Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Critical factors which hindering or facilitating P.R.C. students psycho-socio adjustment to studying… Wang, Haiyan 1990

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A8 W37.pdf [ 4.91MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0053670.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0053670-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0053670-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0053670-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0053670-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0053670-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0053670-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0053670-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0053670.ris

Full Text

CRITICAL FACTORS WHICH HINDERING OR FACILITATING P.R.C. STUDENTS PSYCHO-SOCIO ADJUSTMENT TO STUDYING AND LIVING IN CANADA by HAIYAN WANG B.A., Shanghai Normal U n i v e r s i t y , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1990 0 HAIYAN WANG, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s was an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y w h i c h used F l a n a g a n ' s C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique t o f i n d o u t t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h h i n d e r o r f a c i l i t a t e t h e p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s from The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a t o Canada. The 21 s u b j e c t s f o r t h e sample were drawn a t random from a name l i s t p r o v i d e d by t h e C h i n e s e V i s i t i n g S c h o l a r s and S t u d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s o r v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s and had been i n Canada f o r 9-12 months a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s . A l l s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y i n c i d e n t s w h i c h h i n d e r e d o r f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. The t o t a l o f 385 i n c i d e n t s , 175 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 210 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s , were r e p o r t e d . The a v e r a g e number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d p e r s t u d e n t was 19.2. Ten major c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r PRC s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o adjustment t o Canada have been f o u n d t h r o u g h t h i s r e s e a r c h . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e number of i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , Academic Study & R e s e a r c h was r a n k e d t h e f i r s t p l a c e among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , Language B a r r i e r s & Improvement was l i s t e d i i i t h e h i g h e s t among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t was p l a c e d t h e h i g h e s t . I n t h e number o f h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s , c a t e g o r y o f Language B a r r i e r s & ^ Improvement was l i s t e d t h e h i g h e s t among t h e 10 c a t e g o r i e s . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r how t h e f i n d i n g s might c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g PRC o r o t h e r O r i e n t a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i t TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLE v i DEDICATION v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 Background o f The Study 1 Purpose o f The Study 3 D e f i n i t i o n 8 CHAPTER I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 12 I n t r o d u c t i o n 12 G e n e r a l F a c t o r s i n F o r e i g n S t u d e n t A d a p t a t i o i n .. 16 S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n 17 F i n a n c i a l Concerns 19 S t a t u s C o n f l i c t 2 0 D a i l y L i v i n g 2 0 E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e I n Host C u l u t u r e 21 Language P r o f i c i e n c e 22 Othe r S i t u a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s 24 O r i e n t a t i o n Program 25 Res o u r c e P e r s o n s 26 R e s e a r c h on S p e c i f i c Groups Of F o r e i g n S t u d e n t s .. 27 R e s e a r c h on C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s ' A d j u s t m e n t 30 CHAPTER OF I I I . METHODOLOGY 38 Sample 38 S u b j e c t S e l e c t i o n 38 D i s c r i p t i o n of S u b j e c t s 38 Methodology 40 Methodology I n t r o d u c t i o n 40 S e l e c t i o n o f Methodology 41 P r o c e d u r e 41 I n i t i a l C o n t a c t P r o c e s s 41 P i l o t R e s e a r c h Study 42 The I n t e r v i e w 42 Data C o l l e c t i o n 45 R e l i a b i l i t y and C r e d i b i l i t y 45 C o n c l u s i o n 46 V CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 47 D e s c r i p t i o n o f B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s 47 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s 59 B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate 59 H i n d e r i n g And F a c i l i t a t i n g I n c i d e n t s Tendency ... 60 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS 66 Stateme n t o f R e s u l t s 66 A n a l y s i s 66 N e g a t i v e & P o s i t i v e I n c i d e n t s 66 P r i m a r y C a t e g o r i e s Vs Other C a t e g o r i e s 68 The Government Sponsored S c h o l a r s and S e l f - s u p p o r t e d Graduate S t u d e n t s 69 A n a l y s i s o f I n d i v i d u a l C a t e g o r i e s 69 Summary 87 S u g g e s t i o n s & Recommendations 90 L i m i t a t i o n Of The Study And F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 92 REFERENCES 95 APPENDICES 105 v i LIST OF TABLE PAGE T a b l e 1. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s E n r o l l m e n t a t U n i v e r s i t y i n Canada f o r t h e Top 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n 105 T a b l e 2. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s E n r o l l m e n t a t t h e M a s t e r ' s L e v e l i n Canada f o r t h e Top 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n 105 T a b l e 3. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s E n r o l l m e n t t h e D o c t o r a l L e v e l i n Canada f o r t h e Top 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n 106 T a b l e 4. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s E n r o l l m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia f o r t h e Top 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n 107 T a b l e 5. B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate 60 T a b l e 6. The Number & R a t i o of F a c i l i t a t i n g and H i n d e r i n g I n c i d e n t s i n 10 C a t e g o r i e s 61 T a b l e 7. The Number and R a t i o o f H i n d e r i n g and F a c i l i t a t i n g I n c i d e n t s i n E v e r y c a t e g o r y 62 T a b l e 8. 5 P o s i t i v e & 5 N e g a t i v e P r i m a r y F a c t o r s 62 T a b l e 9. 6 H i n d e r i n g p o r t i o n dominant f a c t o r s Vs 4 F a c i l i t a t i n g Dominant F a c t o r s 63 T a b l e 10. 5 P r i m a r y F a c t o r s Vs 5 Other F a c t o r s 64 T a b l e 11. The Number of I n c i d e n t s Between t h e Government Sponsored S c h o l a r s And S e l f - s u p p o r t e d G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t s 65 DEDICATION To my dear parents who nourished me with t h e i r love. To Lou Lou, my dear wife who mentally and f i n a n c i a l l y supported me to f i n i s h my study. To the great Chinese people and the great Canadian people from whom I learnt so much. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I owe s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my s u p e r v i s o r Dr. Marv Westwood f o r h i s encouragement, a d v i c e and s u p p o r t , e s p e c i a l l y when I , as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t , f a c e d tremendous c h a l l e n g e and p r e s s u r e e x p e r i e n c i n g my p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. I t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o f i n i s h t h i s r e s e a r c h and my s t u d y w i t h o u t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and a c a d e m i c a l s u p p o r t . I would l i k e t o thank my dea r f r i e n d s Gary Ladd and h i s w i f e Mankin Ladd, f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f o r my s t u d y and l i f e i n Canada. I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. I s h u I s h i y a m a , Dr. L a r r y C o c h r a n , Dr. Norm Amundson and Dr. W i l l i a m Borgen f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t t o me t h e f i r s t s t u d e n t from The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a s t u d y i n g i n t h e Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I w ould a l s o l i k e t o thank Ms. K a t h r i n e W i l z e and Ms. D e l l r a e B u t l e r f o r t h e i r f i n e e d i t i n g and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . I would l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h a n k a l l t h e f a m i l y members, f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s who gave me encouragement and a d v i c e f o r my r e s e a r c h and my p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. i x I a l s o owe s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s from The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a who t o o k t i m e from t h e i r academic s c h e d u l e s t o s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h me. W i t h o u t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h i s r e s e a r c h would n o t have been p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The end o f 1970 marked t h e s i x t h h i s t o r i c a l wave o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g abroad. T h i s o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t movement has i n c r e a s e d t o such an e x t e n t t h a t i t has been r e f e r r e d t o by one C h i n e s e s c h o l a r as "a r e a l c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n " ( L i , 1988). Recent r e p o r t s s t a t e t h a t i n 1988 t h e r e a r e more t h a n 70,000 P.R.C. s t u d e n t s i n o v e r 7 0 c o u n t r i e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d , and most o f them a r e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and Western Europe ( L i , 1988; Wu, & Wang, 1989). A r e c e n t r e p o r t from t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n  A s s o c i a t i o n (I.E.A.) showed t h a t i n 1988 t h e s t u d e n t group from The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a (P.R.C) i s r a n k e d f i r s t (42,481) compared w i t h o t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n t h e w o r l d (Chong, 1989). The r e p o r t a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t Canada r a n k s i n s e c ond p l a c e (2,456) t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (25,100) as h o s t t o P.R.C. s t u d e n t s . T h i s means t h a t about 63% o f P.R.C. o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s r e s i d e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . S t a t i s t i c d a t a a l s o show t h a t t h e number o f P.R C s t u d e n t s i n Canada has i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s . The 1989 2 N a t i o n a l R e p o r t on I n t e r n a i t o n a l S t u d e n t i n Canada o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n P.R.C. s t u d e n t s a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r more t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e r e c o r d e d i n 1988-89 a t t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s ( S t e w a r t , 1989). The N a t i o n a l R e p o r t on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s i n Canada  1989 ( S t e w a r t , 1989) p r o v i d e s t h e d a t a about i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n c l u d i n g P.R.C. s t u d e n t s i n Canada s i n c e 1974. F o r a summary o f . t h e s t a t i s t i c s on PRC s t u d e n t s i n Canada see A p p e n d i x A. The number o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s has i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y i n t h e l a s t a few y e a r s and t h a t P.R.C. s t u d e n t s a r e now r a n k e d i n t h e t o p p o s i t i o n as f o r e i g n g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n Canada. The t a b l e s o f A p p e n d i x A a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f P.R.C s t u d e n t s i n Canada a r e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . The P.R.C. o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t movement c r e a t e s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t and n o t i c e a b l e change i n t h e contemporary w o r l d . I t i s t h e f i r s t t i m e i n h i s t o r y t h a t so many s t u d e n t s from a " C o m m u n i s t " / " S o c i a l i s t " c o u n t r y have come t o a " D e c o c r a t i c " / " C a p i t a l i s t " c o u n t r y t o s t u d y . As a r e s u l t , many s c h o l a r s a r e now b e g i n n i n g t o t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n . I n 1988, a t t h e j o i n t c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n Bureau f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n and t h e A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r F o r e i g n S t u d e n t A f f a i r s , 3 h e l d i n W i n n i p e g , two s e s s i o n s were s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h P.R.C. s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . As w e l l , some e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has been done and c o n t i n u e s t o be done on t h e s e t t i n g up o f a s o c i a l s u p p o r t program t o f a c i l i t a t e P.R.C. s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o s t u d y i n g and l i v i n g i n Canada (Westwood, 1988, 1989). A l t h o u g h t h e s e r e c e n t c o n f e r e n c e c o n c e r n s and e m p e r i c a l s t u d i e s p r o v i d e us w i t h v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e whereabouts o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s and a r e h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d f rom s o c i a l s u p p o r t systems f o r P.R.C. s t u d e n t s , t h e y do n o t a d d r e s s t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s i n h e r e n t i n t h e P.R.C. s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f a c r o s s -c u l t u r a l exchange. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY I n t h e l a s t 30 y e a r s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d have f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t o f p a r t i c u l a r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t groups w h i l e t h e y have been l i v i n g i n c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s (Akhun, 1961, Akka, 1967, Al-Shama, 1959, Anumonye, 1970, B a i l y n , 1962, Banham, 1958, B e a l s , 1957, B e n n e t t , 1958, B e r r y , 1983, B h a t t , 1984, Bourne, 1975, Chang, 1973, Cheng, 1978, Chu, 1971, Coelhom 1958, D a v i s , F . J . 1961, D a v i s , F . J . 1963, D a v i s , F . J . 1971, D a v i s J.M. 1961, Fong, 1969, G a n d h i , 1970, G a z i , 1961, G e z i , 1959, H i l l , 1966, I b r a h i m , 1970, Jammaz, 1973, J a r r a h i - Z a d e h & Eichman, 1970, Kang, 1971, K e a t s , 1970, Kelman & B a i l y n , 1962, K l e i n , 1971, Lamber & B r e s s l e r , 1955, P r u i t t , 1977, S c o t t , 1956, S e w e l l & D a v i d s e n , 1956, S e w e l l & D a v i d s e n , 1961, Sharma, 1969, S i n g h , 1963, V e r o f f , 1963, Yeh, & e t a l . , 1978, Z a i d i , 1975)• The pu r p o s e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s has been t o f i n d more d e t a i l e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by c e r t a i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t groups i n c e r t a i n h o s t c u l t u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s d e v o t e d t o C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s , t h e y were from Taiwan (Bourne, 1975),and Hong Kong (Chang, 1973). To d a t e , p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h on t h e s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . Hence, how P.R.C. s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t o Western c u l t u r e s and s o c i e t i e s and what a r e t h e major h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s i s s t i l l a mys t e r y t o b o t h C h i n e s e and Wes t e r n p e o p l e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e Model o f C u l t u r e - D i s t a n c e p o s i t e d by B a b i k e r , Cox, & M i l l e r (1980) i n f o r m s us i n g e n e r a l terms o t h e amount o f d i s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by s t u d e n t s o f one c u l t u r e who l e a v e t h e i r homeland t o s t u d y i n a n o t h e r . B a b i k e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e degree o f a l i e n a t i o n , estrangement and c o n c o m i t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by s t u d e n t s i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t was a f u n c t i o n of t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e s t u d e n t s ' own c u l t u r e and t h e h o s t c u l t u r e . Through u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t — c u l t u r e - d i s t a n c e i n d e x t o do c o r r e l a t i o n a l 5 a n a l y s i s , t h e y f o u n d t h a t c u l t u r e d i s t a n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a n x i e t y d u r i n g t h e E a s t e r term and t h e t o t a l number o f m e d i c a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e y e a r . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e i s a tremendous h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e between C h i n a and t h e Western w o r l d . As w e l l , t h e r e i s a l s o a tremendous d i s p a r i t y between M a i n l a n d C h i n a and Western c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l i d e o l o g i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e f a c t o f t h a t M a i n l a n d C h i n a ' s 30-year (1949-79) i s o l a t i o n from t h e Western w o r l d e n l a r g e s t h e c u l t u r e d i s t a n c e between M a i n l a n d C h i n a and t h e West. A c c o r d i n g t o B a b i k e r , e t a l ' s (1980) c u l t u r e - D i s t a n c e Model and t h e f a c t o f h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e between C h i n a and Western w o r l d , i t can be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t P.R.C. s t u d e n t s do e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t e r s o c i a l - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t problems i n Canada t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s from t h e c u l t u r e s w h i c h a r e c l o s e r g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y t o Canada. I t can a l s o be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t P.R.C. s t u d e n t s w i l l e x p e r i e n c e " c u l t u r e shock" more p r o f o u n d l y t h a n some o t h e r c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s who come t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . The t e r m o f " c u l t u r e shock" was f i r s t c o i n e d by Oberg i n 1960 t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e n t e r i n g a c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t . He d e s c r i b e s c u l t u r e shock as "an o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s e a s e s u f f e r e d by p e o p l e who a r e i n t r o d u c e d s u d d e n l y t o a c u l t u r e t h a t i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r 6 own". Oberg p o i n t e d out t h a t c u l t u r e shock i s p r e c i p a t e d by t h e a n x i e t y t h a t r e s u l t s from l o s i n g a l l our f a m i l i a r s i g n s and symbols o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , such as customs, g e s t u r e s , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o r words. R e g r e t a b l y , some extreme c a s e s o f c u l t u r e shock among P.R.C. s t u d e n t s have a l r e a d y been r e p o r t e d . I n 1988 i n Japan, two newly a r r i v e d P.R.C. u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , committed s u i c i d e ( S i n g Tao; 1988, Xu, 1988). The r e a s o n s c i t e d f o r t h e s e two c a s e s o f d e a t h were: one was due t o t h e s t u d e n t b e i n g c u l t u r a l l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d and t h e o t h e r was due t o a c o n f l i c t between t h e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e systems. A n o t h e r s u i c i d e o c c u r e d i n Canada i n 1984. A P.R.C. s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was found dead by s e l f - i n f l i c t e d h a n g i n g w h i l e l i v i n g and s t u d y i n g on campus. The c a s e was c o v e r e d up i m m e d i a t e l y and no media r e p o r t has been made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s u i c i d a l c a s e s a r e v e r y extreme, t h e y s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e t h a t many P.R.C. s t u d e n t s do f a c e tremendous c h a l l e n g e s and o b s t a c l e s i n t h e i r s o c i a l -p s y cho a d j u s t m e n t t o c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s . These t r a g i c d e a t h s f u r t h e r p o i n t t o t h e need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e cau s e s and e x t e n t o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n and s u i c i d e . Only by knowing what t h e f a c t o r s a r e w h i c h e i t h e r h i n d e r o r f a c i l i t a t e P.R.C. s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o a c u l t u r a l l y - d i f f e r e n t and c u l t u r a l l y - d i s t a n t environment can we b e g i n t o o f f e r h e l p , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t . 7 H a v i n g worked a t U.B.C. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House as a s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l o r & a d v i s o r f o r t h e p a s t one and o n e - h a l f y e a r s , I have found t h a t many new a r r i v a l s from t h e P.R.C. e x p e r i e n c e v a r y i n g degrees o f d e p r e s s i o n f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f t i m e . I t i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i f b o t h t h e F o r e i g n S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n programs i n Ch i n a have more knowledge o f t h e p r o c e s s o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada, t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e more u s e f u l and h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e e v e r y i n c r e a s i n g number o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s who a r e l e a v i n g t h e i r homeland t o s t u d y a b r o a d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t and c o n c r e t e i n c i d e n t s w h i c h e i t h e r h i n d e r o r f a c i l i t a t e P.R.C. u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o s t u d y i n g and l i v i n g i n Canada. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be used t o i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t c o n t r i b u t e t o a t h e o r e t i c a l model o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t p s y c h o -s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t i n Western c o u n t r i e s . E i t h e r from a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t o f vi e w o r from a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w o f c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y , t h e r e s e a r c h on P.R.C. s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t and n e c e s s a r y . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t w i l l be u s e f u l and h e l p f u l t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t , so t h a t d i s c o v e r e d v a r i a b l e s can be r e s e a r c h e d g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n a w i d e r s p r e c t r u m . P r a c t i c a l l y , i t w i l l be u s e f u l because t h e 8 number o f P.R.C. s t u d e n t s i n t h e Western w o r l d i s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g and t h e knowledge g l e a n e d f rom t h i s s t u d y may be u s e f u l t o s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and e d u c a t o r s i n Canada, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and many o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s who h o s t P.R.C. s t u d e n t s . These f i n d i n g s may a l s o be u s e f u l n o t o n l y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g P.R.C. s t u d e n t s , b u t o t h e r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s from o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . As w e l l , i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a b r o a d e r t h e o r e t i c a l model w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e us t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l s t u d e n t s when t h e y e n t e r a c u l t u r a l l y new and d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t . DEFINITIONS Some s p e c i a l terms have been used t o d e s c r i b e t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s p s y c h o - s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n t h i s s t u d y , and t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s e terms a r e p r o v i d e d as f o l l o w i n g ; (1) SOJOURNER ADJUSTMENT/ PSYCHO-SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT: S o j o u r n e r a d j u s t m e n t i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f t h e r e m o v a l o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s ( e . g . , c u s tomary f o o d , a p p r o v a l and o t h e r s o c i a l r e w a r d s , u s u a l f r i e n d s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t ) and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i ( e . g . , n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s , language d i f f i c u l t i e s , u n f a m i l i a r and a n x i o u s s o c i a l e n c o u n t e r s ) . B e i n g p l a c e d i n a new c u l t u r e r e s u l t s i n new r e i n f o r c e r s , new d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i , and changes i n r e s p o n s e - r e i n f o r c e m e n t 9 c o n t i n g e n c i e s . T r a n s f e r o f home c u l t u r e l e a r n i n g , b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , w i l l depend on t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e home and h o s t c u l t u r e s . (2) CULTURE SHOCK: C u l t u r a l shock was f i r s t termed by Oberg (1960), v i e w i n g i t as an " o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s e a s e " s u f f e r e d by p e o p l e who a r e i n t r o d u c e d s u d d e n l y t o a c u l t u r e t h a t i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r om t h e i r own. Oberg p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c u l t u r e shock i s p r e c i p i t a t e d by t h e a n x i e t y t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m l o s i n g a l l o u r f a m i l i a r s i g n s and symbols o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , s u c h as customs, g e s t u r e s , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , o r words. (3) U CURVE AND W CURVE OF ADJUSTMENT; L y s g a a r d (1955) f i r s t named U c u r v e t o d e s c r i b e d t h e s o j o u r n e r ' s l e v e l o f ad j u s t m e n t as f u n c t i o n o f t i m e i n t h e new c u l t u r e . The U c u r v e d e p i c t s t h e i n i t i a l o p t i m i s m and e l a t i o n i n t h e h o s t c u l t u r e , t h e subsequent d i p o r " t o u g h " i n t h e l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t , f o l l o w e d by a g r a d u a l r e c o v e r y t o h i g h e r a d j u s t m e n t l e v e l s . Based on L y s g a a r d r e s e a r c h , G u l l a h o r n and G u l l a h o r n (1963) p r o p o s e d a W c u r v e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s o j o u n e r s o f t e n undergo a r e a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s (a second U c u r v e i n t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t s s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d a b r o a d ) . 