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Creative blocks in musicians : an exploration of their self-reported causes Thom, Terre Bell 1991

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a-I CREATIVE BLOCKS IN MUSICIANS: AN EXPLORATION OF THEIR SELF-REPORTED CAUSES by TERRE BELL THOM .Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1991 (c) Terre B e l l Thorn, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Ocjhiur 9 iy°>) DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to explore the nature and causes of blocks to musicians' creative and re-creative processes. The importance of t h i s investigation was explained i n terms of expanding exi s t i n g knowledge concerning blocks. Data from 57 volunteer subjects were subjected to content analysis, modelled after Crosson (1982a & b) and Porath (1990). Six categories of causes of blocks were i d e n t i f i e d . Emergent themes included Process-Orientation, wherein blocks are described as integral elements of the creative process, as well as Problem Solving, Working Conditions, Professional Esteem, Emotion, and Physical. Quantitative analyses done on the variables duration and frequency of blocks with creative or re-creative group did not support the hypotheses that associations would be found between these variables and group membership. Tentative support was found for the hypotheses that sex i s related to frequency of block and also to duration. Findings confirm a hypothesized difference between the number of causes of blocks c i t e d by musicians with varying duration of their longest block. These results have implications for counsellor awareness of, and practice i n dealing with c l i e n t s ' blocks to creative or re-creative tasks. As well, they suggest that future research r e p l i c a t i n g the study with larger, more evenly matched, and more diverse samples i s needed. Supervisor: Dr. Stephen E. Marks i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x DEDICATION xi CHAPTER I 1 Introduction 1 Background to the Problem 1 Statement of the Problem 5 Purposes of the Study 6 Importance of the Study 6 Definitions 8 Research Questions 11 Delimitation and Scope of the Study 12 Organization of the Study 13 CHAPTER II 16 Literature Review 16 Introduction 16 i v C r e a t i v i t y 17 General Literature on C r e a t i v i t y 17 Research on C r e a t i v i t y i n Musicians 26 Blocks 39 General Literature on Blocks to C r e a t i v i t y . . . 39 Research on Blocks to C r e a t i v i t y i n Musicians . . 49 Statement of Purpose and Rationale 52 Substantive Hypotheses 53 CHAPTER III 56 Methodology 56 Sample 56 The Measure Used 65 Procedure 67 Methods of Data Analyses 69 Inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y t r a i n i n g 72 Null Hypotheses 73 Summary 75 CHAPTER IV 7 6 Results 76 Analysis of Qualitative Data: Causes of Block . . 76 Inter-Rater R e l i a b i l i t y : Results 80 What Causes Whose Blocks? 81 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis: Inferential Data 84 Frequency of Blocks 89 V Duration of Longest Block 92 Total Self-reported Causes of Block . . . . 94 Total Causes with Duration 95 One-way ANOVA 95 Two-way ANOVA 98 Summary 102 CHAPTER V 103 Summary and Discussion 103 Summary of the Study 10 3 Summary of Qualitative Results 104 Summary of Quantitative Results 105 Summary of Incidental Findings . 106 Discussion and Interpretation 107 Discussion of Qualitative Findings 107 Discussion of Quantitative Findings 116 Discussion of Incidental Findings 122 Conclusions 123 Conclusions re Qualitative Findings 123 Conclusions re Quantitative Findings . . . . 125 Recommendations for Further Research 127 REFERENCES 130 APPENDICES AA Letter of i n v i t a t i o n sent 148 AB Letter of permission received 149 B Letter of i n v i t a t i o n sent 150 v i C Sample l e t t e r to composers 151 D Sample l e t t e r to performers 152 E Consent Form 153 F Survey on Blocks i n Musicians 154 G Information for Raters 159 H Instructions to Raters 160 I Inter-rater R e l i a b i l i t y : Category Assignments 166 J Inter-rater R e l i a b i l i t y Scores: Record . . . 167 K Letter of thanks to musicians 168 LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 1 Numbers and Percentages of Participants, by Group and by Sex 59 2 Total Numbers and Percentages of Questionnaires Returned, by Group 62 3 Age (in Decades) of Participants, by Group 63 4 Raw Scores, Means, and Standard Deviations for Number of Causes, by Category 83 5 Chi-square Test of Association: Frequency of Block by Sex 92 6 Mean Numbers of Total Causes of Block, for Group and for Sex 96 7 One-way ANOVA Summary Table of Total Causes of Block Means by Duration of the Longest Block . . . 97 8 Student-Newman-Keuls Procedure Table of Total Causes of Block Means by Duration of Longest Block 97 9 Summary Table of Two-way ANOVA Results: Total Causes of Block Means with Group and Duration of Longest Block 100 v i i i LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) 10 Summary Table of Two-way ANOVA Results: Total Causes of Block Means by Sex, and by Duration of the Longest Block 101 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE 1 Causes of Block, by Category, for the Total Sample (N = 57) 85 2 Causes of Block, by Category, c i t e d by Women Subjects (n = 18) 86 Causes of Block, by Category, c i t e d by Men Subjects (n = 39) 86 3 Causes of Block, by Category, for the Total Sample (N = 57) 87 4 Causes of Block, by Category, c i t e d by Creative Subjects (n = 35) 88 Causes of Block, by Category, c i t e d by Re-creative Subjects (n = 22) 88 5 Frequency of Blocks: Percentages for Total Sample (N = 57) 91 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A work of t h i s type i s not simply the result of one person's e f f o r t s , and I have benefitted immeasurably from the advice and assistance of a great many people. Thanks to my committee chairman, Dr. Stephen Marks, who granted me s u f f i c i e n t autonomy during the "problem-find i n g " stage to allow my own creative process to thrive. I thank him for f i n a n c i a l assistance during my Research Assistantship i n 1988, and acknowledge his e f f o r t s at providing a balanced viewpoint and e d i t o r i a l suggestions. My thanks also go to Dr. Beth Haverkamp for i n s p i r i n g teaching, wisdom, graciousness, and exemplary professional modelling i n her capacity as methodologist. It i s to her credit that what was once formidable became fascinating. Special thanks are due to Dr. Marion Porath, for her consistently knowledgeable input as content consultant i n the areas of c r e a t i v i t y and giftedness. I am grateful for her encouragement; for the p r a c t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l support she gave me as Research Assistant i n 1989 - 1990; for "hands-on" t r a i n i n g i n conducting content analysis; and for her unwavering b e l i e f i n the worth of thi s project and in my a b i l i t y to complete i t . Many s p e c i a l i s t s with whom I consulted also merit thanks: Dr. Jane Auman, Dr. Walter Boldt, Dr. Clare Buckland, Dr. Larry Cochran, Donna Hossack, Dr. Anthony Kemp, Keith Lawrence, John McLachlan, Colin Miles, Dr. Harold Rat z l a f f , Dr. Dale Reubart, Professor Bob Steele, H i l a r y Stewart, Michael Wall, Carol Zacher, and the two raters. University of B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r i a n s Pia Christiansen, Dorothy Martin, and Kirsten Walsh provided helpful assistance, as did Mary Bennett, Anthea Bussey, Anthony Hempell, Jane Osborne, and Dwayne Smith. Colleen Haney assisted with the computer analysis; Judy Holmes, G. E. John Smith, and Rae S. Smith taught word processing survival s k i l l s . Rory Keogh and Paul Nagelkirke helped with graphic design; Al Karim and his s t a f f gave exceptional photocopying and delivery service. P a r t i c u l a r thanks go to Simone Auger and Colin Miles, who so generously granted me access to th e i r membership l i s t s . Their approval and support for the project are most appreciated. Without the disclosures of my musical co-researchers, th i s study could not have been conducted. Above a l l , my deep gratitude and appreciation are due to the professional musicians who shared so candidly of the i r working processes--blocked or not--that others might eventually benefit from t h i s research. F i n a l l y , to my community of family, friends, and colleagues, I extend warmest appreciation and thanks for support, laughter, and encouragement when I f e l t blocked. xi This work i s lovingly dedicated to the memory of my mother, Pauline Bellows Larsen 1916 - 1973 and to my father, Svend Aage Larsen 1910 -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION [The] phenomenon of seeing things i n a broader context, of getting an overall picture, of overcoming blocks to solve a problem, i s not a rare occurrence, but i s a feature of thinking well i n general.... Creative thinking i s not, then, mysterious and d i f f e r e n t from everyday thinking, but can be accounted for i n terms of the processes which constitute a l l our thinking. Thus everyday thinking and creative thinking are not d i f f e r e n t i n kind but merely i n degree.... ( B a i l i n , 1988, p. 74) Background to the Problem One of the major challenges people face i s the fee l i n g of being blocked or stymied i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to accomplish something they value. This study i s being conducted i n the hope that i t s findings may prove helpf to counsellors' e f f o r t s at working with blocked c l i e n t s . Everyone i s f a m i l i a r with minor episodes of block, such as concern over thinking up ideas for a personal l e t t e r , or g u i l t about neglecting a favourite project. There are times, however, when feelings of being blocked may reach seemingly unmanageable proportions. The costs of such episodes are hard to measure, given the hidden nature of th e i r deleterious e f f e c t s . If blocked feelings are recognized as being amenable to treatment, people may decide to seek counselling. If not, they may p r i v a t e l y endure the missed opportunities, unrealized hopes, postponed decisions, re-directed careers, and severed relationships which can result from an i n a b i l i t y to work cre a t i v e l y with th e i r blocks. In order for counsellors to work e f f e c t i v e l y with blocked c l i e n t s , they require an understanding of those c l i e n t s ' processes. To date, few studies have illuminated t h i s area; the groundwork which has been established needs broadening. The present work i s an attempt to extend what i s known about experiences of blocks to creative and re-creative working processes i n professional musicians. Individuals whose work i t i s to discover or formulate creative problems present a special opportunity to the researcher. One way of attempting to understand the processes related to blocked experiences i s to examine those processes as they appear i n members of a creative 3 population. These individuals are c l e a r l y invested i n turning out creative products of high quality. It i s i n t h e i r own interest to be a l e r t for signs of block, and to intercept oncoming blocks whenever possible. Even so, periods of block do occur. Background: C r e a t i v i t y and Blocks Conventional wisdom holds that the issue of blocks to c r e a t i v i t y has i t s underpinnings i n the parent concept of c r e a t i v i t y i t s e l f . In t h i s study, an overview of twentieth century thought concerning the underlying construct of c r e a t i v i t y i s included to f a c i l i t a t e a discussion of what might get i n i t s way. Thus, Chapter II begins with a review of major works i n the general area of c r e a t i v i t y . Amidst the vast l i t e r a t u r e concerning human c r e a t i v i t y , comparatively l i t t l e has been published about blocks to i t s expression. Exis t i n g work, with few exceptions (Alamshah, 1972; B a i l i n , 1988; Crosson, 1982a, 1982b; Lipson & Perkins, 1990; Perkins, 1981; Weisberg, 1986), has been focused either on psychodynamic processes underlying blocks to c r e a t i v i t y (Jung, 1933/1962; Maslow, 1968; May, 1975; Sass, 1984; Storr, 1988), or on educational assessment and t r a i n i n g i n the so-called s k i l l s of c r e a t i v i t y (deBono, 1967/1987; Guilford, 1950; Myers & Ray, 1989; Parnes, 1967, 1981; Torrance, 1962; von Oech, 1983). 4 Although major theorists such as Freud, Jung, Skinner, and Maslow have influenced how society regards c r e a t i v i t y , many other writers have approached c r e a t i v i t y and related constructs from unique and often divergent perspectives. Disparity of Theories and Definitions Perhaps one reason for the widely diverging theories of c r e a t i v i t y l i e s i n people's natural tendency to define the term i n id i o s y n c r a t i c ways. Like the elusive concepts of happiness and love, c r e a t i v i t y means d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people. Whatever i t i s taken to mean by the in d i v i d u a l , s o c i e t a l attitudes towards i t have fluctuated throughout history. In our own times c r e a t i v i t y i s usually highly valued, even revered. To label someone "creative" i s to confer a compliment. Yet there have been periods when the opposite was meant (Allan, 1978), i n part because of nonconforming personal habits and behaviours of some cr e a t i v e l y g i f t e d a r t i s t s , composers, and s c i e n t i s t s . On the one hand, such varying perceptions and interpretations of what c r e a t i v i t y i s bring richness and breadth to society's understanding of the f i e l d . There i s a p o t e n t i a l l y synergistic effect available when those who d i f f e r attempt to share insights and to integrate d i f f e r i n g views. On the other hand, progress toward d e f i n i t i v e understandings i s sometimes hampered by in d i v i d u a l s ' f a i l u r e to recognize the limitations inherent i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r positions. One example of t h i s i s A r i s t o t l e ' s contention "that one could work out a l l the laws that govern the universe by pure thought: i t was not necessary to check by observation" (Hawking, 1988, p. 15). Another example i s Graham Wallas' (1926) somewhat controversial four-stage model of the creative process. It includes the stages of preparation, incubation, illumination, and v e r i f i c a t i o n , which Patrick (1935, 1937) found inapplicable to some of the poets and a r t i s t s she studied. Statement of the Problem This study i s focused on blocks to the working processes of women and men who create music through' composing; their-responses to items on a questionnaire are compared with the answers given by instrumental players of both sexes who re-create musical works through performance. A reading of the l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to related d i s c i p l i n e s such as creative writing or painting suggests that many writers and a r t i s t s experience blocks. However, with the exception of Crosson (1982a, 1982b), no studies exist which have c l a r i f i e d what creative people see as having caused th e i r blocks. Moreover, the issue of blocks has not yet been addressed with regard to the population of professional musicians. The present research problem then becomes, "What can be, learned from musicians who have experienced blocks?" More s p e c i f i c a l l y , two problems are i d e n t i f i e d : One, "What do musicians say about the causes of the i r blocks which might contribute to counsellors' understanding of the experience of blocks to creative or re-creative working processes?" And, two: "Do experiences of frequency, duration, and total number of causes of blocks d i f f e r for women and men, or for creative and re-creative subjects?" Purposes of the study The purposes of the study are two-fold. F i r s t , the study i s conducted i n an attempt to i d e n t i f y and describe self-reported causes of blocks i n creative and re-creative musicians of both sexes. Second, an attempt i s made to ascertain whether systematic differences exist between members of the various groups. Accordingly, questions are posed concerning experiences of frequency and duration of blocks, as well as total number of causes of blocks, i n a) the creative and re-creative groups, and i n b) the women and men. Categories are formulated wherein related causes of block are grouped according to s i m i l a r i t y of meaning. These c o l l e c t i o n s of related causes are then used to f a c i l i t a t e comparison between the experiences of creatives and re-creatives, and between women and men. Importance of the study The preceding discussion i l l u s t r a t e s that f e e l i n g blocked i s an experience common to many people. Episodes of block can escalate or become compounded, to the point where people seek counsellors' perspectives and assistance. Counsellors working with these c l i e n t s require information about the phenomenon of block, and about how i t i s experienced by people who routinely surmount the i r blocks. Musicians comprise a group suited to investigation, because i n th e i r work they face d a i l y challenges of creating ( i n the case of composers), and re-creating ( i n the case of performers), whether or not they may feel blocked. The importance of t h i s study l i e s i n the need to expand knowledge concerning blocks to people's creative and re-creative working processes. This expanded information i s required so that further theory, research, and counselling practice may be grounded where possible on what i s known about " l i f e as i t i s l i v e d " (Giorgi, 1975). If a strong rationale for counselling blocked c l i e n t s i s to be b u i l t , then a foundation of systematic observation and inquiry i s needed. From th i s base, work at devising and r e f i n i n g techniques for prevention of blocks and e f f e c t i v e interventions to blocks can proceed. Also of si g n i f i c a n c e i s the general issue of how the construct "blocks to c r e a t i v i t y " relates to "working blocks." Although the present study evolved from a concern with t h i s general issue, the focus of this work i s on the f i r s t construct, blocks to c r e a t i v i t y , as they appear i n a group of professional concert musicians. 8 Definitions If the study of problem solving seems fr u s t r a t i n g at times, the study of c r e a t i v i t y i s downright maddening. We lack even a r e l i a b l e d e f i n i t i o n of the phenomenon. (Stevens-Long, 1984, p. 421) An argument i s presented above that might explain this lack of r e l i a b l e d e f i n i t i o n . Insofar as most people have the capacity to be creative at some l e v e l , there w i l l exist as many theories concerning t h i s endowment as there are thinkers. Part of the confusion surrounding the word " c r e a t i v i t y " may be attributable to i t s use as a general, catch - a l l term. MacKinnon defends th i s general use, c a l l i n g c r e a t i v i t y a "multi-faceted phenomenon" (1970, p. 19), appropriate for use i n various sit u a t i o n s . To lessen ambiguity and promote c l a r i t y , d e f i n i t i o n s for the creative context, person, process, and product are given here. These designations are derived from MacKinnon's 1970 a r t i c l e c i t e d above. Inherent i n the d e f i n i t i o n s r e l a t i n g to individuals i s the precept taken from Maslow, "A person i s both a c t u a l i t y and p o t e n t i a l i t y " (1968, p. 10, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . Also provided are d e f i n i t i o n s for related terms relevant to the present work. As mentioned e a r l i e r , a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n the next chapter provides background information on c r e a t i v i t y i n general, and on musical c r e a t i v i t y i n 9 pa r t i c u l a r . This information serves as a context within which the work on blocks i n general, and blocks to c r e a t i v i t y may be considered. C r e a t i v i t y : An a b i l i t y and a propensity for bringing into being some unique and "extraordinary end." The product must have relevance and sign i f i c a n c e "within a p a r t i c u l a r context" ( B a i l i n , 1988, p. 85). (In rare cases, a creative end may only be considered creative posthumously. Such i s the case when a product i s ahead of i t s time, so that the creator's contemporaries f a i l i n i t i a l l y to recognize the product's significance.) Creative block: Any impediment or i n h i b i t i n g factor which mediates against completion of a f u l l y desired, unique and extraordinary end. Working block: Any impediment or i n h i b i t i n g factor which mediates against completion of tasks normally performed w i l l i n g l y by a worker. Creative context: The creative context refers to the environmental conditions, both f a c i l i t a t i v e and constraining, which aff e c t creative persons, t h e i r processes, and ultimately t h e i r products. Creative person: A creative person i s one whose propensity i t i s to devote care, persistence, passion, and i n t u i t i o n i n the s k i l l f u l exercise of a d i s c i p l i n e wherein unique and extraordinary ends are brought into being. Creative process: The creative process i s the s k i l l f u l l y purposeful manner i n which persons invest the whole of t h e i r talent, t r a i n i n g , values, feelings, thoughts, and conscious images to devise and revise extraordinary problems and th e i r solutions. For some, thi s process i s expanded by the use of primary and t e r t i a r y processes (see below). Creative product: A creative product i s "an extraordinary end ... s i g n i f i c a n t within a p a r t i c u l a r context" ( B a i l i n , 1988, p. 85) and to some degree unique. Recognition of i t s worth may be delayed. Musically creative population: For purposes of this study, members of a musically creative population are those who are manifestly engaged i n a musically creative process while at work. They are bringing into being unique and extraordinary musical products. Musically re-creative population: For purposes of t h i s study, members of a musically re-creative population are those who perform i n ensemble i n the re-creation of an existing musical work. Rather than bringing into being a new work, the re-creative person i s interpreting or transmitting an existing musical product. Primary process: This term refers to the means by which material normally residing i n the unconscious or the preconscious becomes available to the conscious mind. It "prevails i n dreams ... and psychoses" ( A r i e t i , 1976, p. 12) and includes primitive thought processes often regarded as a l o g i c a l , i r r a t i o n a l , or deviant. Secondary process: Often considered the "other" process, i t i s distinguished from primary process by i t s l o g i c a l manner. In psychoanalytic theory, i t s conscious, rational nature i s seen as being derived from the ego, as opposed to the unconscious quality of the primary process which i s said to operate i n the i d (Reber, 1985). Tertiary process: For Silvano A r i e t i (1976), a "special combination of primary and secondary process mechanisms" whereby "primitive forms of cognition, generally confined to abnormal conditions or to unconscious processes, become innovating powers" (p. 12). The Research Questions The research questions for the study are derived from the two central problems, stated e a r l i e r . The f i r s t question addresses problem one, concerning the nature of blocks and th e i r causes; the remaining six questions address problem two, concerning potential group or sex differences i n the experience of blocks. Research Question for Problem One 1. What are the nature and self-reported causes of blocks i n creative and re-creative musicians of both sexes? Research Questions for Problem Two 2. Does a relationship exist between creatives' and re-creatives' self-reported frequency of blocks? 