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The experience of unemployment of social assistance recipients Klein, Hal 1989

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THE EXPERIENCE OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF SOCIAL ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS  By Hal  Klein  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i n n i p e g , 1979 D i p l o m a i n E d u c a t i o n , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g We a c c e p t to  this  STUDIES Psychology)  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1989 ©  H a l K l e i n , 1989  In  presenting  degree  at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  S^flt. *>Q  ;  19  ^9  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Date  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ABSTRACT  An e x p l o r a t o r y  s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d  e v e n t s and t h e f e e l i n g s a t t a c h e d experience  and  ranged  9 males.  adapted that  assistance  i n age f r o m 25 t o 44 and t h e r e The p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l / c r i t i c a l  as a " f l a t "  continual, incident  pervasive  was  financial  dominate the experience Their  (1984) was u s e d .  experience string  experience  were 11  with  of lows.  pressures  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  counsellors social  therapeutic  majority  of respondents.  ii  job search,  f e e l i n g s around being  study w i l l  for this  critical  f a c t o r seemed t o  hopefully  on  assist  o f unemployment o f  r e c i p i e n t s and l e a d t o more  interventions  best  few h i g h s and a  The most p r o m i n e n t  i n understanding the experience  assistance  be  by a c o n t i n u a l s t r u g g l e t o  esteem and a b a t t e r y of n e g a t i v e  welfare.  found  that could  f i n a n c i a l l y meet s u r v i v a l n e e d s , p e s s i m i s m a r o u n d self  females  I t was  relatively  and t h i s  of the great  The  i n c i d e n t methodology  g r o u p had a n unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  described  the  assistance recipients.  r e c i p i e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d .  by B o r g e n and Amundson  this  significant  to these events during  o f unemployment o f s o c i a l  Twenty s o c i a l subjects  to discover  population.  effective  low  Table  of  contents  Abstract List  of  Tables  Acknowledgements Chapter  I Introduction  1  Chapter  I I L i t e r a t u r e Review  5  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  R e a c t i o n s t o Unemployment S t a g e M o d e l s o f E x p e r i e n c e o f Unemployment F a c t o r s M o d e r a t i n g t h e E f f e c t s o f Unemployment Unemployment and Human Needs Stigma o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Summary  Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  I I I Methodology  20  Subjects M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approach Interview Questions The I n t e r v i e w Data A n a l y s i s V a l i d i t y Check  Chapter  IV R e s u l t s  5 8 11 13 16 18  20 21 26 28 29 30  and D i s c u s s i o n  31  1. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 2. C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t A n a l y s i s 3. Summary o f t h e E x p e r i e n c e  31 32 58  C h a p t e r V Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n  60  1. 2. 3. 4.  60 66 70 72  Theoretical Implications Implications for Counselling L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Further Research  C h a p t e r VI R e f e r e n c e s  74  Appendix  83  iii  List  1. D e m o g r a p h i c 2. Rank O r d e r Critical  of Tables  Information Summary o f  23 Negatives  Incidents  33  3. Rank O r d e r Summary o f P o s i t i v e Critical  Incidents  35  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would f i r s t l y l i k e t o t h a n k D r . Norman Amundson and Dr. W i l l i a m B o r g e n f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a d v i s e and s u p p o r t throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank D r . L a r r y C o c h r a n f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e t h e s i s committee. I would a l s o l i k e t o a c k n o w l d e g e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f K a r i n Rasmussen, who p a t i e n t l y t y p e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t w i t h o u t u t t e r i n g a s i n g l e word o f c o m p l a i n t ( i n L a t i n ) . Thanks a l s o t o M a r i l y n C h r y s t a l , J a n M a c L e l l a n and M i c h a e l Warsh f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t h e completion of t h i s study. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o t h a n k my w i f e Amy f o r h e r l o v e a n d s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t my g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s .  v  CHAPTER I  Introduction  In r e c e n t increased. rates  years,  I n 1982,  reached  the  (Deaton, 1983). that  i n 1988,  the  need f o r employment c o u n s e l l i n g  Canada's a n n u a l a v e r a g e  highest  recorded  More r e c e n t  British  (12.0%) e x c e e d e d  unemployment  f i g u r e s i n c e 1938-39  f i g u r e s ( K a p s a l i s , 1988)  C o l u m b i a had  "unemployment v a c a n c y " gap  has  the  second  i n Canada a s  i t s job vacancy r a t e  demonstrate  highest  i t s unemployment  (2.9%) by  9.1  rate  percentage  points.  In examining t h i s the  full  i m p a c t o f unemployment on  experience by  the  phenomenon, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  i t .  K i r s h (1983) d i s c u s s e d  unemployed exist  stereotypes  include t y p i f y i n g  The these out.  p e r t a i n i n g to the  social  negative  the  of those  social  the  unemployed.  unemployed a s  u n r e l i a b l e to hold steady  i n d i v i d u a l s who  lives  are  cheating  stigma  the system a t the  experienced  stereotypes.  j o b s or as  As  by t h e  K e l v i n and  Western s o c i e t y ' s socio-economic  (1)  consider who  stigma  i n Canada where a number o f n e g a t i v e  stereotypes  work, t o o  the  to  suffered  myths  and  These myths  and  too  l a z y to  dishonest taxpayers  unemployed goes Jarrett  structure is  expense. beyond  (1985) p o i n t e d predominantly  defined  i n t e r m s of  unemployed a r e what t h e y a r e pointed  out  defined not  that  that  the  that  he/she w i l l  the  impact  s i t u a t i o n can  assistance  the  fact  f o r an  frustration chronic  e s t e e m and adversely  on  t h a t many o f  job search  skills,  the  As  work  of  the  assumption  prolonged  study  For  example,  force.  (2)  the  and  term and/or been  more d i s t a n t t h e i r their  levels  s e n s e of  of  ever  last  self  i d e n t i t y may This  can  be  be  r e c i p i e n t s whose l a c k  they w i l l  can  "intermission  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d / o r work i f , in fact,  deals  T h i s dynamic  p e o p l e have  unemployment.  assistance  and  i n d i v i d u a l s have  i n long  the  their  also  assistance recipients,  time.  longer  a result,  w e l l as  for s o c i a l  them t o d o u b t  members o f  as  a f f e c t e d by true  authors  the  this  i s m e r e l y an  assistance,  seem.  confidence  especially  As  these  i n d i v i d u a l s caught Further,  by  role in society.  i n a number of ways.  social  can  The  a s o u r c e o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , shame  unemployment.  work e x p e r i e n c e  lead  be  f o r those  unemployed and  t e r m s , namely  i s o f t e n more permanent  of s o c i a l  extended p e r i o d  the  i s merely temporary,  recipients.  common a s s u m p t i o n t h a t unemployment can  a result,  worsened by  f o r whom unemployment  experience  between j o b s "  As  identifiable  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  their  be  individual's status  is social  been unemployed  labour.  in inherently negative  s o o n resume an  must c o n s i d e r  of  opposed t o what t h e y a r e .  the  population  in nature  one  as  unemployed  One  with  its division  of  experience  become permanent  The  author  employment and recipients proved  job  worked  several  years.  challenging  and  from t h i s i n the  esteem, d e a l i n g control,  target  "frustration threshold"  being  very  assistance would be  motivated  and  many o t h e r s  employment. individuals  field  by  challenge  social  needs o f  t h e s i s has  d e v e l o p e d by  specifically, presented  setting,  self  management, l o c u s skills.  of  that  proven s u c c e s s f u l  At  their  provide  lives  well  enhance  in gaining  retain  the of  a  to  recipients.  methodology t h a t This  was  methodology  knowledge r e g a r d i n g  (3)  can  these  programs d e v o t e d  (1984).  as  services that  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how  assistance  Amundson  the  social  t h i s a u t h o r as  applied a research  B o r g e n and  of  themselves  o f b o t h employment t r a i n i n g programs and  servicing  the  of  counselling  than  employment.  unemployment c a n  or  has  their  r e c i p i e n t s t o s e e k , s e c u r e and  v a r i e t y of c o u n s e l l o r s  This  securing  C l e a r l y , a greater  effectiveness  group  in that  job search  t o d e v e l o p and  assistance  experience  target  t o become i n d e p e n d e n t  t h u s been the  enable s o c i a l  goal  have e x p r e s s e d a p e r c e p t i o n  i n the  assistance  i n d i v i d u a l s have p r e s e n t e d  g r e a t l y enriched  has  More  financial and  of  been more p r o f o u n d  a r e a s of v o c a t i o n a l  these  of s o c i a l  g r o u p have f r e q u e n t l y  with a u t h o r i t y ,  same t i m e , many of  area  rewarding  more r e c e n t l y unemployed.  difficulties  i n the  This  t o employment have f r e q u e n t l y  individuals  It  past  uniquely  those of the  as  s t u d y has  placement c o u n s e l l i n g  f o r the  t o be  barriers  of t h i s  the  has  experience  of  unemployment  o f o t h e r g r o u p s s u c h as  Amundson, 1 9 8 4 ) , y o u t h graduates  (Harder,  (Borgen  1986).  and  Amundson, 1984)  phenomenological  utilizes  in-depth interivews to e l i c i t  hindering incidents  incident  technique  (Borgen and  I t i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y based  combined  and  immigrants  and  critical  incident  on  a and  facilitating  from the s u b j e c t s ' v i e w p o i n t .  i s used  university  approach  r e p o r t s of  and  A  critical  to a n a l y s e the data generated  by  the  in-depth interviews.  The  subjects interviewed for this  assistance program.  recipients  t h a t were e n t e r i n g an  "prime w o r k i n g By u s i n g an  i n h e l p i n g "middle y e a r s " , each  a number o f i n s i g h t s were g a i n e d unemployment  of s o c i a l  insights will  to  enhance t h e p h y s i c a l  assistance  critical  incident  and  of  I t i s hoped  are  in a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of  (4)  age.  techniques,  understanding  c o u n s e l l o r s who  recipients.  of  r e g a r d i n g the experience  c o n t r i b u t e t o our  assist  program  in their  25-44 y e a r s  assistance recipients.  both  g r o u p ' s e x p e r i e n c e and  was  training  funding t h i s  aged" job seekers  participant  in-depth, q u a l i t a t i v e ,  social  employment  B e c a u s e t h e government d e p a r t m e n t s  were i n t e r e s t e d  these  s t u d y were  of  that this  position social  CHAPTER  Literature  Much o f t h e examines the factors,  g e n e r a l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n models and  experience  of being  t o the  on  stigma  human n e e d s .  welfare, of  A number of books and pertaining and  t o the e f f e c t s Bond  finding  has  authors, of  t i m e and  symptoms.  To  self  their  relationship area  m a j o r i t y of  of  the  literature  have been  is  published  time  in a  that less  correlation  e s t e e m and  unemployed s u b j e c t s s c o r e d  organized,  than  Winefield  t h e employed  (5)  to  less  This the  between p u r p o s e f u l  absence of  lower on s e l f  groups.  unemployed  i m p l i c a t i o n s as, a c c o r d i n g  F u r t h e r , Tiggemann and  affect  moderating  Unemployment  articles  is a positive  higher  unemployment  employed u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s .  far reaching  on d e p r e s s i v e  In the  ( 1 9 8 3 ) , f o r example, f o u n d  manner t h a n  there  the  the  of  of unemployment on a v a r i e t y o f  u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s spend purposeful  study  welfare.  Reactions  Feather  to the  o f r e a c t i o n s t o unemployment,  between unemployment and  devoted  Review  l i t e r a t u r e devoted  areas  11  use  depressive  (1984) f o u n d  that  e s t e e m s c a l e s and  subjects.  higher  The  theme o f unemployment a d v e r s e l y  individual's  level  of s e l f  e s t e e m and  number o f s t u d i e s B e r n s t e i n Jahoda  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , K e l v i n and  reported the  the  devastating  individual's self  conducted  had  found  reduced s e l f  Fagin reactions  and  Little  for their  Hartley  in a  (1983), (1984) a l l have  on  (1980)  t w e n t y s i x unemployed  e s t e e m and  had  low  self  esteem, e i g h t  e i g h t had i n t e r m i t t e n t l y  that  the  i n d i v i d u a l s tended  job  by  circumstances." In a n o t h e r were r e a c h e d  implicitly  l o s s and  inablity  their  t o blame to gain they  found  family experiences job search...  or e x p l i c i t l y ,  for  began t o  found e f f e c t s  relations, their  o f unemployment on  unemployed man  and  were a d e c r e a s e  reproach  his  conclusions the  family.  i n frequency  a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between adolescent  children, a  (6)  "many  their  ( K o m a r o v s k y , 1 9 7 1 ) , a number o f effects  their  wherein,  study  the  themselves employment.  51).  between t h e  i n the  breadwinners.  (Page  regarding  relationships  aforementioned  p r o m i n e n t among male  months o f u s e l e s s  partners,  f a t h e r s and  Little  McCarroll  were f u r t h e r n e g a t i v e l y i m p a c t e d a s  wives, a f t e r  sexual  morale.  (1982) r e p o r t e d  t h a t these  "inadequacy" confirmed  Included  i s present  t h a t unemployment c a n  c o n c e p t and  seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y  excessively  their  ( 1 9 8 5 ) , and  effects  self  and  the  esteem.  They r e p o r t e d  These men  Janett  that s i x subjects  d e f e n s i v e l y high  depression  (1985), F a g i n  i n t e n s i v e interviews with  managers and  affecting  " l o s s of  status"  of  resulting family  from a l o s s  i n t h e manner  o f e a r n i n g s and f a i l u r e  to provide f o r the  t o w h i c h t h e y had become a c c u s t o m e d and a  decrease  i n t h e husband's t o l e r a n c e o f o t h e r f a m i l y members.  Although  i t was  o f t i m e men  found  that  t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e g u a n t i t y  spent with t h e i r  younger c h i l d r e n ,  c a s e s where a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e q u a l i t y was  reported.  having adverse  Brathwaite effects  (1983) a l s o  of time spent  few  together  r e p o r t e d unemployment  upon f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and found  many s u b j e c t s were c o n c e r n e d them a s  t h e r e were  that  those around  as that  them p e r c i e v e d  lazy.  Studies effects  have p o i n t e d t o unemployment a s h a v i n g d e t r i m e n t a l  on s o c i a l  o f t e n weakens t h e y most need  people's  daytime  Kirsh  (1983) r e p o r t e d t h a t  support systems,  r e a s s u r a n c e and a s e n s e  Macky and H a i n e s activities  lives.  j u s t a t a t i m e when of b e l o n g i n g " .  M c C a r r o l l (1984) a l s o less  preoccupied  circumstances.  with t h e i r  own  the aforementioned  hardly surprising  that  number  physical  of adverse  These symptoms fainting  include  spells.  w i t h o t h e r s a s t h e y become more  reactions  t h e same a u t h o r symptoms  t o unemployment,  B e r n s t e i n (1985) a l s o  i tis  (Kirsh,1983) reported  as a r e s u l t  f a t i g u e , weight  (7)  t o t h e r a d i o and  r e p o r t e d the tendency of  the unemployed t o i n t e r a c t  Given  (p.47).  (1982) f o u n d an i n c r e a s e o f " n o n - s o c i a l "  s u c h a s T.V. s a t c h i n g , l i s t e n i n g  sleeping.  "job loss  loss,  o f unemployment.  i n s o m n i a and  p o i n t e d t o unemployment's  negative e f f e c t s Little  on  (1982) s t a t e d  upon t h e p h y s i c a l and  both  Rayman  that  profound  distinct  and  a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e i r  Stage  authors or  summarized shock,  optimism,  f o u r s t a g e s : 1) 3) v a c i l l a t i o n  that  Of  health  sufficiently  r e p r e s e n t the  of unemployment.  and  r e l a x a t i o n and d o u b t and  not  P o w e l l and  stage  of  first  cynicism.  One  faced with,  &  Because of  Social i t seems more  s t a g e o f unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  (8)  area  o f unemployment  relief".  economic p r e s s u r e s t h a t  in  effort  A s s i s t a n c e i s Powell  " r e l a x a t i o n and  typically  Driscoll  professionals  2) c o n c e r t e d  4) m a l a i s e and  on S o c i a l  (1980)  of f o u r g e n e r a l s t a g e s :  fatalism.  relief  "universal"  Hepworth  between t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of c l i e n t s  f a m i l y and  their  the mental  Liem  Unemployment  t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f unemployed  first  families.  o f employment, a number of  models t h a t may  experience  and  and  effects  h e a l t h s e r v i c e s do  Experience  the e x p e r i e n c e  Assistance Recipients are likely  The  pessismism  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  the s o c i a l ,  traditional  Fagin  needs.  