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Ethnocultural identity of persons of Chinese origin : testing a model of minority identity development… Villasenor, Natacha 1990

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ETHNOCULTURAL IDENTITY OF PERSONS OF CHINESE ORIGIN: TESTING A MODEL OF MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT VIA Q-SORT METHODOLOGY By NATACHA VILLASENOR B.A., Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1990 © Natacha V i l l a s e n o r , 1990 5. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date September, 1990 DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t L i t e r a t u r e reviews (Casas, 1984, 1985; P o n t e r o t t o , 1988) on the s t a t u s of r a c i a l / e t h n i c m i n o r i t y research i n d i c a t e that one of the problems i n coming to d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of counseling with the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i s the l a c k of r e s e a r c h accounting f o r h e t e r o g e n e i t y w i t h i n e t h n i c groups. T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as a p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e tapping i n t o i n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y with persons of Chinese o r i g i n c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g i n Canada. S p e c i f i c a l l y , A t k i n s o n , Morten & Sue (1979)'s model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development i s examined i n r e l a t i o n to i t s v a l i d i t y with t h i s e t h n i c group. A t k i n s o n et a l . ' s (1979) M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y Development model p o s t u l a t e s f i v e stages m i n o r i t y persons experience i n t r y i n g to d i s c e r n and a p p r e c i a t e themselves based on t h e i r c u l t u r e of o r i g i n , the mainstream c u l t u r e and the r e l a t i o n s h i p and meaning between the two. These stages are Conformity, Dissonance, R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion, I n t r o s p e c t i o n and S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness. Based on the model, 81 items were generated, t r a n s l a t e d and administered t o 44 p a r t i c i p a n t s v i a Q-Sort Methodology. A l s o , r e l e v a n t demographic i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d . Factor a n a l y s i s and q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s f o r Q-Methodology as suggested by T a l b o t t (1971) generated four f a c t o r s . The emerging f a c t o r s r e f l e c t e d the Conformity, Dissonance, R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion, and S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stages. Thus, based on the p a r t i a l support f o r the f i v e - s t a g e model among persons of Chinese o r i g i n ; a f o u r - s t a g e model was generated. The a n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s suggests the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : (1) h e t e r o g e n e i t y w i t h i n e t h n i c groups must be accounted f o r i t i s accounted f o r w i t h i n the mainstream c u l t u r e ; (2) e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y emerges as a v i a b l e c o n s t r u c t ( v a r i a b l e ) tapping i n t o i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s ; (3) Q-Methodology appears as a c u l t u r a l l y n o n - i n t r u s i v e method; and (4) e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y may mediate the c o u n s e l i n g process. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Table o f Contents i v L i s t o f Tables v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s . v i i Acknowledgement v i i i Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter Two: E t h n i c I d e n t i t y : An Overview of the L i t e r a t u r e 7 Black i d e n t i t y development models 8 Mexican-American i d e n t i t y development models . . . . 14 Asian-American models of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y 18 Native-Canadian model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y 19 Other Models of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 20 M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y Development . 22 Statement of the Problem 29 Chapter Three: Method 32 P a r t i c i p a n t s 32 Instruments/Methodology 33 Q-Methodology 33 Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 36 Procedure 36 Data C o l l e c t i o n 38 Data A n a l y s i s Procedures 40 Chapter Four: R e s u l t s 44 F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of Subjects 44 Person Factor I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 45 Person f a c t o r I: M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n 48 Person f a c t o r I I : C u l t u r a l Conformity . . . . 55 Person f a c t o r I I I : B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t . . . . 61 Person f a c t o r IV: C u l t u r a l Emersion 66 Summary of person f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 73 V Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Person F a c t o r s . . . 76 Chapter F i v e : D i s c u s s i o n 79 Summary of R e s u l t s 79 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Person F a c t o r s 82 D e s c r i p t i o n of the O v e r a l l Emerging P a t t e r n . . . . 83 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the R e s u l t s 85 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 85 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 88 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 90 Socio-economic Status 90 Other methods of data c o l l e c t i o n 91 Recommendations 91 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 92 References 94 Appendix A Advertisement f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s 105 Appendix B Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 108 Appendix C D e s c r i p t i o n of the Stages of M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y Development 113 Appendix D Rating Form . . . 121 Appendix E Items f o r the Q-Sort 131 Appendix F Consent Form 147 Appendix G I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Q-Sort Procedure 150 v i LIST OF TABLES Table I Fac t o r S t r u c t u r e R e s u l t i n g from P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s of Sub j e c t s ' Q-Sorts 46 Table II Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person F a c t o r I 49 Table I I I Percentage of Items w i t h i n Each F a c t o r A c c o r d i n g to Stages 54 Table IV Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person Factor II 56 Table V Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person F a c t o r I I I 61 Table VI Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person F a c t o r IV 67 Table VII Demographic Information by Person F a c t o r s 78 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 . Scree Test Showing Eigenvalues v i i i Acknowledgement I acknowledge my c h i l d r e n Eduardo and Nadia who p a t i e n t l y supported me throughout t h i s p r o j e c t . I a l s o thank my A d v i s o r , Dr. I. Ishiyama f o r h i s e x p e r t i s e , guidance and support i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n , I thank my Committee members Dr. M. Westwood f o r h i s encouragement and support and Dr. T. Leong f o r h i s involvement i n t h i s p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , I acknowledge my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. W. Boldt who p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e on many o c c a s i o n s . 1 Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n During the l a s t three decades there has been an i n c r e a s i n g need and i n t e r e s t i n c l a r i f y i n g the r a c i a l / e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s that might mediate the c o u n s e l l i n g process and outcome. A need f o r understanding counselor v a r i a b l e s , c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s , and c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s has been e l o q u e n t l y e l u c i d a t e d and espoused by p r a c t i t i o n e r s and researchers (Sue, 1981; Leong, 1986; Atkinson, Morten and Sue, 1979; Axelson, 1985; A t k i n s o n , 1985; Pedersen, 1976). At the same time, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e reviews ( P o n t e r o t t o , 1988; Casas, 1984, 1985) p o i n t out to skewness with regards to research i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n these three areas as w e l l as major methodological flaws i n s t u d i e s p u b l i s h e d . Of the three areas mentioned above, the one r e c e i v i n g the l e a s t amount of a t t e n t i o n i n r e s e a r c h has been counselor v a r i a b l e s . S t u d i e s i n t h i s area have examined counselor e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f systems, and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may o b s t r u c t or i n h i b i t c o u n s e l i n g with r a c i a l or m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . As an example, wi t h regards to b e l i e f systems; f i n d i n g s (Wampold, Casas & A t k i n s o n , 1981; Bloombaum, Yamamoto, & James, 1968; Yamamoto, James, Bloombaum & Hattem, 1967) i n d i c a t e that e t h n o - c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s are diagnosed and counseled d i f f e r e n t l y , t h a t i s , with an inadequate, mediocre, and p a t e r n a l i s t i c ( C a y l e f f , 1986) frame of r e f e r e n c e compared to c l i e n t s from mainstream s o c i e t y . 2 Another component w i t h i n t h i s area i s counselor t r a i n i n g and t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and i t s relevance (Sue, Akutsu, & H i g a s h i , 1985; Casas, 1985) and a p p l i c a b i l i t y to c o u n s e l i n g c l i e n t s of d i v e r s e e t h n o - c u l t u r a l and socio-economic backgrounds. The second area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c o n t e x t u a l or s o c i e t a l v a r i a b l e s which may impinge upon c o u n s e l i n g c r o s s -c u l t u r a l l y . Some c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s are op p r e s s i o n , poverty, s t e r e o t y p e s , racism, p r e j u d i c e , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and ethnocentrism at the s o c i e t a l l e v e l . These v a r i a b l e s d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t the co u n s e l i n g process because they shape and g i v e meaning to experience and behaviors (Wampold, Casas, & A t k i n s o n , 1981), are major s t r e s s o r s i n the l i v e s of m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s (Sue & Chin, 1983) and i n f l u e n c e p s y c h o s o c i a l development of m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s ( Casas, 1985). There i s overwhelming agreement amongst researchers on the need t o focus on the e f f e c t s of c o n t e x t u a l - s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s (Casas, 1985, 1984; Po n t e r o t t o , 1988; Sue, 1981). Some c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s have r e c e i v e d a f a i r amount of a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e while others have been somewhat n e g l e c t e d . C l i e n t v a r i a b l e s encompass s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Wolkon, Moriwaki, & W i l l i a m s , 1973), psychopathology and adjustment problems (Sue & K i r k 1975; Ko r c h i n , 1980), u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s (Sue & Sue, 1974; P a d i l l a , Ruiz,& A l v a r e z , 1975), counselor p r e f e r e n c e (Lee, Sutton, France, & Uhlemann, 1983; Havila n d , H o r s w i l l , 3 O'Connell, & Dynneson, 1983; Turner & Manthei, 1986; Jackson & K i r s c h n e r , 1973; Grantham, 1973), p r e f e r e n c e s f o r type of h e l p (Atkinson, Maruyama, & Matsui, 1978), e x p e c t a t i o n s of treatment (Hector, & Fray, 1987; Jackson, & K i r s c h n e r , 1973; T e r r e l l , & T e r r e l l , 1984; Sanchez, & Atkinson, 1983), and c l i e n t p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Neimeyer, & Gonzales, 1983; Ivey, 1981). C l i e n t v a r i a b l e s which seem to have been overlooked i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e are e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , communicative s t y l e , and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s ( P o n t e r o t t o , 1988). Furthermore, the m a j o r i t y of f i n d i n g s i n t h i s area seem to be i n c o n c l u s i v e , at times c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and without a t h e o r e t i c a l f o undation; thus, l a c k of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and p r e d i c t i o n are abundant. In a l i t e r a t u r e review, P o n t e r o t t o (1988) i d e n t i f i e d major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l flaws on r a c i a l / e t h n i c m i n o r i t y r e s e a r c h . His review suggested the f o l l o w i n g l i s t : " (a) l a c k of a conceptual or t h e o r e t i c a l framework to guide r e s e a r c h ; (b) overemphasis on s i m p l i s t i c c o u n s e l o r / c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s and d i s r e g a r d f o r important p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s . . . ; (c) o v e r r e l i a n c e on experimental analogue research with l i t t l e b earing on the r e a l world; (d) d i s r e g a r d f o r i n t r a - c u l t u r a l or within-group d i f f e r e n c e s i n m i n o r i t y samples; (e) the use of e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e student samples t h a t are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l a r g e group; ( f ) r e l i a n c e on " c u l t u r a l l y encapsulated" psychometric i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n ; (g) f a i l u r e to adequately 4 d e s c r i b e one's sample i n terms of education l e v e l , g e n e r a t i o n a l l e v e l , socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES), and so f o r t h ; (h) f a i l u r e t o d e l i n e a t e the study's l i m i t a t i o n s with regards to g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y ; ( i ) lack of adequate m i n o r i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n among j o u r n a l e d i t o r i a l board members; and ( j ) f a i l u r e to be r e s p o n s i b l e to m i n o r i t y subject p o o l s . " ( p . p . 