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Parenting intentions : an examination of socialization, situation and identity factors associated with.. Burton, Kim Siobhan 1991

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PARENTING INTENTIONS: AN E X A M I N A T I O N OF S O C I A L I Z A T I O N , S I T U A T I O N AND I D E N T I T Y F A C T O R S A S S O C I A T E D WITH T H E P A R E N T I N G I N T E N T I O N S OF U N I V E R S I T Y WOMEN  By KIM B.A.,  SIOBHAN  The U n i v e r s i t y  A SUBMITTED  TO T H E F A C U L T Y  FULFILLMENT  of  BURTON  British  Columbia,  THESIS OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S  OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S MASTER  IN  OF ARTS  THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g  accept to  this the  thesis  required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  STUDIES Psychology)  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  MARCH, copyright  as  COLUMBIA  19 91  Kim Siobhan  PARTIAL  FOR T H E D E G R E E OF  i n  We  1981  Burton,  1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  Abstract The purpose of the study was t o determine socialization,  s i t u a t i o n a l , and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s which  d i s t i n g u i s h u n i v e r s i t y women based intentions.  on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g  The s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s examined were: b i r t h  order, s i z e of f a m i l y of o r i g i n , e t h n i c i t y , knowing a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman, r e l i g i o n and r e l i g i o s i t y , e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , self-esteem, and gender-role  identity.  Three groups of 34 women, ages 18 t o 26, were randomly s e l e c t e d from 381 respondents  t o surveys sent t o 1,000 women  i n 2 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n c e s . were assigned t o 1 of the 3 groups based  Respondents  on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s . The " c h i l d f r e e " group c o n s i s t e d of women who d e f i n i t e l y intended t o never have c h i l d r e n  (N = 10), and  women who p r o b a b l y intended t o never have c h i l d r e n  (N = 2 4 ) .  The other two groups c o n s i s t e d of women who were probably i n t e n d i n g t o have c h i l d r e n  ("probably  y e s " ) , and d e f i n i t e l y  i n t e n d i n g t o have c h i l d r e n  ("definitely yes").  c o n s i s t e d of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o determine  demographic  i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as t h e Rosenberg Self-Esteem and the Bern Sex Role Inventory t o determine identity. conducted  The surveys  Inventory,  gender-role  P r o t e c t e d F t e s t s and c h i - s q u a r e analyses were on t h e d a t a .  iii  At the p < .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e no a s s o c i a t i o n was found between respondent's  p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and whether  they knew a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman, t h e i r b i r t h order, or  their ethnicity.  A statistically  significant  difference  was not found between the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups in family s i 2 e ,  e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , s t a t u s of  o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , or s e l f - e s t e e m .  A statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was found between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and whether an occupation was male or female dominated: " c h i l d f r e e " women more f r e q u e n t l y a s p i r e d t o a male dominated occupation, "probably yes" women a s p i r e d t o male and female occupations a t expected  f r e q u e n c i e s , and  " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women more o f t e n a s p i r e d t o female dominated o c c u p a t i o n s .  An a s s o c i a t i o n was found t o e x i s t  between g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s a t p < .01. " C h i l d f r e e " women more f r e q u e n t l y had masculine g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t i e s than " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women, who more o f t e n had feminine and androgynous gender-role  identities.  An a s s o c i a t i o n was found between r e l i g i o n and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s a t p < .05: " c h i l d f r e e " women were l e s s  likely  to be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a r e l i g i o n than "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women.  A statistically  significant  d i f f e r e n c e was found between the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups a t p <  .05 on r e l i g i o s i t y .  found t o have lower r e l i g i o s i t y and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" groups. to  The " c h i l d f r e e " group was  than both the "probably yes"  The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s appear  i n d i c a t e t h a t u n i v e r s i t y women who i n t e n d t o remain  iv  c h i l d f r e e a r e i n some ways l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l than women who intend t o have  children.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT S M a r l i e Burton, f o r i n s t i l l i n g i n me a deep v a l u a t i o n of education, and w i t h whose love and support t h i s p r o j e c t was p o s s i b l e . J u d i t h Daniluk, f o r her i n s p i r a t i o n and guidance. Wendy Johnston, ear.  f o r l e n d i n g a h e l p i n g hand and a l i s t e n i n g  Marg Rae, f o r her encouragement and understanding. Jill  Bennett Seldon, f o r costume design and p r a c t i c a l advice.  Mary Risebrough, f o r p e r m i t t i n g me access t o the UBC student r e s i d e n c e s , and f o r h e r i n t e r e s t i n my p r o j e c t . O l i v i a Flynn-Gomez, f o r her generous a s s i s t a n c e with the software. Murray Logan, f o r a s s i s t i n g w i t h the grammar and punctuation. The r e s i d e n c e students of Gage and Place Vanier, f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. S h e l l e y Moore, f o r her i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e with the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Beth Haverkamp, f o r a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g statistics. Warren Weir, f o r h e l p i n g w i t h my r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . Emma and Joe K l a n c n i k , f o r t h e i r encouragement and love from afar.  VI  TABLE OF- CONTENTS  ATTRACT  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  LI ST OF TAJM.ES  CHAPTER OMF.  1  Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Research CHAPTER TWO  1 13 15  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e S o c i a l i z a t i o n Factors  15 16  Religion  18  Ethnicity  22  Family of O r i g i n  25  S i t u a t i o n a l Factors  30  Identity Structures  44  Gender-role  45  identity  Self-esteem Hypotheses Problem Statement CHAPTER THREE Methodology Subjects  51 61 61 67 67 67  Large sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  68  Sub sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  71  Instrumentation  75  The P e r s o n a l Data Sheet  75  TSEI2  76  Bern Sex Role Inventory  80  Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale  86  Vll  Procedures .  90  S t a t i s t i c a l analysis  91  CHAPTER FOUR  94  Results  94  Conclusion  115  CHAPTER FIVE  117  Discussion  117  Restatement of the Purpose  117  Summary and D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s  119  Socialization factors  120  Situational factors  125  Identity factors  130  I m p l i c a t i o n s For C o u n s e l l i n g  136  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study  141  Implications  143  f o r F u r t h e r Research  APPENDIX A LARGE AND SMALL SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS  154  APPENDIX B PERSONAL DATA SHEET  155  APPENDIX C OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS TSEI2 SCORES, MALE OR FEMALE DOMINATED AND COUNTS FOR PARENTING INTENTIONS GROUPS  FREQUENCY 158  APPENDIX D ROSENBERG  SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY  159  APPENDIX E INTRODUCTION LETTER  160  APPENDIX F CONSENT FORM  161  APPENDIX G REMINDER NOTICE  162  APPENDIX H MANOVA AND UNIVARIATE F TESTS COMPARING EQUAL N RANDOM SAMPLE WITH ENTIRE SAMPLE  163  APPENDIX I VARIABLE MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS  ...164  ix  LIST OF TABLES Table 1 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by Marriage..96 Table 2 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by R e l a t i o n s h i p Status  98  Table 3 Manova of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s Groups on a l l Continuous Variables  (Education, Occupation, R e l i g i o s i t y ,  Siblings,  and S e l f Esteem)  99  Table 4 P r o t e c t e d U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s of Parenting I n t e n t i o n s With A l l Continuous V a r i a b l e s  101  Table 5 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by B i r t h Order  104  Table 6 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by R e l i g i o u s Category  106  Table 7 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by E t h n i c / C u l t u r a l Background  107  Table 8 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by Gender Dominance of Occupational A s p i r a t i o n s  109  X  Table 9 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by identity Table  Gender-role Ill  10  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by Knowing a V o l u n t a r i l y C h i l d f r e e Woman  114  1  CHAPTER ONE  Statement of the Problem F e r t i l i t y decision-making has become a c e n t r a l concern i n the l i v e s of contemporary women.  Advances  i n contracep-  t i v e technology have o f f e r e d women g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e decision-making (Potts, 1980; Whelan, 1980).  G r e a t e r acceptance of a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e s t y l e s and  changes i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s have encouraged many women t o a s p i r e t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l (Daniluk, 1982).  levels  Young women today o f t e n have the b e n e f i t  of good t r a i n i n g and education, and an expanding range of professional opportunities  (Wilk, 1986).  The women's move-  ment has generated a freedom which allows and encourages many women t o s t r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l autonomy and achievement (Burgwyn,  1981).  Contemplation and e l e c t i o n of l i f e  style  a l t e r n a t i v e s have become a r e a l i t y of our time (Movius, 1976) .  Many women today have come t o t h i n k of motherhood as  an option;  l i k e so many of the r a p i d l y changing s o c i a l and  sexual mores of t h i s e r a , motherhood, date, has become a matter of c h o i c e  once v i r t u a l l y a man(Faux, 1984).  Women today have e x p e r i e n c e d the s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l , and economic advantages of the c h i l d f r e e l i f e s t y l e , and y e t a r e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences which p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis upon the joys and f u l f i l l m e n t s of the motherhood  role  (Daniluk, 1982) .  Young  women a r e s t i l l being s o c i a l i z e d t o pursue t h e maternal  2  r o l e , but they a r e a l s o encouraged t o develop traits  that f a c i l i t a t e  p u r s u i t of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  (Greenglass & B o r o v i l o s ,  1985) .  understanding of the impact t h i s traditional  instrumental goals  There i s a need f o r an j u x t a p o s i t i o n of  s o c i a l norms with t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l  change i s having on the f e r t i l i t y d e c i s i o n s of young women today. Most c u l t u r e s have a b e l i e f i n p r o n a t a l i s m w i t h i n t h e i r moral and economic s t r u c t u r e s  embedded  (Burgwyn, 1981;  Veevers, 1980) .  Parenthood tends t o be p r e s c r i b e d as a  moral imperative  f o r people t o be s o c i a l l y  Pronatalism  acceptable.  i s a p h i l o s o p h i c view t h a t parenthood i s t h e  only normal outcome of adulthood: the u l t i m a t e of l i f e  itself  philosophies  affirmation  (Burgwyn, 1981; Veevers, 1980). P r o n a t a l i s t  s t r e s s the advantages of having c h i l d r e n w h i l e  i g n o r i n g o r m i n i m i z i n g t h e attendant disadvantages 1980).  H i s t o r i c a l l y , women have made t h e i r  choices w i t h i n the context talism  (Veevers,  reproductive  of the c u l t u r a l mandate of prona-  (Faux, 1984).  In western c u l t u r e , the r i g i d  separation  of work and  f a m i l y was a by-product of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n which made i t c o s t e f f e c t i v e enterprises  (Wilk,  t o separate domestic and commercial  1986) .  l a b o r " and " r e p r o d u c t i v e instrumental  "productive  l a b o r " , the so c a l l e d s p l i t between  and e x p r e s s i v e  based on i n h e r e n t malleable  The dichotomy between  f u n c t i o n s , was not n e c e s s a r i l y  p s y c h o l o g i c a l antagonisms, but r a t h e r on  s o c i a l arrangements  (Gerson, 1985).  Women began  3  to be i d e a l i z e d and bound t o the home by what was seen as t h e i r n u r t u r a n t , s u p p o r t i v e , and p a s s i v e nature 1986).  Educated  (Wilk,  and s o c i a l i z e d w i t h i n t h i s model, many  women i n t e r n a l i z e d t h i s sex-stereotyped r o l e as n a t u r a l and inevitable  (Wilk, 1986).  During the d e p r e s s i o n decade of the 1930s s p i n s t e r h o o d and delayed marriage  were common, and l i f e t i m e c h i l d l e s s n e s s  rose t o c l o s e t o 2 0 percent  (Burgwyn, 1981).  Birth  levels  remained low d u r i n g World War I I , but a f t e r the war an atmosphere  of economic confidence, p a t r i o t i s m , and t r a d i t i o n a l -  ism c r e a t e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y f a m i l y - c e n t r e d , p r o n a t a l i s t swing  (Burgwyn, 1981).  marriages,  The 1950s was a r e c o r d e r a f o r e a r l y  high b i r t h r a t e s , and the lowest recorded  dence of c h i l d l e s s n e s s (Burgwyn, 1981).  inci-  Women devoted  them-  s e l v e s t o t h e i r homes and c h i l d r e n i n a way t h a t no precedi n g g e n e r a t i o n of women had done, and motherhood became a f u l l time occupation  (Faux, 1984) .  T h i s g e n e r a t i o n of  women, d e d i c a t e d t o the r o l e of w i f e and mother, was the primary  female r o l e model f o r t h e subsequent g e n e r a t i o n of  younger women (Whelan, 1980). In the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s, economic and s o c i a l changes began t o occur which had a powerful  impact  on the  b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and g o a l s of those who were growing up during t h i s time of t r a n s i t i o n Whelan, 1 9 8 0 ) . 1950s,  (Daniluk 1982; Veevers, 1980;  The economy was not as strong as t h a t of the  and i d e a l s gave way t o a new r e a l i t y which i n c l u d e d  the burgeoning  c o s t of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n  (Burgwyn, 1981).  4  High d i v o r c e s t a t i s t i c s and o v e r p o p u l a t i o n were a s o b e r i n g p a r t of t h i s new  reality  (Burgwyn, 1981;  Ehrlich,  1968) . A  g r e a t e r number of women entered the work, f o r c e , both choice and n e c e s s i t y (Burgwyn, 1981).  from  Women began a s p i r i n g  to higher e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s .  The women's  movement, a fundamental tenet of which has been the e x e r c i s e of autonomy, promoted a d e s i r e i n women f o r g r e a t e r dence and  self-sufficiency  (Burgwyn, 1981). The  use of the b i r t h c o n t r o l p i l l  i n combination  est i n women's r i g h t s and e q u a l i t y c r e a t e d an  indepen-  widespread  with the  inter-  opportunity  f o r women to become f u l l y aware t h a t they c o u l d choose whether or not they wanted to be mothers, and then to a c t on t h a t choice  (Faux, 1984).  came a concurrent  With these h i s t o r i c a l changes  i n c r e a s e i n the i n c i d e n c e of v o l u n t a r y  c h i l d l e s s n e s s from 1 percent  i n 1955  to 11 percent  in  1980  (Wilk, 1986). Women today have o p t i o n s they d i d not have twenty y e a r s ago but, f o r many women, with so many choices comes ambivalence towards a maternal  role.  The d e c i s i o n of  whether or not to have c h i l d r e n i s a predominant i s s u e i n the l i v e s of many women of c h i l d b e a r i n g age today 1984).  These women are s t r u g g l i n g with d i f f i c u l t ,  (Faux, often  p a i n f u l c h o i c e s when faced with the demands and rewards of the profuse number of r o l e s a v a i l a b l e .  Women are being  faced with c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t o f t e n r e q u i r e them to choose among a number of d e s i r e d goals and (Gerson,  1985).  Inherent  in l i f e  options  i s the r e a l i t y t h a t  any  5  l i f e c h o i c e r e q u i r e s r e l i n q u i s h i n g another, but the new s o c i a l message f o r women appears t o ignore t h i s The new female i d e a l i z e d s e l f i s o f t e n  reality.  unrealizable,  c r e a t i n g a gap between what one should be and what one i s (Yalom,  1990).  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r women t o  b u i l d s t r o n g bases  i n both the domestic and p u b l i c  spheres,  and d e c i s i o n s i n one sphere o f t e n l i m i t the range of o p t i o n s i n another  (Gerson, 1985).  T r a d e - o f f s a r e b u i l t i n whether  a woman opts f o r work, motherhood, or a combination of both roles  (Gerson, 1985). As women look f o r models a g a i n s t which  to measure t h e i r p l a n s f o r work, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c h i l d r e n , they f i n d t h e r e a r e few s o c i a l precedents f o r t h e i r experience.  Many women r e p o r t f e e l i n g c u t o f f from  any g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y , from any c o n s e n s u a l l y v a l i d a t e d s o c i a l time c l o c k  (Wilk, 1986).  The experience of t h e i r  p a r e n t s does not always p r o v i d e an a c c e p t a b l e guide and, r e j e c t i n g t h a t p r o t o t y p e , many women f i n d burdened  w i t h the unknown consequences  themselves  of new d e c i s i o n s r e -  g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p e r s o n a l ambitions, and c h i l d r e a r i n g . For young, c o l l e g e educated women today, parenthood des i r e s may c o n f l i c t w i t h c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s as they e x p e r i ence a sense of accomplishment  and upward movement towards a  career goal  (Gerson, 1985) .  Female c o l l e g e  are exposed  t o f e m i n i s t a t t i t u d e s and have a broad a r r a y of  c a r e e r o p t i o n s open t o them (Gerson, 1980). 11 p e r c e n t of 18 t o 24 year o l d American  undergraduates  In 1980,  while  women r e p o r t e d l y  expected t o have no c h i l d r e n , i t i s estimated t h a t 17  6  percent of c o l l e g e educated women i n t h a t age group to have no c h i l d r e n  (Gerson, A l p e r t & Richardson,  expected  1984) .  Because they a r e a segment of the p o p u l a t i o n l i k e l y t o be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e i s s u e s surrounding contemporary parenthood  p l a n n i n g , young female u n i v e r s i t y students w i l l  be the f o c u s of t h i s study. the independent  parenthood  L i t t l e work has been done on d e s i r e s and i n t e n t i o n s of young  s i n g l e c o l l e g e women, some of whom may choose t o marry o n l y i f they want t o have c h i l d r e n  (Gerson, 1986) .  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r w i l l undertake the normative,  an e x p l o r a t i o n of  s i t u a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of young u n i v e r s i t y women.  The purpose  of the r e s e a r c h i s t o g a i n an  understanding of what f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o the m o t i v a t i o n of young u n i v e r s i t y educated women today t o become p a r e n t s or not.  A l i m i t a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h i s t h a t v o l u n t a r y  c h i l d l e s s n e s s i s r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t i n the p o p u l a t i o n , r e s t r i c t i n g the number of s u b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e f o r study. A c c o r d i n g t o Veevers  (1974) three q u a r t e r s of a l l peo-  p l e who choose c h i l d l e s s n e s s do so through a s e r i e s of p o s t ponements.  F o r the remainder  of c h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e  p a r e n t i n g c h o i c e p r o c e s s begins much e a r l i e r ,  sometimes even  i n e a r l y adolescence  1974). Re-  (Burgwyn, 1981; Veevers,  search suggests t h a t t h e r e i s a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o c h i l d l e s s ness among some young, unmarried people Hartner 1978; Gerson, Thoen, 1977) .  (Cooper, Cumber &  1980; Greenglass & B o r o v i l o s , 1985;  These people, p r i m a r i l y women, a r e r e f e r r e d  7  to i n the l i t e r a t u r e as " e a r l y not  only f e e l b u t a l s o  a r t i c u l a t o r s " because they  c l e a r l y express t h e i r c h i l d f r e e  erence (Houseknecht, 1979, Veevers, 1974).  pref-  The f e r t i l i t y  c h o i c e s of e a r l y a r t i c u l a t o r s are perhaps more c l e a r l y linked to factors  r e l e v a n t t o the i n d i v i d u a l than a r e those  of "postponers", who may have had t h e i r d e c i s i o n by  external l i f e  (1980), e a r l y an  events.  influenced  A c c o r d i n g t o i n t e r v i e w s by Veevers  a r t i c u l a t o r s f e e l t h a t not wanting c h i l d r e n i s  immutable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of themselves; they see  themselves as non-parents from an e a r l y age and they make their decision titudes  t o forgo parenthood independently of the a t -  of t h e i r spouses.  S t u d i e s which focus on reproduc-  t i v e d e c i s i o n s a f t e r the f a c t may be i n f l u e n c e d  by r e t r o -  s p e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s and a woman's c u r r e n t l i f e  situation  (Veevers, 1980).  The sample f o r the p r e s e n t study i s young,  unmarried women who have expressed t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s t o remain c h i l d f r e e o r t o become p a r e n t s .  By comparing young  women based on t h e i r a p r i o r i r e p r o d u c t i v e i n t e n t i o n s i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e  to discover distinguishing  which a r e c l o s e l y  characteristics  l i n k e d with o r i g i n a l a t t r i b u t e s  which may  l i e a t the r o o t of i n d i v i d u a l r e p r o d u c t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s . F e r t i l i t y decision-making i s a dynamic, m u l t i s t a g e process and a v a r i e t y  of d e c i s i o n  a continuum from d e s i r e s f i n a l l y behaviors intentions  related variables  and i n t e n t i o n s  (Beckman, 1982).  indicate  individual  e x i s t along  t o d e c i s i o n s , and  Parenthood d e s i r e s and  level attitudinal  while d e c i s i o n s and b e h a v i o r s tend t o i n d i c a t e  variables,  a couple  8  based process  (Beckman, 1982).  i n t e n t i o n s toward parenthood  People's a t t i t u d e s and  may be separate from  their  a c t u a l behavior, but t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s seem t o have an e f f e c t on t h e i r behavior; p a r i t y i n t e n t i o n s appear t o be p r e d i c t i v e of outcome (Crawford & Boyer, 1985; Gormly, Gormly & Weiss, 1987).  According t o Hendershot and Placek  (1981) the  average  number of expected b i r t h s p r e d i c t s the average  number of l i f e t i m e b i r t h s with an accuracy ranging from 90 to 100 p e r c e n t .  A l i m i t a t i o n of the present study i s t h a t  young women have not experienced l i v i n g with t h e i r  decision  and t h e r e f o r e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t whether t h e i r parenting preferences w i l l  l e a d them t o make r e p r o d u c t i v e  c h o i c e s which they w i l l experience as s a t i s f y i n g . Today the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r women are more d i v e r s e than at any time i n the p a s t and women a r e more able t o shape t h e i r l i v e s as i n d i v i d u a l s .  A p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s can c r e a t e  a l i f e s t y l e t a i l o r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l needs and t a l e n t s ,  offer-  ing more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w e l l - b e i n g (Baruch, B a r n e t t , & R i v e r s , 1983).  Each woman must decide what i s p o s s i b l e and  what i s b e s t f o r her and not accept u n c r i t i c a l l y the mandates of s o c i e t y or any c o l l e c t i v e v o i c e (Yalom, 1990). The more a woman chooses the r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t s u i t her i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s , needs and d e s i r e s , the more she may i n crease her l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n  (Baruch e t a l . ,  1983).  Women  need t o make informed d e c i s i o n s and they need t o know about other women who have made s i m i l a r c h o i c e s (Baruch e t a l . , 1983).  Parenthood  i s a h i g h l y demanding and rewarding  role  9  and women today need t o make informed p a r e n t i n g d e c i s i o n s . Part of t h i s decision-making  process should be an awareness  of the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s which d i s t i n g u i s h women with fering parenting intentions.  Knowing the normative,  dif-  situa-  t i o n a l , and i d e n t i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e a s s o c i a t e d with r e p r o d u c t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s may p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r women e x p l o r i n g which r o l e s a r e most s u i t e d t o t h e i r i n dividual predilections.  Because the study of p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new area of s o c i a l enquiry, the r e s e a r c h i s l i m i t e d t o b e i n g e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature. S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have become i n t e r e s t e d i n uncovering the antecedent  c o n d i t i o n s o r "causes" which account f o r and  allow the p r e d i c t i o n of v a r i a t i o n s i n c h i l d b e a r i n g i n t e n t i o n s among North American women (Gerson, Barnett, 1969; Veevers, fertility  1980; S t o l k a &  1980) . The m o t i v a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n  i n t e n t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s a r e complex and obscure  and i n many cases becoming a parent may not be a conscious decision at a l l , (Veevers, 1974). a t e l y planned,  b u t r a t h e r a consequence of circumstances To t h e e x t e n t t h a t parenthood  a m u l t i p l i c i t y of motives  i s deliber-  at different  of awareness may be i n v o l v e d (Veevers, 1974).  levels  Parenthood  p r e f e r e n c e s may be r a t i o n a l and/or emotional, and the complex i n t e r p l a y between these f a c t o r s o f t e n forms the b a s i s f o r the c h o i c e s which an i n d i v i d u a l makes (Janis & Mann, 1977).  Very l i t t l e  i s known about the s p e c i f i c elements of  the c h i l d b e a r i n g decision-making  process; no framework ex-  i s t s t o guide people d e a l i n g with t h i s dilemma  (Wilk, 1986).  10  Knowing which u n d e r l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are r e l e v a n t t o parenting preferences  can help focus and guide  reproductive  decision-making. Fertility  decision-making  appears t o be i n f l u e n c e d by  demographic, developmental, b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which may serve t o i n c r e a s e or decrease  the d e s i r a b i l i t y of s p e c i f i c o p t i o n s ,  thus  m o t i v a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r freedom t o choose i n a d i r e c t i o n which they b e l i e v e w i l l warrant the g r e a t e s t p e r s o n a l gains M a r t i n , 1977).  (Beckman, 1977; Townes, Beach, Campbell, & I n d i v i d u a l s seem t o make p a r e n t i n g  based on a complex i n t e r p l a y of t h e i r experiences  choices  socialization  and a b a l a n c i n g of the p e r s o n a l c o s t s and  b e n e f i t s of t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e s (Beckman,1982). T r a d i t i o n a l l y , normative i n f l u e n c e s had an enormous impact on a woman's p a r e n t i n g c h o i c e s ; i t was n a t u r a l and expected for  "wife" and "mother" t o be a woman's primary  roles.  Today, with i n c r e a s i n g options f o r women, s o c i a l exchange and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s assume a p l a c e i n p a r e n t i n g decisions develop  (Beckman, 1982).  an understanding  There i s a need t o f u r t h e r  of the f a c t o r s t h a t are most  r e l e v a n t t o parenthood i n t e n t i o n s . To make informed  f e r t i l i t y c h o i c e s , women need t o be  aware of the impact s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences norms may be having  on t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s .  i n d i c a t e d t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences f a m i l y of o r i g i n ,  and c u l t u r a l  Some r e s e a r c h has i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  i n c l u d i n g b i r t h order and f a m i l y s i z e , are  11  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h subsequent  r e p r o d u c t i v e c h o i c e s : people  from  small f a m i l i e s and people who are f i r s t born are more o f t e n c h i l d f r e e than o t h e r s (Hendershot,1969; 1980).  Ory, 1978; Veevers,  R e l i g i o n has been found t o be a f a c t o r  distinguish-  ing people based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s ,  voluntarily  c h i l d f r e e people b e i n g l e s s r e l i g i o u s than people who have children  (Ory, 1978; Ramu, 1986; Toomey, 1977; Veevers,  1980) . There i s a need f o r i n d i v i d u a l s making r e p r o d u c t i v e dec i s i o n s t o understand how s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n a l and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s may a f f e c t the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the o p t i o n s they a r e exploring.  There i s some evidence i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a -  t u r e t o suggest t h a t women who a r e v o l u n t a r i l y  childfree  tend t o have h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l attainments than t h e i r counterparts  (Bram, 1984; Ory, 1978; Veevers,  1980).  S i m i l a r l y , c h i l d f r e e women have been found i n some s t u d i e s to have h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l attainments 1977;  Veevers, 1980).  (Bram, 1984; Toomey,  Some i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s have emerged  out of t h e r e s e a r c h as d i s t i n g u i s h i n g people based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g s e l f - e s t e e m and g e n d e r - r o l e identity.  C h i l d f r e e women have been found t o f r e q u e n t l y  have masculine o r androgynous gender-role i d e n t i t i e s and t o l e s s f r e q u e n t l y have feminine gender-role i d e n t i t i e s women who p r e f e r t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e 1980  Teicholz,  1977) .  than  (Cohen, 1984; Gerson,  There i s some evidence i n the  r e s e a r c h t h a t c h i l d f r e e women have h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m than women who d e s i r e c h i l d r e n  (Burman & de Anda, 1986; Gerson,  12  1986) .  The purpose of t h i s study  i s t o enhance knowledge  about which normative, s i t u a t i o n a l and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with women's p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  Understanding  motherhood m o t i v a t i o n may be f a c i l i t a t i v e i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of female s e x - r o l e i s s u e s and the g r a s p i n g of new p a t t e r n s i n f a m i l y  formation.  Young women today face a unique c h a l l e n g e i n choosing a l i f e s t y l e congruent with t h e i r b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and g o a l s , and which w i l l b r i n g them p e r s o n a l and f u l f i l l m e n t 1980;  (Bombardieri,  Whelan; 1980) .  1981; Daniluk,  interests,  satisfaction 1982; Veevers,  D e c i s i o n s have t o be made and i s s u e s  d e a l t with t h a t r a r e l y had t o be grappled with  before.  Changes and developments i n values and a t t i t u d e s i n the l a s t s e v e r a l decades have allowed v a r i a n t l i f e s t y l e s t o become more a c c e p t a b l e  (Barnett & MacDonald, 1986).  Today's women  have been r a i s e d with t r a d i t i o n a l values and s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and y e t have a l s o been exposed t o emerging t u r a l v a l u e s and l i f e s t y l e s which may c o n f l i c t with t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s (Daniluk, 1982) .  cul-  tradi-  Informed p a r e n t i n g  c h o i c e s i n v o l v e c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a woman's v a l u e s , abilities,  i n t e r e s t s , and needs and may r e q u i r e the a s s i s -  tance of others i n the form of advice, i n f o r m a t i o n , and support  (Cammaert and Larson,  1979).  Research i s needed on the  f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with parenthood d e s i r e s and i n t e n t i o n s of young women today so t h a t people may  be a b l e t o p r o v i d e informed  i n the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s support.  13  Young women a r e f a c e d with choosing a r r a y of o p t i o n s .  Making informed  i n c l u d e s understanding express p r e f e r e n c e s  among a c o n f u s i n g  reproductive choices  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women who  f o r s p e c i f i c options.  In the p r e s e n t  study the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l attempt t o i d e n t i f y some s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences,  e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l  p l a n s , and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s which a r e r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p r o d u c t i v e i n t e n t i o n s and d e s i r e s of s i n g l e , u n i v e r s i t y students.  female  Enhancing the body of knowledge about  the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s can c o n t r i b u t e t o an understanding making p r o c e s s . include r e l i g i o n ,  of the parenthood d e c i s i o n -  The s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s under examination e t h n i c background, f a m i l y of o r i g i n  will (birth  order and f a m i l y s i z e ) , e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , knowing a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman, genderr o l e i d e n t i t y , and self-esteem;  f a c t o r s which r e p o r t e d l y  d i s t i n g u i s h between women with d i f f e r i n g  parenting  intentions. Purpose of the Research The purpose of the r e s e a r c h i s t o g a i n an understanding of what f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o the m o t i v a t i o n of young u n i v e r s i t y educated women today t o become parents  or not.  L i t t l e work has been done on the independent parenthood d e s i r e s and i n t e n t i o n s of young s i n g l e c o l l e g e women, some of whose parenthood d e s i r e s and i n t e n t i o n s may c o n f l i c t t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s as they experience  a sense of  with  14  accomplishment and upward movement towards a c a r e e r g o a l (Gerson,  1985) .  The purpose of the p r e s e n t of  study  i s t o enhance the body  knowledge r e g a r d i n g the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d  with the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of young women today. Knowledge about which normative, s i t u a t i o n a l and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with women's p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s may  be u s e f u l i n a s s i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g  difficulty  with r e p r o d u c t i v e decision-making  (Daniluk,  1982) . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w i l l  serve the purpose of  p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n with which t o begin c o n s t r u c t i n g a framework f o r parenthood decision-making  by p r o v i d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n about what kinds of f a c t o r s d i s t i n g u i s h women based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  Understanding  motherhood m o t i v a t i o n may be f a c i l i t a t i v e  i n the  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of female s e x - r o l e i s s u e s and the g r a s p i n g of new p a t t e r n s i n f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n . aid  T h i s understanding can  i n the p l a n n i n g of e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r  c o u n s e l l i n g women who a r e making f e r t i l i t y d e c i s i o n s (Gerson,  1980).  The g o a l of the p r e s e n t study i s t o search  f o r what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e p r o d u c t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s by examining t h e broader and  social,  situational,  i n t r a p s y c h i c c o n t e x t s out of which parenthood i n t e n t i o n s  emerge i n order t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r women c o n s i d e r i n g whether o r not they want t o be mothers.  15  CHAPTER TWO  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e  Parenthood decision-making, and the major components and  f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s process,  area of s o c i a l e n q u i r y . search pared.  i s a relatively  recent  In t h i s chapter l i t e r a t u r e and r e -  r e l e v a n t t o the present  study are d i s c u s s e d  The chapter i s organized  and com-  i n t o three s e c t i o n s  dis-  c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s i t u a t i o n , and identity to parenting The f i r s t process serves  intentions.  s e c t i o n focuses  on how the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  t o i n f l u e n c e the l i f e s t y l e  i n d i v i d u a l s make.  choices  In t h i s segment s t u d i e s which explore the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r , to reproductive L i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h  choices  are d i s c u s s e d .  a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d that explore the  impact t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences i n the f a m i l y of o r i g i n may have on p a r e n t i n g  intentions.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  s t u d i e s t h a t have shown b i r t h order and f a m i l y s i z e t o be r e l a t e d t o f u t u r e c h i l d b e a r i n g d e c i s i o n s are reviewed. The second s e c t i o n d e l i n e a t e s how s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s may impact p a r e n t i n g  choices.  and motherhood a r e d i s c u s s e d ,  Issues surrounding  employment  and c o s t - b e n e f i t s models of  16  decision-making  are presented.  Research e x p l o r i n g the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , education and occupation  i n p a r t i c u l a r , and r e p r o d u c t i v e c h o i c e s i s  reviewed.  The f i n a l s e c t i o n examines the r e s e a r c h and  l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o the proposal t h a t i d e n t i t y s t r u c t u r e s , s e l f - e s t e e m and gender-role  identity in  p a r t i c u l a r , are a s s o c i a t e d with the choice to have c h i l d r e n or not. Parenthood decision-making  appears to i n v o l v e a complex  i n t e r a c t i o n of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , reason  and emotion.  t h e o r e t i c a l models nor e m p i r i c a l evidence a s a t i s f a c t o r y understanding interact.  Although  Neither  have y e t p r o v i d e d  of e x a c t l y how these f a c t o r s  no c l e a r p a t t e r n i s y e t i n evidence,  most of the r e s e a r c h e r s have found a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s . Studies t h a t have demonstrated the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a combin a t i o n of f a c t o r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d throughout the review i n a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s / i n order to compare and c o n t r a s t the v a r i o u s f i n d i n g s and the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t have been drawn.  Socialization According  Factors t o some s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s a t t i t u d e s towards  c h i l d b e a r i n g are i n p a r t determined by c u l t u r a l norms (Haas, 1974; Veevers, 1980) .  Haas (1974) has proposed t h a t the so-  c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s may be s u f f i c i e n t l y e f f e c t i v e to cause most people  t o accept without  ues of c h i l d r e n .  question the v i r t u e s and v a l -  S o c i a l i z a t i o n models of f e r t i l i t y  behavior  17  suggest t h a t r e p r o d u c t i v e outcome of a process ues  i n t e n t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s are the  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n toward p a r t i c u l a r  i n f l u e n c i n g behavior  (Fox, Fox & Frohardt-Lane, 1982).  Models of s o c i a l i z a t i o n emphasize i m i t a t i o n , modeling, tification, processes ues  val-  and s a n c t i o n c o n t i n g e n t  iden-  l e a r n i n g as the major  through which people come t o i n c o r p o r a t e the v a l -  and b e l i e f s of others  how and from what sources transmitted  (Fox e t a l . )  The q u e s t i o n becomes  are f e r t i l i t y r e l a t e d values  (Fox e t a l . ) .  Pronatalism  i s any a t t i t u d e or p o l i c y t h a t e x a l t s moth-  erhood and encourages parenthood f o r a l l (Burgwyn, 1981) . In our p r o n a t a l i s t s o c i e t y , the n o t i o n t h a t i t i s normal, necessary, vails  and n a t u r a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o bear c h i l d r e n pre-  (Veevers,  1980).  F e m i n i n i t y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been  connected with b e a r i n g and c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n 1980)  and p r o n a t a l i s m  r o l e should  (Veevers,  i n v o l v e s the b a s i c i d e a t h a t a woman's  involve maternity  (Barnett & Macdonald, 1986).  The parenthood c h o i c e i s between a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o c i a l l y unacceptable  alternative.  The consequences of ac-  c e p t i n g e i t h e r c h o i c e , and the impact of s o c i e t a l and  pressures  s a n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g both o p t i o n s , may be important  siderations influencing reproductive decisions 1982).  and a  con-  (Daniluk,  S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as r e l i g i o n s ,  e t h n i c groups, and f a m i l i e s may r e i n f o r c e v a r y i n g degrees of pronatalism. productive  Within t h i s context  choices.  i n d i v i d u a l s make t h e i r r e -  18  Religion. A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e l i g i o u s com-  munity i n v o l v e s a person i n a s o c i a l context i n which specific  sexual  ticulated  and  (Fox  fertility  values and  et a l , 1982).  P r o n a t a l i s t tenets  ded w i t h i n r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s . Genesis are to "be  o r i e n t a t i o n s are  The  are embed-  words of God  f r u i t f u l and m u l t i p l y . "  ar-  cited in  Roman C a t h o l i -  cism i s among the most p r o n a t a l i s t of f a i t h s with i t s view t h a t the s o l e purpose of sexual (Burgwyn, 1981). and  A strict  intercourse  i s procreation  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of both C a t h o l i c  Jewish law would r e q u i r e annulment or d i v o r c e  of i n t e n t i o n a l c h i l d l e s s n e s s gious d o c t r i n e s  (Burgwyn, 1981).  i n cases  Many r e l i -  espouse the b e l i e f t h a t p r o c r e a t i o n  necessary c r i t e r i o n f o r m a r i t a l f u l f i l l m e n t H a r r i s , Durkin & F l o r e s , 1979;  is a  (Daniluk, Through  the  moral p r e s s u r e s imposed by r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s , parenthood  be-  comes a duty, and (Campbell, 1985). non-religious  c h i l d l e s s n e s s becomes a form of  aberration  V o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s people tend to  i n comparison to people with c h i l d r e n  & de Anda, 1986; Toomey, 1977;  Feldman, 1981;  Ory,  1978;  Ramu,  (1980) was  i n the s u b j e c t  be  (Burman  1986;  Veevers, 1980), suggesting t h a t r e l i g i o n  an impact on r e p r o d u c t i v e Veevers  Pohlman, 1969).  1982;  has  choices.  among the f i r s t to take an i n t e r e s t  of v o l u n t a r y  childlessness.  Her  1980  book  e n t i t l e d C h i l d l e s s by Choice i s a summary of i n depth i n t e r views w i t h 156  v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e persons over a time  r i o d beginning i n 1972.  The  age  range of the  respondents  pe-  19  varied considerably The  from 23 t o 78, with a mean age of 35.  people i n t e r v i e w e d  were found t o be g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r on  s e v e r a l demographic and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s .  Child-  f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s were found t o be s i m i l a r i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n : t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d tion.  i n detail in a later  C h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s were above average i n t h e i r ed-  u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l  attainments, and had high  esteem. One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y served t i n g u i s h c h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s from the general was  sec-  t h a t they tended t o be n o n - r e l i g i o u s .  reported  t h a t they had no r e l i g i o n .  sons who claimed  selfto d i s -  population  Three-quarters  Even among those p e r -  a nominal a f f i l i a t i o n the l e v e l of r e l i -  g i o s i t y was exceedingly ment, by p r i v a t e b e l i e f ,  low,  as measured by r i t u a l  o r simply  involve-  by l e v e l of i n t e r e s t .  Veevers' f i n d i n g s must be viewed as very t e n t a t i v e and exploratory.  No comparison group was used and the i n t e r v i e w  format was open-ended and u n s t r u c t u r e d .  Her work served t o  l a y the groundwork from which f u r t h e r , more s t r u c t u r e d r e search  c o u l d take p l a c e .  Toomey (1977) conducted an e x p l o r a t o r y - d e s c r i p t i v e study of 981 c o l l e g e women t o measure the amount of intended voluntary  c h i l d l e s s n e s s w i t h i n the group, and t o i d e n t i f y  v a r i a b l e s which d i s c r i m i n a t e d between women who intended and d i d not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n .  She found t h a t 11 percent  of the 981 women r e p o r t e d l y d i d not i n t e n d t o bear c h i l d r e n . From the o r i g i n a l sample, 63 women who d i d not i n t e n d t o become mothers and 175 women who intended  t o have c h i l d r e n  20  were f u r t h e r compared on 53 demographic and a t t i t u d i n a l variables.  Data were a n a l y z e d using both u n i v a r i a t e and  multivariate  procedures.  d i d not intend  F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d that women who  t o have c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from  those who d i d i n t h a t they had more e g a l i t a r i a n  attitudes  about the r o l e of w i f e and were more l i k e l y t o c o n s i d e r themselves f e m i n i s t s . Veevers  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s of  (1980), Toomey's (1977) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t women  choosing c h i l d l e s s n e s s  had h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l and occupa-  t i o n a l l e v e l s and d e s i r e d  work e x c e l l e n c e .  However, the two  groups of women d i d not d i f f e r i n the s i z e and s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n , o r i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s of s e l f competence and s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n .  The group of women  intend-  i n g no c h i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i k e l y than the other group t o be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h an organized r e l i g i o n , and was significantly  l e s s l i k e l y t o have been r e a r e d i n the  Catholic t r a d i t i o n . Ory  (1978) used a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o com-  pare 27 v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s couples and 54 v o l u n t a r y parents on a wide range of normative, sociodemographic, and psycho-social  variables.  L i k e the i n d i v i d u a l s i n Veevers'  (1980) and Toomey's (1977) s t u d i e s ,  childfree individuals  were much more l i k e l y t o be c u r r e n t l y educated than p a r e n t s . two  employed and h i g h l y  L i k e Veevers (1980), Ory found the  groups d i s t i n c t i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n (these f i n d -  ings w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s ) . Ory  found t h a t r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s  and behaviors  distin-  21  guished i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t r e p r o d u c t i v e <.05).  c h o i c e s (p_  C h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y  to consider  themselves n o n - r e l i g i o u s  l e s s l i k e l y t o attend  and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s than p a r e n t s .  In  a d d i t i o n , non-parents were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o dec l a r e themselves as a t h e i s t s or a g n o s t i c s .  Ory suggested  t h a t the f i n d i n g s t h a t nonparents h e l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s and engaged i n fewer  reli-  gious b e h a v i o r s than parents r e f l e c t e d a r e j e c t i o n of r e l i gions whose d o c t r i n e s did  not r e p o r t  are characterized  that possible  by p r o n a t a l i s m .  Ory  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between the  v a r i a b l e s measured were accounted f o r i n the a n a l y s i s of data, c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of these f i n d i n g s . Ramu (1986)  conducted research  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  tween demographic f a c t o r s and f e r t i l i t y c h o i c e s . c h i l d f r e e couples and 58 p a r e n t a l questionnaires.  couples r e t u r n e d mailed  S i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s  found between  the groups were c o n t r o l l e d f o r i n the a n a l y s i s . t h a t two v a r i a b l e s , education and  Fifty  (discussed  Ramu found  in a later  section)  r e l i g i o s i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  the two groups.  A s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was found between  low r e l i g i o s i t y and d e l i b e r a t e c h i l d l e s s n e s s .  Childfree i n -  d i v i d u a l s were much more l i k e l y t o be a g n o s t i c : compared t o 8.2 p e r c e n t of the parent group. percent of p a r e n t a l strong  influence  couples reported  45.6 percent  Twenty-five  r e l i g i o n t o have a  i n t h e i r l i v e s compared t o 3.5 p e r c e n t of  the c h i l d f r e e c o u p l e s .  22  The  f i n d i n g s of these s t u d i e s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h a t  r e l i g i o n had a strong negative childlessness. research  c o r r e l a t i o n with  R e l i g i o n has been emerging throughout the  as a f a c t o r t h a t q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s  between people based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g ing  voluntary  i n t e n t i o n s , suggest-  t h a t r e l i g i o n has a powerful i n f l u e n c e on f e r t i l i t y  decision-making. Ethnicity. C u l t u r a l background v a r i a b l e s may be expected t o have an impact on f e r t i l i t y r e l a t e d values  through the t r a n s m i s s i o n  (Fox e t a l . , 1982).  Few s t u d i e s of v o l u n t a r y  c h i l d l e s s n e s s have examined e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s Hoffman (1987) analyzed  of f e r t i l i t y  (Boyd, 1989).  data from the "Cross  National  Values of C h i l d r e n Study" a survey conducted i n 1975 i n which 1,000 t o 3,000 women under age 40, and one q u a r t e r of t h e i r husbands from each of e i g h t c o u n t r i e s were regarding  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  interviewed  s a t i s f a c t i o n s c h i l d r e n are per-  c e i v e d as p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e i r parents.  A secondary purpose  of the study was t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e values  of c h i l d r e n t o parents,  behavior.  The r e s e a r c h e r  needs c h i l d r e n s a t i s f i e d , nomic u t i l i t y ,  and f e r t i l i t y  a t t i t u d e s and  found t h a t the three most common i n descending order, were (1) eco-  (2) the need f o r primary t i e s and a f f e c t i o n  or love, and (3) t h e need f o r fun and s t i m u l a t i o n . Turkey, Indonesia, the P h i l i p p i n e s , and T h a i l a n d , common value was  of c h i l d r e n was economic u t i l i t y .  much l e s s frequent  i n the United  States.  For t h e most  This  value  Primary t i e s  23  and  a f f e c t i o n was  the value most commonly expressed by  v i d u a l s i n the United  States.  Stimulation  value most common i n Korea, Taiwan, and ing  to Hoffman  most o f t e n  and  Singapore.  p r o v i s i o n f o r care of the aged and  Accordwas  no  par-  official  disabled.  data from the C r o s s - n a t i o n a l  Survey was  the  f e r t i l i t y d e s i r e s , and was  t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t i n c o u n t r i e s where there was  The  fun was  (1987) the economic value of c h i l d r e n  l i n k e d to g r e a t e r  indi-  Values of  Children  a l s o used i n an e a r l i e r study by Hoffman  and  Manis (1979) to examine f e r t i l i t y m o t i v a t i o n s among e t h n i c groups w i t h i n  the United  States.  Significant differences  were found i n t h a t the d e s i r e d f a m i l y s i z e of b l a c k dents was  greater  education.  respon-  than f o r whites, even when c o n t r o l l i n g f o r  E c o n o m i c - u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e s were mentioned  sig-  n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n by b l a c k parents than white p a r e n t s (P_ ^ -001) .  Based on the f i n d i n g s of these s t u d i e s , Hoffman  (1987) proposed t h a t c h i l d r e n may needs f o r p a r e n t s and t u r a l v a l u e s and Fox  satisfy certain basic  these needs may  social  vary depending on  structures.  et a l . (1982) attempted to support the  socializa-  t i o n model of f e r t i l i t y d e c i s i o n s with a r e s e a r c h interviewing  project  g i r l s aged 14 to 16 as w e l l as t h e i r mothers,  with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on f a m i l y of o r i g i n v a r i a b l e s . dependent v a r i a b l e s were chosen f o r the study: the age  the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n d e s i r e d . behavioral  information  was  Two  preferred  of the teenage g i r l s f o r i n i t i a t i o n of c h i l d b e a r i n g ,  d i n a l , and  cul-  and  Demographic, a t t i t u obtained from  449  24  g i r l s and  t h e i r mothers, 56 percent of whom were b l a c k  44 percent white.  and  A l a r g e number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  analyzed from s i x g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s :  family  characteris-  t i c s , mother's a t t i t u d e s , mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p , daughter's c u r r e n t  s i t u a t i o n , daughter's sexual p r o f i l e ,  daughter's a t t i t u d e s .  For each independent v a r i a b l e  three stepwise m u l t i p l e f o r the t o t a l sample and rately.  regression one  and  set,  analyses were run,  one  f o r each of the races sepa-  For the dependant v a r i a b l e r e l e v a n t  to the  present  study, intended number of c h i l d r e n , three of the s i x s e t s independent v a r i a b l e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t : i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , mother's a t t i t u d e s , and titudes.  Only two  d i c t o r s of f a m i l y  s e t and  fam-  daughter's a t -  v a r i a b l e sets emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s i z e i n t e n t i o n s among b l a c k daughters:  daughter's sexual p r o f i l e and of c o n t r a s t ,  of  daughter's a t t i t u d e s .  f o r white daughters the  By  way  family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the mother's a t t i t u d e s set each accounted f o r over 8  p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e a l . d i d not  i n family  i n d i c a t e i n what way  size attitudes. the  Fox  et  independent v a r i a b l e s  were s i g n i f i c a n t , making i t d i f f i c u l t to gain a c l e a r unders t a n d i n g of how tentions.  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s impact f e r t i l i t y i n r e s e a r c h e r s concluded t h a t there was  evidence  t h a t the p r o c e s s of f e r t i l i t y s o c i a l i z a t i o n operated d i f f e r e n t l y by race s i n c e d i f f e r e n t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b l a c k s and The  whites.  f i n d i n g s of the three s t u d i e s  on e t h n i c i t y suggest  t h a t e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s do have a r e l a t i o n s h i p to p a r i t y .  25  None of the s t u d i e s however were d i r e c t l y concerned zero p a r i t y p r e f e r e n c e s , which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y from simply d e s i r i n g  low p a r i t y .  with  different  E t h n i c i t y i s not a f a c t o r  considered i n most s t u d i e s which focus on c h i l d f r e e Most of the r e s e a r c h i s conducted but t h i s may  be as much a matter  on Caucasian  people.  individuals,  of b i a s i n sample  selection  as a r e f l e c t i o n of a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n s . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o determine  i f c u l t u r a l norms  and values are t r a n s m i t t e d through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the impact  process  of these i n determining p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  R e l i g i o n and p o s s i b l y e t h n i c i t y appear to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n f e r t i l i t y decisions. w i l l attempt  In the present study, the r e s e a r c h e r  t o determine  more f u l l y the nature of the  t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n ,  rela-  e t h n i c i t y , and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n -  tions .  Family of O r i g i n . Some t h e o r i s t s have proposed adopt the parenthood and adolescence 1980).  How  r o l e may  (Campbell,  t h a t the wish to a v o i d or  be t r a c e d back to c h i l d h o o d  1985;  Houseknecht, 1979;  Veevers,  i n d i v i d u a l s come t o a c q u i r e the meanings t h a t  inform t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e b e h a v i o r i s a process t h a t may  be-  gin  i n c h i l d h o o d , i n f l u e n c e d by the form and nature of fam-  ily  life  (Campbell,  1985).  E a r l y c h i l d h o o d experiences  en-  courage c h i l d r e n t o i n t e r n a l i z e values and m o t i v a t i o n s (Gerson,  1985), and t o a n t i c i p a t e p l a y i n g f u t u r e a d u l t r o l e s  (Campbell).  Campbell has t h e o r i z e d t h a t i t i s w i t h i n the  26  f a m i l y of o r i g i n t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r parenthood and  i n d i v i d u a l s who  r e j e c t or accept parenthood do so on  b a s i s of t h e i r c h i l d h o o d experience ily  life.  The  begins,  and observation of fam-  f a m i l y of o r i g i n i s the primary  context  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the young c h i l d and continues to be i c a n t i n l a t e r years as w e l l Veevers'  first  borns.  of  signif-  (Fox et a l . , 1982).  (1980) r e s e a r c h on 156 v o l u n t a r i l y  i n d i v i d u a l s found  the  childfree  t h a t h a l f of the s u b j e c t s interviewed were  Through i n t e r v i e w s , Veevers found t h a t many of  the women had  experienced  where they had  the " l i t t l e mother syndrome,"  to care f o r younger s i b l i n g s .  Veevers a l s o  r e p o r t e d t h a t a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the c h i l d f r e e coup l e s i n t e r v i e w e d were only c h i l d r e n , as compared with general p o p u l a t i o n .  Some of these only c h i l d r e n spoke of  c h i l d - c a r e a n x i e t y a r i s i n g from t h e i r inexperience children. for  the  with  P r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s conducted by Veevers  more s t r u c t u r e d r e s e a r c h to support  or c o n t e s t her  call find-  ings . Ory's (1978) r e s e a r c h u s i n g semistructured  question-  n a i r e s to compare 27 c h i l d f r e e couples with 54 parents t h a t the two  found  groups were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r e a r l y back-  ground experiences  with r e s p e c t to f a m i l y p o s i t i o n ,  child-  care r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e i r mothers' work h i s t o r i e s a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r p a r e n t i n g r o l e . borns were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d  Although  and  first  i n both p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e r e were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more only c h i l d r e n among non-parents and f a r fewer l a s t - b o r n s .  The mothers of non-parent females tended  27  to be more i n v o l v e d  i n working outside the home.  In a d d i -  t i o n , c h i l d f r e e women (excluding only c h i l d r e n ) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o have had some c h i l d - c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c h i l d r e n than women who were  parents.  Toomey's (1977) comparison of 63 women who d i d not i n tend t o become mothers w i t h 175 women who d i d i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n d i d n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e the research or Ory (1978).  of Veevers  (1980)  The two groups i n Toomey's (1977) study d i d  not d i f f e r i n s i z e and s t r u c t u r e of f a m i l y of o r i g i n , nor d i d they d i f f e r i n b i r t h order.  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n these  f i n d i n g s might be accounted f o r by the f a c t that Toomey's research  focused  Ory's r e s e a r c h  on e a r l y a r t i c u l a t o r s whereas Veevers' and  concentrated  on women who had experienced  l i v i n g with t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e  choices.  factors influence reproductive  d e c i s i o n s a t i n t e n t i o n a l and  behavioral  Possibly d i f f e r e n t  stages.  Hendershot  (1969) hypothesized that c h i l d r e n  norms i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n which l a t e r t h e i r own f a m i l y p l a n n i n g  acquire  influence  d e c i s i o n s i n such a way as t o  cause them t o r e c a p i t u l a t e s i m i l a r demographic s t r u c t u r e s . This r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o be a f f e c t e d by the ceptions  per-  the i n d i v i d u a l holds as t o the success of the fam-  ily infulfilling  i t s functions.  I f the i n d i v i d u a l was s a t -  i s f i e d with t h e performance of t h e i r f a m i l y they may be more l i k e l y t o r e t a i n i t s norms.  A sample of 389 freshmen women  were asked t h e i r p r e f e r r e d f a m i l y s i z e . grouped i n t o small  (0-2), medium (3-4)  Responses were and l a r g e  (5 o r more)  28  family size preferences. .01)  A strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (p_fi  was found between the s i z e of a s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l y of  o r i g i n and t h e i r p r e f e r r e d f a m i l y s i z e . p e r c e p t i o n s of " s o l i d a r i t y "  Controlling for  i n s u b j e c t s ' f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n  did  not e l i m i n a t e the a s s o c i a t i o n found, but the a s s o c i a t i o n  was  p r o g r e s s i v e l y g r e a t e r between f a m i l y s i z e s f o r each  higher l e v e l of f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y .  Because t h i s study was  conducted many years ago i t may no longer be as s i g n i f i c a n t for  the p r e s e n t cohort of young women.  did  not d i r e c t l y explore t h e c h i l d f r e e o p t i o n , but the f i n d -  ings support  the h y p o t h e s i s  Hendershot  t h a t women from small  (1969)  families  are s u b j e c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t normative i n f l u e n c e s than women from l a r g e ones, and t h a t t h i s has an e f f e c t on p a r i t y . Some of the above s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e a tendency f o r women to  forgo p a r e n t i n g i f they were from small f a m i l i e s of o r i -  gin  o r i f they were e l d e s t c h i l d r e n .  Researchers  have sug-  gested t h a t women who were e l d e s t c h i l d r e n and were burdened with the care of younger s i b l i n g s are more l i k e l y t o forego having c h i l d r e n (Burgwyn, 1981; Faux, 1984; Ory, 1978; Veevers,  1980).  According  t o Burgwyn (1981), though secure and  competent i n c h i l d care, these women know the drudgery i n volved, o f f s e t t i n g the j o y f u l p i c t u r e presented by p r o n a t a l ism  (Burgwyn, 1981).  Some women i n the p o s i t i o n of e l d e s t  c h i l d may have p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t t h e i r c h i l d h o o d ities  responsibil-  l i m i t e d t h e i r c h o i c e s and p e r s o n a l freedom and growth  (Faux, 1984).  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r i n g f o r younger s i b -  l i n g s may c o n t r i b u t e t o a non-romantic image of c h i l d r e a r i n g  29  and a consequent d i s i n c l i n a t i o n toward the p a r e n t a l r o l e (Campbell, 1985). Researchers have s p e c u l a t e d t h a t only c h i l d r e n may be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y represented  i n the v o l u n t a r i l y  p o p u l a t i o n because they are unaccustomed t o babies t r e p i d a t i o n i n d e a l i n g with the unknown Veevers, 1980) .  childfree and f e e l  (Burgwyn, 1981;  One c h i l d f a m i l i e s do not r e p r e s e n t  cul-  t u r a l norms of the " f a m i l y i d e a l " , and growing up i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n may f a c i l i t a t e q u e s t i o n i n g the i n e v i t a b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of those norms (Campbell, 1985). ways t o t r a n s m i t i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l f e r t i l i t y through p a r e n t a l f e r t i l i t y  behavior;  of p a r e n t a l a c t i o n s speaks f o r i t s e l f  One of the values i s  the o b j e c t i v e  evidence  (Fox e t a l , 1982).  In  other words, p a r e n t s who l i m i t the number of c h i l d r e n they produce may t r a n s m i t t o t h e i r o f f s p r i n g through t h e i r behavior  the i d e a t h a t l i m i t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n  i s a positive  value. Although f i r s t borns and women from small f a m i l i e s seem to  choose c h i l d l e s s n e s s more o f t e n than others, t h e r e i s not  enough r e s e a r c h t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r p a t t e r n of the e f f e c t s of c h i l d h o o d f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n s on p a r e n t i n g a t t i t u d e s . Researchers have suggested t h a t these p a t t e r n s emerge out of normative i n f l u e n c e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n with experiences i n childhood  (Hendershot, 1969; Lichtman, 1976).  More r e s e a r c h  i s needed t o c l a r i f y i f these s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s do i n f a c t have an e f f e c t on p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  30  Situational  Factors  As women g a i n more c o n t r o l over t h e i r f e r t i l i t y , more options making may  as  become a v a i l a b l e to them, parenthood d e c i s i o n -  take p l a c e  on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l r a t h e r than  a r e s u l t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences Gerson, 1986; cording  and  Townes e t a l , 1977;  (Beckman, 1977,  White & Kim,  decision-making are becoming more v a l i d i n  1982;  1987).  to some t h e o r i s t s r a t i o n a l - i n s t r u m e n t a l  as  Ac-  models of  fertility  decision-making than models t h a t emphasize m o r a l - t r a d i t i o n a l or normative i n f l u e n c e s 1982).  Under the  could almost be  (Beckman, 1977;  Gerson, 1986;  1950s baby-boom f e r t i l i t y p a t t e r n  Sweet, marriage  equated w i t h parenthood s i n c e , f o r most cou-  ples, reproduction  u s u a l l y began immediately a f t e r mar-  r i a g e (Sweet, 1982) .  Today, r e p r o d u c t i o n  matter to be c o n s i d e r e d  may  be becoming a  i n something approximating  cost-  b e n e f i t s terms, r a t h e r than simply a concomitant of marriage (Sweet, 1982) . T h e o r i s t s who  adhere to r a t i o n a l i s t i c models of  i t y decision-making propose t h a t s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s the d e s i r e to have a c h i l d . c h i l d r e n and  influence  These i n c l u d e the value of  a l t e r n a t i v e sources of the value,  costs or degree of s a c r i f i c e i n v o l v e d B a r r i e r s and  fertil-  as w e l l  as  i n having a c h i l d .  f a c i l i t a t o r s are those v a r i a b l e s t h a t make i t  more d i f f i c u l t  or easy t o r e a l i z e the value,  nomic d e p r e s s i o n  or p r o s p e r i t y ,  such as eco-  or a v a i l a b i l i t y of  help  31  (Gormly e t al.,1987; Haas, 1974; Hoffman, " S u b j e c t i v e Expected U t i l i t y "  1974).  The  (SEU) model of f e r t i l i t y  decision-making proposed by Campbell e t a l .  (1982) regards  r e p r o d u c t i o n as an outgrowth of a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process.  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  subjective  p e r c e p t i o n s of the gains and l o s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r e n t hood leads them t o maximize these l o s s e s .  these gains and/or minimize  The d e c i s i o n may be based on both an i n d i v i d -  u a l ' s s i t u a t i o n and on t h e i r i d e n t i t y s t r u c t u r e s which a f f e c t how they s u b j e c t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  What  i s needed i s a s y s t e m a t i c assessment of the f a c t o r s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s i t u a t i o n and i d e n t i t y t h a t weigh most h e a v i l y upon r e p r o d u c t i v e d e c i s i o n s  (Campbell e t a l . ,  Employment and motherhood  1982).  may be thought of as two com-  p e t i n g r o l e s , each w i t h rewards and c o s t s of v a r y i n g sities.  inten-  Women may choose t h e i r amount of i n t e r a c t i o n i n  each of the s i t u a t i o n s depending on t h e i r p e r s o n a l rewardc o s t outcomes (Beckman, 1977).  E m p i r i c a l l y , women's l a b o r  f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been shown t o be n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i ated w i t h c h i l d b e a r i n g 1974;  Sweet, 1982;).  (White & Kim, 1987; R i t c h e y & Stokes, T h i s may occur because working p r o -  vides a rewarding a l t e r n a t i v e t o c h i l d b e a r i n g , or because work demands a commitment t h a t makes high p a r i t y very cult  (Epenshade, 1977).  diffi-  The c o n v e n t i o n a l c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n  i s b u i l t on the assumption t h a t i n order t o pursue a s e r i o u s c a r e e r , one must be s i n g l e minded about t h a t work 1986).  (Wilk,  C o n f l i c t s may a r i s e f o r women when they a r e c o n s i d -  32  e r i n g whether a f l e d g l i n g c a r e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t y can be maintained 1986).  