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Acculturation and family values : first, second, and third generation Russian immigrants Bortnik, Helen Martha Oct 31, 1991

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ACCULTURATION AND FAMILY VALUES FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD GENERATION RUSSIAN IMMIGRANTS by HELEN MARTHA BORTNIK B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1991 ©  Helen Martha B o r t n i k , 1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial  University of  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  Counselling  Psychology  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  D  t  DE-6 (2/88)  O c t o b e r 10, 1991  ii  ABSTRACT T h i s study compared a c c u l t u r a t i o n and f a m i l i s m of first,  second, and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants.  A  sample of 71 i n c l u d e d 22 f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , 30 second g e n e r a t i o n , and  18 t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n male and female Russian  immigrants from Vancouver, B.C., 82.  ranging i n age  from 19 t o  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s mailed i n c l u d e d demographic items,  the  B a r d i s Familism S c a l e ( B a r d i s , 1959), and a r e v i s e d Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e (Marin, Sabogal, Marin, and P e r e z - S t a b l e , 1987).  Otero-Sabogal,  R e s u l t s of one-way ANOVA's  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences i n  scores on the B a r d i s Familism Scale between any of the t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s , c o n t r a r y t o previous s t u d i e s w i t h immigrant groups.  However, second and t h i r d  s u b j e c t s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the  other  generation acculturation  s c a l e than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n ones, [F (2, 67) =25.00, p = .001].  A high l e v e l of Russian speaking a b i l i t y and a  low  e d u c a t i o n l e v e l were a s s o c i a t e d with higher f a m i l i s m s c o r e s , and g r e a t e r l e n g t h of time i n Canada was w i t h higher a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c o r e s .  associated  Since scores on  the  a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e were c o n s i s t e n t with those o b t a i n e d i n s t u d i e s with other immigrant groups, t h i s study  provides  support f o r the v a l i d i t y of t h i s s c a l e f o r Russian immigrants. Supervisor:  Beth E. Haverkamp,  Ph.D.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iii  Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  .  i i i vi  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  ix  DEDICATION Chapter I  X INTRODUCTION  1  Statement of the Problem  Chapter I I  and Purpose of the Study  1  Background of the Study  8  General D i s c u s s i o n of Immigration and A c c u l t u r a t i o n Short H i s t o r y and General D i s c u s s i o n of Russian Immigration t o Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s  21  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  30  LITERATURE REVIEW  35  General Value D i f f e r e n c e s / S i m i l a r i t i e s Between Immigrant Generations  35  Family Power S t r u c t u r e - Obedience and Respect f o r A u t h o r i t y  40  Family Cohesion - K i n s h i p and Interdependence  43  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g A c c u l t u r a t i o n and E f f e c t s of A c c u l t u r a t i o n on Familism  49  8  iv  Chapter  III  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Russian Immigrant Family Through the Generations  61  Research Questions/Hypotheses  68  METHODOLOGY  70  General Method  70  Subjects  70  Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  72  Procedures  76  Design of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  77  Demographic Information  77  B a r d i s Familism S c a l e  78  R e v i s i o n of the Short  Chapter  IV  Acculturation Scale  81  P a r t i c i p a n t Incentive  82  A n a l y s i s of Data  83  RESULTS  85  Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n of Sample  85  One-Way Analyses of Variance  95  B a r d i s Familism Scale  97  Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  Chapter V  I l l  Two-Way Analyses of V a r i a n c e  117  Correlations  119  DISCUSSION  128  General D i s c u s s i o n of Hypotheses Tested  128  V  Russian Speaking A b i l i t y  131  Education L e v e l  132  Age  133  Length of Time i n Canada  134  Regular Church/Synagogue Attendance  ...  134  C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Familism and Acculturation  135  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study  137  Suggestions f o r Further Counselling  Research  Implications  Summary REFERENCES  142 144 146 149  APPENDICES A  L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n  155  B  Russian Note Attached t o L e t t e r  156  C  P a r t i c i p a n t Informed Consent Form  157  D  Demographic Information  158  E  B a r d i s Familism Scale  164  F  Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n Scale  166  G  Raffle Ticket  168  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.  T r a d i t i o n a l v s . Modern Family Values  2.  Sample Breakdown by Sex and Generation  4  Level  73  3.  Education L e v e l s by Generation  75  4.  Chi-Square T e s t s  87  5.  One-Way ANOVA f o r Age  88  6.  Mean Age by Generation  89  7.  E t h n i c i t y of S u b j e c t s ' Parents  93  8.  F e e l i n g of E t h n i c i t y  94  9.  Speaking  96  10.  L e v e l of Russian Language  Mean Scores & Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r B a r d i s Familism Scale One-Way ANOVA's f o r B a r d i s Familism S c a l e Scores ( T o t a l )  103  One-Way ANOVA's f o r B a r d i s Nuclear Familism Scores  105  One-Way ANOVA's f o r B a r d i s Extended Familism Scores  107  One-Way ANOVA's f o r A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e Scores  112  Mean Scores & Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  113  16.  Two-Way ANOVA's f o r B a r d i s Familism S c a l e Scores ( T o t a l )  120  17.  Two-Way ANOVA's f o r A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e Scores  122  11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  99  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of B a r d i s Scores w i t h A c c u l . Scores C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of B a r d i s & A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e Scores with Demographic V a r i a b l e s  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  Page Family Values/Familism - Components of Family Power S t r u c t u r e and Family Cohesion  3  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , Beth Haverkamp, f o r her a s s i s t a n c e , p a t i e n c e , and support d u r i n g t h e course o f my work.  I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Marv Westwood and  Barbara Heldt f o r o f f e r i n g t h e i r support and f o r s t a n d i n g by me throughout t h e p r o c e s s . Thank you t o the Kaushansky and Wilensky f a m i l i e s who a s s i s t e d , encouraged,  understood, supported, and e x h i b i t e d  a g r e a t d e a l of p a t i e n c e throughout my t r i a l s and tribulations. To a l l t h e Russian immigrants who p a r t i c i p a t e d ,  thank  you f o r making t h i s study p o s s i b l e . To a l l my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , thank you f o r b e i n g there. F i n a l l y , I wish t o express my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my l o v i n g p a r t n e r , B i l l , who has remained by my s i d e and helped me m a i n t a i n my s t r e n g t h t o see t h i s p r o j e c t through t o t h e end.  DEDICATION  CJberruAMt n&+M3*ncL cA^asnifiu at, ^mu^z.  To the b r i g h t memory of my  mother and  father.  1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study o  Because American [and Canadian] f a m i l i e s vary i n t h e i r backgrounds and a r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the wider s o c i e t y , an understanding of American [and Canadian] f a m i l i e s r e q u i r e s r e s e a r c h on e t h n i c f a m i l i e s and the ways they are changing. (Woehrer, 1978, p. 337) The f o r e g o i n g g u o t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s the g e n e r a l purpose of  t h e c u r r e n t study i n t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r has hoped t o  add t o t h e understanding of American and Canadian who have Russian e t h n i c background,  specifically  second, and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants.  families first, It i s  important t o add t o t h i s understanding s i n c e Russian immigrants, l i k e many other immigrant groups, a r r i v e d i n a country t h a t has a d i f f e r e n t language and many customs d i f f e r e n t from those of t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y .  These  f a c t o r s have o f t e n made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r these persons t o e a s i l y a d j u s t t o the Canadian o r American way of l i f e , a f t e r they have been i n t h e new country f o r a number of generations.  In t h i s study, a c c u l t u r a t i o n and f a m i l y  v a l u e s were compared f o r f i r s t , g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants.  second, and t h i r d  even  INTRODUCTION / 2 Specific  a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  " f a m i l y value" measures  were used t o achieve t h i s comparison. values 1).  i n question  The  e n t a i l two  The  family  b a s i c elements (see  Figure  f i r s t element i s Family Power S t r u c t u r e , which  i n c l u d e s obedience and  respect  f o r a u t h o r i t y and  i s Family Cohesion, which i n c l u d e s k i n s h i p t i e s interdependence.  Family Power S t r u c t u r e and  Cohesion are g e n e r a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d f a m i l y , r a t h e r than being  the  second  and  Family  elements w i t h i n a  t o t a l l y independent of each  other. The  values  assessed are based on two  systems i d e n t i f i e d by Kim,  types of  c i t e d i n and d e s c r i b e d  value in a  study by Aldwin and Greenberger (1987) i n which they studied c u l t u r a l depression,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r e d i c t o r s of  comparing e t h n i c Korean and  The  two  types of value  and  "modern" (see Table 1).  Caucasian  systems i d e n t i f i e d are  automatic obedience, r e s p e c t  Traditional  values  f o r a u t h o r i t y , and  students.  "traditional" accentuate maintenance  of s o c i a l t i e s with f a m i l y members; modern v a l u e s , .  other^hand, a c c e n t u a t e " s e l f - r e l i a n c e , autonomy, and a s s e rtivenesLS..—-—  •  ~  on  the ~~~~  INTRODUCTION / 3 F i g u r e 1. Family Values/Familism - Components of Family Power S t r u c t u r e and Family Cohesion. FAMILY  VALUES/FAMILISM  Family  Family Power Structure  Cohesion  Kinship Ties Obedience (Deference)  Respect  f o r Authority Interdependence  Respect f o r Age^ (elders)  Career determined by parent  Male Head (Conjugal Roles)  Family Shame (achievement of individual reflects on whole f a m i l y )  Keep "Family S e c r e t s "  Keep f e e l i n g s to y o u r s e l f Note. T h i s model i s not meant t o imply t h a t Family Power S t r u c t u r e and Family Cohesion are independent. They a r e g e n e r a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and the sub-elements may a l s o co-occur.  INTRODUCTION / 4 Table 1 T r a d i t i o n a l v s . Modern Family  Value  Values  T r a d i t i o n a l Version  Modern V e r s i o n  Category  Obedience  - parents  determine  children's careers - c h i l d r e n ' s mates must meet p a r e n t s '  - c h i l d r e n decide on t h e i r own c a r e e r s - c h i l d r e n choose t h e i r own mate  standards - keep f e e l i n g s & thoughts t o y o u r s e l f if  - express f e e l i n g s & thoughts  openly  i t w i l l disrupt  " f a m i l y harmony" (Ho,  1976)  - achievements &  - achievements &  behaviors of one  behaviors of one  individual  individual i s  reflects  on whole f a m i l y  not seen t o r e f l e c t on whole family  INTRODUCTION / 5 - keep " f a m i l y s e c r e t s "  - okay t o d i s c u s s family  issues  with t r u s t e d individuals outside - discipline w i t h no  children  questions  asked  Respect for  issues  before disciplining  - automatic for  - discuss  respect  elders  - e l d e r s must earn  respect  Authority - automatic for  respect  authority  figures  f i g u r e s must earn  - conjugal  roles  male dominance  Maintenance - strong  - authority  kinship  of S o c i a l  t i e s with  parents,  Ties with  brothers,  & sisters,  Family  as w e l l as with  Members  extended f a m i l y  respect  - e g u a l i t y of conjugal  - weaker  roles  ties  INTRODUCTION / 6 - interdependence  - learn t o solve problems on one's own  Note. Adapted from " C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r e d i c t o r s of d e p r e s s i o n " by C. Aldwin and E. Greenberger, 1987, American J o u r n a l of Community Psychology, 15, p. 799.  INTRODUCTION / 7 It  i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s of t h i s study  a s s i s t c o u n s e l l o r s i n understanding  will  the c o n f l i c t s t h a t  d i f f e r e n t generations of Russian immigrants a r e l i k e l y t o experience, t o l e a r n about Russian f a m i l y v a l u e s and customs, as w e l l as o b t a i n an overview  of the f a c t o r s t h a t  immigrants i n g e n e r a l are faced with, not only  immediately  a f t e r a r r i v a l i n a new country, but f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s afterward. The c u r r e n t author i s h e r s e l f a second g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrant and although she attempts t o be as o b j e c t i v e as p o s s i b l e through review of the l i t e r a t u r e and through  the study i t s e l f , p e r s o n a l knowledge of the Russian  immigrant p o p u l a t i o n l i k e l y a l s o has some b e a r i n g on some of  the thoughts  expressed  i n t h i s paper.  In s e a r c h i n g the l i t e r a t u r e , I found t h a t t h e r e has been very l i t t l e  r e s e a r c h done r e g a r d i n g f a m i l y v a l u e s  and/or a c c u l t u r a t i o n of Russian immigrants. has a l s o been l i t t l e  In f a c t ,  there  r e s e a r c h done t o date on these t o p i c s  r e g a r d i n g other S l a v i c groups.  Research c a r r i e d out by  i n d i v i d u a l s such as Mostwin (1980) on P o l i s h immigrants and by Bociurkiw  (1971) on U k r a i n i a n immigrants,  indicated that  these S l a v i c groups have c u l t u r a l values and t r a d i t i o n s  INTRODUCTION / 8 very  s i m i l a r t o those of Russian immigrants.  In  fact,  these groups have very o f t e n been lumped i n t o the immigrant p o p u l a t i o n  ( J e l e t z k y , 1983;  Pierce,  "Russian"  1978)  There e x i s t s , however, a f a i r l y l a r g e amount of d e s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e regarding and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  Russian immigrant church  as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l  of when v a r i o u s  immigrant groups a r r i v e d , and  accounts of how  they f a r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i r  accounts  chronological  arrival.  Examples of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e J e l e t z k y  (1983),  Sadouski (1981), Wertsman (1977), and P i e r c e  (1978).  However, the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e r a r e l y attempts t o study the f a m i l y dynamics of Russian immigrants, the i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n process, a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l and  or  factors  how  f a m i l y dynamics r e l a t e t o each  other.  Background of the Study General D i s c u s s i o n of Immigration and  Acculturation  Immigration has been the major b u i l d i n g b l o c k of both Canada and  the United States as they p r e s e n t l y e x i s t .  Mostwin (1980, p. 72)  i n her study of the P o l i s h American  INTRODUCTION / 9 f a m i l y , quoted Oscar Handlin, who phenomenon of the immigrant  d e s c r i b e d t h i s complex  role:  Once I thought t o w r i t e a h i s t o r y of the immigrants i n America. Then I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the immigrants were American h i s t o r y . There are v a r y i n g reasons f o r immigration t o o c c u r . I t appears t o the w r i t e r t h a t the major reason i s almost always hope f o r a more prosperous l i f e i n the new  land,  t h a t i s , hope f o r a b e t t e r means of p r o v i d i n g f o r o n e s e l f and f o r one's f a m i l y .  Political  i n the o r i g i n a l homeland may  and/or economic  conditions  be such t h a t t h e r e appears t o  be l i t t l e or no hope t o prosper, or sometimes even such as i s the case f o r many r e f u g e e s .  survive,  For example,  Mostwin (1980, p. 61) r e f e r r e d t o "the e a r l y  economic  'bread immigration' from Poland," and then the postwar m i g r a t i o n , which was  " p r i m a r i l y f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons."  Since persons f i r s t  began e m i g r a t i n g , t h a t i s , l e a v i n g  t h e i r homeland, they have r e q u i r e d v a r i o u s l e n g t h s of time to a d j u s t t o t h e i r new  homeland.  I t appears t h a t even when  e m i g r a t i n g from a country where the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n s , as w e l l as the language, are s i m i l a r t o those of  the new  shock  land, there i s s t i l l  some degree of c u l t u r e  (or " c r i s i s , " as S z y r y n s k i [1971] c a l l e d i t ) ,  INTRODUCTION / 10 e s p e c i a l l y immediately  f o l l o w i n g a r r i v a l i n the new  land.  I t i s the c u r r e n t author's impression t h a t i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h i s phenomenon would be t r u e f o r persons e m i g r a t i n g from c o u n t r i e s such as England,  S c o t l a n d , and  Australia. On the other hand, when o r i g i n a t i n g i n a country t h a t has very d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l values and t r a d i t i o n s from host c u l t u r e , a d i f f e r e n t language,  the  as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t  r e l i g i o u s t r e n d s , immigrants o f t e n experience an extreme type of c u l t u r e shock t h a t causes them t o f e e l a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r new  extremely  surroundings, sometimes t o the  p o i n t of a major l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e (Wyspianski  & Fournier-Ruggles,  1985).  Immigrants i n Canada d u r i n g the l a s t twenty years or so, e s p e c i a l l y those i n urban c e n t r e s , have had i n c r e a s i n g number of language l e a r n i n g and  an  socialization  r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them i n order t o a s s i s t i n t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o the new  land.  p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s throughout  From the author's  own  the y e a r s , such r e s o u r c e s  are u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e i n r u r a l r e g i o n s , due t o a lower demand f o r them. immigrants may  Thus, a c c u l t u r a t i o n f o r r u r a l  be delayed because immigrants t o such  areas  INTRODUCTION may  tend t o s o c i a l i z e i n the " s a f e t y " of t h e i r own  w i t h immigrants who  share t h e i r own  or w i t h immigrants who  language and  / l l  family,  customs,  they perhaps work w i t h , but  who  speak y e t another language and have a l s o not had the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them t o l e a r n E n g l i s h f o r m a l l y .  The  r e s e a r c h , however, shows a great d e a l of disagreement as t o the e f f e c t of r u r a l - u r b a n r e s i d e n c e on a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Bayer (1980) s t a t e d t h a t some r e s e a r c h e r s p o i n t out t h a t segregated neighborhoods are more p r e v a l e n t i n urban than i n r u r a l areas, t h e r e f o r e making the need f o r immigrants t o adopt new c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s l e s s than t h a t f o r r u r a l residents.  Other r e s e a r c h e r s , however, Bayer s t a t e d , do  f e e l t h a t the i s o l a t i o n of r u r a l l i v i n g p l a c e s l e s s demand f o r change on the immigrant than does the g r e a t e r amount of i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t i s necessary when l i v i n g i n a c i t y . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , these language and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s were not a v a i l a b l e , even f o r immigrants t o urban a r e a s . L e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h , as w e l l as l e a r n i n g of the l o c a l customs and t r a d i t i o n s o f t e n occurred s o l e l y on a " h i t o r miss" b a s i s , e s p e c i a l l y i f an immigrant's p e r s o n a l support system was v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t and f i n a n c e s were low. Mostwin  (1980) s t a t e d t h a t of the " o l d " P o l i s h  (before World War  immigrants  I ) , even the ones t h a t came a t a v e r y  INTRODUCTION / 12 young age have never i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the new s o c i e t y due t o f a c t o r s such as very l i t t l e  formal education and due t o  f a i l i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s and l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s , v e r y little  o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n E n g l i s h upon immigrating, and  little  o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o mainstream s o c i e t y due  t o d e v o t i n g a l l t h e i r energies t o p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l .  Thus,  economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the new l a n d a t the time of immigration  appear t o be important  a c c u l t u r a t i o n process.  f a c t o r s f o r the  Women, who u s u a l l y were expected t o  c e n t r e t h e i r e x i s t e n c e about the home, had even l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y than men t o l e a r n E n g l i s h .  They remained  " l i n g u i s t i c a l l y h e l p l e s s " (Warner and S r o l e , 1949, p. 108) i n any r e l a t i o n s h i p s except those of t h e i r f a m i l y and e t h n i c community. Value change i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one important of  aspect  a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The a c c u l t u r a t i o n process of both  first  g e n e r a t i o n immigrants and the generations t h a t f o l l o w almost  always i n v o l v e s the changing  core v a l u e s .  of v a l u e s , i n c l u d i n g  Core values are those values c o n s i d e r e d t o be  foundations f o r t h e i r l i v e s ,  f o r example r e s p e c t f o r e l d e r s  and a u t h o r i t y and l o y a l t y t o f a m i l y . (Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil,  "Pragmatic  values"  1981, p. 939) a r e those  values  u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be not q u i t e as d i f f i c u l t t o l e t go  INTRODUCTION / 13 of,  f o r example d e t e r m i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s f o r  c h i l d r e n and bedtime curfew time f o r c h i l d r e n . A c c o r d i n g t o Mostwin (1980), many f a c t o r s whether v a l u e changes and thus, a c c u l t u r a t i o n ,  determine occur.  Among t h e f a c t o r s a r e : (1)  economic c o n d i t i o n s i n new l a n d a t time of immigration; I f economic c o n d i t i o n s are good i n t h e new l a n d  at the time of immigration, t h a t i s , i f jobs and commodities a r e p l e n t i f u l , the newly a r r i v e d immigrant  will  have time as w e l l as f i n a n c e s t o spend on l e a r n i n g t h e new language,  perhaps f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r formal education i n  other ways, and r e a c h i n g an o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s t h a t w i l l a l l o w them more than j u s t the p u r s u i t of s u r v i v a l strategies.  Davis  (1922) spoke of the o l d Russian  immigrants t o the United S t a t e s (pre-World War I and I I ) who almost always found themselves  l i v i n g i n the worst of  c o n d i t i o n s due t o the poor economic s t a t e of America a t that  time. (2)  age a t immigration;  INTRODUCTION  / 14  The younger a person i s when they immigrate, the more l i k e l y t h a t they w i l l a c c u l t u r a t e a t a f a s t e r r a t e (Szapocznik, Scopetta, K u r t i n e s , & Aranalde, (3)  1978).  reason f o r emigrating from o r i g i n a l homeland; Z u b r z y c k i , who s t u d i e d P o l i s h immigrants i n  B r i t a i n , i s c i t e d by Mostwin  (1980):  P o l i t i c a l e x i l e s . . . w i l l t r y to demonstrate t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e , while economic immigrants w i l l be i n c l i n e d toward a more speedy assimilation. (p. 84) (4)  r e s i d e n t of r u r a l area before immigration;  I t has been noted through the w r i t e r ' s p e r s o n a l experience and a l s o by Gerber  (1985), t h a t persons  e m i g r a t i n g from r u r a l r e g i o n s have a slower r a t e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n t h e i r new homeland. (5)  r e s i d e n t of r u r a l OR urban area i n new homeland, i . e . a f t e r  immigration;  Those immigrants t a k i n g up r e s i d e n c e i n urban areas of t h e i r new homeland tend t o a c c u l t u r a t e more e a s i l y , and thus probably more q u i c k l y than those t a k i n g up r e s i d e n c e  INTRODUCTION / 15 i n r u r a l areas. job market  T h i s i s very l i k e l y because of a g r e a t e r  i n urban areas, as w e l l as more l i k e l i h o o d of  a m e n i t i e s c a t e r e d t o v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups.  Mostwin  (1980,  p. 158) quoted a P o l i s h immigrant p h y s i c i a n r e s i d i n g i n New York: ...I cannot see myself going t o a more American environment — Midwest or something l i k e t h a t . . . T h i s i s a conglomeration of n a t i o n s , everybody f e e l s w e l l . Whether you speak E n g l i s h or not, whether you have an accent or not, whether you are darker or l i g h t e r complexioned. (6)  knowledge of E n g l i s h upon a r r i v a l ;  Persons t h a t have a good working knowledge of E n g l i s h upon a r r i v a l have a head s t a r t i n t h e i r process of acculturation (7)  (Mostwin,  1980).  