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The domain specific nature of children's self-perceptions of competence : an exploratory paradigm for… Dillabough, Jo-Anne 1990

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The Domain S p e c i f i c Nature of C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f P e r c e p t i o n s of Competence: An E x p l o r a t o r y Paradigm f o r Understanding the S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of Self-Knowledge in C h i l d r e n  By Jo-Anne B.A.  Dillabough  (Honours), U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of C o u n s e l l i n g  We a c c e p t t h i s  Psychology)  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1990 © Jo-Anne D i l l a b o u g h ,  1990  1987  In presenting degree  at the  this  thesis  in partial  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this thesis or  by  for  his  of this thesis  or  British Columbia, and study. scholarly her  the  requirements  I agree that the  for  an  Library shall make it  I further agree that permission for  purposes  representatives.  may be It  is  granted  advanced  by the  understood  that  extensive  head  of my  copying  or  for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  fulfilment of  ii  ABSTRACT In recent in the r o l e  years we have witnessed a burgeoning  s o c i a l i z i n g agents' play  interest  i n the development of  c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of competence.  Outlined  e x t e n s i v e l y by Harter  (1981, 1982, 1985), the b a s i c  assumption u n d e r l y i n g  t h i s work i s that the s e l f - c o n c e p t i s  a multidimensional representations  construct  reflecting  of i n d i v i d u a l s '  a c r o s s achievement c o n t e x t s . subsumed under the guise  cognitive  socialization  experiences  These m u l t i p l e dimensions are  of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s and are thought  to r e f l e c t d i s t i n c t c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the phenomenological world of the c h i l d . majority  of research  theoretical the  To date, however, the  stemming from H a r t e r ' s  conceptualizations  original  has been l i m i t e d  impact of s o c i a l i z i n g agents' e x p e c t a t i o n s  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of academic competence.  t o examining on c h i l d r e n ' s  The d i f f e r e n t i a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by s o c i a l i z i n g agents to the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of competence  across  achievement domains, however, has not been assessed. present  study, an attempt was made to f i l l  this  In the  research  gap. In accordance with the r e c o g n i t i o n of the multidimensional  nature of p e r c e i v e d  competence, the  purposes of t h i s study were: (1) t o compare the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by d i f f e r e n t expectations  socializing  agents'  t o the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d  academic, s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l  and a t h l e t i c competence; (2) to  iii  assess  the extent  contribute  instrumental  in conjunction  t o extend  the  self  Harter's  by t e s t i n g  achievement  a uniform  social,  Teachers' perceptions  a c a d e m i c and s o c i a l  and  that assessed  which best  of these  actual  expectations  regression analyses  were  social,  revealed  of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d  that:  vary  those  (a) t h e r e l a t i v e to the  across  a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e domain  (b) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and p e r f o r m a n c e  of s i g n i f i c a n t  factors also play a  i n the p r e d i c t i o n of d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c  competence; and ( c ) t h e s o c i a l when making  behavioral  predict children's domain-specific  competence  role  Four  conducted  prediction  expectations  self-  and c h i l d r e n ' s  expectations  assessed;  The  their  respectively) to identify  Results  contexts  were  expectations,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by s o c i a l i z e r s '  achievement  Data  b e h a v i o r a l and a t h l e t i c  and p a r e n t s '  competence,  self-perceptions.  model  the primary  grade c h i l d r e n .  one f o r s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a c a d e m i c ,  variables  competence  p e r f o r m a n c e were a l s o m e a s u r e d .  hierarchical  athletic  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  t o define themselves.  completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  children's  (i.e.,  perceived  f r o m 87 f o u r t h and f i f t h  competence.  stepwise  of s e l f - c o n c e p t i n c h i l d r e n ;  d o m a i n s ; and (4) t o i d e n t i f y  p e r c e i v e d academic,  competence  additional variables  (1981) o r i g i n a l  references children u t i l i z e  children  with  i n the development  (3)  collected  expectations  d i f f e r e n t i a l l y to children's perceived  when e x a m i n e d  across  t o which s o c i a l i z e r s '  others'  significant  perceived  references children  utilize  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d w i t h i n a  1  iv  domain and c o n t e x t the  development  and c o u n s e l l i n g acquisition  specific  framework.  of s e l f - c o n c e p t  theory,  p r a c t i c e s are discussed  of self-knowledge  Issues  r e l a t e d to  empirical  research  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  in children.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table  ii  of C o n t e n t s  List  of T a b l e s  List  of F i g u r e s  v vii x  Acknowledgements  xi  Quotations  xii  Dedication  .xiii  Chapter  One:  Introduction  Literature Perceived The  1  review  2  Competence  2  R o l e of S i g n i f i c a n t  Children's The  Perceived  Role Children's  Play  in Influencing  Performance  and  Others  In  Influencing  Competence Perceptions Children's  5 Of  Significant  Perceived  i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p To  Competence Theoretical  Others'  Competence10  Perceived 12  Framework  17  Purposes  of the Study  18  Research  Q u e s t i o n s and  Chapter  Two:  Hypotheses  Method  19 22  Subjects  23  M e a s u r e s of t h e I n d e p e n d e n t  Variable  ..24  M e a s u r e s of t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e  27  Procedure  29  Data Chapter  Analysis  Procedures  Three: Results  31 33  vi Phase  1: D e s c r i p t i v e  and  Psychometric  Analyses  34  Phase 2: M a i n A n a l y s e s  46  Correlational  46  Multivariate  Analyses A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e  56  Phase 3: E x p l o r a t o r y R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s Phase 4  (Part A): Stepwise  Hierarchical  58 Regression  Analyses Phase 4 Chapter  72 (Part  B): F R e c a l c u l a t i o n s  76  Four: D i s c u s s i o n  General  Overview  Predicting Parents  83  Domain-Specific  and  Children's  83  Teachers  P e r c e i v e d Competence  as E x p e c t a n c y  Socializers  P e r c e p t i o n s of S i g n i f i c a n t  1 00  Performance F a c t o r s  104  Implications  f o r T h e o r i e s of C h i l d  Implications  for Counselling  General  86  Others'  Expectations  Limitations  86  Development  105 109  of t h e S t u d y  112  Conclusions  112  Footnotes  114  References  115  A p p e n d i x A: Future Appendix  B:  Parent  and  Teacher  Expectancies  for Children's  Performance  125  C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of P a r e n t  and  Teacher  Expectations A p p e n d i x C:  The  Self-Perception Profile  A p p e n d i x D:  Questionnaire Instructions  127 for Children  130 134  vii  L I S T OF TABLES  Table 1 Subscale Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the Academic Domain  36  Table 2 Subscale Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the S o c i a l Domain  37  Table 3 Subscale Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l Conduct Domain  38  Table 4 Subscale Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the A t h l e t i c Doma in  39  Table 5 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Performance Variables  40  Table 6 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : Gender Di f f erences  42  Table 7 Psychometric  P r o p e r t i e s of the Independent  Variables  45  Table 8 Correlational  M a t r i x : Academic Domain  52  M a t r i x : S o c i a l Domain  53  Table 9 Correlational  viii  Table  10 Correlational  Table  M a t r i x : A t h l e t i c Domain  55  12 Multivariate  Table  54  11 Correlational  Table  M a t r i x : B e h a v i o r a l C o n d u c t Domain  Analysis  of V a r i a n c e  57  13 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Academic  Doma i n Table  61  14 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Social  Domain Table  62  15 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Behavioral  C o n d u c t Domain Table  63  16 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Athletic  Domain Table  64  17 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Academic  Domain Table  68  18 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Social  Domain Table  69  19 Floating  Stepwise  C o n d u c t Domain  Regression  Analysis:  Behavioral 70  ix-  Table  20 Floating  Stepwise  Regression  Analysis:  Athletic  Domain Table  ..71  21 Stepwise  Hierarchical  Regression  Analysis:  Academic  Domain Table  79  22 Stepwise  Hierarchical  Regression  Analysis:  Social  Domain Table  80  23 Stepwise  Hierarchical  Regression  Analysis:  Behavioral 81  C o n d u c t Domain Table  24 Stepwise Domain  Hierarchical  Regression  Analysis:  Athletic 82  X  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  1 . F i g u r e o u t l i n i n g p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s u t i l i z e d i n b u i l d i n g a uniform p e r c e i v e d competence model 2 2  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS As  t h i s t h e s i s attempts  project  engages and r e s o n a t e s w i t h  intellectual Therefore, gestation of  ideas,  a relevant  b o t h my w r i t i n g influence  Notwithstanding  has had a  on t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h i s work. this influence,  i t should also support  be m e n t i o n e d  and d e m o c r a t i c  form which I c o u l d  gage t h e  o f t h i s work. i s extended  t o D r . Bob C o n r y  h i s ongoing c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  statistical  g u i d a n c e and  support  Micheal  project.  through-out  to the t h e s i s  Fourth,  I would  her assistance Finally,  project.  like  I am p e r s o n a l l y  Zarbatany  possible.  t o M.C. Zak, P.S.  for their loyalties in continually  me from b e i n g a v i c t i m  Commiseration  in this  t o t h a n k D r . Lynne  indebted  Third,  for his  and h i s involvement  i n making t h i s M.A. p r o j e c t  R o b i n s o n , a n d S. S e i d a l rescuing  the research  Chapman i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d  contributions  for  His scholarship  thanks  continued Dr.  i n the inception,  agenda o f q u e s t i o n s a n d c r i t i c i s m s  and r e s e a r c h .  Second, a s p e c i a l for  credit  t o D r . R i c h a r d Young f o r  p r o v i d e d me w i t h a b e a r i n g  completion  relations.  c r i t i c i s m s , and encouragement.  D r . Young's o n g o i n g p a t i e n c e ,  style  from i t s  o f t h i s work, a s i t i s t h e p r o d u c t  I am i n d e b t e d  contributing  that  take p a r t i a l  and c o m p l e t i o n  many i n d i v i d u a l s '  direct  life  s u r r o u n d i n g s and i n t i m a t e  I can only  First,  to  t o a r g u e , any i n d i v i d u a l  of bad  fortune.  of t h i s nature always has i t s  place.  xii  QUOTATIONS  An acceptance of i nt e r s ubj e cl i v / t y helps-us to come to terms with our vulnerability lo and dependence on others, our commitment to and responsibility for others. Unlike communal i sm, it recognizes and allows a real difference between self and other. But unlike individualism, it does not turn that difference into a divisive barrier. I nt e r s ubj e ct i v i t y suggests a relation between self and other that is based on fragility and need rather than on suspicion or suppression.  Alan Hutchinson, E s s a y s i n Modern  Childhood  Ian  is  McEwan,  an  ( 1 9 8 8 ) . D w e l l i n g on t h e T h r e s h o l d : L e g a l T h o u g h t . , p . 328-286.  invention,  (1987). A C h i l d  a social  construct  i n Time, p.  105.  The individual begins by understanding and everything through himself herself ...It is contact with the judgements and expectations this anomi e will gradually yield.  Jean 303.  Piaget,  ( 1 9 3 2 ) . The M o r a l  Critical  Judgement  feeling only through of others that  of the C h i l d ,  p.,  xiii  DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to the memory of my late brother Ian who gave this work the life and/or self it has acquired.  1  C H A P T E R ONE INTRODUCTION In t h e p a s t concerning  the nature  perceptions (1981, this  work  individuals'  (Harter,  reflect  1981,  the g u i s e  distinct  1985)  contexts, Harter's nature  few  1985).  across  of achievement  These d i m e n s i o n s a r e  o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s and a r e t h o u g h t  development  model  (Harter,  of H a r t e r ' s  (1981) o r i g i n a l  attempted:  framework  (1) t o  and/or  socialization  competence  across  i n understanding  (1981,  achievement  Phillips,  1982)  1982,  from and e x t e n d s H a r t e r ' s competence  model,  this  which  omission,  of the o r i g i n a l  i n two  the  domain-  perceived  contexts.  and o t h e r s  1987)  1982,  across  i n f l u e n c e s on c h i l d r e n ' s  an e x t e n s i o n  (1982,  (2) compare and c o n t r a s t  In an a t t e m p t t o r e c t i f y represents  1982).  utilize  and o r i g i n s of s e l f - c o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t  specific  the  arid i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s a c r o s s  s t u d i e s have  a c h i e v e m e n t domains;  Harter  multidimensional  of the i n d i v i d u a l  the recent  theoretical  is a  Harter  underlying  cognitive structures within  phenomenological world Despite  framework  experiences  1982,  self-  e x t e n s i v e l y by  cognitive representations  socialization  subsumed under to  Outlined  the s e l f - c o n c e p t  reflecting  been c o n d u c t e d  and o r i g i n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s  1985), t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  i s that  construct  numerous s t u d i e s have  of competence.  1982,  contexts  decade  (1981,  First,  1982)  identifies  as  thesis  work c o n d u c t e d by  ( E c c l e s , 1983;  ways.  this  Horn,  1985;  i t extrapolates  original  perceived  i t s theoretical  2  derivatives, performance of  1983). this  area  by e x a m i n i n g  and t e a c h e r s '  Literature The  factors  o f competence  "perceived  across  underlying  and  the  (Cauce,  domain.  children  engage  appraisal  The b a s i c  independent  assumption  children,  of t h e i r general  1986).  h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered  appraisal  a spectrum of achievement  do d i f f e r e n t i a t e among f a c e t s  self-assessments  competence" as a  (a) t h e s u b j e c t i v e  self-worth  an a p p r a i s a l  1985 f o r a b r i e f  "perceived  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s that  relinquishing  t h e o r y and t h e o r i e s o f  (see Harter,  o f two a p p r a i s a l s :  any p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l  follows.  c o m p e t e n c e " h a s become p i v o t a l  (1982) d e f i n e s  d o m a i n s ; and (b) a g l o b a l  i n shaping  i s the p a r t i c u l a r  literature  of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n  o n e ' s own a b i l i t i e s  perceptions  Competence  review).  of  The r o l e o f  and p e r f o r m a n c e  development  of  self-perceptions  children's  social-cognitive  combination  made by t h e s e  domains.  of the r e l e v a n t  construct  Harter  (Eccles,  expectations,  Review: P e r c e i v e d  the evolution  expectations  of c h i l d r e n ' s  self-perceptions  A review  significance  known a s c h i l d r e n ' s  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  achievement  these expectations  focus.  the empirical  construct  to the p r e d i c t i o n  children's  in  by a s s e s s i n g  and c h i l d r e n ' s  i t r e l i e v e s one s h o r t c o m i n g o f r e s e a r c h i n  competence a c r o s s  parents'  expectations  of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s '  Second,  variables  of  success,  an a d d i t i o n a l c o g n i t i v e  perceptions  of  s i g n i f i c a n t others'  without self-worth,  can  o f t h e m s e l v e s when making This  assumption  self-assessment  i n , whereby g e n e r a l  delineates  processes  self-worth  i s deemed a  3  "superordinate  construct"  (Harter,  "perceived  competence" c o n s t r u c t  evaluative  dimension  (Cauce,  Epstein,1973; Harter, Barnes,  1985; P h i l l i p s ,  also Harter, this  1982,  a  subordinate 1967;  1983, 1985; M a r s h , S m i t h , & 1987; R o s e n b e r g ,  1983 f o r a g e n e r a l  1979; see  d i s c u s s i o n on  position). The  child  convergence of t h i s  construct  across  d e v e l o p m e n t and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h  have l e d t o an i n c r e a s e d nature  interest  t h e o r i e s of  on i t s v i c i s s i t u d e s  i n understanding  the  and o r i g i n s of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s .  consequence, a small past  typifies  1986; C o o p e r s m i t h ,  1984,  1981, 1982,  1982, p., 88) and t h e  decade  body o f l i t e r a t u r e  identifying  various  climates  and e x p e r i e n c e s  (Nicholls,  1978), p a s t  comparisons children's (Harter  (Ruble,  & Connell,  (Dweck & E l l i o t , Phillips,  (Pintrich  performance  c o n t r o l over  classroom  & Blumenfeld, (Harter,  1985),  1982),  & Loebl,  successes  I.Q.  peer  1980),  and  failures  1984), and c h i l d r e n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t  1983; E c c l e s , M i d g l e y  i n the  t o be r e l a t e d  F o r example,  B o g g i a n o , Feldman  perceived  has d e v e l o p e d  f a c t o r s found  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s .  As a  & Adler,  efforts  1984;  1984) have a l l been r e l a t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s  self-  judgements. The  initial  validation 1984,  s t u d i e s by H a r t e r  s t u d i e s by Cauce  1987; S h a v e l s o n  1987) c l e a r l y perceived  (1986) and o t h e r s  & Bolus,  demonstrate that  competence  (1982) and more  1986; S t i g l e r ,  ( Phillips, S m i t h & Mao,  one c a n r e l i a b l y  i n c h i l d r e n over  recent  assess  t h e age o f e i g h t  self-  4 across  c l a s s and c u l t u r e .  significant  individual differences  themselves, despite (1984),  negative  objective recent  their actual  f o r example,  acquired  identified  inferences  regarding  group comprised competence. Harter  and I l a r d i  as h i g h l y  findings  from t h e C o n n e l l  anxiety  based  confidence. Ilardi  overrating  children  themselves. important  among  be a  t h e i r l e v e l of  overrating  (1987) s t u d y  competence  of achievement  inaccurate  indicate  i s controlled,  t o be r e l a t e d t o an behavior  than  Connell  self-  and  1982, 1983; H o r n ,  Chaplain  & Barton,  1987) i n d i c a t e t h a t  across  1985; L e w i n s o h n ,  1980; P h i l l i p s ,  contexts  For  1983) and P h i l l i p s  c h i l d r e n who u n d e r r a t e  of  have  Mischel,  1984, 1987).  (1982,  may  psychosocial  orientations  by H a r t e r  perceptions  self-perceptions  for children's  (Harter,  (1984,  that  may a l s o  feature  i s more l i k e l y  and a c h i e v e m e n t  example, t h e s t u d i e s  I n a more  i s a d e f e n s e mechanism u s e d by  implications  adjustment  there  t o mask s e l f - d i s p a r a g i n g  Indeed,  despite  dysfunctional  Such p o s i t i v e s e l f - d i s t o r t i o n ,  (1987) a r g u e ,  have  and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , t h e  of p e r c e i v e d  regulation  Phillips  a r g u m e n t s s u p p o r t e d by  and I l a r d i  of a b i l i t y  levels.  (1987) r e p o r t e d  (1984) t h a t  motivated  when t h e l e v e l  overestimation  otherwise.  e r r o n e o u s and  to e a r l i e r  (1982) a n d P h i l l i p s  regard  of competence,  o f c h i l d r e n who o v e r e s t i m a t e  children  that  i n how c h i l d r e n  their abilities,  Contrary  there are  a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n who  assessments suggesting  who have a c q u i r e d  i t seems t h a t  competence  self-perceptions  study, Connell  children  Moreover,  their  5  a c a d e m i c competence a r e motivation  and  choose  actual  abilities  (1982,  1985)  low  in self-esteem,  less c h a l l e n g i n g tasks  would p r e d i c t .  argues,  are  Such  more l i k e l y  rewarding  experiences.  excessive  s e l f - d o u b t , c h i l d r e n may  inadequacies obstacles Harter,  have  generating  to e f f e c t i v e  anxiety  than  only  that creates outcomes  Harter  potentially  approaching  focus  achievement  their  individuals, to avoid  M o r e o v e r , by  little  on  tasks  with  personal  internal (Bandura,  1977;  1985).  Despite  ample e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n  of  the  behavioral  c o n s e q u e n c e s of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s , l i t t l e attention various  has  been d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s e x a m i n i n g  socializing  i n f l u e n c e s i n the  children's  self-percepts.  attempting  to e x p l i c a t e such  effects Brody,  and  1987)  on  1986)  on  Role  of  Perceived In an  of  i n f l u e n c e s have f o c u s e d  perceptions  teachers'  of  children's perceived  on  the  feedback  c o g n i t i v e and  social  task d i f f i c u l t y  (Ladd  academic  in r e l a t i o n  of p h y s i c a l competence  Significant  Others  &  &  competence, to c h i l d r e n ' s  (Horn,  1985).  in Influencing Children's  Competence effort  investigations  shaping  development  of  empirical studies  children's perceived  coaches performance  self-appraisals The  few  role  of m a r i t a l d i s c o r d / s t a t u s ( L o n g , F o r e h a n d , F a u b e r ,  competence, p a r e n t s ' Price,  The  the  to r e c t i f y  have f o c u s e d  expectations  and  this on  the  ability  omission, role  more  parents'  recent and  appraisals play  c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s ( E c c l e s , 1983;  in Entwisle  6  & Hayduk, 1984,  1982; P a r s o n s ,  1987; S t e v e n s o n  (1983) h a s s u g g e s t e d abilities  stem  teacher  in  Phillips,  make a b o u t variables  expectations.  Likewise,  1987) h a s r e p o r t e d  Phillips  (1987),  support  relation  between p a r e n t s '  (1985, a s c i t e d  In a r e c e n t  s t u d y by  for a p r e d i c t i v e  perceptions  of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions  perceptions  more d i r e c t l y  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  their  than  relationship children's  by t h e i r  achievement  were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y attitudes.  parents'  history.  evidence  of a  performance e x p e c t a t i o n s and  expectations; related  j u d g e m e n t s were  p e r c e p t i o n s of  own a c h i e v e m e n t  between p a r e n t s '  In t h i s  of academic  of p a r e n t s '  (1982) p r o v i d e d  parents  supercede  and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d competence.  a n d Hayduk  math  in predicting children's  was p r o v i d e d  children's collective  Entwisle  Thomas  that assumptions  climate  of competence.  ability  of t h e i r  f o r f u t u r e math  c h i l d r e n ' s math c a p a b i l i t i e s  competence a n d t h e i r  Eccles  c h i l d r e n ' s a c t u a l math a c h i e v e m e n t  self-perceptions  study  F o r example,  from p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s  their  1982; P h i l l i p s ,  that c h i l d r e n ' s estimates  such as classroom  abilities  & Kaczala,  & Newman, 1986).  performance r a t h e r than or  Adler,  teachers'  expectations  t o c h i l d r e n ' s achievement  S t e v e n s o n a n d Newman  (1986) f o u n d  that  teacher  r a t i n g s o f c h i l d r e n ' s academic a b i l i t i e s  were n o t s a l i e n t  when p r e d i c t i n g e l e m e n t a r y  a t t i t u d e s regarding  math and r e a d i n g in  school  achievement.  girls'  Rather,  the c r i t i c a l  p r e d i c t i n g children's a t t i t u d e s regarding  reading  was t h e m o t h e r ' s a c h i e v e m e n t  variable  math a n d  expectations  for their  children's  future performance.  In c o n t r a s t , W e i n s t e i n , Marshall  (1982) f o u n d  attended  to teacher  situation ability  were more l i k e l y  received  strategies,  self-regulatory  and  Simpson  ability  (1984) p r o v i d e  self-  more l i k e l y  relationship  between  self-appraisals interest  in this  manifested  of a b i l i t y study  evidence  children  article,  and  Rosenholtz  for a relation  were  said  to  teachers  between  of academic process when t h e  e v a l u a t i o n s were made Similarly,  (1987) have p r o v i d e d  Weinstein, evidence  of  e x p e c t a t i o n s and c h i l d r e n ' s  i n the academic domain.  