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Self-concept, occupational aspiration, and ego identity : a correlational study Loncaric, Mladen Anton 1991

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S E L F - C O N C E P T , OCCUPATIONAL A S P I R A T I O N , AND EGO I D E N T I T Y - A CORRELATIONAL STUDY MLADEN ANTON LONCARIC Bachelor of A r t s A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1991 ( c ) M. L o n c a r i c , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A P r i l / 1 9 9 1 DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T L e v e l of Occup a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n i s a complex though r e l a t i v e l y unexplored phenomenon which i s t h e o r i z e d t o p l a y a major r o l e i n car e e r c h o i c e . T h i s study e x p l o r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ( r e a l / i d e a l ) and s e l f - c o n c e p t ( a s measured by the P i e r s H a r r i s s e l f concept s c a l e ) , and l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n and ego i d e n t i t y ( a s measured by the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e ) . S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between both r e a l and i d e a l a s p i r a t i o n s and s e l f - c o n c e p t f o r females. No r e l a t i o n s h i p was demonstrated f o r males. S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d between r e a l and i d e a l a s p i r a t i o n s and ego i d e n t i t y f o r females. A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d between r e a l a s p i r a t i o n s and ego i d e n t i t y f o r males . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r ad o l e s c e n t career c o u n s e l l i n g are d i s c u s s e d . T A B L E OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v Acknowledgement v i Chapter 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Summary of the D e f i n i t i o n s to be Used 5 Chapter 2 - Review of Related L i t e r a t u r e 6 Sel f - C o n c e p t 6 Sel f - C o n c e p t and V o c a t i o n a l Choice 7 Occu p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n 11 Ego I d e n t i t y 23 Summary 30 Chapter 3 - Methodology 31 Su b j e c t s 31 Measuring Instruments 32 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedure 40 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses 40 Chapter 4 - R e s u l t s 42 Summary 46 Chapter 5 - D i s c u s s i o n 48 F i n d i n g s 48 L i m i t a t i o n s 48 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 49 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 52 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research 55 SUMMARY 56 References 58 Appendix A - Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e 69 Appendix B - P i e r s H a r r i s 74 Appendix C - Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e 78 i i i Appendix D - L e t t e r of Consent i v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 42 Table 2 43 Table 3 44 Table 4 45 Table 5 > 46 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended to Dr. L a r r y Cochran, a d v i s o r and t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r f o r h i s encouragement and c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s . Thanks go a l s o to Dr. Marven Westwood and Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n and support. _My g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n are a l s o expressed to the students and s t a f f of Booth Memorial J u n i o r Secondary School i n P r i n c e Rupert. In c l o s i n g I would l i k e t o thank C a r o l , M i c h a e l , David, and C a r l y n . v i 1 C H A P T E R 1 - I N T R O D U C T I O N I n t h e o r i e s o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i t i s c o m m o n l y a s s u m e d t h a t a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n i s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r s e l f - c o n c e p t . A c c o r d i n g t o H o l l a n d ( 1 9 7 3 ) i n d i v i d u a l s p r o j e c t t h e m s e l v e s o n t o o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e w i l l a l l o w t h e m t o e x p r e s s who t h e y a r e , t h e i r v a l u e d s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , a n d p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F o r S u p e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n i s a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s e l f - c o n c e p t . T h r o u g h w o r k , i n d i v i d u a l s a c t u a l i z e t h e m s e l v e s . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e a r e many s t u d i e s t h a t s u p p o r t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a p e r s o n a n d a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , S c h u t z a n d B l o c h e r ( 1 9 6 1 ) p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t p e o p l e a t t e m p t t o i m p l e m e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t i n w o r k . H o w e v e r , a s C o c h r a n ( 1 9 8 1 ) p o i n t e d o u t , mos t r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d , r a t h e r t h a n l e v e l . T h i s i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n g i v e n t h e a w a r e n e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l t h a t e x i s t s i n s o c i e t y . H a l l e r a n d M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t a t e d t h a t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l e v e l e x i s t s i n t h e f o r m o f a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y . R e e b ( 1 9 7 4 ) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h i s k n o w l e d g e i s p r e s e n t i n c h i l d r e n b y t h e t i m e t h e y r e a c h g r a d e 8 . G i v e n t h i s a w a r e n e s s one w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t a l l p e o p l e w o u l d a s p i r e t o t h e u p p e r l e v e l s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s i s n o t a l w a y s t h e c a s e i s p u z z l i n g . S i n c e l o w e r e n d o c c u p a t i o n s c a r r y n e i t h e r t h e s t a t u s n o r t h e e c o n o m i c 2 o p p o r t u n i t y of c a r e e r s found at the upper p a r t of the h i e r a r c h y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n why people make such c h o i c e s . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r low o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s may be found i n the d i f f e r e n t purposes t h a t work s e r v e s . Perhaps a l l l e v e l s of work are not seen as s e l f a c t u a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . One i s hard pressed to see how being a d i t c h digger or a l a b o r e r a l l o w s f o r an e x p r e s s i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y . Warnath (1975) questioned the n o t i o n t h a t work i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g f o r the m a j o r i t y of people. I t may be t h a t some occu p a t i o n s serve to p r o t e c t one's s e l f - c o n c e p t r a t h e r than express i t . Rosenberg (1979) p o i n t e d out t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s not a p a s s i v e o b j e c t but r a t h e r an a c t i v e agent who "responds to the s t r u c t u r a l l y determined experiences of h i s l i f e i n a f a s h i o n p r o t e c t i v e of s e l f concept" ( p . x i v ) . Working as a l a b o r e r may take care of b a s i c needs and p r o v i d e one with the time to e x p l o r e other avenues of s e l f e x p r e s s i o n . Another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r low l e v e l a s p i r a t i o n s may have to do with o p p o r t u n i t y . G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) maintained t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y young age by a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s . Warnath (1975) suggested t h a t "socioeconomic s t a t u s , r a c i a l o r i g i n , and power are more d e t e r m i n a t i v e of [ a t t a i n e d occupations] than are a p t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t s ( p . 425). S t e n d l e r (1949) and Ginzberg (1951) found evidence t h a t one d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a r i a b l e r e g a r d i n g l e v e l i s s o c i a l c l a s s . C h i l d r e n of a higher s o c i a l c l a s s tend to have 3 higher o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s than c h i l d r e n of a lower s o c i a l c l a s s . T h i s i s a c r i t i c a l p o i n t . For i f one's a s p i r a t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by s o c i a l c l a s s , then they may a l s o be a f f e c t e d by other f a c t o r s . I t a l s o suggests t h a t l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n may be a f f e c t e d p r i o r to s e l f - c o n c e p t c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . I f t h i s i s the case then i t i s unclear whether s e l f - c o n c e p t leads to o ccupation or v i c e v e r s a . G o t t f r e d s o n argued t h a t perhaps both e n t i t i e s develop i n a " l e a p - f r o g manner" ( p . 556). One q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h i s designed to e x p l o r e i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l and s e l f - c o n c e p t . In an attempt to shed f u r t h e r l i g h t on q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by G o t t f r e d s o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l and i d e n t i t y c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i s a l s o being i n v e s t i g a t e d . P o s s i b l y the most a r t i c u l a t e d views about i d e n t i t y c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n (or ego i d e n t i t y ) are to be found i n E r i k s o n ' s w r i t i n g s . He proposed an e i g h t stage model founded on what he c a l l s the " e p i g e n e t i c p r i n c i p l e " . T h i s i s the concept t h a t "anything that grows has a ground p l a n , and t h a t out of t h i s ground plan the p a r t s a r i s e , each p a r t having i t s time of s p e c i a l ascendancy, u n t i l a l l p a r t s have a r i s e n to form a f u n c t i o n i n g whole" (1979, p. 53). When the f u n c t i o n i n g whole i s working w e l l i t i s r e f e r r e d to as a healthy p e r s o n a l i t y . However, i n order to a r r i v e a t a healthy p e r s o n a l i t y , the c r i s e s of each stage must be d e a l t with s u c c e s s f u l l y , as each step i n c o r p o r a t e s the accomplishments or f a i l u r e s of what preceded. I t i s the 4 f i f t h stage i n t h i s developmental model t h a t i s of i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study f o r i t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t E r i k s o n begins t o t a l k of ego i d e n t i t y . As might be expected, any d i s c u s s i o n of ego i s fa c e d with d e f i n i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . E r i k s o n (1979) used the term t o r e f e r at one time to "a con s c i o u s sense of i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y ; at another to an unconscious s t r i v i n g f o r a c o n t i n u i t y of pers o n a l c h a r a c t e r ; at a t h i r d as a c r i t e r i o n f o r the s i l e n t doings of ego s y n t h e s i s and, f i n a l l y , as a maintenance of an inner s o l i d a r i t y with a group's i d e a l s and i d e n t i t y " ( p . 109). However, as Rasmussen (1964) p o i n t e d out, even though E r i k s o n uses "ego i d e n t i t y " to r e f e r to a v a r i e t y of ego f u n c t i o n s h i s model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l because i t enables us t o "study s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the r e s o l u t i o n of the e a r l i e r c r i s i s p e r i o d s through p r e s e n t l y - m a n i f e s t e d a t t i t u d e s and behavior" ( p . 816). The behavior t h a t we're most i n t e r e s t e d i n l o o k i n g a t i s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s response to o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . To summarize then, s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s have been r a i s e d about the r o l e t h a t l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n p l a y s i n one's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . At the heart of t h i s i s s u e i s the assumption concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between our sense of who we are and what we do f o r a l i v i n g . Two s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h i s study i s designed to ev a l u a t e are: ( l ) What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and s e l f concept? and ( 2 ) What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and i d e n t i t y c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n or ego i d e n t i t y ? 5 SUMMARY OF THE DEFINITIONS TO 8E USED Occupational Aspiration: In general t h i s w i l l r e f e r t o the s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n named as one's best a l t e r n a t i v e at any given time. The p o i n t s which bound the range of a person's l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n at any one time w i l l be c a l l e d e x p r e s s i o n l e v e l s . E stimates of the lower and upper boundaries w i l l be c a l l e d the r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ( H a l l e r , p. 8 ) . Self-concept: a s e t of s e l f a t t i t u d e s which r e f l e c t both a d e s c r i p t i o n and an e v a l u a t i o n of one's behavior and a t t r i b u t e s ( P i e r s , p. 1 ) . Ego Identity: a G e s t a l t - l i k e sense which can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as the accrued c o n f i d e n c e t h a t one's a b i l i t y t o maintain inner sameness and c o n t i n u i t y i s matched by the sameness and c o n t i n u i t y of one's meaning f o r o t h e r s ( E r i c k s o n , p. 22). 6 CHAPTER 2 - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The body of l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to t h i s s u b j e c t can be c l a s s i f i e d as r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o : ( l ) s e l f - c o n c e p t , (2) l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n and, (3) ego i d e n t i t y . SELF-CONCEPT The body of l i t e r a t u r e about s e l f - c o n c e p t i s enormous. The e f f o r t s to a r t i c u l a t e , d e f i n e and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the term are ongoing, i n c o n c l u s i v e and p r o b l e m a t i c . Werff (1985) p o i n t e d out t h a t " s e l f - c o n c e p t psychology shows two f a c e s . On the one s i d e much t h e o r e t i c a l a t t e n t i o n i s given to the m u l t i p l i c i t y of s e l f , and to a m b i g u i t i e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n " . On the other hand " i n most e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s these i n d i v i d u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s are completely ne g l e c t e d " ( p . 446). The e m p i r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e r e l i e s on the numerous c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c e s computed over the y e a r s . Models b u i l t on t h i s data allow f o r many d i f f e r e n t s e l v e s but they do not e x p l i c i t l y address the "problems of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and ambiguity i n i n d i v i d u a l s e l f images" ( p . 447). Not a l l r e s e a r c h on s e l f - c o n c e p t f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Rosenberg's (1979) e f f o r t s to address the s u b j e c t fused t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l m a t e r i a l . He s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g : 7 S e l f - c o n c e p t i s the t o t a l i t y of our thoughts and f e e l i n g s with r e f e r e n c e to o u r s e l f as an o b j e c t . T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s experienced as the core of our i n t e r e s t s and has major s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r our thoughts, f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r . S e l f c o n c e p t i o n then, i s a matter of both developmental and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . S o c i a l f o r c e s as s o c i a l experiences though do not merely e x i s t , they are i n t e r p r e t e d . F i n a l l y , though the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l f o r c e s , each person i s " d i r e c t e d by h i s own m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s and he responds to the s t r u c t u r a l l y determined experiences of h i s l i f e i n a f a s h i o n p r o t e c t i v e of h i s s e l f - c o n c e p t " ( p . x i v ). SELF-CONCEPT AND VOCATIONAL CHOICE Over the years a s u b s t a n t i a l body of l i t e r a t u r e has been produced which maintains t h a t one's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s i n t i m a t e l y connected with s e l f - c o n c e p t . T h i s b e l i e f i s found i n Holland's (1959, 1973) p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t c a r e e r c h o i c e i s an e x t e n s i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y and t h a t people p r o j e c t themselves and t h e i r views of work onto t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . Super, (1951, 1957, and 1963) maintained t h a t "In choosing an occupation one i s , i n e f f e c t , choosing a means of implementing a s e l f - c o n c e p t " (1951, p. 92). A c l o s e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Super's work r a i s e s some qu e s t i o n s about the degree to which t h i s theory can be g e n e r a l i z e d . Super (1957) d e s c r i b e d v o c a t i o n a l development as "an o r d e r l y and p a t t e r n e d p r o c e s s , ongoing, continuous, g e n e r a l l y i r r e v e r s i b l e and dynamic, i n v o l v i n g i n t e r a c t i o n of the b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e , v o c a t i o n a l developmental t a s k , and other f a c t o r s " ( p . 