help r e c e i v e d upon a r r i v a l ;  In her study of P o l i s h immigrants, Mostwin c l a i m e d t h a t those who  (1980)  r e c e i v e d help from r e l a t i v e s were  l i k e l y i n v i t e d by those r e l a t i v e s , were l e s s prepared f o r l i f e as immigrants, were more dependent than those who d i d not r e c e i v e help, and had a tendency toward a lower income level.  T h i s appears t o suggest t h a t they were perhaps  motivated than those who  d i d not r e c e i v e h e l p .  less  However,  INTRODUCTION / 16 Mostwin a l s o found t h a t the higher a r r i v a l , the stronger  the e d u c a t i o n a l  the p r o b a b i l i t y of a higher  level  on  income  level. I t appears, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o the  new  s o c i e t y does not n e c e s s a r i l y occur more q u i c k l y because help i s r e c e i v e d upon a r r i v a l — deterrent  t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n due  dependency on others and  educational  be  a  t o i t s tendency t o produce  thus l e s s personal  r i s k - t a k i n g w i t h i n the new (8)  i n f a c t , help may  exploration  and  society.  l e v e l reached b e f o r e / a f t e r  immigration; I t appears t o the w r i t e r t h a t the higher educational  l e v e l , the higher  the  the r a t e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  Johnston (1981) a l s o commented on t h i s i s s u e : ...education tends t o break down c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l b a r r i e r s between d i f f e r e n t peoples and f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r adaptation t o the e n v i r o n i n g community. (p. 69) (9)  occupational  a f f i l i a t i o n s i n new  homeland -  immigrant or non-immigrant I t has been noted by the w r i t e r , as w e l l as by (1922) t h a t when an immigrant works w i t h j u s t  other  Davis  INTRODUCTION / 17 immigrants, whether l i k e or u n l i k e , and i f these immigrants do not have a good working knowledge of E n g l i s h , the a c c u l t u r a t i o n process i s slowed down t o a l a r g e degree. (10)  religious affiliation;  Goldscheider  and Goldscheider  (1988) d e f i n e d  r e l i g i o s i t y as one of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o f a m i l y c o h e s i o n and thus e t h n i c cohesion. t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a slowing immigrants.  T h i s c o u l d thus be  down of a c c u l t u r a t i o n f o r  Bociurkiw (1971), i n a study of e t h n i c  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s of u n i v e r s i t y students of Ukrainian  descent, found t h a t maintenance of a  w i t h the U k r a i n i a n  c h u r c h / r i t e c o i n c i d e d with  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the U k r a i n i a n  connection greater  e t h n i c group and a  tendency t o be l e s s a c t i v e i n non-Ukrainian groups and events. and  In t h i s i n s t a n c e , we are speaking of mainly second  t h i r d generation  Ukrainian  immigrants who vary  i n their  r a t e s and modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n even though they a r e Canadian-born. (11)  language spoken a t home;  There have been c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s on the e f f e c t s o f language spoken a t home on the r a t e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  Some  INTRODUCTION / 18 research  (Kuplowska, 1980; Marin Sabogal,  Otero-Sabogal, Elkin,  Marin,  & P e r e z - S t a b l e , 1987; Bociurkiw, 1971;  1983) has been found t o c o r r e l a t e t h i s f a c t o r w i t h  r a t e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , but others have not been a b l e t o f i n d a l i n k between language acculturation  (Mostwin,  spoken a t home and  1980; Pereda, O l a r t e , C a r l o s ,  1982) . (12)  main s o c i a l network and/or surrounding community composed of immigrants,  e i t h e r same  or d i f f e r e n t , OR of non-immigrant  Canadians/  Americans Gerber  (1985), i n h i s ethnographic study of a  Russian American " c l o s e d " community, and Bociurkiw  (1971),  i n h i s study of u n i v e r s i t y students of U k r a i n i a n descent, both found t h a t l e s s a c c u l t u r a t i o n o c c u r r e d when t h e r e were a l a r g e number of l i k e immigrants  a l l l i v i n g close together  w i t h i n a community, with minimal connections t o the " r e s t of the world". environment,  Elkin  (1983) p o i n t e d out t h a t surrounding  e s p e c i a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood,  as w e l l  as the establishment of e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p l a y a key r o l e i n c o n t i n u i n g the e t h n i c t r e n d i n t o the second generation.  INTRODUCTION / 19 (13)  sex; The  female o f t e n a c c u l t u r a t e s t o t h e r e c e i v i n g  s o c i e t y more slowly than the male, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n cases where the n a t i v e c u l t u r e p r o h i b i t s her from working o u t s i d e the home or from pursuing higher education.  Many o l d e r  immigrant women were i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , s i n c e working o u t s i d e t h e home was v i r t u a l l y unheard of f o r most women u n t i l t h e l a s t few decades, no matter what t h e i r  cultural  background. Out of f i f t y Indian and P a k i s t a n i wives who had a l l had  some type of formal education, Wakil, S i d d i q u e , and  Wakil  (1981) found t h a t only o n e - t h i r d of them worked  o u t s i d e the home.  Thus, even though they had had t h e  education, c o n j u g a l r o l e s of w i f e and mother were heavily ingrained into their  still  lifestyle.  In t h e Japanese c u l t u r e t h e r e i s an accepted i n e q u a l i t y between males and females  (Osako, 1976), so i t  may take q u i t e a number of generations i n a new s o c i e t y t o even begin changing tradition.  such a long-standing  cultural  INTRODUCTION / 20 (14)  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n the new The  t h e i r new  homeland;  longer a f a m i l y or i n d i v i d u a l has l i v e d i n  homeland and the more generations have  the more a c c u l t u r a t e d they are assumed t o be.  passed,  T h i s appears  t o be a somewhat "obvious" assumption and has been found be t r u e i n many s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g Gerber (1985), (1971), and Szapocznik, (1978).  Scopetta, K u r t i n e s , and  to  Bociurkiw  Aranalde  However, i n the Japanese c u l t u r e f o r example, as  found by Connor (1976) and Osako (1976), many of the t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese values seem t o p e r s i s t s t r o n g l y a t l e a s t f o r t h r e e generations, so i t appears t h a t the Japanese are r e s i s t a n t t o a t l e a s t some aspects of a c c u l t u r a t i o n f o r an undetermined number of g e n e r a t i o n s . (15)  a t t i t u d e s of the r e c e i v i n g  society;  A c c u l t u r a t i o n i s slowed down i f t h e r e i s o v e r t or c o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n showed t o immigrants by the society.  Davis, as f a r back as 1922,  immigrants who  spoke of  receiving  Russian  were d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by Americans  and  t h e r e f o r e chose t o s t i c k together and form many of t h e i r own  community amenities and s e r v i c e s .  Wakil  Wakil, S i d d i q u e ,  (1981) spoke about d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Indian  immigrants t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1914  and s t i l l  i n the  and  INTRODUCTION / 21 1960's and 1970's.  The Indian immigrants formed  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  i n order t o s u r v i v e i n the new l a n d  the r e s u l t was a strong  Wakil, Siddique,  strong  "antiassimilationist attitude".  and Wakil s t a t e d t h a t the more r e c e n t  immigrants are mainly more h i g h l y educated and f a m i l i a r w i t h Western values  before  immigration t o Canada and  "although l a r g e l y u n w i l l i n g t o a s s i m i l a t e , they a r e . . . l e s s r e s i s t a n t t o change than were the e a r l y immigrants" (p. 931).  Wakil, Siddique,  and Wakil a t t r i b u t e d t h i s  w i l l i n g n e s s t o a " l e s s h o s t i l e " a t t i t u d e of the r e c e i v i n g society. I t f o l l o w s t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y have an important e f f e c t on immigrants' s e l f esteem. Szyrynski any  (1971, p. 128) s t a t e d t h a t "proper i n t e g r a t i o n o f  e t h n i c group and of every Canadian whether ' o l d ' o r  'new' depends on t h i s f e e l i n g of s e l f - r e s p e c t and acceptance of h i s r o l e as a f u l l - f l e d g e d Canadian."  Short  H i s t o r y and General D i s c u s s i o n of Russian  Immigration t o Canada and the United  States  The word "Russian" i s one of s e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e terms t h a t are o f t e n used interchangeably  when r e f e r r i n g t o a  INTRODUCTION / 22 c e r t a i n group of immigrants  i n Canada —  terms i n c l u d e Russian Canadians, descent, and Russian  some o f these  Canadians  of Russian  immigrants.  To be Russian can mean " t o belong t o the Russian n a t i o n a l i t y , " but n a t i o n a l i t y i s d e f i n e d e i t h e r i n terms o f "belonging t o a n a t i o n o r t o a sovereign s t a t e "  o r i n terms  of b i r t h on a s p e c i f i c t e r r i t o r y ( J e l e t z k y , 1983). However, i n R u s s i a before the R e v o l u t i o n or i n the U.S.S.R. of today, the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n does not belong t o j u s t one e t h n i c group or r a c e . shared by people whose language,  In f a c t , c i t i z e n s h i p i s r e l i g i o u s , and c u l t u r a l  backgrounds a r e completely d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . The Russian S o v i e t Federated S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c , t h e largest  of f i f t e e n r e p u b l i c s of the U.S.S.R., was known as  "Great R u s s i a " o r "Imperial Russia"  before October 1917.  [NOTE: As of August 1991, a f t e r a major coup attempt  on t h e  S o v i e t p r e s i d e n t , a number of the r e p u b l i c s became autonomous o r were i n the process of doing so - thus, as of this writing, uncertain.]  the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s of the U.S.S.R. i s Many immigrants  from both I m p e r i a l R u s s i a and  the l a r g e r , more d i v e r s e U.S.S.R., were l a b e l l e d as Russian when they immigrated  t o Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s and  INTRODUCTION / 23 t h i s has caused much discrepancy  in statistical  data.  Many  of these immigrants, when r e c e i v i n g t h e i r new c i t i z e n s h i p or d u r i n g census t a k i n g , i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r  nationality  a c c o r d i n g t o the e t h n i c i t y of t h e i r parents a c c o r d i n g t o p l a c e of b i r t h . t h e r e has been a s t a t i s t i c a l  and not  Thus, i n Canada, f o r example, i n c r e a s e i n the number of  U k r a i n i a n s , B y e l o r u s s i a n s , Jews, and others who came from R u s s i a , and a decrease i n the number of Russians ( J e l e t z k y , 1983), which they were l a b e l l e d as when they immigrated.  first  For i n s t a n c e , f o r the 1991 Census, the  B y e l o r u s s i a n Canadian C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (1991) put out a p l e a t o a l l persons with B y e l o r u s s i a n h e r i t a g e t o mark t h i s f a c t on the Census forms t h a t they According  completed.  t o J e l e t z k y (1983), another c o m p l i c a t i n g  f a c t o r of n a t i o n a l i t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n occurred d u r i n g the g e n e r a l chaos t h a t followed World War I I .  In an e f f o r t t o  escape f o r c e d r e p a t r i a t i o n , S o v i e t c i t i z e n s of Russian and other o r i g i n o f t e n provided i n c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n t o immigration  o f f i c i a l s , t h a t i s , they r e g i s t e r e d themselves  as P o l e s , U k r a i n i a n s , or other The  origins.  c u r r e n t author wishes t o note here t h a t when  McCarthyism was prominent i n the United S t a t e s  (1950's),  INTRODUCTION  / 24  many Russian immigrants, e s p e c i a l l y Russian Americans, d i d not wish t o l a b e l themselves as "Russian" f o r f e a r of b e i n g accused of being communists. t o note t h a t r e c e n t l y  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , however,  ( l a t e 1980's and e a r l y  1990's),  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e " p e r e s t r o i k a " and " g l a s n o s t " have been eminent  i n the S o v i e t Union, i t appears t h a t i t has become  more " a c c e p t a b l e " f o r persons t o l a b e l themselves as "Russian." Jeletzky  (1983) a l s o suggested t h a t some of the  c a t e g o r i e s used by the Canadian Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s t o c l a s s i f y immigrants and the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole can i n d i r e c t l y p o i n t t o persons  of Russian o r i g i n .  The  c a t e g o r i e s the Bureau uses are the f o l l o w i n g : (a)  former c i t i z e n s h i p ;  (b)  l a s t p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e ;  (c)  p l a c e of b i r t h ;  (d)  language  (e)  ethnic  (f)  religion.  (mother tongue);  origin;  In the l a r g e r c i t i e s i t i s e a s i e r t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g persons of Russian o r i g i n ,  since  c i t i e s u s u a l l y have v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s Russian  INTRODUCTION / 25 organizations  —  J e l e t z k y p o i n t e d out t h a t "the very  fact  t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l would j o i n such a group i s evidence t h a t he c o n s i d e r s  himself Russian"  author's p e r s o n a l Byelorussian, e t h n i c groups organizations.  observation,  Ukrainian,  (p. x i i i ) .  I t i s the  however, t h a t persons of  P o l i s h , Georgian, as w e l l as  are found t o be members of Nevertheless,  other  "Russian"  i t i s even more d i f f i c u l t  get e t h n i c background i n f o r m a t i o n  on those persons who  o u t s i d e the community or even t r y t o conceal  to stay  t h e i r Russian  o r i g i n by changing t h e i r name. I t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the best d e f i n i t i o n of the word "Russian" i s presented by J e l e t z k y  (1983, p. x i v ) :  ...the most r e a l i s t i c c r i t e r i o n f o r d e f i n i n g the n a t i o n a l i t y of an immigrant i s h i s own d e c l a r a t i o n , t h a t i s , what he c o n s i d e r s himself t o be...such ' s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n ' i s o f t e n a r e f l e c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s i r e t o continue f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n s , t o maintain t i e s with the r e l i g i o u s community and t o preserve the Russian language, which he c o n s i d e r s h i s n a t i v e tongue. However, f o r the o p e r a t i o n a l purposes of t h i s study  (and  because so many d i f f e r e n t peoples have been l a b e l l e d  as  "Russian"),  we  i n c l u d e d i n our sample any  persons whose  background at some p o i n t i n time o r i g i n a t e d i n what i s the U.S.S.R.  Otherwise, we would have been l i k e l y  to  now  INTRODUCTION / 26 exclude from our study perhaps Russian immigrants "Canadian".  who  the most a c c u l t u r a t e d  d e c l a r e d themselves  as o n l y  Mowat (1970), i n h i s book about S i b e r i a ,  used  the word "Russian" i n i t s "sloppy, but w i d e l y accepted western usage..." (p. 9) " . . . f o r the sake of  simplicity."  That i s , persons from any one of the f i f t e e n S o v i e t r e p u b l i c s were r e f e r r e d t o by Mowat, as  "Russian."  L i k e w i s e , P i e r c e (1978) i n c l u d e d i n h i s study of Russian Canadians,  a l l persons  "who  i n s p i t e of t h e i r  nationality  i d e n t i f y e m o t i o n a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h R u s s i a , or have done so i n the p a s t . . . " ( p . 2 ) .  Therefore,  i n t h i s c u r r e n t study, we use the same r a t h e r broad meaning of the terms "Russian" and  "Russian immigrant,"  that i s ,  anyone whose background i s i n any one of the f i f t e e n S o v i e t republics. H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e r e have been f o u r major "waves" ( J e l e t z k y , 1983)  of Russian  immigration:  (1)  b e f o r e World  War;  (2)  between World War  (3)  post World War I I ;  (4)  r e c e n t immigration - the 1970's.  I and World War I I ;  INTRODUCTION / 27 J e l e t z k y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of each "wave" of immigration are summarized  below.  Before World War At  I  the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th  c e n t u r i e s , t h e r e was  a "wave" of i n t e l l e c t u a l s who  rebelled  a g a i n s t the t s a r i s t regime and were a t t r a c t e d t o America and the i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom i t c o u l d o f f e r . Doukhobors who  r e j e c t e d s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o any e s t a b l i s h e d  order and were l o o k i n g f o r f u l l r e l i g i o u s independence.  There were  and  social  As w e l l , t h e r e were immigrants from  south-western R u s s i a and E a s t e r n Austro-Hungary who  wanted  t o get away from extreme poverty and a c g u i r e a p i e c e of land. Between World War  I and World War I I  There were few Russian immigrants between the two World Wars, but those t h a t d i d come were more d i v e r s e i n t h e i r make-up than the pre-World War those who  I immigrants.  came t o Canada d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the "white" immigration — and opponents of the S o v i e t regime, who the  Among  B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n of 1917.  adversaries  l e f t Russia a f t e r  Many of these people,  INTRODUCTION including aristocrats, military officers,  / 28  professionals,  i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and Orthodox churchmen, had f i r s t  settled i n  France, Germany, and s e v e r a l east European c o u n t r i e s b e f o r e immigrating e i t h e r t o Canada or the U n i t e d S t a t e s . At the same time, t h i s "wave" a l s o i n c l u d e d Russian immigrants from Poland and E a s t e r n Austro-Hungary whose views were t o t a l l y opposed t o those of the above group and who sympathized w i t h the U.S.S.R. Post World War I I The immigrants of t h i s p e r i o d were former S o v i e t c i t i z e n s and members of the " o l d " immigration who had been d i s p l a c e d by World War I I .  Large p o r t i o n s of the U.S.S.R.  had been occupied by Germany i n 1941-1942, and many Russians had e i t h e r been sent t o work i n the German war i n d u s t r y o r f l e d when i t was apparent t h a t the S o v i e t regime they opposed would be v i c t o r i o u s .  They l i v e d i n  d i s p l a c e d - p e r s o n camps i n the Western zones of Germany and A u s t r i a between 1945 and 1955, u n t i l they were a b l e t o immigrate t o Canada o r the United S t a t e s .  INTRODUCTION / 29 Recent Immigration - the 1970's T h i s recent 1969,  "wave" of immigrants have a r r i v e d s i n c e  when a change i n S o v i e t p o l i c y permitted  people t o emigrate.  over 200,000  The m a j o r i t y of these people were  Jewish i n e t h n i c o r i g i n and many went t o I s r a e l , as w e l l as the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. Russian  i n the m a j o r i t y of  T h e i r c u l t u r a l background i s  cases.  I t i s the w r i t e r ' s impression groups of "Russian Russian,  although  Jews." i t may  r e l i g i o n t o some degree. be a much l a r g e r one,  One  group c o n s i d e r s  or may The  t h a t there are  two  itself  not p r a c t i s e the Jewish  other group, which appears t o  c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f Jewish and  i t is  only i n p a s s i n g t h a t i t makes mention t h a t R u s s i a or S o v i e t Union was  once t h e i r homeland, or t h a t the  language i s t h e i r mother tongue.  the  Russian  INTRODUCTION / 30 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms There were s e v e r a l key terms which were u t i l i z e d t h i s study.  throughout  Because there i s o f t e n c o n t r o v e r s y as t o what  d e f i n i t i o n s are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r many of these terms,  i t was  necessary t o d e f i n e the f o l l o w i n g terms i n the ways t h a t they were r e l e v a n t f o r the c u r r e n t study. a c c u l t u r a t i o n - the degree t o which an immigrant  adopts  or  shares the same v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and behaviors of the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y ; a merging of c u l t u r e s as a r e s u l t of prolonged c o n t a c t ; becoming b i c u l t u r a l ;  "the process of  changes i n behavior and v a l u e s t h a t occurs when come i n c o n t a c t with a new  immigrants  group, n a t i o n , or c u l t u r e "  (Marin, Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal,  & Perez-Stable,  1987) . adjustment/accommodation - a d a p t a t i o n by an immigrant  to  the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y ; a c h i e v i n g mental and b e h a v i o r a l balance between one's own  needs and the demands of the  r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y , although not n e c e s s a r i l y becoming i n t e g r a t e d , a s s i m i l a t e d , or a c c u l t u r a t e d , i . e . "a process of mutual a d a p t a t i o n between persons or groups,  usually  achieved by e l i m i n a t i n g or reducing h o s t i l i t y , as by  INTRODUCTION / 31 compromise, a r b i t r a t i o n , e t c . " (The Random House D i c t i o n a r y of t h e E n g l i s h Language, 1966). a s s i m i l a t i o n - a b s o r p t i o n by an immigrant group i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y ; adoption of and c o n f o r m i t y t o behavior p a t t e r n s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y ; "the merging of c u l t u r a l t r a i t s from p r e v i o u s l y d i s t i n c t  cultural  groups..." (The Random House D i c t i o n a r y of t h e E n g l i s h Language, 1966). c u l t u r e - the i n t e g r a t e d p a t t e r n of human knowledge, b e l i e f , and behavior t h a t depends upon man's c a p a c i t y f o r l e a r n i n g and t r a n s m i t t i n g knowledge t o succeeding generations  (Webster's Ninth New C o l l e g i a t e  Dictionary).  e m i g r a n t / i m m i g r a n t / f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrant - a person who l e a v e s one country o r r e g i o n t o s e t t l e i n another. Note;  F o r t h i s study, persons  r e f e r r e d t o as "immigrants" what t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n . who emigrated  of Russian o r i g i n a r e  i n a g e n e r a l sense, no matter  However, persons  of Russian  origin  from c o u n t r i e s other than Russia/U.S.S.R.,  f o r example from China, Czechoslovakia, or Y u g o s l a v i a , were c o n s i d e r e d as f i r s t generation Russian  immigrants.  INTRODUCTION / 32 e m i g r a t i o n - the a c t of l e a v i n g  one's n a t i v e country o r  r e g i o n t o s e t t l e i n another; m i g r a t i o n . e t h n i c i t y - degree t o which an i n d i v i d u a l himself/herself including  sees  as a member of a p a r t i c u l a r group,  both r a c i a l  ( b i o l o g i c a l ) and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  features. f a m i l i s m - "...the f e e l i n g , r i g h t s , and o b l i g a t i o n s existent 1979,  among the members of a k i n s h i p  group" (Rao & Rao,  p. 417); " . . . ' e x c l u s i v e n e s s ' c e n t r e d around f a m i l i a l  relationships;  a d i v i s i o n of the s o c i a l environment  into  'we' ( c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c k i n members) and 'they' (non-kin members)" ( H e l l e r ,  1976, p. 423); "the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the  p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and p r e r o g a t i v e s of an i n d i v i d u a l t o the v a l u e s and demands of the f a m i l y " Dictionary  of the E n g l i s h  (The Random House  Language, 1966); "...a s t r o n g  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and attachment of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e i r families  (nuclear and extended) and strong f e e l i n g s of  l o y a l t y , r e c i p r o c i t y and s o l i d a r i t y among members o f t h e same f a m i l y "  ( d e f i n i t i o n by T r i a n d i s ,  Marin, Betancourt,  L i s a n s k y & Chang, guoted by Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal, Marin, & P e r e z - S t a b l e , 1987, p. 398).  INTRODUCTION / 33 (a) a t t i t u d i n a l f a m i l i s m - b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s regarding (b) b e h a v i o r a l  the extended and n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s . f a m i l i s m - the behaviors  with a t t i t u d i n a l  associated  familism.  f a m i l y cohesion - the amount of u n i t y w i t h i n a f a m i l y . f a m i l y power s t r u c t u r e - the h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n a  family.  f a m i l y values regarding  - general  opinions,  i d e a s , and p h i l o s o p h i e s  the f a m i l y , as t o i t s power s t r u c t u r e and degree  of cohesion.  (For purposes of t h i s study, " f a m i l y  values"  w i l l mean "degree of familism.") immigration - the a c t of coming t o a country o f which one i s not a n a t i v e , u s u a l l y f o r permanent  residence.  i n t e g r a t i o n - i n c o r p o r a t i o n of immigrants i n t o a new s o c i e t y , as equals;  "fitting"  of t h e immigrants i n t o t h e  r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y (does not mean a s s i m i l a t i o n o r a b s o r p t i o n and does not negate the d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l ) (Mostwin, 1980, p. 109);  "the  i n c l u s i o n of people of a l l races on an egual b a s i s i n neighborhood, s c h o o l s , parks, o r other Book D i c t i o n a r y ,  1985).  