410). Moreover, i n reviewing the s t a t u s of r a c i a l / e t h n i c m i n o r i t y r e s e a r c h , Casas (1985) p o i n t e d out to ina c c u r a c y r e l a t i v e to s u b j e c t ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( s e l f - r e p o r t , e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s made by s t a f f members), the u t i l i z a t i o n of r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e groups (students) f o r s u b j e c t s , and the tendency among researchers to ignore or overlook i n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y . Thus, these flaws i n methodology have l i m i t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , have f a i l e d t o consid e r m i n o r i t i e s i n t h e i r own terms, and have continued to r e f l e c t the s t e r e o t y p i c assumptions o f homogeneity w i t h i n e t h n i c groups. Although research on some c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s i s ample, m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y weak and has assumed homogeneity w i t h i n groups; r e c e n t l y a few rese a r c h e r s (Atkinson, 1983; Ponte r o t t o , 1988; Casas, 1984; Casas, 1985; Ford, 1987; Sandoval-Ruiz, 1990) have begun to emphasize the importance and r e l e v a n c e of i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n e t h n i c groups. Consequently, based on the above d i s c u s s i o n , the present study attempted t o address the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : (1) to i n v e s t i g a t e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as a c l i e n t v a r i a b l e p o s s i b l y tapping i n t o i n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y with i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n ; 5 (2) t o employ a t h e o r e t i c a l framework i n the s t u d y . A t k i n s o n , Morten & Sue (1979)'s model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development p o s t u l a t e s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o e t h n i c groups i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r o r i g i n as w e l l as comprehensiveness of domain; (3) t o use Q-Methodology which appears s e n s i t i v e t o e t h n i c groups and i s concerned w i t h the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l f i e l d o f the p e r s o n r a t h e r than r e s e a r c h e r and/or t h e o r e t i c a l i m p o s i t i o n s ; and (4) t o u t i l i z e a sample as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as p o s s i b l e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The importance of i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e n e r a l and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r has been noted w i t h A s i a n -Americans and H i s p a n i c s . Sue & Sue (1987) f o r i n s t a n c e , have warned c l i n i c i a n s a g a i n s t making o v e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about A s i a n s or A s i a n - A m e r i c a n s w i t h o u t i n c o r p o r a t i n g w i t h i n group d i f f e r e n c e s on some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s , they suggested can l e a d t o erroneous assessment and t r e a t m e n t , t h e r e b y c o n s i d e r a b l y d e c r e a s i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c o u n s e l i n g the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . These a u t h o r s a l s o suggest t h a t w i t h i n group d i f f e r e n c e s might be as g r e a t or even g r e a t e r than between group d i f f e r e n c e s . Moreover, i n t r y i n g t o uncover the meaning of c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e m ental h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r H i s p a n i c s ; R o g l e r , Malgady, C o z t a n t i n o & B l u m e n t h a l (1987) suggested t h a t one o f t h e components of r e l e v a n c y i n t r e a t m e n t program p u r p o r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the group must be accounted f o r because the e x p e r i e n c e of r e i n t e g r a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n v a r i e s a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s . 6 Other r e s e a r c h e r s have p o i n t e d out to e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as a p o s s i b l e i n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b l e mediating c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o u n s e l i n g (Hector & Fray, 1987), help seeking behaviour and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o u n s e l i n g (Sundberg, 1981; Ford, 1987), c l i e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r c o u n s e l o r s ' race (Parham & Helms, 1981), and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s (Parham & Helms, 1985). In a l i t e r a t u r e review on Asian-Americans, Leong (1986) suggested that e t h n i c i d e n t i t y may be a v a r i a b l e that m o d i f i e s the nature of mental h e a l t h problems and p o s s i b l e responses to treatment. Consequently, the c l i e n t v a r i a b l e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y may mediate the c o u n s e l i n g process and outcome i n a d d i t i o n to other r e l e v a n t c o u n s e l i n g v a r i a b l e s . Thus, t h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y study i n which A t k i n s o n et a l . ' s model i s examined i n r e l a t i o n to i t s v a l i d i t y and i n t r a -group v a r i a b i l i t y u t i l i z i n g Q-Methodology with i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g i n Vancouver. What f o l l o w s i s a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l e f o r the present study. Methodology and procedures are d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three, r e s u l t s i n Chapter Four and d i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s i n Chapter F i v e . 7 Chapter Two: E t h n i c I d e n t i t y : An Overview of the L i t e r a t u r e During the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s researchers began to e x p l o r e and t h e o r i z e on the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y of m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s i n order to understand t h e i r experiences from a p s y c h o s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . These e a r l y attempts focused p r i m a r i l y on the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process observed on Afro-Americans. Vontress (1971) hypothesized that Afro-Americans have in c o r p o r a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and proposed the evolvement of three d i s t i n c t sub-groups. He l a b e l l e d these as: Black, Negro, and Colored-Americans. These d i s t i n c t i o n s are based on group s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s to mainstream c u l t u r e , that i s , a t t i t u d e s toward s e l f and o t h e r s . Thus, a Black s e l f - d e s i g n a t i o n implies unashamed of p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( s k i n c o l o r , kinky h a i r ) . A l s o , g r e a t e r awareness and understanding of s u f f e r i n g experienced as w e l l as diminished i n t o l e r a n c e and h o s t i l i t y toward members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e e v o l v e s as themes f o r these persons. Negroes c o n s t i t u t e a sub-group experiencing s h i f t s i n t h e i r values and a t t i t u d e s toward s e l f and the m a j o r i t y group. F i n a l l y , C o l o r e d i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e and evaluate themselves through the s p e c t a c l e s of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . T h i s category system t y p i f i e d d i f f e r e n t experiences, p e r c e p t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s with regards to one's c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and mainstream c u l t u r e . 8 In studying the experience of Japanese-Americans; Majovich (1973) suggested that as a r e s u l t of t h e i r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l values Japanese-Americans c o u l d be t y p i f i e d i n t o (1) Conformists, (2) Anomic, (3) L i b e r a l , and (4) M i l i t a n t . T h i s e a r l y pioneer work has been c r i t i c i z e d on the b a s i s of i t s s t a t i c assumptions,that i s , a lack of f l u i d i t y and m o b i l i t y among the sub-groups. Consequently, other models such as the ones to be d i s c u s s e d below were developed. Black i d e n t i t y development models Other t h e o r i s t s h y p o t h e s i z i n g on black i d e n t i t y development and r e l a t e d i s s u e s are S h e r i f & S h e r i f (1970), Thomas (1971), Cross (1971), and Jackson (1975).The models proposed by these authors are stage models with some f l u i d i t y amongst stages and are s t a t e d i n terms of a continuum. S h e r i f & S h e r i f (1970)'s model of black i d e n t i t y development focuses on the systematic evolvement of v a r i o u s u n d e r l y i n g a f f e c t i v e f e a t u r e s . This a f f e c t i v e evolvement moves through f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and shame as we l l as r e j e c t i o n of mainstream standards and val u e s . These f e e l i n g s tend to lead i n t o g u i l t and rage which i n turn are transformed i n t o f e e l i n g s of p r i d e , d i g n i t y , s e l f - w o r t h and s e l f - r e s p e c t as a new frame of r e f e r e n c e and s e l f - c o n c e p t are d i s c o v e r e d . Thomas (1971) a l s o developed a theory of black i d e n t i t y development encompassing four stages. The f i r s t stage i s 9 i d e n t i f i e d as a dependency on mainstream s o c i e t y f o r d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , s e l f - w o r t h and d i g n i t y as w e l l as c o n f u s i o n ; t h i s i s the "Negromacy" stage. The second stage i s what Thomas c a l l e d " t e s t i f y i n g " , t h a t i s , g i v i n g testimony and a f f i r m i n g t o a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced i n denying one's s e l f - e x i s t e n c e as a human being, a person, and a c i t i z e n . The t h i r d stage encompasses the a c t i v e c o l l e c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n of e t h n o - c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s f o r Blacks as seen by B l a c k s , t h i s i s the Information P r o c e s s i n g and A c t i v i t y stage. F i n a l l y , through new experiences, the meaning of blackness and s e l f i s experienced and p e r c e i v e d as being p a r t of humanity with s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of s e l f - r e s p e c t and s e l f - w o r t h . Cross (1971) developed a theory of black i d e n t i t y development as a "phenomenological i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Negro to Black c o n v e r s i o n experience."(p.14). Being a dynamic and d i a l e c t i c paradigm, Cross a s s e r t s that " In becoming Black an i n d i v i d u a l must pass through a s e r i e s of w e l l - d e f i n e d stages; the Black experience i s a process." (p.15). The four stages range from s e l f - n e g a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y to p r i d e , s e l f -a f f i r m a t i o n and a sense of s e l f - s e c u r i t y and r e s p e c t . The stages c o n s i s t of (1) Pre-encounter, (2) Encounter, (3) Immersion-Emersion, and (4) Internalization-Commitment. A c c o r d i n g l y , Blacks i n the Pre-encounter ( p r e - d i s c o v e r y ) stage t h i n k , a c t , and behave i n a demeaning manner toward t h e i r blackness. There i s an a b s o r p t i o n of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ' s value system and p e r c e p t i o n s they h o l d of Black 10 i n d i v i d u a l s . At the Encounter ( d i s c o v e r y ) stage the person experiences a v i s u a l or v e r b a l event at the s o c i a l or p e r s o n a l l e v e l , which tends to fragment the person's p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f and other B l a c k s . During t h i s stage, the person experiences the encounter and a t the same time c a u t i o u s l y t r i e s to v a l i d a t e these new experiences and p e r c e p t i o n s . Emotional experiences a t t h i s stage are g u i l t f o r having degraded the s e l f and rage f o r having allowed h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f to be swayed by mainstream c u l t u r a l values and p e r c e p t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s a t the Immersion-Emersion stage immerse themselves i n t o the world of blackness e n e r g i z e d by rage and g u i l t as a new e v o l v i n g sense of p r i d e emerges. There i s an acceptance of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t u r n i n g inward as w e l l as a r e j e c t i o n of mainstream c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . The person emerges with a sense o f p r i d e as black experiences are i n c o r p o r a t e d and a new awareness emerges. In the Internalization-Commitment stage inner s e c u r i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n with h i s / h e r own sense of blackness i s achieved. At the same time, f l e x i b i l i t y , r e s i l i e n c e and understanding are manifested by dimi n i s h e d anti-mainstream f e e l i n g s , and compassion f o r other Blacks who have not yet achieved the Internalization-Commitment stage. Thus, the process i s one of a c h i e v i n g s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n by proceeding through experiences and f e e l i n g s of r i g i d i t y , a n x i e t y , i n s e c u r i t y , i n f e r i o r i t y , g u i l t , rage t o f e e l i n g s of p r i d e , s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , r e s p e c t , and communalism. 