45). Commenting on the " e x p l o r a t o r y , behavior" aspect of v o c a t i o n a l development Jordaan (1963) s t a t e d t h a t "Super's f o r m u l a t i o n [ i n h i s 1963 monogram] i s 8 more concerned with the outcomes of e x p l o r a t i o n and with what he c a l l s f a c i l i t a t i n g a t t i t u d e s and a t t r i b u t e s , than with the process or dynamics of e x p l o r a t i o n " ( p . 51). T h i s c h o i c e of f o c u s , when coupled with the p r e v a l e n t p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t s u p p o r t e r s of the s e l f - c o n c e p t / o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e theory have s t u d i e d , augments the q u e s t i o n of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y r a i s e d e a r l i e r . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e v e r a l s t u d i e s lend themselves to s u p p o r t i n g Super's th e o r y . Included i n these are (Brophy, 1959; Englander, 1960; Blocher & Schutz, 1961; K i b r i c k & Tiedman, 1963; Oppenheimer , 1966; and P a l l o n e & H o s i n k i , 1966). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t of the s t u d i e s t h a t used s u b j e c t s who had d e c l a r e d a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e n t i o n , (Brophy, nurses; Englander, te a c h e r s ; K i b r i c k , Tiedman, P a l l o n e , H o s i n k i , nurses) more p r e s t i g i o u s occupations abound. As Osipow (1968) p o i n t e d out "such groups may be more concerned with implementing s e l f - c o n c e p t s than might a group of r a i l r o a d e n g i n e e r s , mechanics, salesmen or assembly l i n e workers" ( p . 142). Osipow's o b s e r v a t i o n r a i s e d the i s s u e of l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , about which both H o l l a n d and Super are v i r t u a l l y s i l e n t . H o l l a n d appeared to ignore the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y a l t o g e t h e r . Super, on the other hand, seemed to view work p r i m a r i l y as a means, or as a n e u t r a l e n t i t y t h a t one merely used to implement the s e l f . One area of r e s e a r c h t h a t sheds some l i g h t on the r o l e t h a t l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n p l a y s i n career c h o i c e 9 i s t h a t p e r t a i n i n g to i d e a l / e x p e c t e d s e l f and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s . In t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - e s t e e m , career s a l i e n c e and c h o i c e of i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n , Greenhaus and Simon (1976) r a i s e d the s p e c t e r of a " v i c i o u s c y c l e " . T h i s somewhat ominous note i s the r e s u l t of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . Greenhaus (1971) s t a t e d t h a t people with high s e l f - e s t e e m tend t o be more r e s i s t a n t to s o c i a l p r essure i n o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and that s t u d e n t s ' l e v e l s of career s a l i e n c e are p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o ch o i c e of i d e a l o ccupation (Greenhaus, 1973). One of the p o s s i b l e consequences of these f i n d i n g s i s t h a t high s e l f - e s t e e m , high career s a l i e n c e students w i l l have t h e i r f e e l i n g s of competence and s e l f - w o r t h enhanced by t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . On the other hand persons with low career s a l i e n c e and low s e l f - e s t e e m , who are l e s s l i k e l y t o choose an occupation they c o n s i d e r i d e a l , may be pl a c e d i n a s i t u a t i o n which w i l l maintain t h e i r low l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m and career s a l i e n c e (Greenhaus and Simon, 1976). Burgoyne (1979), using a p o p u l a t i o n of 97 male and 88 female high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , i n v e s t i g a t e d the hypothesis t h a t s i m i l a r i t y of i d e a l s e l f and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s are important i n determining the v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s of a d o l e s c e n t s , while s i m i l a r i t y between expected s e l f and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s i s important i n determining t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . He concluded t h a t the i d e a l s e l f p l a y s an important r o l e i n determining v o c a t i o n a l 10 p r e f e r e n c e s f o r both males and females. However, the i d e a l s e l f was more s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d than the expected s e l f with v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r females, though not f o r males. Burgoyne went on to suggest t h a t , given these f i n d i n g s , "Holland's and Super's v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h e o r i e s r e q u i r e some r e d e f i n i t i o n to take i n t o account the n o t i o n t h a t i n making career c h o i c e s people have s e v e r a l s e l f -concepts a v a i l a b l e to them" ( p . 142). T h i s n o t i o n of s e v e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t s i s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d by Walsh and T a y l o r (1980). They i n v e s t i g a t e d work-related f a c t o r s and i n d i c a t o r s of s e l f - e s t e e m a c r o s s seven d i f f e r e n t occupations spanning the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y . Among t h e i r more i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s i s the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t "when s e l f - e s t e e m i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l v a r i a b l e , the d i v e r s i t y of f i n d i n g s on d i f f e r e n t dimensions c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t g l i b g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the prestige/esteem r e l a t i o n s h i p " ( p . 265). They a l s o suggested t h a t "workers whose jobs do not o f f e r i n t r i n s i c c h a l l e n g e s which would encourage s a t i s f a c t i o n or a sense of accomplishment f r e q u e n t l y f i n d support from other dimensions of t h e i r work or from o f f - t h e - j o b investments of s e l f " ( p . 265). In summary, one means of c o n c e i v i n g the s e l f i s through o c c u p a t i o n . The d i r e c t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and the degree to which i t i s g e n e r a l i z a b l e needs f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 11 OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION Perhaps the most a r t i c u l a t e d statement about l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s was made by G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) who presented a developmental theory of a s p i r a t i o n t h a t attempted to i n t e g r a t e a s o c i a l system approach with p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . She suggested t h a t v o c a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of s e l f - c o n c e p t such as gender, c l a s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , competencies and values are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o one's s e l f concept at d i f f e r e n t stages of c o g n i t i v e development. The 3 to 5 year o l d i s concerned with i s s u e s of s i z e and power, the 6 to 8 year o l d with gender s e l f - c o n c e p t , the 9 to 13 year o l d with s o c i a l v a l u a t i o n ( c l a s s and a b i l i t y ) and somewhere around the age of 14, the o r i e n t a t i o n to the unique s e l f o c c u r s . T h i s i s o f t e n evidenced i n the form of the adolescent i d e n t i t y c r i s i s . Of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . i s her c o n t e n t i o n t h a t one's o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s are e l i m i n a t e d i n order of gender, p r e s t i g e and a b i l i t y . By stage 3 youngsters seem to have a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d l e v e l of t o l e r a b l e , r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s i n c o n t r a s t to younger c h i l d r e n who do not seem to have e i t h e r a c e i l i n g or a f l o o r l e v e l . Most important to our purposes i s her argument t h a t the e x p l o r a t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i n adolescence i s l a r g e l y w i t h i n the s e t of o ccupations t h a t were deemed compatible at e a r l i e r stages a c c o r d i n g to one's more v i s i b l e s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s such as sex, s o c i a l c l a s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and one's sense of what i s a v a i l a b l e with reasonable e f f o r t . 12 Not having a f i r m grasp on t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s and p e r s o n a l t r a i t s , youngsters with very weak i d e n t i t i e s might not r e c o g n i z e i n a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . G o t t f r e d s o n ' s (1981) p o s i t i o n on l e v e l of Occupational A s p i r a t i o n i s based on s u b s t a n t i a l e m p i r i c a l d a t a . Among the f i n d i n g s c i t e d are the f o l l o w i n g : People p e r c e i v e occupations s i m i l a r l y no matter what t h e i r sex, s o c i a l c l a s s , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , e t h n i c group, area of o c c u p a t i o n , or type of s c h o o l attended (Westbrook and M o l l a , 1976; O'Dowd & B e a r d s l e e , 1960; R e i s s , 1961; and S h i n a r , 1975). These common o c c u p a t i o n a l images develop e a r l y i n l i f e and are h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with a d u l t o c c u p a t i o n a l images (Gunn, 1964; G o l d s t e i n & Oldham, 1979; Lauer, 1974; and Simmons and Rosenberg, 1971). Although t h e r e i s consensus i n ranking jobs a c c o r d i n g to p r e s t i g e and s t e r e o t y p e , there are s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Younger c h i l d r e n and lower s o c i a l c l a s s people r a t e jobs more p o s i t i v e l y ( A l b r e c h t , 1976; G o l d s t e i n & Oldham, 1979; Nelson, 1963; R e i s s , 1961; Simmons & Rosenberg, 1971). Occup a t i o n a l images deal almost e x c l u s i v e l y with the l i f e s t y l e t h a t occupations a f f o r d . These images say l i t t l e about what people do i n these jobs (O'Dowd & B e a r d s l e e , 1960). Before reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n s a comment r e g a r d i n g o p e r a t i o n a l assumptions i s warranted. Perhaps the most d e f i n i t i v e statement on the c o n s t r u c t i s o f f e r e d by H a l l e r and M i l l e r (1963) who attempted to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the term through a measure of 13 d i f f e r e n t ( r e a l i s t i c as opposed to i d e a l i s t i c ) e x p e c t a t i o n s . By so doing they hoped to i d e n t i f y the goa l - a r e a w i t h i n which a person's o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s l i e . Kuvlesky and Bealer (1964) questioned t h i s attempt to "index the phenomenon". H a l l e r (1968) r e i t e r a t e d h i s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n (1963) t h a t he and M i l l e r took on the Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e (OAS) by p o i n t i n g out t h a t "the four i n d i c a t o r s of r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c l e v e l s which together make up the OAS [are] so h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t h a t they are w e l l - d e s c r i b e d by only one f a c t o r - o b v i o u s l y , l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n " ( p . 485). T h i s r e s e a c h e r ' s review of the l i t e r a t u r e on l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n has focused on s e v e r a l of the v a r i a b l e s t h a t appear to i n f l u e n c e these d e c i s i o n s . Two of the major areas of study focused on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and socioeconomic s t a t u s and l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l sex t y p i n g . Beyond these, r e s e a r c h e r s have s t u d i e d l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n i n terms of u r b a n / r u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Kuvlesky and Ohlendorf, 1968), race d i f f e r e n c e s (Cosby and P i c o u , 1973; T u l l y , Stephan and Chance, 1975), r o l e models ( B u r l i n , 1973; Zuckerman, 1985) and v i s i b i l i t y of occupations (Spencer, 1974). The q u e s t i o n of when o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n i s formed begins the review. F l o r e s and Olsen (1967) asked i f o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n was " r e a l i s t i c a l l y and s t a b l y " formed i n e i g h t h grade males. In a two p a r t study they administered the OAS 14 f i r s t to 202 grade 12 males, 239 grade 11 males and 36 grade 8 males. Six months l a t e r the OAS was again a d m i n i s t e r e d to a random sample of the o r i g i n a l grade 11 and 12 males. Of the 36 o r i g i n a l grade 8 males, 33 were i n c l u d e d i n the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . One of t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s s t a t e d t h a t l e v e l of occu p a t i o n (L0A) " i s probably formed i n eigth-grade males and i s p o s s i b l y one of the f i r s t s t a b l e and r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s formed i n young people" ( p . 111). Given the small sample employed the authors c a u t i o n e d about the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h e i r f i n d i n g s . Harvey and K e r i n (1967) attempted to determine the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of c h i l d r e n ' s age and socioeconomic s t a t u s upon o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . T h e i r sample c o n s i s t e d of 80 students from an upper income bracket and 80 students from a lower income b r a c k e t . Each group was made up of 40 grade t h r e e s and 40 grade e i g h t s . They concluded t h a t "the socioeconomic s t a t u s of c h i l d r e n appeared to be the determining f a c t o r i n p e r c e p t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y " ( p . 263). In a d d i t i o n , they s t a t e d t h a t as lower income c h i l d r e n grew o l d e r , t h e i r hopes f o r a c o l l e g e education decreased as opposed to upper income c h i l d r e n . V i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e upper income sample hoped to atte n d c o l l e g e . What i s perhaps the study's most i n t e r e s t i n g comment has to do with the p e r c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n a l needs of the lower income group. The authors suggested that "to j u s t i f y t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e r e l a t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , the lower socioeconomic students decreased the 15 amount of education they p e r c e i v e d as "needed" to get a job" ( p . 266 ) . Cosby and Picou (1973) looked at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two i n d i c a t o r s of SES ( f a t h e r ' s education and f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ) , r e s i d e n c e and race to o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 6500 10th grade students from South C a r o l i n a , Georgia, Alabama, and M i s s i s s i p p i . The r e s u l t s suggested t h a t "higher l e v e l a s p i r a t i o n s were found to be a s s o c i a t e d with higher l e v e l s of f a t h e r o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n , urban r e s i d e n c e and white r a c i a l s t a t u s " ( p . 