i s t h a t even v e r y  expectations.  they  s t a t e d by c h i l d r e n f o r  In a review  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s that  teachers'  to  motivational orientation  teachers'  however,  on s e l f - s y s t e m v a r i a b l e s  by c h i l d r e n .  S h a r p and B o t k i n  provided  p e r c e p t i o n s when  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which those  Marshall,  their  ability  (1987)  expectations;  were  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d by t h e i r  important  o f and  teacher-congruent  children's  ( i . e , reasons  In t h a t a r t i c l e  were deemed  a  were aware  e x p e c t a t i o n s and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  ability.  social  style  w e l l on s c h o o l w o r k ) .  teacher  between  low r a t i n g s by t e a c h e r s  such as c o p i n g  doing  to develop  children  teacher-congruent  and  i n an o b s e r v a t i o n a l  o f competence and t e a c h e r  f i n d i n g s suggested  develop  who  C o n n e l l and I l a r d i  of a r e l a t i o n s h i p  evaluations their  that children  expectations  perceptions.  evidence  B r a t t e s a n i , Weinstein  young  reflected  Of  children  an a w a r e n e s s o f  8  The  significance  important  of these  conclusions:  underestimated  (1) d e v e l o p m e n t a l  assessments of a b i l i t y ;  although,  others'  when e x a m i n i n g c h i l d r e n ' s (2) t h e r e  the c e n t r a l i t y f o r t h e most  i s ample  part, this  (3) e v i d e n c e  construct  c o n s t r u c t has been or academic  perceptions;  and  expectations  function to influence children's  uniformly  across  expectations children's suggested The  parents'  expectations  not  teacher  other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s important.  findings across  two p r o b l e m s i n t h e c h i l d  studies  development  literature.  e v a l u a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence  one  domains.  socializing  influences. teachers  other Eccles  across  (1987) examined t h e  socializing  effects  (1983) c o n s i d e r e d but o n l y  related  both  agents' parents  and  expectations  o f math c o m p e t e n c e / a c h i e v e m e n t .  S t e v e n s o n and Newman  skill  on c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e competence,  important  expectations  perceptions  Phillips  expectations  neglected  t h e p a r a m e t e r s of more  agent's expectations  F o r example,  of p a r e n t s ' but  self-  although  a r e more  have n o t y e t been examined o u t s i d e than  teachers'  variable in predicting  Conversely,  l a c k of convergent  limited  self-  and  In some s t u d i e s  the c r i t i c a l  self-views.  highlights First,  was  that parents'  have been o b t a i n e d ,  studies.  self-  evidence  o f an e x p e c t a n c y  t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n of math, r e a d i n g  evaluative processes  to three  t h e o r i z i n g has  the s a l i e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t  performance e x p e c t a t i o n s  supporting  f i n d i n g s leads  to  self-  Similarly,  (1986) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s  of  both  9  parents' ratings their  and t e a c h e r s ' of a b i l i t y  expectations  and achievement  self-ratings  theorizing patterns  and a t t i t u d e s ) .  has emphasized  the r o l e  contributing reasonable  Since  of s o c i a l i z e r s '  influence children's across  skill  i t seems  and t e a c h e r s ' self-appraisals The d i f f e r e n t i a l  socializers  to the  of c h i l d r e n ' s d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s ,  remain  research  contrast  expectations i n  domains.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by e x p e c t a n c y  however,  definitively  t o such s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e p a t t e r n s ,  differentially  prediction  recent  domain-specific s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e  t o assume t h a t p a r e n t s '  expectations  and  ( i . e . , math a n d  i n c h i l d r e n a n d r e s e a r c h h a s more  clarified  self-  a t t i t u d e s , but r e s t r i c t e d  p r e d i c t i o n s t o t h e a c a d e m i c domain  reading  this  on c h i l d r e n ' s  largely  undocumented.  gap, t h e p r e s e n t  t h e domain s p e c i f i c  teachers'  expectations  self-perceptions  study  I n an e f f o r t sought  to f i l l  t o compare a n d  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  parents'  t o the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s  o f competence a c r o s s  achievement  domains.  A second problem t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the i n c o n s i s t e n t findings in  i s that  search  of the developmental o r i g i n s  perceptions. support one  Thus, w h i l e  f o r the notion  recent  that  autonomously  of c h i l d r e n ' s  research  socializers'  the majority  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of other  predicting  of these salient  self-  has p r o v i d e d expectations are  o f t h e p r i m a r y mechanisms g u i d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions, the  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have p r o c e e d e d  studies f a i l  selft o examine  variables involved i n  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence  in children.  Thus, i n  10 light  of  recent  assigned  to past  perceptions predicting variables study.  of  performance  significant  the  (Harter,  others'  central  1982)  literature  i s reviewed  Play  and  children's in  ( E c c l e s , 1983), i n the  p e r t a i n i n g to these  these present  secondary  below.  Children's Perceptions  Expectations  role  expectations  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence  Relevant  Role  concerning  were a l s o i n c l u d e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n  variables The  evidence  of  Significant  in Influencing Children's  Others'  Perceived  Competence In a d d i t i o n t o t h e of  socializers'  perceptions  r e s e a r c h documenting  expectations  of competence,  in shaping  recent  children's perceptions  also  influence children's self-views?  sparse,  area  the  socializers' While  expectations this  basic presupposition underlying  capacities  c h i l d r e n to  s u c h as  1983).  about  Since  examining  the  their extent  interpret  significant  "presumably determined believe  literature  work  in  how  others  socializers  i n p a r t by  children"  by  expectations  that  impose on c h i l d r e n treat  children is  what p a r e n t s  (Miller,  this  the  self-percepts, is strongly influenced  u s e d by  authorities (Eccles,  of  self-  suggested  i s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s development, p a r t i c u l a r l y  development  these  importance  children's  r e s e a r c h has  that  is  of  the  1988,  expect  p.,  and/or  259),  then  t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  expectations/beliefs predict children's perceived  competence itself.  i s an  interesting  research question  i n and  of  11  In  support  of t h i s  found a p o s i t i v e perceived  view, P o f f e n b e r g e r  significant  relationship  parental expectations  perceptions  of competence.  and N o r t o n  (1959)  between c h i l d r e n ' s  and c h i l d r e n ' s  self-  K a m i n s k i , E r i k s o n and  Ross  (1977) f o u n d a p a r a l l e l  relationship  between c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions  of p a r e n t s '  expectations  and c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions  of competence.  Likewise,  L a d d and P r i c e  found a p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions  of p a r e n t a l b e l i e f s  and c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions  o f a c a d e m i c and s o c i a l  f i n d i n g s have been Eccles, causal  1983). link  between  expectations ability.  linked  perceptions  of  parents' o f math  analysis revealed  of p a r e n t s  expectations  that were c a u s a l l y  t o c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t o f math a b i l i t y .  (1987) a l s o p r o v i d e d children's  insights  perceptions children's  link  beliefs  of s i g n i f i c a n t  Phillips  between  and c h i l d r e n ' s  competence.  (1983) work and r e l a t e d  regarding  perceived  of a c a u s a l  of parents'  of a c a d e m i c  Although Eccles provided  support  perceptions  self-perceptions  the  path  1977;  (1983) d e m o n s t r a t e d a  children's perceptions  study,  Parallel  & Kenny,  and c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t s  In t h i s  children's  found elsewhere ( C a l s y n  (1986)  self-  competence.  F o r example, E c c l e s  self-  the r e l a t i o n others'  s t u d i e s have  between c h i l d r e n ' s  expectations  competence, t h e i r  primary  and foci  h a s been  p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d academic and/or  math competence expectations;  from c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  perceptions  of t e a c h e r s '  of  parents'  expectations  has not  12  been a p r i m a r y nonparent  comparison  of c e n t r a l  concern.  socializers'  this  a c r o s s achievement Given  differentially  the p l a u s i b i l i t y  clarifies  that children  i s found  for this  interest  i t further  between  self-assessments.  Of  i s whether c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f  o f p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s  to the  achievement f o r by  These a s s u m p t i o n s were a l s o t e s t e d i n t h e  study.  P e r f o r m a n c e and I t s R e l a t i o n t o P e r c e i v e d relation  self-perceptions  formulation  Competence  between a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e and c h i l d r e n ' s o f competence has been r e p o r t e d  s t u d i e s . A summary o f t h i s  attained  achievement  suggestion  do make d i s t i n c t i o n s  e x p e c t a t i o n s when making  performance.  extension  also contribute  domains above and beyond v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d  The  contributions to  expectations contributes s i g n i f i c a n t l y  prediction  present  that  t o p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s  I f support  others'  domains h a s n o t been  expectations w i l l  domains.  socializers'  -  i s that c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of  and t e a c h e r s '  additional  words, t h e p a r e n t  of p e r c e i v e d competence, a n a t u r a l  hypothesis  parents'  In other  e x p e c t a t i o n s make d i f f e r e n t i a l  the p r e d i c t i o n of  concern.  research  suggests  that the  o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s depends upon p r o o f o f  mastery of s k i l l s  (Stipek  & Mac I v e r ,  present  study  1989).  was t o a s s e s s  in particular  social  Thus, a secondary the v a l i d i t y  domains.  A c a d e m i c and s o c i a l  contexts  purpose of the  of these  when e x a m i n i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d competence achievement  in several  findings  across  competence  were  13  i n c l u d e d as  p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r e s so  powers c o u l d  be  available  this  Stipek  on  & Mac  measured. topic  Iver,  r e v i e w s and  In  (e.g.,  1989), t h i s  that  light  of  their predictive  numerous  Rosenholtz  reviews  & Simpson,  1984;  s e c t i o n summarizes o n l y  studies particularly  relevant  t o the  those  present  study. A vast actual  body of  competence p l a y s  perceptions  (see  Phillips,  1987).  primarily  on  and  literature  documented the  The  the  initial  1977;  work i n t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  competence  i s b a s e d on  these  These accomplishments, formulating  Harter,  area  1982;  concentrated  intellectual  ability  their  Iver  i t i s argued,  serve  r e v i e w of  the  i n t e r m s of  interview  general  study  smartness  commonly u s e d by perceptions  of  that educational  relationship  their carried  past out  research  has  assessments  by  Tannett  with  c h i l d r e n to d e s c r i b e  and  amply  of  example,  i n d i c a t o r s of  academic competence.  (1979) a l s o p r o v i d e d  and  in  (1984),  g r a d e s were most  support  between a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e and  self-perceptions  Stipek  For  Stipek  for  1977).  performance.  in conjunction  g l o b a l and  Middlestadt  as a b a s i s  literature,  documented t h a t young c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e ability  accomplishments.  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s (Bandura,  (1989) r e p o r t e d  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i s that  children's authentic  In a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  and  self-  c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of academic competence. underlying  an  role  in c h i l d r e n ' s developing  f o r example, B a n d u r a ,  assumption  Mac  has  of a c a d e m i c c o m p e t e n c e .  self-  Weinstein  for a children's  Their  conclusions  14  suggested the  that  formation  competency of  feedback  children's  s e r v e s as  one  self-perceptions.  element  Nicholls  (1978,1979) f o u n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions  of  self-ratings children found a  of  ability  reached  the  and  academic performance;  were not  fourth  and  cognitive  scores  and  fifth  children's  competence a c r o s s  g r a d e . The  the  demonstrating  magnitude of  the  grade.  third,  Harter  fourth,  .28,  Harter  examining c h i l d r e n ' s academic  subject,  sociometric  .32,  .50,  increase  and  in  (1982) was  status.  of  and  In  a  a l . (1982) f o u n d a  an  strong  children's  self-concept  students with a to maintain  a  successful  strong  For  example,  of  math c o m p e t e n c e .  corroborate  these  r e s u l t s suggesting  a t t e n u a t e young c h i l d r e n ' s expectations 1982;  Spence,  and  Several  vocational  1983).  ability choices  that  likely  Conversely,  s t u d e n t s w i t h a poor a c a d e m i c h i s t o r y m a i n t a i n e d perceptions  and  a c a d e m i c h i s t o r y were more  math s e l f - c o n c e p t .  able  study  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e math a b i l i t y .  the  also  predictive  of  .55,  perceived  i n t e r e s t i n p u r s u i n g math as  Parsons et  (1982)  fifth  t o d e m o n s t r a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n ' s a c a d e m i c competence and  until  standardized  a progressive  relationships.  however  self-perceptions  c o r r e l a t i o n s were  respectively  self-  r e l a t e d to grades  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n ' s  achievement  sixth  ability  in  other  (Eccles,  self-  studies  failing  judgements,  lower  grades  future  1983;  Harter,  15 In c o n t r a s t of  literature  school  t o younger  that  suggests that  children rely  performance their  (see Asher  15.2  status  1981;  degree  increased  classrooms.  difficulty  exponentially  of v a r i a b i l i t y  In f u r t h e r  support of t h i s  l e v e l s "were l e s s l i k e l y assignments  c o r r e l a t e d with actual  though  Horn  (1985) d e m o n s t r a t e d  athletic physical,  and f o u r  general,  social  to  academic  standardized  to believe  that  or outperforming  and v e r b a l reading  t h e two s e l f - c o n c e p t  ability  grades i n  (Stipek  e t a l . (1985) f o u n d  o f math a c h i e v e m e n t  even  ability  r e l a t i o n s h i p , Mac  infrequently"  1989, p . 5 2 7 ) . M a r s c h  highly  o f math  s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n h a v i n g  t h e n when g r a d e s were g i v e n  indicators  (2nd g r a d e =  t o s i x t h grade.  card  i n c l a s s r o o m s where  were f r e q u e n t ,  were m a s t e r i n g t h e i r  Iver,  in report  a t t a i n i n g grades according  achievement  1986).  "how do y o u know  in self-perceptions  (1987) f o u n d t h a t  assessments  evaluate  (1988) f o u n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  of v a r i a b i l i t y  the degree  Iver  to  Ausebel, S c h i f f &  % v s 6 t h g r a d e = 38.6 %) from s e c o n d Mac I v e r  elementary  the p e r c e n t a g e of  r e f e r r i n g t o g r a d e s when a s k e d  Moreover,  and  & Hymel,  e t a l . (1986) f o u n d t h a t  when someone i s s m a r t ? "  body  on g r a d e s and r e l a t e d  1952, B l u m e n f e l d , P i n t r i c h & H a m i l t o n ,  Blumenfeld children  heavily  i s a large  m i d d l e and upper  f a c t o r s such as s o c i o m e t r i c  ability  Glasser,  c h i l d r e n , there  others & Mac that  competence  a n d math  they  were  self-concept,  s c a l e s were n o t c o r r e l a t e d .  a p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence  domains:  and a t h l e t i c  Horn  competence.  16 (1985) c o n c l u d e d significantly perceptions regression provided  that  students' assigned  predicted  changes i n s t u d e n t s '  of competence.  by t e a c h e r s c o n t r i b u t e d  measure.  that  Similar  and P h i l l i p s  (1984,  socializers'  equation  by t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  were f o u n d by b o t h E c c l e s  related  p e r c e p t i o n s of competence. is  to the regression  1987); i n b o t h  p e r f o r m a n c e was s t r o n g l y  stepwise  e v a l u a t i v e feedback  w h i c h was p r o v i d e d  results  ranking  self-  However, a d d i t i o n a l  analyses demonstrated that  o v e r and above  ability  s t u d i e s academic  to children's  self-  However, o f p a r t i c u l a r  expectations  (1983)  for children's  interest  success  i n math  contributed  o v e r and above t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  achievement  factors.  In g e n e r a l , of  reviewed  p e r f o r m a n c e f a c t o r s when a s s e s s i n g  perceptions actual  fact  between  of competence.  competence  achievement In  the studies  and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s  study a s s e s s i n g  performance ( a t h l e t i c  self-perceptions  the importance  children's  The r e l a t i o n ,  domains h a s r e c e i v e d  the only  support  self-  however,  between  o f competence  little  direct  across  examination.  the p r e d i c t i v e  relationship  c o m p e t e n c e ) and c h i l d r e n ' s  o f competence  a c r o s s a c h i e v e m e n t domains  failed  t o use s t a n d a r d measures of p e r f o r m a n c e such as  grades  ( a c a d e m i c c o m p e t e n c e ) and s o c i o m e t r i c  competence) the  strong  in their relation  assessment (Horn, between  perceived  competence  (social  In l i g h t of  p e r f o r m a n c e and p e r c e i v e d  competence, p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r e s predict  1985).  status  thought  to d i f f e r e n t i a l l y  and w h i c h have been  f o u n d t o be  17 critical  v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e d i c t i o n of p e r c e i v e d  were u s e d a s p r e d i c t o r s i n t h e p r e s e n t work o f E c c l e s (1984,  1987), two s e p a r a t e  considered  salient:  differentially perceptions (2) to  (1983), H a r t e r  this  research questions  (1) Do p e r f o r m a n c e  o f competence a c r o s s  thought  questions  factors contribute  achievement  findings  as l o g i c a l  reported  psychology  i n both  I t should  be n o t e d  that  these  of t h e e m p i r i c a l  the d e v e l o p m e n t a l and e d u c a t i o n a l  and t h e r e l a t e d  f o r examining  expectations,  expectations  and performance  children's  perceived  available.  significant  expectations  1982) i n i t i a l  reviewed  work i n  (e.g.,  Horn,  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  children's perceptions  of  these  f a c t o r s t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n of  competence a c r o s s  According  others  (1981,  research  socializers'  part  other  Framework  1985), a framework  these  with  i n t h e development of  extensions  On t h e b a s i s o f H a r t e r ' s area  factors contribute  literature.  Theoretical  this  d o m a i n s ; and  in conjunction  t o be i n s t r u m e n t a l  self-perceptions. serve  were  t o the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f -  p r e d i c t i o n when examined  children's  Based on t h e  1985) and P h i l l i p s  I f s o , t o what d e g r e e do p e r f o r m a n c e  variables  is  (1982,  study.  competence  to this  achievement  domains  framework, t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  convey, c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of and p e r f o r m a n c e  factors a l l play  i n t h e g e s t a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t  perceptions  of competence.  information  sources  Thus,  some  of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f -  i t i s assumed t h a t  these  a r e u s e d by c h i l d r e n a s c r i t e r i a f o r  18  evaluating cannot  be t e s t e d  relative across the  their  own c o m p e t e n c e . directly,  contributions  achievement  validity  While  this  the d i r e c t examination of the  made by t h e i d e n t i f i e d  domains n e v e r t h e l e s s  of t h i s  assumption  variables  a s s i s t s i n assessing  conjecture.  P u r p o s e s o f The S t u d y In  keeping with the r e c o g n i t i o n  nature of p e r c e i v e d investigation  competence,  of t h e  multidimensional  t h e purposes of t h i s  were t o t e s t , t h r o u g h  floating  and s t e p w i s e  regression  a n a l y s i s , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i a b l e s  identified  in predicting children's perceived  across  a c h i e v e m e n t d o m a i n s . A s e c o n d p u r p o s e was t o  determine  t o what e x t e n t  contribute examined others'  to children's  i n combination expectations  variables  on  domains.  with c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions A third  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  To a c h i e v e  four  model a s s e s s e d  of c h i l d r e n ' s  p u r p o s e was  made by t h e s e competence  domains.  Building primarily (1981,  children's perceptions  1982),  this  and  of these  academic performance t o the p r e d i c t i o n  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s  behavioral  across  1) was d e v e l o p e d a n d  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by p a r e n t s '  and past  of  end, a uniform  (1983) a n d H a r t e r  expectations,  expectations  this  (see Figure  achievement  t h e work o f E c c l e s  social,  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence when  competence model  across  teachers'  expectations  to the p r e d i c t i o n of perceived  achievement perceived  socializers'  and p e r f o r m a n c e .  t o compare a n d c o n t r a s t  tested  competence  conduct and a t h l e t i c  academic,  domains,  19  respectively.  The p u r p o s e s o f d e v e l o p i n g  model were t w o f o l d : of  (1)  to explore  and t e s t i n g  t h e potency  this  and s a l i e n c e  c o n t e x t u a l and c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s i n i n f l u e n c i n g  children's assess  domain-specific  the s t a t i s t i c a l  model a c r o s s  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s ; and ( 2 ) t o  f i t of a uniform  four achievement  Research Questions:  perceived  competence  domains.  E x p l o r a t o r y Component  Based on r e c e n t e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s r e v i e w e d , t h e following (1)  research questions  were  addressed:  Do t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by p a r e n t s  expectations  t o the p r e d i c t i o n  competence v a r y  and t e a c h e r s '  of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d  as f u n c t i o n of the achievement  domain  assessed?; (2)  Do p a r e n t s '  significantly over  ajnd t e a c h e r s '  expectations contribute  t o the p r e d i c t i o n  o f s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence  a n d above t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by a c a d e m i c  performance and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s ? ; (3) Do t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by a c a d e m i c sociometric and  s t a t u s and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  teachers'  perceived assessed  expectations  competence v a r y  t o the p r e d i c t i o n  of parents' of c h i l d r e n ' s  a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e domain  ?;  (4) Which v a r i a b l e o r c o m b i n a t i o n children's domains?  performance,  of v a r i a b l e s best  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s  predict  achievement  20  Hypotheses: E m p i r i c a l And  T h e o r e t i c a l Component  Stepwise H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression  Analysis  Based on the o r i g i n a l work conducted by Harter 1983,  1985)  and  Eccles  (1983), the  (1981,  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were  tested: (1) It i s p r e d i c t e d that the s t a t i s t i c a l  f i t of the model  w i l l vary as a f u n c t i o n of the domain being  assessed.  (2) I t i s p r e d i c t e d that both s o c i a l i z e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions significantly across  of these e x p e c t a t i o n s  will  to the p r e d i c t i o n of p e r c e i v e d  achievement domains over and  and  contribute  competence  above the  variance  accounted f o r by performance f a c t o r s . In sum,  accurate  s e l f - a p p r a i s a l s and  positive self-  esteem are e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g and possible marginalization the  key  i s one  i n the  in understanding how  f a m i l y and  c h i l d r e n acquire  that i n v o l v e s understanding how  self  o f f the ground, so to speak" (Butterworth, In the present dialectic  study, an  school.  "knowledge gets 1982,  the  their  i n f l u e n c e s taps the degree to which  necessary step i f we c h i l d r e n construct  1982,  This  are to more a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e  is a how  a r e l a t i o n between themselves "and  [e.g., parents,  (Butterworth,  p.29).  i n d i r e c t examination of  acculturation predicts children's self-views.  objects  Thus,  self-knowledge  between c h i l d r e n ' s self-knowledge and  socialization  reducing  teachers,  p.3).  social  performance] of knowledge"  Apple and  King  t h i s concern f o r c h i l d r e n by s t a t i n g t h a t :  (1978) summarize  21 t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s of [ s e l f ] meaning i s a c r i t i c a l phase i n t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d . The m e a n i n g s of o b j e c t s and e v e n t s a r e not i n t r i n s i c t o them, but a r e f o r m e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , (p.90) Therefore,  to understand  self-perceptions to  i t i s necessary  t h e i r development  King  (1978)  the  social to  construction  study  them  in p a r t i c u l a r contexts.  As  of  in r e l a t i o n Apple  and  state:  E a c h c o n c e p t , r o l e , and o b j e c t i s a s o c i a l c r e a t i o n bound t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h i t was p r o d u c e d . The a b s t r a c t i o n of t h e s e m e a n i n g s and the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and i n s i g h t s drawn from them may a p p l y t o o t h e r c o n t e x t s , but t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n i t i a l descriptions, u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h a t s o c i a l phenomenon be e n c o u n t e r e d where t h e y a r e p r o d u c e d , (p. 90)  In  light  of  t h i s evidence,  investigation  that  regarding  children's  it,  how  in turn,  psychosocial  i t i s hoped t h r o u g h  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  functions  self-knowledge  t o g u i d e and  development.  framework  is offered  is acquired  organize  this  and  children's  how  Figure 1 G e n e r a l P e r c e i v e d Competence M o d e l : P r e d i c t i n g DomainS p e c i f i c P e r c e i v e d Competence  CRITERION  PREDICTOR  PREDETERMINED ORDER OF ENTRY: LEVEL ONE PERFORMANCE  ACADEMIC  SOCIAL  LEVEL TWO SOCIALIZERS' EXPECTATIONS  PARENTS  CHILDREN'S SELF PERCEPTIONS OF COMPETENCE  TEACHERS  ACADEMIC SOCIAL BEHAVIORAL—  1  ATHLETIC LEVEL THREE CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIALIZERS EXPECTATIONS  I  TEACHERS  23  CHAPTER TWO METHOD  T h i s chapter  provides a d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r i g i n a l  r e s e a r c h program the present corresponding  subject sample.  study extends from and i t s It also describes in d e t a i l  the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s u t i l i z e d and the methods and procedures  f o r data c o l l e c t i o n .  A brief  d e s c r i p t i o n of the subsequent data a n a l y s i s i s a l s o included. O v e r a l l D e s c r i p t i o n of the Research Program T h i s study was p a r t of a l a r g e r r e s e a r c h program at the U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o  (The Development of Competence  in C h i l d r e n ) conducted between 1986 and 1987 a t three elementary schools i n Subjects. f o u r t h and f i f t h  The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of 140 grade students,  who were r e c r u i t e d The  London, O n t a r i o , Canada.  t h e i r parents and teachers,  from three schools i n London, O n t a r i o .  c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d from s i x classrooms  i n two r u r a l  schools and one suburban school s e r v i n g p r i m a r i l y lower to middle c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n s . child  i n a l l classrooms  children.  Consent forms were given to every  and were returned by 78% of the  The 80 g i r l s and 60 boys who made up the t o t a l  sample ranged from 9 to 12 years o l d with a mean age of 10.2 years.  The cohort of f o u r t h and f i f t h grade c h i l d r e n came  from a l i m i t e d range of f a m i l y backgrounds, and data on the parents'  socioeconomic  s t a t u s show the m a j o r i t y of these  students  to be from lower to lower-middle c l a s s f a m i l y  24  d w e l l i n g s ; 84 % of the s u b j e c t s f e l l range of $ 20, range and  000  - 40,  8 % fell  Considerable  000,  between the  8 % fell  s l i g h t l y below t h i s disparities  s l i g h t l y above  were apparent i n parents'  l e v e l , ranging  from parents  high-school  to a small p r o p o r t i o n of parents  graduate degrees.  s t a t i s t i c s of parents'  this  range.  educational  obtained  income  who  d i d not who  complete  had  Consequently, d e s c r i p t i v e  educational  levels  are not  provided.  Measures of the Independent V a r i a b l e 1. Parent Future  Performance:  entitled 1985;  and Teacher Expectancies  Twelve items from the  "Self-Perception P r o f i l e  for a l i s t  assess parents'  of these and  for C h i l d r e n ' s questionnaire  for Children"  items see Appendix A) were used to  teachers' expectancies  c h i l d r e n ' s and/or students'  for  9  corresponding  academic e x p e c t a t i o n s ) , s o c i a l  (see Appendix  A f o r items numbered 1, 6, and socializers'  their  f u t u r e competence i n academic  (see Appendix A f o r items numbered 1, 5, and to s o c i a l i z e r s '  (Harter,  social  10 corresponding  expectations), behavioral  A f o r items numbered 4, 8, and  to (see Appendix  12 corresponding  to  socializers'  expectations  and a t h l e t i c  domains (see Appendix A f o r items 3, 7, and  for  items corresponding  expectations).  The  f o r c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r a l conduct)  to s o c i a l i z e r s '  expectations  athletic  items were r e v i s e d and  were a l t e r e d to emphasize parents'  and  f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s and/  11  the  instructions  teachers' or students'  future  school achievement, s o c i a l competence, b e h a v i o r a l conduct  25  and  athletic  performance.  of p a r e n t a l expectancies, complete these  To o b t a i n converging both parents  were requested to  questionnaires.  2. Assessments of C h i l d r e n ' s Perceptions Teacher E x p e c t a t i o n s : teacher  assessments  expectancies  Children's perceptions were measured using  of Parent and of parent and  12 items of a  r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the S e l f - P e r c e p t i o n P r o f i l e  for Children  (Harter,  1985) a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  parents'  and teachers'  expectations  for their  of t h e i r  future  performance i n ( i . e . , next year) academic (see Appendix B items numbered 1, 5, and 9), s o c i a l numbered 2, 6, and 10), b e h a v i o r a l numbered 4, 8, and 12) and a t h l e t i c  (see Appendix B items (see Appendix B f o r items (see Appendix B f o r  items numbered 3, 7, and 11) s i t u a t i o n s a list  of these  (see Appendix B f o r  items).  Performance V a r i a b l e s M u l t i p l e performance measures were assessed to determine c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l and academic competence. performance measures 3. Sociometric  included: Status:  S o c i a l competence was assessed  using s o c i o m e t r i c procedures d e s c r i b e d (1986).  These  by McConnel and Odem  The use of s o c i o m e t r i c procedures i n determining  measures of s o c i a l competence have been documented by McConnel and Odem (1986) and Asher and Hymel (1981). Methodological sociometric  and e m p i r i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r employing  s t a t u s as a performance measure i s based on  evidence suggesting  that p o p u l a r i t y r a t i n g s are h i g h l y  26  c o r r e l a t e d with s o c i a l competence assessed o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods ( f o r an e x t e n s i v e  using  review on  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and  the  social  competence, see McConnel and Odem (1986) and Asher and Hymel (1981). The  peer nomination procedure was  used i n the  study as a measure of s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s .  C h i l d r e n were  asked to nominate three same sex classmates being with most at school and  present  whom they  enjoy  then to r a t e each same sex  classmate,  using a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e , i n terms of how  much  they enjoy  being with each person at s c h o o l : a (1) response  i n d i c a t e s "I don't l i k e t o " and a (5) response i n d i c a t e s "I l i k e to a l o t " . by each c h i l d  The  number of p o s i t i v e nominations r e c e i v e d  ( i . e , l i k i n g scores) was  sex and classroom,  as was  standardized  the number of "1's"  r e c e i v e d by  each c h i l d on the r a t i n g s c a l e ( d i s l i k i n g s c o r e s ) . preference  s c o r e s , which served as the f i n a l  competence scores were d e r i v e d by s u b t r a c t i n g disliking  scores from s t a n d a r d i z e d  Social  social standardized  l i k i n g scores,  r e s t a n d a r d i z i n g the composite s c o r e s .  within  and  McConnel and Odem  (1986) have shown that the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of preference  scores d e r i v e d i n t h i s manner i s .80.  v a l i d i t y and  social  Since  r e l i a b i l i t y of peer assessment procedures  the has  been reviewed elsewhere (see McConnel & Odem, 1986), i t i s not necessary properties  to report e x t e n s i v e l y on the psychometric  here.  4. Academic Competence:  Past grades were used as a  27  measure of a c a d e m i c c o m p e t e n c e . children's school point  records. Likert  g r a d e of 1.  previous Christmas  An  averaging social  the  highly  equal  student's  Analyses  an  and  from  the  students'  measured on  a  the  extremes w i t h  "D"  grade b e i n g  p e r f o r m a n c e was  ninea  equal  created  to  by  g r a d e p o i n t s a c r o s s math, s c i e n c e ,  a n a l y s i s i t was  used as  a  language a r t s  c o r r e l a t e d , r_ >  then  t o 9 and  measure of p a s t  s t u d i e s , and  preliminary  was  s c a l e anchored at  being  overall  report cards  G r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e was  type  "A"  They were o b t a i n e d  found  .60).  estimate  were c o n d u c t e d  on  (from  results  that these  The  mean of t h e  of academic  the  87  of  a  scores  were  four  scores  competence.  children  whose  parents  returned questionnaires. M e a s u r e s of  t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e  5. A s s e s s m e n t items  from t h e  1985)  were u s e d  actual  Self-Perception Profile to assess  academic,  (see Appendix Perception  of P e r c e i v e d Competence:  C  social,  children's perceptions b e h a v i o r a l and  for C h i l d r e n ) .  t o t a p s i x domains r e l a t e d competence. items  The their  For  referring  social,  b e h a v i o r a l , and  athletic  a c a d e m i c domain r e f e r s  refer  athletic of  this  their  competence  the  T h i s s c a l e was  to a c h i l d ' s  t h e p u r p o s e s of  of  (Harter,  Self designed  perceived  study,  only  those  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d academic,  scholastic  subscale  for Children  f o r a complete d e s c r i p t i o n  Profile  Twenty-four  ability.  to doing  The  w e l l on  competence were  used.  to c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions s i x items  within  schoolwork,  this  figuring  out  of  28  answers, remembering m a t e r i a l , working smart, and  f e e l i n g good about  items numbered 1,7,  13,  quickly,  schoolwork  feeling  (see Appendix C f o r  19, 25, and 31 corresponding to  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d academic competence). The  s o c i a l acceptance  subscale taps the degree  c h i l d r e n f e e l accepted or r e j e c t e d by t h e i r peers popularity).  to which (i.e.,  These s i x items r e f e r to the a b i l i t y to make  f r i e n d s , having a l o t of f r i e n d s , doing t h i n g s with a l o t of k i d s , p e r c e i v i n g that most k i d s l i k e them, wishing they more f r i e n d s , and p e r c e i v i n g whether or not they  feel  popular  14, 20,  (see Appendix C f o r items numbered 2, 8,  and 32 corresponding to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d  had  26,  social  competence). The b e h a v i o r a l conduct  s c a l e taps the degree  to which  c h i l d r e n f e e l c o n f i d e n t r e g a r d i n g the ways they behave. These items tap the degree  to which c h i l d r e n  feel  they  behave w e l l , do the r i g h t t h i n g s , do t h i n g s they know they shouldn't do, act the way ways to a v o i d g e t t i n g numbered 5,  11,  they are supposed t o , and a c t i n  i n t r o u b l e (see Appendix C f o r items  17, 23, 29, and 35 c o r r e s p o n d i n g to  c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d b e h a v i o r a l conduct). The a t h l e t i c  subscale assesses the degree  c h i l d r e n f e e l competent about  their athletic  These s i x items r e f e r to k i d s wanting  to which  abilities.  to play outdoors,  doing w e l l at s p o r t s , wishing they c o u l d be b e t t e r at s p o r t s , doing w e l l at any new  s p o r t s a c t i v i t y , being b e t t e r  than other k i d s t h e i r age at s p o r t s , watching  i n s t e a d of  29  p l a y i n g s p o r t s , and doing w e l l at outdoor Appendix C f o r items numbered 3, 9, corresponding  games (see  15, 21, 27 & 33  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c  competence). Psychometric  P r o p e r t i e s Of The  Self-Perception Profile  For C h i l d r e n Harter  (1985) has shown, based on normative data  c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i r d through Colorado, is  .82,  e i g h t h grade c h i l d r e n i n  that the average i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y  .80,  .74  , and  b e h a v i o r a l conduct Test-retest (see H a r t e r ,  .76  f o r the academic,  and a t h l e t i c  reliability 1982)  subscales  data c o l l e c t e d  of t h i r d through  reliability  social,  respectively.  in an e a r l i e r  sample  e i g h t h grade p u p i l s  administered the o r i g i n a l u n r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the P e r c e i v e d Competence S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r two four subscales u t i l i z e d of  208  Colorado  students  reliabilities  were .78 and  s o c i a l subscales r e s p e c t i v e l y .  for  the remaining  for  From a sample 810  York sample r e t e s t e d a f t e r nine months,  and  reliability  study.  c h i l d r e n r e t e s t e d a f t e r 3 months, and  from a New  test-retest  i n the present  of the  scales u t i l i z e d ,  .75  f o r the academic  Reliability  coefficients  i n a d d i t i o n to the  c o e f f i c i e n t s of the subscales of the SPPC used  the present  sample, are r e p o r t e d i n Chapter  3.  Format S t r u c t u r e of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s A " s t r u c t u r e d a l t e r n a t i v e format" Harter present  (1982) and was study.  utilized  was  designed  by  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r the  Each of the items presents two d e s c r i p t i o n s  30  of c h i l d r e n - one  of capable  incapable c h i l d r e n .  c h i l d r e n and one  Each d e s c r i p t i o n has two p o s s i b l e  response c h o i c e s : " r e a l l y true f o r me" me".  The  relatively  and  " s o r t of t r u e f o r  respondent's task i s to choose the best answer f o r  each q u e s t i o n  (an example i s presented  i n Appendix C ) .  s t r u c t u r e d a l t e r n a t i v e format i s intended to decrease  This the  amount of s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e responses of s u b j e c t s (Harter, 1982). Scoring Each item was  scored from 1 to 4, where a.score  i n d i c a t e d , f o r example, low parent for t h e i r  and  teacher  expectations  c h i l d r e n , low p e r c e i v e d competence, or  p e r c e p t i o n s of o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s .  of 1  low  A score of 4  i n d i c a t e d , f o r example, high teacher and  parent  e x p e c t a t i o n s , high s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence, or a high p e r c e p t i o n of o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . a domain were summed and  Scores  on  items w i t h i n  then averaged to produce summary  scores on the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : t e a c h e r s ' and expectations  f o r c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e success  s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l and a t h l e t i c  parents'  i n academic,  contexts, children's  p e r c e p t i o n s of teachers' and parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s in the academic, s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l , and a t h l e t i c  f o r them domains,  and c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d academic, s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l and a t h l e t i c  competence.  Procedure C h i l d r e n ' s Measures.  The  f u l l b a t t e r y of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n c l u d i n g the s o c i o m e t r i c assessment,  was  31 administered  to c h i l d r e n  i n one  45-minute s e s s i o n .  The  i n groups ranging  from  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d 26 c h i l d r e n .  For  instructions  and  children  they  details for  and of  each q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d , individual  instructions  files  Teacher  and  to  children  provided  see A p p e n d i x D ) .  children  Parent  were a d m i n i s t e r e d . days a f t e r  to  to respond Report  were c o l l e c t e d  Measures.  same t i m e  Parent  (for  card  grades  from  the  teachers.  f o r each parent,  Teachers  filled  out  of t h e m e a s u r e s  they  out  a  administered  A separate questionnaire and  their  t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s measures  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  and  time  the  with p a r e n t a l permission.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s at the  few  were r e a d a l o u d  were g i v e n a d e q u a t e  a l l participating  children's  items  15-  were r e q u e s t e d  was  to  fill  them out s e p a r a t e l y . Data  Analyses The  data  analyses proceeded  Descriptive  and  Descriptive  a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d  athletic  and  To  In  was  used  p h a s e two,  the academic,  as  the  on  provide  of  between t h e p r e d i c t o r  matrices  and  (i.e.,  athletic  t o examine t h e  variables  of  internal  reliability.  b e h a v i o r a l and  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were p r o d u c e d  social,  estimates  Hoyt's estimate  index  one.  f o r each  reliability  four c o r r e l a t i o n a l social,  phase  the academic,  subscales  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u t i l i z e d ,  consistency  for  utilized.  phases.  analyses comprised  b e h a v i o r a l conduct  questionnaire for  psychometric  in four  one  domains  relationships  the c r i t e r i o n  variables,  as  well  the  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  predictor  variables. In p h a s e t h r e e ,  two  sets  m o d e l s were t e s t e d  in order  variability  predictor  for  by  i n the  variability  academic, s o c i a l , Phase regression  four,  behavioral that  analyses,  of  predictive validity  (i.e.,  analyses  forced  of  and  extent  athletic  r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of  be  regression to  which  accounted  competence  athletic  across  domains.  stepwise h i e r a r c h i c a l statistical 1 & 2) the  and  information  past  uniform  Following  this  research  from to  perceived development, a  stepwise h i e r a r c h i c a l regression  were t e s t e d a c r o s s , a c a d e m i c ,  c o n d u c t , and and  conduct  phase  competence model d e v e l o p e d . four  the  variables could  integrated  test  set of  exploratory  to c l a r i f y  forced  analyses  final  four  in children's perceived  previous the  of  domains.  social,  behavioral  A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n  these analyses  are  provided  i n Chapter  33  CHAPTER THREE RESULTS The  results  competence  addressed  the p r e d i c t i o n  i n f o u r t h and f i f t h  academic, s o c i a l ,  athletic  domains, u s i n g p a r e n t s '  grade c h i l d r e n  predictor  and t e a c h e r s '  to e x p l i c a t e the r o l e  extent  A secondary  these  research  aim of t h i s  variables play  a n a l y s i s was  in influencing  expectations predict children's  o f competence a c r o s s a c h i e v e m e n t  a i m was t o t e s t  of General  domains.  the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s uniform  competence model a c r o s s a c h i e v e m e n t  Restatement The  and t e a c h e r s '  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of competence, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e  self-perceptions  (1)  The p r i m a r y  t o which s o c i a l i z e r s '  perceived  expectations,  academic performance and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s as  variables.  children's  across  and b e h a v i o r a l competence  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of parents' expectations,  of s e l f - p e r c e i v e d  Research  subsequent a n a l y s e s  domains.  Questions  addressed  the f o l l o w i n g general  questions:  Do t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by p a r e n t s  expectations  to the p r e d i c t i o n  competence v a r y  and t e a c h e r s '  of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d  as f u n c t i o n of the achievement  domain  assessed?; (2) Do p a r e n t s ' significantly over  and t e a c h e r s '  expectations contribute  to the p r e d i c t i o n  o f s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence  and a b o v e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by a c a d e m i c  performance and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s ? ;  34 (3) Do t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by a c a d e m i c sociometric and  s t a t u s and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  teachers'  perceived  performance,  expectations  competence v a r y  to the p r e d i c t i o n  of p a r e n t s ' of c h i l d r e n ' s  a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e domain  assessed?; (4) Which v a r i a b l e o r c o m b i n a t i o n children's  of v a r i a b l e s b e s t  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s  predict  achievement  domains? To  address  descriptive  these  questions  and p s y c h o m e t r i c  i n four phases:  analyses;  (2) c o r r e l a t i o n a l  descriptive  analyses;  and  a n a l y s e s ; and (4) f o r c e d s t e p w i s e  regression  analyses.  1: D e s c r i p t i v e and P s y c h o m e t r i c For  athletic  the present  across and  only  and b e h a v i o r a l c o n d u c t  questionnaire subscale  study,  were u t i l i z e d .  psychometric  hierarchical  Analyses  the academic, subscales  Aggregate  from  scores  their  3 a n d 4.  standard  deviations are presented  f o r each  The means and s t a n d a r d  s u b s c a l e means and s t a n d a r d  variables,  presented  1,2,  3 a n d 4.  scores  i n Tables  1,2,  d e v i a t i o n s f o r academic  Gender and G r a d e D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r c e i v e d  Tables  each  Mean s c o r e s a c r o s s a l l s u b s c a l e s  p e r f o r m a n c e and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s c a n be seen  The  social,  were d e r i v e d by o b t a i n i n g s u b j e c t s ' mean  the r e l e v a n t items.  analyses  (3) e x p l o r a t o r y  regression  Part  necessary  i n f o r m a t i o n , the data  (1)  proceeded  and t o p r o v i d e  i n Table  5.  Competence.  d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e dependent  by g r a d e and g e n d e r , c a n be s e e n i n The r e s u l t s  revealed that the  subjects'  means on a l l f o u r  s u b s c a l e s were between  2.7  and  Table 1 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s Independent the  Academic  and Dependent  grade • 2 Cptacad sex grade 3 Tex 4 Mex 5 Fex 6 Spacad sex grade  Measures f o r  Domain  Variable 1 Cppacad sex  of the  Mean  S.D.  