along with maternal commitments  For many women today, work and  i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d ; c h o i c e s i n one tunities,  i n c e n t i v e s , and  (Wilk,  f a m i l y d e c i s i o n s are  sphere depend on oppor-  c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by the  other  (Gerson, 1986). Some younger women, p a r t i c u l a r l y those who ucated,  may  and  well-ed-  be coming to d e f i n e work i n the same ways  have always done. to  are  men  For these women work i s a means not  only  earn money, but a l s o to gain p r e s t i g e , esteem or worth, independence and  1985;  autonomy (Baruch et a l , 1983;  Gerson,  S c a n z i o n i & S c a n z i o n i , 1976). Burgwyn (1981) has  de-  l i n e a t e d some of the i s s u e s women face when combining a c a r e e r and motherhood. A c a r e e r tends to become more complicated and demand g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and e x p e r t i s e as i t evolves. and It  I t o f t e n r e q u i r e s a long term p e r s o n a l  i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a person's l i f e  commitment  (Burgwyn, 1981).  i s too s i m p l i s t i c to say t h a t some c a r e e r s mesh w e l l w i t h  parenthood and  others don't; the s i t u a t i o n depends on  per-  sonal energy l e v e l s , husband wife r e l a t i o n s , and many other factors.  But unquestionably  c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n s pose spe-  c i a l problems f o r women, p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e e r s , such as medicine and are a way ing  law,  of l i f e  i n which u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and (Burgwyn).  long hours  H i g h l y p r e s t i g i o u s and  promis-  c a r e e r s which are l i k e l y to i n c l u d e a l o t of upward  mo-  b i l i t y demand a commitment t h a t does not always allow time for  a baby.  Burgwyn has  suggested t h a t stepping o f f the  33  ladder i n a rewarding  and advancing  f i e l d can p r e c i p i t a t e a  l o s s of p l a c e along with the p o s s i b i l i t y of never r e g a i n i n g it,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e x e c u t i v e and t e c h n i c a l jobs.  According  to Burgwyn, c h i l d f r e e women have an advantage i n t h a t w i t h out the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c h i l d care they can stay l a t e a t work, s o c i a l i z e a f t e r hours,  take on e x t r a t r a i n i n g and r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y , and r e a l i z e the l i m i t s of t h e i r i n the work sphere.  The present  s i b i l i t y t h a t women choosing  capabilities  study w i l l explore the pos-  such c a r e e r s with high p r e s t i g e  and promise a r e more l i k e l y than t h e i r peers t o be i n t e n d i n g to forgo parenthood. An i s s u e of p o s s i b l e r e l e v a n c e t o p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s i s female dominated versus male dominated career c h o i c e . Faux (1984) has suggested  t h a t f o r many years women who  t r a i n e d f o r c a r e e r s d i d so with an eye on how t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s would accommodate motherhood.  Women who hoped t o  become mothers g r a v i t a t e d toward n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , o r l i b r a r y work, because the work was thought t o o f f e r  "practice"  f o r motherhood, and because the hours accommodated c h i l d r e n . Gerson  (1985) has proposed t h a t these p a t t e r n s have not  changed s u b s t a n t i a l l y , d e s p i t e the massive movement of women i n t o t h e work f o r c e .  In our s o c i e t y the labour market i s  segmented by sex, with most women r e l e g a t e d t o a s e t of jobs t h a t o f f e r low wages, p r e s t i g e , and advancement o p p o r t u n i t i e s compared with those awarded men, and t h i s  segregation  spans the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e from s e r v i c e . a n d c l e r i c a l t i o n s t o the p r o f e s s i o n s .  posi-  According t o Gerson a woman's  34  defining role i s s t i l l  a domestic one;  uous and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s t i l l Gerson, l i k e Faux, has suggested  work t i e s remain t e n take precedence.  t h a t the kinds of p a i d  labour t h a t women do a r e u s u a l l y extensions caretaking d u t i e s .  of domestic  I t has o f t e n been argued t h a t sex d i f -  ferences i n c a r e e r c h o i c e l a r g e l y r e f l e c t the c h o i c e s women make t o work a t jobs t h a t pay l e s s but allow them t o combine work and motherhood  (Waite,  Haggstrom & Kanouse 1986).  "Scholars of sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n attainment  i n the labor  market have long looked t o the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n t h e fami l y — e s p e c i a l l y c h i l d b e a r i n g and r e a r i n g — a s one source of these d i f f e r e n t i a l s "  (Waite e t a l . , p.43).  The p r e s e n t  study w i l l e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between parenthood c h o i c e and female or male dominated c a r e e r choices. Campbell  (1985) conducted a study of v o l u n t a r i l y  child-  f r e e couples c o n t a c t e d through a f a m i l y p l a n n i n g c l i n i c i n Scotland. seventy  The study c o n s i s t e d of u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s of  i n t e n t i o n a l l y c h i l d f r e e couples.  Campbell r e p o r t e d  t h a t the women she i n t e r v i e w e d , though from a h i g h e r  status  and b e t t e r educated s e c t i o n of the community, appeared cont e n t t o l i m i t t h e i r ambitions  t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine oc-  cupations and work as s e c r e t a r i e s , c l e r k s , nurses, and school t e a c h e r s .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Campbell d i d not p r o v i d e  s p e c i f i c numbers i n each occupation t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h e r c l a i m , i n s t e a d d i v i d i n g the women i n t o broad  occupational  c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n t e r m e d i a t e , and manual occupa-  35  tions.  F u r t h e r much more r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h i s needed  sup-  port or negate Campbell's p r o p o s a l that c h i l d f r e e women choose t r a d i t i o n a l l y female dominated B a r n e t t and MacDonald  occupations.  (1986) conducted r e s e a r c h on a  sample of 334 members of the N a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e of O p t i o n a l Parenthood people.  (NAOP) an o r g a n i z a t i o n of v o l u n t a r i l y  In a d d i t i o n t o demographic  childfree  i n f o r m a t i o n , respondents  were asked t o complete t h e Work Values Inventory (WVI), an instrument developed t o a s s e s s the goals which seek i n t h e i r  individuals  jobs and as a r e s u l t of t h e i r jobs.  The r e -  searchers d i d not use a comparison group, i n s t e a d r e l y i n g on a 1968 s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample of grade twelve students f o r the WVI, and " n a t i o n a l averages" f o r the demographic isons.  compar-  The v a l i d i t y of t h i s study may be questioned because  of the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o h o r t and age e f f e c t s . of t h i s study were s i m i l a r t o those of Campbell  The f i n d i n g s (1985) .  NAOP members were more o r i e n t e d toward work which permits freedom of a c t i o n and thought, and which i n v o l v e s a v a r i e t y of t a s k s .  These c h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s de-emphasized work  which y i e l d s p r e s t i g e , money, m a t e r i a l goods, and s e c u r i t y . T h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s were not as high as t h e i r educat i o n would p e r m i t them t o be.  The NAOP members exceeded the  general p o p u l a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n and income, but i n education more than income, i n d i c a t i n g an economic  de-emphasis.  In c o n t r a s t t o the s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d above by Campbell (1985) and B a r n e t t and MacDonald  (1986), i n r e s e a r c h con-  ducted by Veevers (1980) on v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e people  36  h a l f of the women were committed t o a demanding  profession.  At a time when the average woman earned approximately  sixty  percent of what a man would earn i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n , the v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e couples i n Veevers study shared almost equal e a r n i n g s , w i t h women earning on average f o r t y - f i v e percent of t h e i r combined incomes. said that  childlessness  The women i n t e r v i e w e d  was a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r  ing t h e i r c a r e e r involvement.  in facilitat-  According t o Veevers, these  women were ambitious and had a high degree of commitment t o t h e i r work. Bram  (1984) conducted r e s e a r c h t o determine i f v o l u n -  t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women were l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r sexrole orientation  as determined by t h e i r behavior,  and  T h i r t y v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women, 29  s e l f image.  women who were c u r r e n t l y children  i n the f u t u r e ,  c h i l d f r e e but p l a n n i n g t o have and 24 parents were asked c l o s e d and  open-ended q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e x - r o l e The  attitudes  orientations.  c h i l d f r e e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from both  the d e l a y i n g and p a r e n t a l women on the b e h a v i o r a l  variable  of achievement, as measured by e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l status.  The c h i l d f r e e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y  than the d e l a y s o r p a r e n t s t o have a t t a i n e d or d o c t o r a l (p_ < .001).  professional  degree or t o have some graduate s c h o o l  training  The c h i l d f r e e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  l i k e l y t o be i n p r o f e s s i o n a l tions  a  (p_ < .02).  than n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l occupa-  In a d d i t i o n ,  the c h i l d f r e e s u b j e c t s were  more l i k e l y t o be i n occupations that were t r a d i t i o n a l l y  37  male dominated  (1980)  Veevers's  (1985)  (p_ £ .001) .  Bram's f i n d i n g s are s i m i l a r t o  f i n d i n g s but d i f f e r e n t from Campbell's  and B a r n e t t and MacDonald's  (1986)  findings.  One  p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s may be the r e search methods used t o measure e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l attainments. The  study by Ramu  (1986)  d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y compared  58 couples with c h i l d r e n and 50 couples who were v o l u n t a r i l y childfree.  In an a n a l y s i s of data c o n t r o l l i n g f o r sex, Ramu  found no s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l  differ-  ences between husbands and no d i f f e r e n c e s between wives on occupational  levels.  D i f f e r e n c e s between c h i l d f r e e women  and mothers i n e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s showed  childfree  women t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h i g h l y educated than mothers. The  study d i d not t r a c e the e d u c a t i o n a l development of r e -  spondents through l i f e - c y c l e phases; the d e c i s i o n t o remain c h i l d l e s s may have l e d some women t o pursue education, but f o r others commitment t o e d u c a t i o n a l success may have r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i s i o n t o be c h i l d f r e e .  Ramu proposed t h a t  f o r the c h i l d f r e e , a commitment t o c h i l d r e n i s r e p l a c e d by a commitment t o e d u c a t i o n a l advancement and o c c u p a t i o n a l cess.  As a suggestion  t h a t the r e p r o d u c t i v e  suc-  f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h Ramu proposed i n t e n t i o n s and the e d u c a t i o n a l and oc-  c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s be compared a t an e a r l i e r stage  i n the l i f e - c y c l e t o b e t t e r determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between these v a r i a b l e s .  38  Houseknecht  (1978) conducted a research p r o j e c t t o de-  termine the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with the c h i l d b e a r i n g t i o n s of c o l l e g e undergraduates.  Using i n t e r v i e w s  inten-  and ques-  t i o n n a i r e s , a sample of 27 v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women who were e a r l y a r t i c u l a t o r s was compared with a sample of 27 women i n t e n d i n g  t o have c h i l d r e n who were s i m i l a r i n r e l i -  gion, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and e t h n i c i t y .  Houseknecht s f i n d i n g s 1  i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d f r e e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o come from mother dominated f a m i l i e s and t o have developed a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e from t h e i r f a m i l i e s during  adolescence.  C h i l d f r e e women were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as be-  ing  achievement o r i e n t e d and autonomous, as measured by the  Omnibus P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n marriage i n -  t e n t i o n s were found between the two groups i n t h a t c h i l d f r e e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o o v e r t l y r e j e c t or were u n c e r t a i n about t h e n o t i o n of marriage.  Further  sig-  n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n t h a t only 30 percent of the c h i l d f r e e women mentioned f a m i l i a l r o l e s as an important l i f e g o a l , as compared t o 74 percent ents.  of the i n t e n t i o n a l p a r -  C h i l d f r e e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more concerned  with achievement i n v o c a t i o n a l than i n p e r s o n a l  spheres (70%  compared t o 26% of the c h i l d - i n t e n d i n g women). An  important f i n d i n g i n Houseknecht's (1978) study was  t h a t the m a j o r i t y  of i n d i v i d u a l s who d e s i r e d no c h i l d r e n had  some degree o f r e f e r e n c e decision.  group support f o r t h e i r c h i l d f r e e  Houseknecht proposed t h a t s o c i a l support f o r t h e  c h i l d f r e e o p t i o n i s very  important i n t h a t i t helps t o a l l e -  39  v i a t e the e f f e c t s of p r e s s u r e s by p r o n a t a l i s m . may  and negative  sanctions  levied  Those who approve of or model c h i l d l e s s n e s s  enable i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e t a i n a p o s i t i v e i d e n t i t y by  means of s u p p o r t i v e  identification.  The present  study  f u r t h e r explore Houseknecht's f i n d i n g s by attempting  will  t o de-  termine i f c h i l d f r e e women a r e more l i k e l y t o know another woman who i s v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e . group support  Evidence of r e f e r e n c e  i n the form of o l d e r c h i l d f r e e women may sup-  p o r t Houseknecht's p r o p o s a l t h a t supportive  identification  plays a r o l e i n parenting i n t e n t i o n s . Houseknecht  (1978) attempted t o c o n s t r u c t a model from  her r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s which proposed t h a t the two f a m i l y of o r i g i n f a c t o r s she found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , mother-dominated f a m i l i e s and s u b j e c t ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e from t h e i r f a m i l i e s / produce an achievement o r i e n t a t i o n and an independence t h a t a r e o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as awareness and acceptance of a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s t o w i f e and mother.  This p r e d i s p o s i -  t i o n , accompanied by a b e l i e f t h a t the advantages of the c h i l d f r e e r o l e outweigh t h e disadvantages, group support,  and by r e f e r e n c e  i s b e l i e v e d t o lead t o acceptance o f the  c h i l d f r e e option.  Houseknecht d i d not perform  statistical  t e s t s of t h i s model on t h e data from her r e s e a r c h , it  i s purely t h e o r e t i c a l .  Though i n t e r e s t i n g ,  therefore  patterns  throughout the r e s e a r c h a r e not y e t c l e a r or c o n s i s t e n t enough t o support  t h i s model.  Jensen, C h r i s t e n s e n ,  and Wilson  whether young women's m o t i v a t i o n s  (1985) i n v e s t i g a t e d  f o r p a r e n t i n g versus work  40  were i n f l u e n c e d by the p e r c e i v e d rewards and c o s t s of the two r o l e s .  Respondents i n c l u d e d 8 3 female undergraduate  students aged 18 t o 2 3 .  Role c h o i c e was determined u s i n g a  seven p o i n t s c a l e on which s u b j e c t s r a t e d themselves from 1: d e s i r i n g t o be a parent  and not work outside the home t o 7:  d e s i r i n g t o not be a parent and work f u l l time.  Likert-type  s c a l e s were used t o determine the p e r c e i v e d rewards and c o s t s of t h e p a r e n t i n g and work r o l e s . multiple r e g r e s s i o n analyses,  Using a sequence of  i t was found t h a t the reward-  cost p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t i n g and work were p r e d i c t o r s of the two m o t i v a t i o n a l o p t i o n s . the p r e f e r e n c e  An important  f i n d i n g was t h a t  f o r a f u l l - t i m e c a r e e r and not t o be a parent  r e s u l t e d n o t from p e r c e p t i o n s of work, but from p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t i n g , which were seen as both c o s t l y and unrewarding.  F o r both r o l e p r e f e r e n c e s the p e r c e p t i o n of p a r e n t i n g  was more important a l . and Houseknecht  than t h e p e r c e p t i o n of work. (1978) both  Jensen e t  include early a r t i c u l a t o r s ,  u n l i k e a l l t h e other s t u d i e s which are r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n nature.  R e t r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s make i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine  i f c a r e e r commitment was a f a c i l i t a t o r , of the c h i l d f r e e o p t i o n .  Although  or simply a r e s u l t  both Houseknecht and  Jensen e t a l . found v o c a t i o n a l concerns to be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s , Jensen e t a l . found  the respondent's p e r c e p t i o n of  p a r e n t i n g t o be more important ing  intentions.  i n determining  their  parent-  More r e s e a r c h i s needed a t the e a r l y stages  of the c h i l d b e a r i n g d e c i s i o n process t o determine t h e r o l e of  e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l  factors.  41  Beckman (1977) conducted a study t o determine i f women d i f f e r i n t h e i r perceptions  of the rewards and c o s t s of par-  enthood and a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s .  One hundred and twenty-three  women were d i v i d e d i n t o s i x e q u a l l y s i z e d subgroups based on t h e i r work s t a t u s parity  ( p r o f e s s i o n a l and nonprofessional) and  (no c h i l d r e n , s m a l l f a m i l i e s , and l a r g e f a m i l i e s ) .  Beckman (1977) d i d not i n d i c a t e whether the c h i l d f r e e women were committed t o permanent c h i l d l e s s n e s s , but a l l the subj e c t s were i n t h e i r l a t e c h i l d b e a r i n g years. were compared u s i n g an i n t e r v i e w schedule  The s i x groups  i n c l u d i n g ques-  t i o n s about s a t i s f a c t i o n s and c o s t s of parenthood and employment, as w e l l as employment, e d u c a t i o n a l , and demographic data.  F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l  women a s s o c i a t e d h i g h e r g e n e r a l c o s t s with parenthood than d i d n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l women and they a l s o a s s o c i a t e d rewards with employment.  higher  P r o f e s s i o n a l women were more  l i k e l y t o be Jewish than the n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l women, and a l though they d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y by race, more b l a c k s were i n c l u d e d i n the n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l thor suggested t h a t , although these  sample.  The au-  beyond the scope of the study,  sociodemographic f a c t o r s may have c a u s a l e f f e c t s on  group d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n  f o r parenthood.  Beckman's  research r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p e r c e i v e d consequences of a des i r e f o r c h i l d r e n , as compared t o the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s , were found t o be i n f l u e n t i a l i n s u b j e c t ' s tility  i n t e n t i o n s and a c t u a l behavior  ning p r a c t i c e s .  concerning  fer-  birth plan-  Beckman's (1977) research, while not en-  42  t i r e l y e x p l a i n i n g the decision-making  process, suggests t h a t  a social-exchange approach c o u l d be v a l u a b l e i n the explanat i o n of f e r t i l i t y Motives  emerge out of s i t u a t i o n s and perhaps no one  situation w i l l avoidance understand  i n t e n t i o n s and b e h a v i o r .  i n v a r i a b l y produce meanings t o motivate  o r acceptance  of parenthood  (Campbell,  1985). To  c h i l d l e s s n e s s , however, i t i s necessary t o a t -  tempt t o i d e n t i f y s i t u a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l s with the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n s i d e r r o l e s other than (Campbell,  1985) .  parenthood  There a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s i n the r e -  search t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t between f e r t i l i t y dec i s i o n s and c a r e e r and e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s .  The r e s e a r c h t o  date seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t women who choose t o be c h i l d f r e e tend t o be o r i e n t e d t o a work focus more than a f a m i l i a l sphere of i n t e r e s t .  Throughout the s t u d i e s c h i l d f r e e women  c o n s i s t e n t l y present a p r o f i l e of being h i g h l y educated, and some s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d f r e e women a r e more o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n h i g h l y s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s than women who a r e p a r e n t s . ing  Much of the e m p i r i c a l work tak-  the approach t h a t women w i t h a g r e a t e r work commitment  are more l i k e l y t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r f e r t i l i t y  has taken a  r a t h e r q u e s t i o n a b l e c i r c u l a r approach by basing c o n c l u s i o n s on the amount of p r i o r work experience s u b j e c t s have 1982).  (Sweet,  I f work commitment o r c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n a r e invoked  as o p e r a t i v e i n the w o r k - f e r t i l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p , they need to be measured p r i o r t o , and independent rience  (Sweet, 1982) .  o f , the work expe-  More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o determine  43  i f education and o c c u p a t i o n are f a c t o r s p r e d i s p o s i n g women to  v o l u n t a r y c h i l d l e s s n e s s , or i f they are a consequence of  not having c h i l d r e n . For  many women, motherhood i s s t i l l  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t .  a primary source of  Today, women i n c r e a s i n g l y  have other r e s o u r c e s through which they can develop a s t r o n g identity  (Faux, 1984).  C h i l d b e a r i n g and labor f o r c e  i p a t i o n a r e not mutually e x c l u s i v e r o l e s f o r women.  particNever-  t h e l e s s , working and a c a r e e r may be seen as a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c h i l d b e a r i n g f o r women who are comparing ment and reward  (White & Kim, 1987).  choices f o r i n v e s t -  I f women make r a t i o n a l  d e c i s i o n s about the extent t o which they i n v e s t i n t h e i r own skills,  then those who expect t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r  activi-  t i e s p r i m a r i l y o r e x c l u s i v e l y on home and f a m i l y may make r e l a t i v e l y few investments i n t h e i r own job s k i l l s .  Those  who expect n o n - f a m i l i a l r o l e s may more o f t e n a c q u i r e knowledge and t r a i n i n g u s e f u l i n the job market 1986) .  (Waite e t a l .  For some women, t r a d e - o f f s between c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e s  and f a m i l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may occur when they f i r s t begin t o t h i n k about t h e i r a d u l t f u t u r e s  (Waite e t a l , 1986).  The  present study w i l l e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y that women who p l a n t o have c h i l d r e n a r e more l i k e l y than those who do not to  i n v e s t l e s s i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l pur-  s u i t s , and a r e more l i k e l y t o take a t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupation.  female  I f a d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s t h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t  young women's r e p r o d u c t i v e i n t e n t i o n s i n v o l v e a cost-benef i t s decision-making p r o c e s s .  44  Identity  Structures  S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have considered the p e r s o n a l  the p o s s i b i l i t y  that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l a r e r e l e v a n t  to p r o c r e a t i v e d e s i r e s .  Gerson  (1986) has p o s t u l a t e d  that  p o s s i b l y , as g r e a t e r r o l e choices become a v a i l a b l e t o women, the d e c i s i o n t o become a parent tity  emerges from complex  iden-  s t r u c t u r e s , r a t h e r than from more e x t e r n a l and s o c i o -  l o g i c a l l y based v a r i a b l e s .  Hoffman and Levant  (1985) have  suggested t h a t motherhood i s such a powerful mandate t h a t t o opt out r e q u i r e s a s t r o n g  set of p e r s o n a l values which  date such a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l c h o i c e .  vali-  P o s t u l a t i o n s about the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s and p a r e n t i n g choices have l e d t o some p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h  exploring  these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Some s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have t h e o r i z e d t h a t women who are v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s a r e e m o t i o n a l l y normal  and mentally ab-  (Deutsch, 1944; E r i k s o n , 1964; Freud, 1961) .  (1961) and t r a d i t i o n a l Freudian  psychoanalysts  adhere t o the  b e l i e f t h a t motherhood i s e s s e n t i a l t o the h e a l t h y psyche. Freud  Freud  feminine  In d e s c r i b i n g the development of the female c h i l d  (1961) s t a t e s She  g i v e s up her wish f o r a penis and puts i n p l a c e of  i t a wish f o r a c h i l d :  and with t h a t purpose i n view  she takes her f a t h e r as a love o b j e c t . comes t h e o b j e c t of her j e a l o u s y . i n t o a l i t t l e woman (p. 256).  Her mother be-  The g i r l has turned  45  Deutsch  (1944) suggested t h a t women are by nature  and m a s o c h i s t i c ,  and t h a t pregnancy f u l f i l l s  passive  the deepest and  most powerful female need: those without that need have a " m a s c u l i n i t y complex." are e i g h t p r o g r e s s i v e  Erikson  (1964) proposed t h a t  there  stages of development and the c r i s i s  of each stage must be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s o l v e d f o r "normal" human  development.  F a i l u r e t o reproduce f o i l s the seventh  stage of " g e n e r a t i v i t y " , the establishment  and guidance of  the next g e n e r a t i o n .  (1964) "The woman  who does n o t f u l f i l l space", o r u t e r u s ,  According  to Erikson  her innate need t o f i l l  her " i n n e r  w i t h embryonic t i s s u e i s l i k e l y  f r u s t r a t e d or neurotic" Recent r e s e a r c h  t o be  (p.590).  has not s u b s t a n t i a t e d  such  proposals  that v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women are n e u r o t i c , immature, o r otherwise p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y abnormal (Burgwyn, 1981; C a l l a n , 1987;  Campbell, 1985; Greenglass & B o r o v i l o s , 1985; Ruch,  1985;  Veevers, 1980) .  There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s , however, t h a t  women w i t h v a r i a n t p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  on s e v e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l gender-role  High s e l f - e s t e e m  i d e n t i t y a r e two t r a i t s  and a  that, i n  some s t u d i e s , seem t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women from t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s  (Burman & de Anda, 1986;  Gerson, 1986; Greenglass & B o r o v i l o s , 1985; Veevers, 1980) .  Gender-role i d e n t i t y Greenglass and B o r o v i l o s  (1985) have suggested t h a t  p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a -  46  d i t i o n a l gender r o l e s , should be examined i n e x p l o r i n g women's parenthood  intentions.  According t o gender r o l e  ideology, d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s are assigned t o males and females  i n accordance  with t h e i r s o c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d  gender r o l e  (Greenglass & B o r o v i l o s , 1985).  Gender r o l e  r e f e r s t o the t o t a l range of behaviors t h a t l a b e l the degree to which one i s masculine, 1986).  feminine, or undecided  (Wilk,  One's g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t y i s d e f i n e d as the degree  to which a person  endorses  i s t i c s as s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e  feminine and masculine c h a r a c t e r (Bern, 1974).  The t r a d i t i o n a l  feminine g e n d e r - r o l e i n c l u d e s e x p r e s s i v e t r a i t s ,  mothering  and c a r i n g f o r o t h e r s , nurturance, p a s s i v i t y , dependence and sensitivity.  The t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e encourages a c h i e v e -  ment i n i n s t r u m e n t a l g o a l s , power, dominance, and independence (Greenglass & B o r o v i l o s , 1985). S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s no longer c o n s i d e r m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y t o be o p p o s i t e ends of a b i p o l a r dimension, b u t r a t h e r they a r e seen as two independent 1974).  dimensions  (Bern,  A man or woman can be both a g g r e s s i v e and n u r t u r a n t ,  or have n e i t h e r of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The concept of  p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny i m p l i e s f l e x i b i l i t y of s e x - r o l e s / because people who f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n have a v a r i e t y of both masculine  and feminine t r a i t s .  Because androgynous i n -  d i v i d u a l s do not have s e x - r o l e images t o maintain, they can engage i n whatever behavior seems most e f f e c t i v e , r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t i s s t e r e o t y p e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e i t h e r males or females  (Bern, 1974; S c h a f f e r , 1980) .  People who do not  47  conform t o t r a d i t i o n a l gender-roles  are perhaps f r e e r t o en-  gage i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r . Sweet (1982) and Kupinsky  (1977) have proposed t h a t a  modern or t r a d i t i o n a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n i s c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d t o both work and f e r t i l i t y and produces the a s s o c i a t i o n between the two b e h a v i o r s .  Kupinsky has hypothesized  t h a t the more modern, i n s t r u m e n t a l  and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a  woman's s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , the more l i k e l y she i s t o perc e i v e the economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s of working as g r e a t e r than the economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s of bearing  and r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , and thus t o be more s t r o n g l y  committed t o her worker r o l e and t o r e s t r i c t her f a m i l y size.  Conversely, the more t r a d i t i o n a l ,  family-centered  a  woman's s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , the more l i k e l y she i s t o p e r c e i v e the economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s of c h i l d b e a r i n g and r e a r i n g as g r e a t e r than the b e n e f i t s of working. Watkinson  (1984) s t u d i e d the r o l e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l an-  drogyny, locus of c o n t r o l , and m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l s who were v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s .  A correlational  survey was conducted w i t h a t o t a l of 90 i n d i v i d u a l s : f i f t e e n married couples i n t h r e e groups who were v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s , intended  parenting,  the Bern S e x - r o l e  Inventory  and p a r e n t i n g  were  administered  (BSRI, Bern 1974), as w e l l as a  measure of m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and locus of c o n t r o l . s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between v o l u n t a r y l e s s n e s s and scores  on t h e BSRI.  No child-  Significant differences  were found i n t h a t v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s females were more  48  often i n t e r n a l i n t h e i r  l o c u s of c o n t r o l , and the v o l u n t a r -  i l y c h i l d l e s s men and women were found t o have a higher mari t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n than those who intended p a r e n t i n g or were parenting.  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study need t o be i n t e r -  preted with c a u t i o n because the sample groups c o n s i s t e d of both males and females. tity,  In determining gender-role i d e n -  sex d i f f e r e n c e s a r e l i k e l y t o obscure any other  ferences.  The females  and males were compared s e p a r a t e l y  and, when broken down i n t o these s m a l l e r groups, may  dif-  the numbers  have been too s m a l l t o be a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. Cohen (1984) attempted  t o i d e n t i f y some of the person-  a l i t y and f a m i l y background v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h women who s t a t e an i n t e n t i o n not t o parent from those who do i n tend t o mother. psychology  Subjects were students i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y  c o u r s e : 34 women who were very c e r t a i n they i n -  tended t o parent and 26 women who were moderately c e r t a i n they intended n o t t o parent.  or very  Perceptions of parents  were measured u s i n g the Parent Behavior Form, and f i n d i n g s suggested t h a t c h i l d f r e e women were l e s s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i r mothers and saw t h e i r mothers as l e s s warm than women who intended t o p a r e n t . ing  S e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y was measured us-  the Bern S e x - r o l e Inventory  Watkinson  (1984), Cohen  (Bern, 1974).  Unlike  (1984) found t h a t the women who  intended t o remain c h i l d f r e e were more l i k e l y t o have a masculine  s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y and were lower i n f e m i n i n i t y  than the women who intended t o be mothers. f i n d i n g s support Kupinsky's  Cohen's (1984)  (1977) p r o p o s a l t h a t the more  instrumental  and the l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l a woman's s e x - r o l e  o r i e n t a t i o n , the more l i k e l y she i s t o l i m i t her f a m i l y size. Teicholz  (1977) undertook a search f o r  c o r r e l a t e s of v o l u n t a r y  psychological  c h i l d l e s s n e s s i n married women.  Three c l u s t e r s of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were measured p e r t a i n i n g t o s o c i a l adjustment, mental h e a l t h , tity.  and sexual  iden-  Two groups of married women aged 23 t o 38 from s i m i -  l a r educational  and socioeconomic backgrounds were compared  T h i r t y - e i g h t women who had decided t o never have c h i l d r e n were compared t o 32 who were planning c h i l d w i t h i n a two year p e r i o d .  