11 Based on Cross's model, Parham & Helms (1981) i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n f l u e n c e of r a c i a l i d e n t i t y a t t i t u d e s of Blacks on preferences f o r counselor race and developed the R a c i a l I d e n t i t y A t t i t u d e Scale (RIAS). The authors r e p o r t e d strong evidence and support f o r Cross's model i n terms of the v a l i d i t y of the stages f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n and the subscale i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o i n the d i r e c t i o n s p r e d i c t e d by Cross's model. An important c o n c l u s i o n by Parham & Helm (1981)'s study, and r e l e v a n t to the present study, i s that i d e n t i t y i s an a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e tapping i n t o i n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y and that i t i s necessary to move beyond ethno-r a c i a l s e l f - d e s i g n a t i o n and/or group membership i n order to thoroughly comprehend the experiences of c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . In another study i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n of r a c i a l i d e n t i t y a t t i t u d e s to s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s , Parham & Helms (1985) rep o r t e d p a r t i a l support for Cross's model. Pre-encounter a t t i t u d e s were r e l a t e d to f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , a n x i e t y , and lack of acceptance as p r e d i c t e d by Cross' model. Encounter a t t i t u d e s were r e l a t e d to f e e l i n g s of acceptance, low l e v e l s of anxiety and a sense of p e r s o n a l adequacy. However, f e e l i n g s of anger and g u i l t , as p r e d i c t e d by Cross were not p r e s e n t . On the other hand, at the Immersion stage, f e e l i n g s of anger were manifested. I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n a t t i t u d e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to any of the a f f e c t i v e measures u t i l i z e d i n the study. One e x p l a n a t i o n 12 contended by the authors i s that Cross's d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s stage i s p r i m a r i l y dominated by c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s . P onterotto & Wise (1987) on the other hand, i n examining the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the RIAS found strong support f o r Cross's model at the pre-encounter, immersion-emersion, and i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n stages. However, l i t t l e s t a t i s t i c a l evidence was found f o r the encounter stage. I t i s suggested t h a t encounter a t t i t u d e s may be d i f f i c u l t to c o n c e p t u a l i z e and measure due to i t s t r a n s i t o r y and confusing nature to the person. I t i s c l e a r that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed perhaps by modifying the instrument, r e v i s i n g the model, and/or u t i l i z i n g samples r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n . Nonetheless, Cross's model has s t i m u l a t e d needed research i n t h i s area and has been the base f o r other i d e n t i t y development models such as a model f o r i d e n t i t y development of women (Dowing & Roush, 1985). Jackson (1975) developed the Black I d e n t i t y Model (BID) model c o n c u r r e n t l y and independently of Cross's model. According to the author the model p l a c e s great emphasis on i n t e r n a l consciousness and i s intended p r i m a r i l y as a t o o l to be used by teachers and counselors r a t h e r than as a t h e o r e t i c a l p i e c e of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . The model i s s i m i l a r to Cross's and d e s p i t e i t s lack of e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n ; i t i s necessary t o e x p l o r e i t due to i t s relevance to the present study. The BID model d e s c r i b e s four stages: (1) P a s s i v e Acceptance, (2) A c t i v e R e s i s t a n c e , (3) R e d i r e c t i o n , and (4) 13 I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as i n d i c a t o r s of consciousness (values,and b e l i e f s , c o n t r o l and v a l i d a t i o n , g o a l s , and behaviors) per each stage. The P a s s i v e Acceptance stage i s des c r i b e d as p a s s i v e l y a c c e p t i n g and conforming to the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l standards of white s o c i e t y while a t the same time r e j e c t i n g and d e v a l u a t i n g e v e r y t h i n g that i s bl a c k . E v e n t u a l l y , due to a lack of s a t i s f a c t i o n of the person's needs; the person experiences f r u s t r a t i o n and hindrance as stage two emerges. In the A c t i v e Resistance stage, the person experiences t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of white s o c i o - c u l t u r a l values as he/she gains s e l f - r e s p e c t , s e l f - w o r t h and power. R e j e c t i o n i s viewed as a c l e a n s i n g p r o c e s s , while at the same time new personal energy i s cha n n e l l e d i n t o a c t i v e involvement i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of black power and c o n t r o l . While i n stage two the person t r i e s to gain e x t e r n a l resources and power, d u r i n g stage three the person searches f o r inner resources such as self-esteem, s e l f - c o n t r o l , and a unique sense of i d e n t i t y . In the R e d i r e c t i o n stage the person l i m i t s i n t e r a c t i o n s and c o n f r o n t a t i o n s with mainstream c u l t u r e and searches i n the black c u l t u r e t h a t which i s n u r t u r i n g and comforting. Thus, a new p o s i t i v e sense of i d e n t i t y emerges. I n d i v i d u a l s at the I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n stage have achieved inner s e c u r i t y and a new sense of the uniqueness of black i d e n t i t y while a p p r e c i a t i n g and owning t h i s uniqueness and a l s o a new sense and meaning of mainstream c u l t u r e with i t s own p e c u l i a r i t i e s . The person 14 d i s c e r n s , accepts or r e j e c t s those elements of mainstream c u l t u r e t h at are a c c e p t a b l e and those that are d e t r i m e n t a l to h i s / h e r w e l l being and the w e l l being of h i s / h e r community. Jackson's model evolves along a continuum of o t h e r - c u l t u r e -r e f e r e n c e , to same-culture-reference, to i n n e r - s e l f - r e f e r e n c e and tends to focus more on the c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l aspects o f the e v o l v i n g black i d e n t i t y r a t h e r than on the a f f e c t i v e component. Mexican-American i d e n t i t y development models E t h n i c i d e n t i t y has a l s o been a v a r i a b l e under i n v e s t i g a t i o n with Mexican-Americans and Chicanos i n the U.S. While some researchers ( B e r n a l , Knight, Organastina, Garza, & Maez, 1987; Rodriguez & De B l a s s i e , 1983; Phinney & Rotheram, 1987) have focused on the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development of Mexican-American c h i l d r e n ; others (Ruiz, Casas, & P a d i l l a , 1977; G a r c i a , 1982; Keefe & P a d i l l a , 1987; Sandoval-Ruiz, 1990) have focused on the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development of a d u l t s . Ruiz et a l . (1977) developed an e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development model f o r Mexican-Americans based on degree of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . They suggested that e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s a f u n c t i o n of v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and preferences a s s o c i a t e d with s t r e n g t h of commitment to the Mexican-American and/or Anglo-American c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g l y , the commitment to e i t h e r Mexican-American or Anglo-American c u l t u r e could be weak or 15 s t r o n g and the person may f i n d h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f i n one of four d i f f e r e n t groups: Strong-Mexican c u l t u r e , Strong-Anglo c u l t u r e , Weak-Mexican c u l t u r e , and Weak-Anglo c u l t u r e based on l e v e l of commitment. In i n v e s t i g a t i n g Mexican-American c u l t u r a l commitment and p r e f e r e n c e s f o r counselor e t h n i c i t y , Sanchez & A t k i n s o n (1983) o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d Ruiz et a l . (1977) model i n terms of the s t r e n g t h of commitment to the four d i f f e r e n t groups. The study's r e s u l t gave evidence to Ruiz et a l . ' s (1977) model i n that e t h n i c i d e n t i t y modifies p references f o r counselor e t h n i c i t y as w e l l as u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s of mental h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s . Keefe & P a d i l l a (1987) explored the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y , a c c u l t u r a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n from an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y and community based p e r s p e c t i v e . The authors developed a model of c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and change based on p r e v i o u s models of e t h n i c i t y and a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The assumption of t h i s model i s t h a t there are two b a s i c processes t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n a b i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n : c u l t u r a l awareness and e t h n i c l o y a l t y . C u l t u r a l awareness i s the person's knowledge (language, h i s t o r y ) of the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and the mainstream c u l t u r e . E t h n i c l o y a l t y was d e f i n e d as the p r eferences f o r one c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n as opposed to the o t h e r . The authors' e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h suggested four d i f f e r e n t types: Mexican E t h n i c s , C u l t u r a l Blends, Emerging Americans and New Americans. 16 Furthermore, Sandoval-Ruiz (1990) proposed a c o u n s e l i n g model which i d e n t i f i e s stages of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development for Mexican-American c l i e n t s . T h i s model i s based on the four f o l l o w i n g premises: (1) m a r g i n a l i t y i s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with maladjustment, (2) m a r g i n a l i t y and pressure to a s s i m i l a t e are d e t r i m e n t a l to the person, (3) acceptance and p r i d e of one's own e t h n i c i d e n t i t y c o n t r i b u t e s to mental h e a l t h , and (4) the person experiences freedom to choose as p r i d e on one's sense of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y emerges. Although the author does not provide a d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ; one f i n d s the i m p l i c i t assumption i n the model's d e s c r i p t i o n that e t h n i c i d e n t i t y r e f e r s to one's e t h n o - c u l t u r a l background rather than a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and f e e l i n g s w i t h i n a b i c u l t u r a l l y frame of r e f e r e n c e . T h i s model encompasses f i v e stages of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y : (1) Causal, (2) C o g n i t i v e , (3) Consequence, (4) Working through, and, (5) S u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n . Stages one to three focuses on the c o n f l i c t s experienced i n the development of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , while stages four and f i v e focus on treatment and problem r e s o l u t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Causal stage d e s c r i b e s the s o c i e t a l and p a r e n t a l v a r i a b l e s (racism, c l a s s i c i s m , ethnocentrism, p a r e n t a l negative i n j u n c t i o n s , r e j e c t i o n s from the e t h n i c group, and others) that may c r e a t e i d e n t i t y c o n f l i c t s on the person. At the C o g n i t i v e stage three b a s i c erroneous b e l i e f s are i d e n t i f i e d : (1) a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o mainstream c u l t u r e i s the answer to poverty and p r e j u d i c e , (2) the maintenance of one's 17 o r i g i n a l e t h n o - c u l t u r a l background i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h poverty, and (3) through a s s i m i l a t i o n one w i l l achieve success. At t h i s stage, three s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t s may emerge: search f o r an e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n , and a marginal e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . At the Consequence stage, the i n d i v i d u a l r e j e c t s important aspects of the s e l f such as s k i n c o l o r , name, and language because he/she p e r c e i v e s them as i n f e r i o r and experiences embarrassment by h i s / h e r accent and appearance. A l s o , the person may adopt defense mechanisms such as d e n i a l , p r o j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and s p l i t t i n g -i d e a l i z a t i o n i n order to cope with the c o n f l i c t . The f o u r t h stage c a l l e d Working through, begins when the person i s unable to cope with the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y c o n f l i c t and r e a l i z e s t h at a f o r e i g n i d e n t i t y i s too p a i n f u l to withh o l d . During the f i n a l stage, S u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n , the person encounters a g r e a t e r sense of acceptance of the s e l f and h i s / h e r own c u l t u r e thereby one's e t h n i c i d e n t i t y becomes a resource and s t r e n g t h rather than a l