12 3. Does a relationship exist between creatives' and re-creatives' self-reported duration of' t h e i r longest block? 4. Does a difference exist between the number of self-reported causes of blocks c i t e d and the duration of the longest block i n creative and i n re-creative musicians? 5. Does a relationship exist between women's and men's self-reported frequency of blocks? 6. Does a relationship exist between women's and men's self-reported duration of the i r longest block? 7. Does a difference exist between the number of self-reported causes of blocks c i t e d and the duration of the longest block i n women and men? Delimitation and Scope of the Study The focus of the study i s on two major areas: the nature and self-reported causes of blocks; and the possible differences between experiences of frequency, duration, and to t a l number of causes of blocks i n creative and re-creative women and men. As mentioned e a r l i e r , people may experience blocks to working processes i n general. No attempt i s made i n thi s study to assess the "working blocks" per se which seem to occur i n general working l i f e . The focus of this investigation i s on Canadian professional concert musicians of both sexes who either compose or perform music for the i r l i v e l i h o o d . Nevertheless, results of t h i s study may be of interest to people i n other creative professions, and also to counsellors seeking an understanding of th e i r c l i e n t s ' blocked experiences. Responses gathered during the spring and summer of 1990 may r e f l e c t a h i s t o r i c a l l i m i t a t i o n of this study; i t i s possible that world events i n the meantime may have influenced subjects' perceptions of what causes th e i r blocks. As well, many subjects are affected by administrative changes i n the orchestras which give commissions to composers and which employ performers. Organization of the Study This chapter served to introduce the study by noting the widespread nature of blocks, and the resul t i n g need of counsellors to understand and work with c l i e n t s who feel blocked. A focus of thi s chapter was on the d i v e r s i t y of de f i n i t i o n s for the parent construct of c r e a t i v i t y . Next, variables and sample groups were iden t i f e d along with the central problems of the study and the research questions that are intended to address them. Chapter II begins with a rationale for s e l e c t i v e l y reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on c r e a t i v i t y , as a basis from which the l i t e r a t u r e on blocks may be presented. These two d i v i s i o n s are further subdivided into sections on general c r e a t i v i t y , and c r e a t i v i t y s p e c i f i c a l l y pertaining to musicians. Each of the review's four sections i s organized around four theoretical d i v i s i o n s suggested by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990): the perspectives of personality, cognitive a b i l i t y , s o c i a l psychology, as well as th e i r i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspective. Included i s a review of Crosson's (1982) study on the blocks experienced by female a r t i s t s and writers, which p a r t i a l l y inspired the present work. Chapter III contains outlines of the methods and procedures used to conduct this two-part study. The sample and comparison groups are described, as i s the instrument designed for the study. The q u a l i t a t i v e portion of the study, including content analysis used to analyze anecdotal data, i s discussed. The i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y procedures used to v e r i f y the categories of causes of blocks are described, as i s the tra i n i n g process of raters, modelled aft e r the work of Porath (1990). The chapter concludes with a statement of the nu l l hypotheses, and the s t a t i s t i c a l tests used to analyze these quantitative questions. In Chapter IV, results of the q u a l i t a t i v e question concerning the nature of blocks and who ascribes their blocks to what causes are presented, with the aid of tables and figures. In addition, results of the s t a t i s t i c a l tests used to analyze the quantitative questions are presented. F i n a l l y , two incidental findings related to the variables frequency of blocks, and to 15 creative and re-creative groups are presented. Chapter V contains summaries of the q u a l i t a t i v e , quantitative, and incidental findings of the study. These findings are discussed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations for future research made. 16 CHAPTER II A REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE We express our being by creating. (May, 1975, p. v i i i ) Introduction The l i t e r a t u r e review i s presented i n two sections, the f i r s t establishing a foundation upon which the second may be set. To begin, the vast l i t e r a t u r e concerning c r e a t i v i t y i s s e l e c t i v e l y reviewed i n b r i e f ; then research s p e c i f i c a l l y concerning c r e a t i v i t y i n musicians i s reviewed. These two sections provide the context for the upcoming review of the l i t e r a t u r e on blocks. Next, the l i t e r a t u r e on blocks i n general i s reviewed. This section, together with the f i r s t section (on c r e a t i v i t y i n general) conveys information useful to consideration of a broader issue: the question of whether the construct of "blocks to c r e a t i v i t y " may usefully be subsumed under (or replaced by) a construct of "working blocks." 17 F i n a l l y , the dearth of studies reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerning blocks to musical creation i s noted. The substantive hypotheses are then presented, together with statements of the purpose and rationale of the study. Each of the review's two main sections (one concerns C r e a t i v i t y , the other, Blocks to Cr e a t i v i t y ) i s subdivided into a general l i t e r a t u r e review on the topic, followed by a s p e c i f i c l i t e r a t u r e review concerning musicians. C r e a t i v i t y In t h i s section, a se l e c t i v e review of work i n the area of c r e a t i v i t y i t s e l f i s presented. More exhaustive treatments of thi s vast body of work, which are beyond the scope of the present study, may be found i n Bloomberg (1973), Delias and Gaier (1973), Taylor (1975), and Leland (1986). General Literature on C r e a t i v i t y For convenience, t h i s section i s organized into four categories, which represent Woodman and Schoenfeldt's (1989, 1990) theoretical d i v i s i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y investigations. The categories comprise three major approaches to the study of c r e a t i v i t y which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e , followed by a fourth approach postulated by these authors. Woodman and Schoenfeldt's approach outlines theoretical examinations of c r e a t i v i t y from the perspectives of personality, cognitive a b i l i t y , s o c i a l psychology, as well as from an 18 i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspective. Out of the available p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t h i s approach was selected for three reasons. F i r s t , i t provides a familiar frame of reference for readers already conversant with general psychological terms. Hence, use of thi s structure permits readers to consider concepts and investigators i n re l a t i o n to known theories. Second, i t allows for continuity of organization i n subsequent parts of this review. Third, i n cases where more than one theoretical trend has influenced a work, that fact i s emphasized within the present scheme. C r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of personality  psvchology. Can personality account for creative behaviour, i n the sense that individuals who possess certain attributes are highly creative, whereas those lacking the same ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not? Research into questions l i k e t h i s has enjoyed varying levels of popularity through the years (Helson & M i t c h e l l , 1978). What has emerged, according to Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990), are three subdivisions of inquiry within the framework of personality psychology. F i r s t , a number of investigators (Taylor, 1975; Woodman, 1981) have attempted to explain c r e a t i v i t y i n terms of general personality theories. Woodman and Schoenfeldt note the "... great divergence across theories ... [which can] be traced, i n part, to fundamental differences i n perspective regarding the nature of human beings and their behavior ..." (1990, p. 12). Examples of d i f f e r i n g t r a d i t i o n s include a) the psychoanalytic, wherein A r i e t i , Freud, Jung, and Kubie regard the unconscious or preconscious as the source of c r e a t i v i t y ; and b) the humanistic, where a s t r i v i n g for s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n i s thought by Maslow, May, Murray, and Rogers to explain creative impulses. A second area of personality research mentioned by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990) i s that which focuses on the t r a i t s of creative persons. Researchers who have studied the personality correlates of highly creative people include Barron (1969), C a t t e l l and Butcher (1968), Drevdahl and C a t t e l l (1958), Ghiselin (1952), Helson (1971), MacKinnon (1970), Roe (1953), and Weiss (1981). Barron and Harrington (1981) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e , then summarized the following core t r a i t s of highly creative persons which emerged from their review: ... high valuation of esthetic q u a l i t i e s i n experience, broad i n t e r e s t s , a t t r a c t i o n to complexity, high energy, independence of judgement, autonomy, i n t u i t i o n , self-confidence, a b i l i t y to resolve or accommodate apparently opposite or c o n f l i c t i n g t r a i t s i n one's s e l f concept, a firm sense of s e l f concept, and 20 f i n a l l y , a firm sense of s e l f as "creative" .... (Woodman & Schoenfeldt, 1990, p. 13) F i n a l l y , Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990) note a t h i r d major area of research within the psychology of personality. This i s the relationship of creative behaviour to certain " s p e c i f i c personality dimensions" (p. 13), which may be contributing factors i n c r e a t i v i t y . They give as examples: locus of control (e.g., Bolen & Torrance, 1978); psychological femininity and masculinity (e.g., Barron & Harrington, 1981);.and narcissism (Solomon, 1985). Other factors reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e include: tolerance for ambiguity (Dacey, 1989; Getzels, 1975); bipolar a f f e c t i v e disorder (Andreasen, 1978; Hershman & Lieb, 1988; Richards, Kinney, Lunde, Benet & Merzel, 1988); hypomania (Jamison, Gerner, Hammen, & Padesky, 1980); and the need for solitude (Storr, 1988). C r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of cognitive  psychology. Following J.P. Guilford's famous address to the American Psychological Association i n 1950, writers such as Gardner (1983/85, 1990), Koestler (1964), Osborn (1953), Parnes (1967, 1981), Perkins (1975, 1981), and Perkins and Salomon (1989) contributed explanations of c r e a t i v i t y based on cognitive functions. Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990) note that current research seems to have moved towards exploring relationships between 21 cognitive a b i l i t y and creative behavior. One cognitive factor which has been investigated i s f i e l d independence/ dependence (Noppe & Gallagher, 1977; Spotts & Mackler, 1967). Another was the operation of divergent thinking or production, presented as part of Guilford's Structure-of-I n t e l l e c t model of creative thinking (1967). Also worthy of note are the concepts of l a t e r a l thinking (deBono, 1967/1987); and concern for discovery, a spe c i a l i z e d cognitive attitude observed i n art students by Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi (1976a, 1976b). The l a t t e r authors found fine a r t i s t s distinguishable from graphic a r t i s t s on the basis of t h e i r preferences for discovering, finding, or creating a r t i s t i c problems, instead of solving problems imposed from external sources. An explanation rooted i n the theories of cognitive a b i l i t y which i s not dealt with i n the Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1990) a r t i c l e concerns the notion that c r e a t i v i t y i s the product of genius. Accounts by famous creative people such as Mozart and Poincare (Ghiselin, 1952) are sometimes interpreted to mean that sudden i n s p i r a t i o n , inexplicable leaps of thought, or s p e c i a l l y -endowed q u a l i t i e s are responsible for created products. These views, which, according to Weisberg (1986), resemble the ancient Greek b e l i e f s i n i n s p i r a t i o n by the gods or Muses (see also Townsend, 1986, p. 50), are problematic because they imply that creative leaps come about without 22 people's conscious awareness. The positions of writers l i k e Weisberg (1986) and B a i l i n (1988) are strongly opposed to the genius explanation. These authors advocate an incremental position, which acknowledges the necessity for well developed s k i l l s , applied with diligence and dedication to a task, while building on previous e f f o r t s . Their writings have strongly influenced the choice of d e f i n i t i o n s for the terms presented i n Chapter I. A number of authors have recently published books ( B a i l i n , 1988; Perkins, 1981; Weisberg, 1986) and a r t i c l e s (Dormen & Edidin, 1989; McAleer, 1989; Olivero, 1990) for nonspecialists i n which the mysterious or mystical atmosphere surrounding issues of c r e a t i v i t y i s d i s p e l l e d . These writers contend that creative thinking i s e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from ordinary thinking. They argue that careful observation of the creative process reveals a series of slow, gradually accumulated steps. According to Weisberg (1986), an appreciation of t h i s incremental nature of the creative process should enhance i t s use. Acquisition of constructive work habits, f i n e l y -honed s k i l l s , and f l e x i b l e attitudes are among the attributes promoted i n t h i s body of work. This section concludes with the mention of a unique work i n the area of cognitive psychology and psychobiology. Gardner (1983/1985) proposes a s h i f t i n 23 regard to the conceptualization of i n t e l l i g e n c e : rather than viewing i t as a unitary, molar concept, he advocates a p l u r a l i s t view. This stance makes possible the consideration of a broad spectrum of human capacities, or i n t e l l i g e n c e s . Although discrete from one another, these i n t e l l i g e n c e s are not seen by Gardner as existing i n i s o l a t i o n . In fact, he suggests that most people, except brain-damaged individuals or i d i o t savants, embody a combination of capacities. The seven preliminary i n t e l l i g e n c e s which Gardner proposes are as follows: 1. L i n g u i s t i c i n t e l l i g e n c e involves a s e n s i t i v i t y to the meaning and use of words. This capacity seems to be widely found i n human experience, but i s best exemplified, according to Gardner, i n poets. 2. Musical i n t e l l i g e n c e i s characterized by a s e n s i t i v i t y to and a b i l i t y to use sound, either i n the performance or creation of musical works. This capacity i s of central interest i n the present work, and w i l l be further examined i n the section "Musical c r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of cognitive psychology." 3. Logical-Mathematical i n t e l l i g e n c e covers such a b i l i t i e s as being able to manipulate numbers and work with l o g i c a l concepts and steps i n the reasoning process. 4. Spatial i n t e l l i g e n c e involves a b i l i t i e s l i k e perceiving objects and forms, manipulating them, and also imagining t h e i r manipulation. The l a t t e r requirement 24 removes th i s capacity from a s t r i c t l y visual domain. 5. Bodi1y-Kinesthetic i n t e l l i g e n c e represents a proprioceptive sense, or a c o l l e c t i o n of awarenesses concerning how one moves about. 6. Intrapersonal i n t e l l i g e n c e involves the a b i l i t y to observe, manipulate, and symbolize one's f e e l i n g l i f e . 7. Interpersonal i n t e l l i g e n c e represents the a b i l i t i e s used i n r e l a t i n g to others: discriminating others' moods, understanding and cooperating with others, and even a n t i c i p a t i n g others' reactions and accurately sensing their intentions. C r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of so c i a l psychology. While the majority of research into c r e a t i v i t y has focused on issues concerning the i n d i v i d u a l , some researchers have investigated the external, or s o c i a l , environment of the person. Two who acknowledge the importance of both strands of inquiry are James (1890) and Gardner (1983/1985). Others (Getzels & Jackson, 1961; Goyal, 1973; Klein, 1975; and Torrance, 1965) have researched the effects of s p e c i f i c environments or creative contexts--including educational s e t t i n g s — o n individual creative output (Woodman & Schoenfeldt, 1990), as has Amabile (1983). C r e a t i v i t y from an i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspective. It i s evident from the l i t e r a t u r e thus far reviewed that the overwhelming majority of investigations into 25 c r e a t i v i t y may be i d e n t i f i e d with a single dominant stream of psychological thought. Notable exceptions include the writings of A r i e t i (1976), A s s a g i o l i (1965/1976), and Gordon (1961), a l l of whom advocated a synthesis of at least two i n f l u e n t i a l streams. What Woodman and Schoenfeldt currently propose i s "An i n t e r a c t i o n i s t model of creative behavior" (1990, p. 16). They claim that t h i s model has the advantage of integrating the many viewpoints from which c r e a t i v i t y i s regarded, thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g an understanding of this complex construct. These authors suggest that "antecedent conditions" [cf. Crosson (1982b)] such as "past reinforcement h i s t o r y " or "biographical variables" (p. 16) w i l l interact with other factors such as personality t r a i t s , cognitive s t y l e , contextual influences l i k e culture, and so c i a l influences. Woodman and Schoenfeldt suggest that, taken together, a consideration of these forces would provide a more comprehensive understanding of c r e a t i v i t y i n the l i f e of the individual than has yet been the case. A prominent writer on c r e a t i v i t y from the so c i a l and environmental perspective i s Amabile (1983), whose work was mentioned i n the la s t section. She argued that the soci a l and environmental perspectives with respect to blocks, or "undermining of c r e a t i v i t y by s o c i a l l y imposed constraints" (1983, p. 370), are especially useful when 26 considered together with cognitive approaches and with the t r a d i t i o n a l approaches focusing on individual differences. Several writers are i d e n t i f i e d with a transpersonal position, which may be conceptualized as going beyond the type of i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspective proposed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt. Transpersonal writers include Clark (1988), D a l l e t t (1986), Grof (1985, 1988), Harman and Rheingold (1984), Jung (1933/1962, 1967), Lukoff (1988), and Maslow (1968, 1971). Counsellors writing from th i s perspective include Roomy (1990) and Shuman (1989). For these writers, a broadly h o l i s t i c approach to the study of c r e a t i v i t y i s e s s e n t i a l , since creative behaviour i s considered by them within a context of s p i r i t u a l growth and deve1opment. Sp e c i f i c Research Concerning C r e a t i v i t y i n Musicians The purpose of t h i s section i s to establish a context within which the l i t e r a t u r e on blocks i n musicians may be placed. The focus i n t h i s review i s on psychological issues rather than on s t r i c t l y musical ones. Musical c r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of  personality psychology. As indicated i n the f i r s t section of this review, considerable e f f o r t s have been directed towards explaining the phenomenon of general c r e a t i v i t y i n personality terms. Relatively l i t t l e work, however, has been conducted s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the domain of musical c r e a t i v i t y . 