possible distinction  Driscoll's  study that  t h e e x p e r i e n c e as c o m p r i s i n g  (1973) p r e s e n t e d  of  that  have s u g g e s t e d  group s p e c i f i c  their  by t h e unemployed a r e  M o d e l s Of  discussing  in their  h e a l t h and  have a d v e r s e  i n d i v i d u a l s and  (1984) c o n c l u d e d encountered  mental  unemployment c a n  h e a l t h of  difficulties  In  p h y s i c a l and  would  of  resemble or  Hopson and  Amundson and In  this  p r i m a r i l y on related stages which  the  stress  reactions.  similar report  the assumption  s e a r c h would r e s e m b l e  burnout  model d e v e l o p e d  applied  to the experience  It  model  (enthusiasm)  experience client's  confidence  levels  j o b , Amundson and t h a t the s t r e s s  the a u t h o r s and  a more r e w a r d i n g  these  of  very  c o u n s e l l e d have had  job search s k i l l s  p o s i t i o n than  Borgen  from.  (9)  (1982) a  job job  (1980) c o u l d  stage  of  fleeting  be  apathy. Brodsky's i n the  the m a j o r i t y of very  or t h e i r  t h a t t h e y had  have  T h i s model i n c l u d e s  first  be  stages  intensity.  t h a t the  Brodsky  of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s as  in their  (1969)  Kubler-Ross  s t a g n a t i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n and  would most l i k e l y  has  the  a s s o c i a t e d with  found  of unemployment.  s u s p i c i o n t h a t the  t h i s author  job  anger, b a r g a i n i n g ,  t h a t a j o b s e a r c h would  by E d e l w i c h  of enthusiasm,  i s t h i s author's  by K u b l e r - R o s s  the s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  relied  o f g r i e v i n g and  with d i f f e r i n g  that they hypothesized  the s t a g e s  (1982)  I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t  d y n a m i c s t o an a c t u a l  burnout.  "denial".  i n d i v i d u a l s would e x p e r i e n c e  s e g u e n c e s and  with  of  most w i d e l y known model o f  of d e n i a l ,  acceptance.  "imraoblilization"  Borgen  i s t h e model d e v e l o p e d  that different  Operating  i n the a r e a s The  of  stage  model, Amundson and  i n c l u d e s the stages  different  stage  (1982) i n i t i a l  literature  of g r i e v i n g  stated  job  Borgen's  original  d e p r e s s i o n and  in  Adams (1976) f i r s t  little  abilities  to  been d i s p l a c e d  find  As danger  p o i n t e d out of d e f i n i n g  s t e r e o t y p e " of serve  by K e l v i n and stages  the  fact  p o p u l a t i o n may  experience  o f unemployment.  "emotional  clients'  g e n d e r , age,  background.  roller  of twenty f i v e  job s e a r c h p e r i o d .  They a l s o  their  reactions  i t was  prior  (men  & women) o v e r p e r i o d " than this  seemed t o have  to being d i s p l a c e d .  Not  t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n sub-groups of much l e s s  when f a c e d w i t h an  of c e r t a i n  severe  unsuccessful job Given  unemployment or would  i n s t e a d be d i v i s i b l e  Assistance  p a t t e r n of e x p e r i e n c e s into other  of  sub-groups  and/or o c c u p a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d .  (10)  the  population  t o e x p l o r e whether S o c i a l  have a d i s t i n c t  t o g e n d e r , age  the  population  job loss  R e c i p i e n t s would a l s o  pertaining  as  occupational  a more g r a d u a l downward s l i d e .  decided  such  t h a t t h e members o f  their  homogeneity of experiences  sub-groups,  factors  t h a t the  wage e a r n e r s e x p e r i e n c e d  search, experienced relative  process  t o j o b l o s s and,  in their  a shorter "grief  found  found  on  wage e a r n e r s  experienced  completed  secondary  the  i s h i g h l i g h t e d i n the  backgound and  were a b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e  female  segments o f  c o a s t e r s " based  of primary  the authors  "general  (1984,1985,1987) i n w h i c h t h e y c h a r t  g r o u p who  suprisingly,  potential  T h i s consequence c o u l d  This principle  cultural  grieving  one  i s that a  significantly  F o r example, t h e y found  sub-groups c o n s i s t i n g t h e age  emerge.  differ  Amundson  distinct  may  that d i f f e r e n t  unemployed  work o f B o r g e n and  (1985),  o f unemployment  the b e h a v i o r  to obscure  Jarret  Factors Moderating  Because t h i s unemployment  thesis  The  Effects  is discussing  of a s p e c i f i c  o f Unemployment  the e x p e r i e n c e of  t a r g e t group  (Social Assistance  R e c i p i e n t s aged  25-44) i t would be w o r t h w h i l e  literature  has a d d r e s s e d t h e m o d e r a t i n g  that  v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t groups' In  discussing  Amundson and pointed  their  Borgen  to d i s t i n c t  e x p e r i e n c e of  (1987) found sub-groups  vs.  A d u l t s and  s u b j e c t s who  who  d i d n o t have as much p r i o r had d i s t i n c t  Tiggeman and be q u i t e  undifferentiated s u b j e c t s who are  likely  that  s u c h as p r i m a r y v s .  American the  "rite  starts  warning.  Youth  (1987) a l s o  of the  entrance  of passage"  secondary (under  The  25,  t o unemployment.  suggested  that  i t would  an  they p o i n t e d out  (11)  that  p r e v i o u s employment  one  A l t h o u g h the t a r g e t i t i s expected  25)  a u t h o r s found' t h a t  In a  televison  Amundson echoed  i n t o t h e w o r k f o r c e as a  without which  study  job loss vs. subjects  (C.B.C.,1986), Dr. N.  labeling  a t age  anticipated  unigue d i f f i c u l t i e s .  realm of adulthood.  thesis  Immigrants,  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  to encounter  by  the r e s u l t s  h i s t o r y of s u c c e s s f u l  p a n e l on unemployment conclusion  unemployment.  t o c l a s s i f y t h e unemployed as  group.  have no  f a c t o r s on a  p a t t e r n s of r e a c t i o n s  Winefield  inappropriate  the  s t u d y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f unemployment,  wage e a r n e r s , A s i a n v s . E u r o p e a n  these groups  t o examine  North  does n o t f u l l y group  of  this  enter  this  t h a t many o f t h e s u b j e c t s  will  have no h i s t o r y o f l o n g t e r m employment  some e x t e n t s h a r e Another effects to  r e a c t i o n s w i t h unemployed  factor  Hepworth  were b l u e c o l l a r  although  (1979) f o u n d  workers.  many w h i t e c o l l a r  experiences (positive  school leavers.  i s the worker's o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s  much more a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a s o c i a l than  there  negative  i s a wide v a r i e t y o f  t o unemployment  that,  within this  responses  group as  of d i s p l a c e d blue  workers.  One  factor  financial is cited effects  that i s closely related  support  and r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g unemployment.  o f unemployment.  This  Amundson and B o r g e n (1987)  p r e s s u r e s a s a major f a c t o r  e m o t i o n s o f t h e unemployed. financial  factor  Prohlich  (1983) f o u n d  t h a t a l a c k of f i n a n c i a l  effect  with t h e i r  i n study a f t e r  (1983) r e p o r t e d t h a t " t h e  study",  (p. 311).  their  s t r u c t u r e d use o f t i m e  p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h .  (12)  t o be t h e main Jahoda  w e l l b e i n g c a n have a  on t h e unemployed, a f f e c t i n g  family, their  listed  i n n e g a t i v e l y s h i f t i n g the  p r o b l e m s o f t h e unemployed a r e found  of f r u s t r a t i o n  "ripple"  to occupational status i s  a s p r e d o m i n a n t i n a number o f s t u d i e s e x a m i n i n g t h e  financial  source  unemployment  (1983) c o n c l u d e d  w o r k e r s have e x t r e m e l y  o f unemployment,  and n e g a t i v e )  network d u r i n g  Jahoda  prior  t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s were  opposed t o t h e u n i f o r m a l l y n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e collar  thus, to  t h a t has been r e p o r t e d t o moderate t h e  o f unemployment  displacement.  and may  and  relationships their  There are the  a number o f  individual's  include  gender  e x p e r i e n c e of  (Winefield  p r e v i o u s employment beliefs possible loss,  factors  available. the  negatively Because  individuals  restricted  job  of  losses  or  i n d i v i d u a l s are  unemployment  of  the of  likely  to  t h a n t h o s e who  political  a number o f  job  other for  job  options  a f f e c t i n g the  experience  of  g r e a t m a j o r i t y would t e n d  to  t h o s e on  Social  Assistance.  t y p i c a l l y have  f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and  semi-skilled  of  unemployment, r e a s o n  Assistance  limited  affect  factors  experience  i n g e n e r a l and  factors  Social  options,  normally u n s k i l l e d these  length  experience  on  greatly  These  (1983) l i s t e d  i t appears that  impact the  may  & O ' B r i e n , 1 9 8 6 ) and  I n e x a m i n i n g the  unemployed,  that  unemployment.  Kirsh  including  to handle  factors  & Tiggeman, 1983)  (Feather  (Furnham,1984).  ability  other  workers,  i t i s apparent  have a more n e g a t i v e benefit  are  from h i g h e r  that  experience  socio-economic  status.  Unemployment and  In d e s c r i b i n g B o r g e n and the  work o f  the  Amundson  psychological  (1984) f o u n d  dynamics of  incorporate  Maslow's " h i e r a r c h y  five different levels  (13)  unemployment  i t i n s t r u c t i v e to  Abraham Maslow ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  p r e s e n t s needs a t  Human Needs  (Maslow 1 9 6 8 ) :  of  needs"  1.  S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n : need f o r c r e a t i v e s e l f  2.  E s t e e m Needs: Need t o be w o r t h w h i l e  3.  to self  expression and o t h e r s  Desire  f o r strength,  Desire  f o r p r e s t i g e , dominance and r e c o g n i t i o n  Love and B e l o n g i n g :  a c h i e v e m e n t and m a s t e r y  Need t o l o v e and be l o v e d Need t o f e e l  part of a s p e c i a l  group  4. S a f e t y : P h y s i c a l s a f e t y and c o m f o r t Material security Need  f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r d e r and  stability Need t o be t r u s t e d and t o t r u s t 5.  others  P h y s i o l o g i c a l Needs: Food, d r i n k , oxygen, r e s t , e l i m i n a t i o n , sex  The level  nature  of the h i e r a r c h y  must be met b e f o r e  addressed with implications to expect  many c a s e s ,  their  be i n a d e q u a t e l y  obstacle  Belonging"  Assistance  T h i s has v e r y  strong  R e c i p i e n t s as i t i s reasonable  met.  being  Further,  on S o c i a l  the stigma  Assistance  t o m e e t i n g needs i n t h e a r e a s  that i s  could  be a  o f "Love and  and "Esteem".  B o r g e n and Amundson (1984) a l s o f o u n d the  c a n be  " S a f e t y " and " P h y s i o l o g i c a l " needs w i l l , i n  t y p i c a l y associated with serous  t h e needs a t t h e " u p p e r " l e v e l s  a n y measure o f s u c c e s s .  for Social  that  i s t h a t t h e needs a t t h e " l o w e r "  d e s c r i p t i o n o f human needs p u t f o r t h  (14)  i t useful to consider  by T o f f l e r  (1980).  Toffler  (1980) d e s c r i b e s  categories:  1.  impact need  can  their  expected  t h a t unemployment may  of the  aforementioned  i s o f t e n met  o u t s i d e working hours. have r e p o r t e d  social  a result,  unemployed  individual  A number o f  networks  Finally,  be  particularly  R e c i p i e n t s as  t h e y may  be  lives  pronounced  not  have the  who  financial  t o engage i n as  volunteer  activities  displaced  p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r s e c o n d a r y wage  unemployed sub  (15)  Janett,  of  labour. the  meaning.  experience i t . Assistance and/or  social  many j o b s e a r c h , a v o c a t i o n a l  other  and  to g r e a t l y a f f e c t  for Social  resources  as  affects  to f i n d  l a c k of  expected of those  the  1983).  i n terms o f d i v i s i o n  a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by a  unemployment can  on  including friends  Jahoda,  the  unemployed  be a t a l l s u r p r i s i n g  d e g r e e of s t r u c t u r e i n t h e T h i s may  Firstly,  W e s t e r n s o c i e t y ( K e l v i n and  status  i t would n o t  t o be  needs.  significant  t h a t unemployment a d v e r s e l y  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  defines  have a  by one's c o - w o r k e r s b o t h  ( B o r g e n & Amundson, 1984;  As  As  be  non-work r e l a t e d  family  1985)  a need f o r s t r u c t u r e .  f o r community  individuals  general  f o r meaning.  3.  on a l l t h r e e  j o b and  i n three  a need f o r community.  2. a need  It  human needs  or  groups such  earners.  as  the  S t i g m a of S o c i a l  As  reported  Piliavin studies social  and  by  Goodwin  wallston  i n the  area  assistance.  effects  welfare  welfare. despised  and  widely percieved  are  not  that  press,  t o the  (p.l).  services,  report  p e r h a p s the  i n f l u e n c e and and  check  on."(p.14).  social differentiation  Golding  can  the  land  receiving examine  considering  "Pew  to being  that  and  "despite  r e c i p i e n t s ; they  nature of  hostility  - that  view are  s h a r e d by  (16)  -  the  stigma  the  paper  (1982) c o n f i r m e d  complex r a n g e and  and  social  f i n d i n g i s the o v e r - a l l  to welfare  claimants"  M i d d l e t o n a l s o echoed G o t t l i e b ' s f i n d i n g  these negative  who  to  the  t a n g i b l e as  of a t t i t u d e s t o w e l f a r e most s t r i k i n g  laggards  from a l l s i d e s  Middleton the  on  more  same a u t h o r went on  i s a l m o s t as  Golding  society's  groups are  than welfare  This  the  h i s t o r y and/or e f f i c a c y  stigma attached that  research  recipients.  i s overwhelming evidence  welfare  f i n d i n g and  of  ( e v e n by many o f t h e m s e l v e s ) as  trusted"  "there  is written  this  i n our  impact  governmental debates, s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s  attached it  welfare  Gross,  been a l a c k o f  b e n e f i t s by  the  (1981) and  p r o b l e m , one  (1974) s t a t e d  are  state  and  state report  vilified  t o be  this  works t h a t d i s c u s s  Gottlieb  has  psychological  welfare  towards welfare  A number o f of the  the  Despite  of c o l l e c t i n g  attitudes  (1983), S t r e e t  (1979), t h e r e  of  Assistance  many o f t h e  (p.178)  that  claimants  themselves.  Macarov  w i t h m o r a l i t y and, declares  (1980) d e s c r i b e d a s o c i e t y t h a t e q u a t e s  assuming welfare r e c i p i e n t s  attitudes  t o measure t h e p u b l i c ' s  towards w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s a l s o r e v e a l e d a  predominantly a low l e v e l  negative viewpoint.  of p u b l i c support  (1983) r e p o r t e d a p u b l i c dishonest  concerning  their  On a s i m i l a r  percentage  of respondents  recipients'  R o l f and Klemach  f o r w e l f a r e programs.  needs and were a b u s i n g  v e i n , Osgood  impact  i d e n t i t y and s e l f stigmatized other  these  recipient,  individuals'  esteem.  benefit  a high  a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o work.  of the negative  i t i s quite reasonable to  t h a t the " s t a t u s " of being a r e c i p i e n t  negatively  being  indicating a skepticism regarding  honesty  of the welfare  found  Furnharo  their  (1977) found  When one f u l l y e x a m i n e s t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s stereotype  (1983)  p e r c e p t i o n t h a t r e c i p i e n t s were  payments.  conclude  idle,  them t o be i m m o r a l .  Some r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s d e s i g n e d  welfare  t o be  work  Waxman  sense  i s likely to  of s e l f  worth,  (1983) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  group face a c h a l l e n g e f a r d i f f e r e n t  from  this  that of  s t i g m a t i z e d groups such a s e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s and p h y s i c a l l y  handicapped.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  a stigmatized ethnic minority i s  n o r m a l l y q u i t e homogeneous i n a number o f ways and c a n t h u s develop  and m a i n t a i n  i t s own " s t a t u s - h o n o r  r e a c t i o n t o the stigma" e c o n o m i c a l l y based  (p.94).  and v a l u e s y s t e m i n  When i t i s a n e s s e n t i a l l y  g r o u p however, i t d o e s n o t have t h e  (17)  " a d v a n t a g e s " o f a common e t h n i c a n d / o r r e l i g i o u s common p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . system of "status-honor" the  This  and v a l u e s  inability  Gottlieb other rely  this  "spoiled identity".  (1974) who p o i n t e d  disadvantaged on o u t s i d e  t o s e t up i t s own  as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o that of  m a i n s t r e a m makes i t f a r more l i k e l y  internalize  h e r i t a g e or a  that this  T h i s dynamic  out that welfare  g r o u p s , have v e r y  group  i s confirmed  recipients,  few s e l f  i n d i v i d u a l s or groups t o lobby  will by  unlike  h e l p g r o u p s and f o r "welfare  rights".  Given these  circumstances,  mentioned e a r l i e r , negative  claimants  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o c i a l  combining others  even w e l f a r e  i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , as  the perception  themselves r e p o r t a  assistance recipient.  of themselves with  the perception  When o f how  v i e w them, one c a n a n t i c i p a t e t h a t a number o f s o c i a l  assistance depression,  r e c i p i e n t s could worthlessness  be a f f e c t e d by deep f e e l i n g s o f  and h o p e l e s s n e s s .  bound t o a d v e r s e l y  affect  group's  and i t s a b i l i t y  job search  These f e e l i n g s a r e  both the p o t e n t i a l success t o cope w i t h  of t h i s  unemployment.  