i m i t a t i o n and weakness. T h i s model v a r i e s from others reviewed as f a r as the d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s concerned, however, i t prov i d e s a d i f f e r e n t angle to the concept. In t r y i n g to d i s c e r n h i s own e t h n i c i d e n t i t y c o n f l i c t , Rodriguez (1979) d e s c r i b e d the experiences the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t academician experiences as p a i n f u l and rewarding. When co n f r o n t e d with a new environment and knowledge, the m i n o r i t y person may l o s e s i g h t of the present by i g n o r i n g the 18 p a s t , however, he/she may a l s o emerge with a new and e n r i c h e d p e r c e p t i o n of c u l t u r a l s e l f . New p e r c e p t i o n s by which the i n d i v i d u a l a c c e p t s , recognizes and r e i n t e g r a t e s h i s / h e r past and present i n t o a unique whole. Asian-American models of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y The development of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y models f o r A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n s has been n o t o r i o u s l y l i m i t e d (Leong, 1986; Sue, 1981) d e s p i t e the f a c t that many s t u d i e s (Sommers, 1960; Sommers, 1964; Fong, 1965; Meredith, 1966; Bourne, 1975; Connor, 1974; Sommers, 1969) have documented the v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t s experienced by i n d i v i d u a l s of Asian o r i g i n i n d i s c e r n i n g and e v o l v i n g a sense of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . However, Sue & Sue (1971) and Sue (1979) have developed promising c o n s t r u c t s . Both authors suggested that i n c o u n s e l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n three d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s may evolve as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n of three f a c t o r s : (1) Chinese values and p a r e n t a l / f a m i l y c u l t u r e , (2) Western mainstream v a l u e s , and (3) white racism. A c c o r d i n g l y , one p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n that may emerge i s the marginal i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s person r e j e c t s h i s / h e r Chinese c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and background e n t i r e l y and adopts and becomes to admire Western p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v a l u e s , costumes, and l i f e - s t y l e s . Another p a t t e r n i s that of being a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t who adheres to t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese v a l u e s and c u l t u r e while r e l a t i n g and a s s o c i a t i n g p r i m a r i l y with other 19 Chinese. The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t tends to i s o l a t e h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f from mainstream c u l t u r e by r e j e c t i n g values a s s o c i a t e d with Western c u l t u r e . There i s a tendency to f e e l a l i e n a t e d and as an o u t s i d e r s t o the new environment. F i n a l l y , the e t h n i c p r i d e group r e j e c t s f u l l a s s i m i l a t i o n , accepts some t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese va l u e s and i n t e g r a t e s those m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l values which seem f u n c t i o n a l to the s e l f , thereby reshaping a new e t h n i c i d e n t i t y which seems to sub s c r i b e to the new r e a l i t y . Although t h i s model has not had e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d v a l i d i t y , Ford (1987) demonstrated i t s conceptual a p p l i c a b i l i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y to other e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups. Native-Canadian model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y In d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between European Canadians and Native Peoples, Berry (1981) i d e n t i f i e d four modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . He argued that when two groups become i n contact some t r a n s f e r of c u l t u r a l , b e h a v i o r a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o c c u r s . Thus, i n the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process co n t a c t i s necessary, ada p t a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e , and c o n f l i c t i s p o s s i b l e . Berry views adaptation as d i f f e r e n t options i n r e s o l v i n g the a c c u l t u r a t i v e c o n f l i c t . He f u r t h e r argued that the options a v a i l a b l e to the person are adjustment, r e a c t i o n and withdrawal. Depending on the adaptive o p t i o n the person adopts, four d i f f e r e n t modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n may emerge: two p o s i t i v e and two n e g a t i v e . The p o s i t i v e a d a p t i v e options are a s s i m i l a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n and 20 the n e g a t i v e o p t i o n s are segregation and d e c u l t u r a t i o n . A s s i m i l a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as moving i n t o the l a r g e r c u l t u r e while renouncing one's i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r e of o r i g i n . I n t e g r a t i o n on the other hand i s d e f i n e d as m a i n t a i n i n g one's i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r e and becoming an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Segregation r e f e r s to the simultaneous e x c l u s i o n and r e j e c t i o n of the m i n o r i t y group toward the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and v i c e v e r s a , while d e c u l t u r a t i o n i n v o l v e s moving a g a i n s t the l a r g e r s o c i e t y due the m a r g i n a l i t y , a l i e n a t i o n and l o s s of i d e n t i t y . Berry's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n seems p a r t i c u l a r l y comprehensive i n that any of these o p t i o n s may occur not only at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l but a l s o a t the group l e v e l . Other Models of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Some researchers (Hershenson, 1967; K i n c a i d , 1969) have con s i d e r e d e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development from the p o i n t of view of E r i k s o n (1951)'s developmental theory of i d e n t i t y . Thus, while Hershenson (1967) suggested that ego i d e n t i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with e n c u l t u r a t i o n ; K i n c a i d (1969) proposed an approach to c o u n s e l i n g blacks based on the premise that the f r u s t r a t i o n and d e s p a i r i n the black community may be i n p a r t a f u n c t i o n of unresolved c r i s e s i n the search f o r s e l f i d e n t i t y . Other researchers ( T a y l o r , B a s s i l i , & Aboud, 1973; T a y l o r , Simard, & Aboud, 1972) have attempted to i d e n t i f y the 21 most s a l i e n t dimensions of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . Thus, they r e p o r t e d that language was the most important dimension f o l l o w e d by c u l t u r a l background, while geographical p r o x i m i t y was found to be the l e a s t important f o r francophones and anglophones i n Canada. Sue (1981) argued that understanding the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t i m p l i e s understanding his/her world view. He b r o a d l y d e f i n e d world view as a person's p e r c e p t i o n s of h i s / h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the world ( i n s t i t u t i o n s , other people, t h i n g s ) . Thus, world views are composed of a t t i t u d e s , o p i n i o n s , values and i n turn they a f f e c t the way we t h i n k , f e e l and behave. Sue i d e n t i f i e d l o c u s of c o n t r o l and l o c u s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as two p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s forming four d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l outlooks of the world or world views. These four world views are I n t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l -I n t e r n a l Locus of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l -I n t e r n a l Locus of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l -E x t e r n a l Locus of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and I n t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l - E x t e r n a l Locus of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l - I n t e r n a l Locus of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i v i d u a l s or c u l t u r a l groups tend to b e l i e v e they are masters of t h e i r f a t e , they can a f f e c t outcomes and base t h e i r l i f e c o n d i t i o n s and s t a t u s on t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s . Sue suggests that t h i s world view i s e x e m p l i f i e d by North American c u l t u r a l values and s o c i e t y . E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l - I n t e r n a l Locus of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i v i d u a l s tend 2 2 to accept mainstream culture's definition of self-responsibility and have l i t t l e control as to how others define them. The important tenet in this world view is the existence of a dominant-subordinate relation between two cultures, that i s , one culture imposes its standards, beliefs, and ways of behaving onto another. This, in turn, generates individuals living in the margins of society, not fully accommodating to either mainstream nor minority culture. Persons with an External Locus of Control-External Locus of Responsibility world view experience helplessness in the face of major obstacles such as prejudice, discrimination, low income and education, high rates of unemployment, and so forth, while at the same time blame society or the system for their condition. Finally, persons within the Internal Locus of Control-External Locus of Responsibility tend to objectively perceive and evaluate the external barriers of prejudice and discrimination and, also tend to believe on their own capacity to influence events i f given a chance. Persons with this world view are most likely to experience pride in one's cultural identity and heritage. By the same token, Sue (1981) argued on the need for counselors to understand and objectively assess not only the world view of others but also their own world views. Minority Identity Development Based on the basic tenets of Black identity development models; Atkinson, Morten and Sue (1979) developed a 23 comprehensive and dynamic model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development. Atkinson et a l . (1979) suggested that A s i a n Americans, L a t i n Americans and Native American i n d i v i d u a l s share s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s of c u l t u r a l adjustment and c u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n to the experience of Black Americans. T h i s model was developed out of the c l i n i c a l experiences and o b s e r v a t i o n s by the authors on the e t h n i c m i n o r i t y experience of change and evolvement i n a t t i t u d e s toward themselves, t h e i r own m i n o r i t y group, other m i n o r i t y group, and the m a j o r i t y group. The model i s not intended as a p e r s o n a l i t y development theory but as a paradigm. I t i s intended to a s s i s t c o u n s e l o r s i n understanding the a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s , to s e n s i t i z e counselors to the p o t e n t i a l i t y inherent i n each m i n o r i t y person and the w i t h i n group d i f f e r e n c e s that may e x i s t among i n d i v i d u a l s of the same m i n o r i t y group. T h i s model c o n s i d e r s e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and behaviors as the product of an i d e n t i t y development of stages along a continuum. Thus, a t t i t u d e s , behaviors and p e r c e p t i o n s are p e r c e i v e d to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as a continuous process i n which boundaries between stages are not as c l e a r , and stages may blend somewhat. The M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y Development (MID) model d e s c r i b e s f i v e stages m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s experience i n t r y i n g t o d i s c e r n and understand themselves i n terms of t h e i r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l background, the c u l t u r e of the dominant group, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p and meaning between these two major components. 24 The stages are Conformity, Dissonance, Resistance and Immersion, I n t r o s p e c t i o n , and S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness. I n d i v i d u a l s i n the Conformity Stage have a d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e f o r the c u l t u r a l values ( r o l e models, l i f e s t y l e , value system) of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . Their p h y s i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a source of p a i n , shame or may be repressed from awareness. Sommers (1964) i n d i s c u s s i n g the impact of d u a l - c u l t u r a l membership on i d e n t i t y demonstrated c l e a r l y the experience at t h i s stage by s t a t i n g t h a t : " They a l l wanted to be something they were not. Almost a l l o f them worshipped the "American image"; they a l l wanted to be " s o c i o l o g i c a l l y white", that i s , white Anglo-Americans. In t h e i r attempts to shed t h e i r o l d , unacceptable i d e n t i t y and to search f o r a new i d e n t i t y , these people went through a l l kinds of d e f e n s i v e maneuvers and o p e r a t i o n s . " ( p . 