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  3.2 3.2 3.3 3.1  .61 1 .645 .593 .663  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69 6 70 70  3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.3  .636 .647 .633 .648 .806 .600 .558  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  3.1 2.9 3.0 2.9  .700 .667 .635 .735  Note V a l u e range f o r a l l t a b l e d v a r i a b l e s i s 1-4 1 Cppacad = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 2 C p t a c a d = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 3 Tex = t e a c h e r s ' a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Mex = m o t h e r s ' a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Fex = f a t h e r s ' a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Spacad= c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a c a d e m i c c o m p e t e n c e .  Table  2  Means and  Standard Deviations  Independent the  Social  and  grade 2  Cptsoc sex grade  3 Tex 4 Mex 5 Fex 6 Spsocial sex grade  the  Dependent M e a s u r e s f o r  Domain N_  Mean  S.D.  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  3.4 3.2 3.3 3.3  .590 .694 .577 .730  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69 6 70 70  3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.3  .669 .647 .633 .648 .809 .527 .532  M F 4 5  69 80 71 69  3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0  .743 .832 .709 .879  Variable 1 Cppsoc sex  of  Note V a l u e r a n g e f o r a l l t a b l e d v a r i a b l e s i s 1-4 1 Cppsoc = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t s ' social expectations 2 Cptsoc = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of teachers' s o c i a l expectations 3 Tex = t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Mex = m o t h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Fex = f a t h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Spsocial = children's self-perceived social  competence  38  Table  3  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s Independent Behavioral  and Dependent M e a s u r e s f o r t h e C o n d u c t Domain N_  Mean  S.D.  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  3.2 3.5 3.4 3.3  .638 .564 .595 .630  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69 6 70 70  3.1 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4  .659 .613 .633 .654 .831 .557 .647  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  2.8 3.0 2.9 2.9  .603 .647 .655 .611  Variable 1 Cppbehav sex grade 2 Cptbehav sex grade 3 Tex 4 Mex 5 Fex 6 Spbehav sex grade  of the  Note V a l u e r a n g e f o r a l l t a b l e d v a r i a b l e s i s 1-4 1 Cppbehav = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t s ' behavioral expectations 2 C p t b e h a v = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' behavioral expectations 3 Tex = t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Mex = m o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Fex = f a t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Spbehav = c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of b e h a v i o r a l competence.  39  Table  4  Means and  Standard Deviations  and Dependent M e a s u r e s  Cppathl sex grade  2 Cptathl sex grade 4 5 6 7  Tex Mex Fex Spathl sex grade  Independent  f o r the A t h l e t i c  Domain  N_  Mean  S.D.  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  3.3 3.0 3.2 3.1  .633 .668 .596 .743  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69 6 70 70  3.2 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0  .641 .738 .585 .810 .710 .574 .606  M F 4 5  60 80 71 69  3.1 2.7 2.8 2.9  .624 .741 .692 .766  Variable 1  of the  Note V a l u e r a n g e f o r a l l t a b l e d v a r i a b l e s i s 1-4 1 Cppathl = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' athletic expectations 2 C p t a t h l = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' athletic expectations 3 Tex = t e a c h e r s ' a t h l e t i c expectations 4 Mex = m o t h e r s ' a t h l e t i c expectations 5 Fex = f a t h e r ' s a t h l e t i c expectations 6 S p a t h l = c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of athletic competence.  40  Table  5  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s  f o r the Performance  V a r i a b l e s : Academic  P e r f o r m a n c e and S o c i o m e t r i c  Variable  N_  1 Academic sex  Performance M 59 F 80 4 71 grade 5 .69 Soc i o m e t r i c S t a t u s sex M 59 F 80 4 71 grade 5 68  Note Value Value  Status  Mean  S.D.  6.8 7.1 7.6 6.4  1 .826 1 .897 1 .200 2. 100  .001 .052 .061 .007  .963 .938 .922 .975  r a n g e f o r Academic P e r f o r m a n c e i s 1-9 r a n g e f o r S o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s i s - .001 - + .099.  41  Gender d i f f e r e n c e s . documenting children's athletic  the  competence are  themselves  be  four seen  findings  lower  in Table  competent  than  perceived athletic Girls,  their  several  i s not as  (F =  their  6.  social  of  the  and  3.05;  also  of  significantly  male  themselves  As  .05),  ( b o y s : x_ =  by  is  their Boys  in While  peers  also  .0001) t h a n more  6.8,  that  more c o m p e t e n t  t o be  are  despite  x_ = 2 . 9 3 ) .  .052).  counterparts.  can  findings  interest  (1,136) =15.56, p <  of  academically  more s o c i a l l y c o m p e t e n t x_=  three  favour males  girls:  significant,  girls:  on  descriptive  a c a d e m i c competence  .001,  rate  athletic.  more  and  Consistent  females  (1,136) =4.01, p <  (F =  t h e m s e l v e s as  than  1982),  t h e m s e l v e s as  however, p e r c e i v e d  competent  in Table  across  behavioral  male c o u n t e r p a r t s  ( b o y s : x_=  ( b o y s : x_ =  domain  social,  Gender d i f f e r e n c e s  domain  were r a t e d boys  (Harter,  lower a c t u a l  difference  girls  presented  b o y s see  x_ = 7 . 1 ) .  social  this  5,  statistics  gender d i f f e r e n c e s  academic,  than g i r l s  boys a c t u a l  the  than  subscales:  n o t e w o r t h y : a)  girls:  p r e s e n c e of  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d academic,  with previous  the  Multivariate  in  the  girls.  behaviorally  42 Table  6  Multivariate  Analysis  of V a r i a n c e T e s t  Gender D i f f e r e n c e s  for Self-Perceived  Social,  and A t h l e t i c  Behavioral  Variate 1 Spacad 2 Spsocial 3 Spbehav 4 Spathl  Academic,  Competence F  Statistic SS SS SS SS  For  1.86 .57 .94 7.38  4.01 .90 2.41 15.56  Note 1 S p a c a d = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a c a d e m i c competence 2 S p s o c i a l = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l competence 3 Spbehav = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d b e h a v i o r a l c o n d u c t 4 S p a t h l = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c competence.  DF  P  1 , 136 1 , 1 36 1 , 1 36 1 ,1 36  .05 .34 .12 .0001  43  Grade d i f f e r e n c e s .  No  significant  grade d i f f e r e n c e s  emerged f o r s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s achievement  of  analyses  v a r i a b l e s employed  athletic,  were computed  and  in this  Table  was  measures u t i l i z e d  index  subscale. of  present  study. of  expectations,  children's perceptions  expectations,  teachers'  internal  As  Self-Perception  Profile  reliability  from t h e  1985)  are q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y .  for  coefficients  b e h a v i o r a l conduct,  Harter's  As  .83,  .81,  (1985) A m e r i c a n  the academic,  expectations  the  social,  The  and and  reliability  values  .76.  sample were and  be four  subscales  f o r the domains  (Harter,  academic, are  Corresponding .80,  The  seen i n  for Children  athletic  athletic,  can  of t h e  Self-Perception Profile  .78,  parents'  .79).  for Children.  taken  in  of  P r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e :  7,  respectively,  subscale  teachers'  r e v e a l e d by  (m_=  Table  social,  the  independent  c o n s i s t e n c i e s f o r a l l independent  m e a s u r e s were s a t i s f a c t o r y Psychometric  The  estimate  consistency.  e x p e c t a t i o n s , mothers'  fathers' expectations.  coefficients,  Hoyt's  internal  measures a r e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  and  absence  social,  s c a l e p r o p e r t i e s f o r the  i n the  the  In t h e  f o r each academic,  u s e d an  7 o u t l i n e s the  study.  for  average i n t e r - i t e m  b e h a v i o r a l conduct  reliability  Independent V a r i a b l e s .  were c a l c u l a t e d  a d i c h o t o m o u s measure, t h e  correlations  of  P r o p e r t i e s f o r the  reliability  predictor  four  domains.  Psychometric Subscale  the  .80,  behavioral  values  .84,  .75.,  conduct  44 subscales,  respectively.  45 Table  7  Inter-item  Reliability  and Dependent  Coefficients  f o r the  Independent  Measures  Doma i n  Academic  Social  Athletic  Behavioral  1 2 3 4 5 6  .75 .73 .93 .79 .76 .73  .80 .80 .95 .79 .81 .83  .77 .73 .98 .66 .76 .81  .75 .73 .89 .84 .82 .76  Cpp Cpt Tex Mex Fex Spc  Note 1 Cpp 2 Cpt 3 Tex 4 Mex 5 Fex 6 Spc  Conduct  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s teachers' expectations mothers' e x p e c t a t i o n s fathers' expectations self-perceived competence  46  Part  2: M a i n  Analyses  In c o n d u c t i n g correlational the  t h e main a n a l y s e s ,  results  a n a l y s e s were a d d r e s s e d  before attending to  s u b s t a n t i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and h y p o t h e s e s .  enabled  a p r e l i m i n a r y i n s p e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s  the p r e d i c t o r between  variables,  the p r e d i c t o r  in addition  and c r i t e r i o n  also provided a foundation the data  proceeding  the s t a t i s t i c a l  decided  relations  variables.  design  that committing  step of  t h e main a n a l y s e s and i n k e e p i n g of the p r e s e n t  a Type I I e r r o r committing  study,  a Type I e r r o r .  small p l e v e l  would d e c r e a s e  a Type I I e r r o r ,  a probability  level  the t e s t  of s i g n i f i c a n c e  F values.  coefficients  levels  significance  i s presented  a t the p  in a l l  Tables.  Correlational  Analyses  Correlational relations  o f .05 was p r e s e l e c t e d  whether o r n o t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  o r t h e p <. 001  level  Since  the chances of  f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n  and F v a l u e s a c h i e v e d  coefficients  relevant  However,  i t was  w o u l d have more  a very  selecting  <.05  This  f o r a s s e s s i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y  with  s e r i o u s consequences than  and  between  Levels  Before with  to the  This  f o r subsequent a n a l y s e s .  Probability  as  b e a r i n g on t h e  between  four c r i t e r i o n  were c o n d u c t e d  the p r e d i c t o r  variables  measures, i n a d d i t i o n  interrelationships correlation  analyses  identified  and t h e  t o the  among t h e p r e d i c t o r  m a t r i c e s between c h i l d ,  to assess the  variables.  The  t e a c h e r , and p a r e n t a l  47  variables  are presented  academic,  social,  Academic significant variables  behavioral  Domain.  that:  academic  expectations  perceptions  strongly  fathers'  competence;  (r  competence;  Relationships  between  findings,  correlations  (r  status  .65, p  =  self-  self-perceived  (r  =  .38,  .05)  were  academic  was  not  self-perceived  academic  significantly  of  academic  Variables:  revealed  Academic  a strong  perceptions  of  and c h i l d r e n ' s  perceptions  of  However, w i t h  teachers'  of t h e s e  significant  were o b s e r v e d between  also  found  teacher  the e x c e p t i o n  of g e n e r a l l y  positive  parents'  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was  p e r f o r m a n c e and a c t u a l  a pattern  children's  .20, p <  =  children's  academic  expectations.  (r  Among P r e d i c t o r  A strong  teachers'  .05).  relation  between  and  p e r f o r m a n c e was  C o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses  expectations.  of  (b) m o t h e r s '  sociometric  Domain.  expectations  academic  of the c o r r e l a t i o n s  self-perceptions  = .51, p <  subscales.  the independent  r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n ' s  r e l a t e d to children's  to children's  f o r the  of m a i n l y  expectations  expectations  (d) a c a d e m i c  11  self-perceived  perceptions  academic  (c) c h i l d r e n ' s  significantly  competence  pattern  Inspection  r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n ' s  competence;  related  10, and  (r = .81, p <.05)  of academic  and  moderately  8).  (a) c h i l d r e n ' s  were most  .05)  A consistent  of p a r e n t s '  perceptions p <  9,  c o n d u c t and a t h l e t i c  and c h i l d r e n ' s  (see T a b l e  revealed  <.05)  8,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f o u n d between  identified  competence  i n Tables  but  the p r e d i c t o r  two  moderate variables  48  (see  Table  8).  substantial  The p a t t e r n  of c o r r e l a t i o n s suggested a  d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e among t h e p r e d i c t o r  variables. Self-Perceived  S o c i a l Competence.  intercorrelations  indicated  relations  between  t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and s e l f -  perceived  social  competence  domain, a) c h i l d r e n ' s (teachers'  children's bearing  perceived  social  expectations to c h i l d r e n ' s .05) but  only  social  perceived  were  the  predictor  domain,  but only  social  expectations  =  self-  moderately  competence were  .38, p < . 0 5 ) ; (d)  (r  = .41, p <  competence  Among  (r = .27, p <  significantly  self-perceived teachers'  variables.  self-  to children's  (r = .40, p < . 0 5 ) .  Predictor  generally  related  . 0 5 ) ; a n d (e) c h i l d r e n ' s  Variables:  of the c o r r e l a t i o n a l matrix  indicated  expectations  . 0 5 ) ; (b) m o t h e r s '  was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d  social  Relationships Examination  = .69, p <  related  with  positively related to children's  status  self-perceived  social  related to children's  competence  sociometric  domain  social  (r  competence  expectations  (r  self-perceived  moderately  strongly  of competence,  significantly  ; (c) f a t h e r s '  expectations  relationship to children's  competence  were  In t h e s o c i a l  of o t h e r s '  of teachers'  the strongest  9).  e x p e c t a t i o n s ) were  self-perceptions  perceptions  low t o m o d e r a t e  (see Table  perceptions  and p a r e n t s '  to c h i l d r e n ' s  generally  The  Domain.  f o r the s o c i a l  low t o m o d e r a t e Consistent  Social  with  relations  between  t h e academic  the magnitude of t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  49  reflect  a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e among t h e  predictor  variables.  Self-Perceived  Behavioral  the  c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses  are  presented  those In  found  i n Table  Competence.  f o r the behavioral  10.  domains  perceptions  of parents'  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  related to children's  behavioral  ( r = .55, p <  perceptions  of teachers'  significantly social  were  teachers'  self-perceived  . 0 5 ) ; (d) f a t h e r s '  .05); c)  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y behavioral  behavioral  ( r = .30, p <  competence  behavioral  expectations  moderately  related to children's  competence  ( r = .30, p <  of behavioral  Relationships C o n d u c t Domain..  ( r = .24, p  self-perceived . 0 5 ) ; (e) m o t h e r s ' but o n l y  self-perceived  significantly  behavioral sociometric  with c h i l d r e n ' s  self-  c o m p e t e n c e ; and (g) a c a d e m i c related to children's  competence  Among  with  were  .05); ( f ) c h i l d r e n ' s  p e r f o r m a n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y behavioral  competence  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i d not c o r r e l a t e  correlated  expectations  related to children's  behavioral  perceived  expectations  ( r = .56, p <  children's  perceptions  children's  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  expectations  status  expectations  related to children's  competence  significantly  r e s u l t s were  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  . 0 5 ) ; b)  behavioral  behavioral  <  domain  examined.  c o n d u c t domain, t h e f o l l o w i n g  n o t e d : a) c h i l d r e n ' s  conduct  conduct  These r e s u l t s a r e comparable t o  i n the p r e v i o u s achievement  the behavioral  The r e s u l t s o f  (r =30,  Predictor  Consistent  self-  p < .05).  Variables:  Behavioral  w i t h p r e v i o u s domains  examined,  50 a  strong p o s i t i v e  perceptions  of  correlation  teachers'  children's perceptions The  remaining  moderate of  of p a r e n t s '  suggesting  between t h e  and  presented  examination  the  of  demonstrated  the  independent  11  f o r the  competence  perceptions related .05);  .35,  of  (r  social  matrix  domain.  that:  and  were r e l a t e d competence  athletic  as conduct  p <  .05);  (b) c h i l d r e n ' s were  significantly  competence  expectations  (r  =  .71,  .28,  fathers' actual athletic  p <  .05);  were r e l a t e d  competence  p e r f o r m a n c e was self-perceived  not  (r =  (e)  competence  p <  significantly  athletic  teachers'  .05);  athletic  ( f ) academic  related  competence;  <  (r  expectations  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d .39,  p  were m o d e r a t e l y  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c  (r =  expectations  (d)  (a)  expectations  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c .05);  of  An  behavioral  of p a r e n t s '  expectations  (c) m o t h e r s ' a t h l e t i c  p <  degrees  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  =.68,  teachers'  only  predictor variables  athletic  to s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c  related =  related  but  criterion  correlations revealed  i n the academic,  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  The  and  among t h e  domains, c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  athletic  expectations.  acceptable  Competence.  relations  i n Table  and  predictor variables.  Self-Perceived Athletic  are  behavioral  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t  i n d e p e n d e n c e between t h e  variables,  f o u n d between c h i l d r e n ' s  behavioral expectations  i n magnitude, again  correlations  was  to c h i l d r e n ' s  (g) c h i l d r e n ' s  51 sociometric  status  self-perceptions  was  significantly  of a t h l e t i c  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Domain. variables of  The  competence  the P r e d i c t o r  (r = .21, p <  .05)  Variables: Athletic  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e p r e d i c t o r  are presented  i n Table  11.  r e l a t i o n s between t h e p r e d i c t o r  with  r e l a t e d to children's  the c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses  C l e a r l y , the p a t t e r n  variables  are congruent  of p r e v i o u s domains.  52  Table  8  Correlation  Matrix 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Spacad Sms Cppacad Texacad Mexacad Fexacad Cptacad Acadperf  1 .16 .65** .55** .38** .20 .81** .51**  - Academic  2 1 .18 .23* .01 .10 .15 .10  3  1 .34* .45** .36** .72** .37**  Domain 4  1 .41** .34* .44** .70**  5  1 .39** .45** .44**  6  1 .32* .39**  7  8  1 .45** 1  Note 1 S p a c a d = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a c a d e m i c competence 2 Sms = s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s 3 Cppacad = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Texacad = t e a c h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Mexacad = m o t h e r s ' a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Fexacad = f a t h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 7 Cptacad = c h i l d r e n ' s perceptions of teachers' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 8 Acadperf = academic performance N_= 87 *p_<.05 **g_ <. 001 .  53  Table  9  Correlation  Matrix 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Spsocial Cppsoc Sms Texsoc Mexsoc Fexsoc Cptsoc Acadperf  1 .67** .40** .41** .27* .38** .69** .17  - Social 2  1 .36** .37** .24* .42** .61** .20  Domain  3  1 . 38** .14 .26* .30* .09  4  5  1 .17 1 .30* .49** .43** .23* .33* --.04  6  1 .30* .05  7  8  1 .11  1  Note 1 S p s o c i a l = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l competence 2 Cppsoc = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s 3 Sms = s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s 4 Texsoc = t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Mexsoc = m o t h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Fexsoc = f a t h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 7 Cptsoc = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l expectations 8 Acadperf = academic performance N_= 87 *p_<.05 **p_ <. 001 .  54  Table  10  Correlation  Matrix 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Spbehav Cppbehav Sms Texbehav Mexbehav Fexbehav Cptbehav Acadperf  1 .55** .09 .24* .30* .30* .56** .30*  - B e h a v i o r a l Conduct 2  1 .30* .21* .31* .34* .70** .22  3  1 .30* .22 .29* .20* .10  4  1 .47** .47** .38** .36**  5  6  1 .52** .32* .32* .11 .19  7  8  1 .41** 1  Note 1 Spbehav = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d b e h a v i o r a l c o n d u c t 2 Cppbehav = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of b e h a v i o r a l 3 Sms = s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s 4 Texbehav = t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Mexbehav = m o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Fexbehav = f a t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 7 Cptbehav = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s behavioral expectations 8 Acadperf = academic performance N_= 87 *p_< .05 **p_< .001.  conduct  Table  11  Correlation  Matrix 1 .  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Spathl Sms Cppathl Texathl Mexathl Fexathl Cptathl Acadperf  1 .21* .68** .39** .35** .28* .71 ** .09  - Athletic 2  1 .18 .25* .02 .04 .12 .09  3  1 .26* .40** .25* .75** .05  Domain  4  5  6  1 1 .1 5 .08 .56** 1 .32* .39** .21 * .11 --.28 --.10  7  8  1 .07  Note 1 S p a t h l = s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c competence 2 Sms = s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s 3 C p a t h l = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' a t h l e t expectations 4 Texathl = teachers' a t h l e t i c expectations 5 Mexathl = mothers' a t h l e t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Fexathl = fathers a t h l e t i c expectations 7 C p t a t h l = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of teachers' a t h l e t i c expectations 8 Acadperf = academic performance N_= 87 *p_< .05 **p_< .001.  56  Multivariate Gender and  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e ;  Grade L e v e l  Before  the  data  with  f o r g e n d e r and  parents'  grade  sociometric  expectations, and  expectations  were e n t e r e d  athletic,  and  was  level  conducted  effects.  status, teachers'  children's perceptions as  ( g e n d e r ) MANOVA  significant  regression analyses,  dependent f o r the  emerged.  screen  expectations,  of  of  teachers'  parents'  v a r i a b l e s i n one  academic,  b e h a v i o r a l conduct domains,  grade e f f e c t s  to  a  Academic  children's perceptions  expectations  (grade) x 2  the  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  performance,  With  teachers'  expectations parents' Table found.  expectations, and  respectively. regard  to  expectations  12).  No  fathers' expectations,  children's perceptions  other  domain  specific  analyses  phase t h r e e , var i a b l e .  sex  was  f o r the  for  sex  mothers'  domain  gender e f f e c t s the  No  gender,  teachers'  i n b e h a v i o r a l conduct  C o n s e q u e n t l y , when c o n d u c t i n g  regression  of  2  social,  however, m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s p r o d u c e d main e f f e c t s on  for  Effects  proceeding  multivariate  Preliminary Screening  and  (see were  hierarchical  b e h a v i o r a l c o n d u c t domain i n  included  i n the  equation  as  a control  57  Table  12  Multivariate Behavioral  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e  C o n d u c t Domain: Gender  Variate 1 2 3 4 5  Texbehav Fexbehav Mexbehav Cptbehav Cppbehav  Note 1 Texbehav = 2 Fexbehav = 3 Mexbehav = 4 Cptbehav = behavioral 5 Cppbehav = behavioral  SS SS SS SS SS  Test  For the  Effects  Statistic  F  DF  1 1 .05 1 .05 2.73 3.36 4.08  18.91 3.84 9.34 7.65 10.46  1 1 1 1 1  teachers' behavioral expectations fathers' behavioral expectations mothers' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' expectations c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' expectations.  ,83 ,83 ,83 ,83 ,83  P .0001 .05 .005 .05 .05  58  Phase 3: E x p l o r a t o r y To study,  address the general the standard  illuminating relative  model p r o v i d e d  The use o f t h e s t a n d a r d  linear  greatest  f o r the present  equation,  fashion  & Jennrich,  equation.  t h e most  socializers  stepwise study  one v a r i a b l e  1988).  