciousness, and r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of e t h n i c awareness. The moderating v a r i a b l e s of age, r e l i g i o n , and e t h n i c i t y were found to be a s s o c i a t e d with g r e a t e r l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e or negative change over time, but the c o n c l u s i o n s that can be drawn from these r e s u l t s are l i m i t e d . T h i s researcher can only s p e c u l a t e as to how p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s o n a l values i n t e r a c t e d with the treatment v a r i a b l e i n these cases. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among age, e t h n i c group membership, and sex r o l e behaviours, and between r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s and e t h n i c awareness. Recommendations Based on a review of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d recommendations of a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the AACD and the APA, i t i s c l e a r that more courses d e a l i n g with s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c o u n s e l l i n g t r a i n i n g programs i n the coming y e a r s . For that reason alone, s t u d i e s such as t h i s one, and the recommendations that flow from them, are of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to the p r o f e s s i o n . To the extent that the instruments used i n t h i s study were flawed, or t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n was i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i t i s necessary to improve these instruments and a l s o develop other, more a p p r o p r i a t e , e v a l u a t i v e t o o l s so that t r a i n i n g courses can be designed f o r maximum e f f e c t . For example, measures of c u l t u r a l awareness with e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y are s o r e l y l a c k i n g . More contemporary, l e s s t r a n s p a r e n t instruments that measure l e v e l s of gender b i a s or gender awareness are a l s o needed. R e l i a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e normative standards must be a r r i v e d at as a b a s i s f o r comparing and c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g the r e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s . Furthermore, i t would be i d e a l to have at the re s e a r c h e r ' s d i s p o s a l a s e r i e s of instruments which c o u l d d i r e c t l y and independently measure, f o r both c u l t u r e and gender, each and every one of the d i s c r e t e elements co n t a i n e d i n the theory of reasoned a c t i o n that formed the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s study; i . e . , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , norms, i n t e n t i o n s , and behaviours. If the study were to be r e p l i c a t e d using the same general t h e o r e t i c a l framework and methodological approach, i t c o u l d be st r e a m l i n e d i n s e v e r a l ways. Sub-group analyses (e.g., age, r e l i g i o n , and e t h n i c i t y ) c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d , because the r e s u l t s of such analyses are p e r i p h e r a l to the purpose of the e v a l u a t i o n and do not d i r e c t l y a s s i s t i n course d e s i g n . The RBI measure c o u l d a l s o be e l i m i n a t e d , because: (a) the course i s intended to change a t t i t u d e s toward women ra t h e r than sex r o l e behaviours and i n t e n t i o n s ; (b) the RBI seems not to have dete c t e d the changes which were d e t e c t e d by the TAWS, s i n c e u n l i k e the TAWS, the RBI showed no s i g n i f i c a n t change over . time; and (c) the s c o r i n g procedures of the RBI had to be mod i f i e d i n order to accommodate male p a r t i c i p a n t s . In sh o r t , the TAWS appears more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d with course o b j e c t i v e s than the RBI. The BMS measure c o u l d a l s o be e l i m i n a t e d , s i n c e there i s no evidence that i t served i t s purpose as a "masking" d e v i c e . A more st r e a m l i n e d study would a l s o be e a s i e r to administer and analyze on an ongoing b a s i s , and should minimize p a r t i c i p a n t r e s i s t a n c e . There i s one element which might be added to fu t u r e s t u d i e s of t h i s type. An instrument which measures p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l e v e l s of in f o r m a t i o n about women--to supplement what the TAWS can t e l l us about t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward women— co u l d be q u i t e h e l p f u l . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so s i n c e the di s s e m i n a t i o n of t h i s kind of i n f o r m a t i o n i s one of the primary o b j e c t i v e s of the course. I t would a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g to look f o r p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s or d i s c r e p a n c i e s between measures of in f o r m a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s on the same t o p i c , i n order to help answer the qu e s t i o n of whether in c r e a s e d l e v e l s of in f o r m a t i o n can le a d to p o s i t i v e changes i n a t t i t u d e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a more r i g o r o u s and comprehensive use of follow-up i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l measure to supp l e m e n t — o r even r e p l a c e - - t h e three primary instruments used i n t h i s study. I d e a l l y , follow-up i n t e r v i e w s should be admi n i s t e r e d to a l l students i n the c o u r s e — a s s u m i n g , of course, that a p p r o p r i a t e methodologies can be developed and implemented f o r conducting the i n t e r v i e w s and e v a l u a t i n g the data c o l l e c t e d from them. Such i n t e r v i e w s would a l s o address the e v a l u a t i v e problem i m p l i e d by Carney and Kahn's (1984) model; i . e . , that students t e s t e d i n the l a s t few weeks of the course may not yet have had time to f u l l y i n t e g r a t e what they have l e a r n e d . What i s u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e d i s the development of methods and instruments to measure a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g behaviour. Short of t h i s , we need s t u d i e s to determine more c l e a r l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o u n s e l l o r s ' l e v e l s of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l awareness and the a c t u a l p r a c t i s e of g e n d e r - f a i r and c u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g . Such s t u d i e s would c o n f i r m or deny the a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n a c o u n s e l l i n g context of Ajzen's and F i s h b e i n ' s (1980) theory of reasoned a c t i o n . To the extent that the instruments used were r e l i a b l e , v a l i d , and a p p r o p r i a t e to the purpose of the study, the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n d i c a t e s t h at there were problems with the course, and that i t s design should be mo d i f i e d to b e t t e r address i t s o b j e c t i v e s . While i t may not be necessary to t r y and f u r t h e r r a i s e students' awareness of gender i s s u e s given t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s of f e m i n i s t awareness, some a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to r a i s i n g students' l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness. The r e s u l t s suggest that e i t h e r the course d i d not provide students with s u f f i c i e n t or a p p r o p r i a t e c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and/or the course d i d not have a powerful enough emotional impact on students to e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r t h e i r l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l awareness. Two design changes that c o u l d address these i s s u e s are the i n c l u s i o n of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n (with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on those groups with whom students would most l i k e l y come i n con t a c t ) and an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on the e x p e r i e n t i a l component of the course. The suggestion to i n c l u d e c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s supported by Johnson (1987), Meara et a l . (1988), and Sue et a l . (1982). Johnson, f o r example, emphasized that m u l t i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g programs f o r c o u n s e l l o r s should go beyond t e a c h i n g t r a i n e e s to "know t h a t " c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t and move toward t e a c h i n g them to s p e c i f i c a l l y "know how" to conduct t h e i r work e f f e c t i v e l y with i n d i v i d u a l s from a wide a r r a y of c u l t u r a l backgrounds. The suggestion to i n c r e a s e the e x p e r i e n t i a l component of the course i s supported by P a r a d i s (1981), Pedersen, H o l w i l l , and Shapiro (1978), and Parker and McDavis (1979), a l l of whom conducted s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g the impact of e x p e r i e n t i a l l y - o r i e n t e d programs designed to incr e a s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c u l t u r a l awareness and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l competencies. The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s were that p a r t i c i p a n t s experienced an i n c r e a s e i n e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l awareness as a r e s u l t of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e treatments. The value of e x p e r i e n t i a l l y - o r i e n t e d treatments i s a l s o supported by the theory of reasoned a c t i o n on which t h i s study i s based (Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1980). T h i s theory p o s t u l a t e s that an " i n t e r a c t i o n experience" ( i . e . , an experience which allows a person to d i r e c t l y observe v a r i o u s o b j e c t s , people, and events) can serve as a s p e c i a l i z e d form of p e r s u a s i v e communication. An e f f e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n experience w i l l i n f l u e n c e a person's primary b e h a v i o u r a l and normative b e l i e f s , and w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d to changes i n h e r / h i s a t t i t u d e s , norms, i n t e n t i o n s , and behaviours. Pedersen's (1977) t r i a d model f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s an example of a t r a i n i n g program that i n c l u d e s both c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n t i a l e x e r c i s e s . In t h i s model, t r a i n e d c l i e n t s and " a n t i c o u n s e l l o r s " from the same c u l t u r a l background work with c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds i n simulated c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s . The r o l e of the a n t i c o u n s e l l o r i s to act out the p o t e n t i a l c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s between the c o u n s e l l o r and the c l i e n t , thereby a l l o w i n g the t r a i n e e to work with c r o s s -c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n a " r e a l - l i f e " s i t u a t i o n (Johnson, 1987). While CNPS 508 has a t h e o r e t i c a l and d i d a c t i c , r a t h e r than a c l i n i c a l or e x p e r i e n t i a l focus, both c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d e a s i l y be in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the course. For example, case examples and case p r e s e n t a t i o n s by students or c u l t u r a l "experts" c o u l d focus on v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l groups. E x p e r i e n t i a l e x e r c i s e s c o u l d focus on students' awareness of t h e i r own and oth e r s ' a t t i t u d e s , c u l t u r a l myths, and s t e r e o t y p e s , e t c . "Hands-on" e x e r c i s e s such as r o l e - p