t o have t h e i r f i r s t  The study found no s i g n i f i  cant d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups of women on any of the s c a l e s of the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l the Franck Drawing Completion t e s t .  Inventory or on  The measure on which  the two groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y was the Bern Inventory. to score  Sex-role  The v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d l e s s group was more l i k e l y  i n the androgynous category, the masculine sex-  typed category, o r the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d category; the women planning  t o have c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y t o score  feminine sex-typed category. (1984), suggest t h a t there  i n the  These r e s u l t s , l i k e Cohen's  i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between volun-  t a r y c h i l d l e s s n e s s and a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l gender-role i n women. Gerson  (1980) conducted a m u l t i v a r i a t e e x p l o r a t i o n of  m o t i v a t i o n s f o r parenthood i n 184 unmarried, c h i l d l e s s , f e male c o l l e g e undergraduates.  The Index of Parenthood  50  Motivation  (IPM, Gerson, 1980) was developed  by the  r e s e a r c h e r t o assess t h e most important aspects of the wish to parent. R e l i a b i l i t y data f o r the measure was found t o be .85.  The v a l i d i t y of the measure was l i m i t e d , r a i s i n g the  question as t o whether parenthood  m o t i v a t i o n was being  e f f e c t i v e l y measured, however the IPM was found t o have s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y f o r known groups i n c l u d i n g adoption seekers and members of the N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n of Non-Parents  (Gerson,  1986) .  B i r t h order was not found t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o parenthood Veevers  (1980) and Ory's  Toomey's (1977) f i n d i n g s .  motivation, c o n t r a s t i n g  (1978) f i n d i n g s , and s u p p o r t i n g Gerson  that women from l a r g e f a m i l i e s  (1980) d i d f i n d however,  (3 or more s i b l i n g s )  expressed more d e s i r e f o r c h i l d r e n than women from s m a l l e r families.  R e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n was not r e l a t e d t o  parenthood  m o t i v a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o a l l the other s t u d i e s  d i s c u s s e d i n which r e l i g i o n was a v a r i a b l e .  Gerson's  (1980)  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e memories of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d maternal  l o v e , a n t i f e m i n i s t sympathy and t r a d i t i o n a l  feminine s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were the primary  unique  v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t i n g f o r expressed d e s i r e f o r c h i l d r e n . Sex-role i d e n t i t y was measured by the Bern S e x - r o l e (Bern, 1974) .  Inventory  Instead o f measuring Androgyny by the usual  means of a median computation,  the score was computed by the  product of t h e M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s , w i t h t h e separate Masculine and Feminine  components p a r t i a l l e d out  51  f o r the purpose of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s .  This methodology  l i m i t s comparisons between s t u d i e s . Though the four s t u d i e s above used the same measure of s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y , c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s were found  i n that  Cohen (1984), T e i c h o l z (1977) and Gerson (1980) found n i f i c a n c e where Watkinson  (1984) d i d not.  sig-  The three s t u d i e s  that d i d f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s showed d i f f e r e n t t i o n s h i p s between g e n d e r - r o l e t i o n s and c h o i c e s .  i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n -  Gender-role  i d e n t i t y seems t o be r e l a t e d  to p a r e n t i n g c h o i c e s , b u t the exact nature ship i s not y e t obvious.  rela-  of the r e l a t i o n -  More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o g a i n a  c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s . In g e n e r a l , r e s e a r c h seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t women opting out of parenthood a r e not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine t r a i t s 1980;  (Gerson,  Waite e t a l . , 1986).  between gender-role  1980; Hoffman, 1975; Veevers,  In t h i s study the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s w i l l  be f u r t h e r explored by examining the gender-role  identities  of c o l l e g e women with d i f f e r i n g p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  Self-esteem Self-esteem  can be d e f i n e d as the e v a l u a t i o n which  people make and c u s t o m a r i l y maintain with regard t o themselves.  I t expresses  an a t t i t u d e of approval o r  d i s a p p r o v a l and i n d i c a t e s the extent t o which i n d i v i d u a l s b e l i e v e themselves t o be capable,  significant, successful,  52  and worthy  (Coopersmith,  judgement of worthiness  1967). Self-esteem i s a p e r s o n a l t h a t i s expressed  i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d towards themselves According t o Coopersmith  i n the a t t i t u d e s  (Coopersmith).  s e l f - e s t e e m i s a s s o c i a t e d with  personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g .  Persons  with high s e l f - e s t e e m a r e g e n e r a l l y happier and more e f f e c t i v e i n meeting environmental low s e l f - e s t e e m (Coopersmith).  demands than persons  with  People with low s e l f - e s t e e m  are g e n e r a l l y l e s s capable of r e s i s t i n g p r e s s u r e s t o conform than people with high s e l f - e s t e e m , who appear t o maintain a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t p o s i t i v e image of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s as i n d i v i d u a l s proposed  (Coopersmith).  Coopersmith  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - e s t e e m and c o n f o r m i t y  based on the assumption  t h a t people with negative  a t t i t u d e s p l a c e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s on s o c i a l p o s s i b l y needing  participation,  t o seek s o c i a l approval and s t a t u s t o  obtain a favorable s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . themselves  self-  Persons who r e g a r d  n e g a t i v e l y may be i n c l i n e d t o be p a s s i v e i n  adapting t o environmental  demands and p r e s s u r e s , while  those who p l a c e a h i g h e r value upon themselves more a c t i v e and a s s e r t i v e p o s i t i o n  w i l l adopt a  (Coopersmith).  This  viewpoint may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the present r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t women with h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m may be b e t t e r equipped  t o step o u t s i d e the s o c i a l l y approved  role  of motherhood. A c c o r d i n g t o Gergen  (1971), when t h e r e i s a dissonance  between the r o l e an i n d i v i d u a l chooses t o accept and her a t -  53  t i t u d e s towards a p p r o p r i a t e women's r o l e s , there i s a r e s u l t a n t lowering of s e l f - e s t e e m . suggested  Baruch e t a l . (1983) have  t h a t when women f e e l they are d e f y i n g the d i c t a t e s  of s o c i e t y , they o f t e n f e e l s e l f - d o u b t and s u f f e r from a threatened l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m . "We are a f f e c t e d by what others expect of us, and when we are not doing what s o c i e t y expects of us, we f e e l threatened." p.40).  (Baruch e t a l .  1983,  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , r a t h e r than s e l f - e s t e e m a f -  f e c t i n g conformity, c o n f o r m i t y pressures a f f e c t s e l f - e s t e e m . I f t h i s i s the case, then women who f e e l they a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r not wanting c h i l d r e n may have low s e l f - e s t e e m . mity p r e s s u r e s c o u l d be seen as having an impact  Confor-  a t the i n -  t e n t i o n a l as w e l l as the b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l of parenthood decision-making because s e l f - e s t e e m i s a s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e judgement and young women who d e s i r e c h i l d l e s s n e s s might f e e l s e l f doubt i n response  to societal  attitudes.  Burman and de Anda (1986) compared 30 i n t e n t i o n a l l y c h i l d l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s with 46 parents who had e x e r t e d an equal amount of c o n t r o l over t h e i r f a m i l y s i z e : t h a t i s the parents had planned the number, t i m i n g , and spacing of t h e i r children. men  The sample c o n s i s t e d of s l i g h t l y more women than  i n both groups.  The two groups were markedly  similar  with r e g a r d t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n with the e x c e p t i o n t h a t more c h i l d l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s came from s i n g l e parent families,  c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h the f i n d i n g s of Ory's (1978) and  Veevers's  (1980) r e s e a r c h .  A significant difference i n re-  l i g i o s i t y was found between the two groups:  fifty-three  54  p e r c e n t of the c h i l d l e s s versus 13 percent of the parents were not p r a c t i c i n g members of an organized r e l i g i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g confirms the r e s u l t s of most of the other s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d t h a t c h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s are l e s s l i k e l y to have strong r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s .  Two  personality  t i c s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the groups: j e c t s had  characteris-  the c h i l d l e s s sub-  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher s e l f - e s t e e m on the  Coopersmith  Self-Esteem Inventory, and they were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n conformity than the p a r e n t s . r e s e a r c h e r s suggested connected  The  these p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s might be  to the w i l l i n g n e s s of c h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s t o  make a c h o i c e t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d to be d e v i a n t . In the a n a l y s i s of the data the sex of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  was  not c o n t r o l l e d f o r , l i m i t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of g e n e r a l i z i n g and comparing the Feldman  results.  (1981) conducted  a comparative  study of 42 i n -  t e n t i o n a l l y p a r e n t a l couples and 37 i n t e n t i o n a l l y couples on a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s . the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment  childless  Feldman d i d not d i s c u s s  of the data i n d e t a i l , making i t  d i f f i c u l t to assess the v a l i d i t y of d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were claimed t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .  The two groups were found t o  d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n ; the p a r e n t a l couples were more l i k e l y P r o t e s t a n t or C a t h o l i c , and  the  c h i l d l e s s couples were more l i k e l y to have no r e l i g i o u s a f filiation.  Feldman found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  e d u c a t i o n a l or o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of the husbands, but c h i l d f r e e wives were more l i k e l y to be employed and  had  the  55  higher l e v e l s of education  (p_ c .01).  s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s designed  A  non-standardized  by the r e s e a r c h e r was used t o  determine s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s , and on t h i s measure women i n tending parenthood were more l i k e l y t o have t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards women (p_ < .001). Inventory No for  The Rosenberg  (Rosenberg, 1965) was used t o assess  Self-Esteem  self-esteem.  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two groups e i t h e r men or women i n l e v e l s of s e l f - e s t e e m  t h a t r e p r o d u c t i v e c h o i c e s are not a s s o c i a t e d with  suggesting self-es-  teem . Gerson  (1986) conducted a study s i m i l a r t o her 1980  study using o l d e r s u b j e c t s  (mean age 28) i n s t e a d of c o l l e g e  students, and s u b j e c t s of both sexes (113 women and 75 men). The  Index of Parenthood M o t i v a t i o n d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y was  used i n t h i s study t o measure parenthood m o t i v a t i o n . s u l t s were analyzed  Re-  f o r females and males s e p a r a t e l y by mul-  t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n , with a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g of s e t s of independent v a r i a b l e s . Gerson s 1  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study  replicated  (1980) p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t f o r women, psycholog-  i c a l f a c t o r s accounted f o r g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e i n parenthood m o t i v a t i o n than d i d demographic v a r i a b l e s . men  In c o n t r a s t , f o r  demographic v a r i a b l e s alone accounted f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n  motivation.  Gerson  (1986) suggested  that t h i s finding i s a  r e c e n t t r e n d and a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of g r e a t e r s e x - r o l e r e l a t e d c h o i c e s f o r women.  The d e c i s i o n of whether t o become a par-  ent may no longer come s o l e l y from e x t e r n a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l l y based v a r i a b l e s , but from a complex s t r u c t u r e of per-  56  s o n a l i t y and i d e n t i t y .  Three v a r i a b l e s were found  to s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h between women based on t h e i r hood m o t i v a t i o n s :  parent-  (1) n a r c i s s i s m was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o  parenthood m o t i v a t i o n , which Gerson  (1986) notes  i s a re-  verse of the n o t i o n t h a t women might want a c h i l d f o r narc i s s i s t i c reasons.  (2) memories of f a t h e r ' s love were p o s i -  t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o m o t i v a t i o n f o r parenthood, a r e v e r s a l of Gerson's 1984 study.  (3) women with strong m o t i v a t i o n s f o r  parenthood had low s e l f - e s t e e m as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem  Scale  (Rosenberg, 1965).  The s i g n i f i c a n t  dif-  ferences i n s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s found between the two groups of women i n t h i s study c o n t r a s t with the f i n d i n g s of Feldman's (1981) study where no d i f f e r e n c e s were found the same measure.  using  T h i s c o n t r a s t might p o s s i b l y have been a  r e s u l t of a d i f f e r e n c e between the measurement of parenthood m o t i v a t i o n and a c t u a l r e p r o d u c t i v e behavior.  Another p o s s i -  b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c o n t r a s t may be t h a t Feldman's study i n c l u d e d i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers of women f o r accurate izations.  general-  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between low s e l f - e s t e e m and high  parenthood m o t i v a t i o n found  i n Gerson's study seems t o i n d i -  cate a d i f f e r e n t e x p l a n a t i o n than the p o s s i b i l i t y ,  proposed  by Burman and de Anda (1986), t h a t women need t o have high s e l f - e s t e e m t o maintain  a childfree lifestyle.  gested t h a t women with d i f f i c u l t i e s still  Gerson sug-  i n s e l f - c o n c e p t may  look t o motherhood as compensation f o r t h e i r  deficien-  c i e s i n an e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e s e l f - w o r t h through s e r v i n g the needs of o t h e r s .  57  The  s t u d i e s by Burman and de Anda (1986) and  (1986), tend to support  Coopersmith's  s e l f - e s t e e m i s r e l a t e d to conformity  Gerson  (1967) proposal t h a t i n that i n d i v i d u a l s  with high s e l f - e s t e e m step o u t s i d e the s o c i a l l y approved r o l e of parenthood more o f t e n than those with low teem.  The  self-es-  f i n d i n g s of a l l t h r e e s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d have d i f -  f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of self-esteem to parenting choices.  Burman and de Anda (1986) determined  t h a t c h i l d f r e e women have h i g h e r self-esteem, whereas Feldman  (1981) found  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , and Gerson  (1986) found women h i g h l y motivated self-esteem.  f o r parenthood had  More r e s e a r c h i s needed to understand  l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and  Research r e s u l t s are beginning  low  the r e -  self-esteem.  to t e n t a t i v e l y  illumi-  nate some of the f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with c h i l d b e a r i n g i n t e n tions.  S o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i g i o n , seem  to be a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s . not a l l ,  Some, though  of the s t u d i e s have found t h a t c h i l d f r e e women are  n o n - r e l i g i o u s , from s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s , and more o f t e n born than women o p t i n g f o r parenthood.  first  E t h n i c i t y i s a so-  c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r t h a t has the p o s s i b i l i t y of a f f e c t i n g p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s but r e s e a r c h i s very sparse i n t h i s area.  S i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s are emerging out of the r e s e a r c h  as important  i n the parenthood c h o i c e process.  In some  s t u d i e s c h i l d f r e e women appear to a s p i r e to higher occupat i o n a l and  e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s than women with c h i l d r e n .  Some  58  of the r e s e a r c h  has i n d i c a t e d that gender-role i d e n t i t y and  self-esteem are i d e n t i t y structures people with v a r y i n g  parenting  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h between  intentions.  Several  have shown t h a t v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women have  studies non-tradi-  t i o n a l g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t i e s and high s e l f - e s t e e m i n comparison  t o women who i n t e n d  parenting  role.  t o adopt or have adopted t h e  An important f i n d i n g by Houseknecht (1978)  that has not r e c e i v e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y  further attention  i n the r e s e a r c h ,  was  of i n d i v i d u a l s who d e s i r e d no c h i l d r e n had  some degree of r e f e r e n c e  group support f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n .  These f i n d i n g s cannot y e t be c o n s i d e r e d c o n c l u s i v e .  No s i n -  g l e f a c t o r has c o n s i s t e n t l y been s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l s t u d i e s , and  a f i n d i n g i n one study i s not always r e p l i c a t e d i n s i m i -  lar studies. and  In most of the research  sample s i z e s a r e s m a l l  s e l e c t i o n procedures non-random, l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i z -  a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . more r e s e a r c h  C l e a r l y a l l the f a c t s a r e not i n ;  i s needed t o enhance the body of knowledge  about which f a c t o r s a r e r e l e v a n t L i t t l e research  to parenting  intentions.  has been done on the p a r e n t i n g  t i o n s of young women.  inten-  Choosing a cohort of young women as  the focus of t h e p r e s e n t study has a t w o f o l d purpose. first  The  i s t o e x p l o r e whether s o c i a l changes and new peer  group have r e s u l t e d i n new f a c t o r s becoming r e l e v a n t enting  intentions.  Gerson  (1980), and Cohen (1984) compared  c o l l e g e women w i t h d i f f e r i n g p a r e n t i n g vations  f o r parenthood.  t o par-  i n t e n t i o n s and m o t i -  The f i n d i n g s of these two s t u d i e s  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t e a r l y a r t i c u l a t o r s of the c h i l d f r e e  59  option a r e o r i e n t e d towards a more n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l genderr o l e than young women d e s i r i n g c h i l d r e n , p o s s i b l y suggesting t h a t younger women are beginning  t o make t h e i r parenthood  choices on a more i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . choosing  The second reason f o r  t o study younger women i s t o permit an e x p l o r a t i o n  of p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s b e f o r e these preferences a r e complicated by other i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , or d i s t o r t e d by a r e t r o s p e c t i v e viewpoint.  S t u d i e s of e a r l y a r t i c u l a t o r s by  Toomey (1977) and Houseknecht  (1978) i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d f r e e  women d e s i r e achievement i n v o c a t i o n a l spheres more o f t e n than young women d e s i r i n g parenthood.  Although  s t u d i e s a r e not c u r r e n t , they do suggest  these two  that s i t u a t i o n a l  f a c t o r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o young women's p a r e n t i n g i n t e n tions.  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r w i l l attempt t o determine  whether young women's p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s .  I f women a r e  found t o d i f f e r a t the i n t e n t i o n a l l e v e l of r e p r o d u c t i v e decision-making,  t h i s may suggest  t i o n a l f a c t o r s have an a p r i o r i  t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l and occupaimpact on p a r e n t i n g i n t e n -  t i o n s and a r e not simply the r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r lifestyle. In the p a s t parenthood was p r e s c r i b e d f o r a l l married couples, d e s p i t e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s and personal c o m p a t i b i l i t y f o r the r o l e .  However, with the growing number of ap-  p e a l i n g and f u l f i l l i n g r o l e options becoming a v a i l a b l e ,  par-  t i c u l a r l y f o r women, i n d i v i d u a l s need t o c a r e f u l l y assess . t h e i r o p t i o n s and s e l e c t r o l e s which w i l l b r i n g them the  60  g r e a t e s t degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n . decisions,  When making r e p r o d u c t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l s need t o understand how the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process  may serve t o i n f l u e n c e p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s , and have f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n about  situational  f a c t o r s and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s which may be s a l i e n t t o t h e i r decision.  The p r e s e n t  r e s e a r c h e r w i l l attempt t o i l l u m i n a t e  the p s y c h o s o c i a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with parenthood o p t i o n s t h a t may be important women making r e p r o d u c t i v e d e c i s i o n s . the l i t e r a t u r e ,  considerations for  Based on a review of  s e v e r a l f a c t o r s appear t o be emerging as  s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g women based on t h e i r choices.  B i r t h order and s i z e of f a m i l y of o r i g i n ,  religion,  ethnicity,  occupation,  supportive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  self-esteem,  and gender-role  parenting  education,  i d e n t i t y are some  of the f a c t o r s t h a t appear t o p l a y a r o l e i n p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and b e h a v i o r s . There i s a need t o have knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e between i n d i v i d u a l s who i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n and those who v o l u n t a r i l y i n t e n d not t o have children.  I f we can l e a r n about the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s o c i a l i z a t i o n , reproductive  s i t u a t i o n a l , and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s and  i n t e n t i o n s , we w i l l be p r o v i d i n g  information  which may, i n time, enhance r e p r o d u c t i v e  decision-making  ease and may f a c i l i t a t e  reproductive  choices.  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  Based on a review of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , t h e  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were generated:  61  Hypotheses Problem Statement What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s who d e f i n i t e l y i n t e n d  t o have c h i l d r e n  women who probably i n t e n d and  ("definitely  t o have c h i l d r e n  women who probably o r d e f i n i t e l y intend  children  ("childfree")  order, s i z e of f a m i l y  on the f o l l o w i n g  between women yes"),  ("probably  yes"),  t o never have  factors: birth  of o r i g i n , e t h n i c i t y , r e l i g i o n ,  education p l a n s , o c c u p a t i o n p l a n s , self-esteem, gender-role i d e n t i t y , and knowing a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman. Hypothesis One H : Q  There w i l l not be a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between the parenting intentions the  "probably yes",  variable  (the " d e f i n i t e l y yes",  and the " c h i l d f r e e " groups) and the  b i r t h order v a r i a b l e  ( e l d e s t , middle, youngest, and  only c h i l d r e n ) .  H : 1  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y that an a s s o c i ation w i l l  e x i s t between the two v a r i a b l e s  intentions  and b i r t h order.  w i l l be more o f t e n  parenting  " C h i l d f r e e " respondents  f i r s t born or only c h i l d r e n than r e -  spondents i n the "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" categories. Hypothesis Two H : Q  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s  groups  ("childfree",  62  "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y y e s " ) ,  i n the mean num-  ber of s i b l i n g s i n s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n .  H;L : The " C h i l d f r e e " group w i l l have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean number of s i b l i n g s than the "probably yes" group and the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group. Hypothesis HQ:  Three  There w i l l not be a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e parenthood  intentions  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  ("childfree",  "probably yes" or " d e f i n i t e l y yes") and the type of r e l i g i o n they p r a c t i c e  ( C a t h o l i c , Jewish,  Protestant,  none, or o t h e r ) .  H^:  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l e x i s t between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of r e l i g i o n p r a c t i c e d .  and type  "Childfree" participants  be l e s s o f t e n a f f i l i a t e d with a r e l i g i o u s  will  denomination  than "probably y e s " and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" p a r t i c i p a n t s . Hypothesis Hg:  Four  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s c o r e s of t h e " c h i l d f r e e " , the "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" groups  on the r e l i g i o s i t y  variable  (very r e l i g i o u s , somewhat r e l i g i o u s , or not a t a l l r e ligious) .  63  :  The " c h i l d f r e e " group w i l l be found to have a s i g n i f i cantly yes"  lower mean r e l i g i o s i t y  score than the "probably  group and the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group.  Hypothesis F i v e H: D  There w i l l be not be a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between the e t h n i c i t y v a r i a b l e  found  (visible minorities ver-  sus m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ) , and the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s variable.  H^:  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an a s s o c i ation w i l l  e x i s t between the e t h n i c i t y v a r i a b l e and the  parenting intentions v a r i a b l e . w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y  " C h i l d f r e e " respondents  to have e t h n i c o r i g i n s from a v i s i -  b l e m i n o r i t y than "probably yes" respondents  and  " d e f i n i t e l y yes" respondents. Hypothesis S i x HQ:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the tional aspirations  educa-  (two years of u n i v e r s i t y , B a c h e l o r ' s  degree, or graduate school) of p a r t i c i p a n t s based t h e i r parenthood  Hi:  on  intentions.  The " C h i l d f r e e " group w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s than the "probably yes" group and the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group.  64  Hypothesis HQ:  Seven  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups i n t h e i r  occupational  a s p i r a t i o n s s c o r e s , as measured by the TSEI2.  Hi:  The " c h i l d f r e e " group w i l l have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  mean score on o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s than t h e "probably Hypothesis HQ:  yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" groups.  Eight  An a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l not be found between the gender dominance of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s (male dominated o r female dominated c a r e e r choice) and t h e i r parenthood i n t e n t i o n s .  H^:  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an a s s o c i ation w i l l  e x i s t between male or female dominated c a -  r e e r c h o i c e and parenthood i n t e n t i o n s . w i l l be p l a n n i n g t o enter occupations  C h i l d f r e e women  t h a t a r e male  dominated a t h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s than "probably " d e f i n i t e l y yes" Hypothesis HQ:  yes" and  participants.  Nine  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s of t h e three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem tory.  Inven-  :  The " c h i l d f r e e " group w i l l have higher mean s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s than the "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y y e s " groups.  Hypothesis Ten HQ:  There w i l l be no a s s o c i a t i o n i d e n t i t y of respondents,  between the g e n d e r - r o l e  as measured by the Bern Sex-  Role Inventory, and t h e i r parenthood  H]_:  intentions.  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an a s s o c i ation w i l l variable  e x i s t between the parenthood  intentions  and the g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t y v a r i a b l e .  p a r t i c i p a n t s who i n t e n d frequently  The  t o remain c h i l d f r e e w i l l more  have masculine  or androgynous g e n d e r - r o l e  i d e n t i t i e s i n comparison t o "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women, who w i l l more o f t e n have feminine g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t i e s . Hypothesis HQ:  Eleven  An a s s o c i a t i o n intentions  will  not be found between the p a r e n t i n g  v a r i a b l e and whether respondents  know a v o l -  u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman.  Hj_:  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an a s s o c i ation w i l l  e x i s t between the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s  vari-  a b l e and the v a r i a b l e of knowing a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman.  " C h i l d f r e e " women w i l l more o f t e n know a  v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman than "probably yes" women and  " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women.  67  CHAPTER THREE  Methodology Subjects Because the c e n t r a l focus of the present  study was par-  enthood i n t e n t i o n s , s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n was l i m i t e d t o women who were young, s i n g l e , and not making t h e i r choices because of f e r t i l i t y problems. to  26 was chosen i n order t o s o l i c i t  parenting  An age range of 18  as many responses as  p o s s i b l e , while a t the same time l i m i t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of cohort e f f e c t s .  The assumption was made t h a t by the age of  eighteen women have g e n e r a l l y begun t o t h i n k about t h e i r f u t u r e parenthood p l a n s .  P a r e n t a l s t a t u s may have an e f f e c t  on f u t u r e parenthood i n t e n t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e only s u b j e c t s who had not y e t experienced the  parenthood were i n c l u d e d as p a r t of  sample. M a r r i e d women were not i n c l u d e d i n the study because of  the impact marriage can have on the parenthood d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . can  As Beckman (1977) has suggested, marriage  i n v o l v e a couple-based decision-making  than simply  process,  i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s and i n t e n t i o n s .  were a n t i c i p a t i n g never having  rather  Subjects who  c h i l d r e n because of f e r t i l i t y  problems were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s because i s s u e s surrounding  i n f e r t i l i t y would i n f l u e n c e p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s  and were beyond the scope of t h i s The  s u b j e c t s f o r the p r e s e n t  s i n g l e female r e s i d e n c e students  study. study c o n s i s t e d of 381 a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  68  B r i t i s h Columbia. 391 respondents  The sample was d e r i v e d from a t o t a l of  t o surveys which were d i s t r i b u t e d t o 1,000  women i n two u n i v e r s i t y campus r e s i d e n c e s . veys were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . not f i t the age requirements. important  One respondent  In the remaining  data were m i s s i n g : one respondent  her age and the remaining responses  Ten of the s u r did  9 surveys  d i d not i n d i c a t e  surveys were missing 2 or more  on the v a r i a b l e s , making the surveys u n s u i t a b l e  for analysis. Large The  sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  average age of the respondents  was 20.5 y e a r s .  T h i r t y - f i v e percent of the women were s i n g l e and unattached, 30 percent were s i n g l e but i n v o l v e d with someone, and 35 percent were i n a steady r e l a t i o n s h i p or engaged. seven percent of the respondents  Eighty-  intended t o marry i n the  f u t u r e , 10 percent were unsure of t h e i r marriage  p l a n s , and  3 percent intended t o never marry (see appendix A ) . Most of the women had g i v e n some thought c h i l d r e n they wanted. thought,  how  Only 2 percent had given almost no  7 percent had g i v e n very l i t t l e thought,  had g i v e n some thought, thought,  t o how many  58 percent  25 percent had given very much  and 9 percent had given a great d e a l of thought t o  many c h i l d r e n they wanted. Respondent's p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s were d i s t r i b u t e d  that 8.9 percent of the s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d they e i t h e r n i t e l y o r probably d i d not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n . 7.3  such defi-  Only  p e r c e n t were unsure whether they intended t o have c h i l -  69  dren or not.  One q u a r t e r of the women (25.2%) answered t h a t  they probably d i d i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n i n the f u t u r e . The m a j o r i t y of respondents, 58.5 percent, i n d i c a t e d  that  they d e f i n i t e l y d i d i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n . Respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e d how e a g e r l y they a n t i c i p a t e d having c h i l d r e n on a s c a l e of 1 (not a t a l l ) 5  (more than a n y t h i n g ) .  