27 One early q u a l i t a t i v e study by Csikszentmihalyi and Getzels (1973) stipulates some personality determinants of musicians i n the broadest possible terms,: There are certain i n t r i n s i c requirements for most occupations that pre-select the type of person intending to perform within t h e i r given l i m i t s . For instance, a career i n c l a s s i c a l music not only excludes people who are tone-deaf ... but also those whose personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s make them unwilling to concentrate, who lack s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , or d i s l i k e sedentary a c t i v i t i e s . (Davies, 1978, pp. 209-210) Davies (1978) remarks on the dearth of empirical evidence concerning the psychology of musicians at the time of his writing, and notes that existing works deal with the mental l i f e of musicians primarily from the perspectives of assessing th e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s or discussing " ... a f f e c t i v e and aesthetic responses ..." (p. 201). Speculative observations regarding musicians' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are to be found i n anecdotal records such as those of composer Roger Sessions ( i n Ghiselin, 1952), and of Davies (1978). The l a t t e r author obtained interview material from members of a Scottish symphony orchestra during several voluntary tape-recorded group discusssions. What emerged was a chidingly derogatory set 28 of descriptions, by members of various orchestral sections, of th e i r colleagues i n other sections: Brass (as seen by strings) S l i g h t l y oafish and uncouth Heavy boozers Empty vessels ("That's why they make the most noise") Like to be i n the limelight Can't play quietly Loud-mouthed and coarse The "jokers" of the orchestra Don't practise Don't take things seriously Strings (as seen by brass) "They're l i k e a flock of bloody sheep." Precious Oversensitive and touchy Humourless "They think they are God's g i f t to music." Take themselves, and the music, very seriously A bunch of weaklings, or "wets" "They never go s k i - i n g , [ s i c ] or climbing, or anything active i n case they hurt th e i r f i n g e r s . " (Davies, pp. 202-203) These perceptions may seem to represent nothing more than bias or conjecture, but Davies "believes they ... are suggestive of questions which might be asked more 29 s c i e n t i f i c a l l y ... [and that they] have some general ap p l i c a t i o n " (p. 202). Kemp (1981a, 1981b, 1982) did ask questions more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . Using a three group design, he administered a combination of the High School Personality Questionnaire ( C a t t e l l & C a t t e l l , 1969) and the 16PF ( C a t t e l l , Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) to B r i t i s h performing musicians. In an e f f o r t to i d e n t i f y p r o f i l e s of personality t r a i t s i n musicians, Kemp compared the results from performers i n three developmentally d i s t i n c t stages: children, youths between 18 and 25 years, and adult professionals. Age, sex, socio-economic status and educational level were treated as intervening variables. Results pertinent to the present study are those of Kemp's adult group of professional musicians. The terms used were adapted from C a t t e l l and Kline (1977). He found the following predominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : introversion, anxiety, pathemia (this relates to William James' tender-mindedness), independence, naturalness, s u b j e c t i v i t y , and in t e l l i g e n c e (1981a, p. 8). Some highlights of Kemp's discussion are worth noting. To begin with, he believes the adults' high i n t e l l i g e n c e scores, taken together with students' frequent lack of attainment of university entrance requirements, indicate that "musicians choose to pursue music i n preference to other academic studies because of a 30 strong motivation towards music rather than any lack of i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity (1981a, p. 11). It should be rec a l l e d that Kemp's subjects made the i r choices within the B r i t i s h system over a decade ago. Of the three groups studied by Kemp, the professional musicians alone showed strong evidence of naturalness, i n the sense of being " f o r t h r i g h t , unpretentious, genuine, but s o c i a l l y clumsy [as opposed to] astute, polished, [and] s o c i a l l y aware" (1981a, p. 6). Kemp's insight with regard to naturalness i s that, " i t s presence may indicate l i t t l e other than the fact that the more astute (N) [on the 16PF] leave the music profession for more lu c r a t i v e occupations!" (p. 11). Further investigation was conducted by Kemp (1981b), i n an e f f o r t to establish a p r o f i l e of personality t r a i t s of composers. Using the 16PF (1968 Anglicised E d i t i o n ) , Kemp compared a) 36 male student composers, b) 50 male student non-composers, c) 28 male professional composers, d) 10 female professional composers, e) 41 male professional musicians not engaged i n composing, and f) 42 female professional musicians not engaged i n composing. Kemp subjected the raw scores of groups a, c, and d above to Multivariate Analysis, then contrasted them with respective scores from the corresponding non-composers. Comparison of the men's and women's results from this study was ruled out because of "the unfortunate imbalance 31 of numbers between the sexes" (1981b, p. 70). As before, selected results pertinent to the current study are presented here. It i s recommended that the reader interpret these results together with those from the previous study. Characteristics found by Kemp i n male professional composers were independence, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and poor upbringing (actually a combination of dominance and weaker superego strength). Female professional composers were found to demonstrate introversion and independence. Kemp concludes that the data support the existence of temperamental links between composers and performers. He further suggests that musical performance l i k e l y demands lower levels of creative temperament than does composition (1981b). Kemp stresses the importance of introversion to the composer, p a r t i c u l a r l y when considered i n combination with pathemia ( s e n s i t i v i t y and imagination) found i n the professional musicians (1981a) and i n the student group (1981b). He states, The broad concept of introversion as defined by C a t t e l l , especially when i t i s linked with pathemia and s u b j e c t i v i t y , must not be viewed as a timid withdrawal from s o c i a l involvement. It i s highly i n d i c a t i v e of strength of the inner person and his c o l o u r f u l , imaginative and 32 symbolic thought processes. The same point was made by Drevdahl and C a t t e l l (1958) i n re f e r r i n g to the creative as bold int r o v e r t s . (1981b, p.72) While a l l groups tested by Kemp displayed s i m i l a r trends, values of composers' scores (both male and female) far exceeded those of student composers. Kemp suggests that the extreme scores may p a r t i a l l y account for the fact that so few musicians eventually turn to composing. An alternative explanation could be that the a c t i v i t i e s of composing, having one's work performed, and interacting with other composers, might i n themselves serve to reinforce certain personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In a t h i r d paper, Kemp outlines sex differences he tent a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d , again using the HSPQ and 16PF with three developmental1y-distinct groups of B r i t i s h musicians. He found a "progressive erosion of sex-differences i n musicians on s p e c i f i c personality dimensions" (1982, p. 54). Accordingly, Kemp concluded that psychological androgyny i s an attr i b u t e which may best equip most performing musicians for successful careers i n music. Musical c r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of cognitive  psychology. Few writers have approached issues of musical c r e a t i v i t y from the standpoint of cognitive psychology. One exception i s Gardner (1983/1985), who posits the 33 existence of a "Musical Intelligence" (p. 99) d i s t i n c t from other forms of i n t e l l i g e n c e , such as mathematical or l i n g u i s t i c . Gardner's theory i s based on a review of current thought i n the f i e l d s of music, psychology, psychobiology, l i n g u i s t i c s , and mathematics. Evidence from studies with brain-damaged individuals supports Gardner's claim for the existence of a separate and distinguishable musical i n t e l l i g e n c e . One l i n e of inquiry he describes i s the work of Diana Deutsch, on the perception of music. "Deutsch has shown that ... the mechanisms by which pi t c h i s apprehended and stored are d i f f e r e n t from the mechanisms that process other sounds, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of language" (Gardner, 1985, p. 117). Furthermore, work with people who have suffered strokes and other traumas indicates that, Whereas l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s are l a t e r a l i z e d almost exclusively to the l e f t hemisphere i n normal right-handed ind i v i d u a l s , the majority of musical capacities, including the central capacity of s e n s i t i v i t y to pitch, are l o c a l i z e d i n most normal individuals i n the right hemisphere. Thus, injury to the right frontal and temporal lobes causes pronounced d i f f i c u l t i e s i n discriminating tones and i n reproducing them corre c t l y .... (Gardner, 1983/1985, p. 118) 34 Gardner also observes that extensive damage to the right hemisphere of the brain may leave a person able to write about or teach music, yet unable to compose. This raises questions yet to be addressed about the true role of f e e l i n g , or a f f e c t , i n the compositional process. There does seem to be an element of confusion i n Gardner's analysis, with respect to the issue of f e e l i n g . Others (Bennett, 1976; Cass, 1976) are less i n c l i n e d to separate a f f e c t i v e from cognitive influences. Bennett c i t e s an illuminating comment by the composer Hindemith, "namely that composers apparently compose music representing t h e i r memories of images and feelings--not the feelings and images per se" (p. 10, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . Another observation concerning the cognitions of composers comes from Perkins (1981). He suggests that composers, l i k e makers of other creative products, s t r i v e to produce the best possible result given the circumstances. Despite community values which seem to dictate that perfectionism i s the only acceptable standard i n the arts, composers cannot "maximize" (p. 158). In so saying, Perkins corroborates interview material from composer Al f r e d Reed (i n Moss, 1978, p. 34) and findings from the Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi study (1976) mentioned e a r l i e r . The consensus here i s that composers have to decide when enough alterations have been made to a composition, and make a judgement c a l l about where to stop. The contemporary American composer Roger Sessions i d e n t i f i e s a s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the composer as that of having "tones i n his head" (cited i n Gardner, 1985, p. 101). By this i s meant that the raw material of music--be i t single tones, chords, phrases, or rhythms--is an ongoing presence i n the mental l i f e of the composer. Instead of the l i n g u i s t i c or visual material common to many thinking s t y l e s , aural material prevails for the composer. This v e r i t a b l e "thinking i n sound" (Kemp, personal communication, July 18, 1990;) may at times be the " s t u f f " (Perkins, 1981, p. 246) out of which musical compositions are made. A s i m i l a r observation was made by Sabaneev (1928), who reported that composers inhabit a tonal world, analogous to the world of dreams. He claimed that e f f o r t s to induce tonal sequences do not work, but suggested that engaging i n improvisation may be h e l p f u l , an idea borne out l a t e r by others (Graf, 1947; Perkins, 1981; Pasler, 1986). According to Sabaneev, reason i s also used, i n order to link various musical elements. Mortimer Cass suggests a cognitive sequence that commonly occurs for composers: "an acoustic idea [ i s received] from an external source (often from experimentation at the keyboard), i n the shape of a phrase 36 that [they] perceive as lending i t s e l f to ... compositional purposes" ( A r i e t i , 1976, p. 239). Cass thinks composers then " o b j e c t i f y " the idea and allow i t to take on the status of a construct. Then, he suggests, the construct v i r t u a l l y asks, "What next?" Finding a suitable answer represents the major task for the composer. Cass claims the choices are made "subliminal1y" and are the result of composers' " i n d i v i d u a l i t y , " involving their "previous experience and personal aesthetic preferences" ( A r i e t i , 1976, p. 240). Some s i m i l a r i t i e s exist between Cass's version and that reported i n the section on i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspectives (Bennett, 1976). Systematic e f f o r t s to describe the compositional process are rarely reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . No works were located which frame the process exclusively i n cognitive terms. Musical c r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of soc i a l  Psychology. Social psychology per se has not engendered research into the area of musical c r e a t i v i t y . Yet the notion of the musician as someone who attempts to relate i n musical terms to an audience may be understood i n soc i a l terms. Contemporary composer Roger Reynolds (1987) wrote, "... the composer's ... [or] maker's goal ... i s communication to his l i s t e n e r of content that may be novel and valued but that depends heavily upon a preexistent body of shared 37 responses" (p. 26, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . In other words, f a m i l i a r i t y with certain musical conventions w i l l influence one's a b i l i t y to receive or value a composition. Others (Davies, 1978; Kemp, personal communication, July 18, 1990), stress the li k e l i h o o d of miscommunication on the grounds that c u l t u r a l and other differences can preclude appreciation across musical s t y l e s . Musical c r e a t i v i t y from an i n t e r a c t i o n i s t  perspective. No studies have yet been reported which exemplify th i s category of Woodman and Schoenfeldt's (1990). However, the s p i r i t of the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspective i s ref l e c t e d i n works by Bennett (1976), Mojola (1989), Simonton (1984), and Townsend (1986). Simonton found that stressors i n composers' l i v e s were related to the o r i g i n a l i t y of melodies they composed. Therefore, he suggests, the composer's biography and h i s t o r i c a l Zeitgeist ought to be considered when assessing the value of compositions. One ethnographic study i s reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i n which eight male concert composers were interviewed (Bennett, 1976). Bennett's composer subjects i n i t i a l l y sought "what may be c a l l e d the germinal idea, variously termed the 'germ,' the 'kernel,' the 'i n s p i r a t i o n , ' or the 'idea'" (1976, p. 7). This germinal idea might occur i n any form: 38 a brief theme, a series of chords, or an overall impression of the work. A recalled germinal idea from the f i r s t composition may have derived from the "cognitive map" (p. 7) l a i d down during early learning experiences with an instrument. Bennett states that his subjects reported retaining the t r u l y potent germinal ideas, possibly i n association with a mental sketch made of the idea. Later, the sketch would be expanded into a f i r s t draft, which may or may not lead back to the creating of additional germinal ideas. If, a f t e r returning to the work, i t i s f e l t to merit completion, i t could then be subjected to processes of elaboration and refinement. Copying out the f i n a l draft i s a c l e r i c a l task often accomplished when conditions for composing i t s e l f are less than i d e a l . Although occasionally revisions are made after a work has been performed, one subject of Bennett's wrote that works of music are records of one's compositional development at a moment i n time and should b a s i c a l l y remain unchanged (1976). As to conducive emotional conditions for composition, Bennett's findings bear out those of Simonton (1984). He found that "six out of eight cases f e l l along the dimension of tranqui1ity-security-relaxation" (p. 10). Moreover, f i v e of the eight participants said they required solitude; two people emphasized their need for s i l e n c e . Four expressed the need to be free of disruptions and d i s t r a c t i o n s . A few mentioned th e i r need for unstructured time when they might rest, meditate, or otherwise have opportunities to access altered states of consciousness. This tendency r e f l e c t s numerous observations from the l i t e r a t u r e on c r e a t i v i t y i n general ( A r i e t i , 1976; A s s a g i o l i , 1965/1976; Grof, 1985; Shuman, 1989; Storr, 1988). Blocks The l i t e r a t u r e on blocks i s presented i n two sections: works on blocks to c r e a t i v i t y i n general are reviewed f i r s t , then the l i t e r a t u r e s p e c i f i c a l l y concerning blocks to musical c r e a t i v i t y i s reviewed. General Literature on Blocks to C r e a t i v i t y Forces which get i n the way of the expression of c r e a t i v i t y are described widely i n the l i t e r a t u r e . With few exceptions, (Barrios & Singer, 1981; Boice, 1982a, 1982b, 1983a, 1983b; Matthews, 1986a) most are theoretical i n nature. The l i t e r a t u r e presented i n the following sections i s that which addresses issues of c r e a t i v i t y as they are affected by blocks. Blocks to c r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of  personality psychology. If on the one hand, c r e a t i v i t y i s regarded as "the highest expression of giftedness" (Clark, 1988, p. 45) or as synonymous with s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g behaviour (Maslow, 40 1971), then anything which interferes with i t might be construed as detrimental. Seemingly obvious goals for counsellors would then include helping c l i e n t s work towards reducing or eliminating problems, and towards restoring conditions which favour creative a c t i v i t y . But i f on the other hand, creative processes are seen to correspond with the individuation process (Jung, 1967; Singer, 1973; Storr, 1988), then counsellors' goals must be more broad, and t h e i r methods more subtle. Instead of encouraging c l i e n t s to overcome or eliminate blocks, counsellors can a s s i s t c l i e n t s to recognize d i f f i c u l t i e s as informative--and p o t e n t i a l l y transformative--aspects of th e i r l i v e s . Where c o n f l i c t s p e r s i s t , work may be undertaken to help c l i e n t s recognize opposing intrapsychic elements at play. E f f o r t s may then be directed towards finding suitable means of permitting outward expression of each opposing element. This may best be accomplished through exercising the c l i e n t ' s usual creative d i s c i p l i n e ; otherwise, d i a l e c t i c exercises such as Jung's "Active Imagination" (Singer, 1973) or other therapeutic interventions which tap the unconscious may be u t i l i z e d . An early contributor to the l i t e r a t u r e on blocks was Abraham Maslow (1962), who advocated learning to get i n touch with, or at least becoming less a f r a i d of, one's unconscious l i f e , i n order to release one's creative po t e n t i a l . Speaking to U.S. Army Engineers at a 1957 41 seminar, Maslow stressed the severe l i m i t a t i o n to c r e a t i v i t y that a compulsive-obsessive neurosis imposes. He described people who, " i n psychodynamic terms [are] 'sharply s p l i t ' ... between what they know about themselves, and what's concealed from themselves, what i s unconscious or repressed" (1962, p. 95). Maslow contends that "with the l i d taken o f f , with the controls taken o f f , the repressions and defenses taken o f f " (p. 95), manifestations of c r e a t i v i t y w i l l increase. He states that, d i f f i c u l t though i t may be to prove, psychotherapy of a l l kinds "may normally be expected to release creativeness which did not appear before the psychotherapy took place" (p. 95). A number of investigators have researched the question of anxiety i n r e l a t i o n to c r e a t i v i t y . Matthews (1986a) tested the effects of anxiety on c r e a t i v i t y test performance of 80 male students. He found that the 0 factor (worry) of the 16PF ( C a t t e l l , Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) correlated negatively with scores on c r e a t i v i t y tests, but also noted that a "unique variance of the other anxiety primary (Q4) (tense, driven) was associated with higher levels of performance" (p. 385). It i s important to note that test findings such as these, unlike those of Kemp (1981a, 1981b, 1982a), may have l i t t l e bearing on actual creative performance. Others who report negative correlations between anxiety and c r e a t i v i t y are Okebukola 42 (1986) and Saxena and Kumar (1985). Several writers (Andreasen, 1978; Andreasen & Canter, 1974; Jamison, Gerner, Hammen, & Padesky, 1980) address the issue of genetic predisposition to Bipolar A f f e c t i v e Disorder amongst creatives i n c l i n i c a l populations. Bipolar A f f e c t i v e Disorder i s defined by Sarwer-Foner (1988) as "severe depressive states, associated at varying times with excited states" (p. 55). A tentative finding of Andreasen's follows: Whatever type of diagnostic system i s used, the creative person whose talent i s expressed through a r t i s t i c or s c i e n t i f i c achievements, especially when notable recognition i s attained, seems to have more psychopathology than would be expected from population norms.... The families of creative persons may have a higher prevalence both of c r e a t i v i t y and of p s y c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s than occurs i n the general population, and ... th i s pattern may be explained i n part on the basis of genetic factors. (p. 119) To whatever extent these findings may be generalized, they have implications for the study of blocks. Although Jamison et al.'s (1980) subjects tended to report p o s i t i v e perceptions of t h e i r manic and hypomanic phases, i t may be assumed that extreme ef f e c t s of Bipolar A f f e c t i v e Disorder would preclude creative production. Moreover, account 43 must be taken of those who never create anything, yet who might do so were i t not for t h e i r i l l n e s s . Hershman and Lieb (1988) claim that periods of block and of i n s p i r a t i o n are not merely p a r a l l e l s to the phases of depression and mania; rather, the blocks are actually manifestations of the i l l n e s s . They draw the link between blocks and depression as follows: In deep depression, i n t e l l e c t u a l processes become impaired.... Memory, the capacity to solve problems and to generate ideas ... the a b i l i t y to think ... become minimal.... The depressive feels lethargic, t i r e s quickly, and needs more sleep.... Motivation for work may disappear completely. The depressive loses his capacity for enjoyment, including his pleasure i n work, and eventually nothing interests him. He becomes overly c r i t i c a l of what he i s doing and may abandon i t as worthless or may destroy i t . Depression often brings despair [and the] conviction that [one's] talent i s i l l u s o r y or that i t i s gone forever. (1988, p. 13) A common theme i n psychoanalytic writings i s the adverse effect of neurosis on c r e a t i v i t y . Gottschalk (1981) states that neuroses i n t e r f e r e with i n d i v i d u a l s ' creative output and "usually block high-level creative performance" (p. 217). 