11). Of the v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d , f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n and f a t h e r ' s education "were found to be stronger than other v a r i a b l e s " ( p . 11). When c o n t r o l s were a p p l i e d the authors d i s c o v e r e d that "the a s p i r a t i o n s of b l a c k youth [were] q u i t e s i m i l a r to those of t h e i r white c o u n t e r p a r t s " ( p . 11). Reeb (1974) supported t h i s p o s i t i o n through h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p e r c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e of o c c u p a t i o n s . Drawing on a sample of 125 eighth-grade boys from d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s , he concluded t h a t "the lower the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c l e v e l of the s c h o o l , the g r e a t e r the p r e f e r e n c e f o r more b l u e - c o l l a r and somewhat lower jobs" ( p . 133). B u r l i n (1975) examined the Ideal and Real o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of adolescent females. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 11th grade students drawn from a suburban school l o c a t e d w i t h i n the Syracuse, New York m e t r o p o l i t a n area. The s u b j e c t s ' responses were c l a s s i f i e d as Innovative 16 ( o c c u p a t i o n s which i n c l u d e fewer than 30% women), Moderate ( o c c u p a t i o n s which i n c l u d e 30% to 50% women), and T r a d i t i o n a l ( o c c u p a t i o n s which i n c l u d e more than 50% women). The author concluded t h a t while there i s a " d e s i r e to pursue a broad range of occupations i n young women, personal and s o c i a l f o r c e s appear t o have l i m i t e d t h e i r b e l i e f s t h a t i n r e a l l i f e these occupations c o u l d a c t u a l l y be pursued" ( p . 4 ) . As the s u b j e c t s ' Real Occupational A s p i r a t i o n s appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r f a t h e r ' s l e v e l of education but not t h e i r mother's. B u r l i n concluded t h a t i t i s "socioeconomic s t a t u s r a t h e r than e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l which i s a s s o c i a t e d with the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of these adolescent g i r l s " ( p . 7 ) . Ma r i n i (1978), i n her review of the r e s e a r c h on sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the de t e r m i n a t i o n of adolescent o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , presented socioeconomic s t a t u s as a major f a c t o r . She s t a t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h had "found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y s t a t u s and boys' e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n whether the i n d i c a t o r s of socioeconomic s t a t u s were f a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n ( E z e l l and Tate, 1955; Kraus, 1964; M c D i l l and Coleman, 1965; Nam, 1965; Rehberg and Ulestby, 1967; Hauser , 1971; and M a r i n i and Greenberger, 1978a), mother's education ( E z e l and Tate, 1955; Kraus, 1964; M a r i n i and Greenberger 1978a), or a composite measure based on s e v e r a l measures (Bayer, 1969; Hauser, 1971; Ma r i n i and Greenberger 1978a,). In the same a r t i c l e she argued t h a t a p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n had been 17 found with g i r l s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and f a m i l y s t a t u s . Once again the i n d i c a t o r s of socioeconomic s t a t u s used were f a t h e r ' s education (Werts, 1967; Hauser, 1971; and M a r i n i and Greenberger 1978b), mother's education ( M a r i n i and Greenberger 1978b), or a composite measure (Werts, 1966; A s t i n , 1968a; and M a r i n i and Greenberger 1978b, p. 732). In her review of the l i t e r a t u r e on s e x - s t e r e o t y p i n g of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , M a r i n i (1978) p o i n t e d out t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s p a r a l l e l the p a t t e r n of sexual s e g r e g a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y at l a r g e ( G r o s s , 1968; U.S. Department of Labor, 1976). Moreover, o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s appeared to be h i g h l y s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d even before c h i l d r e n entered s c h o o l ( P a p a l i a and Tennent, 1975). Another gender d i f f e r e n c e worth mentioning i s t h a t d u r i n g the high s c h o o l years the l e v e l of g i r l s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s appeared to d e c l i n e (Harmon, 1971; Hauser, 1971; Matthews and Tiedman, 1964). The l e v e l of boys' o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s had a tendency to i n c r e a s e (Hauser, 1971, p. 729). The g e n e r a l t h r u s t of her review i s supported by other r e s e a r c h e r s . T u l l y , Stephan and Chance (1975) e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s and sex-typed occupations; sex to the s t a t u s and sex-typed dimension of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ; and the impact of socioeconomic s t a t u s , r a c e , IQ, maternal employment, grade i n s c h o o l and f a m i l y s i z e to sex and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . The sample i n c l u d e d 1688 s i x t h , seventh and e i g h t h g r a d e r s . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d 18 that the a s p i r a t i o n s of males are more sex-typed than those of females. The authors concluded t h a t the " r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and the i n d i c a t o r s of the s t a t u s dimension o f o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s i s stronger f o r higher SES and white a d o l e s c e n t s and i s weaker f o r lower SES and Black a d o l e s c e n t s " ( p . 647). Barnett (1975) s t u d i e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s and age trends i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and av e r s i o n s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i n 1531 male and 988 female middle and upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s ages 9 through 17. His r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t at every age the c o r r e l a t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and p r e s t i g e i s higher f o r males than f o r females. In terms of age t r e n d s , f o r males the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e d over age; f o r females, p r e s t i g e and preference were not r e l a t e d as no c l e a r age trends appeared. He a l s o p o i n t e d out th a t "an e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r theory alone could not account" f o r the low c o r r e l a t i o n between p r e s t i g e and pre f e r e n c e amongst females. Barnett concluded t h a t "these data suggest e a r l y s e x - r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g with r e s p e c t to the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of p r e s t i g e occupations" and t h a t "women may be underrepresented i n p r e s t i g i o u s o ccupations not because they opt f o r such r o l e s and are thwarted but r a t h e r because e a r l y i n t h e i r development many women l e a r n not to a s p i r e to such p o s i t i o n s " ( p . 37). A l b r e c h t (1976) looked at the prevalence of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and the degree to which such s t e r e o t y p i n g 19 r e l a t e d to v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i a l c l a s s ( i n d i c a t o r s of which were e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and income l e v e l ) . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 1998 useable q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t were mailed t o 2227 o r i g i n a l households. Of t h i s number 1071 were from female respondents and 927 were from male respondents. The author cautioned about the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s s i n c e a l l the data came from Utah - a s t a t e which may be seen as somewhat a t y p i c a l . He concluded t h a t education l e v e l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o degree of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g of oc c u p a t i o n s . "The lower the respondent's e d u c a t i o n , the more l i k e l y he or she was to i n d i c a t e t h a t the occu p a t i o n l i s t e d was only or more s u i t a b l e f o r men or only or more s u i t a b l e f o r women. The higher one's e d u c a t i o n , the higher the p r o b a b i l i t y of r e p o r t i n g t h a t the occupations were s u i t a b l e f o r both men and women" ( p . 325). Ory and H e l f r i c h (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and career s e l e c t i o n i n two groups of c o l l e g e honor s t u d e n t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of achievement m o t i v a t i o n , a t t i t u d e toward women's s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y , importance of m a r i t a l p l a n s , c e r t a i n t y of career attainment, and demographic background. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 68 female honor students and 63 male honor s t u d e n t s . The authors found t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sex was the best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r of a s p i r a t i o n s . The data suggested t h a t men were much more l i k e l y t o a s p i r e to p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s . Of the women 20 s t u d i e d , "those who saw themselves as l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l , nonconforming to s o c i e t y ' s image, were the same i n d i v i d u a l s who choose p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s " . The authors concluded t h a t "women a s p i r i n g to p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations may have to go a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n to o b t a i n t h e i r high career g o a l s " ( p . 48). Moracco, Wilson and F l o y d (1981) i n v e s t i g a t e d the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of a group of women who chose s e r v i c e i n the United S t a t e s Army as a c a r e e r . By d e f i n i t i o n t h i s c h o i c e was seen as more i n n o v a t i v e and l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 100 male and 100 female m i l i t a r y e n l i s t e e s . Using the Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e (OAS) the r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t males scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than females on "both the I d e a l i s t i c and the R e a l i s t i c s c a l e s " ( p . 152). The authors cautioned about g e n e r a l i z i n g from these r e s u l t s given the "unusual sample of both males and females" ( p . 154). Dunne, E l l i o t , and C a r l s e n (1981) looked at the e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of 1787 grade 10, 11 and 12 r u r a l high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The respondents were giv e n two qu e s t i o n s : "In the four years f o l l o w i n g graduation what do you pla n to do?" and " I f you c o u l d do any job you wanted, what would i t be?" ( p . 58). The authors r e p o r t e d t h a t female o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than male o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . They concluded t h a t the change of p a t t e r n suggested by these female 21 a s p i r a t i o n s would, i f a t t a i n e d , serve to "narrow the income gap between r u r a l men and women" ( p. 64). Socioeconomic s t a t u s and gender then appear to play a l a r g e r o l e i n a d o l e s c e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . To a l e s s e r degree the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l images can a l s o be seen to be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . Kuvlesky and Ohlendorf (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s between r u r a l and urban Negro youths' o c c u p a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Focusing on the a s p i r a t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and a n t i c i p a t o r y d e f l e c t i o n of goals they conducted-- a study using 98 r u r a l and 111 urban sophomore high school s t u d e n t s . They noted t h a t "urban youth a s p i r e d to high p r e s t i g e p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s at a r a t e three times g r e a t e r than r u r a l boys. Furthermore, urban youths a l s o i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e f o r l o w e r - p r e s t i g e p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l jobs more o f t e n than r u r a l youth. Conversely, r u r a l boys s e l e c t e d l o w - p r e s t i g e jobs, both b l u e - c o l l a r and w h i t e - c o l l a r , much more f r e q u e n t l y than t h e i r urban c o u n t e r p a r t s " ( p . 146-47). Spencer (1974) examined the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s and o r i e n t a t i o n s of the Choctaw Indians. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 133 students from Choctaw C e n t r a l H i g h — t h e only high s c h o o l f o r Choctaws i n the s t a t e of M i s s i s s i p p i . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s ' " a s p i r a t i o n s were l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to jobs which were l o c a l l y v i s i b l e and r e l e v a n t and t h a t they were l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to occupations which other Choctaws had succeeded i n a t t a i n i n g " ( p . 12). 22 B u r l i n (1976) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p a r e n t s ' education and mother's work and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s to the oc c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of ado l e s c e n t females. His sample c o n s i s t e d of 139 grade 11 females. The r e s u l t s suggested t h a t "the f a c t t h a t a mother works i s not enough i n i t s e l f t o allow her daughter to a s p i r e t o a Moderate or to an Innovative o c c u p a t i o n . What appears to be c r u c i a l to a daughter's a s p i r i n g to an occupation i n which 50% or fewer of the workers are women i s i f her mother i s c u r r e n t l y employed i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l category" ( p . 103). These f i n d i n g s support the importance o f mother as r o l e model i n the development of female a d o l e s c e n t s ' career a s p i r a t i o n s . In her study of p r e d i c t o r s of s t u d e n t s ' l i f e g o a l s Zuckerman (1985) r e p o r t e d t h a t men's and women's e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s are a s s o c i a t e d with s p e c i f i c s e l f - c o n c e p t s and th a t u n l i k e men "women's goals are o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d by the r o l e models presented i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s " ( p . 558). Given the " s e l e c t c o l l e g e s " attended by her sample the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h i s f i n d i n g i s l i m i t e d . Lee (1984) i n v e s t i g a t e d the v o c a t i o n a l development of high s c h o o l students i n r u r a l areas by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l f - c o n c e p t , p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e , socioeconomic s t a t u s , sex and race to o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d 375 10th grade s t u d e n t s . Of these there were 92 black males, 87 white males, 114 black females and 82 white females. These students came from both two parent and s i n g l e parent 23 f a m i l i e s of both lower and middle socioeconomic s t a t u s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t " p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e , socioeconomic s t a t u s and s e l f - c o n c e p t have important r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of young men and women" ( p . 