10 (4) FACILITATE FACTORS: The f a c t o r s w h i c h make outcome o r chosen g o a l i n a , (5) HINDERING FACTORS: The f a c t o r s w h i c h make a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e p l a n n e d outcome o r chosen g o a l i n a n e g a t i v e way. (6) SELF-SUPPORT STUDENT: Those a r e sp o n s o r e d by t h e m s e l v e s , t h r o u g h w o r k i n g as T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s and/or R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t s i n t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s ; and/or sponsored by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They e x p e c t t o s t a y Canada f o r a q u i t e l o n g t i m e . Many o f them even e x p e c t t o be i m m i g r a n t s i n Canada. (7) GOVERNMENT-SUPPORT STUDENT: Those a r e s p o n s o r e d by e i t h e r t h e C h i n e s e government and/or t h e Western f o u n d a t i o n s , such as World Bank, The U n i t e d N a t i o n , o r CIDA and/or WUSC. They e x p e c t t o s t a y i n Canada f o r t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s o r l o n g e r . A few m i g h t hope t o become i m m i g r a n t s , but many o f them e x p e c t t o go back C h i n a i n t h e f u t u r e . (8) SHORT-TERM TRAINEE OR VISITING SCHOLAR: Those a r e sp o n s o r e d by e i t h e r t h e C h i n e s e government and/or f o u n d a t i o n s o r t h e Canadian government and/or a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e p l a n n e d p o s i t i v e way. 11 o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as CIDA and WUSC. These a r e v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s o r s p e c i a l program t r a i n e e s who a r e e x p e c t e d t o s t a y Canada f o r around one y e a r . Most o f them e x p e c t e t o go back C h i n a once t h e y f i n i s h t h e i r s h o r t - t e r m t r a i n i n g . S i n c e t h i s r e s e a r c h i s f o c u s e d on P.R.C. u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n Canada, P.R.C. s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g a t v a r i o u s c o l l e g e s and language i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . However t h e number o f P.R.C. c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n Canada i s a l s o r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g and t h e problems t h e y a r e f a c i n g m i g h t be more s e r i o u s . F u r t h e r s t u d y on t h i s p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be recommended. The n e x t c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a o f c r o s s c u l t u r e a d j u s t m e n t among o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s . CHAPTER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE INTRODUCTION A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a g r e a t body o f l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t i n h o s t c o u n t r i e s , a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d . Most a u t h o r s ' u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i s a p a r t o f a b r o a d l y d e f i n e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h i s p r e s e n t when any human b e i n g a d a p t s t o a new s i t u a t i o n o r en v i r o n m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s t u d y i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t , i t becomes ap p a r e n t t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t and f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d a p t a t i o n a r e o f t e n used as one c o n c e p t . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , I t o o s h a l l combine t h e two ter m s , adjustment and a d a p t a t i o n , i n one c o n c e p t : t h e c o p i n g mechanisms o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n terms o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r mode, knowledge s t r u c t u r e and t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . Many f a c t o r s have been found t o impact, i n e i t h e r n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e ways, t h e p r o c e d u r e o f p s y c h o - s o c i o 13 a d j u s t m e n t and a d a p t a t i o n of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y . The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s on t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h i m p a c t on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e i r h o s t c u l t u r e . K l i n e b e r g and H u l l IV (1979), who c o n d u c t e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d y o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d a p t a t i o n and c o p i n g i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r i e s , found t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t n e g a t i v e l y : 1) f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s ; 2) language f a c i l i t y ; 3) academic f a i l u r e ; 4) a d a p t i n g t o l i f e i n t h e new e n v i r o n m e n t ; 5) t h e r e t u r n home; 6) c u l t u r e shock; 7) p r e p a r a t i o n ; 8) e n t r a n c e . H u l l (1980) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t : 1)Academic v a r i a b l e s ; 2) age and s e x ; 3) c o u n t r y , c u l t u r e and sub-c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n ; 4) p r i o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ; 5) d u r a t i o n o f t h e s o j o u r n and e x p e c t a t i o n s . A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r (Huang, 1977) found t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n b a r r i e r s , s h i f t i n g c u l t u r a l g e a r s , r e p l a c i n g a s u p p o r t network, and m u l t i p l e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y were 4 m a j o r h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g t o t h e i r p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t i n h o s t c o u n t r y . The s a l i e n t f i n d i n g s o f Sharma's (1973) s t u d y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n t h e U.S. were: 1) The most s e v e r e 14 academic problems f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e g i v i n g o r a l r e p o r t s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , t a k i n g n o t e s i n c l a s s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e c t u r e s , t a k i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , and p r e p a r i n g w r i t t e n r e p o r t s . 2) The most s e v e r e p e r s o n a l p roblems f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s f a c e a r e h o m e s i c k n e s s ; f i n d i n g adequate h o u s i n g ; i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s and f o o d ; and f i n d i n g c o m p a n i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e sex. 3) The most s e v e r e s o c i a l problems i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e a r e : becoming used t o American s o c i a l customs; making p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s w i t h American s t u d e n t s ; b e i n g a c c e p t e d by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p s ; and i n h i b i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n campus a c t i v i t i e s . A r e c e n t s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t i n A m e r i c a found t h a t s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s have a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a ct on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e h o s t c u l t u r e (Surdam and C o l l i n s , 1984). The v a r i a b l e s a r e as f o l l o w s : 1) i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h o s t s and p e e r s ; 2) E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e f a c i l i t y ; 3) s t u d e n t s p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n ; 4) r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s ; 5) Western and Non-W e s t e r n s t u d e n t s ; 6) p e r c e i v e d s t u d e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n : 7) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s and use o f s t u d e n t s e r v i c e s . I n t h e s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l i z e d g u i d e s t o f a c t o r s w h i c h promote o r i n h i b i t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e h o s t c o u n t r y d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f s t u d y abroad, B o i s (1956) 15 d i s c o v e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g major f a c t o r s : 1) language f a c i l i t y ; 2) age and academic s t a t u s ; 3) d u r a t i o n o f s o j o u r n ; 4) a l i e n a t i o n ; 5) freedom o f c h o i c e ; Knowledge o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y ; 6) i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ; 7) r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s ; 8) s t a t u s and s e l f - e s t e e m . P o r t e r (1972) conducted r e s e a r c h i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o b l e m s o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s t o a h o s t c o u n t r y . By i n v e s t i g a t i n g 108 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t M i c h i g a n U n i v e r s i t y , 11 c a t e g o r i e s of p r o blems were r a n k e d , from t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t : 1) academic r e c o r d s ; 2) E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e ; 3) p l a c e m e n t s e r v i c e s ; 4) f i n a n c i a l a i d s ; 5) l i v i n g - d i n i n g ; 6) s o c i a l - p e r s o n a l ; 7) h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ; 8) o r i e n t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ; 9) a d m i s s i o n and s e l e c t i o n ; 10) s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s ; 11) r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s . The r e s u l t s o f P o r t e r ' s (1972) r e s e a r c h a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t : 1) f e m a l e s p e r c e i v e a l a r g e r number o f problems and c o n c e r n s t h a n male; 2) u n d e r g r a d u a t e s p e r c e i v e a l a r g e r number o f problems t h a n g r a d u a t e s ; 3) f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s on campus f o r t h i r t e e n months o r more p e r c e i v e an a v e r a g e o f more problems t h a n s t u d e n t s on campus f o r t w e l v e months o r l e s s ; 4) f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who do not speak E n g l i s h as a language o f f i r s t c h o i c e p e r c e i v e an average o f more c o n c e r n s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who speak E n g l i s h as a p r e f e r e n c e ; and 5) f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s from non-Western 16 b ackgrounds p e r c e i v e a h i g h e r number o f problems and c o n c e r n s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s w i t h Western backgrounds. H i s r e s e a r c h a l s o showed t h a t l ) no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e p e r c e i v e d problems o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and 2) no d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e problems o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o age. Through u s i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o r e s e a r c h t h e pro b l e m s f a c i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i , B e r t e (1972) found t h a t most f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s : - I n o r d e r o f s e v e r i t y - 1) n o t b e i n g t o g e t h e r enough s o c i a l l y w i t h members o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x ; 2) not f i n d i n g p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g o r a summer j o b ; 3) n o t f e e l i n g a p a r t o f t h e U.C. s t u d e n t body; 4) n o t h a v i n g t h e foo d s t h e y were used t o ; 5) f e e l i n g p a i n f u l l y l o n e l y f o r home and f a m i l y ; 6) n o t h a v i n g enough t i m e t o s t u d y ; 7) n o t h a v i n g enough money; 8) n o t knowing enough E n g l i s h ; 9) h a v i n g t o t a k e c o u r s e s t h a t p r o b a b l y w i l l n o t a p p l y t o f u t u r e work. GENERAL FACTORS IN FOREIGN STUDENT ADAPTATION Because so many common d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o a new and c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t , s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s ; s t a t u s c o n f l i c t ; d a i l y l i v i n g ; e d u c a t i o n a l 17 e x p e r i e n c e ; language p r o f i c i e n c y ; and o t h e r s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s t h a t have been made t o h e l p d i m i n i s h t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , I w i l l p r e s e n t t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n each o f t h e a r e a s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . SOCIAL INTERACTION Over t h e p a s t t h r e e decades, v a r i o u s s t u d i e s have examined t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h o s t n a t i o n a l s has had on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . The development o f f r i e n d l y t i e s w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e had been found t o g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s o f s t u d e n t s away from t h e i r homeland. I n t h e r e s e a r c h o f Hong Kong s t u d e n t s i n U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o and York U n i v e r s i t y , M i c k l e (1984) fo u n d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n f o r Hong Kong s t u d e n t s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e number o f t h e Canadian and C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n f r i e n d s t h e y have and t h e amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h Canadians and C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . Based on t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n b o t h Canada and A u s t r a l i a , Westwood and B a r k e r (1990) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n pe e r p a i r i n g w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and t h e i r academic achievement. A s i m i l a r program c o n d u c t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o found t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a l p e e r s were b e t t e r a b l e t o h e l p 18 t h e m s e l v e s and r e s o l v e v a r i o u s problems and engage i n d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o r s w h i c h enhanced t h e i r own a d a p t a t i o n ( W i l l i a m s , 1981). R e s e a r c h aimed a t s t u d y i n g v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t between American and f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t s o u r c e s o f d i s c o m f o r t f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s when i n c o n t a c t w i t h A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s was t h e i r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e language and u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h A m e r i c a n customs. For American s t u d e n t s , d i s c o m f o r t s a r e : 1) u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h f o r e i g n customs and m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a c t i o n s ; 2) d i s l i k e o f p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n a l g r o u p s ; 3) d i s l i k e o f p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and 4) l a c k o f common i n t e r e s t s (Penn, & Durham, 1978). The r e s u l t s o f Surdam & C o l l i n s ' r e s e a r c h (1984) s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who spend most o f t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e w i t h Americans were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a d a p t e d t h a n t h o s e who s p e n t most o f t h e i r f r e e t i m e w i t h f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . C l a i r e and Cook's (1962) s t u d y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d be made between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d e v e l o p e d some c l o s e h o s t f r i e n d s and t h e development o f a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h o s t n a t i o n a l s . H e i k i n h e i m o & Shute (1986) found t h a t i s o l a t e d A s i a n s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d more problems r e l a t e d t o c u l t u r a l , 19 academic, and s o c i a l a d j u s tment t h a n d i d s t u d e n t s who had i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h C anadians. O t h e r s t u d i e s draw t h e same c o n c l u s i o n as C l a i r e and Cook's. A n t l e r (1970) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who i n t e r a c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h f e l l o w c i t i z e n s were l e s s s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r a d j u s tment t o l i f e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . H u l l ' s s t u d y (1978) c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o s e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who a r e most o f t e n i n t h e company o f A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s a r e most l i k e l y t o f e e l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t i n A m e r i c a , w h i l e t h o s e m a i n l y i n t h e company o f t h e i r e t h n i c p e e r s r e p o r t e d an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y . FINANCIAL CONCERNS I n t h e i r v a s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w h i c h combined t h e e f f o r t s o f e x p e r t s from 11 c o u n t r i e s , K l i n e b e r g and H u l l (1979) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t f i n a n c i a l problems were r e p o r t e d as t h e "most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned p r o b l e m w h i c h c a u s e s t h e g r e a t e s t t r o u b l e " f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h , H e n d r i c k s & S k i n n e r (1977) f o u n d t h a t f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r f o r s e l f -s u p p o r t i n g f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t i n A m e r i c a . Though t h e s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g s t u d e n t s can work on campus o r o f f -campus, t h e j o b s t h e y f i n d t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e few t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and t e n d t o be manual and m e n i a l . A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h f o c u s e d on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s 7 academic and non-academic needs d u r i n g t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e h o s t c o u n t r y d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e r e were f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s o f needs, w i t h f i n a n c i a l need r a n k i n g h i g h e s t ( D e r e s s a & B e a v e r s , 1986). STATUS CONFLICT Many f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who were p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e i r homeland and become s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r h o s t l a n d s t r u g g l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e r o l e c o n f l i c t t h e i r new c i r c u m s t a n c e s c r e a t e s Vanegas (1980) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h o s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who became s t u d e n t s a g a i n have much more d i f f i c u l t y t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who do n o t have t o cope w i t h a c o n f l i c t o f s t a t u s -a s t a t u s w h i c h u n c o n s c i o u s l y t h e y d i d n o t want t o a c c e p t . DAILY LIVING Some r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t d a i l y l i v i n g i n a new c o u n t r y was a b i g c h a l l e n g e f o r most f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . J o h n s o n (1971) d i d a s u r v e y o f 214 f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Tennessee, and found t h a t 47% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d h o u s i n g t o be a problem. 21 J e n s e n & J e n s e n (1983), i n t h e i r s t u d y on newly a r r i v e d A s i a n s t u d e n t s , p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e were many d i f f e r e n c e s between Western c u l t u r e and O r i e n t a l c u l t u r e i n d a i l y l i f e , s u c h as e a t i n g h a b i t , c o o k i n g , s h o p p i n g , s i t t i n g , h y g i e n e , employment p r a c t i c e s and n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . I n h i s r e s e a r c h on L a t i n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s ' a d a p t a t i o n problems i n t h e U.S., Vanegas (1980) found t h a t d a i l y t a s k s were a b i g c h a l l e n g e f o r most L a t i n A m e rican males, s i n c e t h e y a r e used t o h a v i n g t h e i r m o thers, w i f e s , g i r l f r i e n d s , s i s t e r s o r maids t o t a k e c a r e o f them. EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN HOST CULTURE R e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d as a main g o a l o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s (Han, 1975, Lee, 1981). T h e r e f o r e , academic achievement o r f a i l u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d as a major f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t s a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n h o s t c u l t u r e . K l i n e b e r g and H u l l (1979) i n d i c a t e d t h a t " t h e c o u r s e s t a k e n , s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e academic s t a f f , d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e t e a c h i n g , may be r e g a r d e d as t h e c r u c i a l i s s u e o f o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t o w a r d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t h e y a r e r e c e i v i n g i s t h e key t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e whole e n t e r p r i s e " ( K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1981, p.107-108) . 22 D e r e s s a and Beave r s (1986) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s f a c e d tremendous c h a l l e n g e s i n t h e i r academic s t u d y when E n g l i s h i s n o t t h e i r mother tongue. They wanted f a c u l t y members t o c o n s i d e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' language d i f f i c u l t i e s , when t h e y were asked t o t a k e e s s a y , exam and l i s t e n i n g t o l e c t u r e . W h i te and Brown (1983) d i d a s u r v e y i n o r d e r t o f i n d how academic f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e s c h o l a s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . They found t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s academic p e r f o r m a n c e : 1) v e r b a l o r o r a l s k i l l i n t h e c l a s s r e p o r t and d i s c u s s i o n ; 2) s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d e d s t u d y h a b i t s , s t u d y s k i l l s and t i m e management; and 3) E n g l i s h usage, m a i n l y i n c l u d e d v o c a b u l a r y , E n g l i s h grammar, s p e l l i n g , s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e and w r i t i n g c o m p o s i t i o n s and e s s a y s . Sharma (1973) a n a l y z e d t h e t h r e e major problems f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s — a c a d e m i c , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l . Academic p r o b l e m s were found t o be more s e v e r e t h a n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s and t o o k l o n g e r t i m e i n t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . The academic problems i n c l u d e d g i v i n g o r a l r e p o r t s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , t a k i n g n o t e s i n c l a s s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e c t u r e s , t a k i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , and p r e p a r i n g w r i t t e n r e p o r t s . LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 23 The s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a d e t e r m i n e d t h a t language p r o f i c i e n c y was one o f t h e major f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s s t u d e n t s a t a f o r e i g n u n i v e r s i t y ( Deressa & B e a v e r s , 1986; Dun n e t t , 1981; Surdam & C o l l i n s , 1984; U r s u a , 1969; W h i t e & White 1981;). White and White (1981) i n d i c a t e d t h a t E n g l i s h l a n guage p r o f i c i e n c y might p l a y a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a c c u l t u r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' s t a y i n a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h , t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' TOEFL s c o r e s and t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' language s k i l l s and a d j u s t m e n t a l s o s u p p o r t e d by U r s u a (1969) . Surdam & C o l l i n s ' s s t u d y (1984) found t h a t F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s w i t h adequate E n g l i s h adapted t o t h e h o s t c o u n t r y much b e t t e r t h a n whose w i t h i n a d e q u a t e E n g l i s h . D r e s s a and B e a v e r s (1986) found t h o s e who t o o k I n t e n s i v e E n g l i s h s t u d i e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had an e a s i e r t i m e a d j u s t i n g i n t h e i r Academic, p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e s i n A m e r i c a . I n H e i k i n h e i m o & Shute's ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e s e a r c h on t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n Canada, t h e y f o u n d t h a t A s i a n s t u d e n t s have u s u a l l y had l e s s p r a c t i c e u s i n g E n g l i s h t h a n have A f r i c a n s when t h e y e n r o l l i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . There a r e s e r i o u s problems r e p o r t e d by A s i a n s 24 s t u d e n t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e c t u r e s , t a k i n g n o t e s , a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s , and w r i t i n g e s s a y s . J ohnson (1971) found t h a t most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m was most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d by f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s was E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y , which was l i s t e d t h e t o p p e s t on t h e t h i r t e e n major problems f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o The U n i t e d S t a t e s . OTHER SITUATIONAL VARIABLES K l e i n , A l e x a n d e r , Tseng, M i l l e r , Yeh, Chu & Workneh (1971) p o i n t e d t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s have a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e on t h e s t u d e n t s ' a d a p t a t i o n and b e h a v i o r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n e d by K l e i n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n c l u d e : t h e q u a l i t y and r o l e -e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ; demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p a r e n t s , s p o n s o r s , and s u p p o r t i n g a g e n c i e s ; c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s p e c i f i c o p e n i n g s ; f a m i l y e v e n t s ; and p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s b o t h a t home and a b r o a d . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h on t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n Canada, H e i k i n h e i m o & Shute (1986) found t h a t t h e f a m i l y e x p e c t a t i o n seemed t o be an v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c o t o r i n Hong Kong C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' a t t e m p t s t o be s u c c e s s f u l and t o p e r f o r m w e l l i n t h e i r academic s t u d y . 