Summary  T h e r e have been a number o f s t u d i e s t h a t have documented t h e adverse e f f e c t s their  families.  t h a t unemployment c a n have on i n d i v i d u a l s and When one examines models o f "human n e e d s " , i t  (18)  becomes c l e a r t h a t assistance  c a n have a s i g n i f i c a n t  There different origin  b o t h unemployment and b e i n g  i s also a great  deal  negative  on  impact  social on t h e s e  of evidence t o suggest  that  s u b - g r o u p s b a s e d on f a c t o r s s u c h a s g e n d e r , a g e ,  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  unemployment regarding  b a c k g r o u n d may  experiences.  However,  t h e unemployment  have  ethnic  different  no s t u d i e s  experience  needs.  of s o c i a l  could  be  found  assistance  recipients. This studying group. attached  thesis will  therefore  and d e s c r i b i n g Although  experience  that  t h e unemployment  i t i s clear that  to being  whether s o c i a l  attempt  there  on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ,  assistance  t o address t h i s experience of i s a pronounced  from o t h e r  (19)  stigma  unemployment  populations.  by  this  i t i s n o t y e t known  r e c i p i e n t s have a n  is distinct  need  CHAPTER  HI  Methodology  This the  chapter w i l l  study, the  questions  and  reliability  provide  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach, the the  and  data a n a l y s i s .  validity  It w i l l  the  subjects  interview  of  format  also describe  and  the  checks.  Subjects  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s involved  Assistance  Recipients,  participate co-funded  by  in "Project  aged 25 Job  in this - 44,  s t u d y were S o c i a l  who  Keep", an  Canada Employment and  were s e l e c t e d  Innovations  C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s  project  was  Inc.,  the  offices  i n P r o j e c t Job  project  a research  had  Keep, the  mandate and  expected  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n taped  personal  and  the  o f H.  #500-5050 K i n g s w a y , Burnaby, B.C.  participate  vocational  purpose of  the  was  (20)  Housing.  The  to  were aware t h a t  t h e y would t h u s and  the  Associates  In v o l u n t e e r i n g  interviews  to  and  K l e i n and  clients  that  assessments.  research  project  I m m i g r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n and  British  located at  to  the  be  i n a number  T h e y were a l s o aware  improve the d e l i v e r y o f  of that  employment c o u n s e l l i n g personal  and  r e s u l t s would n o t  Project  Job  possible,  minimum.  the  s h a r e d w i t h anyone o u t s i d e  T h e y were a s  w i s h e d t o work w i t h as  entrance c r i t e r i a  their  the  had  representative  been k e p t t o  a  follows:  1.  S o c i a l Assistance  2.  Aged  3.  be  that  Keep R e s e a r c h Team.  Because t h i s p r o j e c t g r o u p as  t r a i n i n g t o t h i s g r o u p , and  Recipient  25-44  Residing Surrey,  i n G r e a t e r Vancouver  Burnaby, Richmond and  ( i n c l u d i n g North  Shore,  Coquitlam)  4.  W i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l project  5.  W i l l i n g to s i g n a c o n t r a c t  regarding  activities attendance  and  punctuality  A total (11  of  f e m a l e s and  demographic  twenty s u b j e c t s 9 males).  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  Please r e f e r to Table  Swinburne conseguences of  and  are  I for  further  data.  Methodological  studies  study  (1981),  in discussing  unemployment, s t a t e d  necessary to gain  f e e l i n g s of  the  subjects.  an  Approach  the that  of  small  studying sample  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  B o r g e n and  (21)  task  Amundson  the  the  in-depth thoughts  (1984) a l s o  a  expressed  the  interviewing open ended to  necessity  a p p r o a c h when s t u d y i n g  interviewing  f u l l y describe  being  for researchers  to u t i l i z e  unemployed  experiences,  moulded or d i r e c t e d by  in-depth  subjects.  a p p r o a c h e n c o u r a g e s and  their  an  allows  i n a manner t h a t  specific  interview  The  subjects is  not  questions  or  techniques.  This  thesis basically utilized  approach based doing so,  had  on  the  Borgen and  critical  t e c h n i q u e u s e d combined  question  that  subjects'  worded  Amundson was  (1984) and  a combination  exception  of a  perceptions  around  of  and single  i n a more d i r e c t i v e f a s h i o n  f e e l i n g s and  in  The  phenomenological  i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e s w i t h the was  interviewing  incident approaches.  critical  elicit  in-depth  a p h i l o s o p h i c a l base t h a t  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l and interviewing  work o f  an  i n order  being  on  to  social  assistance.  Giorgi  (1975) l i s t e d  the  phenomenological research: as  i t is lived...  2.  f o l l o w i n g as  "1.  Fidelity  Primacy of  life  to  4.  Expression  viewpoint  5.  S i t u a t i o n as  implies  s t r u c t u r a l approach...  Engaged r e s e a r c h e r s . . . Fisher  (1979) s t a t e s  8.  that  6.  the  phenomenon  world...  D e s c r i p t i v e approach... of s u b j e c t . . .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  of  3.  s i t u a t i o n from u n i t of  Biographical  research emphases...  Search f o r meaning..." phenomenological  " c o m p r e h e n s i o n of e x p e r i e n c e as  i t is  behaviorally/ reflectively...faithful  (22)  research  (page  99-101).  is a  lived-existentially/ descriptions  of  7.  Table I Demographic  Information  Age  Gender  Education Completed  1  25  M  Grade 9  2  26  F  Grade  10  3  26  F  Grade  10  4  35  M  Grade  10  5  36  F  Grade  11  6  41  M  Grade  12  7  28  F  G r a d e 11  8  40  M  Grade  12  9  29  F  Grade  12  10  37  F  Grade  11  11  38  F  Grade 8  12  39  F  B Sc.  13  42  M  Grade  12  14  31  F  Grade  11  15  29  F  Grade  10  16  44  M  Grade  12  17  33  F  Grade  12  18  36  M  B.A.  19  39  M  Grade 9  20  39  M  B.F.A.  pondent  A v e r a g e Age  34.65  (23)  Table  I continued  Demographic  Marital  Status  Information  Number o f C h i l d r e n  Last Occupation  Held  Widowed  0  Telemarketing  Single  1  Sales Clerk  Divorced  1  Teller  Separated  3  Plumber's  Single  2  Sales  Married  1  Insulator  Divorced  1  Waitress  Single  0  Driver  Single  1  Long Term C a r e A i d  Divorced  2  Activity Director  Divorced  3  Assembly L i n e  Divorced  1  Production  Single  0  Drafter  Separated  3  Cashier  Divorced  1  Clerk  Married  1  Marine  Divorced  1  Cashier  Widowed  0  Cook  Married  1  Swamper  Separated  2  Sign Painter  (24)  (On C a l l ) Helper  Clerk  Worker  Supervisor  Supervisor  particular  k i n d s of e x p e r i e n c e s . . . c a n  common s t r u c t u r e " the  utility  describe the  of  their  (page 1 1 6 ) .  phenomenological own  experiences  o p p o r t u n i t y to gain  experiences  as  Flanagan  i s designed  subjects' viewpoint. within a verifiable who  have u t i l i z e d  identifying  study  Harder,  Flanagan,  facilitating As  on  the s u b j e c t s ' v i e w p o i n t  use  the  o f the  researcher  "critical  r e p o r t s of  incident  from  A number o f  (Andersson  have found  authors  & Nilsson,  Herzberg,  1964;  Mausner  i t t o be  the  incidents  &  effective  in  by Borgen & Amundson  techniques  has  o f t h e unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  particular due  o f a s i t u a t i o n and  equally essential  (p.12).  aspect  The  of t h i s  utility  t o " i t s emphasis  the e l a b o r a t i o n o f same  authors  technique  which i s  "a c a t e g o r y s y s t e m u s u a l l y becomes r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t "  In  these  facilitating  to place these  1986;  to  themselves.  system.  p o i n t e d out  behavioural incidents",  m e n t i o n e d an  point to  hindering incidents within a  incident  the  that  1978)  and  their  information regarding  to e l i c i t  classification  in  specific  the  t h i s methodology  the c r i t i c a l  in affording  I t i s t h e n used  subject's experience. (1984),  and  i n the s u b j e c t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s ,  B o r g e n & Amundson, 1984; Snyderman, 1959;  for  r e s e a r c h i n a l l o w i n g people  f o r the s u b j e c t s  (1954) a d v o c a t e d  hindering incidents  researched  preceding statements  i n s i g h t s and  they e x i s t  t e c h n i q u e " which and  The  be  summary, t h e m e t h o d o l g y o f t h i s  phenomenology i n t h a t i t e m p h a s i z e d  (25)  s t u d y drew  from  the p e r s p e c t i v e o f  the  (p.12).  subjects themselves. that  i t elicited  helpful  factors  or h i n d e r i n g .  traditional incidents rather  I t drew f r o m c r i t i c a l  critical  that  The  methodolgy of t h i s  incident studies  specific  methodology f a c i l i t a t e d experience  facet  of s o c i a l  of  interviews consisted  w h i c h had  experience  from  i t examined  overall  experiences This  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  assistance  the  recipients.  Questions  o f the  a l r e a d y been d e v e l o p e d  o f unemployment  being  study d i f f e r e d  o f the e x p e r i e n c e .  Interview  The  in that  a more i n d e p t h  o f unemployment  research in  the s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d a s  i n the c o n t e x t of the s u b j e c t s '  than any  incident  f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , most f o r the study of  (Amundson and  Borgen,  the  1984).  As  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the o n l y q u e s t i o n not a l r e a d y developed the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d to  elicit  a u t h o r s was  information s p e c i f i c  q u e s t i o n # 6,  w h i c h was  by  designed  t o the e x p e r i e n c e of b e i n g  on  Social Assistance.  1.  I'd  like  you  t o t h i n k back t o when you  were g o i n g t o l o s e your your 2.  t h o u g h t s and  What has  2b. What has  job.  Could  f e e l i n g at that  i t been l i k e the l a s t  last  since  then  y e a r been l i k e  (26)  first  time  you  ?  ? f o r you  ?  heard  you  reflect  on  3.  Now  I'd l i k e  you t o t e l l  your  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e . always a beginning, with  before  describe feelings, 4.  Could  Just like  middle  any s t o r y ,  and e n d .  Could  you b e g i n  your  experience  i n terms o f t h o u g h t s ,  a c t i o n s , and j o b s e a r c h .  you d e s c r i b e what y o u c o n s i d e r t o be y o u r  first  there's  you were unemployed, and c o n t i n u e t o  p o i n t s d u r i n g unemployment the  own s t o r y o f y o u r  lowest  ? F o r example, s t a r t i n g  low p o i n t y o u c a n remember,  with  what happened  e x a c t l y and why was i t d i f f i c u l t f o r you ? 5.  Now t h e h i g h p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e whole t i m e , the  first  p o i n t y o u c a n remember,  and  why was i t d i f f i c u l t f o r y o u ?  6.  What has i t been l i k e  7.  What a r e y o u r  8.  Could  starting  what happened e x a c t l y  b e i n g on S o c i a l  Assistance ?  e x p e c t a t i o n s about the f u t u r e r i g h t  you draw a p i c t u r e  o f what your right  if  a s some k i n d o f a  starting here  here  for right  life  when y o u were l a s t now i n t i m e ,  now ?  experience of  unemployment has been l i k e you c o u l d s e e your  with  now ? F o r example,  working,  line  and e n d i n g  what would you draw i n  between ? Additional  q u e s t i o n s were t h e n a s k e d  data.  (27)  t o gather demographic  The  Each  i n t e r v i e w began w i t h  subject consent subject. was  turned  researcher  question  the  both the  presenting researcher  form, the  tape  Borgen  interviewers  restricting  of the  "I see"  given as  (1984).  and  In t h i s  previous  sufficient  possible.  the and  the  recorder  in detail  same  section.  by  After  t i m e t o answer were  the  recommended  by  T h i s approach e n t a i l e d the  t h e i r comments t o  t o s u m m a r i z i n g and way,  the  Subjects  non-directive style  d i s c l o s e without  particular  interview using  t o answer q u e s t i o n s  Amundson and  appropriate.  was  much d e t a i l  use  the  researcher  " e n c o u r a g e r s " such  clarifying  when  encouraged  unduly i n f l u e n c i n g the  as  the  subject  subject in  any  direction.  A f t e r a l l the  prepared  were a s k e d  i f they  researcher  then explained  would  by  o u t l i n e d i n the  researcher's  to s e l f  researcher  of t h i s  conducted the  subject  i n as  a l s o encouraged  and  signed  completion  questions  each q u e s t i o n ,  "yes"  the  on.  s e q u e n c e and  the  f o r m t o be  A f t e r the  The  Interview  later  i n which the  be  had  questions  anything  they  had  been a s k e d ,  wished  t h a t a c e r t a i n number o f  randomly s e l e c t e d f o r a s h o r t  reseacher  t o add.  c o u l d check the  of the d a t a a n a l y s i s .  (28)  subjects The  subjects  f o l l o w up  validity  of the  interview results  Data  The  d a t a a n a l y s i s used  methods d e v e l o p e d of the  following  by  Analysis  in this  B o r g e n and  t h e s i s was  Amundson  b a s e d on  (1984) and  consisted  steps:  1.  T r a n s c r i p t i o n of  2.  Listing  taped  interviews.  of e m o t i o n a l s h i f t s  e v e n t s or b e h a v i o u r s .  The  as  well  as  the  accompanying  study o r i g i n a l l y  intended  a l s o analyse data p e r t a i n i n g to time sequences w i t h the coping  occurence of  the  i f any,  perception  "flatness"  have been due subjects  of t h e i r  3b.  the  to the  as  little  This  chronic  and  latter cyclical  w e l l as  the  (i.e. helpful  s o r t i n g the  emotional  established  categories.  themes.  who  P s y c h o l o g y was placing  involved.  well  mentioned  very  incident categories  R e l i a b i l i t y check of the second party  had  involved  impractical,  subjects  unemployment as  f a c t o r s ) by  incidents via  of  had  to  experience.  Establishing c r i t i c a l or h i n d e r i n g  proved  s t r a t e g i e s and  time sequences  n a t u r e of the  This  large majority  coping  of  q u a l i t y may  3a.  p a r t i c u l a r emotions as  s t r a t e g i e s employed.  however, as few,  the  already  asked t o read  emotional s h i f t s  (29)  c o m p l e t e d an a l l of  M.A.  A  in  the t r a n s c r i p t s ,  i n t o the  categories  developed  by t h e a u t h o r .  collaboration regards  4.  was  5.  first  on  Individual  group r e s u l t s .  "holistic"  o f 10  totals  taped  the  b a s i s o f t h e ease  and  telephone  to respond  Tables  were c h o s e n  to  arrive  3.)  experience.  contacted  was  reached  briefly  t h a t a summary o f read  t o be  R e s p o n d e n t s were c h o s e n  procedure  t o them and  t o the a c c u r a c y of t h i s  outlined  their t h e y would  summary.  from  incident's  ranking.  (30)  then  This  incidents  w e l l as e a c h  on  by  summary i n c l u d e d a breakdown o f t h e c r i t i c a l t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r v i e w as  This  f o r each  2 and  w i t h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d be  informed  of  Check  (50%)  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e would be be a s k e d  In  i n t e r v i e w t o c a p t u r e a more  interview.  data a n a l y s i s  t h e s u b j e c t s were  sheets  o f s u b j e c t s * unemployment  respondents  a f o l l o w up  incidents.  were t h e n combined  ( P l e a s e see  picture  for  The  party in  category frequencies.  individual  Validity  telephone.  the second  into categories.  incident  performed  Summarizing each  A total  and  limited  p a r t y i n d e p e n d e n t l y p l a c e d each  incidents  of c r i t i c a l  subject. at  the second  critical  Tally  between t h e a u t h o r  included a  to the r e p r o d u c t i o n of c r i t i c a l  addition, the  T h i s check  culled frequency  CHAPTER I V  Results  The  and  Discussion  r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s  form the f o l l o w i n g  which r e s u l t s i n a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n unemployment old.  This  f o r Social Assistance  section  v a l i d i t y checks, categories  includes  section  of the experience of  Recipients  aged  25 t o 44 y e a r s  t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and  a detailed analysis  of the c r i t i c a l  incident  a n d a summary o f t h e o v e r a l l e x p e r i e n c e o f  unemployment o f t h e s u b j e c t s  of t h i s  study.  R e l i a b i l t y and V a l i d i t y  The  reliabilty  agreement r a t e , acceptable The contacted captured.  check r e s u l t e d  i n the achievment  e x c e e d i n g t h e 80% r a t e  that  o f a 92%  had been s e t a s t h e  standard.  v a l i d i t y check r e s u l t e d i n d i c a t i n g that  i n e a c h r e s p o n d e n t who had been  t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s had been  accurately  T h e y r e s p o n d e d w i t h comments s u c h a s , " T h a t ' s a good  summary." and "You've c o v e r e d a l l t h e b a s e s . " None o f t h e respondents suggested any r e q u i r e d  (31)  additions  or changes.  Based it  on t h e d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y  i s reasonable  to conclude  illustrated  o f unemployment o f t h e  of the study.  Critical  I n c i d e n t A n a l y s i s o f t h e Unemployment  A total identified  of f i v e  from  hundred and s i x t e e n c r i t i c a l  the t r a n s c r i p t s  i n c i d e n t s were t h e n  placed  into  of the taped  51 c a t e g o r i e s .  and  o r d e r summary o f t h e n e g a t i v e c r i t i c a l Table  incident  3 g i v e s a rank categories.  were n e g a t i v e (18%)  A total  Finally,  illustrate  each  2 gives a  incident categories  o f 423 c r i t i c a l  incidents w i l l  incidents  o f 93 c r i t i c a l  critical (82%)  incidents  25% o f t h e s u b j e c t s  be d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y .  