facilities"  (World  INTRODUCTION / 34  second g e n e r a t i o n immigrant - the c h i l d of a f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrant; a person born i n the c o u n t r y / r e g i o n t o which t h e i r parent(s) had immigrated t o . NOTE:  For purposes of t h i s study, the second g e n e r a t i o n  w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e those persons who immigrated b e f o r e age 10 (were born i n o r i g i n a l n a t i v e c o u n t r y ) , s i n c e many of t h e i r developing y e a r s , i n c l u d i n g most of t h e i r s c h o o l i n g , were spent i n the new country.  T h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was  a l s o used i n a study by C a m i l l e r i  (1983).  t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrant - the c h i l d of a second g e n e r a t i o n immigrant. Summary Since t h e r e i s a minimal amount of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h concerning a c c u l t u r a t i o n and f a m i l y values of Russian immigrants,  t h i s study hopes t o expand the knowledge w i t h i n  that area.  The l i t e r a t u r e review which f o l l o w s i n the next  chapter i d e n t i f i e s common f a c t o r s which have been found t o r e l a t e t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n and f a m i l y values f o r v a r i o u s immigrant groups.  The purpose of the c u r r e n t study i s t o  i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of s i m i l a r trends w i t h i n t h e Russian immigrant p o p u l a t i o n .  35 Chapter I I LITERATURE REVIEW The c u r r e n t author reviewed  s t u d i e s t h a t were  p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out i n the areas of immigration, the change/non-change of f a m i l y values across g e n e r a t i o n s , a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s reached a t v a r i o u s g e n e r a t i o n a l stages, as w e l l as the f a c t o r s t h a t may determine these a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s and change/non-change of f a m i l y values.  T h i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e served t o p r o v i d e a  f o u n d a t i o n f o r the present  study.  General Value D i f f e r e n c e s / S i m i l a r i t i e s Between Immigrant Generations Research has shown t h a t values tend t o change once people have immigrated t o a new country.  This section  p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l review of some of the s t u d i e s t h a t have shown changes i n values i n f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants, w e l l as i n the second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s .  as  Some of the  s t u d i e s a l s o show t h a t f o r some immigrant groups some v a l u e s tend not t o change, even f o r the second and t h i r d generations.  LITERATURE REVIEW / 36 In the study by Aldwin and Greenberger  (1987),  r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r concerning " t r a d i t i o n a l " and v a l u e s , i t was  "modern"  found t h a t Korean parents are more l i k e l y  to  h o l d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s than t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , even though the o f f s p r i n g themselves  (Korean c o l l e g e students) i n t h i s case were  r e c e n t f i r s t generation immigrants  age of immigration of the Korean students was  (the 13,  average although  some came as young as 2 and others as o l d as 20).  Korean  students were found t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t view than t h e i r parents of what "doing w e l l " i n c o l l e g e meant. That i s , parents expected a higher Grade P o i n t Average than the students d i d , as a measure of "doing w e l l " .  The  Korean  students were a l s o noted t o experience much h i g h e r p a r e n t a l p r e s s u r e f o r good grades than d i d t h e i r counterparts. appeared  Caucasian  O v e r a l l , a high negative c o r r e l a t i o n  between p a r e n t a l t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and Korean  s t u d e n t s ' modern v a l u e s :  t h a t i s , the more parents  f o l l o w e d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , the more l i k e l y t h e i r  children  were t o f o l l o w modern v a l u e s . Wakil, Siddique, and Wakil  (1981) d i d a study d e a l i n g  w i t h the v a l u e s h e l d by I n d i a n - and P a k i s t a n i - b o r n immigrant parents and by t h e i r second g e n e r a t i o n c h i l d r e n who  were e i t h e r born or brought  up i n Canada.  LITERATURE REVIEW / 37 S p e c i f i c a l l y , the authors explored the v a l u e s s t r e s s e d by parents i n the process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the r e a c t i o n t o these v a l u e s by the c h i l d r e n .  They spoke of "value  c o n f l i c t " w i t h i n f a m i l i e s due t o the " t a k i n g on" of v a l u e s by the c h i l d r e n .  new  The c h i l d r e n were found t o have  opposing and/or d i f f e r e n t ideas from t h e i r parents w i t h regards t o v a l u e s such as s t r o n g f a m i l y t i e s ,  automatic  r e s p e c t f o r the e l d e r s (assumed c o r r e l a t i o n between age wisdom), and  the I n d i a n / P a k i s t a n i system of  and  arranged  marriages. Connor (1976), who  d i d e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s i n Japanese  American value o r i e n t a t i o n s , s t a t e d , . . . a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a u n i t a r y process i n which a l l of the meanings or v a l u e s of one group are completely r e p l a c e d by those of another (p. 3). In o t h e r words, a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a process t h a t occurs v e r y s l o w l y f o r some groups and i t appears v a l u e s of the new  t h a t some of the  s o c i e t y take a great number of  g e n e r a t i o n s before they become p a r t of the groups'  value  systems. In h i s 1976  study, Connor u t i l i z e d the  Incomplete  Sentence T e s t t o study the changing of v a l u e s , i f any,  over  LITERATURE REVIEW / 38 t h r e e generations of Japanese Americans: g e n e r a t i o n ) , the N i s e i (third generation).  the I s s e i  (first  (second g e n e r a t i o n ) , and t h e S a n s e i  I t was administered t o 165 persons,  i n c l u d i n g 70 Caucasian Americans as a c o n t r o l group. Connor found l i t t l e change i n values of the Japanese Americans, even with the S a n s e i . such as deference and obedience  The b a s i c core v a l u e s  (duty and o b l i g a t i o n ) , automatic  respect  t o parents and e l d e r s , h i e r a r c h i a l f a m i l y  system where f a t h e r i s the p a t r i a r c h t o be r e s p e c t e d and f e a r e d , and dependence (strong f a m i l y t i e s ) , g e n e r a l l y tended of  t o be r e t a i n e d i n a l l of the f i r s t t h r e e  generations  Japanese Americans, with only a s l i g h t p r o g r e s s i v e  d e c l i n e toward modern values t h a t s t r e s s e q u a l i t y , s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . Luetgart  (1977) d i s c u s s e d the academic and  p s y c h o - s o c i a l problems of e t h n i c c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y students, i n c l u d i n g second generation immigrants, d i f f e r e n t values i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s .  due t o  Luetgart  spoke about the value c o n f l i c t s t h a t e t h n i c "commuter" u n i v e r s i t y students experience —  t h a t i s , when each day  they a l t e r n a t e between t r y i n g t o meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the mainstream c u l t u r e and then a l s o t r y i n g t o meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r own s u b c u l t u r e .  When one o f these  LITERATURE REVIEW / 39 students take on what the mainstream c u l t u r e c o n s i d e r s t o be an " a d u l t r o l e , " f o r example choosing one's own  marriage  p a r t n e r , t h i s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n a l i e n a t i o n from h i s or her own  f a m i l y and e t h n i c community. Thus, i t appears  t h a t second g e n e r a t i o n and very young  f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants,  no matter where they  o r i g i n a t e d , c o n s t a n t l y are i n the midst of an i n n e r s t r u g g l e as t o which v a l u e s they should a c t u a l l y go ahead and i n t e r n a l i z e permanently. Ballachey  (1962, p. 530)  Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d ,  and  s t a t e d t h i s phenomenon i n the  f o l l o w i n g manner: ...few e t h n i c students, p a r t i c u l a r l y those who are the c h i l d r e n of immigrants t o t h i s country, seem a b l e t o reach a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n of the r o l e c o n f l i c t s i n h e r e n t i n being a 'marginal  man'  In a study of Spanish immigrants i n H o l l a n d , Olarte  Pereda  (1986) found t h a t younger persons, e s p e c i a l l y  g e n e r a t i o n immigrants  (that i s , those born i n H o l l a n d ) , d i d  not f e e l the same t i e s t o Spain as d i d t h e i r parents wanted t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o Dutch s o c i a l and life.  second  and  political  LITERATURE REVIEW / 40 In g e n e r a l ,  research  has shown changes i n v a l u e s as  immigrants move through the generations  i n t h e i r new  country, although the r a t e of these changes may vary among different  immigrant groups.  Family Power S t r u c t u r e - Obedience and Respect f o r Authority T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y pertaining to intergenerational c o n f l i c t s regarding  family  power s t r u c t u r e . In a paper p e r t a i n i n g t o s o c i a l work w i t h Americans, Ho (1976) d e s c r i b e d c u l t u r a l values  Asian  some of the prominent  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  immigrant  population.  Ho s t a t e d t h a t f i l i a l p i e t y i s fundamental i n A s i a n s o c i e t y , t h a t i s , an i n d i v i d u a l  i s expected t o comply w i t h  f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y , even i f i t means s a c r i f i c i n g one's own d e s i r e s and ambitions.  In a t r a d i t i o n a l  Asian  f a m i l y , the r o l e of the parent i s t o d e f i n e the law and t h e duty of the c h i l d i s t o l i s t e n and obey.  Ho made an  assumption t h a t t h i s type of severe f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e has l i k e l y changed t o a l a r g e extent of A s i a n American f a m i l i e s ,  i n the second  generation  but Ho was not aware of any  s t r o n g evidence t o show t h a t t h i s was indeed the case.  In  LITERATURE REVIEW / 41 other words, according  t o Ho,  the change i n any v a l u e s  does  not appear t o have a f f e c t e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n a l interaction parent and Ho  The  obey) between  c h i l d i n A s i a n American f a m i l i e s .  spoke of a second generation  student who hair.  (duty of c h i l d t o l i s t e n and  Korean high  had c o n f l i c t with h i s parents due student made one  to h i s  own  still  and  satisfying  s e l f - c o n c e p t at the expense of h i s p a r e n t s .  He  f e l t the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y value of "keep f e e l i n g s  t o y o u r s e l f , and  e s p e c i a l l y do not t a l k about f a m i l y  problems or your f e e l i n g s t o anyone o u t s i d e the The  long  v i s i t t o a s o c i a l worker  then d i d not r e t u r n because he f e l t t h a t he was his  school  family."  d e s i r e s of the f a m i l y as a whole, s p e c i f i c a l l y  the  young man's parents i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , were h e l d t o be more important than the young man's own Warner and  Srole  individual desires.  (1949) quoted Maguire, who  wrote of  I r e l a n d t h a t "deference t o p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the country." s e v e r a l f i r s t and  Warner and  second generation  S r o l e spoke of  immigrant groups,  i n c l u d i n g I t a l i a n s , Jews, Greeks, Poles, Armenians, Russians.  and  They d e t a i l e d the ways of a p a t r i a r c h a l type of  f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i n a l l of these groups.  Three or  four  LITERATURE REVIEW / 42 g e n e r a t i o n s o f t e n l i v e d i n one house - Armenian c h i l d r e n who  married, f o r example, were expected  father's property.  t o l i v e on  their  P e r p e t u a t i o n of an extended f a m i l y  the b a s i s f o r t h i s custom.  Warner and S r o l e a l s o s t a t e d  t h a t a p p r o p r i a t i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s earnings c h i l d r e n were over 18) was  was  (even i f the  a common p r a c t i c e among P o l i s h ,  Russian, Greek, and Armenian p a r e n t s .  The c h i l d r e n , Warner  and S r o l e s t a t e d , r e s o r t e d t o " ' h o l d i n g out' as the o n l y means of circumventing u n y i e l d i n g parents."  That i s , they  would keep a small amount of t h e i r pay each time i n order t o save up t o buy Rosenthal one  i n the U.S.  something they wanted.  and Feldman (1990) conducted and one  two s t u d i e s ,  i n A u s t r a l i a , of Chinese  first  and  second g e n e r a t i o n a d o l e s c e n t s , along with a d o l e s c e n t s from the host c u l t u r e s and from Hong Kong ( i . e . a d o l e s c e n t s l i v i n g i n Hong Kong).  Family f u n c t i o n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  were administered t o the s u b j e c t s , g e n e r a l l y i n a  classroom  s e t t i n g , and i n c l u d e d the Family Environment S c a l e Decision-Making  Questionnaire  (FES),  (DMQ), and other s c a l e s which  s p e c i f i c a l l y measured p a r e n t i n g s t y l e , p a r e n t s ' emphasis on c o n f o r m i t y , p a r e n t s ' acceptance  of d i v e r s i t y , and  extent t o which parents monitored activities.  Chinese  the  adolescents' a f t e r - s c h o o l  immigrants of both  generations  LITERATURE REVIEW / 43 r e p o r t e d more s t r u c t u r e d , c o n t r o l l i n g f a m i l y environments than d i d the nonimmigrant groups.  Second  generation  Chinese-Americans p e r c e i v e d more f a m i l y r e g u l a t i o n of adolescents  than d i d the f i r s t generation  respondents.  F i r s t g e n e r a t i o n C h i n e s e - A u s t r a l i a n s r e p o r t e d a more organized  f a m i l y p a t t e r n than t h a t of the second  respondents.  generation  The study showed a somewhat r a p i d change i n  f i r s t generation  f a m i l i e s toward i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c norms.  However, t h e r e was no evidence  of any change i n f a m i l y  environment a c c o r d i n g t o l e n g t h of time spent  i n the host  country. In summary, although  second and t h i r d  generation  immigrants o f t e n p e r c e i v e c o n f l i c t with t h e i r f a m i l y r e g a r d i n g the power s t r u c t u r e , they o f t e n f i n d ways t o compensate, f o r example, c h i l d r e n "holding out" on some o f t h e i r earnings.  However, i n some cases,  such as i n the  study by Ho (1976), young people choose t o d e f e r t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' wishes. Family Cohesion - K i n s h i p and Interdependence The  r e s e a r c h d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n concerns  immigrant f a m i l y members' interdependence f o r both p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs and how t h i s interdependence o f t e n  LITERATURE REVIEW / 44 becomes l e s s e n e d or a t l e a s t somewhat m o d i f i e d f o r second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n  immigrants.  G o l d s c h e i d e r and Goldscheider  (1988) found t h a t  e x p e c t a t i o n s of young a d u l t s t o l i v e independently parents before marriage ethnicity  from  v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o l e v e l of  (as w e l l as r e l i g i o s i t y ) .  They d e f i n e e t h n i c i t y  as "the i n t e n s i t y of e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n e t h n i c groups" (Goldscheider and Goldscheider, 1988,  p.  527).  Second and l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n immigrant young a d u l t s were found t o have a lower e x p e c t a t i o n of independent b e f o r e marriage,  the higher t h e i r " e t h n i c cohesion"  (Goldscheider and Goldscheider, 1988, cohesion was  living  p. 526).  Ethnic  seen by Goldscheider and G o l d s c h e i d e r t o be  based on t h r e e f a c t o r s : (1)  f o r e i g n language usage;  (2)  ethnic regional concentration;  (3)  exposure t o e t h n i c - l i n k e d i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The more these f a c t o r s are i n p l a y , the higher the e t h n i c cohesion.  Warner and S r o l e (1949) emphasized the e t h n i c  language f a c t o r .  They s a i d t h a t when, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  parents speak the e t h n i c language and the c h i l d r e p l i e s i n E n g l i s h , i t r e p r e s e n t s a source of c o n f l i c t and  antagonism  LITERATURE REVIEW / 45 between the parent and c h i l d , and thus i s the b e g i n n i n g of a b r e a k i n g away from the o l d t r a d i t i o n s . G o l d s c h e i d e r and G o l d s c h e i d e r l i n k the degree of e t h n i c cohesion, as w e l l as r e l i g i o s i t y , t o the degree of f a m i l y cohesion (based p r i m a r i l y on t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s ) . They s t u d i e d 28,240 cases, mainly non-Hispanic white, H i s p a n i c , and A s i a n American  American  high s c h o o l s e n i o r s ,  f o r v a r i a t i o n i n p r e m a r i t a l r e s i d e n t i a l independence  and  found t h a t the c l o s e r the l i n k t o the e t h n i c community, the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i h o o d of adhering t o t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . T h i s tended t o be t r u e even f o r the non-Hispanic whites, e s p e c i a l l y i f they used a f o r e i g n language a t home. In a study of i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s between Japanese-American immigrants)  parents ( I s s e i , or f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n  and a d u l t c h i l d r e n  ( N i s e i i , or second  generation) i n Chicago, Osako (1976) o b t a i n e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s t o Connor (1976), whose study w i t h Japanese-Americans  was  described e a r l i e r .  Osako examined i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l l i v i n g  Specifically, arrangements,  i n t e r a c t i o n s , and economic a s s i s t a n c e (as r e l a t e d t o dependence versus independence).  The d e f i n i t i o n of  dependence i s important t o note, a c c o r d i n g t o Osako,  LITERATURE REVIEW / 46 because i t can o f t e n be c u l t u r e bound.  He d e f i n e d  dependence as "the s t a t e of being c o n d i t i o n a l upon a person(s)  t o maintain the ego's w e l l - b e i n g "  (p. 68). He  a l s o c i t e d a study done by Bales t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d between " i n s t r u m e n t a l " and "expressive" dimensions of dependence. Instrumental  dependence i s when the behavior  involved i n a  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o r i e n t e d toward task performance. E x p r e s s i v e dependence i s when i t s major f u n c t i o n i s the management of emotion. In h i s study, Osako measured e x p r e s s i v e dependence by the frequency  of c o n t a c t and d e s i r e d and a c t u a l l i v i n g  arrangements between the immigrants and t h e i r second generation adult c h i l d r e n .  Instrumental  dependence was  measured by the e x p e c t a t i o n and the a c t u a l r e c e i p t o f f i n a n c i a l and t a s k - o r i e n t e d h e l p . Osako found t h a t a l a r g e percentage of both the I s s e i and N i s e i generations d e s i r e d t o and i n f a c t d i d l i v e  very  c l o s e t o each other, t h a t i s , i n the same neighborhood o r even c l o s e r .  Both generations a l s o had frequent  d a i l y ) c o n t a c t with each other. any  s i g n i f i c a n t decrease  (weekly o r  There was not found t o be  i n the d e s i r e f o r these  arrangements and i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the N i s e i  living  generation.  LITERATURE REVIEW / 47 Osako found t h a t not only d i d the N i s e i f e e l even more s t r o n g l y than the I s s e i about being e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c a r e of an aged parent, but they a l s o a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l a i d t o parents s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the l a t t e r a s s i s t e d the former. Osako a l s o found, however, t h a t the I s s e i had g r e a t e r e x p r e s s i v e dependence than i n s t r u m e n t a l dependence on t h e i r c h i l d r e n because of t h e I s s e i p a r e n t s ' f i r m b e l i e f i n i n s t r u m e n t a l independence. Osako concluded t h a t the N i s e i maintain a d e s i r e t o be c l o s e and e m o t i o n a l l y dependent because the I s s e i have m o d i f i e d the t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n of i n s t r u m e n t a l dependence t o e x p r e s s i v e independence. a c c u l t u r a t i o n process of the I s s e i  This f a c t o r i n the  (the f a c t t h a t they  a l r e a d y somewhat changed a core value) has l i k e l y been a key element i n the N i s e i generation not modifying the v a l u e of e x p r e s s i v e dependence t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . In a paper d e s c r i b i n g the i n f l u e n c e of e t h n i c i t y on s o c i a l aspects of aging, Woehrer (1978) looked a t the interdependence  between generations of s e v e r a l American  e t h n i c groups.  She concentrated s p e c i f i c a l l y on how the  e l d e r l y are a f f e c t e d , both by changing their children  family values of  (second or t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrants), and  by the v a r i a t i o n s i n f a m i l y v a l u e s across d i f f e r e n t  LITERATURE REVIEW / 48 immigrant  cultures.  Woehrer s t a t e d t h a t as  neighborhoods  change, or as people move t o r e t i r e m e n t homes, many of them f i n d themselves  surrounded by people q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  from  themselves i n c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and thus i n many b a s i c family values.  They very o f t e n l o s e the f a m i l y c o h e s i o n  t h a t e x i s t e d f o r them i n t h e i r own  c u l t u r e and  family.  Most important, however, f o r the purposes of our c u r r e n t study, were the changing v a l u e s of the and/or t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrants. done by Yanagisako, who  second  Woehrer c i t e d a study  contended t h a t the o c c u p a t i o n a l  m o b i l i t y of younger generations of Japanese-Americans t o changes i n i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Woehrer  a l s o c i t e d a study of I t a l i a n and P o l i s h Americans, F a n d e t t i and Gelfand i n which they found t h a t e a r n i n g over $10,000.00 a year and those who  leads  done by  respondents had a h i g h  s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n were more l i k e l y t o f a v o r independent l i v i n g arrangements f o r the e l d e r l y than those w i t h l e s s income and e d u c a t i o n .  Thus, those with more e d u c a t i o n and  income were g r a d u a l l y f a v o r i n g a lower l e v e l of f a m i l y cohesion. Warner and S r o l e  (1949) wrote of s i n g l e men  women emigrated s i n g l y at t h a t time) who  (very few  emigrated  from  LITERATURE REVIEW / 49 t h e i r n a t i v e land, expecting  t o stay only t e m p o r a r i l y .  If  they ended up s e t t l i n g and marrying (even t o someone w i t h the same c u l t u r a l background, although Warner and not  specify this factor s p e c i f i c a l l y ) , their  Srole did  family  s t r u c t u r e would be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the p a r e n t a l s i n c e these i n d i v i d u a l s had been on t h e i r own of y e a r s , controls.  u s u a l l y independent of t h e i r f a m i l y Warner and  Srole  (p. 108)  s t a r t i n g w i t h i n the American context, organized  one,  f o r a number (parental)  wrote, "The i s not as  family, strongly  as the f a m i l y t h a t emigrated as a u n i t . "  To summarize, i t appears t h a t although some immigrant groups, f o r i n s t a n c e the Japanese, u s u a l l y seem t o keep t h e i r f a m i l i e s ' k i n s h i p and i n t o the second and  interdependence strong  t h i r d generation  l e v e l s , the  even  research  shows t h a t f o r most other groups, there i s a strong  decline  i n these t r a i t s of f a m i l y cohesion even e a r l y i n t o the second  generation.  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g A c c u l t u r a t i o n and E f f e c t s of A c c u l t u r a t i o n on Familism Many f a c t o r s have been found t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h immigrants' r a t e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  t h e i r degree of  LITERATURE REVIEW / familism  as they proceed through the g e n e r a t i o n s .  s e c t i o n reviews the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t has  identified  50  This several  of these f a c t o r s . Berry, Trimble, and  Olmedo (1986), i n t h e i r d e t a i l e d  study of the assessment of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , i d e n t i f i e d  a  number of f a c t o r s t h a t have been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n process and various  can t h e r e f o r e  be used t o develop  s c a l e s or measures of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  factors included  education, u r b a n i z a t i o n ,  example, l i s t e n i n g t o r a d i o and  ( f o r example, i n t e r m a r r i a g e ,  Some of these  media ( f o r  r e a d i n g newspapers of  host c u l t u r e ) , r e l i g i o n , language, and work and  the  the  social relations p l a y w i t h members of  host c u l t u r e ) . Szapocznik, Scopetta, and psychosocial Hispanic  Kurtines  model of a c c u l t u r a t i o n developed u s i n g  immigrant community i n F l o r i d a .  