25 H e n d r i c k s and S k i n n e r (1977) found t h a t o ff-campus and on-campus employment o r a s s i s t a n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t t o The U n i t e d S t a t e s . ORIENTATION PROGRAMS Many s t u d i e s have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t i t i s v e r y b e n e f i c i a l f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n program b e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e i r homeland o r a f t e r a r r i v i n g i n a h o s t c o u n t r y (Cook, H a v e l & C h r i s t , 1957; Du b o i s , 1956; Dunn e t t , 1981; K l e i n , A l e x a n d e r , Tseng, M i l l e r , Yeh, Chu & Workneh, 1971; Schram & Lau v e r , 1988; S e l l t i z & Cook, 1962;). Through a s u r v e y o f 266 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t a l a r g e s o u t h w e s t e r n u n i v e r s i t y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o u n d t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n programs encourage i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e . O r i e n t a t i o n programs w h i c h a r e g i v e n i n t h e s t u d e n t s homeland p r i o r t o d e p a r t u r e h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d why e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r h o s t s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r them. These programs a l s o h e l p s t u d e n t s i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y can g e t t o know t h e newcomers (Schram & La u v e r , 1988) . K l e i n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s s e t up a o r i e n t a t i o n program i n Taiwan t o t e a c h t h o s e s o o n - t o - d e p a r t s t u d e n t s s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r ov e r c o m i n g i n t e r a c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h A m e r i c a n s . 26 Cook, H a v e l , & C h r i s t (1957) found t h a t A s i a n s t u d e n t s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an o r i e n t a t i o n program i n t h e i r homeland showed g r e a t e r ease o f a d j u s t m e n t t o A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y and i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A mericans t h a n s t u d e n t s who had n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n such a program. RESOURCE PERSONS S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have been aimed a t f i n d i n g o u t where f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s c o u l d go t o l o o k f o r h e l p when t h e y needed i t ( P e d e r s e n , 1981; S t e c k l e i n , e t a t . 1971). S t e c k l e i n , e t a t . (1971) d i d a s u r v e y among 781 f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a and found f o l l o w i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r u n i v e r s i t y f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s 1) f e l l o w countryman ( 3 1 % ) ; 2) f a c u l t y a d v i s o r ( 1 7 % ) ; 3) i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t a d v i s o r ' s o f f i c e ( 1 5 % ) ; 4) B o y f r i e n d / g i r l f r i e n d ( 1 2 % ) ; 5) h o s t f a m i l y (4%) ; 6) A m e r i c a n b r o t h e r / s i s t e r ( 1 % ) ; 7) o t h e r ( 2 0 % ) . From t h e s t u d y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e c a t a l o g o f c o u n t r y f e l l o w m a n i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e f o r t h o s e newly a r r i v e d f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h a l s o found t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e more l i k e l y t o seek o u t f e l l o w countrymen f o r h e l p and a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e l y on f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . I t seems t h a t t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e c o u n s e l l i n g s u p p o r t system f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . RESEARCH ON SPECIFIC GROUPS OF FOREIGN STUDENTS' ADJUSTMENT P r u i t t (1980) d i d a r e s e a r c h on A f r i c a n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and found t h e f o l l o w i n g m a j o r p r o b l e m s : 1) a r e a s o f c l i m a t e ; 2) communication w i t h A m e r i c a n s ; 3) l o n e l i n e s s and home s i c k n e s s ; 4) d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; 5) f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s ; 6) f o o d ; 7) d a t i n g ; 8) h o u s i n g . Based on h i s r e s e a r c h , P r u i t t a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e A f r i c a n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F i r s t , p r i o r knowledge about t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s u l t s i n a b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t . S e c o n d l y , a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h American c u l t u r e b r i n g s a s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y among t h o s e s t u d e n t s who have more c o n t a c t w i t h White A m e r i c a n s , who l i k e A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e and Am e r i c a n f o o d . T h i r d l y , e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r A f r i c a n s t u d e n t s appears t o be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e t o a d j u s t m e n t . F o r t h l y , maintenance o f r e l i g i o u s commitment r e s u l t s i n a good a d j u s t m e n t . Vanegas (1980) was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l major f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t L a t i n A m e rican s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : 1) M i s s i n g f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n i s assumed as a major f a c t o r , s i n c e f a m i l y l i f e i s an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f t h e L a t i n c u l t u r e . 2) D a i l y l i f e t a s k s i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c i n g on L a t i n A m e r i c a n male s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t , because t h e L a t i n A m e r i c a n male i s s t r o n g l y dependent on t h e women f o r most e v e r y d a y t a s k s . 3) I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e a l s o a major f a c t o r f o r L a t i n American s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t . 4) Language b a r r i e r s a r e a n o t h e r major f a c t o r a f f e c t t h e p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t . 5) e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e h o s t c o u n t r y and t h e h o s t c u l t u r e i s a n o t h e r major f a c t o r . Vanegas a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t f o r t h o s e who had been p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e i r homeland a d j u s t m e n t was i m p a i r e d by c o n f l i c t o f r o l e s . I n h i s r e s e a r c h f o c u s i n g on M i d d l e E a s t e r n A r a b s t u d e n t s i n A m e r i c a , G e z i (1959) found s e v e r a l m ajor p r o b l e m s t h a t M i d d l e E a s t e r n Arab s t u d e n t s f a c e d d u r i n g t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o A m e r i c a : 1) s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , s u c h as i g n o r a n c e o f A m e r i c a n s o c i a l manners; 2) economic p r o b l e m s , s u c h as l a c k o f f u n d s ; 3) academic problems, s u c h as i n a b i l i t y t o answer speed and o b j e c t i v e t e s t s ; 4) l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m s , such as u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n way o f s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h ; and 5) p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s , such as s h y n e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h American f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t . 29 A n o t h e r s t u d y conducted by Hodgkin (1958), w h i c h f o c u s e d on A s i a n s t u d e n t s i n Western A u s t r a l i a , f o u n d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t e d t o A s i a n s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t i n A u s t r a l i a : 1) E n g l i s h l anguage f a c i l i t y ; 2) t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n : 3) s t u d e n t s from r u r a l o r u r b a n r e s i d e n c e ; and 4) s t u d e n t ' s f a m i l y s o c i a l economic s t a t u s . The f a c t o r s h i n d e r i n g Japanese s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o A m e r i c a had a l s o been r e s e a r c h e d ( M i c h i i , 1981). I n h i s s t u d y , language b a r r i e r s were found t o be key f a c t o r s o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f a d j u s t m e n t f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h A m e r i c a n s i n f l u e n c e s f a v o r a b l e toward A m e r i c a and make Japanese s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t e a s i e r . An e a r l y s t u d y on t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f S c a n d i n a v i a n s t u d e n t s i n A m e r i c a ( S w e w l l , 1961) found t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t e x p e r i e n c e s i n h o s t c o u n t r y : 1) academic s t u d y , S c a n d i n a v i a n s t u d e n t s f o u n d i t q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y r i g i d r o u t i n e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n , t h e advisement system, r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s , c o m p u l s o r y c l a s s a t t e n d a n c e , f r e q u e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s ; 2) d a i l y l i f e ; 3) s t u d e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n ; 4) r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s ; 5) r e t u r n e x p e c t a t i o n s ; 6) language f a c i l i t y ; 7) e x t e n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h A m e r i c a n s ; 8) p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s ; 9) p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; 10) i n f o r m a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . The r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t s t u d e n t s ' m o t i v a t i o n , r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r e t u r n e x p e c t a t i o n s were "most u n m i s t a k a b l y i m p o r t a n t " ( S e w e l l , 1961) . A n o t h e r r e c e n t s t u d y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f M a l a y s i a n s t u d e n t s i n Canada ( B e r r y , 1983) found t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f s t r e s s i n t h e M a l a y s i a n s t u d e n t s a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e sample as a whole. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s t u d y found t h a t n o t s p e n d i n g a l o t o f f r e e t i m e w i t h Canadians and n o t b e i n g c l o s e f r i e n d s w i t h C a n a d i a n s a r e b o t h c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h s t r e s s among M a l a y s i a n s t u d e n t s . The s t u d y a l s o found t h a t a low p r e f e r e n c e f o r t a l k i n g t o Canadian f r i e n d s about p r o b l e m s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h s t r e s s . CHINESE STUDENTS' ADJUSTMENT I n 1984, M i c k l e conducted a r e s e a r c h s t u d y w h i c h f o c u s e d on Hong Kong s t u d e n t s ' c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e i n E a s t e r n Canada (1984). By s e n d i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Hong Kong u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n b o t h Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , t h e r e s e a r c h e r g o t 139 s t u d e n t s r e s p o n s e s . The f i n d i n g o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s s t r o n g l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t o f Hong Kong s t u d e n t s i n Canada: 1) t h e number o f Canadian f r i e n d s a Hong Kong 31 s t u d e n t h a s ; 2) t h e number of C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n f r i e n d s a Hong Kong s t u d e n t has: 3) t h e amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h C a n a d i a n s ; 4) t h e amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n s ; 5) t h e l e n g t h o f s t a y i n Canada; 6) t h e t o l e r a n c e o f a m b i g u i t y ; 7) a l a c k o f p e r c e i v e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a p o s i t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f C a n a d i a n s ; 8) l e s s s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Two major h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s found i n t h i s r e s e a r c h were t h e p r e s s u r e o f s c h o o l work and t h e language b a r r i e r . F a c t o r s s u c h as sex, b i r t h o r d e r , number o f s i b l i n g s , r e l i g i o n , p l a c e o f m a t r i c u l a t i o n , f u t u r e p l a n s , number o f d i a l e c t s , program major and former t r a v e l were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h o s e s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada. A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h was conducted w h i c h f o c u s e d on t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s from Taiwan and Hong Kong a t an A m e r i c a n campus (Kang, 1971). The r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between a s t u d e n t ' s name change and t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s and found: 1) changers a s s o c i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more w i t h Americans t h a n non-changers; 2) t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f A m e r i c a n c o i n h a b i t a n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r c h a n g e r s t h a n f o r nonchangers; 3) c h a n g e r s r e a d C h i n e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n n o n - c h a n g e r s ; 4) c h a n g e r s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y between adapted t o t h e c u l t u r a l t a s t e s o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y t h a n nonchangers. 32 Bournce (1975) i n t e r v i e w e d t w e n t y - f o u r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s i n The S t a t e s u n i v e r s i t i e s . He found p a r e n t a l , p e r s o n a l and o t h e r demands f o r e x c e l l e n c e , w h i c h meant t h a t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s worked h a r d e r and f o r l o n g e r h o u r s t h a n most o t h e r s t u d e n t s . He f o u n d t h a t C h i n e s e male s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o be u n a s s e r t i v e , shy and s o c i a l l y p a s s i v e ; C h i n e s e f e m a l e t e n d e d t o be l e s s i s o l a t e d but f e l t g u i l t y about d a t i n g non-o r i e n t a l s . G e n e r a l s p e a k i n g , C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s have few non-C h i n e s e f r i e n d s and a r e i l l e quipped t o d e a l w i t h t h e C a u c a s i a n campus p o p u l a t i o n . A c o m p a r i s o n s t u d y on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s c o p i n g r e s p o n s e s and outcomes among C h i n e s e , F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n Canada was c o n d u c t e d by Chataway & B e r r y (1986). They compared 43 C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s from Hong Kong w i t h 32 E n g l i s h -C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s and 43 F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h f o u n d t h a t 1) t h e C h i n e s e s c o r e d h i g h e r on t h e Cawte s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g l o w e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ; t h u s t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s had l o w e r c o p i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n , and h i g h e r marks; 2) t h e C h i n e s e had h i g h e r g e n e r a l a n x i e t y l e v e l s t h a n t h e F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h . T h i s i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o n e g a t i v e a d a p t a t i o n a l outcomes; 3) t h e C h i n e s e r e p o r t e d l e s s i n t i m a c y and l e s s s u p p o r t from t h e i r f r i e n d s . T h i s was found t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y p r e d i c t l o w e r p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h f o r t h e C h i n e s e ; 4) t h e C h i n e s e r e p o r t e d l e s s work e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e F r e n c h o r 33 E n g l i s h . Work e x p e r i e n c e and o t h e r forms o f e x p e r i e n c e may h e l p an i n d i v i d u a l t o l e a r n a d a p t i v e methods o f c o p i n g ; 5) t h e C h i n e s e r e p o r t e d more a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o b l e m s , and h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s measures t h a n t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . They a l s o r e p o r t e d more o f t h e s t a n d a r d d i f f i c u l t i e s , w h i c h o c c u r when two c u l t u r e s come i n c o n t a c t , such as p r e j u d i c e , c o mmunication d i f f i c u l t i e s ; 6) t h e C h i n e s e e x h i b i t e d a t e n d e n c y t o engage i n l e s s e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r ( a l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) , and p o s i t i v e t h i n k i n g , and t e n s i o n r e d u c t i o n ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) . The C h i n e s e r e p o r t e d u s i n g fewer t e n s i o n r e d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ( i n c l u d i n g e x e r c i s i n g , e a t i n g , and t a k i n g d r u g s ) . They fo u n d t h a t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a l s o engaged i n l e s s p o s i t i v e t h i n k i n g t h a n t h e o t h e r groups. There was a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e C h i n e s e use more p a s s i v e t h a n a c t i v e forms o f c o p i n g ; 7) t h e f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t C h i n e s e v i s a s t u d e n t s s u f f e r more s t r e s s t h a n F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s w h i l e a t Queen's u n i v e r s i t y and t h a t t h e y t e n d t o s o c i a l i z e m a i n l y w i t h o t h e r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . The C h i n e s e a l s o t e n d t o be l e s s a c t i v e i n c l u b s a t Queen's. A n o t h e r c o m p a r i s o n r e s e a r c h paper w h i c h s t u d i e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t problems o f C h i n e s e , I n d i a n and o t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a ( P e r k i n s , P e r k i n s , G u g l l e l m i n o & R e i f f , 1977). The f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1) w i t h r e s p e c t t o " E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y " , C h i n e s e r a t e i t as a more i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m 34 t h a n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s ; 2) w i t h r e s p e c t t o " e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n " , C h i n e s e p e r c e i v e i t as a more i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m t h a n t h e I n d i a n s d i d ; 3) I n r a t i n g t h e " r a c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " , t h e C h i n e s e fou n d i t t o be a more i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m t h a n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s ; 4) w i t h r e s p e c t t o " u n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f p e o p l e from t h e community", t h e C h i n e s e r a t e d i t as a more i m p o r t a n t problem t h a n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s ; 5) W i t h r e g a r d t o "homesickness", C h i n e s e r a t e d i t t o be a more i m p o r t a n t problem t h a n t h e I n d i a n s ; 6) b o t h C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s p e r c e i v e d c l i m a t e as a more i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m t h a n t h e o t h e r group. The r e s e a r c h a l s o f o u n d t h a t b o t h t h e C h i n e s e and I n d i a n groups had l e s s f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h members of o t h e r community. On h i s r e s e a r c h on a d j u s t m e n t problems o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , F o r s t a t (1966) d i d a r e s e a r c h on 201 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t Purdue U n i v e r s i t y i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i r t y -s even c o u n t r i e s were r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e t o p s i x b e i n g Canada, C h i n a , T u r k e y , I n d i a , Norway and V e n e z u l a . The r e s e a r c h f o u n d t h a t t h e t e n most f r e q u e n t problems were r e l a t e d t o c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n and i t was found t h a t c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s t u d e n t s from C h i n a , V e n e z u e l a , and T u r k e y i n e i g h t o f t h e t e n most f r e q u e n t problems, b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s t u d e n t s from Norway, I n d i a , and Canada. F o r s t a t s t a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s from C h i n a and Turkey may have more p r o b l e m s , as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s , t h a n s t u d e n t s from Norway, Canada, and I n d i a . 35 A r e s e a r c h on A t t i t u d e s of C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Chang, 1973) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a C h i n e s e s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t oward t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e degree o f h i s c o n t a c t w i t h A m e r i c a n s , and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e degree o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . The r e s e a r c h a l s o s t a t e d t h a t a U-curve h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e changes t h r o u g h t i m e was p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e r e s e a r c h . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h on t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , H e i k i n h e i m o and Shute (1986) found t h a t p a r e n t s e x p e c t a t i o n seemed t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' a t t e m p t s t o p e r f o r m w e l l , s i n c e a l l t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h a t s t u d y were s u p p o r t e d by t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The r e s e a r c h a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s seemed t o speak much more t h e i r own language t h a n o t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . A s u r v e y o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s f r om t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ( J i a n g , 1986) found t h a t t h e problems PRC s t u d e n t s and s c h o l a r s e n c o u n t e r e d were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h r e e a r e a s : 1) academic, 2) h o u s i n g and f i n a n c i a l 3) s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n t h e academic c a t e g o r y , t h e language p r o b l e m was f o u n d t o be t h e most o b v i o u s d i f f i c u l t y f o r PRC s t u d e n t s and s c h o l a r s . The d i f f e r e n c e i s t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s and 36 s t y l e s between C h i n a and Canada i s a n o t h e r p r o b l e m . I n t h e h o u s i n g and f i n a n c i a l c a t e g o r y , g o i n g s h o p p i n g was f o u n d a p r o b l e m f o r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s , because goods a r e e x p e n s i v e f o r them (from t e x t b o o k s and s t a t i o n e r y t o c l o t h i n g ) . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t f o r a new comer t o f i n d a p l a c e t o l i v e . I n t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a d j u s tment c a t e g o r y , many C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s f e l t l o n e l y and had no l o c a l f r i e n d s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them, i t was fou n d d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e Ch i n e s e s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , due t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t i m e and money d i f f i c u l t i e s . The s u r v e y a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t because o f t h e d i f f e r e n t consuming c o n c e p t s between t h e C h i n e s e and o t h e r s , most C h i n e s e r e f u s e i n v i t a t i o n s t o s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , e.g. d r i n k i n g a t pub, h a v i n g d i n n e r a t r e s t a u r a n t s , e t c . I n a n o t h e r s u r v e y on t h o s e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s r e t u r n e d t o Taiwan a f t e r t h e i r A m e r i c a s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e , Wei (1971) f o u n d t h a t 34.6 p e r c e n t o f r e t u r n e d s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had problems o f adjustment t o A m e r i c a . I n 1981, a r e s e a r c h team o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s d i d a s t u d y on C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s (Yeh, Chu, K l e i n , A l e x a n d e r , & M i l l e r , 1981). F o r t y s t u d e n t s from Taiwan and Hong Kong were s t u d i e d , t h r o u g h i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s and/or q u e s t i o n n a i r e s about t h e i r s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t few C h i n e s e s t u d e n t had made c l o s e , warm c o n t a c t s w i t h 37 members o f t h e h o s t c u l t u r e . S o c i a l i s o l a t i o n f r om A m e r i c a n s was a f a c t o f l i f e f o r t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . They a s s o c i a t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e i r own c o u n t r y f e l l o w s . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h o s t n a t i o n a l s r a r e l y went beyond s u p e r f i c i a l p l e a s a n t r i e s . Thus t h e y formed a s t r o n g s u b c u l t u r e w i t h i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y . Such k i n d o f i s o l a t i o n becomes so a c c e p t e d by t h e C h i n e s e s u b c u l t u r e t h a t t h e r e i s g r e a t r e s i s t a n c e t o c h a n g i n g t h e p a t t e r n . The methodology and t h e p r o c e d u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 38 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY SAMPLE SUBJECT SELECTION Twenty-one g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s who came from The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a i n 1988 t o s t u d y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 PRC s t u d e n t s and v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s who came t o s t u d y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1988. The s u b j e c t s were chosen randomly from a name l i s t p r o v i d e d by t h e U.B.C. C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s and V i s i t i n g S c h o l a r A s s o c i a t i o n . A l l t h e s u b j e c t s were w e l l i n f o r m e d about t h e n a t u r e , f o c u s and pur p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h by a l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n b o t h C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h b e f o r e t h e y a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS A l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s had been i n Canada f o r 9-12 months a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s . A l l but two s u b j e c t s had no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d y i n g abroad. One o f t h e two e x c e p t i o n s had s t u d i e d i n Japan f o r s e v e r a l months i n 1986, and t h e o t h e r had been a s t u d e n t i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r 39 one y e a r b e f o r e she came t o Canada. N i n e t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e male. Two a r e fema l e . S i x o f t h e s u b j e c t s a r e v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s and f i f t e e n a r e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . Seven s u b j e c t s a r e i n M a s t e r ' s programs and e i g h t a r e i n Ph.D programs. F i f t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s a r e m a r r i e d and s i x a r e s i n g l e . R e g a r d i n g t o t h e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e r e a r e 10 s u b j e c t s between 25 t o 30 y e a r s o l d ; 9 s u b j e c t s between 3 0 t o 40; and one s u b j e c t u nder 25; and one s u b j e c t above 40. Twelve s t u d e n t s a r e s p o n s o r e d by t h e Canadian u n i v e r s i t y and by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s i n Canada. N i n e s u b j e c t s a r e s p o n s o r e d by C h i n e s e government. Most o f t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d y i n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and a p p l i e d s c i e n c e , and t h e i r major a r e a s a r e as f o l l o w s : C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g 4 Computer S c i e n c e 3 C h e m i s t r y 3 P h y s i c s 2 M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g 2 E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g 1 G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e 1 Geography 1 A r c h i t e c t u r e 2 Commerce 1 H e a l t h Care & E p i d e m i o l o g y 1 40 METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e has been d e s c r i b e d i n r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e as a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d r e s e a r c h method, e s p e c i a l l y as an e x p l o r a t o r y q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h f o c u s i n g on c o m p r e h e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c o n t e n t domain. T h i s t e c h n i q u e was i n i t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d by F l a n a g a n (1954) i n Wor l d War I I , i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e p i l o t p e r f o r m a n c e . S i n c e t h e n , t h i s t e c h n i q u e has been w i d e l y u sed i n v a r i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h a r e a s ( A n d e r s s o n & N i l s s o n , 1964, D a c h e l e t , e t a l , 1981, Woolsey, 1986,). The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t s o f c o l l e c t i n g a c o m p r e hensive l i s t o f obs e r v e d b e h a v i o r s from i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e most competent and i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o make judgments about t h e p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . C r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d a l l o w s one t o b e g i n t o f o r m u l a t e t h e c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o r e l e m e n t s o f an a c t i v i t y . Woolsey (1986) d e s c r i b e s t h e two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e a s : 1) f a c t u a l r e p o r t s o f b e h a v i o u r a r e p r e f e r a b l e t o r a t i n g s and o p i n i o n s b a sed on g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n s ; 2) o n l y b e h a v i o r s w h i c h make a 41 s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . She a l s o g e n e r a t e d f i v e s t e p s f o r u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e : 1) d e t e r m i n i n g t h e aim o f t h e a c t i v i t y t o be s t u d i e d , 2) s e t t i n g p l a n s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be o b t a i n e d , 3) c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , 4) a n a l y z i n g t h e t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e d a t a , and 5) r e p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s . SELECTION OF METHODOLOGY S i n c e t h i s r e s e a r c h i s an e x p l o r a t o r y q u a l i t a t i v e one, I s e l e c t e d t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e c h n i q u e t o be t h e b e s t r e s e a r c h method a v a i l a b l e f o r s o l i c i t i n g d e p t h and c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o f i n d t h e h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s f o r PRC s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada. O t h e r methods have c o n s i d e r e d but seemed l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . PROCEDURE INITIAL CONTACT PROCESS Once t h e s u b j e c t s had been s e l e c t e d , a l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n b o t h C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h was s e n t t o e v e r y s u b j e c t t o e x p l a i n t h e n a t u r e , p u r p o s e , form and p r o c e d u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . The s u b j e c t s were a l s o w e l l i n f o r m e d o f how much t i m e t h e y m i g h t spend by b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . 42 They were a l s o i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w would be a u d i o -t a p e d and t h e a u d i o - t a p e would be h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l i n n a t u r e . L a t e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r made a f u r t h e r c o n t a c t w i t h them t o a r r a n g e t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . PILOT RESEARCH STUDY Two s u b j e c t s were chosen i n o r d e r f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n d u c t a p i l o t s t u d y . The two s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d and a s k e d t o r e c a l l t h e s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d o r h i n d e r e d t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. From t h i s i n i t i a l p i l o t s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v e r y i n c i d e n t ; t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o be g i v e n t o f u t u r e s u b j e c t s ; and t h e k i n d o f q u e s t i o n s t o p o s i t t o t h e s u b j e c t s . THE INTERVIEW From A p r i l o f 1989 t o August o f 1989, t h e twenty-one chosen s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a t a v e r y q u i t e o f f i c e i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w was co n d u c t e d i n a p r i v a t e one-to-one s e s s i o n w i t h each s u b j e c t . B e f o r e t h e f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w , a l l t h e s u b j e c t s were asked t o r e a d two s e p a r a t e c o p i e s o f Infor m e d Consent i n bo t h C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h and t o s i g n them, t h u s g i v i n g t h e i r c o n s e n t t o be i n v o l v e d i n 43 t h i s r e s e a r c h . The Informed Consent c l e a r l y and p l a i n l y s t a t e s t h e p u r p o s e and t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The I n f o r m e d c o n s e n t a l s o c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t ' s agreement i s v o l u n t a r y and t h a t t h e y a r e under no o b l i g a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e . P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o i n f o r m e d t h a t t h a t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i n g from t h e i n t e r v i e w would r e m a i n h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l , and t h a t t h e y need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y answer s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . A f t e r s i g n i n g t h e Informed Consent, t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o f i l l i n a s i m p l e demographic form i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s . Because M a n d a r i n i s t h e mother tongue of b o t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e s u b j e c t s , i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n M a n d a r i n . T h i s e n a b l e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o o p e n l y and p r e c i s e l y e x p r e s s t h e i r e x p e r i e n s e s and f e e l i n g s . The s i n g l e i n t e r v i e w w i t h each s u b j e c t l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 t o 60 m i n u t e s . The p r o c e d u r e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was a u d i o - t a p e d and t h e r e a s o n s f o r a u d i o - t a p i n g were c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s . The Informed Consent a l s o s t a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w w o u l d be a u d i o - t a p e d . 44 P r i o r t o b e g i n n i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e s e a r c h e r made t h e f o l l o w i n g b r i e f s t a t e m e n t t o emphasize t h e f o c u s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . " I would l i k e t o ask you t o t h i n k back t o t h e days you have e x p e r i e n c e d s i n c e you came h e r e u n t i l now, and t o f i n d w h i c h e v e n t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , i n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e way, on y o u r a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada. P l e a s e g i v e me v e r y s p e c i f i c e v e n t s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d , t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e , and t h e outcome. F e e l f r e e t o t e l l me t h e e v e n t s i n any o r d e r , i n o t h e r words you may r e c a l l t h e c r i t i c a l t h i n g s w h i c h happened t o you from t h e day you a r r i v e d and moved f o r w a r d t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , o r you may t e l l t h e e v e n t s based on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s , such as academic s t u d y , l i f e s t y l e h e r e and/or s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g e t c . " Once t h e s u b j e c t s began t o speak about h i s / h e r e x p e r i e n c e o f a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada, t h e r e s e a r c h e r s i m p l y l i s t e n e d t o h i s / h e r t a l k i n g . Sometimes, i f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r f o u n d t h e e v e n t s were t o o g e n e r a l o r vague, he a s k e d some q u e s t i o n s t o h e l p g u i d e t h e s u b j e c t s t o t a l k about more s p e c i f i c e v e n t s . I f t h e s u b j e c t d e v i a t e d from t h e f o c u s o f i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e s e a r c h e r would i n t e r r u p t and p u l l t h e i n t e r v i e w back on t h e d e s i r e d f o c u s . 45 / S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r e v e r y i n c i d e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d . A p i l o t i n t e r v i e w c o n d u c t e d t o h e l p i n b e t t e r s p e c i f y i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f i n c i d e n t s and t h e c r i t e r i a o f d r a w i n g a i n c i d e n t , e t c . The s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d and a s k e d t o r e c a l l t h e s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s , w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r t h e i r s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. DATA COLLECTION I n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h e i n c i d e n t s were t r a c e d from t h e t a p e d t r a n s c r i p t s . The p i l o t s t u d y e n a b l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c a t a g o r i z e each s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t under f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c r i t a r i a : (1) t h e agent, (2) t h e e v e n t — w h a t t h e a gent has done, and (3) t h e c o n s e q u e n c e — w h a t t h e e f f e c t i s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , each i n c i d e n t was s e p a r a t e l y t r a n s c r i b e d o n t o a i n d e x c a r d w i t h t h e I.D. number o f t h e s u b j e c t who r e p o r t e d i t . L a t e r t h e i n c i d e n t c a r d s were s o r t e d i n t o s e v e r a l b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . RELIABILITY AND CREDIBILITY A f t e r t h e c a t e g o r i e s were formed, t h e c a r d s were mixed t o g e t h e r b e f o r e b e i n g s o r t e d by o t h e r e x p e r t s i n o r d e r t o check t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s . S i n c e t h e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n M a n d a r i n , e x p e r t s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h a t language were asked t o check 46 whether t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s c r i p t s matched t h e C h i n e s e o r i g i n a l a u d i o - t a p e . The r e s u l t o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s c r i p t s were p e r f e c t l y matched w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l C h i n e s e a u d i o - t a p e . CONCLUSION The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be showed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . The c r e t i c a l i n c i d e n t s w i l l be summarized. 47 CHAPTER IV RESULTS I n f i v e months, 21 s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o f U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y were a c h i e v e d by u s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were s e l e c t e d and 10 b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s were formed t h r o u g h s o r t i n g o u t t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . The 21 s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d a t o t a l o f 385 i n c i d e n t s , 175 f a c i l i t a t i n g and 210 h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . The a v e r a g e number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d p e r s t u d e n t was 19.2. The f e w e s t i n c i d e n t s t h a t any one s t u d e n t r e p o r t e d was 11, w h i l e t h e most was 29. The most common number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d was 21 o r 22. DESCRIPTION OF BASIC CATEGORIES A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and two examples o f each h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r y . Academic Achievement D e f i n i t i o n . F a c i n g t h e academic p r e s s u r e s and pro b l e m s and r e c e i v i n g s u p p o r t and encouragement r e l a t e d t o academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h . 48 Range« The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e t a k i n g c o u r s e s and exams, a t t e n d i n g s e m i n a r s and d o i n g a s s i g n m e n t s ; c o m p l e t i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n ; s e l e c t i n g program and s u p e r v i s o r ; r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u p e r v i s o r , i n s t r u c t o r s , o t h e r f a c u l t y members and c l a s s m a t e s ; t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r and program; u s i n g l i b r a r y and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; w o r k i n g , t e a c h i n g and d o i n g r e s e a r c h i n l a b o r a t o r y ; a d j u s t i n g t o t h e l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l system, s u p e r v i s i o n and t e a c h i n g s t y l e i n h o s t c o u n t r y ; p r e v i o u s academic b a c k g r o u n d and r e s e a r c h e x p e r i e n c e s ; l e a r n i n g s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s ; s t u d y t i m e and r e s e a r c h achievement. There a r e some examples o f bo t h f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s c a t e g o r y : F. When X. J . f i r s t g o t i n t h e l a b , some l o c a l s t u d e n t s gave him an i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e l a b and showed him how t o g a i n t h e r e s e a r c h d e v i c e s and m a t e r i a l s . I f he c o u l d n ' t g e t them, t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o l e n t them t o him. Though t h e s e seemed t h e t r i f l e t h i n g s , he f e l t t h a t i t was v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o him t o s t a r t h i s r e s e a r c h and academic work. F. The f i r s t semester, L. B. t o o k a s t a t i s t i c s c o u r s e . The i n s t r u c t o r had t a u g h t i n C h i n a f o r two y e a r s , so t h e he was v e r y n i c e t o L. B. E v e r y t i m e L. B. asked t h e i n s t r u c t o r q u e s t i o n s , he would be v e r y p a t i e n t t o answer L. B.'s q u e s t i o n . The i n s t r u c t o r a l s o gave L. B. a l o t s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e f o r h i s academic s t u d y . H. The f i r s t semester, L. Y. t o o k 4 c o u r s e s , p l u s d o i n g t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p and r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s h i p . She f o u n d t h a t was r e a l l y t o o much f o r h e r i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e . Too much p r e s s u r e f rom t h e c o u r s e s h i n d e r e d h e r academic a d j u s t m e n t . She f e l t overwhelmed and f r u s t r a t e d i n t h a t p e r i o d . 49 H. Q. J . found t h e r e was a huge d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n system and t e a c h i n g s t y l e . He wasn't u s e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g s t y l e h e r e , such as group d i s c u s s i o n and s e m i n a r . He found t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i n g forms i n c r e a s e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s he e n c o u n t e r e d and brought more c h a l l e n g e f o r him. Family Issues D e f i n i t i o n . R e c e i v i n g s u p p o r t from f a m i l y members o r r e l a t i v e s o r e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o r s t r e s s e s w i t h f a m i l y members i n b o t h C h i n a o r Canada. Range. The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e c o n c e r n t h e s p o u s e s , k i d s and o t h e r f a m i l y members i n C h i n a and e l s e w h e r e ; p l a n n i n g f o r spouses and c h i l d r e n come t o Canada; h e l p i n g spouses a d j u s t t o t h e h o s t - c u l t u r e ; g e t t i n g v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s u p p o r t from spouse and f a m i l y members i n b o t h C h i n a and Canada, o r e l s e w h e r e . F. Z. X. had d i f f i c u l t t o t a k e one c o u r s e w i t h o u t computer knowledge. F o r t u n a t e l y , h i s w i f e came Canada t h a t t i m e , she had a s t r o n g b a c k g r o u n d o f computer s c i e n c e . So she h e l p e d him a l o t t o f i n i s h t h i s c o u r s e . F. I n h i s p a r e n t s ' l e t t e r , e v e r y t i m e t h e y a s k e d X. W. t o s t u d y h a r d , t o f o c u s on h i s s t u d y , d o n ' t c o n c e r n them t o o much. He knew t h e y had a h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n f o r h i s academic achievement. T h e i r l e t t e r s a l w a y s encourage h i s academic s t u d y . H. A f t e r h e r husband a r r i v i n g Canada, L. Y. had t o spend a l o t t i m e on h e l p i n g him t o a d j u s t t o t h i s c u l t u r e . So she d i d n ' t have enough t i m e t o do h e r r e s e a r c h and academic s t u d y . E s p e c i a l l y , when he f a i l e d i n j o b h u n t i n g and was d e p r e s s e d , he g o t angry w i t h h e r . Then she g o t mad w i t h him, she was d e p r e s s e d when she saw he was d e p r e s s e d . H. When Z. S. l e f t C h i n a , h i s baby d a u g h t e r was o n l y 6 month o l d and h i s w i f e was s i c k . One month a f t e r he 50 a r r i v e d h e r e , he g o t a l e t t e r from h i s w i f e s a y i n g t h a t t h e b a b y - s i t t e r had l e f t and she was s t i l l s i c k . H i s w i f e asked him t o go back C h i n a as soon as p o s s i b l e . I t made him have a v e r y h a r d t i m e t o c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s mind on s t u d y and work f o r s e v e r a l weeks. He was v e r y annoyed and vexed and h i s mind had a l w a y s been gone a l l way back t o C h i n a , t o h i s w i f e and h i s f a m i l y . Culture Learning and Social Gatherings D e f i n i t i o n . L e a r n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e codes o f t h e h o s t c u l t u r e , a t t e n d i n g and j o i n i n g p a r t i e s and s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , and making f r i e n d s , o r f a c i n g t h e b a r r i e r s and pr o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g t h e h o s t c u l t u r e and s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . Range. The i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e r e a c t i o n s t o h o s t c u l t u r e ; u n d e r s t a n d i n g l o c a l law, customs and norms, s u c h as income t a x , m e d i c a l exam, m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e and t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ; h u n t i n g f o r a j o b ; g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g ; making f r i e n d s ( i n c l u d i n g C h i n e s e , l o c a l and o t h e r f o r e i g n f r i e n d s ) ; f e e l i n g a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d by t h e l o c a l p e o p l e ; i n v o l v e m e n t i n s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , such as b i b l e s t u d y , C h r i s t m a s camp; a t t e n d i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t and s p o r t s . F. Y. D.'s f r i e n d s Frank and N i c k y o f t e n t o o k him o u t f o r movies o r f u n . They became h i s b e s t f r i e n d s . When h i s w i f e came, t h e y drove him t o a i r p o r t t o p i c k up h e r . They a l s o h e l p e d him moving o u t . Whenever, he need some h e l p , t h e y were a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o h e l p him. Because o f h a v i n g s u c h n i c e f r i e n d s , he found l i f e h e r e was much b e t t e r . F. S o c i a l g a t h e r i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t t o M. G. t o a d j u s t t o t h i s c u l t u r e . He was a p t t o a t t e n d i n g v a r i o u s f r e e p a r t i e s and making more l o c a l f r i e n d s . He t h o u g h t h i s E n g l i s h had been improved a l o t m a i n l y 51 t h r o u g h s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s and c o n t a c t i n g w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e . H. The f i r s t p a r t y Q. J . a t t e n d e d was o r g a n i z e d by h i s d e p t . c a l l e d P r o f e s s i o n N i g h t . He was l o n e l y t h e r e , because nobody approached him and he f e l t l o s t . He was v e r y u p s e t and s u f f e r e d f o r b e i n g t h e r e w i t h o u t b e i n g n o t i c e d . So he l e f t t h e p a r t y a f t e r a w h i l e . I t b r o u g h t some n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t o him. I t h i n d e r e d h i s l a t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s . H. The f i r s t t i m e S. L. went t o McDonald and a s k e d f o r a b u r g e r . The s e r v i c e p e r s o n asked him "what s a l a d do you want?" He was c o n f u s e d , j u s t s a i d s a l a d . Then he was asked what k i n d o f d r e s s e r he wanted. He d i d n ' t know t h e r e were f i v e d i f f e r e n t d r e s s e r s . T h i s was an embarrassed moment f o r him. Because he d i d n ' t know a n y t h i n g about t h e b u r g e r d r e s s e r s . I t was c u l t u r e b a r r i e r and language b a r r i e r t h a t made him f e e l s c a r e d s h o p p i n g and e a t i n g o u t i n Canada. Language B a r r i e r s D e f i n i t i o n . The problems f a c i n g s t u d y i n g i n u s i n g E n g l i s h f o r communicating w i t h o t h e r s , o r r e c e i v i n g encouragement and s u p p o r t from o t h e r s f o r i m p r o v i n g h e r / h i s E n g l i s h a b i l i t y . Range. The i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h , r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and l i s t e n i n g , s u ch as t a k i n g n o t e s , w r i t i n g t e r m p a p e r s , a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s and f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e c l a s s and t h e s e m i n a r ; f a m i l i a r i z i n g w i t h s p e c i a l t e r m s ; communicating w i t h o t h e r s under d a i l y l i v i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s and s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , such as p h o n i n g o t h e r s , g r e e t i n g t o c l a s s m a t e s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g s l a n g and i d i o m . F. Y. L. found t h a t d o i n g t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p was a good way t o improve h e r E n g l i s h , e s p e c i a l l y o r a l E n g l i s h . Because she had t o speak E n g l i s h and t r i e d t o e x p l a i n t h e problem c l e a r l y and u n d e r s t a n d a b l y . F. L. B. j o i n e d t h e Language Exchange Program o r g a n i z e d by UBC I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and c o n t a c t e d w i t h two l o c a l p e o p l e — a n o l d gentleman and a d o c t o r . He t a u g h t them C h i n e s e , w h i l e t h e y c o r r e c t e d h i s E n g l i s h w r i t i n g s . H. Language was a b i g b a r r i e r f o r Z. S. t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s , t o a t t e n d t h e s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . F o r example, when he came h e r e , f o r a c o u p l e months, he n e v e r t a l k e d w i t h h i s c l a s s m a t e s . E v e r y t i m e he wanted t o t a l k w i t h h i s s u p e r v i s o r , he w o u l d t h i n k about f o r a q u i t e l o n g t i m e t o make s u r e what he wanted t o say and how t o say. He f e l t he was so s t u p i d . H. The f i r s t a c o u p l e weeks i n t h e s c h o o l , X. J . c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what an i n s t r u c t o r was t a l k i n g a bout i n t h e c l a s s . And t a k i n g exam, he had t o use m e c h a n i c a l m e m e r i z i n g , because o f language p r o b l e m . He d i d n ' t have enough t i m e t o t r a n s l a t e t h e c o n t e n t from C h i n e s e t o E n g l i s h . Language b a r r i e r s s l o w e d down t h e speed of h i s t h i n k i n g and h i n d e r e d h i s a b i l i t y o f comprehension. I n i t i a l Settlement D e f i n i t i o n . R e c e i v i n g h e l p and s u p p o r t from l o c a l p e o p l e and s o j o u r n i n g c o m p a t r i o t s ( o t h e r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ) t o h e l p meet immediate needs and s e t t l i n g down i n a new c o u n t r y , and h a v i n g t r o u b l e w i t h i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . The p e r i o d o f i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t l a s t s f i r s t one o r two weeks i n Canada. Range. The i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e a r r i v i n g a t a i r p o r t ; s t a y i n g i n a home-stay o r f i n d i n g t e m p o r a r y accommodation; j o i n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n program; h u n t i n g f o r a p l a c e t o l i v e ; f i e l d t r i p , such as g u i d i n g t o v a r i o u s s t o r e s t o know how t o s h o p p i n g h e r e ; f a c i l i t i e s 53 f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and i n t r o d u c t i o n t o f a c u l t y members and s t a f f ; s h o r t - t e r m l o a n t o meet immediate f i n a n c i a l needs. F. When Y. D. a r r i v e d Vancouver, N i c k y (a v o l u n t e e r h e l p who i s l o c a l p e o p l e ) came t o t h e a i r p o r t t o p i c k up him. He s t a y e d N i c k y ' s house f o r s e v e r a l d a y s , N i c k y t o o k him out t o see movies and t o w a t c h t e n n i s game. N i c k y a l s o t o l d him how t o buy a u s e d b i c y c l e and p r o v i d e d many u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r him. F. When Z. X a r r i v e d i n Vancouver, one o f h i s f r i e n d s , who had been s t u d y i n g a t UBC f o r a w h i l e , p i c k e d up him a t t h e a i r p o r t and d r o v e him t o UBC C h i n e s e S c h o l a r s and S t u d e n t s A s s o c i a t e (CSSA). Then h i s f r i e n d t o o k him t o Saveway, P r o d u c e - c i t y , C h i n a town and o t h e r cheaper f o o d s s t o r e s . Some o t h e r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s h e l p e d him t o f i n d a cheap room. Though t h e s e t h i n g s l o o k e d t r i f l i n g , b u t he f e l t i t was v e r y u s e f u l and h e l p f u l t o him t o a d j u s t t o t h i s new e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h l i m i t e d money. H. The f i r s t day Q. J . a r r i v e d a t UBC CSSA house, t h e Chairman's w i f e t o l d him t h a t he c o u l d o n l y s t a y t h e r e f o r two weeks, t h e n he must move o u t . I t gave him an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t she was v e r y i m p o l i t e , c o l d and r u d e . E s p e c i a l l y he j u s t came h e r e from t h o u s a n d s m i l e s away. He d i d n ' t f e e l s e c u r e s t a y i n g t h e r e and was a f r a i d t h a t t h e y would ask him t o move t h e n e x t morning. H. W. D. f o u n d i t was v e r y h a r d t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e room f o r him i n Vancouver. He and h i s f r i e n d c a l l e d many p l a c e s , i t t o o k him a week t o f i n d a p l a c e . A c t i v i t i e s of Daily L i v i n g D e f i n i t i o n . R e c e i v i n g a c t u a l a i d s f o r a d j u s t i n g t o t h e d a i l y l i v i n g i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y and f a c i n g c h a l l e n g e and d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r l i v i n g i n a new c o u n t r y . Range. The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s h o p p i n g , l a u n d r y and c o o k i n g ; h u n t i n g f o r a p l a c e , t h e l i v i n g 54 c o n d i t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h roommates, l a n d l o r d and l a n d l a d y ; g o i n g t o bank; e a t i n g - o u t ; moving out and i n ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; p a s t l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e . F. S. W s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r two C h i n e s e v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s i n a house. They o f t e n c h a n t e d about t h e l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d f rom t h e f a m i l i e s and d i s c u s s e d about t h e t h i n g s happened i n s c h o o l . She found i t was h e l p f u l t o h e r f e e l i n g s and emotions, a t l e a s t c o u l d r e d u c e h e r l o n e l y f e e l i n g . F. C. X.'s f i r s t l a n d l o r d was a s i n g l e o l d man, who was a r e t i r e d p i l o t . He bought a l o t TV program c h a n n e l s and c o l o r TV s e t was a v a i l a b l e i n e v e r y room. Sometimes he watched TV programs w i t h t h e o l d man and t h e o l d man e x p l a i n e d something t o him, s u c h as t h e e l e c t i o n and t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s 7 p o l i c i e s . He f o u n d i t was a good e x p e r i e n c e t o l i v e w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e . I t was v e r y h e l p f u l f o r h i s a d j u s t m e n t t o t h i s c u l t u r e . He u n d e r s t o o d more about t h i s c u l t u r e t h a n t h o s e who were l i v i n g w i t h o t h e r C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . F i n a n c i a l Concerns D e f i n i t i o n : R e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d s from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s and e x p e r i e n c i n g f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e and f a c i n g f i n a n c i a l c h a l l e n g e . Range: The i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s o u r c e s o f money; t h e amount o f money coming from department o r some o t h e r a g e n c i e s o r any s o u r c e s ; t h e expenses o f d a i l y l i f e , s u c h as r e n t , f o o d , b u y i n g c l o t h i n g ; expenses f o r s c h o o l , s u c h as t u i t i o n , b u y i n g t e x t b o o k s , r e f e r e n c e s and r e s e a r c h and c l a s s s u p p l i e s ; h a v i n g debt i n C h i n a o r l e f t an amount o f money i n f o r m e r u n i t i n C h i n a ; s p e n d i n g money f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , l e i s u r e and s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . 55 F. Q. W.'s s u p e r v i s o r gave him b o t h t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p & r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s h i p . H i s s u p e r v i s o r a l s o t o l d Q. W. t h a t he would f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t Q. W. and asked Q. W. t o f o c u s on h i s academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h . H i s s u p e r v i s o r ' s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t a d j u s t i n g t o s t u d y i n g and l i v i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y . F. When Q. J . a r r i v e d a t Vancouver, he d i d n ' t have enough money w i t h him, so he w r o t e a l e t t e r t o UBC G r a d u a t e S c h o o l t e l l i n g them about h i s f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y gave him $ 800 i n advance as h i s r e s e a r c h s t i p e n d , w h i c h made him s u r v i v e f o r two months. T h e i r s u p p o r t was v e r y h e l p f u l t o him, he c o u l d n o t image how he c o u l d a d j u s t h i m s e l f w i t h o u t t h i s amount of money. H. W. Y. f e l t v e r y sad t h a t he came h e r e f o r s t u d y , b u t f i n a l l y he had t o be a cheap l a b o u r . But t h i s was a r e a l l i f e . The C h i n e s e government o n l y gave him $ 430 a month. The i n f l a t i o n i n Vancouver was s o a r i n g , he c o u l d h a r d l y l i v e on t h i s amount o f money. He had t o save e v e r y c e n t and a l w a y s f e l t f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e . H. The f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e a l s o made Z. S. a v o i d s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g . H i s p e e r p a r t n e r was a v e r y warm and f r i e n d l y p e r s o n . The f i r s t a c o u p l e t i m e , h i s p a r t n e r t o o k Z. S. out t o u r i n g around and t h e n went t o r e s t a u r a n t . I t c o a s t e d h i s one week f o o d expense f o r t h e d i n n e r . So t h e t h i r d t i m e h i s p a r t n e r a s k e d him t o go Aquarium and had d i n n e r o u t , he p o l i t e l y r e f u s e d . He f e l t v e r y embarrassed. He t h o u g h t t h a t h i s p e e r p a r t n e r d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d h i s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . Agency P l i c i e s & Emergent Events D e f i n i t i o n : F a c i n g t h e problems and b a r r i e r s due t o t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s ' p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , o r r e c e i v i n g s u p p o r t and h e l p from v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s and t h e i r p o l i c i e s . Range: The i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e b o t h C h i n e s e and C a n a d i a n a g e n c i e s ' p o l i c i e s , s u ch as p a s s p o r t and v i s a r e q u i r e m e n t ; C h i n e s e government p o l i c i e s a bout 56 s t u d y i n g a b r o a d ; i m m i g r a t i o n and employment p o l i c i e s i n h o s t c o u n t r y ; p o l i c i e s o f u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada and f o r m e r w o r k i n g - s i t e i n C h i n a ; p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s h a p p e n i n g i n b o t h Canada and C h i n a , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n t o w a r d s t h e B e i j i n g S t u d e n t s D e m o n s t r a t i o n and June 4 t h M a s s a c r e ; t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s and unexpected s e r i o u s h e a l t h p r o b l e m s ( s t u d e n t s and t h e i r f a m i l y members h e r e ) . F. D u r i n g t h e June o f 1989, Q. W. r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f rom I n t e r n a t i o n a l House ( I . H . ) / w h i c h e x p r e s s t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r C h i n a s i t u a t i o n and C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' s i t u a t i o n . So he went t o I.H. t o see I r i s . She t o l d him t h e t o l l - f r e e l i n e . Then h i s w i f e c a l l e d S hanghai and f i n a l l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s . Once he knew h i s p a r e n t s were f i n e , he f e l t much r e l i e v e d . F. L. Y. f o u n d t h a t I.H. p r o v i d e d many s e r v i c e s f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . Whenever she had pr o b l e m , she c o u l d go t h e r e and ask them f o r h e l p . One t i m e she as k e d them about t a x , b u t t h e y c o u l d n ' t answer h e r q u e s t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y . They phoned o t h e r i n s t i t u t e t o g e t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and t o l d h e r . She f o u n d t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was always v e r y s u p p o r t i v e t o h e r . H. Y. L.'s husband supposed t o come b e f o r e l a s t C h r i s t m a s , and she p r e p a r e d e v e r y t h i n g f o r h i s coming. Then t h e n i g h t b e f o r e he supposed t o come, he phoned h e r and t o l d h e r t h a t h e r u n i t i n C h i n a d i d n ' t a l l o w him t o come t o Canada. I t was a b i g s t r i k e t o h e r . She f e l t h o p e l e s s and d e p r e s s e d and g o t a n g r y w i t h C h i n e s e government. She a l s o f e l t a sense o f l o s t . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , she c o u l d n ' t c o n c e n t r a t e d h er mind on s t u d y . H. The UBC g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s e n t X. G. t h e a c c e p t a n c e l e t t e r was q u i t e l a t e . He g o t t h e l e t t e r i n J u l y . He had t o go t h r o u g h t h e whole p r o c e d u r e d e a l i n g w i t h C h i n e s e government and Canada Embassy f o r v a r i o u s documents. F i n a l l y he g o t h i s p a s s p o r t and v i s a i n Sep. He a r r i v e d i n Vancouver i n t h e m i d d l e of O ct. He found coming s c h o o l so l a t e b r o u g h t a l o t s problems f o r h i s academic a d j u s t m e n t . He m i s s e d h a l f o f a semester and some i n s t r u c t o r s d i d n ' t l e t him t o g e t i n t h e i r c l a s s e s a t t h a t t i m e . 57 Personality & Emotional Issues D e f i n i t i o n : E x p e r i e n c i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l p e r i o d s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t o f b e i n g new i n t h e c o u n t r y and g e t t i n g s u p p o r t from o t h e r s d u r i n g t h i s e m o t i o n a l p e r i o d . Range: The i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s t u d e n t s v a r i o u s f e e l i n g s and emotions, such as h o m e s i c k n e s s , d e p r e s s i o n , l o n e l i n e s s , f r u s t r a t i o n , o v e r - s t r e s s e d , a n x i e t y ; e m o t i o n a l c r i s i s p e r i o d s ; s t u d y m o t i v a t i o n and v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s ; s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n , s uch as s e l f - e s t e e m , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ; and p e r s o n a l i t y , d i s p o s i t i o n . F. Z. S. was d e p r e s s e d a f t e r he a r r i v e d h e r e f o r a c o u p l e months, t h e n he went t o UBC I n t e r n a t i o n a l House t o see a c o u n s e l l o r . The c o u n s e l l o r i s a l s o a C h i n e s e s t u d e n t and t h e c o u n s e l l o r gave him a l o t h e l p and s u g g e s t i o n s . He f e l t much b e t t e r a f t e r s e e i n g t h e c o u n s e l l o r f o r s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s . F. When W. J . g o t a poor s c o r e i n t h e mid-term exam, one o f h i s c l a s s m a t e s from Hong Kong ap p r o a c h e d him and t o l d him t h a t i t was common f o r a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t t o f a i l t h e f i r s t exam. The Hong Kong s t u d e n t a l s o t o l d him how t o cope w i t h exam and gave him some p r o d u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s about h i s t h e s i s . He f o u n d t h e Hong Kong s t u d e n t ' s s u g g e s t i o n s was v e r y h e l p f u l and W. J . f i n a l l y g o t a v e r y good s c o r e i n t h e f i n a l exam. H. A f t e r a r r i v e d h e r e f o r a month, Z. S. was i n d e p r e s s i o n . He had no i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y and work, f o o l i n g around and f e a r i n g t h e h o l i d a y s and l o n g weekends. D u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d , he c o u l d n ' t s t u d y and had a h a r d t i m e . He f e l t v e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d about h i s academic arrangement and f e l t h o p e l e s s about h i s f u t u r e . H. W. Y. i s a v e r y a c t i v e p e r s o n and have a s t r o n g s e x u a l d e s i r e . But he c o u l d n ' t s a t i s f i e d h i s s u c h needs b e f o r e h i s w i f e came. Such d e s i r e s a l s o b a r r i e r e d h i s s t u d y and l i v i n g h e r e . He f e l t t h a t i t 58 was so d i f f i c u l t t o s t r u g g l e w i t h such k i n d o f d e s i r e s . Sometimes he even t h o u g h t t o go back C h i n a i m m e d i a t e l y . Preparation f o r Study Abroad D e f i n i t i o n : R e c e i v i n g c e r t a i n t r a i n i n g o r p r e p a r a t i o n ' b e f o r e coming t o Canada and b e i n g l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n o r l a t e a r r i v i n g due t o v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . Range: The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g b e f o r e l e a v i n g f o r Canada; academic p r e p a r a t i o n ; c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n advance o f coming t o Canada; l a t e a r r i v a l due t o v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . F. B e f o r e Z. S. came t o Canada, he was t r a i n e d a t a P r e p a r a t i o n Program i n C h i n a . He was n o t o n l y t r a i n e d i n E n g l i s h , but a l s o was q u i t e w e l l i n f o r m e d about Western c u l t u r e and customs. F o r example, t h e t e a c h e r s t o l d him about how t o open an a c c o u n t and how t o use c a s h s t o p c a r d , how t o go f o r D u t c h , e t c . He f o u n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n he g o t from t h i s program was v e r y u s e f u l when he came h e r e . F. B e f o r e L. F. came t o Canada, one o f h i s f r i e n d s t o l d him t h a t he had a f r i e n d a t UBC. So L. F. c o n t a c t e d w i t h t h i s p e r s o n and asked him t o f i n d a cheap room f o r L. F. and asked t h i s p e r s o n t o t o l d him how t o p r e p a r e t o g o i n g t o Canada. S i n c e t h i s p e r s o n gave him a l o t u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p , L. F. d i d n ' t f e e l n e r v o u s and a n x i o u s about l e a v i n g f o r a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y . H. Y. L. had t o work t o make some money i n U.S.A. u n t i l Aug. 31, So she d i d n ' t have enough t i m e t o p r e p a r e h e r s t u d y o r o r g a n i z e d h e r l i f e i n Vancouver i n advance. She f e l t tremendous p r e s s u r e f rom b o t h academic and d a i l y l i f e , when she j u s t a r r i v e d i n Vancouver. H. S. W.'s u n i t t o l d h e r about s t u d y i n g i n Canada i n t h e l a s t m i n ute. She o n l y had a c o u p l e months t o p r e p a r e h e r E n g l i s h . She f e l t i t was t o o r u s h t o p r e p a r e f o r e v e r y t h i n g i n such a s h o r t t i m e . S i n c e 59 h e r E n g l i s h was poor, she found i t was h a r d t o communicate w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e . I t h i n d e r e d h e r ad j u s t m e n t . RELIABILITY OF THE BASIC CATEGORIES One f e m a l e r a t e r , who i s a f u l l - t i m e m a s t e r program s t u d e n t from Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, was as k e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a l i a b i l i t y o f t h e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . The r a t e r m a j o r s i n C r o s s C u l t u r e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y program and i s p e r s o n a l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g d e f i n i t i o n and r a n g e s o f t e n b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d , t h e r a t e r f i r s t r e a d t h r o u g h a l l 385 c a r d s t h e n s o r t e d o u t t h e a l l c a r d s t o form i n t o t e n b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . She a c h i e v e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s o f 78%. A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r , t h e r a t e r s o r t e d o u t t h e c a r d s a g a i n and a c h i e v e d t h e r a l i a b i l i t y s c o r e o f 92%. The i n c i d e n t s were m i s c a t e g o r i e z e d a t f i r s t t i m e due, e i t h e r t o l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c a t e g o r y d e f i n a t i o n , o r t o r e a d i n g t h e i n c i d e n t s i n c o m p l e t e l y . BASIC CATEGORIES PARTICIPATION RATE The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n d i c a t e s t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s by showing t h e e x t e n t t o wh i c h d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h e same k i n d o f 60 i n c i d e n t s as h i n d e r i n g o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o l i v i n g and s t u d y i n g i n Canada. T a b l e 5 shows t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e by p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s r e p o r t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n each c a t e g o r y . As w e l l , t h e a c t u a l number o f i n c i d e n t s w h i c h t h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t a r e shown. TBALE 5. Basic Categories P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate % o f S t u d e n t s Number o f I n c i d e n t s r e p o r t i n g i n -c i d e n t s i n F a c i l i - H i n d e r i n g each c a t e g o r y t a t i n g 1 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 81% 26 34 2 FAMILY CONCERNS 81% 17 34 3 CULTURE AND SOCIAL 81% 31 19 4 LANUGUAGE 90% 10 38 5 I N I T I A L SETTLEMENT 86% 39 6 6 ACTIVITIES OF DAILY 71% 18 15 7 FINANCIAL PRESSURE 66% 12 20 8 AGENCIES' POLICIES 71% 4 24 8 PERSONAL & EMOTIONAL 43% 10 18 10 PREPARATION 38% 8 2 HINDERING AND FACILITATING INCIDENTS GENERAL TENDENCY TBALE 6 THE NUMBERS & RATIOS OF FACILITATING AND  HINDERING INCIDENTS IN 10 CATEGORIES FACILITATING HINDERING TOTAL 1 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 26(14 .86%) 34(16. 19%) 60(15 .58%) 2 FAMILY CONCERNS 17 ( 9 .71%) 34(16. 19%) 51(13 .25%) 3 CULTURE AND SOCIAL 31(17 .71%) 19 ( 9. 05%) 50(12 .99%) 4 LANUGUAGE 10 ( 5 .71%) 38(18. 10%) 48(12 .47%) 5 I N I T I A L SETTLEMENT 39 (22 .29%) 6( 2. 86%) 45(11 .69%) 6 ACTIVITIES OF DAILY 18 (10 .29%) 15 ( 7. 14%) 33 ( 8 .57%) 7 FINANCIAL PRESSURE 12 ( 6 .86%) 20( 9. 52%) 32 ( 8 .31%) 8 AGENCIES' POLICIES 4( 2 .29%) 2 4(11. 42%) 28( 7 .27%) 8 PERSONAL & EMOTIONAL 10( 5 .71%) 18 ( 8. 57%) 28( 7 .27%) 10 PREPARATION. 8( 4 .57%) 2 ( 0. 95%) 10( 2 . 60%) TOTAL 175 (100%) 210 (100%) 385 (100%) The T a b l e 6. shows t h e number and r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g , f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s and a l l i n c i d e n t s o f one c a t e g o r y among a l l c a t e g o r i e s . 10 c a t e g o r i e s o r major f a c t o r s , w h i c h s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c i n g PRC s t u d e n t s p s y c h o - s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada, have been found i n t h i s t a b l e . The 10 c a t e g o r i e s o r m a jor f a c t o r s a r e f o l l o w i n g : 1) Academic Study and R e s e r c h ; 2) F a m i l y Concerns and S u p p o r t ; 3) C u l t u r e L e a r n i n g and S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g ; 4) Language B a r r i e r s and I m p r o v i n g ; 5) I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t ; 6) A c t i v i t i e s o f D a i l y L i f e ; 7) F i n a n c i a l P r e s s u r e and Su p p o r t ; 8) A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c i e s and Emergency e v e n t s ; 9) P e r s o n a l i t y and E m o t i o n a l I s s u e s ; 10) P r e p a r a t i o n f o r S t u d y i n g Abroad. TABLE 7 THE NUMBER AND RATIO OF HINDERING AND  FACILITATING INCIDENTS IN EVERY CATEGORY FACILITATING HINDERING TOTAL 1 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 26(43. 33%) 34(56. 67%) 60(100%) 2 FAMILY CONCERNS 17(33 . 33%) 34(66. 67%) 51(100%) 3 CULTURE AND SOCIAL 31(62. 00%) 19(38. 00%) 50(100%) 4 LANUGUAGE 10(20. 83%) 38(79. 17%) 48(100%) 5 I N I T I A L SETTLEMENT 39(86. 67%) 6(13. 33%) 45(100%) 6 ACTIVITIES OF DAILY 18(54. 55%) 15(45. 45%) 33(100%) 7 FINANCIAL PRESSURE 12(37. 50%) 20(62. 50%) 32(100%) 8 AGENCIES' POLICIES 4 (14. 29%) 24(85. 71%) 28(100%) 8 PERSONAL & EMOTIONAL 10(35. 71%) 18(64. 29%) 28(100%) 1C I PREPARATION 8 (80. 00%) 2 (20. 00%) 10(100%) The T a b l e 7. shows t h e number and r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n e v e r y s i n g l e c a t e g o r y . TABLE 8 5 POSITIVE & 5 NEGATIVE PRIMARY FACTORS FACILITATING NUMBER & % OF HINDERING NUMBER & % OF INCIDENTS INCIDENTS 63 1 I N I T I A L 2 CULTURE 3 ACADEMIC 4 DAILY L I F E 5 FAMILY 39(22.29%) 31(17.71%) 26(14.86%) 18(10.29%) 17( 9.71%) 1 LANUGUAGE 2 ACADEMIC 3 FAMILY 4 AGENCIES' 5 FINANCIAL 38(18.10%) 34(16.19%) 34(16.19%) 24(11.42%) 20( 9.52%) TOTAL 131(74.86%) 150(71.43%) The T a b l e 8. shows t h e number and r a t i o o f i n c i d e n t s among t h e f i v e p r i m a r y f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s o r f a c t o r s . TABLE 9 6 HINDERING PORTION DOMINANT FACTORS VS 4 FACILITATING DOMINANT FACTORS FACILITATING HINDERING TOTAL 1 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 26(43.33%) 34(56.67%) 60(100%) 2 FAMILY CONCERNS 17(33.33%) 34(66.67%) 51(100%) 4 LANUGUAGE 10(20.83%) 38(79.17%) 48(100%) 7 FINANCIAL PRESSURE 12(37.50%) 20(62.50%) 32(100%) 8 AGENCIES' POLICIES 4(14.29%) 24(85.71%) 28(100%) 8 PERSONAL & EMOTIONAL 10(35.71%) 18(64.29%) 28(100%) 3 CULTURE AND SOCIAL 31(62. 00%) 19(38. 00%) 50(100%) 5 I N I T I A L SETTLEMENT 39(86. 67%) 6(13. 33%) 45(100%) 6 ACTIVITIES OF DAILY 18(54 . 55%) 15(45. 45%) 33(100%) 10 PREPARATION 8(80. 00%) 2(20. 00%) 10(100%) The T a b l e 9. shows t h e comp a r i s o n o f t h e number and r a t i o o f i n c i d e n t s between 6 h i n d e r i n g p o r t i o n dominant 64 c a t e g o r i e s o r f a c t o r s and 4 f a c i l i t a t i n g p o r t i o n dominant c a t e g o r i e s o r f a c t o r s . T8ALE 10 PRIMARY 5 FACTORS VS OTHER 5 FACTORS FACILITATING HINDERING TOTAL 1 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 26(14. 86%) 34(16. 19%) 60(15. 58%) 2 FAMILY CONCERNS 17 (9. 71%) 34(16. 19%) 51( 1 3 . 25%) 3 CULTURE AND SOCIAL 31(17. 71%) 19 (9. 05%) 50(12. 99%) 4 LANUGUAGE 10 (5. 71%) 38(18. 10%) 48(12. 47%) 5 I N I T I A L SETTLEMENT 39(22. 29%) 6 (2. 86%) 4 5 ( 1 1 . 69%) SUB-TOTAL 123(70. 29%) 131(62. 38%) 254(65. 97%) 6 ACTIVITIES OF DAILY 18(10. 29%) 15 (7. 14%) 33 (8. 57%) 7 FINANCIAL PRESSURE 12 (6. 86%) 20 (9. 52%) 32 (8. 31%) 8 AGENCIES' POLICIES 4 (2. 29%) 24(11. 42%) 28 (7. 27%) 8 PERSONAL & EMOTIONAL 10 (5. 71%) 18 (8. 57%) 28 (7. 27%) 10 PREPARATION 8 (4. 57%) 2 (0. 95%) 10 (2. 60%) SUB-TOTAL 52(29. 71%) 79 (37. 62%) 131(34. 03%) ALL-TOTAL 175(100%) 210(100%) 385(100%) The T a b l e 10. shows t h e comp a r i s o n o f t h e number and r a t i o o f i n c i d e n t s between 5 p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s o r f a c t o r s and t h e r e s t c a t e g o r i e s o r f a c t o r s . 65 TABLE 11 THE NUMBER OF INCIDENTS BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT SPONSORED SCHOLARS AND SELF-SUPPORTED GRADUATE STUDENTS Government Sponsored Self-Supported Scholars (8) Graduate Students (13) Numner % of Number % Of of I n c i . I n c i . of I n c i . I n c i . FACILITATING 63 44.68% 112 45 .90% HINDERING 78 55.32% 132 54 .10% TOTAL 141 100.00% 244 100 .00% The T a b l e 11. shows t h e com p a r i s o n o f t h e number and p e r c e n t o f f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s between government s p o n s o r e d v i s i t i n g s c h o l a r s and s e l f - s u p p o r t g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s o f PRC s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g t o t h e number and p e r c e n t o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d . CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS STATEMENT OF RESULTS The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 1) t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s can i d e n t i f y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c r e t e i n c i d e n t s w h i c h e i t h e r h i n d e r e d o r f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. 2) t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s found i n t h i s r e s e a r c h can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development o f a model o f PRC s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. The f i n d i n g o f t h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h o f PRC s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n Western Europe. 3) t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y can a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development o f a p s y c h o -s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t model o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y s t u d e n t s f rom t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . ANALYSIS NEGATIVE INCIDENTS & POSITIVE INCIDENTS 67 The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t among t h e 385 c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , t h e r e a r e 210 n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s (54.55%) and 175 p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s ( 4 5 . 4 5 % ) . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t a t i s t i c a l l y between t h e n e g a t i v e t and t h e p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s . Through a n a l y z i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s , t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n e g a t i v e and t h e p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s among Language B a r r i e r & Improvement; C u l t u r a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g and S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g ; F a m i l y C oncerns and S u p p o r t ; I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t ; F i n a n c i a l P r e s s u r e ; A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c i e s & Emergency E v e n t s ; P e r s o n a l & E m o t i o n a l ; and P r e p a r a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n e g a t i v e and t h e p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s among t h e two c a t e g o r i e s : Academic Study & R e s e a r c h , and A c t i v i t i e s o f D a i l y L i f e . Among 8 c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h have a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n e g a t i v e and t h e p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s , t h e n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s have s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s i n 5 c a t e g o r i e s : Language B a r r i e r & Improvement; F a m i l y Concerns and S u p p o r t ; F i n a n c i a l P r e s s u r e & S u p p o r t ; A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c i e s & Emergency E v e n t s ; P e r s o n a l & E m o t i o n a l . The p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s have s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s i n 3 c a t e g o r i e s : C u l t u r a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g and S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g ; I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t ; and P r e p a r a t i o n . PRIMARY CATEGORIES VS OTHERS CATEGORIES The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e 10 c a t e g o r i e s a r e o b v i o u s . F i r s t , t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d s t h a t t h e l a r g e r 5 c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n 254 i n c i d e n t s which c o v e r 65.97% and a l m o s t two t h i r d s o f t h e t o t a l i n c i d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e t h e s e 5 c a t e g o r i e s , w h i c h a r e c a l l e d p r i m a r y f a c t o r s , have been shown t o have a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on PRC s t u d e n t s s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. T a b l e 10 compares 5 p r i m a r y f a c t o r s w i t h o t h e r 5 f a c t o r s . Among t h e 10 h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s , t h e i n c i d e n t s o f 5 c a t e g o r i e s — L a n g u a g e B a r r i e r ; Academic Study & R e s e a r c h ; F a m i l y Concerns & Su p p o r t ; A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c e s & Emergency E v e n t s ; and F i n a n c i a l P r e s s u r e & Sup p o r t , c o n t a i n 150 i n c i d e n t s and c o v e r 71.43% o f a l l n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s (see t a b l e 8 ) . These 5 n e g a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s a r e c a l l e d p r i m a r y n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s . Among t h e 10 f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , t h e i n c i d e n t s o f c a t e g o r i e s — I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t ; C u l t u r a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g & S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g ; Academic Study & R e s e a r c h ; A c t i v i t i e s o f D a i l y L i f e ; and F a m i l y Support, c o n t a i n 131 i n c i d e n t s and c o v e r 74.86% o f a l l t h e p o s i t i v e i n c i d e n t s (see t a b l e 8 ) . These 5 p o s i t i v e c a t e g o r i e s a r e c a l l e d p r i m a r y p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s . 