l a y s would a l s o allow students to evaluate one another's performance as c u l t u r a l l y aware c o u n s e l l o r s , and changes i n t h e i r performance c o u l d be measured over the d u r a t i o n of the course. T h i s i s an example of a method f o r measuring a c t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g behaviour. Such e x e r c i s e s would a l s o h e l p address the problem that c o u n s e l l o r s - i n - t r a i n i n g may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to focus on re l e v a n t c u l t u r a l i s s u e s and make a p p r o p r i a t e c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , because they f i n d themselves f o c u s i n g on other i s s u e s to an extent which b l u r s or ignores e s s e n t i a l c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s (e.g., f a m i l y or psychodynamic i s s u e s ) . When reviewing the r e s u l t s , i t i s a l s o important to note that the c l a s s which was the focus of t h i s study was taught by a female i n s t r u c t o r and that f a c t o r may have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on students' l e a r n i n g and/or t h e i r responses to the res e a r c h instruments. T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s supported by pre v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s on the e f f e c t of i n s t r u c t o r s ' gender on students' p e r c e p t i o n s . Basow and S i l b e r g (1987), f o r example, found that both male and female c o l l e g e students ev a l u a t e d female p r o f e s s o r s l e s s f a v o u r a b l y than male p r o f e s s o r s . S i m i l a r l y , G i l b e r t , Long, and H o l t (1988) found that a male i n s t r u c t o r was viewed by undergraduate psychology students as more competent, and aroused a more p o s i t i v e mood s t a t e i n the students, than a female i n s t r u c t o r . The gender of the i n s t r u c t o r i n t h e i r study a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the number and type of qu e s t i o n s asked by students. G i l b e r t , Long, and Holt concluded that women and men who co-teach m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to women's experiences might be more e f f e c t i v e than e i t h e r a woman or a man alone . In l i g h t of t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s suggested that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of CNPS 508 may be improved by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of both male and female i n s t r u c t o r s , e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y or together. In g e n e r a l , i t i s recommended (a) that the e v a l u a t i v e instruments used to measure the course's e f f e c t i v e n e s s should be improved, (b) that other instruments more a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s purpose should be developed, and (c) that these e v a l u a t i v e r e s u l t s should be used to modify and improve course c o n t e n t . I t i s a l s o recommended that ongoing e v a l u a t i o n s should be undertaken of CNPS 508 and s i m i l a r courses i n other t r a i n i n g programs. B e t t e r instruments and b e t t e r course e v a l u a t i o n s c l e a r l y go hand i n hand, and i f we are abl e to improve the q u a l i t y of e v a l u a t i o n , we w i l l be able to design b e t t e r courses to meet the needs of c l i e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and the c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i k e . F i n a l l y , i t should be remembered that t h i s study was conducted d u r i n g the f i r s t term t h a t the course was o f f e r e d . Since then, the researcher and the i n s t r u c t o r have continued to monitor and evaluate i t s success i n reaching i t s o b j e c t i v e s . In the process, both the course design and the e v a l u a t i v e methods have been r e f i n e d and improved. We b e l i e v e that t h i s ongoing c i r c u l a r process of course design, implementation, and e v a l u a t i o n l e a d i n g to re-des i g n i s e s s e n t i a l , not only f o r CNPS 508, but a l s o f o r a l l s i m i l a r courses, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y stages of t h e i r development. Of course, the danger inherent i n t h i s process i s the temptation which the i n s t r u c t o r faces to teach to the instruments. But t h i s i s not a problem i f the e v a l u a t i v e instruments chosen are, i n f a c t , a v a l i d measure of the course's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s . S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l concerns continue to be an important area of r e s e a r c h f o r c o u n s e l l o r educators. As Copeland (1982) has w r i t t e n : As our s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s to become more p l u r a l i s t i c , and as r a c i a l , low-socioeconomic, and other d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d groups continue to recognize t h e i r unique needs and problems, s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d p r o f e s s i o n s must develop s k i l l s to a s s i s t not only c l i e n t s s i m i l a r t o themselves but a l s o c l i e n t s from d i s s i m i l a r groups.(p. 193) At the very l e a s t , t h i s study should h e l p p o i n t the way to f u r t h e r work i n t h i s f i e l d , by suggesting what needs to be done and how i t might be accomplished. The study p r o v i d e s some a s s i s t a n c e to f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s which may h e l p them to prepare f o r - - a n d perhaps a v o i d — t h e problems they are l i k e l y to encounter along the way. 88 REFERENCES Abalos, D.T. ( i 9 8 6 ) . L a t i n o s i n the Uni t e d S t a t e s . 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C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g : Some s p e c i a l problems and recommendations for the Canadian c o u n s e l l o r . Canadian C o u n s e l l o r , 17, 62-66. Whitely, B.E. (1979). Sex b i a s and psychotherapy: A c u r r e n t a p p r a i s a l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 86, 1309-1321. APPENDIX A Course O u t l i n e DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY The University of British Columbia Counseling Psychology 508 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN COUNSELLING Course Outline CNPS 508 (1.5) Description of the Course The purpose of this course i s to develop knowledge and understanding of the fundamental role of social/cultural factors which channel individuals in their development. Awareness of a wide variety of social and cultural differences, with particular emphasis on ethnicity and gender; will be presented. Theory, research, and experiential learning, differing cultural expectations and changing roles will be evaluated in light of how counsellors can be sensitive to a multiplicity of differences in the counselling process. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS COURSE OBJECTIVES The general aim is to provide basic knowledge and awareness of a wide variety of social and cultural differences, with particular emphasis on ethnicity and gender. In particular, a student in this program is expected to demonstrate the following: a.1. understanding of the relationship between social/cultural difference and the human development of individuals. a.2. understand the relationship of role opportunities and individual development. a.3 . competence in being sensitive to role structure, opportunities and individual growth patterns. a. 1*, knowledge of a general model of human development which identifies the social cultural factors which shape development and provide a ground for understanding difference in counselling. b. 1. knowledge of concepts and models about social and cultural differences including their effect on the counselling process. b . 2 . competence to define terms relevant to ethnicity, gender, socio-economic class, religion, d i s a b i l i t y , and other social and cultural differences. b. 3 . competence to evaluate models for culture-fair and gender-fair counselling. c. 1. knowledge of personal values and attitudes about social and cultural differences including their effect on the counselling process. C . . 2 . competence to distinguish values from biases. 0.3. competence to use these awarenesses and a b i l i t i e s sensitively and effectively in counselling. c. H. knowledge of how to encorporate a sensitivity to differences into a philosophy of counselling and s k i l l repertoire. d. 1. knowledge of history, trends and changes in human roles, including changing roles of men and women in a multicultural society. d . 2 . competence to identify the implications of these changes, to discern discrepancies and conflicts, to relate these to personal and social meaning and values. d. 3 . competence to design counselling programs, to implement a variety of strategies and techniques for effective gender-fair and culture-fair counselling. e. 1. knowledge of a general model of counselling with differences of many kinds and the problems associated with development of such models. e . 2 . competence to apply this general model to a wide variety of social and cultural differences including one not specific a l l y dealt with in course work. Relevant Coursework; CNPS 5 0 8 , CNPS 5 3 1 . CNPS 5 9 4 97 T o p i c a l Outline 1. The S o c i o p o l i t i c a l Context of Counselling 2. D e f i n i t i o n s and Understanding Differences Murray & Abramson, Chapter 5 Dominance/Subordination Power E t h n i c i t y Prejudice Gender Race Minority/Majority Roles M u l t i c u l t u r a l Sex Stereotype 3. Values, Pers o n a l i t y , and Behavior Murray & Abramson, Chapter 4 A. S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Factors i n the Counselling Process - E t h n i c i t y Murray & Abramson, Chapter 9 History and change Changing roles i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y Racism Expectations and perceptions C u l t u r e - f a i r c o u n s e l l i n g 5. S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Factors i n the Counselling Process - Gender Murray & Abramson, Chapters 1,2, 6, 8, 7, & 11 History and change Changing r o l e s of women and men Sexism Expectations and perceptions Gender-fair c o u n s e l l i n g 6 . Other S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Differences Murray & Abramson, Chapters 3 , (0, Socio-economic Reli g i o n D i s a b i l i t y (Physical and Mental) Sexual orientation/preference 7. Reducing Bias Murray & Abramson, Chapter 13 8. Future D i r e c t i o n s Murray & Abramson, Chapter 14 98 Course Requirements 1. We expect each student to attend r e g u l a r l y , having pre-read the assigned text, readings, and to discuss and p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . 2. There w i l l be a comprehensive, two-hour w r i t t e n examination held i n c l a s s at the end of the term. This exam w i l l include short answer and case study questions covering the text, readings, c l a s s discussions, and c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . 3. A 12-15 page research paper i s due one week following the l a s t c l a s s . This paper, written i n APA s t y l e , should summarize, synthesize and analyze relevant l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as contribute your own ideas. We suggest the following t o p i c s : -Discuss the methodological problems i n bias research. Give examples from the l i t e r a t u r e and suggest so l u t i o n s f o r these problems i n future research. -Discuss the c o n t r i b u t i o n of c o g n i t i v e - a t t r i b u t i o n theory and research to understanding bias i n c o u n s e l l i n g . -Discuss how the counsellor's view of c l i e n t s ' "problems i n l i v i n g " e i t h e r as symptoms of i n d i v i d u a l pathology or of s o c i e t a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a f f e c t s the c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o u n s e l l i n g outcome. -Using the framework i n Abramowitz and Murray's chapter "Race E f f e c t s i n Psychotherapy," review three types of bias — diagnostic, treatment u t i l i z a t i o n , and e f f e c t i v e n e s s — with regard to c o u n s e l l i n g women or a p a r t i c u l a r Canadian ethnic group. Grading Class p a r t i c i p a t i o n F i n a l Examination Paper 10% 40% 50% 100% APPENDIX B Ve r b a l I n s t r u c t i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t s P r e - t e s t H e l l o . My name i s G e r r i e Brooks. I'm a Master's student i n the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Dept. I'm c u r r e n t l y conducting r e s e a r c h on the a t t i t u d e s and values of c o u n s e l l i n g students and I requested permission from your course i n s t r u c t o r to come i n t o t h i s c l a s s to gather r e s e a r c h data. I would l i k e to ask fo r your c o o p e r a t i o n i n f i l l i n g out 3 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p l u s a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet. T h i s w i l l take about 1 hour of c l a s s time. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y and I w i l l ask those of you who agree to take p a r t to read and s i g n a consent form. Does anyone have any que s t i o n s ? (Answer q u e s t i o n s and d i s t r i b u t e consent forms to v o l u n t e e r s . C o l l e c t signed consent forms and randomly d i s t r i b u t e t e s t b o o k l e t s . ) A l l i n s t r u c t i o n s are i n the t e s t b o o k l e t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are not timed. Please read the i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the order i n which they have been presented to you. You w i l l n o t i c e as you work through the booklet that one q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : one set i s f o r people who are s i n g l e and one set i s f o r people who are married or l i v i n g with someone, e i t h e r i n a he t e r o s e x u a l or le s b i a n / g a y r e l a t i o n s h i p . Be sure to complete one f u l l set of q u e s t i o n s — w h i c h e v e r set a p p l i e s to you. When you are f i n i s h e d , p l e a s e b r i n g your completed t e s t b o o k l e t s up to the f r o n t . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , please r a i s e your hand. Thank you. Please begin. 101 APPENDIX C Consent Form COUNSELLORS' ATTITUDES AND VALUES SURVEY I v o l u n t a r i l y agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research project. I understand that the aim of t h i s study i s to gather information concerning c o u n s e l l i n g students' a t t i t u d e s and values and that the study is being conducted to p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l the requirements for a Master's degree at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I further understand that my involvement i n t h i s p r o j e c t requires that I complete a form requesting c e r t a i n demographic information and that I w i l l be asked to complete three b r i e f questionnaires. Completion of the preceding tasks w i l l take approximately one hour. I am aware that I may refuse to provide information requested and that I may withdraw my consent and discontinue my p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any time without a f f e c t i n g my academic standing. I know my c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s assured since, except for t h i s consent form which i s handled separately, there is no request for my name on any other forms. A l l questions regarding t h i s form or any other aspect of t h i s study may be d i r e c t e d to the student i n v e s t i g a t o r named below. I have read and understand the contents of t h i s consent form. Date Signature Student Investigator: Gerrie Brooks APPENDIX D Wr i t t e n I n s t r u c t i o n s to P a r t i c i p a n t s and P r e - t e s t Measures Dear Research P a r t i c i p a n t : Thank you f o r agreeing Co p a r t i c i p a t e i n th i s study. Attached to t h i s l e t t e r you w i l l f i n d four b r i e f questionnaires and a demographic information sheet. PLEASE COMPLETE THE QUESTIONNAIRES AND INFORMATION SHEET IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO YOU. None of the questionnaires are timed, but i n t o t a l they w i l l probably take you about one hour to complete. Please answer a l l questions to the best of your a b i l i t y . I am sure you w i l l f i n d completion of the attached forms i n t e r e s t i n g and enjoyable. I f you have any questions, j u s t r a i s e your hand and I w i l l a s s i s t you. Gerrie Brooks Student Investigator 103 WAYNE ETHNIC AWARENESS MEASURE Recognizing Che br e v i t y of the following cases, please state your i n i t i a l impressions as a counsellor of each of the following f i v e v ignettes. Please l i m i t each of your responses to f i v e minutes. 1. A 26 year o l d Japanese-Canadian female i s r e f e r r e d Co Che c l i n i c by her doctor. Complaints, p r i m a r i l y somatic, include headaches, anxiety, and chest pain. She has experienced these symptoms f o r a few years, but i n the l a s t s i x months they have worsened. As a teacher f o r three years, she enjoys her job. However her symptoms have become p a r t i c u l a r l y bad l a t e l y when she has to confront the p r i n c i p a l about anything even though she works more hours than her peers. She also states that whenever another teacher makes a recommendation about her teaching s t y l e , she t r i e s to change. She t r i e s to create something from a l l the comments; i t becomes jumbled; and then she accepts r e s p o n s i b l i t y for f a i l u r e . She i s s i n g l e , dating, l i v e s alone, and has a few close f r i e n d s . She i s the oldest c h i l d with two s i b l i n g s - a s i s t e r , 24, and a brother, 18. 105 2. A 17 year o l d Black male i s r e f e r r e d Co Che school psychologist because he appears depressed. He i s a Grade 12 high school student who p r i o r to t h i s time was making exc e l l e n t grades and was involved i n a t h l e t i c s and school clubs. Now his grades are. s l i p p i n g , he i s l o s i n g weight, and he i s generally d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n school a c t i v i t i e s . He states that he i s f e e l i n g unsupported by h i s family and friends i n h i s desire to accept a scholarship f o r u n i v e r s i t y where he wants to major i n pre-med. They are ignoring the to p i c of u n i v e r s i t y and some of h i s fri e n d s have been o s t r a c i z i n g him from t h e i r groups. He states that he l i k e s the neighbourhood where he l i v e s , has been o f f e r e d jobs i f he stays, and has a g i r l f r i e n d . He i s f e e l i n g ambivalent. His father i s a painter, his mother, a homemaker, and he has two s i s t e r s , 19 and 15-, and one brother, 13. 3. A ten year o ld Native Canadian boy i s taken to the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e by his teacher. Her complaints about him are that he gives his personal things away to other c h i l d r e n ; brings a large lunch to school at least four times a week; and she caught him taking things o f f her desk ( p e n c i l s , markers, tapes, e t c . ) , using them, and then putting them i n his desk. This l a t t e r complaint has occurred at le a s t three times since school s t a r t e d one month ago. When confronted by the teacher, he admits to taking the objects f o r h i s own use. 4.. A 20 y e a r o l d C h i n e s e f e m a l e i s r e f e r r e d t o the c l i n i c by h e r d o c t o r . Her c o m p l a i n t s i n c l u d e f e e l i n g d e p r e s s e d and a l i t t l e a n x i o u s . The o n s e t o f t h e s e symptoms o c c u r r e d when she made a d e c i s i o n t o move i n t o h e r own a p a r t m e n t w i t h a n o t h e r young woman she works w i t h a t a day c a r e c e n t r e . Her p a r e n t s a r e v e r y u p s e t about t h e move - t e l l i n g h e r she i s u n g r a t e f u l . Up u n t i l t h i s t i m e , she had n e v e r had a bad argument w i t h h e r f a m i l y . She i s d a t i n g a 25 y e a r o l d C h i n e s e law s t u d e n t who i s v e r y s u p p o r t i v e . She has two b r o t h e r s , 19 and 25, and two s i s t e r s , 23 and 16. 108 5. A 20 year old Jewish male comes to therapy with complaints of feeling; apathetic and depressed. He reports the onset of these symptoms began when his 19 year o l d Jewish g i r l f r i e n d broke up- with him a f t e r f i v e years of dating. The reason she gave him was that she f e l t t h e i r l i v e s were going i n two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : he i s a t h i r d year art student at a p r o f e s s i o n a l school; and she i s a second year E n g l i s h major at a l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y . She f e e l s h i s career choice i s an undesirable one. His parents, who have been upset from the beginning with his d e c i s i o n not to go to u n i v e r s i t y , have t o l d t h e i r son they can understand his g i r l f r i e n d ' s f e e l i n g s . He has always e x c e l l e d i n art - winning p r o v i n c i a l awards i n elementary school and high school - and i s g e t t i n g honours and being recognized at the p r o f e s s i o n a l school f o r h i s a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s . Since the breakup, he has s t a r t e d to lose i n t e r e s t i n art and to question his vocational choice. His father i s a lawyer, h i s mother a homemaker, and he has a s i s t e r , 20, and a brother, 18, both of whom are i n u n i v e r s i t y . 109 ROBINSON BEHAVIORAL INVENTORY The following questions are concerned with your behaviour. Please in d i c a t e your answer by pl a c i n g at the end of each question the number which best expresses your p o s i t i o n . IMPORTANT: If you are SINGLE, please answer questions 1 to 34 ONLY. If you are MARRIED OR LIVING WITH SOMEONE ( i e : i n a heterosexual or lesbian/gay r e l a t i o n s h i p ) , please answer questions 35 to 68 ONLY. 1 10 IF SINGLE, PLEASE ANSWER QUESTIONS 1 TO 34. IF MARRIED OR LIVING  WITH SOMEONE, PLEASE GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 35. For Che f i r s C Cen (10) questions please use Che following scale: 0 = w i l l d e f i n i c e l y not do so 1 = extremely u n l i k e l y 2 = very u n l i k e l y 3 = moderately u n l i k e l y 4 = somewhat u n l i k e l y 5 = somewhat l i k e l y 6 = moderately l i k e l y 7 = very l i k e l y 8 = extremely l i k e l y 9 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y do so 1. I f t r y i n g to get your own way, how l i k e l y are you to use tears with a person of the opposite sex within the next year at least once? I 2. How l i k e l y are you to pay 50% or more of the expenses the f i r s t time you go out with a person of the opposite I sex during the next year? | 3. How l i k e l y are you to stay home from an a c t i v i t y (e.g. party or concert) that you want to go to i f you don't I have a date during the next year? [ 4. How l i k e l y are you, within the. next year, to ask someone to r e f e r to you as a woman/man i f they r e f e r to you as a girl/boy? I 5. How l i k e l y are you to read a book on the new roles f o r women (e.g. Free and Female, The Feminine Mystique) I during the next year? | 6. When going out with a person of the opposite sex during the next year, how l i k e l y i s i t that the other person I w i l l always drive? I 7. How l i k e l y are you to be the f i r s t to engage i n g e n i t a l I touching with a date during the next year? I 8. When wich a person of Che opposite sex during the next year, how l i k e l y i s i t that he/she w i l l r e g u l a r l y make the minor decisions (e.g. where to go on an evening out)? 