showed the model and  two  The  Their  a  research  t o other immigrant  model suggested t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n  c o r r e l a t e s w i t h length  a  a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e s they  developed t o be g e n e r a l i z a b l e communities.  (1978) d e s c r i b e d  of time i n the host c u l t u r e  level  (the  more time, the higher the a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l ) , the younger a person i s at time of immigration, the q u i c k e r  he or  she  LITERATURE REVIEW / 51 w i l l reach a high a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , and t h a t males a c c u l t u r a t e more r a p i d l y than females.  Szapocznik,  S c o p e t t a , and K u r t i n e s a l s o maintained t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t dimensions  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n :  (a) b e h a v i o r a l a c c u l t u r a t i o n - the gradual adoption of the more o v e r t and observable aspects of the host c u l t u r e , f o r i n s t a n c e language, h a b i t s , and l i f e  customs,  style.  (b) v a l u e a c c u l t u r a t i o n - l e s s o v e r t gradual adoption of host c u l t u r e ' s b a s i c v a l u e orientations.  Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal,  Marin, and P e r e z - S t a b l e  (1987) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n on " a t t i t u d i n a l f a m i l i s m " i n 452 H i s p a n i c immigrants i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , as compared t o 227 white A t t i t u d i n a l f a m i l i s m was measured mainly  non-Hispanics. (but not e n t i r e l y )  w i t h items taken from the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e ( B a r d i s , 1959)  and a c c u l t u r a t i o n was measured with the Short  A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e (Marin, Sabogal, Marin, & P e r e z - S t a b l e , 1987).  Otero-Sabogal,  [ I t should be noted t h a t the B a r d i s  Familism S c a l e and the Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  (adapted  LITERATURE REVIEW / 52 f o r Russians) were used i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y f o r the c u r r e n t author's  study.]  A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was performed and t h r e e f a c t o r s accounted f o r 48.4% of the v a r i a n c e : obligations emotional  (a) f a m i l i a l  (perceived o b l i g a t i o n t o provide m a t e r i a l and  support  t o members of the extended f a m i l y )  accounted f o r 27.7% of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e ; support  (b) p e r c e i v e d  from the f a m i l y ( p e r c e p t i o n of f a m i l y members as  r e l i a b l e p r o v i d e r s of help and support  t o s o l v e problems)  accounted f o r 10.9% of the v a r i a n c e ; and (c) f a m i l y as referents  ( r e l a t i v e s as b e h a v i o r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l  r e f e r e n t s ) accounted f o r 9.8% of the t o t a l  variance.  In order t o t e s t f o r a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f a m i l i s m dimensions and a c c u l t u r a t i o n , a one-way ( a c c u l t u r a t i o n : low v s . high) m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed f o r the three f a m i l i s m f a c t o r s . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f a m i l i s m dimensions due t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n . t h a t the l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d support  I t was found  f o r the f a m i l y remained  high even f o r h i g h l y a c c u l t u r a t e d H i s p a n i c s .  However,  f a m i l i a l o b l i g a t i o n s and the p e r c e p t i o n of the f a m i l y as referents  (that i s , as someone t o go t o f o r advice  before  LITERATURE REVIEW / 53 making a d e c i s i o n ) seemed t o decrease with the l e v e l of acculturation. Generation l e v e l , p l a c e of b i r t h , and p l a c e of growing up, had an e f f e c t  on the F a m i l i a l O b l i g a t i o n s and Family as  R e f e r e n t s f a c t o r s - f i r s t generation H i s p a n i c s and those who were born or had spent t h e i r L a t i n America,  first  15 years of l i f e i n  obtained higher scores on these f a c t o r s  than  second g e n e r a t i o n H i s p a n i c s and those who were born o r grew up i n the U.S.  P e r c e i v e d Support  from the Family was not  a f f e c t e d by g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , p l a c e of b i r t h , and p l a c e of growing up. Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal,  Marin, and P e r e z - S t a b l e  found t h a t the F a m i l i a l O b l i g a t i o n s and Family as R e f e r e n t s f a c t o r s tended t o decrease, however, w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . their  The r e s e a r c h e r s contended  that  study supported the hypothesis t h a t some f a m i l i s m  v a l u e s decrease i n importance  as a c c u l t u r a t i o n  level  increases. In the development and v a l i d a t i o n of a s h o r t a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e f o r H i s p a n i c s , Marin, Sabogal, Otero-Sabogal,  Marin,  and Perez-Stable (1987) i d e n t i f i e d a number  of v a r i a b l e s t h a t p o s i t i v e l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h scores on the  LITERATURE REVIEW / 54 scale.  T h e i r respondents i n c l u d e d  non-Hispanic whites.  363 H i s p a n i c s and 228  The v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d as having a  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores were g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , length  of r e s i d e n c e i n the U.S.,  respondent's own e v a l u a t i o n  of t h e i r l e v e l of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n , an a c c u l t u r a t i v e index c a l c u l a t e d by u s i n g numerical v a l u e s of the preceding t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between e t h n i c groups (Hispanic v s . non-Hispanic).  Age of a r r i v a l i n the U.S. was found t o  have a negative c o r r e l a t i o n with scores on the acculturation  scale.  C u e l l a r , H a r r i s , and Jasso (1980) developed an a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e f o r Mexican Americans (ARSMA) t h a t c o u l d be administered i n E n g l i s h , Spanish, o r both languages.  I t was administered t o 222 s u b j e c t s ,  some of  which were p s y c h i a t r i c i n p a t i e n t s and some normals. Acculturation  l e v e l s were found t o be a f f e c t e d by language  f a m i l i a r i t y , usage, and p r e f e r e n c e ; e t h n i c  i d e n t i t y and  g e n e r a t i o n ; r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and c u l t u r a l exposure; and ethnic i n t e r a c t i o n . G r i f f i t h and V i l l a v i c e n c i o (1985) s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and sociodemographic  LITERATURE REVIEW / 55 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o s o c i a l supports i n 259 a d u l t Mexican Americans.  More a c c u l t u r a t e d  generation) ones reported  (English-speaking  and l a t e r  l a r g e r support networks, more  c o n t a c t w i t h network members, more r e c i p r o c a l h e l p i n g , and more o f t e n c i t e d primary k i n , f r i e n d s , and neighbors as support p r o v i d e r s  than d i d l e s s a c c u l t u r a t e d ones.  number of extended f a m i l y named as support  The  providers,  however, was u n r e l a t e d t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n . In a v a l i d a t i o n study of the ARSMA ( A c c u l t u r a t i o n Rating  S c a l e f o r Mexican Americans), Montgomery and Orozco  (1984) i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t had a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with b e h a v i o r a l a c c u l t u r a t i o n of 450 s u b j e c t s (349 and  Mexican American according  t o surname and s e l f - r e p o r t  101 Anglo American according  t o surname and  s e l f - r e p o r t ) , freshmen students a t a Texas u n i v e r s i t y . These v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d language preference, i d e n t i t y , generation  ethnic  removed from Mexico, e t h n i c i t y of  f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s , extent  of d i r e c t c o n t a c t  with  Mexico, a b i l i t y t o read and w r i t e i n Spanish, age w i t h i n each g e n e r a t i o n  ( i . e . o l d e r s u b j e c t s i n each  generation  were more a c c u l t u r a t e d than younger s u b j e c t s ) , and socioeconomic s t a t u s .  The c o r r e l a t i o n they  between ARSMA, age, and generation  obtained  suggested t h a t  LITERATURE REVIEW / 56 a c c u l t u r a t i o n changes w i t h i n each generation  are r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l , but t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n changes between g e n e r a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e . V a l i d a t i o n of another a c c u l t u r a t i o n measure f o r Mexican Americans was  performed by Olmedo and  Padilla  (1978) on 26 a d u l t Anglo Americans, 16 f i r s t Mexican Americans, and  26 t h i r d generation  Americans i n C a l i f o r n i a .  P a d i l l a a l s o found t h a t persons who  themselves as Mexican and American or Anglo, and households, and  occupational  Catholic  Protestant  lower  identify  have lower e d u c a t i o n a l  and  levels.  Americans l i v i n g i n Los Angeles.  was  scored  or a g n o s t i c ) , l i v e i n  comprehensive study of a c c u l t u r a t i o n on  Escobar (1987) d i d a 1245  among f i r s t generation  a d u l t Mexican  A c c u l t u r a t i o n scores  s c a l e they used d i s c r i m i n a t e d between  l e v e l s , and  level.  (as opposed t o Mexican  Burnam, T e l l e s , Karno, Hough, and  the  correlated  generation  i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n were more more l i k e l y t o  nuclear  Mexican  A c c u l t u r a t i o n scores  h i g h l y w i t h e t h n i c group membership and Olmedo and  generation  with  generation  Mexican immigrants, i t  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o number of years i n the  T h e i r data a l s o suggested t h a t those f i r s t  U.S.  generation  LITERATURE REVIEW / 57 persons who those who  were younger and male, a c c u l t u r a t e d f a s t e r than  were o l d e r and  female.  The  sex d i f f e r e n c e , but  not the age d i f f e r e n c e , c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the tendency f o r males t o have higher e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d of being employed than Garza and G a l l e g o a c c u l t u r a t i o n process  females.  (1985) suggested t h a t the i n v o l v e s a h i g h l y complex i n t e r a c t i o n  between environmental i n f l u e n c e s and p e r s o n a l c h o i c e . c l a i m t h a t even i f an i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h overbearing  s e t of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s , he or she  choose t o a c t i n a manner t h a t i s incongruent  They  an  can  with  these  demands. Camilleri  (1983) d i d a study of value changes i n  second g e n e r a t i o n  (those who  Maghrebian immigrants  a r r i v e d before age  (ages 16-25) i n France.  10) Most  had  o n l y a l i m i t e d A r a b i c language a b i l i t y and males, more than females,  were o f t e n w i l l i n g t o be f r i e n d s with or marry  Europeans f o r the purpose of f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r or o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s .  educational  However, s t r o n g f a m i l y  p h y s i c a l t i e s remained t o t h e i r country of o r i g i n and i t s culture.  and to  A l s o , although most had only a l i m i t e d use  of  LITERATURE REVIEW / 58 A r a b i c , almost a l l planned t o pass on both the A r a b i c language as w e l l as the c u l t u r e t o t h e i r own Kassees  children.  (1972) s t u d i e d the l e v e l of f a m i l i s t i c  a t t i t u d e s among 137 s u b j e c t s of C h r i s t i a n Arab h e r i t a g e of Ramallah,  P a l e s t i n e , most l i v i n g i n Ramallah, but some  l i v i n g i n the U.S. 1959)  was  Kassees  The B a r d i s Familism S c a l e ( B a r d i s ,  used t o measure these f a m i l i s t i c  attitudes.  found t h a t g e n e r a l l y , the Ramallah people were  quite f a m i l i s t i c .  R e l i g i o n was  suggested t o p l a y a p a r t i n  t h e i r high f a m i l i s t i c attitudes  - most belong t o the Greek  Orthodox church.  Sex had no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the  degree of f a m i l i s m , c o n t r a r y t o B a r d i s ' (1959) f i n d i n g t h a t males tend t o be more f a m i l i s t i c than females. c o n t r a r y t o most p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , Kassees was  Also  found t h a t  age  p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o f a m i l i s m ; the o l d e r the person,  the more f a m i l i s t i c he or she tends t o be.  The  respondents' education l e v e l had an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the degree of f a m i l i s m , t h a t i s , the h i g h e r the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , the lower the degree of f a m i l i s m and versa.  Unexpectedly, Kassees d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the  people who  vice Ramallah  continued t o l i v e i n Ramallah were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  l e s s f a m i l i s t i c than the ones who l i v i n g i n the U.S.,  had migrated t o and were  although i n Ramallah,  females were more  LITERATURE REVIEW / 59 f a m i l i s t i c than males, while i n the U.S., the r e v e r s e was true.  Although age was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o f a m i l i s m i n  both groups, i n the U.S. i t was much more apparent f o r t h e young people t o be f a r l e s s f a m i l i s t i c than the o l d e r ones. Although they d i d not look a t  immigrant/generational  d i f f e r e n c e s i n degrees of f a m i l i s m , A l d r i c h , Lipman, and Goldman (1973) used the B a r d i s Familism  S c a l e t o assess  f a m i l i s m i n 183 urban and 317 r u r a l s u b j e c t s i n P o r t u g a l . A l d r i c h , Lipman, and Goldman found t h a t r u r a l r e s i d e n c e was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with strong f a m i l i s m .  Age-wise r u r a l  youth and the r u r a l , o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n proved t o be t h e two groups t h a t were the most h i g h l y - d i s c r e p a n t i n t h e i r familistic attitudes.  When extreme o c c u p a t i o n a l  were c o n t r a s t e d , there was a negative c o r r e l a t i o n degree of f a m i l i s m .  Education  categories with  l e v e l was found t o have a  negative c o r r e l a t i o n with degree of f a m i l i s m as w e l l , but moreso i n the r u r a l than urban s e t t i n g . Hanassab (1991) c a r r i e d out a study of 77 young I r a n i a n women i n Los Angeles, t o assess t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward sex r o l e s and i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Hanassab used  a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of an a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e designed by C u e l l a r , H a r r i s , and Jasso  (1980), p a r t of The Sexual and  LITERATURE REVIEW / Premarital  Attitude  Inventory, and  A t t i t u d e toward Women Scale more a c c u l t u r a t e d  time the  subject  (AWS).  I t was  found t h a t  sex r o l e s and  intimate  the  relationships.  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the had  been i n the new  length  country, and  a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between age immigration and  the  the respondent, the more l i b e r a l were  a t t i t u d e s regarding A c c u l t u r a t i o n was  a short v e r s i o n of  60  acculturation level.  there  was  at  Education l e v e l  shown t o have no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the  of  was  acculturation  score. In summary, i t appears t h a t as a whole, as proceed through the generations i n the new t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s concerning strong and  country,  familial  or  f e e l i n g of f a m i l y support, a l l tend t o decrease  t o some degree. educational associated  the  obligation  interdependence, as w e l l as general k i n s h i p  perceived  immigrants  In a d d i t i o n , f a c t o r s such as age,  l e v e l , and  occupational  category, o f t e n  sex, are  with the degree t o which t r a d i t i o n a l or  f a m i l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s are adhered t o .  Acculturation  as measured through e i t h e r c u l t u r a l awareness l o y a l t y ) or s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n d i c e s a l s o found t o be a s s o c i a t e d  level,  (ethnic  (family s t r u c t u r e ) ,  with the same types of  was  factors.  LITERATURE REVIEW / 61 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Russian Immigrant Family Through the Generations  . . . ' f a m i l y ' was the most f r e g u e n t l y chosen v a l u e , f o l l o w e d by i n t e r e s t i n g work, r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s , c o n s c i e n c e . . . (Shlapentokh, 1982, p. 406, from "survey c a r r i e d out by A r u t u n i a n i n Moldavia") Our f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c l o s e r here — between mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , between o l d e r people and t h e i r f a m i l i e s — than yours a r e . I don't envy you your f a m i l y l i f e i n America; you don't seem t o watch over your young or take care of your o l d people with the care we do. (a 39 year o l d S o v i e t woman, quoted i n Jackson, 1990, p. 114) The w r i t e r was  able t o l o c a t e a small number of  s t u d i e s t h a t d e a l t d i r e c t l y , i n some form, w i t h i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l f a m i l y v a l u e changes i n the Russian and o t h e r S l a v i c immigrant  p o p u l a t i o n s (Gerber, 1985;  1980;  S z y r y n s k i , 1971).  Bociurkiw, 1971;  The most noteworthy was  study (and the o n l y one the w r i t e r  a b l e t o f i n d d i r e c t l y concerning the d e t a i l e d  s t r u c t u r e of Russian immigrants) by Gerber  (1985).  family  of the above i s t h a t done  He d i d an e x t e n s i v e ethnographic study  of a Russian-American York s t a t e  Mostwin,  community ("Russkoya Celo") i n  New  (mostly B y e l o r u s s i a n s of peasant o r i g i n ) as a  LITERATURE REVIEW / 62 p a r t i c i p a n t observer.  The community i s c e n t r e d around a  Russian Orthodox church. was  In i t s e a r l y days the community  almost completely s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , t h a t i s , i t had  almost a l l of i t s own  s t o r e s , banks, p h y s i c i a n s , and  community s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s .  other  When Gerber d i d h i s  study, t h e r e were s t i l l t h r e e s t o r e s owned by members of the community.  The community was  surrounded  by s e v e r a l  other e t h n i c communities, i n c l u d i n g C r o a t i a n , Y u g o s l a v i a n , U k r a i n i a n , Slovak, P o l i s h , Serbian, German, and s m a l l e r communities of Mexican, I t a l i a n and I r i s h  peoples.  Gerber d i d not l i v e i n the community i t s e l f  while  doing h i s r e s e a r c h , but he spent the m a j o r i t y of day  and  evening hours t h e r e doing odd jobs and v i s i t i n g i n f o r m a l l y (he had a "primary c o n t a c t , " a r e s i d e n t of the community who  made i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s ) .  He spent a t o t a l of e i g h t  months i n the community and became t o t a l l y absorbed  ini t .  Gerber d i s c u s s e d , i n one form or another, a l l of the f a m i l y v a l u e s of concern i n the c u r r e n t study.  He  also  made mention of the changes of v a l u e s o c c u r r i n g from g e n e r a t i o n immigrants t o second g e n e r a t i o n Gerber  first  immigrants.  found t h a t f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrant  parents  p l a c e d a heavy emphasis on h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n achieve a  LITERATURE REVIEW / 63 b e t t e r l i v i n g standard than what they themselves had experienced.  He guotes one informant, Mr. N.:  I wanted t o make something of myself and send my c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l so t h a t they wouldn't have t o l i v e l i k e I d i d . (p. 27) However, Gerber a l s o found t h a t a f t e r sending t h e i r c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y boys, f o r a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n then d i d not wish t o r e t u r n t o the home community t o run the p a r e n t s ' s t o r e o r other b u s i n e s s .  In essence,  even though the c h i l d r e n were u s u a l l y expected t o r e t u r n and take over the business upon t h e i r p a r e n t s ' death, they had become a l i e n a t e d from the community and o f t e n no l o n g e r regarded t h e i r p a r e n t s ' c u l t u r e as t h e i r  own.  In the Russian community he observed,  Gerber  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t i t l e s t o l a n d , houses, and money were put i n c h i l d r e n ' s names d u r i n g i n f a n c y and then h e l d u n t i l were a d u l t s , t h a t i s , u n t i l they were married. form of "guarantee" t o the parents t h a t t h e i r  they  T h i s was a children  would indeed be s e t up f i n a n c i a l l y t o achieve w e l l - p a y i n g professional careers.  Parents taught t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o  v a l u e p r o p e r t y and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and a l s o t o equate property with status. immigrants  As was found t o be t r u e f o r o t h e r  such as the A s i a n Americans,  the Russian  LITERATURE REVIEW / 64 immigrants see the achievement of the i n d i v i d u a l as r e f l e c t i n g on the whole f a m i l y .  Gerber i n f a c t d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t p r o p e r t y and money served as "tokens" o r " g r a d i e n t s o f success"  (p. 32). Because of the great s t r e s s on the  importance of p r o p e r t y , damage t o p r o p e r t y was c o n s i d e r e d t o be an "offense a g a i n s t the ' f a m i l y ' as w e l l as 'those l i k e us'" (other members of the Russian community) (p. 34), so was s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d when i t d i d occur. To the Russians, the concept cohesiveness  i s an extremely  Gerber saw t h i s concept  of s t r o n g f a m i l y  important  one.  In h i s study,  i l l u s t r a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , marriages  w i t h i n the Russian  community  were arranged by l o c a l matchmakers and the most d e s i r a b l e matches were those i n t o which each p a r t n e r brought a s u b s t a n t i a l sum of money and/or p r o p e r t y .  This p a r t i c u l a r  Russian community was based around the church and d u r i n g the a c t u a l wedding ceremony a t the Russian Orthodox Church, c o n j u g a l r o l e s were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d —  a crown was h e l d  over the heads of the b r i d e and bridegroom (by the best man and one other male attendant) t o s y m b o l i c a l l y make them queen and k i n g — that  meanwhile the c a n t o r chanted  the order  "'the man i s the s o l e head of the household  and t h e  LITERATURE REVIEW / 65 woman must f o l l o w ' "  (Gerber, 1985,  p. 50).  Descent  i n the  Russian community i s p a t r i l i n e a l , t h a t i s , a person takes the patronym through the male l i n e and p r e f e r r e d r e s i d e n c e is patrilocal —  married sons should l i v e as near as  p o s s i b l e t o the house of the e l d e s t member of the l i n e a g e . Gerber noted t h a t parents expected t h e i r sons and daughters t o marry persons who  were ' l i k e us' or 'one  us' and whose parents were well-known t o the f a m i l y .  of The  second and t h i r d generations would, however, o f t e n date o u t s i d e of the community.  Matched marriages a l s o faded  away as the second and succeeding generations became exposed t o American v a l u e s and customs.  Patrilocal  r e s i d e n c e by the second and succeeding generations had  also  become the e x c e p t i o n and n e o - l o c a l (away from the p a r e n t a l community) r e s i d e n c e had e s s e n t i a l l y become the r u l e .  Many  of the parents t h a t Gerber spoke t o i n the community were dismayed by the moving away of t h e i r c h i l d r e n : I don't understand it...We l o v e d our c h i l d r e n and d i d e v e r y t h i n g f o r them. Yet, when they got married they moved away from us... ...We d i d n ' t have n i c e t h i n g s because we saved f o r our c h i l d r e n . Then they l e f t us and are ashamed of us. (p.  39)  LITERATURE REVIEW / 66 Gerber  found t h a t interdependence  the p a t r i l o c a l r e s i d e n c e i s s u e . method of a c g u i r i n g p r o p e r t y .  f i t i n strongly with  I n h e r i t a n c e was the main The e l d e s t son r e c e i v e d the  l a r g e s t share, the second e l d e s t the next l a r g e s t , and t h e daughters  i n h e r i t s m a l l e r shares.  p a r e n t s , were s t i l l  When one parent, o r both  l i v i n g when the p r o p e r t y was  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the c h i l d r e n  ( t h i s happened when they  reached the age of marriage), the c h i l d r e n were then o b l i g a t e d t o support the parent o r p a r e n t s . meant p h y s i c a l l y  This often  (as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l l y ) c a r i n g f o r  parents i n t h e i r o l d age. A t r a d i t i o n a l Russian f a m i l y , a c c o r d i n g t o Gerber, was expected t o always present a " u n i t e d f r o n t "  (p. 35) t o  o u t s i d e r s , even though i n t r a - f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o f t e n plagued by j e a l o u s y , s u s p i c i o u s n e s s , h o s t i l i t y , and v a r i o u s other c o n f l i c t s .  When f a m i l i e s d i d d i s p l a y  p u b l i c l y o u t r i g h t c o n f l i c t s , they u s u a l l y found comfort i n o t h e r community k i n s h i p s such as r e l i g i o u s (e.g. godparents)  relationships  and the common language bond.  