333). Sommers (1964) reported that m i n o r i t y persons change t h e i r names, re f u s e to speak t h e i r p a r e n t a l language, and r e j e c t t h e i r p a r e n t s' r e l i g i o n i n order to exclude from r e a l i t y p a i n f u l p e r c e p t i o n s of i m p e r f e c t i o n and f e e l i n g s of shame. In another study, Sommers (1960) reported strong f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y on Chinese i n d i v i d u a l s due to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of white c u l t u r e as s u p e r i o r to Chinese, f e e l i n g s of shame and g u i l t and a sense of unworthiness and s e l f - h a t r e d . Moreover, the p e r c e p t i o n s of other fellow-group members and other m i n o r i t y groups were overshadowed by t h e i r strong 25 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . Thus, a t t i t u d e s and perceptions toward s e l f , and others of the same m i n o r i t y and d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t i e s are d e v a l u a t i v e and d e p r e c i a t i v e , while the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i s p e r c e i v e d with admiration, respect and a p p r e c i a t i o n . M i n o r i t y persons i n the Dissonance Stage experience c u l t u r a l c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t . As the m i n o r i t y person i s confronted with i n f o r m a t i o n and/or personal experiences incongruent with p r e v i o u s l y p a s s i v e l y accepted ones; he/she begins to doubt and ch a l l e n g e these a t t i t u d e s . Sommers (1960) pointed out to t h i s c o n f l i c t by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t : " The dilemma of these people might be put t h i s way: Should my l o y a l t i e s remain with my Jewish-or Negro or L a t i n or O r i e n t a l - f a m i l y and a n c e s t r a l h e r i t a g e ? Or should I repudiate my f a m i l y and i d e n t i f y with the admired and envied C h r i s t i a n - o r White or Anglo or O c c i d e n t a l - s t a n d a r d s , v a l u e s , and i d e a l s ? " (p. 347). Ac c o r d i n g l y , t h i s u n d e r l y i n g d i f f i c u l t y and c o n f u s i o n i s c r i t i c a l to the t u r m o i l experienced by the person at t h i s stage. A l s o , as e a r l y as 1935, Stonequist pointed out to t h i s dilemma by s t a t i n g t h a t : " P r i d e and shame, love and hate, and other c o n t r a d i c t o r y sentiments, mingle u n e a s i l y i n h i s nature. The two c u l t u r e s produce a dual p a t t e r n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a d i v i d e d l o y a l t y , and the attempt to maintain s e l f - r e s p e c t transforms these f e e l i n g i n t o an ambivalent a t t i t u d e . " (p.6). Thus,as the person i s confronted by competing c u l t u r a l 26 experiences a c o n f l i c t u a l a t t i t u d e toward the s e l f between s e l f - a p p r e c i a t i o n and s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n emerges, that i s , v a c i l l a t i n g f e e l i n g s of shame and p r i d e toward the s e l f as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l s of the same m i n o r i t y group. The a t t i t u d e toward members of the m a j o r i t y group i s a l s o c o n f l i c t e d by a p p r e c i a t i v e and d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e s as the dominant c u l t u r e i s p e r c e i v e d with i n c r e a s e d s u s p i c i o n . Most of the person's energy at t h i s stage centers around r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t u a l a t t i t u d e s toward the s e l f , the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and the same m i n o r i t y group rather than a t t i t u d e s toward other m i n o r i t y groups. In the Resistance and Immersion Stage, the m i n o r i t y person f a v o r s and advocates his/her h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s and values, while a t the same time r e j e c t s the v a l u e s and c u l t u r e of the dominant group. An important motivator i n the person's l i f e i s to e l i m i n a t e o p p r e s s i o n of one's e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group. An a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e toward the s e l f emerges i n that previous c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which once were p a i n f u l l y experienced are now experienced as symbols of p r i d e and honor. A l s o , a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward members of the same m i n o r i t y group emerge with a s t r o n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and commitment as w e l l as admiration and respect f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e t h n i c group. The m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and group members are pe r c e i v e d with a strong d i s l i k e , d i s t r u s t , and r e j e c t i o n ; thus a g r o u p - d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e emerges. A t t i t u d e s toward other m i n o r i t y groups may be 27 d i s c r e p a n t between empathy and c u l t u r o c e n t r i s m , that i s , empathy f o r s h a r i n g s i m i l a r forms of oppression and c o n f l i c t when t h e i r values c o l l i d e . The m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l i n the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage experiences d i s c o m f o r t , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and f r u s t r a t i o n with the r i g i d l y h e l d views of the Res i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage and channels h i s / h e r energy i n t o f i n d i n g a greater sense of i n d i v i d u a t i o n . Thus, a t t i t u d e s toward the s e l f and members of the same m i n o r i t y group c o l l i d e between a strong sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a l l e g i a n c e to the m i n o r i t y group and a sense of pe r s o n a l autonomy. With regards to the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , the i n d i v i d u a l experiences c o n f l i c t between the prev i o u s complete d i s t r u s t f o r the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and s e l e c t i v e t r u s t / d i s t r u s t based on the behaviors and a t t i t u d e s on t h i s group. The person experiences confusion as to whether and what c u l t u r a l and b e h a v i o r a l elements of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o the s e l f . In the S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage, the m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l experiences g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y and s e l f -c o n t r o l , as w e l l as a strong sense of s e l f - w o r t h , s e l f -c o nfidence and autonomy as a r e s u l t of having c o n s o l i d a t e d a f i r m sense of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v i n g t h i s stage has been ab l e to o b j e c t i v e l y experience and analyze the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of the m i n o r i t y group and the m a j o r i t y group and based on t h i s experience he/she becomes t o accept or r e j e c t various c u l t u r a l values and b e l i e f s from both c u l t u r e s . 28 A l s o , the i n d i v i d u a l experiences respect and a p p r e c i a t i o n toward members of the same m i n o r i t y group while r e c o g n i z i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of group members. Other m i n o r i t y groups are p e r c e i v e d with a renewed respect and g r e a t e r understanding and support i r r e s p e c t i v e of commonalities t o the person's m i n o r i t y group. F i n a l l y , the i n d i v i d u a l experiences s e l e c t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e as w e l l as openness to p e r c e i v e d v a l u a b l e and c o n s t r u c t i v e values and behaviors of the dominant c u l t u r e . Thus, i n t h i s model, the dynamic p r o g r e s s i o n along a continuum i s from shame and i n f e r i o r i t y , to c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t , to s e l f - a p p r e c i a t i o n and anger to d i s c o m f o r t , f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and f i n a l l y experiences of s e l f - w o r t h , s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e i n t e g r a t i o n . According to Atkinson et a l . (1979), the process of a c h i e v i n g a r e i n t e g r a t i o n of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y may be r e v e r s i b l e , that i s , a person may move from e i t h e r one of the stages to any of the oth e r s . The model a l s o assumes that some i n d i v i d u a l s may never experience the Conformity Stage i n t h e i r l i v e s because they may be o f f s p r i n g s of a S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . In i n v e s t i g a t i n g preferences f o r counselor race among Blacks, Morten & Atkinson (1983) u t i l i z e d the MID model as a framework f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s . Despite the f a c t that the MID model p o s t u l a t e s f i v e stages of i d e n t i t y development, an instrument was developed to measure 29 only t h r e e stages (Conformity, Resistance and Immersion, and S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness) i n t h e i r study. The authors' r a t i o n a l e was that these are the main stages of the model. T h e i r f i n d i n g s suggested that a s i g n i f i c a n t number of s u b j e c t s i n the Resistance and Immersion Stage p r e f e r r e d a Black c o u n s e l o r , while f o r a g r e a t e r number of s u b j e c t s i n the S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage, counselor's race was not a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e . Because of the s m a l l number of su b j e c t s i n the Conformity Stage (n=3) s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s es were not performed. Although the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study i s l i m i t e d by the instrument and the sample (students) u t i l i z e d ; i t o f f e r e d an i n i t i a l s tep i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g and u t i l i z i n g e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as a p o s s i b l e c o n s t r u c t i n the measurement of i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s of e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s . Statement of the Problem In reviewing v a r i o u s e t h n i c i d e n t i t y models, the immediately a r i s i n g q u e s t i o n i s : Is i t f e a s i b l e to measure i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s by u t i l i z i n g e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as a p o s s i b l e u n d e r l y i n g v a r i a b l e accounting f o r those d i f f e r e n c e s ? As mentioned i n the review, a few researchers have attempted t h i s task with v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n to the q u e s t i o n . Parham & Helms's (1981, 1985) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been important and s i g n i f i c a n t i n advancing our knowledge and understanding of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development of Blacks i n the 30 U.S., and i n espousing the v i a b i l i t y of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y t o measure i n t r a - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s along a continuum. Other attempts have been s c a t t e r e d , d i f f u s e d and c i r c u m s c r i b e d by p o p u l a t i o n sample, l a c k of a t h e o r e t i c a l model, weak methods and instruments, and extremely l i m i t e d research i n the area d e s p i t e i t s importance to our understanding of e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s and t h e i r experiences. Furthermore, as evidenced by the l i t e r a t u r e review, no research t o date has i n v e s t i g a t e d the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development of i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n . Thus, i n an attempt to address these shortcomings, the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study are: (a) to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of At k i n s o n et a l . ' s model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development with i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n , and (b) to develop and v a l i d a t e a measure of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y based on the MID model v i a Q-Sort methodology. As mentioned e a r l i e r , A t k i n s o n et a l . ' s model seems f a i r l y comprehensive and dynamic, as w e l l , i t s f l u i d i t y and c o n t i n u i t y allows f o r movement and s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of stages. A l s o , given the major assumption of the model, that human behavior can be f u l l y understood by the context t h a t motivates i t , and t h a t a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and behaviors are an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the m i n o r i t y person's i d e n t i t y ; i t o f f e r s the model groundedness and s t a b i l i t y . Furthermore, one may argue on the i n h e r e n t m u l t i c u l t u r a l framework embodied i n the model because of i t s focus on a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s regarding the same m i n o r i t y , other m i n o r i t i e s and the m a j o r i t y 31 c u l t u r e as w e l l as i t s p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a b i l i t y to any m i n o r i t y group. For the purposes of t h i s study, e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as the a t t i t u d e s , behaviors, and p e r c e p t i o n s one holds with regards to the s e l f , others of the same mi n o r i t y group, other m i n o r i t y groups, and the m a j o r i t y group. In order to t e s t the model's v a l i d i t y with i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n , an attempt w i l l be made during item g e n e r a t i o n to account f o r the f i v e stages proposed by the model, to include the four dimensions ( s e l f , same m i n o r i t y , other m i n o r i t i e s , and the m a j o r i t y group) per stage, and to represent e q u a l l y the b e h a v i o r a l , a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e domains of the d i f f e r e n t stages. 