44 Kubie (1967) concurs, and regards the notion that sickness engenders c r e a t i v i t y as a " c u l t u r a l l y noxious assumption ... devoid of truth" (p. 36). Further, Kubie has said that the creative impulse i s r e s i l i e n t , and i s not l i k e l y to be adversely influenced by psychotherapeutic e f f o r t s to work through a neurosis, as some people fear. Kubie i s another who acknowledged that barren periods i n the l i f e of the creative may retrospectively be viewed as resourceful times. Blocks to c r e a t i v i t y from the perspective of  cognitive psychology. Khatami (1978) considered that the cognitive area i s the source of people's severest blocks. This view i s widely adhered to, and has resulted i n a variety of interventions recommended for use with blocks. Using a Westernized version of Morita Therapy (Morita, 1928/1974), Ishiyama (1990) i d e n t i f i e s seven " a t t i t u d i n a l blocks to action" (p. 567). He defines the term " a t t i t u d i n a l block ... as the perceptions, thinking (expectations, l o g i c , values, p r i o r i t i e s , assumptions, and schemata), and other covert and overt c l i e n t - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s that prevent c l i e n t s from implementing desirable action" (p. 566-567). An example of a block seen from the Morita perspective i s , "Neglect of Behavioural Self-Control and Responsibility" (Ishiyama, p. 568). Since Morita therapists work from the premise that action, but not 45 emotion, may be d i r e c t l y controlled, encouraging action-taking by c l i e n t s i s a high p r i o r i t y . Rather than unwittingly having c l i e n t s control t h e i r emotions, the Morita therapist may intervene by asking something l i k e , ... Is the c l i e n t accepting feelings as they come and go, and at the same time i s he or she taking action for a p r a c t i c a l and constructive purpose i n spite of an adverse affect? This introduces a s h i f t i n problem conceptualization ... from a f f e c t i v e s e l f - c o n t r o l toward behavioral s e l f - c o n t r o l and the unconditional acknowledgment of covert experiences, (p. 569) A number of works address the issue of writers' block. Minninger (1977) reports using a "redecision process" (p. 71) taken from Goulding and Goulding (1976) i n her writing workshops. Based on Tranactional Analysis, her work advocates a "Reteachering" process i n which the c l i e n t sets aside C r i t i c a l Parents i n favour of the Nurturing Parent, Adult, and Child needed during c r e a t i v i t y . S p e c i f i c behavioural techniques for use with writer's block are recommended by Klauser (1987), by Boice (1982a, 1982b, 1983a, 1983b), and by Boice and Jones (1984). A frequently mentioned block which seems to underlie many hindrances to the creative process i s that of making rapid judgments (Khatami, 1978, p. 127). Known also as "perceptual set, mental set, or functional f i x i t y " (Davis, 1986, p. 9), th i s tendency i s said to i n t e r f e r e with the t r a i t known as tolerance of ambiguity (Dacey, 1989; Herzberg, 1987; Rogers, 1962). Accumulated evidence strongly suggests that the a b i l i t y to be open to experience (Rogers, 1962) and to the world, especially i n the face of ambiguous situations i s a core requirement for c r e a t i v i t y (Dacey, 1989). A famous experiment which demonstrated the d i f f i c u l t y of breaking cognitive, or perceptual set, was performed by Luchins (1942). He presented subjects with a series of complex problems involving amounts of water i n jars. Later, when given easier tasks, many subjects continued to pursue complex methods of solution, instead of switching to a simpler approach. The same task was used by Hansen, Malloy, Gordon, Rose, and Fleming (1984). These researchers found that using a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen encouraged subjects to change the i r mental set, thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g new approaches to the Luchins water jar problems. Hansen et a l . suggest that, i n general, creative blocks might be more e a s i l y resolved i f subjects were to u t i l i z e trance states produced by nitrous oxide and oxygen. These investigators claim support from comparable findings i n the work of Barrios and Singer (1981). Dave (1979) used hypnosis i n a laboratory setting to 47 induce dreams with 24 cre a t i v e l y blocked subjects. He administered, by random assignment, a treatment using hypnotic dreams. Dave found these subjects were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more able to surmount t h e i r blocks than were control subjects who received a rational-cognitive treatment. These data are intere s t i n g i n l i g h t of work with performing musicians by Steptoe (1989), which i s reviewed i n the next section. Support for Dave's study may be found i n Hansen et a l . (1984) and i n the work of Barrios and Singer (1981). These investigators randomly assigned 48 volunteer subjects who presented with problems of creative block to "one of four groups: Waking Imagery, Hypnotic Dream, Rational Discussion, or Control" (p. 93). They found the f i r s t two conditions to be the most e f f e c t i v e i n ending the c l i e n t s ' blocks. This conclusion was strengthened i n li g h t of comparisons between the treatment conditions. A study i n the area of blocks to c r e a t i v i t y was conducted by Crosson (1982a, 1982b). Crosson focused on "the self-reported causes of creative blocks among a sample of manifestly creative women" (1982b, p. 259). Crosson (1982a) found that 211 of 271 women surveyed said they had at least one block. She used Content Analysis to assign the women's data to seven categories of block: 1) None. People reported having no blocks. 2) Jobs. Subjects c i t e d outside pressures of various 48 types, including housework, jobs, child-care, mobility of spouse, holiday times with children at home, and chores. 3) Emotion. People mentioned stress, anxiety, depression, fear of c r i t i c i s m or of f a i l u r e as reasons for th e i r blocks. 4) Renewal. Subjects c i t e d diverse challenges d i r e c t l y connected with the creative process or with the need for self-renewal. 5) S e l f - D i s c i p l i n e . Crosson assigned to category 5 subjects who reported a lack of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e i n their professional work habits. 6) Wo Cause. Data from people who did report blocks, but gave no cause for them, comprise th i s category. 7) Physical. People who saw i l l n e s s , fatigue, or any other physical problem as the cause of the i r blocks were assigned to category 7. After sorting the various types of block into the above categories, Crosson used one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe t-tests to determine the degree of association between subjects' mean ages, and the di f f e r e n t categories of block. Content analysis revealed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t age differences between women who reported having certain categories of block. For example, older women reported having No Blocks or Physical blocks more often than younger women who reported Emotional problems; and older 49 women reported blocks which indicated a need for Renewal, more often than younger women who reported blocks i n the areas of Emotion or S e l f - D i s c i p l i n e . This section on cognitive approaches to blocks i n general concludes with mention of a recent work by Lipson and Perkins (1990). These authors present a series of explanations which they term "Force Theory" (p. 61) for the phenomenon of blocks or "counterintentional behavior" (p. 22). They use the term "force" to cover constructs such as drives and emotions which are usually out of conscious awareness. The focus of the book i s on the need for recognizing multiple levels ( " f i r s t - o r d e r , " "second-order" (p. 120), and so on) of forces which may act together to pr e c i p i t a t e blocks. They suggest working to increase self-knowledge with' the aid of reasoned insight, f a c i l i t a t e d by a metaphor of one's own "personal force landscape" (p. 183). Constructing such a psychological "map" of forces i s recommended to help the individual recognize, understand, and overcome blocks. S p e c i f i c Research Concerning Blocks to C r e a t i v i t y i n Musicians The area of blocks to c r e a t i v i t y as i t pertains s p e c i f i c a l l y to musicians has received l i t t l e attention to date from researchers. Although no investigations have been reported which address the experience of block i n composers, a limited number of publications do mention 50 performers' experience of blocks. As stated i n the d e f i n i t i o n section of Chapter I, the creative music-making a c t i v i t i e s (cf. Kemp, 1981b) of composers d i f f e r somewhat from the re-creative music-making of performers. American composer Roger Rideout (1987) distinguishes between composers and performers, based on the work they do. He states, "... music i s not a creative art but a re-creative one .... The ... musician performs i n ensemble requiring consensus i n the re-creation of the work. By d e f i n i t i o n there i s a claim only to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " (pp. 17-18, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . He i s joined i n t h i s view by Reubart (1985) and by performers such as pi a n i s t Alexis Weissenberg, who remarked i n an interview, "... we are expected to be, f i n a l l y , absolutely objective--a recreator" (Jacobson, 1974, p. 295). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of blocks with respect to the interpreter's role i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following comment from singer Dame Janet Baker: "The real d i f f i c u l t i e s are interpreting music, not the sheer technical problems. The in t e r p r e t i v e problems come from the lim i t a t i o n s of one's se l f as a person--that's the most t e r r i f y i n g thing. This bothers me the most" (Jacobson, 1974, p. 11). In the l i t e r a t u r e , the obstacle to musical performance--whether thought of i n re-creative or int e r p r e t i v e terms--which has received attention i s performance anxiety (Green & Gallwey, 1986; Judy, 1990; 51 Reubart, 1985; Ristad, 1982; Steptoe, 1989). Of the four works, only the l a t t e r represents a research study. Steptoe conducted a survey of orchestral musicians i n B r i t a i n i n an attempt to i d e n t i f y perceived s t r e s s f u l aspects of their careers. He compared the responses of student and professional musicians (cf. Kemp, 1981b) to questionnaire items on sources of stress. In order of importance, the most frequently c i t e d sources of stress by members of Steptoe's professional sample are: 1. Separation from family 2. Irregular hours 3. Monotony of rehearsals 4. Tr a v e l l i n g 5. Professional competition with colleagues; Uncertainty about regular employment 6. Poor f i n a n c i a l rewards 7. Back-stabbing among colleagues Steptoe further analyzed results of the professional musicians, and discovered a "positive association between stage f r i g h t and perceptions of career s t r e s s " (p. 9). The nature of this association was not determined; Steptoe hypothesizes that the underlying dimension of neuroticism may relate to both variables. This interpretation i s at odds with that of Willings (1980), who discusses the heightened s e n s i t i v i t y to the reactions of others which appears i n the crea t i v e l y g i f t e d . 52 As may be seen from the preceding l i s t , there i s l i t t l e resemblance between the concerns of Steptoe's B r i t i s h subjects and those of Crosson's American subjects. The d i f f e r i n g circumstances of the two groups are discussed i n Chapter V. A renowned pi a n i s t whose working conditions probably resemble those of Steptoe's subjects i s Alexis Weissenberg. Speaking on the advantage of having fame, he remarked, ... i t allows you to have the s u f f i c i e n t energy to stand the l i f e that goes with performing. The joy of performing and playing and sharing with other people i s so overpowering that hotels and traveling and airports and mostly being alone can be tolerated. (Jacobson, 1974, p. 300, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) Perhaps a d i s t i n c t i o n worth noting i s that, unlike the subjects i n Steptoe's investigation or i n the present study, Weissenberg i s a solo performer. Statement of Purpose and Rationale Previous researchers have i d e n t i f i e d some of the factors which a r t i s t s and writers say can block or impede production of th e i r creative works. This study represents an exploration of the nature and self-reported causes of blocks to the production of musical work i n a population of concert composers and performers. 53 In addition, because th i s study represents a small part of a broader issue i n which "blocks to c r e a t i v i t y " may be subsumed under "working blocks," the question of whether differences might exist between re-creative and creative musicians' experiences of blocks i s explored. Aspects of experience which are investigated include both groups' frequency of blocks, and duration of t h e i r longest blocks. As well, the p o s s i b i l i t y that differences may exist between women's and men's frequency and duration of longest blocks i s investigated. Crosson (1982a, 1982b) discovered women a r t i s t s and writers i n her sample who c i t e d more than one block each. Because she did not explore the effects which multiple blocks might have on subjects, t h i s area remains uninvestigated. Research questions ought to be raised and tested concerning the experience of having more than one block. Accordingly, some of the hypotheses stated below r e f l e c t the concern that multiple blocks might affect the length of time a person feels blocked. In t h i s study, no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between multiple blocks which are reported as occurring consecutively and those which occur concurrently. Substantive Hypotheses 1. (a) Categories of self-reported causes of block i n female re-creative and creative musicians w i l l resemble those c i t e d by Crosson's (1982a) subjects. An expected additional category for both sexes w i l l involve performance-related i n j u r i e s . (b) Categories of self-reported causes of block in male re-creative and creative musicians will, r e f l e c t a greater emphasis on i n j u r i e s , and less emphasis on caregiving-related d i s t r a c t i o n s than i n the female sample. An association w i l l be found between the frequency of blocks c i t e d and creative/re-creative group membership. An association w i l l be found between the s e l f -reported duration of the longest block c i t e d and creative/re-creative group membership. The total number of causes of blocks mentioned by creatives and re-creatives experiencing varying durations of the i r longest blocks w i l l d i f f e r . An association w i l l be found to exist between the frequency of blocks c i t e d and sex. An association w i l l be found to exist between the duration of the longest block c i t e d and sex. The total number of causes of blocks mentioned by women and men experiencing varying durations of t h e i r longest blocks w i l l d i f f e r . 55 In the next chapter, the sample i s described i n d e t a i l , and the procedures and methodology used to conduct the study are presented. 56 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY In th i s chapter the methods and procedures which have been used throughout the study are presented. F i r s t , the sample and comparison populations are described. Next, the survey instrument designed for use with these groups i s presented. F i n a l l y , the procedures used for conducting the study, tr a i n i n g the raters, and analyzing the data are explained. Sample Professional concert musicians who are ac t i v e l y engaged i n music-making as a career are of interest i n this study. The sample population consists of composers; the comparison group i s made up of orchestral players. Professional musicians were chosen i n preference to students or amateurs because of the great personal investment the former make i n the i r careers. Any experiences of block reported by professionals may be expected to represent something more meaningful than the mere laying aside of a hobby. It was f e l t , therefore, that t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n thi s study would lend 57 authenticity to i t s r e s u l t s . C r i t e r i a of Selection Creative Musicians For creative musicians, the following c r i t e r i a applied: A l l have had compositions adjudicated by t h e i r peers, leading to i n v i t a t i o n a l membership i n a national re g i s t r y of concert composers. Moreover, these subjects regard composing as t h e i r primary work, although composers who perform to f i n a n c i a l l y subsidize t h e i r composing were also included here. Re-creative Musicians For re-creatives, the c r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n were as follows: F i r s t , the orchestral players a l l maintain a comparable standard of expertise, evidenced by t h e i r continuing employment i n a professional orchestra. Second, th e i r primary vocation i s the performing of concert music. None of the re-creative musicians who chose to p a r t i c i p a t e said they engaged i n the composing of music. Selection Procedures Letters b r i e f l y describing the purpose of the study and i n v i t i n g musicians' p a r t i c i p a t i o n were sent to the directors of the composers' reg i s t r y (see Appendices AA, AB, and B). Professional composers and the conductors of two professional orchestras i n Canada were also contacted by mail (see Appendix C). 58 Sample Population: Creatives One hundred names were randomly selected from the membership l i s t of the composers' reg i s t r y mentioned above; each was sent a survey questionnaire. Names of participants from nine of the ten Canadian provinces were drawn from the English-language portion of the registry's membership l i s t . In an e f f o r t to increase a p o t e n t i a l l y low proportion of women to men i n the sample, i t was decided to also send questionnaires to the nine remaining women members not o r i g i n a l l y drawn from the l i s t . Comparison Population: Re-creatives Within one week of mailing, public relations s t a f f of both orchestras were contacted by telephone. Following acceptance of the i n v i t a t i o n by one personnel manager on his musicians' behalf, orchestra members were approached en masse by the author with a verbal i n v i t a t i o n to volunteer for the study. Description of Participants Next, the numbers and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the volunteer participants i n thi s study are described. Sample Population: Creatives Creative musicians who participated i n thi s study were comprised of 10 female and 25 male adult concert composers (35 i n t o t a l ) , presently l i v i n g and working i n Canada. Together the creative subjects represent 61.40 percent of the t o t a l sample of 57 subjects who reported blocks (see Table 1). It i s considered that members of th i s sample population are engaged i n finding, formulating, or discovering musical problems (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1976a, 1976b; Grudin, 1990). Comparison Population: Re-creatives In the comparison group there were 8 female and 14 male professional symphony players (22 i n t o t a l ) , or 38.60 percent of the t o t a l sample surveyed (see Table 1). Table 1 Numbers and Percentages of Participants, by Group and by  Sex Gender Creatives Re- creatives Totals No. % No % No. % Female 10 17.54 8 14.04 18 31.58 Male 25 43.86 14 24.56 39 68.42 Totals 35 61.40 22 38.60 57 100.00 A l l were employed with a symphony orchestra i n a major Canadian c i t y . The re-creative musicians were chosen to be a comparison group because the nature of the i r musical task i s to re-create (Reubart, 1985; 60 Rideout, 1987) or transmit musical compositions through performance (Fraser, 1990). That i s , these musicians usually r e a l i z e or carry out the conductor's inte r p r e t a t i o n of existing musical compositions. Of pa r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n this study i s whether members of this group may experience d i f f e r e n t frequencies, durations, causes, or total numbers of blocks than do members of the creative group. Level of C r e a t i v i t y The professional musicians i n this sample were t h e o r e t i c a l l y divided into two groups because th e i r respective musical tasks are d i f f e r e n t . One c r i t e r i o n used to make the d i v i s i o n i s the i r membership i n musically creative or re-creative organizations, as described above. The other c r i t e r i o n used i s the level of c r e a t i v i t y involved i n composing music versus playing i t . The assumption i s that composers consider t h e i r work as demanding a high level of c r e a t i v i t y , i n comparison with orchestral musicians. The item, "D," which measures th i s factor appears on page one of the protocol (see Appendix F). This item asks, "How much c r e a t i v i t y do you believe your work demands? ('Creativity' i s assumed to involve the making of unique, high quality products.)" A Likert-type scale was used for thi s item, with 1.0 standing for "none at a l l " and 5.0 standing for "a great deal." For the entire sample, answers to t h i s item ranged 61 from 2.0 to 5.0. The mean level of c r e a t i v i t y reported by a l l subjects was 4.29, the mode was 5.0, and the standard deviation was .857. For the creatives alone, the responses ranged from 4.0 to 5.0, with the mean level of c r e a t i v i t y reported as 4.79, SD = .276. These results are higher than those reported by the re-creatives alone, whose responses ranged from 2.0 to 5.0, and whose mean level of c r e a t i v i t y reported was 3.49, SD = .870. Number of Respondents Creative Subjects Of 109 questionnaires mailed to composers, 53 (or 48.62 percent) were returned (see Table 2). Ten of these were from people who did not include the consent form, or did not want to pa r t i c i p a t e , or who said they were no longer a c t i v e l y composing. The remaining 43 (or 39.45 percent) agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . Following the removal of a further eight subjects who said they experienced no blocks, the f i n a l number of creative participants was 35. This number represents 32.11 percent of the o r i g i n a l 109 composers to whom questionnaires were sent. Re-creative Subjects Of 75 questionnaires d i s t r i b u t e d to orchestral players, 25 (or 33.33 percent) were returned (see Table 2). The figure for musicians w i l l i n g to pa r t i c i p a t e was 23 (or 30.66 percent). After removal of one person who reported no blocks, the f i n a l number of re-creative participants was 22. This number represents 29.33 percent of the o r i g i n a l 75 orchestral players who received questionnaires. The separate and combined figures for the t o t a l number of respondents are shown i n Table 2. Table 2 Total Numbers and Percentages of Questionnaires Returned,  by Group Creatives Re-creatives Totals Condition No. % No. % No. % Sent 109 75 184 Returned 53 48.62 25 33.33 78 42.39 Unusable 10 9.17 2 2.66 12 6.52 Usable 43 39.45 23 30.66 66 35.87 Pa r t i c i p a t i n g 35 32.11 22 29.33 57 30. 98 Age Level of the Total Sample Participants' ages ranged from the second decade through the eighth decade, with the mean, mode , and median ages of the t o t a l sample a l l occurring i n the fourth decade. There appears to be a difference between the ages 63 of creatives and re-creatives i n th i s study. The mean age of the creatives f e l l within the mid-forties, somewhat older than the mean age of the re-creatives, which f e l l within the mi d - t h i r t i e s . Very few, or 3.5 percent of subjects, said they were i n their twenties; whereas 12.4 percent reported being i n the i r s i x t i e s , seventies, or eighties (see Table 3). Table 3 Age ( i n Decades) of Participants, by Group Age Creatives Re-creatives Totals % 20 - 29 - 2 2 3.5 30 - 39 9 6 15 26.3 40 - 49 11 13 24 42.1 50 - 59 8 1 9 15.8 60 - 69 5 - 5 8.8 70 - 79 1 - 1 1.8 80 & over 1 - 1 1.8 TOTALS 35 22 57 100.0 Ethnic Background At least 84.2 percent of the entire sample was Caucasian. Although the remaining 15.8 percent said they 64 were Native North Americans, i t was unfortunately not possible to interpret these responses. It appears the term was ambiguous to some people who, whatever th e i r ethnic background, were born i n North America. Education and Experience The tot a l sample consisted of people with widely varying levels of education and experience, although i n each case the d i s t r i b u t i o n was skewed negatively. With respect to Educational Level, 3.5 percent of the to t a l sample said they had High School Graduation or less; 26.3 percent (the mode) reported having earned a Master's Degree; and 12.3 percent said they had earned Doctoral degrees, some honorary. The most frequently reported educational level for creatives alone f e l l within the "Master's Degree" category. For the re-creatives alone i t lay within the "B.A. Degree" category. The Years of Experience as a professional musician ranged from three years to s i x t y - f i v e years. The mean and mode both f e l l into the "10 to 20 year" bracket, with 45.6 percent of the tota l sample answering that they had worked that long. Almost as many people, 43.9 percent, said they had worked over 20 years at th e i r musical pursuit. Levels of experience between the two groups i n the tot a l sample were very s i m i l a r . The only difference was in the experience category lab e l l e d "More than 20 years." 