However,  w i t h the second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s , a d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f t e n o c c u r r e d when persons of these generations c o n v e r t t o o t h e r r e l i g i o n s and use the E n g l i s h language i n most o r a l l aspects of t h e i r  lives.  LITERATURE REVIEW / 67  In the community t h a t Gerber s t u d i e d , r e l a t i v e s , k i n members (both a f f i n a l  [ r e l a t e d by marriage] and h o n o r i f i c  [ r e l a t e d only on b a s i s of honor]), and godparents were expected  t o help one another  not done, i t i s reason offender.  unconditionally.  If this i s  f o r o s t r a c i s m and scorn toward t h e  Once again, i f the need f o r help w i t h i n a k i n  group caused c o n f l i c t of any k i n d  (disagreements,  b i t t e r n e s s ) , t h i s was not t o be shown o r t a l k e d about t o the o u t s i d e world - the problem c o u l d only be d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n one's c l o s e s t group.  On the other hand, i t was  c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o boast about how one was h e l p i n g a r e l a t i v e , f o r i n s t a n c e when one was t a k i n g care of a r e l a t i v e who was an i n v a l i d . F i l i a l p i e t y and deference were given$ i n t h e Russian community Gerber observed.  J u n i o r s were expected t o  a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s p e c t s e n i o r s and t o a u t o m a t i c a l l y obey and support  them.  Family members were always expected  w i t h one another  to side  i n the case of d i s p u t e s with o u t s i d e r s .  The present author explored whether some of the changes i n f a m i l y values from the f i r s t t o second (and t h i r d ) generations of Russian  immigrants t h a t Gerber  LITERATURE REVIEW / 68 observed i n h i s ethnographic study, would indeed show up i n the c u r r e n t study. Research  Questions/Hypotheses  The p r e c e d i n g review of r e s e a r c h done w i t h v a r i o u s immigrant  groups, f a m i l y v a l u e s , and a c c u l t u r a t i o n  levels,  l e a d us t o pose the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : (1)  W i l l second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian  immigrants  tend t o possess more "modern v a l u e s " i n the area o f f a m i l i s m than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Russian (2)  immigrants?  W i l l f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants  tend t o  possess more " t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s " i n the area of f a m i l i s m than second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian (3)  immigrants?  W i l l second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants  more a c c u l t u r a t e d than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Russian Thus, we proposed the f o l l o w i n g (1)  be  immigrants?  hypotheses:  Second g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants w i l l e x h i b i t a  lower sense of a t t i t u d i n a l f a m i l i s m than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants,  and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian  immigrants  w i l l e x h i b i t a lower sense of a t t i t u d i n a l f a m i l i s m than  LITERATURE REVIEW / 69 second g e n e r a t i o n immigrants,  as i n d i c a t e d by lower  scores  on the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e f o r each r e s p e c t i v e group. (2)  Second g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants w i l l e x h i b i t a  h i g h e r l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants,  Russian  and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants w i l l  e x h i b i t a higher l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n than g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants,  second  as i n d i c a t e d by  higher  s c o r e s on the Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e f o r each r e s p e c t i v e group. (3)  Demographic v a r i a b l e s such as sex, age,  religious  a f f i l i a t i o n , education l e v e l , Russian language a b i l i t y , s o c i a l network, w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d with f a m i l y v a l u e s acculturation levels.  and  While p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s  t h a t p a t t e r n s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and value change may  vary  f o r c e r t a i n demographic f a c t o r s , the l a c k of r e s e a r c h on Russian immigrants r e q u i r e s t h a t t h i s be an e x p l o r a t o r y analysis.  and  70 Chapter I I I  METHODOLOGY General Method A c o n t r a s t e d group r e s e a r c h design was used f o r t h i s study.  The g o a l was t o i d e n t i f y t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and/or  s i m i l a r i t i e s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l and f a m i l y v a l u e s between f i r s t , immigrants.  second, and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n  Russian  Since r e s e a r c h t o date i n the area of f a m i l y  v a l u e s and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l of Russian immigrants i s minimal,  t h i s study was c o n s i d e r e d t o be " e x p l o r a t o r y " i n  nature. Subjects The  sample f o r t h i s study was obtained by m a i l i n g  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o 230 members of the Russian  immigrant  community, 19 years of age o r o l d e r , w i t h i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver and Lower Mainland Fraser Valley.  areas, and extending i n t o t h e  Names of p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d  by c o n t a c t i n g d i r e c t o r s of f o u r l o c a l organizations. combinations  Russian  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s have v a r i o u s  of o r i e n t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s ,  social,  METHODOLOGY / 71 c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l .  I a l s o obtained names o f  p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s by means of p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s and word of mouth.  The l i s t s of persons' names obtained from these  c o n t a c t s a l s o i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y of g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l s , as w e l l as v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s , s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l orientations.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s t o be noted t h a t t h e  sample o b t a i n e d was c o n s i d e r e d a "sample of convenience" because a random sample of a l l Russian immigrants  i n the  Lower Mainland would not have been a f e a s i b l e t a s k t o accomplish. A f t e r t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e s were mailed, I r e c e i v e d approximately f i f t e e n telephone c a l l s from p o t e n t i a l subjects.  Some had s p e c i f i c questions t o ask about t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n order t o a s s i s t them i n completing i t and y e t o t h e r s telephoned t o t e l l me t h a t they d i d not have any Russian background, f o r example a female who i n t h e past was m a r r i e d t o a Russian, and others who had, f o r i n s t a n c e , o n l y Czechoslovakian, Yugoslavian, or P o l i s h background. Some second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n persons s a i d they had no memory of or c o n t a c t with t h e i r Russian background and one young female s a i d , "I'm not Russian, I'm U k r a i n i a n . "  Once  I assured these persons t h a t the g u e s t i o n n a i r e s had p r o v i s i o n f o r these f a c t s , they d i d indeed r e t u r n completed  METHODOLOGY / 72 questionnaires. immigrant  One male (middle-aged) r e c e n t S o v i e t  s a i d t h a t he was u n w i l l i n g t o complete a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t asked f o r "personal i n f o r m a t i o n , " y e t s a i d t h a t he would have been w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d ( i . e . t e l l me t h i n g s v e r b a l l y , but not i n w r i t t e n form).  A  female who had immigrated from China i n the 1950's r e f u s e d t o complete t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e because i t came from "someone she d i d n ' t know."  On the other hand, d u r i n g the telephone  c o n v e r s a t i o n she t o l d me her views r e g a r d i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n of  immigrants. S e v e r a l of the persons who returned  completed  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l s o i n c l u d e d e x t r a comments r e g a r d i n g  some  of t h e q u e s t i o n s , and some even i n c l u d e d a p e r s o n a l i z e d l e t t e r d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r background i n more d e t a i l ,  stating  t h e i r views on the r e s e a r c h , or e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e results. Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A t o t a l of 71 persons completed and r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a 31% response r a t e .  There  were 32% (23) male s u b j e c t s and 68% (48) female s u b j e c t s . Table 2 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of male and female respondents by generation  level.  Although t h e t o t a l number  METHODOLOGY / 73 Table 2 Sample Breakdown by Sex and Generation L e v e l  Male  Tot.  1st gen.  2nd gen.  3rd gen.  4th gen,  (N = 71)  (n = 22)  (n = 30)  (n = 18)  (n = 1)  32% (23)  Female  68% (48)  32%  37%  28%  (7)  (11)  (5)  68%  63%  72%  100%  (13)  (1)  (15)  (19)  METHODOLOGY / 74 of female s u b j e c t s t o male s u b j e c t s i s d i s t i n c t l y  higher,  the number of females t o males stays p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r in  each of t h e f i r s t ,  lone f o u r t h generation  second, and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s .  The  s u b j e c t was not i n c l u d e d i n t h e  analyses. The  sample i n c l u d e d an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e number of  s u b j e c t s i n each generation who had u n i v e r s i t y o r some other form of post-secondary education The  (see Table 3 ) .  s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d a wide v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n s ,  the h i g h e s t numbers being i n p r o f e s s i o n s (other than education) education  (21%), i n d u s t r i a l / b u s i n e s s white c o l l a r (15%), and students  c a t e g o r i e s of t h e remaining  (14%).  The o c c u p a t i o n a l  30% i n c l u d e d c i v i l  a g r i c u l t u r e , manual work, homemakers  (20%),  servants,  (at home),  self-employment, and one person was unemployed. One s u b j e c t had l i v e d i n a R u s s i a n / S l a v i c neighborhood in one  t h e past f o r more than 35 y e a r s , eighteen had l i v e d i n from 10 t o 35 y e a r s , and four from 1 t o 9 y e a r s .  P r e s e n t l y , a t o t a l of 16 s u b j e c t s l i v e d i n a R u s s i a n / S l a v i c neighborhood and 14 of these were second persons.  generation  METHODOLOGY / 75 Table 3 E d u c a t i o n L e v e l s by Generation  (N = 70)  Elem.  High School  Only  Completed  Univ/College or o t h e r post-sec.  Generation L e v e l  1st (n = 22)  0  1  21  2nd (n = 3 0 )  2  5  23  3rd  2  5  11  (n = 18)  METHODOLOGY / 76 Procedures The  questionnaire  packet mailed t o each  s u b j e c t c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g  prospective  (see Appendices A t o G ) :  (1)  L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n  (2)  S p e c i a l note i n the Russian language  (3)  P a r t i c i p a n t Informed Consent Form  (4)  Questionnaire c o n s i s t i n g o f : (a)  Demographic Information ( l a b e l e d as "General Information")  (b)  B a r d i s Familism Scale  ( l a b e l e d as "Family  Attitudes") (c)  Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n Scale "Cultural  (d) The the  ( l a b e l e d as  Attitudes")  Raffle ticket  L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n  provided  an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  study and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . A note i n Russian (along with an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n )  was  attached  t o the L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n ,  s t a t i n g that  p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u i r e d t o be able t o read E n g l i s h and respond t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e of a t r a n s l a t o r .  on t h e i r own, without t h e a i d  The note i n Russian was w r i t t e n by t h e  METHODOLOGY / 77 c u r r e n t author, with the a s s i s t a n c e of a Russian  language  i n s t r u c t o r i n the Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s a t a major Canadian u n i v e r s i t y .  The s p e c i f i c a t i o n t o not a l l o w  t r a n s l a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items f o r t h e s u b j e c t was found t o be necessary t r a n s l a t i n g without  due t o the problems i n v o l v e d i n  changing the meanings of q u e s t i o n s  ( B r i s l i n , Lonner, & Thorndike, Design  1973).  of the Questionnaire  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e mailed t o p o t e n t i a l c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e s e c t i o n s .  subjects  A copy of each s e c t i o n i s  i n c l u d e d i n the Appendices (D, E, and F ) .  The t h r e e  s e c t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d below: (1) The  Demographic first  Information  s e c t i o n of the g u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed  by t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r and i n c l u d e d g u e s t i o n s  about  g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , e t h n i c o r i g i n , age, and other d e s c r i p t i v e details.  Other  q u e s t i o n t o p i c s i n c l u d e d those which  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e Mostwin (1980), showed t o be r e l e v a n t t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n and f a m i l y v a l u e s of immigrants.  Examples of such items i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n a l  METHODOLOGY / 78 l e v e l , e t h n i c language a b i l i t y , and degree of r e l i g i o u s affiliation. (2)  B a r d i s Familism S c a l e ( B a r d i s , 1959)  T h i s s c a l e served as the measure of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s concerning f a m i l i s m , which i n c o r p o r a t e s both f a m i l y power s t r u c t u r e and f a m i l y cohesion. The B a r d i s Familism S c a l e was f i r s t developed by B a r d i s i n 1959 ( B a r d i s , 1959).  I t i s a 5-point,  16-item  L i k e r t - s t y l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was designed t o measure a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s d i r e c t e d toward the f a m i l y as a s o c i a l entity.  Questions r e l a t e t o support f o r , and l o y a l t y  toward, members of both the n u c l e a r (questions #1 t o #10) and t h e extended  f a m i l y (questions #11 t o 16).  Respondents  were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l of agreement, from s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e (coded 0) t o s t r o n g l y agree  (coded 4 ) ,  based on t h e i r philosophy of the f a m i l y i n g e n e r a l , not t h e i r own f a m i l y .  An o v e r a l l f a m i l i s m score was o b t a i n e d  by adding t h e responses  t o each of the items, w i t h no  reverse-scoring required.  Scores c o u l d range from 0 t o 64  on t h e o v e r a l l s c a l e , 0 t o 40 on the n u c l e a r s c a l e , and 0 t o 24 on t h e extended  s c a l e , with higher scores i n d i c a t i n g  more f a m i l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s .  F o r purposes  of t h i s  study,  METHODOLOGY / 79 high  f a m i l i s t i c scores were i n t e r p r e t e d as c o i n c i d i n g w i t h  high  " t r a d i t i o n a l " family The  s c a l e has been used by many r e s e a r c h e r s  countries 1973;  values.  (Rao & Rao, 1979; A l d r i c h , Lipman, & Goldman,  Kassees, 1972; B l a i r ,  1972; Sabogal, Marin,  Otero-Sabogal, Marin, Perez-Stable, has  i n various  1987).  The s c a l e thus  t h e advantage of having been used c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y i n  i t s E n g l i s h form and i t has a l s o been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Greek. Bardis  A study i n Greece was one of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s by t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y and determine t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  of t h e s c a l e  (Bardis, 1959).  B a r d i s used a sample of  t h i r t y - s e v e n male and female Gymnasium students i n a community already Greece.  known t o be f a m i l i s t i c , i n southern  A f t e r f i n d i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y  consistency  of the s c a l e i n t h a t c u l t u r e t o be  s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e mean f a m i l i s m obtained.  and i n t e r n a l  score of t h e s u b j e c t s was  T h i s mean was compared with t h a t of a sample of  t h i r t y - s e v e n male and female high i n d u s t r i a l c i t y i n Michigan.  school  students from an  The d i f f e r e n c e between these  means was s i g n i f i c a n t below t h e p = .01 l e v e l . the  The mean o f  same Greek group was a l s o compared w i t h t h a t of  t h i r t y - s e v e n Methodist students i n a Michigan c o l l e g e and the d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t below t h e p_ = .01  METHODOLOGY / 80 level.  A s i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was a l s o found when  the responses of t h i r t y d i f f e r e n t Methodist students from the  same Michigan c o l l e g e were compared w i t h those o f  t h i r t y Mennonite students a t t e n d i n g college.  The s c a l e has a l s o been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  o t h e r languages (Schumm, 1990, p. Blair  a Midwestern Mennonite various  181).  (1972) d i d a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of t h e s c a l e and  d e c i d e d t h a t i t needed some r e v i s i o n i n order t o be a s t r o n g e r i n d i c a t o r of f a m i l i s m .  When i t was f i r s t  developed, the s c a l e was not d i v i d e d i n t o t h e s u b s c a l e s of "nuclear familism"  and "extended f a m i l i s m " .  Rao and Rao  (1979) used f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o evaluate t h e s c a l e i n I n d i a and  found t h a t out of the 16 items, 10 measure t h e n u c l e a r  f a m i l y dimension and the remaining s i x measure t h e extended f a m i l y dimension.  Subsequent t o t h i s study, t h e s c a l e has  been d i v i d e d i n t o the two aforementioned  subscales.  A c c o r d i n g t o Schumm (1990), s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y has been r e p o r t e d  t o range from r = .77 t o .84 and one-month  test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y  i s reported  t o be r = .90.  METHODOLOGY / 81 (3)  R e v i s i o n of the Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  The present r e s e a r c h e r used the Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e developed by Marin, Sabogal, Marin,  Otero-Sabogal,  and P e r e z - S t a b l e , 1987. A l t e r a t i o n s were made as necessary, i n order t o make t h e s c a l e a p p r o p r i a t e t o use w i t h Russian immigrants. short  I t s main advantage was t h a t i t i s  (12 items) and p r e c i s e , and y e t has v a l i d i t y and  r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t are comparable t o those of other published scales.  I t was developed  for Hispanics,  but i t was chosen f o r t h e c u r r e n t study because i t i s composed of adeguately general items, such t h a t o n l y one word needed t o be changed i n each item.  The present  i n v e s t i g a t o r simply s u b s t i t u t e d the word "Russian" f o r "Spanish" and the word "Russians" f o r " L a t i n o s / H i s p a n i c s " . The  s c a l e measures a c c u l t u r a t i o n on a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  l e v e l , based on three f a c t o r s :  (1) Language Use;  (2) Media, and (3) E t h n i c S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . aforementioned  In t h e  authors' study with H i s p a n i c s , t h e s c a l e  c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y with s e v e r a l v a l i d a t i o n c r i t e r i a .001),  (p_ <  i n c l u d i n g respondents' g e n e r a t i o n ( r = .65);  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n t h e U.S. ( r = .65); age a t a r r i v a l (r = -69); e t h n i c s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  ( r = .76); and an  METHODOLOGY / 82 a c c u l t u r a t i o n index  ( r = .83). The s c a l e was a l s o  s e p a r a t e l y v a l i d a t e d (by the same authors) f o r Mexican Americans and C e n t r a l Americans and a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were comparable t o the ones f o r H i s p a n i c s , a l s o a t £ < .001. The Alpha c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the 12 common items on t h e s c a l e was .92. T h i s served t o measure t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e s c a l e , t h a t i s , each item showed a high c o r r e l a t i o n with every other item i n t h e scale. Participant  Incentive  As a p o s s i b l e motivator  f o r completion  and r e t u r n o f  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a r a f f l e t i c k e t was i n c l u d e d i n t h e packet mailed t o each p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t .  The r a f f l e was  f o r a r e s t a u r a n t g i f t c e r t i f i c a t e valued a t t h i r t y ($30.00).  The m a j o r i t y of respondents d i d indeed  t h e i r name i n the r a f f l e .  To maintain  separated  enter  confidentiality,  respondents were i n s t r u c t e d t o p l a c e t h e completed t i c k e t i n a separate  dollars  raffle  s e a l e d envelope which would then be  from t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s upon r e c e i p t .  METHODOLOGY / 83 Analysis  of Data  P o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the generations on demographic v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g and  one-way analyses of v a r i a n c e  chi-square  (ANOVA).  Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d i n order t o explore the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between familism various  and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , between these f a c t o r s and demographic v a r i a b l e s , as w e l l as i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n  l e v e l s of t h e demographic v a r i a b l e s . One-way ANOVA's were performed i n order t o analyze differences  i n l e v e l s of f a m i l i s m  and/or a c c u l t u r a t i o n  between t h e t h r e e generations ( i n order t o m a i n t a i n s i m p l i c i t y , the lone f o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n respondent was not included  i n the analyses of d a t a ) .  found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .05), significant difference  (LSD)  F o r the one-way ANOVA's a t e s t of l e a s t  was c a r r i e d out t o determine  which groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o t h e r . To i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , two-way ANOVA's were performed t o determine whether the demographic v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t e d t o t h e f a m i l y v a l u e s ,  and t o  METHODOLOGY / determine whether a c c u l t u r a t i o n and the demographic v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t e d .  85 Chapter  IV  RESULTS E a r l i e r i n t h i s paper, t h r e e hypotheses  were  proposed.  B r i e f l y , they s t a t e d t h a t higher g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants would e x h i b i t a lower sense of a t t i t u d i n a l f a m i l i s m and a higher l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n than g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants.  I t was  lower  a l s o hypothesized  t h a t s e v e r a l demographic v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t e d t o f a m i l i s m and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s .  The hypotheses  were t e s t e d  s t a t i s t i c a l l y and the r e s u l t s of those analyses are presented i n t h i s chapter.  The r e s u l t s of s e v e r a l post  e x p l o r a t o r y analyses are a l s o d i s c u s s e d .  hoc  To begin,  however, a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample i s p r e s e n t e d . Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n of Sample The demographic i n f o r m a t i o n obtained i n the  first  s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s summarized b r i e f l y  here.  T h i s i s necessary i n order t o p r o v i d e the reader w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e knowledge of Russian immigrants i n the Vancouver, B.C.  area, even though t h i s knowledge may  be d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o those s p e c i f i c immigrants completed  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  only who  However, s i n c e the study i s  RESULTS / 86 e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has not been s i m i l a r l y obtained i n any previous Chi-square  study.  t e s t s and a one-way ANOVA  (age by  generation) were performed t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the generations f o r s e v e r a l demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The r e s u l t s of these  tests  are shown i n Tables 4 and 5.  There were no d i f f e r e n c e s  between t h e generations i n sex, age, education l e v e l s , o r whether a church/synagogue was attended r e g u l a r l y by subjects.  I t i s apparent  from the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n  Table 6 t h a t t h e mean ages between the d i f f e r e n t  generation  l e v e l s do not vary a great d e a l . Twenty-three percent  (16) of the respondents  (N = 71)  checked o f f "Russian Orthodox" as t h e i r r e l i g i o n and 44% (31) checked o f f "no r e l i g i o n . "  E i g h t of t h e Russian  Orthodox were f i r s t generation, seven were second g e n e r a t i o n , and one was t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n .  