9. How l i k e l y are you to eat lunch or dinner alone i n a restaurant during the next year? 10. How l i k e l y are you to accept a date with a person of the opposite sex and cancel plans you had already made with friends of the same sex during the next year? For the next nine (9) questions please use the following scale 0 = never 1 = once 2 = twice 3 = 3 times 4 = 4 times 5 = 5 times 6 = 6 times 7 = 7 times 8 = 8 times 9 = 9 times or more 11. How frequently have you gone out with a person of the opposite sex that you didn't l i k e very much because you didn't know how to say no when asked during the past year? 12. How frequently have you read Ms. or New Woman magazine i n the past year? 13. How frequently during the past year have you stayed home from an a c t i v i t y that you wanted to attend (e.g. party or concert) because you didn't have a date? 14. How many books have you read on the new ro l e s for women (e.g. Free and Female, The Feminine Mystique) during the past year? 15. How frequently have you waited i n the car for a person of the opposite sex to open the door for you in the past year? 16. How frequently have you pretended to know less than you r e a l l y knew to protect the ego of a person of the opposite sex during the past year? 17. How frequently during the past year have you gone out in the evening with friends of the same sex? 18. How many meetings have you attended of a feminist-oriented group (e.g. church group on the status of women, formal discussions of sex r o l e s , consciousness r a i s i n g ) during the past year? 19. In the past year how frequently have you decided to keep a strong opinion to yo u r s e l f because you were t a l k i n g to a person of the opposite sex? For the next s i x (6) questions please use the following scale 0 = 0% 1 = 107. 2 = 20% 3 = 30% 4 »• 40% 5 = 50% 6 = 60% 7 = 70% 8 = 80% 9 = 90% or more 20. What percent of time have you, rather than your partner, been the f i r s t to engage i n g e n i t a l touching during the past year? 21. What percent of the time have you paid 50% or more of the expenses the f i r s t time you went out with a person of the opposite sex during the past year? 22. In t r y i n g to get your way, what percent of the time have you used tears with a person of the opposite sex during the past year? 23. What percent of the meals you have eaten i n restaurants during the past year have you eaten alone? 24. When wich a person of Che opposice sex during Che pasc year, whaC percent of Che Cime has he/she made Che minor decisions (e.g. where Co go on an evening ouc)? 25. When you have f e l t angry aC a person of Che opposice sex f u r i n g Che pasc year, whaC percenc of Che Cime have you expressed i t ? For the next nine (9) questions please use the following scale 0 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y not do so 1 = extremely u n l i k e l y 2 = very u n l i k e l y 3 = moderately u n l i k e l y 4 = somewhat u n l i k e l y 5 = somewhat l i k e l y 6 = moderately l i k e l y 7 = very l i k e l y 8 = excremely l i k e l y 9 = w i l l d e f i n i C e l y do so 26. How l i k e l y are you Co ask one or more people of Che opposite sex to go out wich you i n Che evening or on a weekend wichin the next year? 27. ; How l i k e l y are you to wait i n the car for a person of the opposite sex to open the door for you during the next year? 2.8. How l i k e l y are you to pretend to know less than you r e a l l y know to protect the ego of a person of the opposite sex within the next year? 29. How l i k e l y are you to agree to sexual incercourse chac you don'c want Co engage i n i f pressured by a person of Che opposite sex? 30. How l i k e l y are you Co keep a scrong opinion Co yourself i f you are calking to a person of the opposice sex wichin the next year? 31. How l i k e l y are you to express i t i f you f e e l angry at a person of the opposite sex within the next year? 1 1 4 32. How Likel y are you to read Ms. or New Woman magazine I i n the next year? 1 33. How l i k e l y are you to go out with a person of the opposite sex that you don't l i k e very much because you don't know how to say no when asked during the next f year? I 34. How l i k e l y are you to attend a meeting of a feminist-oriented group (e.g. church sponsored program on the status of women, formal d i s c u s s i o n of sex r o l e s , I consciousness r a i s i n g ) within the next year? IF SINGLE, STOP HERE. IF MARRIED OR LIVING WITH SOMEONE (IE: IN A  HETEROSEXUAL OR LESBIAN/GAY RELATIONSHIP) ANSWER QUESTIONS 35 TO 68. For the f i r s t ten (10) questions please use the following scale: 0 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y not do so 1 = extremely u n l i k e l y 2 = very u n l i k e l y 3 = moderately u n l i k e l y 4. = somewhat u n l i k e l y 5 = somewhat l i k e l y 6 = moderately l i k e l y 7 = very l i k e l y 8 = extremely l i k e l y 9 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y do so "55. If t r y i n g to get your own way, how l i k e l y are you to use I tears with your partner during the next year? j 36. How l i k e l y are you to ask your partner's permission to buy c l o t h i n g (e.g. shoes, slacks) for yourself during the next year? ' ' 57. How l i k e l y are you to stay home from an a c t i v i t y (e.g. party, evening with friends) that you r e a l l y want to go to within the next year i f your partner can't go with you? I }8. How l i k e l y are you to ask someone to r e f e r to you as a woman/man i f they r e f e r to you as a g i r l / b o y during the next year? 1 1 39. How l i k e l y are you to read a book on the new roles for women (e.g. Free and Female, The Feminine Mystique) during the next year? 4.0. When i n the car together with your partner during the next year how l i k e l y i s i t that your partner w i l l always, drive? 41. How l i k e l y are you to i n i t i a t e sexual a c t i v i t i e s with your partner during the next year? 42. During the next year, how l i k e l y i s your partner to re g u l a r l y make the minor decisions that a f f e c t you both (e.g. where to go on an evening out)? 43. How l i k e l y are you, rather than your partner, to take the car to the garage i f i t needs r e p a i r i n g during the next year? 44_ How l i k e l y are you to use your partner's l a s t name as your own For the next 0 = never 1 = once 2 = twice 3 = 3 times 4 = 4 times 5 = 5 times 6 = 6 times 7 = 7 times 8 - 8 times 9 = 9 times 45_ How frequently have you agreed to sexual intercourse that you didn't want to engage i n in response to pressure from your partner during the past year? 45_ How frequently have you asked someone to r e f e r to you as a woman/man rather than a g i r l / b o y during the past year? 47. How frequently have you stayed home from an a c t i v i t y (e.g. party, evening with friends) that you wanted to go to during the past year because your partner couldn't go with you? 48. How many books have you read on the new roles for women (e.g. Free and Female, The Feminine Mystique) during the past year? 49. During the past year, how many nights have you been away from home without your partner and children? 50. During the past year how frequently have you gone out in the evening with friends but without your partner? 51. How many meetings have you attended of a feminist-oriented group (e.g. church program on the status of women, couples' group on sex r o l e s , consciousness r a i s i n g ) during the past year? 52. In the past year, how- frequently have you decided to keep a strong opinion to y o u r s e l f because you were t a l k i n g to a person of the opposite sex? For the next seven (7) questions please use the following seal 0 = 0% 1 = 107. 2 = 207, 3 = 307. 4 = 407, 5 = 507. 6 = 607. 7 = 707. 8 = 807. 9 = 907. or more 53. Within the l a s t year, what percent of the time have you, rather than your partner, i n i t i a t e d sexual intercourse? 54. What percent of the time have you, rather than your partner, taken the car to the garage to have i t repaired during the past year? 55. What percent of the d a i l y housework (e.g. dishes, cooking, cleaning) have you done during the past year? 56. In t r y i n g to get your own way, what percent of the time have you used tears with your partner during the past year? 57. When i n the car together during the past year, what percent of the time has your partner driven? 58. What percent of the time have you, as compared with your partner, done the major cleaning jobs around the house (e.g. defrost the r e f r i g e r a t o r , clean oven, wax fl o o r s ) during the past years? 59. What percent of the time have you used your partner's l a s t name as your own during the l a s t year? For the next nine (9) questions please use the following scale 0 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y riot do so 1 = extremely u n l i k e l y 2 = very u n l i k e l y 3 = moderately u n l i k e l y 4 = somewhat u n l i k e l y 5 = somewhat l i k e l y 6 = moderately l i k e l y 7 = very l i k e l y 8 = extremely l i k e l y 9 = w i l l d e f i n i t e l y do so 60. Within the next year how l i k e l y i s your partner to help with the d a i l y housework on a d a i l y basis (e.g. dishes, cooking, cleaning)? 61. How l i k e l y are you to go out with friends on a regular basis without your partner i n the evening during the next year? 62. How l i k e l y are you to be away from home overnight without your partner and c h i l d r e n during the next year? How l i k e l y are you to pretend to know less than you r e a l l y know to protect the ego of a person of the opposite sex during the next year? How l i k e l y are you to agree to sexual intercourse • that you don't want to engage i n i f pressured by your partner during the next year? Within the next year, how l i k e l y are you to keep strong opinions to y o u r s e l f i f you are t a l k i n g to a person of the opposite sex? During the next year, how l i k e l y are you, as compared with your partner, to do the major cleaning jobs around the house (e.g. defrost the r e f r i g e r a t o r , clean oven, wax f l o o r ) ? How l i k e l y are you to read Ms. or New Woman magazine during the next year? How l i k e l y are you to attend a meeting of a feminist-oriented group.(e.g. church program on the status of women, couples' group on sex r o l e s , consciousness r a i s i n g ) during the next year? THERAPISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN SCALE The statements below express a t t i t u d e s and opinions. Please i n d i c a t e your opinion by pl a c i n g at the end of each statement the number which best expresses your p o s i t i o n . Please use the following scale: 1 = Strongly disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Neither disagree nor agree 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly agree * * * 1. Dependency should not be considered more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a healthy woman than of a healthy man. 2. The cure of f r i g i d i t y i s an important goal for women c l i e n t s . 3. Aggressive women are l i k e l y to be s u f f e r i n g from penis envy. 4. It is easie r f o r a woman to r e l a t e to a female therapist than to a male t h e r a p i s t . 5. Women more than men should be responsible for the happiness of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 6. Women f e e l they are being s e l f i s h f o r behaviours and att i t u d e s taken f o r granted by men. 7. Acceptance of one's sex r o l e i s not necessary for mental health. 8. The a b i l i t y to a t t a i n v a g i n a l orgasm i s one c r i t e r i o n of a woman's mental health. 9. Aggressiveness should not be considered as more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a healthy man than a healthy woman. 10. Women must learn to look outside themselves for important sources of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . 11. A woman's f i r s t duty i s to her husband and ch i l d r e n . S h a r i n g p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i c h c l i e n t s can be v e r y . h e l p f u l Co Chem. S e x u a l i n t i m a c y becween a male t h e r a p i s t and a f e m a l e c l i e n t i s u n l i k e l y t o be h e l p f u l t o h e r . T a k i n g s e x i s t remarks s e r i o u s l y i n d i c a t e s l a c k o f a sense o f humour. A l i t t l e f l i r t a t i o n w i t h a woman c l i e n t i s h e l p f u l t o h e r s i n c e i t r a i s e s h e r s p i r i t s . A n o n a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e i s i m p o r t a n t i n d e a l i n g w i t h women i n t h e r a p y . A c h i e v i n g a f e m i n i n e a p p e a r a n c e i s a s i g n o f t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r e s s i n women. A r a d i c a l woman i s more l i k e l y t o be e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d t h a n a r a d i c a l man. Women a r e no more e m o t i o n a l t h a n men. T h e r a p i s t s need t o s u p p o r t i n d i v i d u a l development even i f i t r u n s c o u n t e r Co t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . C l i e n t s i n t h e r a p y u s u a l l y know what i s b e s t f o r them. I t i s b e t t e r f o r women w i t h young c h i l d r e n Co be ac home. One o f Che mosC imporCanC g o a l s o f Cherapy i s Co gee the c l i e n t t o a d j u s t t o h e r / h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Women need t o l e a r n t o be p a s s i v e and dependent. Women a r e no more m a s o c h i s t i c t h a n men. D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a b o r t i o n s h o u l d be made s o l e l y by the women and h e r d o c t o r . H e l e n e D e u t s c h c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f women c l i e n t s . B e i n g g i v i n g i s more n e c e s s a r y i n the p e r s o n a l i t y o f a h e a l t h y woman t h a n a h e a l t h y man. Older women have Co expect that a the r a p i s t w i l l be less i n t e r e s t e d i n them than i n a younger woman. Marriage or i t s continuation should not be considered an important goal f o r women i n therapy. While extramarital a f f a i r s are normal for men, women have less need fo r these o u t l e t s . Getting a c l i e n t to accept i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s an important part of therapy. 1 22 DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 1. For purposes of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of your q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses and Co p r o t e c t your anonymity as a r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t , p l e a s e f i l l i n the f o l l o w i n g b l a n k w i t h your MOTHER'S MAIDEN NAME AND INITIAL: 2. What i s your age? 3 . Are you: Male? o r Female?_ ( p l e a s e check one) 4. What i s your e t h n i c background? 5. What i s your r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n ? 6. What i s your C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology program s p e c i a l t y ? Have you completed o r are you c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d ( i e : d u r i n g the 1987/88 F a l l / W i n t e r term) i n any one of the f o l l o w i n g CNPS 588 c l i n i c teams? ( P l e a s e check a p p r o p r i a t e box) Q Elementary D Secondary Q Post-secondary • I n t e r c u l t u r a l Q Women • F a m i l y Have you completed or are you c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d ( i e : d u r i n g the F a l l 1987 term) i n any of the f o l l o w i n g courses? ( P l e a s e check a p p r o p r i a t e boxes) • 362 ( B a s i c I n t e r v i e w i n g S k i l l s ) • 363 (Career C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 364 (F a m i l y E d u c a t i o n and C o n s u l t a t i o n ) • 365 ( I n t r o , to T h e o r i e s of C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 426 (The Role of the Teacher i n Guidance) • 427 (Guidance: P l a n n i n g and D e c i s i o n Making) • 433 ( P e r s o n a l and S o c i a l Dev. of Che Adulc) • 504 (Elem. School C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 508 ( S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Issues i n C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 514 ( C o u n s e l l i n g Adolescencs) • 524 ( C o u n s e l l i n g A d u l t s ) • 531 ( I n t . and Non-Standardized Measures i n C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 532 (Tests i n P u p i l P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s ) • 534 (Gender and Sex Role Issues i n C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 544 (Family C o u n s e l l i n g I) • 545 (Family C o u n s e l l i n g I I ) • 564 (Group C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 574 (Career P l a n n i n g and D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 578 ( C o u n s e l l i n g T h e o r i e s and I n t e r v e n t i o n s ) • 584 (Program Development i n C o u n s e l l i n g ) • 594 ( C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g ) What type of c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e have you had o u t s i d e t h i s program? P l e a s e l i s t j o b t i t l e s and j o b s h e l d as w e l l as v o l u n t e e r p o s i t i o n s . . Have you taken s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g courses or workshops ( o u t s i d e of UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology courses) i n any of the f o l l o w i n g areas? ( P l e a s e check a p p r o p r i a t e boxes) • Elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g Q Secondary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g Q Posc-secondary/career c o u n s e l l i n g • Family C o u n s e l l i n g • C o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t s • C o u n s e l l i n g women C C r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g 124 FINAL NOTE Please ensure that you have answered a l l questionnaire items and that your demographic information sheet i s complete. Thank you again f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n . APPENDIX E Or g a n i z a t i o n of Pre- and P o s t - t e s t Booklets T h i r t y - s i x t e s t b o o k l e t s were prepared, of which 31 were used. Six p r e - t e s t b o o k l e t s were prepared i n each of the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r s : A: RBI TAWS Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure B: RBI Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure TAWS C: TAWS RBI Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure D: TAWS Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure RBI E: Wayne Et h n i c Awareness Measure TAWS RBI F: Wayne Et h n i c Awareness Measure RBI TAWS For the p o s t - t e s t , the order of the measures remained as above and the BMS was i n c l u d e d as a f i n a l measure i n every case. APPENDIX F I n s t r u c t i o n s and A d d i t i o n a l M a t e r i a l Included  in P o s t - t e s t Booklets My name i s G e r r i e Brooks. You w i l l remember that I came i n t o t h i s c l a s s at the beginning of term to c o l l e c t data f o r my r e s e a r c h i n t o c o u n s e l l o r a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . I'm here again now to ask f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Part Two of my study. T h i s time I would l i k e to ask you to f i l l out four q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the same manner that you d i d the f i r s t time. Completion of these w i l l take approximately 45 minutes to one hour. I have a t e s t booklet f o r everyone who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r Part One of my study.. These are i d e n t i f i e d by your mother's maiden name. When we are ready, p l e a s e p i c k up the t e s t booklet that a p p l i e s to you. T h i s time y o u ' l l n o t i c e that at the end of your booklet are two e x t r a forms: one to f i l l out i f you agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b r i e f follow-up i n t e r v i e w and one to f i l l out i f you would l i k e to r e c e i v e a summary of the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s once my study i s f i n i s h e d . A f t e r you have completed the r e s t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , please hand i n these forms s e p a r a t e l y from your t e s t booklet at the f r o n t of the room. As before, a l l other i n s t r u c t i o n s are i n s i d e the booklet, but i f you have any q u e s t i o n s , please r a i s e your hand. Does anyone have any q u e s t i o n s now? (Answer que s t i o n s and d i s t r i b u t e 'booklets.) Please begin. Dear Research Participant: Thank you for agreeing to pa r t i c i p a t e i n Part Two of this study. Attached to this l e t t e r you w i l l f i n d four questionnaires plus three supplementary questions. You may r e c a l l some of the items i n the questionnaires; some of them w i l l be new to you. As before, PLEASE COMPLETE ALL QUESTIONNAIRES IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO YOU. None of the question-naires are timed, but i n t o t a l they w i l l probably take you about one hour to complete. Please answer a l l items to the best of your a b i l i t v and when you are finished, return your completed booklet i n the'.envelope provided. If you have any questions, just raise your hand and I w i l l a s s i s t you. Thank you again for your cooperation.' Gerrie. Brooks Student Investigator BRANNON MASCULINITY SCALE The statements below express attitudes and opinions. Please indicate your opinion by placing at the end of each statement the number which best expresses your opinion. Please use the following scale: 1. = Strongly disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Neither disagree nor agree 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly agree * * * 1. A man whose hobbies are cooking, sewing, and going to the b a l l e t probably would not appeal to me. 2. I would not object i f a young son of mine wanted a d o l l . 3 . Unless he was r e a l l y desperate, I would probably advise a man to keep looking rather than accept a job as a secretary. 4. If I heard about a man who was a hairdresser and a gourmet cook, I might wonder how masculine he was. 5. I think i t ' s extremely good for a boy to be taught to cook, sew, clean the house, and take care of younger children. 6. I might find-.it a l i t t l e s i l l y or embarassing i f a male fri e n d of mine cr i e d over a sad love scene i n a movie. 7. Nobody respects a man very much who frequently talks about his worries, fears, and problems. 8. I think a man should change his job i f he's t i r e d of i t , even i f his family w i l l suffer f i n a n c i a l l y . 9 . It's much more important i n l i f e for a man to be l i k e d than for him to be f i n a n c i a l l y successful. 10. A man should know how to f i x almost anything that goes wrong in a house so he won't have to c a l l a plumber or e l e c t r i c i a n . 11. In an emergency a man should be able to take charge. 12. A businessman should be tough enough to f i r e an employee who is hurting the company, even i f the employee has been sick and has personal problems. 13. A man should not be too a f r a i d to walk the streets at night. 14. I don't l i k e a man who jokes around a lot and doesn't act grown up. 15. Having wild adventures and doing excit i n g things brings out the glamor and manliness of a man. 16. A man should always refuse to get into a f i g h t , even i f there seems to be no way to avoid i t . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION SHEET During the f a l l 1987 term have you completed, or ar.e you currently enrolled i n , any courses, workshops, or programs outside of o f f i c i a l UBC Counselling Psychology classes which deal with c r o s s - c u l t u r a l issues (eg. the peer p a i r i n g program administered by Dr. Marv Westwood)? If so, please l i s t : During the f a l l 1987 term have you completed, or are you currently enrolled i n , any courses, workshops, or programs outside of o f f i c i a l UBC Counselling Psychology classes which deal with sex-role issues (eg. the UBC Women's Resources Centre t r a i n i n g program)? I f so, please l i s t : RESEARCH RESULTS The preceding questionnaires are part of an on-going study of counsellor attitudes and values. Results may not be available u n t i l the summer of 1988. If you would l i k e to receive a copy of the results when they are available, please complete the following form, tear this sheet out of your test booklet and hand i t i n separately at the front as you leave. Name: Address: Postal Code: As part of this research some i n d i v i d u a l interviews and follow-up are planned. If you would be w i l l i n g to be contacted i n the future please f i l l out the following form, tear this sheet out of your test booklet and hand i t in  separately at the front as you leave. Your consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b r i e f interview (perhaps over the phone) and/or l a t e r studies would be greatly appreciated. Thank you. Name: Address:. Postal Code: Telephone No: APPENDIX G Follow-up Interviews These telephone i n t e r v i e w s were conducted 6 months a f t e r the p o s t - t e s t (n = 7). S c r i p t H e l l o . T h i s i s G e r r i e Brooks from the C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology.Dept. Do you have a few minutes to t a l k r i g h t now? You may remember that l a s t f a l l I came i n t o a c l a s s you were i n to do some data c o l l e c t i o n f o r my Master's t h e s i s r e s e a r c h on c o u n s e l l o r a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . You agreed at that time to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b r i e f follow-up i n t e r v i e w . That i s why I'm c a l l i n g now. Are you s t i l l w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e in an i n t e r v i e w that w i l l take about 10 to 15 minutes? And i s now a good time f o r that or would you l i k e to schedule another time f o r me to c a l l you? ... T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be a s t r u c t u r e d one and I have a s p e c i f i c set of qu e s t i o n s f o r you. Because my re s e a r c h i s s t i l l ongoing and I am conducting i n t e r v i e w s with other students as w e l l , I can't d i s c u s s any of the q u e s t i o n s i n d e t a i l u n t i l a l l of the i n t e r v i e w s are f i n i s h e d , but I'm sure y o u ' l l f i n d them q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . A l s o , I w i l l be w r i t i n g down your responses, so please t r y to answer s u c c i n c t l y . OK? Ready? I w i l l begin now. Question 1 You took CNPS 508, S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Issues i n C o u n s e l l i n g with Dr. Sharon Kahn i n the F a l l term. T h i n k i n g about t h a t . c o u r s e now, what you l i k e d about i t and what you d i d n ' t l i k e about i t , would you say that there were some th i n g s about that course that were v a l u a b l e to you? Responses. Yes: 6 (86 % ) ; No: 1 (14 %) Question 2 If yes, what would you say was the main value of the course f o r you? Sample response 1. I t made me aware of how c u l t u r e bound c o u n s e l l i n g i s and how unavoidable that i s . But you can be aware of i t and account f o r i t . I t can't be c u l t u r e -f r e e , but you can be aware of your own b i a s e s . Sample response 2. [ i t i n c r e a s e d ^ my awareness of my own bi a s e s and l e t me see steps that I c o u l d take to be a b e t t e r c o u n s e l l o r when working with a c l i e n t from another c u l t u r e . Sample response 3. I t helped expose how s u b t l e and i n s i d i o u s b i a s can be even i n someone who b e l i e v e s himse l f to be unbiased and nonjudgemental. I t u n d e r l i n e d the need f o r me to always be v i g i l a n t i n watching my a c t i o n s , behaviours, and thoughts to make sure my b i a s e s aren't c r e e p i n g i n . Question 3 The course focused on the study of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s with a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on e t h n i c i t y and gender. Do you think you experienced any change i n your l e v e l of e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l awareness as a r e s u l t of the 1 35 course? Responses. Yes: 6 (86 % ) ; No: 1 (14 %) Question 4 If yes, i n what way d i d your e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l awareness change as a r e s u l t of the course? Sample response 1. I became more s e n s i t i v e to the f a c t t h a t I was o p e r a t i n g from my dominant c u l t u r e value system and a f e m i n i s t value system and I saw how e a s i l y I c o u l d impose that on a l l women c l i e n t s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r c u l t u r a l background. I can see now that i t ' s important to become aware of each c l i e n t ' s values and b e l i e f s and use treatment approaches that are more i n l i n e with the c l i e n t ' s framework than my own. Sample Response 2. The s t u d i e s presented in c l a s s i l l u s t r a t e d that c o u n s e l l o r s are not any more f r e e of b i a s than the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . I was s u r p r i s e d at t h i s and i t ' s going to make me aware of i t i n the f u t u r e and watch f o r my own b i a s when I'm d e a l i n g with a c l i e n t from another c u l t u r e . Sample Response 3. I think i t r e i n f o r c e d f o r me the n e c e s s i t y of e n t e r i n g i n t o the c l i e n t ' s world view to b e t t e r understand him or her and to be more e f f e c t i v e as a c o u n s e l l o r . Before the course I was aware of t h i s only p e r i p h e r a l l y . Question 5 Do you t h i n k you experienced any change i n your a t t i t u d e s toward men or men's r o l e s as a r e s u l t of the course? Responses. Yes: 5 (71 % ) ; No: 2 (29 %) Question 6 If yes, i n what way d i d your a t t i t u d e s toward men or men's r o l e s change as a r e s u l t of the course? Sample response 1. I t r e i n f o r c e d f o r me the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c o n s t r a i n t s under which men f u n c t i o n i n t h i s s o c i e t y . Sample response 2. I had always recognized women's is s u e s and women's op p r e s s i o n , but I a l s o began to see the r e s t r i c t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e and the optimum between t r a d i t i o n a l male and female r o l e s i s somewhere i n between. Sample response 3. My understanding of men and men's r o l e s was heightened along the same continuum that I was al r e a d y understanding i t . I saw the same problems with g r e a t e r c l a r i t y and with a broader p e r s p e c t i v e . Question 7 Do you t h i n k you experienced any change i n your a t t i t u d e s toward women or women's r o l e s as a r e s u l t of the course? Responses. Yes: 4 (57 % ) ; No: 3 (43 %) Question 8 If yes, i n what way d i d your a t t i t u d e s toward women or women's r o l e s change as a r e s u l t of the course? 137 Sample response 1. I became more sympathetic to the disadvantaged r o l e of women i n s o c i e t y . I would be much more s e n s i t i z e d as a c o u n s e l l o r now with women c l i e n t s and to is s u e s that s p e c i f i c a l l y a f f e c t women. Sample response 2. I became more s e n s i t i v e to the emo t i o n a l l y charged nature of the is s u e s f o r women. I hadn't understood that before. I knew the i s s u e s e x i s t e d , but I d i d n ' t know how s e n s i t i v e women appeared to be about them. Sample response 3. I began to see how s u b c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s play a r o l e i n the l i v e s of women who l i v e i n t h i s c u l t u r e . I need to accept where women are at when i t comes to t h e i r own values and b e l i e f s . I can't superimpose mine. I became a l e s s r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t and became a more l i b e r a l f e m i n i s t . Question 9 Has the course i n any way i n f l u e n c e d your own approach to c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t s ? Responses. Yes: 4 (57 % ) ; No: 3 (43 %) Question 10 If so, how? What do you do d i f f e r e n t l y now that you di d n ' t do before you took the course? Sample response 1. I take a more s e n s i t i v e approach now. I'm more aware of my own b i a s e s - - c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and gender. For example, I'm aware now of t r a n s f e r e n c e and c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e i s s u e s with opposite sex c l i e n t s and how t h a t might b i a s me. Sample response 2. I don't immediately assume that my p e r s p e c t i v e i s the i d e a l . Now I can see that I can counsel someone to be i n a way t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t than myself. I don't have to counsel them to be North American m i d d l e - c l a s s people anymore or counsel them to take on North American m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s . Sample response 3. I f encountering someone d i f f e r e n t than myself, I'd be much l e s s presumptuous about my a b i l i t y to work with them without understanding t h e i r c u l t u r e and e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s r e l a t e d to them. Now I'd want to a v a i l myself of more i n f o r m a t i o n about that person's c u l t u r e — e i t h e r from the c l i e n t or from o u t s i d e r e s o u r c e s . APPENDIX H D e f i n i t i o n s E t h n i c i t y Wayne (1981) used F e i n s t e i n ' s (1974) d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c i t y : A sense of commonality or community d e r i v e d from networks of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s which have over a number of generat i o n s been the c a r r i e r s of common ex p e r i e n c e s . E t h n i c i t y , i n s h o r t , means the c u l t u r e of people and i s thus c r i t i c a l f o r va l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , needs, modes of e x p r e s s i o n s , behavior and i d e n t i t y . ( C i t e d i n Wayne, p. 9-10) Et h n i c Awareness Wayne's (1981) d e f i n i t i o n : E t h n i c awareness i s an a b i l i t y and a s e n s i t i v i t y to recognize the importance of e t h n i c i t y i n shaping one's behavior, v a l u e s , and mental h e a l t h ; to be cognizant of one's st e r e o t y p e s about d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups; and to qu e s t i o n whether a problem a c l i e n t p resents i n therapy i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c of the person or whether i t has broader c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . (p. 10) 140 APPENDIX I Comparison of H i s p a n i c and Chinese C u l t u r e s T r a d i t i o n a l l y , both the H i s p a n i c and Chinese c u l t u r e s s t r e s s the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l owing h e r / h i s primary l o y a l t y to the f a m i l y . In H i s p a n i c s o c i e t y , f o r example, f a m i l i a l s o l i d a r i t y has such s i g n i f i c a n c e that i t i s a very s e r i o u s o f f e n c e to v i o l a t e an o b l i g a t i o n to k i n . According to Kramer (1970), the H i s p a n i c f a m i l y i s a sanctuary i n a h o s t i l e world and " i t i s valued above any i n d i v i d u a l achievement; i t s needs are put before those of the s e l f " (p. 173). S i m i l a r l y , t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l i e s s t r e s s r i g i d l y d e f i n e d f a m i l y r o l e s and the o b l i g a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n to parents (Sue & K i r k , 197-2; Sue & Sue, 1972; Sue, 1981). Furthermore, a great emphasis i n Chinese c u l t u r e i s p l a c e d on f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and the l i v i n g together under one roof of the extended f a m i l y (Fong, 1973, c i t e d i n M a r g o l i s , 1986). Both the H i s p a n i c and Chinese c u l t u r e s a l s o value p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y systems in which daughters g e n e r a l l y are accorded l e s s freedom and m o b i l i t y than are sons. For example, Abalos (1986) d e s c r i b e s the t r a d i t i o n a l L a t i n o f a m i l y as one i n which the f a t h e r i s the source of the mystery the e l d e s t son r e p l a c e s the f a t h e r i n h i s absence, and the women e x i s t to serve the needs of the men and the household. The f a t h e r can coerce, c a j o l e , mediate, and b a r g a i n , but he w i l l not allow female members of the f a m i l y to p h y s i c a l l y i s o l a t e themselves or to develop an area of autonomous j u r i s d i c t i o n such as a l i f e s t y l e that allows them t h e i r own jobs, paychecks, and schedules. (p. 66) Should a H i s p a n i c daughter attempt to q