65 Overall, 25 subjects, or 43.86 percent of the to t a l sample, f e l l into t h i s category. For creatives i n the "More than 20 years" bracket, the mean number of years of experience was 36.0; for re-creatives, the mean was 26.0 years. Weekly Hours Spent at Primary Musical Task Time spent each week working at the primary musical task (creating or re-creating) ranged from three hours to 60 hours for the t o t a l sample. The mean was 26.6 hours per week, the mode was 30.0 hours per week; S_D = 13.75. For the creatives alone, the mean reported hours spent per week were 20.79; for re-creatives, the mean number of hours spent per week were 34.71. Re-creative group members were l i k e l y to work, on average, 13.92 more hours per week at th e i r primary musical pursuit than were the creatives. Because seven out of a possible 57 subjects, or 12.28 percent of the to t a l sample, did not answer th i s question, i t should be noted that the true mean amounts of time spent by each group may vary somewhat from those quoted. The Measure Because th i s i s an exploratory study, i n which phenomena not previously researched are being investigated, a new measure was needed. Therefore a s e l f -report survey questionnaire, inspired by Crosson's (1982a) work was designed by the researcher for use i n thi s 66 investigation. It consists of several items accompanied by either a Likert-type seven-point scale or a l i s t of categories from which to choose, and further questions requiring anecdotal responses. It was intended to provide a concise method of obtaining both q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative information, which could l a t e r be analysed. As well, i t was hoped that the b r i e f and r e l a t i v e l y non-i n t r u s i v e nature of the questionnaire format--as opposed to an interview—might favourably influence both the response rate and people's willingness to give candid r e p l i e s . Purposes of the Measure The f i r s t purpose of the "Survey on Blocks i n Musicians" was to determine what the self-reported causes of blocks are to the completion of valued musical tasks i n creative and re-creative musicians of both sexes. The second purpose of the questionnaire was to s o l i c i t information which could aid i n i d e n t i f y i n g possible associations. These include relationships which might exist among group (re-creative or creative), sex, and the to t a l number of self-reported causes of blocks. The t h i r d purpose was to ascertain the frequency and duration of the reported blocks i n men and women from both groups. The fourth purpose of the questionnaire was to test the hypothesis that a relationship might exist between the 67 number of causes of blocks c i t e d by musicians i n either group or sex, and the duration of t h e i r longest blocked period. F i n a l l y , i n the event of future research into t h i s and related topics, a f i n a l item on the questionnaire (see Appendix F) served as an indicator of musicians' willingness to be interviewed at a l a t e r date. Procedure In this section, procedures for the c o l l e c t i o n of data from the sample and comparison group are described. As well, the procedures used to t r a i n the raters are explained, and the methods of data analysis are presented. Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedure Concert composers who comprise the sample population reside across Canada, whereas the orchestral players who participated a l l l i v e i n one c i t y . Members of the former group, therefore, were i n i t i a l l y contacted by mail. Members of the l a t t e r group had an opportunity to meet with and question the author before c o l l e c t i n g the survey packets from t h e i r mailboxes at work. Individual D i s t r i b u t i o n of Materials Permission was obtained from the directors of the aforementioned composers' reg i s t r y to use the current l i s t of members' names and addresses. From th i s l i s t , 50 percent of the English-language members' names were chosen by random sel e c t i o n to receive mailed survey forms (see 68 Appendices E and F). Code numbers were matched to composers' names to f a c i l i t a t e follow-up tasks. Then, packets containing the survey materials were mailed to each person whose name had been selected. Stamped, s e l f -addressed envelopes were included for ease of return to the researcher. Group D i s t r i b u t i o n of Materials Permission was obtained from the personnel manager of an orchestra i n a large Canadian c i t y to access a current l i s t of players' names. Again, each name was given a code number, to f a c i l i t a t e follow-up. Then, i n d i v i d u a l l y addressed survey packets containing a cover l e t t e r , demographic sheet, questionnaire, and two copies of the consent form (see Appendix E) were placed i n the mailboxes of 75 orchestral players. Approximately 30 musicians remained following a regular rehearsal to hear a brief description of the study. Potential volunteers were assured of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , and of the c o l l e c t i v e nature of the data to be reported. After having t h e i r questions answered, musicians were i n v i t e d to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Because several married couples work together i n the orchestra, and because self-report measures may be susceptible to the effects of bias, people were requested to complete the questionnaire alone, at a time suited to personal r e f l e c t i o n . Stamped, self-addressed envelopes were again provided for ease of return. 69 Return of Materials Return of materials from a l l subjects had been requested within one week. Actual dates of return for both groups ranged from one week to three months after delivery. Upon receipt, each submission was acknowledged with a handwritten thank you note. Methods of Data Analyses To address the f i r s t Research Question, the form of analysis used was a comparative content analysis of manifest themes (Berelson, 1952). This method allows for the creation of mutually-exclusive, exhaustive categories into which the data can then be c l a s s i f i e d . The remaining eight research questions were dealt with s t a t i s t i c a l l y . Descriptive Data: Self-reported causes of block Although the need for the present investigation was inspired i n part by Crosson's (1982a) study, procedures for the handling of data vary somewhat between the two studies. Crosson reported that her subjects' primary block was taken as the one " f i r s t mentioned or [the one which] seemed to be stressed" (p. 75). It i s unclear whether, i n her study, the terms "block" and "causes of block" are synonymous. In contrast, as shown i n item "H," subjects i n the present study were themselves asked to i d e n t i f y "one of your most s i g n i f i c a n t blocks, and give the probable cause 70 or causes" (see Appendix F). It i s important to note that under investigation here are not the blocks per se, but rather the self-reported causes of block. In theory, a lengthy response from any subject might include several causes of block, which could than be c l a s s i f i e d into any of the categories numbered 2-7. This was borne out i n practise, as may be seen i n Chapter IV. Content Analysis: Procedure Used Each of 143 causes c i t e d by one or more of the 66 subjects was i d e n t i f i e d and underlined on the protocols, then recorded onto a separately numbered f i l e card. Cards having s i m i l a r causes of block were then sorted together, s t a r t i n g with the most closely related (or duplicated) causes, and progressing to causes related by more general themes. The goal was to create categories which would (a) c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h manifest themes from one another, (b) represent one, and only one, major theme with which each stated cause could be conceptually associated, and (c) be numerous enough to represent the potent themes which would emerge, yet few enough to meet c e l l requirements of s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Formation of interim categories. Three successive c o l l e c t i o n s of categories were tent a t i v e l y established. One early grouping—based on Woodman and Schoenfeldt's (1990) conceptual d i v i s i o n s used i n Chapter II--was discarded when the rationale for i t s 71 use f a i l e d to stand up under scrutiny i n th i s context. Other tentative groupings were dropped because they yielded categories i n excess of what could be analyzed. This being the case, several causes which at f i r s t seemed to warrant being categorized independently were ultimately treated as sub-themes within broader categories of causes (see Appendix H). For example, some respondents reported having i n s i g n i f i c a n t blocks which did not trouble them. Cards with comments such as t h i s were relegated together with the no block responses into Category 1. Other musicians reported getting stuck when th e i r i n i t i a l ideas for compositions seemed banal. Cards bearing responses of th i s type were placed with others of a conceptual or problem-solving nature, i n Category 3. The largest group of shared causes came from respondents who mentioned having too l i t t l e time available as causing t h e i r blocks. With a bigger sample, cards representing this cause may have warranted a separate category. In the present study, musicians' blocks which are caused by feelings of being overworked and consequently short of time are deemed conceptually related to Working Conditions, and so are treated as a sub-theme within Category 4. F i n a l l y , several musicians c i t e d performance anxiety as the cause of the i r blocks. Again, i n a study with a larger sample, placing such cards into a separate 72 category might be appropriate. Given the present sample size , t h i s cause i s categorized with others of a si m i l a r nature into Category 5: Professional Esteem/Identity. Once the major themes relevant to the population under study were i d e n t i f i e d , an e f f o r t was made to see i f the provisional categories might p a r a l l e l those i d e n t i f i e d by Crosson (1982a). Consequently, two categories were retained which match those i n Crosson's study. S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s concerning c r i t e r i a for in c l u s i o n i n each category are provided i n the results section of Chapter IV. Inter-rater R e l i a b i l i t y Training Consistent with the work of Porath (1990), two raters with graduate level t r a i n i n g , who were not known to any of the subjects, were each provided with detailed d e f i n i t i o n s for the newly-formed categories (see Appendix H). Neither person was informed about additional objectives of the study beyond the evident fact that composers and orchestral players' causes of blocks were being explored. Numbered practice cards showing hypothetical causes for blocks were constructed and d i s t r i b u t e d to the raters, who were then asked to independently sort f i v e cards. Practice sheets for recording tentative decisions were provided (see Appendix I ) , results shared and discussi.on of decisions encouraged. Once ambiguities were c l a r i f i e d , f i v e more hypothetical cards were di s t r i b u t e d , and the process repeated u n t i l both people concurred about the sorting of 20 cards. This phase of the t r a i n i n g , which included minor refinements to the practice cards and expansion of the d e f i n i t i o n s , took place over three 90 minute sessions. Raters' suggestions for c l a r i f y i n g the d e f i n i t i o n s were often incorporated. Both raters were present at each meeting, and so received i d e n t i c a l t r a i n i n g . Thus f a r , the actual data from the study had not been discussed or shown to either of the raters. The actual data were recorded on one set of 143 separate, numbered cards before being rated. Using the f i n a l version of the "Instructions for Raters" (see Appendix H) as the sole reference document, each person i n turn worked alone to categorize a l l 143 data cards. Percentages of agreement were calculated, and a f i n a l session held to discuss and reassign items not agreed upon during round one. Results for rounds one and two of the i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y check were recorded (see Appendix J) , and are presented i n Chapter IV. S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses of Inferential Data In t h i s section, the n u l l hypotheses for those research questions which require s t a t i s t i c a l analyses are presented. Also included are statements of the tests chosen to conduct the analyses. Null Hypotheses 1. No relationship w i l l be found between the s e l f -reported frequency of blocks i n creative and re-creative musicians. 2. No relationship w i l l be found between the s e l f -reported duration of the i r longest block i n creative and re-creative musicians. 3. No difference w i l l be found between the number of self-reported causes of blocks c i t e d and the duration of the longest block i n creative and re-creative musicians. 4. No relationship w i l l be found between the s e l f -reported frequency of blocks i n males and females. 5. No relationship w i l l be found between the s e l f -reported duration of the i r longest block i n males and females. 6. No difference w i l l be found between the number of self-reported causes of blocks c i t e d and the duration of the longest block i n males and females. As has already been discussed, much of the data obtained i n th i s descriptive study were at the nominal and ordinal levels of measurement. Therefore, Chi-square was deemed an appropriate method of testing the n u l l hypotheses numbered 1, 2, 4, and 5. Where the focus of the problem was on subjects' tot a l number of blocks, the data were at the int e r v a l level of measurement. This permitted exploratory testing of the nul l hypotheses numbered 3 and 6 by one-way analysis of 75 variance and two-way analysis of variance, where group means were compared. For a l l questions where data were s t a t i s t i c a l l y analysed, results were considered s i g n i f i c a n t when the .05 level of prob a b i l i t y was met or exceeded. Summary The methodology used to conduct t h i s exploratory study has been presented i n thi s chapter. The sample groups, and the i r relevance to the study have been described i n d e t a i l . Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample were described, and the c r i t e r i a and procedures used to select the subjects explained. The survey measure was described, together with procedures for i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n and return. F i n a l l y , both q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative methods of analyzing these data were described. Included here was an in-depth account of in t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y procedures used, and a statement of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures chosen. Results of these analyses are presented i n Chapter IV. 76 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS The results of the research questions posed i n Chapter I are presented i n th i s chapter. In the f i r s t section the q u a l i t a t i v e results of the f i r s t two research questions concerning the nature of blocks and who has them are presented. Included here are the results of the in t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y process, and of the content analysis of manifest themes. In the second section, the results of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used to test the nul l hypotheses are presented. F i n a l l y , i n the t h i r d section, a br i e f analysis of supportive incidental variables i s presented. Analysis of Qualitative Data: Causes of Block The most fundamental aspect of the problem addressed i n t h i s study concerns the issue of what causes the blocks which impede people's creative and re-creative processes, or "What do people say are the causes of the i r blocks?" The f i r s t research question was intended to explore t h i s . The q u a l i t a t i v e data i n reply to the f i r s t research question were gathered from anecdotal responses to item "H" on the sel f - r e p o r t questionnaire. In the problem 77 section of Chapter I, the o r i g i n a l research question was stated as, "What are the self-reported causes of block i n creative and re-creative musicians of both sexes?" On the questionnaire, item "H" was worded as follows: "If you have ever f e l t blocked from accomplishing a valued musical goal, please describe ONE OF YOUR MOST SIGNIFICANT blocks, and give the probable cause or causes." Content Analysis of Manifest Themes: Musicians Without Blocks Nine subjects, or 13.6 percent of the o r i g i n a l sample of 66, had the i r r e p l i e s assigned by the raters to category 1 (No Blocks). Of these, one was a re-creative male (1.5 percent), two were creative females (3.0 percent), and six were creative males (9.1 percent). Their data were not subjected to further analysis. Their removal l e f t an N of 57 musicians, or 86.4 percent of the o r i g i n a l 66 subjects. A l l self-reported causes of blocks were then assigned by the raters to the remaining six categories, numbered 2-7. Content Analysis of Manifest Themes: Self-reported Causes of Block Content analysis of the responses to item "H" (quoted above) revealed six major themes, each of which represents a group of related constructs concerning causes of musicians' blocks. For ease of analysis, related sub-78 themes are grouped together within the major categories (see Appendix H). The f i n a l categories are l i s t e d below, together with the names of the major themes and t h e i r shortenend terms for use i n tables and figures throughout t h i s document. Category 1 No Blocks (None) Category 2 Process-Orientation (Process) Category 3 Problem-Solving (Problem Solving) Category 4 Working Conditions (Work Conditions) Category 5 Professional Esteem/ Identity (Esteem) Category 6 Emotion (Emotion) Category 7 Physical (Physical) F u l l d e f i n i t i o n s of the c r i t e r i a for incl u s i o n i n each category of causes of block are given i n the "Instructions for Raters" (see Appendix H). For convenience, b r i e f explanations of these categories are included here: 1. Category 1 (No Blocks) serves as a repository for the data from musicians who indicated that blocks were either i n s i g n i f i c a n t , or not an issue for them. These data were not included i n the analysis. 2. Category 2 (Process-Orientation) includes causes attributed by the musicians to the creative process i t s e l f . As such, these causes of block are ultimately regarded by the subjects as necessary stepping-stones 79 towards further progress. An example i s the comment that blocks are i n fact "an integral part of composing." 3. Category 3 (Problem-Solving) includes causes of block which hamper musicians' conceptual addressing of s t r i c t l y musical problems, e.g., d i f f i c u l t y i n finding an appropriate way to i l l u s t r a t e a g r i s l y f i l m scene i n musical terms. 4. Category 4 (Working Conditions) includes causes of block which a r i s e from external sources related to the musician's work or workplace. One example i s the concern over adverse s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l circumstances i n the workplace which negatively af f e c t musicians' well-being. 5. Category 5 (Professional Esteem/Identity) includes causes of block which are also associated with working l i f e (as i n category 4), but which aris e from internal issues such as professional self-esteem, musical i d e n t i t y or role, a b i l i t i e s , or chances for success. An example i s the s i t u a t i o n where a person feels pressured to f i t musical "ideas into someone else's mold." 6. Category 6 (Emotion) includes causes of block a r i s i n g from emotional circumstances which extend beyond one's working l i f e and into the personal realm. For example, feelings of depression or anxiety which are not confined to work settings. 7. Category 7 (Physical) includes causes of block such as aging, i l l n e s s , fatigue, or any other ph y s i c a l l y -80 related causes. Another example would be t e n d i n i t i s , causing pain and d i s a b i l i t y while playing or writing. Correspondence with Findings of Crosson As mentioned i n Chapter III, two of the foregoing categories match those used by Crosson (1982a). They are: Category 1, None; and Category 7, Physical. A t h i r d , Category 6, Emotion, strongly resembles Crosson's category of the same name. There i s a p a r t i a l relationship between Crosson's Category 2, Jobs, and the present Category 4, Working Conditions; s l i g h t s i m i l a r i t y exists between Crosson's Category 4, Renewal, and the present Category 2, Process Orientation. In each case, the differences were s u f f i c i e n t to warrant the creation of new categories. Crosson's Category 5, S e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , and her Category 6, No Cause, have no application to the present study. Only p a r t i a l support, therefore, exists for the f i r s t substantive hypothesis that the categories i n th i s study would ultimately resemble those of Crosson. Inter-rater R e l i a b i l i t y : Results The process by which the two raters were trained to r e l i a b l y c l a s s i f y the data from the study into the above categories was described i n Chapter III. Their levels of agreement were as follows: 81 On round one, the raters agreed with each other's b l i n d categorizations for 113 out of the 143 data cards, or 79.02 percent of the time (N = 66). The remaining 30 data cards were subjected to a second round, where raters explained the rationales for each o r i g i n a l assignment. In thi s manner, reasons for c l a s s i f y i n g each outstanding card were c l a r i f i e d and agreed upon, and the cards subsequently re-assigned by one rater or the other. During the round two process, the f i r s t rater changed votes 10 times, or 6.99 percent of the time; the second rater changed votes 20 times, or 13.99 percent of the time. The second and f i n a l t a l l y resulted i n 100 percent agreement as to the categorization of causes of block. It i s worth noting that assignments which eventually were overturned often resulted from a rater's having not re-read, or not rec a l l e d the "Instructions to raters" i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l . Occasionally a rater misinterpreted instructions, r e s u l t i n g i n several incongruous assignments. These were resolved e a s i l y during the discussion process. What Causes Whose Blocks? The second fundamental aspect of the problem i n th i s study concerns the issue of "Which causes of block are reported by members of d i f f e r e n t groups?" In th i s section, descriptive results are presented for each of the separate groups under study. It should be noted that 82 individuals who reported a block have l i s t e d anywhere between one and seven causes for th e i r block. Means and standard deviations were calculated separately for the number of causes of block, by category, reported by members of each group. The number of members i n each group are as follows: (a) creative women (n = 10), (b) creative men (n = 25), (c) re-creative women (n = 8), and (d) re-creative men (n = 14). S t a t i s t i c s for the mean number of causes assigned to categories 2-7 appear i n Table 4. As may be seen from this table, creative subjects on average mentioned causes belonging to Category 2 (Process Orientation) more often than did re-creative subjects: the mean for creative women was 0.100; the mean for re-creative women was 0.0. The mean for creative men was 0.200; the mean for re-creative men was 0.071. Another in t e r e s t i n g result pertains to the women's and men's causes belonging to Category 6 (Emotion). The mean for creative women was 0.100, lower than the mean for creative men, which was 0.200. The mean for re-creative women (0.375) was only s l i g h t l y above that for re-creative men, at 0.357 . In the re-creative group, men tended to score higher than women did for Category 4 (Working Conditions). The mean for re-creative women was 0.750; the mean for re-creative men was 1.429. 