to  The mean answer s e l e c t e d was 4,  with 8 p e r c e n t choosing "1"; 11 percent choosing "2"; 27 percent c i r c l i n g  "3";  42 percent c i r c l i n g  "4"; and 11 p e r -  cent choosing "5". Of the women who i n d i c a t e d the age a t which they would l i k e t o have t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d , the average age was 27.5, with a range from 20 t o 40. (not  The average number o f c h i l d r e n  i n c l u d i n g those who answered "zero") was 2.4, w i t h a  range from 1 t o 5. Approximately one q u a r t e r (27 %) of the women i n d i c a t e d t h a t they p e r s o n a l l y knew one or more v o l u n t a r i l y  childfree  women, and 73 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not. As expected of t h i s s e l e c t p o p u l a t i o n , respondents had high e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s .  Only 0.5 p e r c e n t planned t o  a t t a i n two years of u n i v e r s i t y or l e s s .  Most of the women  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they intended t o a t t a i n a B a c h e l o r ' s or Master's degree.  T h i r t y - s e v e n percent i n d i c a t e d they  planned f o r a B a c h e l o r ' s degree, and 34 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d a Master's degree.  Doctorate degrees were a s p i r e d t o by 7  percent of respondents,  19 percent planned t o a t t a i n a p r o -  70  f e s s i o n a l degree, and 2 percent d i d not f i t i n any of the categories. The  s u b j e c t s i n the sample had a wide range of occupa-  t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , the most frequent of which was t e a c h i n g below the c o l l e g e l e v e l  (19%). "Manager, a d m i n i s t r a t o r " was  a r e l a t i v e l y frequent choice nurse, d i e t i c i a n "  (11%), as were " r e g i s t e r e d  (9%) and "lawyer"  quent c h o i c e s were " a r c h i t e c t " (0.5%), and " s a l e s worker" on the socioeconomic  infre-  (0.5%), "computer s p e c i a l i s t "  (0.8%).  The o c c u p a t i o n a l scores  The mean score f o r the occupations  65.7 and the median 59.9,  15.8.  The most  measure, the TSEI2, ranged from a low  of 41 t o a h i g h of 89. was  (8%).  with a standard d e v i a t i o n of  The women i n the sample were somewhat more l i k e l y t o  choose an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t i s male dominated  (according t o  Canadian Census data) than female dominated.  Male dominated  occupations were a s p i r e d t o by 56 percent of the women, and female dominated occupations were a s p i r e d t o by 44 p e r c e n t . Respondent's r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s were found t o be d i s t r i b u t e d with 23 percent being C a t h o l i c ; 0.3 p e r c e n t bei n g Jewish;  25 p e r c e n t being P r o t e s t a n t , and 14 percent be-  longing t o other r e l i g i o u s denominations.  T h i r t y - s e v e n per-  cent of the s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not belong t o any r e l i g i o n .  When asked  t o i n d i c a t e d how r e l i g i o u s  they  were, 8 p e r c e n t of the s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were very r e l i g i o u s .  The m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  they were somewhat r e l i g i o u s (48%).  (43%)  or not a t a l l r e l i g i o u s  71  The predominant e t h n i c background of the sample Northern  European  (62%).  The breakdown by e t h n i c i t y f o r the  remainder of the s u b j e c t s was: 9 percent Southern  12 percent E a s t e r n European,  European, 6 percent Chinese,  East Indian, 2 percent Japanese, 0.5 .3 percent F i l i p i n o .  was  Respondents who  2 percent  percent Vietnamese,  and  chose the "other" c a t -  egory were d i s t i n g u i s h e d , f o r the purpose of a n a l y s i s ,  as  being e i t h e r a member of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e (4%) or of a v i s i b l e minority  (2%).  E i g h t y - e i g h t percent of the s u b j e c t s  had an e t h n i c background from the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and  12  percent of the s u b j e c t s had a v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c c u l t u r a l background. F o r t y - f o u r percent of the respondents children,  15 p e r c e n t were middle  were youngest c h i l d r e n .  were f i r s t  c h i l d r e n , and 37  born  percent  Only 4 percent of the sample were  only c h i l d r e n .  Of those respondents  percent had one  sibling,  with s i b l i n g s ,  33 percent had two  44  siblings,  11  percent had t h r e e s i b l i n g s , 5 percent had f o u r s i b l i n g s , 4 percent had  Sub  and  f i v e or more s i b l i n g s .  sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Because a sample was  drawn from the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  sample t o p r o v i d e equal n_groups f o r the purpose of a n a l y s i s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the small sample w i l l be cussed here.  The  small sample c o n s i s t e d of 102  from t h r e e equal s i z e d groups.  dis-  subjects  72  The group of 34 " c h i l d f r e e " women c o n s i s t e d of 10 women who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d e f i n i t e l y d i d not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n and 24 women who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they probably d i d not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n . was  necessary  to conduct  Combining these  respondents  i n order t o p r o v i d e a l a r g e enough sample s i z e  meaningful  statistical  analyses.  A limitation  imposed by combining women who probably and d e f i n i t e l y intend t o remain c h i l d f r e e i s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between these two  types of p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s may be obscured.  according t o Veevers  However,  (1980) the m a j o r i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s who  remain c h i l d f r e e do so through  a s e r i e s of postponments,  suggesting t h a t women who e a r l y on a r t i c u l a t e t h a t they probably w i l l not have c h i l d r e n may very w e l l maintain  their  childfree status. Two  random samples c o n s i s t i n g of 34 "probably  yes"  women and 34 " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women were drawn from the large sample.  The average age of the women i n the small  sample was 20.7 y e a r s .  F o r t y - t h r e e percent of the sample  were s i n g l e , 24 percent were i n v o l v e d with someone, and 33 percent were i n a steady r e l a t i o n s h i p o r engaged. the s u b j e c t s , 78 p e r c e n t , did  intended t o marry.  Many of  F i v e percent  not i n t e n d t o marry, and 17 percent were unsure  r e g a r d i n g t h e i r marriage  plans  (see Appendix A).  As shown  i n Appendix A, the sub sample i s s i m i l a r t o , and appears t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e l a r g e sample. F i f t y percent of t h e small sample had g i v e n some thought  t o how many c h i l d r e n they wanted.  Only 3 percent  73  had given almost no thought, little  thought,  11 percent had given very  25 p e r c e n t had given very much thought, and  12 percent had g i v e n a g r e a t d e a l of thought c h i l d r e n they wanted.  t o how many  On the f i v e p o i n t s c a l e of how  e a g e r l y s u b j e c t s a n t i c i p a t e d having c h i l d r e n , 25 percent of the small sample i n d i c a t e d "1" t h a t they d i d not a t a l l a n t i c i p a t e having c h i l d r e n . anticipation,  In order of ascending  18 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d "2", 25 percent  indicated  "3",  29 percent i n d i c a t e d "4", and only 4 percent  indicated  "5",  t h a t they a n t i c i p a t e d having c h i l d r e n more than  anything. E i g h t y of the respondents  i n the small sample answered  the q u e s t i o n " I f you do i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n , at- what age would you l i k e t o have your f i r s t c h i l d ? "  Of these, the me-  d i a n age was 28, w i t h a range from 24 t o 40.  The mean num-  ber of c h i l d r e n these s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d they would l i k e t o have was 2.2, with a range from 1 t o 5. T h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of the small sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t they knew a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman no longer capable of bearing a c h i l d .  S i x t y - s i x percent of respondents  indicated  t h a t they d i d not know a c h i l d f r e e woman. T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the small sample intended t o complete t h e i r B a c h e l o r ' s degrees, Master's,  36 percent  and 8 percent t h e i r Doctorate.  the sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t they planned s i o n a l degree.  their  Twenty percent of  to a t t a i n a p r o f e s -  Of these, 56 percent intended to a t t a i n a  law degree, 30 p e r c e n t a medical degree, and the remaining  74  choices i n c l u d e d two v e t e r i n a r y degrees, ture degree.  One respondent  and one a r c h i t e c -  who i n d i c a t e d the "other" c a t e -  gory f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s planned  to a t t a i n a  degree as a f o r e i g n a i d worker. The  occupation most f r e q u e n t l y a s p i r e d t o i n the s m a l l  sample was a lawyer  (13 p e r c e n t ) .  ager/ a d m i n i s t r a t o r and teacher  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by man-  (except c o l l e g e and u n i v e r -  s i t y ) , both o c c u r r i n g a t a frequency percent of respondents  of 12 percent.  Seven  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they a s p i r e d t o be a  p h y s i c i a n or d e n t i s t , and an a d d i t i o n a l seven percent cated t h a t they a s p i r e d t o be a w r i t e r , a r t i s t , tainer.  S i x percent i n d i c a t e d l i f e  as t h e i r occupation g o a l .  indi-  or e n t e r -  and p h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t  An a d d i t i o n a l s i x percent  indi-  cated t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n g o a l as a teacher i n a c o l l e g e or university.  F i v e p e r c e n t of respondents  p a t i o n category of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t . t i o n s were chosen w i t h a frequency  fell  i n t o the occu-  The remaining  occupa-  of l e s s than 4 p e r c e n t .  S i x t y - s i x percent of t h e women chose occupations t h a t were male dominated i n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , and 34 percent of the s u b j e c t s a s p i r e d t o occupations which were female dominated . F o r t y percent of respondents religion.  i n d i c a t e d "none" as t h e i r  The remainder of the sample i n c l u d e d 22 p e r c e n t  C a t h o l i c , 23 p e r c e n t P r o t e s t a n t , and 16 percent other. the "other" category,  In  63 percent were from r e l i g i o n s w i t h a  C h r i s t i a n background: f o u r respondents United, 1 was a C h r i s t i a n ,  were A n g l i c a n , 3 were  1 was Greek Orthodox, 1 was a  75  Born Again C h r i s t i a n , and 1 was a Lutheran. respondent was of the Sikh r e l i g i o n , were Hindu.  In a d d i t i o n , 1  1 was S h i n t o i s t , and 2  F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of respondents  t h a t they were not a t a l l r e l i g i o u s .  indicated  Thirty-eight percent  were somewhat r e l i g i o u s and 8 percent were very r e l i g i o u s . E i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the small sample were from an e t h n i c background w i t h i n the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . F i f t e e n percent were from m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e e t h n i c  backgrounds.  S i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the respondents were Northern European,  9 p e r c e n t were E a s t e r n European, and 8 percent  were Southern European.  Of the remainder, 7 percent were  Chinese, 2 p e r c e n t were E a s t Indian, 3 percent were Japanese, and 1 p e r c e n t Vietnamese.  In the "other" c a t e -  gory, respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were American, Canadian, or North American, was of a H i s p a n i c  except f o r one respondent who  background.  T h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of respondents from the small samp l e were f i r s t born, 22 p e r c e n t were middle c h i l d r e n , 36 percent were youngest, and 3 p e r c e n t were only c h i l d r e n . The average number of s i b l i n g s i n respondent's f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n was 1.8, w i t h a range of 0 t o 6.  Instrumentation The P e r s o n a l Data  Sheet.  The P e r s o n a l Data Sheet  (Appendix B), a c o m p i l a t i o n of  questions designed by the r e s e a r c h e r , was used to determine the respondent's age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and marriage i n t e n -  76  tions, parental status, f e r t i l i t y , c h i l d r e n they intended to have.  and the age and number of  The  Personal Data Sheet  was  a l s o used to determine the respondent's p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , as w e l l as the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : (1) e d u c a t i o n a l aspirations  (2) o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , (3) r e l i g i o n  religiosity  (4) e t h n i c i t y  and  (5) b i r t h order  and  (6) f a m i l y s i z e  (7) whether or not the respondent knew a v o l u n t a r i l y  c h i l d f r e e woman.' Question  4 "how  much thought have you given to how  c h i l d r e n you want?" was  d e r i v e d from K i r c h n e r and  many  Seaver's  (1977) book on d e v e l o p i n g measures of parenthood m o t i v a t i o n , as were the two  questions  Question  e a g e r l y do you a n t i c i p a t e having c h i l d r e n ? "  was  6 "How  d e r i v e d from Gerson's  motivation.  on b i r t h order and f a m i l y s i z e .  (1986) q u e s t i o n n a i r e on parenthood  These q u e s t i o n s were designed  to f a c i l i t a t e  comparisons between s t u d i e s , as w e l l as to p r o v i d e an understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between thought, a n t i c i p a t i o n and  i n t e n t i o n i n r e g a r d to parenthood  decision-making.  TSEI2 The  occupation  v a r i a b l e was  scored using the TSEI2  ( T o t a l Socio-economic Index 2), an index of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c o n s t r u c t e d by Stevens and  Featherman (1981) .  The  s c a l e i s an updated v e r s i o n of the Duncan Socioeconomic Index  (Duncan, 1961) .  Stevens and Featherman r e v i s e d  Duncan's s c a l e to c o i n c i d e more c l o s e l y with modern e d u c a t i o n a l and  income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and to p r o v i d e a  s c a l e based on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t o t a l  labour  77  force.  Duncan c o n s t r u c t e d the o r i g i n a l s c a l e using only the  male labour f o r c e .  Computations f o r the TSEI2 were made  based on f u l l census r e c o r d s from the 1970 American census. U n l i k e Duncan, who used only 45 o c c u p a t i o n a l sifications, 426  Stevens and Featherman based t h e i r a n a l y s i s on  occupation  titles  classification. replication  clas-  from the 1970 U.S. census  occupational  The TSEI2 was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g an exact  of Duncan's (1961) method of computation.  The  socioeconomic scores a r e the p r e d i c t e d scores from a r e g r e s s i o n equation income l e v e l s .  l i n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e t o education and The measure of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e was  c o n s t r u c t e d based on an estimate and  of the p r o p o r t i o n of "good"  " e x c e l l e n t " r a t i n g s of occupation  titles.  The r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between the percentage of "good" and " e x c e l l e n t " r a t ings was obtained 45 occupations timated  from s e v e r a l measures of p r e s t i g e f o r t h e  f o r which the measures e x i s t e d , and then e s -  f o r a l l the 1970 o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s using a r e g r e s -  sion equation.  The e d u c a t i o n a l measure f o r the TSEI2 was  determined based on the percentage of men and women i n each occupation  category  with one or more years of c o l l e g e .  The  o c c u p a t i o n a l measure was determined using "the percentage of men  and women with incomes of $10,000 or more i n each occu-  pation The  category. TSEI2 was c o n s t r u c t e d simultaneously  other s c a l e s i n which Stevens and Featherman  with s e v e r a l (1981) used  v a r i a t i o n s i n the measures of p r e s t i g e , occupation, cation.  and edu-  These s c a l e s and the o r i g i n a l s c a l e (Duncan, 1961)  78  were so s i m i l a r i n t h e i r ranking of occupations t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s among them approached u n i t y (Stevens and Featherman).  An apparent  c a t i o n as a determinant  i n c r e a s e i n the importance  o f the s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n of occupa-  t i o n s s i n c e 1961 was determined the e a r l i e r sample  of edu-  t o be due t o the b i a s e s of  (Stevens and Featherman).  A comparison  between the TSEI2 and t h e MSEI2, an i d e n t i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d s c a l e based  e x c l u s i v e l y on the male p o p u l a t i o n , showed t h a t  the range and v a r i a b i l i t y lar.  of occupation standing were s i m i -  A major d i f f e r e n c e was found between the TSEI2 and the  MSEI2 i n the s t a n d i n g accorded  t o s a l e s work, an area i n  which women were h e a v i l y c l u s t e r e d .  Although  the authors  recommended the MSEI2 as the most d i s c e r n i n g measure of the ranks of occupations and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s o c i a l d i s t a n c e s , they recommended the TSEI2 as more accurate i n s c o r i n g the occupations dominated by women, i n which few male incumbents might p r o v i d e an erroneous  estimate of the occupation's  rel-  ative standing.  A l s o , i n other occupations, the male based  estimator misses  the impact  of women's education and income  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the occupation's p l a c e i n the s t a t u s h i erarchy  (Stevens and Featherman, 1981).  The TSEI2 was cho-  sen f o r the p r e s e n t study because i t i s more d e s i r a b l e f o r the assessment of the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of women. The  s c a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the TSEI2 a r e a range from  a low score o f 13.88 t o a high score of 90.45, with a s t a n dard d e v i a t i o n of 22.73.  For the present study, 15 g e n e r a l  c a t e g o r i e s were chosen t h a t were determined  by the r e -  79  searcher to be common o c c u p a t i o n a l choices f o r u n i v e r s i t y educated i n d i v i d u a l s . to  An  "other" category, with a request  s p e c i f y the occupation was  included.  For each of the  c a t e g o r i e s , scores were determined by averaging  15  a l l of the  occupation  scores on the TSEI2 w i t h i n each of the general  categories  (Appendix C ) .  lege and u n i v e r s i t y " was  For example, "Teacher, except d e r i v e d by averaging  (1) a d u l t education t e a c h e r s , ers,  where c l a s s i f i e d .  The  the scores f o r  (2) elementary school  (3) secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , averaging  teach-  (4) teachers not  else-  of i n d i v i d u a l scores w i t h i n  each g e n e r a l category p r o v i d e d a g e n e r a l occupation s u i t a b l e to the p r e s e n t study.  col-  score  Measuring o c c u p a t i o n a l  aspi-  r a t i o n s , r a t h e r than a s s e s s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r occupation a l ready a t t a i n e d , r e q u i r e d an average score c a p t u r i n g a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s within a general occupational goal. In a d d i t i o n to d i s t i n g u i s h i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l choice based on the TSE12 p r e s t i g e , e d u c a t i o n a l and tics,  income c h a r a c t e r i s -  o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d based on  whether they are male or female dominated occupations. was  accomplished  Census data was  u s i n g data from the Canadian census. used to determine which gender had  the  l a r g e s t number of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n each occupation gory.  This  cate-  I f a l a r g e r number of males than females were l i s t e d ,  then the occupation was  l a b e l l e d "male dominated".  l a r g e r number of females than males was c u p a t i o n was  If a  l i s t e d , then the  l a b e l l e d "female dominated" (Appendix C ) .  oc-  80  Bern Sex Role Gender-role Role Inventory  i d e n t i t y was  determined  (BSRI, Bern, 1974)  the independent masculinity.  Inventory. using the Bern  a t e s t instrument used f o r  assessment of p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e m i n i n i t y  The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the BSRI i s based  t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions.  Sex-  on  and two  F i r s t t h a t North American c u l t u r e  has c l u s t e r e d heterogeneous a t t r i b u t e s i n t o two mutually  ex-  c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s , each category c o n s i d e r e d both more chara c t e r i s t i c of, and more d e s i r a b l e f o r , females or males (Bern, 1974).  These c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and  are w e l l known by almost  prescriptions  a l l members of the c u l t u r e .  Second, i n d i v i d u a l s vary i n the extent to which they  use  these c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d i d e a l i z e d standards of f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y to determine behavior  (Bern, 1981) .  t h e i r own  Sex-typed  personality  and  i n d i v i d u a l s are h i g h l y  attuned t o these d e f i n i t i o n s and are motivated t o keep t h e i r behavior c o n s i s t e n t with them by s e l e c t i n g behaviors  and  a t t r i b u t e s t h a t enhance the s o c i a l l y accepted image and a v o i d i n g behaviors which v i o l a t e t h i s image.  by  In c o n t r a s t ,  androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s are l e s s attuned to these  cultural  d e f i n i t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y and are  less  l i k e l y to r e g u l a t e t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n accordance (Bern, 1981).  "The  BSRI i s thus based  with them  on a theory about both  the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g and the m o t i v a t i o n a l dynamics of sex-typed and androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s "  (Bern, 1981,p.10).  The f u n c t i o n of the BSRI i s to i d e n t i f y sex-typed  indi-  v i d u a l s and thereby enable t e s t i n g the hypothesis t h a t sex-  81  typed i n d i v i d u a l s have a g r e a t e r r e a d i n e s s than non-sextyped i n d i v i d u a l s t o engage i n gender s p e c i f i c (Bern, 1981).  behavior  F e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y a r e d e f i n e d as the  extent t o which a person endorses  masculine  and feminine  p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e  (Bern, 1974).  H i s t o r i c a l l y and c r o s s c u l t u r a l l y , m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y seem t o have r e p r e s e n t e d two complementary domains of p o s i t i v e t r a i t s and b e h a v i o r s  (Bern, 1973).  M a s c u l i n i t y has  been a s s o c i a t e d with an i n s t r u m e n t a l , c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n and a focus on g e t t i n g the job done.  F e m i n i n i t y has been  a s s o c i a t e d with an e x p r e s s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , and an a f f e c t i v e concern f o r the w e l f a r e of others  (Bern, 1973).  The BSRI has  been chosen f o r the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h because i t enables t e s t i n g the hypothesis t h a t women who choose motherhood, a r o l e a s s o c i a t e d with f e m i n i n i t y , have a more feminine gend e r - r o l e i d e n t i t y , whereas women who opt out of motherhood are more l i k e l y t o have a masculine  gender-role  identity.  The BSRI s e p a r a t e l y assesses p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y ; the two scores a r e l o g i c a l l y  independent  and the s t r u c t u r e of the t e s t i s such t h a t they a r e f r e e t o vary independently  (Bern, 1973).  M a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y  are assumed t o be continuous t r a i t s ; both masculine  an i n d i v i d u a l can have  and feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  For example a  woman o r man can be both a g g r e s s i v e and n u r t u r i n g , or have n e i t h e r of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (Bern, 1974).  The BSRI a l s o i d e n t i f i e s "androgynous" i n d i v i d u a l s . Androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o r p o r a t e both masculine  and femi-  82  nine t r a i t s .  They can be both a s s e r t i v e and y i e l d i n g ,  i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e , depending on the appropriateness  of the v a r i o u s behaviors  Androgyny i m p l i e s f l e x i b i l i t y to change behavior  both  situational  (Bern, 1974).  of s e x - r o l e s and the  in different situations.  ability  Bern (1975) hy-  p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , because they have no s e x - r o l e images to maintain,  androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s can engage i n whatever be-  h a v i o r seems most e f f e c t i v e , r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t i s stereotyped as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e i t h e r females or males. Androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s are assumed to have a wider range of c a p a b i l i t i e s and,  depending on what the s p e c i f i c  situation  r e q u i r e s , can show a s s e r t i v e n e s s or warmth and can  be  e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n both  These as-  situations  (Bern, 1975).  sumptions about androgyny have important the present  study.  P o s s i b l y women who  implications for  are androgynous are  more l i k e l y to step o u t s i d e the t r a d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e i n terms of parenthood c h o i c e s because they have a broad trum of behaviors  and a t t r i b u t e s to choose from.  The BSRI c o n s i s t s of 60 items; feminine  20 are  traditionally  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 20 are t r a d i t i o n a l l y  and 20 are n e u t r a l . s c a l e how  spec-  Subjects  masculine,  i n d i c a t e on a 7 p o i n t L i k e r t  w e l l each of the 60 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  d e s c r i b e s them.  To score the t e s t , items f o r the  M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y are summed, and d i v i d e d by the number of items r a t e d . s i f i e d on the b a s i s of a median s p l i t . f i e d as feminine  Scores are  Subjects are  clasclassi-  i f they have high F e m i n i n i t y scores and  low  83  Masculinity scores.  They a r e c l a s s i f i e d as masculine i f  they have high M a s c u l i n i t y scores and low F e m i n i n i t y I f both M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y  scores.  scores are high and ap-  proximately  equal,  respondents a r e r a t e d as androgynous.  If  both scores  a r e low, they a r e r a t e d as u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Bern  (1981) has recommended t h a t when working with a sample cont a i n i n g one sex only,  the median from the normative sample  be used, r a t h e r than the sample's own median. sent r e s e a r c h ,  medians of 4.90 f o r F e m i n i n i t y  For t h e p r e and 4.95 f o r  M a s c u l i n i t y were used, as c a l c u l a t e d from the normative sample.  Although the median s p l i t method of s c o r i n g the BSRI  does not provide present  a continuous score  i t has been used f o r t h e  a n a l y s i s r a t h e r than the o r i g i n a l s c o r i n g method.  This i s because the o r i g i n a l s c o r i n g method, which  provides  a continuous score by s u b t r a c t i n g M a s c u l i n i t y from Femininity,  has been found t o obscure a p o t e n t i a l l y impor-  t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between those i n d i v i d u a l s who score high on both F e m i n i n i t y both  and M a s c u l i n i t y and those who score  low on  (Bern, 1981). The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e s c a l e s f o r the BSRI was accom-  p l i s h e d using  100 S t a n f o r d  undergraduates who were asked t o  r a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of 400 p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e i ther " f o r a man" o r " f o r a woman" on a 7 p o i n t s c a l e .  A  p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u a l i f i e d as masculine i f i t was independently judged by both males and females t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e s i r a b l e f o r a man than f o r a woman (p_£.05) . Twenty c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s a t i s f i e d these c r i t e r i a were  84  chosen f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e , and 20 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s e l e c t e d f o r the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e by the same p r o c e s s . In  a d d i t i o n t o the 40 items c o n s t i t u t i n g the F e m i n i n i t y and  M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e s , 20 items were s e l e c t e d t o serve as filler  items.  O r i g i n a l l y the items were s e l e c t e d because  they were judged t o be no more d e s i r a b l e f o r one sex than for  the other, however more r e c e n t r a t i n g s have i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the n e u t r a l i t y of these items cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a reliable finding,  l i m i t i n g t h e i r use as a measure of d e s i r -  a b i l i t y response s e t (Bern, 1981). Psychometric a n a l y s e s of the BSRI was based on two samp l e s of s u b j e c t s , both c o n s i s t i n g of undergraduate at  S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . The f i r s t  females and 444 males who f i l l e d  students  sample c o n s i s t e d of 279 out the BSRI i n 1973. The  second i n c l u d e d 340 females and 476 males who wrote the BSRI in  1978.  In order t o estimate the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of  the BSRI, c o e f f i c i e n t alphas were computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females i n both samples f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y and Femininity scores. highly r e l i a b l e .  The r e s u l t s showed the scores t o be In t h e 1973 sample on the F e m i n i n i t y s c a l e  an Alpha of .75 was found f o r women and men;  Alpha of .78 f o r  f o r the M a s c u l i n i t y s c a l e , Alpha was .87 f o r women and  .86 f o r men.  In t h e 1978 sample the r e s u l t s were: f o r  F e m i n i n i t y , an Alpha of .78 f o r women and .78 f o r men; f o r M a s c u l i n i t y an Alpha o f .86 f o r women and .87 f o r men. The M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y scores were found t o be e m p i r i c a l l y as w e l l as l o g i c a l l y independent  (average r_ = -.03).  85  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y the BSRI f o r a second the 1973  determined  by a d m i n i s t e r i n g  time t o 28 females and 28 males from  S t a n f o r d sample, f o u r weeks a f t e r the f i r s t  istration. average  was  The  scores proved t o be h i g h l y r e l i a b l e , w i t h  reliability  retest r e l i a b i l i t y on the masculine  admin-  of r_ = .93, and with the lowest  test-  o c c u r r i n g f o r males d e s c r i b i n g themselves  items  Bern (1981) based  (r_=.76) . content v a l i d i t y f o r the BSRI on  whether i t c o u l d d i s c r i m i n a t e between those i n d i v i d u a l s r e s t r i c t t h e i r behavior i n accordance and those who  an  with sex s t e r e o t y p e s  In a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s on  instrumen-  t a l and e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , only androgynous  individu-  als  do not.  who  c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d high l e v e l s of behavior i n both  domains, whereas non-androgynous i n d i v i d u a l s were f r e q u e n t l y low i n one  or the other of the two  domains (Bern, 1981).  growing body of r e s e a r c h by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s has  A  sup-  ported the v a l i d i t y of the BSRI by e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n c e p t u a l l y relevant behavioral correlates  (Bern,1981).  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender-role i d e n t i t y and enthood i n t e n t i o n s i s important  par-  to explore, because mother-  hood i s very much a p a r t of the s o c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d t r a d i t i o n a l feminine gender r o l e .  The BSRI i s a u s e f u l  instru-  ment to h e l p e x p l o r e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p because i t i s a widely used instrument  f o r the measure of gender-role i d e n -  t i t y with r e s p e c t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y has been used  and v a l i d i t y .  Because i t  i n several studies exploring parenting  86  choices, u s i n g the BSRI w i l l f a c i l i t a t e comparisons between the r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t Rosenberg Self-Esteem Self-esteem Esteem Scale  was  study and  other s i m i l a r s t u d i e s .  Scale.  measured u s i n g the Rosenberg  (RSES, Rosenberg, 1965).  Self-  This s c a l e was  de-  signed as a measure of g l o b a l s e l f esteem along a f a v o r a b l e to unfavorable  dimension.  s c a l e , Rosenberg When we  In d e s i g n i n g the  (1965) d e f i n e d  self-esteem  self-esteem:  speak of high self-esteem...we s h a l l  sim-  p l y mean t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t s h i m s e l f ( s i c ) , c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f worthy, he does not nece s s a r i l y c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f b e t t e r than others,  but  he d e f i n i t e l y does not c o n s i d e r himself worse,  he  does not f e e l t h a t he i s the u l t i m a t e i n p e r f e c -  Low  t i o n but,  on the c o n t r a r y , recognizes h i s l i m i t a -  t i o n s and  expects  to grow and  improve  self-esteem implies s e l f - r e j e c t i o n ,  t i o n , or s e l f - c o n t e m p t .  The  (p. 31) .  self-dissatisfac-  s e l f picture i s disagreeable,  and the i n d i v i d u a l wishes i t were otherwise  (Rosenberg,  1965). The RSES c o n s i s t s of 10 items asks respondents to s t r o n g l y agree,  of the L i k e r t type which agree,  disagree,  s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e with each of the statements Each statement openly self-esteem  or  (Appendix D).  and d i r e c t l y d e a l s with an aspect  of  (Rosenberg, 1965). A high score i n d i c a t e s high  self-esteem, and a low  score i n d i c a t e s low s e l f - e s t e e m ,  each q u e s t i o n r e c e i v i n g equal weight.  with  87  The normative sample f o r the RSES c o n s i s t e d of 5,024 high school j u n i o r s and  s e n i o r s from 10 randomly s e l e c t e d  p u b l i c high s c h o o l s i n New  York.  For some of the  validation  work a sample of 50 young a d u l t normal v o l u n t e e r s was  used  from the c l i n i c a l c e n t e r of the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Health.  R e l i a b i l i t y and homogeneity f o r the RSES were de-  termined  u s i n g the Guttman procedure.  of the s c a l e was cent.  92 percent and  The  reproducibility  i t s s c a l a b i l i t y was  In a d d i t i o n , the RSES showed a t e s t - r e t e s t  72  per-  reliabil-  i t y of .85 f o r a group of students r e t e s t e d a f t e r two weeks (Rosenberg, 1965). Determining has presented  the v a l i d i t y of self-esteem measurements  a d i f f i c u l t problem because s e l f esteem r e -  s u l t s from e v a l u a t i o n s of the s e l f as an " o b j e c t " , yet i n some of i t s a s p e c t s t h i s o b j e c t i s only a v a i l a b l e f o r s c r u t i n y by the s u b j e c t  ( C r a n d a l l , 1973).  In the absence of  s u i t a b l e e x t e r n a l v a l i d a t i n g c r i t e r i a , v a l i d i t y can be termined  de-  by examining r e s u l t s from s t u d i e s i n which r e -  sponses on the s e l f - e s t e e m instrument  successfully predict  group d i f f e r e n c e s on other r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s , ( C r a n d a l l , 1973). S e v e r a l attempts were made by Rosenberg termine  the v a l i d i t y of the RSES.  (1965) to  (1) The young a d u l t s from  the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Mental Health sample f i l l e d the RSES and were independently Leary S c a l e s .  de-  r a t e d by ward nurses  A s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was  out on  obtained  be-  tween s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s and d e p r e s s i o n , as judged by  the  88  nurses.  (2) In the l a r g e r survey  c o r r e l a t i o n was fect.  (N=5,024), a s i g n i f i c a n t  found between s e l f - e s t e e m and d e p r e s s i v e a f -  E i g h t y percent  of the s u b j e c t s with the lowest  esteem s c o r e s were h i g h l y depressed,  compared with  self-  4 percent  of the s u b j e c t s with the h i g h e s t self-esteem s c o r e s . nine p e r c e n t  of the s u b j e c t s with the lowest  scores manifested  self-esteem  symptoms of a n x i e t y , compared with  cent of the s u b j e c t s with the h i g h e s t self-esteem (3) In the same sample of 5,024 a s i g n i f i c a n t was  found between low  matic  symptoms.  Sixty-  19  per-  scores.  correlation  s e l f - e s t e e m and a number of psychoso-  (4) Rosenberg  (1965) proposed t h a t  people  with low s e l f - e s t e e m h o l d a low s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s i n a group, t h a t i s they are l i k e l y to be d e s c r i b e d as commanding l e s s r e s p e c t than o t h e r s , and to f e e l t h a t others have t l e r e s p e c t f o r them (Rosenberg, 1965). ing 272  high s c h o o l s e n i o r s there was  In a study  lit-  involv-  a significant associa-  t i o n between s e l f - e s t e e m and c h o i c e as a c l a s s l e a d e r . Forty-seven  p e r c e n t of those with the h i g h e s t  scores were chosen, compared with 15 percent the lowest  self-esteem scores.  self-esteem of those  with  When respondents were asked  t h e i r o p i n i o n of what o t h e r s t h i n k of them, 38 percent  of  those with the h i g h e s t s e l f - e s t e e m scores, compared with 8 percent of those with the lowest (Rosenberg, 1965).  Scores  c a n t l y with o b j e c t i v e and  s a i d "very w e l l "  on the RSES correspond  signifi-  s u b j e c t i v e assessments of p e r s o n a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n and e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t  89  i s an a p p r o p r i a t e instrument  f o r the measurement of  self-es-  teem. The  convergent v a l i d i t y of the RSES was  S i l b e r and T i p p e t measured two  traits:  self-concept. the two  (1965) .  traits:  examined by  A study of 44 c o l l e g e students  g l o b a l s e l f - e s t e e m and  stability  Four d i f f e r e n t methods were used to measure the RSES; the K e l l e y Repertory  s e l f - i d e a l discrepancy  psychiatrist's rating.  question-  s o c i a l - i d e a l discrepancy;  and  using d i f f e r e n t methods.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s of the RSES to the s e l f - i d e a l  discrepancy  to the self-image q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r_=  and to the p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s r a t i n g r_=  .56.  .83;  Other evidence  convergent v a l i d i t y i s C r a n d a l l ' s (1973) f i n d i n g t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n of the RSES and the Coopersmith Inventory was  Self-Esteem  .60.  T h i s s c a l e appears to have been c a r e f u l l y cons t r u c t e d , and  a  The RSES showed convergent v a l i d i t y  with measures of the same concept  r_ = .67;  Test; a  t e s t ; the Heath self-image  n a i r e , d e a l i n g with s e l f and  score was  of  i t s use by Rosenberg i n d i c a t e s t h a t  i t can make t h e o r e t i c a l l y meaningful d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between groups of a d o l e s c e n t s . . . . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of Rosenberg's items  included i n adult  surveys by the Survey Research Center  suggests  t h a t they are q u i t e a l l r i g h t f o r t h i s purpose ... .Where a s h o r t and general index of  self-  of  90  esteem i s r e q u i r e d , t h i s s c a l e i s recommended ( C r a n d a l l , 1973,  p.99).  The RSES has been chosen f o r the present study because it  appears to be a s a t i s f a c t o r y and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d measure  of g l o b a l s e l f - e s t e e m .  Because i t has been used i n other  s t u d i e s of p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , using the RSES w i l l t a t e comparisons between the r e s u l t s of the present  facilistudy  and other s t u d i e s .  Procedures One  thousand female students i n three student  resi-  dences were given a package i n t h e i r a s s i g n e d mailboxes cont a i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g : a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n (Appendix E), 2 c o p i e s of a consent sheet  form (Appendix F ) , a p e r s o n a l data  (Appendix B), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem  (Appendix D), and the Bern Sex Role Inventory Students were asked  tice  (Bern,1974).  to complete the surveys and r e t u r n them  to a locked b a l l o t box area. Two  Inventory  a t the f r o n t desk i n t h e i r r e s i d e n c e  weeks a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g the survey, a reminder  (Appendix G) was  no-  sent out asking students to r e t u r n  t h e i r surveys, whether completed or not, to the f r o n t desk of t h e i r r e s i d e n c e a r e a .  Students were informed  t h a t by r e -  t u r n i n g the surveys they would be e l i g i b l e to win a dinner f o r two  and a B e l g i a n c h o c o l a t e E a s t e r bunny.  were p i c k e d up from the b a l l o t boxes d a i l y .  The  surveys  A l l p a r t s of  each completed survey were coded w i t h a s e r i a l number, and  the e t h i c s r e l e a s e form was removed and kept s e p a r a t e l y t o ensure  confidentiality.  The instruments were scored, and the r e s u l t s were recorded.  For the purpose of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , a l l edu  c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s a t the Masters l e v e l and above were c o l l a p s e d i n t o a s i n g l e category i n order t o ere ate an i n t e r v a l v a r i a b l e with no o v e r l a p i n e d u c a t i o n a l qualifications.  Although t h i s procedure may have obscured  d i f f e r e n c e s among respondents, i t allowed more powerful s t a t i s t i c a l procedures by p r o v i d i n g an i n t e r v a l r a t h e r than a categorical  variable.  Some respondents chose more than one category when asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a tions.  When more than one response was c i r c l e d the h i g h e s t  score was chosen f o r a n a l y s i s , r a t h e r than averaging the r e sponses.  T h i s method of s c o r i n g was necessary because the  education and occupation by sex v a r i a b l e s were not c o n t i n u ous and were t h e r e f o r e not conducive t o averaging of scores S e l e c t i o n of the h i g h e r response f o r a n a l y s i s was  congruent  with the d e f i n i t i o n of " a s p i r a t i o n " as "a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r high achievement or the r e a l i z a t i o n of an i d e a l "  (Webster,  1984).  Statistical  analysis  Because the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was a search f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between women who do and those who do not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n , s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was l i m -  92  i t e d t o women who had some degree of c e r t a i n t y t h e i r parenting  intentions:  regarding  women who were unsure whether  they were going t o have c h i l d r e n or n o t were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s .  As i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ,  i n the present  sample the number of c h i l d f r e e women were few.  In order t o  have a l a r g e enough sample s i z e t o conduct meaningful s t a tistical  a n a l y s i s , i t was necessary t o combine women who  d e f i n i t e l y d i d not (N=10) and women who probably d i d not intend  t o have c h i l d r e n  (N=24).  To a v o i d v i o l a t i n g c r i t i c a l  s t a t i s t i c a l assumptions the analyses were conducted on groups of equal s i z e .  A random sample of t h i r t y - f o u r was  drawn from each of the two l a r g e r groups: women who probably intended t o have c h i l d r e n and women who d e f i n i t e l y intended to have c h i l d r e n .  M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was  used t o ensure t h a t the random sample was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o r i g i n a l sample. Descriptive l a t i o n sample. the  s t a t i s t i c s were used t o d e s c r i b e  the popu-  A c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s was conducted on  sample t o search f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between continuous  measures.  A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used t o t e s t the equiva-  lency of the three groups on marriage i n t e n t i o n s and c u r r e n t marital  status.  Chi-square t e s t s were used t o t e s t f o r between the v a r i a b l e p a r e n t i n g cal variables  associations  i n t e n t i o n s , and the c a t e g o r i -  i n the hypotheses:  b i r t h order, r e l i g i o u s  category, e t h n i c i t y , female or male dominated occupation, gender-role i d e n t i t y , and knowing a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e  93  woman.  Lambdas were used t o t e s t the strength  and d i r e c t i o n  of the a s s o c i a t i o n s . A MANOVA f o l l o w e d  by p r o t e c t e d  u n i v a r i a t e F_ t e s t s were  conducted t o t e s t f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i a b l e parenting  i n t e n t i o n s and each continuous v a r i a b l e :  size, r e l i g i o s i t y ,  educational  aspirations, status  p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , and s e l f - e s t e e m .  A further  family of occuanalysis  of s i g n i f i c a n t F_ t e s t s was conducted i n the form of Tukey procedures i n order t o f u r t h e r understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e found.  94  CHAPTER FOUR  Results  In the present chapter, the r e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l analyses performed on the data w i l l be presented.  Data  obtained from the " c h i l d f r e e " group and random samples drawn from the "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" groups were u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s e s . rejected  Hypotheses were accepted or  a t the p_ < .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  In order to o b t a i n t h r e e groups of equal s i z e , two random samples of 34 s u b j e c t s were drawn from the "probably yes"  and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" groups r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Hotelling's  A  T t e s t was used t o determine whether the random  samples were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e t o t a l sample on the continuous v a r i a b l e s .  F (5,475)  = . 5 5 , p_=.73,  indicated  t h a t the random samples d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r from the  t o t a l sample  (see Appendix H).  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p o p u l a t i o n sample were examined b e f o r e a n a l y s e s were conducted on the v a r i a b l e s of interest.  A strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between  parenting intentions .88,  p_ = . 0 0 0 ) ,  having c h i l d r e n children.  and a n t i c i p a t i o n of parenthood (r_ =  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t as s u b j e c t s ' a n t i c i p a t i o n of i n c r e a s e d , so d i d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s  t o have  Zero c o r r e l a t i o n was found between how much  95  thought s u b j e c t s had g i v e n t o how many c h i l d r e n they wanted and t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s (r_ = .000). A moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n  (r_ = .497, p_f.000) was  found between e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s as measured by TSEI2 scores. c o r r e l a t i o n of t h i s nature s i m i l a r nature of these  A positive  i s t o be expected  because of the  two v a r i a b l e s .  A moderate p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between BSRI " M a s c u l i n i t y " raw s c o r e s and RSEI s e l f - e s t e e m scores .48,  pj=.000) .  (r_ =  A very s m a l l c o r r e l a t i o n was found between  the BSRI " F e m i n i n i t y " raw scores and the s e l f - e s t e e m  scores  (r_ = .15) . A c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups by the marriage i n t e n t i o n s produced a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of p < .0001, i n d i c a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y of an a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and marriageintentions  (see t a b l e 1 ) .  A l l of the " d e f i n i t e l y  women intended t o marry i n the f u t u r e .  yes"  In c o n t r a s t , only  one h a l f of the " c h i l d f r e e " women intended t o marry, 36 percent remained unsure and 12 percent d i d not i n t e n d t o marry.  Most of the "probably  yes" women (82 percent)  intended t o marry, 15 p e r c e n t , however were unsure and 3 percent  (one respondent) d i d not i n t e n d t o marry.  The  Goodman-Kruskal lambda s t a t i s t i c r e v e a l e d a 24 percent p r o p o r t i o n a l r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s dependent.  Table 1 Crosstabulation  of P a r e n t i n g  I n t e n t i o n s by Marriage  Intentions MARRIAGE INTENTIONS COUNT EXPECTED VALUE INTENT  Yes Childfree*  23.11444  Unsure  17 |  CHI-SQUARE  No  25.7  12 |  1.7  |  5.7  Probably Yes  27 25.7  1 1.7  5 5.7  Definitely Yes  33 25.7  0 1.7  0 5.7  COLUMN TOTAL  77 77.8%  5 5.1%  17 17.2%  D.F.  SIGNIFICANCE  4  ROW TOTAL 33 |  33.3% 33 33.3% 33 33.3% 99 100.0%  MIN. EXPECTED FREQ.  0.0001  * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  1.667  97  A chi-square a n a l y s i s  of the three parenting  intentions  groups by present r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s d i d not r e v e a l an a s s o c i a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s  (see t a b l e 2) . T h i s  f i n d i n g suggests t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n found between marriage i n t e n t i o n s and p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s was not r e f l e c t e d i n the  present r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s  of respondents.  Although  " c h i l d f r e e " respondents were l e s s f r e q u e n t l y marry than "probably yes"  and " d e f i n i t e l y yes"  they were not l e s s l i k e l y t o be p r e s e n t l y someone.  expecting t o respondents,  involved  with  S u b j e c t s were s i n g l e and unattached, s i n g l e but  i n v o l v e d with someone, or i n a steady r e l a t i o n s h i p or engaged, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r p a r e n t i n g  intentions.  An ANOVA was performed t o compare the mean age of t h e three p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s groups.  A significant difference  was not found t o d i s t i n g u i s h the t h r e e groups based on age  F(2,99) = .539, p_ = .588. A MANOVA was performed t o t e s t the hypotheses the continuous v a r i a b l e s education, occupation  regarding  level,  r e l i g i o s i t y , number of s i b l i n g s , and self-esteem.  Wilk's  Lambda on a l l of t h e v a r i a b l e s combined i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the three i n t e n t i o n groups a t a  p_<.005  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e  (see t a b l e  3).  Table 2 Crosstabulation  of P a r e n t i n g  I n t e n t i o n s by R e l a t i o n s h i p  Status.  RELATIONSHIP STATUS COUNT EXP VAL INTENT  Single Childfree*  18 14.7  8 8.0  8 11.3  Probably Yes  13 14.7  10 8.0  11 11.3  13 14.7  6 8.0  15 11.3  .  Definitely Yes  4.31283 a  i  1  44  24  34  TOTAL  43.1%  23.5%  33.3%  4  34 33.3% — ••  34 33.3% 34 33.3% r  COLUMN  D.F.  3  •  i  CHI-SQUARE  |Involved|Steady  ROW TOTAL  SIGNIFICANCE 0.3653  In a steady r e l a t i o n s h i p or engaged. * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  102 100.0%  MIN E.F. 8.000  99  Table 3 Manova of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s Groups on a l l Continuous Variables  (Education, Occupation,  Religiosity/  S i b l i n g s , and  S e l f Esteem).  M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 2, M = 1 , N = 46 ) Test Name Pillais  Value  3  DF^-  E r r o r DF  S i g . of F  2.76854  10.00  190.00  .003*  Hotellings.29369  2.73128  10.00  186.00  .004*  Wilks  2.75002  10.00  188.00  .003*  a  c  .25436  F -  .76106  Approximate F  b H y p o t h e t i c a l Degrees of Freedom c  F s t a t i s t i c f o r WILK'S Lambda i s exact.  *p_£  .005  100  The MANOVA was f o l l o w e d with p r o t e c t e d u n i v a r i a t e F_ t e s t s t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s between the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups and each continuous 4).  R e l i g i o s i t y was found  v a r i a b l e (see t a b l e  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  (p_ = .018)  in  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the groups based on p a r e n t i n g intentions.  None of the other v a r i a b l e s were found t o  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e the groups, although (p_ = .057), number of s i b l i n g s aspirations  self-esteem  (p_=.061) and o c c u p a t i o n a l  (p_ = .070) approached s i g n i f i c a n c e .  b a s i s of these r e s u l t s hypothesis  On the  two, proposing  that  " c h i l d f r e e " p a r t i c i p a n t s would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer s i b l i n g s i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n than " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women, was r e j e c t e d . proposing  "probably yes" and  Hypothesis  six,  t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s than "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women was a l s o r e j e c t e d . proposing  t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women would score  higher on the socioeconomic a s p i r a t i o n s than was  Hypothesis  rejected.  s t a t u s of t h e i r  seven,  significantly occupational  "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women, Hypothesis  nine, proposing  " c h i l d f r e e " p a r t i c i p a n t s would have higher scores than the "probably  t h a t the self-esteem  yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y  p a r t i c i p a n t s , was a l s o r e j e c t e d .  yes"  For a l l f o u r of the above  hypotheses the n u l l hypotheses were  accepted.  101  Table 4 Protected  U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s of Parenting  Intentions  With  A l l Continuous Var i a b l e s .  Variable EDUCATION  Hypoth. MS  E r r o r MS  F  S i q . of F  .33460  .22958  1..45744  .238  670 .13251  245 .53069  2..72932  .070  RELIGIOSITY  1 .60809  .38605  4..16544  .018*  SIBLINGS  3 .54703  1 .23515  2..87174  .061  35 .72976  2,.95298  .057  OCCUPATION  SELF-ESTEEM  105 .5093  U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s with  (2,98) D. F.  102  A Tukey procedure was used i n order t o f u r t h e r understand  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the three i n t e n t i o n  groups on the R e l i g i o s i t y v a r i a b l e . score of 1  (very r e l i g i o u s ) and a p o s s i b l e high score of 3  (not a t a l l r e l i g i o u s ) , of 2 . 7 .  With a p o s s i b l e low  the " c h i l d f r e e " group scored a mean  Both the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group, with a mean of 2 . 3  and the "probably  y e s " group, a l s o with a mean of 2 . 3 , were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the " c h i l d f r e e " groups a t a p_ 5.05  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  hypothesis  f o u r , proposing  On the b a s i s of t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t the " c h i l d f r e e " group would  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s r e l i g i o u s than the "probably the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" groups, was accepted  yes" and  and the n u l l  hypothesis r e j e c t e d . An examination  of the means of the s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s ,  the number of s i b l i n g s , and the occupation i n t e n t groups p r o v i d e s some understanding  scores of the of how d i f f e r e n c e s  between the groups approached s i g n i f i c a n c e The  (see Appendix I ) .  s e l f - e s t e e m scores ranged from a p o s s i b l e low score of  1 0 t o a p o s s i b l e high score of 4 0 . had the lowest  The " c h i l d f r e e " group  s e l f - e s t e e m scores with a mean of 2 9 . 6 and a  standard d e v i a t i o n of 7 . 3 .  The "probably  yes" group had a  mean score of 3 2 . 3 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 4 . 5 . The " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group had the h i g h e s t mean score, 3 2 . 9 , with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 5 . 6 .  Although  the f i n d i n g s  were not s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e s e l f - e s t e e m scores approached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d by  103  hypothesis  nine,  would  a  two  have  three  of  in  a  number  of  variable,  the  Chi-square predicting  ethnicity, knowing  a  used  further  the  to  (see  parenting was A  5).  An  rejected  of  an  (see  the  test  a  higher and  the  between  and  hypotheses  groups  type  strength  the  the  f e l l  of  and  and  lambdas  the  the  r e l i g i o n ,  identity,  Goodman-Kruskal's  the  mean  occupation  the  intent  order,  the  groups.  gender-role  was  and  and  b i r t h  the  n u l l  chi-square  category,  association  religion  b i r t h  not  a s s o c i a t i o n was  significant  religious  to  chi-square  intentions  by  were  other  of  to  had  score  yes"  the  of  "childfree"  "probably  gender,  for  group  mean  used  the  approached  relevant  on  group  were  direction  of  found.  significant  table  group's  woman.  test  associations A  one  childfree  not  both  than  scores  variables  the  of  score  occupation  was  between  "childfree"  examination  than  analyses  occupation  An  yes"  and  variables  mean  Similarly,  associations  categorical  the  "probably  groups.  yes"  the  that  "childfree"  "definitely  mean  that  siblings  yes"  higher  the  The  that  groups.  manner  question.  "definitely  the  and  indicates  significance  mean  intentions  siblings  groups  research  proposed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  parenting  number  which  table  6).  not  order,  (p_ 4  parenting The  birth  hypothesis  accepted. was  found  significant intentions  "definitely  order  between  therefore  .05) a  for  found  hypothesis  indicating  between  found  yes"  for  intent  probability and  women  type f e l l  of  Table 5 Crosstabulation  of P a r e n t i n g Intentions  by B i r t h Order.  BIRTH ORDER COUNT EXPECTED VAL INTENT + Childfree*  Eldest 14 13.3  | Middle |Youngest| + + + 7 13 7.3 12.3  Only 0 1.0  ROW TOTAL +  34 33.3%  Probably Yes  14 13.3  6 7.3  13 12.3  1 1.0  34 33.3%  Definitely Yes  12 13.3  9 7.3  11 12.3  2 1.0  34 33.3%  COLUMN  40  22  37  3  102  TOTAL  39.2%  21.6%  36.3%  2.9%  CHI-SQUARE 3.05258  D.F. 6  SIGNIFICANCE 0.8022  * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  100.0%  MIN EXPECTED 1.000  105  i n t o the " p r o t e s t a n t " category a t a higher than frequency  (35 percent)  and " c h i l d f r e e " women f e l l  "none" category a t a h i g h e r than expected percent). to  expected i n t o the  frequency (56  An a d d i t i o n a l source of the a s s o c i a t i o n appears  be the frequency w i t h which "probably yes" women f e l l  i n t o the "other" r e l i g i o u s category  (26 p e r c e n t ) .  the a s s o c i a t i o n arose from sources congruent  Because  with  those  hypothesized, t h a t i s " c h i l d f r e e " women were l e s s l i k e l y t o be a f f i l i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o n than the other groups, h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e was accepted and the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d .  The Goodman-Kruskal s 1  lambda  s t a t i s t i c i n d i c a t e d a 22 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s dependent, and no r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r with r e l i g i o n dependent, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t r e l i g i o n i s the more important component  i n the dependency.  A s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e was not found t o e x i s t between the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s v a r i a b l e and the v a r i a b l e of ethnicity  (see t a b l e 7 ) .  Hypothesis  f i v e , proposing t h a t  " c h i l d f r e e " women would l e s s f r e q u e n t l y have v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c o r i g i n s than "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women, was r e j e c t e d and t h e n u l l hypothesis  accepted.  106  Table 6 Crosstabulation  of P a r e n t i n g  Intentions  by R e l i g i o u s  Category.  RELIGIOUS CATEGORY COUNT EXPECTED VAL. INTENT Childfree*  Catholic|Protest.| + + 8 5 7.3 7.7  None 19 13.7  | Other + 2 5.3  ROW TOTAL  +  34 33.3  Probably Yes  9 7.3  6 7.7  10 13.7  9 5.3  34 33.3%  Definitely Yes  5 7.3  12 7.7  12 13.7  5 5.3  34 33.3% J  COLUMN TOTAL CHI-SQUARE 12.81424  22  23  21.6%  22.5%  D.F. 6  41 40.2%  SIGNIFICANCE 0.0461  * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  16 15.7%  102 100.0%  MIN EXPECTED 5.333  107  Table 7 Crosstabulation  of P a r e n t i n g  I n t e n t i o n s by E t h n i c / C u l t u r a l  Background.  ETHNICITY COUNT EXPECTED VAL INTENT  Majority Culture  Minority Culture  Childfree*  30 29.0  4 5.0  ROW TOTAL 34 33.3%  Probably Yes  28 29.0  6 5.0  34 33.3%  Definitely Yes  29 29.0  5 5.0  34 33.3%  87 85.3%  15 14.7%  102 100.0%  COLUMN TOTAL CHI-SQUARE 0.46897  D.F. 2  SIGNIFICANCE 0.7910  * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  MIN. EXPECTED 5.000  108  A s i g n i f i c a n t chi-square  (p £ .005) i n d i c a t e d a  s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y of an a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and gender dominance of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e (see t a b l e 8) .  The e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n sample was d i s t r i b u t e d  t h a t 66 p e r c e n t of the respondents  such  a s p i r e d t o male dominated  occupations and 34 p e r c e n t a s p i r e d t o female  occupations.  "Probably yes" women l a r g e l y conformed t o the expected f r e q u e n c i e s , with 65 p e r c e n t a s p i r i n g t o male dominated occupations and 35 p e r c e n t t o female dominated o c c u p a t i o n s . The a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and occupation gender appeared  t o be accounted  f o r by a c o n t r a s t between  the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women and " c h i l d f r e e " women.  Forty-seven percent of the " d e f i n i t e l y  yes" women, a lower than expected  frequency, a s p i r e d t o male  dominated o c c u p a t i o n s , and a h i g h e r than expected  frequency,  53 percent, a s p i r e d t o female dominated occupations. " C h i l d f r e e " women on t h e other hand were n e a r l y s i x times as l i k e l y t o a s p i r e t o a male dominated occupation than t o a female dominated one (15 p e r c e n t ) .  (85 percent)  This f i n d i n g  conforms t o the p r o p o s a l i n hypothesis e i g h t t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women would a s p i r e t o occupations t h a t a r e male dominated more o f t e n than "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women.  Goodman-Kruskal's lambda i n d i c a t e d a 19 p e r c e n t  p r o p o r t i o n a l r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s dependent, and o n l y a 5 percent r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r with gender of o c c u p a t i o n dependent, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o c c u p a t i o n  109  Table 8 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by Gender Dominance of O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s .  GENDER OF OCCUPATION COUNT EXPECTED VAL. INTENT  CHI-SQUARE 11 .04818  ROW TOTAL Male  I Female |  Childfree*  29 22.3  5 11.7  34 33.3%  Probably Yes  22 22.3  12 11.7  34 33.3%  Definitely Yes  16 22.3  18 11.7  34 33.3%  COLUMN 67 TOTAL 65.7% D.F. SIGNIFICANCE 2  35 34.3%  0.0040  * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  102 100.0% MIN EXPECTED 11.667  110  helps t o p r e d i c t i n t e n t more than i n t e n t helps t o p r e d i c t occupation c h o i c e .  The lambda of .191 was the lowest  r e d u c t i o n of e r r o r found f o r the f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was the weakest of the f o u r . A s i g n i f i c a n t c h i square  (p_ £ .0001) i n d i c a t e d a  s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t there was an a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and gender-role i d e n t i t y .  The  a s s o c i a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s seems t o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s e v e r a l p r i n c i p a l sources As hypothesized,  " c h i l d f r e e " women f e l l  (see t a b l e 9 ) .  i n t o the "Feminine"  category of the BSRI l e s s o f t e n (only 15 percent) other two p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups. and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women f e l l of  than the  The "probably  yes"  i n t o the "Feminine" category  the BSRI a t h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s , w i t h 41 p e r c e n t of the  "probably yes" group and 44 p e r c e n t of the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group having feminine gender-role i d e n t i t i e s .  The  a s s o c i a t i o n between g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s a l s o seems t o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the frequency with which p a r t i c i p a n t s scored i n the "Masculine" g e n d e r - r o l e category. " c h i l d f r e e " women f e l l much h i g h e r frequency  As hypothesized,  i n t o the "Masculine" category w i t h a (53 percent)  p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups.  than the other two  "Probably yes" women scored i n  the "Masculine" category a t an approximately frequency i n t o the  expected  (23 p e r c e n t ) , and the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women f e l l  Ill  Table 9 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f P a r e n t i n g I n t e n t i o n s by Gender-role identity.  GENDER-ROLE IDENTITY  COUNT EXPECTED VAL  Undiff.|  INTENT Childfree* Probably Yes Definitely Yes |  Masc. |  Fem.  | Androg. ROW TOTAL 3 34 7.7 33.3%  8 5.0  18 10.0  5 11.3  5 5.0  8 10.0  14 11.3  7 7.7  34 33.3%  5.0  4 10.0  15 11.3  13 7.7  34 33.3%  15  30  34  23  102  14.7%  29.4%  +.  COLUMN TOTAL  CHI-SQUARE 25.96163  D.F. 6  33.3%  SIGNIFICANCE 0.0002  * C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  22.5% 100.0%  MIN EXPECTED 5.000  112  "Masculine" category with a very low frequency  (12 p e r c e n t ) .  Contrary t o the p r o p o s a l i n hypothesis t e n t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women would be more l i k e l y t o be androgynous than the other two groups, " d e f i n i t e l y y e s " women were found t o be androgynous a t a h i g h e r frequency  (38 percent)  than  either  the "probably yes" group (21 p e r c e n t ) , or the " c h i l d f r e e " group which was unexpectedly  found t o have only 9 percent i n  the "Androgynous" c a t e g o r y .  Although  an a s s o c i a t i o n was  found t o e x i s t between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and the v a r i a b l e of gender-role i d e n t i t y t h e source of the a s s o c i a t i o n was not e n t i r e l y as p r e d i c t e d .  Hypothesis t e n proposed t h a t  " c h i l d f r e e " women would more o f t e n have masculine or androgynous g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t i e s , and "probably yes" and d e f i n i t e l y y e s " women would more o f t e n have feminine genderrole identities.  Although  hypothesis t e n was supported by  the f i n d i n g t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women more f r e q u e n t l y had masculine  g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t i e s and "probably yes" and  " d e f i n i t e l y y e s " women more f r e q u e n t l y had feminine genderi d e n t i t i e s , the h y p o t h e s i s was not supported by the f i n d i n g that " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women more f r e q u e n t l y scored i n the "Androgynous" category than the " c h i l d f r e e " women.  On the  b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s , h y p o t h e s i s ten was r e j e c t e d , but the n u l l hypothesis was n o t accepted. Goodman-Kruskal s 1  lambda i n d i c a t e d a 29 percent  r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r w i t h p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n dependent and a 19 percent r e d u c t i o n i n e r r o r with gender-role  identity  113  dependent.  The lambda of .294 was the highest  reduction i n  e r r o r found, suggesting t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n between genderr o l e i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g a l l the c a t e g o r i c a l  i n t e n t i o n s was the s t r o n g e s t of  variables.  A c h i square a n a l y s i s of the v a r i a b l e s  parenting  i n t e n t i o n s and knowing a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman was not found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there was not an a s s o c i a t i o n between these two v a r i a b l e s  (see t a b l e 10) .  the b a s i s of t h i s f i n d i n g , h y p o t h e s i s eleven, proposing the  " c h i l d f r e e " women would more f r e q u e n t l y  accepted.  that  know a  v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman than t h e "probably yes" " d e f i n i t e l y yes"  On  women, was r e j e c t e d and the n u l l  and the  hypothesis  114  Table 10 Crosstabulation  of P a r e n t i n g  I n t e n t i o n s by Knowing a  V o l u n t a r i l y C h i l d f r e e Woman.  KNOW CHILDFREE WOMAN COUNT EXPECTED VAL Do Know|Don't Know INTENT  Childfree*  11 11.4  23 22.6  ROW TOTAL 34 33.7%  Probably Yes  10 11.1  23 21.9  33 32.7%  13 11.4  21 22.6  34 33.7%  Definitely Yes I COLUMN TOTAL CHI SQUARE 0.51126  D.F. 2  34 34  67 67  101  33.7%  66.3%  100.0%  SIGNIFICANCE 0.7744  C h i l d f r e e : D e f i n i t e l y No C h i l d r e n N = 10 Probably No C h i l d r e n N = 24  MIN EXPECTED 11.109  115  Conclusion In c o n c l u s i o n , the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses i n d i c a t e an a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and s e v e r a l of the v a r i a b l e s examined.  A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found t o  d i s t i n g u i s h the mean r e l i g i o s i t y based  scores of the respondents  on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , with the " c h i l d f r e e "  respondents  scoring s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower i n r e l i g i o s i t y  than  both the "probably y e s " and the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" respondents.  S i m i l a r l y , the a s s o c i a t i o n found between the  type of r e l i g i o n p r a c t i c e d and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s may be accounted themselves  f o r by " c h i l d f r e e " respondents  categorizing  more f r e q u e n t l y as having no r e l i g i o n  "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" respondents.  than An  a s s o c i a t i o n was found between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and choice of a female  or male dominated occupation, with  " c h i l d f r e e " women more f r e q u e n t l y choosing male dominated occupations and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women more f r e q u e n t l y choosing female dominated o c c u p a t i o n s .  Although an  a s s o c i a t i o n was found between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and gender-role i d e n t i t y o n l y p a r t of the a s s o c i a t i o n was as hypothesized.  " C h i l d f r e e " women were more f r e q u e n t l y  c l a s s i f i e d as having masculine the other groups,  gender-role i d e n t i t i e s  than  however c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  " d e f i n i t e l y y e s " women f e l l  i n t o t h e "Androgynous" category  with g r e a t e r frequency than " c h i l d f r e e " women who scored i n the "Androgynous" c a t e g o r y a t a low frequency.  R e l i g i o n and  116  religiosity,  gender predominance of o c c u p a t i o n a l  a s p i r a t i o n s , and g e n d e r - r o l e  i d e n t i t y were the v a r i a b l e s  found t o be a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  117  CHAPTER FIVE  Discussion  T h i s chapter the r e s e a r c h , The  i n c l u d e s a restatement of the purpose of  and a summary and d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s .  findings are discussed  i n view of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r coun-  s e l l i n g women i n r e p r o d u c t i v e  decision-making.  The chapter  concludes with a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r research.  Restatement of the Purpose Today the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women are more d i v e r s e than at any time i n the p a s t and women can c r e a t e l i f e s t y l e s  tai-  l o r e d t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs, i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s , o f f e r i n g more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w e l l - b e i n g 1983).  (Baruch e t a l . ,  Motherhood has l a r g e l y become a matter of c h o i c e and  the d e c i s i o n of whether or not t o have c h i l d r e n i s an i s s u e many women of c h i l d b e a r i n g age today f a c e . rewards of the p r o f u s e  The demands and  number of r o l e s a v a i l a b l e impose t h e  need f o r women t o make informed d e c i s i o n s ;  their decision  may be aided by knowledge about other women who a r e making similar  choices.  L i t t l e research  has been conducted examining the inde-  pendent parenthood i n t e n t i o n s of young, s i n g l e women, some  118  of whom may choose t o marry only i f they want t o have c h i l dren.  Research on parenthood decision-making can be en-  hanced by i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which serve to d i s t i n g u i s h these women based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g  inten-  tions.  individ-  R e t r o s p e c t i v e i n q u i r i e s a r e l i m i t e d because  uals tend t o develop reasons f o r t h e i r choice r e t r o a c t i v e l y to support t h e i r d e c i s i o n s  (Faux, 1984; Veevers, 1980).  D i f f e r e n c e s between women may a r i s e from the consequences of a chosen l i f e s t y l e r a t h e r than the o r i g i n a l  characteristics  that l e d them t o make t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e c h o i c e s . A s e a r c h f o r what i n c l i n e s i n d i v i d u a l s towards one r e p r o d u c t i v e p r e f e r e n c e o r another y i e l d s such nebulous concepts as l o v e , f u n and freedom 1980) .  Very l i t t l e  (Burgwyn, 1981; Veevers,  i s known about the s p e c i f i c elements o f  the c h i l d b e a r i n g d e c i s i o n : i n s u f f i c i e n t b a s e l i n e data e x i s t s to guide parenthood decision-making (Wilk, Motherhood  1986).  i s a g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the c h o i c e ,  made i s i r r e v e r s i b l e .  once,  Women today who are faced w i t h the  d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n of whether or not t o bear c h i l d r e n need concrete i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o make an informed c h o i c e which i s l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e the g r e a t e s t degree of p e r s o n a l satisfaction.  By examining the broader s o c i a l ,  situational,  and i n t r a p s y c h i c c o n t e x t s out of which parenthood i n t e n t i o n s emerge, a deeper understanding o f r e p r o d u c t i v e b e h a v i o r and experience might be a c h i e v e d .  To understand f e r t i l i t y  r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r , knowledge i s r e q u i r e d r e g a r d i n g t h e social,  s i t u a t i o n a l , and i n t r a p s y c h i c v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d  119  with r e p r o d u c t i v e parenting  intentions.  Ultimately,  r e s e a r c h on  i n t e n t i o n s may o f f e r a key t o understanding and  r e s o l v i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t many women c o n f r o n t : not  whether o r  they want t o be mothers.  Summary and D i s c u s s i o n An  of Results  examination of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e sample i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t the t h r e e p a r e n t i n g "childfree",  "probably yes"  intentions  groups,  and " d e f i n i t e l y yes",  d i d not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n age or how much thought they had given t o how many c h i l d r e n they wanted. tentions  Women who d e f i n i t e l y intended t o have  c h i l d r e n a l s o intended t o marry. intend  In c o n t r a s t ,  women who d i d  t o have c h i l d r e n were more f r e q u e n t l y  t h e i r marriage p l a n s , marry.  in-  groups d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r based on t h e i r mar-  riage intentions.  not  The p a r e n t i n g  unsure o f  o r i n some cases d i d not i n t e n d t o  Women who intended t o probably have c h i l d r e n  between these two extremes.  fell  This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s an asso-  c i a t i o n between an i n t e n t i o n t o reproduce and an i n t e n t i o n to marry.  Further research  i s needed t o f u l l y  understand  t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , however one l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n  would be a  d e s i r e f o r l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n through marriage. Despite the d i f f e r e n c e s groups r e g a r d i n g  among the p a r e n t i n g  intentions  marriage i n t e n t i o n s , an a s s o c i a t i o n was not  found t o e x i s t between present r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s and p a r enting  intentions.  T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t women who i n t e n d  to remain c h i l d f r e e a r e no l e s s l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d  in a  120  relationship,  but t h a t p o s s i b l y  they r e j e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage. Socialization  factors.  Hypothesis one, proposing that be more o f t e n  first  " d e f i n i t e l y yes"  " c h i l d f r e e " women would  or l a s t born than "probably yes" or  women was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  three groups e x h i b i t e d  very s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n s of b i r t h  order, with almost i d e n t i c a l numbers f a l l i n g middle, l a s t ,  or only c h i l d c a t e g o r i e s .  t r a s t s with Veevers' consistent  In f a c t , the  (1980) and Ory's  into  first,  T h i s f i n d i n g con(1978) f i n d i n g s  w i t h Toomey's (1977) f i n d i n g .  and i s  The d i s c r e p a n c y  among f i n d i n g s may be because of the nature of the s u b j e c t s . Veevers' and Ory's s u b j e c t s were i n d i v i d u a l s who had e x p e r i enced l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t i n g c h o i c e s , whereas the p r e sent study and Toomey's study c o n s i s t e d  exclusively  of' s u b j e c t s who were a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r p a r e n t i n g early.  intentions  Perhaps b i r t h order has a d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n t o  f e r t i l i t y b e h a v i o r depending on whether the d e c i s i o n was reached through a s e r i e s of postponements o r through articulation.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the d i s c r e p a n c y among  early findings  c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the f a c t that b i r t h order i s m i t i g a t e d by  other f a c t o r s  such as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and  experiences o f her p o s i t i o n  i n the f a m i l y .  Hypothesis two, proposing that  " c h i l d f r e e " subjects  would come from s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n than "probably yes" Hendershot's  or " d e f i n i t e l y yes"  women, was r e j e c t e d .  (1969) p r o p o s a l that norms a c q u i r e d i n f a m i l i e s  121  of o r i g i n i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a m i l y planning  decisions,  causing  them to r e c a p i t u l a t e s i m i l a r demographic  structures,  was  substantiated  not  by the present r e s e a r c h .  n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s of the present study may  The  non-sig-  have been r e l a t e d  to the homogeneous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample.  The  number of s i b l i n g s of the respondents was  91  cent of the  sample had  three  1.8,  and  or fewer s i b l i n g s .  mean per-  A more het-  erogeneous sample i n terms of s i z e of f a m i l y of o r i g i n be needed to f u l l y understand the connection between of o r i g i n s i z e and  parenting  (1985) and  family  intentions.  These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t , c o n t r a r y (1985), Gerson  may  Veevers  to what Campbell  (1980) have proposed,  so-  c i a l i z a t i o n experience i n women's f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n i n terms of b i r t h order and t h e i r reproductive these f a c t o r s may by  intervening  f a m i l y s i z e do not appear t o  behavior.  make to p a r e n t i n g  contribution  i n t e n t i o n s are  mitigated  v a r i a b l e s such as c h i l d - c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  or i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s must be  P o s s i b l y the  inform  of f a m i l y l i f e .  i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n  of the sample and  due  the p r e l i m i n a r y  P o s s i b l y a more d i v e r s e  These r e s u l t s  to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  nature of the  sample would r e v e a l women from  larger families exhibiting d i f f e r e n t f e r t i l i t y than those from s m a l l e r  families.  intentions  In depth i n t e r v i e w s  begin to y i e l d more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n o r i g i n experiences i n f l u e n c e p a r e n t i n g Hypothesis three,  research.  about how  may  family  of  intentions.  proposing t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s  between type of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and  parenting  inten-  122  t i o n s , was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e s e a r c h . " c h i l d f r e e " women more f r e q u e n t l y f e l l  As hypothesized,  i n t o the "none" c a t e -  gory, whereas "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women were more f r e q u e n t l y a f f i l i a t e d with a r e l i g i o n .  No p a r t i c u l a r  r e l i g i o n was found t o be a s s o c i a t e d with i n t e n t ; the a s s o c i a t i o n arose from C a t h o l i c , P r o t e s t a n t , and the "other" category u n i f o r m l y being a s s o c i a t e d with "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y yes" respondents,  suggesting that a f f i l i a t i o n  with any r e l i g i o n may have an impact  on p a r e n t i n g i n t e n -  tions . In  a d d i t i o n , h y p o t h e s i s f o u r proposing t h a t the  " c h i l d f r e e " group would score s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n r e l i g i o s i t y than the " d e f i n i t e l y yes" and "probably yes" groups was  accepted.  The s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g  i n t e n t i o n s and r e l i g i o n p a r a l l e l s the f i n d i n g s of many p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (Ory, 1978; Ramu, 1986; Toomey, 1977; Veevers,  1980).  The f i n d i n g s of the present r e s e a r c h sug-  gests t h a t the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of the present cohort of young women a r e s t i l l  i n f l u e n c e d by r e l i g i o u s  affiliations.  These r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a t e the c l a i m by Burgwyn Campbell  (1985) and Veevers  (1981),  (1980) t h a t p r o n a t a l i s t t e n e t s  embedded i n r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s i n f l u e n c e r e p r o d u c t i v e i n t e n t i o n s and b e h a v i o r s .  F e r t i l i t y r e l a t e d values appear t o  be conveyed through r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s , a f f e c t i n g the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s i n t h e present cohort of young women. Hypothesis  f i v e , p o s t u l a t i n g an a s s o c i a t i o n between  e t h n i c background and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s such t h a t  " c h i l d f r e e " respondents a r e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y members of a v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y group than yes" respondents,  "probably  was r e j e c t e d .  yes" or " d e f i n i t e l y  E t h n i c background was not  found t o be a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  This  f i n d i n g i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h by Hoffman and Manis (1979) and Fox e t a l . (1982).  One p o s s i b l e expla  n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y may be because the present r e s e a r c h focused e x c l u s i v e l y on zero p a r i t y ; very d i s t i n c t from zero p a r i t y .  low p a r i t y i s  Because most of the  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on r e p r o d u c t i v e c h o i c e which i n c l u d e d v o l u n t a r y c h i l d l e s s n e s s focused almost e x c l u s i v e l y on women from m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e backgrounds (Beckman, 1977; Gerson, 1980,1986; Ramu, 1985; Thoen, 1977; Veevers, 1980) t h i s f i n d i n g p r o v i d e s a p r e l i m i n a r y understanding  of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c o r i g i n and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s The present r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t s a p r e c u r s o r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n a v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e , with i t s attendant r e p r o d u c t i v e v a l u e s , does not have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s than s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the majority culture.  Conceivably  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i s  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t but e t h n i c 'origin i s mediated by other factors. A l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g i s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h between f i r s t , t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n descendents.  second, or  P o s s i b l y young women who a r e  born and r a i s e d w i t h i n t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e a r e l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r c u l t u r a l o r i g i n s than women who immi-  124  grate.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o more f u l l y  understand  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y and r e p r o d u c t i v e intentions. The m a j o r i t y of respondents were not acquainted with a v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e woman no longer capable child.  of having a  T h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t d i d know a c h i l d f r e e woman,  while 66 percent d i d not.  T h i s i s probably  a r e f l e c t i o n of  the r e l a t i v e i n f r e q u e n c y of v o l u n t a r y c h i l d l e s s n e s s i n the p o p u l a t i o n and a l s o because the p o p u l a t i o n sample was from a much younger c o h o r t than women p a s t t h e i r c h i l d b e a r i n g years.  S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s showed t h a t there was no asso-  c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and knowing a c h i l d f r e e woman.  Hypothesis  s i s accepted.  eleven was r e j e c t e d and the n u l l hypothe-  These p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s would seem t o i n -  d i c a t e t h a t having a c h i l d f r e e r o l e model i s not a s s o c i a t e d with an i n t e n t i o n t o remain c h i l d f r e e . Houseknecht's  In c o n t r a s t ,  (1978) f i n d i n g s showed t h a t i n t e n d i n g t o r e -  main c h i l d f r e e does appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d with group support,  reference  however she d i d not i n d i c a t e t h a t women who  intended t o parent  l a c k e d such s o c i a l c o n t a c t .  c e i v a b l e t h a t i n both  I t i s con-  s t u d i e s having a r o l e model had some  impact on t h e i n t e n t i o n t o be c h i l d f r e e , but t h a t women who intended t o parent had experienced the same impact.  A shortcoming  s i m i l a r contacts  without  of the present r e s e a r c h i s  that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o l d e r c h i l d f r e e women and the respondents was not determined. may  have been obscured  Important d i s t i n c t i o n s  by l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n about whether  125  the o l d e r women were i n f a c t seen as dents,  r o l e models by respon-  or whether they were p e r c e i v e d as u n s a t i s f i e d  with  their childfree status. The  r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s suggest  that r e l i g i o u s  affilia-  t i o n i s the only s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  The form and nature of f a m i l y  l i f e i n terms of b i r t h order and number of s i b l i n g s d i d not appear t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of the p r e s e n t cohort of young u n i v e r s i t y women.  S i m i l a r l y , m a j o r i t y and  m i n o r i t y c u l t u r a l backgrounds d i d not serve t o d i s t i n g u i s h between these women based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , nor did  r e f e r e n c e group support  woman. of  i n terms of knowing a c h i l d f r e e  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s support the p r o p o s a l  Fox e t a l . (1982) t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n with and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a r e l i g i o u s community i n v o l v e s a person t e x t i n which s p e c i f i c f e r t i l i t y  in a social  con-  values and o r i e n t a t i o n s may  be a r t i c u l a t e d , with a r e s u l t a n t impact on r e p r o d u c t i v e i n tentions . Situational  factors.  Hypothesis  s i x , proposing  t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women would  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o i n t e n d t o complete h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l degrees than "probably yes" and " d e f i n i t e l y women, was r e j e c t e d .  yes"  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found  between the mean l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s f o r the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups.  These r e s u l t s a r e i n  contrast, to r e s e a r c h which has i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d f r e e women a r e more h i g h l y educated than the general p o p u l a t i o n  126  (Bram., 1984; The  Houseknecht, 1978; Ramu,1985; Veevers, 1980).  d i s c r e p a n c y between the present research  f i n d i n g s and  those c i t e d may be because the present s u b j e c t s were being compared a t an e a r l i e r stage i n the l i f e c y c l e .  As Ramu  (1985) has proposed, f o r the c h i l d f r e e a commitment t o c h i l dren may be r e p l a c e d  over time by a commitment t o educa-  t i o n a l advancement.  Educational  f a c t o r i n the i n i t i a l  a s p i r a t i o n s may not be a  stages of r e p r o d u c t i v e  decision-  making, but i n s t e a d become s i g n i f i c a n t l a t e r as women postpone t h e i r c h i l d b e a r i n g .  These f i n d i n g s must be  i n t e r p r e t e d i n view of the s e l e c t nature of the sample. None of the respondents a s p i r e d t o l e s s than a B a c h e l o r s degree and only 35 p e r c e n t a s p i r e d t o l e s s than a Master's degree. No  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the mean  occupational  a s p i r a t i o n s scores  t e n t i o n s groups.  in-  Hypothesis seven was r e j e c t e d and t h e n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s accepted. and r e s e a r c h  of the three p a r e n t i n g  The c o n t r a s t between these f i n d i n g s  which i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h i l d f r e e women a r e more  often involved  i n h i g h l y s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l  than women who a r e p a r e n t s be because r e p r o d u c t i v e  careers  (Bram, 1984; Veevers, 1980) may  i n t e n t i o n s and o c c u p a t i o n a l  aspira-  t i o n s a r e being compared a t an e a r l i e r stage i n the l i f e c y cle.  T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l a t -  tainment between c h i l d f r e e women and women who a r e p a r e n t s may  be a r e s u l t of circumstances r a t h e r than an i n i t i a l  preference.  Perhaps women who forgo c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t a i n  127  higher o c c u p a t i o n a l attainments because they are f r e e childcare r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  from  (Ramu, 1985;Veevers, 1980).  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may  sup-  port the p r o p o s a l by B a r n e t t and MacDonald (1986) t h a t c h i l d f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s do not make o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s based on o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r e s t i g e and money.  Again the f i n d i n g s  must be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n because of the nature of the sample.  Most of the respondents  or managerial index.  occupations which score h i g h l y i n the TSEI2  In a d d i t i o n , the women who  on average  a s p i r e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l  intended t o have c h i l d r e n  planned t o l i m i t the number of c h i l d r e n  they  would have t o 2, and t o bear t h e i r c h i l d r e n around age p o s s i b l y w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of a l l o w i n g themselves  27,  greater  freedom to pursue a c a r e e r . Hypothesis  e i g h t , p r o p o s i n g t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n would  e x i s t between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and whether o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s were female or male dominated, was While  accepted.  "probably yes" women's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s were male  or female dominated a t expected  frequencies, " c h i l d f r e e "  women a s p i r e d t o male dominated occupations a t higher than expected f r e q u e n c i e s , and  " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women a s p i r e d to  female dominated occupations a t higher than expected quencies.  fre-  These f i n d i n g s are i n c o n t r a s t to Campbell's  (1985) f i n d i n g s t h a t c h i l d f r e e women i n t e r v i e w e d were s a t i s f i e d s t a y i n g i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine occupations.  The  f i n d i n g s i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h support the p r o p o s a l by Faux (1984) t h a t women who  hope to become mothers g r a v i t a t e  128  towards t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine occupations. search i s needed t o determine  Further re-  whether the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s  of these women are, as suggested by Faux, i n f l u e n c e d by a c o m p a t i b i l i t y with t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s .  Possibly  some women who i n t e n d t o parent a c t i v e l y make t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s based  on how w e l l the work accommodates motherhood.  Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f i n d i n g s i s t h a t women who i n t e n d t o parent v a l u e t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s more than women who i n t e n d t o remain c h i l d f r e e . The r e s u l t s appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t women who do not i n t e n d t o become parents g r a v i t a t e towards male dominated occupations.  Perhaps t h e p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of these  young women are, as Burgwyn (1981) suggests, r e l a t e d t o the c a r e e r advantages a v a i l a b l e t o them, such as working  irregu-  l a r hours and t a k i n g on e x t r a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t r a i n i n g f r e e from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c h i l d c a r e .  Perhaps the  d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups i s not so much a r e f l e c t i o n of a c o s t s - b e n e f i t s decision-making cess as a r e f l e c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , w i t h  pro-  "childfree"  women r e j e c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine occupations i n p r e f erence f o r n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , male dominated c a r e e r s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o why " c h i l d f r e e " women were more l i k e l y t o a s p i r e t o a male dominated o c c u p a t i o n and y e t scored no h i g h e r on the TSEI2 index than the women who intended t o have c h i l d r e n .  Male dominated occupations on  the whole tend t o score h i g h e r on a socioeconomic and p r e s t i g e index than female dominated occupations.  One  129  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why t h i s f a c t i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i s t h a t " c h i l d f r e e " women were not d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from other women because they chose male dominated c a r e e r s such as law and medicine but because they chose c a r e e r s as w r i t e r s , a r t i s t s , and e n t e r t a i n e r s Appendix C ) .  (see  Perhaps c h i l d f r e e women more f r e q u e n t l y make  n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l y female c a r e e r c h o i c e s but, as B a r n e t t and MacDonald  (1986) suggest,  they a r e not doing so because they  value work which o f f e r s p r e s t i g e o r h i g h wages. The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the f e r t i l i t y i n t e n t i o n s of young u n i v e r s i t y women a r e a s s o c i a t e d with p a t i o n p l a n s i n terms of a s p i r i n g t o a male o r female nated o c c u p a t i o n .  occudomi-  The f i n d i n g s may be a r e f l e c t i o n s of a  c o s t s - b e n e f i t s decision-making process such as a d e c i s i o n t o choose t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine occupations t h a t more e a s i l y accommodate c h i l d r e n .  Perhaps the f i n d i n g s a r e an expres-  s i o n of a v a l u a t i o n of occupations which i n v o l v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine a c t i v i t i e s teaching  (see Appendix A ) .  l i k e care g i v i n g , such as  Women who i n t e n d t o remain  c h i l d f r e e , w h i l e more f r e q u e n t l y a s p i r i n g t o male dominated occupations, do not a s p i r e t o c a r e e r s with higher socioeconomic  s t a t u s than women who i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n .  P o s s i b l y c h i l d f r e e women's f e r t i l i t y  c h o i c e s express a  v a l u a t i o n o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t focus on independence and autonomy more than s t a t u s .  130  Identity  factors.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the three p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s groups on t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m Hypothesis  nine, proposing  scores.  that " c h i l d f r e e " p a r t i c i p a n t s  would have h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m than "probably  yes" and  " d e f i n i t e l y y e s " p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e j e c t e d .  Although  no as-  s o c i a t i o n between s e l f - e s t e e m and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s was found, the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s showed t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean s e l f - e s t e e m scores approached  significance  i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t proposed i n the hypothesis.  The mean s e l f - e s t e e m scores were lower f o r t h e  " c h i l d f r e e " group than f o r the "probably  yes" and d e f i n i t e l y  yes" groups. The  f i n d i n g s of the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h support  search f i n d i n g s of Feldman  (1981) t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t  ferences e x i s t i n s e l f esteem between women with parenting choices.  the r e dif-  differing  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s c o n t r a s t  with the f i n d i n g s of Burman and de Anda (1986), Gerson (1986) and Veevers  (1980), which r e p o r t t h a t c h i l d f r e e women  have higher s e l f - e s t e e m than women who choose t o have c h i l dren.  P o s s i b l y d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i n d i n g s may be because ear-  l i e r s t u d i e s were conducted on o l d e r women who had e x p e r i enced l i v i n g with t h e i r p a r e n t i n g c h o i c e s .  Perhaps d i f f e r -  ences i n s e l f - e s t e e m emerge a t l a t e r stages of l i f e out of the consequences of l i v i n g with a chosen Although  life-style.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean s e l f - e s t e e m scores d i d not  reach s i g n i f i c a n c e , the q u e s t i o n of why the scores ap-  131  proached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t hyp o t h e s i z e d m e r i t s enquiry.  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why  a lower mean score was found f o r the " c h i l d f r e e " group may be t h a t some women's low s e l f - e s t e e m may a f f e c t t h e i r  par-  e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s , perhaps by making them f e e l incapable o r unworthy of assuming t h e r o l e of a parent. An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why " c h i l d f r e e " had  subjects  lower s e l f - e s t e e m scores may be, as Baruch e t a l . (1983)  suggest, t h a t stepping o u t s i d e of s o c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d r o l e s can r e s u l t i n lowered s e l f - e s t e e m .  Young women i n t e n d i n g t o  forgo parenthood may see themselves as inadequately  living  up t o t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d r o l e i n the eyes of o t h e r s .  Lowered  s e l f - e s t e e m may t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t because an i n d i v i d u a l ' s conception  of h e r s e l f i s p a r t i a l l y determined by other peo-  p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o her; the development of a sense of s e l f always i n v o l v e s other people  (Cooley,  1902; Wells,  1976) .  S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n emerges w i t h i n a s o c i a l frame of r e f e r e n c e (Ziller,  1969) and women who i n t e n d t o remain c h i l d f r e e do  so w i t h i n a p r o n a t a l i s t s o c i e t y which values the motherhood role.  T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s l i m i t e d by the f a c t t h a t these  young women a r e u n l i k e l y t o have y e t f e l t a g r e a t d e a l of d i r e c t s o c i a l disapproval f o r t h e i r parenting intentions. T h i s k i n d of connection between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and s e l f - e s t e e m would be a s u b t l e and i n d i r e c t one and r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to ascertain.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o  e x p l o r e whether s e l f - e s t e e m i s c o n s i s t e n t l y and r e l i a b l y a f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d with the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of young  132  c o l l e g e women, and  i f such a connection  i s found  r e s e a r c h i s needed to attempt to understand  to e x i s t ,  the  relationship  between s e l f - e s t e e m and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s . The  f i n d i n g s must be viewed with the understanding  that  the s e l f - e s t e e m scores of the respondents were i n general high, with an average score of 31.6  out of a p o s s i b l e low  score of 10 and a high score of 40.  The p a r e n t i n g i n t e n -  t i o n s group with the lowest mean s e l f - e s t e e m had an average score of 29.6,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s e l f - e s t e e m of the  " c h i l d f r e e " group was been suggested  on the whole q u i t e p o s i t i v e .  I t has  i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a moderately high  l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m i s p r e f e r a b l e to both very high  and  very low s e l f - e s t e e m because a middle ground r e p r e s e n t s a reasonable  and r e a l i s t i c amount of s e l f - a p p r a i s a l and  acceptance  (Wells, 1976).  Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t ,  self-  the  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no adverse a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and An a s s o c i a t i o n was  found  self-esteem.  to e x i s t between  gender-role  i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s . " The a s s o c i a t i o n appears to a r i s e , as proposed i n h y p o t h e s i s " c h i l d f r e e " group having at a higher than expected  ten, from the  a "Masculine" frequency  group f e l l  a l s o supported  identity  and a "Feminine" gender-  r o l e i d e n t i t y at a lower than expected p o t h e s i s was  gender-role  frequency.  The  i n t h a t the " d e f i n i t e l y  yes"  i n t o the "Feminine" category at a s l i g h t l y  than expected  frequency.  Hypothesis  ten was  not  hy-  higher  supported  because the a s s o c i a t i o n between p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s and  133  gender-role i d e n t i t y a l s o appeared to the " c h i l d f r e e " group f a l l i n g  than expected  attributable  i n t o the "Androgynous" c a t -  egory a t a much lower than expected " d e f i n i t e l y yes" group f e l l  t o be p a r t l y  frequency, while the  i n t o t h i s category a t a h i g h e r  frequency.  The r e s u l t s of the present study i n d i c a t e an a s s o c i a t i o n between g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t y and p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by the unexpected  f i n d i n g that  " d e f i n i t e l y yes" women were androgynous a t a higher than expected frequency, w h i l e " c h i l d f r e e " women were androgynous at a lower than expected  frequency.  These f i n d i n g s c o n t r a s t  with the f i n d i n g s of T e i c h o l z (1977) r e p o r t i n g t h a t c h i l d f r e e women were more l i k e l y t o have an androgynous genderr o l e i d e n t i t y than women who had c h i l d r e n , which T e i c h o l z proposed  i n d i c a t e d a f l e x i b i l i t y of sex r o l e s , an a b i l i t y t o  step o u t s i d e of t h e s o c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d r o l e of motherhood. What seems t o be r e f l e c t e d i n the present r e s u l t s i s t h a t some women who a r e d e f i n i t e l y i n t e n d i n g t o parent embrace both feminine and masculine  characteristics.  Possibly the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n sample of u n i v e r s i t y  stu-  dents helps t o e x p l a i n the f i n d i n g s because young women who p l a n t o educate  themselves  and combine a c a r e e r and  motherhood a r e l i k e l y t o e x h i b i t a f l e x i b i l i t y of s e x - r o l e s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e present r e s e a r c h e r , l i k e Cohen (1984), T e i c h o l z (1977) and Gerson  (1980),  indicate that  " c h i l d f r e e " women more f r e q u e n t l y have masculine  gender-role  i d e n t i t i e s than women who i n t e n d t o parent, who more  134  f r e q u e n t l y have feminine g e n d e r - r o l e i d e n t i t i e s .  