The  w i l l be g i v e n by d e s c r i b i n g t h e  of the experience  category.  These  i n nature.  range of t h e e x p e r i e n c e differences  were  The c a t e g o r i e s  Table  Each o f the c a t e g o r i e s i n which a t l e a s t mentioned c r i t i c a l  incidents  o r d e r summary o f t h e p o s i t i v e  i n n a t u r e and a t o t a l  were p o s i t i v e  Experience  interviews.  were b r o k e n down i n t o n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e . rank  checks,  t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the d a t a  a c c u r a t e l y represents the experience subjects  by t h e s e  of the respondents  one o r two d i r e c t  category.  (32)  w i t h i n each  q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be u s e d  to  TABLE 2  Rank O r d e r Summary Of N e g a t i v e C r i t i c a l Number o f Incidents  Category Stressed  b y L a c k o f Money  Frustrated  by J o b S e a r c h  Incidents: Number o f Subjects Per I n c i d e n t  119  19  41  16  26  13  24  10  23  9  22  8  21  7  18  7  14  7  12  7  11  6  9  6  7  6  7  5  5  4  11  3  7  3  Depressed/Ashamed o f B e i n g on  Welfare  Marital/Family Feels  Problems  Unmarketable  Loss of S e l f  Esteem  Contact With M i n i s t r y of Social  Services  & Housing  Bored Unhappy w i t h  Job  Disappointed  about  Losing  Job  Lazy/Unmotivated Christmas Exploited  by Employer/  T r a i n i n g Program Feels  Discriminated  Against  Unhappy w i t h  Moving  Difficulties  of Single  Parenting Housebound (33)  TABLE 2  Peels Misunderstood  (Continued)  by  Friends  5  3  5  3  4  3  4  3  3  3  Regulations  8  2  Winter  5  2  2  2  Money  3  1  Angry a t S o c i e t y  1  1  Leaving  School Prematurely  1  1  Waiting  for  Status  1  1  Drinking  1  1  1  1  423 1  1  1  1  Self  Conscious  about  Disappointed with  Age  Training  Program Contact  w i t h C.E.I.C's  P e s s i s m i s t i c about Frustrated  Contact Fear  of Being  Disoriented of  Government  w i t h U.I.C.  Undeclared  Loss  by  Future  Caught  Making  Immigration  by new  city  Independence  Lonely  (34)  TABLE 3  Rank O r d e r Summary Of P o s i t i v e C r i t i c a l Number o f Incidents  Category Joined  Incidents: Number o f Subjects Per Incidents  C o u r s e o r Employment/  T r a i n i n g Program  18  11  Felt  12  7  10  7  Supported by F r i e n d s  10  7  Relieved  10  7  P/T o r Temporary/Work/Income  7  5  Supported  by F a m i l y  4  3  Volunteer  Work  4  3  Summer  3  3  Trip  3  3  4  2  Romantic R e l a t i o n s h i p  2  2  Religious Conviction  2  2  Feeling  1  1  O p t i m i s t i c about Job Search  1  1  Class  1  1  1  1  1  1  Fulfilled  Happy w i t h  Job  t o Leave J o b  Happy w i t h  Free  Raising Family  Housing  of Greater  Independence  Reunion t o S e t Own  Schedule  Supported by M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g  93  (35)  Negative C r i t i c a l  Financial  Incident  Categories  Pressures  This category depression  r e f e r s to the s t r e s s , t e n s i o n , a n x i e t y  the respondents experience  as a r e s u l t  and/or  of lack of  finances. Range For for  t h e most p a r t , members r e p o r t e d  b a s i c needs s u c h a s f o o d ,  respondent reported  not being  of socks without  a great deal distressed  holes  of d i f f i c u l t i e s  able  to attend  a New  i n them.  children's  meeting t h e i r  Single  entertainment great  deal  and t o y s .  of despair  were few c a s e s  regarding  This category  parents  expressed t o meet  was c l e a r l y a s o u r c e  f o r v i r t u a l l y every  where r e s p o n d e n t s c o u l d  r e s p o n d e n t and  see the " l i g h t (Number  f a c t o r : 19 o r 95 %, number  (36)  able  a n d were  their  items such as c l o t h i n g ,  of the t u n n e l " p e r t a i n i n g t o f i n a n c e s . mentioning t h i s  and  have a  reported  monthly b i l l s  and f r u s t r a t i o n a t n o t b e i n g  expectations  Y e a r ' s Eve  A few r e s p o n d e n t s  b y t h e d e b t s t h e y were a c c u m u l a t i n g .  pressure  One  h i s s h o e s o f f and he d i d n ' t  seemed t o have t h e most f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s intense  enough money  s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g .  p a r t y a s he would have t o t a k e pair  not having  of a  there  a t t h e end  of people  o f i n c i d e n t s : 119)  Illustration  "All now  I t h i n k about that  i s , how  I've g o t t h i s  from f o r g r o c e r i e s ? get  an e a r l y p l a c e  forever? really  much t i m e  I g e t n e x t months r e n t  months r e n t ?  i n t h e bank  Where i s t h e money  coming  What t i m e s h o u l d I be a t t h e f o o d bank t o i n l i n e s o I d o n ' t end  where c a n I go  the  do  ... j u s t . . .  up s t a n d i n g t h e r e  t o g e t what I need  scratching  for anything for  t o get?  t o g e t by w h i c h  It's  just...  hasn't l e f t  me  me."  "Money... T h e r e ' s n e v e r enough money. I mean i f you go t o a g r o c e r y s t o r e and you s t i l l d o n ' t paying  the a  have t h a t money t o pay  f o r i t and  back... bill  c h a r g e up b u t a t t h e end  one way  little  Just  you're  stretching,  month and I've  out a g a i n . striving  f o r i t b u t you end  t o g e t by.  you have a d o u b l e b i l l  h e r e and  don't even  see i t . "  Frustrated  by J o b  that  little  You d o n ' t  n e x t month.  pay And  I t ' s hard t r y i n g  e x t r a doesn't even...  to one that's  to get You  Search  T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s the negative f e e l i n g s expressed around  up  I t ' s a c o n t i n u o u s back  been i n t h e w i n t e r months.  extra  o f t h e month a g a i n  being unable t o f i n d  (37)  employment.  respondents  Range The general  g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f remarks i n t h i s c a t e g o r y concerned t h e rather  than the s p e c i f i c .  O n l y one r e s p o n d e n t r e p o r t e d  disappointment a t not g e t t i n g a s p e c i f i c general  job.  O t h e r s made more  c o m p l a i n t s s u c h a s no j o b s b e i n g a v a i l a b l e ,  not g e t t i n g  r e s p o n s e s t o resumes a n d b e i n g " l e d " on b y p o t e n t i a l  employers.  A number o f s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g d i s c o u r a g e d by j o b rejections further  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y were u n a b l e  job search.  reporting  that  employers  A few r e s p o n d e n t s qualified  Others complained had l i t t l e  complained  f o r positions  o f employers  regard f o r t h e i r  "inhumanity", feelings.  o f b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d under  or over  t h e y would have been p l e a s e d t o assume.  (Number o f p e o p l e m e n t i o n i n g incidents:  t o pursue any  this  factor:  16 o r 80 %, number o f  41)  Illustration "I  make t h e r e t u r n phone c a l l  a n d t h e y go, "Oh w e l l ,  f o u n d somebody e l s e " o r you c a l l j o b s and t h e y j u s t say,  t e n people  i n t h e paper  positive  they say,  the  y o u e v e r h e a r o f them.  about  really  "1*11 g e t back t o y o u tomorrow", a n d t h a t ' s  hard  t o even  "You  t r y f o r more a t t e m p t s  negative  just  "No, we a l r e a d y f o u n d somebody", o r i f  you do go i n f o r a n i n t e r v i e w i t seems r e a l l y good,  last  we  Then I g e t d e p r e s s e d and i t g e t s  look a t the paper."  l o o k i n g o u t f o r j o b s and t h e n y o u g e t  r e s u l t s and i t ' s j u s t a b i g d e p r e s s i o n a g a i n .  (38)  This  happened t o roe s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t just off  say, of  "to h e l l  i t and  with  it."  Right?  t h i n k of a n y t h i n g  Depressed/Ashamed Of This category  Being  times.  On  So you  You  else  go  back and  t r y t o put  t h a t you  can  your  you  mind  do."  Welfare  i n c l u d e s t h e gamut o f n e g a t i v e  s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d a r o u n d b e i n g on  feelings  welfare.  Range Members o f t h i s c a t e g o r y r e p o r t e d their  independence as  their  livelihood.  concerning outside  the  respondents  l o o k s on  passing d r i v e r ' s  office  that they're  t h a t t h e y had  mentioning  this  factor  like  t o p i c k up  "sunk t o t h i s 13  or 65 %,  f a c e s when he A  friends  Others point".  number o f  had  lost  feelings  h i s cheque.  on w e l f a r e .  they  t h e government f o r  member r e p o r t e d n e g a t i v e  s t a t e d that they avoid t e l l i n g  acquaintances depressed  t h e y were d e p e n d e n t on  One  the w e l f a r e  feeling  waited  few  and  reported  feeling  (Number o f incidents:  people  26)  Illustration "It  i s bad.  get  out  the  bank I c a n  of  I t i s bad. i t as  l o o k e d a t me  s o o n as  feel  I hate  i t .  possible.  I simply  way  when I was  (39)  i t .  I want t o  When I d e p o s i t t h e c h e q u e s i n  i t , t h e c a s h i e r s , how  a different  hate  they  living  l o o k a t me. on my  They  savings."  "You  c e r t a i n l y don't  tell  people about  i t .  You're d e p e n d e n t on a  certain  amount o f money once a month t h r o u g h  pocket,  really.  I like  other  t o be a n i n d i v i d u a l .  peoples  I have a n ego a s  I'm s u r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e do and i t ' s n o t n i c e knocked  Peels  down.  Right?"  Unmarketable This category refers  are  having i t  unable  to the respondents'  t o g a i n employment due t o t h e i r  feeling  own l a c k  e d u c a t i o n o r e x p e r i e n c e a s opposed t o b l a m i n g government  that  they  of s k i l l s ,  employers  or  officials.  Range Many o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g require  some s o r t  presently  of r e - t r a i n i n g  l a c k e d any v o c a t i o n a l  p o s s e s s were o u t - d a t e d . h i s t o r y made  Others  t h e y would  i n order to f i n d skills felt  i t extremely d i f f i c u l t  s e r i o u s l y by p o t e n t i a l  that  employers.  work a s t h e y  or the s k i l l s  t h a t gaps  they d i d  in their  work  f o r them t o be t a k e n Two r e s p o n d e n t s  felt  that  they  were t o o o l d t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r employment and two o t h e r s thought  that  b e i n g on w e l f a r e " s c a r e d e m p l o y e r s  general, the f e e l i n g s from d i r e c t  feedback  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y d i d n o t appear from p o t e n t i a l  employers  i n f e r e n c e s made by t h e s u b j e c t s a s a r e s u l t failures.  (Number o f p e o p l e m e n t i o n i n g  number o f i n c i d e n t s :  off".  23)  (40)  this  In to result  b u t were  rather  of t h e i r  job search  factor:  9 o r 45 %,  Illustrations  " I know, when you've been unemployed  f o r a c o u p l e o f y e a r s and  you've been w o r k i n g a few months d u r i n g look  t o o good on y o u r a p p l i c a t i o n .  when I s a y you've o n l y . . . o n l y worked  a l l your  life.  want t o g e t s o m e t h i n g  t h e n you d o n ' t skills.  F o r some r e a s o n , I g u e s s ,  You know, you p u t down t h a t  that  you've  i t ' s our f a u l t . "  You d o n ' t good.  want t o have a l o w t y p e j o b .  Right?  have a n y e d u c a t i o n .  You d o n ' t have n o t h i n g .  looking  i t doesn't  y o u want t o go f o r a j o b a n d y o u d o n ' t want t o be a  dishwasher You  time,  from a c e r t a i n date t o a c e r t a i n d a t e , so I guess  they g e t t h i s assumption  "Because  that  You d o n ' t  It's like  f o r a j o b b u t y o u have t o be  Marital/Family  future but  have a n y p a r t i c u l a r  kind  o f g o i n g and  realistic."  Problems  This category includes marital as c o n f l i c t s  I t ' s f o r your  with " s i g n i f i c a n t  common-law s p o u s e s .  It also  splits  and t e n s i o n s a s w e l l  o t h e r s " such as l o v e r s and  included  conflicts  with parents,  c h i l d r e n and s i b l i n g s . Range  The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n s e s i n t h i s directly report  related  c a t e g o r y d i d n o t seem  t o unemployment a l t h o u g h two r e s p o n d e n t s d i d  t e n s i o n s due t o s p e n d i n g more t i m e a t home.  (41)  A few members  cited two  marital splits  of which caused  reported case,  problems  the  subject  that occurred prior t h e unemployment  itself.  to sever a l l t i e s  reported d i f f i c u l t i e s  caused  mentioning  this  gravity  parents.  i n d e a l i n g with  whose d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r (Number o f p e o p l e  w i t h her  her  unemployment,  T h r e e members  i n g e t t i n g along with t h e i r  p r o b l e m s were of s u f f i c i e n t  incidents:  to their  parents.  In  to cause  the  Another s u b j e c t  "special  a v a r i e t y of factor:  one  10  needs  child"  problems.  or  50 %,  number of  24)  Illustration " I ' v e managed t o g e t on nerves  which  realized Static You lose "He  builds  up  because  case  I like  t o have my  want me  t o o much.  get out  t h a t I'm  I'm  I don't not  between p e o p l e  t h a t when you doesn't  mother's nerves  is a relationship  t h a t was  know.  my  spend a  out  or s h e ' s g o t t e n on  want t o s p o i l  p r i v a c y and  I got  day.  in close quarters.  i n d i v i d u a l i t y but  you  a t home."  a r o u n d anyways a l l t h e t i m e .  I t ' s time  I  f o r a good p a r t o f t h e  when t h e y ' r e  l o t o f time  and  my  out cause  I feel  I g e t on h i s that i f I  don't  p r o b a b l y g o i n g t o have a n e r v o u s breakdown or  something."  Contact  with M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l  This category staff  that c l i e n t s  i n c l u d e s any expressed  Services &  Housing  contact with M i n i s t r y o f f i c e s  in a negative  (42)  light.  or  Range  The  reponses  in this  g e n e r a l a s opposed worker.  to r e f e r r i n g  to a p a r t i c u l a r  A few r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d  picking policy  c a t e g o r y were f o r t h e most p a r t  up t h e i r or the  cheques  and  incident  o t h e r s complained about  factor:  or  negative experiences i n Ministry  "general a t t i t u d e s " of M i n i s t r y s t a f f .  people mentioning t h i s  quite  7 o r 35 %, number o f  (Number o f incidents:  21)  Illustration " T h e r e ' s t i m e s t h a t you over your s h o u l d e r . the  fact  that  f e e l almost  I t s not a r e a l  I've g o t i t and  I'd s u r e r a t h e r  n o t be on  like  c o n c e r n because  I would  it.  watching  I appreciate  never t r y t o abuse  But t h a t ' s p a r t  keep an eye on what p e o p l e a r e d o i n g and for doing t h e i r  t h e r e ' s someone  of t h e i r  i t , but job to  you have t o r e s p e c t  j o b , on the same n o t e , I l i k e  my  privacy.  them  I  r e a l l y d o n ' t want t o a c c o u n t f o r e v e r y movement." "I d o n ' t know. bring You  Going  through...  in every receipt  know.  It's like  you g e t f o r c h i l d  H a v i n g t o a p p l y , you  f o r r e n t and  they don't  trust  they deduct  end  up g e t t i n g a p a r t - t i m e j o b j u s t T h e r e ' s no  anybody.  s u p p o r t , i t t a k e s you two  it,  to.  y o u r phone and  o f f y o u r cheque so y o u ' r e  incentive.  And  no  hydro.  little bit  years to f i g h t f o r f u r t h e r ahead.  t o h e l p and  the run around  (43)  The  your  have t o  they deduct you g e t . . . "  You that  Loss of S e l f  Esteem  T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s any remarks r e l a t i n g decline  of s e l f  confidence or s e l f  to subjects  image.  Range Comments i n t h i s c a t e g o r y t e n d e d around  descended reported  t o a lower that  their  level  to rejoin  factor:  made them f e e l  of being.  that  t h e y had somehow  A couple of respondents  p r o l o n g e d unemployment made them q u e s t i o n  own w o r t h and a b i l i t i e s  ability  i n not being  A number o f s u b j e c t s e x p r e s s e d  b e i n g d e p e n d e n t on " h a n d o u t s "  this  to feelings  b e i n g on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e o r f r u s t r a t i o n  a b l e t o s e c u r e employment.  their  to relate  and c a s t  the workforce.  self  doubt  as t o t h e i r  (Number o f p e o p l e  mentioning  8 o r 40 %, number o f i n c i d e n t s : 22)  Illustration "We d o n ' t dollars  g e t a cheque u n t i l  f o r gas t o g e t here.  though.  T h e y gave me a c l o t h i n g  T h e y g i v e i t t o you i n a v o u c h e r  can shop.  and t e l l  I ' v e had my own f a m i l y and I ' v e l i v e d  have t o t u r n a r o u n d that.  Wednesday s o I had t o b o r r o w t e n  a n d be t o l d ,  y o u where y o u  on my own and t o  how t o do t h i s a n d how t o do  I t t a k e s away a n y k i n d o f s e l f  (44)  allowance  e s t e e m you've g o t l e f t . "  Unhappy on  Job  This category the  subjects  i s unique  i n that  i t could  be  "pre-unemployment e x p e r i e n c e " .  labelled  It includes  remarks p e r t a i n i n g t o unhappiness or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  part  of  any  with  their  employment. Range This category dissatisfactions subjects be  paid  the of  contains  with  employment were q u i t e d i v e r s e .  complained about on  time,  a wide r a n g e o f r e s p o n s e s a s  included  insensitive  sexual  j o b , u n f a i r p r o m o t i o n p o l i c i e s and people mentioning t h i s  incidents:  factor:  7 or  boring 35  Conditions  harrassment,  management, e x c e s s i v e  %,  the  failure  pressures  job t a s k s . number  to  on  (Number  of  14)  Illustrations " E v e r y o n e was how  things  wasn't v e r y walks  had  bothered  by  The  going  new  mangement was  into  t o be  it. liked  seem t o have a n y  t h a t w h i c h the  other  T h e y made t h e  l o t of p r e s s u r e .  