83 Table 4 Raw Scores, Means, and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Number  of Causes, by Category CATEGORY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 o b Work Problem Condi- Phys-None Process Solving tions Esteem Emotion ical Totals Re-Creative Women X 0 0 1 6 4 3 1 15 M - 0.000 0.125 0.750 0.500 0.375 0.125 SD - 0.000 0.354 1.035 0.756 0.744 0.354 Re-Creative Men X 1 1 0 20 12 5 4 43 M - 0.071 0.000 1.429 0.857 0.357 0.286 SD - 0.267 0.000 1.453 1.027 0.497 0.469 Creative Women X 2 1 1 8 8 1 0 21 M - 0.100 0.200 0.800 0.800 0.100 0.000 SD - 0.316 0.422 0.789 0.919 0.316 0.000 Creative Men X 6 5 10 19 15 5 4 64 M - 0.200 0.400 0.720 0.600 0.200 0.160 SD - 0.500 0.645 0.980 0.816 0.408 0.374 Total Sample X 9 7 12 53 39 14 9 143 M - 0.123 0.228 0.912 0.684 0.246 0.158 SD - 0.381 0.501 1.106 0.869 0.474 0.368 ° Not included in further analysis. 0 Does not include means for subjects who reported Category 1, No Blocks. 84 The proportions of creative to re-creative subjects' mean numbers of blocks i n each category are i l l u s t r a t e d i n visual form i n Figure 1. Corresponding proportions for women and men are presented i n Figure 2. In Figure 3, the proportions of women's and men's mean number of blocks i n each category are shown, and f i n a l l y , i n Figure 4, a si m i l a r comparison i s shown for creative and re-creative subjects. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis: Inferential Data The t h i r d area to be focused on i n t h i s study concerns the p o s s i b i l i t y of relationships among the variables frequency, duration, and total number of their self-reported causes of blocks. As well, questions are posed concerning a possible association between the l a t t e r two variables. In the following sub-sections of th i s chapter, results of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures which were used to test the n u l l hypotheses are presented. The order i n which the Research Questions f i r s t appeared i n Chapter I has been changed to r e f l e c t a s h i f t i n focus. Formerly, the Research Questions were arranged according to the variables of group or sex, i . e . , creatives/re-creatives, or women/men. In the course of doing the analysis, a more meaningful sequence emerged which gives preference to issues over groups. A l l results pertaining to the variable frequency of 85 F i g u r e 1 • m 0.700 E H \ Cat 2 ftoocss Cat 3 irODem-SoMng Cat 4 Cood-Hons Cat 5 Esteem Cat 6 Emotion Cat 7 Physical Causes of BJodc by Category, for the Total Sample (N=57) 86 F i g u r e 2. 1.500 1300 _ 1.100 m 15 0.900 L_ d 75 0.700 0500 0300 0.100 • Creatives Recreatives Cat 5 Cat 6 Esteem Emotion Physical Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Process Problem- Vtoric SoMng Cond-Hons Causes of Block, by Category, Cited by Women Subjects (n=18) 1500 ^ 1300 O 0.900 0.700 _ O 0500 0300 0.100 • Creatives Recreatfves Cat 2 Process Cat 3 ProbJem-SoMng Cat 4 NXferic Cond-tfans Cat 5 Cat 6 Cat 7 Esteem Emotion Physical Causes of Block, by Category, Cited by Men Subjects (n=39) F i g u r e 3. 87 Causes of Blodc by Category, for the Total Sample (N=57) qure 4 . Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 6 Process Problem- VWaric Esteem Emotion Pnyskal SoMng Conor tJons Causes of Blodc by Category, Cited by Creative Subjects (n=35) 1500 1300 1.100 0.900 0.700 0500 0300 0.100 _ _ HI Women Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 6 Cat 7 Process Problem- NXfcric Esteem Emotion Physical SoMng Condi-tions Causes of Blodc by Category, Cited by Recreative Subjects (n=22) 89 blocks are reported f i r s t . Next, results concerning the variable duration of the longest block are shared. Then, descriptive results concerning the tota l number of blocks are reported as background information to the int e r a c t i o n questions. Next, results of the int e r a c t i o n questions are presented. F i n a l l y , any relevant incidental results are reported. In each case, results pertaining to group are presented before results pertaining to gender. Frequency of Blocks The data to be analyzed r e l a t i n g to the variable of frequency were gathered from the responses to item "E" on the questionnaire which asks, "How often do you feel 'blocked' from accomplishing your primary musical goal?" (see Appendix F). Use of a five-point rating scale resulted i n ordinal level data, which were analyzed using 7, 2 test of association (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). Results by group As discussed i n Chapter III, subjects who reported "No Blocks" were not included i n the analysis. Scores of those who answered "1. Never" were not included i n calculations reported here. Remaining response values were: "2. Hardly Ever; 3. Occasionally; 4. Mostly; and 5. Every Time" (see Appendix F). The mean reported level for the to t a l sample f e l l i n the "Hardly Ever" range (2.95, SD = .789); as did the mean for creatives (2.80, SD 90 = .797). The mean for re-creatives f e l l within the range of responses l a b e l l e d "Occasionally" (3.18, SD = .733). For creatives and re-creatives, Chi-square = 4.53 (DF = 3, N = 57, p_ = .2095. That i s , no s i g n i f i c a n t association exists between groups on the basis of the i r frequency of blocks. In other words, for the present sample, the creatives and re-creatives cannot be distinguished s o l e l y on the basis of the frequency of the i r blocks. The nu l l Hypothesis 1 cannot therefore be rejected. Results by sex With respect to the variable, "Frequency of Block," the mean reported level (see response values given above) for women was 3.06, SD = 1.056; the mean for men was 2.90, SD = .641 (see Figure 5). For women and men, the calculated value of Chi-square = 7.83 (DF = 3, N = 57, p_ = .0497. The c r i t i c a l value i s below th i s value, therefore s u f f i c i e n t grounds exist for rejecting the nu l l Hypothesis 4. The men i n this study were more l i k e l y than the women to say they hardly ever or occasionally f e l t blocked, whereas proportionately more women said they f e l t blocked mostly or every time. None of the men reported f e e l i n g blocked every time. These results appear i n Table 5. 91 F i g u r e 5. 100 90 Women Men P e r c e n t a g e 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A Hardly Ever Occasion-ally Mostly Every Time Frequency of Blocks: Percentages for Total Sample (N=57) 92 Table 5 Chi-Sguare Test of Association: Frequency of Block by Sex Hardly Occasion-- Mostly Every ROW Ever a l l y Time TOTAL Women 7 (5.37) 5 (8.84) 4 (3.16) 2 (0.63) 18 31. 6% Men 10 (11.63) 23 (19.16) 6 (6.84) 0 (1.37) 39 68. 4% COLUMN 17 28 10 2 57 TOTAL . 29.8% 49.1% . 17.5% . 3.5% 100% Notes. Expected frequencies are bracketed. X 2 (3) = 7.83, p_ = .0497 Duration of Longest Block Data for th i s variable were obtained from another ordinal scale. The question was, "As you r e c a l l the time(s) when you f e l t blocked from accomplishing a primary musical goal, to the best of your r e c o l l e c t i o n , what was the duration of your LONGEST block?" The eight options presented to subjects ranged from the shortest, "one day or l e s s , " to the longest, "more 93 than two years long; i t lasted ." These d i v i s i o n s proved unwieldy, and so were transformed for purposes of analysis. The new scale contained the d i v i s i o n s , "1. short," "2. medium," and "3. long." It should be noted that throughout the study, a l l test results on th i s variable r e f l e c t a reduced n, as there are f i v e missing observations. Caution i n making interpretations i s therefore advisable. Results by Group The overall mean response to the variable "Duration of the Longest Block" was 1.90, SD = .823; the mean for creatives was 1.85, SD = .784; the mean for re-creatives was 2.00, j|D = .907. Included i n the figures for re-creatives i s an o u t l i e r representing a duration of many years' standing. For duration of the longest block by group (creatives and re-creatives), Chi-square = 1.89, (DF = 2, n = 52, p_ = .3893). These values are non-significant; therefore the nul l hypothesis cannot be rejected. For the subjects i n this study, no association greater than what might occur by chance was found between the creatives and the re-creatives s o l e l y on the basis of duration of the i r longest block. Results by Sex With respect to "Duration of the Longest Block," the mean level for women was 1.93, SD = .884; the mean for men 94 was 1.89, SD = .809. Chi-square = 0.39 (DP = 2, £ = .8211). These levels are not s i g n i f i c a n t , and therefore the n u l l hypothesis cannot be rejected. On the sole basis of duration of the longest block, no association greater than that which might occur by chance was found between the women and men who participated i n thi s study. Total Self-reported Causes of Block As o r i g i n a l l y stated i n Chapter I, an aim of thi s investigation had been to discover whether a relationship exists between the total number of causes of block which people have, and the length of time they feel blocked (duration). The data on the to t a l number of causes were not gathered d i r e c t l y , but were obtained by summing the self-reported causes of blocks from item "H," which asked people to describe t h e i r blocks and t e l l what caused them. As such, these data meet the c r i t e r i o n for int e r v a l level data. Although mean causes of blocks i n each of the six categories have been reported elsewhere (see Table 4), no mention has yet been made of the total number of causes of blocks for people i n the various groups. These figures are presented below as background information to the main in t e r a c t i o n question. For the total sample, the number of self-reported causes of block ranged from one to seven per subject. The mean number of causes overall was 2.35, SD = 1.58. Creatives' mean number of causes of block was 2.20, SD = 1.37; re-creatives' mean number of causes of block was 2.59, SD = 1.87. The mean number of causes of block for women was 1.94, SD = 1.11; the mean number of causes of block for men was 2.54, SD = 1.73. These results are shown i n Table 6. Total Causes with Duration of Longest Block Although the n u l l Hypotheses 3 and 6 covering t h i s i n t e r a c t i v e question were o r i g i n a l l y stated separately for the creative and re-creative groups and for gender, they are conceptually related, and so have been tested together and singly. F i r s t , a one-way analysis of variance was performed on the data from the to t a l sample, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls Procedure. Then, separate two-way analyses of variance were done for group and sex on the tot a l number of causes of block means by duration. Results: One-way ANOVA Results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of total causes of block means for the t o t a l sample by duration of the longest block are shown i n Table 7. This analysis tests the question of whether the three duration groups (short, medium, and long) d i f f e r i n the number of causes of blocks c i t e d . Given a s i g n i f i c a n t F-test (F = 3.34, p_ = .04), a Student-Newman-Keuls Procedure was performed, to i d e n t i f y 96 the location of mean differences. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05 level occurred between the means for Medium (Group 2) duration of blocks, and Long (Group 3) duration of blocks, but not between the means of Short (Group 1) duration of -blocks, and either Medium (Group 2) or Long (Group 3) duration. The means i n ascending order appear i n Table 8. Table 6 Mean Numbers of Total Causes of Block, for Group and for  Sex Condition n M SD Creatives 35 2.20 1.37 Re-creatives 22 2.59 1.87 Women 18 1.94 1.11 Men 39 2.54 1.73 Total sample 57 2.35 1.58 97 Table 7 One-way ANOVA Summary Table of Total Causes of Block Means by Duration of the Longest Block Source DF SS MS F Between Groups* 2 Within Groups 49 13.36 98.08 ** 6.68 3.34 2.00 ft For the variable duration of the longest block, "groups" refers to short, medium, and long durations of block. ** p_ = .0437 Table 8 Student-Newman-Keuls Procedure Table of Total Causes  of Block Means by Duration of Longest Block M Condition Group 1.71 Medium (Group 2) 2.35 Short (Group 1) 3.00 Long (Group 3) 98 Although one-way analysis of variance for the sample as a whole indicated that there are mean differences at the .05 level of sig n i f i c a n c e i n total causes of blocks for participants reporting varying duration, several factors suggest a need for caution when interpreting t h i s finding. F i r s t , as discussed e a r l i e r regarding a l l tests on the variable duration of the longest block, f i v e cases are missing. Second, included i n the calculations are the data from an extreme o u t l i e r , and when the ANOVA was re-run without that case, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found. Third, results of the two-way ANOVA reported i n the next section provide inconsistent support for these findings. Results: Two-way ANOVA by Duration and Group This two-way analysis .of variance permits a test of three questions. The two main effect results (1) retest the question of whether duration i s related to the number of causes c i t e d , and (2) test whether the creative and re-creative groups d i f f e r i n the number of causes of block c i t e d . In addition, i t permits (3) a test of whether an int e r a c t i o n exists between duration and group, i n r e l a t i o n to the to t a l number of causes c i t e d . The results of the analysis appear i n Table 9. The sig n i f i c a n c e of the main ef f e c t for (1) the variable duration of the longest block (F = 3.029, p_ = .058) f e l l just short of the level required, a finding which contradicts the result of the one-way test for duration reported e a r l i e r (see Table 7). As with a l l tests involving the l a t t e r variable, strength of these findings i s diminished because of the reduced n of 52. The main effect for (2) group (creatives/re-creatives) was not s i g n i f i c a n t (P = .022, p_ = .882), and indicates that the groups do not d i f f e r i n the total number of th e i r causes cit e d . In addition, (3) the int e r a c t i o n term f a i l e d to reach sig n i f i c a n c e (F = .593, p_ = .557), ind i c a t i n g that the two variables duration and group do not have a joint e f f e c t . Taken together, these results do not permit reject i o n of n u l l Hypothesis 3. Results: Two-way ANOVA by Duration and Sex This two-way analysis of variance permits a test of three somewhat d i f f e r e n t questions than did the one reported i n the previous section. The two main effect results (1) again retest the question of whether duration i s related to the total number of causes c i t e d , and (2) test whether the women and men d i f f e r i n the i r total number of causes c i t e d . F i n a l l y , i t also permits (3) a test of whether an int e r a c t i o n exists between duration and sex, i n r e l a t i o n to the tota l number of causes cited. The results of t h i s analysis appear i n Table 10. The main eff e c t for (1) the variable duration of the longest block exceeded the .05 level of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e 100 Table 9 Summary Table of Two-way ANOVA Results of Total Causes of  Block Means by Group and by Duration of Longest Block Source DF F Significance of F Main Ef f e c t s 3 2.151 .107 Group 1 .022 .882 Duration 2 3.029 .058 2-Way Interactions 2 .593 .557 Group, Duration 2 .593 .557 Note. These data r e f l e c t a reduced n = 52. 101 Table 10 Summary Table of Two-way ANOVA Results of Total Causes of  Block Means by Sex and by Duration of Longest Block Source DF F Significance of F Main Ef f e c t s 3 2.600 .063 Sex 1 .765 .386 Duration 2 3.692 .033* 2-Way Interactions 2 2.431 .099 Sex, Duration 2 2.431 .099 Notes. These data r e f l e c t a reduced n = 52. * p_ < .05 (F = 3.692, p_ = .033). Although confirming the result of the one-way ANOVA reported e a r l i e r , t h i s finding does contradict the result of the other two-way ANOVA. Implications of these inconsistent results are explored i n the Discussion section. The main eff e c t for (2) sex was not s i g n i f i c a n t (F = .765, p_ = .386), and indicates that the women and men i n this study do not d i f f e r i n the i r t o t a l number of causes 102 ci t e d . F i n a l l y , the i n t e r a c t i o n term f a i l e d to reach si g n i f i c a n c e (F = 2.431, p. = .099), in d i c a t i n g that the two variables duration and sex do not have a joint e f f e c t . Taken together, these results do not permit rejection of n u l l Hypothesis 6. In Chapter I, reference was made to the universal nature of thinking well ( B a i l i n , 1988) and also of blocks to thinking well. The question arose as to whether the construct of "blocks to c r e a t i v i t y " might usefully be subsumed under a more general construct of "working blocks." Although the focus of t h i s study has been on the experiences of blocks i n p a r t i c u l a r groups of musicians, rather than on workers i n general, the findings with respect to creative and re-creative group members seem i n c i d e n t a l l y to o f f e r support to the generalizable position. This point i s discussed i n the section on "Incidental Findings" i n Chapter V. Summary In t h i s chapter, q u a l i t a t i v e results of the research question from problem one, o r i g i n a l l y posed i n Chapter I, have been presented. As well, findings from the quantitative testing of the n u l l hypotheses for problem two, which were f i r s t stated i n Chapter II I , were presented. These findings are discussed and interpreted i n the next chapter. 103 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Summary of the Study Blocks to the completion of people's valued goals contribute to f r u s t r a t i o n i n , and reduced enjoyment of, many creative pursuits. Composers and performers of concert music comprise a representative group of creative people whose working processes can be susceptible to blocks. Biographies and d i a r i e s of the world's great composers give h i s t o r i c a l evidence of musicians' long-standing blocks, such as those experienced by Rachmaninoff (Schonberg, 1981). Contemporary investigations into the phenomenon of f e e l i n g blocked have so far been focused on the experiences of p a r t i c u l a r groups. For example, Boice reports on writers' block i n academicians (1982a, 1982b), Sass (1984) discusses blocks i n female a r t i s t s , and Crosson (1982a, 1982b) compares the self-reported causes of female writers' and a r t i s t s ' blocks. Some studies by Kemp (1981a, 1981b, 1982) exist i n which personality t r a i t s of musicians are described; however blocks per se are not the focus of Kemp's work. Musical theorists who assess d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by performers include Green & Gallwey (1986); Reubart, (1985); and Ristad, (1982); but systematic inquiry into musicians' blocks using established research methodology has not yet been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . In the present work, questions are explored concerning two overall problems. In one, the varying causes of blocks experienced by creative and re-creative concert musicians, and whether they resemble those of Crosson's (1982a) subjects, are investigated. In the second, musicians' experiences of frequency and duration of t h e i r longest blocks are studied. As stated i n Chapter I, the p o s s i b i l i t y i s also addressed that differences with regard to frequency and duration might exist between composers (creatives) and performers (re-creatives), or between the genders. In the next sections, a summary of the q u a l i t a t i v e results of the study i s provided, followed by a summary of the quantitative findings. Summary of Qualitative Results Qualitative findings of the study include a schema for c l a s s i f y i n g causes of blocks to the creative and re-creative processes of musicians. Content analysis of manifest themes resulted i n the emergence of seven major manifest (as opposed to implied) themes, each of which 105 stand for a group of causes of blocks. These themes were assigned to categories with the following t i t l e s : No Blocksr the data from which were not analyzed; Process-Orientation--where subjects reported having used a block as a stepping-stone to an insight or solution; Problem-Solving; Working Conditions; Professional Esteem/Identity; Emotion; and Physical. The f i r s t and la s t of these match those i n Crosson's (1982a) study; the remaining categories only p a r t i a l l y resemble them. Summary of Quantitative Results 1. No association greater than that which could be expected by chance exists between creative and re-creative group memberhsip and the i r freguency of blocks. 2. There i s an association between the variables frequency of block and sex, indicated by the Chi-square test of association (%2 = 7.83, (3), p_ = .0497). Men were more l i k e l y than women to say they hardly ever or only occasionally f e l t blocked, whereas proportionately more women said they f e l t blocked most of the time or every time. 3. No association greater than that which could be expected by chance exists between creative and re-creative group memberhsip and the duration of t h e i r longest block. 4. No association greater than that which could be expected by chance exists between the sex and duration of the longest block. 106 5. For the to t a l sample, a tentative finding points to mean differences on causes of blocks for participants reporting varying duration of the longest block. A surprising finding here i s the s i g n i f i c a n t difference between those who f e l t blocked for "medium" lengths of time, compared with those who f e l t blocked for "long" periods, but not compared with those who reported f e e l i n g blocked for "short" periods. It was the people reporting a "medium" duration of blocks who l i s t e d the greatest mean number of causes of blocks. This result must be interpreted cautiously because the effect f a i l e d to show up i n the two-way ANOVA which tested duration as a main e f f e c t . 6. Based on the two-way ANOVAs, the main effect for the variable group (creatives/re-creatives) did not show a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n total causes cited. Total causes of blocks c i t e d was not related to the joint e f f e c t of duration and group. 