32 Chapter Three: Method P a r t i c i p a n t s The t o t a l sample c o n s i s t e d of 44 i n d i v i d u a l s (28 females and 16 males) who i d e n t i f i e d themselves to be of Chinese o r i g i n and a t l e a s t 18 years of age or over. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were v o l u n t e e r s with ages ranging from 18 to 73 (M=35, SD=12.7). E n g l i s h was chosen by 29 persons and Chinese by 15, i n answering the instruments. P a r t i c i p a n t s were r e c r u i t e d through group p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n E.S.L. ( E n g l i s h as a Second Language) c l a s s e s at community schools i n Vancouver and va r i o u s Chinese community agencies, such as the United Chinese Community Enrichment S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y (S.U.C.E.S.S.)and Mosaic T r a n s l a t i o n S e r v i c e s . A l s o , advertisements (See Appendix A i n E n g l i s h and Chinese) were posted i n community agencies and p u b l i s h e d i n the Ubyssey (The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia students' newspaper) and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Reports (U.B.C. f a c u l t y and s t a f f newspaper). A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were v o l u n t e e r s and i n d i v i d u a l times were arranged to administer the instruments. P a r t i c i p a n t s spent an average of 60 minutes with the Q-Sort and 10 minutes answering a demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Most p a r t i c i p a n t s stayed afterwards to share about t h e i r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l experiences and/or to enquire f u r t h e r about the study. 33 Instruments/Methodology  Q-Methodology Q-methodology i s a comparative, rank o r d e r i n g procedure i n which i n d i v i d u a l s s o r t out a set of cards with p r i n t e d statements on them based on a c r i t e r i o n . It lends i t s e l f f o r comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of persons and permits q u a n t i t a t i v e comparisons. Q-methodology i s we l l s u i t e d f o r t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s such as the one proposed by Atkinson et a l . (1979). Stephenson (1953) observed that "Q-technique p r o v i d e s a systematic way to handle a person's r e t r o s p e c t i o n s , h i s r e f l e c t i o n s about h i m s e l f and others, h i s i n t r o j e c t i o n s , and much e l s e of an apparent s u b j e c t i v e nature." (p. 86). A c c o r d i n g l y , Q-methodology i s concerned with the phenomenological f i e l d of the i n d i v i d u a l as i t r e l a t e s to s e l f and o t h e r s . At such, i t i s based on the prominence of f e e l i n g s , b e l i e f s , judgments, and reason. Stephenson (1980) a s s e r t e d that " a f f e c t a b i l i t y " i s the foundation of Q-methodology. Furthermore, Block (1961) suggested Q-methodology as ap p r o p r i a t e when i n v e s t i g a t i n g how the person has evolved and how he/she appears to be now. Also, K e r l i n g e r (1973) and T a l b o t t (.1971) p o i n t e d out the u s e f u l n e s s and u t i l i t y of Q-methodology i n t e s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s and not 34 n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i v i d u a l s ; or when the concern i s s t i m u l u s -centered rather than person-centered (Dawis, 1987). Thus, i n Q-Methodology what i s of u l t i m a t e i n t e r e s t and being measured i s the person's s e l f - r e f e r e n t f e e l i n g s and c o g n i t i o n s as they evolve i n concrete f i e l d s of a c t i o n . As a methodology concerned with i n t r a s u b j e c t i v i t y , i t a l s o procures an o b j e c t i v e approach (Brown, 1968) i n an o r d e r l y , r i g o r o u s , s c i e n t i f i c , and systematic f a s h i o n . Q-Methodology contains other advantages p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r r e s e a r c h besides a l l o w i n g one to study s u b j e c t i v i t y i n an o b j e c t i v e manner. U s u a l l y the data generated tends to be h i g h l y r e l i a b l e and there are l e s s problems with m i s s i n g d a t a , undecided responses, and i s s u e s of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y (Dennis, 1986). As w e l l , fewer s u b j e c t s are r e q u i r e d due to the i n t e n s i t y of the method, c l o s e a f f i n i t y to the theory i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and i t i s a v a l i d and strong method f o r s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n as f a c t o r a r r a y s emerge from the data ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973). As f a r as some of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the methodology are concerned, K e r l i n g e r (1973) p o i n t e d out to the f o r c e d - c h o i c e procedure of the method as a source of f r u s t r a t i o n f o r some p a r t i c i p a n t s . T e c h n i c a l l y , f o r c e d - c h o i c e may a l s o a f f e c t the s t a t i s t i c a l assumption of independence, that i s , placement of one card somewhere i n the continuum may a f f e c t placement of other cards. Another l i m i t a t i o n i s the requirement of e x t e n s i v e amounts of time on the p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r due to 35 the p e r s o n a l i z e d nature of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the need f o r extensive e x p l a n a t i o n s to p a r t i c i p a n t s on how to proceed due to the g e n e r a l l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y with Q-Sorts as opposed to q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and the methodological requirement of comprehensive understanding of i n s t r u c t i o n s i n order to o b t a i n a c c u r a t e , adequate, and v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s (Dennis, 1986). As d e f i n e d thus f a r , Q-methodology's s t r e n g t h s seem to outweigh i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . As i t r e l a t e s to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research, a major c r i t i c i s m a l l u d e s to the i m p o s i t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r s ' t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s , c u l t u r a l assumptions and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s on s u b j e c t s from other c u l t u r e s . Since the c e n t r a l tenet of Q-methodology i s with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of s e l f - r e f e r e n c e , that i s , a person's p o i n t of view on matters of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; e x t e r n a l frames of r e f e r e n c e brought i n by the researcher may tend to decrease. T h i s , t h e r e f o r e i s another s t r e n g t h i n terms of the appropriateness of Q-methodology for t h i s study. Thus, i n u t i l i z i n g Q-methodology; the o b j e c t i v e s of the study were accomplished, e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as d e f i n e d was f u l l y accounted f o r , a methodology a p p r o p r i a t e and r e l e v a n t f o r c r o s s -c u l t u r a l research was implemented, and i t allowed the researcher to be q u a n t i t a t i v e and s e n s i t i v e a t the same time. 36 Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A b a s i c demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e (See Appendix B i n E n g l i s h and Chinese) was developed and administered i n order to o b t a i n b a s i c demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . Although there was no e x p e c t a t i o n that any of the demographic data would be c o r r e l a t e d with the Q-Sorts, r e l e v a n t demographic v a r i a b l e s may n a t u r a l l y evolve and r e l a t e with the i d e n t i f y i n g p a t t e r n s of s o r t i n g the items. Procedure The f i r s t step i n Q-technique i s to sample a range of s t i m u l i r e l e v a n t to the t h e o r e t i c a l problem i n q u e s t i o n . In t h i s study, Atkinson e t a l . ' s model as w e l l as other s i m i l a r models of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y were u t i l i z e d as the universe of s t i m u l i from which statements f o r the Q-Sort were d e r i v e d . As suggested by McKeown & Thomas (1988), the nature of the statements was l i m i t e d by the domain of s u b j e c t i v i t y , t h a t i s , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . A l s o , i t i s necessary to generate a s e t of statements as comprehensive as p o s s i b l e i n order to r e f l e c t the wide range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . Brown (1980) a s s e r t e d that the i n t e n t i o n i s to c r e a t e a Q-sample as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , a pool of 70 items was generated. These statements were then submitted f o r t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n as to t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s , the p a r t i c u l a r stage which they presumed to c h a r a c t e r i z e , and t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n one of 37 three domains ( c o g n i t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l , and emotional) to three experts i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g . The experts were provided with a d e s c r i p t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l model (Appendix C), and a Rating Form (Appendix D) with the p r i n t e d statements. T h e i r e v a l u a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n generated a pool of 83 statements. Afterwards, f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s of Chinese o r i g i n were asked to s o r t and evaluate the items and were probed as to the choices they made, the reasons and meaning of t h e i r c h o i c e s and the appropriateness of the language used i n the statements. The f i n a l r e v i s i o n p r o v i d e d a Q-sample of 81 items (Appendix E ) . The statements d e s c r i b e d f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , o p i n i o n s , b e l i e f s , and a c t i o n s with r e f e r e n c e to s e l f , members of the same m i n o r i t y group, members of other m i n o r i t y group, and members of the m a j o r i t y group. Item d i s t r i b u t i o n per stage was as f o l l o w s : Conformity Stage 16 items, Dissonance Stage 17 items, Resistance and Immersion 16 items, I n t r o s p e c t i o n 17 items, and Syn e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness 15 items. Since Q-samples are r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of communication contexts (McKeown & Thomas, 1988), i t i s impossible to i n c l u d e a l l communicative p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h e refore, i n choosing the items; the s t r u c t u r a l sample technique was u t i l i z e d , that i s , statements assumed to be re l e v a n t to the t h e o r e t i c a l model and with coverage of p o s s i b l e sub-issues as w e l l as h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d . 38 Once the statements were developed, e v a l u a t e d , and r e v i s e d ; they were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Chinese language. A l s o , the backwards t r a n s l a t i o n method was u t i l i z e d i n order to ensure that the meaning and c o n n o t a t i o n of the statements was maintained. F i n a l l y , sampled statements were typed and randomly numbered on separate cards to form the deck f o r the Q-Sort. Data C o l l e c t i o n As p a r t i c i p a n t s s a t i s f i e d the b a s i c requirements and volunteered to take p a r t i n the study, i n d i v i d u a l times were arranged f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . The f i r s t s t e p was to inform on the g e n e r a l purpose of the study and to acknowledge the signed r e c e i p t of a Consent Form (Appendix F i n E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e ) . Then, p a r t i c i p a n t s were thoroughly i n s t r u c t e d through w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s (Appendix G i n E n g l i s h and Chinese) as w e l l as v e r b a l l y on the methodology. Where the p a r t i c i p a n t d i d not speak E n g l i s h ; a t r a i n e d t r a n s l a t o r was present to t r a n s l a t e as the need arose. The average time taken to respond the Q-Sort was 60 minutes, and 10 minutes f o r the Demographic Qu e s t i o n n a i r e . P a r t i c i p a n t s worked f i r s t i n the Q-Sort and then on the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . U s u a l l y , a f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instruments, p a r t i c i p a n t s shared on t h e i r experiences i n Q-sorting the items and t h e i r p e r s o n a l c r o s s - c u l t u r a l experiences. The data were c o l l e c t e d over a p e r i o d of ten months. 39 During data c o l l e c t i o n , each p a r t i c i p a n t was asked to s o r t the statements i n t o a quasi-normal d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a "Most l i k e Me" to "Least l i k e Me". The Q-Sort d i s t r i b u t i o n and the values assigned to each p i l e was as f o l l o w s : Most L i k e Me Value 1 2 3 4 N=Items 2 4 . 