33). Many r e s e a r c h e r s ( F l o r e s & Olsen, 1967; Harvey & K e r i n , 1967; Cosby and P i c o u , 1973; Reeb, 1974; B u r l i n , 1975; M a r i n i , 1978; T u l l y , Stephan and Chance, 1975; B a r n e t t , 1975; A l b r e c h t , 1976; Ory and H e l f r i c h , 1978; Morocco, Wilson and F l o y d , 1981; Dunne, E l l i o t , and C a r l s e n , 1981; Kuvlesky and Ohlendorf, 1968; B u r l i n , 1976; Spencer, 1974; Zuckerman 1985, and Lee, 1984) support G o t t f r e d s o n ' s (1981) p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g l e v e l . T h i s body of r e s e a r c h a l s o f i t s with Rosenberg's (1979) notion of our s e l f p r o t e c t i n g tendency toward s e l f - c o n c e p t . Perhaps our l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n e x i s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o our a b i l i t y to r i s k our s e l f - c o n c e p t . In summary, there i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n i s formed i n e a r l y adolescence, t h a t i t i s a s s o c i a t e d with socioeconomic p o s i t i o n , gender, and v i s i b i l i t y of occupations and that i t i s connected with s p e c i f i c s e l f - c o n c e p t s . EGO IDENTITY P o s s i b l y the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on E r i k s o n ' s n o t i o n of ego i d e n t i t y i s coming to terms with the breadth of meanings a s s o c i a t e d with the 24 concept. Bourne's (1978) two p a r t review and a p p r a i s a l of the s t a t e of r e s e a r c h on ego i d e n t i t y i n only a s i n g l e c o n t e x t , t h a t of adolescent developmental r e s e a r c h , has the f o l l o w i n g t o o f f e r : Viewed from a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c vantage p o i n t ego i d e n t i t y has been d e s c r i b e d as a developmental product or outcome i n c o r p o r a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experiences over the f i r s t f i v e stages of the l i f e c y c l e . I t can a l s o be understood as an adapt i v e accomplishment or achievement of the i n d i v i d u a l v i s - a - v i s h i s s o c i a l development. On s t r u c t u r a l grounds the p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n i m p l i e s an i n t r a p s y c h i c s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i t . In t h i s context i d e n t i t y i s a l s o o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as a s y n t h e s i s or complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Yet another aspect of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e t a l k s of the dynamic process of ego i d e n t i t y . Here ego i d e n t i t y i s seen as t e s t i n g , s e l e c t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g the s e l f - i m a g e s d e r i v e d from the p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s of c h i l d h o o d i n the l i g h t of the i d e o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e of youth. A d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c l u d e the e x p e r i e n t i a l which r e f e r s to the s u b j e c t i v e experience of the i n d i v i d u a l and focuses around one's 'sense of i d e n t i t y ' . T h i s i s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with the no t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y which i n c l u d e s a temporal c o n t i n u i t y as w e l l as a u n i t y among v a r i o u s a s c r i b e d and achieved s o c i a l r o l e s . From here i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f step t o the p s y c h o s o c i a l r e c i p r o c i t y p e r s p e c t i v e which i m p l i e s a mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p with one's immediate community or l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Thus, ego i d e n t i t y does not make sense merely of o n e s e l f , but of o n e s e l f i n a s o c i a l l y acknowledged way. The f i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s the e x i s t e n t i a l which takes an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b a s i c l i f e commitments as an i n d i c a t i o n of ego i d e n t i t y ( p . 225-227). A review of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to ego i d e n t i t y and adolescence i n d i c a t e d t h a t much disagreement s t i l l e x i s t s about attempts to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the concept. By f a r the l a r g e s t body of re s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o ego i d e n t i t y has been generated employing Marcia's I d e n t i t y Status Paradigm. T h i s approach employed a s e m i s t r u c t u r e d 25 i n t e r v i e w and asked s u b j e c t s to answer q u e s t i o n s about present v o c a t i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l commitment as w e l l as past degrees of p e r s o n a l c r i s i s . Based on s u b j e c t s ' responses they are p l a c e d i n t o one of four i d e n t i t y s t a t u s e s : ( a ) a c h i e v e r s , ( b ) moratoriums, ( c ) f o r e c l o s u r e s , or ( d ) d i f f u s i o n s . Marcia (1966) viewed these s t a t u s e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of " i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s of coping with the p s y c h o s o c i a l task of forming an ego i d e n t i t y " ( p . 558). Waterman (1982) p o i n t e d out t h a t changes i n i d e n t i t y s t a t u s can be " c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o g r e s s i v e developmental s h i f t s " ( p . 343). Some of the more p e r t i n e n t s t u d i e s employing Marcia's approach have been those f o c u s i n g on p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s . Among the aspects researched i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i d e n t i t y s t a t u s paradigm and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m ( M a r c i a , 1966, 1967; Marcia and Friedman, 1970; Matteson, 1974; Schenkel and Marcia, 1972), a n x i e t y i n men ( M a r c i a , 1967; Oshman and Manosevitz 1974), a n x i e t y i n women (Ma r c i a and Friedman, 1970), s e l f - e s t e e m ( M a r c i a , 1966, 1967; Marcia and Friedman, 1970; Schenkel and Marcia (1972). Other researches have focused on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Marcia's paradigm and heterosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s and intimacy ( O r l o f s k y et a l . , 1978; Marcia, 1976b). Podd (1972) s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ego i d e n t i t y s t a t u s and l e v e l of moral r e a s o n i n g . In general these s t u d i e s support the p r o g r e s s i v e developmental nature of E r i k s o n ' s theory. S e v e r a l 26 d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, s t i l l need to be addressed. L i t t l e of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been r e p l i c a t e d and where t h i s has been attempted the r e s u l t s are not always s u p p o r t i v e of the o r i g i n a l f i n d i n g s (Waterman, 1982). Perhaps more im p o r t a n t l y , Marcia's model has been c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds t h a t i t only i n c o r p o r a t e s p a r t of E r i k s o n ' s framework. Bourne (1978) suggested t h a t Marcia's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n addressed the e x i s t e n t i a l and perhaps the p s y c h o s o c i a l r e c i p r o c i t y aspects of E r i k s o n ' s t h e o r y . Cote and Levine (1988) echoed t h i s sentiment by p o i n t i n g out t h a t r e s e a r c h based on Marcia's paradigm has "taken on a d e c i d e d l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and i n doing so has ignored E r i k s o n ' s a t t e n t i o n to v a r i o u s processes and c o n t e x t s of development and the i n t e r p l a y between the two" ( p . 149). While n o t i c e a b l y fewer i n number, r e s e a r c h e r s employing methodologies other than Marcia's a l s o p r o v i d e evidence which can be used to support E r i k s o n ' s c o n s t r u c t . Bronson (1959) attempted to demonstrate the e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n by employing s e m i s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . Intending to demonstrate c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r the concept of d i f f u s i o n , Bronson suggested t h a t those i n a s t a t e of d i f f u s i o n should: ( l ) be l e s s c e r t a i n about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the past and c u r r e n t notions of s e l f , ( 2 ) show a higher degree of i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n or a n x i e t y , ( 3 ) be l e s s c e r t a i n about dominant p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and ( 4 ) 27 f l u c t u a t e more i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s about s e l f . He concluded t h a t the concept of d i f f u s i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e d e s c r i p t i v e of v a r i a t i o n s among persons between the ages of 19-22 ( p . 417). While acknowledging the modest c o r r e l a t i o n s amongst the dimensions which Bronson measured, Bourne (1978) questioned the degree to which t h i s study measured E r i k s o n ' s concept of i d e n t i t y . He maintained that u n l e s s i t c o u l d be shown t h a t Bronson's v a r i a b l e s do not c o r r e l a t e with other " n o n i d e n t i t y - p e r t i n e n t dimensions such as s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , t o l e r a n c e f o r ambiguity, and i n t e l l i g e n c e " ( p . 230) d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y had not been e s t a b l i s h e d . Gruen (1960) u t i l i z e d the r e a l / i d e a l Q-sort d i s c r e p a n c y c o r r e l a t i o n s c o r e developed by B u t l e r and Haigh (1954) to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e ego i d e n t i t y . Gruen hypothesized t h a t a person with ego i d e n t i t y w i l l show t h i s s t a b i l i t y by r e j e c t i n g e v a l u a t i o n s of h i m / h e r s e l f made by o t h e r s , i f these e v a l u a t i o n s do not c o i n c i d e with h i s own c r y s t a l l i z e d n o t i o n s about h i m s e l f . On the other hand a "person s t i l l c a s t i n g about f o r v a r i o u s i d e n t i t i e s , r o l e s and v a l u e s , one who shows s i g n s of i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n , w i l l be more prone to accept o t h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s of h i m s e l f , even i f they may have no demonstrable r e l a t i o n s h i p s with any of h i s f l e e t i n g images" ( p . 231). Gruen concluded t h a t a high s e l f - i d e a l d i s c r e p a n c y and a w i l l i n g n e s s to accept o t h e r s ' d e f i n i t i o n s of s e l f were two aspects of i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n . Bourne (1978) r a i s e d s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s about the c a p a c i t y of the Q-sort, r o l e c o n s i s t e n c y procedure to 28 measure the broad c o n s t r u c t of i d e n t i t y . The most potent q u e s t i o n t h a t he asked r e g a r d i n g v a l i d i t y was whether t h i s method measured " c o n s o l i d a t i o n of i d e n t i t y " or r a t h e r a " c o n s i s t e n c y of s e l f - i m a g e " ( p . 232). Other e f f o r t s to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e E r i k s o n ' s c o n s t r u c t have used s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of these, Rasmussen's (1964) i s worthy of mention as i t i s the model f o r one of the instruments employed i n the present study. Using 70 male navy r e c r u i t s as h i s sample Rasmussen hypothesized t h a t : ( 1 ) i n d i v i d u a l s who demonstrate d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to e f f e c t an adequate p s y c h o s o c i a l adjustment a l s o w i l l demonstrate d i f f e r e n c e s i n ego i d e n t i t y . The d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be i n the nature of g r e a t e r ego i d e n t i t y being found i n those i n d i v i d u a l s with a more adequate p s y c h o s o c i a l adjustment. ( 2 ) i n d i v i d u a l s p r e s e n t i n g evidence of an adequate ego i d e n t i t y a l s o w i l l show evidence of s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r advance i n the s o l u t i o n of the p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s of e a r l y adulthood, i n terms of healthy or p o s i t i v e d e r i v a t i v e s of the p s y c h o s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s of t h a t p e r i o d , than w i l l persons m a n i f e s t i n g evidence of ego d i f f u s i o n . ( 3 ) i n d i v i d u a l s p r e s e n t i n g evidence of s a t i s f a c t o r y ego i d e n t i t y w i l l demonstrate a gr e a t e r degree of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e than w i l l persons m a n i f e s t i n g ego d i f f u s i o n ( p . 70). His data supported h i s f i r s t and h i s t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s . Rasmussen concluded t h a t h i s study "lends support both to the value of E r i k s o n ' s theory ...and to h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t an adequate ego i d e n t i t y i s necessary f o r a person to cope e f f e c t i v e l y with h i s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l environment" ( p . 2 9 823). Reviews of t h i s study generated some important q u e s t i o n s . Bourne (1978) r a i s e d the i s s u e of whether " s t u d i e s employing q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures of ego i d e n t i t y [can] determine to what extent h i g h - s c o r i n g s u b j e c t s were dis p o s e d , w i t t i n g l y or u n w i t t i n g l y , to present themselves i n a f a v o r a b l e l i g h t " ( p . 233). Echoing Bourne's concern about the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y b i a s , E n r i g h t et a l (1983) p o i n t e d out that "no measure other than Rasmussen's comes c l o s e to c a p t u r i n g [the] complexity" of E r i k s o n ' s c o n s t r u c t ( p . 90). Regardless of these concerns E n r i g h t et a l (1983) concluded t h a t E r i k s o n ' s notion of i d e n t i t y i s an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t developmental c o n s t r u c t ( p . 101). Further support f o r the developmental nature of i d e n t i t y was presented by Stark and T r a x l e r (1974) and P r o t i n s k y (1975). Using 123 male c o l l e g e students aged 18-21, Munley (1975) e m p i r i c a l l y e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between E r i k s o n ' s p s y c h o s o c i a l stages and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e and development. He concluded t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who show adj u s t e d v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s demonstrate a higher l e v e l of development along E r i k s o n ' s f i r s t s i x stages while those with problem v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s are apparently l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n r e s o l v i n g E r i k s o n ' s stage c r i s i s . One of the more i n t e r e s t i n g and unexpected f i n d i n g s had to do with those who were c l a s s i f i e d as v o c a t i o n a l l y undecided. T h i s group showed "uniformly low s c o r e s a c r o s s a l l the stage v a r i a b l e s " ( p . 318). 30 As to r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g more d i r e c t l y to t h i s study, l i t t l e e x i s t s . The few attempts to measure i d e n t i t y development i n high s c h o o l s u b j e c t s y i e l d e d mixed r e s u l t s . Pornerantz ( 1979) found t h a t twelth-grade females s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than eighth-grade females on the Rasmussen Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e . The same study f a i l e d to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r s i m i l a r male age groups. Two other s t u d i e s of ego i d e n t i t y development, La Voie (1976) drawing on grade 10, 11 and 12 males and females and Howard (1960) employing grade 10 and grade 12 females, found n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s with i n c r e a s i n g age l e v e l s . SUMMARY T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review u n d e r l i n e s the i n t e r e s t i n s e l f -concept and ego i d e n t i t y and demonstrates some of the unresolved d i f f i c u l t i e s . Both v a r i a b l e s l a c k d e f i n i t i o n a l c l a r i t y . L e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , on the other hand, remains r e l a t i v e l y unexplored. T h i s present study i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , s e l f - c o n c e p t , and ego i d e n t i t y . 