u e s t i o n the a u t h o r i t y of the f a t h e r , "a v e i l of s i n , shame, and g u i l t " (Abalos, p. 66) would q u i c k l y surround her. The p a t r i a r c h a l H i s p a n i c f a m i l y system i s not d i s s i m i l a r to the Asian American one d e s c r i b e d by Sue (1981): In the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y , age, sex, and g e n e r a t i o n a l s t a t u s are primary determinants of r o l e behavior. ... Being p a t r i a r c h a l , the f a t h e r i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y the head of the household, and h i s a u t h o r i t y i s unquestioned. ... The r o l e of females i n the f a m i l y was that of subservience to males and performance of domestic d u t i e s . Women were expected to marry, become obedient h e l p e r s of t h e i r mother-in-law, and bear c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y male ones. (p. 121) Sue (1981) a l s o r e p o r t s that the primary means used w i t h i n the Chinese f a m i l y to keep members i n l i n e and to suppress d e v i a t i o n s from f a m i l y norms are the i n c u l c a t i o n of g u i l t and shame and appeals to f a m i l i a l o b l i g a t i o n , " I f c h i l d r e n attempt to act independently, c o n t r a r y to the wishes of the parents, they are t o l d t h a t they are s e l f i s h and i n c o n s i d e r a t e and not showing g r a t i t u d e f o r a l l t h e i r parents have done f o r them" (p. 122). In l i g h t of these s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c u l t u r e s , the s u b j e c t of V i g n e t t e #4 was changed from a H i s p a n i c female to a Chinese female and the word "wicked" (which was a p p r o p r i a t e to a H i s p a n i c context) was r e p l a c e d by the word " u n g r a t e f u l " to more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the r e a l i t y of the Chinese f a m i l y system. 143 APPENDIX J Sc o r i n g Procedure f o r the Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure  (Based on M a r g o l i s , 1986 and Wayne, 1981) L e v e l 1 1 = no e t h n i c awareness There i s no mention of e t h n i c i t y or the r e f e r e n c e i s derogatory. L e v e l 2 2 = low e t h n i c awareness P a r t i c i p a n t mentions e t h n i c i t y of c l i e n t or relevance of f a m i l y ' s v a l u e s but these are not exp l o r e d . L e v e l 3 3 = moderate e t h n i c awareness P a r t i c i p a n t q u e s t i o n s r o l e of e t h n i c i t y i n p r e s e n t i n g problem b r i e f l y , but e i t h e r the impact of e t h n i c i t y i s not explor e d and/or the subj e c t continues with focus of the response being that of i n t r a p s y c h i c f a c t o r s . L e v e l 4 4 = hig h e t h n i c awareness P a r t i c i p a n t explores the impact of e t h n i c f a c t o r on the p r e s e n t i n g problem. For t h i s study, three judges were t r a i n e d to score the Wayne measure. These judges were advanced students i n the UBC C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology program who had completed most or a l l of t h e i r Master's degree course requirements. They were t r a i n e d together, by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , i n a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n l a s t i n g approximately three hours. The t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d a d e f i n i t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of e t h n i c awareness and e t h n i c i t y as d e f i n e d by Wayne (see Appendix H), a review and d i s c u s s i o n of the f i v e cases, and p r a c t i c e r a t i n g the responses of f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s from the study chosen at random. In the p r a c t i c e r a t i n g s e s s i o n , each of the three judges r a t e d the responses to V i g n e t t e 1 of the f i v e (randomly chosen) p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r a t i n g s of a l l three judges were then compared and d i s c u s s e d , i n order to e s t a b l i s h a group consensus as to the c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g that v i g n e t t e . As a r e s u l t of t h i s consensus, some m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made to i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s . T h i s process was then repeated f o r each of the remaining four v i g n e t t e s . Immediately a f t e r the p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n , each judge i n d i v i d u a l l y r a t e d the responses of the remaining 26 p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a l l f i v e v i g n e t t e s . There was no comparison, d i s c u s s i o n , or m o d i f i c a t i o n of these r a t i n g s . A f t e r the r a t i n g process was completed, the three judges' r a t i n g s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l response were summed and averaged to ob t a i n a f i n a l score f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s response to each v i g n e t t e . (For purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t f i v e data s e t s r a t e d by the judges were i n c l u d e d with the remaining data, even though they had r e c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t and g r e a t e r r a t i n g a t t e n t i o n than the other 26 s e t s . T h i s was necessary because of the small sample s i z e i n t h i s study.) APPENDIX K Revised S c o r i n g f o r Men on the RBI Using Robinson and F o l l i n g s t a d ' s (1985) method, a high score on any item ( t a k i n g i n t o account r e v e r s e - s c o r e d items) would i n d i c a t e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l behaviour f o r women, but that same high score on c e r t a i n items would i n d i c a t e t r a d i t i o n a l behaviour f o r men. (For example, Item #1 i n the s i n g l e form reads: " I f t r y i n g to get your own way, how l i k e l y are you to use t e a r s with a person of the opposite sex w i t h i n the next year at l e a s t once?") As a consequence, Robinson's and F o l l i n g s t a d ' s c r i t e r i a f o r d e s i g n a t i n g c e r t a i n t o t a l score ranges as i n d i c a t i v e of t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l behaviour have l e s s v a l i d i t y f o r male p a r t i c i p a n t s . In order to more a c c u r a t e l y assess the scores of male p a r t i c i p a n t s , the three judges who scored the Wayne Et h n i c Awareness Scale ( a l l of whom had completed a course i n Gender Role Issues i n C o u n s e l l i n g ) d i s c u s s e d each item on the two forms of the RBI and reached a consensus as to whether or not to reverse the r a t i n g s c a l e i n each in s t a n c e to make i t more a p p l i c a b l e to male behaviour. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n r e v e r s i n g the s c o r i n g f o r men fo r a l l but f i v e items i n each of the two forms of the in v e n t o r y . S i n g l e Form Reverse s c o r i n g f o r a l l items but numbers 12, 14, 18, 32 and 34. 147 Married Form Reverse s c o r i n g f o r a l l items but numbers 39, 48, 51, 67 and 68. APPENDIX L Table L. 1 E f f e c t s o f Treatment and Time on the Wavne E t h n i c Awareness  Measure: ANOVAR R e s u l t s Source Sum of Degrees of Mean F Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Wayne Via.#1 Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 2.47 1 S - w i t h i n 34.13 29 Wi t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 0.63 1 AB 1.08 1 BS - w i t h i n 26.34 29 2.47 1.78 0.63 1.08 0.91 2.10 0.70 1.19 0.16 0.41' 0.28 TOTAL 64.65 61 Note. A = treatment; B = time. (cont. on next page) Table L. 1 (cont.) Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Wayne Via.#2 Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 0.01 1 S - w i t h i n 42.30 28 Wi t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 0.90 1 AB 0.00 1 BS - w i t h i n 16.55 28 0.01 1.51 0.90 0.00 0.59 0.01 1.52 0.00 0.95 0.23 1.00 TOTAL 59.76 59 Note. A = treatment; B = time, (cont. on next page) 150 Table L. 1 (cont.) Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Wayne V i g . #3 Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 1.82 1 S - w i t h i n 81.34 29 Wi t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 0.12 1 AB 0.77 1 BS - w i t h i n 18.03 29 TOTAL 102.08 61 Note. A = treatment; B = time. 1.82 2.81 0.12 0.77 0.62 0. 65 0.20 1.24 0.43 0.66 0.28 (cont. on next page) Table L. 1 (cont.) Source Sum of Degrees of Mean F Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Wayne Via.#4 Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 0.23 1 S - w i t h i n 36.71 28 Wi t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 0.00 1 AB 0.00 1 BS - w i t h i n 24.94 28 0.23 1.31 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.68 0.97 0.97 TOTAL 61.88 59 Note. A = treatment; B = time (cont. on next page) 152 Table L. 1 (cont.) Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Wayne V i a . #5 Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 0.50 1 S - w i t h i n 47.43 27 Wi t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s B 0.07 1 AB 0.18 1 BS - w i t h i n 8.39 27 TOTAL 56.57 57 Note. A = treatment; B = time. 0.50 1.76 0.07 0.18 0.31 0.29 0.22 0.57 0.60 0.64 0.46 APPENDIX M ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and Age As i s shown i n Table M.1 and F i g u r e M.1, age showed a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t with respect to treatment and time f o r the RBI (see Table M.1 and F i g u r e M.1). That i s , the o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the experimental group showed a decrease i n RBI scores over time whereas a l l other p a r t i c i p a n t s showed an in c r e a s e over time. (For the RBI, higher scores i n d i c a t e more n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e behaviours and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s . ) Table M.l E f f e c t s o f Treatment, Time, and Aae on the Robinson B e h a v i o u r a l Inventory (RBT): ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 3248.69 1 3248. 69 0 .70 0 .41 B 6203.18 1. 6203. 18 1 .34 0 .26 AB 3186.95 1 3186. 95 0 . 69 0 .41 s - w i t h i n 125,106.00 27 4633. 56 t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s C 89.33 1 89. 33 1 .30 0 .26 AC 153.41 1 153. 41 2 .23 0 . 15 BC 117.86 1 117 . 86 1 .71 0 .20 ABC 295.12 1 295. 12 4 .291 0 . 05* CS - w i t h i n 1857.00 27 TOTAL 140,257.54 61 Note. A - treatment; B = age; C = time. * r e p r e s e n t s s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l . Experimental Group CO w o o GO 205 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 (202.50) (194.50) (166 . 80) (160.30) Pre-test Post-test TIME Note• S o l i d l i n e represents younger p a r t i c i p a n t s , i . e . , those under 35 years (younger p a r t i c i p a n t s : n=8); dotted l i n e represents older p a r t i c i -pants, ( i . e . , those over 35 years (older p a r t i c i p a n t s : n=6). Comparison Group 205 _ 200 _ £J 195 _ (195.00) 1 9 0 - (190.88) 185 _ 180 _ 175 _ 170 _ 165 _ 160 _ 155 _ 150 _ O o CO (202.29) (194.88) Pre-test Post-test TIME Note. S o l i d l i n e represents younger p a r t i c i p a n t s , i . e . , those under 35 years (younger p a r t i c i p a n t s : n=8); dotted l i n e represents older p a r t i c i -pants, i . e . , those over 35 years (older p a r t i c i p a n t s : n=7). F i g u r e M.1. S i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n f o r treatment by time by age: graph of means f o r experimental and comparison groups f o r the Robinson B e h a v i o r a l Inventory (RBI). APPENDIX N ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and R e l i g i o n As i s shown i n Table N.1 and Fi g u r e N.1, r e l i g i o n a l s o showed a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t with respect to treatment and time f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e #4. The r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the experimental group i n c r e a s e d t h e i r scores f o r t h i s v i g n e t t e over time whereas the n o n - r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s group decreased t h e i r s c o r e s . The comparison group's scores remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same f o r t h i s v i g n e t t e . 