6 8 Least L i k e Me 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 21 10 8 6 4 2 The c r i t e r i o n or c o n d i t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n were determined by the nature of the t h e o r e t i c a l model under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s were not aware of the u n d e r l y i n g theory. In s o r t i n g the items, p a r t i c i p a n t s were f i r s t asked to read and f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the statements. As t h i s was being performed, p a r t i c i p a n t s s o r t e d the items i n t o two p i l e s . Statements which tended to r e f l e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s toward the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum were placed to t h e i r l e f t and statements r e f l e c t i n g the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum were p l a c e d to t h e i r r i g h t . Because the common u n i t of measurement i s s e l f -r e f e r e n c i n g (McKeown & Thomas, 1988), p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to go over the "Most l i k e Me" p i l e f i r s t and s o r t the items by p l a c i n g the s p e c i f i e d number of items i n d i c a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the d i s t r i b u t i o n and beginning from the f a r l e f t . Then, p a r t i c i p a n t s s o r t e d the "Least l i k e Me" items i n the same order, that i s , beginning from the f a r r i g h t and moving to the 40 c e n t e r . Items p l a c e d i n the middle of the d i s t r i b u t i o n were those about which the p a r t i c i p a n t was n e u t r a l , t h a t i s , a p o i n t n e u t r a l i n meaning and without p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . When the s o r t i n g was completed, p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to re-examine the e n t i r e s et and move items as they f e l t a p p r o p r i a t e and necessary. During the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h i s process i t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s the f a c t t h a t there was no r i g h t or wrong nor good or bad answers. Data A n a l y s i s Procedures In Q-Methodology data a n a l y s i s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s three procedures: c o r r e l a t i o n , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and the computation of f a c t o r s c o r e s . A l s o , the experimental p o p u l a t i o n i s composed of statements rather than persons as i s the case i n t r a d i t i o n a l psychometric methods. In a n a l y s i n g the data the i n d i v i d u a l s o r t s of the 44 p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o r r e l a t e d using the Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t . T h i s y i e l d e d a 81x44 matrix of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . T h i s matrix was then f a c t o r analysed using the method of P r i n c i p a l Components s i n c e we are concerned with the way i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s ordered the statements and with c l u s t e r i n g them a c c o r d i n g to the way i n which they were ordered. T h i s meant that each f a c t o r or group of persons emerging was a s s o c i a t e d with a common way of o r d e r i n g the items. The number of f a c t o r s to be e x t r a c t e d from the a n a l y s i s was determined from the ei g e n v a l u e s . The c r i t e r i o n of 41 eigenvalues g r e a t e r than 1.0 was used to decide on the number of f a c t o r s or f a m i l i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s with s i m i l a r s o r t i n g p a t t e r n s (Dennis, 1986; McKeown & Thomas, 1988). Then, a Scree Test on the eigenvalues was u t i l i z e d i n order to determine the number of s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the sample. As emerging f a c t o r s represent p o i n t s of view, membership of each respondent with each p o i n t of view i s represented by the magnitude of his/her l o a d i n g on that f a c t o r . A person's p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g on a f a c t o r i n d i c a t e s h i s / h e r shared p o i n t of view with other persons on t h a t f a c t o r ; by c o n t r a s t , n e g ative l o a d i n g s on t h a t f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t r e j e c t i o n of that p o i n t of view. The c r i t e r i a f o r determining membership i n t o a f a c t o r based on f a c t o r l o a d i n g was s e t at .50 or g r e a t e r . T h i s may seem a c o n s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e , e s p e c i a l l y when others (Rinn, 1961) have r e p o r t e d f a c t o r l o a d i n g s as low as .23. However, s t a t i s t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of emerging items was a p r e v a i l i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s d e c i s i o n . In most i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n proceeds on the b a s i s of f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . In Q-Methodology, however, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are based on f a c t o r s c o r e s . Thus, f o r each f a c t o r a f a c t o r a r r a y or model Q-Sort was c a l c u l a t e d . The Q-S o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l s having s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s , that i s , l o a d i n g s of .50 or greater were used to c a l c u l a t e f a c t o r s c o r e s . T a l b o t t ' s (1971) method was u t i l i z e d to c a l c u l a t e f a c t o r a r r a y s . F i r s t , a weight was assigned to each Q-Sort 42 based on its factor loading. Weights were calculated according to the following formula: r weight= 1-r where r equals the person's loading on a particular factor. Then, weighted item scores for estimating the factor array were calculated by summing across each person's weight times his/her raw item score for a particular item. Afterwards, the weighted item scores were converted to z-scores. To obtain the z-scores, the mean and standard deviation of the weighted item scores for each factor was calculated. The z-score of an item for a particular factor was computed by subtracting the mean from the weighted item score and dividing i t by the standard deviation. Factor arrays were then determined by rank ordering the z-scores and ascertaining the items associated with the scores. Once factor arrays were obtained for each factor; qualitative analysis proceeded as follows: First, for each person factor, items with z-scores of 1.00 or higher reflecting the "Most like Me" end of the continuum were examined as to the stage or stages they represented in the model as well as common and emerging themes. Then, items with z-scores of -1.00 or lower reflecting the "Least like Me" end of the continuum were also examined in terms of the stages of 43 the model and emerging patterns. Afterwards, emerging themes were integrated by comparing the "Most l i k e Me" and "Least l i k e Me" items per each person factor. F i n a l l y , emerging person factors were compared to pertinent demographic data. 44 Chapter Four: Results Factor A n a l y s i s of Subjects The p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s , with a c r i t e r i o n eigenvalues s e t at 1.0 i d e n t i f i e d a 10-factor s o l u t i o n on 44 s u b j e c t s . T h i s s o l u t i o n was then submitted to varimax r o t a t i o n i n order t o o b t a i n orthogonal f a c t o r s . A p r e l i m i n a r y examination, however, suggested t h i s s o l u t i o n to be i n s u f f i c i e n t and i n o p e r a t i v e . F i r s t , a scree t e s t (see F i g u r e 1) on the eigenvalues i n d i c a t e d four s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s , that i s , the s l o p e of the eigenvalues appeared to l e v e l o f f a f t e r the f o u r t h f a c t o r . Second, the cumulative p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by the ten f a c t o r s o l u t i o n was 73 percent, w h i l e the four f a c t o r s o l u t i o n accounted f o r 56 percent of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e . Although the context of the study suggested f i v e f a c t o r s corresponding to the f i v e stages of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development; the small (3 percent) increment of v a r i a n c e per f a c t o r beyond the f o u r t h f a c t o r appeared i n s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i r d , s u b j e c t s ' d i s t r i b u t i o n per f a c t o r a f t e r the f o u r t h f a c t o r was evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and small ( t w o ) , t h e r e f o r e not as meaningful f o r comparisons. Consequently, the f o u r - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n was r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . Table I shows the f o u r - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n i n d i c a t i n g s u b j e c t s ' f a c t o r l o a d i n g and the cumulative p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by each f a c t o r . As i n d i c a t e d above, f a c t o r membership was determined by f a c t o r loadings of .50 45 F i g u r e 1. Scree Test Showing Eigenvalues u i I I I r ~ i — I — I — I — l — I — T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 FACTOR or g r e a t e r (as proposed by Dr. W. B o l d t , p e r s o n a l communication, February, 1990). Person F a c t o r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r person f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were based on t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s of the model as w e l l as q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the emerging p a t t e r n s . 46 Table I Factor S t r u c t u r e R e s u l t i n g from P r i n c i p a l Components  A n a l y s i s of S u b j e c t s ' Q-Sorts Person F a c t o r s Subjects I II I I I IV 1 -.07 -.62 -.06 -.10 2* .13 -.32 -.30 .32 3* .25 -.06 -.21 .21 4* .42 -.20 -.44 .31 5* .30 -.34 -.26 -.09 6* .18 -.32 -.31 .09 7* .32 -.30 -.31 .30 8* .36 -.37 -.37 .08 9* .12 .06 .07 .04 10 .51 -.12 -.24 .37 11 .64 -.40 -.20 -.04 12* .42 -.25 -.09 .34 13 .76 -.08 -.14 .27 14 .74 .01 -.06 .30 15 .64 -.13 -.18 .20 16 .44 -.28 -.35 .56 17 .61 -.21 -.20 .13 18* .33 -.30 -.22 -.07 19* .35 -.30 .05 .23 20* .09 -.20 .03 -.03 21* .39 -.20 -.27 .26 47 22* .09 -.19 -.02 .16 23 .20 .02 -.22 .79 24* .27 -.29 -.01 .02 25* .21 -.23 -.02 .14 26 .26 -.38 -.14 .51 27* .24 -.33 .01 .48 28 .32 -.55 -.09 .07 29 .00 -.60 -.13 .07 30 .75 .00 -.20 -.02 31 .71 -.14 -.10 .28 32 .76 -.17 -.25 .01 33* .00 .01 .01 -.05 34 .30 .01 -.86 .16 35 .65 -.44 -.23 .15 36 .22 -.89 .06 .09 37 -.49 -.53 -.32 .16 38 .16 -.63 -.20 .18 39 .72 -.35 -.31 .09 40 .14 -.32 -.50 .33 41 .30 .01 -.86 .16 42 .22 -.89 .06 .09 43 .68 -.27 -.24 .15 44 .66 -.08 .10 .06 Cumulative P r o p o r t i o n 39% 46% 52% 56? of Variance These s u b j e c t s (n=18) were excluded from f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s because t h e i r f a c t o r loadings d i d not reach the .50 c r i t e r i o n . 48 Person f a c t o r I; M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n A c c o r d i n g to the 13 i n d i v i d u a l s who loaded on person f a c t o r I, 15 items r e f l e c t e d the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum, and 15 d i f f e r e n t items r e f l e c t e d the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum; (see Table I I ) . Of the 15 items c l u s t e r i n g a t the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum 86.7 percent were Synergetic A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage items and 13.3 percent were I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage items (see Table I I I ) . Q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h i s person f a c t o r at the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum tends to suggest great awareness, a p p r e c i a t i o n and respect f o r s e l f , others of the same m i n o r i t y , other m i n o r i t y groups and the m a j o r i t y group. A l s o , persons c l u s t e r i n g on t h i s end have a f i r m sense of s e l f - w o r t h and appear to have i n t e g r a t e d c u l t u r a l elements from the m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e i n t o a unique sense of personhood and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness items which represent awareness and evolvement beyond r a c i a l or c u l t u r a l c o n s t r a i n s , are "A person's o r i g i n or race has l i t t l e to do  with whether or not he/she i s a good person." (z-2.43), "I b e l i e v e that people r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n have s t r e n g t h s  and l i m i t a t i o n s . " (z=2.25), and "I i n v o l v e myself i n causes  that w i l l h e l p not only Chinese people but a l l oppressed  people." (z=1.19). As evidenced by these items, these persons show great forms of f l e x i b i l i t y and cognizant attainment of 49 s e n s i b i l i t y . A l s o , t h e i r awareness seems to manifest i t s e l f at the b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l as w e l l , i n th a t , i t evolves beyond c u l t u r a l parameters t o a s p i r i t of communality f o r a l l oppressed people i r r e s p e c t i v e of e t h n o - c u l t u r a l background and/or c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s . Table I I Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person Factor I Z-score Item "Most l i k e Me" 2.4379 A person's o r i g i n or race has l i t t l e to do with whether or not he/she i s a good person. 2.2503 I b e l i e v e t h a t people, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s . 2.0556 I f e e l comfortable with myself, as I am, wherever I am. 2.0264 I b e l i e v e my a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s e l f -worth have nothing to do with race. 1.4468 I f e e l at ease with myself whether I am with members of the m a j o r i t y group or with Chinese persons. 1.4261 I a p p r e c i a t e and respect other Chinese persons, but I do not l i m i t myself to them. 1.2766 I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s u s e f u l f o r other Chinese persons to explore the c u l t u r a l values of the ma j o r i t y group. 1.2178 I i n v o l v e myself i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n even i f there are no other Chinese persons i n v o l v e d . 1.2073 I f e e l q u i t e uncomfortable when people t r e a t me as a Chinese r a t h e r than as an i n d i v i d u a l . 