31 CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY In t h i s chapter the author p r e s e n t s sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , development of the measuring instruments, and data c o l l e c t i o n procedure. SUBJECTS A t o t a l of 272 15-16 year o l d s v o l u n t e e r e d to take p a r t i n t h i s survey, 127 males and 145 females. Due to absences, 41 e l i g i b l e students d i d not answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A l l students who were asked p a r t i c i p a t e d w i l l i n g l y . The s u b j e c t s were students i n a l a r g e j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l i n a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d northern community. Predominantly blue c o l l a r , the p o p u l a t i o n of 17,000 i s comprised of a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c groups of both European and Asia n decent. The l a r g e s t e t h n i c group i s Native Indian which makes up about 35% of the p o p u l a t i o n . In comparison to other northern communities of i t s s i z e and makeup t h i s one has a l a r g e t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . A month p r i o r to the commencement of the study a l e t t e r was sent home to a l l parents i n the sch o o l e x p l a i n i n g both the nature and the purpose of the r e s e a r c h (Appendix D). Parents were i n v i t e d to c o n t a c t the sch o o l i f they had any que s t i o n s or concerns about the survey. No i n q u i r i e s were made . The survey was administered under r e g u l a r classroom c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . A l l 32 teachers who were approached allowed the study to be conducted d u r i n g t h e i r c l a s s time and each teacher was w i l l i n g to g i v e up more than one c l a s s p e r i o d i f necessary. One 60 minute p e r i o d proved to be ample time f o r the students to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Although students were given an u n l i m i t e d amount of time, the m a j o r i t y r e q u i r e d no more than 50 minutes to complete the task. No student r e q u i r e d more than the 60 minute p e r i o d . A l l s u b j e c t s completed three paper p e n c i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : The Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e , The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e . MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 1. Occupational Aspiration Scale (Appendix A) The Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e (OAS) i s a s e l f -d e s c r i p t i v e instrument which i s e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a group s e t t i n g . T h i s instrument was designed to a s c e r t a i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s g e n e r a l l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . I t i s a paper p e n c i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e which ranks one's responses a g a i n s t the w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and g e n e r a l l y accepted (NORC) p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y . As H a l l e r and M i l l e r (1971) i n d i c a t e d : 33 The O c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n S c a l e i s an e i g h t item m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e instrument. I t i n c l u d e s items p e r m i t t i n g responses at both the r e a l i s t i c and the i d e a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n l e v e l s of L e v e l of A s p i r a t i o n (LOA). These e x p r e s s i o n l e v e l s are each measured at two g o a l - p e r i o d s : a s h o r t range and a long range career p e r i o d . In t h i s c o n t e x t , s h o r t range r e f e r s to the end of s c h o o l i n g and long range r e f e r s to age 30. The four p o s s i b l e combinations of these components are each assessed t w i c e , thus g i v i n g a t o t a l of e i g h t q u e s t i o n s . The a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r each item c o n s i s t of ten o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s drawn from among the ninety occupations ranked by the NORC study. Each occupation i s presented as a p o s s i b l e response only once on the form. A l t e r n a t i v e responses f o r each item s y s t e m a t i c a l l y span the e n t i r e range of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , and are scored from zero t o nine. O p e r a t i o n a l l y , an item score of 9 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the respondent has chosen an occupation from among the e i g h t h i g h e s t p r e s t i g e o c c u p a t i o n s on the NORC s c a l e , and an item score of 0 i n d i c a t e s t h a t one of the e i g h t lowest p r e s t i g e occupations has been chosen. Thus, the t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e f o r a l l e i g h t items ranges from zero to 72. ( p . 58-59). H a l l e r and M i l l e r (1971) poi n t e d out t h a t there are three minor c r i t i c i s m s of the OAS. " I t i s probably f a k a b l e , i t s response a l t e r n a t i v e s are unbalanced, and i t may be s u b j e c t to b i a s due to response s e t s " ( p . 67). However, they have not found any evidence to suggest t h a t any of these flaws has a f f e c t e d the v a l i d i t y of the instrument to any s u b s t a n t i a l degree. H a l l e r and M i l l e r (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the OAS i s about .80 with a standard e r r o r of measurement c l o s e t o 5.30. The c o e f f i c i e n t of s t a b i l i t y measured over a ten week p e r i o d was .77 which i s q u i t e c l o s e to the c o e f f i c i e n t s of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y (.75, .82, and .84). These data are the r e s u l t of t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d to 17-18 year o l d s at two school d i s t r i c t s : Lenawee County and Mason. 34 Both are s i t u a t e d i n Michigan. The former used an N of 365 and the l a t t e r , which was used f o r the t e s t - r e - t e s t method, had an N of 85. The authors f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the "OAS appears to be r e l i a b l e enough f o r r e s e a r c h purposes and f o r use i n c o u n s e l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s " ( p . 79). H a l l e r and M i l l e r (1971) s t a t e d t h a t the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the instrument i s unknown. Using i n d i r e c t approaches to e s t a b l i s h whether, g e n e r a l l y , the OAS i s v a l i d the authors r e p o r t e d t h a t : The concurrent v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t , measured a g a i n s t perhaps the best p r e v i o u s LOA instrument i s r - +.62. I t s p r o f i l e s t r u c t u r e i s as p r e d i c t e d by theory. I t s i n t e r n a l f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c s t r u c t u r e suggests t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a one-f a c t o r form. An i n t e r - t e c h n i q u e f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s shows i t to share a main f a c t o r with a f r e e -response technique, though i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h i s l a t t e r instrument by another s u b s t a n t i a l f a c t o r . At present t h i s f a c t o r i s unknown but i t i s probably due to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n ways of e l i c i t i n g LOA responses. F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i o n a l f e r t i l i t y of the OAS agrees with t h a t of a l l other LOA measures while the comparative r e l a t i o n a l f e r t i l i t y agrees w e l l with perhaps the best of the p r e v i o u s LOA instruments ( p . 103). 2. Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Appendix B) T h i s instrument was developed as a r e s e a r c h t o o l t o p r o v i d e a q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of a c h i l d ' s s e l f concept. I t i s intended f o r use with c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s aged 8 to 18. As the authors i n d i c a t e , t h i s instrument i s , 35 a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed to assess how c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s f e e l about themselves. The s c a l e may be a d m i n i s t e r e d e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups. C h i l d r e n are shown a number of statements t h a t t e l l how some people f e e l about themselves, and are asked to i n d i c a t e whether each statement a p p l i e s to them u s i n g dichotomous "yes" or "no" responses. As assessed by t h i s instrument s e l f - c o n c e p t i s d e f i n e d as a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s e t of s e l f - a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t i n g both a d e s c r i p t i o n and an e v a l u a t i o n of one's own behavior and a t t i t u d e s ( p . 1). The author's i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument suggests t h a t the P i e r s - H a r r i s i s h i g h l y r e l i a b l e . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .42 to .96. The median t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was .73. I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e s f o r the t o t a l score range from .88 to .93. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s based on the f i n d i n g s of v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s i n a v a r i e t y of p o p u l a t i o n s : f i f t h graders ( P i e r s and H a r r i s , 1964); f i f t h t o seventh graders (McLaughlin, 1970); students with a r t i c u l a t i o n d i s o r d e r s (Querry, 1970); American Indian students ( L e f l e y , 1974); Mexican-American migrant c h i l d r e n (Henggeler and Tavormina, 1979); J u n i o r High l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students (Stewart, Crump, and McLean 1979) white, black and Mexican-American students i n grades 4, 5 and 6 ( P l a t t e n and W i l l i a m s , 1979, 1981); white upper c l a s s seventh and e i g h t graders (Shavelson and Bolus, 1982); and Junior and Senior High School s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d as mentally r e t a r d e d (Wolf, 1981 ). A v a r i e t y of s t u d i e s were reviewed i n an attempt to a s c e r t a i n the v a l i d i t y of the instrument. Commenting on the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s t h a t have i n v e s t i g a t e d the 36 u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of the P i e r s - H a r r i s , P i e r s s t a t e s that s t u d i e s have r e p l i c a t e d v i r t u a l l y a l l of the f a c t o r s which he i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s 1963 study. Since then, r e s e a r c h e r s have shown t h a t the o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s r e p l i c a t e a c r o s s r a c i a l and e t h n i c l i n e s . However, some s t u d i e s have f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y a l l the o r i g i n a l f a c t o r s or have i d e n t i f i e d o t h e r s . Consequently, P i e r s c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t i n t e r p r e t i n g s p e c i f i c c l u s t e r s c a l e s ( P i e r s , 1984). When one moves from an a n a l y s i s of the instrument a t a c l u s t e r l e v e l to a composite s c o r e , the instrument i s on more s o l i d ground. Examining three aspects of s e l f - concept ( d e f i n i t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and e m p i r i c a l data) f o r f i v e d i f f e r e n t instruments, Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton (1976) s t a t e d t h a t " s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the t o t a l s c o r e on the P i e r s - H a r r i s are warranted based on convergent v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s " (p. 67). In other s t u d i e s of the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the instrument, Winne et a l . (1977) and a r e p l i c a t e study by Marx and Winnie (1978) concluded t h a t " s e l f - c o n c e p t appears to be a u n i t a r y c o n s t r u c t " ( p . 69) as measured by the P i e r s - H a r r i s . A s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n was a r r i v e d a t by Shavelson and Bolus (1982) when they measured s e l f - c o n c e p t as assessed by the P i e r s - H a r r i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Tennessee Self-Concept S c a l e . They r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s of .80 and .73 f o r two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s with an average c o r r e l a t i o n of .77. They concluded t h a t t h e i r study supported the P i e r s - H a r r i s as a measure of general s e l f - c o n c e p t " ( p . 70). 37 3. Revised Ego Identity Scale (Appendix C) The o r i g i n a l instrument was devised by Rasmussen as a technique f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g E r i k s o n ' s concept of Ego I d e n t i t y . The instrument was r e v i s e d by E n r i g h t et a l . (1982) i n an attempt to address the problem of s u s c e p t a b i l i t y to a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response s e t . Since t h e r e has not been much r e s e a r c h conducted on e i t h e r the Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e or the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e both w i l l be commented on. As p o i n t e d out by Rasmussen (1961): The s c a l e was not developed as a formal d i a g n o s t i c instrument; r a t h e r i t was intended to provide a means of e v a l u a t i n g the adequacy with which the v a r i o u s p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s c o n f l i c t s had been r e s o l v e d . T h i s i s approached by a s s e s s i n g , through a s e r i e s of statements s e t t i n g f o r t h a t t i t u d e s and o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l responses, whether the s u b j e c t ' s response to the d e r i v a t i v e s of the c r i t e r i a of p s y c h o s o c i a l h e a l t h f o r each c r i s i s p e r i o d i s p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e . A p o s i t i v e response r e p r e s e n t s a p s y c h o s o c i a l l y healthy s o l u t i o n i n terms of the s p e c i f i c d e r i v a t i v e i n q u e s t i o n , and a negative response r e f l e c t s E r i k s o n ' s c r i t e r i a of i l l h e a l t h ( p . 72). The EIS p u r p o r t s to measure the f i r s t s i x p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s s t a g e s . Three d e r i v a t i v e s of each of these stages are used; each d e r i v a t i v e i s sampled by four items. To a v o i d a response s e t , the items have been c a s t so as to r e q u i r e a p o s i t i v e response f o r h a l f and a negative response f o r the other h a l f . The f i n a l form c o n s i s t s of 72 statements and y i e l d s a t o t a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e from 0-72, as w e l l as a s c o r e f o r each of the s i x p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s s t a g e s . 38 Rasmussen r e p o r t e d t h a t the s e l e c t e d items r e f l e c t e x p l i c i t l y the c r i t e r i a s e t f o r t h by E r i k s o n to measure the s a t i s f a c t o r y and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n of the v a r i o u s p s y c h o s o c i a l c r i s i s c o n f l i c t s . To f u r t h e r ensure the content v a l i d i t y , the statements were s u b j e c t e d to the t e s t of being unanimously agreed upon by two judges as meeting the c r i t e r i a f o r which they were w r i t t e n i e . , the stage of the p s y c h o s o c i a l development and the s p e c i f i c d e r i v a t i v e w i t h i n the given s t a g e . Two p r e l i m i n a r y forms were devised to p r e - t e s t the items. Form' I was administered to 107 c o n s e c u t i v e incoming r e c r u i t s of the U.S. Naval T r a i n i n g Center i n San Diego. Form II was administered on the next day to a d i f f e r e n t group of new r e c r u i t s , t o t a l l i n g 104 s u b j e c t s . In pre-t e s t i n g the items f o r use i n the f i n a l form, two c r i t e r i a were used as a b a s i s f o r o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n of an item. F i r s t , those items responded to i n the same d i r e c t i o n (agree or d i s a g r e e ) by n i n e t y - f i v e per cent or more of the p r e - t e s t sample were d i s c a r d e d . Secondly, those items responded to by a m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s i n a d i r e c t i o n other than t h a t a n t i c i p a t e d on the b a s i s of E r i k s o n ' s theory were e l i m i n a t e d . Ten items were d i s c a r d e d on the b a s i s of the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n and nine were e l i m i n a t e d under the second c r i t e r i o n . The items used i n the f i n a l form were randomized i n accordance with Snedecor's Table of Random Numbers. Rasmussen s t a t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the f i n a l s c a l e was estimated by the s p l i t - h a l f method, u s i n g the 39 Spearman-Brown formula. In two d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , each of which had a hundred s u b j e c t s , the r e s p e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s were .85. There are few other r e s e a r c h e r s who have commented on the EIS. Bach and V e r d i l e (1975) compared Rasmussen's Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e with C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ' s Inventory of (IPD) P s y c h o s o c i a l Development. Of the 279 high school s u b j e c t s who f i l l e d out the IPD, 86 a l s o completed the EIS. The authors concluded that both instruments measure s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the responses given on the IPD when compared to the EIS r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n o f a s s e s s i n g a c o n s t r u c t , such as