7. Based on the two-way ANOVAs, the main effect for the variable sex did not show a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n total causes c i t e d . Total causes of blocks cited was not related to the joint e f f e c t of duration and sex. Summary of Incidental Findings 1. The lack of differences found i n frequency and duration between the creative and re-creative groups strengthens Kemp's assertion about the inherent 107 s i m i l a r i t i e s between composers and performers. It i s also of i n t e r e s t because of the more global issue, alluded to e a r l i e r , of creative versus working blocks. These findings seem to offer support for B a i l i n ' s (1988) contention that creative thinking i s a higher level manifestation of thinking well i n general. Discussion and Interpretation The present discussion i s focused on findings which, although tentative, are nonetheless useful indicators of where future research might be directed. Where possible, an attempt i s made to relate results to the relevant l i t e r a t u r e . An attempt i s also made to i l l u s t r a t e discussion of q u a l i t a t i v e findings with brief quotations excerpted from musicians' anecdotal responses. As i n Chapter IV, quantitative results are organized according to the variables which deal with issues, as opposed to groups. Accordingly, results concerning frequency of blocks are discussed together, before results involving duration of the longest block. Interaction questions are discussed next, and f i n a l l y an incidental variable i s b r i e f l y discussed. Discussion of Qualitative Findings Content analysis of musicians' anecdotal responses to the survey reveals only a p a r t i a l resemblance with the categories used by Crosson (1982a). Detailed d e f i n i t i o n s for the categories used here are given i n the document, 108 "Instructions to Raters," (see Appendix H). It may be seen from t h i s document that each of the six major themes contains a number of discrete sub-themes. These sub-themes are not analyzed i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t h i s study. Findings Similar to Crosson's (1982a) Categories Some respondents i n both studies report No Blocks (Category 1); as stated i n Chapter III, data from these subjects are not analyzed i n the present work. In addition, some subjects i n each study report f e e l i n g blocked because of physical (Category 7) d i f f i c u l t i e s such as injury, i l l n e s s , or aging (see Figures 2 and 3). Although the d e f i n i t i o n s for Category 7 are i d e n t i c a l across the two studies, important differences i n subjects' experiences of blocks with t h i s cause are noted below. Findings Different from Crosson's In the next two sections, experiences of subjects i n the present study are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from those of the a r t i s t s and writers studied by Crosson (1982a). Category 4: working conditions. Differences i n the d e f i n i t i o n s of categories between the two studies could be accounted for by the fact that orchestral musicians work i n group settings, and therefore have a more communal experience of working l i f e than do writers and a r t i s t s . Disharmony among colleagues, for example, i s c i t e d by some musicians i n t h i s study as having a deleterious e f f e c t on th e i r playing. As an 109 example, one orchestral player noted "dis t r a c t i o n s i n performance usually caused by lack of unanimity i n the group around me." This finding relates to that of Kemp (1981a), mentioned i n Chapter II. He stated that the more astute individuals may actually leave the music profession; i f true, then those remaining might combine the q u a l i t i e s of being highly adept at music, but possibly less so at managing p o l i t i c a l differences. Blocks attributed by subjects to d i f f i c u l t i e s at work were categorized by the raters as f a l l i n g within Category 4 (Working Conditions). It could be speculated that blocks of t h i s type, i f unchecked, could become compounded, thereby influencing the formation of blocks i n Category 5 (Professional Identity/Esteem), Category 6 (Emotion), or Category 7 (Physical). Other relevant points have been mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e review i n Chapter II. It w i l l be recalled that Steptoe (1989) found an association between stage f r i g h t and musicians' perceptions of career stress, about which he speculates a further relationship with neuroticism. Willings (1980), on the other hand, discusses t h i s issue i n terms of increased s e n s i t i v i t y on the part of c r e a t i v e l y g i f t e d individuals to environmental conditions, including the degree of approbation available from colleagues or the public. The work of both these authors 110 supports the present decision to categorize performance anxiety together with Professional Identity/Esteem. Category 5: professional esteem/identity. A further difference between subjects i n the present study and those i n other investigations concerns the syndrome of performance anxiety (Category 5). People who practise t h e i r profession i n front of large audiences are sometimes subject to stage f r i g h t . As mentioned i n Chapter III, enough re-creative subjects i n this study c i t e t h i s factor as a cause of th e i r blocks to constitute a sub-theme of Performance Anxiety within the Professional Esteem/Identity category; limited size of the re-creative sample precluded the formation of a f u l l y separate category. Sometimes a consequence of severe blocks of t h i s type i s the use of the so-called beta-blocking drugs (Steptoe, 1989), one of which i s propanalol (sold as Inderal). Its use by performers i n general i s mentioned i n the submissions of re-creative subjects; however subjects i n th i s study do not claim to take the drug themselves. A related block involves the necessity of overcoming iatrogenic drug dependencies, where t r a n q u i l i z e r s were o r i g i n a l l y prescribed with the intention of calming a subject's performance anxiety. Again, t h i s i s a finding which not only distinguishes the present population from those i n other studies, i t also discriminates between the I l l creative and re-creative portions of the present sample because i t i s not a cause mentioned by the creatives. Category 7: physical. Although physical problems aff e c t workers i n general, musicians are known to suffer p a r t i c u l a r i n j u r i e s related to the playing of instruments (Chatelin, 1990; Green & Gallwey, 1986; K e l l a , 1989; Reubart, 1985; Ristad, 1982). These i n j u r i e s may result from overuse, from incorrect technique, or from combinations of these along with physical tension. Examples come from players who mentioned cases of spinal discs degenerating, and t e n d i n i t i s i n wrists. These facts probably explain why re-creative subjects' mean numbers of reported causes i n Category 7 (Physical) surpassed those of the creative subjects (see Table 3). Although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed, t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e finding does d i f f e r e n t i a t e the present population from those i n other studies (Crosson, 1982a; Sass, 1984), where comparable a f f l i c t i o n s are not mentioned. Moreover, i t further distinguishes the creative and re-creative groups i n the present study, because i t i s the members of the l a t t e r group who report most physical problems. Findings Independent of Crosson's A theme not present i n Crosson's (1982a) findings, but which characterizes the submissions of several musicians i n t h i s study, i s a philosophical approach 112 toward the nature and worth of the experience of block. Category 2: process-orientation. Possibly the most int e r e s t i n g and meaningful result of the study arises from subjects' anecdotal responses to questions concerning the origins and resolutions of t h e i r blocks (see Appendix F, items "H" and " J " ) . Content analysis of these statements reveals several manifest themes, including one termed "Process-Orientation," which corresponds to Category 2 (see Appendix H). The term i s borrowed from Mindel1's (1982, 1985) process-oriented psychology, inspired by the work of Carl Jung. Of process work, Roomy writes, "there i s a profound trust i n working with what comes" (1990, p. 3). Statements q u a l i f y i n g for Category 2 r e f l e c t musicians' trust and acceptance of the integral role played by the i r experience of block. This orientation often coincides with the person's ascribing the cause of block to the creative process itself--hence, "process-orientation." Creative subjects said of t h e i r blocked times, they are not "useless or wasted hours," they can "force necessary r e f l e c t i o n , " they are "part of the creative process--a process of exploration," and are "an integral part of composing." One re-creative subject termed a block i n retrospect, "a great learning experience for me." These statements are consistent with references i n 113 the l i t e r a t u r e to unbidden ideas and to mistakes and how they are conceptualized (Green & Gallwey, 1986; Mindell, 1982; Parnes, 1981; Parnes & Harding, 1962; Rogers, 1962; Shuman, 1989). If viewed as sources of potential discovery, rather than as impediments, "mistakes" or even misfortune can contribute to, rather than detract from, l i f e processes i n general, which of course include the creative and re-creative working processes of musicians. In her well-known compendium of Jung's psychology, analyst June Singer (1973) states that Jung regarded psychological phenomena i n general, including such phenomena as emotionally reactive behaviour and neuroses, as having a purpose. She writes, Understanding the cause of a neurosis i s not enough to explain i t s nature, and i t i s surely not e f f e c t i v e i n transforming the neurosis into a productive and rewarding aspect of being.... The c a u s a l i s t i c point of view i s i n s u f f i c i e n t ; a second viewpoint must be brought into play. This second view i s c a l l e d by Jung the f i n a l i s t i c standpoint. By f i n a l i s t i c he means to suggest that the neurosis can be seen as s t r i v i n g for a purpose, an end or goal. (p. 314, i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) It i s not mandatory to equate neurosis with blocks i n order to benefit from Singer's discussion, although 114 writers such as Maslow (1962) have done so. Blocks to c r e a t i v i t y need not be i n d i c a t i v e of neurosis, especially i n those with an active process-orientation. On the other hand, i t seems l i k e l y that neuroses would be characterized by working blocks—whether to creative work or not. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the process-oriented category which has emerged from these data l i e s i n the evidence i t provides for the view that psychological phenomena can be purposeful. There i s potency inherent i n blocks which are recognized as valuable contributors, even clues, aids to personal and creative processes. Creatives predominate i n process-oriented category. From subjects' written submissions alone, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain why the overwhelming majority of Process-Oriented comments come from Creative subjects (see Figures 1 and 2). Of the nine comments collected, only one was from a re-creative subject. It may be meaningfully speculated that music composition t r a i n i n g encourages creatives' tolerance of th e i r mistakes i n composing. If such i s the case, and unsuitable musical ideas are routinely saved for l a t e r use, then years of such practice may foster a p a r a l l e l tolerance of blocks. It i s also the case, however, that the majority of people who had causes of th e i r blocks put into category 2 were men. When viewed together with the fact that differences were found i n the frequency of blocks between women and 115 men (Xf - 7.83 (3), p_ = .0497), the notion of workable coping strategies among the men i n thi s sample seems to be somewhat strengthened (see Table 5). It may be further argued that men i n t h i s study display a certain "acceptance of process" which allows for "mistaken steps" to be tolerated, and not labe l l e d as blocks. If Weisberg's (1986) thesis i s v a l i d , then the incremental nature of the creative process could account for creatives' valuing of any "mistaken" steps i n the i r progressive processes. In thi s view, repeated p r a c t i c a l experience constructing musical phrases (as with l i t e r a r y ones) demonstrates the value of building on, and eventually enhancing, e a r l i e r e f f o r t s . Another possible interpretation suggests that re-creatives may have comparatively less autonomy i n th e i r working l i v e s than creatives do. If one's perception i s that section leaders, conductors or administrative s t a f f make many of the pertinent decisions i n one' l i f e , then feelings of loss of control and helplessness may pervade. In such an emotional climate, the i n c l i n a t i o n to look upon problems as potential opportunities could be eroded. The music history l i t e r a t u r e may be a source of sustenance for composers as they address th e i r own experiences of block. The r e a l i z a t i o n that Mozart endured extreme f i n a n c i a l p r i v a t i o n , Beethoven suffered the loss of his hearing, and Chopin persisted despite tuberculosis 116 could perhaps result i n composers p a r t i a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g with such i n d i v i d u a l s . Alternately, the contemporary musician might reason that the great t r i a l s which burdened one's musical forbears played an indefinable role i n the production of great musical works, and that one's own t r i a l s might somehow be consciously and productively harnessed. Conversely, knowledge of music history may underlie a composer's appreciation of synthesizers and other electronic tools which make possible the exploration of a new genre, even though faulty tools may sometimes be seen to cause blocks (Category 4). Discussion of Quantitative Findings In t h i s section, the quantitative findings of the study and the i r implications are discussed. Frequency of Blocks and Group The hypothesis that these variables might be related was not supported i n thi s study. It appears that working at neither creative or re-creative musical pursuits i s associated with a p a r t i c u l a r level of frequency of block; nor does having a p a r t i c u l a r frequency level serve to predict the group to which one belongs. It may be reca l l e d that Kemp (1981b), i n his study of musicians' pe r s o n a l i t i e s , concluded that temperamental links probably exist between composers (creatives) and orchestral players (re-creatives). 117 Frequency of Blocks and Sex The men i n thi s study are more l i k e l y than the women to say they hardly ever (25.64 percent) or occasionally (58.97 percent) feel blocked, y i e l d i n g a sub-total of 84.61 percent i n these two categories. They are less l i k e l y than the women to say they mostly (15.38 percent) feel blocked. None of the men report f e e l i n g blocked every time. In comparison, 38.9 percent of the women report hardly ever f e e l i n g blocked; 27.8 percent of the women report occasionally f e e l i n g blocked; the sub-total for women i n these two categories i s 66.7 percent. The majority of women s t i l l f e l l into the categories l a b e l l e d hardly ever or occasionally. The proportion of women who report f e e l i n g mostly blocked i s 22.2 percent; for every time i t i s 11.1 percent, y i e l d i n g a sub-total for the two categories of highest frequency of 33.33 percent. As may be seen i n Figure 5, women respond i n decreasing proportions to the available options, which are l i s t e d i n the order of increasing level of frequency. Although these are not chance findings, they should be interpreted with caution, as three (or 37.5 percent) of the eight c e l l s i n the "X? test of association contain fewer than f i v e entries. Additionally, sample groups are unmatched, and the r a t i o of women to men i s 18:39. Replicating the study with a larger, more balanced sample 118 would aid i n further exploring t h i s issue of possible effects of sex with frequency of blocked experiences. Although the above discussion with respect to frequency of Blocks points to a sex difference, the source of the difference i s unclear. To rule out whether individual differences--such as those introduced by data from o u t l i e r s - - a r e responsible for the women's and men's d i f f e r i n g patterns, in-depth interviews and/or personality testing of subjects might be used. The p o s s i b i l i t y of whether gender bias i n the musical workplace i s a contributing factor to the women's higher frequency of blocks i s worth considering, especially so i f t h i s study were replicated using more female subjects; th i s would require the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of members from several orchestras with varying styles of administration. Pew women wrote about th i s issue, yet those who mentioned i t as a cause of their blocks included copious supportive information with t h e i r complaints. Actual differences related to gender may exist which could explain the findings. For example, there i s some evidence that women may be more prepared than are men to acknowledge t h e i r emotional reactions. Highlen and G i l l i s (1978) report that women tend to disclose more feelings i n general than do men. In order for feelings to be disclosed, they must already have been noticed (Perkins, 1975) and acknowledged. If noticing, acknowledging, and 119 revealing one's feelings i n general are comparable to noticing, acknowledging, and revealing one's feelings of block; then three p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r i s e which might explain women's greater frequency of block scores. Either a) women i n th i s sample have i n fact a greater frequency of blocked experiences than do men, or b) whatever the two sexes' actual frequencies of block, the women may notice th e i r feelings of block more frequently than do men, or c) regardless of actual frequency and noticing of one's blocks, the women are more w i l l i n g than the men to acknowledge and disclose t h e i r blocks. Another p o s s i b i l i t y which could be speculated i s that men i n general have been ecouraged i n 20th century society to focus on goals or products rather than on process. If this holds true for the male musicians i n this study, then the men's goal-directed focus may help them to surmount small obstacles which might otherwise be perceived as blocks. It could also be inferred that these men may regard aspects of thei r working processes as valuable components of l i f e processes i n general, and hence, as worthwhile goals i n themselves. Duration of Block and Group As with frequency of blocks, the hypothesis that these variables are related was not supported i n this study. It appears that working at neither creative or re-creative musical pursuits i s associated with a p a r t i c u l a r 120 duration of the longest block; these findings do not permit categorization of creative/re-creative people on the basis of the frequency of t h e i r blocks. Duration of Block and Sex No s t a t i s t i c a l association was established between the length of time people were blocked and t h e i r sex. However, visual examination of the plotted data indicates that the three reported blocks of longest standing are from re-creative women; these data are concealed by virt u e of the categories' having been collapsed p r i o r to analysis. As mentioned above, r e p l i c a t i o n of this work using a larger sample and clearer expressions of units of blocked time are needed before implications concerning sex can be made. Total Causes of Block and Duration. After doing the one-way ANOVA, the follow-up test (Student-Newman-Keuls Procedure) indicates where the ef f e c t for duration of the longest block l i e s for the  to t a l sample. This e f f e c t i s surprising because i t indicates that with respect to tot a l causes of blocks, people with medium and long durations of block d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other, but not from people with short blocks. Duration of the longest block showed up as s i g n i f i c a n t i n one of the two-way ANOVAs (duration/sex), but not .in the other (duration/group), although i t came close (F = 3.029, p_ = .058). It i s d i f f i c u l t to know whether this level of prob a b i l i t y would be increased or decreased, were a larger sample available. Possible explanations for t h i s anomaly that were not addressed i n thi s study might include personality variables such as coping s t y l e . Some subjects could conceivably notice and acknowledge a large number of causal factors for blocks, but be adept at dealing with any actual blocks quickly. As with other analyses on the variable duration, the n i s reduced, data from an extreme o u t l i e r are included, and the data have been re-grouped. Total Causes of Blocks and Variable Interactions. Results of the interactions tested by two-way ANOVAs were non-significant. There i s no effect between total causes of blocks, duration of longest block and creative or re-creative groups. Nor i s there an effect between total causes of blocks, duration of longest block and sex. Despite these findings, the results should be considered inconclusive u n t i l r e p l i c a t i o n of the study with a larger sample and more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d groups can be accomplished. It i s very l i k e l y that data from o u t l i e r s distorted the true pattern of response. Another explanation for the unclear results to thi s i n t e r a c t i o n question may rest with the fact that, i n this study, a group of id i o s y n c r a t i c professionals were surveyed. Those who work at creative and re-creative pursuits are l i k e l y to display great o r i g i n a l i t y i n the i r approaches to l i f e , 122 and no less so i n the i r responses to surveys such as t h i s . In i t s e l f , such i n d i v i d u a l i t y amongst subjects l i k e l y contributes to the v a l i d i t y of the q u a l i t a t i v e re s u l t s , because the range of comments expressed are l i k e l y to r e f l e c t deeply held views and sincere concerns. At the same time, testing of quantitative hypotheses i n such a population would y i e l d more conclusive results given a large enough sample siz e to allow for patterns of s i m i l a r i t y and difference to emerge. Discussion of Incidental Findings A reading of subjects' submissions to open-ended items on the questionnaire, and also of additional notes on the back of pages or on separate pages indicates many musicians welcome the chance to share th e i r views. Some acknowledged appreciation for the opportunity to be heard; most expressed interest i n being involved i n further research. Because l i t t l e difference i s found between certain aspects of creatives' and re-creatives' professional experience, these findings may warrant future investigation of B a i l i n ' s point concerning the general nature of blocks. Although blocks to c r e a t i v i t y may constitute a p a r t i c u l a r kind of experience, i t may equally be the case that anyone who makes, produces, or creates something i s subject to the experience of fee l i n g blocked. The phenomenon may be a universal one associated with work 123 i n general, rather than one peculiar to a r t i s t i c or s c i e n t i f i c work. Just how universal an experience f e e l i n g blocked may indeed be, i s implied by Sass's (1984) finding that "... the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the creative block suggest that i t can be conceptualized as a developmental  t r a n s i t i o n " (p. 101). Seen i n t h i s l i g h t , the pr o b a b i l i t y of one's encountering a block at some point can be appreciated p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . Without some sort of t r a n s i t i o n from one stage, idea, or emotion, to the next, there would be perpetual stagnation. Further to points made e a r l i e r concerning Kemp's (1981b) work, i t may also be that, on many dimensions, creative and re-creative musicians are e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r sorts of people. Questions of whether t h e i r experiences of frequency or duration of blocks are related may be less important than, for example, the question of whether members of one group display more extroversion or introversion; or whether certain aspects related to career s a t i s f a c t i o n (Steptoe, 1989) might d i f f e r between these groups. Conclusions Conclusions Based on Qualitative Findings 1. Of respondents to t h i s study, 13.6 percent of the o r i g i n a l 66 musicians report experiencing no blocks; some say the idea of being blocked has never occurred to them. 2. The schema used for c l a s s i f y i n g data yielded six 124 categories which only p a r t i a l l y resemble the findings of Crosson (1982a). A notable difference i s i n the "Working Conditions" category. In t h i s study, musicians who work in team settings such as a symphony orchestra report more blocks a r i s i n g from interpersonal issues than do Crosson's a r t i s t s or writers; men overall report having more blocks caused by "Emotion" than do women. 