F-to-enter  was an F v a l u e  regressions  which v a r i a b i l i t y accounted  since  o f 4.0 a n d a c r i t i c a l .value  were p e r f o r m e d  Thus,  four  to c l a r i f y  i n parents'  and  the extent  children's  status  academic performance a c r o s s  achievement  examination  of the r e l a t i v e  contributions  independent  v a r i a b l e t o the p r e d i c t i o n of with  respect  (a) c o n s i s t e n c y  the academic,  social,  Subsequent  made by e a c h perceived  to the empirical  - do t h e v a r i a b l e s  behavioral  be  and c h i l d r e n ' s  domains.  up a s p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f p e r c e i v e d  across  to  teachers'  expectations,  sociometric  of p <  stepwise  i n s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence c o u l d  followed  with  i s added t o t h e r e g r e s s i o n  of others'  hold  predictors  f o r i n c l u s i o n of independent  f o r by v a r i a b i l i t y  below:  a t a time  the v a r i a b l e  children's perceptions  listed  in a  i s entered  At each step,  value  to the  regression  expectations,  competence  in this  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  f o r t e s t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f F.  floating  posed  from a sequence of p o s s i b l e  The c r i t e r i o n  variables .01  questions  of c h i l d r e n ' s d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c  in a stepwise  the  regression  i s appropriate  (Dixon  research  method o f c o m p a r i n g a n d c o n t r a s t i n g t h e  competence.  multiple  Analyses  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by d i f f e r e n t  prediction  model  Regression  issues identified  competence  and a t h l e t i c  59 subscales?; for  (b) d o e s any one v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t e n t l y a c c o u n t  the l a r g e s t  so, why?;  proportion  ( c ) what  of v a r i a n c e  d i f f e r e n c e s emerge  f o u r competence domains w i t h powers o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t second  s t e p was  developing all  intended  regard  a hierarchical  model  domains and i f  w i t h i n and between t h e  to the  variables? to provide  across  explanatory  The c o m p l e t i o n  of  this  a framework f o r  t h a t c o u l d be t e s t e d  across  four achievement domains. The r e s u l t s  analyses  of t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p w i s e  are presented  Predicting 13 p r e s e n t s  in Tables  the r e s u l t s  indicating  self-perceptions from  of t h i s  that  analysis.  actual  the simple  correlational  of a c a d e m i c competence c o u l d  f o r t h e <R  2  of t h e i r  in children's be p r e d i c t e d  t e a c h e r s ' academic  i n c r e a s e = .66) and  academic e x p e c t a t i o n s  Table  For the academic  74 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e  (a) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  expectations  13 t o 16.  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d A c a d e m i c Competence.  domain, t h e r e s u l t s c o r r o b o r a t e d analysis,  regression  f o r c h i l d r e n (R  (b) t e a c h e r s ' 2  increase =  .07) . Predicting social  domain,  children's them  (R  2  parents' Table  55 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e  perceptions  of t e a c h e r s '  Competence.  was  In t h e  p r e d i c t e d by  social  (a)  expectations for  i n c r e a s e = .45) and  (b) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  social  f o r them  expectations  14 summarizes t h e s e Predicting  the  Self-Perceived Social  (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .10).  results.  Self-Perceived Behavioral  b e h a v i o r a l conduct  of  domain,  Competence.  31 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e  was  In  60  accounted behavioral actual .06)  f o r by  (a) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  expectations  2  f o r c h i l d r e n (R  (see Table  15).  Predicting  Self-Perceived Athletic  domain,  of t h i s  findings revealed  accounted  f o r by  teachers'  athletic  that  expectations  f o r them  (R  2  (b) m o t h e r s ' increase =  2  Competence  analysis.  50 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e  f o r them of t h e i r  Table  16  For the a t h l e t i c  (a) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  (b) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  expectations  parents'  i n c r e a s e = .25) and  behavioral expectations  summarizes t h e r e s u l t s  and  (R  of  (R  of 2  their  increase =  parents'  i n c r e a s e = .06).  was  .44)  athletic  61 Table  13  Floating  Stepwise Regression  Self-Perceived Variable Step 1 1 Cptacad Step 2 2 Texacad  R2  Academic  Equations  for  Competence  R change 2  F to  enter  .66  .66  125.79**  .73  .07  16.82**  Note 1 Cptacad = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 2 Texacad = t e a c h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s *p_ < .05 **p_< .001.  62  Table  14  Floating  Stepwise Regression  Self-Perceived Variable Step 1 1 Cptsoc Step 2 2 Cppsoc  R2  Social  Equations f o r  Competence R change 2  F to enter  .45  .45  52.11**  .55  .10  13.83**  Note 1 Cptsoc = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' social expectations 2 Cppsoc = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' s o c i a l competence *p_< .05 **p_< .001.  63  Table  15  Floating  Stepwise  Self-Perceived Variable Step 1 1 Cppbehav Step 2 2 Mexbehav  R  2  Regression  Equations f o r  B e h a v i o r a l Conduct R change 2  F  to enter  .25  .25  21.74**  .31  .06  5.53*  Note 1 Cppbehav = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t s ' behavioral expectations 2 Mexbehav = m o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s *p_< .05 **p_< .001.  Table  16  F l o a t i n g Stepwise Regression Self-Perceived Athletic Variable Step 1 1 Cptathl Step 2 2 Cppathl  R  2  Equation f o r  Competence  R change 2  .44  .44  .50  .06  F t o enter 50.05** 8.26  Note 1 C p t a t h l = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' a t h l e t i c expectations 2 Cppathl = c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' a t h l e t i c expectations *p_< .05 **p_ <. 001 .  65  As  can  be  considerable perceptions  of p a r e n t s '  measurement  d i d not of  vary  these  perceptions  (2)  the of  competence.  floating of  the  explained domain  of  the  considerably across  (1)  the  teachers'  of p a r e n t s '  scales concurrently.  stepwise  and  use  of  To  children's perceived most  across  perceptions  of  the  four  others'  the  the  second  effects  a second  a hierarchical  of  series  were p e r f o r m e d  on  this of each  problematic  of o t h e r s '  expectations" and  and  expectations. as a  second  model t h a t c o u l d  to c l a r i f y  was  a repeated  r e g r e s s i o n s were p e r f o r m e d .  t h i s a n a l y s i s was  a  be  s e l f - c o n c e p t domains, " c h i l d r e n ' s  second phase of a n a l y s e s stepwise  likely  analogous  c o n t r o l f o r measurement a r t i f a c t  s t e p towards d e t e r m i n i n g  self-  Consequently,  this,  a  scales assessing  expectations;  and  A  p r e s e n c e of  and  regression analyses  - children's perceptions  domains.  the  involved deconfounding to accomplish  variance  expectations  expectations  idiosyncratic  In o r d e r  specific  socializers'  f i n d i n g s suggested  of  by c h i l d r e n ' s  amount of e x p l a i n e d  dependent v a r i a b l e s d i s c a r d i n g the  variable  tested  was  i n e a c h domain a  scales assessing children's  others'  p h a s e of a n a l y s e s variable.  16,  T h i s measurement e r r o r was  consequence of measurement  to  teachers'  redundancy between:  children's perceptions  perceptions  and  Moreover, the  consideration  possibly  13  for children's perceptions  expectations  children's  in Tables  amount of v a r i a n c e  expectations. accounting  seen  the  removed set of  The  extent  from  the  floating  primary  to which  purpose  of  variability  66 in perceived variability  competence c o u l d i n parents'  expectations,  actual expectations,  sociometric  i n the absence  construct.  Results  o f an o f f e n d i n g  of the a n a l y s e s  or  academic  redundant  are presented  in  Tables  20. Predicting  regard  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d Academic  t o the academic  expectations  (R  (R  =  2  teachers'  s t a t u s and c h i l d r e n ' s  performance  17 t o  be a c c o u n t e d f o r by  increase  2  domain, t e a c h e r s '  increase  .03)  =  .31)  and  i n s e l f - p e r c e i v e d academic  =  Table  17 summarizes  Predicting social could  domain,  actual  academic  competence  r e s u l t s indicated that teachers  actual  2  increase  =  .17), f a t h e r s '  expectations  (R  2  increase  =  .07)  2  increase  Predicting behavioral mothers'  displays  Finally,  =  (see T a b l e  performance  expectations  (R  2  the r e s u l t s of t h i s  increase  =  variance  social sociometric  Conduct.  In t h e  was  explained  (R  increase  2  .08).  =  Table  .09)  Competence.  be a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y  actual expectations  the  19  domain, r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e d  could  by  analysis.  Self-Perceived Athletic  i n the a t h l e t i c  For the  18).  17 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e  24 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e teachers'  .05)  actual behavioral  Predicting  increase  2  social  and c h i l d r e n ' s  Self-Perceived Behavioral  domain,  and a c a d e m i c  (R  29 % o f t h e  (R  (R  amount o f  t h e s e r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s .  expectations  status  performance  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l Competence.  be a c c o u n t e d f o r by  With  academic  accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t  variance .33).  Competence.  for their  students  by (R  2  that  67  increase for  their  these  .15) and m o t h e r s ' children  (R  2  actual athletic  increase  = .08).  expectations  Table  20  summarizes  results. The  the  =  r e s u l t s of t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f a n a l y s e s  development  across  o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l model  the academic,  respectively.  social,  behavioral,  that and  prompted  could  be  athletic  '  tested  Table  17  Floating  Stepwise  Self-Perceived Variable Step 1 1 Texacad Step 2 2 Acadperf  R2  Regression Analysis for  Academic  Competence.  R^change  .31  . .31  .34  .03  F  to enter  38. 11** 4.16*  Note 1 Texacad = t e a c h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 2 Acadperf = academic performance *p_< .05 **p_ < . 001 .  Table  18  Floating  Stepwise Regression  Self-Perceived Variable Step 1 1 Texsoc Step 2 2 Fexsoc Step 3 3 Sms  Social  Analysis for  Competence  R2  R^change  F  .1 7  .17  18.04**  .24  .07  7.77*  .29  .05  5.58*  to enter  Note 1 Texsoc = t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 2 Fexsoc = f a t h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 3 Sms = s o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s *p_< .05 **p_ < . 00 1 .  70  Table  19  Floating  Stepwise  Self-Perceived Variable  Regression  Behavioral  R2  Step 1 1 Mexbehav .09 Step 2 2 A c a d p e r f .17 Note Mexbehav = m o t h e r s ' Acadperf = academic *p_< .05 **p_< .001.  A n a l y s i s of  Competence  R^change  F to  enter  .09  9 .05**  .08  7 .69*  behavioral expectations performance  Table  20  F l o a t i n g Stepwise  Regression  A n a l y s i s of  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d A t h l e t i c Competence Var i a b l e Step 1 1 Texathl Step 2 2 Mexathl  R  2  R^change  .15  .1 5  .23  .08  F to enter 15.14** 9.42  *  Note 1 Texathl = teachers' a t h l e t i c expectat ions 2 M e x a t h l = mothers' a t h l e t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s *p_< .05 **p_ < . 00 1 .  72  Phase 4; Part A H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression The  Analyses;  Model T e s t i n g  f i n a l phase of the analyses  development and  involved  assessment of a p e r c e i v e d competence model  a c r o s s academic, s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l and domains.  Two  model: (1)  the  athletic  competence  c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d to the development of  an e m p i r i c a l and  e x i s t between the  t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p must  independent v a r i a b l e s and (2)  concept c o n s t r u c t ;  the  model are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  this  a general  self-  independent v a r i a b l e s i n the  as v i a b l e c o n s t r u c t s that bear a  r e l a t i o n s h i p to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence based on previous  research and  preliminary  Each independent v a r i a b l e was r e g r e s s i o n equation category  scheme.  defined;  (1)  sociometric (parents and  f o r c e d i n t o the  to a p r e v i o u s l y developed  Three c a t e g o r i e s of v a r i a b l e s were  performance v a r i a b l e s (academic performance s t a t u s ) ; (2) teachers'  and/or students and  according  analyses.  s o c i a l i z i n g agents'  expectations  across academic, s o c i a l , b e h a v i o r a l conduct,  (children's perceptions  expectations). to f l o a t  expectations  for their children  a t h l e t i c competence domains); and  variables  and  Within  (3)  child cognitive  of parents'  each category  i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n equation  and  teachers'  v a r i a b l e s were according  allowed  to  the  performance v a r i a b l e s ( s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s  and  s t r e n g t h of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The  academic competence) were forced i n t o the equation l i g h t of the evidence suggesting  first  that performance f a c t o r s  in  73  are  related  Parents'  t o c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  and  teachers'  actual expectations  s e c o n d , a h e a d of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  competence.  were  of  entered  others  expectations,  t o c o n t r o l f o r measurement a r t i f a c t  examine t h e i r  explanatory  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by from t h e  floating  indicated  that  expectations perceptions  Tables  21  of  the  largely  Each t a b l e r e f l e c t s  to the F  For  socializers'  to enter  also  socializers'  i f children's  i s given  value  the  priority  summarized  R  expectations The  and  2  the  w i t h i n and  As  can  the  of  these  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d Academic  Academic p e r f o r m a n c e , expectations  and  expectations  accounted  teachers'  status, of  a n a l y s i s are  Competence.  expectations,  children's perceptions for a s i g n i f i c a n t  of  parents'  others'  share  i n c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  be  explanatory  below.  Predicting  , in  four  children's perceptions  results  a  seven  among t h e  sociometric  in  increase  i s presented.  competence domains r e g a r d i n g  expectations.  summarized  results  a r e g r e s s i o n of  each s t e p ,  power of a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e ,  variance  absorbed  expectations  s e e n , d i f f e r e n c e s emerged b o t h  others'  f o r by  subsequent a n a l y s i s are  variables.  self-perceived  the The  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence domain on  independent addition  variance accounted  to  order.  t o 24.  different  above  regression analyses  socializers'  in h i e r a r c h i c a l Results  stepwise  the  and  performance v a r i a b l e s .  i s otherwise of  power o v e r  and  in  the  academic  74  competence  (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .70, p < .05): a) academic  performance accounted f o r 26 % of the e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e  (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .26); b) c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s d i d not account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n c r e a s e i n e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e ; c)  t e a c h e r s ' a c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s accounted f o r an R of  2  .07; (d) mothers' a c t u a l academic e x p e c t a t i o n s  increase for their  c h i l d r e n accounted f o r 2 % of the e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e  (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .02); (e) f a t h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s d i d not account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t  R  2  increase; f) children's  p e r c e p t i o n s of teachers' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s accounted f o r .35 of the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d  (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .35); g)  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of parents' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s d i d not account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t variance  p r o p o r t i o n of e x p l a i n e d  (see Table 21).  P r e d i c t i n g S e l f - P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l Competence. o u t l i n e s the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s .  Table  22  In the s o c i a l  domain, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that 56 % of the v a r i a n c e c o u l d be accounted f o r by f i v e of the seven p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s : a) as expected, c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s accounted f o r 16 % of the v a r i a n c e  (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .16) i n p r e d i c t i n g  c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l competence; b) academic performance d i d not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l competence; c) f a t h e r s ' s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s accounted f o r 7 % of the v a r i a n c e to the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l (R  2  i n c r e a s e = .07); d) t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l  competence  expectations  accounted f o r only 4 % of the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d  (R  2  75  increase  =.04); c o n t r a r y  expectations  to expectations,  d i d not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  self-perceived  social  to  children's self-perceived social  (R  2  Predicting Competence. gender  increase =  contributed  t h e MANOVA  teachers'  regression equation  and  order:  expectations  gender,  first  variance  performance  The  explained  results was  gender  significant increase =  proportion .05)  9 % of the v a r i a n c e children's significant fathers'  sociometric  entered  into The  i n the  (R  2  others'  40 % of t h e four of the  seven  for a small  but  variance  performance  s t a t u s d i d not a c c o u n t  .09);  2  for only b)  for a  explained;  d i d not account  of e x p l a i n e d  (R  accounted  increase =  p r o p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e  proportion  of  that  of t h e e x p l a i n e d  behavioral expectations  significant  was  and  the equation  sex a c c o u n t e d  explained  behavioral  variables, socializers'  revealed  ; b) a c a d e m i c  were  as a c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e .  a c c o u n t e d f o r by  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a)  social  expectations,  of p a r e n t s '  and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  expectations.  increase  2  (Conduct)  mothers'  r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s were f o r c e d i n t o following  of p a r e n t s '  behavioral  children's perceptions  expectations  (R  i n d i c a t e d that there  behavioral expectations,  expectations,  significantly  competence  Self-Perceived Behavioral  Since  to c h i l d r e n ' s  .05).  d i f f e r e n c e s in teachers'  fathers'  the  expectations  as d i d c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  expectations  social  e) c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  teachers'  .24)  social  competence;  of  =  mothers'  v a r i a n c e ; d)  c) for a mothers'  76 expectations teachers'  accounted  R  i n c r e a s e of  2  behavioral expectations  significant  p o r t i o n of  perceptions  of p a r e n t s '  the  f o r an  variance  children's  accounted  perceptions  expectations  accounted  the  d i d not  variance;  of  (R  their  f o r an  account  accounted  increase =  2  R  for a  for  .19);  teachers'  19 % of  f)  behavioral  i n c r e a s e of  2  e)  f) children's  expectations for  8 %;  3 %  (see  Table  23). Predicting athletic a)  domain,  Self-Perceived Athletic 59  % of  the v a r i a n c e  children's sociometric  explained  variance  (R  2  was  teachers'  increase =  p r o p o r t i o n of  and  22  % of  R  increase =  2  not  the  account  children's  the  .05);  .14);  d)  of  for a significant  .29);  e)  and  expectations variance  accounted  Phase F o u r : P a r t  s o u n d n e s s of obtain  the  increase  for a 4 %  "best  by:  the  be  together,  accounted  the  did  variance;  expectations  (R  2  for  [mothers]  expectations  athletic 2  increase =  of p a r e n t s '  increase  for  for a  i n c r e a s e =.07:  in R  the  i n the  athletic explained  24).  B  to explore the  would  taken  p r o p o r t i o n of  children's perceptions  (see T a b l e  In o r d e r  2  teachers'  accounted  as  account  fathers' athletic  for a significant perceptions  b)  expectations  ([teachers] R  In  f o r 5 % of  v a r i a n c e ; c)  mothers' a t h l e t i c  variance  accounted  status accounted  e x p e c t e d , a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e d i d not significant  Competence.  the  perceived linear  statistical  and  competence model  unbiased  estimates",  empirical further, and  to  to reduce  e)  77 the  over-estimation  multicollinearity previous  variables.  regression analyses  error variance  was  corrected a l l F values  statistical  Tables  21  t o 24,  the  recalculated  f o r the  and  subscales,  effects  will  be  With regard  academic,  t o the  children's  sociometric  increase  .013,  =  F  and  predicting the  2  reached  = 3.90,  increase  social  = 3.83,  p_ <  Only  .05)  p_ < the =  to  t o o r above the  (criterion  level  of the  entry, p <  .05  F  R  were  conduct  level  domain.  increase  2  F  .05).  For  values  brought  F  .02,  (R  2  =  increase  significance levels  and  competence.  i t was  reached  for (R  the  increase  default level  = 4.0)  three  the a d d i t i o n a l  of a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e  equal  at  revealed  significance level  expectations  to a value  significance  indicated in  behavioral  children's self-perceived social  r e c a l c u l a t e d F value  discussion.  As  a c a d e m i c domain, the status  (R  mothers'  increase  v a r i a b l e s that  f o r each achievement  domain, a r e c a l c u l a t i o n of  .05) F  social,  below  increase  academic performance  the  when F v a l u e s  respectively.  discussed  once  increased,  analyses  coefficients  2  offending  significance.  f o u r t h p h a s e of R  the  t o 24,  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d Competence.  significant  athletic  21  significance level  previously achieved  additional  .01,  in Tables  f o r by  variance to  seen  accounted  of a l l  were r e - c a l c u l a t e d  be  Predicting  p_ <  F values  study,  can  not  social  present  with  As  bringing had  i n the  hierarchical  t o reduce the  error  problem a s s o c i a t e d  both 3.90, = in If  increased  of  BMDP  statistical  considered  for  2  78  Table  21  Stepwise H i e r a r c h i c a l Step V a r i a b l e  R  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  .26 .27 .34 .36 .37 .72 .73  Acadperf Sms Texacad Mexacad Fexacad Cptacad Cppacad  2  R  Regression  2  .26 .01 .08 .02 .01 .35 .01  Change  A n a l y s i s : Academic  F to  Enter  31.11** 1 .57 8. 12** 2.48* 1 .40 102.25** 2.35  Domain  Recalculated  F  76.86** 3.90 18.64** 5.60** 3.14  Note 1 A c a d p e r f = Academic p e r f o r m a n c e 2 Sms = S o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s 3 Texacad = T e a c h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Mexacad = M o t h e r s ' a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Fexacad = F a t h e r s ' academic e x p e c t a t i o n 6 C p t a c a d = C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s 7 Cppacad = C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s *p_< .05 **p_ <. 001 .  79 Table  22  Stepwise H i e r a r c h i c a l  Step  Variable  R  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Sms Acadperf Fexsoc Texsoc Mexsoc Cptsoc Cppsoc  .16 .18 .25 .30 .31 .55 .60  2  R  Regression  2  .16 .02 .07 .02 .01 .24 .05  Change F  Analysis: to Enter  16.32** 1 .95 8.60** 4.53* 1 .30 41.64** 10.83**  Social  Domain  Recalculated F 34.70** 3.14 17.28** 9.00** 3.83  Note 1 Sms = S o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s 2 Acadperf = Academic Performance 3 Fexsoc = F a t h e r s ' S o c i a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Texsoc = Teachers' S o c i a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Mexsoc = M o t h e r s ' S o c i a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 6 Cptsoc = C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of Teachers' E x p e c t a t i o n s 7 Cppsoc = C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of P a r e n t s ' E x p e c t a t i o n s p_< .05 P_<.001.  