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An investigation into the experience of being a protagonist in a psychodrama Martens, Marlyn Leslie 1990

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING A PROTAGONIST IN A PSYCHODRAMA by M a r l y n L e s l i e M a r t e n s B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y , 1990 (C) M a r l y n L e s l i e M a r t e n s , 1990 MASTER OF ARTS In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date F e b r u a r y 23, 1 990 DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t i i The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s as e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who c l a i m t h a t i t r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . U s i n g an e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , t h e s t u d y d e s c r i b e d t h e meaning o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r s i x a d u l t c o - r e s e a c h e r s . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . Two i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d and t h e s e were t a p e r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . The t r a n s c r i p t s were a n a l y z e d and themes were f o r m u l a t e d w h i c h were v a l i d a t e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and woven i n t o an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . The e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n was c o n d e n s e d i n t o an e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . B o t h t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e were v a l i d a t e d by a l l t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e l e m e n t s o f b o t h p s y c h o d r a m a and G e s t a l t t h e o r y , as w e l l as c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s v i CHAPTER I : I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 What i s P s y c h o d r a m a ? 1 C l a s s i c a l P s y c h o d r a m a : H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 7 A p p r o a c h t o t h e Q u e s t i o n 9 D e f i n i t i o n s 13 CHAPTER TWO: R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 15 I n t r o d u c t i o n 15 P s y c h o d r a m a T h e o r y ...15 I n t r o d u c t i o n 15 F o u n d a t i o n and f r a m e w o r k o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y 16 The t h r e e s t a g e s i n c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a 22 Key e l e m e n t s o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y 24 R u l e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a 31 T e c h n i q u e s i n c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a 35 B u i l d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : A f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e o r y . . . 3 8 P s y c h o d r a m a R e s e a r c h 41 G e n e r a l o v e r v i e w 41 D e l Nuovo, S p i e l b e r g , and G i l l i s . . 44 K e l l e r m a n 47 i v Summary . 50 T h e o r i e s o f Group D e v e l o p m e n t 52 I n t r o d u c t i o n 52 G i b b 52 B e n i s and S h e p a r d 55 Summar y 57 CHAPTER I I I : Method 58 Method 58 C o - R e s e a r c h e r s 61 S e l e c t i o n o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s 61 D e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n 63 P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l I n t e r v i e w 63 P r o c e d u r e f o r A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . . . 66 CHAPTER I V : R e s u l t s 69 F o r m u l a t i o n o f Themes 69 I n i t i a l Theme S t a t e m e n t s 72 B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 72 D u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a ' 74 A f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 76 C o n t e x t f o r V i e w i n g t h e E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n 78 C o n t e x t f o r V i e w i n g t h e E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e 79 E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n 79 E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e 99 V CHAPTER V: D i s c u s s i o n 106 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 106 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 107 I n t r o d u c t i o n 107 An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e 109 Summary 139 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g 140 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 146 summary 151 R e f e r e n c e s 152 APPENDIX A: L e t t e r 158 APPENDIX B: C o n s e n t Form 159 v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e , D r s . Westwood, C o c h r a n , and V e r r i o u r . My t h a n k s goes t o Marv Westwood f o r h i s o n g o i n g e n t h u s i a s m and s u p p o r t , t o L a r r y C o c h r a n f o r h i s p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f b r a i n s t o r m i n g i d e a s , and t o P a t V e r r i o u r f o r h i s i n t e r e s t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r my c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , f o r s h a r i n g so d e e p l y and o p e n l y a b o u t t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e s . A s p e c i a l t h a n k s goes t o my f r i e n d s , L a f e r n Page and L i n d a Davidson-, whose e n c o u r a g e m e n t , s u p p o r t , and humour h e l p e d me keep e v e r y t h i n g i n p e r s p e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e my f a m i l y who gave me t h e s p a c e t o do what I had t o do. T h a n k s t o E r i c , f o r e n d u r i n g t h e c i t y , and t o A r t , Rob and J e n , f o r t h e i r h e r o i c e f f o r t s home on t h e f a r m . CHAPTER ONE: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 What i s P s y c h o d r a m a ? P s y c h o d r a m a i s a f o r m o f g r o u p t h e r a p y t h a t e n c o u r a g e s p e o p l e t o work t h r o u g h t h e i r p r o b l e m s by a c t i n g them o u t , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t them. I t s b e g i n n i n g s d a t e back t o 1908 when i t s f o u n d e r , J . L. M o r e n o , began g a t h e r i n g i m p r o m t u g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r i n t h e p a r k s o f V i e n n a and had them a c t o u t t h e i r p r o b l e m s e x t e m p o r a n e o u s l y . I t was, as he c a l l e d i t , t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f "a s o r t o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y f o r f a l l e n g o d s " ( M o r e n o , 1946, p. 3 ) . Moreno s t a t e d t h a t he c h o s e t o f o c u s on t h e i n h e r e n t g e n u i s and c r e a t i v i t y t h a t he saw i n a l l human b e i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n on n e u r o s i s w h i c h he p e r c e i v e d as F r e u d ' s f o c u s ( M o r e n o , 1 9 4 6 ) . At i t s i n c e p t i o n , p s y c h o d r a m a r e p r e s e n t e d a m a j o r t u r n i n g p o i n t away f r o m t r e a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n i s o l a t i o n t o w a r d s w o r k i n g w i t h g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , and away f r o m u s i n g o n l y v e r b a l methods s u c h as F r e u d i a n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , t o w a r d s u s i n g a c t i o n methods ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . Moreno c l a i m e d t h a t i t s power r e s t s i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s m o d e l l e d a f t e r t h e way p e o p l e behave i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . As a t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e , i t i s p r a c t i c e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y (D'Amato & Dean, 1988) and i t s p r o p o n e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r f o r m s o f t h e r a p y b e c a u s e i t c r e a t e s c h ange a t t h e c o g n i t i v e , b e h a v i o u r a l , and e m o t i o n a l l e v e l s , and a l l g r o u p members b e n e f i t f r o m i t , n o t j u s t t h e main a c t o r ( M o r e n o , 1964; G r e e n b e r g , 1974; Y a b l o n s k y , 1976; S t a r r , 1977; D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . R e s e a r c h i n c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y f o c u s e s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and e x a m i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n s c r e a t e d t o a s s i s t c l i e n t s . P s y c h o d r a m a as a t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e i s one s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n . The ai m o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e meaning o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s as e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who c l a i m t h a t i t r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . How do p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s u c h a p s y c h o d r a m a e v e n t ? What l e a d s up t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , and what commonly happens a f t e r w a r d s ? A r e t h e r e any common themes i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s t a g e s ( b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r ) ? 3 C l a s s i c a l P s y c h o d r a m a : H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t M o r e n o ' s i n t e n t i o n i n f o u n d i n g p s y c h o d r a m a was t h a t i t w o u l d be a r e p l a c e m e n t t o p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ( Moreno & M o r e n o , 1 9 6 9 ) . He r e p o r t e d t h a t when he met Sigmund F r e u d i n 1912, he was a p p o s e d t o p s y c h o a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e i t d e f i n e d human n a t u r e e n t i r e l y i n t e r m s o f n e u r o s i s and b e c a u s e i t g e n e r a t e d i m m e d i a t e s u s p i c i o n t o w a r d s what Moreno saw as t h e i n h e r e n t g e n u i s i n a l l p e o p l e ( M o r e n o , 1 9 4 6 ) . "You a n a l y z e t h e i r d r e a m s " , he t o l d F r e u d . " I t r y t o g i v e them t h e c o u r a g e t o dream a g a i n . I t e a c h t h e p e o p l e how t o p l a y God" ( M o r e n o , 1946, p. 6 ) . Moreno d e f i n e d God as " S p o n t a n e i t y " ( M o r e n o , 1989, p. 49) and he saw t h e t a s k of p s y c h o d r a m a as h e l p i n g p e o p l e r e c o v e r t h e i r c o r e s e l v e s w h i c h become l o s t t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s u r e s and demands of d a i l y l i v i n g (Moreno & M o r e n o , 1 9 6 9 ) . M o r e n o ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a i s : "a t r a n s -l i t e r a t i o n o f a t h i n g done t o and w i t h t h e p s y c h e , t h e p s y c h e i n a c t i o n . . . t h e s c i e n c e w h i c h e x p l o r e s t h e t r u t h by d r a m a t i c m e t h o d s " ( M o r e n o , 1946, p . 1 2 ) . C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r o p i n i o n , p s y c h o d r a m a d i d n o t have i t s o r i g i n i n t h e t h e a t r e . From a t h e r a p e u t i c c o n t e x t , Moreno saw t h e t h e a t r e as an i m i t a t i o n o f l i f e , " ....an a l i e n a t i o n f r o m l i f e r a t h e r t h a n a l i b e r a t i n g and e l e v a t i n g a g e n t " b e c a u s e t h e p r e s c r i b e d s c r i p t removed t h e a c t o r s f r o m s p o n t a n e o u s l i v i n g (Moreno & M o r e n o , 1969, p. 2 4 ) . Moreno c l a i m e d r e p e a t e d l y t h a t t h e a c t i n g i n p s y c h o d r a m a was r e a l l i f e as a p p o s e d t o a c t i n g i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r e w h i c h he saw was a s t e p removed f r o m r e a l l i f e b e c a u s e o f t h e use o f m e m o r i z e d s c r i p t s ( M o r e n o , 1946; Moreno & Moreno, 1959; Moreno & M o r e n o , 1 9 6 9 ) . Moreno t r i e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s r e a l l i f e a s p e c t o f p s y c h o d r a m a by f a c i l i t a t i n g what he c a l l e d ' e n c o u n t e r ' , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h h i s o r h e r r e a l s e l f and t h e r e a l s e l v e s o f o t h e r s . "When two b e i n g s c o i n c i d e i n t h e e n c o u n t e r t h e y a t t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t t r u t h o f t h e i r l i v e s " (Moreno & Moreno, 1969, p. 2 5 ) . The a c t o r s l e t go o f t h e i r t h e a t r i c a l r o l e s , and t h e s p e c t a t o r s as w e l l , g i v e up t h e i r r o l e s as p a s s i v e o b s e r v e r s . Moreno saw e n c o u n t e r as t h e most i n t e n s i v e l e v e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p o s s i b l e and he b e l i e v e d h i s p u r p o s e i n p s y c h o d r a m a was " t o c r e a t e a f o r m o f drama w h i c h meets t h e c r i t e r i a o f t h e e n c o u n t e r " (Moreno & M o reno, 1969, p. 2 8 ) . 5 The b e g i n n i n g s o f c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a d a t e back t o 1908 when Moreno was a m e d i c a l s t u d e n t i n V i e n n a . T h e r e he began p r o d u c i n g d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h d i v e r s e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , f r o m c h i l d r e n i n t h e p a r k s t o p r o s t i t u t e s i n t h e b r o t h e l s . A l i t t l e l a t e r , he began what became known as h i s " s p o n t a n e i t y t h e a t r e " ( H a r e , 1 9 8 6 ) , a p l a c e where p e o p l e f r o m a l l w a l k s o f l i f e came t o e x p e r i e n c e h i s p r o c e s s o f e n c o u n t e r . From t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s Moreno began t o f o r m u l a t e some b a s i c c o n c e p t s w h i c h , i n h i s w o r d s , became t h e " c o r n e r s t o n e o f a l l f o r m s o f g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y " ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1976, p. 2 7 7 ) , i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o d r a m a . Y a b l o n s k y ( 1 9 7 4 ) a l s o c l a i m s t h a t M o r e n o ' s work i n f l u e n c e d F r i t z P e r l s i n d e v e l o p i n g G e s t a l t t h e r a p y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t M oreno's c o n c e p t o f p s y c h o d r a m a came f r o m h i s a c t u a l p e r s o n a l g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s , b u t he was a l s o an i n t e l l e c t u a l and i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f i n r i g o r o u s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h V i e n n a i n t e l l e c t u a l s s u c h as A d l e r , R e i c h and F r e u d ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1 9 7 6 ) . He r e j e c t e d t h e s t a t i c and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c q u a l i t y o f F r e u d ' s s y s t e m and p e r c e i v e d h i s t h e o r i e s as a c t i o n methods and h i s own r o l e as an a c t o r r a t h e r t h a n an a n a l y s t ( Y a b l o n s k y , 6 1 9 7 6 ) . The c o n t e x t f o r c l a s s i c a l ' p s y c h o d r a m a i s g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y and t h e method i t s e l f c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a p a r t f r o m t h i s g r o u p c o n t e x t . Moreno s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e d i n t h e power o f t h e g r o u p t o f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l c hange and t h i s i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1989, where Moreno d r a m a t i c a l l y s t a t e d : " I f God came i n t o t h e w o r l d a g a i n , He w o u l d n o t be i n c a r n a t e d as an i n d i v i d u a l , b u t as a g r o u p . . . " ( M o r e n o , 1989, p . 5 1 ) . I n 1925, Moreno moved t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s where he began p s y c h o d r a m a t i c work w i t h c h i l d r e n a t t h e P l y m o u t h I n s t i t u t e i n B r o o k l y n . I n 1929, he began d i r e c t i n g p s y c h o d r a m a s a t what he c a l l e d h i s Impromptu Group T h e a t r e a t C a r n e g i e H a l l , and i n 1942, he opened a c l i n i c f o r p s y c h o d r a m a t h e r a p y i n B e a c o n , New Y o r k . A f t e r t h i s d a t e , he t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y , l e c t u r i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . He became p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l known i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c as a r e s u l t o f n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t s on h i s Impromptu T h e a t r e , and t o t h e p s y c h i a t r i c community t h r o u g h t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n . He was a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r , c o n t r i b u t i n g 308 books and a r t i c l e s t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y and g r o u p t h e r a p y ( H a r e , 1 9 8 6 ) . 7 A f t e r Moreno d i e d i n 1974, h i s f o l l o w e r s c o n t i n u e d t o p r a c t i c e p s y c h o d r a m a , u s i n g h i s b a s i c method w i t h few a l t e r a t i o n s ( H a r e , 1 9 8 6 ) . H i s t h e o r y and m e t h o d o l o g y w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r Two. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s a r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n , "What does i t mean t o be a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a ? " Such an e x a m i n a t i o n has n e v e r b e f o r e been u n d e r t a k e n . E l e m e n t s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e have been e x a m i n e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , however no r e s e a r c h e r has u n d e r t a k e n t h e t a s k o f t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w h o l e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o i n t o f v i e w . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t e x p l o r e s t h e meaning o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s as e x p e r i e n c e d by s u b j e c t s who c l a i m t h a t t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s f a c i l i t a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e c h a n g e . I t goes a s t e p beyond c u r r e n t p s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h i n t h a t i t r i g o r o u s l y e x p l o r e s t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h a t i m e f r a m e e n c o m p a s s i n g b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r . A f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y l i e s i n i t s m e t h o d o l o g y . C h o i c e o f m e t h o d o l o g y has a l w a y s p o s e d a s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e i n p s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h . A l t h o u g h p r o p o n e n t s o f p s y c h o d r a m a c l a i m t h a t i t s v a l i d i t y i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h i t s r e s u l t s , i t s c r i t i c s a r e q u i c k t o d i s p u t e t h a t c l a i m , d e c l a r i n g t h a t i t has l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t ( K i p p e r , 1978; D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s t a t e o f r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and v a l i d i t y o f p s y c h o d r a m a i s s t i l l v e r y much i n an e a r l y s t a g e ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n p s y c h o d r a m a i s e t h n o g r a p h i c i n a p p r o a c h and composed o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' comments b a s e d on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c l i e n t s (D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . A m a j o r c i t i c i s m i s t h a t "The z e a l and p e r s e v e r e n c e o f many p r a c t i t i o n e r s n o t o n l y i m p l y b i a s , b u t p r e c l u d e s e ven a p r e t e n s e o f o b j e c t i v i t y " ( S l a w s o n , 1965, p. 5 3 1 ) . The more c o n t r o l l e d , t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n p s y c h o d r a m a a r e p l a g u e d w i t h p r o b l e m s i n m e t h o d o l o g y and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e many v a r i a b l e s t o be c o n t r o l l e d ( K i p p e r , 1978; K e l l e r m a n , 1987; D'Amato and Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . The m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( s e e b e l o w ) i s u n i q u e i n t h a t i t has n e v e r b e f o r e been u s e d i n e x a m i n i n g t h e w h o l e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s . T h e r e a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y b o t h f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and t h e o r y d e v e l o p m e n t . I n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t c h ange t h r o u g h t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s o f p s y c h o d r a m a w i l l e n a b l e t h e o r e t i c i a n s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o become more i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f change i n p s y c h o d r a m a . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e o r y d e v e l o p m e n t a r e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t t h i s s t u d y h e l p s us u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e of g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s as w e l l as t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , o f e v e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , by b e i n g a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e c r i t i c a l p o i n t s of c h a n g e , t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s b e t t e r a b l e t o d i r e c t h i s or h e r a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t c l i e n t s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s . A p p r o a c h t o t h e Q u e s t i o n I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most v i a b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h f o r t h i s s t u d y , a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a was u n d e r t a k e n . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e i s much c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e v a l i d i t y o f p s y c h o d r a m a as a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l (D'Amato & Dean, 10 1988; K i p p e r , 1978) and t h i s a r i s e s o u t of an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . P s y c h o d r a m a l i t e r a t u r e c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : r e p o r t s on t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s , c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s , and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . A c u r s o r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e s t h e c o n t e x t f r o m w h i c h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h i s s t u d y was f o r m u l a t e d . B r i e f l y , r e p o r t s on t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s a r e r e p o r t s on t h e r u l e s o f p s y c h o d r a m a , i s s u e s i n r e g a r d s t o p r o c e d u r e s , and v a r i o u s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as t o t h e use o f t h e t e c h n i q u e . Case i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s i n c l u d e f u l l o r p a r t i a l a c c o u n t s o f v a r i o u s c a s e s where p s y c h o d r a m a was t h e method o f t r e a t m e n t . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a r e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e s i g n e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d u n d e r l a b o r a t o r y o r r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . K i p p e r c l a i m s t h a t p r o p o n e n t s of p s y c h o d r a m a t e n d t o f o c u s on t h e f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s e a r c h i n o r d e r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r c l a i m f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s , w h e r e a s c r i t i c s q u e s t i o n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e methods ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s o f p s y c h o d r a m a , h o w e v e r , have been p l a g u e d w i t h 11 m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s ( K i p p e r , 1978; K e l l e r m a n , 1987; D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . B e c a u s e t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h e p e r c e i v e d e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a , a q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h was s o u g h t i n o r d e r t o c a p t u r e and a n a l y z e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who have l i v e d i t . T h i s a p p r o a c h does n o t a t t e m p t t o t a c k l e a n d / o r s o l v e t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , b u t r a t h e r p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r v e h i c l e f o r l o o k i n g a t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . The e x i s t e n t i a l -p h e n o m o n o l o g i c a l method ( C o l a i z z i , 1978) was c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f i t s r i g o u r and i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e meaning o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l who has l i v e d i t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t w h i l e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h r e s t s i n " i t s c a p a c i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g i t s c o n c l u s i o n s i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c m e thod" ( D e l Nuovo e t a l . , 1978, p. 8 7 ) . No a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o do t h i s . I n r e g a r d t o t h e common c r i t i c i s m t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e m ethods l a c k o b j e c t i v i t y and c o n t r o l and a r e t h e r e f o r e 12 n o t v i a b l e as r e s e a r c h t o o l s , C o l a i z z i ( C o l a i z z i , 1978) makes a r e l e v a n t p o i n t . He s t a t e s t h a t when o n l y q u a n t i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s v a l i d , e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f i s t o t a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m s t u d i e s o f human b e i n g s . He t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c method w h i c h he c l a i m s s e p a r a t e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e , and t a k e s t h e s t a n c e t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s / h e r w o r l d a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and s h o u l d n o t be s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a q u a l i t a t i v e method i s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e f o r t h i s s t u d y . By e x p l o r i n g what t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a means t o e a c h p e r s o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s a b l e t o d i s c e r n themes a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s . T h ese themes a r e t h e n f o r m u l a t e d i n t o an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , and f r o m t h i s , an e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e i s r e v e a l e d . A c r u c i a l p o i n t i s t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t m a n i p u l a t e d o r p r e d i c t e d , but i s d e s c r i b e d as i s . 13 D e f i n i t i o n s I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a fr a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e t e r m s used i n t h i s s t u d y , and as w e l l , t o c l a r i f y t h e meaning o f common t e r m s u s e d i n p s y c h o d r a m a , d e f i n i t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d as f o l l o w s . 1. P s y c h o d r a m a : "a method t h a t u s e s d r a m a t i z a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h r o u g h r o l e p l a y i n g e n a c t m e n t s u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s as means f o r a c t i v a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s " ( K i p p e r , 1988, p. 167) . 2. P r o t a g o n i s t : t h e mai n a c t o r i n a p s y c h o d r a m a ; t h e member o f t h e g r o u p who i s s e l e c t e d o r who v o l u n t e e r s t o work on a p r o b l e m . 3. D i r e c t o r : t h e t h e r a p i s t o r g r o u p l e a d e r ; t h e p e r s o n who h e l p s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a and l e a d s him or h e r t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s e v e n t s . 4. A u x i l i a r y ego: a p e r s o n c h o s e n by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t f r o m t h e g r o u p t o a c t o u t a r o l e , e.g. m o t h e r , f a t h e r , b r o t h e r , s i s t e r , e t c . An a u x i l i a r y may a l s o come 1 4 f o r w a r d f r o m t h e g r o u p , u n b i d d e n by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , t o s t a n d b e s i d e o r b e h i n d t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o v o i c e t h o u g h t s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t may be h a v i n g b u t i s u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s . 5. A u d i e n c e : g r o u p members who w i t n e s s t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , become a u x i l i a r i e s when n e e d e d , and t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g a f t e r t h e e n a c t m e n t . 6. S i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e : p r o t a g o n i s t s i n t h i s s t u d y a l l e x p e r i e n c e d what was, i n t h e i r own e y e s , a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a . As " s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a " i s a s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , and t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s on t h e meaning o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who l i v e d i t , no a t t e m p t was made t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h a t t e r m ahead o f t i m e . C h a p t e r Two c o n s i s t s o f a d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h , and as w e l l , b e c a u s e p s y c h o d r a m a c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a p a r t f r o m a g r o u p c o n t e x t , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r i e s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t and g r o u p p r o c e s s . CHAPTER I I : R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 15 I n t r o d u c t i o n The c e n t r a l t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x a m i n e t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h , and as w e l l , b e c a u s e p s y c h o d r a m a c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a p a r t f r o m i t s g r o u p c o n t e x t , t o e x a m i n e t h e o r i e s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t and g r o u p p r o c e s s . P s y c h o d r a m a T h e o r y I n t r o d u c t i o n The c o n c e p t o f g r o u p p s y c h o d r a m a was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by J . P . Moreno j u s t a f t e r t h e F i r s t W o r l d War ( M o r e n o , 1 9 4 6 ) . H i s o b j e c t i v e was, f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , t o " c o n s t r u c t a t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g t h a t u s e s l i f e as a m o d e l , t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o t h e s e t t i n g a l l t h e m o d a l i t i e s o f l i v i n g b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e u n i v e r s a l e s o f t i m e , s p a c e , r e a l i t y , and t h e cosmos and m o v i n g down t o a l l t h e d e t a i l s and n u a n c e s o f l i f e " ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . What makes p s y c h o d r a m a d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i e s i s t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a comes c l o s e s t 16 t o t h e n a t u r a l s c e n a r i o s e x p e r i e n c e d by p e o p l e i n e v e r y d a y l i f e ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1 9 7 6 ) . I t i s an a c t i o n t h e r a p y and i t s b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t p e o p l e l e a r n b e s t t h r o u g h b e c o m i n g d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n a c t i n g o u t c r u c i a l s c e n e s f r o m t h e i r l i v e s , r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y t a l k i n g a b o u t them (Moreno 1958, 1971, 1 9 8 4 ) . I n m o ving beyond t h e v e r b a l t h e r a p i e s , i t becomes a " r e h e a r s a l f o r l i f e " ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . A l t h o u g h Moreno d i d n o t e x p l i c a t e an o r d e r l y s y s t e m o f g r o u p t h e r a p y p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c f a s h i o n , h i s i d e a s and t e c h n i q u e s r e f l e c t a s t r o n g t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e . I n f a c t , he was one of t h e e a r l i e s t p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o t h e o r i z e a b o u t what h a p p e n s i n g r o u p s ( K e l l y , 1 9 8 2 ) . Moreno r e m a i n e d i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e o r y a l l h i s l i f e and i s q u o t e d as s a y i n g t o one o f h i s s t u d e n t s t h a t "... a h e a l e r w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e t h e o r i e s and methods i s l i k e a p a i n t e r w i t h o u t a r m s " ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1976, p. 2 8 1 ) . F o u n d a t i o n and f r a m e w o r k of p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y To u n d e r s t a n d t h e t h e o r y b e h i n d p s y c h o d r a m a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t a r t w i t h what Moreno c o n s i d e r e d t o be 17 t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y , h i s c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , s p a c e , r e a l i t y , and t h e cosmos ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . Time, w h i c h i s commonly v i e w e d t h r o u g h t h e f r a m e w o r k o f p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , i s i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s i n t o a " h e r e - a n d - n o w " a c t i o n f o c u s . F o r e x a m p l e , an a d u l t who i s l i v i n g o u t an e v e n t t h a t h appened when he o r she was s i x y e a r s o l d , i s n o t s e e n as r e g r e s s i n g i n t o t h e p a s t , b u t r a t h e r l i v i n g o u t a h e r e - a n d - n o w m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f t h a t e v e n t . "The c o n c e p t of h e r e and now i n p s y c h o d r a m a t h u s e n c o m p a s s e s p a s t and f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e e v e n t s as t h e y c u r r e n t l y e x i s t i n t h e p e r s o n ' s i n t e r n a l monodrama" ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1976, p . 1 8 ) . M o r e n o ' s c o n c e p t o f s p a c e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g , t h e o f t e n o v e r - l o o k e d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p y p r o c e s s . Moreno c l a i m s t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a p i o n e e r e d a " p s y c h o t h e r a p y of s p a c e " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p. 462) and i t i s t h i s e l e m e n t t h a t c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t f r o m t h e t y p i c a l o f f i c e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e v e r b a l t h e r a p i e s , an e n v i r o n m e n t removed f r o m ' r e a l ' l i f e . I n p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e a c t i n g - o u t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e a l l i f e and Moreno was o f t e n q u o t e d as s a y i n g t h a t " l i f e e q u a l s drama and 18 drama e q u a l s l i f e " ( Moreno & Moreno, 1969, p . 