staff,  angry because of the  good a t e n t e r i n g  They d i d n ' t  quite well. a  were done.  i n , y o u ' r e not  given. around  u p s e t and  Any  (45)  and  well  t i m e new  liked  management  p r e t t y much a skills  and  people reasonably  by i t . "  not  personal  A c o u p l e o f p e o p l e had  that, disturbed  in  that's  management had  been t h o u g h t u n f a i r l y and  sudden changes  to  in fact  happy.  get worked  I was  been, of the  unreasonably  fired.  out  under  floor I  was  "You'd e a r n a b o u t thing  that  $2.70 an hour,  or something  l i k e that  but  g o t t o roe i s your s p e n d i n g t w e l v e h o u r s a d a y  blinking  taxi  when you  l e a v e the t a x i  stuff  and  right  under  and  you  had  to t e l l  and  when you g e t back and  you've g o t t o check a microscope,  p e o p l e e v e r y move you this  really  i n the make,  kind  i n with your d i s p a t c h e r .  so i t was  the  of  You're  restricting."  Bored T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s r e s p o n d e n t s ' comments a r o u n d monotony and  boredom o f t h e i r  day  to day  the  lives.  Range: Comments i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were q u i t e They t y p i c a l l y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d in  the s u b j e c t s '  lives.  the l a c k  homogeneous i n n a t u r e .  of v a r i e t y or c h a l l e n g e  A number o f s u b j e c t s a l s o  difficulties  in f i l l i n g  this  7 or 35 %, number o f i n c i d e n t s :  factor:  their  time.  mentioned  (Number o f p e o p l e  mentioning  18)  Illustration "It  wasn't h a r d .  Unemployment months.  only lasted  Then I g o t  Disappointed  I coped  with i t .  That o n l y  lasted...  a few months... s i x months,  seven  pregnant."  About L o s i n g J o b  T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s any n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g e x p e r i e n c e d around  loss  of a s p e c i f i c  (46)  job.  clients  Range  T h e r e was members f e l t  angry at t h e i r  members had a a n x i e t y and Social or  a dichotomy  " h e r e we  of f e e l i n g s employers  category.  for letting  returning  Other  a mixture of  t o unemployment  (Number o f p e o p l e m e n t i o n i n g t h i s  35 %, number o f i n c i d e n t s :  Some  them go.  go a g a i n " r e a c t i o n w h i c h was  r e s i g n a t i o n around  Assistance.  in this  and/or  factor:  7  12)  Illustration " I was was  very angry, v e r y angry.  not r i g h t .  whatever. didn't  I didn't  They t o l d  hear  I was  Peels  i t because  I was  that  my  incompetent  t h e y were g o i n g t o l a y me  i t t h r o u g h t h e managers o r a n y t h i n g .  through the s t a f f And  me  lose  Cause t h e r e a s o n I l o s t  off.  job or  I  I heard i t  I wasn't e a s y enough so I g o t c a n n e d .  angry."  Lazy/Unmotivated  T h i s c a t e g o r y i s somewhat s i m i l a r categories deal category d i f f e r s  t o t h e " b o r e d " c a t e g o r y as  with the s u b j e c t s b e i n g " i n a r u t " . f r o m boredom a s  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and  This  i t seems t o come a f t e r  i t i n v o l v e s an  "inertia"  wherein  both  boredom  the  subjects  are unable t o "get themselves going" Range  Generally, lost  members o f t h i s c a t e g o r y r e p o r t e d  the energy and/or  that  m o t i v a t i o n t o p o s i t i v e l y change  (47)  they their  had  lives.  I n most c a s e s ,  this  seemed t o be  the  of u n s u c c e s s f u l job or  job search a c t i v i t y .  mentioning  6 o r 30 %,  this  factor  outcome o f a p e r i o d (Number o f  number o f  incidents:  people 11)  Illustration "It's  been a r e a l  because sit  bloody drag.  i t ' s so...It  back and  do  has  I t ' s been r e a l l y ,  been a w h i l e and  really  i t ' s so e a s y  hard  just  to  nothing."  Christmas T h i s c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s any experienced  negative  around the Christmas  feelings  h o l d i a y season,  subjects including  New  Years. Range The  m a j o r i t y of the  coping  with  during  the Christmas  the a d d i t i o n a l  children  felt  children  the  respondent to  types  inability  clothing.  be a t i m e  Aside  subjects with  this  like  from  financial was  the  to c e l e b r a t e .  6 or 30 %,  (48)  their Another parties  difficulties,  due the  perception that i t  o f c e l e b r a t i o n when t h e y had  factor:  to.  to attend Christmas  of Christmas  p e r s o n a l or work l i v e s  mentioning  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  o f p r e s e n t s t h e y would  in  normally incurred  v e r y b a d l y a b o u t not b e i n g a b l e t o buy  other negative aspect  their  reported d i f f i c u l t i e s  expenses t h a t a r e  season.  r e p o r t e d an  inadequate  should  respondents  number o f  very l i t t l e  (Number o f incidents:  in  people 11)  Illustration  "I do  have t h r e e k i d s and  Christmas  I just  comes a l o n g and  I'm  c o u l d n ' t g i v e them  scrapping for every  stuff.  penny and a l l  that." " I t ' s d i s a p p o i n t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when C h r i s t m a s Right.  That  seems t o be  got any  money i n t h e bank.  house.  You  know.  of doing anything. done.  the worst You  There's  no  What have I g o t  lots  You  of time around  fulfillment  and  haven't the  satisfaction  t o show f o r a n y t h i n g  I've  Right?"  Exploited  By E m p l o y e r / T r a i n i n g  This category concerns with  p a r t of the y e a r .  spend  just  comes a r o u n d .  j o b s o r employment  Program  the n e g a t i v e experiences  training  subjects  programs t h a t r e s u l t e d  had  i n them  feeling exploited. Range Some members o f t h i s programs Hosts"  paid  i n w h i c h e m p l o y e r s were e n l i s t e d  t o g i v e them work e x p e r i e n c e  t h e r e was period  c a t e g o r y were p a r t i c i p a n t s  an  (which  implicit  training.  learning  I t was new  the employers d i d not  a l s o understood  skills live  "Training  Place  In t h e s e  t h a t t h i s work  c o s t s t h e employer n o t h i n g )  employment.  would be  understanding  as  in training  would be t h a t the  cases  experience followed  by  participant  d u r i n g t h e work e x p e r i e n c e .  When  up t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t , t h e s u b j e c t s  (49)  Involved feeling  felt  bitter  and  exploited.  Other s u b j e c t s  e x p l o i t e d by r e g u l a r e m p l o y e r s .  monetary i s u e s such (Number o f p e o p l e incidents:  as  being  mentioning  underpaid this  reported  This centered or n o t  factor:  being  6 or  30  around  p a i d on  %, number  time. of  7)  Illustrations "Two  h o s t c o m p a n i e s and  experience my  self  because "It's  refusing Feels  I felt  confidence  like  as  I was  i n money.  this  He  t o s i g n those  Discriminated  unfairly  really  and  I d i d n ' t get  taken  went down a g a i n a n d . . . n o t  with  This category being  like  t h e y w e r e n ' t good h o s t  just  rolling  and  t h e y were a w f u l  pays me  forms s o  advantage o f . g e t t i n g the  So  job  companies."  plumber guy.  just  good  He's  the  I can  g o t money.  $3.00 and g e t my  he's  other  He's  even  $3.00."  Against  refers  to s u b j e c t s ' perception that they  t r e a t e d or p e r c e i v e d on  f a m i l y s t a t u s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , race  the  b a s i s of  factors  are such  or economic s t a t u s  Range Most r e s p o n d e n t s discriminated  against  i n this category in their  job search.  s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e y were b e i n g consideration  reported  f o r j o b o p e n i n g s due  (50)  feeling  In t h e s e  cases,  u n f a i r l y exempted  to t h e i r  being  on  from  welfare  or  being s i n g l e  parents.  A couple  of s u b j e c t s f e l t  b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n non interactions subjects  such as banking  felt  that  job search  or shopping.  that  t h e y were  related  In t h e s e  cases,  t h e y were b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t on  the  b a s i s o f r a c e o r e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( i . e . b e i n g on w e l f a r e ) . (Number of  people  mentioning  incidents:  this  factor:  5 or  25 %,  number  of  7)  Illustration "A  l o t of people  feel  shun away f r o m s i n g l e  t h e i r attendance  a single  person  frustration  would be a s good as s a y a m a r r i e d  (without c h i l d r e n ) ,  i n job  Course  T h i s was incident around  so I f e l t  Critical  o r Employment  enrolling  woman o r  a l o t of  Incident Categories  Program  t h e most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d  category.  don't  hunting."  Positive  Joined  p a r e n t s because they  It refers  i n any  positive  critica  t o the s u b j e c t s ' p o s i t i v e  type of job r e l a t e d  course  or  feelings  training  program. Range  The positive  m a j o r i t y of respondents about  j o i n i n g a course  i n t h i s category f e l t  very  o r program but were n o t s p e c i f i c  (51)  as  t o why  this  subjects  was  such a p o s i t i v e Incident.  m e n t i o n e d some p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s  t h e s e programs s u c h as Although subjects number o f  the  "energizing" a greater factor:  d i d not  55  i t got  purpose.  %,  and  cases,  they learned  resume  i t seems t h a t  them more a c t i v e and  a  an  gave them  people mentioning  incidents:  in  writing.  j o i n i n g a p r o g r a m was  (Number o f  number of  that  i t explicitly,  found t h a t  e x p e r i e n c e as  or  skills  express  respondents  sense of  11  typing  In two  this  18)  Illustration "Well,  the  first  a c t i o n group. just and  high  That r e a l l y  going around my  point  was got  in c i r c l e s  when I became a p a r t me  going.  a f t e r I'd  resume wasn't a l l t h a t g r e a t ,  job-action  gorup got  to present  myself a  my  " U h . . B a r k e l word p r o c e s s i n g . t h a t and  what I was  that  d o i n g . , or what  back.  well  which r e a l l y  great.  a l l these  looking  I enjoyed  s t a r t e d r i g h t away on  realizing  visit  resume down r e a l  l o t better  I t was  of t h a t  and  I  companies  The I learned  so  I got  Monday m o r n i n g w i t h o u t and..um..  feelings  included  around r a i s i n g  a l l comments r e l a t i n g  children.  (52)  really  I enjoyed  Family  This category  how  into  it"  Raising  was  helped."  that...  i t was  job  positive  Range  Most o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s children  of four years  mentioned  feeling  childrens' such  first  as t h e i r  mentioned  category  o f age o r l e s s .  of f u l f i l l m e n t  referred  Several  i n being  to raising  respondents  present during  two y e a r s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n developments  c h i l d r e n s * l e a r n i n g t o walk o r t a l k .  becoming c l o s e r  time  to attend  this  factor:  to their  to their  needs.  7 o r 35 %, number  their  Others  o l d e r c h i l d r e n and h a v i n g  (Number o f p e o p l e of incidents:  more  mentioning  12)  Illustration "It's  March.  The baby's b o r n . . . h i g h l i g h t o f my  life.  I'm a  mother...excellent." "So what e l s e  were h i g h p o i n t s - my d a u g h t e r w a l k i n g  d a u g h t e r b a s i c a l l y a l l t h e way t h r o u g h . i n some ways t h a t r e a l l y welfare people  - I felt who  tempered  I want t o be w i t h  b a b i e s when t h e y ' r e  living  Relieved  f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r  I know a l o t o f  4 months o l d t o go  back t o work b e c a u s e t h e y want t o have a c e r t a i n of  her s o  t h e unemployment and b e i n g on  l u c k y i n a l o t o f ways b e c a u s e  leave t h e i r  - my  standard  children".  To L e a v e J o b  This category dissatisfaction when t h e y q u i t  c o n s i s t s of s u b j e c t s ' r e p o r t s of  at their  j o b s w h i c h l e d t o them f e e l i n g  o r were r e l e a s e d .  (53)  relieved  Range T h e r e was c a t e g o r y as previous  a  the  fairly  wide r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e s  members had  employment.  diverse  t i m e t o and burnout. or  35  h a r a s s m e n t and  (Number o f p e o p l e m e n t i o n i n g t h i s  %,  number of  incidents:  with  included  with s u p e r v i s o r s ,  f r o m work, s e x u a l  this  dissatisfactions  These d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s  working hours, d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  excessive  excessive general  their  travel  job  factor:  7  9)  Illustration "Relief least  more t h a n a n y t h i n g  ten  h o u r s a day,  Sometimes on M o r a l e had t o be  out  the  just  else.  u s u a l l y was  s e v e n t h day completely  o f what had  I'd  okay f o r a  Happy W i t h This could  be  subjects'  Yah.  been a good s i t u a t i o n  t o work a t Metrotown h e r e and  felt  least  f a l l e n apart.  "I  that  time  I was  working  at  s i x d a y s a week.  come i n f o r maybe a h a l f  and  t o work s o  that  in at  uglier had  uglier  At  I was  just  t h a t was  day. glad  turning  everyday."  kind  of  little  bummed me  that  out.  took a l o n g  Then I g o t  w h i l e c a u s e I d i d need a  time t o  laid  get  o f f and  break."  Job i s the  only  considered  a  satisfaction  positive  critical  incident category  "pre-unemployment" c a t e g o r y . with s p e c i f i c jobs  (54)  that  they  that  It refers held.  to  I  Range  About h a l f the  fact  t h e members o f t h i s c a t e g o r y were p l e a s e d  with  t h a t t h e y had r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s where t h e y were  l a r g e l y unsupervised satisfaction  . Two  respondents  reported  w i t h t h e wages t h e y were e a r n i n g .  pleased  t h a t he was  f i n a l l y using the s k i l l s  earlier  trained  factor:  7 o r 35 %, number  for.  (Number o f p e o p l e  particular Another  t h a t he had been  mentioning  of i n c i d e n t s :  was  this  10)  Illustration "I  was d o i n g  hidden  something I r e a l l y enjoyed.  talents  working with. responsible constantly. liked "I  I d i d n ' t know I had.  I liked  T h e r e wasn't a n y r e a l  pressure  f o r my own work.  belonged  because  I was  on t h e j o b . . I was  f o r having  some b r a i n s and I  job.  f r o m t h e j o b I was d o i n g b e c a u s e i t  I was t r a i n e d  was a l l c o m b i n e d .  printer,  commercial a r t i s t  a v e r y a l l around office,  job.  and d r a f t i n g .  s o I was  in sign  i n one l i t t l e  travelling."  (55)  It  writing.  p o i n t as w e l l as d r a f t i n g .  I wasn't s t u c k  I  t h a t went w i t h t h e  E v e r y t h i n g was a l l combined  was e v e n d o i n g s i g n s a t t h i s  little  f o r i t and I f e l t  I had a l o t o f o t h e r s k i l l s  as commercial  one  the people  it."  was a h i g h l y s k i l l e d  I  I had some  I wasn't b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d  I was g i v e n some c r e d i t  got a l o t of s a t i s f a c t i o n  job  I found  I t was  position, i n  Supported  By F r i e n d s  This category advice,  emotional  i n c l u d e s a number  of types  s u p p o r t and f i n a n c i a l  of s u p p o r t such as  support.  Range Most o f t h e r e s p o n s e s support.  These s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t  particularly their had  i n t h i s category dealt with  important  the support  lifestyle.  regards to s e t t l i n g this  factor:  i t was h e l p f u l  i n a new c i t y .  7 o r 35 %, number  was  about  One member r e p o r t e d t h a t she  f r i e n d s s h e c o u l d r e l y on when she was mentioned t h a t  of friends  when t h e y were f e e l i n g d e p r e s s e d  j o b s e a r c h and/or  Another  emotional  in a financial  pinch.  to get f r i e n d s ' advice i n  (Number  of people  of i n c i d e n t s :  mentioning  10)  Illustration "Things still  were l o o k i n g up.  v e r y good  friends.  r e s t a u r a n t and I was about long  my  life  than  I made some good  feeling very positive,  I had f o r sometime c a u s e  period of depression  "Another  I had some r e a l l y good  friends,  who a r e  f r i e n d s a t the feeling  more  positive  I'd gone t h r o u g h  a  beforehand."  h i g h p o i n t was when I g o t back t o V a n c o u v e r t o s e e my  friends."  (56)  P/T  Or  T e m p o r a r y Work/Income  Some s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o s e c u r e work  i n the midst  of t h e i r  subjects' positive this  p a r t - t i m e or  unemployment.  temporary  This category refers  f e e l i n g s around s e c u r i n g and/or  to  maintaining  employment.  Range T h r e e o f t h e members o f t h i s part  time  income.  or  t e m p o r a r y work p r o v i d e d  One  member had  t e m p o r a r y j o b a s she reported  feeling  even though he was  category  very positive  i t wasn't the  hoping  full  that  f e e l i n g s about  her  t h e work.  Another  s u c c e s s f u l l y secured  time,  the  them w i t h much needed  p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed  p l e a s e d t h a t he  indicated  permanent t y p e  employmnet,  of  position  for.  Illustration  "It  was  o n l y temporary but  s a y t h a t t h a t was t o J u l y /86. going  p r e t t y good.  That  t o work.  i t was  was  a job t h a t I enjoyed.  That  a good t i m e .  I went i n e a r l y .  went a l o n g I liked  I'd s t a y  "I d i d n ' t k e e p t r a c k o f what I made b u t between $100 It r e a l l y  from  I would  December /8 5  that job.  I  enjoyed  late."  I think  I p r o b a b l y made  t o $200 e x t r a a month, w h i c h r e a l l y came i n handy.  raised  our  standard  of l i v i n g ,  (57)  i t was  greatl"  Summary Of  For  relatively  and  few  h i g h s and  not  the  quits,  many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s last  "real"  long h i s t o r i e s they never  "worker l a i d  of  In many c a s e s ,  to r e t a i n .  