i d e n t i t y , i n terms of one s c o r e . In t h e i r c o n c l u d i n g remarks the authors p o i n t e d out t h a t n e i t h e r i n v e n t o r y completely d i s c r i m i n a t e s between those who have a c t u a l l y a t t a i n e d an ego i d e n t i t y and those who f a l s e l y c l a i m t h a t they have r e s o l v e d t h i s s t a g e . Questions of v a l i d i t y were a l s o r a i s e d by E n r i g h t , L a p s l e y , C u l l e n and L a l l e n s a c k (1982) i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the EIS. A f t e r s t a t i n g t h a t the EIS seemed to be one of the few measures t h a t attempted to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the i d e n t i t y c o n s t r u c t , they concluded t h a t the instrument has adequate i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the composite. Since the items are s u s c e p t i b l e to a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response s e t , they c a u t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s about u s i n g the f u l l 72 item s c a l e , e s p e c i a l l y when attempting to measure and comment on p o s s i b l e change on the subs c a l e 40 l e v e l . These authors claimed t h a t the 30 item Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e (REIS) addresses the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y shortcomings i n Rasmussen's model ( E n r i g h t et a l , 1982). T h i s study used the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e i n order to measure the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Ego I d e n t i t y and l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The author administered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to a l l of the s u b j e c t s i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n . Students were t o l d t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were being administered as part of a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and t h a t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s would remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . The author i n v i t e d any student who was i n t e r e s t e d to see him p r i v a t e l y i f they wished to d i s c u s s t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . The instruments were administered i n one s i x t y minute s e t t i n g . In each classroom the P i e r s H a r r i s was a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by the O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e . A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were admi n i s t e r e d i n accordance with the s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t accompanied each instrument. S TATISTICAL HYPOTHESES 1. There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ( I d e a l / R e a l ) and s e l f - c o n c e p t as measured by the Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e and the P i e r s H a r r i s . 4 1 2. There w i l l be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ( I d e a l / R e a l ) and ego i d e n t i t y as measured by the Occupa t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e . 42 CHAPTER 4 - RESULTS In t h i s chapter the author r e p o r t s on the c o l l e c t e d data and comments on s t a t i s t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . Data was c o l l e c t e d from a sample of 272 s t u d e n t s . Due to absences, 41 students d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e . Of the 272 v o l u n t e e r s , 145 were female and 127 were male. Table 1 p r o v i d e s the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r male and female responses on the R e a l i s t i c , I d e a l i s t i c and T o t a l O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e . TABLE 1 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the R e a l i s t i c Occupation Scale (R-OAS), I d e a l i s t i c Occupation S c a l e (I-OAS) and T o t a l Occupation S c a l e (T-OAS) Males (N=127) Females (N=145) T o t a l (N=272) X SD X SD X SD R-OAS I-OAS T-OAS 19 .69 25 .33 46 .42 6 .61 4 .99 9 .76 20 .68 27 .16 47 .28 6.18 3 .99 10 .23 20 .22 26 .31 46 .44 6 .39 4 .57 8 .89 43 The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r males and females f o r the P i e r s H a r r i s and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e are contained i n Table 2. T A B L E 2 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the P i e r s H a r r i s (PH) and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e (REIS) Males (N=127) Females (N=145) X SD X SD PH 55.91 12.47 53.63 13.04 REIS 19.11 4.73 19.77 5.31 44 Using a t t e s t , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females on r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s or t o t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . However, females showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l of i d e a l a s p i r a t i o n s than males. A c c o r d i n g l y , t e s t s of hypotheses were conducted s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females. TABLE 3 t - T e s t R e s u l t s f o r the R e a l i s t i c , I d e a l i s t i c , and T o t a l Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e f o r Males and Females Group X ROA •" male 19.69 female 20.68 I0A: male 25.33 female 27.16 OAS: male 46.42 female 47.28 SD t p 6.61 6.18 1.29 .199 5.0 4.0 3.35* .001 9 .76 10.23 .711 .478 * P < .05 45 C o r r e l a t i o n s between o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , ego i d e n t i t y and s e l f - c o n c e p t are r e p o r t e d i n Table 4. For males, p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t was not r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ( n e i t h e r t o t a l , r e a l nor i d e a l ) . For females, p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t o t a l , r e a l , and i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . For males, ego i d e n t i t y r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , but not to i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . For females, ego i d e n t i t y r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to both r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . TABLE 4 Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between the P i e r s H a r r i s S elf-Concept S c a l e , Occupational A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e ( R e a l i s t i c & I d e a l i s t i c ) and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y Scale(REIS ) Males Females V a r i a b l e s (N=127) (N-145) R e a l i s t i c OAS/Piers H a r r i s .124 .189* I d e a l i s t i c OAS/Piers H a r r i s ] .006 .255* T o t a l OAS/Piers H a r r i s .089 .221* R e a l i s t i c OAS/REIS .248* .216* I d e a l i s t i c OAS/REIS -.016 .249* T o t a l OAS/REIS .164* .245* * p< .05 46 Table 5 c o n t a i n s the Male and Female c o r r e l a t i o n s between the P i e r s H a r r i s S e l f Concept S c a l e and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e . No p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were conducted as these would only r e f l e c t what was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d with the Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s . TABLE 5 Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between the P i e r s H a r r i s S elf-Concept S c a l e and the Revised Ego I d e n t i t y S c a l e (REIS) Males Females V a r i a b l e s (N=127) (N-145 ) P i e r s Harris/REIS .720 .783 SUMMARY S i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between s e l f -concept and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ( t o t a l , i d e a l and r e a l ) , and between ego i d e n t i t y and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , but only f o r the t o t a l group. By a s s e s s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e p a r a t e l y f o r males and females, a d i f f e r e n t p o r t r a i t emerged. C o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t was not r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n f o r males whereas f o r females a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d . For males, ego i d e n t i t y r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o r e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , but not to i d e a l 47 o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . For females, ego i d e n t i t y r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to both r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . No p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were conducted as they were not deemed necessary . 48 CHAPTER 5 - DISCUSSION In t h i s chapter the author p r e s e n t s : (1 ) the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, ( 2 ) l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s r e s e a r c h , (3 ) p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , and ( 4 ) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h . FINDINGS S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between s e l f -concept and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n ( t o t a l , i d e a l and r e a l ) and between ego i d e n t i t y and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , but only f o r the t o t a l group. By a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e p a r a t e l y , f o r males and females, a d i f f e r e n t p o r t r a i t emerged. For males, p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t was not r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ( n e i t h e r t o t a l , r e a l nor i d e a l ) . For females, p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - c o n c e p t r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to t o t a l , r e a l and i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . For males, ego i d e n t i t y r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to r e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s but not to i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . For females, ego i d e n t i t y r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to both r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . LIMITATIONS The s i z e of the sample encourages the p o s s i b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s to s i m i l a r age groups. However, i t 49 i s important to keep i n mind the unique f e a t u r e s of t h i s group. The sample was drawn from a s m a l l , northern, h i g h l y t r a n s i e n t , community. Predominantly blue c o l l a r , the p o p u l a t i o n of 17,000 i s comprised of a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c groups of both Asian and European decent. The l a r g e s t e t h n i c group i s Native Indian which makes up about 35% of the p o p u l a t i o n . Perhaps the g r e a t e s t q u a l i f i e r s though, r e s i d e with the c a p a c i t y of any instrument to tap the v a r i a b l e s i n q u e s t i o n . Neither s e l f - c o n c e p t nor ego i d e n t i t y are s t a t i c e n t i t i e s . There are no l e v e l s at which one a r r i v e s . I t would be more c o r r e c t t o see these as m u l t i f a c e t e d , f l u i d and dynamic v a r i a b l e s which are p e r v a s i v e , powerful and ephemeral. Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the age l e v e l of the sample. The images of s e l f t h a t one holds are perhaps never as p r e c a r i o u s as they are d u r i n g adolescence. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the same sample would y i e l d s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s on another o c c a s i o n . Questions a l s o need to be p o s i t e d about the O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n S c a l e . The l i s t of c h o i c e s o f f e r e d may not have been adequate. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an open ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have y i e l d e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS The r e s u l t s of t h i s study o f f e r some p a r t i a l support f o r Super's theory of c a r e e r development. Data presented i n Table 4 i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f -50 concept and l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n f o r females. T h i s f i n d i n g supports Super's notion of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n as implementation of s e l f - c o n c e p t . No such r e l a t i o n s h i p was demonstrated f o r males ( T a b l e 4 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to comment on the male response. T h i s study a l s o supports Osipow's (1968) o b s e r v a t i o n s about the l i m i t a t i o n s of Super's p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g career development. The data ( T a b l e 4) suggests t h a t only females with a s t r o n g s e l f concept or an i n t a c t ego a s p i r e to upper l e v e l c a r e e r s . Females with a weak s e l f - c o n c e p t or a fragmented ego tend to a s p i r e to lower l e v e l c a r e e r s . The female response supports Osipow's sugg e s t i o n t h a t Super's theory f a i l s to account f o r lower l e v e l a s p i r a t i o n s . For while i t i s p o s s i b l e to argue t h a t lower l e v e l a s p i r a t i o n s are an implementation of a weak s e l f - c o n c e p t or a fragmented ego t h i s argument has a hollow r i n g to i t . To hear t h a t a person i s s t r i v i n g to become a w a i t r e s s , c l e r k , or garbage c o l l e c t o r sounds odd p r e c i s e l y because t h e r e i s a lack of d e s i r e a s s o c i a t e d with such a d e c i s i o n . Rather, such a move has a l l the q u a l i t i e s of r e s i g n a t i o n . I t i s t h i s sense of r e s i g n a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with lower l e v e l a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t g i v e s credence t o Osipow's c r i t i c i s m of Super. Super's theory a l s o f a i l s to account f o r the male response. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e s u l t might be found with other r e s e a r c h e r s . Walsh and Taylor (1980) maintain t h a t workers who do not f i n d i n t r i n s i c c h a l l e n g e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r jobs look to other p a r t s of t h e i r 51 l i v e s f o r investment of s e l f . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e that being brought up i n a Predominantly blue c o l l a r environment has caused males to d i s a s s o c i a t e work from s e l f - c o n c e p t . Jordaan (1963) suggested t h a t Super's t h e o r i e s were more concerned with the r e s u l t s of e x p l o r a t i o n than with the process of e x p l o r a t i o n . The male/female d i f f e r e n c e s on the I d e a l / R e a l s u b s c a l e s ( T a b l e 4) cause one to wonder whether males go through a d i f f e r e n t career s e l e c t i o n process than females. Perhaps the " v i c i o u s c y c l e " t h a t Greenhaus and Simon (1976) a l l u d e d to can be a s s o c i a t e d not only with socioeconomics but a l s o with gender . The data a l s o o f f e r s l i m i t e d support f o r G o t t f r e d s o n ' s (1981) the o r y . The d i f f e r e n c e s between i d e a l as opposed to r e a l female a s p i r a t i o n s ( T a b l e 4) lend themselves to her argument t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s may be c i r c u m s c r i b e d before s e l f - c o n c e p t c r y s t a l i z e s . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s a f u r t h e r example of B u r l i n ' s (1975) c o n c l u s i o n t h a t personal and s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s dampened r e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s of a d o l e s c e n t females. One c o u l d a l s o s p e c u l a t e t h a t the l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e models (1976) amongst the females i n q u e s t i o n has l e d to the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a l i s t i c as opposed to i d e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s . The male response cannot be e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of G o t t f r e d s o n ' s theory. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s ( B u r l i n , 1975; B a r n e t t , 1975; M a r i n i , 1978) focused on the o c c u p a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with gender. Data presented i n Table 4 show t h a t , u n l i k e 52 males, female r e s u l t s on ego i d e n t i t y / i d e a l a s p i r a t i o n measures y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . On the other hand ego i d e n t i t y / r e a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n measures y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r both groups. One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t , as compared to males, females are a l r e a d y showing s i g n s of s o c i a l l y imposed l i m i t s on t h e i r career c h o i c e s . R e s u l t s on the s e l f - c o n c e p t / o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s u b s c a l e s ( T a b l e 4) are a l s o worth mentioning. Burgoyne's (1979) i n v e s t i g a t i o n of gender d i f f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g i d e a l / e x p e c t e d s e l f and v o c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s l e d him to conclude t h a t v o c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s needed to be r e v i s e d . He maintained t h a t i n d e c i d i n g on a career a person has s e v e r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t s t h a t can be brought i n t o the p r o c e s s . The responses p r o v i d e d by the female p o r t i o n of t h i s sample support Burgoyne's p o s i t i o n . The male response, on the other hand, suggests a s e p a r a t i o n between s e l f - c o n c e p t and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS The gender d i f f e r e n c e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r career c o u n s e l l i n g . Given the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r r e a l and i d e a l a s p i r a t i o n s , females may need help with r e c o g n i z i n g occupations that are open to them. On the other hand males, who appear to be locked i n t o t h e i r r e a l a s p i r a t i o n s , might b e n e f i t from i n v e s t i n g more time and energy i n i d e a l i z e d o c c u p a t i o n s . 53 It i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to co n s i d e r these e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n l i g h t of more general q u e s t i o n s about the nature and purpose of work and the r o l e of the c o u n s e l l o r . I f we look upon work as a means of d e a l i n g with the e x i s t e n t i a l v o i d , t h a t i s as a way of b r i n g i n g purpose i n t o our l i f e , then work can be experienced as a c a l l i n g . For some i t can even be a d i v i n e c a l l i n g . In t h i s v e i n , work has the c a p a c i t y to become our reason f o r being and quest i o n s of a s p i r a t i o n may take on the s o r t of magnitude most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with a search f o r t r u t h . At the other end of the v o c a t i o n a l spectrum, work can be viewed simply as a means of p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e . In t h i s c o n t e x t , work may be but the means of p r o v i d i n g f r e e time which i n t u r n allows f o r more pu r p o s e f u l and meaningful a c t i v i t i e s . Here, the g r e a t e s t concern with l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n may be simply a matter of how to maximize ea r n i n g power . Work may a l s o be seen as an e x e r c i s e i n s e l f e x p l o r a t i o n . In s h o r t , i t i s a process used to address i s s u e s of s e l f - c o n c e p t or an environment w i t h i n which to t r y on d i f f e r e n t i d e n t i t i e s . I t i s i n t h i s context perhaps, t h a t work, s e l f - c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and ego c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n u n f o l d i n the "leap f r o g " f a s h i o n t h a t G o t t f r e d s o n (1981) suggested. When co n s i d e r e d i n t h i s l i g h t , l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n seems i n t i m a t e l y connected with our c a p a c i t y to become. 54 These p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s about the nature of work have d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r o l e and the f u n c t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r . Those c o u n s e l l o r s who see work as a reason f o r being are faced with an awesome r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . More to the p o i n t , when t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s measured and evaluated i n our present s c h o o l system - where a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g occurs f o r a d o l e s c e n t s - there i s reason to worry. In order to p r o p e r l y address the a s p i r a t i o n / s e l f -c o n c e p t / i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , school c o u n s e l l o r s would need the r e s o u r c e s (time and t r a i n i n g ) to help c l i e n t s f u l l y e x p l o r e both t h e i r r e a l and t h e i r i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . Perhaps the goal here might be to help c l i e n t s c o n s t r u c t an imagined s e l f , a s e l f t h a t would both r e v e a l and p o s s i b l y o f f e r a way to move beyond the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t a t i o n s the c l i e n t may have i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s / h e r s e l f image. At the same time, such an a c t i v i t y might enable the c l i e n t to a r t i c u l a t e i n d i r e c t l y h i s / h e r p a r t i c u l a r notion of work. On the other hand, c o u n s e l l o r s who view work as a way to purchase f r e e time may wish to focus on h e l p i n g the c l i e n t to match h i s / h e r a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s with the most l u c r a t i v e work a v a i l a b l e . I t i s t h i s task t h a t our s c h o o l s appear much more s u i t e d to a d d r e s s i n g . Given the c l i e n t l oad t h a t most high school c o u n s e l l o r s c a r r y , i t i s probably not reasonable to expect more than an i m a g i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of p o s s i b l e l i f e s t y l e s t h a t v a r i o u s occupations allow f o r . 55 With the t e c h n o l o g i c a l advantages t h a t computers p r o v i d e , i t should take l i t t l e e f f o r t to enhance the much used Choices Program with a v i s u a l experience of a t y p i c a l day i n the l i f e of whatever occupation one's a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s encourage one to pursue. C o u n s e l l o r s who see work as a means of e x p l o r i n g the s e l f , of t r y i n g on an i d e n t i t y , might help the c l i e n t to develop and e x p l o r e the n o t i o n of work as s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e c a r e e r s as opposed to work as one c a r e e r . Given the very f l u i d nature of the a d o l e s c e n t p e r s o n a l i t y , t h i s approach may be not only the most u s e f u l but a l s o the most empathic. Regardless of the c o u n s e l l o r ' s o r i e n t a t i o n , career c o u n s e l l i n g i n the high s c h o o l system c o u l d be improved by i n c r e a s i n g the amount of time spent on i s s u e s such as s e l f -concept, ego i d e n t i t y , and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . To t h i s end, c o u n s e l l o r s might be wise to help t e a c h e r s develop means of a d d r e s s i n g these concepts w i t h i n p r e s e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d s u b j e c t a r e a s . Though t h i s approach would i n c r e a s e p r e s s u r e on the c o u n s e l l o r i n the s h o r t term, i t would s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e the amount of time t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s have to contemplate both themselves and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH The p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n and s e l f - c o n c e p t and l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and ego i d e n t i t y serve to remind one of how 56 l i t t l e i s known about these c o n s t r u c t s . Given the dynamic nature of both s e l f - c o n c e p t and ego i d e n t i t y , much more needs to be understood about the manner i n which i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . How i s i t tha t these moments c r y s t a l i z e to provide us with our sense of who we are? The q u e s t i o n only becomes more p e r p l e x i n g when the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s e l f and the world of work i s e x p l o r e d . Is i t t h a t the we l l accepted s e l f and the mature ego a s p i r e to work t h a t i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g , rewarding and p u r p o s e f u l ? Or, c o u l d i t be t h a t the a b i l i t y t o imagine o n e s e l f i n d i f f e r e n t r o l e s f u e l s l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n which i n t u r n d i c t a t e s the q u a l i t y of one's l i f e . Attempts to answer such q u e s t i o n s a r e , i n p a r t , a matter of theory. At the heart of the matter i s the q u e s t i o n r a i s e d by Werff (1985) about s e l f - c o n c e p t r e s e a r c h . A methodology t h a t does j u s t i c e to the dynamic nature of our s e l f - c o n c e p t would y i e l d f a r r i c h e r r e s u l t s . The same might be s a i d about r e s e a r c h on l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . T h i s study would be w e l l supplemented with r e s e a r c h on the same sample with a q u a l i t a t i v e d e s i g n . SUMMARY To r e t u r n b r i e f l y to the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , s e l f - c o n c e p t and ego i d e n t i t y , one i s l e f t with the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . The degree and d i r e c t i o n t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s yet to be e s t a b l i s h e d . 58 REFERENCES Adams, G. R. & F i t c h , S. A. (1982). Ego stage and i d e n t i t y s t a t u s development: A c r o s s - s e q u e n t i a l a n a l y s i s . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(3), 584-597. Abend, S. M. (1974). T h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . 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M o b i l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of 1,000 ninth g r a d e r s . American Sociological Review, 22(2), 204-212. 67 Super, D. E. (1951). V o c a t i o n a l Adjustment: Implementing a s e l f - concept. Occupations, 88-92. ' Super, D. E. (1953). A theory of v o c a t i o n a l development. The American Psychologist, 185-190. Super, D. E. (1954). Career p a t t e r s as a b a s i s f o r v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1, ( 1 ) , 12-20. Super, D. E. (1960). The c r i t i c a l n i n t h grade: V o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e or v o c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n . Personnel and Guidance Journal, 39, 106-109. Super, D. E., C r i t i e s , J . 0., Hummel, R. C., Mosser, P., O v e r s t r e e t , P. L. , & Ularnath, C. F. (1957). Vocational Development: A Framework for Research. New York: American B o o k - S t r a t f o r d P r e s s , Inc.. Super, D. E. (1957). The Psychology of Careers. ( 1 s t ed. ). New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s . Super, D. E., S t a r i s h e v s k y , R., M a r t l i n , N., & Jordan, J . P. (1963). Career development: Self-concept theory. New York: C o l l e g e Entrance Examination Board. Super, D. E. (1964). A developmental approach to v o c a t i o n a l guidance: Recent theory and r e s u l t s . Vocational Guidance Quarterly, Autumn, 1-10. Super, D. E., & Bohn, J . , J r . (1970). Occupational Psychology. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company , Inc . . Super, D. E. (1980) A l i f e - s p a n , l i f e - s p a c e approach t o career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16, 282-298. Thomas, V. G. (1986). Career A s p i r a t i o n s , P a r e n t a l Support, and Work Values Among Black Female A d o l e s c e n t s . Journal of M u l t i c u l t u r a l Counselling and Development, October, 177-185. Tseng, M. S. (1971). S o c i a l C l a s s , Occupational A s p i r a t i o n , and Other V a r i a b l e s . The Journal of Experimental Education, 39(4), 89-92. T u l l y , J . , Corder , S. C , & Chance, B. J . ( 1975). The S t a t u s and Sex-Typed Dimensions of Occupational A s p i r a t i o n s i n Young A d o l e s c e n t s . Social Science Quarterly, 56, 638-649. 68 Walsh, E. J . & T a y l o r , M. C. (1982). O c c u p a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s of mul t i d i m e n s i o n a l s e l f - e s t e e m : comparisons among g a r b a g e - c o l l e c t o r s , b a r t e n d e r s , p r o f e s s o r s , and other workers. Sociology and Social Research, 66(3), 252-268 . Warnath, C. F. (1975). V o c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s : D i r e c t i o n to nowhere. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 53(6), 422-428 . Waterman, C. K. & Waterman, A. S. (1975). F a t h e r s and sons: A study of ego i d e n t i t y a c r o s s two g e n e r a t i o n s . Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 4 ( 4 ) , 331-338. Waterman, A. S.(1982). I d e n t i t y development from adolescence to adulthood: An ext e n s i o n of theory and a review of r e s e a r c h . Developmental Psychology, 18(3), 341-358 Werff, J . J . van der (1985). I n d i v i d u a l problems of s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n an overview, and a view. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of Behavioral Develoment, 8, 445-471. Westbrook, 8. W. (1966). The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f a new measure of l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . Educational and Psychological Measure, 26, 997-1005. Wheeler, C. L. & Carnes, E. F. (1968). R e l a t i o n s h i p s among s e l f - concepts, i d e a l - s e l f - c o n c e p t s , and s t e r e o t y p e s of probable and i d e a l v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Journal of Counsel i ng Psychol ogy, 15(6) , 530-535 . Wilkerson, J . , P r o t i n s k y , H. 0., J r . , Maxwell, J . W. & Lentner, M. (1982). A l i e n a t i o n and ego i d e n t i t y i n a d o l e s c e n t s . Adolescence, 17(65), 133-139. W o e l f e l , J . , & H a l l e r , A.O. (1971). S i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , the s e l f - r e f l e x i v e a c t and the a t t i t u d e formation p r o c e s s . American Sociological Review, 36, 74-87. Zuckerman, Diana M. (1985). Confidence and a s p i r a t i o n s : Self-esteem and s e l f - c o n c e p t s as p r e d i c t o r s of students" l i f e g o a l s . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y , 53(4), 543-560 . £ 7 APPENDIX A - OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE YOUR NAME THIS SET OF QUESTIONS CONCERNS YOUR INTEREST IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF JOBS. THERE ARE EIGHT QUESTIONS. EACH ONE ASKS YOU TO CHOOSE ONE JOB OUT OF TEN PRESENTED. BE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON THE TOP OF THIS PAGE. READ EACH QUESTION CAREFULLY. THEY ARE ALL DIFFERENT. ANSWER EACH ONE THE BEST YOU CAN. DON'T OMIT ANY. Question 1 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n , which i s the BEST ONE you are REALLY SURE YOU CAN GET when your SCHOOLING IS OVER? 1.1 Lawyer 1.2 Welfare worker f o r a c i t y government 1.3 Canadian member of Parliament 1.4 .Corporal i n the Army 1 .5 Canadian Supreme Court J u s t i c e 1 .6 Night Watchman 1 .7 S o c i o l o g i s t 1.8 Policeman 1 .9 County a g r i c u l t u r a l agent 1.10 F i l l i n g s t a t i o n attendant 7o Question 2 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s quest ion, which ONE would you choose i f you were FREE TO  CHOOSE ANY of them you wished when your SCHOOLING IS OVER? 2.1 Member of the board of d i r e c t o r s of a large corporat ion 2 .2 Undertaker 2 .3 Banker 2.4 Machine operator i n a factory 2.5 phys ic ian (doctor) 2.6 C l o t h e s presser i n a laundry 2.7 Accountant for a large business 2.8 Rai lroad conductor 2.9 Rai lroad engineer 2.10 Singer i n a night c lub Question 3 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s question which i s the BEST ONE you are REALLY SURE YOU CAN GET when your SCHOOLING IS OVER? 3.1 Nuclear p h y s i c i s t 3.2 Reporter for a d a i l y newspaper 3.3 .County judge 3 .4 Barber 3.5 P r o v i n c i a l Premier 3.6 Soda fountain c l e r k 3.7 B i o l o g i s t 3.8 Mai l c a r r i e r 3.9 O f f i c i a l of an in ternat iona l labor union 3.10 Farm hand Question 4 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n , which ONE would you choose i f you were FREE TO  CHOOSE ANY of them you wished when your SCHOOLING IS OVER? 4 .1 P s y c h o l o g i s t 4.2 Manager of a s m a l l s t o r e i n a c i t y 4.3 Head of a department i n a p r o v i n c i a l government 4.4 C l e r k i n a s t o r e 4.5 Cabinet member i n the f e d e r a l government 4 .6 J a n i t o r 4.7 Music i a n i n a symphony o r c h e s t r a 4 .8 Carpenter 4.9 Radio announcer 4.10 Coal Miner Question 5 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n , which i s the BEST ONE you are REALLY SURE YOU CAN HAVE by the time you are 30 YEARS OLD? 5.1 C i v i l engineer 5 .2 Bookkeeper 5.3 M i n i s t e r or P r i e s t 5.4 S t r e e t c a r motorman or c i t y bus d r i v e r 5.5 .Diplomat i n the Canadian F o r e i g n S e r v i c e 5.6 Share croper (one who owns no l i v e s t o c k or farm machinery, and does not manage the farm) 5.7 Author of novels 5 .8 plumber 5.9 Newspaper c o l u m n i s t 5.10 Taxi d r i v e r Question 6 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n , which ONE would you choose to have when you are 30 YEARS OLD, i f you were FREE TO HAVE ANY of them you wished? 