2 8 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e t e r m , ' a c t i n g o u t ' , w h i c h was u s e d c o n t i n u a l l y by Moreno as i t i s by c u r r e n t p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s , i s n o t a r e f e r e n c e t o o p p o s i t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) d e f i n e s ' a c t i n g o u t ' i n p s y c h o d r a m a as " e n a c t m e n t " ( p . 196.) and he goes on t o s a y , "When Moreno u s e d t h e t e r m , he meant a c t i n g o u t t h a t w h i c h i s w i t h i n t h e p e r s o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o r e a c t i n g t o s t i m u l u s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d " ( p . 1 9 7 ) . Moreno e x p l a i n s t h i s p r o c e s s f u r t h e r t h r o u g h h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h i r d u n i v e r s a l , r e a l i t y , w h i c h c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d on t h r e e l e v e l s . I n f r a r e a l i t y i s a " r e d u c e d r e a l i t y " , an i n t e r v i e w t y p e s i t u a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , between d o c t o r and p a t i e n t where a v e r b a l i z e d f o r m o f t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and i m a g i n i n g , t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f a c t i o n . Most c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e i n f r a r e a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e s . A c t u a l r e a l i t y , as t h e name i m p l i e s , r e f e r s t o t h e a c t i o n i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , t h e manner i n w h i c h p e o p l e l i v e t h e i r l i v e s and r e l a t e t o o t h e r s . S u r p l u s r e a l i t y i s more i n t a n g i b l e , and has t o do w i t h what Moreno c a l l s t h e " i n v i s i b l e d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e r e a l i t y o f l i v i n g t h a t a r e n o t f u l l y e x p e r i e n c e d o r e x p r e s s e d " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p. 4 6 3 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a , t h r o u g h u s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f r o l e r e v e r s a l , a u x i l i a r y ego, r o l e p l a y i n g , dream e n a c t m e n t , e t c . ( t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l b e l o w ) t a p s i n t o s u r p l u s r e a l i t y . I t i s a b r o a d e n i n g o f a w a r e n e s s , an e n r i c h e n i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e and a h e i g h t e n i n g o f t h e s e n s e s t h a t d o e s n ' t o f t e n happen on i t s own t h r o u g h e v e r y d a y l i v i n g . F i n a l l y , M o r e n o ' s c o n c e p t o f cosmos r e f e r s t o t h e c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a a c t i o n , t h e a b i l i t y o f a p r o t a g o n i s t t o be an a n i m a l , a human, o r an i m a g i n a r y b e i n g . T h i s i s s e e n n o t as a r e g r e s s i v e a c t , b u t r a t h e r as a c r e a t i v e a c t i o n . Moreno s t a t e s : " J u s t l i k e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t i m e , s p a c e , and r e a l i t y , t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e cosmos must be so i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g t h a t i t has e x p e r i e n t i a l and e x i s t e n t i a l v a l u e f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t I n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c w o r l d , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e t ween t h e s e x e s i s o v e r l o o k e d and s u r p a s s e d . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n age a r e a l s o o v e r l o o k e d . The f a c t s o f b i r t h and d e a t h a r e o v e r l o o k e d . The u n b o r n and dead a r e b r o u g h t t o l i f e on t h e p s y c h o d r a m a s t a g e . These e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o 20 t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y and i m a g i n i n g s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p . 4 6 5 ) . The f o u n d a t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a a l s o r e s t s on M o r e n o ' s a c t i o n c o n c e p t o f r o l e . T h i s c o n c e p t b r i d g e d t h e gap b e t ween p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y ( C l a y t o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . I t moved t h e f o c u s o f p s y c h o l o g y away f r o m l o o k i n g o n l y a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n i s o l a t i o n , t o w a r d s l o o k i n g a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . M o r e n o ' s w h o l e t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i s b a s e d on r o l e c o n c e p t . He d e s c r i b e d r o l e as " t h e f u n c t i o n i n g f o r m a p e r s o n assumes i n t h e s p e c i f i c moment he r e a c t s t o a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h o t h e r p e r s o n s o r o b j e c t s a r e i n v o l v e d " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p. 471 ) . Moreno c l a i m e d t h a t " R o l e p l a y i n g comes b e f o r e t h e emergence of t h e s e l f . R o l e s do n o t emerge f r o m t h e s e l f ; t h e s e l f emerges f r o m r o l e s " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p. 4 7 1 ) . Moreno t a l k e d t o h i s s t u d e n t s a b o u t " a c t h u n g e r " w h i c h he d e f i n e d as " . . . t h e need i n p e o p l e t o a c t beyond or a t l e a s t i n c o n s o r t w i t h t h e i r v e r b a l i z a t i o n s and i n n e r t h o u g h t s " ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1976, p. 1 4 ) . I n p s y c h o d r a m a , t h i s e n a c t m e n t o r a c t i n g o u t , as has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d , i s a c o r e p a r t o f t h e c hange 21 p r o c e s s . " I n i t s w i d e s t c o n n o t a t i o n , a c t i n g o u t i n p s y c h o d r a m a r e f e r s t o a l l o u t p u t o f an o r g a n i s m , a l l o v e r t b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g . A p e r s o n may move a b o u t , s t a n d s t i l l , p u sh and p u l l , make s o u n d s o r g e s t u r e s o r p r o n o u n c e w o r d s . I t i s a l l a c t i n g o u t . . . . c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e u n i v e r s a l a c t i o n l a n g u a g e . . . . I n p s y c h o d r a m a , p a t i e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o do what comes t o t h e i r b ody-mind i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i o n " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1984, pp. 197, 2 0 2 ) . Moreno saw p s y c h o d r a m a as a t y p e o f " s p o n t a n e i t y t h e a t r e " ( H a r e , 1986) where he overcame t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w een a u d i e n c e and a c t o r s , by e l i m i n a t i n g t h e a u d i e n c e and d e c l a r i n g t h a t e v e r y o n e i s a p o t e n t i a l a c t o r . T h e r e was no room f o r s p e c t a t o r s i n Moreno's t h e a t r e , and t h e a c t o r s were r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e i r s c r i p t s by p l a y i n g t h e m s e l v e s . Moreno c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s f r e e d p e o p l e t o e x p e r i e n c e l i f e as i t i s l i v e d , and t h a t t h e s p l i t b e t w een t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e r a p y and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e a l l i f e became e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , he b e l i e v e d t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a c o u l d add a r i c h n e s s t o l i f e u n a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o t h e r f o r m s of t h e r a p y , and s t a t e d t h a t 22 " P s y c h o d r a m a e n a b l e s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o b u i l d a b r i d g e beyond t h e r o l e s he p l a y s i n h i s d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , t o s u r p a s s and t r a n s c e n d t h e r e a l i t y o f l i f e as he l i v e s i t , t o g e t i n t o a d e e p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e x i s t e n c e , t o come a s c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e h i g h e s t f o r m o f e n c o u n t e r o f w h i c h he i s c a p a b l e " (Moreno and Moreno, 1969, p. 2 9 ) . I n t i m e , h i s c o l l e a g u e s w o u l d use t e r m s s u c h as " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l " and " b r e a k t h r o u g h " t o d e s c r i b e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1976; N i c h o l a s , 1 9 8 4 ) . The t h r e e s t a g e s i n c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a Moreno c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r i m a c y o f t h e g r o u p t o be c r i t i c a l i n p s y c h o d r a m a ( M o r e n o , 1946) and u s e d t h e power o f t h e g r o u p i n a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o r ma i n a c t o r i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . To d a t e , c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a i s c o n d u c t e d much t h e same way as a d v o c a t e d by Moreno (D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . The g r o u p p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p h a s e s : t h e warm-up, t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e n a c t m e n t , and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n phase (Remer, 1 9 8 6 ) . A l l a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y t o t h e t h e r a p e u t i c o u t c o m e . 23 The warm-up i n p s y c h o d r a m a i s t h e t i m e when t h e f o u n d a t i o n i s l a i d f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s h e r e t h a t g r o u p members become a c q u a i n t e d , s h a r e e x p e r i e n c e s and g o a l s , and g e n e r a l l y become t u n e d i n t o and c o g n i z a n t o f p e r s o n a l a g e n d a s as w e l l as t h e needs o f o t h e r s . D u r i n g t h e warm-up, t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i s t o work on a p r o b l e m i s i d e n t i f i e d , and b e g i n s t o s e t t h e s c e n e f o r t h e a c t i o n . The e n a c t m e n t i s t h e a c t i o n p a r t o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e phase most commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t e r m 'drama'. H e r e , a r i c h a r r a y o f o p t i o n s and t e c h n i q u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . W i t h t h e h e l p o f o t h e r g r o u p members, an i n d i v i d u a l may a c t o u t p a s t s c e n e s f r o m h i s or h e r l i f e , s c e n e s t h a t were a s o u r c e o f c o n f l i c t , f r u s t r a t i o n , f e a r , a n g e r . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h e r e h e a r s a l o f a f u t u r e e v e n t , o r t h e t e l l i n g o f a l i f e s t o r y i n f r o n t o f an a u d i e n c e . A key t o t h e e n a c t m e n t phase i s t h a t some r e s o l u t i o n i s a c h i e v e d . E n d i n g s o f o l d s t o r i e s a r e c h a n g e d . New p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e t r i e d o u t . R e s o l u t i o n h e r e d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y mean s o l u t i o n , o r some h i g h i n t e n s i t y b r e a k t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e . E n a c t m e n t m i g h t s i m p l y be t h e f i r s t s t e p a p r o t a g o n s t t a k e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a p r o b l e m . F o r t h e 2 4 d i r e c t o r , e n a c t m e n t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a g n o s i s . The i n t e g r a t i o n p h a s e i n v o l v e s a s h a r i n g on t h e p a r t o f a l l g r o u p members. I t i s a t i m e when g r o u p members g e t i n t o u c h w i t h t h e i r own f e e l i n g s , s h a r i n g how t h e y were a f f e c t e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e , and what g o t t r i g g e r e d o f f f o r them. Moreno c l a i m e d t h a t a l l who a r e p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a b e n e f i t f r o m i t . The i n t e g r a t i o n phase a l s o i s a t i m e when t h e p r o t a g o n i s t b e g i n s t o work t h r o u g h h i s or h e r e x p e r i e n c e and r e s t o r e e q u i l i b r i u m ( C o r e y , 1 9 8 5 ) . B l a t n e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t does t h i s by d e v e l o p i n g some s o r t o f m a s t e r y o v e r t h e p r o b l e m , by r e c e i v i n g s u p p o r t and f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e g r o u p , and by s t a r t i n g t o p r a c t i c e new b e h a v i o u r s . B l a t n e r goes on t o s a y t h a t t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n phase d o e s n ' t end w i t h t h e g r o u p s e s s i o n and c a n go on f o r months. Key e l e m e n t s o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y M o r e n o ' s t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y and p s y c h o t h e r a p y i s b a s e d on a number o f key e l e m e n t s and t h e s e i n c l u d e 25 s p o n t a n e i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , s i t u a t i o n , t e l e , c a t h a r s i s , and i n s i g h t ( G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . 1. s p o n t a n e i t y and c r e a t i v i t y S p o n t a n e i t y i s d e f i n e d by Moreno as a " r e s p o n s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o a new s i t u a t i o n and t h e new r e s p o n s e t o an o l d s i t u a t i o n " ( M o r e n o , 1946, p . 5 0 ) . I t i s t h e " a r c h c a t a l y z e r o f c r e a t i v i t y " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p . 4 6 7 ) . N i c h o l a s ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s p o n t a n e i t y has n o t been a d e q u a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d i n p s y c h o l o g y and t h a t Moreno was one o f t h e few i n d i v i d u a l s who gave s p o n t a n e i t y i t s r i g h t f u l e m p h a s i s i n b e h a v i o u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Moreno b e l i e v e d t h a t s p o n t a n e i t y was t h e b a s i c l i f e f o r c e and was a c a t a l y s t f o r o u r f e e l i n g s , o u r t h o u g h t s , and f o r our c r e a t i v i t y . He saw i t as t h e c o r e p r o b l e m o f p s y c h o l o g y ( M o r e n o , 1 9 6 4 ) , and a l o n g w i t h c r e a t i v i t y , t h e " h i g h e s t common d o m i n a t o r " of m a n k i n d ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . The o p p o s i t e o f s p o n t a n e i t y i s r i g i d , r o b o t i c t y p e b e h a v i o u r . Y a b l o n s k y ( 1 9 7 6 ) who t r a i n e d u n d e r Moreno, c o i n e d t h e t e r m ' r o b o p a t h ' " t o d e s c r i b e p e o p l e who have s u f f e r e d t h e a f f l i c t i o n o f s o c i a l d e a t h i n t h e i r l i v e s t o t h e p o i n t where t h e y e n a c t r o b o t r o l e s " ( p . 2 4 7 ) . 26 R o b o p a t h i s d e f i n e d "as t h e p a t h o l o g y o f r o b o t b e h a v i o r " and Y a b l o n s k y goes on t o say t h a t a l t h o u g h " p s y c h o d r a m a i s a method f o r d e a l i n g w i t h a v a r i e t y o f human d i l e m m a s and p r o b l e m s , i t was c o n c e i v e d by Moreno i n i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t s e n s e as a v e h i c l e f o r c o u n t e r - a t t a c k i n g t h e g r o w i n g p r o b l e m o f r o b o p a t h o l o g y i n i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e l a r g e r p r o b l e m o f t h e d e a t h o f a h u m a n i s t i c s o c i e t y " ( Y a b l o n s k y , 1976, p . 2 4 7 ) . 2. s i t u a t i o n S i t u a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as t h e p r e s e n t moment, t h e " i n s i t u " , t h e " h e r e and now". I n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e i s no p a s t o r f u t u r e , and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e has no meaning ( G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . At t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h e c o n c e p t o f e n c o u n t e r . I t s e r v e s as t h e c o r e o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and a l w a y s comes f i r s t , b e f o r e p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a n a l y s i s ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . 3. t e l e T e l e has t o do w i t h t h e f e e l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s have f o r one a n o t h e r (Moreno 1 9 4 6 ) . U n l i k e empathy, i t has a two-way d i r e c t i o n , i t i s "a d u a l message s e n d i n g s e r v i c e . . . . t h e a b i l i t y t o p e n e t r a t e and u n d e r s t a n d 27 a n o t h e r p e r s o n w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l a n g u a g e " (Goldman and M o r r i s o n , 1984, p. 4 ) . 4. c a t h a r s i s C a t h a r s i s , a l o n g w i t h i n s i g h t , i s an e n d - p r o d u c t of t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s p o n t a n e i t y and t e l e t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n t h e s i t u a t i o n ( G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . Moreno u s e s t h e t e r m ' c a t h a r s i s ' t o mean e m o t i o n a l p u r g i n g . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) d e s c r i b e s i t as t h e " r e l e a s e o f s t o r e d up c o n t e n t t h r o u g h a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ( o b s e r v a b l e s u r f a c e c h a n g e s i n f a c e , body, v o i c e , a n d / o r b e h a v i o r ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c a t h a r s i s i s t h e p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e o f r e l e a s e t h a t o c c u r s when a l o n g s t a n d i n g s t a t e o f i n n e r m o b i l i z a t i o n ( w a r m i n g up) f i n d s i t s o u t l e t i n a c t i o n " ( p . 3 ) . I n p s y c h o d r a m a , c a t h a r s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " m a j o r c u r a t i v e f a c t o r " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1984) b u t a t t h e same t i m e , i t seems " m o n s t r o u s l y o v e r v a l u e d " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1 9 8 4 ) . K e l l e r m a n s t a t e s t h a t i t i s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f c a t h a r s i s t h a t c a u s e s most t r o u b l e h e r e and t h a t Moreno " e n l a r g e d t h e o r i g i n a l e t y m o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g o f c a t h a r s i s t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y r e l e a s e and r e l i e f o f e m o t i o n s , but a l s o i n t e g r a t i o n and o r d e r i n g ; n o t o n l y i n t e n s e r e l i v i n g o f t h e p a s t , b u t a l s o i n t e n s e l i v i n g i n t h e h e r e - a n d - n o w ; n o t o n l y p a s s i v e , v e r b a l 28 ' r e f l e c t i o n , b u t a l s o an a c t i v e , n o n v e r b a l e n a c t m e n t ; n o t o n l y a p r i v a t e r i t u a l , b u t a l s o a communal, s h a r e d r i t e o f h e a l i n g ; n o t o n l y an i n t r a p h y s i c t e n s i o n r e d u c t i o n , b u t a l s o an i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n ; n o t o n l y m e d i c a l p u r i f i c a t i o n , b u t a l s o a r e l i g i o u s and a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1984, p . 1 0 ) . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) d e f i n e s c a t h a r s i s as an e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e , a c o g n i t i v e r e l e a s e , and an a c t i o n a l r e l e a s e . The e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e e n c o m p a s s e s "a w i d e r a n g e of c h a n g e s i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s ( c a r d i o v a s c u l a r , r e s p i r a t o r y , m u s c u l o s k e l e t a l , g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l , e t c . ) , as w e l l as i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s (memory, i m a g i n a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , j u d g m e n t , e t c . ) " ( p . 3 - 4 ) . The c o g n i t i v e r e l e a s e i s t h e w e l l known 'aha!' e x p e r i e n c e , t h e s h o c k of r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t P e r l s t a l k e d a b o u t ( P e r l s , 1969, p . 2 3 6 ) . The a c t i o n a l r e l e a s e h a p p e n s when " e a r l i e r e v e n t s and t h e e m o t i o n a l r e s i d u e s a r e r e p e a t e d i n a c t i o n v i a a d i r e c t m o tor e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t r a p s y c h i c p r o c e s s e s , where i n n e r t e n s i o n s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o o v e r t b e h a v i o r " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1984, p . 4 ) . K e l l e r m a n s t a t e s t h a t a l l t h r e e a s p e c t s t o g e t h e r a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e 29 c a t h a r t i c p r o c e s s where " s o m e t h i n g c l o s e d i n , w i t h a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y t o g e t o u t , i s t h e n l e t o u t " ( p . 4 ) . B l a t n e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) u s e d a d i f f e r e n t y e t somewhat s i m i l a r f r a m e w o r k t o e x p l o r e c a t h a r s i s , a f r a m e w o r k t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s f o u r s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h s e r v e t o c l a r i f y t h e p r o c e s s o f c hange t h r o u g h p s y c h o d r a m a . He c a l l s t h e e m o t i o n a l e l e m e n t t h e c a t h a r s i s o f a b r e a c t i o n , t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g s t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y been d i s o w n e d and a r e a l l o w e d t o s u r f a c e t h r o u g h t h e p s y c h o d r a m a a c t i o n . The c a t h a r s i s of i n t e g r a t i o n comes n e x t , and t h i s i s d e f i n e d as "an e x p a n s i o n of t h e s e n s e o f s e l f t o i n c l u d e new r o l e f u n c t i o n s t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d as i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i d e n t i t y " ( B l a t n e r , 1985, p . 1 6 1 ) . B l a t n e r c l a i m s t h a t t h i s e x p a n s i o n i s o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h a s e n s e o f r e l i e f and a f e e l i n g o f l i g h t n e s s . The c a t h a r s i s of i n c l u s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t one b e l o n g s i n a c e r t a i n s o c i a l n e t w o r k , t h a t one can a c t u a l l y be o n e s e l f and be a c c e p t e d . F i n a l l y , s p i r i t u a l c a t h a r s i s o c c u r s when an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s an even h i g h e r l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t has t o do w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h u l t i m a t e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , w i t h t h e 30 u n i v e r s e , w i t h w h o l e n e s s , o r w i t h God. T h i s d i m e n s i o n i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d i n p s y c h o l o g y and B l a t n e r c l a i m s t h a t i t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d as a g o a l i n h e a l i n g and p e r s o n a l g r o w t h ( B l a t n e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Y a l o m ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e c o r r e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ( Y a l o m , 1975) i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t c o n t a i n s t h e same e l e m e n t s as B l a t n e r ' s f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f c a t h a r s i s . Yalom ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e p o r t s e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o r r e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s a p r i m a r y c u r a t i v e f a c t o r i n g r o u p t h e r a p y . P s y c h o d r a m a i n t e n s i f i e s and h a s t e n s t h e c o r r e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ( N i c h o l a s , 1984) . 5. I n s i g h t I n s i g h t i s t h e f i n a l key e l e m e n t i n Moreno's t h e o r y o f t h e r a p e u t i c c hange t h r o u g h p s y c h o d r a m a . I n s i g h t may o c c u r as an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e c a t h a r s i s as d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , or a f t e r t h e c a t h a r s i s t h r o u g h t h e s h a r i n g of t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e o t h e r g r o u p members ( G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . I t has been d e f i n e d as t h e " r e s u l t o f p e r c e p t u a l o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g t h a t b r i n g s a b o u t an i m m e d i a t e s o l u t i o n t o a p r o b l e m " ( G r e e n b e r g , 1974, p. 1 9 ) . A l t h o u g h Moreno r e g a r d e d i n s i g h t as a 31 c a t e g o r y s e p a r a t e f r o m c a t h a r s i s , he a p p e a r s t o be t a l k i n g a b o u t i n s i g h t when he d i s c u s s e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n and o r d e r i n g phase o f c a t h a r s i s . R u l e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a The t h e o r y b e h i n d p s y c h o d r a m a c a n be f u r t h e r u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t s r u l e s and t e c h n i q u e s . T h e r e a r e f i f t e e n b a s i c r u l e s (Moreno & Moreno, 1969, pp. 233 - 2 3 8 ) : 1. "The s u b j e c t ( p a t i e n t , c l i e n t , p r o t a g o n i s t ) a c t s o u t h i s c o n f l i c t s , i n s t e a d o f t a l k i n g - a b o u t them". T h i s i s done e i t h e r on a p s y c h o d r a m a s t a g e o r any i n f o r m a l room o r s p a c e where c h a i r s and o t h e r o b j e c t s can be moved a b o u t f r e e l y . 2. "The s u b j e c t o r p a t i e n t a c t s ' i n t h e h e r e and now', r e g a r d l e s s o f when t h e a c t u a l i n c i d e n t t o o k p l a c e o r may t a k e p l a c e , p a s t , p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e , o r when t h e i m a g i n e d i n c i d e n t was f a n t a s i e d , o r when t h e c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n o u t o f w h i c h t h i s p r e s e n t e n a c t m e n t a r o s e , o c c u r r e d . " T h i s e n h a n c e s t h e r e a l l i f e q u a l i t y o f t h e 32 s i t u a t i o n and removes i t f r o m t h e l e v e l o f s t o r y t e l l i n g and a c t i n g . 3. "The s u b j e c t must a c t o u t ' h i s t r u t h ' , as he f e e l s and p e r c e i v e s i t , i n a c o m p l e t e l y s u b j e c t i v e manner (no m a t t e r how d i s t o r t e d t h i s a p p e a r s t o t h e s p e c t a t o r ) . " Moreno c l a i m s t h a t " a c t c o m p l e t i o n " must o c c u r b e f o r e r e - t r a i n i n g f o r b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e s . 4. "The p a t i e n t i s e n c o u r a g e d t o m a x i m i z e a l l e x p r e s s i o n , a c t i o n , and v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t o r e d u c e i t . " A l l t y p e s o f e x p r e s s i o n a r e a l l o w e d t o be p a r t o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n and t h i s i n c l u d e s " d e l u s i o n s , h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , s o l i l o q u i e s , t h o u g h t s , f a n t a s i e s , and p r o j e c t i o n s " . 5. "The warming up p r o e s s p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e p e r i p h e r y t o t h e c e n t e r . " The p s y c h o d r a m a b e g i n s a t a more s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l ( t h e warm-up) and t h e n d e e p e n s . 6. "Wherever p o s s i b l e , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t w i l l p i c k t h e t i m e , t h e p l a c e , t h e s c e n e , t h e a u x i l i a r y ego he r e q u i r e s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i s p s y c h o d r a m a . " The key c o n c e p t h e r e i s t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r ( t h e t h e r a p i s t ) and 33 t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ( t h e c l i e n t ) a r e s e e n as p a r t n e r s i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . 7. " P s y c h o d r a m a i s j u s t as much a method of r e s t r a i n t as i t i s a method of e x p r e s s i o n . " Moreno c l a i m s t h a t t h r o u g h e x p r e s s i o n , one a l s o c a n l e a r n r e s t r a i n t , and t h i s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e d e l i n q u e n t or p s y c h o p a t h . 8. "The p a t i e n t i s p e r m i t t e d t o be as u n s p o n t a n e o u s or i n e x p r e s s i v e as he i s a t t h i s t i m e . " Moreno c l a i m s t h a t " e x p r e s s i v e n e s s a t any p r i c e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s p o n t a n e o u s . I t may be a c o v e r - u p f o r g e n u i n e f e e l i n g s , as f o r i n s t a n c e , by p r o d u c i n g a s t e a d y f l o w o f words and a c t i o n s " . 9. " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i n s i g h t - g i v i n g i n p s y c h o d r a m a i s o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e f r o m t h e v e r b a l t y p e s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . I n p s y c h o d r a m a we s p e a k o f a c t i o n i n s i g h t , a c t i o n l e a r n i n g , or a c t i o n c a t h a r s i s " . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n p s y c h o d r a m a i s an i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s . 34 10. "Even when i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s g i v e n , a c t i o n i s p r i m a r y . T h e r e c a n be no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s a c t i o n . " 11. "Warming up t o p s y c h o d r a m a may p r o c e e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e and a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n g e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e method have t o be made." 12. " P s y c h o d r a m a s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t o f t h r e e p o r t i o n s : t h e warm-up, t h e a c t i o n p o r t i o n and t h e p o s t - a c t i o n s h a r i n g by t h e g r o u p . D i s t u r b a n c e s i n any one o f t h e s e a r e a s r e f l e c t on t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s " . 13. "The p r o t a g o n i s t s h o u l d n e v e r be l e f t w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he i s a l l a l o n e w i t h t h i s t y p e o f p r o b l e m i n t h i s g r o u p . " 14. "The p r o t a g o n i s t must l e a r n t o t a k e t h e r o l e o f a l l t h o s e w i t h whom he i s m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d , t o e x p e r i e n c e t h o s e p e r s o n s i n h i s s o c i a l atom, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o him and t o one a n o t h e r . " 15. "The d i r e c t o r must t r u s t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a method as t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r and g u i d e i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . " 35 T e c h n i q u e s i n c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a T h e r e a r e a number of t e c h n i q u e s commonly u s e d i n c l a s s i c a l p s y c h o d r a m a : ( a ) s o l i l o q u y and t h e r a p e u t i c s o l i l o q u y A s o l i l o q u y i s a monologue of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a s i t u a t i o n t h a t h e / s h e has c r e a t e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a t h e r a p e u t i c s o l i l o q u y i s " t h e p o r t r a y a l by s i d e d i a l o g u e s and s i d e a c t i o n s o f h i d d e n t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s , p a r a l l e l w i t h o v e r t t h o u g h t s and a c t i o n s " ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . ( b ) s e l f p r e s e n t a t i o n The p r o t a g o n i s t s a c t s o u t a l l t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s o f m o t h e r , f a t h e r , h u s b a n d , w i f e , c h i l d , e t c . as he or she e x p e r i e n c e s o r p e r c e i v e s them. ( c ) s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n The p r o t a g o n i s t a c t s o u t f u t u r e l i f e p l a n s , no m a t t e r how u n r e a l i s t i c o r u n o b t a i n a b l e t h e y m i g h t a p p e a r t o be. 36 ( d ) h a l l u c i n a t o r y p s y c h o d r a m a The p r o t a g o n i s t a c t s o u t h a l l u c i n a t i o n s and d e l u s i o n s as he o r she e x p e r i e n c e s them, u s i n g a u x i l i a r y egos and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h them as means o f r e a l i t y t e s t i n g . ( e ) d o u b l e The p r o t a g o n i s t p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f , w h i l e an a u x i l i a r y ego p l a y s a n o t h e r s i d e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . ( f ) m u l t i p l e d o u b l e A number o f a u x i l i a r y egos p l a y v a r i o u s s i d e s of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . ( g ) m i r r o r When t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f , an a u x i l i a r y ego w i l l become t h e p r o t a g o n i s t w h i l e t h e p r o t a g o n i s t w a t c h e s , s e a t e d w i t h t h e g r o u p . ( h ) r o l e r e v e r s a l The p r o t a g o n i s t r e v e r s e s r o l e s w i t h t h e p e r s o n h e / s h e i s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e w i f e becomes t h e h u s b a n d and v i c e v e r s a . 