Other  repondents  have  respondents  the m a j o r i t y of those grieved  their  Clearly, experience financial three  i n t e r v i e w e d do  most r e c e n t  hardship. as  attention.  and  the  result, ever  loss.  of the  participants'  t e n s i o n they encounter  This factor,  f r e q u e n t l y as any  i n f a c t , was other category  In a d d i t i o n  to being repeatedly expressed  it  a l s o was  seen  as  family f r i c t i o n ,  t o be a c a t a l y s t loss  As a  n o t a p p e a r t o have  t h e most p r o m i n e n t a s p e c t  i s the s t r e s s  times  job  had  were i n v o l v e d  and  time  what  a n d / o r c a s u a l work t h a t  workforce  their  the  who  t h a t f o r c e d them o u t o f  occupied  loss "job  i n a c c i d e n t s o r m a r i t a l break ups and  lows.  o f f by  employee  with  have p r o b l e m s even r e c a l l i n g  of temporary, p a r t time  expected  experience  seem t o have a t y p i c a l  e x e c u t i v e or t h e d i s e n c h a n t e d  j o b was.  of  downward s w i n g upon j o b  In c o n t r a s t t o the  mill",  their  fired  "flat"  a continual, pervasive string  t h e m a j o r i t y , i n f a c t , do experience.  the e x p e r i e n c e  b e s t d e s c r i b e d as a  i s n o t marked by a s i g n i f i c a n t  loss"  Experience  the m a j o r i t y of the r e s p o n d e n t s ,  unemployment c o u l d be  It  The  of s e l f  (58)  mentioned (See  as a source  for other esteem,  due  to almost  Table  2).  of t e n s i o n ,  "downward p u l l s "  such  i n a b i l i t y to provide for  family,  f e e l i n g misunderstood  associated  with Christmas  Although of those  interviewed,  emotional all  job search  swings.  i n t e n t s and  restricted  their  newspaper a d s . "promising critical  by  and  f r i e n d s and  winter.  frustration  seem t o be  g i v e n up  on  a source  work and  have  job search to o c c a s i o n a l l y responding  j o b i n t e r v i e w " or  "hot  of  seemed t o have, f o r  finding  Moreover, not a s i n g l e  by  respondent  to  reported  j o b p r o s p e c t " as a  a  positive  incident.  experience  r e p o r t e d an  unemployment  marked by v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f d e p r e s s i o n .  characterized  by a c o n t i n u a l s t r u g g l e t o f i n a n c i a l l y  needs, pessimism r e g a r d i n g being a b l e  employment, around being  low  self  e s t e e m and  on w e l f a r e .  o r employment t r a i n i n g devoid  mentioned as a f a c t o r  I n s t e a d , roost r e s p o n d e n t s  I n summary, most r e s p o n d e n t s  survival  was  job s e a r c h does not  purposes,  depression  of s i g n i f i c a n t  It  meet  to gain  a b a t t e r y of negative  With the e x c e p t i o n of  p r o g r a m s , i t i s an and/or l a s t i n g  (59)  feelings  joining a  experience  positive  was  course  virtually  emotional  shifts.  CHAPTER V  Summary a n d  This Social that  study  investigated  Assistance  Recipients  the experience  segments,  Conclusion  t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f unemployment f o r aged  25 - 44.  i s not r e a d i l y d i v i d e d  but i s rather  best  The r e s u l t s  indicate  into c l e a r stages or  represented as predominantly  depressed experience o c c a s i o n a l l y  interrupted  by f l e e t i n g  high  points.  This  chapter w i l l  present a d i s c u s s i o n  theoretical  implications,  implications  limitations  o f t h e s t u d y and i m p l i c a t i o n s  Theoretical  F e a t h e r and Bond  high  depressive  results  for counselling,  affect.  f o r further  and W i n e f i e l d  unemployment a n d l o w s e l f  These f i n d i n g s were c o n f i r m e d  o f t h i s s t u d y which d e m o n s t r a t e d a h i g h  among o u r sample esteem r e p o r t e d  g r o u p and a l s o p o i n t e d by o v e r  (1984)  e s t e e m and by t h e  depressive  t o a low l e v e l  40% o f r e s p o n d e n t s .  (60)  research.  Implications  (1983) and Tiggeman  f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n between  of the study's  affect  of s e l f  Koraarovsky  (1971) and  Brathwaite  (1983) r e p o r t e d  unemployment a s h a v i n g a d v e r s e  effects  Although  conflict  f a m i l y and/or  50 % o f r e s p o n d e n t s , respondents' factor  that  marital  i t was  unemployment. remained  unemployment and,  upon f a m i l y was  identified  not n o r m a l l y e a s i l y Rather,  i t was  constant throughout  relationships. by  traced  t o the  often stated  employment  i n some c a s e s , even c a u s e d  the  as  a  and  unemployment  itself. A number o f a u t h o r s have p o i n t e d t o t h e u t i l i t y t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e unemployed as o p p o s e d t o d i s c u s s i n g Tiggeman and successful white  Winefield  i n terms of d i s t i n c t  (1987) s i n g l e d  w o r k e r s and  Amundson and  Borgen  y o u t h and  sub-groups is  borne  that of the  will  have d i s t i n c t  o u t by t h i s  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  emotion  found  individuals  study.  Borgen  i n the  (1984).  critical  incidents  This distinction  A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s that are l i k e l y  (61)  job  loss.  distinct  i t is clear  not e x p e r i e n c e the  swings  c o a s t e r s " r e p o r t e d by  i n t e r v i e w e d by B o r g e n  i s further  t h a t a r e prominent  a  p a t t e r n s t o unemployment  "emotional r o l l e r  from o t h e r s u b - g r o u p s  Amundson  (1987) t h a t  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i n t h i s s t u d y do  and  wage  sudden v s . a n t i c i p a t e d  reactive  lack  (1987) s p e c i f i e d  earners,  c o n c l u s i o n o f Amundson and  class.  (1983) c o n t r a s t e d b l u e  i n c l u d i n g primary vs. secondary  The  sub-groups  o u t s u b j e c t s who  number o f s u b - g r o u p s immigrants,  examining  the unemployed a s a homogeneous  p r e v i o u s employment, J a h o d a  collar  of  u n d e r l i n e d by  i n the e x p e r i e n c e of t o be  n o n - e x i s t e n t or  and the Social less  pronounced  i n other sub-groups such  "survival"  financal  utilities), around  needs  inablility  b e i n g on  u n m a r k e t a b l e and  inability  (e.g. food, s h e l t e r ,  to provide  welfare,  as  t o meet  clothing,  f o r f a m i l y , shame/depression  feeling discriminated against,  c o n t a c t with the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l  feeling  Services  and  Housing. This  pattern a l s o confirms  (1979) and  Jahoda  be a p r e d i c t o r blue c o l l a r  (1983) t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s b a c k g r o u n d  o f unemployment e x p e r i e n c e  backgrounds tend  maintaining a s o c i a l uniformily  study,  repondent  i t was  who  occupational  As  was  hardly going  If their  1 of  by  difficulty  support  by  have a friends  35 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  i n the e x p e r i e n c e  3 respondents  suspected  of o n l y a  was  of single  who  had  a white  collar  in this  study,  the  lack of  continuous  t h e p a r t o f the m a j o r i t y o f  experience  model p r o p o s e d  experienced  prominent  h i s t o r y on  their  factor  Although  of  background.  earlier  employment caused  t o have g r e a t e r  negative experience.  can  i n that individuals  network d u r i n g unemployment and  mentioned as a p o s i t i v e this  t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f Hepworth  o f unemployment  by Amundson & Borgen  to experience an  identifiable  the respondents  job search,  i t was  respondents  to v a r y from  (1982).  " g r i e v i n g " stages  Put  the  simply,  i f one  has  one  is  not  loss.  experienced  enthusiasm  certainly  not a p p a r e n t  (62)  i n regards i n the  to  text  of  these  interviews.  and/or enthusiasm minds and impact  It is possible,  that they experienced  fleeting  t o be  however, t h a t a n y  i n nature  was  so d i s t a n t  t h a t i t d i d not  m e n t i o n e d by r e s p o n d e n t s  optimism  have  in their  sufficient  as a p o s i t i v e  critical  incident. Much c l e a r e r , experienced  the  latter  F r u s t r a t i o n with critical  by  self  esteem,  that  t h e y had  was  clear  stagnated very  few  feelings  the  second  model.  most f r e q u e n t  negative  frustrated  seemed h a u n t e d  by  o f b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t and  marketable  skills  to o f f e r  t o the  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s '  t o the  respondents  of the aforementioned  j o b s e a r c h r e j e c t i o n s and  no  t o which  R e s p o n d e n t s seemed v e r y e a s i l y  p o i n t that apathy  respondents  sporadic  the extent  three stages  j o b s e a r c h was  incident.  discouraged  It  however, was  had  were u n d e r g o i n g  job search a c t i v i t i e s  indeed  a t the  time  market.  job search s e t i n and  the  low  feeling  labour  a n y t h i n g more t h a n  and  had that  very  interviews  took  place.  As  illustrated  the e x p e r i e n c e financial Borgen their  i n Table  2,  o f unemployment  t h e most p r o m i n e n t for this  p r e s s u r e s , c o n f i r m i n g the  (1987) and financial  experienced  Frohlich  (1983).  s u b j e c t group  findings  t h e y have t o a d j u s t t h e i r  or h i g h  standard  (63)  of  be  from  and  emphasized the  and  that  pressures  income e a r n e r s who  living  in  was  of Amundson  I t should  pressures are v e r y d i s t i n c t  by d i s p l a c e d m i d d l e  factor  expect  find  fewer  "luxuries".  Rather, the  difficulties  i n meeting b a s i c s u r v i v a l  shelter,  c l o t h i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s and  and  factor  stood  source  of t i m e c o n s u m p t i o n ,  among the  out  great  very  r e s p o n d e n t s of t h i s  prominently  majority  In d i s c u s s i n g t h e this the  subject context  stipulates before  context,  frustration,  a c t u a l i z a t i o n can  be  l o v e and  in their  in a continual struggle  physical  survival  needs.  of t h e s e  subjects  in a  feelings  of s e l f  lives  as  just  this as  Further,  their  affect  low  sporadic levels  their  self  employers.  (64)  This  the  lower  satisfied esteem this  basic many their are,  the conduct  activities  e s t e e m as  presentation  in  are  energy to  job search  of s e l f  model  psychological  they  p s y c h o l o g i c a l well being  a  bound t o a d v e r s e l y  and  places  the  among  Recipients  t o meet t h e i r  "vicious c i r c l e "  their  anger  factor within  l o n g as  i t i s f o r them t o summon up  by  and  Within  emotional  more d i f f i c u l t  sabotaged  pervasive  belonging,  Assistance  Unfortunately,  e s t e e m and  This  pressures  fulfilled.  Social  involved  likely  and  depression  financial  c a n n o t hope t o r e s o l v e the  job search.  families.  s a f e t y needs must be  needs s u c h as  i s s u e s and/or d e f i c i t s  food,  (1968) " h i e r a r c h y of n e e d s " .  i t i s c l e a r t h a t the  study  immense  respondents.  t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l and  self  their  i t i s u s e f u l t o examine t h i s  level"  report  needs s u c h a s  a constant  prominence of  o f Maslow's  "higher  needs and  this  group,  of  as  study  this  are is  to p o t e n t i a l  In a number o f s t u d i e s , point  t o g r o u p employment c o u n s e l l i n g  factor  In w o r k i n g  i n t h i s s t u d y as  incident  i s j o i n i n g an  factor  was  employment  one  may  as  t o why  mentioned  positive  relevant  understanding  the a u t h o r s  joining  of  such  why  training were o n l y  Instead, i t  or program as a  t h i s was  Amundson  found  so.  (1984)  o f human needs t o be  that  structure"  found extremely  the t h r e e g e n e r a l were h e l p f u l This  (65)  categories  categorization  o f employment  a sense  More  in  t o the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y .  programs t e n d t o o f f e r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s  not  as  factors  incidents.  an  Though  programs  j o i n i n g a course  B o r g e n and  were  employment or  the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s  programs a n d / o r c o u r s e s  program.  f o r them.  these  t h e needs o f t h e unemployed.  in fact, explain  or  critical  of t h e unemployment e x p e r i e n c e .  "community, meaning and  can,  saw  (1980) c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  specifically, of  shift  jobs,  s t e p but c o u l d n ' t say e x a c t l y  i n the a n a l y s i s  is clearly  positive  mentioned  t o see  in a couple  As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , Toffler's  who  a positive  higher paying  most r e s p o n d e n t s  helpful  respondents.  t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y of g a i n i n g  by p a r t i c i p a n t s  seems t h a t  of  respondents  them f o r more s k i l l e d ,  finding  or p r o g r a m a s a h i g h l i g h t  t h i s was  have e x p e c t e d  increasing  55%  (1984,1985,1987)  t r a i n i n g course  most r e s p o n d e n t s  employment t r a i n i n g c o u r s e specific  This  the most, p r o m i n e n t  m e n t i o n e d by  Interestingly,  Borgen  as a p a r t i c u l a r y  w i t h t h e unemployed.  verified  This  Amundson and  training These  o f community  as  t h e y are qrouped can o f f e r  w i t h p e e r s who  are  understanding, acceptance  in similar and  meaning a s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e engaged and  have a more d e f i n e d and  "trainees". sense  Finally,  of s t r u c t u r e  program hours  Although  for  reasons  of t h e i r  the aforementioned this  to that  the s u b j e c t s of t h i s that  they r e s i d e  i n and,  i t beliefs  which s o c i e t y views  their  of b e i n g  participants  o f p a i d employment standard working  joining  programs o r  f a c t o r s were a t l e a s t  a  as  hours.  s t u d y d i d not seem t o  be  courses  unemployment e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s  likely  partly responsible  Implications  for Counselling  implications  for counselling,  as such, o f t e n share and  values.  the S o c i a l  number o f m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . study s t r o n g l y refutes  One  from  this  study that  i t should larger  first  society  i t s misconceptions  as  I n t h e c a s e o f t h e manner i n Assistance Recipient, there are a of the m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t  i s the d e p i c t i o n  " t o o l a z y t o work" a n d / o r  is clear  offer  in purposeful a c t i v i t y  be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e members o f t h e  as  and  dynamic.  In d i s c u s s i n g  w e l l as  They  s t a t u s as a r e s u l t  usually closely replicate  were h i g h l i g h t s  support.  t h e s e programs o f f e r  very similar  aware o f t h e s p e c i f i c  that  desirable  circumstances  o f the w e l f a r e  "not minding  recipient  b e i n g on w e l f a r e " .  the r e s p o n d e n t s  (66)  this  had  extremely  It  negative  f e e l i n g s around  being  on w e l f a r e  become members o f w o r k i n g s o c i e t y . of  their  own  challenge negative order  image o f w e l f a r e  this  their  for a positive,  i t i s important  negative  misconceptions  clients  Although  take  care  welfare  c o u n s e l l o r s may clients'  express  recipients  study  need t o have t h e i r  financial  their  experience.  this  suggest  i n the extent t o  with  is little  I t seems t h a t  heard  t o recognize the  and v a l i d a t e d and  of c o u n s e l l i n g o b j e c t i v e s .  t h a t a group format  (67)  t o supress  the c o u n s e l l o r can  This tendency f a i l s experience  they can  t h e forum t o  p o p u l a t i o n tend  In p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o t h i s study  financial  pressures,  clients  serve t o o b s t r u c t the achievment  of t h i s  i n t o the  responded  be l i m i t e d  their  of f i n a n c e s as there  do t o remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n .  can  In  relationship to  most p r e s s i n g i s s u e was  many c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g w i t h  clients'  on w e l f a r e .  t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r have a s t h o r o u g h an  to provide  and c o m p l e t e l y  discussions  client-counsellor  The s u b j e c t s o f t h i s  which t h e y can ease t h e i r  openly  being  a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e i s s u e s t h a t a r e most p r e s s i n g t o  t a r g e t group.  least  have a r o u n d  surrounding  overwhelmingly that t h e i r  at  to  t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r a v o i d c a r r y i n g such  i s a l s o important  pressures.  be p r e p a r e d  be aware  session.  understanding this  recipients,  trusting  emerge,  It  Counsellors should  image when a p p r o p r i a t e and be aware o f t h e i n t e n s e  feelings  counselling  and i n t e n s e l y wanted t o  group, the r e s u l t s  i s most a p p r o p r i a t e t o  these  clients'  needs.  As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r  " j o i n i n g an employment prominent  positive  experience  critical  understandable from  that  these c l i e n t s  involvement  In d e s i g n i n g g r o u p that  technical, this  undertake subjects  i t is clear  successful  desperation.  benefit  suggested  their  view t h e i r  there are  situations  deeper  f o r the c l i e n t s t o  i n v a r y i n g degrees  of d i r e c t i o n ,  the of  i s o l a t i o n and  s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be a number  "cognitive  Although  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  as mired  esteem , lack  levels  in attaining  population, i t i s  t e c h n i g u e s and  study that  i n order  of a c t i v i t i e s  o f g r o u p s u p p o r t and t o a s s i s t  of s e l f  e s t e e m and h o p e f u l n e s s .  