80  Table  23  Hierarchical  Regression  Step V a r i a b l e  R^  R^  1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7  .05 .09 .09 .17 .18 .18 .37 .40  .05 .04 .00 .08 .01 .00 .19 .03  Sex Acadperf Sms Mexbehav Fexbehav Texbehav Cppbehav Cptbehav  Analysis:  Behavioral  Change F t o E n t e r 4.82* 7.67** .30 7.32** 1.58 .00 24.39** 3.83  Domain Recalculated  F  7.78** 12.01** .58 12.07** 4.18* .24  Note 1 A c a d p e r f = Academic p e r f o r m a n c e 2 Sms = S o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s 3 Texbehav = T e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l conduct e x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Mexbehav = M o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l c o n d u c t e x p e c t a t i o n s 5 Fexbehav = F a t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r a l conduct e x p e c t a t i o n 6 C p t b e h a v = C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of teachers' expectations 7 Cppbehav = C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s p_< .05 p_ <. 001 .  81 Table  24  Hierarchical  Regression  Step  Variable  R  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Sms Acadperf Mexathl Texathl Fexathl Cptathl Cppathl  .04 .05 .19 .26 .27 .56 .60  2  R  2  .04 .01 .14 .08 .00 .29 .04  Analysis: Athletic Change  F  to  Domain  Enter  4.10* .46 14.97** 7.92** 1 .00 53.40** 7.46*  Recalculated 9.16* 1 .04 28.88** 14.10** 1 .77  Note 1 Sms = S o c i o m e t r i c S t a t u s 2 Acadperf = Academic Performance 3 Mexathl = Mothers' A t h l e t i c E x p e c t a t i o n s 4 Texathl = Teachers' A t h l e t i c Expectations 5 Fexathl = Fathers' Athletic Expectations 6 C p t a t h l = C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of T e a c h e r s ' E x p e c t a t i o n s 7 C p p a t h l = C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of P a r e n t s ' E x p e c t a t i o n s p_ < .05 p_ < .001 .  F  82  CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION The active sense of living, which we all enjoy before reflection shatters our instinctive world for us, is self luminous and suggests no paradoxes. When the reflective intellect gets to work, however, it discovers incomprehensibilities in the flowing process. Distinguishing its elements and parts it gives them separate names and what it thus disjoins it cannot easily put together.  W i l l i a m James (1912). The Thing and I t s R e l a t i o n s , p., 314. The chapter the general discussed  i s organized  as f o l l o w s :  f i n d i n g s i s presented;  with respect  (2) the r e s u l t s are  to the d i f f e r e n t i a l  made by s o c i a l i z e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s children's perceived  (1) an overview of  contributions  to the p r e d i c t i o n of  competence across  achievement domains;  (2) the r o l e c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t others'  expectations  perceived  play  in influencing children's  competence i s o u t l i n e d ;  performance p l a y s  (3) the r o l e past  i n predicting children's  self-perceptions i s highlighted;  (4) the u s e f u l n e s s of  t e s t i n g a uniform model of p e r c e i v e d discussed; and  domain-specific  competence i s  (5) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g are h i g h l i g h t e d ;  finally  with respect  (6) l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s t o future  are d i s c u s s e d  research.  General Overview The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to i d e n t i f y important s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e f e r e n c e s  c h i l d r e n may u t i l i z e i n  c o n s t r u c t i n g aspects of t h e i r self-image,  and,  in  p a r t i c u l a r , t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s that have d i s c r e t e domain-  83  s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i v e power i n p r e d i c t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s of competence. concerns,  In an attempt t o address  the o v e r a l l design of the study  involved a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of two research s t r a t e g i e s .  The f i r s t  s t r a t e g y examined the research q u e s t i o n s  these  from an e x p l o r a t o r y  p e r s p e c t i v e and was p r i m a r i l y concerned with the assessment of:  ( 1 ) the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by t e a c h e r s ' and  parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s to the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d competence across achievement domains; and ( 2 ) the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by performance f a c t o r s and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ' and parents' expectations  i n p r e d i c t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d competence  a c r o s s achievement domains. the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s  The second s t r a t e g y examined  from a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  purpose of t h i s was to enable  The  a comparison of the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i n g p e r c e i v e d competence a c r o s s achievement domains. A uniform p e r c e i v e d competence model was developed to accomplish  this  task.  P r e d i c t i n g Domain S p e c i f i c S e l f - P e r c e i v e d Competence Within the parameters of the c o n s t r u c t s u t i l i z e d , the developmental stage of the c h i l d r e n sampled and the e x p l o r a t o r y nature  of the study,  the r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d a  cogent framework f o r answering the r e s e a r c h o u t l i n e d i n the present  study:  questions  84  (1)  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s  expectations  made by p a r e n t s '  Socializers'  others'  expectations  expectations  perceived  teachers'  to the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s  competence v a r i e d a s a f u n c t i o n (2)  and  o f t h e domain  predicted  and a c r o s s  o v e r and above t h e v a r i a n c e  assessed.  and c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  significantly  competence w i t h i n  perceived  accounted  of  children's  achievement  domains  f o r by p e r f o r m a n c e  factors. (3)  A coherent  pattern  was f o u n d  i n the r e l a t i o n  p e r f o r m a n c e v a r i a b l e s and c h i l d r e n ' s competence a c r o s s suggested  that  differentially  achievement  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  domains.  while performance  between  This  factors  pattern  contribute  t o the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s  competence  they a r e not, as t r a d i t i o n a l l y  predictors  of c h i l d r e n ' s  perceived  thought,  self-perceptions across  crucial  achievement  domains. (4)  The v a r i a b l e o r c o m b i n a t i o n  predicted function (5)  children's perceived of the s e l f - c o n c e p t  The amount o f v a r i a n c e  model v a r i e d a s f u n c t i o n (6)  The s o c i a l  evaluations context (7) 1985)  references  domain  accounted  assessed. f o r by t h e r e g r e s s i o n  o f t h e domain  assessed.  c h i l d r e n u s e when making within  self-  a domain and  framework.  support  perceived  best  competence v a r i e d a s a  c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  specific  Indirect  of v a r i a b l e s that  was p r o v i d e d  f o r Harter's  (1981, 1982,  competence model w h i c h has d e m o n s t r a t e d a  85  link  between  abilities, Parents  socializers'  two  and  T e a c h e r s as  to the  differential  more v a r i a n c e  S e l f - P e r c e i v e d Academic  First,  teachers'  regard  the  expectations  contributed competence  fathers' expectations.  expectations  a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e and  domain,  socializers'  significantly  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence,  children's  academic  t o c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  teachers'  expectations  competence.  Competence.  f o r the  f i n d i n g s emerged w i t h  t o m o t h e r s ' and  children's  perceived  Socializers  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  expectations.  while  Expectancy  research questions  interesting  compared  regarding children's  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e and  Predicting Turning  beliefs  Second,  predicted  the combination  children's perceptions  contributed significantly  of  others'  more v a r i a n c e  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a c a d e m i c competence t h a n  of  to  teachers'  expectations. T e a c h e r s as of v a r i a n c e moderate,  salient  accounted  the  assumption  teachers'  findings provide  partial  T h i s argument  e m p i r i c a l and  self-concept  support  teachers'  Kaczala,  expectations children's  and  Meece  were r e l a t e d  confidence  are  for  amount  (1982) f o u n d  was the  when t h e  For  as  results  concerning  example,  that  to c h i l d r e n ' s past  only  academic  formulations  examined.  in their  the  expectations  their  i s strengthened  theoretical  development  While  expectations  when making s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s o f  recent  Parsons,  f o r by  that c h i l d r e n perceive  competence. of  Expectancy S o c i a l i z e r s .  teachers' performance  math a b i l i t i e s ;  however,  and the  86 expectancy  effects  Parsons,  Kaczala,  findings  "probably  expectations the  effects  (Parsons  and  with of  t h e m s e l v e s were m i n i m a l . Meece  reflect  e t a l . 1982,  the  the  p.,333).  "teacher  (Crano & M e l l o n ,  1978;  that  teachers'  past  performance.  as  veridical  present  reflective  of  performance  since the  competence t h a n  on  the  than  student a t t i t u d e s "  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn  to a developmental observer"  by  phenomenon  hypothesis  P a r s o n s e t a l . 1982)  - the  notion  commensurate u n e q u i v o c a l l y  hypothesis  i f teachers'  child's  their  performance rather  The  veridical  basis,  teachers'  However, t h e p l a u s i b i l i t y  should  expectations  as  expectations  observer"  study  past  this  that  c o n g r u e n c e of  expectations  P a r s o n s e t a l . (1982) p o i n t known as  (1982) c o n c l u d e d  a students'  teachers'  On  has  of  of  in  the  were m e r e l y  academic performance,  combination  "teacher  been d i s p e l l e d  expectations  more s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  with  academic  predict perceived  teachers'  and  children's perceptions  the  proliferation  of  actual  teachers'  expectations. Despite "teacher Mellon,  as  veridical  1978;  consideration expectations  Connell of  of  observer  studies supporting  hypothesis"  & Ilardi,  1987;  1983), a  teachers'  First,  teachers  exercise a  c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e of a u t h o r i t y o v e r  students  and  evaluative  role  (Rosenholtz required,  seems w a r r a n t e d .  (see Crano &  Eccles,  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  the  in children's i n t e l l e c t u a l  & Simpson,  1984).  t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s  Consequently of  play  development c h i l d r e n are  s c h o o l i n g , to  place  an  87  emphasis on t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s when making e v a l u a t i o n s of academic competence.  self-  Second, i n an attempt  to a v o i d i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and maximize c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g e f f i c i e n c y , c h i l d r e n may formulate  s e l f - v i e w s that serve t o  l e g i t i m i z e the e x p e c t a t i o n s of those p e r c e i v e d as capable accurately. supports  of a s s e s s i n g t h e i r  others  abilities  Previous s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h  t h i s view.  suggested  significant  indirectly  For example, Apple and King  (1978) have  that young c h i l d r e n o f t e n a t t r i b u t e f u l l a u t h o r i t y  to t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s when making assessments  The l a r g e body of evidence  r e g a r d i n g the s o c i a l i z i n g  these c o n c l u s i o n s  now accumulated  impact of t e a c h e r s '  and d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment  self-  expectations  on c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - v i e w s  supports  (see Braun, 1976; Brophy, 1977; Brophy &  Good, 1974; Cooper, 1979; Parsons et a l . 1982; Weinstein et al.  1982). Parents' E x p e c t a t i o n s .  That teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s had  more p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y than parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s does c o n t r a d i c t other e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s .  For example, E c c l e s  (1983) and Stevenson and Newman (1986) found  stronger  r e l a t i o n s between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s of math a b i l i t y when compared with the same teacher-expectancy/student-self-perception  relationship.  The q u e s t i o n that remains i s "how does one account f o r such empirical  i n c o n s i s t e n c y across s t u d i e s ? "  One e x p l a n a t i o n  i s that r e s e a r c h on the "expectancy  e f f e c t " has not been c o n f i n e d t o any one t h e o r e t i c a l  88 movement and  numerous measurement  socializers'  expectations  have been  Consequently, concurrent c o n v e r g e n t measures across  socializing  study,  f o r example,  in assessing agents.  In  subjects  their  i n an  good t h e i r s t u d y , an  student  adapted v e r s i o n  used to a s s e s s  of  socializers'  developmentalists  measurement  t o o l s i n the  incongruent  results  methodological associated Leahy and  can  Shirk  (p.  the  well  to  the  325).  out  In  "how  Self-Perception  Profile  placed  definitions  and/or that  within  of  the  was  I n d e e d , when  the  and  utilizing  construct, context  Analogous problems  measurement  and present  of  a  thought]  the  assessment  (1985) have  fill  [they  expectations.  inconsistency.  with  "how  in developing  be  use  P a r s o n s e t a l . (1982)  p r o p o s e numerous c o n s t r u c t  then p r o c e e d autonomously  to  a d v a n c e d math c o u r s e "  i s a t math"  assess  constructs  were r e q u e s t e d  assessing  would do  expectancy  the  to  developed.  s t u d i e s have f a i l e d  six-item questionnaire student  t o o l s designed  of  are  self-concept.  As  stated,  a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a need f o r an e c l e c t i c r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s d i v e r s i t y , t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e d i v e r s e t r e a t m e n t s of t h e [ s e l f ] i s r a t h e r questionable.(p. 123) A s e c o n d and  related conclusion  reviewed, divergent assessed.  For  assessment  of  example,  an  self-concept  i n the  Eccles  children's self-concept  paramount c o n c e r n . assessed  academic  i s that  In c o n t r a s t ,  the  i n the  constructs  (1983) s t u d y ,  (Harter,  1982).  were the  o f math a b i l i t y present  was  research  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e measure of c h i l d r e n ' s  a c a d e m i c competence  studies  In c o m p a r i n g  perceived the  data  of  89  across  s t u d i e s , two  of  academic  to  socializers  possible conclusions  s e l f - c o n c e p t may  playing a central  a c a d e m i c competence b e i n g predictive and  self-concept Third,  the  academic a b i l i t y  samples  perceptions  school years  were s i g n i f i c a n t In t h e  5 through  during  t o the  early  social  others'  academic  present  s t u d i e s . For  present  study;  P a r s o n s e t a l . (1982) 9 were a s s e s s e d ;  teacher  study,  parents'  in influencing s e l f In c o m p a r i n g  these  expectations  may  be  are  results, i t more  e a r l y elementary  more s a l i e n t  for  i n the  social  Competence. domain,  predicted children's  competence o v e r  and  expectations.  and  the  self-  above t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s  s t a t u s were f a t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  expectations,  was  adolescence.  significantly  sociometric  study  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  i n the  research questions  perceived  the  expectations  Children's Self-Perceived Social  that  teachers'  i n the  a c a d e m i c domain d u r i n g  whereas p a r e n t s  variables  made by  s t r e n g t h of  in predicting perceived  of math a b i l i t y .  i n the  of  .  1  were more s a l i e n t  Predicting Turning  the  f u n c t i o n of  graders'  seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t t e a c h e r s ' influential  a  range  were a s s e s s e d  in grades  children  (2)  facets  specific  i n sub-domain  in comparative  fifth  academic competence.  expectations  as  s u b j e c t s ' age  f o u r t h and  expectations  vary  c o n s t r u c t employed  incongruous with  children  role  assessed;  (1)  expectations  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l i z e r s '  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s may  example,  reflect  emerge:  children's perceptions  of  90  Parents  Expectations.  With regard to the domain-  s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i v e power of parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s were more s i g n i f i c a n t  expectations, fathers'  in predicting children's  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l competence than mothers' e x p e c t a t i o n s . Given  the lack of emphasis p l a c e d on the  socializing  r o l e of males i n s o c i e t y , the r o l e that f a t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a y in i n f l u e n c i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l competence i s of p a r t i c u l a r  interest.  Males hold  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s o c i a l s t a t u s i n s o c i e t y than Consequently, c h i l d r e n may  females.  p e r c e i v e t h e i r s o c i a l competence  as convergent with the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e i r f a t h e r s h o l d f o r them ( G i l l i g a n & Wiggins, 1987).  This conclusion  i s based on the assumption that self-judgements i n t e r a c t i v e with s i t u a t i o n s and  stem from the  are infiltration  of expectancy i n f o r m a t i o n from s i g n i f i c a n t others p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l power (Rosenholtz  in a  & Simpson, 1984).  This  should be p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e v a l e n t i n the s o c i a l domain where expectations  f o r s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e behavior  the predominant aspects of the p a r t i c u l a r which c h i l d r e n e x t r a c t t h e i r Teachers'  Expectations.  are based on  s u b c u l t u r e from  experience. S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may  for the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  account  teachers'  expectations  in p r e d i c t i n g children's self-perceived s o c i a l  competence.  F i r s t , because important  such as peer r e l a t i o n s and emerge l a t e r  in childhood  view teachers as important  developmental f a c t o r s  s o c i a l comparison  processes  ( S t i p e k , 1984), young c h i l d r e n may expectancy s o c i a l i z e r s  across  91 contexts.  For  suggested  that  years for  example, P i n t r i c h teacher  i s a very  teacher  source  a r a n g e of  feedback during  a consortium  the  positive  statements  regarding  variety  t a s k s , not  just  the  present  study  of e x p e c t a n c y  elementary  of u n e q u i v o c a l l y  and  c h i l d r e n ' s success  academic  teachers'  tasks.  The the  c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s in areas  context  v a r i a b l e s such as  children's  Predicting Conduct.  perceived  to the  conduct  expectations  significantly  social  data  contribute  necessary school  and  in  the  i n d i c a t e that  and  above  mothers'  selfthe  a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e . In c o n t r a s t ,  teachers'  expectations  d i d not  significantly  to c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d behavioral  competence. correlation  than  competence.  predicted children's  b e h a v i o r a l competence o v e r  and  is  expectations  research questions  domain, t h e  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by fathers'  other  Children's Self-Perceived Behavioral  Turning  behavioral  however,  may  of a s s o c i a t i o n s between  teachers'  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  on  variance  influence  u n r a v e l l i n g the c o m p l e x i t y  embodies  f i n d i n g s of  expectations  More r e s e a r c h ,  then,  negative  for i s minimal,  in  information  school years  i n d i c a t e that, although  a c a d e m i c domain.  school  Arguably  accounted  the  (1985) have  elementary  situations.  expectancy of  Blumenfeld  feedback d u r i n g  important  c h i l d r e n across  and  N o t e w o r t h y , however, analyses  the  relations  and  children's self  suggested  i n s p e c t i o n of  the  only minimal d i f f e r e n c e s i n  between m o t h e r s ' and perceived  i s that  fathers'  behavioral  expectations  conduct.  92 Nevertheless, the  elementary  important  f i n d i n g s suggest  school years  that at least i n  that parents'  e x p e c t a t i o n s make  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the development  self-perceptions  of b e h a v i o r a l conduct.  have n o t a d e q u a t e l y possibilities parents'  these  explored  c a n be p r o p o s e d  expectations  behavioral  this  of c h i l d r e n ' s  Although  relation,  regarding  a number o f  t h e ways i n w h i c h  influence children's self-perceived  competence.  First,  since parents  are t y p i c a l l y  the primary  g i v e r s and most o f t e n d e f i n e t h e b o u n d a r i e s behavior  for their  children  may p e r c e i v e p a r e n t s '  children  across  Second, p r e v i o u s  behavioral  success  parents, adopt  in this  thereby  i n c r e a s i n g the pressure  expectations.  parents'  e x p e c t a t i o n s , conveyed  a child  that  expectations  for children to  Finally,  discrepant  their  through  r e w a r d s and  regularly  i n high  regard.  rewarded  That  conduct  f u r t h e r supports  these  a low  self-  regularly  teachers'  e x p e c t a t i o n s d i d not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y behavioral  belief  F o r example,  may m a i n t a i n  competence whereas a s a c h i l d  hold themselves  into a  b e h a v i o r a l competence.  i s punished  from  i t i s also possible that  function to indoctrinate children  regarding  perceived may  that  domain a r e s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e d by  parental  system  important  competence.  s e l f - v i e w s t h a t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  punishments,  contexts,  e x p e c t a t i o n s as  r e s e a r c h has s u g g e s t e d  care  of a c c e p t a b l e  when making s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r a l  for  studies  to perceived  conclusions.  93  Predicting Competence. athletic  Children's Self-Perceived Athletic  Turning  t o the  domain, m o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  expectations  and  expectations  were t h e most  children's  perceived  Parents'  athletic  interpretation do  of  these  school years parents  play  of a t h l e t i c  children  evidence  of  to this  their  the  of a t h l e t i c  Teachers'  the However, roles  Previous  i n and  research  time engaging  1989). conveying  in  elementary  Indeed, i f expectations  to  competence c h i l d r e n may  be  parents'  expectations.  (1985) has  In  provided from a  strongly influences children's  self-  competence.  Expectations.  to teachers  study,  children  varying  t h a t e v a l u a t i v e feedback  perceptions  how  children during  c o n c l u s i o n , Horn  other  the  in influencing children's  athletic  internalize  significant  present  on  competence.  with  above  a  abilities,  spend a l o t of  time engaging  suggesting  also apply  regarding  ( W a t k i n s & Montgomery,  regarding  more l i k e l y support  activities  spend  p r e d i c t o r s of  a b s e n c e of  athletic  indicated that parents related  teachers'  f i n d i n g s i s incomplete.  expectations  self-perceptions  sport  In t h e  cast a preliminary light  socializers'  has  their  the  status.  derived explanation  knowledge of  of  competence o v e r and  sociometric  Expectations.  theoretically  they  significant  for  teachers'  children's perceptions  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  acquire  research questions  i n the  teachers'  Horn's  (1985) c o n c l u s i o n  athletic  expectations  context.  In  significantly  the  may  94 contributed to children's s e l f - p e r c e i v e d a t h l e t i c competence.  Of i n t e r e s t  i s that i n the present  teachers i n s t r u c t e d every subject of study, physical education.  sample  including  Thus, a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of time  spent with students combined with the conveyance of expectancy  i n f o r m a t i o n regarding students a t h l e t i c  may a l s o l e a d c h i l d r e n to i n t e r n a l i z e expectations.  