37 ( i ) dream work The p r o t a g o n i s t r e e n a c t s a dream. U n l i k e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c methods of dream a n a l y s i s , no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s o f f e r e d . D i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e dream a r e a c t e d o u t by a u x i l i a r y egos o r by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f , and t h e p r o t a g o n i s t c a n t r y c h a n g i n g v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f t h e dream. ( j ) d i d a c t i c p s y c h o d r a m a P s y c h o d r a m a i s a l s o u s e d as a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e ( Z . M o reno, 1983) w h e r e , f o r e x a m p l e , s t u d e n t s u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n c a n a c t o u t c l i e n t r o l e s r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y t a l k i n g a b o u t them. I n summary, Moreno d e f i n e d p s y c h o d r a m a as a p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g a b r i d g e beyond t h e r o l e s a p e r s o n p l a y s i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , t o t r a n s c e n d t h e r e a l i t y o f l i f e as he or she e x p e r i e n c e s i t r i g h t now and "... t o come as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e h i g h e s t f o r m o f e n c o u n t e r o f w h i c h he i s c a p a b l e " (Moreno & Moreno, 1969, p. 29) 38 B u i l d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : A f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e o r y P r e s e n t l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y e x i s t s a r o u n d p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y and t e r m i n o l o g y ( K e l l e r m a n , 1 9 8 7 ) . K e l l e r m a n f e e l s t h a t "The t e r m i n o l o g y o f ' p s y c h o d r a m a r e m a i n s o b s c u r e , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s l a c k a c o h e r e n t t h e o r y t o a i d i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r c o n c e p t u a l e x i s t e n c e " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1987, p. 7 8 ) . He p r o c e e d s t o d e f i n e p s y c h o d r a m a i n a way w h i c h i s f r e e f r o m a s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s what he c a l l s h i s " c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a " : P s y c h o d r a m a i s a method of p s y c h o t h e r a p y i n w h i c h c l i e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o c o n t i n u e and c o m p l e t e t h e i r a c t i o n s t h r o u g h d r a m a t i z a t i o n , r o l e p l a y i n g , and d r a m a t i c s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n . B o t h v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e u t i l i z e d . . A number o f s c e n e s a r e e n a c t e d , d e p i c t i n g , f o r e x a m p p l e , memories o f s p e c i f i c h a p p e n i n g s i n t h e p a s t , u n f i n i s h e d s i t u a t i o n s , i n n e r dramas, f a n t a s i e s , d r e a m s , p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r i s k - t a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s , or s i m p l y u n r e h e a r s e d e x p r e s s i o n s o f m e n t a l s t a t e s i n t h e h e r e and now. These 39 s c e n e s a p p r o x i m a t e r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s o r a r e e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n s o f m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s f r o m w i t h i n . I f r e q u i r e d , o t h e r p a r t s may be t a k e n by g r o u p members or by i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . Many t e c h n i q u e s a r e e m p l o y e d , s u c h as r o l e r e v e r s a l , d o u b l i n g , m i r r o r i n g , c o n c r e t i z i n g , m a x i m i z i n g , and s o l i l o q u y . U s u a l l y , t h e p h a s e s of warm up, a c t i o n , w o r k i n g - t h r o u g h , c l o s u r e , and s h a r i n g c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ( K e l l e r m a n , 1987, P. 7 9 ) . K e l l e r m a n s t a t e d t h a t he hoped h i s d e f i n i t i o n w o u l d h e l p u n i t e p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t o one common f r a m e w o r k , a l t h o u g h t h e y came f r o m d i v e r s e t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . However, K i p p e r ( 1 9 8 8 ) a r g u e s t h a t even a t h e o r y f r e e d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a r e q u i r e s a s e t of a s s u m p t i o n s . "The p r e s e n t c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n t h a t stems f r o m a new c o n c e p t u a l o u t l o o k r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t human n a t u r e as w e l l as e m p i r i c a l s u p p o s i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g b e h a v i o r and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Such a r a t i o n a l e w o u l d p r o v i d e a d e f e n s i b l e p o s t u r e a g a i n s t t h e argument t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e r e s t s on u n s y s t e m a t i c , u t i l i t a r i a n s e t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s " ( p . 1 6 6 ) . 40 K i p p e r ( 1 9 8 8 ) o u t l i n e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n s b e h i n d h i s " b e h a v i o r s i m u l a t i o n p a r a d i g m " and o f f e r s i t as a r a t i o n a l e f o r h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a . A s y n o p s i s o f h i s b e h a v i o r s i m u l a t i o n p a r a d i g m i s as f o l l o w s : human b e i n g s have t h e a b i l i t y t o a c t and r o l e p l a y and i n an e f f o r t t o m a s t e r t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them," t h e y c a n p r o d u c e b e h a v i o r v o l i t i o n a l l y . When t h e i r e f f o r t s f a i l , c o r r e c t i v e m e a s u r e s c a n be c r e a t e d u n d e r s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e b e t t e r c o p i n g . These s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s " i n v o l v e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t ween p a r t i c u l a r s e t s o f b e h a v i o r s and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n " and " t h e s e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d i s t i n c t p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l ( e x p e r i e n t i a l ) s t a t e s t h a t a c t i v a t e o r e m p h a s i z e d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s " ( K i p p e r , 1988, p. 1 6 6 ) . B u i l d i n g on t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f h i s b e h a v i o r s i m u l a t i o n p a r a d i g m , K i p p e r p r o p o s e s a new d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a , "a method t h a t u s e s d r a m a t i z a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h r o u g h r o l e p l a y i n g e n a c t m e n t s u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s as means f o r a c t i v a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s " ( K i p p e r , 1988, p.167) . 41 P s y c h o d r a m a R e s e a r c h G e n e r a l o v e r v i e w S i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a i n 1923, t h e r e has been an o n g o i n g c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t i t s t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s , m a i n l y b e c a u s e i t s t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s and methods a r e n o t e m p i r i c a l l y b a s e d (D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f a g r e a t number of r e p o r t s on t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s and c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s , t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s ( K i p p e r , 1978; D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . Many p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f p s y c h o d r a m a c l a i m , a l o n g w i t h Moreno ( 1 9 6 4 ) t h a t a l l who p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t b e n e f i t f r o m i t , but i t i s n o t c l e a r why t h e r e i s a l a c k o f r e s e a r c h t o v a l i d a t e t h i s c l a i m ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . One r e a s o n c o u l d be t h a t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e , p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s e a r c h and how r e s e a r c h c o u l d o f f e r c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e t o o t h e r c l i n i c i a n s ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , p r a c t i t i o n e r s have t e n d e d t o r e l y more on e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e r a t h e r t h a n e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h d a t a 42 ( K e l l e r m a n , 1 9 8 7 ) . They have c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a method i t s e l f d e m o n s t r a t e s i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s when p r a c t i c e d ( G r e e n b e r g , 1968, 1974; Kahn, 1964; Moreno, 1934, 1964; S t a r r , 1977; Y a b l o n s k y , 1 9 7 6 ) . " P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s become what p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s see as b e i n g r e s e a r c h " (D'Amato & Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e c o v e r i n g t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s o f p s y c h o d r a m a i s v o l u m i n o u s . Moreno h i m s e l f , b e t ween 1911 and 1956 p u b l i s h e d o v e r 80 a r t i c l e s and b o o k s t h a t a r e o v e r v i e w s o f t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g i e s (D'Amato and Dean, 1 9 8 8 ) . S i n c e t h a t t i m e many more books have been p u b l i s h e d ( f o r e x a m p l e : B l a t n e r , 1973; G r e e n b e r g , 1968, 1974; Moreno, 1964; S t a r r , 1977; Y a b l o n s k y , 1976; Goldman and M o r r i s o n , 1984; L a n d y , 1986; J e n n i n g s , 1 9 8 7 ) . Case i l l u s t r a t i o n r e p o r t s c o n t a i n e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e c a s e s t u d i e s o r s e g me n t e d a c c o u n t s o f c a s e s t r e a t e d w i t h p s y c h o d r a m a ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . They a l s o p e r t a i n t o t r e a t m e n t s made i n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s and w i t h a w i d e r a n g e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . B o t h H e i s e y ( 1 9 8 2 ) , as w e l l as Goldman and M o r r i s o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) r e p r e s e n t t h e most r e c e n t e x a m p l e s of t h i s t y p e 43 of w ork. They o f f e r comments on d o z e n s of c a s e s as a way of i l l u s t r a t i n g and e x a m i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s of p s y c h o d r a m a , but t h e y f a i l t o o f f e r an i n d e p t h s t u d y of any one c a s e , and t h e y f o c u s o n l y on n a r r o w p a r t s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n c l u d e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t a r e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e s i g n e d and a r e c o n d u c t e d e i t h e r u n d e r l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s or r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . These pose a number of p r o b l e m s , a l l c e n t e r e d a r o u n d p r o b l e m s o f d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a t r e a t m e n t , and as w e l l , t h e m e t h o d o l o g y used t o d e t e r m i n e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r e a t m e n t and t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , t h e d i r e c t o r , and t h e p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l ( K i p p e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . No a t t e m p t w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n h e r e t o r e v i e w and comment on t h e main body o f r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e as K i p p e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) and D'Amato and Dean ( 1 9 8 8 ) have done, but r a t h e r t o f o c u s s p e c i f i c a l l y on r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d on s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a , w h i c h i s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . 44 D e l Nuovo, S p i e l b e r g , and G i l l i s D e l Nuovo, S p i e l b e r g , and G i l l i s ( 1 9 7 8 ) u s e d a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e of s p o n t a n e i t y . The l o g i c b e h i n d t h e i r a p p r o a c h was t h a t i f t h e y t r i e d t o q u a n t i f y t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p o n t a n e i t y , c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t o r t i o n w o u l d r e s u l t b e c a u s e t h e m e a n ing of t h e e x p e r i e n c e I S t h e m easurement. They c l a i m t h a t o t h e r f o r m s o f m e a s u r i n g o n l y s e r v e t o remove t h e r e s e a r c h e r away f r o m t h e s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e . They f o u n d s i x c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i p t i v e of t h e s p o n t a n e o u s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n t h e i r own w o r d s : 1. P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s : a k e e n s e n s e of e x c i t e m e n t , a c u t e a b i l i t y t o a p p r e c i a t e b o d i l y s e n s a t i o n s , and an e n e r g y f l o w w i t h i n t h e p e r s o n of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . 2. A l t e r e d c o g n i t i o n s : a c o g n i t i v e s h i f t , a new i n t e g r a t i o n of s e l v e s and w o r l d a b o u t them, a new s e n s e o f c l a r i t y w h i c h c r y s t a l l i z e s c h o i c e and f a c i l i t a t e s d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g r i s k . 45 3. A l t e r a t i o n o f s e l f a w a r e n e s s : t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d and unaware o f a u d i e n c e . A s h i f t i n t h e b a s i c f i g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f and t h e o u t e r w o r l d . 4. S u p r a - r e a l i t y : t h e s p o n t a n e o u s e x p e r i e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s e t f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o a l l o w h i m s e l f t o do i n f a n t a s y beyond h i s or h e r p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e and a c t i v e l y t e s t o u t new p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s , a n d / o r f e e l i n g s . E x p e r i e n c e o f s u p r a - r e a l i t y i s a more a c t i v e component w h i c h i s l a c k i n g i n t h e t h i n k i n g o r i e n t e d c a t e g o r y of a l t e r e d c o g n i t i o n s . 5. E x p e r i e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l autonomy and p o t e n c y : a g r e a t e r s e n s e of a c t i v i t y w h i c h f e e l s i n n e r d i r e c t e d , a renewed c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and a g r e a t e r s e n s e of c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l own l i v e s . 6. Sense o f d i s c o v e r y : a s u dden i n s i g h t w h i c h may o r may n o t come ou t of t h e e x p e r i e n c e . When i t d o e s , i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a p o w e r f u l new l e v e l o f a w a r e n e s s . I t "seems t o be t h e p r o c e s s i n g component o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p o n t a n e i t y " ( D e l Nuovo, S p i e l b e r g , and G i l l i s , 1978, pp. 8 7 - 9 2 ) . 46 T h ese r e s e a r c h e r s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s b o r e s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s t o M o r e n o ' s t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s of s p o n t a n e i t y . Of p a r t i c u l a r n o t e i s t h e i r c a t e g o r y o f p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s . Moreno d e s c r i b e d t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t a t e as "a d i s t i n c t i v e p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n " ( 1 9 4 6 , p.141) and f u r t h e r m o r e , he s a i d , " C r e a t i v e l i f e , as we use t h e t e r m , i s l i f e t h a t c r e a t e s t h e l i f e e n e r g y w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e b o d i l y and p e r s o n a l o r g a n i s m " ( p . 1 4 9 ) . The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y c l e a r l y r e p o r t e d p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h e i r s p o n t a n e o u s s t a t e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e i r d a t a s u p p o r t s M oreno's work, but c o n c l u s i o n s c a n n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d due t o t h e i r s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e (4 s u b j e c t s ) . They a r g u e t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n t h i s a r e a i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s p o n t a n e i t y , i t s l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s , and w h e t h e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made t o o t h e r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . K e l l e r m a n K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 5 b ) e x p l o r e d t h e q u e s t i o n , "What f a c i l i t a t e s change i n p s y c h o d r a m a ? " H i s work was b a s e d on t h e work o f Ya l o m ( 1 9 7 0 ) who a s k e d t h i s same q u e s t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a n t s o f v e r b a l g r o u p t h e r a p i e s . Y alom f o u n d t h a t " g r o u p t h e r a p y draws i t s u n i q u e p o t e n c y f r o m i t s i n t e r p e r s o n a l and g r o u p p r o p e r t i e s . The a g e n t o f change a p p e a r s t o be t h e g r o u p and t h e i n t e r m e m b e r i n f l u e n c e n e t w o r k " ( p . 1 0 3 ) . Yalom a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e f a c t o r s most h i g h l y v a l u e d were i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , c a t h a r s i s , and s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . K e l l e r m a n ' s g o a l was t o compare h i s f i n d i n g s on p s y c h o d r a m a s u b j e c t s w i t h Y a l o m 1 s on s u b j e c t s o f v e r b a l g r o u p t h e r a p i e s . K e l l e r m a n had h i s s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e a t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , by s c o r i n g e a c h i t e m on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e o f h e l p f u l n e s s and t h e y a l s o a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n : "Of a l l t h e e v e n t s you have e x p e r i e n c e d i n p s y c h o d r a m a , w h i c h was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t one f o r you? T r y t o remember t h a t e v e n t . What h e l p e d you i n t h a t e v e n t ? " (p 130) 48 The r e s u l t s show t h a t s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c a t h a r s i s , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g were t o p - r a n k e d by t h e p s y c h o d r a m a s u b j e c t s . The one q u e s t i o n , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t p r o v i d e much more i n f o r m a t i o n beyond w h i c h had been a c q u i r e d f r o m t h e t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . K e l l e r m a n c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e o p e n - e n d e d e v a l u a t i o n o f h e l p f u l n e s s seemed t o demand more a w a r e n e s s t h a n some s u b j e c t s were c a p a b l e o f " ( p 130) The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , i s i t t h e s u b j e c t s ' l a c k o f a a w a r e n e s s t h a t a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s r e s u l t , o r r a t h e r , a f l a w i n t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y ? Mi s h i e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) q u e s t i o n s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n / r e s p o n s e i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t , c l a i m i n g t h a t i n t e r v i e w i n g i s a f o r m o f d i s c o u r s e where " . . . m e a n i n g s emerge, d e v e l o p , a r e s h a p e d by and i n t u r n s hape t h e d i s c o u r s e " (p 1 3 8 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , as i n p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e s u b j e c t n eeds t o warm up and i n t h e same way t h a t t h e r e i s c r u c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between p r o t a g o n i s t and g r o u p , so i s t h e r e a c r u c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between s u b j e c t and r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w . K e l l e r m a n 1 s s u b j e c t s may have l a c k e d t h e l e v e l o f a w a r e n e s s r e q u i r e d t o answer h i s q u e s t i o n , o r 49 t h e y may have been d e n i e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r a w a r e n e s s . D e s p i t e a l l t h i s , t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s as t o w h e t h e r i t i s one e v e n t i n i s o l a t i o n t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s c h a n g e , or t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s . K e l l e r m a n ' s f o c u s h e r e was an i s o l a t e d , s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a e v e n t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t change t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s of p s y c h o d r a m a . K e l l e r m a n c o n d u c t e d a f u r t h e r s t u d y i n 1987. Here he u s e d a new measurement i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s b e c a u s e o f c o n c e r n t h a t Y a l o m ' s measurement i n s t r u m e n t (upon w h i c h t h e f i r s t s t u d y was b a s e d ) was b i a s e d , and t h a t c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s may be t h e p r o d u c t of a b i a s e d measurement i n s t r u m e n t r a t h e r t h a n an i n d i c a t i o n o f a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n s . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , K e l l e r m a n r e d u c e d them t o s i x b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : e m o t i o n a l a b r e a c t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , c o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t , b e h a v i o r a l l e a r n i n g , t h e r a p i s t q u a l t i e s , and n o n s p e c i f i c h e a l i n g a i d s . He c o n s t r u c t e d h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s i n g t e n i t e m s f o r e a c h of t h e s i x c a t e g o r i e s . 50 F i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most h e l p f u l e l e m e n t s i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s : e m o t i o n a l a b r e a c t i o n , c o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . They a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i r s t s t u d y and w i t h many p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g v a r i o u s f o r m s o f v e r b a l g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y . K e l l e r m a n s t a t e d t h a t t h e t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d h e r e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t " o t h e r e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d s , s u c h as q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g and e v a l u a t i o n t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n w o u l d s u p p l e m e n t s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e " ( K e l l e r m a n , 1987, p . 4 1 8 ) . Summary P s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h has been p l a g u e d w i t h p r o b l e m s m a i n l y b e c a u s e , as D e l Nuovo e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e , "Human e x p e r i e n c e i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c o m p l e x a n d , as s u c h , does n o t l e n d i t s e l f e a s i l y t o n e a t c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n s " 51 ( p . 8 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f p s y c h o d r a m a i s c o n s i d e r e d s u c h t h a t i t i s ' r e a l l i f e ' and t h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t o n l y v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e and c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s , b u t t h e r e i s t h e a d d i t i o n a l e l e m e n t t h a t t h e w h o l e may be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum of t h e p a r t s . D e l Nuovo e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) t r i e d t o l o o k a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p o n t a n e i t y t h r o u g h t h e e y e s of p r o t a g o n i s t s and a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e s e a r c h c o n f i r m s M o reno's t h e o r y o f s p o n t a n e i t y and makes a w o r t h w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s p o n t a n e i t y i n p s y c h o d r a m a , i t f a l l s s h o r t o f i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p o n t a n e i t y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e w h o l e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 5 , 1987) a t t e m p t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e w h o l e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e e y e s of t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s , but h i s r e s u l t s were c o n f i n e d by t h e l i m i t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t and l e f t no room f o r p r o t a g o n i s t s t o o f f e r an i n - d e p t h a c c o u n t o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . To d a t e , t h e r e has been no a t t e m p t i n p s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h t o employ p r o t a g o n i s t s as c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and e x a m i n e i n d e p t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a . 52 T h e o r i e s o f Group D e v e l o p m e n t I n t r o d u c t i o n B e c a u s e t h e p r i m a c y of t h e g r o u p i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be c r i t i c a l i n p s y c h o d r a m a ( M o r e n o , 1 9 4 6 ) , and b e c a u s e of t h e a p p a r e n t i n f l u e n c e o f t h e g r o u p on t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , i t i s n o t f e a s i b l e t o a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e o u t s i d e o f g r o u p c o n t e x t . Two t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g d y n a m i c s and s t a g e d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be e x p l o r e d h e r e , t h e w o r k s of G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) , and B e n n i s and S h e p a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o t h e r g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i e s s u c h as Yalom ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and B l o u c h and C r o u c h ( 1 9 8 5 ) , o n l y two have been s e l e c t e d f o r r e v i e w . These t h e o r i e s h e l p e x p l a i n t h e a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t . G i b b A c c o r d i n g t o G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) , i n d i v i d u a l g r o w t h o c c u r s as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a n c e of s e l f and o t h e r s , w h e r e a s d e f e n s i v e f e e l i n g s o f f e a r and 53 d i s t r u s t , s e r v e t o b l o c k g r o w t h . T h e r e f o r e , f o r any g r o u p t o be f a c i l i t a t i v e o f g r o w t h , i t must e x h i b i t a d e f e n s e - r e d u c t i v e c l i m a t e whereby i n t e r p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s c a n be c r e a t e d t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n a c c e p t i n g s e l f and o t h e r s . G i b b p r o p o s e d f o u r modal c o n c e r n s as c o n t i n u a l l y r e c u r r i n g themes or p r o c e s s e s o f a l l g r o u p s , and c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y must be r e s o l v e d i n o r d e r f o r g r o w t h t o o c c u r . These c o n c e r n s a r e a c c e p t a n c e , d a t a - f l o w , g o a l f o r m a t i o n , and s o c i a l c o n t r o l . A c c e p t a n c e has t o do w i t h t r u s t i n s e l f and o t h e r s . When a c c e p t a n c e i s l a c k i n g , s p o n t a n e i t y and t h e r e f o r e , i n t i m a c y , i s n o t p o s s i b l e , f e e l i n g s a r e a v o i d e d , and one's p u b l i c image must be c o n t i n u a l l y d e f e n d e d . The s e c o n d modal c o n c e r n i s d a t a f l o w , t h e f l o w o f f e e l i n g and p e r c e p t u a l d a t a t h r o u g h t h e p e r s o n or t h r o u g h t h e g r o u p . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h e o r d e r o f t h e s e modal c o n c e r n s , f o r u n l e s s a c c e p t a n c e has h a p p e n e d , d a t a f l o w c a n o n l y c o n s i s t o f p o l i t e f a c a d e and c a u t i o u s s t r a t e g y . G o a l f o r m a t i o n , t h e t h i r d modal c o n c e r n , i n v o l v e s t h e work o f d e t e r m i n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t g r o u p a c t i o n , and i f i t t u r n s i n t o a d y s f u n c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , a p a t h y and c o m p e t i t i o n become r a m p a n t . F i n a l l y , t h e c o n t r o l 54 c o n c e r n has t o do w i t h b o t h i n t r a p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , and i f i t i s n o t r e s o l v e d , t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f i n d i v i d u a l p o w e r l e s s n e s s , a s e n s e t h a t one c a n n o t e x e r t any s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on o t h e r g r o u p members. G i b b ' s t h e o r y o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t m a i n t a i n s t h a t " g r o w t h i s a i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p r o c e s s " ( p . 2 8 8 ) . He c l a i m s t h a t as p e o p l e d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l l y , t h e y a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n g r o u p s , and t h r o u g h f u n c t i o n i n g i n g r o u p s , t h e y grow p e r s o n a l l y . He s t a t e s t h a t h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s a r e a l w a y s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f change and show d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f movement a l o n g t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s . G i b b d e f i n e s a h e a l t h y g r o u p as a g r o u p t h a t " . . . w o u l d have o p t i m a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r u s t and a c c e p t a n c e , f u n c t i o n a l f e e d b a c k o f a l l r e l e v a n t d a t a , c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y t h a t was s a t i s f y i n g i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n s , and an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n and s t r u c t u r e " ( p . 2 8 9 ) . 55 B e n n i s and S h e p a r d B e n n i s and S h e p a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) c l a i m t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t f r o m a g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e h i n g e s upon h i s or h e r a b i l i t y t o overcome a n x i e t y as a s o u r c e o f d i s t o r t i o n , and i n f a c t , g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t i t s e l f i n v o l v e s t h e o v e r c o m i n g o f o b s t a c l e s t o v a l i d c o m m u n i c a t i o n among t h e members, o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f methods f o r a c h i e v i n g and t e s t i n g c o n s e n s u s . A g r o u p can r e s o l v e i t s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s among members, m o b i l i z e a l l i t s r e s o u r c e s and t a k e e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n o n l y i f i t has d e v e l o p e d t h e means f o r c o n s e n s u a l l y v a l i d a t i n g i t s e x p e r i e n c e . The c o r e o f t h e i r t h e o r y o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h a d i f f e r e n t f r a m e w o r k f r o m G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) , b u t i t s e s s e n c e i s s i m i l a r : "The c o r e t h e o r y o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e o b s t a c l e s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v a l i d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y and i n t i m a c y t h a t members b r i n g t o g r o u p s . R e b e l l i o u s n e s s , s u b m i s s i v e n e s s , o r w i t h d r a w a l as t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e t o a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s ; 56 d e s t r u c t i v e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s , e m o t i o n a l e x p l o i t i v e n e s s , or w i t h d r a w a l as t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n s e t o p e e r s p r e v e n t c o n s e n s u a l v a l i d a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . The b e h a v i o r s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d e n s l a v e m e n t of t h e o t h e r i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e s e l f , e n s l a v e m e n t o f t h e s e l f i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e o t h e r , o r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . Hence, t h e y p r e v e n t t h e s e t t i n g , c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f , and movement t o w a r d g r o u p s h a r e d g o a l s . " ( B e n n i s and S h e p a r d , 1970, p. 9 3 ) . I n summary, b o t h G i b b and B e n n i s and S h e p a r d c l a i m t h a t p e r s o n a l and g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . A g r o u p t a s k , t h e r e f o r e , s u c h as p s y c h o d r a m a , w i l l be e i t h e r h i n d e r e d o r e n h a n c e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t e x h i b i t e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e two m o d e l s r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l r o l e o f t r u s t f o r m a t i o n and r e a d i n e s s f o r c h a n g e . 57 Summary The e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a has n e v e r been e x a m i n e d i n d e p t h . S p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e have been s t u d i e d , b u t t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a l a c k o f d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . T h i s s t u d y i s an a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e w h o l e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e e y e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who have l i v e d i t , and t h e n t o e x a m i n e t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f b o t h p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y and t h e o r i e s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t . C h a p t e r I I I o u t l i n e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e c o n d u c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , and t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 58 C h a p t e r I I I : Method T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y e d , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e c o n d u c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , and t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . M ethod E x i s t e n t i a T - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e b l e n d i n g o f an e x i s t e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h y w i t h a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l m e t h o d o l o g y . E x i s t e n t i a l i s m " s e e k s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e human c o n d i t i o n as i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n o u r c o n c r e t e , l i v e d s i t u a t i o n s " ( V a l l e & K i n g , 1978, p. 6 ) . I t c o n c e r n s i t s e l f n o t o n l y w i t h o b s e r v a b l e , p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f a s i t u a t i o n ( a s n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c methods d o ) , b u t a l s o moves beyond t h a t t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ( V a l l e & K i n g , 1 9 7 8 ) . P h e n o m e n o l o g y i s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y w h i c h "... a l l o w s us t o c o n t a c t t h e phenomena as we a c t u a l l y l i v e them o u t and e x p e r i e n c e them" ( V a l l e & K i n g , p . 7 ) . E x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h e n d e a v o u r s t o u n d e r s t a n d 59 and a r t i c u l a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f human e x p e r i e n c e and human a c t i o n t h r o u g h r i g o r o u s d e s c r i p t i v e t e c h n i q u e s ( V a l l e and K i n g , 1978)'. I t s e e k s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e phenomena u n d e r s t u d y and i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p l a i n i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , o r c o n t r o l l i n g them. The t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t as a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h i s r e p l a c e d by a p r o c e s s o f " d e s c r i p t i o n t h r o u g h d i s c i p l i n e d r e f l e c t i o n " ( V a l l e & K i n g , 1978, p . 