by Amundson and Borgen  teach c l i e n t s  for this  from s u c h  from t h i s  t o f o s t e r a sense  in r a i s i n g  clients  There  peers.  go beyond t h e d e l i v e r y o f  job searches.  low s e l f  of  p r o v i d e s them w i t h  t e c h n i q u e s and i n f o r m a t i o n .  p r e s e n t themselves  designed  of t h e i r  need t o be a d d r e s s e d  depression,  the m a j o r i t y  c o u l d d e r i v e a number  interventions  group can c e r t a i n l y  needs t h a t  respondents'  esteem, shame o f b e i n g  i n a program t h a t  the a c t i v i t i e s  job finding  information,  low s e l f  t h e most  f e e l i n g s of being d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , i t i s  t h e s u p p o r t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  essential  i n the  When one c o n s i d e r s t h a t  reported feeling  on w e l f a r e a n d / o r  study,  program o r c o u r s e " was  incident  o f unemployment.  of respondents  benefits  training  in this  (1987),  retraining"  g r e a t e r senses  (68)  As  i t would be u s e f u l t o  i n order to enable  more p o s i t i v e l y .  clients  them t o  In o r d e r t o a s s i s t  of d i r e c t i o n  in their  lives,  it  would  be e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l t o i n c l u d e a " c a r e e r  component  i n which the c l i e n t  vocational  goals.  preventing  "desperation  clients  seeking  Another negative Given  T h i s component  finding  the  programs client can  the  continuing  t h e gap" between  setting  and t h e r e a l i t i e s  Finally, Assistance  this  o r program.  characteristics  aged  way,  the  the c o u n s e l l o r the  client classroom  setting.  group  Canada  of  from other  Employment  and a number o f Canada's  Social  with  r e i n f o r c e s t h e wisdom o f t h e  (69)  this  with  i n the  25-44 a s a d i s t i n c t  These a g r e e m e n t s c a l l  the  into  t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a g r e e m e n t s drawn up between  I m m i g r a t i o n Commission  For  contact  delivered  and needs t h a t s e t i t a p a r t  This conclusion  governments.  In t h i s  o f t h e work  nature.  t o employment i n  and c a n a l s o h e l p  the s k i l l s  study points  Recipients  in  t h a t e v e n t h e most  a f o l l o w up component  of time.  support  in  c a n hope t o e r a d i c a t e  of a c o u r s e  to b u i l d  period  result  respondents'  t e r m and c h r o n i c  i t is unlikely  duration  "bridge  "SAR"  i s that  i n which the c o u n s e l l o r can m a i n t a i n  provide  groups.  which c o u l d  e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s  f o r a longer  term  f o r which t h e y a r e i l l s u i t e d .  group c o u n s e l l o r  i t i s advisable  long  a l s o be u s e f u l i n  job searches"  seem t o be l o n g  characteristic,  typically brief  reason,  s e t s h o r t and  could  of t h i s study  d y n a m i c and c o m p e t e n t clients'  style  employment  experiences  this  could  planning"  unemployed recent  and  provincial  f o r the development  and  operation  o f programs s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d  Assistance  Recipients  employment.  I f these  they  will  career  programs b u i l d affective  planning  most c e r t a i n l y  addressing  Social  i n achieving a successful transition to  such as group s u p p o r t , objectives,  to a s s i s t  a critical  i n aforementioned  as w e l l as c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g  and l o n g  be a s t e p  societal  components  t e r m f o l l o w up  i n the r i g h t  support,  direction in  and human i s s u e .  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study  The  results  Assistance  Recipients  educational resident of  different  As possible would  old.  to a p a r t i c u l a r  or o c c u p a t i o n a l results.  sample o f s u b j e c t s subjects  over  background.  under  the study  The mean age  marital status,  educational  background would have y i e l d e d  25 y e a r s  may a l s o be y i e l d e d f r o m a  o f age o r from a sample o f  o f age.  was c o n d u c t e d  that the r e s u l t s  therefore  was a  I t i s quite possible that a  Different results  44 y e a r s  Each s u b j e c t  C o l u m b i a n Lower M a i n l a n d .  i s 35 y e a r s  limited  a r e based upon a sample o f S o c i a l  o f mixed g e n d e r , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and  of the B r i t i s h  background  study  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  t h e sample  sample  of t h i s  i n Greater  reflect  be i n s t r u c t i v e  i t i s also  an " u r b a n e x p e r i e n c e " .  to r e p l i c a t e  (70)  Vancouver,  the study  It  in a  rural  setting. not  T h e r e may  o n l y due  to c u l t u r a l  F o u n d l a n d ) but the  time  a l s o be  a l s o due  of w r i t i n g , than  unemployment  i n Greater  levels  to varying l e v e l s i s a higher  in British  level  C o l u m b i a and  Toronto  than  a lower  in Greater the  than  level  in  of  Vancouver. experience  These of  unemployment  r e s i d e n t s of r e g i o n s with  NewAt  of unemployment  r e s i d e n t s of r e g i o n s of h i g h e r  hope more e a s i l y  Quebec,  o f unemployment.  o f unemployment c o u l d e a s i l y a f f e c t  unemployed a s lose  d i f f e r e n c e s (e.g. Northern  there  Newfoundland  r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n Canada  the  could  lower  unemployment.  Another the  limitation  sample was  involved  on  employment  drawn.  the  b a s i s of t h e i r  program.  yield  different  possible  Although  participants that c l i e n t s  experience.  they  these  counsellors.  participants for a  s u b j e c t s had  i n t h i s study,  a study  registered  i n a government were not  i n which were  specific not  yet  started  of a group of  i n a program  funded  lives  being a f f e c t e d  may  i t is also  i n a few a r e a s  t h e r e were v e r y  by a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n .  o n l y one  (71)  of t h e i r  lives  respondent  to  program  mentioned  of  infreguent  program, h o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f  confided t h i s aspect Similarly,  program,  fully disclosing  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  became i n v o l v e d i n t h e  participants  i n t h e manner  results.  mentions of t h e i r As  lies  registering  A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s not  As  their  study  E a c h o f the s t u d y ' s  when t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d Social  of t h i s  "illegal  earnings"  as  significant  it  t h e s e w o r k e r s who  despite may  in their  v e r b a l and  have d o u b t e d  criticism  further  confidentiality  r e s u l t s of t h i s research  Assistance and  l a r g e samples c o u l d  there  are  category  graduates,  of t h e  Further  experience  add  t o our  Social Assistance  of  "white c o l l a r " over  45  to the  the  ex-offenders,  Further,  i t would  Recipients.  A more l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y would a l s o be strive  t o measure the  (72)  such  post-secondary  of s h o r t  study could  as  large  Examples o f  illiterates,  term S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e  of  of S o c i a l  warranted  compare t h e  long  value  the  worthwhile to conduct a study that could and  subjects  q u a n t i t a t i v e measures  Recipients.  of age.  and,  interviews.  unemployment  sub-groups w i t h i n  years  as  program  understanding of  subjects,  workers  contrary, taped  were  Research  immigrants, s i n g l e parents,  subjects  welfare  s t u d i e s would a l s o be  a number o f d i s t i n c t  sub-groups are  y o u t h and  For  t o the  A study u t i l i z i n g  More s p e c i f i c  of  their  preliminary study point  i n t o the  Recipients.  phenomenon.  of  a  i n such  o f t e n r e f e r r e d them t o t h e  Implications  The  p r o b a b i l i t y that  t h a t a number o f s u b j e c t s  written assurances  the  the  sample g r o u p engaged  It is also likely  than candid  was  incident despite  p e r c e n t a g e o f the  activities. less  a critical  experiences  desirable.  impact of s e v e r a l  be  Such a  factors  on  the  subjects'  examine t h e  experience  extent  t o w h i c h j o i n i n g an  p r o g r a m a f f e c t s the Equally  subjects'  importantly,  the  these e f f e c t s f o l l o w i n g and  throughout t h e i r One  aspect  unemployment subjects interview the  of  this  themselves.  subjects'  the  subjects'  study  i s that  i t could  a f f e c t and  self  I t would be  e x p e r i e n c e s s u c h as others"  and  (73)  esteem.  measure the  duration  of  graduation  f r o m the  program  the  s o l e l y throught useful  i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t may  members, " s i g n i f i c a n t  example,  employment t r a i n i n g  depressive  study could  For  p o s t - p r o g r a m employment a n d / o r j o b  i s reported  other  o f unemployment.  experience the  eyes of  for a  provide  search.  of the  further study  other  Insights  program c o u n s e l l o r s ,  to into  family  M i n i s t r y S o c i a l workers.  CHAPTER VI  References  Adams, I . , Cameron, W., real  poverty  report,  Hill,  B. & Peng, P. 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Can you t h i n k there  your  back t o when y o u r e a l i z e d a y e a r  wasn't g o i n g t o be more work f o r y o u .  back t o what  ago  Can you  y o u r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s were a t t h a t  t i m e when you had t h a t r e a l i z a t i o n ? Him:  When I r e a l i z e d t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n wasn't g o i n g t o be o f a n y permanent s o u r c e  I was  concerned.  other  permanent work a l l t h i s . . .  Well,  i t ' s a disgruntled  I've been l o o k i n g f o r For years a c t u a l l y .  f e e l i n g knowing t h a t  find  y o u r s e l f a permanent v o c a t i o n .  able  to finance  it  there  i s . You c a n ' t  assistance survive.  own  and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e You know.  been a b l e  doesn't t o t a l a  lower range.  Which  I've been on  to find  you want.  little  jobs  up t o what an a n n u a l  i s what social  can't  So... You know.  on t h e s i d e b u t i t income s h o u l d  be a t  I g u e s s most o f us a r e a t a p o v e r t y  when you've been on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  (84)  t o be  i s j u s t enough t o  As f a r a s t h a t m a t t e r s y o u that  can't  Everybody l i k e s  of l i v i n g .  do t h a t . L i k e . . .  e v e n buy a l l t h e f o o d I've  cost  you  When you've  level been  at  poverty level  I g u e s s we're p r e t t y w e l l  t h e y a r e i n some p l a c e s . and Me:  North  America  Our s t a n d a r d s  back  o££ t h a n  of l i v i n g  i n Canada  are quite high.  Can y o u t h i n k o f a n y o t h e r t h o u g h t s year  better  from U.I.C.?  You know.  and f e e l i n g s you had a You were o u t o f work  completely. Him:  I'm d i s g r u n t l e d  w i t h myself  now... I'm n o t a r e a l l y  cause  t h e age t h a t  I'm a t  young p e r s o n anymore.  I've f i n i s h e d  w i t h my h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g and c o l l e g e  and a l l t h a t .  know.  felt  Time has gone by. I t s e e m s . . . I ' v e  I g e t t h e l e s s chance and  You know.  about  that.  I have t a k e n a w e l d i n g  taken a r e f r i g e r a t i o n  the o l d e r  I'm g o i n g t o g e t i n t o a permanent j o b  I've a l w a y s been c o n c e r n e d  it...  that  You  What t o do a b o u t  o c u r s e and I've  c o u r s e and n e i t h e r o f them have  panned o u t f o r me. Me:  So y o u were q u i t e c o n c e r n e d  Him:  Oh y e a h .  Me:  There  "I'm  Not j u s t a y e a r a g o .  isn't...  seems l i k e  a year ago. Like,  I f a . . . C o r r e c t me  there i s n ' t  unemployed  now".  just  f o r a few y e a r s  i f I'm wrong.  one s p e c i f i c  It's a feeling  now.  But i t  t i m e when you s a i d ,  that  you've had f o r  years. Him:  Several years a c t u a l l y .  A c t u a l l y a l l through  it's  replacements  just  been t e m p o r a r y  have been, I took  them b e c a u s e  d i d n ' t do me a n y good a t a l l . work f o r me.  Doing  and some o f t h e j o b s I  I needed t h e money b u t i t I was... The wrong k i n d o f  l a b o r j o b s and w h a t n o t .  (85)  the e i g h t i e s  I just  c a n ' t do  that  k i n d o f work anymore.  weight than I can  be  strain  satisfied  myself  experience Me:  What has  Him:  Last year?  be  and  I've  the  and  got  I've  year  when C h r i s t m a s  You  spend  There's  just  for  I've  anything Christmas  Yah.  You  done.  no  As  f a r as  I'm  time  concerned  t h a t because  Right?  I won't be  a hermit  I guess.  feelings you're  you  Me:  What k i n d o f n e g a t i v e  Him:  Well,  i t ' s just  down. Right? things.  got  seems  any the  and t o show  and  I just  as  soon  i t ' s family.  You  a l o t of  tend  thoughts.  to t h i n k of  Cause, l i k e I  not a c c o m p l i s h i n g a n y t h i n g .  You  do? thoughts?  fulfillment  Concern about  That  f o r you?  There's  come w i t h b e i n g unemployed.  haven't...What do  year.  Right?  c a n ' t do  say, d u r i n g the day  Right.  What have I g o t  you  l o t more n e g a t i v e  This past  fulfillment  i t but  a  to  t h e work  haven't  cancel  feelings  have  o f time a r o u n d  as a p a r t i c u l a r i l y h a r d  know.  where  It's disappointing,  You  lots  of d o i n g a n y t h i n g .  Him:  f o r you?  p a r t of t h e y e a r .  know.  something  impossible.  comes a r o u n d .  satisfaction  So  to f i n d  Where I d o n ' t  about  been l i k e  You  l o s e more  a job l i k e that with  i t ' s just  money i n t h e bank.  Me:  got  comfortable.  to find  last  the worst  house.  gain.  e a t more and  J u s t , p r e t t y monotonous.  especially to  what you  You  thoughts.  the p r e s e n t and  I t ' s t h a t there are people T h e y work a l l day.  (86)  You  cut yourself  actually  the f u t u r e .  g o i n g o u t and  If i t takes  the time  doing out o f  the  week, T h e y ' r e themselves do  satisfied  on t h e weekend.  those things.  off  that  and t h e y c a n go o u t and e n j o y When y o u r  You s i t a r o u n d  i t ' storture.  . You've g o t s o much t i m e  That's a l i t t l e  c e r t a i n l y d o e s n ' t do you a n y g o o d . T h a t ' s no good. do s t u f f places  That r e a l l y  c o s t s money.  time.  Leisure  been w o r k i n g . unemployed  Watch T.V.  but i t  You know. Go o u t and  Can't, go o u t o r go s h o p p i n g o r go  time  like  that.  That's  i s most a p p r e c i a t e d  I t ' s your t i m e o f f .  everything  b i t extreme  puts you i n a r u t .  o r go f o r h i k e s and t h i n g s  leisure  unemployed, you c a n ' t  i s time o f f .  B u t when  when you've  you're  I t ' s no f u n a t a l l .  Oh,  i tis.  And o f c o u r s e you g e t on t h e n e r v e w i t h t h e  rest  o f your  f a m i l y members t o o , r i g h t ?  locked  We've a l s o  been  up i n p r i s o n .  Me:  So t h e r e ' s more d i f f i c u l t i e s  Him:  Oh y e a h . f r o m us  Definitely.  with the family  I t ' s not t h e i r  fault.  because... It radiates  all.  Me:  When y o u s a y f a m i l y , do you l i v e  Him:  Yes.  Me:  Are you married?  Him:  No.  Me:  So t h e f a m i l y p r o b l e m s  Him:  Yeah.  Me:  B r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s ?  Him:  Well.  Just a l l brothers.  Yah.  living  upstairs.  you s a y , t h e s e p r o b l e m s  They l i v e  w i t h your  parents?  upstairs.  Single  That's r i g h t .  a r e w i t h your p a r e n t s . You know.  But l i k e  (87)  W e l l , one o t h e r b r o t h e r arised  because You  get t i r e d  other It's You  y o u ' r e s i t t i n g a r o u n d and  f a m i l y members. getting  know.  day,  you w o u l d n ' t  does  nitty  l i k e a soap opera type t h i n g .  watch  The  T.V.  getting  And  about.  piles  I f you c o u l d  like  left  I say, t h a t ' s  of e x p e r i e n c e  m i d d l e would  t o do  no good  really  be becoming  flesh  that  either.  b e i n g unemployed  t i m e , how  Him:  S i n c e I've  been  Me:  Yes.  Him:  Well...  would  S i n c e you were l a s t  problems  a  The the  t h e n t h e end  would  f o r a w h i l e and  you  what your t h o u g h t s were you t e l l  that  story?  employed  When y o u ' r e coming  in...  like  unemployed?  t o t h e p o i n t and  t h e r e ' s no more income coming coming  I'm  t o o much.  unemployed and  throughout that last  And  o f unemployment, j u s t  o u t by r e l a t i n g  isn't  i s maybe  be when you were l a s t w o r k i n g and  be t h e j o b s e a r c h a f t e r could  This  t o do on a z e r o  s t o r y w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e and an e n d . . . b e g i n n i n g would  hours a  You'd have more  something  that's  your t a l e  for eight  What k i n d  from s i t t i n g around tell  f r o m our  Right?  N o t h i n g happens.  t r y to find  only thing  and  t h e day,  have t o l i s t e n t o i t .  things to talk  greatest.  picky things  edge.  You d o n t want t o hear a b o u t i t .  i t t a k e t o be unemployed?  budget.  Me:  t o be  little  I f you were o u t d u r i n g  interesting  the  of h e a r i n g  I g u e s s you g e t on  I've had  realizing  i n and t h e b i l l s  to extend c r e d i t .  are  Having  and d e b t s on y o u r m i n d . . . I t ' s t h e f i r s t  (88)  that  still  credit thing  that  I realized  i s that I can't  entertainment, stop. had  my s t e r e o and T.V.  So I'm s t u c k  after  That  a p e r i o d o f time  the idea of being  t h i n g s f o r my g o t t o come t o a  f r o m two y e a r s a g o . personal  i s a last  resort.  losing  a s s i s t a n c e a t t h e t i m e and  on i t f o r sometime.  gone a n d I'd become a l m o s t  I felt like  I think,  i s a b i g part of being  acquired  syndrom a f t e r  realize sort  that.  