1 57 Table N . l E f f e c t s of Treatment, Time, and R e l i g i o n on Wayne E t h n i c  Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e #4: ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 0.84 1 0.84 0.59 0.45 B 0.32 1 0.32 0.23 0.64 AB 0.13 1 0.13 0.09 0.77 S - w i t h i n 34.19 24 1.43 t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s C 0.11 1 0 .11 0.13 0.73 AC 0.23 1 0.23 0.27 0.61 BC 1.13 1 1.13 1.33 0.26 ABC 2.57 1 2.57 3.02 0.10* CS - w i t h i n 20.42 24 0 . 85 TOTAL 60.11 55 Note. A = treatment; B = r e l i g i o n ; C = time. * r e p r e s e n t s s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .10 l e v e l . 1 58 Experimental Group H cc o o w 2 < 2 DJ OS D CO < a w a < s 4.0 _ 3.8 -3.6 _ 3.4 _ 3.2 _ 3.0 _ 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 0 6 _ 4 _ .• (3.50) (3.00) (2.50) • (2.47) Pre-test P o s t - t e s t TIME Note. S o l i d l i n e represents non-religious p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=10); dotted l i n e represents r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=4). Comparison Group 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 _ 3.0 _ 2.8 -2.6 2.4 _ 2.2 _ o o CO % w 2 CO < w 2 2 ,o -(2.73) (2.52) (2.63) (2.53) Note. Pre-test P o s t - t e s t TIME S o l i d l i n e represents non-religious p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=9) dotted l i n e represents r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=6) F i g u r e N.1. S i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n f o r treatment by time by r e l i g i o n : graph of means f o r experimental and comparison groups f o r Wayne E t h n i c Awareness Measure V i g n e t t e #4. APPENDIX 0 ANOVARs I n v o l v i n g Treatment, Time, and E t h n i c i t y S i m i l a r l y , e t h n i c i t y showed a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t with r e s p e c t to treatment and time f o r the RBI. As shown in Table 0.1 and F i g u r e 0.1, m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the experimental group i n c r e a s e d t h e i r RBI scores, whereas i n the comparison group, t h e i r scores changed very l i t t l e . The reverse p a t t e r n i s seen f o r m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . 1 60 Table 0.1 E f f e c t s o f Treatment, Time, and E t h n i c i t y on the Robinson  B e h a v i o u r a l Inventory (RBI): ANOVAR R e s u l t s Sum of Degrees of Mean F Source Squares freedom Squares Ratio P r o b a b i l i t y Between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s A 3290. 84 1 3290. 84 0 .67 0 .42 B 3009. 60 1 3009. 60 0 .61 0 .44 AB 1492. 68 1 1492. 68 0 .30 0 .59 s - w i t h i n 128,575. 00 26 4945. 19 t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s C 93. 75 1 93. 75 1 .22 0 .28 AC 3. 64 1 3. 64 0 .48 0 .83 BC 2. 02 1 2. 02 0 .03 0 .87 ABC 269. 52 1 269. 52 3 .52 0 .07* CS -- w i t h i n 1992. 00 26 76. 62 TOTAL - • 138,729.05 59 Note. A = treatment; B = e t h n i c i t y ; C = time. Experimental Group H O O CO 200 _ 195 -190 _ 185 _ 180 -175 -170 -165 -160 -(196.83) (190.50) •-• (168.67) (166.67) P r e - t e s t P o s t - t e s t TIME Note. S o l i d l i n e represents majority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=10); dotted l i n e represents minority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=6). Comparison Group CO w « o o CO 200 _ 195 -190 _ 185 _ 180 -175 -170 -165 -160 -(199 .75) (190.27) Maj. (198.46) Min. (198.00) P r e - t e s t P o s t - t e s t TIME Note. S o l i d l i n e represents majority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=ll); dotted l i n e represents minority culture p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=4). F i g u r e 0.1. S i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n f o r treatment by time by e t h n i c i t y : graph of means f o r experimental and comparison groups f o r the Robinson B e h a v i o u r a l Inventory (RBI). APPENDIX P Two-way I n t e r a c t i o n s and Main E f f e c t s  R e s u l t i n g From Three-Factor ANOVARs The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g treatment were found f o r e t h n i c i t y (Wayne V i g n e t t e #4, p<.05) and m a r i t a l s t a t u s (Wayne V i g n e t t e #4, p/C'05). S i g n i f i c a n t two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g time alone were found f o r r e l i g i o n (Wayne V i g n e t t e #3, p_<.1fJ) and gender (RBI, p<.05). S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r r e l i g i o n f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e #5 (F=4.63; p_=.04; df=1,23), and f o r experience with women c l i e n t s f o r the RBI (F=3.82; p_= . 06; df = 1 , 26) and the TAWS (F=5.60; p_ =« 0 3? df=1.26). A l l main e f f e c t s were subsequently analyzed using i t - t e s t s . Gender was a l s o analyzed using t - t e s t s because unequal c e l l s i z e p r o h i b i t e d i t s use i n the ANOVARs. T - t e s t s I n v o l v i n g S e l e c t e d Moderating V a r i a b l e s . As a f o l l o w -up to the ANOVARs, wherever moderating v a r i a b l e s were found to have s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s , t - t e s t s were performed. For these a n a l y s e s , the t o t a l sample was used and a p p r o p r i a t e means were c r e a t e d by averaging pre- and p o s t - s c o r e s f o r each of the measures. With respect to the main e f f e c t of r e l i g i o n f o r Wayne Vi g n e t t e #5, p a r t i c i p a n t s who i d e n t i f i e d themselves as non-r e l i g i o u s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean score than those who i d e n t i f i e d themselves as r e l i g i o u s (2<.05). With respect to the main e f f e c t of c o u n s e l l i n g experience with women c l i e n t s , those p a r t i c i p a n t s who had such experience had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean scores on the RBI (p_<.lO) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores on the TAWS (p_<.05) than those who d i d not have such experience. With respect to gender, r e s u l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the RBI (2<.00l) and f o r the TAWS (p_<.lO) o n l y . For the RBI, men had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower ( i . e . , more t r a d i t i o n a l ) s c ores than women, and for the TAWS, they had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ( i . e . , l e s s l i b e r a l ) s c o r e s . APPENDIX Q Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Measures At the p r e - t e s t , the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the g r e a t e s t magnitude among the Wayne v i g n e t t e s were achieved between V i g n e t t e s #3 and #4 where r=.41 (£=.06) f o r the experimental group and between V i g n e t t e s #2 and #5 where r=.58 (p_=.0l) f o r the comparison group. The st r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n between any of the Wayne v i g n e t t e s and the RBI at the p r e - t e s t was achieved between Wayne V i g n e t t e #2 and the RBI (r=.37, £=.09) f o r the experimental group. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between any of the Wayne v i g n e t t e s and the RBI at the p r e - t e s t f o r the comparison group. The str o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s between any of the Wayne v i g n e t t e s and the TAWS at the p r e - t e s t were found f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e #4 (r=-.45, p_=.04) f o r the experimental group and fo r Wayne V i g n e t t e #1 (r=-.45, £=.05) f o r the comparison group. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the RBI and the TAWS at the p r e - t e s t were r=-.35 (£=.10) f o r the experimental group and r=-.47 (£=.04) f o r the comparison group. At the p o s t - t e s t , the only s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n among the Wayne v i g n e t t e s f o r the experimental group was between V i g n e t t e s #2 and #4, where r=.46 (£=.04). The c o r r e l a t i o n of the g r e a t e s t magnitude among the Wayne v i g n e t t e s f o r the comparison group was between V i g n e t t e s #2 and #5 where r=.42 (£=.07). The c o r r e l a t i o n s of the g r e a t e s t magnitude between any of the Wayne v i g n e t t e s and the RBI at the p o s t - t e s t were between V i g n e t t e #3 and the RBI (r=-.30, £=.13) f o r the experimental group and between V i g n e t t e #5 and the RBI (r=.43, g=.06) f o r the comparison group. The c o r r e l a t i o n of the gr e a t e s t magnitude between the Wayne v i g n e t t e s and the TAWS at the p o s t - t e s t was achieved between V i g n e t t e #5 and the TAWS where r=-.46 (£=.04) f o r the experimental group. None of the Wayne v i g n e t t e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the TAWS at the p o s t - t e s t f o r the comparison group. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the RBI and the TAWS at the p o s t - t e s t were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the experimental group and r=-.72 (£=.001) f o r the comparison group. The c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the two preceding paragraphs are s i g n i f i c a n t at the £<.15 l e v e l . A s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .15, rat h e r than .10, i s used here due to the small sample s i z e (see Tables Q.1 and Q.2). Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s For Each Measure Each p r e - t e s t measure was a l s o c o r r e l a t e d with i t s post-t e s t c o u n t e r p a r t . These c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the sample as a whole, then s e p a r a t e l y f o r the experimental and comparison groups. For the whole sample, the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s (£<.05) f o r the Wayne v i g n e t t e s ranged from r=.44 to r=.70, although f o r Wayne V i g n e t t e s #1 and #4, the c o r r e l a t i o n s were e f f e c t i v e l y 0. For the RBI, the c o r r e l a t i o n was r=.97, and f o r the TAWS, r=.64.. There were comparable c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the experimental and comparison groups when c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , except i n the cases of Wayne V i g n e t t e s #2 and #4 (see Table Q.3). Table Q.l Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P r e - t e s t Measures f o r Experimental  and Comparison Groups Wayne V i g . 1 Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne V i g . 1 V i g . 2 V i g . 3 V i g . 4 V i g . 5 RBI TAWS 31° Wayne Vig..2 37' Wayne Vig.3 -.38* 41* -.38* -.29° -.28° Wayne V i g . 4 34° -.45' Wayne Vig..5 58 A 31° RBI - . 35' TAWS -.45 A .35* -.47 A Note.Upper t r i a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s experimental group; lower t r i -angle r e p r e s e n t s comparison group. °p = .11 to .15; *p = .06 to .09; A p = .01 to .05. Table Q.2 Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P o s t - t e s t Measures f o r Experimental and Comparison Groups Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne V i g . 1 V i g . 2 V i g . 3 V i g . 4 V i g . 5 RBI TAWS Wayne V i g . 1 Wayne V i g . 2 Wayne V i g . 3 Wayne V i g . 4 .36* Wayne V i g . 5 .42* RBI -.38* TAWS Note. Upper t r i a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s experimental group; lower t r i a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s comparison group. °p =.11 to .15; *p = .06 to .10; A p = .01 to .05. .46" -.30° .32° .28° -.46" T a b l e Q.3 P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n P r e - a n d P o s t - t e s t f o r E a c h M e a s u r e Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne Group V i g . 1 V i g . 2 V i g . 3 V i g . 4 V i g . 5 RBI TAWS A .44 .63 .70 .97 .64 B .56 .53 .72 .98 . 65 C .78 .59 .70 .95 .68 N o t e . A = t o t a l s a m p l e ; B = e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ; C = c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s shown a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 

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