69 THE GOVERNMENT SPONSORED SCHOLARS AND SELF_SUPPORTED  GRADUATE STUDENTS The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n t between t h e government s p o n s o r e d s c h o l a r s and s e l f - s u p p o r t e d g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g t o t h e r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by b o t h groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n terms o f t h e g e n e r a l s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada, b o t h government s p o n s o r e d s c h o l a r and s e l f - s u p p o r t e d g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s f a c e d t h e s i m i l a r c h a l l e n g e s and g o t s i m i l a r s u p p o r t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e m i g h t be a d i f f e r e n c e between two groups r e g a r d i n g t o t h e s u p p o r t i n g r e s o u r c e s , t y p e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s and d e g r e e o f d i f f i c u l t y . F o r example, a government s p o n s o r e d s t u d e n t m i g h t g e t more s u p p o r t from C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s and S c h o l a r s ' A s s o c i a t e (CSSA) a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and l o c a l C h i n e s e c o n s u l a t e , w h i l e a s e l f - s u p p o r t e d s t u d e n t m i g h t g e t more s u p p o r t from l o c a l C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s and l o c a l C a n a d i a n and Canadian C h i n e s e p e o p l e . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o f i n d o u t more s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two g r o u p s i n terms o f 10 b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s would be recommended. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL CATEGORIES 70 Academic Study and Research The c a t e g o r y w h i c h was r a n k e d i n f i r s t was academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h , i n w h i c h 81% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s < r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s . I n t o t a l , 60 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d , 34 o f w h i c h were h i n d e r i n g and 2 6 o f w h i c h were f a c i l i t a t i n g ( T a b l e 5 . ) . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h on i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t t o a h o s t c o u n t r y (Han, 1975; K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1979; Lee, 1981; Sharma, 1973). These r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o found t h a t academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h was r e g a r d e d as t h e c r u c i a l i s s u e by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h i s a p r i m a r y t a s k f o r most PRC s t u d e n t s coming t o Canada, t h e r e f o r e whether t h e y can s u c c e e d i n t h e i r academic s t u d y s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s t h e i r g e n e r a l p r o c u d u r e o f a d j u s t m e n t t o l i v i n g and s t u d y i n g i n Canada. Most PRC s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had f i n i s h e d t h e i r B a c h e l o r o r M a s t e r d e g r e e s i n C h i n a , and had been d o i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l work and r e s e a r c h i n t h e i r a r e a f o r a w h i l e b e f o r e t h e y came t o Canada. T h e r e f o r e t h e y t y p i c a l l y have s t r o n g academic background and r e s e a r c h e x p e r i e n c e . Academic s t u d y i s always p l a c e d t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n t h e i r l i f e , no m a t t e r where t h e y a r e i n C h i n a o r i n Canada. 71 The s u c c e s s o f academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t s ' f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , because most PRC s t u d e n t s g e t a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p o r / a n d a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s h i p f rom t h e i r department. I f t h e y f a i l a t academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h , t h e n i t means t h e y m i g h t l o s e t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from t h e i r department. A l t h o u g h i t i s a r a r e c a s e f o r a department t o suspend a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t ' s f i n a n c i a l a i d s due t o h i s / h e r academic f a i l u r e . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s m e ntioned t h e y f e l t tremendous p r e s s u r e t o show t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s t h a t t h e y had a s t r o n g academic b a c k g r o u n d , because o f t h e f i n a n c i a l a i d s t h e y r e c e i v e d . T here was no a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h i n d e r i n g and t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n c a t e g o r y o f Academic Study and R e s e a r c h ( T a b l e 5 . ) . The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s f a c e a tremendous c h a l l e n g e from academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h , s t u d e n t s a l s o g e t l o t s o f s u p p o r t from v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s ; f a c u l t y members; c l a s s m a t e s i n c l u d i n g l o c a l s t u d e n t s and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ; c o u n t r y f e l l o w s ; i n s t r u c t o r s . Family Concerns The c a t e g o r y o f F a m i l y Concerns was l i s t e d i n second p l a c e , 81% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h e i n c i d e n t s . Among t o t a l o f 51 i n c i d e n t s , 34 were h i n d e r i n g and 17 o f were 72 f a c i l i t a t i n g ( t a b l e 5 . ) . I t was a s u r p r i s e t o f i n d t h a t F a m i l y C oncerns p l a c e d second i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , as t h e C h a p t e r 2 L i t e r a t u r e Review showed t h a t f a m i l y f a c t o r had n e v e r been c o n s i d e r e d as a major f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g f o r e i g n , s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o a new e n v i r o n m e n t . A l t h o u g h some r e s e a r c h (Hodgkin, 1958, M i c k l e , 1984) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t C h i n e s e o r A s i a n p a r e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n may a f f e c t t h e C h i n e s e o r A s i a n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o a new c o u n t r y , t h e f a c o t r o f f a m i l y c o n c e r n s found i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t s ' spouses and t h e i r c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g c o n s t i t u t e s one o f t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f PRC s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. The p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s phenomenon a r e as f o l l o w s : 1) Most PRC s t u d e n t s i n Canada, as w e l l as i n o t h e r W e stern c o u n t r i e s , a r e above 25 y e a r s o l d and a r e m a r r i e d b e f o r e t h e y come t o Canada. There a r e many c a s e s o f s t u d e n t s who have come t o Canada and o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s j u s t a f t e r t h e i r honeymoon. S i n c e t h e husband and w i f e c o u l d n o t come t o Canada t o g e t h e r , t h e y s t r o n g l y m i s s t h e i r n e w-married p a r t n e r . I n many c a s e s , s t u d e n t s s t a r t t o go t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e d u r e o f a p p l y i n g t o have t h e i r s pouses come t o Canada s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e y have s e t t l e d h e r e , t h i s i s o b v i o u s l y v e r y t i m e consuming and s t r e s s f u l p r o c e s s . 73 2) The p r e s e n t u n s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a i s a n o t h e r r e a s o n s t u d e n t s f e e l c o n c e r n e d about t h e i r spouses, c h i l d ( r e n ) , p a r e n t s and o t h e r , f a m i l y members. D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , a m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s mentioned t h a t t h e y were e x t r e m e l y c o n c e r n e d about t h e i r f a m i l y members d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g o f 1989 Democracy Moment i n C h i n a . A f t e r t h e June 4 t h M a s s a c r e a t Tiananmen Square (hundreds o r even thousands p e o p l e were k i l l e d by t h e armed t r o o p s on Juen 4 t h 1989 a t Tian-an-men s q u a r e o f B e i j i n g C h i n a , where th o u s a n d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were s i t t i n g i n and f a s t i n g p e a c e f u l l y ) , more and more s t u d e n t s were making t h e i r e f f o r t s t o speed up t h e p r o c e d u r e o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f h a v i n g t h e i r s pouses, c h i l d r e n and o t h e r f a m i l y members come t o Canada. I n t h e F a m i l y Concern c a t e g o r y , most i n c i d e n t s a r e n e g a t i v e ones. The n e g a t i v e i n c i d e n t s occupy 66.66% i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , w h i l e p o s i t i v e ones s h a r e d a 33.33% p o r t i o n o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . There i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f a m i l y c o n c e r n s a r e more a p t t o d i s t u r b s t u d e n t s ' r e g u l a r academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h t h a n n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f o t h e r f a c o t r s . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y a l s o r e c e i v e d some s u p p o r t from t h e i r s pouses, p a r e n t s and o t h e r 74 f a m i l y members, i n most c a s e s , such s u p p o r t appeared t o be s p i r i t u a l s u p p o r t o r d a i l y l i f e s u p p o r t . C u l t u r a l Understanding and So c i a l Gathering The c a t e g o r y o f C u l t u r a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g and S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g has a l s o been d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h e 5 p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s . I n t o t a l , 50 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d , 31 o f w h i c h were f a c i l i t a t i n g and 19 o f wh i c h were h i n d e r i n g ( T a b l e 5 . ) . Among a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , 81% o f them r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s ( T a b l e 5 . ) . There a r e many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s w h i c h w i d e l y s u p p o r t t h e p o i n t t h a t t h i s c a t e g o r y i s o f p r i m a r i l y i m p o r t a n c e when c o n s i d e r i n g a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t ' s p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o a new c o u n t r y ( M i c k l e , 1984; Surdam & C o l l i n s , 1984; Westwood & B a r k e r , 1990; W i l l i a m s , 1981). The f i n d i n g o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o showed t h a t t h e r e were many more f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a n h i n d e r i n g ones i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . A v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e had been found between t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 5 . ) . The f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s have a more p o s i t i v e outcome when t h e y c o n n e c t w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p o i n t e d o ut t h a t t h e y w ould l i k e t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and l o c a l p e o p l e more f r e q u e n t l y . But t h e y a l s o c o m p l a i n e d i t was q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o deepen such k i n d o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Most 75 o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e remained a t a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e more c o n t a c t t h e y had w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and l o c a l p e o p l e , t h e b e t t e r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Canadian c u l t u r e ; and t h e more a b l e t h e y were t o u n d e r s t a n d Canadian c u l t u r e , t h e more s u c c e s s f u l t h e i r s t u d y and t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t . A P e e r Program, w h i c h i s based on Dr. Westwood's Model and o r g a n i z e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been p r o v e d a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l program f o r PRC s t u d e n t s t o approach l o c a l s t u d e n t s ; t o make f r i e n d s w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s ; and t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e (Westwood & Bakker, 1990). Many p a r t i c i p a n t s m e n t i o n e d t h e y were i n v o l v e d i n t h e P e e r Program and f o u n d t h a t t h e program was v e r y h e l p f u l and p r o d u c t i v e i n t erms o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e volume o f c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . The good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l p e o p l e speeded up t h e i r p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o l i v i n g and s t u d y i n g i n Canada. Language The c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e was x L a n g u a g e ' ( 9 0 % o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h e i n c i d e n t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y ) . I n t o t a l , 48 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d , 38 o f w h i c h were h i n d e r i n g and 10 were f a c i l i t a t i n g ( T a b l e 5 . ) . 76 T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g o f many o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , i n w h i c h , t h e language has been f o u n d as a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o a new c o u n t r y ( D r e s s a & B e a v e r s , 1986; Surdam & C o l l i n s , 1984;). I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e c a t e g o r y has been r a n k e d as f o u r t h among t h e 10 c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f t h e i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A n o t a b l e f i n d i n g i n t h i s c a t e g o r y was t h a t h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s c o n t a i n e d a l m o s t 80%, w h i l e f a c i l i t a t i n g ones o n l y c o v e r e d a s m a l l p o r t i o n . T h i s phenomenon c o u l d be '^explained as t h a t l anguage i s a b i g b a r r i e r f o r most PRC s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada and t h e y have l i t t l e h e l p t o improve t h e i r l a n guage a b i l i t y . T h e re a r e many r e a s o n s t o e x p l a i n why t h e r e a r e much more h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s t h a n f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y : 1) compared w i t h s t u d e n t s from Europe, Hong Kong, I n d i a , and E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , t h e E n g l i s h l e v e l o f PRC s t u d e n t s i s much l o w e r . Because t h e y had a l i m i t e d E n g l i s h atmosphere i n t h e i r home-country. A l t h o u g h some PRC s t u d e n t s g e t v e r y h i g h TOEFL s c o r e , t h e y s t i l l have tremendous d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s t a l k i n g when t h e y f i r s t came t o Canada. 2) S t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n t o o busy t o have t i m e t o improve t h e i r E n g l i s h , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e newly a r r i v e d s t u d e n t s , who have t o spend more t i m e on academic a d j u s t m e n t o r d a i l y l i f e a d j u s t m e n t t h a n t o s t u d y t o improve t h e i r language. 3) Compared w i t h 77 European s t u d e n t s , PRC s t u d e n t s have a l i m i t e d E n g l i s h atmosphere i n w h i c h p r a c t i c e t h e i r E n g l i s h , because many o f them l i v e w i t h t h e i r C h i n e s e p e e r s i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e e c o n o m i c a l l y . 4) Once I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s have p a s s e d t h e TOEFL exam and have a t t e n d e d i n programs, t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s and t h e u n i v e r s i t y have p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e PRC s t u d e n t s , as w e l l as o t h e r i n t e r n a i t o n a l s t u d e n t s , have l i t t l e s u p p o r t from t h e i r department o r u n i v e r s i t y i n terms o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r E n g l i s h . S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s mentioned t h a t when t h e y d i d t h e i r t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t work o r t u t o r i a l work t h e y had a d i f f i c u l t t i m e w i t h t h e i r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s due t o t h e i r l a n guage b a r r i e r s , hence i n c r e a s i n g p e r s o n a l s t r e s s . A n o t h e r f a c t o r i s t h a t because t h e m a j o r i t y o f PRC s t u d e n t s have a l r e a d y a p p l i e d f o r permanent r e s i d e n c e (PR) s t a t u s , t h e y have t o improve t h e i r E n g l i s h and m i n g l e w i t h m a i n s t r e a m p e o p l e . Both PRC s t u d e n t s and u n i v e r s i t y o r o t h e r government a g e n c i e s have t o r e a l i z e t h a t PRC u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ' academic achievements may be h i n d e r e d by t h e i r l anguage weakness. T h i s c o u l d cause many p o t e n t i a l b i g p r o blems f o r t h e i r development i n Canada r i g h t now o r i n t h e f u t u r e . 78 I n i t i a l Settlement T h i s c a t e g o r y had a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f 86%, w h i c h r a n k e d as t h e second p l a c e a f t e r Language. Of t h e t o t a l o f 45 i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d 39 were f a c i l i t a t i n g and 6 were h i n d e r i n g . A l t h o u g h I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t has a l w a y s been l i s t e d as a f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o a new c o u n t r y . I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t has n e v e r been c o n s i d e r e d a p r i m a r y f a c t o r i n many s i m i l a r s t u d y on i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o a h o s t c o u n t r y (Dunnett, 1981; Schram & l a u v e r , 1988; S e l l t i z & Cook, 1962). The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h shows t h a t t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y r a n k e d f i f t h p l a c e among a l l 10 c a t e g o r i e s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d , t h i s c a t e g o r y has been c o n s i d e r e d one o f 5 p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o c e s s o f PRC s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y i s t h a t t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t o h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s was r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y (13 t o 2 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e f a c i l i t a t i n g ones. A v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e has been found between t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g ones and h i n d e r i n g ones among t h i s c a t e g o r y . The number o f f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y was r a n k e d t h e f i r s t p l a c e i n t h e 10 f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s and has t h e h i g h e s t f a c i l i t a t i n g (more t h a n 86 79 p e r c e n t ) p o r t i o n among a l l c a t e g o r i e s , w h i l e t h e h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were p l a c e d t h e second t o l a s t p l a c e i n t h e 10 h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The f a c t t h a t most i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e f a c i l i t a t i n g ones and t h i s c a t e g o r y r a n k s t h e f i r s t p l a c e among t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t most PRC s t u d e n t s have been t a k e n c a r e v e r y w e l l and have r e c e i v e d v a r i e d s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. Most p a r t i c i p a n t s h i g h l y p r a i s e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i t p l a y s i n h e l p i n g them t o s e t t l e down i n t h i s c o u n t r y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o r g a n i z e d s e v e r a l programs t o h e l p new a r r i v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s : R e c e p t i o n Program (welcoming i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t Vancouver A i r P o r t and o f f e r i n g f r e e d r i v i n g s e r v i c e ) , Homestay Program ( f i n d i n g a l o c a l f a m i l y t o h o s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f o r a c o u p l e days when t h e y f i r s t a r r i v e i n V a n c o u v e r ) ; and O r i e n t a t i o n Program ( p r o v i d i n g g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l t a l k , s i g h t t o u r i n g and c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f o r t h e new i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t ) . These programs had been p r o v e n t o be v e r y h e l p f u l f o r PRC s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . F a c u l t y members a l s o were mentioned as s o u r c e s o f h e l p f o r new PRC s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . The h e l p m a i n l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r academic s t u d y , such as 80 c h o o s i n g c o u r s e s , r e g i s t e r i n g , making d e c i s i o n on r e s e a r c h f o c u s and a l s o w i t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , such as g i v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o become t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s o r r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s . F e l l o w c o u n t r y men and women from PRC who had come t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia e a r l y a l s o p r o v i d e d tremendous h e l p f o r t h e new a r r i v a l s . The h e l p t h e y p r o v i d e d m a i n l y r e l a t e d w i t h d a i l y l i f e , such as h u n t i n g f o r a room, how t o s h o p p i n g i n t h e PRC s t u d e n t s ' way, where t o buy cheap f o o d s , how t o f i n d a garage s a l e ; a l s o w i t h academic s t u d y how t o t a k e c o u r s e s p r o p e r l y . These h e l p m a i n l y r e l a t e d w i t h new s t u d e n t s ' i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t and t h e i r b a s i c s u r v i v a l needs. A c t i v i t i e s of Daily L i f e T h i s c a t e g o r y had a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f 71% and o f t o t a l o f 33 i n c i d e n t s . 18 were f a c i l i t a t i n g and 15 were h i n d e r i n g ( T a b l e 5 . ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were more f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s t h a n h i n d e r i n g ones, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . I n some r e s e a r c h , t h e A c t i v i t i e s o f D a i l y L i f e has been g e n e r a t e d as one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s 81 t h e p r o c e d u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s 7 s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e h o s t c o u n t r y (Jensen & J e n s e n , 1983; Johonson, 1971). I n Vanegas' (1980) r e s e a r c h on t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f L a n t i n American s t u d e n t s t o The U n i t e d , S s t a t e s , d a i l y l i f e was found t o be one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s among L a t i n A m e r i c a n male s t u d e n t s , because t h e y were so h e a v i l y dependent on t h e i r m o t h e r s , w i v e s , g i r l f r i e n d s , s i s t e r s o r maids. But i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e A c t i v i t i e s o f D a i l y L i f e had been p r o v e d t o be a n o n - p r i m a r y f a c t o r . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s t h a t t h e r e i s even more f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s t h a n h i n d e r i n g ones i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . As some s t u d e n t s p o i n t e d o u t , i t was n o t so c h a l l e n g i n g and d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t t o d a i l y l i f e i n Canada. The h u n t i n g f o r a room was mentioned as a b i g h i n d e r i n g i s s u e , b u t most o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f i n a l l y found a cheap p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e i r f e l l o w countryman's h e l p . T h e i r d a i l y l i f e i s v e r y s i m p l e and t h r i f t y , w h i c h i s what t h e y a r e u s e d t o when t h e y were i n C h i n a . As many s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h e y a r e f o c u s e d on academic s t u d y and r e s e a r c h so much t h a t t h e y pay v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o d a i l y l i f e i n Canada. T h i s c o u l d be t h e main r e a s o n why t h i s c a t e g o r y i s a n o n - p r i m a r y ones f o r PRC s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. F i n a n c i a l P r e s s u r e 82 F i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e was p l a c e d as t h e s e v e n t h among 10 c a t e g o r i e s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t o t a l number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n t o t a l , 32 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d i n t h i s category,. 20 o f them were h i n d e r i n g and 12 , o f them were f a c i l i t a t i n g . The r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y was 66 and a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y has been found ( T a b l e 5 . ) . F i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b i g g e s t b a r r i e r f o r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n r e s e a r c h by K l i n e b e r g & H u l l (1979). I t was a l s o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s o r i g i n a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e would be one o f t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r s h i n d e r i n g PRC s t u d e n t s ' s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. The f i n d i n g o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , however, showed s u r p r i s i n g l y t h a t f i n a n c i a l p r o b lem was not a p r i m a r y f a c t o r f o r PRC u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. There a r e some r e a s o n s t o e x p l a i n t h i s f i n d i n g : 1) I n Canada, most PRC u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a r e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . F o r example, t h e r e were 275 PRC g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and o n l y 11 PRC u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , t h e y needn n o t pay t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l t u i t i o n f e e s w h i c h would be 2.5 t i m e s more t h a n t h e l o c a l s t u d e n t s ' t u i t i o n f e e s . 