I think as every so more w i t h d r a w n  t h a t my m o t i v a t i o n  molasses,  lazy.  unemployed.  a certain  You make s p u r t s .  Motivation,  p e r i o d o f time  and I  by and you  You c o u l d k i c k y o u r s e l f i n t h e a s s .  You t r y f o r more a t t e m p t s  j o b s and t h e n y o u g e t n e g a t i v e depression again.  was  I t ' s j u s t an  A f t e r s o many months have gone  o f . . . You know.  assistance  n o t w o r k i n g and I d i d n ' t  on s o c i a l  my m o t i v a t i o n .  things that I  You have t o have  many months went by, I was becoming p r o b a b l y and  And I ' v e  realization  Going t o s o c i a l  It's certainly  I ended up b e i n q  That's  was t h e f i r s t  W e l l , no more money.  money t o e x i s t .  buying  money and h a v i n g  t o keep a r o u n d .  that...  like  with s t u f f  t o stop spending  like  continue  l o o k i n g out f o r  r e s u l t s and i t ' s j u s t  T h i s happened  a big  t o me s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  times.  So you go back and you j u s t  Right?  You t r y t o p u t your mind o f f o f i t and t h i n k o f  anything  else  business  but then,  a business,  t h a t you c a n do. f o r a person  say, "to h e l l  Or maybe I c a n s t a r t that's got nothing  i t ' s j u s t about an i m p o s s i b l i t y .  (89)  with  it."  my own  to start  The c h a n c e s o f  that  g o i n g on a r e p r o b a b l y more t h a n one  Right? for  L e s s t h a n one  sometime now  different She  and  in a million. my  job t h i n g s .  mentioned  this  it  curiosity.  that My  this  hire  know. shoes. course. of  spoke t o me  i s something  It's..  I've  about  I thought that  r e c o r d i s so s c a t t e r e d  resume. to  worker s u g g e s t e d  J o b Keep s e s s i o n ,  she  my  I've  been to  Right?  You  I'd d i d n ' t  the reasons  unemployed  me  this  i t f o r sometime right  I need c a u s e  that  course that's  t h e n and my  work  I c a n ' t e v e n use  g o t t o have a new  start.  somebody t h a t conies i n w i t h a b l a n k I certainly  million.  We're i n t h e p r o c e s s o f moving.  g o i n g on and raised  In a  wouldn't. know.  I put myself  I've  moving.  there history...  i t on a Who's g o i n g  resume. i n the  been l o o k i n g  You  employer's  forward  t h i n k I would g e t a c c e p t e d  i s I'm  and  to  because  this one  And... T h a t ' s a l l I have t o  say. Me:  You  were w o r r i e d a b o u t  one  of the  not having a s t a b l e a d d r e s s  which i s  requirements.  Him:  Yeah.  Right.  Me:  Where a r e you moving t o ?  Him:  Surrey.  But  t h a t ' s no p r o b l e m  cause  I have my  own  transportation. Me:  You've g o t a c a r ?  Him:  Yes.  Me:  During your  unemployment... What I want you  (90)  t o do  i s think  a b o u t what you would c o n s i d e r t o be y o u r sort  of t h i n g s t h a t brought  start  with the f i r s t  you down.  lowest  points.  And i f you c o u l d  low p o i n t t h a t y o u c a n remember, what  e x a c t l y happened and why was t h a t a d i f f i c u l t . . . that d i f f i c u l t Him:  last  w h i c h was f i n e .  course,  difficullty,  realizing  life  probably,  Me:  know.  know.  from  Other  people  as I say, l a s t  t o go,  example o f And t h e n , o f  t o go o u t b r o u g h t  a r e going a normal  New Y e a r ' s  I'm i n a l i t t l e  and I  enough a t home anyways.  that I can't a f f o r d  and I'm n o t l i v i n g  o u t and l i v i n g life.  I think i t  that I realized  b i tof a state  That's  that...  here.  Eve p a r t y t h a t y o u s a i d  i t because I j u s t  just  buy c l o t h e s .  no.  You  couldn't afford  t o . You  one example o r . . . W e l l , I had t o go o u t A l l my s o c k s  went o u t t o buy some s o c k s  have h o l e s  i n them.  And I  and I l o o k e d a t t h e p r i c e s o f  s o c k s and I c o u l d n ' t buy one p a i r . Me:  That  Him:  Yeah.  was  a  from i t .  I d e c l i n e d from  and  I couldn't afford  b e i n g unemployed.  So i t was t h e New Y e a r ' s declined  Him:  t o go b e c a u s e  I was c o n t e n t  on a d e p r e s s i o n . normal  ago  t o p a r t i e s and " W e l l , s o r r y ,  I t h i n k t h a t was p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t  financial  You  invited  two New Y e a r ' s  I d i d n ' t p u t down t h e p a r t y a t t h a t t i m e  knew I wasn't g o i n g  But  New Y e a r ' s ,  I t ' s being  ah..." Well,  Why was  f o r you?  I think probably t h i s date.  The  tough.  So I'm w e a r i n g  h o l e l y socks  (91)  right  now.  I mean...  My c l o t h e s can't  are all...They're  keep up my p e r s o n a l  I can't  afford to.  eating  t h e m s e l v e s away.  appearance  like  my c l o t h e s  I h a v e n ' t gone t o w e l f a r e  I cause  and a s k e d f o r  money e i t h e r . Me:  Have y o u gone f o r t h e c l o t h i n g a l l o w a n c e  f o r Project Job  Keep? Him:  No. I h a v e n ' t  Me:  T h a t would be a good  Him:  Pam M o r r i s o n .  Me.  idea t o do.  s h e was t a l k i n g a b o u t c l o t h e s  Well,  there's  project.  afternoon So  a l s o an a l l o w a n c e So y o u s h o u l d  a f t e r our  think  was a r e a l  of that  Well...Yeah.  on  her a c a l l  parts  low p o i n t ;  Are there  were r e a l  maybe  this  being  difficult.  not going t o p a r t i e s ,  any other  low p o i n t s  things  t h a t you  f o r you?  Another t h i n g t o o i s not j u s t f i n a n c i a l but  s p e n d i n g s o much t i m e a r o u n d  a  give  f o r being i n  interview.  problems with c l o t h e s . could  worker?  f o r work.  f o r clothes  you've m e n t i o n e d t h e f i n a n c i a l  Something t h a t  i s your  She d i d m e n t i o n s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h a t b u t I  think  the  Him:  Who  t h e home.  my m o t h e r ' s n e r v e s o r s h e ' s g o t t e n  I've managed t o g e t on my n e r v e s w h i c h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p I d o n ' t want t o s p o i l and I r e a l i z e d t h a t  b e c a u s e I'm n o t o u t f o r a good p a r t builds  o f the day.  up between p e o p l e when t h e y ' r e  You  know.  I like  but  you l o s e t h a t  i n close  was  Static quarters.  t o have my p r i v a c y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y when you s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e a t home.  B e t w e e n . . . . I t a d d s up.  D i f f e r e n t things....You can't  (92)  help  but  not t h i n k about  those and  things  you don't. like  d o m i n o s , one c h i p  with  i t .  I'd l i k e  like  the m a j o r i t y  So t h e r e ' s  all else  falls  o v e r and a l l t h e r e s t go  t o have a n o r m a l happy  of people...I  hope t h e m a j o r i t y  Or e l s e I w i l l  your other  t h a t go a l o n g  with  It's just  like  I said  had a d e c l i n e i n a l o t o f o u t i n g s know.  There a r e s p e c i a l  or whatever.  know.  events.  before.  You know.  and s o f o r t h .  It's  f o r the  I guess.  points.  You  o f f o r your  you have t o p u t a s t o p  What happened t h e r e  long  social  t h a t you c a n t h i n k  you t o t h i n k o f any h i g h  Right?  people t h a t a r e going  withdrawal.  t h a t b r o u g h t you up d u r i n g  unemployed?  to i t .  Was  there  your t i m e o f b e i n g  and why were t h o s e  helpful  you?  I can't for  anything  L i k e , we have  You know.  It's definite  entertainment,  Now I ' d l i k e anything  Him:  Right?  J u s t about anything  own s o c i a l  for  Is there  go camping o r go r e n t a b a l l o o n and go f l y i n g  entertainment.  Me:  a l s o the part of  f a m i l y members and  that.  weekends and i t ' s n i c e t o go o u t w i t h  day  of people  t h a t you can t h i n k o f ?  I've  to  life  be s o d i s a p p o i n t e d .  p a r t and t h e r e ' s  a t home a l l d a y w i t h  W e l l . . . Y o u know.  You  and when you t r y t o go t o s l e e p  t o be a b l e  the f i n a n c i a l  the things  about  So i t k i n d o f d i s r u p t s my s l e e p and t h e n  it's  being  Him:  I ' d have t i m e s t o t h i n k  i n the evening  have a happy l i f e . Me:  i t .  ever  think  the a r r i v a l  of anything  of t h i s course.  (93)  t h a t b r o u g h t me up e x c e p t I t ' s the o n l y t h i n g  that's  ever  g i v e n me  any  c a n ' t . . . There's  lift no  s i n c e I've  reason  been unemployed.  for...I  can't  t h i n k of  I anything  really. Me:  You've t a l k e d q u e s t i o n so haven't  about t h i s  somewhat a l r e a d y , but  I m i g h t a s w e l l ask  m e n t i o n e d , what has  you  that.  i t been l i k e  i t ' s the  From what on  next  you  social  assistance? Him:  Well, there a  little  don't  I go a g a i n .  b i t about  tell  people  I t ' s not...I  that. about  I t ' s not a p r i d e . . . Y o u i t .  sure  I like  t o be  So  t h a t s been  Him:  Yeah. I d o n ' t . . . L i k e  and  people's  I have an ego  i t ' s not  pocket, as  I'm  nice having i t  tough?  I hear  I say,  talking,  c o l l e c t my  I don't  do  certain  Right?  Me:  people  other  individual.  the m a j o r i t y of people  k n o c k e d down.  and  an  certainly  You're d e p e n d e n t on a  amount o f money once a month t h r o u g h really.  t h i n k I d i d mention  "Well...Oh yah.  cheque and  have t o add  on  I don't, c e r t a i n l y . . . O t h e r  cash  that.  i t and I mind  I'm  going  go do I'm  to  t h i s and  go that."  collecting i t .  Right? Me:  That's  n o t s o m e t h i n g you  Him:  Not  Me:  Have you  Him:  Yes.  Me:  Can  at a l l . ever  I've you  being  tell  other people  I t ' s not something been on  been on  I'd  probably d i s c u s s about.  U.I.C.?  U.I.C. s e v e r a l y e a r s  t h i n k of any  about.  differences  on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ?  (94)  ago.  between b e i n g on U.I.C.  and  Him:  U.I.C. was... W e l l . . . . I between j o b s . available. eighties, do  know when I was on i t , i t h e l p e d  I was d o i n g h e a v i e r work and t h e j o b s were  Like  i n the l a t e  s e v e n t i e s and v e r y  t h e r e was q u i t e a b i t o f work a r o u n d  a n d s o I wasn't t o o c o n c e r n e d  about  o n l y on i t f o r s i x months a t a t i m e after  a p e r i o d o f time,  collect really had in  U.I.C. w h i l e  really  and t h e n a n o t h e r  I went t o s c h o o l f o r a y e a r , I was g o i n g  A t t h e same t i m e ,  f o r t h a t period of time.  Me:  which  So i t came from i t .  and i t was a g r e a t I t d i d me some good.  B u t . . . A s f a r a s U.I.C. g o e s , I d o n ' t have  time,  t o c o l l e g e and I  I did benefit  I d i d l e a r n some p h y s i c s and w e l d i n g occuption  t h e U.I.C. I was  f o r r e n t and f o r t h e c o u r s e .  handy.  that I could  I went t o s c h o o l and I was a b l e t o  p a i d o f f w e l l because  money s t i l l  early  think  it....It  should  i t ' s limits.  How was i t d i f f e r e n t  f o r you b e i n g  on U . I . v e r s u s  b e i n g on  welfare? Him:  Well  U.I. i s . . . I  anyways.  It isn't  retirement. and  c a n s a y t h a t I worked  a d e f i n i t e . . . l i k e ... t h i s  pennies  i s your  I t i s o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d t h a t you c o l l e c t i t  h o p e f u l l y , when you're  coming a l o n g lay-off  f o r those  on U . I . C ,  i n a period of time.  or a job t r a n s f e r .  p o i n t , when y o u ' r e that  you r e s o r t  "Hey  man.  t h a t y o u have work  Your f u m b l i n g  I t h i n k , when you g e t t o t h e  unemployed and t h e r e  to welfare,  isn't  i t ' s a definite  You're n o t w o r k i n g .  (95)  from a  anymore work  statement  You're n o t d o i n g  that,  anything.  You're n o t going is  nowhere."  Well...  I guess another  t o i s you l o o k a t w e l f a r e and you l o o k a t o t h e r  that  have been on i t f o r a l l t h e i r  get doing  that.  of  have s a i d  people  thirty  years  up f a l l i n g  You d o n ' t want  t h e same t h i n g .  in a rut.  You d o n ' t want t o  You know.  there.  Right?  They  people.  I think  can  happen t o a n y b o d y  You wonder  What happened  ended  happened.  row and l o o k a t t h e s e  get  Twenty,  t o g e t and t h e y  I d o n ' t know what  the b i g g e s t nightmare.  people  t o g e t i n a r u t but a l o t  ago and t h e y d o n ' t want  ended up down s k i d that's  life.  thing  how t h e s e  t o them?  people  Possiblyi t  then.  Me:  So t h e r e ' s a f e a r t h e r e .  Him:  Yeah.  Me:  I t there anything  You g e t i n a r u t and n e v e r c l i m b else  back o u t .  you c a n s a y a b o u t b e i n g  on s o c i a l  assistance? Him:  I t ' s no f u n a t a l l . different  somehow.  creation  i n welfare  but Me:  I t ' s t o o bad t h e program c o u l d n ' t be I f t h e r e c o u l d be some k i n d o f j o b s o i t would  n o t s l a v e , scummy  Were y o u e v e r  referred  labour  increase people's  motivation  either.  f o r any j o b program b e f o r e  this  one?  Him: No I wasn't Me:  And how l o n g have y o u been on?  Him:  I've been on s o c i a l off  and on.  started  assistance f o r probably  I was o f f f o r sometime  receiving  i tagain  last  (96)  two y e a r s  now,  two y e a r s ago and I  winter.  Me:  So,  this  one  you  have been r e f e r r e d t o ?  Hint:  Yes.  Me:  Is t h e r e a n y t i n g e l s e you  can  say about your c o n t a c t  people Him:  Well,  i s the  at  only person  M o r r i s s e y and  feel  i n and  to p l a c e myself it.  But  t o be  sitting  like  welfare  doldrum,  I t a l k e d to a t the  she's n i c e .  don't even l i k e  another  I'm  f a r as  waiting system.  ah...Like  going  Right? and  I say...Obviously I've  I want t o b u i l d  my  got  own  i n the  around. here's  typical  I guess I'm  office,  " Well,  The  old  I d o n ' t want  trying  to  I haven't.  things  house.  i s Pat  to wait  into,  f o r us."  i n that standard  office  having  p u t t i n g myself  case out  As  t h e r e and  self-sufficient.  Right?  with  welfare?  the  I just  first  I want  I want t o Right?  avoid  do.  That's  a  p r e t t y m a j o r dream f o r someone t o s a y t h a t when y o u ' r e social  assistance.  B u t . . . I g u e s s t h a t ' s one  Me:  What a r e  you  Him  Well,  expectations  my  accepted should  have a  job that  f o r the  b e c a u s e now  f i g h t i n g chance t o get  Not  j u s t get  i s going  Your p h y s i c a l and  to s u i t  my  (97)  I feel back  p h y s i c a l and  f o r the  project?  I've  now? been  that I  into  the  i n the workforce but  mental needs.  what y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s wasn't f o r t h i s  back  escape.  future right  i s increased since  i n t o t h i s course  workforce.  Me:  expectations  Would you  on  mental  needs.  have an  f u t u r e would be  find  idea  if it  a  I  Him:  I t ' s r e a l l y vague r i g h t expectations with  now.  A l l the other  was t h a t h o p e f u l l y I ' d be a b l e  some k i n d o f a n i d e a t h a t  t o come up  I could s e l l  t o somebody o r  c r e a t e my own company c a u s e I am a t i n k e r e r , a i n v e n t i o n s maker. that's very  unstable.  p l a n on t h a t . going  That's  It's very unstable.  I c o u l d because  employer's shoes, while.  and  You know, be a b l e  o u t and b e i n g a b l e t o f i n d  don't think  other  the o n l y t h i n g .  But e v e n  then,  to definitely  You know.  a job right  As f a r a s now, I  I have t o p u t m y s e l f  i nthe  " T h a t guy's been o u t o f work f o r a  He's had a s k e t c h y people  little  out there  work p a s t " .  T h e r e ' s s o many  t h a t a r e younger w i t h  t r a i n i n g and b a c k g r o u n d  i n work.  a solid  school  The odds a r e a g a i n s t  me. Me:  So, y o u w e r e n ' t v e r y o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t i t ?  Him:  Exactly. that  Me:  Yeah.  You might s a y t h a t my o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e i s  h o p e f u l l y I c a n c r e a t e my own  The l a s t I'll  question  I have f o r you i s what we c a l l  show y o u what t h a t  i s . . I f this could  point  i n t i m e when you were l a s t  right  now and a l l t h i s  you  draw t h i s  Him:  Well,  Me:  Okay.  business. lifeline.  represent  w o r k i n g and t h i s  i n between i s y o u r  a  life,  this  would be how would  line?  there's a d e f i n i t e d i p . W e l l , what I'd l i k e  you t o do i s be a s d e t a i l e d a s  p o s s i b l e and p u t i n a s much a s y o u c a n .  (98)  What were t h e ups  and  what were t h e downs o r  were t h e downs? leave you. like Him:  you  E x p l a i n a s much a s  I ' l l go  to take  your  time  with  one  I ' l l just  second  and  I'd  this.  would be  to divide  i t into  eh?  Me:  Okay.  Him:  It w i l l  Me:  Okay.  Great.  Okay.  So,  was  you c a n and  outside for just  W e l l , I g u e s s t h e b e s t way twelve,  i f t h e r e were j u s t downs, what  Whatever works f o r p r o b a b l y be Just  you.  the best  way.  take your  time  t h e r e was  with  that.  no work f o r a w h i l e and  then  there  a big dip.  Him  Yeah.  Me:  Uh  I realized  Huh.  Then you  the  issue.  were t h e same f o r a w h i l e and  t h e n you  had  some s m a l l j o b s . Him:  Tune ups course  I was  doing.  I t was  t h e s u n seems t o a f f e c t  nicer me,  w e a t h e r and always.  So,  of up  the  summer. Me:  And  i n t h e w i n t e r t h e s m a l l j o b s ended and  t i m e and  your  Him:  Yeah.  Me:  How  Him  Twenty-nine.  Me:  Twenty-nine. It job  Him:  b i r t h d a y was  T h i s i s my  a difficult  i t was  winter  time.  realization point.  o l d were you?  stayed  So t h a t was  a difficulty.  low t h e r e f o r a w h i l e .  p r o g r a m and  that  took  up a  Yeah.  (99)  And  Then you  little  that  just...  heard about  b i t to the  this  present.  Me:  Okay.  Him:  No.  Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g  t h a t you  That's a l l .  (100)  can  add  to  that?  

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