1 5 ) . The g o a l o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h i s t o s e e k t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e common p a t t e r n w h i c h i s f o u n d i n a l l t h e many v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . V a l l e and K i n g ( 1 9 7 8 ) i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r o c e s s u s i n g t h e e x a m p l e , ' b e i n g a n x i o u s ' . ' B e i n g a n x i o u s ' i s an e x p e r i e n c e most p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e as h a v i n g m e a n i n g f o r them, b u t i t n e v e r a r i s e s i n e x a c t l y t h e same way. I t may be e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e an e x a m i n a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , o r a t t h e d e n t i s t ' s o f f i c e , o r b e f o r e g o i n g on s t a g e t o s p e a k b e f o r e a l a r g e a u d i e n c e . D e s p i t e a l l i t s v a r i a t i o n s , t h e f o r m ' b e i n g a n x i o u s ' i s r e c o g n i z e d i n e a c h one o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n t i n s t a n c e s . The c o m m o n a l i t y among t h e v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s i s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e ' b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a ' . The f o c u s i s t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h e s u b j e c t i v e or ' i n n e r ' p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The g o a l i s n o t t o p r e d i c t or c o n t r o l t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n any way, b u t r a t h e r t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s m e a n i n g f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e d i t . D e l Nuovo e t a l . s t a t e t h a t " W h i l e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s i t s c a p a c i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g i t s c o n c l u s i o n s i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c m ethod" ( 1 9 7 8 , p. 8 7 ) . No a t t e m p t w i l l be made h e r e t o do t h i s . The i n t e r v i e w f r a m e w o r k e m p l o y e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a " v i e w o f i n t e r v i e w e e s as i n f o r m a n t s or as c o m p e t e n t o b s e r v e r s and i n t e r v i e w e r s as r e p o r t e r s " ( M i s h l e r , 1986, p. 1 2 3 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p - ^ b e t w e e n i n t e r v i e w e e and i n t e r v i e w e r i s c o l l a b o r a t i v e . I n t e r v i e w e r and i n t e r v i e w e e s a r e s e e n as e q u a l s . The i n t e r v i e w e e i s c a l l e d a ' c o - r e s e a r c h e r ' and a d i a l o g u e i s b u i l t on a r e l a t i o n s h i p of t r u s t . The f o c u s o f t h e d i a l o g u e i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a 61 s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a . The s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y , d e v e l o p e d by C o l a i z z i ( 1 9 7 8 ) , w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d i n s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r . C o - R e s e a r c h e r s S i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . I n e a c h s e s s i o n , t h e p r i n c i p l e r e s e a r c h e r and c o - r e s e a r c h e r d i a l o g u e d i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f e q u a l i t y and t r u s t . The r o l e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e r e s e a r c h e r was t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t a t m o s p h e r e and t o r e c o r d and t r a n s c r i b e t h e i n t e r v i e w s . The t r a n s c r i p t s were l a t e r a n a l y z e d f o r common themes and t h e themes were t h e n v e r i f i e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and any c h a n g e s t h e y recommended were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e r e s u l t s . S e l e c t i o n o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s The s e l e c t i o n o f c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i s b a s e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e phenomenon and t h e a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e ( C o l a i z z i , 1978, p. 5 8 ) . S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e had t o have e x p e r i e n c e d what t h e y 62 c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a , and had t o be a b l e t o t a l k a b o u t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n E n g l i s h . An a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y was d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e v e n t . I n o r d e r t o a l l o w a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r , a minimum t i m e p e r i o d o f t h r e e months f r o m t h e e v e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d . D i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e r a n g e d f r o m t h r e e months t o t h r e e y e a r s . C o - r e s e a r c h e r s were s e l e c t e d by t a l k i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d as p r o t a g o n i s t s i n p s y c h o d r a m a e v e n t s l e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d e x p e r t . P o t e n t i a l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were a s k e d , "Do you c o n s i d e r y o u r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , as i n 'more t h a n h e l p f u l ' ? " "Has i t somehow made a d i f f e r e n c e i n y o u r l i f e ? " I n d i v i d u a l s who a n s w e r e d " y e s " and e x p r e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y were s e l e c t e d . No e f f o r t , a p a r t f r o m t h e a b o v e , was made t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e t e r m ' s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a ' as t h e f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s who p e r c e i v e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , n o t on some p r e c o n c e i v e d d e f i n i t i o n as t o what a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a s h o u l d e n t a i l . 63 D e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n The s e l e c t i o n of t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s was n o t b a s e d i n any way on d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The a g es o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s a t t h e t i m e of t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e : 27, 30, 33, 35, 4 1 , and 49. A l l were C a n a d i a n s . T h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t ( 3 ) , e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r ( 1 ) , r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r ( 1 ) , and h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r / t e a c h e r ( 1 ) . Two o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were f e m a l e and f o u r were m a l e . They a l l d e s c r i b e d t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l as " m i d d l e c l a s s " . P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l I n t e r v i e w E a c h c o - r e s e a r c h e r was i n t e r v i e w e d t w i c e and a l l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n a two month p e r i o d . The d u r a t i o n of b o t h i n t e r v i e w s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y an h o u r l o n g e a c h . The i n t e r v i e w s were open-ended r a t h e r t h a n t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d . The p u r p o s e of t h i s was t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e l a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r own t e r m s . The i n t e n t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was n o t t o t e s t any p r e c o n c e i v e d h y p o t h e s i s , b u t r a t h e r t o o b t a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e as l i v e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , w h i c h i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a , was s t a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w and c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were t h e n a s k e d t o r e c a l l t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e , d e s c r i b i n g what happened f o r them b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e a c t u a l p s y c h o d r a m a . A d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d a t t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w i f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s were n o t a n s w e r e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n . These q u e s t i o n s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. What d i f f e r e n c e s c a n you d e t e c t w i t h i n y o u r s e l f a f t e r h a v i n g had t h i s e x p e r i e n c e ? 2. What was i t a b o u t y o u r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e t h a t made you f e e l c e r t a i n t h a t i t was t h e main p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r i n y o u r c h a n g e? 3. I s t h e r e any p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , any q u a l i t i e s , t h a t s t a n d o u t f o r you? 4 . What a r e t h e f a c t o r s t h a t you f e e l made a d i f f e r e n c e ? 65 F o r e x a m p l e : l e a d e r s h i p , g r o u p , y o u r own p r e p a r a t i o n , e t c . ? 5. I n what way do you v i e w t h i s c hange as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t f o r you? 6. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you w i s h t o add? The i n t e r v i e w e r r e s p o n d e d u s i n g c o - r e s e a r c h e r s own words as much as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e d i a l o g u e b u t n o t i n f l u e n c e c o n t e n t . E l a b o r a t i o n s on d e s c r i p t i o n s were e l i c i t e d by u s i n g q u e s t i o n s e m p l o y e d by B i e l a ( 1 9 8 5 ) : "What does t h a t mean f o r y o u ? " "Can you t e l l me more a b o u t t h a t ? " " I n what way?" The i n t e r v i e w s were t a p e r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . E a c h c o - r e s e a r c h e r was g i v e n a copy o f h i s or h e r own t r a n s c r i p t . Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h e s e t r a n s c r i p t s , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s c a n s t i l l be i d e n t i f i e d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t names and r e f e r e n c e s have been a l t e r e d . T h e r e f o r e , f o r r e a s o n s o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , c o p i e s o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s c a n n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x t o t h i s s t u d y . However, 66 d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e t r a n s c r i p t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e main body o f t h i s t e x t . P r o c e d u r e f o r A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n T r a n s c r i p t s were a n a l y z e d f o l l o w i n g a method o u t l i n e d by C o l a i z z i ( 1 9 7 8 , pp. 5 9 - 6 2 ) . T h e r e a r e a number o f p r o c e d u r a l s t e p s , t h e f i r s t was t o r e a d t h e t r a n s c r i p t s and a c q u i r e a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g f o r them. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s was c e r t a i n l y e n h a n c e d by p e r s o n a l l y t r a n s c r i b i n g them. T h i s p r o c e s s a l o n e t o o k e i g h t t o t e n h o u r s f o r e a c h t r a n s c r i p t and r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r become t o t a l l y i m mersed i n t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e of e a c h c o - r e s e a r c h e r . A f t e r d e v e l o p i n g a f e e l i n g f o r t h e c o n t e n t of t h e t r a n s c r i p t s , t h e s e c o n d s t e p i n v o l v e d e x t r a c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t e m e n t s , and t h e n e l i m i n a t i n g any r e p e t i t i o n s . The t h i r d s t e p i n v o l v e d u s i n g what C o l a i z z i c a l l s " c r e a t i v e i n s i g h t " t o f o r m u l a t e m e a n i n g s f r o m t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t e m e n t s ( C o l a i z z i , 1978, p . 5 9 ) . C o l a i z z i s t a t e s , " P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h i s s t e p i s t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e r engaged i n s o m e t h i n g w h i c h 6 7 c a n n o t be p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d , f o r h e r e he i s i n v o l v e d i n t h a t i n e f f a b l e t h i n g known as c r e a t i v e i n s i g h t ; he must l e a p f r o m what h i s s u b j e c t s say t o what t h e y mean" ( p . 5 9 ) . T h i s t a s k i s b o t h a ' r i g h t b r a i n ' and ' l e f t b r a i n ' p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g b o t h i n t u i t i o n and l o g i c a l p e r c i s i o n , and i s p e r h a p s t h e most d i f f i c u l t s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e d u r e . The n e x t s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d f o r m u l a t i n g t h e m e a n i n g s i n t o c l u s t e r s o f themes and s o r t i n g them a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e y o c c u r e d b e f o r e , d u r i n g , o r a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . A l i s t o f theme s t a t e m e n t s was c o m p i l e d and t h i s l i s t , a l o n g w i t h t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , was g i v e n t o e a c h c o - r e s e a r c h e r f o r v a l i d a t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w , t h e y were a s k e d t o v e r i f y t h e themes and s u g g e s t any c h a n g e s , and t o comment upon any of t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . A f t e r t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w , themes were woven i n t o an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . B a s i c a l l y , t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n i s a w r i t t e n n a r r a t i v e o f a l l t h e theme d e s c r i p t i o n s , and f o l l o w s a t i m e s e q u e n c e of a b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e , and end. I t p r e s e n t s t h e meaning o f 68 t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , o f t e n u s i n g t h e i r own w o r d s , and w i t h o u t p r o p o s i n g or d e f e n d i n g any model o r t h e o r y . I t i s s i m p l y a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n was t h e n s u m m a r i z e d i n t o what C o l a i z z i c a l l s an " e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e " . I t i s a s h o r t e n e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e and i s i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c o r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . B o t h t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e was t h e n t a k e n t o t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s v e r i f i e d b o t h t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . C h a p t e r IV f o c u s e s on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o r m o f themes, e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n , and e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . 69 CHAPTER I V : R e s u l t s T h i s c h a p t e r e x p l a i n s how themes were f o r m u l a t e d f r o m t h e raw d a t a and l i s t s t h e s e themes w h i c h were t h e n g i v e n t o t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . The c o n t e x t s f o r v i e w i n g t h e E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n and t h e E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e a r e d e s c r i b e d , and e a c h document i s p r i n t e d e x a c t l y as p r e s e n t e d and l a t e r v e r i f i e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . F o r m u l a t i o n o f Themes A f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e t r a n s c r i p t s f r o m t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s , a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - e i g h t themes were f o u n d . The themes were f o r m u l a t e d by t a k i n g key s t a t e m e n t s f r o m e a c h t r a n s c r i p t and g r o u p i n g them i n t o r o u g h t h e m e s , u s i n g t h e words o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s as much as p o s s i b l e . T h i s t a s k was e a s i e r f o r some themes t h a n i t was f o r o t h e r s . The d i f f i c u l t y had t o do w i t h t h e e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t use o f w o r d s . F o r e x a m p l e , ' r e a d y ' was a word u s e d by t h r e e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s t o d e s c r i b e how t h e y f e l t b e f o r e t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . The o t h e r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s u s e d d i f f e r e n t w o rds and p h r a s e s . 70 B d e s c r i b e d how h e r i s s u e "was s i t t i n g so c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e , t h a t i t was p h y s i c a l l y j u s t s o r t o f w a c k i n g me f r o m t h e i n s i d e " . C d e s c r i b e d how he had been g o i n g t h r o u g h many c h a n g e s i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s and how he f e l t t h e t i m e was r i g h t now f o r him t o f o c u s on f e e l i n g s . D s t a t e d how she had "been a l m o s t b e a t e n i n t o t h e g r o u n d by e v e n t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r " and how t h i s made h e r open t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . I t became c l e a r t h a t a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were s p e a k i n g o f f e e l i n g a s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s f o r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s , a l t h o u g h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n d i d n o t a c t u a l l y use t h e w o r d , ' r e a d y ' . A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y had t o do w i t h c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e themes i n t o t i m e p e r i o d s . Some themes were e x p e r i e n c e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e p e r i o d s , o r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h o t h e r t hemes. I t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y happen i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . At t h e same t i m e , some d e g r e e o f l i n e a r i t y i s p r e s e n t i n t h a t some theme e x p e r i e n c e s a r e n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o o t h e r s . A f t e r t h e themes were f o r m u l a t e d , t h e t r a n s c r i p t s were a g a i n s t u d i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e themes r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l t h e 71 c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . A l l themes were p r e s e n t i n a l l t h e t r a n s c r i p t s e x c e p t f o r themes 25, 26, and 28. Theme 25 t r i e s t h e c a p t u r e t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f h i g h p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y f o l l o w i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , b u t t h i s was c l e a r l y r e p o r t e d i n o n l y f o u r o u t o f s i x t r a n s c r i p t s . Theme 26 d e s c r i b e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n / d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , and theme 28 t a l k s a b o u t t h e f e l t c h ange i n t h e way t h e p h y s i c a l body i s e x p e r i e n c e d a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . I n b o t h o f t h e s e c a s e s , one p e r s o n o u t o f s i x d i d n o t r e p o r t h a v i n g t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s . The d e c i s i o n was made t o l e a v e t h e s e t h r e e themes on t h e l i s t i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w , b u t n o t t o i n c l u d e them i n t h e r e s u l t s b e c a u s e t h e y were n o t c l e a r l y s t a t e d by a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w , t h e f u l l l i s t o f t w e n t y - e i g h t themes was t a k e n t o c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . G i v e n some m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s i n w o r d i n g , t w e n t y - f i v e o u t of t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t were v a l i d a t e d by a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . Theme 25 r e m a i n e d v a l i d a t e d by o n l y f o u r o u t o f s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , and 26 and 28 were 72 once a g a i n v a l i d a t e d by o n l y f i v e o u t o f t h e s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t theme s t a t e m e n t s as p r e s e n t e d t o t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e s e themes and t h e s e a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f themes as r e p o r t e d b e l o w . A l s o , t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e theme s t a t e m e n t s , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s g r a p p l e d w i t h w o rds t o c l a r i f y t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , and i n d o i n g s o , were a b l e t o come up w i t h more p r e c i s e ways o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e theme e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s new w o r d i n g was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was v a l i d a t e d u n a n i m o u s l y by a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l theme s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n d e e d t h e f e l t s e n s e s o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s and n o t s i m p l y t h e i r o p i n i o n s . I n i t i a l Theme S t a t e m e n t s B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 1. T h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . of p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s f o r t h e 73 2. ' B e i n g r e a d y ' , w h a t e v e r t h a t means t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e . 3. A l o n g w i t h t h e r e a d i n e s s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f u r g e n c y , o r a s t r o n g d e s i r e , t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e . 4. A g e n e r a l t r u s t i n t h e l e a d e r ' s a b i l i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a f e e l i n g o f s a f e t y . 5. A g e n e r a l t r u s t i n t h e g r o u p a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o a f e e l i n g o f s a f e t y . 6. F e e l i n g s a f e i s r e g a r d e d as an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o d o i n g a p s y c h o d r a m a . 7. I n r e g a r d s t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f movement f r o m a somewhat u n c l e a r , t o a v e r y s p e c i f i c and c l e a r f o c u s , and t h i s movement can happen e i t h e r i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e warm-up p r o c e s s . 8. C l a r i t y o f f o c u s f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g , e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , and a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement. 74 9. B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a b e g i n s , a w a r e n e s s o f t h e g r o u p and i t s members b e g i n s t o r e c e d e . ( A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d a f e l t s e n s e o f b e i n g p u l l e d i n w a r d , t h a t t h e i r f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n was b e i n g drawn i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . F o r some, a w a r e n e s s o f t h e g r o u p d i d n o t r e c e d e as t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s i n w a r d p u l l . What t h i s theme t r i e d t o c a p t u r e was t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g p u l l e d i n w a r d d u r i n g t h e warm-up p h a s e , and t h i s was c o n f i r m e d by a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . ) 10. T h e r e i s a b u i l d - u p o f i n n e r t e n s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e d a t b o t h a n e u r o m u s c u l a r and h o r m o n a l l e v e l , t h a t i s , a f e l t s e n s a t i o n o f m u s c l e t e n s i o n , and a r i s e i n e n e r g y . D u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 11. Once an i n d i v i d u a l has i n i t i a t e d h i s / h e r p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o e x p e r i e n c i n g a " r e a l " s i t u a t i o n . 12. T h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s f e l t as a movement away f r o m e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t o w a r d s a l a c k o f p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . (One c o - r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t l i k e t h e p h r a s e ' l a c k o f c o n t r o l ' and f e l t t h a t what he was e x p e r i e n c i n g was ' s p o n t a n e i t y ' w h i c h he a l l o w e d t o h a p p e n . I f became e v i d e n t , a f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n t h a t ' l a c k o f c o n t r o l ' and ' s p o n t a n e i t y ' were two d i f f e r e n t ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e same e x p e r i e n c e . 13. T h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and e x p r e s s i o n o f s t r o n g f e e l i n g . 14. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e r e i s no a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r g r o u p members. ( One c o - r e s e a r c h e r w i s h e d t o change "no" t o " l i t t l e " and one w i s h e d t o s a y " i n d i v i d u a l " g r o u p members r a t h e r t h a n " o t h e r " g r o u p members.) 15. The p s y c h o d r a m a i s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h engagement o f t h e w h o l e s e l f : e m o t i o n s , c o g n i t i o n s , and t h e p h y s i c a l body. 16. P h y s i c a l body movement i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e o f t h e r a p e u t i c o u t c o m e . 17. D u r i n g i n t e n s e moments i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s , t h e r e i s a f e l t p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f a " s h o c k " , a " s h i f t " , o r a " r e l e a s e o f e n e r g y " t h r o u g h o u t t h e body. (One p e r s o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n ' t any p a r t i c u l a r moment when t h i s h a p p e n e d , b u t r a t h e r a number o f moments.) 76 18. T h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r , e i t h e r i n a p h y s i c a l o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e n s e , and a f e e l i n g o f s a f e t y w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m t r u s t i n t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p . ( A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s b e f o r e t h e a c t i o n phase o f t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s , but some w o u l d p r e f e r t h e w o r d ' r i s k ' r a t h e r t h a n ' d a n g e r ' . 19. At some p o i n t , t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g o f t o t a l e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l e x h a u s t i o n . (One p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c e d e m o t i o n a l e x h a u s t i o n , b u t n o t p h y s i c a l e x h a u s t i o n . One p e r s o n w a n t e d t o p l a c e t h i s theme i n t h e " a f t e r w a r d s " s e c t i o n and n o t i n t h e " d u r i n g " s e c t i o n . ) 1 20. At some p o i n t , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f t h e a c t i o n b e i n g c o m p l e t e , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c l o s e s i t s e l f . A f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 21 . I t i s c r u c i a l t o r e t u r n a c c e p t a n c e f r o m them. 22. T h e r e i s a f e l t need t o e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r g r o u p t o t h e g r o u p and r e c e i v e v e r b a l l y p r o c e s s t h e members, y e t a t t h e same t i m e , t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o do i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a p o w e r f u l p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . 23. C o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r , and i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . ( A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d c o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t s w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e were t r i g g e r e d by t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . Two of them, h o w e v e r , d i d n o t r e c e i v e any c o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t s d u r i n g t h e i r a c t u a l p s y c h o d r a m a s , b u t r a t h e r , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r and i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w e d . ) 24. A c t i o n i s t a k e n ( b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e ) f o l l o w i n g i n s i g h t s . 25. A l o n g w i t h i n s i g h t s , come a f e l t s e n s e o f h i g h p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y . ( F o u r o u t of s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s . ) 26. P e r i o d s o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , d e p r e s s i o n , c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d . ( T h e r e i s some p r o b l e m h e r e w i t h w o r d i n g S o m e ' c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d what t h e y w o u l d c a l l ' d i s i n t e g r a t i o n 1 , b u t n o t ' d e p r e s s i o n ' , and v i c e v e r s a F i v e o u t o f s i x , h o w e v e r , e x p e r i e n c e d a p e r i o d o f e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . ) 78 27. T h e r e i s a s e n s e of s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e c h a n g e , and a f e e l i n g t h a t an o l d p a t t e r n has been b r o k e n . 28. T h e r e i s a f e l t change i n t h e way t h e p h y s i c a l body i s e x p e r i e n c e d , a s e n s a t i o n t h a t s o m e t h i n g has been d r o p p e d o r r e l e a s e d . ( f i v e o u t o f s i x ) . C o n t e x t f o r V i e w i n g t h e E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n The e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n i s a w r i t t e n n a r r a t i v e , t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f t h e theme d e s c r i p t i o n s . I t has a b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e , and end, and r e v e a l s t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . The p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e s t h e meaning o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s who l i v e d i t , b u t i t does n o t p r o p o s e any model o r t h e o r y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e themes a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n , some o f t h e themes were e x p e r i e n c e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . At t h e same t i m e , t h e r e i s a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n . C e r t a i n themes d i d o c c u r b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . 79 C o n t e x t f o r V i e w i n g t h e E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e The e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e i s f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and i t i s a more c o n d e n s e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . I t f o c u s e s on t h e c o r e e l e m e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . I t t r i e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e meaning o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n c i s e t e r m s . E x h a u s t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t i m e i s r i g h t t o engage i n t h i s t y p e o f p r o c e s s . B e i n g r e a d y , means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , b u t t h e common t h r e a d i s t h e f e e l i n g t h a t one i s a t t h e " r i g h t " s t a g e i n o n e ' s p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s s i m p l y means a g l o b a l f e e l i n g o f r e a d i n e s s t h a t i s n ' t c o n c r e t i z e d , w h i l e f o r o t h e r s , i t means v e r y s p e c i f i c t h i n g s s u c h as a s e l f t r u s t and a p r e c e i v e d need t o work on some p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . F o r e x a m p l e , B, i n d e s c r i b i n g h e r r e a d i n e s s , s t a t e d t h a t h e r i s s u e "was s i t t i n g so c l o s e t o t h e 80 s u r f a c e , t h a t i t was p h y s i c a l l y j u s t s o r t o f w h a c k i n g me f r o m t h e i n s i d e " . B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , she had an o v e r w h e l m i n g f e e l i n g t h a t she was a t t h e r i g h t p l a c e , t h e r i g h t t i m e , and t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a was t h e r i g h t t e c h n i q u e f o r h e r . F o r A, t h e p s y c h o d r a m a was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g a " b i g l e a p " and he e x p l a i n e d how he was " g e a r i n g " h i m s e l f up f o r i t "a month or so b e f o r e " . R e a d i n e s s f o r him i n v o l v e d t r u s t i n g h i m s e l f enough t o r i s k g o i n g t h r o u g h a p s y c h o d r a m a , b u t a l s o h a v i n g enough s e l f a w a r e n e s s t o u n d e r s t a n d what he needed t o work on. D had been w o r k i n g on p e r s o n a l g r o w t h i s s u e s t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p y , and she f e l t t h a t t h i s w ork, a l o n g w i t h a s e r i e s o f t r a u m a t i c e v e n t s i n t h e y e a r p r i o r t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , c r e a t e d a s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s f o r h e r . As a t e a c h e r , C had grown t i r e d o f what he p e r c e i v e d as t h e c o g n i t i v e b i a s i n e d u c a t i o n , and had been a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l o r e " a l l s i d e s " o f h i m s e l f . He saw h i s p s y c h o d r a m a as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o do j u s t t h a t . W h a t e v e r ' b e i n g r e a d y ' means t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s r e g a r d e d as a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h o u t t h e f e l t s e n s e o f r e a d i n e s s , i n d i v i d u a l s n e i t h e r s e e k o u t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 81 e x p e r i e n c e n o r do t h e y d e c i d e t o i n v e s t t h e i r f u l l e n e r g i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . D s a i d t h a t i f she h a d n ' t been a l m o s t " b e a t e n t o t h e g r o u n d by t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r " , she w o u l d n o t have s o u g h t o u t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e and a c t i v e T y " p r o p e l l e d " h e r s e l f t o w a r d s i t . E had had c o n s i d e r a b l e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a weekend and he s a i d t h a t he had l e a r n e d " . . . i f I i n v e s t 100%, I g e t 100% o u t o f i t . I f I j u s t d i p my l i t t l e t o e i n t o t h e w a t e r , t h e n I g e t a b o u t 2%". F p u t i t t h i s way: " I was j u s t so r e a d y . I knew t h a t i t was O.K. t o l o o k a t m y s e l f and I knew I w a s n ' t g o i n g t o f a l l a p a r t " . He u s e s t h e m e t a p h o r o f t h e s l o t m a c h i n e t o d e s c r i b e r e a d i n e s s , w h i c h i n many ways s y m b o l i z e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . He e x p l a i n e d how t h e s l o t m a c h i n e has t h r e e r e e l s , and i f t h e f i r s t one t o s t o p i s a b e l l , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e g o a l i s t o l a n d up w i t h t h r e e b e l l s . He d e s c r i b e s i t i n t h i s way: " t h e f i r s t r e e l c o m i n g down t o t h e b e l l was t h e g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s t h a t I' needed t o t a k e a l o o k a t m y s e l f a b o u t two o r t h r e e y e a r s ago. The s e c o n d r e e l was c o m i n g i n t o t h e C o u n s e l l i n g D e p a r t m e n t and h a v i n g t h e t o o l s t o l o o k a t m y s e l f . . . t h e t h i r d r e e l t h a t came down was t h i s weekend 82 ( t h e p s y c h o d r a m a ) . . . t o s u r v i v e i t and n o t t o f e e l bad a b o u t i t , and t o r e a l l y g e t a w h o l e new p e r s p e c t i v e on s e e i n g t h e i s s u e s and s e e i n g t h e p r o b l e m s " . C o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g o f r e a d i n e s s , t h e r e i s y e t a d e e p e r l e v e l , w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d as a f e l t s e n s e o f u r g e n c y , o r a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Once p e o p l e m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y g e a r up f o r a p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e y come t o a p o i n t where t h e y d o n ' t want t o t u r n b a c k , and where n o t d o i n g i t i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o p t i o n . A s a i d , " I c o u l d n ' t n o t do i t I t w o u l d have been h a r d e r n o t t o do i t t h a n i t w o u l d have been t o do i t " . D f e l t t h a t h e r p s y c h o d r a m a was " s y n c h r o n i s t i c " , t h a t she was " t h e r e f o r a r e a s o n " , and she was n o t g o i n g t o t u r n b a c k . B f e l t t h a t she was n o t a b l e t o s t a y where she was anymore, and i t was as i f she were " s t a n d i n g a t t h e e d ge" and she " c o u l d n ' t n o t jump". C r e p o r t s t e l l i n g h i m s e l f t o " . . . g e t r i g h t i n t h e r e . Go f o r t h e muck!" F o r F, " . . . t h e r e was a f e e l i n g o f i r r i t a b i l i t y o f b e i n g h e l d b a c k . I wanted t o go". The s e n s e of u r g e n c y i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d as a b u i l d - u p of i n n e r t e n s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e d a t b o t h a n e u r o m u s c u l a r and h o r m o n a l l e v e l , t h a t i s , a f e l t 83 s e n s a t i o n o f m u s c l e t e n s i o n and a r i s e i n e n e r g y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e n s e of u r g e n c y i s e x p e r i e n c e d n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e e m o t i o n s and t h e m i n d , but a l s o t h r o u g h t h e body. D s a i d "my s t o m a c h was i n a k n o t , my s h o u l d e r s were t e n s e , j a w c l e n c h e d " F o r E, i t was an " a d r e n e l i n e r u s h " , a f e e l i n g o f e n e r g y r i s i n g up w i t h i n h i m , t h e same f e e l i n g he used t o e x p e r i e n c e j u s t b e f o r e he p l a y e d a game o f h o c k e y . B was " b r e a k i n g o u t i n t o a c o l d s w e at and j u s t a b o u t f a i n t i n g " . At t h i s p o i n t , a p a r a d o x h a p p e n s : a l o n g w i t h f e e l i n g a n x i o u s , as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f s a f e t y . F e e l i n g s a f e comes o u t o f t r u s t i n g b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p and i t i s r e g a r d e d as an ' e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h i s s e n s e o f s a f e t y must be e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e a p r o t a g o n i s t i s w i l l i n g t o r i s k d o i n g a p s y c h o d r a m a . I n h i n d e s i g h t , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e t h e i n h e r e n t d a n g e r or r i s k i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s and r e i t e r a t e a g a i n and a g a i n how t h e y c o u l d n ' t have done i t u n l e s s t h e y t r u s t e d b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p . B d e s c r i b e s t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p as a " s a f e t y n e t " and goes on t o s a y t h a t she w o u l d n o t have become a p r o t a g o n i s t w i t h o u t t h a t s a f e t y n e t . A f t e r w a r d s , i n 84 r e f e r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e l e a d e r , she s a i d , " I remember him s a y i n g t h a t he w o u l d n ' t l e t me go I t was j u s t a p o w e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e , and I remember t h a t v o i c e ( t h e l e a d e r ' s ) and I t h o u g h t a t t h e t i m e t h a t i f t h a t v o i c e w a s n ' t t h e r e , maybe t h e r e was no way o f c o m i n g b a c k . " The m e t a p h o r of a " n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n " was u s e d by A t o d e s c r i b e h i s p s y c h o d r a m a . He saw t h i s n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n as b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by t h e l e a d e r , by t h e g r o u p , and by h i m s e l f , a l l o f whom he t r u s t e d , and i t was t h a t f e e l i n g o f t r u s t t h a t gave him " p e r m i s s i o n " t o go t o t h e l e v e l t h a t he needed i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o f o u n d c h a n g e . D e x p l a i n e d how a p a r t o f h e r was aware ahead of t i m e how " d e v a s t a t i n g " i t w o u l d have been i f t h e g r o u p had r e j e c t e d h e r and she f e e l s t h a t she w o u l d n o t have "gone t o a g r o u p where t h a t was a p o s s i b i l i t y " . " I f e l t v e r y s a f e " , she s a i d . I n r e g a r d s t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s ' c h o i c e of s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e of movement away f r o m a d i f f u s e f o c u s t o w a r d s a s p e c i f i c and c l e a r f o c u s . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s h a p pens i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , and f o r o t h e r s , i t i s a more g r a d u a l p r o c e s s . D s t a r t e d o f f o n l y k n o w i n g t h a t she was g o i n g t o do " s o m e t h i n g " t h a t " i n v o l v e d a g r o u p " , 85 b u t she had no s p e c i f i c i d e a u n t i l she a c t u a l l y w a l k e d a r o u n d t h e g r o u p a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h e r p s y c h o d r a m a . B d e s c r i b e d i t as " g o i n g t o s o m e p l a c e where you have no i d e a where y o u ' r e g o i n g t o . . . . " , u n t i l you s u d d e n l y a r r i v e . F s t a t e d t h a t he knew t h e i s s u e he wanted t o d e a l w i t h ahead o f t i m e , b u t t h e s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t w a s n ' t c l e a r u n t i l he v o l u n t e e r e d t o t a k e h i s t u r n , and t h e n i t " f l o a t e d up l i k e a b a l l o o n " . F o r C, t h e p r o c e s s o f a c h i e v i n g c l a r i t y o f f o c u s was f a r more g r a d u a l and happened o v e r a p e r i o d o f a day as he became i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r p s y c h o d r a m a s . F o r E, he had what he d e s c r i b e s as a " c o g n i t i v e k i n d o f i n k l i n g " a b o u t h i s p s y c h o d r a m a ahead o f t i m e , but i t wa s n ' t u n t i l he a c t u a l l y b e g a n , t h a t i d e a s s t a r t e d c o m i n g t o g e t h e r f o r h i m . C l a r i t y o f f o c u s i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g , e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , and a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement. A l t h o u g h t h e t i m e f r a m e f o r t h i s p r o c e s s v a r i e s f r o m p e r s o n t o p e r s o n , and f o r some p e o p l e , more e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on one mode o v e r a n o t h e r , c l a r i t y o f f o c u s i n v o l v e s some c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h r e e modes. F o r D, whose s t r e n g t h had a l w a y s been h e r a b i l i t y t o p r o c e s s c o g n i t i v e l y , c l a r i t y c o u l d n o t 86 have been a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and p h y s i c a l movement as w e l l . She s a i d , " I was v e r y moved by o t h e r p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s , g o t v e r y c a u g h t up i n them, and t h a t k i n d o f ' c a u g h t u p n e s s ' was g r a b b i n g my e m o t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n l e t t i n g me s l i p i n t o my i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n w h i c h I t e n d t o do a l o t . . . I c o u l d n e v e r have gone f i r s t . . . I needed a l o n g e x t e n d e d t i m e of j u s t w a I k i n g i n t h e e m o t i o n a l w o r l d . " Even when t o l d t h a t i t was h e r t u r n t o b e g i n , D had no i d e a o f what she wanted t o do, and t h i s d i d n o t become c l e a r t o h e r u n t i l she a c t u a l l y g o t up and w a l k e d a r o u n d t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e g r o u p . " I t was s o m e t h i n g a b o u t g e t t i n g up and m o v i n g t h a t g o t a l l t h a t i n m o t i o n " , she s a i d . The day b e f o r e h i s p s y c h o d r a m a , C e x p e r i e n c e d t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f h i s p s y c h o d r a m a as a " t e n s i o n " t h a t he w a n t e d t o work on, and f o r him c l a r i t y o f f o c u s was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h b e c o m i n g p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r p s y c h o d r a m a s , and t h r o u g h t h i n k i n g and p l a n n i n g what he s p e c i f i c a l l y w anted t o do. B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a b e g i n s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f b e i n g p u l l e d i n w a r d . F o r some p e o p l e , a w a r e n e s s o f t h e g r o u p b e g i n s t o r e c e d e a t t h i s t i m e , and f o r o t h e r s , a w a r e n e s s i s s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d w h i l e a t 87 t h e same t i m e t h e i r f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g drawn i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . The key h e r e , i s t h e i n w a r d p u l l . E d e s c r i b e d i t t h i s way: " I began t o g e t so f o c u s e d on what I was g o i n g t o be d o i n g and a l l t h a t , t h a t so q u i c k l y I was l o s i n g a w a r e n e s s of t h e o t h e r p e o p l e a r o u n d me I was t r y i n g t o g e t e v e r y t h i n g g o i n g i n my m i n d " . F o r A, i t w a s n ' t t h a t he was l e s s aware of t h e g r o u p , b u t he d i d e x p e r i e n c e p u l l i n g away f r o m them and f o c u s i n g w i t h i n . D f e l t d i s t a n c e d f r o m t h e g r o u p , and f o r a t i m e , "no l o n g e r f e l t p a r t o f t h e g r o u p " . Once an i n d i v i d u a l has i n i t i a t e d h i s or h e r own p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e a l s i t u a t i o n . The p s y c h o d r a m a becomes r e a l l i f e . E d e s c r i b e s i t i n t h i s way: "At f i r s t , i t was k i n d o f , a l m o s t an a c t , a l m o s t a l i t t l e game I was p l a y i n g , b u t t h e n what I f o u n d as I g o t i n t o i t more and more, my own e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t k i n d o f t o o k o v e r and' a l l o f a sudden i t became a l o t more r e a l and I f o u n d a l l my o l d h o o k s and e v e r y t h i n g were b e i n g p u l l e d . So a l l of a s u d d e n i t was v e r y c l o s e t o , w e l l i t was a r e a l e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s e l f , i t w a s n ' t a t a l k i n g s e s s i o n b u t now i t was s o r t of v e r y 88 much a l i v i n g o u t , p l a y i n g o u t r e a l i t y i n t h e moment." B d e s c r i b e s i t as an " a l t e r e d s t a t e " w h i c h was so r e a l t h a t she had t o p h y s i c a l l y hang on t o h e r c h a i r so t h a t she knew she was " s t i l l g r o u n d e d i n t h i s w o r l d " . F o r D, t h e o t h e r g r o u p members s u d d e n l y became what she d e s c r i b e d as t h e " u n d e f i n e d ' t h e y ' t h a t had h a u n t e d me t h r o u g h o u t my l i f e . " B e i n g i n a " r e a l " s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t a s i t u a t i o n , i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a movement away f r o m o b j e c t i v i t y t o w a r d s s u b j e c t i v i t y , and i n v o l v e s a s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e u s u a l l e v e l o f c o n t r o l . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a s e n s e o f h a v i n g v e r y l i t t l e p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , w h e r e a s f o r o t h e r s , i t i s as i f t h e c o n t r o l i s c o m i n g f r o m a d i f f e r e n t o r a much d e e p e r p l a c e . F o r A, i t was a c t i n g o u t o f t h e " i n n e r s e l f " w h i c h does "what i t needs t o do". F o r B, i t was a f e e l i n g o f b e i n g o u t of c o n t r o l , " g o i n g t o t h a t p l a c e you d o n ' t want t o go t o , but t h e o n l y way you c a n move i s t o go t h e r e " . C e x p e r i e n c e d t h e p s y c h o d r a m a as h a v i n g a " l i f e o f i t s own". F c a n remember s t a r t i n g t h e a c t i o n and t h e n " e v e r y t h i n g c h a n g e d " . F o r h i m , i t was l i k e a " t i m e w a r p " and he was p l u n g e d back i n t o h i s f a m i l y o f 89 o r i g i n , and f o r a w h i l e , he " r e a l l y " was a c h i l d l y i n g on t h e f l o o r , l i s t e n i n g t o a f a m i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and e x p r e s s i o n o f s t r o n g f e e l i n g . The o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s i t s i n t e n s i t y . E p u t i t t h i s way: " t h e i n t e n s i t y o f i t . . . . a l l o f a su d d e n I c o u l d j u s t f e e l so much, r i g h t i n my body. So a t some p o i n t , you know, I j u s t b r o k e down and c r i e d " B s t a t e d t h a t she went even beyond c r y i n g . " I was w a i l i n g " , she s a i d . F o r A t h e c r y i n g was v e r y c l e a n s i n g . " I f e l t a c l e a n s i n g t h r o u g h my b e i n g a b l e t o c r y , s o m e t h i n g I h a v e n ' t been a b l e t o do v e r y much o f , b e i n g a b l e j u s t t o sob and s o b , w i t h o u t any shame, w i t h o u t any s e n s e o f t r y i n g t o c o n t r o l i t , t o r e a l l y be j u s t i n t o u c h w i t h t h a t a n g u i s h was r e a l l y c l e a n s i n g . " D s a i d , " I c a n remember I was s o b b i n g and oh I f e l t so much p a i n . I t was j u s t h u r t i n g so much bu t a l s o I was s p e w i n g i t o u t I f e l t t h a t I had c l e a n e d m y s e l f o u t " . F o r C, a l o n g w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e came t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he c o u l d show f e e l i n g s , t h a t he was " n o r m a l " . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a w a r e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p members. F o r some p e o p l e i t i s l i k e b e i n g i n an a l t e r e d s t a t e where t h e r e i s no a w a r e n e s s a t a l l o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p members. F o r o t h e r s , t h e r e i s a p e r i o d i c , vague a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r g r o u p members. A e x p l a i n e d how he h a d n ' t been aware of t h e g r o u p a t a l l and o n l y as he s t a r t e d " t o come t o a g a i n , t o come back i n t o t h e room a g a i n " was he aware o f o t h e r p e o p l e . B o t h B and F d e s c r i b e d t h i s l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r g r o u p members as an a l t e r e d s t a t e s u c h as c a n happen t h r o u g h deep m e d i t a t i o n o r t h r o u g h t h e use o f d r u g s s u c h as LSD. P e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e t h i s as b e i n g i n t h e i r own w o r l d w i t h t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r s and o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s s i m p l y do n o t e x i s t . However f o r C, a w a r e n e s s of o t h e r g r o u p members d i d n o t t o t a l l y r e c e d e , and was e x p e r i e n c e d " i n a vague way now and t h e n " . He s a i d , " I d o n ' t remember s e e i n g a n y b o d y . I t seemed as i f e v e r y o n e was b e h i n d me. I d o n ' t know i f t h a t was t r u e o r n o t now and t h e n I j u s t had a vague s e n s e o f p e o p l e w a t c h i n g " . The p s y c h o d r a m a i s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h engagement o f t h e w h o l e s e l f : e m o t i o n s , c o g n i t i o n s , and t h e p h y s i c a l body. I n h i n d e s i g h t , i t i s t h i s w h o l e n e s s of e x p e r i e n c e t h a t seems t o s t a n d o u t and i m p a c t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . E e x p l a i n e d how h i s p s y c h o d r a m a f a c i l i t a t e d " t o t a l i n v o l v e m e n t " and b e c a u s e o f t h a t , t h e i m p a c t was j u s t so g r e a t t h a t he f e l t he was p u t t i n g h i s "hand i n t o a f i r e " . A s a i d i t t h i s way: " I t h i n k what t h e p s y c h o d r a m a a l l o w e d was t h e f u l l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e a n g e r a t more t h a n one l e v e l . More t h a n j u s t v e r b a l l y . I t a l l o w e d t h e p h y s i c a l . I t a l l o w e d t h e b e h a v i o u r a l . The w h o l e t h i n g . I was a b l e t o e x p r e s s c o m p l e t e l y what I d i d n ' t e x p r e s s when I was s e v e n o r e i g h t o r n i n e . " F e x p l a i n e d how he had t o h e a r h i s f a t h e r ' s v o i c e and he had t o see i t "as a p i c t u r e , a s a t o t a l w i t h a l l t h e e l e m e n t s t h e r e . " P h y s i c a l body movement i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e o f t h e r a p e u t i c o u tcome. T h i i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a c t u a l l y a c t i n g o u t a r e a l s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t i t and e m o t i n g f e e l i n g s P e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n i n g t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . A s a i d " I knew t h a t t h e r e was t h i s e n e r g y , t h i s r a g e i n my body t h a t needed t o be e x p r e s s e d and I d o n ' t know i f j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t i t or y e l l i n g w o u l d have been c o m p l e t e b e c a u s e my body needed t o a c t t h a t o u t more. I needed t o g r a p p l e . I needed t o w r e s t l e . I needed t o f i g h t . I needed t o f e e l t h a t t o p r o v e t o 92 m y s e l f t h a t I c o u l d do i t , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e my body needed t o have t h a t r e l e a s e i n t h a t f o r m " . D s a i d , " I c o u l d n e v e r have s t o o d s t i l l . I had t o be moving a r o u n d . " F o r F, as he became engaged i n a c t i o n , " e v e r y t h i n g c h a n g e d " f o r h i m . S u d d e n l y he was a c h i l d , l y i n g on t h e f l o o r l i s t e n i n g t o h i s f a m i l y a r g u i n g a b o u t t h e T.V., and " i t was j u s t l i k e a t i m e w a r p " . As a c h i l d , F l a y on t h e f l o o r l i s t e n i n g t o h i s f a m i l y and c r y i n g , u n t i l s u d d e n l y t h e r e was what he d e s c r i b e s as a " m a s s i v e t u r n a r o u n d " w h i c h happened when he p h y s i c a l l y s a t up and became an a d u l t , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s e e i n g t h i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t way. F o r h i m , t h e s h i f t "was t h a t i n s t a n t " and had t o do w i t h l y i n g on t h e f l o o r as a c h i l d , and s i t t i n g up as an a d u l t . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f a s h i f t as d e s c r i b e d by F, i s n o t u n i q u e t o him a l o n e . F o r a l l p r o t a g o n i s t s , d u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s t h e r e i s a f e l t p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f a " s h o c k " , a " s h i f t " o r a " r e l e a s e o f e n e r g y " t h r o u g h o u t t h e body. F o r some, as i n F's c a s e , t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d a t s p e c i f i c moments. F o r o t h e r s , i t h a ppens more g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s and one moment c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d . A d e s c r i b e d i t as l e t t i n g t h e body do what i t needs t o do, and i n t h e 93 p r o c e s s , r e l e a s i n g e n e r g y . B e x p e r i e n c e d i t as a " w h o l e r e l e a s e t h a t j u s t goes t h r o u g h y o u r body." C saw i t as a s h e d d i n g of " g u i l t and a n g e r and a l l t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t t a g a l o n g and t e n d t o use up a l l my e n e r g y " . At some p o i n t , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e of t h e a c t i o n b e i n g c o m p l e t e , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c l o s e s i t s e l f . F o r some p e o p l e t h i s i s a c o g n i t i v e f e e l i n g , and f o r o t h e r s , i t i s as i f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g j u s t s h u t s down. A s a i d , " I j u s t c r i e d my way t h r o u g h . . . a n d came o u t t h e o t h e r e n d " . C t a l k s a b o u t c o m i n g t o a p o i n t where he f e l t f i n i s h e d b e c a u s e he had done what he w a n t e d t o do. He s a y s , " I s t a r t e d f e e l i n g i t was t i m e t o c l o s e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . I f e l t l i k e i t was o v e r " . D d e s c r i b e s i t i n t h i s way " . . . I f i n a l l y p l a y e d down, got worn o u t , f e e l i n g I r e a l l y d i d n ' t have any more t o s a y . I had done i t . I f e l t l i k e a d i s h r a g . . . . I was c o m p l e t e l y e x h a u s t e d , m e n t a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y . " A f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s an e x p e r i e n c e d need t o r e t u r n t o t h e g r o u p and r e c e i v e a c c e p t a n c e f r o m them. P e o p l e have e x p o s e d v u l n e r a b l e p a r t s o f t h e m s e l v e s t o a g r o u p , and i n t u r n , t h e y need t o h e a r 94 a f f i r m a t i o n f r o m t h e g r o u p . F o r A, he needed " . . . j u s t t o f e e l t h a t t h e g r o u p was u n d e r s t o o d and a c c e p t i n g . T h a t was r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o end i t o f f . " B s t a t e s , " . . . . y o u c a n ' t s a y g o o d b y e , t h a t ' s i t . You c a n ' t do t h a t . I w o u l d have been d e v a s t a t e d . I mean I p r o b a b l y w o u l d have w a l k e d o u t and g o t h i t by a c a r . . . " As t h e g r o u p r e s p o n d e d t o h e r , e x p r e s s i n g a c c e p t a n c e , she f e l t a p o w e r f u l s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o a " c o m m u n i t y " . C t a l k s a b o u t how he was " g i v e n t h e power t o do s o m e t h i n g t h a t t a k e s up t h e g r o u p ' s t i m e " , s o m e t h i n g t h a t was i m p o r t a n t t o h i m , and he needed t o know i f t h a t was O.K. F p u t i t t h i s way: "...when you l e t someone i n t o t h e p a i n o f y o u r l i f e . . . y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e , w h e t h e r t h e y a r e g o i n g t o be j u d g m e n t a l o f you s u d d e n l y i t was O.K. b e c a u s e I had n o t w a s t e d e v e r y o n e ' s t i m e . " F o r D, g r o u p a c c e p t a n c e was a c r i t i c a l moment i n h e r p s y c h o d r a m a b e c a u s e "They had t h e u l t i m a t e power o f j u d g m e n t o v e r me". T h e r e i s a f e l t need t o v e r b a l l y p r o c e s s t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r g r o u p members, y e t a t t h e same t i m e , t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o do i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a p o w e r f u l p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . P e o p l e g e n e r a l l y f e e l e m o t i o n a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y t i r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r 95 t h e a c t i o n p a r t of t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . However, t h e y e x p e r i e n c e a need t o engage i n some s o r t o f p r o c e s s i n g o f what has h a p p e n e d . F s a i d , " I t was j u s t t o o e m o t i o n a l ... f o r me t o r e t u r n t o t h e g r o u p and g e t f e e d b a c k I was f e e l i n g v e r y t i r e d . . . a t t h a t s t a g e , I f e l t s i l l y . . . . ( f r o m ) c r y i n g and t h e show of e m o t i o n . " F went on t o e x p l a i n how r e c e i v i n g g r o u p a c c e p t a n c e " c h a n g e d e v e r y t h i n g " f o r h i m , and how " i t was v a l i d a t i o n " . D s a i d , " I f e l t q u i t e d a z e d a f t e r . . . I was t o o s p a c e d o u t t o t a k e much i n a t t h a t p o i n t . . . I w o u l d have been i n t e r e s t e d t h e n e x t day t o have had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a l k . " A l t h o u g h A was f e e l i n g e x h a u s t e d as w e l l , he f e l t a s t r o n g need t o go back t o t h e g r o u p and p r o c e s s . C f e l t " u n f i n i s h e d " b e c a u s e he f e e l s he w a s n ' t a b l e t o t h o r o u g h l y p r o c e s s h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r g r o u p members. C o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t s a r e an outcome of t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . These can happen i m m e d i a t e l y a n d / o r i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . A s a i d , " T h i n g s s t a r t t o c l i c k i n t o p l a c e . I was g e t t i n g a l l s o r t s of r e a l i z a t i o n s i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w e d . " F o r B, t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t r i g g e r e d o f f a p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t has been g o i n g on e v e r s i n c e ( t h r e e 96 y e a r s ) . F d e s c r i b e d how h i s p s y c h o d r a m a opened up a "new e r a " f o r h i m , and "a new a d v e n t u r e " , an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s o f d i g g i n g up new i n f o r m a t i o n and g e t t i n g new i n s i g h t s . A c t i o n i s t a k e n f o l l o w i n g i n s i g h t s . P e o p l e f i n d t h e m s e l v e s d o i n g t h i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t way. P a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r b e g i n t o c h a n g e . F o r E, new a c t i o n i n v o l v e d m a k i n g c l e a r " I f e e l " s t a t e m e n t s . D d e v e l o p e d c l e a r e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h h e r s o n and g e n e r a l l y became more a s s e r t i v e . C e s t a b l i s h e d a new r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r . F f o u n d t h a t h i s " c o p i n g m e c h a n i s m s " were s t r e n g t h e n e d and he c o u l d d e a l w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s as w e l l . A c h a n g e d h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t y l e , and B s t a r t e d d o i n g p e r s o n a l g r o w t h work w i t h a t h e r a p i s t . T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c h a n g e , and a f e e l i n g t h a t e i t h e r an o l d p a t t e r n has been b r o k e n or a w a r e n e s s has somehow s h i f t e d . Some p e o p l e l o o k on t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s as b e i n g a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r them, a b r e a k t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c h a n g e d t h e i r l i v e s a t many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . O t h e r s l a b e l one or two s p e c i f i c c o n c r e t e c h a n g e s , s u c h as t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c a u s e d them t o change t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n • p a t t e r n s i n g e n e r a l , o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one 97 p e r s o n or a g r o u p o f p e o p l e , i n p a r t i c u l a r . Some p e o p l e t a l k e d a b o u t an e x p e r i e n c e d p h y s i c a l change a f t e r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . A d e s c r i b e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f change i n t h i s way: " B e c a u s e t h i s g r o u p d i d a c c e p t me, i t was an e x p e r i e n c e I d i d n ' t have when I was g r o w i n g u p . . . I t h i n k I f e e l much more open w i t h p e o p l e , much more e m o t i o n a l l y h o n e s t and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . . . now I have p r i d e i n m y s e l f . . . . I f e e l much more c o m p e t e n t and l e s s a f r a i d ... b e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a I c o u l d r e a l l y f e e l i n my body t h i s e n e r g y . You know i f I went and I was w a l k i n g and I s t u b b e d my t o e , I w o u l d j u s t g e t t h i s i n c r e d i b l e r u s h o f r a g e and I w o u l d want t o smash • s o m e t h i n g ... The a n g e r was b l o c k i n g t h e p a i n . The a n g e r was s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p a i n so once I c o u l d f r e e t h e a n g e r , t h e n I c o u l d f e e l , t r u l y f e e l how u p s e t I was." B saw h e r p s y c h o d r a m a as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c h a n g e d h e r w h o l e l i f e . She s a i d "...somewhere between t h a t ( t h e p s y c h o d r a m a ) and t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r t h e r e ' s been n o t o n l y a h e a l i n g , b u t an i n t e g r a t i o n , as w e l l as l e t t i n g go o f . . . . r o l e s o r . . . . s h e l I s . ..You know i t ' s l i k e l e t t i n g go of t h e armour t h a t p r o t e c t e d me b e c a u s e I n e v e r knew where I 98 was g o i n g t o g e t h i t f r o m . . . . I t was j u s t t h e s t a r t o f my j o u r n e y . . . . i t ( p s y c h o d r a m a ) c a n r e a l l y move you t o a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e . " C e x p l a i n e d how h i s p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e made a d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r and went on t o s a y t h a t he f e e l s "... t h a t t h e r e i s some l o n g l a s t i n g b e n e f i t " , a l t h o u g h he d o e s n ' t know how much o r w h e t h e r i t i s huge o r l i t t l e . What s t a n d s o u t f o r him was " . . . s h e d d i n g a l o t o f g u i l t , a n g e r , and a l l t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t t a g a r o u n d and t e n d t o use up a l l my e n e r g y . " He summed t h i n g s up by s a y i n g t h a t " P s y c h o d r a m a so f a r has been t h e most u s e f u l way t h a t I ' v e t r i e d t o h e l p t h a t . " F o r D, p s y c h o d r a m a gave h e r a v o i c e , and she f e e l s she i s now a b l e t o s p e a k w i t h a u t h o r i t y . I t c h a n g e d t h i n g s b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y f o r h e r . She s a i d , " I f e e l a d i f f e r e n c e i n my t h r o a t . . . b e c a u s e I h a d n ' t u s e d o r p u t t o g e t h e r t h e m u s c l e s o r w h a t e v e r i n my t h r o a t i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r way b e f o r e . . . w h e n y o u ' r e s p e a k i n g w i t h a u t h o r i t y , I t h i n k y o u r v o i c e i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n when y o u ' r e s p e a k i n g f r o m i n s e c u r i t y . . . I d o n ' t have any o t h e r p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s b u t i n t e r m s o f my t h r o a t w h i c h i s t h e o n l y p l a c e I have e v e r 99 e x p e r i e n c e d i t where a do o r g o t opened u p . . . I t was t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . I f e l t c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t t h e r e a f t e r . I t was a n i g h t and day e x p e r i e n c e f o r me. I f e l t l i k e a new p e r s o n t h e r e a f t e r . I t was q u i t e a m a z i n g . " F o r E, i t was v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e power o f u s i n g " I f e e l " , " I want", " I n e e d " s t a t e m e n t s , and he now s p e a k s t h i s way s p o n t a n e o u s l y . He f e e l s t h a t h i s p s y c h o d r a m a a l s o b r o k e t h e p a t t e r n o f c a r r y i n g e v e r y o n e ' s l o a d f o r them. He summed i t up by s a y i n g t h a t " . . . i t was s u c h an e x i s t e n t i a l g u t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a t some t h i n g s r e a l l y s h i f t e d f o r me." A f t e r F's p s y c h o d r a m a , he began t o see h i s f a t h e r and h i s f a t h e r ' s l i f e i n a d i f f e r e n t way and t h i s l e d t o a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l f a m i l y members and h i s own c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . He d e s c r i b e d i t as "... a m a s s i v e t u r n a r o u n d " . . . . I c o u l d see t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h my f a t h e r ' s e y e s . " E s s e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t i m e i s r i g h t t o engage i n t h i s t y p e of p r o c e s s . B e i n g r e a d y , 100 means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , b u t t h e common t h r e a d i s t h e f e e l i n g t h a t one i s a t t h e " r i g h t " s t a g e i n one's p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s s i m p l y means a g l o b a l f e e l i n g o f r e a d i n e s s t h a t i s n ' t c o n c r e t i z e d , w h i l e f o r o t h e r s , i t means v e r y s p e c i f i c t h i n g s , s u c h as s e l f t r u s t and a p e r c e i v e d need t o work on some p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . W h a t e v e r ' b e i n g r e a d y ' means t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s r e g a r d e d as a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h o u t t h e f e l t s e n s e o f r e a d i n e s s , i n d i v i d u a l s n e i t h e r s e e k o u t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e n or do t h e y d e c i d e t o i n v e s t t h e i r f u l l e n e r g i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . C o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g o f r e a d i n e s s , t h e r e i s y e t a d e e p e r l e v e l , w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d as a f e l t s e n s e o f u r g e n c y , o r a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Once p e o p l e m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y g e a r up f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e y come t o a p o i n t where t h e y d o n ' t want t o t u r n b a c k , and where n o t d o i n g i t i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o p t i o n . The s e n s e o f u r g e n c y i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d as a b u i l d - u p o f i n n e r t e n s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e d a t b o t h a n e u r o m u s c u l a r and h o r m o n a l l e v e l , t h a t i s , a f e l t 101 s e n s a t i o n of m u s c l e t e n s i o n and a r i s e i n - e n e r g y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e n s e o f u r g e n c y i s e x p e r i e n c e d n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e e m o t i o n s and t h e m i n d , b u t a l s o t h r o u g h t h e body. At t h i s p o i n t , a p a r a d o x h a p p e n s . A l o n g w i t h f e e l i n g a n x i o u s , as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f s a f e t y . F e e l i n g s a f e comes o u t of t r u s t i n g b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p and i t i s r e g a r d e d as an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . T h i s s e n s e o f s a f e t y must be e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e a p r o t a g o n i s t i s w i l l i n g t o r i s k d o i n g a p s y c h o d r a m a . I n h i n d e s i g h t , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e t h e i n h e r e n t d a n g e r o r r i s k i n t h e p r o c e s s and r e i t e r a t e a g a i n and a g a i n how t h e y c o u l d n ' t have gone t h r o u g h w i t h i t u n l e s s t h e y t r u s t e d b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p . I n r e g a r d s t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s ' c h o i c e of s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f movement away f r o m a d i f f u s e f o c u s t o w a r d s a s p e c i f i c and c l e a r f o c u s . F o r some p e o p l e t h i s h a ppens i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , and f o r o t h e r s i t i s a more g r a d u a l p r o c e s s . C l a r i t y o f f o c u s i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g , e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , and 102 a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement. A l t h o u g h t h e t i m e f r a m e f o r t h i s p r o c e s s v a r i e s f r o m p e r s o n t o p e r s o n , and f o r some p e o p l e , more e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on one mode o v e r a n o t h e r , c l a r i t y o f f o c u s i n v o l v e s some c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h r e e modes. B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a b e g i n s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f b e i n g p u l l e d i n w a r d . F o r some p e o p l e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e g r o u p b e g i n s t o r e c e d e a t t h i s t i m e , and f o r o t h e r s , a w a r e n e s s i s s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h e i r f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g drawn i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . The key h e r e , i s t h e i n w a r d p u l l . Once an i n d i v i d u a l has i n i t i a t e d h i s or h e r own p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e a l s i t u a t i o n . The p s y c h o d r a m a becomes r e a l l i f e . B e i n g i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t a s i t u a t i o n , i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a movement f r o m o b j e c t i v i t y t o s u b j e c t i v i t y , and i n v o l v e s a s u s p e n s i o n of t h e u s u a l l e v e l o f c o n t r o l . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a s e n s e o f h a v i n g v e r y l i t t l e p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , w h e r e a s f o r o t h e r s , i t i s as i f t h e c o n t r o l i s c o m i n g f r o m a d i f f e r e n t o r a much d e e p e r p l a c e . 103 T h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and e x p r e s s i o n o f s t r o n g f e e l i n g . The o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s i t s i n t e n s i t y . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a w a r e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p members. F o r some p e o p l e i t i s T i k e b e i n g i n an a l t e r e d s t a t e , where t h e r e i s no a w a r e n e s s a t a l l o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p members. F o r o t h e r s , t h e r e i s a p e r i o d i c , vague a w a r e n e s s o f o t h e r g r o u p members. The p s y c h o d r a m a i s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h engagement o f t h e w h o l e s e l f : e m o t i o n s , c o g n i t i o n s , and t h e p h y s i c a l body. I n h i n d e s i g h t , i t i s t h i s w h o l e n e s s o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t seems t o s t a n d o u t and i m p a c t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . P h y s i c a l body movement i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e o f t h e r a p e u t i c outcome. T h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a c t u a l l y a c t i n g o u t a r e a l s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t i t and e m o t i n g f e e l i n g s . P e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n i n g t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . D u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s , t h e r e i s a f e l t p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f a " s h o c k " , a " s h i f t " , o r a " r e l e a s e o f e n e r g y " t h r o u g h o u t t h e body. F o r some, 104 t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d a t s p e c i f i c moments. F o r o t h e r s i t ha p p e n s more g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s and one moment c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d . A t some p o i n t , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f t h e a c t i o n b e i n g c o m p l e t e , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c l o s e s i t s e l f . F o r some p e o p l e t h i s i s a c o g n i t i v e f e e l i n g , and f o r o t h e r s , i t i s as i f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g j u s t s h u t s down. A f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s an e x p e r i e n c e d need t o r e t u r n t o t h e g r o u p and r e c e i v e a c c e p t a n c e f r o m them. P e o p l e have e x p o s e d v u l n e r a b l e p a r t s o f t h e m s e l v e s t o a g r o u p , and i n t u r n , t h e y need t o h e a r a f f i r m a t i o n f r o m t h e g r o u p . T h e r e i s a f e l t need t o v e r b a l l y p r o c e s s t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r g r o u p members, y e t a t t h e same t i m e , t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o do i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a p o w e r f u l p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . P e o p l e g e n e r a l l y f e e l e m o t i o n a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y t i r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e a c t i o n p a r t o f t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . However, t h e y e x p e r i e n c e a need t o engage i n some s o r t o f p r o c e s s i n g of what has h a p p e n e d . 105 C o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t s a r e an outcome o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . These can happen i m m e d i a t e l y a n d / o r i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . A c t i o n i s t a k e n f o l l o w i n g i n s i g h t s . P e o p l e f i n d t h e m s e l v e s d o i n g t h i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t way. P a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r b e g i n t o c h a n g e . T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c h a n g e , and a f e e l i n g t h a t e i t h e r an o l d p a t t e r n has been b r o k e n , o r a w a r e n e s s has somehow s h i f t e d . Some p e o p l e l o o k on t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s as b e i n g a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r them, a b r e a k t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c h a n g e d t h e i r l i v e s a t many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . O t h e r s l a b e l one o r two s p e c i f i c c o n c r e t e c h a n g e s , s u c h as t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c a u s e d them t o change t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n g e n e r a l , o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one p e r s o n o r a g r o u p o f p e o p l e , i n p a r t i c u l a r . Some p e o p l e t a l k e d a b o u t an e x p e r i e n c e d p h y s i c a l c hange a f t e r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . 106 C h a p t e r V: D i s c u s s i o n T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e f i n d i n g s i n t e r m s of t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d , a l o n g w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e S t u d y The e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a has been d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e was c a p t u r e d t h r o u g h t h e m e s , woven i n t o an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n , and t h e n r e d u c e d i n t o an e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . The f i n a l p r o d u c t o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e , r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o r e e l e m e n t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . I t c a n n o t be a u t o m a t i c a l l y assumed t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w o u l d be t h e same f o r o t h e r p r o t a g o n i s t s as w e l l , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be s i m i l a r . 107 A l l o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s l i v e i n C a n a d a , and a r e c u r r e n t o r r e c e n t g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s o f t h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y P r o g r a m a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s u n d e r t h e d i r e c t o r s h i p o f t h e same l e a d e r . P e o p l e who l i v e i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , have d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k -g r o u n d s , and u n d e r t a k e t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s u n d e r d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s , may n o t have t h e s e same e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y and more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s a r e a . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s s t u d y w i l l e n c o u r a g e o t h e r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a . S p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s I n t r o d u c t i o n The e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n c a n be v i e w e d as a n o t h e r s t e p i n t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h o d r a m a 108 e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who have l i v e d i t . I n t h e p a s t , r e s e a r c h e r s have d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s and t i m e f r a m e s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , b u t have f a i l e d t o l o o k a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e as a w h o l e . L o o k i n g a t t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e , one s e e s t h e p s y c h o d r a m a n o t as a s e p a r a t e , i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t , b u t as an e v e n t s e t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . A b a s i c t e n e t o f G e s t a l t t h e o r y i s t h a t a p e r s o n c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m h i s or h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f i e l d , t h a t t h e w h o l e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f t h e p a r t s ( P a s s o n s , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n t h e same way, t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o mponents o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e c a n n o t be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m one a n o t h e r . S k y n n e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) , w h i l e a s k i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , "What i s e f f e c t i v e i n g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y ? " , p u t i t t h i s way: " I f o u r b i r d ' s eye' v i e w i s w i d e e n o u g h , t r y i n g t o s p a n t h e w h o l e f i e l d however i m p e r f e c t our d e t a i l e d v i s i o n may become a t t h e n e c e s s a r y a l t i t u d e m i g h t we p e r h a p s f i n d a s i m p l e u n i f y i n g p a t t e r n g i v i n g m eaning t o t h e w h o l e , a p a t t e r n n o t o b v i o u s a t c l o s e r r a n g e where we c a n n o t s e e t h e wood f o r t h e t r e e s ? My i m p r e s s i o n so f a r i s t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e . . . . " ( p . 7 ) . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d i s c u s s i o n , t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s as e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e began w i t h a f e l t s e n s e o f r e a d i n e s s and ended w i t h a f e e l i n g t h a t some s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change had o c c u r e d . As w e l l as l o o k i n g a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s , an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o exa m i n e t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e t o see i f t h e r e i s a " s i m p l e u n i f y i n g p a t t e r n g i v i n g m e a n i n g t o t h e w h o l e " . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e The f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e a r e d i r e c t q u o t e s f r o m t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was v a l i d a t e d by a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . ELEMENT ONE: B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t i m e i s r i g h t t o engage i n t h i s t y p e o f p r o c e s s . B e i n g r e a d y , means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o 110 d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , but t h e common t h r e a d i s t h e f e e l i n g t h a t one i s a t t h e " r i g h t " s t a g e i n one's p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s s i m p l y means a g l o b a l f e e l i n g o f r e a d i n e s s t h a t i s n ' t c o n c r e t i z e d , w h i l e f o r o t h e r s , i t means v e r y s p e c i f i c • t h i n g s , s u c h as s e l f t r u s t and a p e r c e i v e d need t o work on some p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . W h i l e e x a m i n i n g t h e f i r s t e l e m e n t , r e a d i n e s s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t Moreno o f t e n w o r ked w i t h s u b j e c t s s t r a i g h t o f f t h e s t r e e t . A l t h o u g h r e a d i n e s s may be a f a c t o r i n s e l f s e l e c t i o n , i t was n o t an i s s u e t h a t Moreno o r o t h e r p s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h e r s have s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Moreno d e v e l o p e d t h e p r o c e s s o f warm-up as a means o f a c h i e v i n g r e a d i n e s s , but t h i s must n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e t y p e o f r e a d i n e s s t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s a r e r e f e r r i n g t o h e r e , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be more of a d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s s u e r a t h e r t h a n a warmed-up s t a t e o f mind p e r s e . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t h e work o f B e n n i s and S h e p a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) and G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) who c l a i m t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind as we exa m i n e t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e outcome o f t h e I l l p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s was c o n s i d e r e d by them t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e i s a common p e r s o n a l f a c t o r o r f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who go t h r o u g h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e r a p y . One s u c h f a c t o r may be t h i s e l e m e n t o f p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s , b u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o more c l o s e l y d e f i n e what t h i s means, and t o d e t e r m i n e as w e l l , how p e r s o n a l r e a d i n e s s i n t e r a c t s w i t h g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s a l s o r a i s e s t h e i s s u e of p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e f a c t t h a t some p e r s o n a l i t i e s may be more s u i t a b l e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s t h a n o t h e r s . K i p p e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o t a g o n i s t r e l a t e d f a c t o r s i n p s y c h o d r a m a outcome and e x p r e s s e s t h e c o n c e r n t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e e f f e c t o f p s y c h o d r a m a and t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s ' p e r s o n a l i t y has n e v e r been i n v e s t i g a t e d . ELEMENT TWO: W h a t e v e r ' b e i n g r e a d y ' means t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s r e g a r d e d as a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h o u t t h e f e l t s e n s e o f r e a d i n e s s , i n d i v i d u a l s n e i t h e r s e e k o u t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e n o r do t h e y d e c i d e t o i n v e s t t h e i r f u l l e n e r g i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . 112 T h i s e l e m e n t i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of why p s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h has been so open t o c o n t r o v e r s y . T h ese c o - r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r s t a t e of r e a d i n e s s c a u s e d them t o s e e k o u t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e and i n v e s t t h e i r f u l l e n e r g i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e w o r k i n g h e r e as w e l l . F o r e x a m p l e , how was Moreno so s u c c e s s f u l e ven when he p u l l e d s u b j e c t s o f f t h e s t r e e t s ? I f t h o s e s u b j e c t s were n o t p e r s o n a l l y r e a d y , was t h e r e a n o t h e r i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e t h a t made up f o r i t , f o r e x a m p l e , Moreno's p e r s o n a l i t y ? D a v i e s ( 1 9 8 7 ) comments on t h i s i s s u e when he s t a t e s : "Moreno's c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s a b i l i t y t o j u d g e t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o move i n t o s e n s i t i v e a r e a s s u c c e s s f u l l y a l l o w e d him t o work i n d e p t h , o f t e n w i t h l i t t l e p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and e ven i n p u b l i c s e s s i o n s . However, i n h i s c l i n i c , t h e p s y c h o d r a m a was a l m o s t a l w a y s a p a r t o f a l a r g e r p r o g r a m o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y w i t h s k i l l e d s t a f f a v a i l a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and o t h e r g r o u p members, h e l p i n g t o b u i l d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and i n s i g h t s g a i n e d i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . I t i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t o f t h a t o f t h e e x t e n d e d p s y c h o d r a m a w o r k s h o p t h a t c l a s s i c a l 113 p s y c h o d r a m a c o n t i n u e s t o p r o d u c e t h e b e s t r e s u l t s w i t h t h e f e w e s t p r o b l e m s " ( p . 1 1 2 ) . ELEMENT THREE: C o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g o f r e a d i n e s s , t h e r e i s y e t a d e e p e r l e v e l , w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d as a f e l t s e n s e o f u r g e n c y , o r a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Once p e o p l e m e n t a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y g e a r up f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e y come t o a p o i n t where t h e y d o n ' t want t o t u r n b a c k , and where n o t d o i n g i t i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o p t i o n . T h i s s e n s e of u r g e n c y i l l u s t r a t e s one o f t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f p s y c h o d r a m a , a c t h u n g e r , d e s c r i b e d by B l a t n e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) as " t h e d r i v e t o w a r d f u l l m e n t o f t h e d e s i r e s and i m p u l s e s a t t h e c o r e o f t h e s e l f . " I t a l s o c o n f i r m s t h e G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e o f f i g u r e and g r o u n d ( f o r e x a m p l e , P e r l s , 1 9 6 9 ) . I n f a c t , as t h e themes began t o emerge i n t h i s s t u d y , i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t n o t o n l y w i t h many o f t h e c o r e e l e m e n t s i n M oreno's p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y , b u t a l s o w i t h G e s t a l t t h e o r y . I n a n u t s h e l l , t h e G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e o f f i g u r e and g r o u n d i s t h i s : "Needs move i n and o u t of t h e f i g u r e 114 and g r o u n d f i e l d s . At a g i v e n moment a p a r t i c u l a r need may emerge and d i r e c t t h e p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r . The need moves f r o m g r o u n d t o f i g u r e . A f t e r t h i s need i s met i t r e c e d e s i n t o g r o u n d , and t h e most p r e s s i n g need i n t h e 'new' now emerges f r o m t h e g r o u n d as f i g u r e " ( P a s s o n s , 1975, p. 1 5 ) . C o - r e s e a r c h e r B i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s p r o c e s s w e l l when she d e s c r i b e d how h e r i s s u e "was s i t t i n g so c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e , t h a t i t was p h y s i c a l l y j u s t s o r t o f w a c k i n g me f r o m t h e i n s i d e " . C o - r e s e a r c h e r A d e s c r i b e d how he " c o u l d n ' t n o t do i t " and how " . . . i t w o u l d have been h a r d e r n o t t o do i t t h a n i t w o u l d have been t o do i t . " A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s a p p e a r t o have come t o t h i s same p o i n t , where t h e i n t e n s i t y o f d o i n g i t became g r e a t e r t h a n n o t d o i n g i t and t h e r e was t h e f e e l i n g o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o t u r n b a c k . G u l d n e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e s e n s e of u r g e n c y d e v e l o p s and i n t e n s i f i e s d u r i n g t h e w a r m ing up p e r i o d . "Warming up p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e p e r i p h e r y t o t h e c e n t e r . The t h e r a p i s t b e g i n s on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l a l l o w i n g s e l f i n v o l v e m e n t of t h e c l i e n t t o c a r r y him d e e p e r t o t h e c o r e . " I t a p p e a r s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s e n s e o f u r g e n c y w h i c h d e v e l o p s d u r i n g warm-up has n o t been 115 e x a m i n e d i n d e p t h , and n e i t h e r has i t s i n f l u e n c e on outcome been d e t e r m i n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , when a c l i e n t i s e x p e r i e n c i n g s u c h an i n t e n s i t y t h a t he or she " c a n n o t n o t do i t " i s t h e outcome a l w a y s s i g n i f i c a n t ? G e l l e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n r o l e p l a y i n g and ou t c o m e , and p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r i s t s i n g e n e r a l have c l a i m e d t h a t what makes p s y c h o d r a m a so e f f e c t i v e i s t h e l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e r e a l l i f e a s p e c t o f i t . K i p p e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d i e s need t o be c o n d u c t e d t o m o n i t o r t h e d e g r e e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t and c o r r e l a t e t h i s w i t h o u t c o m e s . ELEMENT FOUR: The s e n s e o f u r g e n c y i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d as a b u i l d - u p o f i n n e r t e n s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e d a t b o t h a n e u r o m u s c u l a r and h o r m o n a l l e v e l , t h a t i s , a f e l t s e n s a t i o n o f m u s c l e t e n s i o n and a r i s e i n e n e r g y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e n s e o f u r g e n c y i s e x p e r i e n c e d n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e e m o t i o n s and t h e m i n d , b u t a l s o t h r o u g h t h e body. The theme, b u i l d up o f i n n e r t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d a t b o t h a n e u r o m u s c u l a r and h o r m o n a l l e v e l , a d d r e s s e s t h e p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . A l l 116 e x p e r i e n c e d body s e n s a t i o n s s u c h as a k n o t i n t h e s t o m a c h , c l e n c h e d j a w s , t e n s e s h o u l d e r s , or a " b r e a k i n g o u t i n t o a c o l d sweat and j u s t a b o u t f a i n t i n g " . One d e s c r i b e d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e as an " a d r e n e l i n e r u s h " . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e s e n s a t i o n s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e t h e a c t i o n phase of t h e p s y c h o d r a m a b e g i n s , and a r e n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n s d u r i n g and a f t e r , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . D e l Nuovo e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) d e s c r i b e them as " t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e f e e l i n g s of i n t e n s i t y " ( p . 8 8 ) and p l a c e them i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e of s p o n t a n e i t y . However, a p a r t f r o m t h i s p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e , t h e y do n o t a d d r e s s them i n d e t a i l . May ( 1 9 7 5 ) , i n s t u d y i n g a n x i e t y and c r e a t i v i t y has n o t e d t h a t " g e n u i n e c r e a t i v i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n t e n s i t y o f a w a r e n e s s , a h e i g h t e n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( p . 4 4 ) . He goes on t o say t h a t " A r t i s t ' s , as w e l l as you and I i n moments of i n t e n s i v e e n c o u n t e r , e x p e r i e n c e q u i t e c l e a r n e u r o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . These i n c l u d e q u i c k e n e d h e a r t b e a t ; h i g h e r b l o o d p r e s s u r e ; i n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t y and c o n s t r i c t i o n o f v i s i o n . . . a l l o f t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d t o an i n h i b i t i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f 117 t h e p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c d i v i s i o n o f t h e a u t o n o m i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m ( w h i c h has t o do w i t h e a s e , c o m f o r t , n o u r i s h m e n t ) and an a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e s y m p a t h e t i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m . . . T h i s i s t h e n e u r o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e o f what we f i n d , i n b r o a d t e r m s , i n a n x i e t y and f e a r . . . " ( p . 4 4 ) . The s e n s a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s a p p e a r t o be t h e p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e s commonly l a b e l l e d as ' a n x i e t y ' , b u t t h e i s s u e i s , i s t h i s s i m p l e s t a g e f r i g h t o r i s s o m e t h i n g e l s e h a p p e n i n g h e r e ? C o u l d i t be t h a t t h e d e f e n s e s y s t e m , t h e p a r t o f t h e p s y c h e w h i c h k e p t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a f e f o r y e a r s , i s g e a r i n g up f o r a t t a c k ? A n x i e t y i s o f t e n r e g a r d e d by g r o u p l e a d e r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s a l i k e as a h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r i n p e r s o n a l g r o w t h and s o m e t h i n g t o be e l i m i n a t e d i n o r d e r f o r work t o p r o c e e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C o r s i n i ( 1 9 7 4 ) u s e s a n x i e t y as a t o o l i n p s y c h o d r a m a . He s t a t e s , "One o f t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f p s y c h o d r a m a , as I do i t , i s t o c r e a t e a n x i e t y , and t h e n t o r e f u s e t o r e d u c e i t " ( p . 3 1 1 ) . P e r h a p s a n x i e t y i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s p o n t a n e i t y , r a t h e r t h a n a b l o c k , and t h e p r o c e s s t h a t h a p p e n s d u r i n g warm-up i s t h a t a n x i e t y i s b o t h r e d u c e d 118 and h e i g h t e n e d . ELEMENT F I V E : At t h i s p o i n t , a p a r a d o x h a p p e n s . A l o n g w i t h f e e l i n g a n x i o u s , as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f s a f e t y . F e e l i n g s a f e comes o u t o f t r u s t i n g b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p and i t i s r e g a r d e d a s an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . T h i s s e n s e o f s a f e t y must be e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e a p r o t a g o n i s t i s w i l l i n g t o r i s k d o i n g a p s y c h o d r a m a . I n h i n d e s i g h t , c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e t h e i n h e r e n t d a n g e r o r r i s k i n t h e p r o c e s s and r e i t e r a t e a g a i n and a g a i n how t h e y c o u l d n ' t have gone t h r o u g h w i t h i t u n l e s s t h e y t r u s t e d b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d c o n f l i c t e d f e e l i n g s w h i c h t h e y r e f e r r e d t o a s a " p a r a d o x " and t h i s l e a d s us t o o u r n e x t e l e m e n t , s a f e t y , w h i c h comes f r o m t r u s t i n g b o t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p . I t i s an i s s u e a d d r e s s e d i n g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r y , and a d e s i r a b l e outcome o f M o r e n o ' s s t a g e one, t h e warm-up. I t c o n f i r m s G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) who f o u n d t h a t f o r any g r o u p t o be f a c i l i t a t i v e o f g r o w t h , i t must e x h i b i t a d e f e n s e - r e d u c t i v e c l i m a t e . When a s e n s e o f t r u s t i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a g r o u p , s p o n t a n e i t y i s 119 p o s s i b l e . W i t h o u t t r u s t , t h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f a n x i e t y and d e f e n s i v e n e s s . B e n n i s and S h e p a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) c l a i m t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t f r o m a g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e h i n g e s upon h i s o r h e r a b i l i t y t o o vercome a n x i e t y as a s o u r c e o f d i s t o r t i o n and t h a t , once a g a i n , t r u s t i s a key f a c t o r . T h i s i s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f a n x i e t y f r o m t h e a n x i e t y w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e d e f e n s e s a r e b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d . Once a p e r s o n f e e l s s a f e i n a g r o u p , he o r she c a n t h e n a l l o w t h i s o t h e r a n x i e t y t o emerge. A l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s knew b o t h t h e l e a d e r and most o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p members b e f o r e h a n d and t h e y a l l c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s , a l o n g w i t h a d e q u a t e warm-up t i m e , c r e a t e d an e l e m e n t o f s a f e t y . Moreno h i m s e l f w o u l d n e v e r do a p s y c h o d r a m a w i t h o u t warm-up ( M o r e n o , 1 9 6 9 ) . B l a t n e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) l i s t s s a f e t y as one o f t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r • s p o n t a n e o u s b e h a v i o u r i n p s y c h o d r a m a . When s e e n i n t h e c o n t e x t of o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m t h e g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t work o f B e n n i s and S h e p a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) and G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) . B l a t n e r s t a t e s t h a t " t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r s p o n t a n e o u s b e h a v i o r i n c l u d e ( 1 ) a s e n s e o f t r u s t and s a f e t y ; ( 2 ) norms 120 w h i c h a l l o w f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f n o n r a t i o n a l and i n t u i t i v e d i m i n s i o n s ; ( 3 ) some f e e l i n g o f t e n t a t i v e d i s t a n c e , w h i c h i s one e l e m e n t o f ' p l a y f u l n e s s ' ; and ( 4 ) a movement t o w a r d r i s k t a k i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o n o v e l t y " ( p . 3 6 ) . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a l l B l a t n e r ' s f o u r c o n d i t i o n s were e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y and a r e t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t i n t h e e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . ELEMENT S I X : I n r e g a r d s t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s ' c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f movement away f r o m a d i f f u s e f o c u s t o w a r d s a s p e c i f i c and c l e a r f o c u s . F o r some p e o p l e t h i s h a p p e n s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , and f o r o t h e r s i t i s a more g r a d u a l p r o c e s s . P r o t a g o n i s t s ' c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s a c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e o f f i g u r e and g r o u n d , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . I t i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t i v e o f M o r e n o ' s c o n c e p t o f s p o n t a n e i t y , " t h e a r c h c a t a l y z e r o f c r e a t i v i t y " ( M o r e n o , 1971, p. 4 6 7 ) . Moreno t r i e d t o n u r t u r e s p o n t a n e i t y d u r i n g t h e warm-up p r o c e s s . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s e l e m e n t may be c o n n e c t e d t o t h e e l e m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e a d i n e s s and 121 i s n o t s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n be f o s t e r e d t h r o u g h warm-up a l o n e . ELEMENT SEVEN: C l a r i t y o f f o c u s i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g , e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , and a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement. A l t h o u g h t h e t i m e f r a m e f o r t h i s p r o c e s s v a r i e s f r o m p e r s o n t o p e r s o n , and f o r some p e o p l e , more e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on one mode o v e r a n o t h e r , c l a r i t y o f f o c u s i n v o l v e s some c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h r e e modes. The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s ' r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f how c l a r i t y o f f o c u s i s a c h i e v e d s u p p o r t s b o t h p s y c h o d r a m a and G e s t a l t t h e o r y . Moreno s t a t e d r e p e a t e d l y t h a t i t was t h e t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e a l l i f e a s p e c t t h a t made p s y c h o d r a m a d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r t h e r a p i e s ( M o r e n o , 1964; 1 9 7 1 ) . Y a b l o n s k y ( 1 9 7 6 ) s t a t e s t h a t "Most p e o p l e r e q u i r e an a c t i v e v e h i c l e f o r e x p r e s s i o n , e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y o r as an a d j u n c t t o an i n d i v i d u a l - v e r b a l a p p r o a c h . I t i s a p p a r e n t t o many i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p i s t s t h a t many c l i e n t s , when e m b r o i l e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f deep e m o t i o n s , e i t h e r have t h e u r g e o r a c t u a l l y g e t up o f f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c c o u c h o r c h a i r and b e g i n t o p h y s i c a l l y move a r o u n d . I t i s 122 p r e c i s e l y a t t h i s p o i n t o f a c t i o n t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a comes i n t o p l a y " ( p . 