That  abilities  teachers'  s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s (peer p o p u l a r i t y ) was  p r e d i c t i v e of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of a t h l e t i c  competence  suggests, however, that other s o c i a l i z i n g agents may be important  i n the a t h l e t i c domain such as peers and/or  coaches.  D e s p i t e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , the r e s u l t s c o r r o b o r a t e  the p o s s i b l e "teacher expectancy"  f i n d i n g s i n the academic  doma i n. In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s important some a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s . F i r s t , notwithstanding amount of v a r i a n c e accounted  to note  the moderate  f o r by s o c i a l i z e r s '  e x p e c t a t i o n s , the r e g r e s s i o n analyses suggested  that  mothers' and teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of competence a c r o s s achievement domains; f a t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s appear to c o n t r i b u t e small amounts of unique v a r i a n c e t o p e r c e i v e d competence over that which they share mothers' and teachers' e x p e c t a t i o n s .  with  One exception i s the  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by f a t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s i n p r e d i c t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l competence.  95 Second, t h e s e expectations  findings  i n d i c a t e that  differentially  perceptions  of  contribute  competence a c r o s s  amount of  variance  parents'  teachers'  expectations  moderate. children  One rely  and  social  more on  review of  suggesting  be  feedback  objective  contexts.  the  that  literature,  social  t h a n by  by  objective  competence;  the  and  Kohlberg  (1969) who  important  1989,  s u c h as  converse  adolescents.  p.  [until  received  to Kohlberg  internalizing  expectancy  g r a d e s and  to please  and  information)  verbal  for middle  adult they  age by  evaluation  is  r e a c h the  "concrete  then] they a t t r i b u t e (Stipek  "good boy" & Mac  a t t i t u d e s and  gain  reports  school  or  Iver,  acceptance  beliefs  &  1989,  full  Mac  this  "good  ( 1 9 6 9 ) , young c h i l d r e n a r e  the  in  judgements  (1969) r e f e r s t o  (Stipek  (1989),  findings  527).  p r e m i s e of m o r a l a c t i o n  from  of  Iver  to a d u l t s "  the  age  socializers'  moral a u t h o r i t y Kohlberg  only  school  f i n d i n g i s supported  suggests that  d e v e l o p m e n t a l phenomenon as  According  Mac  is  were more r e a d i l y  i s true This  stage because and  and  (i.e.,  f o r young c h i l d r e n u n t i l  operational evaluative  feedback  feedback  children  effort  middle  (e.g.,  young c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y  influenced  with  that  summarized  t h r o u g h t o g r a d e two)  Iver,  both  domains  feedback  Stipek  (kindergarten  of  f o r by  across  self-  domains.  a n d / o r p e e r s when making s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s  competence a c r o s s their  accounted  f o r t h i s may  l e s s on  expectations) adults  reason  to c h i l d r e n ' s  achievement  However, t h e and  socializers'  girl"  p.  527).  preoccupied  of  adults  from them.  Given  in the  an  96 developmental (middle been  s t a g e of  school),  children  i n the  more o b j e c t i v e  present  feedback  sample  s o u r c e s may  have  emphasized. In a d d i t i o n  significant that  to the  others  and  s a l i e n c e c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e to objective  feedback,  c h i l d r e n a l s o have d i f f i c u l t y  meaning of (Stipek  & Mac  formulate social  two  o r more f e e d b a c k Iver,  1989).  self-perceptions  references  while  deconstructing  sources  using  only  capacity  i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as In  This  the  limit  present  in children's a b i l i t y  deconstruct  social  low  variance  the  p r e d i c t i o n of p e r c e i v e d Third,  accounted  objective  in considering  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s across clear  that  formulating  more d i f f i c u l t difficult behavioral domain.  f o r by  to  the  contrast,  within  interpret  and explain  For  specific  the in  pattern  of  for t h i s  difficulty  grades and/or  domain may  i t was  conduct  more  results in  be  the  academic  that  to concrete  teachers'  behavioral  may  of  i t becomes  i n one  example,  nature  domain when compared w i t h t h e  the  &  expectations  domains,  self-perceptions  a coherent  s u c h as  (Liben  developmental  context  a c a d e m i c domain c h i l d r e n have a c c e s s sources  cognitive  "centration"  f e e d b a c k may  achievement  to detect  reason  other  competence.  in others.  One  salient  in children's  socializers'  than  conduct  most  may  disregarding  study,  differences  and  the  simultaneously  the  simultaneously  information.  1987).  suggests  Consequently, c h i l d r e n  feedback  Bigler,  research  in  feedback  expectations. context  the  In  children  be  97  receive  non-standardized  and  less concrete  forms of  feedback  information. Fourth,  the  f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest  more s i g n i f i c a n t perceptions  role  across  in children's developing  domains t h a n  example, t h e m a j o r i t y expectations in  the  only  of  expectations  self-perceptions  p r e v i o u s l y thought.  s t u d i e s imply  that  However,  across academic,  perceptions  predicted children's  social  and  athletic  influence  children's self-perceptions unidimensionally.  [teachers] are  Simpson  implies  organized  teachers  are  academic a u t h o r i t i e s . be  perceived  across  by  [on  the  exist  not  only  Rather,  c h i l d r e n as  not As  classrooms  part "  of  the  (p.37).  s e e n by  teachers  teacher] Arguably,  for this  c h i l d r e n as  a r e more l i k e l y  legitimate reference  to  sources  contexts.  In p u r s u i n g argued  do  to c r e a t e m u l t i p l e performance  performances w i l l  that  teachers  (1984) s t a t e : " i f  dimensions, m u l t i p l e bases evaluating  that  study  This  and  suggests  For  domains.  Rosenholtz  finding  a  teachers'  i n the present  significantly  play  self-  influence children's a b i l i t y  a c a d e m i c domain.  teachers'  that teachers'  this  i s s u e one  step  f u r t h e r , i t can  that c h i l d r e n ' s self-knowledge  intimately ability  formulated  (Rosenholtz know t o be socially  linked  to  institutionalized  on  the  & Simpson, real  [about  constructed  b a s i s of  1984).  thus  teachers'  themselves] i s at  [on  the  becomes  conceptions  Therefore,  b a s i s of  be  of  expectations  "what least  teachers'  individuals in part  98 expectations]" support  (Rosenholtz  of t h i s  & Simpson,  1984, p . , 3 3 ) . I n  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , Rosenholtz  a n d Simpson  (1986) s t a t e t h a t , The c e n t r a l i t y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y t o A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s makes i t e x t r e m e l y l i k e l y t h a t s c h o o l s [ t h u s t e a c h e r s ] w i l l g e n e r a t e a b i l i t y c o n c e p t i o n s among students t h a t a r e isomorphic with those of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , ( p . 35) Such  i s o m o r p h i s m between t h e t e a c h e r s '  children's  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s i s seen by e d u c a t i o n a l  institutions instructive children's  will  less  as necessary that  internal  Clearly,  norms o f a c a d e m i c ,  present  social for  expectations  often place  expectations  social  data  may d e v e l o p their  adjustment  of c u l t u r a l l y  based  some c h i l d r e n from s u c c e e d i n g i n  t o mainstream  expectations  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t do n o t ability.  In t h i s  way,  expectancy their  future  and v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . address  c a n be i n f e r r e d ,  research  standardized  behavior.  children's self-esteem,  do n o t d i r e c t l y  relations  the imposition  F o r example, c h i l d r e n s o c i a l i z e d i n  f e e d b a c k may a t t e n u a t e psychosocial  between a  stability children  reflects  and m o r a l  may d i s c o u r a g e  reflect  regarding  on c h i l d r e n t o m a i n t a i n  the transmission  system.  behavior  further  this  Itis  and c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - v i e w ,  arrangements a n t i t h e t i c a l  accurately  the  disparity  c o n f l i c t and g r e a t e r  experience.  Unfortunately,  stability.  t h e same p o i n t c a n be made  others'  socializers  the  for social  s e l f - v i e w s ; the less  significant the  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  they  these  i s s u e s a n d no c a u s a l  highlight  on t h e s o c i a l i z i n g  While  t h e need f o r  i n f l u e n c e of t e a c h e r s '  99  expectations  on  children's developing self-perceptions  a c r o s s achievement Finally, previous  contexts.  i t should  be  stressed that, consistent with  r e s e a r c h , m o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t  predicting  children's self-perceptions.  r e l a t i o n s h i p h e l d up domains e x a m i n e d .  i n t h r e e of  Since  the  in relation  m o t h e r s ' and  fathers' expectations  rather in  i t cannot  than  c h i l d r e n ' s developing importance  which s o c i a l i z i n g children be  the primary Fathers  developmental  children's  variance and  will  socializing may  between  expectations  reiterates, determining  be  important  deemed most  agents  conceptions  of O t h e r s '  role  For  example,  f o r middle  of  the  at a  by  mothers  age  school later  socialization  family.  Expectations  finding  of  the  study  children's perceptions  others' expectations play  in  of  predicting  self-perceptions; "children's perceptions  e x p e c t a t i o n s " c o n t r i b u t e d the  largest  These r e s u l t s  of  p r o p o r t i o n of  t o c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence b o t h  w i t h i n achievement domains.  role  d i f f e r e n c e s in  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  t h e most s t r i k i n g primary  It  f i g u r e more p r o m i n e n t l y This  Perceptions  the  significant  others'  of age  traditional  Probably concerns  t h a t mothers'  self-perceptions.  agents'  stage.  r e s e a r c h and Children's  correlation  were not s u b s t a n t i v e l y  when making s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s .  children.  achievement  t o p e r c e i v e d competence  inferred  this  f a t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a y a more s a l i e n t  however, t h e  may  be  four  i n most d o m a i n s , t h e  coefficients  disparate,  Moreover,  in  across  replicate  100  previous 1984,  f i n d i n g s of E c c l e s  1987)  that  question  of  others'  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s of  that  perceptions  remains then  of  others  (Phillips,  s u g g e s t a p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  children's perceptions children's  (1983) and  others'  power t h a n e i t h e r  expectations  competence.  i s " why  The  i s i t that  expectations  socializers'  and basic children's  m a i n t a i n more p r e d i c t i v e  expectations  and  past  performance?" One  possibility  information organized,  c h i l d r e n may  from a s i g n i f i c a n t regulated  interaction  of  psychological distort  i s that  the  and  others'  other  information  originally  a child  i s that  parental  abuse.  The  negative  terms, might m i s i n t e r p r e t  maintaining accurately A and 1987;  and  their  underlying  a psychological reflect  their  Mead,  Bandura  (see 1934;  (1977),  Bandura,  is previously  and  the  a child's level reconstruct  conveyed.  viewing  as  the  significant  example, a r e s u l t of  self  in  others'  s i g n i f i c a n c e simply  p o s i t i o n that  does  of  or  For  been t r a u m a t i z e d  abused c h i l d ,  related conclusion  others  has  expectancy  However, t h r o u g h  a d j u s t m e n t , c h i l d r e n may  consider  expectations  that  consistent.  expectations  acquire  by  not  ability. has  been o u t l i n e d by  1977;  Weinstein  Damon & H a r t ,  Eccles  1982;  e t a l . 1986). E c c l e s  f o r example, a r g u e t h a t  information  from a s i g n i f i c a n t  accurately  r e f l e c t e d in children's perceptions  t h u s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s when: (1)  other  c h i l d r e n attend  Phillips, (1983)  feedback  expectancy  (1983)  and  or i s most  of to  others the  and  101 original Hart,  message r e l a y e d by s i g n i f i c a n t  (1982);  (2) when t h e s e  significantly salient  incongruent  significant (Bandura,  other  expectancy  with  i n f l u e n c e s (Mead,  the e x p e c t a t i o n s  of t h i s  study,  parents'  (Weinstein  teachers'  children  between a s e l f developmental  and p a r e n t s '  perceptions  to children.  c a p a c i t i e s may  homogeneity  Such l i m i t s  hypothesis.  of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g construct at this  in cognitive  impede c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e m p t s  between c o n s t r u c t s .  t o make  Furthermore,  of c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t s c a l l s  of u t i l i z i n g  distinct  s t r u c t u r e s when t h e y  While  expectations  i s , i t i s possible that  validity  such.  moderately  o f o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s and s e l f - v i e w s a r e  imperceptible  distinctions  In t h e  t e a c h e r s ' and  but only  actual  may n o t be c a p a b l e  That  p e r c e p t i o n s of  of t h e i r  and s e l f / s i g n i f i c a n t - o t h e r stage.  important  e t a l . 1982, p . 6 7 9 ) .  supporting a "cognitive d i s t o r t i o n "  Third,  as  f a c t o r s may p l a y a r o l e i n  children's perceptions  with  of o t h e r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the  e x p e c t a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  correlated further  evidence,  accurate  environment, and " i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l  present  messages a r e n o t  i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e c h i l d  1977). In l i g h t  i s perceived"  (Damon &  1934); and (3) when t h e  o t h e r s may n o t be e n t i r e l y  what  others  this possible  i n t o question the  measures d e f i n e d as c o n c e p t u a l l y have n o t y e t been v a l i d a t e d a s  r e s e a r c h on domains o f s o c i a l  judgement have s u p p o r t e d form g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s  conceptual  the contention  and c o g n i t i v e  t h a t young  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by domain  1982), t h e r e a r e v i r t u a l l y  no v a l i d a t i o n  children  (Harter,  studies assessing  102  the  construct v a l i d i t y  of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  of o t h e r s '  expectations. Another a l t e r n a t i v e accounted  use o f measurement  scales.  c h i l d r e n were a d m i n i s t e r e d  content  In t h e p r e s e n t  of teachers'  Moreover,  and  parents'  t h e s t r u c t u r e and  of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were v i r t u a l l y  Thus, w h i l e  analogous.  i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t c h i l d r e n do make  distinctions their  concurrently.  such as the  a l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  children's perceptions  expectations  the v a r i a n c e  of o t h e r s '  i s due t o measurement a r t i f a c t s  idiosyncratic  assessing  i s that  f o r by c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  expectations  study  explanation  between p e r c e p t i o n s  perceptions  methodological  of t h e i r  o f what o t h e r s  inadequacies  may  expect  own  ability  and  o f them, t h e  have r e n d e r e d  the c o n s t r u c t s  redundant. Of strong  interest relations  expectations  i s that  domain e n t i t l e d  The c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d samples.  "Perception  c h i l d ' s math a b i l i t y " .  and  of p a r e n t s '  Eccles  these  parents'  samples.  from  ability  .48 t o .55  (1983) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d  of p a r e n t s '  p e r c e p t i o n of  The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e perception  of a c h i l d ' s  c h i l d r e n ' s math s e l f - c o n c e p t r a n g e d  across  of  (1983),  a n d c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s o f math  3 different  perception  work by E c c l e s  between c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  were a l s o f o u n d . across  in previous  from  Similar methodological  were employed i n t h e p r e s e n t  study.  math  ability  .69 t o .74 procedures  a  103  Although maturation the  the  argument c o u l d  r e s u l t s of  Eccles  artifact  the  in explaining  findings  of  previous  empirical  a call  the  account  present  (1983) d i s r e g a r d s  hypotheses  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or  present  for Eccles  s t u d y , what  possibilities  the  data.  work c o n d u c t e d  to  d a t a cannot  of  deemed  An  assessment  of  indicate  Unfortunately,  to the  r e s u l t s do,  issue  of  however,  the the  speak question  t o o l of  be  this  nature  achievement  competence. sociometric perceived  should  As  r e s u l t s emerged  significantly  variance  conduct  and  accounted  significantly.  One  of  predicted  f o r by reason  the  academic  i n the  athletic  the  competence  amount of  Differences  to  f a c t o r s to of  expected,  a significant  competence.  behavioral  amount o f  performance  children's perceptions  status  respect  self-perceptions  domains.  Similar  social  emerged w i t h  made by  children's  p r e d i c t i o n of  reduced  and  because they h i g h l i g h t the  pattern  performance c o n t r i b u t e d  the  area  Factors  contributions  prediction  in  The  issue  unequivocal  relative  the  the  age-appropriate.  Performance  across  speak d i r e c t l y  interpretation.  w h e t h e r an  rival  measurement p r o c e d u r e s when  available  to t h i s  i s that  l i m i t a t i o n s of  in this  young c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i o n s .  indirectly  of  and  U n d o u b t e d l y however,  assessing  artifact  (1983) d a t a  i s perplexing  the  study p o i n t  f o r more r i g o r o u s  cognitive  variance  to  academic social  domain;  children's  self-  were most marked  domain where  performance f o r t h i s may  the  factors be  that  was  104 adequate  performance  variables is  in either  traditionally  academic  m e a s u r e s were n o t u s e d as of t h e s e domains.  sociometric  as a measure o f p e r f o r m a n c e variables,  status  measures  conclusion,  perceived  domains. specific  competence d o e s  F o r example,  i n the s o c i a l  as the s i g n i f i c a n t  viewed  factors  however, c h i l d r e n ' s  the  has  domain-  domain.  sociometric  Both w i t h i n  status  and  p e r c e p t i o n s of  others'  competence o v e r t h a t  factors  Implications This that  For T h e o r i e s of C h i l d  s t u d y has p r o p o s e d and  socializers'  expectations,  specific the  to the p r e d i c t i o n  self-perceptions  perspective  factors  While  1982,  assessed in relation  the development  contribute  of c h i l d r e n ' s  ( 1 9 8 3 ) , a g e n e r a l model o f p e r c e i v e d d e v e l o p e d and  assumption  c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of  of competence.  o f H a r t e r (1981,  contributed.  Development  supported the  t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r f o r m a n c e differentially  emerges  across  to perceived  performance  relative  prediction  e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d more v a r i a n c e which  two  achievement  i n the academic  predictor.  These as  to the  performance  domain  seen  domains.  suggest that  vary across  academic  e v a l u a t i v e power  Conversely,  domains,  domain.  i n o t h e r achievement  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by p e r f o r m a n c e of  is traditionally  i n the s o c i a l  these r e s u l t s  performance  measure i n t h e  however, a r e not t r a d i t i o n a l l y  performance In  Academic  seen as a p e r f o r m a n c e  domain and  predictor  domain-  Extrapolating 1985)  and  competence  to these  o f s u c h a model does  Eccles was  assumptions. not p r o v i d e  from  105 support  for causal  assessed,  the  suggestion  r e s u l t s provide  that  with contexts competence  children's  and  and  Findings  theoretical  f o r the the  First,  this  significant between  self  children  and  others"  "are  calls  relatively  p.98).  However,  subsequent  (Blum,  1987).  cognitive In  the  children's perceptions socializers'  the  actual  self-  four  the  salient to  symbolic  a l l self-knowledge  p.,315) and  external  present of  s o u r c e s of  that  1988,  study,  others'  expectations,  by  the  world"  &  (Liben  take  f o r g i n g or self  into [recreating]  [ c h i l d ] and  evidence  other  suggested  expectations, were more  link  implies  r e c i p i e n t s of  i t d o e s not  between  are  a  "presumes a d i r e c t  means of  link  of  development.  passive  Bigler,  a  of  into question  (Blum,  indirect  these  self-concept  elucidate  position  of  the  of  a c t u a l messages c o n v e y e d  reality  consideration  the  validity  self-concept  This  one's  t h e o r e t i c i a n attempting  prestructured 1987,  the  n a t u r e or  from t h e  others.  of  perceptions  p o s i t i o n suggesting  proceeds  interactive  predictive validity  However, t h e y  research  the  socializers'  domains of  developmental  interactionists' inevitably  the  the  for  factors.  i n d i c a t i v e of  o r i g i n s of  support  evaluations  expectations  support  development.  identify  in part,  p o s i t i o n on  variables  self-judgements are  factors across  in themselves  issues  preliminary  performance  that  socialization  concept  between t h e  to c h i l d r e n , c h i l d r e n ' s  expectations  that  that,  stems from t h e  communicate  not  associations  rather  important  that than  106 predictors implies  of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e i v e d  that  information  children utilize  personal  from t h e environment  structures while  simultaneously  perceptions.  not  from t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d  also  from t h e i n t e r n a l  Bigler, light  world  finding  schemes t o a s s i m i l a t e  into their  stimuli  own c o g n i t i v e  acquire  their  meaning  of t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , but  of the s u b j e c t "  1987, p . 9 8 ) . W i t t g e n s t e i n  on t h i s  This  reconstructing i t according  to t h e i r only  " Thus,  competence.  h a s shed  p r o b l e m . As h i g h l i g h t e d i n Blum  (Liben & theoretical (1987):  W i t t g e n s t e i n s e e s t h e commonalty between p e r s o n s s h a r i n g a form of l i f e as a c o n d i t i o n of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f knowledge o f o t h e r s , a n d i n d e e d a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o f any p r o c e s s e s o f i n f e r e n c e s made by one p e r s o n o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o a n o t h e r . A t t h e moment t h e n o t i o n o f t h e c h i l d , g e n e r a t i n g knowledge o f o t h e r s p u r e l y o u t o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e [ w i t h o u t i n v o l v i n g some form o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h a t knowledge] - t h e paradigm f o r e m p i r i c i s t e p i s t e m o l o g y i s , W i t t g e n s t e i n a r g u e s , an i n c o h e r e n t o n e . (Blum, p.315) In of  other  words, c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y  significant  others'  expectations  cognitive  process  that  grounding  in  Schoeneman  (1979) s t a t e :  theory.  has not  t o g r a s p t h e meaning  i s a highly  yet  E l a b o r a t i n g on  found this,  its  specialized conceptual  Shrauger  and  that the aspect of the l o o k i n g - g l a s s hypothesis that has been most f r e q u e n t l y e x a m i n e d , t h e e f f e c t o f d i r e c t f e e d b a c k form o t h e r p e o p l e , r e f l e c t s o n l y one o f t h e ways t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s h a s an impact on self-judgements. ( p . 569) Therefore, socializers but of  a t i s s u e f o r t h e t h e o r e t i c i a n i s n o t whether  a c t u a l l y communicate e x p e c t a t i o n s  t h e form o f t h o s e their  communications,  effectiveness.  This  to children  as w e l l as the nature  implies that  t h e a n a l y s e s of  107 significant  other-child interactions necessitates  development  of  more d e t a i l e d c o n c e p t i o n s of  expectancy/self-concept  relation  Expectancy/self-concept  r e l a t i o n s can  ways. are  One  i s to account  conveyed  children these  (i.e.,  and  influences  describe  the  an  Implementation  of  development  self-knowledge  of  accommodation  from s e l f - c o n c e p t between  the  a  others'  socializers'  expectations  should  on  the  and  interactions expectations  that  both  meaning.  