6.1 A i r l i n e p i l o t 6.2 Insurance agent 6 .3 Arch i t ec t 6 .4 M i l k route man 6.5 Mayor of a large c i t y 6.6 Garbage c o l l e c t o r 6.7 Captain in the army 6.8 Garage mechanic 6.9 Owner-operator of a p r i n t i n g shop 6.10 Rai lroad sect ion hand Question 7 Of the jobs l i s t e d in t h i s quest ion, which i s the BEST ONE you are REALLY SURE YOU CAN HAVE by the time you are 30 YEARS OLD? 7.1 A r t i s t who paints p ic tures that are exhibi ted in g a l l e r i e s 7.2 T r a v e l l i n g salesman for wholesale concern 7.3 Chemist 7 .4 Truck d r i v e r 7.5 .College professor 7.6 S t r e e t sweeper 7.7 Bu i ld ing contractor 7.8 Local o f f i c i a l of a labor union 7 .9 E l e c t r i c i a n 7.10 Restaurant waiter 7 3 Question 8 Of the jobs l i s t e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n , which ONE would you choose to have when you are 30 YEARS OLD, i f you were FREE TO HAVE ANY of them you wished? 8-1 Owner of a f a c t o r y t h a t employs about 100 people 8.2 Playground d i r e c t o r 8 .3 D e n t i s t 8 .4 |_umber jack 8 -5 S c i e n t i s t 8 .6 Shoeshiner 8.7 P u b l i c s c h o o l teacher 8.8 Qwner-operator of a lunch stand 8.9 T r a i n e d m a c h i n i s t 8.10 pock worker APPENDIX B - PIERS HARRIS My classmates make fun of me I am a happy person I t i s hard f o r me to make f r i e n d s I am o f t e n sad I am smart I am shy I get nervous when the teacher c a l l s on me My looks bother me When I grow up, I w i l l be an important person I get worried when we have t e s t s i n sc h o o l I am unpopular I am w e l l behaved i n s c h o o l I t i s u s u a l l y my f a u l t when something goes wrong I cause t r o u b l e to my f a m i l y I am s t r o n g I have good idea s I am an important member of my fami I u s u a l l y want my own way I am good a t making t h i n g s with my hands I g i v e up e a s i l y 7 r 21. I am good i n my sch o o l work Yes No 22. I do many bad t h i n g s Yes No 23. I can draw w e l l Yes No 24. I am good i n music Yes No 25. I behave badly at home Yes No 26. I am slow i n f i n i s h i n g my sch o o l work Yes No 27. I am an important member of my c l a s s Yes No 28. I am nervous Yes No 29. I have p r e t t y eyes Yes No 30. I can g i v e a good r e p o r t i n f r o n t of the c l a s s Yes No 31. In sch o o l I am a dreamer Yes No 32. I p i c k on my b r o t h e r ( s ) and s i s t e r ( s ) Yes No 33. My f r i e n d s l i k e my ideas Yes No 34. I o f t e n get i n t o t r o u b l e Yes No 35. I am obedient at home Yes No 36. I am lucky Yes No 37. I worry a l o t Yes No 38. My parents expect too much of me Yes No 39. I l i k e being the way I am Yes No 40. I f e e l l e f t out of t h i n g s Yes No 41. I have n i c e h a i r Yes No 42. I o f t e n v o l u n t e e r i n sch o o l Yes No 43. I wish I were d i f f e r e n t Yes No 44. I s l e e p w e l l at night Yes No 45. I hate school Yes No 7<L 46. I am among the l a s t t o b© chosen f o r games Yes No 47. I am s i c k a l o t Yes No 48. I am o f t e n mean to other people Yes No 49. My classmates i n sch o o l t h i n k I have good ideas Yes No 50. I am unhappy Yes No 51. I have many f r i e n d s Yes No 52. I am c h e e r f u l Yes No 53. I am dumb about most t h i n g s Yes No 54. I am good-looking Yes No 55. I have l o t s of pep Yes No 56. I get i n t o a l o t of f i g h t s Yes No 57. I am popular with boys Yes No 58. People p i c k on me Yes No 59. My f a m i l y i s d i s a p p o i n t e d i n me Yes No 60. I have a p l e a s a n t f a c e Yes No 61. When I t r y t o make something, e v e r y t h i n g seems to go wrong Yes No 62. I am p i c k e d on a t home Yes No 63. I am a leader i n games and s p o r t s Yes No 64. I am clumsy Yes No 65. In games and s p o r t s , I watch i n s t e a d of p l a y Yes No 66. I f o r g e t what I l e a r n Yes No 67. I am easy t o get along with Yes No 68. I l o s e my temper e a s i l y Yes No 7 7 69. I am popular with g i r l s Yes No 70. I am a good reader Yes No 71. I would r a t h e r work alone than with a group Yes No 72. I l i k e my brother ( s i s t e r ) Yes No 73. I have a good f i g u r e Yes No 74. I am o f t e n a f r a i d Yes No 75. I am always dropping or breaking t h i n g s Yes No 76. I can be t r u s t e d Yes No 77. I am d i f f e r e n t from other people Yes No 78. I t h i n k bad thoughts Yes No 79. I c r y e a s i l y Yes No 80. I am a good person Yes No APPENDIX C - REVISED EGO IDENTITY SCALE Name D i r e c t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g pages c o n t a i n a number of statements which are r e l a t e d to o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s about y o u r s e l f and l i f e i n g e n e r a l . There are no r i g h t or wrong answers to these statements. Thus, you should g i v e YOUR OWN p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n i n answering the statements. Read each statement, d e c i d e how you r e a l l y f e e l about i t , and mark your answer i n the a p p r o p r i a t e column. I f the statement i s one with which you agree or g e n e r a l l y agree as i t a p p l i e s to you or what you b e l i e v e , mark i t AGREE. I f you d i s a g r e e or g e n e r a l l y d i s a g r e e with the statement, mark i t DISAGREE on the answer sheet. I t i s important t h a t you work r i g h t through the statements and answer each one. Don't spend too much time on any one statement, but t r y to be as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e i n d e c i d i n g whether you g e n e r a l l y agree or d i s a g r e e with the statements. S e v e r a l of the above statements may sound the same, but don't worry about t h i s . Answer each one as you come to i t . CHECK ONE ANSWER ONLY FOR EACH STATEMENT 1 . I seem to have r e g r e t s when I have to g i v e up my p l e a s u r e s r i g h t now f o r g o a l s or t h i n g s I want i n the f u t u r e . agree d i s a g r e e 2. No one seems to understand me. agree d i s a g r e e 3 . I have a f e a r of being asked q u e s t i o n s i n c l a s s because of what other people w i l l t h i n k i f I don't know the answer. agree d i s a g r e e 4. Working i s nothing more than a necessary e v i l t h a t a person must put up with to e a t . agree d i s a g r e e 5. I t doesn't pay to worry much about d e c i s i o n s you have a l r e a d y made . agree d i s a g r e e 6 . People are u s u a l l y honest i n d e a l i n g with each o t h e r . agree d i s a g r e e 7. From what o t h e r s have t o l d me, I f e e l I am a person who i s very easy t o t a l k t o . agree d i s a g r e e 8. When giv e n a job, I t r y never to get so t i e d up on what I am doing at the moment so as to l o s e s i g h t of what comes next. agree d i s a g r e e 9. I work best when I know my work i s going t o be compared with the work o f o t h e r s . agree d i s a g r e e 10. I have no d i f f i c u l t y i n a v o i d i n g people who may get me i n t r o u b l e . agree d i s a g r e e 11. When I have to work, I u s u a l l y get p r e t t y bored no matter what the job i s . agree d i s a g r e e 12. I t doesn't worry me i f I make a mistake i n f r o n t of my f r i e n d s . agree d i s a g r e e 13. The d e c i s i o n s I have made i n thepast have u s u a l l y been the r i g h t ones. agree d i s a g r e e 14. Although I sometimes f e e l very s t r o n g l y about t h i n g s , I never show other people how I f e e l . agree d i s a g r e e 15. A f t e r I do something, I u s u a l l y worry about whether i t was the r i g h t t h i n g . agree d i s a g r e e 16. I am c o n f i d e n t t h a t I w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l i n l i f e when I f i n a l l y d ecide on a career . agree d i s a g r e e 2° 17. I t ' s best not to l e t other people know too much about your f a m i l y background i f you can keep from i t . agree d i s a g r e e . 18. I r e a l l y don't have any d e f i n i t e g o a l s or plans f o r the f u t u r e . I'm content to l e t the u n i v e r s i t y decide what I should do. agree disagree, 19. I never enjoyed t a k i n g p a r t i n scho o l c l u b s or student government a c t i v i t y . agree d i s a g r e e . 20. I f I am not c a r e f u l people t r y to take advantage of me. agree d i s a g r e e . 21. In g e n e r a l , people can be t r u s t e d . agree d i s a g r e e . 22. I t i s very seldom t h a t I f i n d myself wishing I had a d i f f e r e n t f a c e or body. agree d i s a g r e e . 23. I would get along b e t t e r i n l i f e i f I were b e t t e r l o o k i n g . agree disagree. 24. At my age a person must make h i s own d e c i s i o n s , even though h i s / h e r parents might not agree with the t h i n g s he/she does. agree d i s a g r e e . 25. I t ' s not hard to keep your mind on one t h i n g i f you r e a l l y have to . agree d i s a g r e e . 26. I t seems as i f I j u s t can't decide what I r e a l l y want to do i n l i f e . agree d i s a g r e e . 27. I am always busy doing something, but I seem t o accomplish l e s s than other people even though they don't work as hard as I do. agree d i s a g r e e . 28. When I'm i n a group, I f i n d i t hard t o stand up f o r my ideas i f I th i n k other people won't agree with me. agree d i s a g r e e 29. I have a t l e a s t one c l o s e f r i e n d with whom I can share almost a l l of my f e e l i n g s and pe r s o n a l thoughts. agree d i s a g r e e 30. I do not f e e l t h a t my looks and a c t i o n s keep me from g e t t i n g ahead i n l i f e . agree d i s a g r e e 31. Even when I do a good job i n my work, other people don't seem to r e a l i z e i t or g i v e me c r e d i t . 32. One of the hardest t h i n g s f o r a young person to overcome i s h i s f a m i l y background. agree d i s a g r e e agree d i s a g r e e 33. The best p a r t of my l i f e i s s t i l l ahead of me. agree d i s a g r e e 34. In a group, I can u s u a l l y stand up f o r what I thin k i s r i g h t without being embarrassed agree d i s a g r e e 35. I seem to have the knack or a b i l i t y to make other people r e l a x and enjoy themselves a t a p a r t y . agree d i s a g r e e 36. I can't seem to say no when the group does something which I don't t h i n k i s r i g h t . agree d i s a g r e e 37. Being without c l o s e f r i e n d s i s worse than having enemies. agree d i s a g r e e 38. I am not sure what I want to do as a l i f e t i m e o c c u p a t i o n , but I have some p r e t t y d e f i n i t e p l ans and go a l s f o r the next few y e a r s . agree d i s a g r e e 39. I t i s e a s i e r to make f r i e n d s with people you l i k e i f they don't know too much about your background. agree d i s a g r e e 40. I don't l i k e s p o r t s or games where you always have t o t r y and do b e t t e r than the next guy. agree. d i s a g r e e 41. A person who can be t r u s t e d i s hard to f i n d . agree. d i s a g r e e 42. I b e l i e v e t h a t I must make my own d e c i s i o n s i n important matters as no one can l i v e my l i f e f o r me. agree. d i s a g r e e 43. In order to be comfortable or f e e l at ease, a person must get along with o t h e r s but he doesn't r e a l l y need c l o s e f r i e n d s . agree. d i s a g r e e 44. I am proud of my f a m i l y background. agree. d i s a g r e e 45. I cannot keep my mind on one t h i n g . agree. d i s a g r e e 46. I t i s a good idea to have some plan as t o what has to be done next, no matter how much you have t o do at the moment. agree. disagree. 47. During the past few y e a r s , I have taken l i t t l e or no p a r t i n c l u b s , o r g a n i z e d group a c t i v i t y , or s p o r t s . agree. d i s a g r e e 48. I have found t h a t people I work with f r e q u e n t l y don't a p p r e c i a t e or seem to understand my a b i l i t i e s . agree. d i s a g r e e 49. For some reason, i t seems t h a t I have never r e a l l y g o tten t o know the people I have worked with, even though I l i k e d them. agree d i s a g r e e 50. I am p r e t t y content to be the way I am. agree. d i s a g r e e 51. I can't stand to wait f o r t h i n g s I r e a l l y want. agree. d i s a g r e e 52. A person i s a l o t happier i f he doesn't get too c l o s e to o t h e r s . agree. d i s a g r e e 53. Even though I t r y , i t i s u s u a l l y p r e t t y hard f o r me to keep my mind on a task or job agree. d i s a g r e e 54. One of the good p a r t s of being a teenager i s g e t t i n g together with a group which makes i t s own r u l e s and does t h i n g s as a group. agree. d i s a g r e e 55. When i t comes t o working, I never do anything I can get out o f . agree. d i s a g r e e 56. My way of doing t h i n g s i s apt to be misunderstood by o t h e r s . agree. d i s a g r e e 57. A person who hasn't been a member of a w e l l o r g a n i z e d group or c l u b a t some time i n h i s teens has missed a l o t . agree. d i s a g r e e 58. When I t h i n k about my f u t u r e , I f e e l I have missed my best chances f o r making good. agree. d i s a g r e e 59. I l i k e t o t a c k l e a tough job as i t g i v e s me a l o t of s a t i s f a c t i o n t o f i n i s h i t . agree. d i s a g r e e 60. I am always busy but i t seems t h a t I am u s u a l l y s p i n n i n g my wheels and never seem t o get anywhere. agree. d i s a g r e e 61. I t i s very important t h a t your parents approve of e v e r y t h i n g you do. agree d i s a g r e e 62. I t doesn't bother me when my f r i e n d s f i n d out t h a t I can't do c e r t a i n t h i n g s as we l l as other people. agree d i s a g r e e 63. As a r u l e , I don't r e g r e t the d e c i s i o n s I make. agree d i s a g r e e 64. I f e e l p r e t t y sure t h a t I know what I want to do i n the f u t u r e and I have some d e f i n i t e g o a l s . agree d i s a g r e e 65. I don't have any t r o u b l e c o n c e n t r a t i n g on what I am doing. agree d i s a g r e e 66. A person can't be happy i n a job where he i s always competing a g a i n s t o t h e r s . agree d i s a g r e e 67. I f e e l I have missed my o p p o r t u n i t y to r e a l l y be a success i n l i f e . agree d i s a g r e e 68. I f a person wants something worthwhile, he should be w i l l i n g to wait f o r i t . agree d i s a g r e e 69. At home, I enjoyed work or spare time a c t i v i t i e s where I had to compete a g a i n s t o t h e r s . agree d i s a g r e e 70. I never make any important d e c i s i o n s without g e t t i n g help or a d v i c e from my f a m i l y . agree d i s a g r e e 71. I t i s b e t t e r to say nothing i n p u b l i c than to take a chance on other people hearing you make a mistake. agree d i s a g r e e 2. I l o s e i n t e r e s t i n t h i n g s i f have to wait too long t o get hem. agree d i s a g r e e APPENDIX D - LETTER OF CONSENT Dear Parent/Guardian, I am w r i t i n g t h i s l e t t e r i n order to seek your p e r m i s s i o n f o r your son or daughter to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s e a r c h I am undertaking as p a r t of my Masters program i n C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. The study would r e q u i r e about an hour of your c h i l d ' s time and would be conducted d u r i n g the sc h o o l day. To p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h your c h i l d would need to f i l l out three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which would focus on your son's or daughter's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s , and s e l f concept. None of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would r e q u i r e your son or daughter to i d e n t i f y themselves. Of course, should your c h i l d wish to d i s c u s s the s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s of t h e i r own q u e s t i o n n a i r e I would be most w i l l i n g to accommodate them. Otherwise, i n keeping with the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's r e s e a r c h g u i d e l i n e s a l l m a t e r i a l s gathered i n the study w i l l be destroyed i n a year's time. Should you r e q u i r e any more i n f o r m a t i o n p l e a s e do not h e s i t a t e to c a l l me. Given your c h i l d ' s age, the U n i v e r s i t y r e q u i r e s t h a t I r e c e i v e w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n to i n c l u d e your son or daughter i n such a study. T h e r e f o r e , i f you would be so kind as to allow your c h i l d to answer these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p l e a s e s i g n t h i s l e t t e r and have your son or daughter r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r to me . Thank you f o r c o n s i d e r i n g my request . Yours t r u l y , M. L o n c a r i c I hereby grant p e r m i s s i o n f o r my SON/DAUGHTER to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. (Parent or Guardian) 

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