2 1 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f t h e c l i e n t were p h y s i c a l l y r e s t r a i n e d a t t h i s p o i n t and f o r c e d t o t a l k , n o t a c t , t h e outcome m i g h t be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . ELEMENT EIGHT: B e f o r e t h e p s y c h o d r a m a b e g i n s , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f b e i n g p u l l e d i n w a r d . F o r some p e o p l e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e g r o u p b e g i n s t o r e c e d e a t t h i s t i m e , and f o r o t h e r s , a w a r e n e s s i s s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h e i r f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g drawn i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . The key h e r e , i s t h e i n w a r d p u l l . T h i s i s y e t a n o t h e r f i n d i n g t h a t i s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e o f f i g u r e / g r o u n d , d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , and as w e l l , M o r e n o ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t a t e . Moreno d e s c r i b e s t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t a t e as "a d i s t i n c t i v e p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n " ( M o r e n o , 1946, p. 1 4 1 ) . At t h i s s t a g e i n t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s , t h e " p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n " was e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s as an i n w a r d p u l l , and i t a p p e a r s t o be a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e n e x t s t a g e , w h i c h i s t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t h e r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Moreno 123 f u r t h e r d e f i n e d t h i s p r o c e s s as " l i f e e n e r g y w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e b o d i l y and p e r s o n a l o r g a n i s m " ( p . 1 4 9 ) . ELEMENT NINE: Once an i n d i v i d u a l has i n i t i a t e d h i s or h e r own p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n t o e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e a l s i t u a t i o n . The p s y c h o d r a m a becomes r e a l l i f e . T h i s e l e m e n t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o r e o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y , t h e r e a l l i f e a s p e c t , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f what Moreno c a l l e d s u r p l u s r e a l i t y ( M o r e n o , 1 9 6 9 ) . Moreno ( 1 9 6 9 ) d e f i n e s s u r p l u s r e a l i t y as t h e " p r o t a g o n i s t ' s t r u t h , as he f e e l s and p e r c e i v e s i t , i n a c o m p l e t e l y s u b j e c t i v e manner (no m a t t e r how d i s t o r t e d i t m i g h t a p p e a r t o t h e s p e c t a t o r ) " . At t h i s p o i n t i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e o t h e r a c t o r s a c t u a l l y become t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s b r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s , m o t h e r , f a t h e r , e t c . , and t h e p r o t a g o n i s t f i n d s h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s beyond a c t i n g . K i p p e r ( 1 9 8 8 ) d e v e l o p e d a model w h i c h he c a l l e d a " b e h a v i o r s i m u l a t i o n p a r a d i g m " w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s b o t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p s y c h o d r a m a as d e s c r i b e d by Moreno ( 1 9 6 9 ) and t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n 124 t h i s s t u d y as w e l l . The b e h a v i o r s i m u l a t i o n p a r a d i g m r e s t s on t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s : ( a ) The a b i l i t y o f human b e i n g s t o a c t ( a n d r o l e p l a y ) i s p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h e p r o c e s s of l i v i n g . ( b ) Human b e i n g s c a n p l a n s u c h a c t s ( b e h a v i o r ) i n a d v a n c e and p r o d u c e t h e b e h a v i o r v o l i t i o n a l l y as t h e r e s u l t o f e i t h e r a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n o r t h e r e q u e s t o f o t h e r s . ( c ) T h a t a b i l i t y i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p e o p l e ' s e f f o r t t o m a s t e r t h e w o r l d t h a t s u r r o u n d s them. ( d ) When s u c h an e f f o r t f a i l s , c o r r e c t i v e m e a s u r e s , f o r e x a m p l e p s y c h o t h e r a p y , m i g h t be r e q u i r e d . The a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d a b i l i t y may be u t i l i z e d i n n e w l y c r e a t e d m i n i a t u r e e n v i r o n m e n t s , namely s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s a i m e d a t f a c i l i t a t i n g b e t t e r c o p i n g . A c t u a l l y t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c method. I t i s a method t h a t p r o v i d e s 'new o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p s y c h o d y n a m i c and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e i n t e g r a t i o n , [ t h r o u g h ] t h e r a p e u t i c c u l t u r e s i n m i n i a t u r e . . . i n l i e u o r i n 125 e x t e n s i o n of t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y n a t u r a l h a b i t a t s ' ( M o r e n o , 1964, p. x x i i ) . ( e ) S i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s i n v o l v e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r t i c u l a r s e t s o f b e h a v i o r s and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . ( f ) I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e s e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d i s t i n c t p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l ( e x p e r i e n t i a l ) s t a t e s t h a t a c t i v a t e o r e m p h a s i z e d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t i a l o u t c o m e s . ( K i p p e r , 1988, p.166) ELEMENT TEN: B e i n g i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t a s i t u a t i o n , i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a movement f r o m o b j e c t i v i t y t o s u b j e c t i v i t y , and i n v o l v e s a s u s p e n s i o n of t h e u s u a l l e v e l o f c o n t r o l . F o r some p e o p l e , t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a s e n s e o f h a v i n g v e r y l i t t l e p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , w h e r e a s f o r o t h e r s , i t i s as i f t h e c o n t r o l i s c o m i n g f r o m a d i f f e r e n t o r a much d e e p e r p l a c e . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t , once a g a i n , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i l l u s t r a t e b o t h G e s t a l t and p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y . P a s s o n s ( 1 9 7 5 ) e x p l a i n s how change 126 i s n e i t h e r " p l a n n e d , programmed, or c o e r c e d " i n G e s t a l t t h e r a p y , but r a t h e r , " I t i s a l l o w e d " ( p . 2 0 ) . P e r l s ( 1 9 6 9 ) s p e a k s o f " O r g a n i s m i c s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n " and goes on t o say t h a t " . . . y o u ca n l e t t h e o r g a n i s m t a k e o v e r w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g , w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i n g ; we c a n r e l y on t h e wisdom o f t h e o r g a n i s m " ( p p . 1 6 - 1 7 ) . Moreno ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e s c r i b e s s p o n t a n e i t y as a new r e s p o n s e t o an o l d s i t u a t i o n o r an a d e q u a t e r e s p o n s e t o a new s i t u a t i o n . He goes on t o say t h a t as a r e s u l t o f s p o n t a n e i t y , one's r o l e d e e p e n s and e x p a n d s . . . and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s f r e e t o t r y o u t new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . ELEMENT ELEVEN: T h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and e x p r e s s i o n o f s t r o n g f e e l i n g . The o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s i t s i n t e n s i t y . Moreno d e f i n e d c a t h a r s i s as b l o c k e d e n e r g y b e i n g r e l e a s e d ( 1 9 4 6 , p l 6 ) . N i c h o l a s ( 1 9 8 4 ) d e s c r i b e s how c a t h a r s i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n p s y c h o d r a m a as a " c o r r e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e " w h i c h i s " t h e r e e n a c t m e n t w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n and f a v o r a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f an e m o t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i n t h e p a s t was p a i n f u l a n d / o r ended u n f a v o r a b l y " ( p . 3 6 ) . 127 The e x p e r i e n c e o f o u r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f i t s b o t h o f t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s . B l o c k e d e n e r g y i n t h e f o r m o f a n g e r , r a g e , and g r i e f was r e l e a s e d . The most o u t s t a n d i n g a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e was t h e i n t e n s i t y . T h e r e i s p r e s e n t l y much c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t w h e t h e r t h i s i n t e n s e , e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e main c u r a t i v e e l e m e n t i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s ( K e l l e r m a n , 1 9 8 4 ) . A l l o u r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d i t , and Moreno ( 1 9 6 9 ) c l a i m e d t h a t c a t h a r s i s i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e f i n a l o u tcome. K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 5 , 1987) f o u n d t h a t c a t h a r s i s was one of t h r e e e l e m e n t s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d c hange i n p s y c h o d r a m a . (The o t h e r two e l e m e n t s were s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g ) . K e l l e r m a n b e l i e v e s t h a t " W h i l e e m o t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e , and a c t i o n a l r e l e a s e a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s , t h e y a r e c u r a t i v e o n l y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s " ( 1 9 8 4 , p . 9 ) . L o o k i n g a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t h a r s i s i n c o n t e x t w i t h o t h e r e l e m e n t s i n t h e s t u d y , K e l l e r m a n ' s f i n d i n g s a r e a t l e a s t s u p p o r t e d , i f n o t c o n f i r m e d . What i s unknown i s t h e r o l e e a c h e l e m e n t p l a y s i n d i v i d u a l l y and how t h e y c o m b i n e as a c u r a t i v e e l e m e n t . 128 ELEMENT TWELVE: D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a w a r e n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p members. F o r some p e o p l e i t i s l i k e b e i n g i n an a l t e r e d s t a t e , where t h e r e i s no a w a r e n e s s a t a l l o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p members. F o r o t h e r s , t h e r e i s a p e r i o d i c , vague a w a r e n e s s of o t h e r g r o u p members. T h i s f i n d i n g r e f e r s t o t h e a w a r e n e s s o f g r o u p members as d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l s a p a r t f r o m t h e r o l e s t h e y a r e p l a y i n g i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . I t a f f i r m s what Moreno c a l l e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f h i s p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y , h i s c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , s p a c e , r e a l i t y , and t h e cosmos, and as w e l l , h i s - a c t i o n c o n c e p t o f r o l e ( M o r e n o , 1 9 7 1 ) . I t a l s o r e l a t e s , once a g a i n , t o t h e G e s t a l t p r i n c i p l e o f f i g u r e / g r o u n d . ELEMENT THIRTEEN: The p s y c h o d r a m a i s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h engagement of t h e w h o l e s e l f : e m o t i o n s , c o g n i t i o n s , and t h e p h y s i c a l body. K e l l erman ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t a t e d t h a t "No a d e q u a t e t h e r a p y i s p o s s i b l e u n l e s s a l l a c t i o n s , w h e t h e r e m o t i o n a l , c o g n i t i v e o r b e h a v i o u r a l , a r e a l l o w e d t o emerge w i t h i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g " (p 2 0 2 ) . T h i s i s a c o r e p r i n c i p l e o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y , and f o r t h e 129 p r o t a g o n i s t s , i t was t h i s w h o l e n e s s o f e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h seemed t o have t h e most i m p a c t on them. ELEMENT FOURTEEN: P h y s i c a l body movement i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e o f t h e r a p e u t i c o u t c o m e . T h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a c t u a l l y a c t i n g o u t a r e a l s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t i t and e m o t i n g f e e l i n g s . P e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n i n g t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . S t a r r ( 1 9 7 7 ) d e s c r i b e s t h i s as an e x p e r i e n c e o f m o v i n g f r o m n a r r a t i o n t o motor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o - r e s e a r c h e r A summed up t h i s e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s when he s a i d " I d o n ' t know i f j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t i t or y e l l i n g w o u l d have been c o m p l e t e b e c a u s e my body needed t o a c t t h a t o u t more". T h i s e l e m e n t a l o n e i s what makes p s y c h o d r a m a d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r t h e r a p i e s and i s a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n t h e r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e a s p e c t o f t h e t h e o r y . ELEMENT F I F T E E N : D u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s , t h e r e i s a f e l t p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f a " s h o c k " , a " s h i f t " , o r a " r e l e a s e o f e n e r g y " t h r o u g h o u t t h e body. F o r some, t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d a t s p e c i f i c moments. F o r 130 o t h e r s i t happens more g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s and one moment c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d . M o r e n o ' s c o n c e p t o f s p o n t a n e i t y was o r i g i n a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n "Words o f t h e F a t h e r " i n 1920 and as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d s e v e r a l t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i t e n t a i l s more t h a n s i m p l y an e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n . S h e a r o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t s p o n t a n e i t y "... m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n b o d i l y change j u s t as a n x i e t y d o e s . I n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t a t e , t h e body i s m o t i v a t e d and e n e r g i z e d f e e l s a u t h e n t i c ' c e n t e r e d ' , f r e e f l o w i n g . The s p o n t a n e i t y p r o c e s s p a v e s t h e way f o r t h e c r e a t i v e a c t . The c r e a t i v e a c t ( o r p r o d u c t ) i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s t a t e " ( p . 1 1 5 ) . S h e a r o n went on t o s a y t h a t t h e r a p e u t i c change happens t h r o u g h t h e s p o n t a n e i t y p r o c e s s ( p . 1 2 6 ) . S h e a r o n ' s work and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f our c o - r e s e a r c h e r s b o t h a f f i r m May's work ( 1 9 7 5 ) on c r e a t i v i t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t G r e e n b e r g ( 1 9 7 4 ) a l s o r e f e r r e d t o t h i s p r o c e s s when he d e s c r i b e d p s y c h o d r a m a as a " t e n s i o n r e d u c t i o n t y p e p s y c h o l o g y " ( p . 1 1 ) . ELEMENT SIXTEEN: At some p o i n t , t h e r e i s a f e l t s e n s e o f t h e a c t i o n b e i n g c o m p l e t e , a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e 131 p s y c h o d r a m a c l o s e s i t s e l f . F o r some p e o p l e t h i s i s a c o g n i t i v e f e e l i n g , and f o r o t h e r s , i t i s as i f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g j u s t s h u t s down. K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) a d d r e s s e d t h e i s s u e of c l o s u r e i n p s y c h o d r a m a , s t a t i n g t h a t i t d i d n o t a p p e a r i n any of M o r e n o ' s w r i t i n g s and a p p e a r s t o have been b o r r o w e d f r o m G e s t a l t t h e o r y . I t " d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s i n p e r c e p t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , where an i n t e g r a t e d and w h o l e g e s t a l t i s c o m p l e t e d " ( p . 2 1 ) . A p a r t f r o m K e l l e r m a n ' s work ( 1 9 8 8 ) and t h a t o f B l a t n e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) , t h e i s s u e o f c l o s u r e has n o t been w i d e l y a d d r e s s e d i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a l i t e r a t u r e and more r e s e a r c h n e e d s t o be done t o e x p l o r e how t h i s i s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and how i t can be b e s t f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e d i r e c t o r . ELEMENT SEVENTEEN: A f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , t h e r e i s an e x p e r i e n c e d need t o r e t u r n t o t h e g r o u p and r e c e i v e a c c e p t a n c e f r o m them. P e o p l e have e x p o s e d v u l n e r a b l e p a r t s o f t h e m s e l v e s t o a g r o u p , and i n t u r n , t h e y need t o h e a r a f f i r m a t i o n f r o m t h e g r o u p . R e c e i v i n g a f f i r m a t i o n f r o m t h e g r o u p a p p e a r s t o be a p o w e r f u l p a r t o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g 132 t o S h e a r o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) i t g i v e s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t h e c o u r a g e t o be h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f , and e l i m i n a t e s f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n o r i s o l a t i o n . I t c r e a t e s a " g r o u p 'we' f e e l i n g " ( p . 1 3 1 ) . Moreno ( 1 9 6 9 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no s p e c t a t o r s i n p s y c h o d r a m a , t h a t e v e r y o n e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e p r o c e s s . F o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , t h e r e i s a l s o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f g r o u p members as w i t n e s s e s s and t h i s i s a f a c t o r n o t a d d r e s s e d i n p s y c h o d r a m a l i t e r a t u r e . I t a p p a r e n t l y has t o do w i t h b e i n g h e a r d and b e i n g s e e n f o r who you a r e . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y s p o k e o f t h e power o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , b u t once a g a i n , t h e r e i s no way of k n o w i n g how much t h i s i n f l u e n c e d t h e out c o m e , o n l y t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s . ELEMENT EIGHTEEN: T h e r e i s a f e l t need t o v e r b a l l y p r o c e s s t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r g r o u p members, y e t a t t h e same t i m e , t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o do i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a p o w e r f u l p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . P e o p l e g e n e r a l l y f e e l e m o t i o n a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y t i r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e a c t i o n p a r t o f t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . However, t h e y e x p e r i e n c e a need t o engage i n some s o r t o f p r o c e s s i n g o f what has h a p p e n e d . 133 C o r e y ( 1 9 8 5 ) f o u n d t h a t p r o t a g o n i s t s "need t o be a b l e t o c o u n t on t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e g r o u p i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y what t h e y have j u s t e x p e r i e n c e d " and . . . . " i f no s u c h o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n and s h a r i n g , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s may l e a v e t h e s e s s i o n f e e l i n g r e j e c t e d and l o s t i n s t e a d o f f e e l i n g f r e e r and w i t h g r e a t e r s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n " ( p . 2 0 5 ) . An i s s u e r a i s e d by o u r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s was t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f a t i g u e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e a c t i o n phase o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , however a l o n g w i t h t h e f a t i g u e was t h e need t o engage i n some s o r t of p r o c e s s i n g of t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e w h o l e g r o u p . The p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e g r o u p was c o n s i d e r e d by Moreno and o t h e r p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t s as b e i n g an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s and a n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t i n a c h i e v i n g c l o s u r e ( K e l l e r m a n , 1 9 8 8 ) . ELEMENT NINETEEN: C o g n i t i v e i n s i g h t s a r e an outcome o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . These c a n happen i m m e d i a t e l y a n d / o r i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . 134 T h i s f i n d i n g i s a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t c o g n i t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g i s an outcome o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s ( N i c h o l a s , 1 9 8 4 ) . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t w i l l e x p e r i e n c e o n g o i n g i n s i g h t s a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . He e x p l a i n e d i t i n t h i s way: " I f p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d and managed, p s y c h o d r a m a t i c c l o s u r e c o n v e y s t h e t r u i s m t h a t s o m e t h i n g ends and t h e n b e g i n s a g a i n and a g a i n and a g a i n . T h a t ' s a b o u t t h e o n l y t h i n g we c a n be s u r e o f " ( p 2 8 ) . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s d i s c u s s e d t h e o n g o i n g n a t u r e of t h e i n s i g h t s i n t h e weeks t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e i r p s y c h o -d r a m a s . I t i s as i f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , a l t h o u g h c o m p l e t e d a t one l e v e l i n t h e same way t h a t a s t o r y i n l i t e r a t u r e o r drama e n d s , r e m a i n s an i n c o m p l e t e G e s t a l t a t o t h e r l e v e l s , and becomes c o m p l e t e d i n s t a g e s . May ( 1 9 8 5 ) c l a i m s t h a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e G e s t a l t i s a l s o d e p e n d e n t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l o f commitment. F o r h i m , " . . . t h e i d e a , t h e new f o r m w h i c h s u d d e n l y becomes p r e s e n t , came i n o r d e r t o c o m p l e t e an i n c o m p l e t e G e s t a l t w i t h w h i c h I was s t r u g g l i n g i n c o n s c i o u s a w a r e n e s s " ( p . 6 6 ) . 135 ELEMENT TWENTY: A c t i o n i s t a k e n f o l l o w i n g i n s i g h t s . P e o p l e f i n d t h e m s e l v e s d o i n g t h i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t way. P a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r b e g i n t o c h a n g e . The c o - r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t t h e i r b e h a v i o u r began t o cha n g e f o l l o w i n g t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t two p r o c e s s e s a r e o p e r a t i n g h e r e . G e s t a l t t h e o r y c l a i m s t h a t a w a r e n e s s i s a l l t h a t i s needed t o c r e a t e b e h a v i o u r change ( P e r l s , 1 9 6 9 ) , however p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i t i s t h e t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c r e a t e s change ( M o r e n o , 1 9 6 9 ) . ELEMENT TWENTY-ONE: T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c h a n g e , and a f e e l i n g t h a t e i t h e r an o l d p a t t e r n has been b r o k e n , o r a w a r e n e s s has somehow s h i f t e d . Some p e o p l e l o o k on t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s as b e i n g a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r them, a b r e a k t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c h a n g e d t h e i r l i v e s a t many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . O t h e r s l a b e l one o r two s p e c i f i c c o n c r e t e c h a n g e s , s u c h as t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c a u s e d them t o change t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n g e n e r a l , o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one p e r s o n o r a gr o u p o f p e o p l e , i n p a r t i c u l a r . Some p e o p l e t a l k e d 136 a b o u t an e x p e r i e n c e d p h y s i c a l change a f t e r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e s as b e i n g f a c i l i t a t i v e i n c r e a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c hange f o r them. Whether any one e l e m e n t i s more r e s p o n s i b l e t h a n a n o t h e r i n c r e a t i n g t h i s c hange i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . However, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d i s c u s s i o n , a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s were a s k e d what a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t o o d o u t f o r them. T h e i r r e p l i e s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n e x c e p t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e s c r i b i n g p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t s , and w i l l be i n c l u d e d h e r e as a means o f d i s c u s s i n g t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e . QUESTION: "What a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t o o d o u t f o r y o u ? " CO-RESEARCHER A: " E v e r y t h i n g ! " He went on t o t a l k a b o u t how " c o m p l e t e " t h e e x p e r i e n c e was i n t h a t i t i m p a c t e d him a t a l l l e v e l s : e m o t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l , and c o g n i t i v e . He s t a t e d , " I was a f f e c t e d a t a l l l e v e l s i t ' s v o l c a n i c i n t h e way i t i m p a c t s " and " t h a t ' s what makes i t s u c h a p o w e r f u l t o o l " . " I t i s so t o t a l , i t ' s n o t j u s t v e r b a l " . 137 CO-RESEARCHER B: " I t was j u s t a p o w e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e " . She went on t o d e s c r i b e h e r e x p e r i e n c e as "an a l t e r e d s t a t e so c o n s u m i n g l i k e l e a p i n g o f f i n t o y o u r u n c o n s c i o u s " . What s t o o d o u t f o r h e r was t h a t she a c t u a l l y f e l t t h a t she was t h e r e i n a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n , and w i t h o u t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , she c l a i m s t h a t h e r l i f e w o u l d be v e r y d i f f e r e n t now. CO-RESEARCHER C: t h e p a r t t h a t s t o o d o u t t h e most f o r him was when he became " t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d " i n t h e a c t i o n p a r t o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a . He went on t o e x p l a i n how h i s " s i s t e r " s t a r t e d t o c r y and s u d d e n l y , he f o u n d h i m s e l f c r y i n g t o o . He was p h y s i c a l l y c r y i n g , he was r e l e a s i n g f e e l i n g s , and he was t h i n k i n g "oh I c a n c r y ! " CO-RESEARCHER D: " I t was t h e w h o l e . I t was t h e t i m i n g and t h e s t r u c t u r e , t h e w h o l e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s w h i c h were v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r me." She t a l k s a b o u t how t h e g r o u p became t h e u n d e f i n e d t h e y , t h e m a s s e s , and no l o n g e r s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . CO-RESEARCHER E: " i t seemed j u s t so r e f r e s h i n g t o f e e l my w h o l e s e l f g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d . I n some ways i t was beyond t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l , b e c a u s e i t was so c l o s e t o 138 l i f e . . . . i t f e l t l i k e my w h o l e body, my m i n d , and my h e a r t was i n t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . " CO-RESEARCHER F: " I had t o h e a r h i s v o i c e . (He was t a l k i n g a b o u t h i s f a t h e r ) . I had t o s e e i t , I t h i n k , as a p i c t u r e , as a t o t a l w i t h a l l t h e e l e m e n t s t h e r e . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d one f a c t o r as s t a n d i n g o u t more t h a n t h e o t h e r s , and t h a t i s t h e r e a l l i f e a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Moreno ( 1 9 6 9 ) c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r e a l l i f e a s p e c t o f p s y c h o d r a m a was what d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i t f r o m o t h e r t h e r a p i e s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t l o o k i n g a t what s t a n d s o u t i n an e x p e r i e n c e may be a d i f f e r e n t i s s u e t h a n l o o k i n g a t what f a c i l i t a t e s c h a n g e . When e x a m i n i n g what f a c i l i t a t e s c h a n g e , K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 5 , 1987) p l a c e d " e m o t i o n a l a b r e a c t i o n " a t t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t . B e c a u s e e m o t i o n a l a b r e a c t i o n i n v o l v e s c o g n i t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , and body movement, i t c e r t a i n l y has a ' r e a l l i f e ' a s p e c t t o i t , b ut t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s seem t o be t a l k i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t b o t h i n c l u d e s i t and moves beyond i t . 139 Summar y We begun t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s by q u o t i n g S k y n n e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) who l o o k e d f o r a " s i m p l e u n i f y i n g p a t t e r n g i v i n g m e a n ing t o t h e w h o l e " . We have e x a m i n e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s of t h e e x p e r i e n c e and f o u n d t h a t t h e y c o n f i r m b o t h p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y and G e s t a l t t h e o r y . L o o k i n g a t t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e , what a p p e a r s t o s t a n d o u t i s t h a t t h e u n i f y i n g p a t t e r n of e l e m e n t s seem t o r e s e m b l e what a r e commonly c a l l e d " r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s " . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s n o t one e l e m e n t a l o n e , but t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of a l l of them t o g e t h e r w h i c h makes a d i f f e r e n c e . W h i l e t h i s r e s e a r c h was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d , M oreno's a u t o b i o g r a p h y was p u b l i s h e d ( M o r e n o , 1 9 8 9 ) . I n i t he r e i t e r a t e s how he saw h i s p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y as m o d e l l e d a f t e r r e a l l i f e and how, i n f a c t , he d e v e l o p e d i t o u t o f h i s own l i f e . He s a y s , "The p s y c h o d r a m a of my l i f e p r e c e d e d p s y c h o d r a m a as a m ethod. I was t h e f i r s t p a t i e n t of p s y c h o d r a m a t i c i t h e r a p y , p r o t a g o n i s t and d i r e c t o r i n one. W i t h t h e a i d o f u n w i t t i n g a u x i l i a r y e g o s , t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d me, I d e v e l o p e d a s u r p l u s r e a l i t y , a new w o r l d w h i c h t h e a c t u a l c u l t u r e d i d n o t , c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e . From s u c h 140 e x p e r i e n c e s and f r o m my s u c c e s s e s w i t h them came t h e v i t a l i t y and d r i v e t o a p p l y s u c h t e c h n i q u e s t o o t h e r p e o p l e " ( p . 3 2 ) . I t i s t h i s - c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p s y c h o d r a m a t h e o r y , t h e c l a i m t h a t i t i s m o d e l l e d a f t e r r e a l l i f e , t h a t a p p e a r s t o e x a s p e r a t e r e s e a r c h e r s most o f a l l s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e f a c t o r s c a n n o t be e a s i l y i s o l a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d . T h i s s t u d y , t h r o u g h e x p l o r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p e o p l e who have l i v e d t h r o u g h a p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s , a f f i r m s e l e m e n t s o f b o t h p s y c h o d r a m a and G e s t a l t t h e o r y . The i n t e n t i o n has n o t been t o p r o v e a n y t h i n g , b u t r a t h e r t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . From t h i s w o r k, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f i m p l i c a t i o n s b o t h f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g I t i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h i s s t u d y t h a t a number of f a c t o r s a r e c r u c i a l i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a p o s i t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h p s y c h o d r a m a . What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g ? 141 F i r s t o f a l l , w h i l e s c r e e n i n g s u b j e c t s f o r p s y c h o d r a m a , i t may be h e l p f u l t o l o o k a t r e a d i n e s s i n t e r m s o f i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t and p e r s o n a l i t y . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what r e a d i n e s s e n t a i l s , b u t t h i s s t u d y a t l e a s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e a d i n e s s i s n o t g e n e r a t e d e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h warm-up a l o n e . A p a r t f r o m f e e l i n g s a f e w i t h t h e l e a d e r and t h e g r o u p , a l l c o - r e s e a r c h e r s had made an i n t e n t i o n a l e f f o r t t o work on p e r s o n a l g r o w t h i s s u e s i n t h e p a s t , and came t o t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s e s s i o n s f e e l i n g a s e n s e o f ' r e a d i n e s s ' . P e r h a p s i t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o be a p r o t a g o n i s t i n o r d e r t o l e a r n f r o m a p s y c h o d r a m a , and no p a r t i c i p a n t s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o t a k e h i s o r h e r t u r n as p r o t a g o n i s t . I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t f r o m t h i s s t u d y t h a t p e o p l e warm-up i n d i f f e r e n t ways, some s u d d e n l y , and o t h e r s o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r r e s p e c t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e r m s o f warm-up and go w i t h t h e n a t u r a l f l o w w h i c h i s f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t . I t seems t h a t some p e o p l e need t o w a t c h a number o f p s y c h o d r a m a s b e f o r e t h e y f e e l r e a d y t o become a 142 p r o t a g o n i s t and o t h e r s need t o p a r t i c i p a t e as p r o t a g o n i s t s e a r l y i n t h e s e s s i o n s . I s s u e s o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t a r e c r u c i a l . P a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e p s y c h o d r a m a as b e i n g a p o w e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e and c a n n o t g i v e t h e m s e l v e s o v e r e n t i r e l y t o t h e p r o c e s s u n l e s s t h e y f e e l s a f e . At t h e same t i m e , t h e i s s u e o f a n x i e t y s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s n o r m a l i z e d . Our f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f e e l s a f e and a n x i o u s a t t h e same t i m e . P a r t i c i p a n t s c a n t r u s t b o t h t h e g r o u p and t h e l e a d e r , y e t f e e l a s e n s e o f i m p e n d i n g t e r r o r a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f d o i n g a p s y c h o d r a m a . C o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e d f e e l i n g s s u c h as a k n o t i n t h e s t o m a c h , o r b r e a k i n g o u t i n t o a c o l d s w e a t . T h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n t e n s i o n and l a t e r , an e x p e r i e n c e d r e l e a s e o f t e n s i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d be r e - a s s u r e d t h a t t h e y a r e n o t g o i n g c r a z y i f t h e y f e e l an o v e r w h e l m i n g s e n s e o f t e n s i o n and i t c o u l d , i n f a c t , be a n a t u r a l p a r t of t h e p r o c e s s . The c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a r a i s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i l e m m a f o r t h e d i r e c t o r . C l a r i t y o f f o c u s f o r o u r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g , 143 e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t and a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement. F o r some, t h i s d i d n o t a c t u a l l y happen u n t i l t h e y moved i n t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a a r e n a , and t h e n i t happened v e r y q u i c k l y . When a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e r e a d i n e s s , t h e f a c t o r o f i n t e n s i t y s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A p r o t a g o n i s t may n o t be a b l e t o v e r b a l i z e a t f i r s t what i s s u e he o r she w i s h e s t o d e a l w i t h , b u t a f e e l i n g o f m o u n t i n g t e n s i o n may be i n d i c a t i v e o f r e a d i n e s s . The a c t i o n phase o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a c a n be a p o w e r f u l e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l i n v o l v e d . One o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s used t h e word ' v o l c a n i c ' t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e d f o r c e o f i t and o t h e r s t a l k e d o f a p e r c e i v e d s e n s e o f d a n g e r or r i s k . C o r e y ( 1 9 8 5 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t among a l l t h e t a s k s t h e d i r e c t o r must u n d e r t a k e , he o r she must a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t f r o m b e i n g v e r b a l l y a t t a c k e d by t h e o t h e r members o r b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o a d v i c e g i v i n g . L o o k i n g a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o u r c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , a n o t h e r d a n g e r may be a t t e m p t e d b l o c k i n g o r r e s c u i n g b e h a v i o u r by o t h e r g r o u p members. No m a t t e r how p o w e r f u l t h e f e e l i n g s a r e , i t was t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t t h e s e f e e l i n g s become d i f f u s e d t h r o u g h r e l e a s e . The d i r e c t o r n e eds t o 144 have a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d y n a m i c s b e h i n d t h i s p r o c e s s , and a h i g h c o m f o r t l e v e l i n d e a l i n g w i t h s t r o n g f e e l i n g s . T h i s l e a d s us t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p h a s e where t h e p r o t a g o n i s t r e t u r n s t o t h e g r o u p f o r f e e d b a c k and s u p p o r t . Due t o f e e l i n g s o f e x h a u s t i o n , some p r o t a g o n i s t s e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y h e a r i n g o t h e r g r o u p members a t t h i s p o i n t , and i n f a c t , f e e l q u i t e o v e r w h e l m e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h i s be r e c o g n i z e d a l o n g w i t h t h e need t o h e a r f r o m g r o u p members. A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t d e a l w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r g r o u p members, Moreno s t a t e d r e p e a t e d l y t h a t e v e r y o n e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e and i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t e v e r y o n e be i n v o l v e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p h a s e . B e c a u s e p r o c e s s i n g i s an o n g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e a f t e r t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , i t w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l i f p r o t a g o n i s t s c o u l d c o n n e c t w i t h t h e i r g r o u p members a t a l a t e r d a t e as w e l l , t o f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e i n t e g r a t i o n . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) c l a i m s t h a t c l o s u r e h a p p e n s when "an i n t e g r a t e d and w h o l e g e s t a l t i s c o m p l e t e d " ( p . 2 1 ) . How l o n g t h a t t a k e s a p p e a r s t o v a r y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l . 145 I n t h i s s t u d y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t f i v e o u t o f s i x c o - r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d an e x p e r i e n c e o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o r d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . I n h i n d e s i g h t , some f e l t t h a t i t w o u l d have been h e l p f u l t o be warned a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i s a n d , i n f a c t , t o have i t d e p a t h o l o g i z e d . They a l l f e l t t h a t t h e y came t h r o u g h t h e i r d e p r e s s i o n a l l t h e b e t t e r f o r i t , and t h e y saw i t as p o s s i b l y b e i n g a p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l h e a l i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h i s t h a t a f o l l o w - u p p r o g r a m c o u l d be a v a l u a b l e p a r t o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s . I n summary, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s a r e c o n n e c t e d i n a c o m p l e x way and a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a n a t u r a l f l o w o f e v e n t s , t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s f a r f r o m s i m p l e . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e between i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t , and l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s . I n r e f e r i n g t o t h e l a t t e r , C o r e y ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e s : " I f g r o u p l e a d e r s a r e n o t s e c u r e i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e , t h e y may e a s i l y become i m p a t i e n t w i t h what t h e y p e r c e i v e as ' s l o w p r o g r e s s ' o f t h e i r c l i e n t s . Out o f t h e i r d e s i r e t o s p e e d up t h e pace o f t h e i r c l i e n t s and t o see more i m m e d i a t e 146 r e s u l t s , t h e y may r e s o r t t o a v a r i e t y o f m a n i p u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o s t i r up e m o t i o n s f o r t h e s a k e o f drama. A l t h o u g h s p o n t a n e i t y i s one o f t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f p s y c h o d r a m a , i t c a n be m i s u s e d " ( p . 2 1 1 ) . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d by t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y may a p p e a r t o be a n a t u r a l and s a f e f l o w o f e v e n t s , i n r e a l i t y much depends on t h e s k i l l and e x p e r t i s e o f t h e d i r e c t o r . C o r e y ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a i s "a p o t e n t method and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r h a r m i n g c l i e n t s i s g r e a t when i t i s p r a c t i c e d by u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n s " ( p . 2 1 0 ) . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a . When l o o k i n g a t r e s e a r c h i s s u e s , D'Amato and Dean ( 1 9 8 8 ) s t a t e t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o keep i n mind t h a t "The i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s i n p s y c h o d r a m a i s s e e n t o be i t s r e f l e c t i o n o f l i f e , w h i c h i s much d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e m i c r o a n a l y s i s we a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o " ( p . 3 0 6 ) . They go on t o s t a t e t h a t p s y c h o d r a m a c o n t i n u e s t o p r a c t i c e d as 147 o r i g i n a l l y p r o p o s e d a l t h o u g h i t has v e r y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t . The p r o b l e m i s t h a t c l a s s i c a l r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m s do n o t r e a l l y f i t p s y c h o d r a m a ' s ' r e f l e c t i o n o f l i f e ' m o d e l . T h e r e a r e a number o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w h i c h a r i s e o u t o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y , and any e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e s e i s s u e s c a n o n l y s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e our p r e s e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s o f change t h r o u g h p s y c h o d r a m a . The f i r s t i s s u e c e n t e r s on t h e f a c t o r o f r e a d i n e s s and t h i s has t o do w i t h b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o o u t c o m e . B e n n i s and S h e p a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) and G i b b ( 1 9 6 4 b ) c l a i m t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d . How s p e c i f i c a l l y i s t h i s b a l a n c e a c h i e v e d i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s ? I s t h e r e a l e v e l o f ' p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h needs t o be a c h i e v e d even b e f o r e t h e p e r s o n e n t e r s t h e g r o u p t o become a p r o t a g o n i s t ? K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 7 ) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e r e i s a w i d e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n as t o w h i c h p o p u l a t i o n s b e n e f i t most f r o m p s y c h o d r a m a , and t h i s o p i n i o n r a n g e s f r o m " e v e r y o n e " t o a s e l e c t f e w. T h e r e i s p r e s e n t l y a p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . 148 A n o t h e r p r o t a g o n i s t r e l a t e d f a c t o r i s p e r s o n a l i t y . A r e some p e r s o n a l i t i e s more s u i t e d t o t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s t h a n o t h e r s ? What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t h e outcome o f p s y c h o d r a m a and p r o t a g o n i s t p e r s o n a l i t y ? T h ese q u e s t i o n s have n e v e r b e f o r e been i n v e s t i g a t e d and a n s w e r s t o them c o u l d a s s i s t c o u n s e l l o r s i n s c r e e n i n g c l i e n t s f o r p s y c h o d r a m a work. The i s s u e s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e d b u i l d - u p o f t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y b e f o r e t h e a c t i o n p h a s e , and t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t " c a n n o t n o t do i t " , r a i s e a number of q u e s t i o n s . What i s t h e r o l e o f p r o t a g o n i s t i n v o l v e m e n t and outcome? When a p r o t a g o n i s t i s e x p e r i e n c i n g s u c h i n t e n s i t y t h a t he o r she " c a n n o t n o t do i t " , i s t h e outcome a l w a y s s i g n i f i c a n t ? G e l l e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t h e t h e d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t and outcome i n r o l e p l a y i n g , b u t t o d a t e , no work has been done s p e c i f i c a l l y i n p s y c h o d r a m a . I n r e g a r d s t o t h e i s s u e o f a n x i e t y b e i n g a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e s p o n t a n e o u s e x p e r i e n c e , what i s t h e b a l a n c e between t h e s e n s e o f s a f e t y i n t h e g r o u p and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a n x i e t y ? How do t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r ? Does t h e p r o t a g o n i s t have t o f e e l s a f e b e f o r e he o r she can a l l o w t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a n x i e t y ? 149 T r u s t i n t h e d i r e c t o r was a n o t h e r f a c t o r i n t h i s s t u d y w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n of a f e l t s e n s e o f s a f e t y f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . K i p p e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) makes t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d i r e c t o r ' s e x p e r t i s e and p s y c h o d r a m a outcome but s t a t e s t h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n a w a i t s e x p e r i m e n t a l v e r i f i c a t i o n . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 5 ) u n d e r t o o k a s t u d y of c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s h i p i n p s y c h o d r a m a , but d i d n o t d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e o f s a f e t y p e r s e . More r e s e a r c h i s needed on t h e q u a l i t i e s and s k i l l s o f t h e d i r e c t o r and p r o t a g o n i s t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f s a f e t y . The e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t h a r s i s i n p s y c h o d r a m a i s a n o t h e r i s s u e w h i c h needs t o be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r . K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t c a t h a r s i s "seems m o n s t r o u s l y o v e r v a l u e d i n p s y c h o d r a m a " ( p . 9 ) , y e t i n t h i s s t u d y t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c a t h a r s i s h i g h l y i m p a c t e d t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s . P e r h a p s c a t h a r s i s s h o u l d n o t be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n and t h e q u e s t i o n t o be a s k e d i s : How does c a t h a r s i s f i t i n t o t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e ? B l a t n e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) p u t s i t t h i s way when he s t a t e s t h a t " t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h i s s e e n as b e i n g a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l and m u l t i - l e v e l e d p r o c e s s . . . . G r e a t 150 d r a m a t i c b r e a k - t h r o u g h s s h o u l d n o t become t h e e n d - p o i n t o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i s t ' s w o r k " ( p . 1 6 4 ) . A n o t h e r i s s u e i s t h a t t h e c o - r e s e a r c h e r s saw p h y s i c a l movement as p l a y i n g an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s . H e i s e y ( 1 9 8 2 ) c l a i m s t h a t "memory c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y o f t h e body. Memory i s l o c k e d i n t h e t o t a l o r g a n i s m , n o t i n t h e mind o n l y " ( p . 6 ) . What i s t h e r o l e o f body movement i n c l a r i t y o f f o c u s ? More r e s e a r c h i s needed i n t h i s a r e a and as w e l l , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween a s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e and body c h a n g e . Some work has been done i n t h e a r e a o f c l o s u r e i n p s y c h o d r a m a , f o r example K e l l e r m a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) and B l a t n e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) , b u t t h e r e seems t o be a gap i n r e s e a r c h on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p r o t a g o n i s t s i n t h e d a y s and weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be of immense v a l u e t o t h e r a p i s t s as t h e y work on an o n - g o i n g b a s i s w i t h c l i e n t s , and t o p s y c h o d r a m a d i r e c t o r s who w i s h t o i n c o r p o r a t e a f o l l o w - u p p r o g r a m as p a r t o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s . As an a d j u n c t t o t h i s , t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n / d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g a p s y c h o d r a m a needs t o be e x p l o r e d and f u r t h e r u n d e r s t o o d . 151 C o n n e c t e d w i t h f o l l o w - u p i s t h e i s s u e o f l o n g t e r m a f f e c t s o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . A f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f t h e same c o - r e s e a r c h e r s a y e a r l a t e r c o u l d l e a d t o some i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on how t o i n t e g r a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n t o one's l i f e r a t h e r t h a n l o o k i n g a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e as an i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n c e . Summary The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e me a n i n g o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s as e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who c l a i m t h a t i t r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . I t goes a s t e p beyond t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n t h a t i t e x a m i n e s t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who have l i v e d i t . I t s f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t b o t h p s y c h o d r a m a and G e s t a l t t h e o r y and p o i n t t o many p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , as w e l l as open up a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 152 R e f e r e n c e s B e n n i s , W. G. & S h e p a r d , H. A. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A t h e o r y o f g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t . I n R. T. G o l e m b i e w s k i & A. B l u m b e r g ( E d s . ) S e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g and t h e  l a b o r a t o r y a p p r o a c h : R e a d i n g s a b o u t c o n c e p t s and  a p p l i c a t i o n s . I t a s c o , I l l i n o i s : P e a c o c k P u b l i s h e r s . B i e l a , P. M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e  m e a n i n g of b r e a k t h r o u g h dream e x p e r i e n c e s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. B l a t n e r , H. A. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The d y n a m i c s o f c a t h a r s i s . J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and  S o c i o m e t r y , 3_7(4), 157-166 . B l a t n e r , H. A. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f  p s y c h o d r a m a m e t h o d s . New Y o r k : S p r i n g e r . B l o c h , S. & C r o u c h , E. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s  i n g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . C l a y t o n , L. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y of J . L. M o r eno. Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y and P s y c h o d r a m a , 2 8 , 144-151 . C o l a i z z i , P. F. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h as t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t v i e w s i t . I n R. S. V a l l e & M. K i n g ( E d s . ) , E x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s  f o r p s y c h o l o g y ( p p . 4 8 - 7 1 ) . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . C o r e y , G. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g . M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s C o l e . C o r s i n i , R. J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I m m e d i a t e t h e r a p y . I n I . A. G r e e n b e r g ( E d . ) P s y c h o d r a m a : T h e o r y and t h e r a p y . New Y o r k : B e h a v i o r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s . D a v i e s , M. H. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . D r a m a t h e r a p y and p s y c h o d r a m a . I n S. J e n n i n g s ( E d . ) , D r a m a t h e r a p y : T h e o r y and  p r a c t i c e f o r t e a c h e r s and c l i n i c i a n s ( p p . 1 0 4 -153 1 2 3 ) . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : B r o o k l i n B o o k s . D'Amato, C. R. & Dean, R. S. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a r e s e a r c h — t h e r a p y and t h e o r y : A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f an a r r e s t e d m o d a l i t y . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 25(3), 3 0 5 - 3 1 3 . D e l Nuovo, F. A., S p i e l b e r g , G. & G i l l i s , H. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f s p o n t a n e i t y . Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 22 , 86-94. G e l l e r , D. M. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . I n v o l v e m e n t i n r o l e - p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n s : A d e m o n s t r a t i o n w i t h s t u d i e s on o b e d i e n c e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 36 , 219-235 . G i b b , J . R. ( 1 9 6 4 b ) . C l i m a t e f o r t r u s t f o r m a t i o n . I n L. P. B r a d f o r d , J . R. G i b b , & K. D. Benne. ( E d s . ) T - group t h e o r y and t h e l a b o r a t o r y method:  I n n o v a t i o n i n r e - e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : W i l e y . Goldman, E. E. & M o r r i s o n , D. S. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a : E x p e r i e n c e and p r o c e s s . Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t . G r e e n b e r g , I . A. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a : T h e o r y and  t h e r a p y . New Y o r k : B e h a v i o r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s . G r e e n b e r g , I . A. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a and a u d i e n c e  a t t i t u d e c h a n g e . B e v e r l y H i l l s : B e h a v i o r a l S t u d i e s P r e s s . G u l d n e r , C. A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S t r u c t u r i n g and s t a g i n g : A c o m p a r i s o n of M i n u c h i n ' s s t r u c t u r a l f a m i l y t h e r a p y and M o r e n o ' s p s y c h o d r a m a t i c t h e r a p y . J o u r n a l o f  Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 36 ( 1 ) , 141-177. H a r e , A. P. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . M o r e n o ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y  P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 3_9(3), 85-94. H e i s e y , M. J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . C l i n i c a l c a s e s t u d i e s i n p s y c h o d r a m a . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C.: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 154 J e n n i n g s , S. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . D r a m a t h e r a p y : T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e f o r t e a c h e r s and c l i n i c i a n s . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : B r o o k l i n e B o o k s . Kahn, S. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . P s y c h o d rama e x p l a i n e d . New Y o r k : P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y . K e l l e r m a n , P. F. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . C l o s u r e i n p s y c h o d r a m a . J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and  S o c i o m e t r y , 41_(2), 21-29^ K e l l e r m a n , P. F. ( 1 9 8 7 a ) . A p r o p o s e d d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a . J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y ,  P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 4_0_(3), 76-80. K e l l e r m a n , P. F. ( 1 9 8 7 b ) . P s y c h o d r a m a p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s . S m a l l Group  B e h a v i o r , 19.(3), 4 0 8 - 4 1 9 . K e l l e r m a n , P. F. ( 1 9 8 5 a ) . C h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s h i p i n p s y c h o d r a m a . J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 3_8 ( 2 ) , 84-95. K e l l e r m a n , P. F. ( 1 9 8 5 b ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s i n p s y c h o d r a m a . J o u r n a l of  Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 3 8 ( 3 ) , 123-132. K e l l e r m a n , P. F. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . A c t i n g o u t i n p s y c h o d r a m a and i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c g r o u p t h e r a p y . Group  A n a l y s i s , 1_7(3), 195-203. K e l l y , G. R. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e o r e t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m and p s y c h o d r a m a . J o u r n a l  of Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and  S o c i o m e t r y , 3_5_( 1 ) , 3 9 - 4 5 . K i p p e r , D. A. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . On t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f p s y c h o d r a m a : A n o t h e r v i e w . J o u r n a l o f Group  P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 4 0 ( 4 ) , 164-168. K i p p e r , D. A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T r e n d s i n t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p s y c h o d r a m a : R e t r o s p e c t and p r o s p e c t . Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and  S o c i o m e t r y , 2 2, 5-18. 155 L a n d y , R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . D r a m a t h e r a p y : C o n c e p t s and  p r a c t i c e s . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas. May, R. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The c o u r a g e t o c r e a t e . New Y o r k : Bantam. M i s h l e r , E. G. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . R e s e a r c h i n t e r v i e w i n g :  C o n t e x t and n a r r a t i v e . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . M o reno, J . L. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . The a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f J . L. M o r e n o , MD. J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y ,  P s y c h o d r a m a and S o c i o m e t r y , 42_( 1) , 15-52. Moreno, J . L. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . R e f l e c t i o n s on my method o f g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y and p s y c h o d r a m a . I n H. G r e e n w a l d ( E d . ) , A c t i v e p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( p p . 1 3 0 - 1 4 3 ) . New Y o r k : J a s o n A r o n s o n . M o r e n o , J . L. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a . I n H. I . K a p l a n & B. J . S a d o c k ( E d s . ) , C o m p r e h e n s i v e g r o u p  p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( 1 s t e d . ) . L o n d o n : W i l l i a m s and W i l k i n s . Moreno, J . L. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a ( V o l . 1, Rev. e d . ) . New Y o r k : B e a c o n House. Moreno, J . L. ( 1 9 5 8 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a ( V o l . 2 ) . New Y o r k : B e a c o n House. Moreno, J . L. ( 1 9 4 6 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a ( V o l . 1 ) . New Y o r k : B e a c o n House. Moreno, J . L. ( 1 9 3 4 ) . Who s h a l l s u r v i v e ? W a s h i n g t o n , D. C.: N e r v o u s and M e n t a l D i s e a s e P u b l i s h i n g . Moreno, J . L. & Moreno, Z. T. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a :  A c t i o n t h e r a p y and p r i n c i p l e s o f p r a c t i c e . ( V o l . 3 ) . New Y o r k : B e a c o n House. M o r e n o , J . L. & Moreno Z. T. ( 1 9 5 9 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a :  F o u n d a t i o n s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y . ( V o l . 2 ) . New Y o r k : B e a c o n House. 156 M o r e n o , Z. T. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a . I n H. L. K a p l i n & B. J . S a d o c k ( E d s . ) , C o m p r e h e n s i v e g r o u p  p s y c h o t h e r a p y (2nd ed.) B a l t i m o r e : W i l l i a m s and W i l k i n s . M o r e n o , Z. T. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a r u l e s , t e c h n i q u e s , and a d j u n c t i v e m e t h o d s . Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , 18.(1-2) , 73-86. N i c h o l a s , M. W. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Change i n t h e c o n t e x t o f  g r o u p t h e r a p y . New Y o r k : B r u n n e r / M a z e l . P a s s o n s , W. R. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . G e s t a l t a p p r o a c h e s i n c o u n s e l i n g . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . P e r l s , F. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . G e s t a l t t h e r a p y v e r b a t i m . New Y o r k : Bantam. Remer, R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Use o f p s y c h o d r a m a t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l i e s : Change on m u l t i p l e l e v e l s . J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and  S o c i o m e t r y , 3 9 ( 1 ) , 1 3 - 2 9 . S h e a r o n , E. M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C o m p a r i s o n o f R o g e r s ' s e l f t h e o r y and M o r e n o ' s s p o n t a n e i t y t h e o r y . J o u r n a l  o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , P s y c h o d r a m a and  S o c i o m e t r y , 34, pp. 112-133. S k y n n e r , R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . What i s e f f e c t i v e i n g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y ? Group A n a l y s i s , 19, 5-24. S l a w s o n , P. F. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a as a t r e a t m e n t f o r h o s p i t a l i z e d p a t i e n t s : A c o n t r o l l e d s t u d y . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 12 2, 5 3 0 - 5 3 3 . S t a r r , A. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . R e h e a r s a l f o r l i v i n g :  P s y c h o d r a m a . C h i c a g o : N e l s o n H a l l . V a l l e , R. S. & K i n g , M. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o e x i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t i n p s y c h o l o g y . I n R. S. V a l l e & M. K i n g ( E d s . ) , E s i s t e n t i a l - p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p s y c h o l o g y ( p p . 3 - 1 7 ) . New Y o r k : O x f o r d u n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 157 Y a b l o n s k y , L. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . P s y c h o d r a m a : R e s o l v i n g e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s t h r o u g h r o l e - p l a y i n g . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . Y a l o m , I . D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f g r o u p B o o k s . p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( 3 r d ed . ) . New Y o r k : B a s i c Y a l o m , I . D. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f g r o u p B o o k s . p s y c h o t h e r a p y (2nd e d . ) . New Y o r k : B a s i c Y a l o m , I . D. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y . ( 1 s t ed . ) New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . 158 APPENDIX A Dear I am a M a s t e r ' s s t u d e n t i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I am h o p i n g t o r e c e i v e y o u r a s s i s t a n c e i n my r e s e a r c h . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a and i n p a r t i c u l a r , I w o u l d l i k e t o t a l k w i t h p e o p l e who f e e l t h a t t h e i r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e has made a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r l i v e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w i l l be a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r own p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e , and s h a r e some of t h e i r t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s c o n n e c t e d t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e y w i l l have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n more a b o u t t h e p s y c h o d r a m a p r o c e s s t h e m s e l v e s , t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l n o t o n l y be h e l p f u l t o c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d , b u t a l s o w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o our g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e a b o u t p s y c h o d r a m a and g r o u p p s y c h o t h e r a p y . The i n t e r v i e w s ( 3 ) w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r e a c h f o r a t o t a l o f t h r e e h o u r s . The i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be t a p e - r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . P a r t i c i p a n t s have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n and t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g t h e i r a c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g o r p e r s o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . I w i l l be c o n t a c t i n g you by phone t o s e e w h e t h e r you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y . I f you a r e , I w i l l meet w i t h you t o answer any o f y o u r q u e s t i o n s and t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d y more f u l l y . S i n c e r e l y , Lyn M a r t e n s M a s t e r ' s S t u d e n t D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1 L2 T i t l e o f P r o j e c t : An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e E x p e r i e n c e of Change t h r o u g h P s y c h o d r a m a P r i n c i p a l I n v e s t i g a t o r : C o m m i t t e e C h a i r p e r s o n : L y n M a r t e n s , M. A. S t u d e n t D r . Marv Westwood D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , U. B. C. P s y c h o l o g y , U. B. C. C o n s e n t Form The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o u n d e r s t a n d p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a p r o t a g o n i s t i n a p s y c h o d r a m a w h i c h , i n t h e i r own e y e s , r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . I w i l l be a s k i n g you t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l what l e d up t o y o u r p s y c h o d r a m a , y o u r e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h e p s y c h o d r a m a , and what happened a f t e r . I w i l l be a s k i n g you t o d e s c r i b e y o u r t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r y o u r p s y c h o d r a m a e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e w i l l be t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s , e a c h l a s t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r . The i n t e r v i e w s w i l l t a k e a maximum o f t h r e e h o u r s o f y o u r t i m e . Each i n t e r v i e w w i l l be t a p e - r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n you g i v e me w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by d e l e t i n g any p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e , and a c o d e name w i l l be us e d i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t s . Once t h e t r a n s c r i p t s a r e made, t h e t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be e r a s e d . You w i l l h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a d y o u r own t r a n s c r i p t s , and t o comment on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y . You have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o an s w e r any q u e s t i o n and t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y any t i m e w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g y o u r a c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g o r y o u r p e r s o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . I w i l l be g l a d t o a n s w e r any i n q u i r i e s you may hav e a b o u t t h i s p r o j e c t . I , c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a b o v e - d e s c r i b e d s t u d y u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d , and a c k n o w l e d g e r e c e i p t o f t h i s c o n s e n t f o r m . R e s e a r c h e r : D a t e : 

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