Of t h e "no  r e l i g i o n " persons, t e n were f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , t h i r t e e n were second g e n e r a t i o n , and seven were t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n . remaining  The  33% c o n s i s t e d of v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of r e l i g i o n ,  i n c l u d i n g Greek Orthodox, U k r a i n i a n Orthodox, Roman C a t h o l i c , U k r a i n i a n C a t h o l i c , Jewish, P r o t e s t a n t ,  RESULTS / 87 Table 4 Chi-Square T e s t s Chi-Square  DF  Significance  D i s t r i b u t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n each of 1st, 2nd, & 3rd generation l e v e l s  No.of s u b j e c t s i n each gen.  Level  Whether Attend Church/Synagogue Regularly  2  .20  .42  2  .81  7.16  4  .13  1.68  2  .43  level  Sex Education  3.20  RESULTS / 88 Table 5 a One-Way ANOVA f o r Age (N = 67)  Source of V a r i a t i o n  DF  F ratio  F prob  Between Groups  Generation L e v e l  2  2.34  .10  a Four persons chose not t o provide t h e i r b i r t h d a t e s when completing t h e i r  questionnaires.  RESULTS / 89 Table 6 Mean Age by Generation  a (N = 67)  Mean Age Generation  Level  1st  (n = 22)  53.50  2nd  (n = 27)  48.81  3rd  (n = 18)  41.72  a Four s u b j e c t s chose not t o provide t h e i r b i r t h d a t e s when completing  their  questionnaires.  RESULTS / 90 Doukhobor, Mennonite, U n i t a r i a n , I r i s h - S c o t t i s h C a t h o l i c , and one person wrote, "my own." of  the respondents  T h i r t y - t h r e e percent (23)  (N = 70) s t a t e d t h a t they attended a  church o r synagogue r e g u l a r l y - of these, 9 were  first  g e n e r a t i o n , 8 were second g e n e r a t i o n , and 5 were t h i r d generation. F i f t y - o n e percent (36) of the respondents  (N = 71)  were married, 21% (15) were s i n g l e , 14% (10) were widowed, 8% (6) were d i v o r c e d , 3% (2) were separated, and 3% (2) l i v e d common-law. Forty-one percent (29) of the s u b j e c t s belonged t o some type of Russian-Canadian  organization.  Twenty-four  percent of t h i s group s t a t e d t h a t they belonged t o a " r e l i g i o u s o n l y " o r g a n i z a t i o n and the other 76% s t a t e d t h a t they belonged t o v a r i o u s combinations  of s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l organizations. Of the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n group (as w e l l as the 4 persons who immigrated  before age 10 and were thus  c o n s i d e r e d second generation) [N = 26], 46% (12) a r r i v e d i n the 1970's, 23% (6) between 1945 and 1957 (post-World War II),  23% (6) i n the 1980's, 4% (1) pre-World War I ) , 4% (1)  i n the 1960's, and none a t a l l between World War I and  RESULTS / 91 World War  II.  The high number of immigrants i n the 1970's  concurs w i t h J e l e t z k y ' s (1983) d e s c r i p t i o n of the "wave" of immigrants,  mostly of Jewish e t h n i c o r i g i n , who  left  the  U.S.S.R. as a r e s u l t of a change i n S o v i e t p o l i c y which p e r m i t t e d them t o do so.  Jeletzky also stated that there  were few immigrants between the two World Wars and present sample had no p a r t i c i p a n t s at a l l who  had  the arrived  during that period. Twenty-seven percent  (7) of the twenty-six  immigrants came from Great Russia, 19% Ukraine, and 31%  19%  (5) from Moldavia,  4%  (5) from the  (1) from B y e l o r u s s i a ,  (8) from v a r i o u s other c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g  Denmark, B r a z i l , China, Germany, L a t v i a , and  Russian  Czechoslovakia,  Yugoslavia. F i v e percent  (1) of the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants  = 22) had a "very good" knowledge of E n g l i s h on 13.5%  (3) had a "good" knowledge, 13.5%  knowledge, 41%  arrival,  (3) a " f a i r l y good"  (9) had a "poor" knowledge, and 27%  "none" (no knowledge of E n g l i s h on  (N  (6)  had  arrival).  Reasons given by f i r s t generation immigrants f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r n a t i v e country i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s of p o l i t i c a l , economical,  and r e l i g i o u s .  combinations  Others came t o  RESULTS / 92 j o i n spouses o r other f a m i l y members. "freedom" and another wrote  One person wrote  "adventure."  Many of the " o l d " immigrants ( i . e . before the 1970's) r e c e i v e d no help on a r r i v a l , but some of the "new" ones (1970's and onward) r e c e i v e d help from the Canadian government, Manpower, r e l a t i v e s , and organizations.  Russian-Canadian  Jewish community c e n t r e s and Jewish f a m i l y  agencies helped many of the recent Jewish The h i g h e s t percentage Russian o r i g i n percentage parents  immigrants.  of p a r t i c i p a n t s had parents o f  (mother 45% and f a t h e r 35%) and the h i g h e s t  of remaining p a r t i c i p a n t s had e i t h e r U k r a i n i a n  (mother 17% and f a t h e r 24%) or "other" (mother 20%  and f a t h e r 25%).  Table 7 provides a summary of the  parents' e t h n i c i t y . Table 8 p r o v i d e s d e t a i l s of s u b j e c t s ' f e e l i n g of e t h n i c i t y by g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l .  The f e e l i n g of "Russian  Canadian" was c i t e d by the h i g h e s t percentage (30%)  of s u b j e c t s  and i n t e r e s t i n g l y , each g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l had  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s i m i l a r numbers t o the other g e n e r a t i o n levels  (32% of the 1st generation, 27% of the second  g e n e r a t i o n , and 28% of the 3rd g e n e r a t i o n s a i d they "Russian Canadian").  felt  "Canadian" had the next h i g h e s t  RESULTS / 93 Table 7 E t h n i c i t y of S u b j e c t s ' Parents No.of respondents (N = 71) Mother  Russian Byelorussian  Father  (32)  35%  (25)  8% ( 6)  4%  ( 3) (17)  45%  Ukrainian  17%  (12)  24%  Jewish  10%  ( 7)  11% ( 8)  Other  20%  (14)  25%  (e.g.Dutch, French-Canadian, Metis, Latvian, French, Rumanian, E n g l i s h , Yugoslav, Russ/Afghan, Canadian)  (18)  RESULTS / 94 Table 8 F e e l i n g of E t h n i c i t y  Canadian  Russian  Russ.Can.  Jewish.Can.  Ukr.Can.  Other  Total  1st gen.  2nd gen.  3rd gen.  (N = 71)  (n = 22)  (n = 30)  (n = 18)  28%  5%  33%  50%  (20)  (1)  (10)  (9)  10%  23%  7%  0%  ( 7)  (5)  ( 2)  (0)  30%  32%  27%  28%  (21)  (7)  ( 8)  (5)  10%  23%  7%  0%  ( 7)  (5)  ( 2)  (0)  0%  10%  6%  ( 4)  (0)  ( 3)  (1)  17%  18%  17%  17%  (12)  (4)  ( 5)  (3)  6%  (e.g. Canadian U k r a i n i a n ; P o l i s h ; Canadian; Canadian Russian; Byelorussian; Can/Ukr/Scot/Irish/Eng; Russ.Jewish.Can; Russ.Eng; None)  RESULTS / 95 percentage of s u b j e c t s , but as the t a b l e shows, the  first  g e n e r a t i o n had a much lower percentage (1%) than both second g e n e r a t i o n  (33%)  and the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n  Table 9 shows speaking by g e n e r a t i o n .  l e v e l of the Russian  As would be expected,  86% of  (50%). language  first  g e n e r a t i o n immigrants marked "Very Good" as t h e i r level.  A rather intriguing  finding,  speaking  however, i s t h a t  of the second generation and 22% of the t h i r d marked  the  43%  generation  "Fair."  One-Way Analyses  of Variance  (One-Way ANOVA'S)  In order t o t e s t the hypothesis t h a t higher  generation  immigrants would score higher than lower g e n e r a t i o n immigrants on the f a m i l i s m s c a l e , one-way analyses v a r i a n c e were performed.  of  These analyses assessed whether  the t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s study d i f f e r e d from each other on the scores of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e as a whole, the Nuclear Family I n t e g r a t i o n subscale of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e , the Extended  Family  I n t e g r a t i o n subscale of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e , as w e l l as on the Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e .  RESULTS / 96  Table 9 Speaking L e v e l of Russian Language  Very Good  Good  Fair  Poor  None  Total  1st gen.  2nd gen.  3rd gen.  (N = 71)  (n = 22)  (n = 30)  (n = 18)  35%  86%  13%  11%  (25)  (19)  (4)  (2)  10%  14%  3%  17%  (7)  (3)  (1)  (3)  24%  0%  43%  22%  (17)  ( 0)  (13)  ( 4)  17%  0%  20%  28%  (12)  (0)  (6)  (5)  14%  0%  20%  22%  (10)  (0)  (6)  (4)  RESULTS / 97  B a r d i s Familism All  Scale  t h r e e subscales of the B a r d i s Familism  Scale  e x h i b i t e d a wide range of scores w i t h i n a l l t h r e e generation l e v e l s .  Higher scores on the subscales  correspond t o g r e a t e r l e v e l s  of f a m i l i s m .  Out of a maximum  p o s s i b l e score of 64 on the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e as a whole, t h e scores of f i r s t generation s u b j e c t s ranged from 21 t o 42.  Out of a maximum p o s s i b l e score of 40 on t h e  Nuclear I n t e g r a t i o n subscale, f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n  scores  ranged from 11 t o 35, and out of a maximum p o s s i b l e of 24 on t h e Extended I n t e g r a t i o n subscale, g e n e r a t i o n scores ranged from 3 t o 16.  score  first  Second g e n e r a t i o n  scores ranged from 12 t o 53 on the t o t a l B a r d i s S c a l e , 8 t o 35 on t h e Nuclear subscale, and 2 t o 20 on the Extended subscale.  T h i r d generation scores ranged from  the t o t a l , 8 t o 35 on the Nuclear,  9 t o 48 on  and 0 t o 18 on t h e  Extended s u b s c a l e s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences exhibited i n  mean s c o r e s , however, between any of the t h r e e on t h e B a r d i s Familism S c a l e t o t a l scores 1.16,  p = .32],  generations  [F (2, 67) =  although t h e r e was a t r e n d noted f o r t h e  f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n t o have a s l i g h t l y higher mean score on  RESULTS / 98 a l l three subscales.  The mean scores and standard  d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e t o t a l , n u c l e a r , and extended  subscales  of t h e B a r d i s a r e shown i n Table 10. A s e r i e s of separate one-way ANOVA's were conducted on all  subscales of the B a r d i s S c a l e by speaking  Russian,  l e v e l of  language spoken a t home, e t h n i c i t y o f c l o s e  f r i e n d s , education completed, age, whether a t t e n d church/synagogue r e g u l a r l y ,  and l e n g t h of time i n Canada.  R e s u l t s of the one-way ANOVA f o r the t o t a l B a r d i s S c a l e a r e shown i n Table 11, the r e s u l t s f o r the n u c l e a r subscale a r e shown i n Table 12, and the r e s u l t s f o r the extended s u b s c a l e a r e shown i n Table 13.  Scores on t h e B a r d i s  Familism S c a l e seemed t o be r e l a t e d t o speaking the Russian  l e v e l of  language, language spoken a t home, e t h n i c i t y of  c l o s e f r i e n d s , education completed, and age. A t e s t of least significant differences  (LSD) was performed i n order  t o determine which s p e c i f i c groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y at t h e p_ = .05 l e v e l from one another.  A t t h e .05  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l , the scores of a l l t h r e e s u b s c a l e s of the B a r d i s S c a l e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r those s u b j e c t s t h a t checked o f f "Very Good" as t h e i r  RESULTS / 99 Table  10  Mean Scores & Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r B a r d i s Scale  Familism  (N = 71) B a r d i s Tot  B a r d i s Nuc  M  S. D.  M  S .D.  B a r d i s Ext M  S • D.  Gen. L e v e l 1st  (n = 22)  31 .00  6. 17  19.50  6 .04  11 .50  3 .19  2nd  (n = 30)  27 .33  9. 93  16.73  6 .58  10 .60  4 .41  3rd  (n = 18)  27 .61 10. 57  16.78  6 .62  10 .83  4 .96  32 .20  7. 85  20.00  6 .76  12 .20  3 .43  Speakinq L e v e l of  Russian  Very Good (n = 25) Good  (n = 7)  27 .29  6. 97  16.86  5 .67  10 .43  1 .90  Fair  (n = 17)  30 .47 10. 04  18.12  6 .87  12 .35  4 .51  Poor (n = 12)  20 .42  6. 61  13.08  3 .15  7 .33  4 .38  None (n = 10)  27 .00  8. 59  16.70  5 .95  10 .30  3 .89  34 .20  8. 64  21.90  8 .33  12 .30  3 .71  Lanquaqe Spoken a t Home Only  Russian  (n = 10)  RESULTS / 100  More Russian  31.50  7.52  20.25  6.16  11.25  2.05  32.17  6.31  19.17  5.49  13.00  2.53  30.67  8.64  18.39  5.66  12.28  4.34  23.79  8.48  14.59  5.22  9.21  4.40  30.00  4.24  20.00  8.49  10.00  4.24  29.25  8.62  19.00 11.31  10.25  3.20  35.33  7.64  21.87  5.84  13.47  2.83  28.32  8.64  17.11  5.53  11.21  4.09  than E n g l i s h (n = 8) Both E q u a l l y (n = 6) More E n g l i s h than Russian (n = 18) Only E n g l i s h (n = 29) E t h n i c i t y of Close All  Friends  Russians  (n = 2) More Russians than Cndns. (n = 4) About Half & Half  (n = 15)  More Cndns. than Russians (n = 28)  RESULTS / 101  A l l Cndns.  24.05  8.56  14.86  5.58  9.18  4.53  43.25  6.50  27.25  5.32  16.00  1.83  28.82 10.60  18.27  6.89  10.55  5.43  27.48  8.06  16.79  5.89  10.70  3.81  28.15  8.85  16.04  5.63  10.11  4.90  28.54  7.86  17.54  6.52  11.00  3.24  34.54  9.99  21.62  6.92  12.92  3.64  (n = 22) Education Completed Elem.School Only (n = 4) High  School  (n = 11) College,Univ, or other post-sec (n = 56) Age 19 - 40 (n = 27) 41 - 65 (n = 28) Over 65 (n = 13)  RESULTS / 102 Time i n Canada (N = 26) 2-10  yrs.  32.71  6.26  20.29  6.19  12.43  2.94  29.75  7.59  19.00  7.39  10.75  3.44  28.86  7.90  17.71  5.50  11.14  3.18  29.74  7.46  17.65  5.06  12.09  3.75  28.17  9.82  17.57  7.09  10.60  4.18  (n = 7) 11 - 25 y r s . (n = 12) 26 - 66 y r s . (n = 7) A t t e n d Church/ Syn. Yes  Regularly  (n = 23)  No (n = 47)  Maximum P o s s i b l e Scores B a r d i s Tot (Total) = 64 B a r d i s Nuc (Nuclear) B a r d i s Ext (Extended)  =40 =24  RESULTS / 103 T a b l e 11  Source of V a r i a t i o n  DF  F ratio  F prob  Between Groups 4  4.46  . 00 **  4  4.37  . 00 **  4  4.10  .01 **  2  6.55  . 00 **  Age C a t e g o r i e s  2  4.11  .02 *  Generation L e v e l  2  1.16  .32  Whether Attend Church/  1  .46  .50  2  .55  .59  Speaking  L e v e l of Russian  Lang. Spoken @ Home (ques. #3 on A c c u l . S c a l e ) E t h n i c i t y of C l o s e F r i e n d s (ques. #9 on A c c u l . S c a l e ) E d u c a t i o n Completed C a t e g o r i e s b  Syn.  Regularly c  Length of Time i n Canada (n = 26)  a N = 71 b Age C a t e g o r i e s are 19 - 40, 41 - 65, & over 65  RESULTS /  104  Includes only 1st gen. immigrants p l u s 4 p a r t i c i p a n t s who this  immigrated before age study.  * p <  .05  ** £ <  .01  10  ( c l a s s i f i e d as 2nd gen. i n  RESULTS / 105 T a b l e 12 One-Way ANOVA's f o r B a r d i s Nuclear Familism DF  Source of V a r i a t i o n  Scores  F ratio  F  prob  Between Groups 4  2.70  .04 *  4  3.73  .01 **  4  3.17  .02 *  2  5.72  .01 **  Age C a t e g o r i e s  2  3.51  .04 *  Generation L e v e l  2  1.38  .26  Whether Attend Church/  1  .00  .96  2  .26  .77  Speaking  L e v e l of Russian  Lang. Spoken @ Home (ques. #3 on A c c u l . S c a l e ) E t h n i c i t y of Close F r i e n d s (ques. #9 on A c c u l . S c a l e ) E d u c a t i o n Completed C a t e g o r i e s b  Syn. R e g u l a r l y c Length of Time i n Canada (n = 26)  a N = 71 b Age C a t e g o r i e s are 19 - 40, 41 - 65, & over 65  RESULTS /  Includes only 1st gen. who this  immigrants p l u s 4 p a r t i c i p a n t s  immigrated before age study.  * p <  .05  ** p <  .01  106  10  ( c l a s s i f i e d as 2nd gen. i n  RESULTS / 107 Table 13  DF  Source of V a r i a t i o n  F ratio  F prob  Between Groups 4  3.98  .01 **  4  2.58  .05 *  4  2.68  .04 *  2  3.31  .04 *  Age C a t e g o r i e s  2  2.11  .13  Generation L e v e l  2  .30  .74  Whether Attend Church/  1  2.10  .15  2  .60  .56  Speaking  L e v e l of Russian  Lang. Spoken @ Home (ques. #3 on A c c u l . S c a l e ) E t h n i c i t y of Close F r i e n d s (ques. #9 on A c c u l . S c a l e ) E d u c a t i o n Completed C a t e g o r i e s b  Syn.  Regularly c  Length of Time i n Canada (n = 26)  a N = 71 b Age C a t e g o r i e s are 19 - 40, 41 - 65, & over 65  RESULTS /  108  Includes only 1st gen. immigrants p l u s 4 p a r t i c i p a n t s who this  immigrated before age study.  * p <  .05  ** p <  .01  10  ( c l a s s i f i e d as 2nd gen. i n  RESULTS / 109 speaking l e v e l of Russian than f o r those t h a t checked o f f "Poor."  Those t h a t checked o f f " F a i r " a l s o scored  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those t h a t checked o f f "Poor". Scores on the t o t a l B a r d i s S c a l e were  significantly  lower f o r those s u b j e c t s who spoke "Only E n g l i s h " a t home than f o r those who spoke any one of "Only Russian," "More Russian than E n g l i s h , " "Both E q u a l l y , " or "More E n g l i s h than Russian." significantly  On the n u c l e a r B a r d i s S c a l e , s c o r e s were lower f o r those s u b j e c t s who spoke "Only  E n g l i s h " than f o r those who spoke any one of "Only Russian," "More Russian than E n g l i s h , " or "More E n g l i s h than Russian." significantly  On the extended B a r d i s S c a l e , s c o r e s were lower f o r those s u b j e c t s t h a t spoke "Only  E n g l i s h " than f o r those t h a t spoke "Only Russian,"  "Both  E q u a l l y , " o r "More E n g l i s h than Russian." Scores on the t o t a l , as w e l l as the n u c l e a r B a r d i s S c a l e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r those s u b j e c t s who s a i d t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s were "About H a l f and H a l f " than f o r those t h a t s a i d t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s were e i t h e r "More Canadians  than Russians" o r " A l l Canadians."  A  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean score was a l s o shown on t h e extended B a r d i s S c a l e f o r those who s a i d "About H a l f and  RESULTS / 110 H a l f " than f o r those who s a i d " A l l Canadians." no s i g n i f i c a n t  There were  d i f f e r e n c e s shown on any of the s u b s c a l e  mean scores between those s u b j e c t s whose c l o s e f r i e n d s were e i t h e r " A l l Russians" or "More Russians than Canadians"  and  those whose c l o s e f r i e n d s were "About H a l f and H a l f / " More Canadians than Russians," o r " A l l Canadians." The amount of education completed significant scores.  was shown t o have a  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e  On a l l t h r e e subscales of the B a r d i s S c a l e , s c o r e s  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r s u b j e c t s who completed elementary  school than f o r those who completed  s c h o o l o n l y o r c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , o r other  only  e i t h e r high post-secondary  education. Age d i f f e r e n c e a l s o showed a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o scores o b t a i n e d on the B a r d i s S c a l e .  On the t o t a l B a r d i s S c a l e ,  those s u b j e c t s over 65 years of age scored  significantly  h i g h e r than both those 19 t o 40 years of age and those 41 t o 65 years of age.  On the n u c l e a r subscale of the B a r d i s ,  those s u b j e c t s over 65 scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those between 19 and 40 years of age, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those between 41 and 65 years of age.  RESULTS / 111 Length of time i n Canada of f i r s t  generation  immigrants was shown t o have no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o any of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e s c o r e s . s u b j e c t s attended  Whether o r not  a church o r synagogue r e g u l a r l y was a l s o  shown t o have no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e B a r d i s scores. Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e Table  14 shows the one-way ANOVA r e s u l t s f o r t h e  r e v i s e d Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e .  As shown by t h e  r e s u l t s , g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , as w e l l as other v a r i a b l e s , d i d indeed have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n Scale scores. and of  standard d e v i a t i o n s .  Table 15 shows t h e mean scores  Out of a maximum p o s s i b l e score  60, scores ranged from 17 t o 49 f o r the f i r s t  g e n e r a t i o n , 30 t o 60 f o r the second, and 39 t o 60 f o r t h e third. Second and t h i r d generation persons scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than f i r s t generation persons on t h e Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e .  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n  s c o r e s , however, was shown between the second and t h i r d generation.  RESULTS / 112 Table 14 a One-Way ANOVA's f o r A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  Scores  Source of V a r i a t i o n  F ratio  DF  Between Groups  F prob -  Speaking L e v e l of Russian  4  19.75  .00 ***  E d u c a t i o n Completed C a t e g o r i e s  2  1.50  Age C a t e g o r i e s  2  14.10  .00 ***  Generation  2  25.00  .00***  1  .20  2  5.53  .23  b  Level  Whether Attend Church/ Syn.  .66  Regularly c  Length of Time i n Canada  .01**  (n = 26) a N = 71 b Age C a t e g o r i e s are 19 - 40, 41 - 65, & over 65 c Includes only 1 s t gen. immigrants p l u s 4 p a r t i c i p a n t s who immigrated before age 10 ( c l a s s i f i e d as 2nd gen. i n t h i s study. * p_ < .05 ** p < .01 •** p < .001  RESULTS / 113 Table 15 Mean Scores  & Standard  A c c u l t u r a t i o n Scale  D e v i a t i o n s f o r Short  (N = 71) Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  Gen.  M  S.D.  Level  1st  (n = 22)  36.18  7.61  2nd  (n = 30)  48.37  7.47  3rd  (n = 18)  50.72  6.43  36.76  7.74  Good (n = 7)  43.57  5.68  Fair  (n = 17)  47.94  5.80  Poor (n = 12)  52.92  6.47  None (n = 10)  53.90  4.79  39.00  6.48  Speaking L e v e l of  Russian  Very Good (n = 25)  Education Completed Elem.School Only (n = 4)  RESULTS / 114  High  School  48.36  9.55  45.25  9.44  51.19  7.10  41.21  8.03  39.77  9.47  (n = 11) College,Univ, or other post-sec (n = 56) Age 19 - 40 (n = 27) 41 - 65 (n = 28) Over 65 (n = 13) Time i n Canada (N = 26) 2 - 1 0 yrs.  33.14  9.26  36.58  6.42  45.43  6.19  (n = 7) 11 - 25 y r s . (n = 12) 26 - 66 y r s . (n = 7)  RESULTS / 115 Attend  Church/  Syn.  Regularly  Yes  (n = 23)  No (n = 47)  44.48  7.39  45.55  10.43  Maximum P o s s i b l e Score on A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e = 60  RESULTS / 116 Persons w i t h a higher l e v e l of speaking a b i l i t y of t h e Russian language g e n e r a l l y scored lower on t h e Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e than those who were a t a lower l e v e l o f speaking a b i l i t y . off  S p e c i f i c a l l y , those persons who checked  "Very Good" scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those who  checked o f f any one of "Good", " F a i r " ,  "Poor", o r "None".  As w e l l , those who checked o f f "Very Good", "Good", o r "Fair" off  scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower than those who checked  "Poor" o r "None". The l e v e l of education completed was not s i g n i f i c a n t  relative  t o the Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e s c o r e s .  However,  as T a b l e 15 shows, the group who completed only elementary s c h o o l e x h i b i t e d a lower mean score than e i t h e r t h e h i g h s c h o o l o r post-secondary group. The youngest group of s u b j e c t s (ages 19 t o 40) s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e than both the  41 t o 65 group and the over 65 group.  significant  There was no  d i f f e r e n c e i n mean scores shown between t h e 41  t o 65 group and the over 65 group. The group of immigrants who had been i n Canada f o r t h e g r e a t e s t l e n g t h of time (over 25 years) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e than both  RESULTS / 117 the group who had been i n Canada f o r 10 o r l e s s y e a r s , and the group who had been i n Canada from 11 t o 25 y e a r s . Whether they attended a church o r synagogue r e g u l a r l y , d i d not have s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s u b j e c t s ' acculturation scale  scores.  Two-Way Analyses of V a r i a n c e (Two-Way ANOVA'S) In order t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between v a r i a b l e s , two-way analyses of v a r i a n c e performed.  The B a r d i s  Familism Scale  were  score ( T o t a l ,  Nuclear, and Extended) was the dependent v a r i a b l e i n one instance  and t h e A c c u l t u r a t i o n  Scale  score was t h e  dependent v a r i a b l e i n the other i n s t a n c e .  The independent  v a r i a b l e s were g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l and the f o l l o w i n g (1)  speaking l e v e l of Russian language  (2)  e t h n i c i t y of c l o s e f r i e n d s #9 on a c c u l t u r a t i o n  (3)  scale)  language u s u a l l y spoken a t home (question  (4)  (question  sex  #3 on a c c u l t u r a t i o n  scale)  factors:  RESULTS / (5)  a t t e n d church r e g u l a r l y  (6)  importance of n u c l e a r f a m i l y needs  118  versus i n d i v i d u a l needs (question #3 on B a r d i s Scale) (7)  extended f a m i l y members as r e f e r e n t s (question #12  on B a r d i s  Scale)  (8)  age  (9)  l e n g t h of time i n Canada ( f i r s t  generation  subjects) (10)  education  completed  The two-way analyses of v a r i a n c e were c a r r i e d out i n order t o a s c e r t a i n i f the two  independent v a r i a b l e s i n each  case had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the dependent v a r i a b l e ( B a r d i s score or a c c u l t u r a t i o n score) e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y (main e f f e c t s ) or i n combination particular levels. v a r i a b l e s showed any  with g e n e r a t i o n at  None of the combinations of independent significant interaction effects  e i t h e r the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e scores or the Acculturation Scale.  on  Short  The r e s u l t s of the two-way analyses  of v a r i a n c e performed are shown i n Tables  16 and  17.  RESULTS / 119 Some of the main e f f e c t s were shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e two-way ANOVA'S.  That i s , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f  s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s were shown t o have an e f f e c t on t h e B a r d i s and the A c c u l t u r a t i o n  Scale scores.  