the  top-down from t h e Thus, a  various departure  theoretical  expectations  children's  studies on  of  and  the  self-  leap.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  expectations  future  i s to  lacking explicit  purported  development,  for  self-concept  extent  children's  children's  and  impact  of  self-perceptions  c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s whereby c h i l d r e n  e r r o n e o u s or  expectations.  i s not  of  second  social  implies  a worthwhile e m p i r i c a l  of  focus  their  c h i l d r e n engage i n .  research  Second, g i v e n  these  stands apart  socializers'  v i e w s would be  of  functions  process that  cognitive operations  acquire  The  t r a n s l a t i o n of  understanding these  of  to  i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s demanding  and  perceptions  expectations  effectiveness  self-views.  C e r t a i n l y the  involves  two  p r a i s e , grades, etc)  representations  interpretation  links  ways  in  reciprocity in adult-child interactions  more a c c u r a t e l y . children  broadened  differential  children's  children's cognitive  by  be  various  punishment,  on  the  in c h i l d r e n .  f o r the  t o compare t h e  the  Indeed,  inaccurate  v i e w s of  others'  i f c h i l d r e n maintain  a erroneous  view  108 of  significant  then  the  others  over  establishment  the  of an  c o u r s e of  accurate  their  development,  self-view  appears  unlikely. Third, the  methods whereby a d u l t s  Although has  more o b s e r v a t i o n a l  research  provided  questionnaires researcher's  ability  meaning. Thus,  i n the  leads,  assessing  the  actual  life"  may  be  examining  the  role socializers'  Fourth, the in  the  examination ameliorating  interpretations independent perceived reverse of  cross may  of  of  i s true  the  data.  i t may  - children's  expectations.  useful  the  most u r g e n t  are  the implicit  not  settings play  for  in  methodological  frameworks i n  self-perceptions  For  would  example, w h i l e  a l s o be  predict the  the  children's  case  self-perceptions  Employing  in teasing  out  are  that are  the predictive  longitudinal studies two  research  p r o b l e m s of  this  a l t h o u g h numerous c r i t i c i s m s  basic task  methodological i s to develop  assist  with a l t e r n a t i v e  performance and/or c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  Finally, against  of  that  research  significantly  lagged panel analyses  be  cognition  translate their  problems a s s o c i a t e d  variables  social  expectations  diverse  children's  the  to c h i l d r e n .  self-views. of  competence,  academic  others'  use  examine  expectancies confine  more a p p r o p r i a t e  children's  of  o n g o i n g use  circumstances  contrived  predicting  area  to a c c u r a t e l y  "real  i s needed to  convey e x p e c t a t i o n s  conducted  relevant  research  and  strategies  that  nature.  have been  framework of  of  the  instruments that  leveled  study,  parallel  the  109 theoretically children before  and s t a t i s t i c a l l y  can d i s t i n g u i s h . These  progress  origins  In  development,  from low The  to presenting  several  practical  counselling  first  issue  i s that  1987,  p.,99) a r e e x c l u d e d .  important  of t h e i r  perceptions,  are relevant  when  restraints counsellors  relation  social  s t i m u l i t o the extent  assist  references  If children  unknowingly to their  (Liben  focus  & Bigler,  only  i n formulating  on one  self-  endorse a s e l f - v i e w  actual  young c h i l d r e n  others'  dimensions  self-comparison  ability.  in replacing  young c h i l d r e n  receive  in multiple  i n examining  selfskills  counsellors  expectancy  ways.  the v a r i o u s  that  the " r e l i a n c e  such as i n t e r e s t s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s , strategies. Additionally,  that  These  v i e w s " w i t h more a p p r o p r i a t e  encourage c h i l d r e n t o c a t e g o r i z e they  heed  that  on c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t i e s s u g g e s t  significant  information  need t o g i v e  i n c h i l d r e n - a c h i l d ' s tendency  immediate c o n t e x t  t h e y may  b e a r s no r e a l  should  issues  counsellors  t o one e n v i r o n m e n t a l  equally  or  self-concept  strategies for children suffering  other  reliance  of  f o r the  self-esteem.  to attend  on  implications  i n the area  to problems of " c e n t r a t i o n "  aspect  t h e n a t u r e and  self-perceptions.  of theory  considering  with  for Counsellors  addition  propagation  that  i s s u e s must be d e a l t  i s made i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of c h i l d r e n ' s  Implications  sound c o n s t r u c t s  ways  This  will  i n which  assist they  110 are  perceived  so  assessments of  that  their  unidimensional competence  Second, c o u n s e l l o r s self-views  diverge  divergence  represents  construct social  their  counsellor and  in better  class  i n the Third,  there  development counsellors  impede t h e i r  or  method t h a t children's  associated different across  issue  attempts  may  with social  s t a g e of  low  either bring  of  more  easily and  degree to  expectations, and  children's  counsellors  cognitive  in parents,  a b o u t an  a change  that  in  counsellors  If c h i l d r e n  when e v a l u a t i n g  and  teachers,  intervention  c h i l d r e n when a d d r e s s i n g  stages,  which  competence.  self-esteem.  "maximize s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  difficulties  be  i s avoided,  to detect  of  references  developmental  varying  the  assessment  examine t h e  f i n d i n g s suggest  developmental  child's  socializers'  self-perceptions the  assist  these expectations  Such n e g l e c t  the  self-perceptions.  should  of  Such  which c h i l d r e n  to both c u l t u r e  i s i n e f f e c t i v e i n promoting  Fourth, the  of  mechanisms o p e r a t i n g  children.  the  i s adept  If t h i s own  culture.  b a r r i e r s t o change w i l l  counsellor  self-perceptions.  children's  Understanding  understanding  i s c o n g r u e n c e between  distortion  ways on  self-perceptions will  children's perceptions  will  various  c l a s s and  n e e d s . M o r e o v e r , the  children's perceived i f the  aware t h a t  self-perceptions.  corresponding  detected  be  markedly a c r o s s  d i m e n s i o n s of  erroneous  i s avoided.  should  the  and  to  problems  utilize  their  then c o u n s e l l i n g  attend  competence  practices  p o s i t i v e motivation  for  that  Ill  children  i n one  age  children  i n another  g r o u p may age  not  group"  be  appropriate  ( S t i p e k & Mac  for  Iver,  1989,  p.  535). Finally, improving  i n keeping  the  social  with  an  ideological  s t a t u s of c h i l d r e n ,  should  pursue  social  meaning t o c h i l d r e n a c r o s s  of  this  child  the q u e s t i o n  i s to bring  may  feel  contexts.  with  That  students  counselling child's  on  to uncover  The  the  scope w i t h  addition, the  study  example,  and  been d e a l t w i t h  primary  in  because of  of  the  present  With the unit  the  their children adequately  in  the  a  framework  expectations  examine that imposed  larger society.  study  general  t o the  should  perceived  of a n a l y s i s , t h e  little  classification  explanation  be  examined  competence  study  is  of o t h e r  limited possible  s e l f - p e r c e i v e d competence.  precedent  in previous  of d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c  a p p r o a c h t h a t was not  the  particular  i n improving  often u n r e a l i s t i c  reference  i t was  purpose  implies a necessity to  of d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c  t o o k an  have  Study  some c a u t i o n .  predictors  for  the  conclusions  model a s  others  a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s i n the  of  The  need t o r e d r e s s  However, a s s i s t i n g  the  references  possible inequities  competence w i t h i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l  Limitations  in  not  arena.  c h i l d r e n by  with  significant  has  any  to  counsellor  contexts?".  to s o c i a l i z e r s  psychological status  perceived serves  relief  regard  the  "which s o c i a l  c o u n s e l l o r s may  i m b a l a n c e between and/or  into  of  commitment  largely  research  i n f l u e n c e s , the  exploratory.  p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h  a precise  For  In  112  perceived  competence model t h a t  statistical behavioral that  f i t across conduct  several r i v a l  methodological General  domains.  social,  Finally,  author  .empirical  of the present  has attempted  (1983) and H a r t e r  some s u p p o r t  significant light  f o r the suggestion  (2)  others' of these  that  investigation  process  in social  .  a n d s e c o n d , how  with a  processes  e x p e c t a t i o n s ; and  adeptness  cognition.  through a seemingly  socialization ameliorated  of o t h e r s '  first,  t h e need  of the s i g n i f i c a n t  of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  we w i l l u n d e r s t a n d ,  marginalized  perceptions  accent  in conjunction  f o r better methodological  research  i n p a r t , on  and c h i l d r e n ' s  f i n d i n g s , the r e s u l t s  children's perceptions  t h e need  self-  expectations.  interaction  understanding  conducting that  expectations  (1) a more e x t e n s i v e  other-child  previous  T e s t i n g a " p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e " model h a s  others'  shaping  of the  (1981, 1982,  significant  improved  noted  t o a d v a n c e an e x p l o r a t o r y  o f competence a r e b a s e d , a t l e a s t  for:  and  study.  competence t h a t e l a b o r a t e s on  work by E c c l e s  1985).  In  be  in light  perceptions  of  athletic  i t should  h y p o t h e s e s c a n be p o s e d  inadequacies  model o f p e r c e i v e d  provided  the academic,  Conclusions  The  1983,  r e t a i n e d an a d e q u a t e  when  I t i s only  then  why c h i l d r e n become incomprehensible  process of  s u c h m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n c a n be  FOOTNOTES 1  This  i s not t o suggest  between  socializers'  perceptions the  expectations  arguments p r o v i d e d  significance  of a s s e s s i n g  expectations  across  within  of  of  academic  o f competence  competence.  little  instrumentation  s u c h a s E n g l i s h s e l f - c o n c e p t and o r  expectations  expectations  fact,  socializers'  was  the preceding  and c h i l d r e n ' s considered  correlation self-  t o be m o d e r a t e t o  thus p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of a l i n k  teachers'  In  the  s e l f - c o n c e p t d o m a i n s . 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J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 431 .  71,  421-  124  APPENDIX A Questionnaire  Assessing  Parents'  and  Teachers'  Expectations  REVISED VERSION FJUIEUT'S EXPECTATXOHS FOR C h i l d ' s name Hater  (Mon  or  CHILD'S FUTURE BEHAVIOUR  Clnss/grnfio/schcol Dad)  t'JUiase i n d i c a t e what you f e o l w i l l bo your c h i l d ' s f u t u r e conipcten.ee (next year and the yenr a f t e r ) on each question, i n your o p i n i o n . F i r s t d e c i d e v h a t k i n d of c h i l d he o r ehe w i l l be l i k e , the one described on the l e f t o r r i g h t , and then i n d i c a t e whether t h i n i n j u s t s o r t o f true or r e a l l y t r u e f o r your c h i l d . Thus, f o r ccch i t e o , check one of f o u r tei.es. P.«ally True  •  -  •  5  •  Tliis c h i l d w i l l be able to do h i s / h e r school work.  OK  T h i s c h i l d w i l l not be c b l o t o do the school work AKnigned.  •  T h i s c h i l d will, f i n d i t hard to make f r i e n d s .  OR  For t h i s c h i l d i t w i l l be p r e t t y easy.  ,  1  •  • •  T i l l s c h i l d v i l l not be v e r y good when i t coaes to sports.  •  This c h i l d usually w i l l be well-behaved.  OK  Thin c h i l d w i l l o f t e n not bo well-bahaved.  •  This c h i l d o f t e n w i l l f o r g e t what she/he learns.  OR  •Ch.vs c h i l d -.-.•ill be able to :s;r.caber t h i n g s  •  T h i s c h i l d w i l l have c l o t of f r i e n d s . '  OR  T h i s c h i l d w i l l not have many f r i e n d s .  T h i s c h i l d w i l l be b e t t e r than others h i s / her age at s p o r t c .  OS  T h i s c h i l d w i l l not be a b l e t o p l a y as w e l l as o t h e r s .  Tliis c h i l d u s u a l l y w i l l act a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  OR  T h i s c h i l d w i l l be b e t t e r i f she/he acts differently.  T h i s c h i l d w i l l have trouble f i g u r i n g out the answers i n s c h o o l .  On  T h i s c h i l d w i l l almost always f i g u r e out the answers.  T h i s c h i l d w i l l be popular with others h i s / h e r age.  OR  T h i s c h i l d w i l l not very p o p u l a r .  T h i s c h i l d w i l l not do w e l l a t H3J outdoor garaos.  OU  T l i i s c h i l d w i l l bo good •*. a t new goaics r i g h t away. '  This c h i l d often w i l l get i n trouble bec.-.ustof things hc/roe <loor..  OR  This c h i l d usually w i l l not do t h i n g s t h a t got hM'./hor i n tiroublr-.  a .12.  •  OR  •  Really True  L_l  T h i s c h i l d w i l l do w e l l at a l l kinds of s p o r t s .  e.  s.  S o r t of True  S o r t of True  • •  CStKJ.lv .  •  r~i  •  a  n  •  be  n  1 •  • •  126  Questionnaire Assessing  APPENDIX B Children's Perceptions Expectations  of  Socializers'  127  REVISED  VERSION  WHAT tU TEACHER THINKS I WILL DE LIKE WEXT YEAR  CMW'B  Re.illy True  n  Clacs/grade/group  nej:ie  •  - a•  2  a  - •  3  • • • LJ  IV.  12.  ! i  Real! True  My teacher t h i n k s I w i l l be able t o do my school work.  OH  Ky teacher t h i n k s I won't be a b l e t o do the 6chool v o r k assigned.  •  •  My teacher t h i n k s I w i l l f i n d i t hard t o make f r i e n d s .  OR  Ky teacher t h i n k s I w i l l be a b l e t o make f r i e n d s pretty easily.  •  •  My teacher t h i n k s I w i l l do w e l l a t a l l kinds o f s p o r t s .  OH  My t e c c h e r t h i n k s I won't be very good when i t cones t o s p o r t s .  •  •  Ky teccher t h i n k s 1 u s u a l l y v i l l be w e l l behaved .  OP.  Ky teacher t h i n k s I o f t e n won't be w e l l behaved.  Ky teacher t h i n k s I w i l l o f t e n f o r g o t vliat I learn.  OR  My teacher t h i n k s I w i l l be a b l e t o reniember things e a s i l y .  My teacher thinks 1 v i i i have a l o t o f friends.  On  My t e c c h e r t h i n k s I won't have many f r i e n d s .  • a  •  •  •  •  •  My teacher t h i n k s I OR w i l l be b e t t e r than others ny age at. spoxrts.  Ky teacher t h i n k s I won't p l a y as w e l l as others.  Ky teacher t h i n k s I usually w i l l act properly.  OR  My t e a c h e r t h i n k s I w i l l be b e t t e r i f I a c t differently.  Ky teacher thinks I w i l l have t r o u b l e f i g u r i n g out the answers i n s c h o o l .  OP.  My teacher t h i n k s I a l n o s t always w i l l be a b l e t o f i g u r e out the answers.  •  a  •  Ky teacher t h i n k s I w i l l be popular with others ray age.  OR  My teacher t h i n k s I w i l l not be very popular.  •  •  •  My teacher t h i n k s I won't be a b l e t o do_ w e l l a t new outdoor games.  OR  My teacher t h i n k s I w i l l bn good a t new games r i g h t away.  •  •  My teacher t h i n k s I o f t e n w i l l get i n t r o u b l e because o f things I c a .  OH  My teacher t h i n k s u s u a l l y I won't do t h i n g s t h a t g e t me i n trouble,  •  •  •• •  9.  Sort of True  Sort of True  •  1 2 8  REVISED  VERSION  WHAT MY PARENTS THINKft I VIILL BE LIKE NEXT YEAR  Claos/grade/group  C h i l d ' s name  Really True  3  4  My parents think I w i l l be able to do ny school work.  OR  My parents think I won't be able t o do the •chool work assigned.  a  •  •  My parents think I w i l l f i n d i t hard to Bake friends.  OR  My paronts think I w i l l be able t o Bake f r i e n d s pretty easily.  •  D  a  •  My parents think I w i l l do well at a l l kinds of sports.  O.  Ky parents think I won't be very good when i t comes t o s p o r t s .  i '  •  •  My parents think I usually w i l l be w s l l behaved.  OR  fly parents think I o f t e n won't be w e l l behaved.  •  LZ1  •  My parents think I w i l l often forget what 1 learn.  OB  My parnnts think I w i l l be able t o remember things e a s i l y .  •  •  My parents thin!; I w i l l have a l o t of f r i e n d s .  OR  My parents think I i won't have many f r i e n d s . '  •  Hy parents think 1 w i l l be better than ethers my age at sports.  OR  Hy parents think I won't play as »;tll as others.  •  1=3  •  My parents think I usually w i l l act properly.  OP.  My parents think I w i l l be b e t t e r i f I act differently.  •  •  •  My parents think 1 w i l l have trouble f i g u r i n g out the answers i n school.  OR  My parents think I almost alweye w i l l be able t o f i g u r e out the answers.  •  •  •  Hy parents think I w i l l be popular with othert By age.  OH  My parents think 1 w i l l not be very popular.  •  •  r~i  My parent? thin) 1 won't be able t r do well at nev outOecr games.  OR  My parent? think I w i i l be- Good at ne* gajecs r i g h t avey.  •  L=i  My parents think unui.lly 1 won't do things that cet EC- i n trouble.  •  •  7.  8  9  Real J Tra-  •  -  6.  Sort o f True  Bort of True  My parertr thitir. I cftc.ii w i l l get ir; trovi>ie bc:su.-:- cC thinac 1 d o .  n  1 '  1 '  •  •  The  Self  APPENDIX C Perception P r o f i l e  for  Children  What I Am Like  Name  '  Age  Birthday  Group Month  Day  Boy or Girl (circle which) SAMPLE SENTENCE  (a)  Really True forme  Sort ol True (or me  |  j  1  I  I  ,  1  I  |  1  •  |  Sort ol True < or  •• •• ••  Some kids would rather play outdoors In their spare time  Other kids would rather BUT watch T.V.  Some kids leel that they are very good at their school work  Other kids worry about BUT whether they can do the school work assigned lo them.  Some kids find it hard lo make (riends  BUT  Other kids find it's pretty easy to make friends.  Other kids don't teel that they are very good when it comes lo sports.  Some kids do very well at all kinds of sports  BUT  Some kids are happy with the way they look  BUT  Some kids often do noi like the way they behave  Other kids usually like BUT the way they behave.  Some kids are ollen unhappy with themselves  ••  Other kids are pretty BUT pleased with themselves.  • •  Other kids aren't so sure BUT and wonder if they are as smart.  Some kids leel like they are iust as smart as as other kids their age  I  •  1  Some kids have alot ol o u i n e K  BUT  Other kids are not happy with the way they look.  Other kids don't have very many friends.  m  8  Really True , o r  m  e  i  1  i  1  I  1  I  '  i  1  i  1  I  I  I  I  •• •• •• ••  • • • • • •  131  Really True lor me  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  15.  16.  17.  18.  19.  20.  Sort ol True lor me  •• •• ••  Sort oj True lor mo Some kids wish they could be alol better at sports  BUT  Some kids are happy with their height and weight  BUT  Some kids usually do the right thing  •  I  I  I  I  •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••  BUT  Other kids leel they are good enough at sports.  Other kids wish their height or weight were dillerent. Other kids often don't do the right thing.  Other kids do like the way they are leading their life.  some kids mus don't oon I like nrvethe Some way they are leading their lite  BUT  Some kids are pretty slow in finishing their school work  BUT  Other kids can do their school work quickly.  Some kids would like to have alot more Iriends  BUT  Other kids have as many friends as they want.  Some kids think they could do well al jusl about any new sports activity they haven't tried belore Some kids wish their body was dillerent  Some kids usually act the way they know they are supposed to  BUT  BUT  BUT  Other kids are afraid they might not do well at sports they haven't ever tried.  Other kids like their body the way il is.  Other kids often don't act the way they are supposed to.  Some kids are happy with BUT themselves as a person  Other kids are often nor happy with themselves.  Some kids olten lorget what they learn  BUT  Other kids can " remember things easily.  BUT  Other kids usually do things by themselves.  Some kids are always doing things with alot ot kids  fleally . True lor mt  • •  •• •• • • • •  • • • •  •• •• •• •• ••  132 Itonlly True (or me  21.  22.  23.  24.  25.  26.  27.  28.  29.  30.  31.  32.  33.  34.  35.  36.  Sort ol True (or me  •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• • •  Sort ol True lor me Some kids (eel that they are better than others their age at sports  BUT  Other kids don't (eel they can play as well.  Some kids wish their physical appearance (how BUT they look) was dil/erenl  Other kids like their physical appearance the way il is.  Some kids usually get in trouble because ol things they do  Other kids usually don't do things that get them in trouble.  BUT  Some kids like the kind ol person they are  BUT  Some kids do very well al their classwork  BUT  Other kids don't do very well at their classwork.  BUT  Olher kids feel thai most people their age do like Ihem.  Some kids wish thai more people their age liked them  Other kids often wish they were someone else.  In games and sports some kids usually watch BUT instead of play  Other kids usually play rather than jusl watch.  Some kids wish something about their lace or hair looked dilterent  BUT  Olher kids like their face and hair the way they are.  Some kids do things they know they shouldn't do  BUT  Other kids hardly ever do things they know they shouldn't do.  Some kids are very happy being the way they are  BUT  Some kids have trouble figuring out the answers in school  Olher kids almost BUT always can figure out the answers.  ' Some kids are popular with others their age  BUT  Other kids wish they were dillerent.  Other kids are not very . popular.  Other kids are good at new games right away.  Some kids don't do well al new outdoor games  BUT  Some kids think that they are good looking  BUT  Other kids think that they are not very good looking.  Some kids behave themselves very well  BUT  Other kids often tind it hard to behave themselves.  Some kids are not very happy with the way Ihey do alol of things  BUT  • • • •  Other kids think the way they do things Is line.  • • • • • • • • •  Realty True (or me  • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • •  ••  • •  ••  • •  Questionnaire  APPENDIX D Instruction  for  Children  INSTRUCTIONS TO THE  CHILD:  Ue h a v e some s e n t e n c e s h e r e and, a s y o u c a n s e e f r o m t h e t o p o f y o u r s h e e t where i t s a y s "What I am l i k e , " we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n what e a c h o f you i s l i k e , what k i n d o f a p e r s o n you a r e l i k e . This i s a survey, not a t e s t . There a r e no r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s . Since kids are very d i f f e r e n t f r o m one a n o t h e r , e a c h o f you w i l l be p u t t i n g down something d i f f e r e n t . F i r s t l e t me e x p l a i n how t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w o r k . There i s a sample q u e s t i o n a t t h e t o p marked ( a ) . I ' l l read i t outloud and y o u f o l l o w a l o n g w i t h me. (Examiner r e a d s sample question.) T h i s q u e s t i o n t a l k s a b o u t two k i n d s o f k i d s , a n d we want t o know w h i c h k i d s a r e most l i k e y o u . (1)  So, what I want you t o d e c i d e f i r s t i s w h e t h e r y o u a r e more l i k e t h e k i n d s on t h e l e f t s i d e who w o u l d r a t h e r p l a y o u t d o o r s , o r w h e t h e r you a r e most l i k e t h e k i d s on t h e r i g h t s i d e who w o u l d r a t h e r w a t c h T.V. Don't mark a n y t h i n g y e t , but f i r s t d e c i d e which k i n d o f k i d i s most l i k e y o u , and go t o t h a t s i d e o f t h e s e n t e n c e .  (2)  Now, t h e s e c o n d t h i n g I want y o u t o t h i n k a b o u t , now t h a t y o u have d e c i d e d w h i c h k i n d o f k i d s a r e most l i k e you, i s t o d e c i d e whether t h a t i s o n l y s o r t o f t r u e f o r you, o r r e a l l y t r u e f o r you. I f i t ' s o n l y s o r t o f t r u e , t h e n p u t an X i n t h e box u n d e r s o r t o f t r u e ; i f i t ' s r e a l l y t r u e f o r y o u , t h e n p u t an X i n t h a t box, under r e a l l y t r u e .  (3)  F o r e a c h s e n t e n c e , you o n l y c h e c k one b o x . Sometimes i t w i l l be on one s i d e o f t h e p a g e , a n o t h e r t i m e i t w i l l be on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e p a g e , b u t y o u c a n o n l y c h e c k one box f o r e a c h s e n t e n c e . You d o n ' t c h e c k b o t h s i d e s , j u s t t h e one s i d e most l i k e y o u .  (k)  OK, t h a t one was j u s t f o r p r a c t i c e . Now we have some more s e n t e n c e s w h i c h I'm g o i n g t o r e a d o u t l o u d . For e a c h o n e , j u s t c h e c k one box, t h e one t h a t g o e s w i t h what i s t r u e f o r y o u , what y o u a r e most l i k e .  

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