Perhaps  women who embrace c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d t r a i t s of f e m i n i n i t y as p a r t of t h e i r i d e n t i t y more o f t e n i n t e n d t o parent because motherhood i s a r o l e which i s c l o s e l y connected  with  t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x p r e s s i v e feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as n u r t u r i n g , a f f e c t i o n , tenderness and warmth. support Kupinsky's  The f i n d i n g s  (1977) p r o p o s a l t h a t the more t r a d i t i o n a l  a woman's g e n d e r - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , the more l i k e l y she i s t o p e r c e i v e c h i l d b e a r i n g and r e a r i n g as having b e n e f i t s .  As i n  the f i n d i n g s of other r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s (Gerson, 1980: Hoffman, 1975; Veevers,  1980, Waite e t a l . ,  1986) women who  do not i n t e n d t o parent a r e not c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i d e n t i f y i n g themselves  w i t h s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine t r a i t s .  These  women appear t o r e j e c t f e m i n i n i t y and embrace more i n s t r u mental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with a masculine role.  gender-  T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s  groups supports t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t people who do not conform to t r a d i t i o n a l gender r o l e s a r e more l i k e l y t o engage i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l behavior  (Kupinsky,  1977).  The " c h i l d f r e e "  p a r t i c i p a n t s seem t o not simply combine masculine nine t r a i t s ,  and f e m i -  so much as t o r e j e c t c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d n o t i o n s  of f e m i n i n i t y as s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e .  In terms of g e n d e r - r o l e  i d e n t i t y , " c h i l d f r e e " women a r e very n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l . Perhaps the motherhood mandate i s so powerful t h a t t h e women who a r e l i k e l y t o i n t e n d t o f o r g o parenthood not only embrace masculine  a r e those who  t r a i t s but a l s o r e j e c t  a l l y p r e s c r i b e d feminine t r a i t s as p a r t of t h e i r  traditionidentity.  135  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  parenting  i n t e n t i o n s appear t o be asso-  c i a t e d with a combination of p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s i t u a t i o n , and i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s ; f a c t o r s from each of these areas appear t o be r e l e v a n t . factor associated  Religion i sa socialization  with p a r e n t i n g  cause of p r o n a t a l i s t t e n e t s  i n t e n t i o n s , p o s s i b l y be-  embedded i n r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s .  Career a s p i r a t i o n s appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h parenting i n t e n t i o n s , n o t i n terms of socioeconomic s t a t u s , but i n view of whether a p r o f e s s i o n  i s male or female dominated.  Perhaps these f i n d i n g s can be accounted f o r by the values which the women embrace.  P o s s i b l y , as Barnett  and MacDonald  (1986) propose, c h i l d f r e e women eschew careers which o f f e r economic r e t u r n s ,  p r e s t i g e , and s e c u r i t y , and p r e f e r  which o f f e r independence and freedom of a c t i o n .  Perhaps the  women who d e f i n i t e l y i n t e n d t o parent value c a r e e r s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e .  careers  which  An a d d i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t y i s  that women who d e f i n i t e l y i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n a r e engaging i n a c o s t s - b e n e f i t s decision-making process, choosing female dominated c a r e e r s well.  Further  t h a t tend t o accommodate c h i l d r e n  exploration  i s needed t o determine the exact  nature of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between career parenting  a s p i r a t i o n s and  i n t e n t i o n s i n young u n i v e r s i t y women.  ings suggest t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n career  The f i n d -  choice  do not  j u s t emerge out of the circumstances imposed by a chosen lifestyle:  apparently  parenting  intentions are associated  with c a r e e r  a s p i r a t i o n s a t an e a r l y stage of a d u l t  life.  136  I d e n t i t y s t r u c t u r e s appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d with pare n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s i n terms of gender-role i d e n t i t y , perhaps suggesting t h a t young women who r e j e c t motherhood a l s o tend to  r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s e l f de-  scriptive.  Young women who i n t e n d t o parent on the other  hand tend t o embrace a female gender-role i d e n t i t y , or t o adopt masculine  t r a i t s as s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e without  rejecting  feminine ones. The f i n d i n g s of the present study serve t o suggest t h a t young u n i v e r s i t y women who i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n are more t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r marriage  intentions, r e l i g i o u s  t i o n s , c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , and t h e i r gender-role than those women who i n t e n d t o forgo parenthood.  affilia-  identities As s o c i e t y  experiences changes i n women's r o l e s , the women who i n t e n d to  step o u t s i d e of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r e s c r i b e d r o l e of  motherhood seem t o be l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l i n many ways than young women who i n t e n d t o parent.  Motherhood has always  been an expected and f a m i l i a r r o l e f o r women, and perhaps the women who a r e most l i k e l y t o experiment  with an  a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e s t y l e a r e those who do not conform t o tradition.  Implications For Counselling Although parenthood  may be rewarding  i n many  cases, c o u n s e l l o r s must not a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume t h a t having c h i l d r e n n e c e s s a r i l y maximizes the l i f e o p p o r t u n i t i e s of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s .  137  The g e n e r a l s o c i a l p o l i c y of p r o f e s s i o n a l  therapists  has been t o advocate parenthood t o almost a l l p a t i e n t s under almost a l l c o n d i t i o n s .  A more a p p r o p r i a t e  social  p o l i c y would be f o r marriage c o u n s e l o r s and other a d v i sors t o be s e n s i t i z e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f o r some c l i e n t s , the parenthood experience may be permanently disruptive  (Veevers, 1 9 8 0 p. 1 6 9 ) .  The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t women i n c o u n s e l l i n g should be encouraged t o make t h e i r c h i l d b e a r i n g d e c i s i o n s f o r reasons p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and not s o l e l y because parenthood i s a s o c i a l l y prescribed  role.  Informed r e p r o d u c t i v e decision-making i s extremely imp o r t a n t because parenthood i s an i r r e v o c a b l e d e c i s i o n a f fecting several l i v e s .  Women may b e n e f i t from having i n f o r -  mation and a high degree of self-awareness when a s s e s s i n g t h e i r d e s i r e and a p t i t u d e f o r parenthood p r i o r t o a c c e p t i n g or r e j e c t i n g t h i s r o l e .  With the growing number of a p p e a l -  ing and f u l f i l l i n g r o l e o p t i o n s becoming a v a i l a b l e t o women there i s a need f o r women t o c a r e f u l l y assess t h e i r  options.  Women need t o s e l e c t r o l e s which w i l l b r i n g them the g r e a t e s t degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t 1983).  (Baruch e t a l . ,  D e c i s i o n s about parenthood appear t o be h i g h l y  complex and there may be a need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e and support (Faux, 1 9 8 4 ; Veevers, 1 9 8 0 ; (Whelan, 1980).  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t  parenthood p r e f e r e n c e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a combination of  138  several s o c i a l i z a t i o n /  situational  and i d e n t i t y  Women making p a r e n t i n g d e c i s i o n s may b e n e f i t  from knowing  how t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n may serve t o i n f l u e n c e l i f e s t y l e choices.  They may r e q u i r e f a c t u a l  about the r e l a t i o n s h i p choices.  their  information  between c a r e e r and motherhood  They may a l s o b e n e f i t  identity factors  factors.  from knowledge about  which may be r e l a t e d  to t h e i r reproductive  intentions. Women contemplating whether or n o t t o have c h i l d r e n may need t o examine t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l pressures on them t o become mothers Whelan, 1980).  (Bombadeiri/  1981; Faux, 1984; Veevers, 1980;  Women i n c o u n s e l l i n g ,  sequences of a c c e p t i n g e i t h e r  i n e x p l o r i n g the con-  c h o i c e , may need t o assess the  impact of s o c i e t a l p r e s s u r e s and s a n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g both options. the  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i s t e n t with most of  other r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s  affiliation  i n suggesting t h a t  religious  i s a s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r which s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between women who do i n t e n d t o have and Ory,  children  those who do n o t (Burman & de Anda, 1986; Feldman, 1981; 1978; Ramu, 1986; Toomey, 1977; Veevers, 1980) .  need t o be aware o f the p r o n a t a l i s t religious doctrines.  Women  t e n e t s w i t h i n many  P a r t of the c o u n s e l l i n g process should  i n c l u d e encouraging women t o e x p l o r e and understand any a s s o c i a t i o n s between t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s and t h e i r parenthood c h o i c e s .  I t may be necessary t o p r o v i d e coun-  s e l l i n g f o r women a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s between t h e i r r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e  preferences.  139  Women making r e p r o d u c t i v e d e c i s i o n s may need t o t h i n k about the r o l e t h e i r c a r e e r s w i l l p l a y , as w e l l as the r o l e motherhood w i l l p l a y i n t h e i r l i v e s . present r e s e a r c h  The f i n d i n g s of the  i n d i c a t e t h a t young women's p a r e n t i n g i n -  t e n t i o n s d i f f e r based on whether they a s p i r e t o a male o r female dominated p r o f e s s i o n .  T h i s f i n d i n g may suggest t h a t  parenthood and c a r e e r c h o i c e s i n c l u d e a c o s t s - b e n e f i t s decision-making  process.  of d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s .  The f i n d i n g may a l s o be i n d i c a t i v e  The r o l e of the c o u n s e l l o r i n h e l p i n g  women explore t h e i r r o l e options i s t o a s s i s t women i n c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s i n g t h e i r options and choosing t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs and d e s i r e s Campbell, 1985; Veevers; 1980). a s s i s t i n g women t o separate  roles that  (Baruch e t a l . ,  T h i s process w i l l  suit  1983; require  t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs and  values from s o c i a l l y imposed r o l e s ; h e l p i n g them t o g a i n a c l e a r i d e a of t h e i r own p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l c o s t s and benef i t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p a r e n t i n g c h o i c e s and t h e i r  career  choices.  Women should be encouraged t o c o n s i d e r the  realistic  l i m i t a t i o n s imposed when attempting  t o combine  c a r e e r and motherhood r o l e s . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h with d i f f e r i n g p a r e n t i n g  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t young women i n t e n t i o n s may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  based on t h e i r g e n d e r - r o l e  identities.  Women who i n t e n d t o  remain c h i l d f r e e tend t o have masculine gender-role  identi-  t i e s , and women who d e f i n i t e l y i n t e n d t o parent tend t o have feminine  or androgynous gender-role  ings present  i d e n t i t i e s . These f i n d -  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s where  140  women who embrace t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e may f e e l a sense of c o n f l i c t i f they parenthood.  Conversely,  reject  women who choose parenthood y e t  embrace t r a d i t i o n a l l y male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may experience a sense of c o n f l i c t .  The present r e s e a r c h seems to i n d i c a t e  t h a t an e x p l o r a t i o n of g e n d e r - r o l e understanding  i d e n t i t y has a p l a c e i n  and seeking r e s o l u t i o n s t o r e p r o d u c t i v e  decision-making. The present r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s appear t o suggest  that  women who i n t e n d t o remain c h i l d f r e e may be d e s c r i b e d as g e n e r a l l y l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r marriage and c a r e e r p l a n s , t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s , and t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s than women who i n t e n d t o parent.  gender-role  This  i n f o r m a t i o n should not imply a p r e s c r i p t i o n of parenthood f o r t r a d i t i o n a l women and c h i l d l e s s n e s s f o r n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l women.  The i m p l i c a t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t these f i n d i n g s  suggest  i s t h a t women c o n s i d e r i n g r e p r o d u c t i v e options may  want t o examine the t r a d i t i o n a l i s m of t h e i r values and explore any p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s between t h e i r  traditional  and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . The  i n f o r m a t i o n generated  by the present r e s e a r c h i s  not r e s t r i c t e d t o c o u n s e l l i n g women who are making parenthood d e c i s i o n s .  Women may need a s s i s t a n c e i d e n t i f y i n g and  r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s a f t e r t h e i r p a r e n t i n g choice has been made.  They may b e n e f i t from i n f o r m a t i o n and support  regard-  i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s between the r e p r o d u c t i v e d e c i s i o n s they have made and s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n ,  s i t u a t i o n a l , and  141  i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s (Faux, 1984; Movius, 1976; Housekencht, 1978;  Veevers, 1980).  For example, c h i l d f r e e women may  b e n e f i t from i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r o n a t a l i s t tenets t h a t may be a source of c o n f l i c t between t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e c h o i c e .  values  Women who have chosen  parenthood may b e n e f i t from c o u n s e l l i n g i f they begin t o experience  c o n f l i c t between t h e i r c a r e e r choice and  motherhood.  C o u n s e l l o r s can provide i n f o r m a t i o n and support  to women (and t h e i r p a r t n e r s ) both before and a f t e r  their  r e p r o d u c t i v e d e c i s i o n s have been made. The a simple choices.  f i n d i n g s of the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h by no means o f f e r s o l u t i o n t o the problems surrounding  reproductive  Rather i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f f e r e d with which t o begin  developing and s t r u c t u r i n g e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Knowledge about the normative, s i t u a t i o n a l , and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with p r e f e r e n c e s f o r one parenting r o l e or another  may be u s e f u l i n a s s i s t i n g  who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y . gathered  Although  individuals  the i n f o r m a t i o n  from r e s e a r c h on p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s i s not y e t  s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e knowledge about whether a woman w i l l be guaranteed s a t i s f a c t i o n with a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e , i t can be used t o s t r u c t u r e guidance programs and perhaps h e l p t o focus on the s a l i e n t i s s u e s i n r e p r o d u c t i v e  decision-making.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study V o l u n t a r y c h i l d l e s s n e s s i s r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t i n the p o p u l a t i o n , r e s t r i c t i n g the number of s u b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e f o r study.  T h i s f a c t imposed c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s on the present  142  study by making i t necessary  t o combine women who d e f i n i t e l y  d i d not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n (N = 10) with women who probably d i d not i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n (N = 24). T h i s procedure p r o v i d e d a l a r g e enough sample s i z e t o conduct meaningful s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , but i t may have  obscured  d i f f e r e n c e s between women who were more and l e s s c e r t a i n of t h e i r i n t e n t i o n not t o have c h i l d r e n . supported  T h i s procedure i s  by i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the nature  childlessness.  According  t o Veevers  of v o l u n t a r y  (1980) t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  of women who choose t h i s s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t r o l e do so through a s e r i e s of postponements.  T h i s f a c t p r e s e n t s the  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t women who a r t i c u l a t e e a r l y on t h a t they probably w i l l not have c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e l y t o continue t o postpone motherhood  indefinitely.  Another l i m i t a t i o n of the study  i s that parenting  i n t e n t i o n s a r e not e n t i r e l y p r e d i c t i v e of eventual reproductive behavior.  F a c t o r s which a r e a s s o c i a t e d t o  p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s may be d i f f e r e n t from f a c t o r s which are a s s o c i a t e d t o s a t i s f a c t i o n with a chosen p a r e n t i n g Despite t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , of t h i s nature  role.  i t i s u s e f u l t o undertake r e s e a r c h  i n order t o f i n d out which o r i g i n a l ,  a priori  f a c t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with p a r e n t i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , as d i s t i n c t from f a c t o r s which may d i s t i n g u i s h women simply as a r e s u l t of l i v i n g with a chosen r o l e . The homogeneity of the p o p u l a t i o n sample i s a l i m i t a t i o n of t h e study. F a c t o r s t h a t may serve t o d i s t i n g u i s h women based on t h e i r p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s i n a  143  more heterogeneous sample may p o s s i b l y have been because the s u b j e c t s i n the p r e s e n t group.  obscured  study were a s e l e c t  U n i v e r s i t y women a r e by d e f i n i t i o n h i g h l y educated,  and on the whole a s p i r e t o occupations with socioeconomic  s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e .  high  In a d d i t i o n , the  s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l i e s of o r i g i n tended t o be q u i t e s m a l l . Despite the f a c t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample r e s t r i c t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s , r e s e a r c h which focuses on the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of u n i v e r s i t y women i s important.  Female u n i v e r s i t y students have a broad a r r a y of  career options open t o them and,  as they experience  upward  movement towards c a r e e r g o a l s , they a r e a segment of the p o p u l a t i o n l i k e l y t o be c o n f r o n t e d with the i s s u e s surrounding  contemporary parenthood p l a n n i n g  (Gerson,  1980) .  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research The  study of p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s p r o v i d e s a p o t e n t i a l  source of hypotheses about the reasons why people become parents  or not, and the e f f e c t s t h e i r chosen r o l e s may have  on t h e i r l i f e adjustments. for  Such knowledge may provide c l u e s  f u t u r e s o c i a l change e f f o r t s where the emphasis i s on  i n c r e a s i n g awareness of a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s and t o l e r a n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Houseknecht, 1978). F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o g a i n a more p r e c i s e und e r s t a n d i n g of how p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with m a r i t a l , r e l i g i o u s , c a r e e r , and g e n d e r - r o l e tors. may  identity  fac-  An adjunct t o the p r e s e n t body of q u a n t i t a t i v e data  be t o conduct q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g i n depth  144  i n t e r v i e w s which focus ated with p a r e n t i n g  on the f a c t o r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i -  intentions.  Women may be encouraged t o  examine and e x p l a i n why they do or do not wish to marry. Interviews may be conducted t o determine the r o l e of r e l i gion i n r e p r o d u c t i v e  i n t e n t i o n s , such as whether women who  i n t e n d t o parent are more l i k e l y t o endorse p r o n a t a l i s t tenets  of r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s than women who eschew parent-  hood.  An attempt may be made t o f u r t h e r understand the r e -  l a t i o n s h i p between c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and p a r e n t i n g tions. may  Women e n t e r i n g  inten-  i n t o male or female dominated  careers  be asked what s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r chosen  p r o f e s s i o n appeal t o them and whether they are aware of any connections between t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e and t h e i r intentions.  Further  research  i s needed t o more f u l l y under-  stand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender-role enting  intentions.  parenting  i d e n t i t y and par-  T h i s knowledge may c o n t r i b u t e t o d e t e r -  mining how the parenthood r o l e may support or c o n f l i c t with t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine or feminine t r a i t s which i n d i v i d u a l s embrace as s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e . Both c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s a r e needed t o enhance s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ' understanding of parenting i n t e n t i o n s . information  C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s w i l l e l i c i t more  about r e p r o d u c t i v e  range of the s o c i a l spectrum.  i n t e n t i o n s across a wider D i f f e r e n c e s which may be ob-  scured by homogeneity of such f a c t o r s as age, g i n , s o c i a l s t a t u s , and education  f a m i l y of o r i -  may be i d e n t i f i e d through  u t i l i z i n g a more heterogeneous sample.  Longitudinal  studies  145  are needed t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t i n g importantly, the l i f e  i n t e n t i o n s and r e p r o d u c t i v e behavior.  l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s a r e needed to determine  s a t i s f a c t i o n of women who have chosen t o have  dren or not, and which s o c i a l i z a t i o n , tity  More  chil-  s i t u a t i o n a l , and i d e n -  f a c t o r s a r e more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with women's  s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e The present  study,  choices.  and other s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , may serve  to provide the groundwork f o r r e s e a r c h on the development of a " r e p r o d u c t i v e decision-making make parenthood c h o i c e s . to  t e s t " f o r h e l p i n g people  Research of t h i s nature may serve  i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l sources  of c o n f l i c t or c o m p a t i b i l i t y  between parenthood c h o i c e s and other p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s tics.  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S e l f , pp. 162-163.  APPENDIX A  Age  LARGE AND SMALL SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS Large Sample Small Sample N=381 N=102 Mean Mean 20 .7 20 .5  Marriage Intentions  Yes No Unsure  87 .9% 2 .5% 9 .6%  77 .8% Yes No 5 .1% Unsure 17 . 1%  Parenting Age  Mean Range  27 .5 20--40  Mean 28 .0 Range 24--40  Number of Children  Mean Range  2 .4 1-!5  Mean Range  2 .2 1-!5  27 .2% 72 .8%  Yes No  33 .7% 66 .3%  Know C h i l d f r e e Yes Woman No Education  3yrs .5% B.A. 37 .0% M.A. 33 .9% Ph.D. 7 .3% Professional Degree 19 .4% Other 1 .8%  3yrs 0 .0% B.A. 35 .3% M.A. 36 .3% 7 .8% Ph.D. Prof. Degree 19 .6% Other 1 .0%  Occupation (TSEI2)  Mean Range  65 .7 41 -89  Mean Range  Occupation by Sex  Male Female  56 .2% 43 .8%  Male 65 .7% Female 34 .3%  Religion  Catholic Jewish Protestant None Other  23 .2% 0 .3% 25 .3% 36 .9% 14 .2%  Cath. Jewish Prot. None Other  21 .6% 0 .0% 22 .5% 40 .2% 15 .7%  Religiosity  Very 8 .4% Somewhat 43 .4% Not a t a l l 48 .2%  Very Some Not  7 .9% 38 .6% 53 .5%  Ethnicity  Majority Minority  87 .7% 12 .3%  Major. 85 .3% Minor. 14 .7%  B i r t h Order  First Middle Youngest Only  43 .8% 14 .7% 37 .3% 4 .2%  First 39 .2% Middle 21 .6% Young. 36 .3% Only 2 .9%  Siblings  Mean  1 .8%  Mean  67 .8 41 -89  1 .8%  155  APPENDIX B PERSONAL DATA SHEET Please c i r c l e 1.  (or w r i t e in) the most a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e f o r you a t t h i s p o i n t i n your l i f e : What i s your p r e s e n t age? *  2.  What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ?  ( c i r c l e one?)  S i n g l e and unattached  1  S i n g l e but i n v o l v e d with someone  .2  In a steady r e l a t i o n s h i p or engaged  3  Married  4*  Separated  or d i v o r c e d  5  - I f you are p r e s e n t l y s i n g l e , do you i n t e n d to marry i n the future? ( c i r c l e one): yes no unsure 3.  Are you a l r e a d y a parent?  ( c i r c l e one):  yes*  no  (*Note: I f you a r e not 18-26, i f you are married, or i f you are a l r e a d y a p a r e n t , you a r e NOT e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s study and do not need t o complete t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ) 4.  How much thought have you given t o how many c h i l d r e n you want? ( c i r c l e one) 1 almost none  5.  6.  2 very little  3 some thought  4 very much  5 a great deal  C i r c l e the number t h a t most c l o s e l y corresponds your parenthood i n t e n t i o n s :  with  I d e f i n i t e l y do not want c h i l d r e n i n the f u t u r e  1  I p r o b a b l y do not want to have c h i l d r e n  2  I am unsure i f I want c h i l d r e n or not  3  I p r o b a b l y do want t o have c h i l d r e n  4  I d e f i n i t e l y do want t o have c h i l d r e n  5  How e a g e r l y do you a n t i c i p a t e having c h i l d r e n on a s c a l e from 1 (not a t a l l ) to 5 (more than anything)? 1 not a t a l l  2  3  4  5 more than anything  156  7.  I f you do i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n , a t what age would you l i k e t o have your f i r s t c h i l d ?  .  c h i l d r e n would you l i k e to have? 8.  .  I f you do n o t i n t e n d t o have c h i l d r e n , i s i n f e r t i l i t y a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g your d e c i s i o n ? ( c i r c l e one) yes  9.  How many  no  Do you p e r s o n a l l y know any v o l u n t a r i l y c h i l d f r e e women who a r e no longer capable of b e a r i n g a child? yes  no  10. What i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l of education a t t a i n ? ( c i r c l e one)  you p l a n t o  High s c h o o l diploma  1  Two years  2  of u n i v e r s i t y  Bachelor's  degree  3  Master's degree  4  Doctorate  5  P r o f e s s i o n a l degree Other  (MD, DDS, etc)  (specify)  6 .... 7  11. Please c i r c l e t h e category t h a t best d e s c r i b e s your occupational a s p i r a t i o n s : Accountant  01  Architect  02  Computer s p e c i a l i s t  03  Engineer  04  Lawyer  05  Librarian  06  L i f e and p h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t  07  Manager, a d m i n i s t r a t o r  08  Physician, dentist  09  R e g i s t e r e d nurse,  dietician  10  Sales worker  11  Social scientist  12  Teacher; c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y  13  Teacher; except c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . 1 4  157  Writer, a r t i s t , Other  entertainer  15  (specify)  .16  12. What i s your r e l i g i o n ,  i f any?  ( c i r c l e one)  Catholic  1  Jewish  2  Protestant  3  None  4  Other  (specify)  5  other 13. How r e l i g i o u s do you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f t o be? Very r e l i g i o u s  1  Somewhat r e l i g i o u s  2  Not a t a l l r e l i g i o u s . . . . 3 14. the  What i s the predominant e t h n i c / c u l t u r a l background of your ancestors? ( I f more than one a p p l i e s , choose one w i t h which you most i d e n t i f y . ) Chinese  1  E a s t e r n European  2  East Indian  3  Filipino  15.  4  Japanese  5  Northern European  6  Southern European  7  Vietnamese  8  Other  9  (specify)  In your f a m i l y , what i s your b i r t h order? 1. e l d e s t  16.  ,  2. middle  3. youngest  4. only  How many b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s do you have?.  child .  Thankyou very much f o r f i l l i n g out t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e ! p l e a s e f i l l out the two p e r s o n a l p r o f i l e measures.  Now  158  APPENDIX C OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS: TSEI2 SCORES, MALE OR FEMALE DOMINATED AND FREQUENCY COUNTS FOR PARENTING INTENTIONS GROUPS Occupation T i t l e  TSEI2 Score  Male/Female**  Accountant  64.68  M  CF 1  PY 0  Architect  80.11  M  0  1  0  70.45  M  1  0  0  Engineer  78.91  M  1  2  1  Lawyer  88.42  M  5  6  2  Librarian  65.46  F  0  0  0  78.71  M  4  1  1  50.12  M  3  2  7  Computer  specialist  L i f e and p h y s i c a l Manager,  scientist  administrator  DY* 0  Physician,  dentist  88.97  M  3  2  2  Registered  nurse, d i e t i c i a n  44.89  F  2  2  2  Sales worker  41.13  M  1  0  0  Social  scientist  79.48  F  2  1  2  Teacher ( c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y )  82.30  M  2  3 . 1  Teacher 52.82 (except c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y )  F  1  2  9  Writer,  M  5  1  1  artist,  entertainer  54.39  * C F = " c h i l d f r e e " : D e f i n i t e l y no c h i l d r e n N == 10 N = 24 Probably no c h i l d r e n PY="probably yes" N = 34 D Y = " d e f i n i t e l y yes" N = 34 :  Determined from 1980 Canadian Census d a t a .  159  APPENDIX D ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY Answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s by c i r c l i n g the number which best r e p r e s e n t s how you f e e l . Strongly disagree Disagree Agree S t r o n g l y agree  1 2 3 4  1.  On the whole, I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h myself....1  2  3  4  2.  At times I think. I am no good a t a l l  1  2  3  4  3.  I - f e e l t h a t I have a number of good qualities  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  4.  I am able t o do t h i n g s as w e l l as most people  5.  I f e e l I do not have much t o be proud o f . . . . l  2  3  4  6.  I certainly  1  2  3  4  7.  I f e e l t h a t I am a person of worth, at l e a s t on an equal plane w i t h others I wish I c o u l d have more r e s p e c t f o r myself  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  3  4  8. 9. 10.  f e e l u s e l e s s a t times  A l l i n a l l , I am i n c l i n e d t h a t I am a f a i l u r e  to f e e l  I take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward myself.. 1 2  160  APPENDIX E  INTRODUCTION LETTER  H e l l o , my name i s Kim Burton, and I am a C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Masters student a t UBC. I am conducting a study on the p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of young women today. I am c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about r e c e n t trends i n f e r t i l i t y decision-making and attempting t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with women's parenthood i n t e n t i o n s . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n can c o n t r i b u t e t o an understanding of the p a r e n t i n g i s s u e s women today are f a c i n g . The f a c t o r s I am e x p l o r i n g a r e : b i r t h order and f a m i l y s i 2 e , r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y , e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , as w e l l as s e l f - e s t e e m and gender i d e n t i t y . To be e l i g i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study you must be eighteen t o twenty-six years o l d , unmarried, and a t t e n d i n g university. I w i l l be happy t o inform you of the r e s u l t s of t h i s survey. Instructions The survey w i l l take you approximately 15 minutes t o complete. To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , the forms w i l l be coded w i t h a s e r i a l number, and the consent form w i l l be removed and kept s e p a r a t e l y from the other forms. DO NOT PUT YOUR NAME ON THE FORMS. Answer a l l the questions as best you can. WHEN YOU ARE DONE, DROP OFF THE SURVEY AT THE FRONT DESK OF YOUR RESIDENCE AREA IN THE LOCKED BOX PROVIDED. Yours t r u l y , Kim  Burton  162  APPENDIX G: REMINDER NOTICE  T h i s i s a note t o remind students who are i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study on p a r e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s t o f i l l out and r e t u r n the survey forms you r e c e i v e d . I f you have a l r e a d y r e t u r n e d your completed survey to the box a t the r e s i d e n c e desk p l e a s e d i s r e g a r d t h i s n o t i c e . I f you are not planning t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study p l e a s e r e t u r n the blank survey t o the r e s i d e n c e desk. thankyou Kim Burton  163  APPENDIX H MANOVA AND UNIVARIATE F TESTS COMPARING EQUAL N RANDOM SAMPLE WITH ENTIRE SAMPLE M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e (S =  1,  M = 1 1/2, N = 236 1/2)  Test Name  Value  Exact F  Hypoth. DF  E r r o r DF  S i q . of F  Pillais  .00581  .55525  5.00  475.00  .734  Hotellings  .00584  .55525  5.00  475.00  .734  Wilks  .99419  .55525  5.00  475.00  .734  Note.. F s t a t i s t i c s a r e exact.  EFFECT .. GROUP (CONT.) Univariate  Variable EDUCATION OCCUPATION  F-tests with  Hypoth. MS .01087  (1,479) D. F.  E r r o r MS 1.37715  F  S i g . of F.  .00789  .929  396 .49600  251.99181  1.57345  .210  RELIGIOSITY  .26913  .40928  .65758  .418  SIBLINGS  .00060  1.50317  .00040  .984  17 .51174  27.35174  .64024  .424  SELFESTEEM  164  APPENDIX I VARIABLE MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS Variable Group  Mean  .. EDUCATION Std. Dev  N  95 percent Conf. I n t e r v a l  CHILDFREE 3.706  .462  34  3.545  3 .867  PROB.YES  3.697  .467  33  3.531  3 .862  DEF. YES  3.529  .507  34  3.353  3 .706  TOTAL  3.644  .481  3.549  3 .739  Variable  101  .. OCCUPATION LEVEL (TSEI2)  Group  Mean  CH.FREE  68.935  16.349  34  63.231  74 .640  PROB.YES  71.945  15.333  33  66.508  77.382  DEF.YES  63.158  15.294  34  57.822  68.495  TOTAL  67.974  15.938  64.827  71.120  Variable  Std. Dev.  N 95 percent Conf . I n t e r v a l  101  .. RELIGIOSITY  Group  Mean  Std. Dev.  95 percent Conf . I n t e r v a l  CH.FREE  2.706  .462  34  2.545  2.867  PROB.YES  2.333  .645  33  2.104  2.562  DEF.YES  2.324  .727  34  2.070  2.577  TOTAL  2.455  .641  2.329  2.582  N  101  165  Variable  .. SIBLING NUMBER  Group  Mean  CH.FREE  1.647  .812  34  1.364  1.930  PRO.YES  2.212  1.474  33  1.690  2.735  DEF.YES  1.647  .950  34  1.316  1.978  TOTAL  1.832  1.132  101  1.608  2.055  Variable Group  S t d . Dev.  N  95 percent  Conf.Interv,  .. SELF-ESTEEM Mean  S t d . Dev.  N  95 percent Conf. I n t e r v a l  CH.FREE 29 .588  7.386  34  27.011  32.165  PRO.YES 32 .273  4.543  33  30.662  33.884  DEF.YES 32 .912  6.093  34  30.952  34 .871  TOTAL  6.093  101  30.381  32.787  31 .584  

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