83 2) A l s o , most g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s o r t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p s . T h i s i s t h e main f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e f o r them. F i n a n c i a l a i d from t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s a t l e a s t meet t h e i r b a s i c l i v i n g needs. Some A s t u d e n t s a r e even a b l e t o send money back t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n C h i n a . Thus PRC g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ' f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n s a r e much b e t t e r t h a n PRC u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and t h o s e s t u d y i n g a t language i n s t i t u t e s and c o l l e g e s . The PRC u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and PRC s t u d e n t s i n language i n s t i t u t e s and c o l l e g e s have t o pay h i g h e s t t u i t i o n f e e s w i t h o u t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s from t h e s c h o o l s . I b e l i e v e , i n t h e f u t u r e , a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be done on s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t o f PRC language s t u d e n t s and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t o f i l l t h i s r e s e a r c h b l a n k a r e a . Agencies' P o l i c i e s & Emergent Events The r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y was 71%. I n t o t a l , 28 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d , 24 o f them were h i n d e r i n g and 4 o f them were f a c i l i t a t i n g . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between h i n d e r i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 5 . ) . The h i g h e s t r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g t o f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s (6 t o 1) was f o u n d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 5 . ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s c a t e g o r y was n o t l i s t e d as a p r i m a r y f a c t o r , t h e number of h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s was p l a c e d f o u r t h 84 among 10 h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c i e s a r e one o f t h e p r i m a r y h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s . The e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h i s phenomenon a r e : 1) The p o l i c i e s o f d e a l i n g w i t h PRC s t u d e n t s coming t o Canada b o t h t h e C h i n e s e government and t h e C a n a d i a n government have been v e r y c h a n g e a b l e and u n s t a b l e i n t h e l a s t a c o u p l e y e a r s . Some s t u d e n t s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t i t was o f t e n a d i f f i c u l t l e n g t h i l y p r o c e d u r e t o g e t t h e i r p a s s p o r t s from t h e C h i n e s e government o r t o g e t v i s a s from t h e C a n a d i a n B e i j i n g Embassy. 2) S i n c e many s t u d e n t s wanted t o b r i n g t h e i r s p o u s e s t o Canada, t h e y had t o d e a l w i t h v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e l o c a l i m m i g r a t i o n o f f i c e , t h e Canadian B e i j i n g Embassy, t h e C h i n e s e C o n s u l a t e i n Vancouver, t h e P u b l i c S e c u r i t y Bureau i n C h i n a and t h e i r f o r m e r u n i t i n C h i n a . The b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s among t h e s e a g e n c i e s made t h e s t u d e n t s f e e l v e r y u p s e t and f r u s t r a t e d . 3) Some s t u d e n t s a l s o p o i n t e d o ut t h a t some u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c i e s o r department p o l i c i e s a l s o made t h e i r academic a d j u s t m e n t t o t h i s campus more d i f f i c u l t . F o r example, t h e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s had t o t a k e more c o u r s e s t h a n some same l e v e l l o c a l s t u d e n t s . Because t h e department d e t e r m i n e d 85 t h a t some c r e d i t s on PRC s t u d e n t s ' t r a n s c r i p t s c o u l d n o t be t h e e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e c r e d i t s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e heads o f departments assumed t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s were l a c k i n g i n c e r t a i n academic { b a c k g r o u n d , w h i c h l a t e r was o f t e n p r o v e n t o be i n c o r r e c t . 4) Most s t u d e n t s mentioned t h a t one o f t h e major e v e n t s , w h i c h h i n d e r e d t h e i r academic and d a i l y l i f e a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada d u r i n g 1989 t o 1990 academic y e a r , was t h e C h i n e s e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s democracy movement w h i c h began S p r i n g o f 1989 and ended June 4 t h o f t h e same y e a r i n C h i n a . Many s t u d e n t s p a i d so much a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e v e n t , and t h e y were so e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n i n C h i n a t h a t t h e y c o u l d n ot s i t down t o t h e i r s t u d i e s and t h e i r r e s e a r c h f o r s e v e r a l months. When t h e June 4 t h o f 1989, t h e massacre o f Tiananmen s q u a r e happened, PRC s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d t o worry about t h e i r f a m i l y members i n C h i n a . T h i s i s a t y p i c a l example o f an emergency e v e n t w h i c h h i n d e r e d some PRC s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t t o s t u d y i n g and d a i l y l i f e i n Canada. A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s t h a t t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ranked i n l a s t p l a c e among t h e 10 f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r b o t h t h e C h i n e s e government and v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i n C h i n a and t h e C a n a d i a n government and v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i n Canada t o t h i n k o f 86 i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t s ' s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. P e r s o n a l & E m o t i o n a l 28 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , 18 o f them were h i n d e r i n g and 10 o f them were f a c i l i t a t i n g . A s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s was found i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y was 43% ( T a b l e 5 . ) . Though t h i s c a t e g o r y i s not a major one, i t does n o t mean t h a t p e r s o n a l and e m o t i o n a l i s s u e s a r e n o t an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e among PRC s t u d e n t s i n Canada. One e x p l a n a t i o n o f l e s s r e s p o n s e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i s t h a t because t h e f a m i l y c o n c e r n s a r e a v e r y b i g f a c t o r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t o d i v i d e t h e F a m i l y Concerns from t h e P e r s o n a l and E m o t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . We can assume t h a t i f t h e r e s e a r c h e r p u t b o t h t h e F a m i l y Concerns and P e r s o n a l & E m o t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s t o g e t h e r , t h i s c a t e g o r y would no doubt be t h e l a r g e s t one among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . R e g a r d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y h i g h e r t h a n f a c i l i t a t i n g ones i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h same t e n d e n c y i n t h e F a m i l y Concerns c a t e g o r y . Most s t u d e n t s m e ntioned t h a t t h e i r c o u n t r y p e e r s , t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s , and c o u n s e l l o r s from 87 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House gave them h e l p when t h e y s o u ght i t . S e v e r a l p e o p l e c o m p l a i n e d t h a t i t was h a r d t o f i n d t h e r i g h t p e r s o n and a s a f e p l a c e t o d i s c u s s about t h e i r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s i n Canada. P r e p a r a t i o n R e g a r d i n g t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d and t h e r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h i s i s t h e s m a l l e s t c a t e g o r y among t h e 10 c a t e g o r i e s . O n l y 38% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , and i n t o t a l , 10 i n c i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d , 8 o f w h i c h were f a c i l i t a t i n g ( T a b l e 5 . ) . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 5 . ) . Most i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e h e l p s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d t o p r e p a r e p r o p e r l y t o go ab r o a d . They r e p o r t e d h e l p r e c e i v i n g from e i t h e r t h e o r i e n t a t i o n programs i n C h i n a o r p r e - a r r i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n k i t s b e f o r e t h e y l e f t t h e PRC o r p r e - a r r i v a l c o n t a c t w i t h UBC I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o r t h e i r department i n Canada. The s t u d e n t s ' f r i e n d s , i n c l u d i n g l o c a l Canadians o r t h e i r c o u n t r y p e e r s , a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p r e p a r i n g them t o l i v e and t o s t u d y i n Canada. SUMMARY 88 1. Ten major c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r PRC s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u stment i n Canada have been f o u n d t h r o u g h t h i s r e s e a r c h . Among t h e 10 c a t e g o r i e s , t h e t o p 5 o f them a r e c o n s i d e r e d as p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s . They c o v e r e d 66% o f a l l i n c i d e n t s . The range o f r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n among t h e s e 5 c a t e g o r i e s was from 81% t o 90% and was much h i g h e r t h a n t h e r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n among r e m a i n i n g 5 c a t e g o r i e s . The 5 p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s a r e : Academic S t u d y & R e s e a r c h ; F a m i l y Concerns & S u p p o r t ; C u l t u r a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g & S o c i a l G a t h e r i n g ; Language B a r r i e r s & Improvement; I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t . 2. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , Academic Study & R e s e a r c h was r a n k e d f i r s t p l a c e among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , Language B a r r i e r s & Improvement was l i s t e d t h e h i g h e s t among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t was p l a c e d t h e h i g h e s t ; i n t h e number o f h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s , c a t e g o r y o f Language B a r r i e r s & Improvement was l i s t e d t h e h i g h e s t among t h e 10 c a t e g o r i e s . The h i g h e s t r a t i o o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t o h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s (13 t o 2) was r e p o r t e d i n t h e I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t ; t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g t o f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s (12 t o 2) was r e p o r t e d i n t h e A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c i e s & Emergent E v e n t s . 89 3. F a m i l y Concerns, which t o d a t e , few r e s e a r c h e r have d e t e r m i n e d a r e among p r i m a r y f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t t o a h o s t c u l t u r e , has been f o u n d t o p l a c e t h e second h i g h e s t among 10 c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The major f a m i l y c o n c e r n s were r e l a t e d t o PRC s t u d e n t s ' spouses and c h i l d r e n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p a r e n t s . 4. F i n a n c i a l P r e s s u r e , w h i c h had p r i m a r i l y been c o n s i d e r e d as one o f t h e most p r i m a r y f a c t o r s t o a f f e c t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o a new c u l t u r e , was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e 5 p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s . Only 66% p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h e i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . 5. Language B a r r i e r p l a c e d t h e h i g h e s t among h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h most o t h e r r e s e a r c h on i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t . There i s a n o t i c e a b l e h i g h e r r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g t o f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s (19 t o 5) i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . 6. I n i t i a l S e t t l e m e n t was l i s t e d as t h e h i g h e s t among f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s . I t i s t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t o h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s (13 t o 2) among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . 90 7. A g e n c i e s ' P o l i c i e s & Emergent Ev e n t , w h i c h few r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r t o be a major f a c t o r o f i n f l u e n c e on i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t i n a h o s t c o u n t r y , had been f o u n d t o be one o f 10 major c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f h i n d e r i n g t o f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s (6 t o 1) among 10 c a t e g o r i e s . SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 1. S i n c e t h e h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s o f Language B a r r i e r s r a n k e d t h e h i g h e s t and o n l y a few f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s had been f o u n d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . I t i s recommendable t h a t u n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e s more language t r a i n i n g s e r v i c e s f o r PRC s t u d e n t s , o r t o encourage them t o t a k e more E n g l i s h c o u r s e s . The r e s u l t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i m i t e d E n g l i s h l anguage a b i l i t y h i n d e r e d PRC s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r academic s t u d y and t h e i r t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s h i p . So i t w i l l be v e r y h e l p f u l and u s e f u l t o p r o v i d e a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c o u r s e p r o v i d e d f o r PRC and o t h e r s g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . 2. I t i s a l s o recommendable t h a t u n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e s more e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r PRC s t u d e n t s and o t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . A s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g from t h i s r e s e a r c h was t h a t none o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s had been t o t h e St u d e n t C o u n s e l l i n g C e n t r e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n f a c t , many o f them had nev e r h e a r d o f t h e 91 s e r v i c e b e f o r e . But PRC s t u d e n t s and o t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s d i d come t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o seek a d v i s i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g . There were two p a r t t i m e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s A d v i s o r s , who were a l s o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , and one o f them was n a t i v e M a n d a r i n s p e a k e r . The f a c t t h a t PRC s t u d e n t s sought t h e s e two a d v i s o r s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h e y do need c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e based on c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f PRC s t u d e n t s p r o b l e m s . 3. The r e s u l t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t PRC s t u d e n t s have g o t l o t s o f h e l p d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s t a g e . PRC s t u d e n t s a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and l o c a l p e o p l e was v e r y h e l p f u l i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r E n g l i s h and a d j u s t i n g t o t h e new c u l t u r e . P e e r program was h i g h l y p r a i s e d by most p a r t i c i p a n t s . But t h e y a l s o mentioned t h a t t h e r e were many c u l t u r a l and language b a r r i e r s w h i c h p r e v e n t e d a d e e p e n i n g o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and l o c a l p e o p l e . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y wanted t o d e v e l o p a deeper r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and l o c a l p e o p l e . But once t h e y f e l t t h e y were e x c l u d e d from l o c a l c i r c l e s , t h e y would w i t h d r a w and went back t o t h e i r own c u l t u r a l c i r c l e . T h e r e f o r e , i t would be h e l p f u l f o r PRC o r o t h e r f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i f more programs o r s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s were p r o v i d e d t o h e l p them t o m i n g l e w i t h l o c a l s t u d e n t s and l o c a l p e o p l e . 4. There a r e more and more PRC s t u d e n t s coming t o N o r t h A m e r i c a a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e o r t h e b i r t h o f a c h i l d . Most o f t h e s e PRC s t u d e n t s l a c k awareness o f , how f e e l i n g s o f l o n g i n g f o r t h e i r spouses would a f f e c t t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o a new c u l t u r e . The r e s e a r c h found t h a t m i s s i n g t h e i r spouses and/or t h e i r c h i l d seemed t o be a pr o b l e m f o r many PRC s t u d e n t s . Some s u g g e s t i o n s m i g h t be u s e f u l : 1) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t e l l PRC s t u d e n t s i n advance how l o n g i t u s u a l l y t a k e s t o b r i n g t h e i r spouses and c h i l d r e n t o Canada w i t h them. 2) I t might be u s e f u l t o p r o v i d e group c o u n s e l l i n g f o r t h o s e PRC s t u d e n t s t o s h a r e t h e i r e m o t i o n s and f e e l i n g s o f m i s s i n g t h e i r spouses and c h i l d r e n . 3) I t a l s o would be u s e f u l t o p r o v i d e some programs f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s b e f o r e l e a v i n g C h i n a i n o r d e r t o l e t them be aware o f how t h e y w i l l m i s s t h e i r s pouses and c h i l d r e n ; and t o p r e p a r e them p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n . LIMITATION OF THE STUDY AND FUTURE RESEARCH 1. T h i s i s e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h and t h e r e s e a r c h e r t r i e d t o g e t a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f PRC s t u d e n t s a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada and t o f i n d o u t what t h e major f a c t o r s a r e w h i c h a f f e c t PRC s t u d e n t s p s y c h o - s o c i o a d j u s t m e n t i n Canada. There a r e many a r e a s w h i c h have n o t been f o c u s e d on i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , s u c h as t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t between 93 A r t s s t u d e n t s and S c i e n c e and E n g i n e e r i n g s t u d e n t s ; t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada between t h e government s p o n s o r e d PRC s t u d e n t s and s e l f - s p o n s o r e d PRC s t u d e n t s ; t h e d i f f e r e n t p h r a s e s o f PRC s t u d e n t s s o c i o - p s y c h o a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada. 2. The r e s e a r c h o n l y f o c u s e d on PRC u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , and e x c l u d e d t h e PRC s t u d e n t s i n language i n s t i t u t e s and c o l l e g e s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f PRC s t u d e n t s i n l a n guage i n s t i t u t e s and c o l l e g e s i n Canada i s a l s o a l a r g e , even b i g g e r t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f PRC u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . I n Vancouver t h e r e a r e more t h a n 1,500 PRC s t u d e n t s i n l a n guage i n s t i t u t e s and c o l l e g e s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f PRC c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s so f a r has g a i n e d v e r y l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n from t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p i n g and r e s e a r c h . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h f o c u s i n g on t h i s p o p u l a t i o n would be recommended. 3. T h i s r e s e a r c h o n l y f o c u s e s on PRC s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e f o r e t h e sample has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . F o r example, i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e c l i m a t e o f B.C. does n o t c o n s t i t u t e a major c a t e g o r y a f f e c t i n g PRC s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o Canada, because t h e c l i m a t e i n Vancouver i s v e r y m i l d . But i t might form a c a t e g o r y among PRC s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g i n Edmonton o r W innipeg. 94 The number o f f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s i s o n l y 2 t o 21, l e s s t h a n 10%. The f i g u r e i s a l i t t l e below t h e r a t e o f PRC f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n Canada ( V r i e s & R i c h e r , 1988). 95 REFERENCES OF THESIS Akhun, I . I . (1961). T u r k i s h e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s . D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts  International, 22, 2726A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 61-66, 028). Akka, R. I . (1967). The M i d d l e E a s t e r n s t u d e n t on t h e A m e r i c a n campus. Journal of American College Health  Association, 15, 251-254. Al-Shama, N. (1959). Problems of adjustment of I r a q i student  i n the United States. U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , T eachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . A n d e r s s o n , B., & N i l s s o n , S. (1964). S t u d i e s i n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . Journal of Applied Psychology, 48, 398-403. Anumonye, A. (197 0 ) . African students i n A l i e n cultures London: B l a c k Academy P r e s s . A S t u d e n t from M a i n l a n d C h i n a Hanged f o r not A d j u s t i n g H i m s e l f i n F o r e i g n C o u n t r y . (1988, A p r i l 16) Sing Tao  Daily News, Vancouver: S i n g Tao Newspapers LTD. B a b i k e r , I . E., Cox, J . L., & M i l l e r , P. M. C. (1980). The measurement o f c u l t u r e d i s t a n c e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o m e d i c a l c o n s u l t a t i o n , symptomatology and e x a m i n a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e o f o v e r s e a s s t u d e n t s a t E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y . S o c i a l Psychiatry, 15, 109-116. B a i l y n , L., & Kelman, H. C. (1962). t h e e f f e c t s o f a y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n A m e r i c a on t h e s e l f - i m a g e o f S c a n d i n a v i a n s . Journal of S o c i a l Issues, 18(1), 30-40. Banham, M. (1958). t h e N i g e r i a n s t u d e n t i n B r i t a i n . U n i v e r s i t i e s Quarterly. 12, 363-366. B e a l s , R. L., & Humphrey, N. D. (1957). No f r o n t i e r to learning; the Mexican student i n the United States. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . B e c k e r , T. (1968). P a t t e r n s o f a t t i t u d i n a l changes among f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . American Journal of Sociology. 73-430. 96 B e n n e t t , J . W., P a s s i n , H., & McKnight, R. K. (1958). I n  s e a r c h o f i d e n t i t y : t h e Japanese o v e r s e a s s c h o l a r i n  A m e r i c a and Japan. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . B e r r y , J . W. (1983). P s y c h o l o g i c a l A d a p t a t i o n o f M a l a y s i a n S t u d e n t s i n Canada. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e T h i r d A s i a n R e g i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C r o s s - C u l t u r a l P s y c h o l o g y , on " P s y c h o l o g y and S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Development", N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y s i a , B a n g i , M a l a y s i a , May 2-5, 1983 . B e r t e , N. R. (1972). An a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e f o r e i g n  s t u d e n t program a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i . Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , I n c . B h a t t , A. K., & F a i r c h i l d , H. H. (1984). V a l u e s o f c o n v e r g e n c e f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p a r t s . 55, 446. B i , Y., (1988, O c t o b e r 23 ) . S t u d y i n g Abroad I s G e t t i n g Hot i n M a i n l a n d C h i n a . World J o u r n a l Weekly, No. 240, V a n c o uver: W o r l d J o u r n a l I n c . B o er, E. E. (1981). Some p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a d a p t a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f  f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s , (pp. 34-5 8 ) . Amherst, New York: S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o . B o i s , C. D. (1956). F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n  The U n i t e d S t a t e s . Washington, D.C.: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n . Bourne, P. G. (1975). The C h i n e s e S t u d e n t — A c c u l t u r a t i o n and M e n t a l I l l n e s s . P s y c h i a t r y , 38, 269-277. B r e i n , M., & D a v i d , K. (1971). I n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e s o j o u r n e r . P s y c h o l o g i c a l  B u l l e t i n , 76, 215-230. B r o c h n e r , S. (1982). C u l t u r e s i n c o n t a c t : s t u d i e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n . O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s . C arey, A. T. (1956). C o l o n i a l s t u d e n t s : a s t u d y o f t h e  s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n o f c o l o n i a l s t u d e n t s i n London. London: S e e k e r & Warburg. Chang, H. B. (1973). A t t i t u d e s o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 58(1), 66-77. 97 Chataway, C. J . & B e r r y , J . W. (198 6 ) . A comparison of coping responses and outcomes, among Chiense, French  and English students i n Canada. U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , P s y c h o l o g y Department, K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o . Cheng, M., (1978). A Study on C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s ' D e c i s i o n t o Remain i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r R e t u r n t o Taiwan. Soochow Journal of s o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Sciences. 137-147. T a i p e i , Taiwan. Chong, X., (1989, J a n u a r y 4 ) . The number o f s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g abroad p l a c e s t h e No 1 i n t h e W o r l d . People  Daily, Overseas E d i t i o n , p. 4, San F r a n c i s c o . Chu, H-M., Yeh, E-K., K l e i n , M. H., A l e x a n d e r , A. A., & M i l l e r , M. H. (1971). A s t u d y o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e U.S.A. Acta Psychologica Taiwanica, 13, 206-218. Ch u r c h , A. T. (1982). S o j o u r n e r a d j u s t m e n t . Psychological  B u l l e t i n , £1(3) 540-572. C o e l h o , G. V. (1981). The f o r e i g n s t u d e n t ' s s o j o u r n as a h i g h r i s k s i t u a t i o n : t h e " c u l t u r e - s h o c k " phenomenon re- e x a m i n e d . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , Factors a f f e c t i n g  the adaptation of foreign students i n cross c u l t u r a l  settings (pp. 24-33). Amherst, New York: S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t B u f f a l o . C o e l h o , G. V. (1958). Changing images of America; a study of  Indian students' perceptions. G l e n c o e , 111.: F r e e P r e s s . Cook, S., H a v e l , J . , & C h r i s t , J . R. (1957). The e f f c t of an  o r i e n t a t i o n program for foreign students.+ R e p o r t s No. 1-9. New York: R e s r a c h C e n t e r f o r Human R e l a t i o n s , New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y . D a c h e l e t , C. Z., Wemett, M. F., G a r l i n g , J . , C r a i g - K u h n , K., K e n t , N., & K i t z m a n , H. J . (1981). The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e a p p l i e d t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c u m s e t t i n g . Journal of Nursing  Education, 20, 15-31. D a v i s , F. J . (1961). American m i n o r i t i e s as seen by T u r k i s h s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Sociology and S o c i a l  Research, 46, 48-54. D a v i s , F. J . (1963). P e r c e p t i o n s o f T u r k i s h s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Sociology and S o c i a l Research, 48, 47-57. 98 D a v i s , F. J . (1971). The two-way m i r r o r and t h e U-curve: A m e r i c a as seen by T u r k i s h s t u d e n t s r e e n t e r e d home. S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 56, 29-43. D a v i s , J . M., Hanson, R., & B u r n o r , D. (1961). The A f r i c a n  s t u d e n t : his achievements and his problems. New Yo r k : I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . D e r e s s a , B., & B e a v e r s , I . (1986). Academic and non-academic needs o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . The C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s  J o u r n a l , 20(4), 411-416. D e u t s c h , S. E., & Won, G. Y. M. (1963). Some f a c t o r s i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . 19(3), 597-606. D u b o i s , C. (1956). F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Washington, D.C.: American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n . D u n n e t t , S. C. (1981). A s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f an E n g l i s h l anguage t r a i n i n g and o r i e n t a t i o n program on f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d a p t a t i o n . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , F a c t o r s  a f f e c t i n g t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n c r o s s  c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s (pp. 24-33). Amherst, New Yo r k : S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t B u f f a l o . E l d r i d g e , J . E. T. (1960). Overseas s t u d e n t s a t L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y : some problems o f a d j u s t m e n t and communication. Race. 2, 50-59. F l a n a g a n , J . (1954). The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 51, 327-358. Fong, S., & P e r k i n , H. (1969). S e x - r o l e s t r a i n and p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t o f C h i n a - b o r n s t u d e n t s i n A m e r i c a : a p i l o t s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y . 74, 563-568. F o r s t a t , R. (1966). Adjustment problems o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 36, 25-30. Fu, Y., (1988, J u l y 1 0 ) . R a p i d l y I n c r e a s i n g Number o f M a i n l a n d C h i n a S t u d e n t s i n A m e r i c a , World J o u r n a l D a i l y  News. M i l l b r a w , C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. Furnham, A., & Bochner, S. (1986). C u l t u r e shock: p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o u n f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t s . London: Methuen. Ga n d h i , R. S. (1970). C o n f l i c t and c o h e s i o n i n an I n d i a n s t u d e n t community. Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29, 95-102. 99 G e z i , K. I . (1959). The a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f M i d d l e E a s t e r n A r a b  s t u d e n t s i n s e l e c t e d American c o l l e g e s and  u n i v e r s i t i e s . New York: American F r i e n d s o f t h e M i d d l e E a s t . G e z i , K. I . (1961). Arab s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 45, 441-447. G o l d e n , J . S. (1973). S t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t abroad: a p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s v i e w . I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l and  C u l t u r a l Exchange, 8 ( 4 ) , 28-36. G u l l a h o r n , J . T., & G u l l a h o r n J . E. (1963). An E x t e n s i o n o f t h e U-Curve H y p o t h e s i s , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 19 33-47. G u t h r i e , G. M. (1966). C u l t u r a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . I n R. B. T e x t o r ( E d . ) , C u l t u r a l F r o n t i e r s  o f t h e Peace Corps. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s . Han, P. (1975). A s t u d y o f g o a l s and problems o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s form t h e F a r E a s t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 37, 68A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s Np 75-15, 536) H e i k i n h e i m o , P. S., & Shute, J . C. M. (1986). The a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s : S t u d e n t v i e w s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e S t u d e n t  P e r s o n n e l , 27(3), 399-406. H e n d r i c k s , G. L., & S k i n n e r , K. A. (1977). A d a p t i v e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e  S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l , lj3(2) , 124-127. H i l l , J . H. (1966). An a n a l y s i s o f a group I n d o n e s i a n , T h a i , P a k i s t a n i , and I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r p r o b l e m s w h i l e e n r o l l e d a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 27, 2007A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , No. 66-12, 757) H o d g k i n , M. C. (1958). The p urposes and problems o f A s i a n  s t u d e n t s i n Western A u s t r a l i a . The U n i v e r s i t y o f Western A u s t r a l i a , Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . Hollowway, B. M. (1987). The p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s major paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Vancouver, B.C. H u l l IV, W. F (1981). A m o d i f i e d c u l t u r e c o n t a c t h y p o t h e s i s and t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f  f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s (pp. 16-100 23) . Amherst, New York: S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o . H u l l I V, W. F (1978). F o r e i g n S t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  o f A m e r i c a : C o p i n g B e h a v i o r w i t h i n t h e E d u c a t i o n a l  E n v i r o n m e n t . New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s . I b r a h i m , S. E. M. (1970). I n t e r a c t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n and a t t i t u d e s o f Arab s t u d e n t s t o w a r d A m e r i c a n s . S o c i o l o g y  and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 5, 29-46. Jammaz, A. I . A. (1973). S a u d i s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : a s t u d y o f t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 33, 4879A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 73-5, 407). J a r r a h i - z a d e h , A., & Eichman, W. J . (1970). The i m p a c t o f s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s on M i d d l e - E a s t e r n s t u d e n t s i n t h e U.S. I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l and C u l t u r a l  Exchange, 5, 82-94. J e n s e n , I . K. K., & Je n s e n , J . V. (1983). C r o s s c u t u r a l e n c o u n t e r : The newly a r r i v e d A s i a n s t u d e n t . C o l l e g e  S t u d e n t J o u r n a l , 17(4). 371-377. J i a n g , L. (1986). R e s u l t s o f a Survey o f Gr a d u a t e s and  S c h o l a r s from t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . U n p u b l i s h e d paper. J o h n s o n , D. C. (1971). Problems o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l and C u l t u r a l Exchange. T_, 61-68. Kang, T. S. (1971). Name changes and a c c u l t u r a t i o n : C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s on an American campus. P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l  Review. 14.(4), 403-12. K e a t s , D. M. (1970). Some e f f e c t s o f A u s t r a l i a n u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n on A s i a n s t u d e n t s . I n W. J . Camp b e l l ( E d . ) , S c h o l a r s i n C o n t e x t . Sydney: W i l l e y . Kelman, H. C., & B a i l y n , L. (1962). E f f e c t s o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e on n a t i o n a l images: a s t u d y o f S c a n d i n a v i a n s t u d e n t s i n A m e r i c a . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t  R e s o l u t i o n . 6, 319-334. Kim, S. K. (1973). An assessment o f f o r e i g n home economics s t u d e n t s ' s e l e c t e d academic and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 34, 5055B-5056B. K l e i n , M. H., A l e x a n d e r , A. A., Tseng, K., M i l l e r , M. H., Yeh, E., Chu, H., Workneh, F. (1971). The f o r e i g n 101 s t u d e n t a d a p t a t i o n program: S o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f A s i a n s t u d e n t s i n U.S. International Educational and C u l t u r a l  Exchange. 6, 77-90. K l e i n m a n , A. M., & Sung, L. H. (1979). Why Do I n d i g e n o u s P r a c t i t i o n e r s S u c c e s s f u l l y H e a l ? S o c i a l Science and  Medicine, 13, 7-26 K l i n e b e r g , O, & H u l l IV, W. F. (1979). At A Foreign U n i v e r s i t y — A n International Study of Adaptation  and Coping. New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s . K r i n g , G. R. (1985). Factors which f a c i l i t a t e the adjustment  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l students to l i f e i n Canada. U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, B+.C. Lamber, R. D., & B r e s s l e r , M. (1956). I n d i a n s t u d e n t s on an A m e r i c a n campus. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . L i , Z. (1988). C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s Abroad, China Reconstructs 3_7(10) , N o r t h American E d i t i o n . San F r a n c i s c o . L u n d s t e d t , S. (1963). An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Some E v o l v i n g P r o blems i n C r o s s - C u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h , Journal of S o c i a l  Issues, 19, 1-9. L y s g a a r d , S. (1955). Adjustment i n a F o r e i g n S o c i e t y : Norwegian F u b r i g h t G r a n t e e s V i s i t i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , International s o c i a l Science B u l l e t i n . 7, 45-51. M i c h i i , T. N. (1981). Probelms o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n : t h e J a p a n e s s c a s e . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , Factors  a f f e c t i n g the adaptation of f o r e i g n students i n cross  c u l t u r a l settings (pp. 126-136). Amherst, New Y o r k : S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t B u f f a l o . M i c k l e , K. M. (1984). The c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adaptation fo Hong  Kong students at two Ontario u n i v e r s i t i e s . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , T o r o n t o . M o r r i s , R. T. (1960). The two-way mirror: national status i n  foreign students adjustment. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . N i c k e l l y , A., S u g i t a , M., & O t i s , J . (1964). A d j u s t m e n t and m e n t a l h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . Mental  Hygiene, 48, 463-467. Oberg, K. (1960). C u l t u r a l shock: a d j u s t m e n t t o new c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . P r a c t i c a l A n t h r o p o l o g y , 7, 177-182. 102 Owie, I . (1982). S o c i a l a l i e n a i t o n among f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s J o u r n a l , 16(2), 163-165. P e r k i n s , C. S., P e r k i n s , M. L., G u g l i e l m i n o , L. M., & R e i f f , R. F. (1977). A comparison o f t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s o f t h r e e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t g r o u p s . J o u r n a l o f  C o l l e g e S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l . 5, 382-388. P o r t e r , J . W. (1972). The development o f an i n v e n t o r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e problems o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , I n c . P r u i t t , F. J . (1977). The a d a p t a t i o n o f A f r i c a n s t u d e n t s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f Ame r i c a . S p e c i a l S t u d i e s S e r i e s C o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s . New York. S c h i l d , E. O. (1961). The f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , as s t r a n g e r , l e a r n i n g t h e norms o f t h e h o s t - c u l t u r e . The J o u r n a l o f  s o c i a l I s s u e s . 18(1), 41-54. Schram, J . L., & L a u v e r , P. L. (1988). A l i e n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a i t o n a l S t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e S t u d e n t  Devlopment . 29., 146-150. S c o t t , F. D. (1956). The American e x p e r i e n c e o f Swedis h  s t u d e n t s ; r e t r o s p e c t and a f t e r m a t h . M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . S e l l t i z , C., & Cook, S. W. (1962). F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s toward t h e h o s t c o u n t r y . The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . 18, 7-23. S e w e l l , W. H., & D a v i d s e n , O. M. (1956). The a d j u s t m e n t o f S c a n d i n a v i a n s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . 12(1), 9-19. S e w e l l , W. H., & D a v i d s e n , 0. M. (1961). S c a n d i n a v i a n s t u d e n t s on an American campus. M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . Shabaga, M., & Zur-Muehlen, M. V. (1988). P e o p l e R e p u b l i c o f  C h i n a S t u d e n t s i n Canada: A S t a t i s t i c a l D o c u m e n t a t i o n  F o r The 1980's. Canadian F e d e r a t i o n o f Deans o f Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s . Ottawa S e c r e t a r i a t , U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa, Ottawa, O n t a r i o , Canada. Sharma, K. D. (1969). I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l and C u l t u r a l Exchange, 4.(4) , 43-59. Sharma, S. A. (1973). A s t u d y t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e a d j u s t m e n t problems e x p e r i e n c e d by f o r e i g n non-European g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n s e l e c t e d 103 ' u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e s t a t e o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a . C a l i f o r n i a  Journal of Educational Research, 2_4 (3) , 135-146. Shepard, N. E. (1970). The a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n S o u t h e r n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . D i s s e r t a t i o n  Abstracts International. 31, 2624A. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 70-24, 337) S i n g h , A. K. (1963). Indian students i n B r i t a i n . Bombay: A s i a P u b l i s h i n g House. S m i t h , M. B. (1955). Some f e a t u r e s o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t s . Journal of Higher Education. 26, 23-41. Surdam, J . C., & C o l l i n s , J . R. (1984). A d a p t a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s : a cause f o r c o n c e r . Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(3), 240-245. Tung, M. (1984) . L i f e V a l u e s , P s y c h o t h e r a p y , and E a s t -West I n t e r a c t i o n . Psychiatry. 47, 3. Vanegas, L. M. (1981). An o v e r v i e w o f t h e a d a p t a t i o n p r oblems o f L a t i n American s t u d e n t s . I n S. C. Du n n e t t ( E d . ) , Factors a f f e c t i n g the adaptation of foreign  students i n cross c u l t u r a l settings (pp. 137-140) . Amherst, New York: S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Yo r k a t B u f f a l o . V e r o f f , J . (1963). A f r i c a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Journal of S o c i a l Issues, 19, 48-60. V r i e s , J . D., & R i c h e r , S. (1988). The 1988 Survey of  International Students i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . C a n a d i a n Bureau f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , Canada. Ward, L. (1967) . Some o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g dynamics o f c o n f l i c t i n a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t , Journal of  the American College Health Association, 10, 430-440. Westwood, M. J . (1988). Report of UBC and Unive r s i t y of Alberta Peer p a i r i n g Project Evaluation. U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . Westwood, M. J . , & Bakker, M. (1990). Academic a c h i e v e m e n t and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t among i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s : a c o m p a r i s o n groups s t u d y o f t h e peer p a i r i n g program. ( S u b m i t t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ) . W h i t e , A. J . , Brown, S. E., & S u d d i c k , D. (1983). Academic f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s c h o l a s t i c p e r formance o f 104 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . C o l l e g e S t u d e n t J o u r n a l . 17(3), 268-272. W h i t e , S., & W h i t e , T. (1981). A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f f o r e i g n g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r E n g l i s h Language p r o f i c i e n c e . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g  t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l  s e t t i n g s (pp. 59-77). Amherst, New York: S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t B u f f a l o . W i l l i a m s , J . F. (1981). A peer a s s i s t a n c e program: an a s s e t f o r f o r i g n s t u d e n t s a d a p t a t i o n . I n S. C. Dunnett ( E d . ) , F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s i n c r o s s c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s (pp. 149-159). Amherst, New York: S p e c i a l s t u d i e s s e r i e s c o u n c i l on I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York a t B u f f a l o . Woolsey, L. K. (1986). The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e : an i n n o v a t i v e q u a l i t a t i v e method o f r e s e a r c h . C a n a d i a n  J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g . 20i(4) , 242-254. Wu, Y., & Wang, J . (1989, J a n u a r y 1 7 ) . Tang Tang t a l k i n g a bout new p o l i c y about s t u d y i n g abroad. P e o p l e D a i l y . O v e r s e a s E d i t i o n , p. 4. San F r a n c i s c o . Xu, Q. (1988, August 1 0 ) . A Survey o f S e l f - s u p p o r t P.R.C. S t u d e n t s i n Tokyo. C h i n a Youth Paper. B e i j i n g . Yeh, E., Chu, H., K l e i n , M. H., A l e x a n d e r , A. A., & M i l l e r , M. H. (1981). P s y c h i a t r i c I m p l i c a t i o n s o f C r o s s -C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n : C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n S t y l e n Bochner ( E d . ) , The M e d i a t i n g P e r s o n :  B r i d g e s between C u l t u r e s (pp. 137-168). Cambridge, Mass: Schenkman Pub. Co. Y i , T. (1988, O c t o b e r 11). Oversea S t u d e n t s Need U n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o n c e r n . P e o p l e ' s D a i l y . O v e r s e a s E d i t i o n , p. 4, San F r a n c i s c o . Z a i d i , S. M. H. (1975). Adjustment problems o f f o r e i g n M u s l i m s t u d e n t s i n P a k i s t a n , i n R.W. B r i s l i n , S. Bochner, & W. J . Lonner ( E d s . ) , C r o s s - c u l t u r a l  P e r s p e c t i v e s on L e a r n i n g . New York: W i l e y . Zwingmann, C. A. A., & Gunn, A. D. G. (1883). U p r o o t i n g and  h e a l t h : p s y c h o - s o c i a l problems o f s t u d e n t s from a b r o a d . Geneva: W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f M e n t a l H e a l t h . 105 APPENDIX A TABLES T a b l e 1. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l s S t u d e n t E n r o l l m e n t a t U n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada f o r t h e Top 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n S e l e c t e d Y e a r s 1975-76 t o 1988-89 ( S t e w a r t , 1989) % Change 87-88 t o C o u n t r y 75-76 80-81 85-86 86-87 87-88 88-89 88-89 1 H.K. 3,850 4,993 7,198 6,138 5, 370 5, 084 - 5.3 2 U.S.A. 4, 046 2,987 2,219 2,330 2,330 2,608 11.9 3 P.R.C. 213 187 865 1,233 1,701 2,456 44.4 4 M a l a y s i a 441 2,956 1,977 1,326 1,116 1,205 8.0 5 S i n g a p o r e 132 613 1,003 1, 023 982 1, 007 2.5 T a b l e 2. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t E n r o l l m e n t a t t h e M a s t e r ' s L e v e l i n Canad, f o r t h e t o p 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n , S e l e c t e d Y e a r s , 75-76 t o 88-89. ( S t e w a r t , 1989) 106 % Change 87-88 t o C o u n t r y 75-76 80-81 85-86 86-87 87-88 88-89 88-89 1 P.R.C. 20 52 414 607 793 1, 015 28.0 2 U.S.A. 777 517 342 323 307 341 11.1 3 I n d i a 244 272 283 283 277 329 18.8 4 H.K. 124 297 333 333 336 307 - 8.6 5 F r a n c e 144 170 160 160 155 196 26.5 T a b l e 3. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t E n r o l l m e n t a t t h e D o c t o r a l L e v e l i n Canada, f o r t h e t o p 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n , S e l e c t e d Y e a r s , 75-76 t o 88-89. ( S t e w a r t , 1989) % Change 87-88 t o C o u n t r y 75-76 80-81 85-86 86-87 87-88 88-89 88-89 1 P.R.C. 6 14 259 462 719 1,220 69.7 2 U.S.A. 452 536 418 397 374 388 3.7 3 I n d i a 134 223 346 331 307 334 8.8 4 U.K. 89 214 176 171 155 171 10.3 5 Morocco 4 13 82 87 88 117 32.0 107 T a b l e 4. F u l l - t i m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s E n r o l l m e n t a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e Top 5 C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n Country 1988-89 1989-90 U/Grad Grad Total % of U/Grad Grad To t a l % Of UBC IS UBC IS 1 P.R.C. 6 191 197 17.73 11 275 286 22.03 2 U.S.A. 57 119 176 15.84 50 114 164 12.63 3 U.K. 22 81 103 9.27 32 74 106 8.17 4 H.K. 12 44 56 5. 04 33 41 74 5.70 5 India 1 43 44 3.96 3 40 43 3.31 108 APPENDIX B FROMS & LETTERS APPENDIX B — I PARTICIPANTS DEMOGRAPHIC FORM NAME: DEPT. AND PROGRAM: DATE OF BORN: MARITAL STATUS: DATE OF ARRIVING CANADA: THE PROVINCE AND COUNT COME FROM: STATUS: GRADUATE STUDENT OR VISITING SCHOLAR APPENDIX B — I I INFORMED CONSENT April/1989 PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY: 109 T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d t o f i n d o u t what f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r a d j u s t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s from The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f Ch i n a a t u n i v e r s i t y . , PROCEDURES: As a p a r t i c i p a n t you w i l l be asked t o : a. P a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e r v i e w ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 minutes) b. Complete a b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t . The i n t e r v i e w w i l l be t a p e d and no names w i l l be w i t h t h e t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h i s i s t o c e r t i f y t h a t I , , h e r e b y a g r e e t o v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n on a d j u s t m e n t . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I do not have t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t I am f r e e t o wi t h d r a w my c o n s e n t and my t e r m i n a t e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any t i m e , and t h a t t h i s w i l l n o t j e o p a r d i z e my s t a n d i n g a t UBC. A n y t h i n g I say o r d a t a t h a t a r e c o l l e c t e d w i l l r emain c o n f i d e n t i a l w i t h r e g a r d t o my i d e n t i t y . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I am f r e e t o n o t answer s p e c i f i c i t e m s o r q u e s t i o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w o r b i o g r a p h i c a l s h e e t . I have had a chance t o ask any q u e s t i o n s I want about t h i s s t u d y , and t h e y have been answered t o my s a t i s f a c t i o n . I have a l s o been t o l d t h a t I may ask any q u e s t i o n s I have a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e s t u d y and t h a t t h e y w i l l be answered t o APPENDIX C SUBJECTS NOUMBER AND THEIR INCIDENTS SUBJECT NO. 01 TOTAL INCIDENTS 29 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 12 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 17 SUBJECT NO. 02 TOTAL INCIDENTS 26 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 10 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 16 SUBJECT NO. 03 TOTAL INCIDENTS 18 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 7 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 11 SUBJECT NO. 04 TOTAL INCIDENTS 15 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 5 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 10 SUBJECT NO.OS TOTAL INCIDENTS 17 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 7 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 10 SUBJECT NO. 06 TOTAL INCIDENTS 16 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 8 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 8 SUBJECT NO. 07 TOTAL INCIDENTS 18 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 6 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 12 SUBJECT NO. 08 TOTAL INCIDENTS 19 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 9 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 10 SUBJECT NO. 09 TOTAL INCIDENTS 15 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 7 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 8 SUBJECT NO. 10 TOTAL INCIDENTS 18 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 10 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 8 SUBJECT NO. 11 TOTAL INCIDENTS 15 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 5 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 10 SUBJECT NO. 12 TOTAL INCIDENTS 14 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 7 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 7 SUBJECT NO. 13 TOTAL INCIDENTS 20 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 9 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 11 SUBJECT NO. 14 TOTAL INCIDENTS 22. POSITIVE INCIDENTS 10 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 12 SUBJECT NO. 15 TOTAL INCIDENTS 22 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 11 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 11 SUBJECT NO. 16 TOTAL INCIDENTS 14 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 7 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 7 SUBJECT NO. 17 TOTAL INCIDENTS 21 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 14 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 7 SUBJECT NO. 18 115 TOTAL INCIDENTS 22 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 10 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 12 SUBJECT NO. 19 « TOTAL INCIDENTS 21 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 10 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 11 SUBJECT NO. 20 TOTAL INCIDENTS 13 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 7 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 6 SUBJECT NO. 21 TOTAL INCIDENTS 11 POSITIVE INCIDENTS 5 NEGATIVE INCIDENTS 6 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0053670/manifest

Comment

Related Items