d e t a i l e d i n the preceding  These e f f e c t s were  s e c t i o n on one-way ANOVA's.  Correlations Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was performed t o determine t h e magnitude of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores and t h e scores of t h e t h r e e subscales of the B a r d i s S c a l e .  As Table 18 shows,  t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores and the B a r d i s s c o r e s , although were not high c o r r e l a t i o n s  they  ( r = -32, r = -30, p_ < .01, and  r = -.36, p < .001 r e s p e c t i v e l y between Nuclear, and t o t a l B a r d i s scores and a c c u l t u r a t i o n  Extended  scores).  Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n analyses were performed t o determine the magnitude of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' scores on t h e Bardis/Acculturation  s c a l e s and those demographic v a r i a b l e s  RESULTS / 120 Table 16  Two-Way ANOVA's f o r B a r d i s Familism S c a l e Scores  Source of V a r i a t i o n  DF  F  (Total)  S i q . of F  Main E f f e c t s  3  1. 15  .34  Generation L e v e l  2  1. 17  .32  Sex  1  1. 18  .28  2  • 05  .95  Main E f f e c t s  6  3. 43  .01  Generation L e v e l  2  • 39  .68  Speaking  4  4.42  .00  5  1. 48  .21  Main E f f e c t s  3  1. 01  .39  Generation L e v e l  2  1. 30  .28  Whether A t t e n d Church/Syn.  1  • 16  .69  2  1. 26  .30  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Generation L e v e l  x  Sex  Lev.of Russ.  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Gen.Level x Speaking  Lev.of Russ.  Regularly 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Gen.Level x Whether Attend Church/Syn.Reg.  RESULTS / 121 Main E f f e c t s  6  3.32  Generation L e v e l  2  .94  Lang.Spoken  4  4.26  .00 **  Gen.Lev. x Lang Spk. @ Home  6  1.56  .18  Main E f f e c t s  6  2.92  .02 *  Generation L e v e l  2  .22  4  3.68  .01 **  4  1.67  .17  @ Home(ques.#3 on Accul.  .01 ** .40  Scale)  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s  E t h n i c i t y of Close  Friends  (ques. #9 on A c c u l .  .80  Scale)  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Gen.Lev. x E t h . of Close  * p < .05 ** p < .01  Friends  RESULTS / 122 Table 17 Two-Way ANOVA's f o r A c c u l t u r a t i o n Scale : Scores Source of V a r i a t i o n  DF  F  S i g . iof F  Main E f f e c t s  3  16 .31  .00 * * *  Generation  2  24 .24  .00 * * *  1  .47  .49  Generation L e v e l x Sex  2  .24  .79  Main E f f e c t s  6  15 .53  Generation  2  2 .90  .06  4  6 .02  .00 * * *  Level  Sex 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s  Speaking  Level  Lev.of Russ.  .00 * * *  2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s a Gen.Level x Speaking Lev.of Russ.  5  2 .11  Main E f f e c t s  3  18 .28  .00 * * *  Generation  2  27 .10  .00 * * *  1  .12  .73  2  1 .38  .26  Level  Whether Attend Church/Syn.  .08  Regularly 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Gen.Level x Whether Attend Church/Syn.Reg.  RESULTS / 123  Main E f f e c t s  6  9 .27  .00 * * *  Generation Level  2  21 .02  .00 * * *  Importance of Nuc.Fam.VS I n d i v .  4  1 .56  .20  6  .32  .92  Main E f f e c t s  6  11 .02  .00 * * *  Generation L e v e l  2  21 .84  .00 * * *  Extended Family as Referents  4  1 .96  Needs(ques.#3 on B a r d i s Scale) 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Gen.Lev. x Importance of Nuc Fam VS I n d i v . Needs  .11  (ques. #12 on B a r d i s Scale) 2-way I n t e r a c t i o n s Gen.Lev. x Ext.Fam.as Referents  a 7  2 .03  a Narrowly  missed  * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001  s i g n i f i c a n c e @ .05 l e v e l  .07  RESULTS / Table  18  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of B a r d i s Scores with A c c u l . Scores  Bardis  Bardis  (Nuclear) (Extended)  Accul.Score  * 2 <  ** p <  -01  .001  -.32  *  -.30  *  Bardis (Total)  -.36  **  124  RESULTS /  125  measured a t the i n t e r v a l l e v e l of measurement, i n c l u d i n g age a t immigration,  language spoken a t home ( q u e s t i o n #3  a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e ) , l e n g t h of time i n Canada, and  age  (see Table 19).  was  A significant positive correlation  found between l e n g t h of time i n Canada and score (r = .48, p < .01).  on  acculturation  Therefore, the longer a  first  g e n e r a t i o n immigrant has been i n Canada, the higher t h e i r l e v e l of  acculturation.  There were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s found between age and scores on a l l t h r e e s u b s c a l e s of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e (Nuclear: r = .31, p < .01; r = .24, p < .05; T o t a l : r = .33, p < .01).  Extended:  In other  words, i t appears t h a t the o l d e r the p a r t i c i p a n t , the higher t h e i r l e v e l of f a m i l i s m . S i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s were shown between age and a c c u l t u r a t i o n score (r = -.46, as between age at immigration -.70,  p < .001).  generally  p < .001), as  well  and a c c u l t u r a t i o n score (r =  Thus, the younger the p a r t i c i p a n t  and the younger the age at which a  first  g e n e r a t i o n immigrant a r r i v e d i n Canada, the h i g h e r they scored on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e .  S i g n i f i c a n t negative  c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o obtained between language spoken a t  RESULTS / 126 Table  19  C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of B a r d i s & A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e Scores with Demographic V a r i a b l e s Bardis (Nuclear) Age @ Immig.  .19  Bardis  Bardis  Accul.  (Extended) (Total) .26  .28  -.70 ***  (n = 26)  Lang.Spoken @  -.41 ***  -.25  -.41 ***  -.17  -.14  -.22  Home (N = 71)  Length of Time  .48 **  i n Canada (n = 26)  Age (N = 68)  * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001  .31 **  .24 *  .33 **  -.46 ***  RESULTS / 127 home (question #3 on a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e ) and scores on t h e t o t a l and n u c l e a r f a m i l y aspects of the B a r d i s Scale  Familism  ( r = -.41, p_ < .001 f o r b o t h ) . That i s , t h e more  E n g l i s h t h a t was spoken a t home (as opposed t o R u s s i a n ) , the lower t h e l e v e l of n u c l e a r and t o t a l  familism.  128 Chapter V  DISCUSSION  T h i s study was c a r r i e d out i n order t o l e a r n about and compare f a m i l y values and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s of f i r s t , second, and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants. In t h i s c h a p t e r the r e s u l t s obtained i n the study are d i s c u s s e d and compared t o r e s u l t s obtained i n p r e v i o u s immigrant s t u d i e s . The l i m i t a t i o n s of the study are s t a t e d , along w i t h suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  Perhaps most  important  because of t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o r e a l l i f e , the c o u n s e l l i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c u r r e n t study a r e o u t l i n e d . General D i s c u s s i o n of Hypotheses Tested Three hypotheses were t e s t e d i n t h i s study.  First, i t  was hypothesized t h a t the higher the g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , the lower the l e v e l of f a m i l i s m .  The r e s u l t s , however, d i d not  show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n scores on the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e between any of the t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n  levels.  Assuming t h a t the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e i s a v a l i d measure of f a m i l i s m or " t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , " the f i n d i n g s were  DISCUSSION / 129 somewhat p u z z l i n g .  As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s  paper,  s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n the past have found t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s t o decrease as g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l i n c r e a s e d (Aldwin & Greenberger,-1987; Wakil, Siddique, & Wakil, 1981; L u e t g a r t , 1977; Rosenthal & Feldman, 1990; Woehrer, 1978; Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal, Griffith & Villavicencio, 1985).  Marin, & P e r e z - S t a b l e , 1987;  1985; Mostwin, 1980; Gerber,  There a r e l i k e l y t o be a number of reasons  p u z z l i n g r e s u l t s i n the present study.  f o r the  One reason may be  t h a t the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e does not p r o v i d e a v a l i d measure of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s .  On the other hand, i t i s  a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the sample of Russian immigrants i n t h e present study was simply " d i f f e r e n t " from immigrant samples i n other s t u d i e s and t h a t f a m i l i s m simply does not tend t o s t r o n g l y decrease with higher generation l e v e l s i n t h e sample  used.  Our  second major hypothesis was t h a t the h i g h e r t h e  g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , the higher the l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n analyses and t h e one-way ANOVA's performed hypothesis.  both l e n t support t o t h i s  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, second and t h i r d  g e n e r a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s , but  DISCUSSION / t h e r e was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n scores shown between  the second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n .  In other words, the  second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrants have a s i m i l a r of  130  level  a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o each other, but higher than t h a t of the  f i r s t generation.  Almost without  e x c e p t i o n , the  review of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , which was  literature  detailed earlier, i s  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s i n the c u r r e n t study. However, exceptions have indeed been d i s c o v e r e d - f o r i n s t a n c e Connor (1976) and Osako (1976) found t h a t even t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Japanese Americans maintained  many of the  same t r a d i t i o n s as f i r s t generation Japanese Americans, i n c l u d i n g strong family t i e s .  Ho  (1976) showed s i m i l a r  f i n d i n g s f o r second g e n e r a t i o n Korean Americans, Camilleri  and  (1983) f o r second g e n e r a t i o n Maghrebian  immigrants i n France.  In other words, i n some i n s t a n c e s ,  second and t h i r d generation immigrants appear t o have a much higher a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l than f i r s t  generation  immigrants,  However, i t i s  such as i n the present study.  not p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t the r a t e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n of second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrants i n g e n e r a l , s i n c e as  these  o t h e r s t u d i e s show, some groups maintain many of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l values f o r an undetermined number of generations.  DISCUSSION / 131 S e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t demographic v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d i n the c u r r e n t study.  Some were found t o have a  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the scores on a l l subscales o f t h e B a r d i s Familism S c a l e , along with t h e Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n s c o r e s . However, others were found t o have a r e l a t i o n s h i p only on the B a r d i s S c a l e o r only on the A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e .  Some  v a r i a b l e s appeared t o be a s s o c i a t e d only w i t h one o r two o f the subscales of the B a r d i s , r a t h e r than with a l l t h r e e . Russian Speaking  Ability  Scores on a l l three subscales of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r persons whose l e v e l of Russian speaking a b i l i t y was "Very Good."  Also,  a l l t h r e e subscales of the B a r d i s S c a l e scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower f o r persons who spoke "Only E n g l i s h " a t home.  Persons w i t h higher l e v e l s of Russian  speaking  a b i l i t y a l s o scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on t h e Short Acculturation Scale.  These r e s u l t s c o i n c i d e w i t h f i n d i n g s  by G o l d s c h e i d e r and Goldscheider  (1988), Warner and S r o l e  (1949), C u e l l a r , H a r r i s , & Jasso  (1980), and Montgomery and  Orozco (1984).  These r e s e a r c h e r s a l l found t h a t  persons  who spoke t h e i r n a t i v e language w e l l had more t r a d i t i o n a l family values  (higher f a m i l i s m l e v e l ) and/or lower  levels  DISCUSSION / of a c c u l t u r a t i o n than those who reasons f o r t h i s f a c t may  d i d not.  be t h a t those  speak t h e i r n a t i v e language w e l l may  One  of  132  the  immigrants  who  a l s o have minimal  c o n t a c t w i t h the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , thus p r e v e n t i n g them from a c g u i r i n g t h a t c u l t u r e ' s customs and Education The  values.  Level scores on a l l subscales of the B a r d i s S c a l e were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r those persons who  had  elementary s c h o o l o n l y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a lower l e v e l i s a s s o c i a t e d with a higher f a m i l i s m Education  l e v e l was  completed education  level.  s i m i l a r l y shown t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p with f a m i l y values i n s t u d i e s by Woehrer (1978), Olmedo and P a d i l l a  (1978), Kassees (1972),  and  A l d r i c h , Lipman, and Goldman (1973). In the c u r r e n t study, education  l e v e l was  found t o  have no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , but i t was  noted t h a t the mean a c c u l t u r a t i o n score was  lower f o r  the group t h a t had completed elementary school o n l y .  The  l i t e r a t u r e i s mixed r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  education  l e v e l to acculturation l e v e l .  (1978)  Olmedo and P a d i l l a  found t h a t persons with lower a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores were indeed  l i k e l y t o have lower e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ,  but  DISCUSSION / 133 Hanassab (1991) a l s o found t h a t education l e v e l d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c o r e s . Age In the present sample, o l d e r persons were shown t o have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r scores on the f a m i l i s m s c a l e , as i n d i c a t e d on the one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of B a r d i s scores by age. Greenberger  T h i s r e s u l t supports f i n d i n g s by Aldwin and  (1987), Wakil, S i d d i q u e , and Wakil  (1981),  Marin, Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal, and P e r e z - S t a b l e (1987), Montgomery and Orozco (1984), and Kassees  (1972).  However, i n s t u d i e s done by Connor (1976), Osako (1976), (1976), and C a m i l l e r i  (1983), i t was  Ho  found t h a t t h e r e  seemed t o be very l i t t l e d e c l i n e i n f a m i l i s m i n the younger g e n e r a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t connected with s t r o n g f a m i l y ties  (high l e v e l s of v i s i t a t i o n and interdependence between  f a m i l y members) and deference ( g i v i n g i n t o the wishes of o t h e r f a m i l y members, e s p e c i a l l y p a r e n t s , even a t the expense of one's i n d i v i d u a l  desires).  Younger p a r t i c i p a n t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the group between the ages of 19 and 40, had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores i n our study. Olarte  S t u d i e s by Pereda  (1984), Szapocznik, Scopetta, and K u r t i n e s (1978),  DISCUSSION / 134 Burnam, T e l l e s , Karno, Hough, and Escobar Hanassab (1991),  support t h i s f i n d i n g ,  (1987), and  but Montgomery  and  Orozco (1984) found t h a t o l d e r persons were more a c c u l t u r a t e d than younger ones. may be connected  This contradictory finding  t o the f a c t t h a t the o l d e r persons  have  been i n the host country f o r a longer p e r i o d of time. Length of Time i n Canada Length of time i n the host country was a s i g n i f i c a n t factor  related  t o higher a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores both i n the  c u r r e n t study and i n s t u d i e s by Burnam, T e l l e s , Karno, Hough, and Escobar  (1987) and Hanassab (1991).  The l e n g t h  of time i n Canada, however, d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on f a m i l i s m scores i n the present sample. Regular Church/Synagogue Attendance Regular church/synagogue attendance have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on e i t h e r  was not shown t o  the f a m i l i s m scores o r  the a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores i n the present study.  T h i s was  somewhat p u z z l i n g s i n c e Goldscheider and G o l d s c h e i d e r (1988) and Kassees (1972) showed r e l i g i o s i t y t o p l a y a major r o l e i n high f a m i l i s t i c , t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y v a l u e s .  DISCUSSION / 135 I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t r e g u l a r church/synagogue attendance  i s not synonymous w i t h high r e l i g i o s i t y .  It i s  a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t 44% of the present sample c l a i m e d t o have "no r e l i g i o n . "  In summary, v a r i o u s demographic f a c t o r s have been shown t o have v a r i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o f a m i l i s m and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s , both i n the c u r r e n t study and i n previous studies.  The sample i n the c u r r e n t study  tended  t o p a r a l l e l the f a m i l i s m / a c c u l t u r a t i o n p a t t e r n s of some immigrant groups, f o r example, the P o l i s h the Koreans (Ho, 1976), the U k r a i n i a n s and the East Indians  (Mostwin, 1980),  (Bociurkiw,  1971),  (Wakil e t a l , 1981), but a l s o tended  t o show many d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a t t e r n s of f a m i l i s m / a c c u l t u r a t i o n from some other groups, f o r example the Japanese (Osako, 1976 and Connor, 1976).  Thus,  f a m i l i s m and a c c u l t u r a t i o n p a t t e r n s vary not only w i t h i n immigrant groups, but a l s o between immigrant groups. C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Familism and A c c u l t u r a t i o n The negative c o r r e l a t i o n obtained i n the c u r r e n t study between a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores and scores on a l l t h r e e s u b s c a l e s of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e i s g e n e r a l l y i n  DISCUSSION / 136 accord w i t h a l a r g e number of the s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y d e t a i l e d i n t h i s paper.  That i s , the higher the l e v e l of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n , the lower the l e v e l of f a m i l i s m , and the lower the l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , the higher the l e v e l of familism.  However, the c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n the  p r e s e n t study were modest (r = -.32,  -.30,  & -.36).  The  study which most c l o s e l y r e l a t e s t o the present study i s the one by Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal, Marin,  and  P e r e z - S t a b l e (1987) which showed f a m i l i s m dimensions t o be " s t r o n g l y " a s s o c i a t e d with l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , the modest a s s o c i a t i o n i n our study.  unlike  Sabogal, Marin,  Otero-Sabogal, Marin, and P e r e z - S t a b l e (1987), however, used a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the B a r d i s s c a l e which i n c l u d e d items developed by T r i a n d i s , Marin, Betancourt, L i s a n s k y , and Chang i n 1982  (Sabogal et a l , 1987).  They performed  a  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on t h e i r f a m i l i s m s c a l e items and they ended up w i t h t h r e e c l e a r f a c t o r s accounting f o r 48.4% the v a r i a n c e on the s c a l e .  of  Of the t h r e e f a c t o r s , they  found t h a t f a m i l i a l o b l i g a t i o n and the p e r c e p t i o n of f a m i l y as r e f e r e n t s decreased as the l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n increased.  However, the p e r c e p t i o n of f a m i l y support d i d  not show a s i g n i f i c a n t change with the l e v e l of acculturation.  The f a c t t h a t the c u r r e n t study used the  DISCUSSION / 137 original  (unrevised) v e r s i o n of the B a r d i s S c a l e which d i d  i n c l u d e the f a m i l y support items when the a n a l y s i s was done, may account f o r the lower l e v e l of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n than i n the study by Sabogal, Marin, Otero-Sabogal, Marin, and P e r e z - S t a b l e (1987). L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study For  any study t h a t i s c a r r i e d out, i t i s important t o  recognize i t s l i m i t a t i o n s .  T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s some o f  the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t are important t o note r e l a t i v e t o t h e present study. First,  i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o study such a  heterogeneous immigrants  group of immigrants.  The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n  a r r i v e d i n Canada over an enormous span of  y e a r s , so p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s a t the time o f arrival  would s u r e l y p l a y a r o l e i n the amount of  variability  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these immigrants.  The  upcoming generations would thus a l s o be a f f e c t e d due t o t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . For  i n s t a n c e , the s t a r v i n g peasant who immigrated  s m a l l B y e l o r u s s i a n v i l l a g e i n the 1930's would produce  from a  likely  some d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s i n the second g e n e r a t i o n than  would the hockey p l a y e r who immigrated  from a l a r g e R u s s i a n  DISCUSSION / 138 c i t y i n the 1990's.  The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants i n the  present sample came from a wide v a r i e t y of r e p u b l i c s i n the U.S.S.R., as w e l l as from other n a t i o n s , e.g. China, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia. factors  Thus, t h e r e may be r e l e v a n t  ( f o r i n s t a n c e customs and r e l i g i o n of the n a t i o n  they l i v e d i n ) t h a t the present study d i d not measure o r control for. S i n c e t h i s study r e q u i r e d t h a t s u b j e c t s be  proficient  enough i n E n g l i s h i n order t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h e i r own,  some of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores produced i n the  study may have been higher than they may have been.  otherwise  That i s , i f we had been able t o i n c l u d e persons  whose E n g l i s h prevented them from completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the c u r r e n t study, the f i r s t  generation  a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores may have turned out somewhat  lower  than they d i d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the m a j o r i t y of the c u r r e n t sample had a high l e v e l of education and many were professionals.  Since previous s t u d i e s have shown t h a t a  h i g h e r l e v e l of education i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a h i g h e r  level  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , i t i s assumed t h a t the a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores o b t a i n e d i n the present study were higher than  they  might had been i f t h e r e had been a higher p r o p o r t i o n of s u b j e c t s w i t h lower education  levels.  DISCUSSION /  The a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e was  o r i g i n a l l y developed  139  for  H i s p a n i c Americans, and although changes were minor ( s u b s t i t u t i o n of the word "Spanish" w i t h "Russian" and word " L a t i n o s / H i s p a n i c s " with "Russians"), t h e r e has  the  not  been any independent v a l i d a t i o n data f o r t h i s r e v i s e d scale.  In a d d i t i o n , the s c a l e had two q u e s t i o n s which  r e l a t e d t o r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . U.S.  In the l o c a t i o n s i n the  where the H i s p a n i c v e r s i o n of the s c a l e was  used, the  H i s p a n i c s have access t o Spanish language r a d i o and television.  However, s i n c e most persons  i n the present  sample do not g e n e r a l l y have access t o Russian  language  r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n , these questions turned out t o be somewhat s u p e r f l u o u s and t h e r e f o r e may  have skewed the  a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores t o a higher l e v e l than they may otherwise  have  been.  I t i s a l s o important  t o note t h a t the a c c u l t u r a t i o n  s c a l e used i n the present study was  based l a r g e l y  on  language use, but as Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo (1986) p o i n t out, other a v a i l a b l e s c a l e s are based on other factors  ( f o r i n s t a n c e , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s - f o r example,  who  they work and p l a y with; d a i l y p r a c t i c e s - f o r example, p e r s o n a l dress and food h a b i t s ) .  Since a l l of these  f a c t o r s are probably i n t e r r e l a t e d  (Berry e t a l , 1986), the  DISCUSSION / 140 a c c u l t u r a t i o n scores i n the present study may not r e p r e s e n t a t r u e p i c t u r e of a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s because t h e s c a l e u t i l i z e d d i d not take many other f a c t o r s i n t o  account.  The present study was based on s e l f - r e p o r t , as i s t h e case w i t h many s t u d i e s .  