3. The emergence of a "process-orientation" category i s an important finding of t h i s study. Subjects who report conceptualizing t h e i r blocks as necessary, integral parts of their working processes are almost exclusively creative males. These subjects seem to have devised coping strategies which enable them to accept both fluent and blocked elements of themselves or t h e i r working processes. These individuals seem to be implying that by waiting out the fallow times and celebrating the unpredictable aspects of t h e i r creative l i f e , they somehow create conditions for unexpected and salutory resolutions to emerge. Moreover, the attitude displayed by some subjects that blocks can be ultimately beneficial--even e s s e n t i a l - -aspects of the creative or re-creative working l i f e represents a contribution of important empirical evidence. This stance supports the contentions of people such as Jung (1967) and Singer (1973), who hold that psychological phenomena, including blocks, have purpose i n l i f e . It i s a finding which counsellors may fi n d useful as they explore t h e i r personal and professional values, and as they work with c l i e n t s wishing to do the same. 4. Research results such as these need to inform counselling practice. One-to-one counselling or therapy, as well as workshops for groups, have long been given on topics related to c r e a t i v i t y . Empirical evidence such as that contained i n these data i s required to as s i s t those who would work e f f e c t i v e l y with blocked c l i e n t s . Conclusions Based on Quantitative Findings 1. For the sample surveyed, there i s an association between sex and patterns of reporting the frequency of blocks. The men are most l i k e l y to report "occasionally" f e e l i n g blocked; none of the men report fe e l i n g blocked every time they play or compose music. Women i n thi s sample are more l i k e l y to report "hardly ever" f e e l i n g blocked, although more women than would be expected by chance also report "most times" or "every time" they make music. It could be speculated that the women tend to notice conditions or events which produce blocks (Perkins, 1975) more systematically than do the men. A corol l a r y might be that men may elect to ignore much of the "block-causing" s t i m u l i , i n favour of "getting the job done." There may also be a tendency among the women i n this sample to acknowledge or s e l f - d i s c i o s e problems readily 126 (Highlen & G i l l i s , 1978) which could explain t h e i r increased tendency to report an increased frequency of blocks. 2. For members of the present sample, there i s tentative but inconclusive evidence to suggest that differences do exist for the to t a l number of causes of blocks between indivi d u a l s with varying duration of their 1onges t blocks . In general, the trend i s for people with a greater number of causes of blocks, to experience blocks of at least a medium duration, and possibly of long duration. This empirical evidence suggests that counsellors working with blocked c l i e n t s can understand those c l i e n t s ' blocked situations more thoroughly, and help to ameliorate them, with the knowledge that multiple causes of blocks may contribute to longer blocks. However, th i s information i s only l i k e l y to be e f f e c t i v e when used i n concert with an appreciation of the q u a l i t a t i v e findings from t h i s study. If the process of l i v i n g with and working through a block does i n fact have a purpose, and can ultimately be b e n e f i c i a l , then care should be taken not to simply treat a block as something to be eradicated. Whatever ineffable processes are at work should, as Roomy (1990) wrote, be approached with "profound t r u s t . " 3. A common block i n people's l i v e s i s the f e e l i n g of loss of enjoyment around valued work. These findings i l l u s t r a t e how dedicated members of a profession such as musical composition or performance can f i n d ways to conceptualize t h e i r blocks so as to benefit from them, rather than succumb to them. By extension, this approach may be useful to those i n other occupations. 4. This exploratory study was intended to investigate "what i s " i n the domain of musical work, and also to discover where further exploration i s needed. Thus, part of i t s contribution l i e s i n the beginning e f f o r t of s i f t i n g out less informative issues from those worthy of greater study. The next section concludes this work with suggestions about p o t e n t i a l l y worthwhile areas which could be concentrated upon i n the future. Recommendations for Further Research Several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of highly creative people were mentioned i n the Review of the Literature: i n t e g r i t y , courage, endurance, freedom (Grudin, 1990), a t t r a c t i o n to complexity, independence of judgement, self-confidence (Barron and Harrington, 1981), and tolerance of ambiguity (Dacey, 1988; Herzberg, 1987). Just as these personal attributes may be deemed necessary for sustained creative production, so also may favourable environmental conditions be believed by some creative professionals to be essential to t h e i r working process (Amabile, 1983). It may be speculated that such b e l i e f s , deeply held, may 128 themselves be the forerunners of blocks. If people are convinced, for example, that personal q u a l i t i e s such as endurance (Category 5) or working conditions such as solitude (Category 4) are v i t a l to their creative work, then they may feel blocked i f those requirements are unmet. What could influence the formation of blocks, therefore, i s the b e l i e f that one cannot work crea t i v e l y or well unless ones' prerequisites are s a t i s f i e d . Further research into the attitudes and experiences of both blocked and unblocked respondents i s needed to evaluate this notion. To speculate further, perhaps another level of c r e a t i v i t y than that used with musical problems (Category 3) , must be brought to bear by the individual on si t u a t i o n a l problems l i k e those described above, i n order to prevent an overwhelming number of blocks from occurring at once. Further research comparing responses of control subjects matched with those of subjects trained i n general creative problem solving techniques i s needed i n order to test t h i s hypothesis. The meaning and sign i f i c a n c e of factors such as i n s u f f i c i e n t working conditions (Category 4) , or issues of professional esteem (Category 5) to members of non-musical creative populations needs also to be assessed. It i s recommended that t h i s research be replicated, with the addition of a non-musical control group. A s u b s t a n t i a l l y larger and more diverse sample--in terms of musical d i s c i p l i n e as well as level of e x p e r i e n c e — i s advised, i n order to test for differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between controls and musically creative and re-creative populations. In th i s way, i t may be determined whether B a i l i n ' s (1988) provocative assertions quoted at the beginning of Chapter I may f i n d support. To extend the l a t t e r idea further, a comparative study of people's creative blocks i n members of widely varying occupations may i l l u s t r a t e just how ubiquitous blocks r e a l l y are. D i s c i p l i n e s such as architecture, aeronautics, commercial advertising, computer science, counselling, human resources, education, engineering, medicine, public administration, publishing, research and development, sales and tourism could a l l represent f e r t i l e grounds for investigation. 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Weiss, D. S. (1981). A multigroup study of personality patterns i n c r e a t i v i t y . Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , 52, 735-746. Will i n g s , D. (1980). The crea t i v e l y g i f t e d . Cambridge, England: Woodhead-Faulkner. Woodman, R. W. (1981). C r e a t i v i t y as a construct i n personality theory. Journal of Creative Behavior. 15, 43-66. Woodman, R. W., & Schoenfeldt, L. F. (1989). Individual differences i n c r e a t i v i t y : An i n t e r a c t i o n i s t perspective. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of c r e a t i v i t y : Assessment  research and theory (Series t i t l e : Perspectives on  Individual Differences). New York: Plenum. Woodman, R. W., & Schoenfeldt, L. F. (1990). An i n t e r a c t i o n i s t model of creative behavior. Journal of  Creative Behavior, 24 (1), 10-20. APPENDIX AA page 148 APPENDIX F pages! 154-158 154 SURVEY ON BLOCKS IN MUSICIANS RETURN ADDRESS: Ms. Terre B. Thom c/o The Department of Counselling Psychology The Faculty of Education University of B r i t i s h Columbia 5780 Toronto Road VANCOUVER, B.C. V6T 1L2 154a CODE #_ DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Each section below i s accompanied by two or more possible responses. Please c i r c l e the ONE number which appears beside the response which applies to you. I LEVEL OF EDUCATION (Please c i r c l e ONE) 1. Less than High School Graduation 2. High School Graduation 3. Some College / A.R.C.T. 4. Bachelor's Degree 5. Some Graduate School 6. Master's Degree 7. Post Master's Degree studies 8. Doctoral Degree 9. Other (Please describe) II LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE (Please c i r c l e the ONE which most closely describes the time you've worked professional 1y at your TYPICAL or PRIMARY musical pursuit.) 1. Less than six months 2. More than six months, but less than one year 3. More than one year, but less than three years 4. More than three years , but less than fi v e years 5. More than f i v e years, but less than ten years 6. More than ten years, but less than twenty years 7 . More than twenty years; have worked years ETHNIC BACKGROUND IV AGE 1. Native North American 1. Under 20 years 2. Asian / Oriental 2 . 20 - 29 3. Asian / East Indian 3. 30 - 39 4. Black 4. 40 - 49 5. Caucasian 5. 50 - 59 6. Other (Please 6. 60 - 69 state) 7 . 70 - 79 8. 80 years & over V GENDER 1. Female 2. Male 155 SURVEY ON BLOCKS IN MUSICIANS Sometimes people feel hampered i n th e i r e f f o r t s to complete a project which i s meaningful to them. I am interested i n the experiences of musicians i n this regard. The term "blocks" refers to external and internal i n h i b i t i n g factors which get i n the way of your completing valued musical goals. The questions i n t h i s survey deal with blocks to performance and composition of music. Your thoughtful, candid responses w i l l be welcome. A. Which category best describes your TYPICAL or PRIMARY musical pursuit? Please c i r c l e ONE number below. 1. Singer ( c l a s s i c a l ) 2. Instrumentalist ( c l a s s i c a l ) 3. Singer (extemporaneous) 4. Instrumentalist (extemporaneous) 5. Arranger 6. Songwriter (art, fol k , jazz, pop, rock, sacred) 7. Composer ( c l a s s i c a l or contemporary) B. If you c i r c l e d item 1, 2, 3, or 4 above, please indicate whether or not solo performing represents over 50% of your C. How much time do you spend at your primary musical pursuit? (Composing i s assumed to include related a c t i v i t i e s such as formulating problems and planning; performing i s assumed to include formal rehearsal.) Choose the ONE category below that best f i t s , and give an estimate of your hours spent. 1. Hours per day 2 . Hours per week 3. Hours per month 4. Hours per year D. How much c r e a t i v i t y do you believe your work demands? ("Creativity" i s assumed to involve the making of unique, high quality products.) Please CHECK ( /) the appropriate point on the scale below. work. YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 none at a l l f a i r l y l i t t l e moderate amount quite a b i t a great deal 156 E. How often do you feel "blocked" from accomplishing your primary musical goal? (Please c i r c l e the ONE that best applies.) 1. Never 2. Hardly ever 3. Occasionally 4. Most times I perform / compose 5. Every time I perform / compose F. Having considered the frequency of your blocks, i s a seasonal pattern or any other pattern apparent to you? Please take a few moments to think about what i t ' s l i k e when you feel stymied or blocked from accomplishing a musical goal that you value. When you are ready, please continue. G. As you r e c a l l the time(s) when you f e l t blocked from accomplishing a primary musical goal, to the best of your r e c o l l e c t i o n , what was the duration of your LONGEST block? Please c i r c l e ONE number below. 1. One day or less 2. Less than a week long 3. Between one and two weeks long 4. More than two weeks, but less than a month long 5. More than a month, but less than s i x months long 6. More than six months, but less than a year long 7. More than a year, but less than two years long 8. More than two years long; i t lasted H. If you have ever f e l t blocked from accomplishing a valued musical goal, please describe ONE OF YOUR MOST SIGNIFICANT blocks, and give the probable cause or causes. (If you re-quire more space, please use the back of THIS page.) 157 Has the block described i n "H" above been resolved to your sa t i s f a c t i o n ? YES NO J. If you answered "yes" to " I " above, please indicate how your block was resolved. K. Do you have any p a r t i c u l a r feelings or reactions to the experience of f i l l i n g out th i s questionnaire? L. Optional. If you wish to offer suggestions or c r i t i c i s m s about ANY aspect of th i s study, please feel free to do so. 158 CODE # Survey on blocks i n musicians, appendix M. In the event of further research, would you be w i l l i n g to be interviewed? YES NO (You may detach t h i s page before returning the packet, i f you choose not to be interviewed.) Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n thi s study Thank you for taking the time to forms within one week. i s very much appreciated, respond, and to return these APPENDIX G page 159 INFORMATION FOR RATERS INTER-RATER RELIABILITY TRAINING: INTRODUCTION In this study, professional musicians were asked to describe a block they had experienced, and to state i t s CAUSE or CAUSES. Seven categories have been chosen into which the CAUSES, or statements, are to be sorted. Definitions for each of the categories are given i n t h i s document. In addition, each CAUSE mentioned by the individuals surveyed has been written on a separate data card. Your task i s to decide into which category to place each of the statements. A l l decisions about the assigning of cards to categories must be based upon the d e f i n i t i o n s provided. In doubtful cases, please consult the l a s t page of t h i s document, headed "Pointers to Follow i n Instances of Ambiguity." Given below are the names of the seven categories into which you w i l l sort the data cards: CATEGORY 1: NO BLOCKS CATEGORY 2: PROCESS-ORIENTATION CATEGORY 3: PROBLEM-SOLVING CATEGORY 4: WORKING CONDITIONS CATEGORY 5: PROFESSIONAL ESTEEM / IDENTITY CATEGORY 6: EMOTION CATEGORY 7: PHYSICAL The steps you w i l l follow are set out on the next page. These ins t r u c t i o n s are c r u c i a l l y important to t h i s task. Please refer to them i n d e t a i l . 160 APPENDIX H pages 160-165 INSTRUCTIONS TO RATERS 160a SECTION I. 1. Please become fam i l i a r with the "Definitions for categories of block." Refer to these four pages frequently; they w i l l be your only guideline for the f i n a l rating task. 2. Read the statement on each data card completely and c a r e f u l l y before assigning the card to a category. 3. Check every data card against the entire d e f i n i t i o n for each category. 4. Understand the overall meaning of the card. Cards should be sorted according to their general themes, rather than according to a s p e c i f i c word embedded i n the statement. SECTION I I . 1. Please use the seven heading cards provided • for sorting the data cards into groups. 2. Realize that categories may contain unequal numbers of data cards. 3. F i n a l l y , please use the code numbers from the back of each card to record your f i n a l categorizations on the sheet provided. 161 DEFINITIONS FOR CATEGORIES OF BLOCKS CATEGORY 1; NO BLOCKS Subjects report having either i n s i g n i f i c a n t blocks, or none at a l l . In addition, i f subjects a) decline to answer the question, b) do not comprehend i t , or c) leave i t blank, then their responses f a l l into this category. CATEGORY 2; PROCESS-ORIENTATION Subjects acknowledge having f e l t blocked, yet they appreciate blocks as an indispensable part of the creative process. Whatever i t s cause, the block i s understood as a necessary--even an inevitable--part of one's professional development, growth, or renewal. It may be recognized as a stepping-stone towards new perspectives or insights. - Subjects may indicate d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the term "block" i t s e l f , because blocks are seen i n l i g h t of the opportunities they might present. - Although subjects may have f e l t inconvenienced by t h e i r blocks, i n retrospect the blocks are  not viewed negatively. CATEGORY 3: PROBLEM-SOLVING Subjects report blocks to the solving of musical problems. Such blocks may be thought of as standing between people and sa t i s f a c t o r y resolutions of the i r compositional or performance challenges. Causes of block 162 which f i t into Category 3 include: - Feeling b a f f l e d about how to portray a given s i t u a t i o n i n musical terms, - D i f f i c u l t y conceptualizing or discovering musical ideas suited to the circumstances, - Delay i n finding stimulating or appropriate ways i n which to convey a musical statement. - D i f f i c u l t y working beyond mediocre i n i t i a l ideas, i n order to achieve a performance or a product of acceptable quality. CATEGORY 4 : WORKING CONDITIONS Subjects report blocks a r i s i n g from what are seen as external sources related to work and the workplace. Those who work at home may mention domestic duties. Some causes of block which f i t into Category 4 include: - Heavy work loads, . - D i f f i c u l t i e s with time scheduling, or with a v a i l a b i l i t y of time for music-making, - Problems with instruments or computers, - Social or p o l i t i c a l conditions i n the workplace which adversely affect subjects, - Receiving colleagues' c r i t i c i s m of one's product or performance, - Perceived disregard of subjects' needs for recognition or encouragement. This disregard originates from external sources, i n 163 comparison with the internal sources dealt with i n Category 5; e.g., composers may experience a lack of opportunity to work, shown by few commissions or chances for the i r music to be performed. Performers may c i t e low salary, an apathetic public attitude, etc. NOTE: Although the feelings expressed i n this category may be i d e n t i c a l to those mentioned i n Category 5, they f a l l into Category 4 when they are attributed to external causes rather than to internal causes. CATEGORY 5: PROFESSIONAL ESTEEM / IDENTITY Subjects report internal blocks stemming from issues involving professional self-esteem, musical i d e n t i t y or role, a b i l i t i e s , or chances for success. Causes of blocks f i t into this category when they originate from work contexts, i . e . , they are associated with one's work as a musician, rather than with one's personal l i f e . They include: - Work habits, cognitive s t y l e s , or emotional approaches to work which i n h i b i t progress, - A tendency towards perfectionism; this may be stated i n terms of having high standards, - S e n s i t i v i t y to potential c r i t i c i s m of one's musical product or performance a b i l i t i e s , - Performance anxiety or "nerves," when c l e a r l y associated with work rather than private l i f e , 164 - D i f f i c u l t i e s motivating or d i s c i p l i n i n g oneself to perform necessary musical tasks, - Reduction of enjoyment or reward associated with musical tasks--subjects may question whether to continue performing or composing, - Questioning the worth of one's contribution. CATEGORY 6: EMOTION Subjects report internal blocks res u l t i n g from emotional l i f e beyond work. Causes of block which f i t into t h i s category encompass a range of emotional reactions. They include: - References to emotion (fe e l i n g anxious, etc.) that are not s t r i c t l y related to work, - Stated d i f f i c u l t i e s with close personal relationships, - Internal c o n f l i c t which goes beyond the sphere of work. CATEGORY 7: PHYSICAL Subjects report blocks which are attributed to some aspect of physical functioning. Causes of block which f i t into category 7 include: - Aging, - I l l n e s s , - Fatigue, - Other p h y s i c a l l y - r e l a t e d causes. 165 POINTERS TO FOLLOW IN INSTANCES OF AMBIGUITY If a card could conceivably f i t into more than one category: 1. Please re-check the data card against the d e f i n i t i o n for each category. 2. Strive to understand each card i n terms of the person's stated intent. Avoid "reading things i n t o " people's ambiguous statements. 3. Check the EXTERNAL vs. INTERNAL dimension, which i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by Categories 4 and 5. 4. Recall the WORK-RELATED aspects of both Categories 4 and 5, as opposed to the NON-WORK context covered by Category 6 (Emotion). 5. In case of unusual d i f f i c u l t y assigning a card to a category, please make the best assignment possible, noting i n addition the code number of your uncertain choice on the back of the sheet. Thank you. APPENDIX I 166 INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: CATEGORY ASSIGNMENTS To raters: In the space following each heading below, please l i s t the code numbers of the data cards which you decide belong i n each category. Write the number from the back of each card. CATEGORY 1: NO BLOCKS CATEGORY 2: PROCESS-ORIENTATION CATEGORY 3: PROBLEM-SOLVING CATEGORY 4: WORKING CONDITIONS CATEGORY 5: PROFESSIONAL ESTEEM / IDENTITY CATEGORY 6: EMOTION CATEGORY 7: PHYSICAL Date: Signature: APPENDIX J 167 INTER-RATER RELIABILITY SCORES: RECORD CARDf (001) (002) (003) ROUND 2 SUBJ # 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 O i l 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 

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