That i s , there was a r e l i a n c e  p l a c e d on s u b j e c t s t o be accurate as w e l l as t r u t h f u l i n the answers they gave on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  F o r example,  i f a person t h a t s a i d t h a t t h e i r speaking l e v e l of Russian was "Good," i t must be questioned as t o whether an o u t s i d e evaluator/experimenter  would a l s o p l a c e them i n t h e same  category of Russian speaking  ability.  U n l i k e other s t u d i e s , t h i s study d i d not show a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l i s m and g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l , nor between f a m i l i s m and l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . There a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s as t o why t h i s may have o c c u r r e d .  It  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the B a r d i s may not have been a v a l i d measure of f a m i l i s m .  On the other hand, t h e sample may  have been t o o heterogeneous i n order t o o b t a i n an a c c u r a t e comparison of d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a m i l i s m o r a c c u l t u r a t i o n between generations or between f a m i l i s m and a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n general.  I t must a l s o be remembered t h a t t h e p r e s e n t  study had a h i g h l y educated  sample which would, a c c o r d i n g  DISCUSSION / 141 t o p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , have a strong tendency t o show a low l e v e l o f f a m i l i s m and a high l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Because there were more female (68%)  than male (32%)  p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e study may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of both sexes.  The f a c t t h a t there were s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n s of  males and females w i t h i n each generation r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n as t o whether women are more l i k e l y than men t o respond t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  I t a l s o may be t h a t women l i v e  longer than men, which c o u l d p o s s i b l y produce a higher number of responses by women i n the s e n i o r s e c t o r o f t h e first  generation. R e p l i c a t i o n i s an important  the f i n d i n g s of the present  study,  f a c t o r i n order t o c o n f i r m as w e l l as t o support  the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the f a m i l i s m and a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e s which were used.  Since the study has  been t h e f i r s t of i t s type t o be c a r r i e d out (that i s , i t has been s o l e l y an e x p l o r a t o r y study) and because a random sample was not used, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the study i s limited.  I t can be g e n e r a l i z e d with confidence  only t o  persons l i k e those who completed and r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the c u r r e n t  study.  DISCUSSION / 142 Suggestions For F u r t h e r Research T h i s study o n l y begins t o address the i s s u e s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and f a m i l y v a l u e s through g e n e r a t i o n s o f Russian immigrants.  I t i s an e x p l o r a t o r y study which has  opened up many doors t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  On the b a s i s o f  the data c o l l e c t e d and knowledge of the study's l i m i t a t i o n s , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s are suggested: (1) Conduct a s i m i l a r study t o the present one, but w i t h a more homogeneous group of Russian immigrants, f o r example, (a) a group whose f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrated w i t h i n a narrower time p e r i o d , e.g. post W.W. (b) a group of immigrants  from one s p e c i f i c  I I o r 1970's; Soviet  r e p u b l i c , e.g. B y e l o r u s s i a o r Ukraine; (c) a group o f immigrants  whose parents immigrated t o China and thus were  r a i s e d l a r g e l y i n China, r a t h e r than a S o v i e t  republic,  b e f o r e immigrating t o Canada. (2) Study i n d e t a i l , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of one o r two s p e c i f i c demographic v a r i a b l e s on f a m i l i s m and acculturation,  e.g. knowledge of E n g l i s h on a r r i v a l ,  e f f e c t s of Russian language knowledge (second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrants), economic c o n d i t i o n s a t time o f arrival,  f e e l i n g of e t h n i c i t y , e t h n i c r e g i o n a l  DISCUSSION /  143  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , exposure t o e t h n i c - l i n k e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , education  l e v e l , income l e v e l .  (3) Use  the r e v i s e d f a m i l i s m s c a l e used by Sabogal,  Marin, Otero-Sabogal, Marin, and Perez-Stable more homogeneous group of Russian  immigrants and do a  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on the f a m i l i s m items such as researchers d i d .  (1987) on a  those  T h i s would provide more s p e c i f i c  i n f o r m a t i o n about the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d under the dimension of "familism," f o r example, " f a m i l y as referents,"  "perceived support  o b l i g a t i o n s , " and how acculturation  from f a m i l y , " and  "familial  these f a c t o r s r e l a t e t o l e v e l of  (using the r e v i s e d Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e  once again) f o r Russian  immigrants.  I t would then be  p o s s i b l e t o conclude whether the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by above authors with Hispanic Americans c o u l d be w i t h a Russian  the  replicated  immigrant sample i n Canada.  (4) Study "personal c h o i c e " as a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n and/or f a m i l i s m l e v e l s , as opposed t o o n l y environmental c o n d i t i o n s and demographic v a r i a b l e s . That is,  look at ways of i n v e s t i g a t i n g how  immigrants  may  " c o n s c i o u s l y choose" what l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and/or f a m i l i s m they w i l l reach.  In other words, what  "personal  DISCUSSION / c h o i c e " f a c t o r s may  p l a y a p a r t i n being exceptions t o the  r u l e of p a r t i c u l a r environmental factors. who  144  c o n d i t i o n s or demographic  An obvious example of t h i s would be an immigrant  has l i v e d i n Canada f o r 50 y e a r s , but who  still  speaks  o n l y h i s or her n a t i v e language - t h i s i s an e x c e p t i o n t o the g e n e r a l f i n d i n g t h a t the longer an immigrant l i v e s i n the host country, the more l i k e l y they are t o speak the language of the host country, i . e . be "more a c c u l t u r a t e d . "  The types of s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d above would p r o v i d e more s p e c i f i c data on whether c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s are a s s o c i a t e d with l e v e l s of f a m i l i s m and/or a c c u l t u r a t i o n and if  so, t o what degree.  Once again, a more homogeneous  group of immigrants than was should be  used i n the present  study  utilized.  Counselling Implications The most important  p i e c e of knowledge t h a t a  c o u n s e l l o r can o b t a i n from t h i s study i s t h a t he or cannot make assumptions about a c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s , or thoughts  characteristics,  j u s t because t h a t c l i e n t has  or o t h e r S l a v i c background.  she  Russian  For example, some of the  common s t e r e o t y p i c a l ideas about Russians are t h a t : they  DISCUSSION / 145 are a l l good b a l l e t dancers and gymnasts, a l l Russian men are good hockey p l a y e r s , a l l Russian grandmothers wear a k e r c h i e f , a l l Russians a r e d i c t a t o r i a l and a r e t o be f e a r e d , a l l Russian immigrants a r e Jewish, a l l Russians a r e happy t o have emigrated  from t h e i r homeland, a l l f i r s t  g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants have very t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y v a l u e s , a l l t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian immigrants no l o n g e r have c o n t a c t with t h e i r h e r i t a g e , and the l i s t of v a r i o u s s t e r e o t y p e s goes on and on. It  i s important  f o r the c o u n s e l l o r t o keep an open  mind as t o what t h e i r c l i e n t may be d e a l i n g w i t h .  For  i n s t a n c e , the c l i e n t may be e x p e r i e n c i n g c u l t u r a l  conflict  because they a r e a teenager who j u s t immigrated with t h e i r parents.  t o Canada  However, i t may be t h a t the parents  are very open-minded t o the new c u l t u r e and t h a t the c l i e n t has come t o see the c o u n s e l l o r f o r some other reason.  Our  study showed t h a t some f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n immigrants have v e r y low f a m i l i s m and high a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  On the other  hand, some of the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n immigrants have v e r y h i g h f a m i l i s m and low a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  Although these two  f i n d i n g s a r e l i k e l y not t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m a j o r i t y of f i r s t o r t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Russian the exceptions cannot be overlooked.  immigrants,  DISCUSSION / 146  Hanassab (1991) p o i n t e d out t h a t r e s e a r c h  c a r r i e d out  i n t h e f i e l d of s o c i a l sciences has f a i l e d t o b r i n g about a r e a l i s t i c understanding of American [and Canadian] e t h n i c groups.  Hanassab s t r e s s e d the importance of e x p l o r i n g t h e  background and values  of each i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t ,  rather  than e x t r a p o l a t i n g images t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r may have of a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e t o every i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h a t c u l t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , we may assume t h a t Russian immigrants come from a f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r e i n which strong f a m i l y e x i s t and a r e h i g h l y valued,  but a c o u n s e l l o r must look a t  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s regarding i f the c l i e n t i s experiencing  ties  this issue, especially  c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t between h i s  f a m i l y and the host c u l t u r e . Summary T h i s study found t h a t f o r Russian immigrants, t h e l e v e l of f a m i l i s m d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y decrease from generation  t o second generation  to t h i r d generation. done w i t h other  or from second  first  generation  T h i s f i n d i n g was c o n t r a r y t o s t u d i e s  immigrant groups.  I t was found, however,  t h a t t h e l e v e l of f a m i l i s m i n c r e a s e d w i t h l e v e l o f Russian speaking a b i l i t y , Russian being  spoken a t home, having both  Russian and Canadian c l o s e f r i e n d s ( h a l f and h a l f ) ,  lower  DISCUSSION / 147 e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , and higher age. or r e g u l a r attendance any  Length of time i n Canada  of a church or synagogue d i d not have  s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n with the l e v e l of f a m i l i s m . Generation l e v e l d i d have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p  to acculturation l e v e l .  Second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n  persons were shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n persons.  acculturated  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e showed up between the second and t h i r d generations.  The l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n  decreased  w i t h l e v e l of Russian speaking a b i l i t y and w i t h age, but i n c r e a s e d w i t h l e n g t h of time i n Canada ( f i r s t immigrants).  There was a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  who completed  o n l y elementary  generation  t r e n d f o r those  school t o have a lower  a c c u l t u r a t i o n score than those with higher education levels.  Regular church or synagogue attendance  d i d not  appear t o have any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o acculturation  level.  A high negative c o r r e l a t i o n was found t o e x i s t between age a t immigration and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , meaning t h a t the lower the age a t immigration, the h i g h e r the acculturation level.  A s i g n i f i c a n t , but much lower  n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between scores on the t h r e e  DISCUSSION / 148 s u b s c a l e s of the B a r d i s Familism S c a l e and Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n Scale scores.  That i s , t h e lower t h e score  on t h e B a r d i s Familism S c a l e , the higher the score on t h e Short A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o t h e g e n e r a l Russian immigrant p o p u l a t i o n i n the Vancouver and Lower Mainland area s i n c e t h i s study d i d not use a random sample. However, t h e sample r e s u l t s do suggest t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s extremely v a r i e d i n i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Although  c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s do a r i s e , great care must be taken i n any attempts  to generalize.  I t i s safe t o assume t h a t changes  i n f a m i l y v a l u e s and a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s do indeed occur as Russian immigrants pass through the g e n e r a t i o n s i n Canada, but we must pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o many o t h e r f a c t o r s b e f o r e we make any c o n c l u s i o n s . T h i s has been only the beginning of r e s e a r c h " i n s i d e " the Russian immigrant f a m i l y and how t h i s f a m i l y i s f a r i n g i n t h e host country. investigations.  I t i s time now t o open up f u r t h e r  Immigrants of every g e n e r a t i o n l e v e l can  o n l y b e n e f i t i f c o u n s e l l o r s working w i t h them l e a r n about their  culture.  149 REFERENCES A l d r i c h , B. W., Lipman, A., & Goldman, F. P. (1973). K i n s h i p and o b l i g a t i o n i n a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n : An i n q u i r y i n t o the socioeconomic and communal sources of f a m i l i s m i n P o r t u g a l . 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Hogrefe.  APPENDIX B  /  (RUSSIAN NOTE ATTACHED TO LETTER)  TRANSLATION:  Attention  In order to complete the questionnaire, it is necessary to know the English language. It is very important that you f i l l out the questionnaire on your own, without a translator. Thank you very much!  1 5 6  / 158 APPENDIX D (DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION) GENERAL INFORMATION Male 1.  Female What i s your generation  level?  1st g e n e r a t i o n (I immigrated) 2nd g e n e r a t i o n (I am the c h i l d of immigrant[s]) 3rd g e n e r a t i o n (my grandparent[s] immigrated) 4th g e n e r a t i o n (great grandparent[s] immigrated) other (please s p e c i f y i f you can) 2.  Date of emigration from your n a t i v e country? not a p p l i c a b l e  3.  D i d you f i r s t  immigrate t o Canada?  yes no not a p p l i c a b l e I f no, d i d you f i r s t immigrate t o an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g country? yes no  4.  Date of a r r i v a l i n Canada: not a p p l i c a b l e  5.  What was your primary p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e i n your n a t i v e country before immigration? (check only one) Great Russia  (now known as Russian S o v i e t Federated S o c i a l i s t Republic) B y e l o r u s s i a ( i n c l u d i n g p a r t s t h a t were t e m p o r a r i l y under P o l i s h r u l e ) Ukraine other (please s p e c i f y ) not a p p l i c a b l e  / 159 6.  What was your primary reason f o r l e a v i n g your n a t i v e country? (check only one) primarily p o l i t i c a l p r i m a r i l y economical primarily religious I came with my parents, t h e i r primary reason was political. I came with my parents, t h e i r primary reason was economical. I came with my parents, t h e i r primary reason was religious. other reason (please s p e c i f y ) not a p p l i c a b l e  7.  Who helped you a t the time of a r r i v a l i n Canada? (check a l l t h a t apply) r e l a t i v e s i n Canada f r i e n d s i n Canada Russian-Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s other (please s p e c i f y ) nobody helped me not a p p l i c a b l e  8.  What i s your year of b i r t h ?  9.  How much formal education have you completed? elementary school high s c h o o l university/college Bachelor degree Masters degree Ph.D. other (please s p e c i f y ) business or v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l diploma other (please s p e c i f y )  10.  Where d i d you r e c e i v e most of your education? (check only one) i n Canada i n another country (please s p e c i f y )  / 160 11.  Your present o c c u p a t i o n ( i f r e t i r e d , what was your o c c u p a t i o n [ i n Canada] p r i o r t o r e t i r e m e n t ? ) government s e r v i c e ( c i v i l servant) military agriculture p r o f e s s i o n s (other than education) education student industrial/business white-collar manual homemaker (at home) unemployed -other (please s p e c i f y )  12.  Did you change occupations upon a r r i v a l your n a t i v e country?  from  yes no not a p p l i c a b l e 13.  Do you p r e s e n t l y l i v e i n a neighborhood which i s comprised p r i m a r i l y of Russian or other S l a v i c immigrants? yes no  14. Have you, i n the p a s t , l i v e d i n a Canadian neighborhood which was comprised p r i m a r i l y of Russian or o t h e r S l a v i c immigrants? yes no I f yes, f o r how long? 15.  What was your knowledge of E n g l i s h upon a r r i v a l t o Canada? none poor f a i r l y good good very good not a p p l i c a b l e  / 161 16.  In what language do you dream? Russian English both Russian & E n g l i s h other (please s p e c i f y ) I do not dream i n a language  17.  In what language do you count? Russian English both other (please s p e c i f y )  18.  Are you a Canadian c i t i z e n ? yes no I f no, t h e primary reason  i s : (check only one)  not here 5 years do not have permanent r e s i d e n t v i s a p l a n t o r e t u r n t o U.S.S.R. p r e f e r other c i t i z e n s h i p (please s p e c i f y ) I p l a n t o apply f o r c i t i z e n s h i p soon. 19.  What i s your r e l i g i o n ? Russian Orthodox Greek Orthodox U k r a i n i a n Orthodox Roman C a t h o l i c Ukrainian Catholic Jewish (please s p e c i f y type) P r o t e s t a n t (please s p e c i f y ) Doukhobor other (please s p e c i f y ) no r e l i g i o n  20.  Do you p r e s e n t l y attend a church or synagogue regularly? yes no  / 162 21.  What i s your m a r i t a l status? single married common-law separated divorced widowed  22.  What i s (was) your n a t u r a l ( b i o l o g i c a l / b i r t h ) mother's ethnic origin? Russian Byelorussian Ukrainian Polish German other (please s p e c i f y )  23. What i s (was) your n a t u r a l ( b i o l o g i c a l ) f a t h e r ' s ethnic origin? Russian Byelorussian Ukrainian Polish German other (please s p e c i f y ) 24.  What i s your e t h n i c o r i g i n ? Russian Byelorussian Ukrainian Polish German other (please s p e c i f y )  25.  Which of the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e s your f e e l i n g of e t h n i c i t y the best? (Check one only) Canadian Russian Russian Canadian Byelorussian B y e l o r u s s i a n Canadian Ukrainian U k r a i n i a n Canadian Jewish Jewish Canadian other (please s p e c i f y )  / 163  26.  What i s the e t h n i c o r i g i n of your  spouse?  Russian Byelorussian Ukrainian other (please s p e c i f y ) 27.  Do you belong t o some form of Russian-Canadian organization? yes no I f yes, i s i t : (check one only) r e l i g i o u s only s o c i a l only religious & social p o l i t i c a l only p o l i t i c a l & social religious, political, & social c u l t u r a l only cultural & social other (please s p e c i f y ) don't belong t o any such o r g a n i z a t i o n  28.  What i s your speaking l e v e l of the Russian language? very good good fair poor none  29.  What i s your reading l e v e l of the Russian language? very good good fair poor none  30.  What i s your w r i t i n g l e v e l of the Russian language? very good good fair poor none  /  164  APPENDIX E (BARDIS FAMILISM SCALE) FAMILY ATTITUDES Below i s a l i s t of i s s u e s concerning the f a m i l y i n g e n e r a l , not your own. Please read a l l statements very c a r e f u l l y and respond t o a l l of them on the b a s i s of your own t r u e b e l i e f s without c o n s u l t i n g any other persons. Do t h i s by r e a d i n g each statement and then w r i t i n g , i n the space p r o v i d e d a t i t s l e f t , only one of the f o l l o w i n g numbers: 0,1,2,3,4. The meaning of each of these f i g u r e s i s : 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 1.  Strongly disagree. Disagree. Undecided Agree. S t r o n g l y Agree  C h i l d r e n below 18 should g i v e almost a l l t h e i r earnings t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . 2. C h i l d r e n below 18 should almost always obey t h e i r o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . 3. A person should always c o n s i d e r the needs of h i s f a m i l y (parents and those of t h e i r c h i l d r e n who are below 18, s i n g l e , and unemployed) as a whole more important than h i s own. 4. A person should always be expected t o defend h i s f a m i l y (parents, b r o t h e r s , and s i s t e r s ) a g a i n s t o u t s i d e r s even at the expense of h i s own p e r s o n a l safety. 5. The f a m i l y (parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n below 18) should have the r i g h t t o c o n t r o l the behavior of each of i t s members completely. 6. A person should always a v o i d every a c t i o n of which h i s f a m i l y (parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ) disapproves. 7. A person should always be completely l o y a l t o h i s f a m i l y (parents and s i n g l e b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s ) . 8. The members of a f a m i l y (parents and t h e i r s i n g l e c h i l d r e n below 18) should be expected t o h o l d the same p o l i t i c a l , e t h i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . 9. C h i l d r e n below 18 should always obey t h e i r parents. 10. A person should always help h i s parents w i t h the support of h i s younger (below 18) b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s i f necessary, and i f they are s i n g l e and unemployed. 11. A person should always support h i s u n c l e s or aunts i f they are i n need.  / 165 12. A person should c o n s u l t c l o s e r e l a t i v e s ( u n c l e s , aunts, f i r s t cousins) concerning important decisions. 13. A t l e a s t one married c h i l d should be expected t o l i v e i n the p a r e n t a l home. 14. A person should always support h i s p a r e n t s - i n - l a w i f they a r e i n need. 15. A person should always share h i s home w i t h h i s u n c l e s , aunts, or f i r s t c o u s i n s i f they a r e i n need. 16. A person should always share h i s home w i t h h i s p a r e n t s - i n - l a w i f they are i n need.  APPENDIX F (SHORT ACCULTURATION SCALE)  CULTURAL ATTITUDES  / '  1 6 6  Below are a number of questions or statements regarding your cultural views and preferences. Please read each item and circle only one number (1,2,3,4, or 5) that best represents what is true for you. 1.  In general, what language(s) do you read and speak? 1  I  Cnly Russian 2.  Cnly Russian  Cnly Russian  Cnly Russian  I  I  More Russian than English  I  I  Both Equally  More English than Russian  1  More Russian than English  1  Both Equally  1  More English than Russian  More Russian than English  Both Equally  4  More English than Russian  I  I  More Russian than English  Both Equally  I  More English than Russian  5  ' Only I English 5  I  Cnly English 5  I  Cnly English 5  I  Only English 5  I  Only English  In what language(s) are the T.V. programs you usually watch? 1 2 3 4 5  I  Cnly ' Russian 7.  English better than Russian  What language(s) do you usually speak with your friends? 1 2 3 4  I  6.  Both Equally  In which language(s) do you usually think? 1 2 3 t i l l Only Russian  5.  4  What language(s) do you usually speak at home? 1 2 3 4  1  4.  I I  Russian better than English  3  What was the language(s) you used as a child? 1 2 3 4  I  3.  2  I  More Russian than English  I  Both Equally  I  More English than Russian  I  Only English  In what language(s) are the radio programs you usually listen to? 1 2 3 4 5  I  Cnly Russian  I  More Russian than English  I  Both Equally  I  More English than Russian  I  Only English  / 167  In general, in what language(s) are the movies, T.V. and radio programs you prefer to watch and listen to? 1 2 3 4 , 5 Only Russian  fore  Russian than English  Your close friends are: 1 2 All Russians  fore Russians than Canadians  Both Equally  fore English than Russian  3  About half fore Canadians and half than Russians ;  You prefer going to social gatherings/parties 1 2 3 All Russians  fore Russians than Canadians  4  Only English 5 All Canadians  at which th,e people are: 4 5  About half fore Canadians and half than Russians  All Canadians  The persons you v i s i t or who v i s i t you are: 1 All Russians  2 fore  Russians than Canadians  3  4  About half fore Canadians and half than Russians  5 All Canadians  If you could choose your children's friends, you would want them to be: 1 2 3 4 5 All Russians  fore  Russians than Canadians  About half fore Canadians and half than Russians  All Canadians  / 168  APPENDIX G  RAFFLE TICKET f o r $30.00 g i f t THE PROW RESTAURANT  located  certificate  for  at CANADA PLACE  In order to be included in the drawing, please f i l l out this ticket, put it in the attached small envelope (seal it), and mail it along with the fully completed questionnaire and one signed consent form in the enclosed stamped selfaddressed envelope, postmarked by ; .  NAME ADDRESS  TELEPHONE NUMBER  

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