50 1.1977 1.1932 1.1736 1.1607 1.1177 1.0774 -2.2653 -1.9767 -1.8795 -1.6336 -1.4860 -1.4309 -1.3965 -1.3486 -1.3119 I i n v o l v e myself i n causes that w i l l h e l p not only Chinese people, but a l l oppressed people. The l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group seem to have p o s i t i v e elements i n the same manner that the Chinese l i f e s t y l e does. I have good f e e l i n g s toward those members of the m a j o r i t y group who are a c t i v e l y committed i n the s t r u g g l e against s o c i a l , r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n . I b e l i e v e that the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements f o r me and Chinese persons. I support and respect other Chinese who are proud of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s . I admire Chinese persons who s t r i v e to maintain t h e i r language and t r a d i t i o n s . "Least l i k e Me" I am ashamed of l o o k i n g and being Chinese. I b e l i e v e that m a j o r i t y group persons are s u p e r i o r to Chinese persons. I b e l i e v e Chinese i n d i v i d u a l s do not have as much to be proud of as i n d i v i d u a l s of the m a j o r i t y group. I f i n d myself r e f e r r i n g t o members of the m a j o r i t y group as honkies, p i g s , r a c i s t s , e t c . I d i s t r u s t everything t h a t has to do with the m a j o r i t y group. I i n v o l v e myself i n Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ( a r t , shows, t h e a t r e , dance, meetings) o n l y . I b e l i e v e Chinese people tend to be sneaky and take advantage of what the m a j o r i t y group o f f e r s them. When I am around members of the m a j o r i t y group, I f e e l uncomfortable. I f e e l good when surrounded by other Chinese persons o n l y . 51 -1.3016 I p a r t i c i p a t e i n Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l events o n l y . -1.2773 I am uncomfortable with my Chinese background. -1.2291 I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t persons of the m a j o r i t y group. -1.0916 I p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l events of the m a j o r i t y group o n l y . -1.0810 I i n v o l v e myself i n Chinese a f f a i r s t o the extent t h a t my i n d i v i d u a l i t y disappears. -1.0449 The people I r e s p e c t the most are the members of the m a j o r i t y group. Another prominent theme emerging f o r these persons i s a high l e v e l o f a p p r e c i a t i o n , esteem and respect f o r the s e l f . Items e x e m p l i f y i n g these a t t i t u d e s are "I f e e l comfortable  with myself, as I am, wherever I am." (2=2.0), and "I f e e l at  ease with myself whether I am with members of the m a j o r i t y  group or wi t h Chinese persons." (z=l.44). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s appears to be centered on a strong sense of s e l f - w o r t h , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and autonomy. A l s o , c o m f o r t a b i l i t y and a c c e p t a b i l i t y of o t h e r s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f r x u l ^ ^ Moreover, items such as "I b e l i e v e that i t i s u s e f u l f o r  other Chinese persons to explore the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of the  ma j o r i t y group." (z=1.27), "The l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y  group seems to have p o s i t i v e elements i n the same manner t h a t  the Chinese l i f e s t y l e does." (z=1.19), and "I have good  f e e l i n g s toward those members of the m a j o r i t y group who are 52 a c t i v e l y committed i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t s o c i a l , r a c i a l / and  c u l t u r a l o p p r e ssion." (z=l.17) suggest an open and a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward members of the m a j o r i t y group. This t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e seems to be more evident toward those i n d i v i d u a l s committed t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t forms of oppr e s s i o n . As w e l l , these items tend t o i m p l i c i t l y suggest i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of b i c u l t u r a l elements h o l i s t i c a l l y . Emerging a t t i t u d e s toward members of the same m i n o r i t y group are a l s o evidenced by a p p r e c i a t i o n and awareness. F e e l i n g s of p r i d e and empathy seem to evolve from these two items: "I support and respect other Chinese who are proud of  t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s . " (z=l.11), and "I admire Chinese persons  who s t r i v e to maintain t h e i r language and t r a d i t i o n s " (z=l.07). Thus, i t appears as i f these i n d i v i d u a l s not o n l y accept and a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r c u l t u r e of o r i g i n but they a l s o a c t i v e l y encourage i t s c o n t i n u i t y and maintenance. Two I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage items, "I f e e l q u i t e  uncomfortable when people t r e a t me as a Chinese rather than  as an i n d i v i d u a l . " (z=l.20), and "The l i f e s t y l e of the  m a j o r i t y group seems to have p o s i t i v e elements i n the same  manner that the Chinese l i f e s t y l e does." (z=l.19) emerged w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r . Examination of the f i r s t item suggests a c a l l to be regarded beyond apparent e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s / l a b e l l i n g and rather as another member of s o c i e t y . The second item implies t e n t a t i v e n e s s i n the i n t e g r a t i v e process of c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . These two items, do 53 not d e v i a t e d r a s t i c a l l y from the o v e r a l l emerging themes w i t h i n t h i s f a c t o r . Rather, they suggest a need f o r u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l i t y and b i c u l t u r a l t e n t a t i v e n e s s i n a p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n . Within the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum f o r Person Factor I f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of items was as f o l l o w s : Conformity Stage 46.66 percent, R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage 46.66 percent, and I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage 6.68 percent (see Table I I I ) . Items a t t h i s end of the continuum a l s o suggest r e s p e c t , awareness and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l values and l i f e s t y l e s , as w e l l as i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l elements. Conformity Stage items r e f l e c t i n g s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r i d e on one's c u l t u r a l background are "I am ashamed of  l o o k i n g and being Chinese." (z=-2.26), "I am uncomfortable  with my Chinese background." (z=-l.27), and "I b e l i e v e that  m a j o r i t y group persons are s u p e r i o r to Chinese." (z=-l.97). P o s i t i v e and a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward members o f the same m i n o r i t y seem evident through Conformity Stage items such as "I b e l i e v e Chinese i n d i v i d u a l s do not have as much t o be proud  of as i n d i v i d u a l s of the m a j o r i t y group do." (z=-l.87 ), and "I b e l i e v e Chinese people tend to be sneaky and take advantage  of what the m a j o r i t y group o f f e r s them." (z=-l.39). Moreover, R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage items denoting r e s p e c t and l i k i n g f o r members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e are "I f i n d myself  r e f e r r i n g t o members of the m a j o r i t y group as honkies, p i g s , 54 r a c i s t s , e t c . " (z=-l.63) and "I d i s t r u s t e v e r y t h i n g that has  to do with the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . " (z=-l.48). Table I I I Percentage of Items w i t h i n Each Factor A c c o r d i n g to Stages Stages Factor I F a c t o r II F a c t o r I I I Factor IV "Most L i k e Me" Conformity 0% 71.6% 14.3% 8 .0% Dissonance 0% 7.1% 57.2% 25 .0% R e s i s t . & Immersion 0% 14.2% 21.4% 67 .0% Introsp. 13.3% 7.1% 7.1% 0% Syner. A r t . Awareness 86.7% 0% "Least Like Me 0% II 0% Conformity 46.66% 0% 7.7% 7 .6% Dissonance 0% 13.33% 7.7% 15 .4% R e s i s t . & Immersion 46.66% 26.66% 0% 0% I n t r o s p . 6.68% 13.33% 23.0% 30 .8% Syner. A r t . Awareness 0% 46.68% 61.6% 46 .2% In c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears that persons c l u s t e r i n g on Person Factor I along both ends of the continuum have evolved a strong sense of who they are i n terms of t h e i r s e l f , t h e i r 55 c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group a t the a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l s . Moreover, i t seems as i f these persons have r e a l i s t i c a l l y assessed and e v a l u a t e d t h e i r values and p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f and others while emerging with a renewed an unique sense of c u l t u r a l s e l f . Person f a c t o r I I : C u l t u r a l Conformity Based on the 7 i n d i v i d u a l s who loaded on t h i s f a c t o r , 14 items c l u s t e r e d at the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum and 14 items c l u s t e r e d at the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum (see T a b l e IV). As f a r as the stages of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development i s concerned, 71.6 percent of the items c l u s t e r e d on the Conformity Stage, 14.2 on the R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage, 7.1 percent on the Dissonance Stage and 7.1 on the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage w i t h i n the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum (see Table I I I ) . Themes emerging from persons c l u s t e r i n g at the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum are f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , c o n f u s i o n , shame, s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n and resentment f o r d i s p l a y i n g e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which s i n g l e them out as a Chinese person. As w e l l , admiration and respect toward the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e are evidenced through a c t i o n s and b e l i e f s . 56 Table IV Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person F a c t o r II Z-score Item "Most l i k e Me" 2.4964 I am ashamed of l o o k i n g and being Chinese. 2.0205 I b e l i e v e that m a j o r i t y group persons are s u p e r i o r to Chinese persons. 1.9527 I b e l i e v e that members of the m a j o r i t y group look and express themselves b e t t e r than Chinese. 1.8141 Sometimes I f e e l proud of being Chinese and sometimes not. 1.7346 I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t persons of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . 1.6419 I p r e f e r t o a s s o c i a t e with persons of the m a j o r i t y group r a t h e r than Chinese persons. 1.4236 I am uncomfortable with my Chinese background. 1.3854 I b e l i e v e Chinese people tend to be sneaky and take advantage of what the m a j o r i t y group o f f e r s them. 1.3768 I p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l events of the m a j o r i t y group o n l y . 1.3425 I f e e l q u i t e uncomfortable when people t r e a t me as a Chinese r a t h e r than as an i n d i v i d u a l . 1.2828 I b e l i e v e Chinese i n d i v i d u a l s do not have as much to be proud of as i n d i v i d u a l s of the m a j o r i t y group do. 1.1777 I f e e l annoyed when Chinese persons don't speak f l u e n t E n g l i s h . 1.1478 I f i n d myself r e f e r r i n g t o members of the m a j o r i t y group as honkies, p i g s , r a c i s t s , e t c . 1.0894 The people I respect the most are the members of the m a j o r i t y group. 57 "Least l i k e Me" 2.3942 I speak Chinese more o f t e n than E n g l i s h . 2.1746 I f e e l more comfortable around Chinese persons r a t h e r than persons of the m a j o r i t y group. 1.7669 I thin k of myself as being Chinese rather than a member of the m a j o r i t y group. 1.6608 I admire Chinese persons who s t r i v e t o maintain t h e i r language and t r a d i t i o n s . 1.5277 I support and respect other Chinese who are proud of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s . 1.4035 I a p p r e c i a t e other Chinese persons, But I do not l i m i t myself to them. 1.3952 When I am around members of the m a j o r i t y group, I f e e l uncomfortable. 1.3508 I b e l i e v e that people, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n , have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s . 1.1998 There are some p o s i t i v e values i n the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group, but I am unsure as to whether to i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o my way of l i f e . 1.1163 I f e e l comfortable with myself, as I am, wherever I am. 1.0999 Sometimes I f e e l proud of being Chinese and sometimes not. 1.0979 I b e l i e v e that the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements f o r me and Chinese persons. 1.0829 I b e l i e v e that i t i s u s e f u l f o r other Chinese persons to explore the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of the m a j o r i t y group. 1.0529 The l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group seems to have p o s i t i v e elements i n the same manner that the Chinese l i f e s t y l e does. 1.0401 These days,I f i n d myself wanting to be more i n v o l v e d w i t h the Chinese community and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , and l e s s i n v o l v e d with a c t i v i t i e s of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . 58 Prominent Conformity Stage items e x h i b i t i n g shame and a s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e are "I am ashamed of l o o k i n g and  being Chinese." (z=2.49), and "I am uncomfortable with my  Chinese background." (z=1.42). Thus, t h e i r p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear to be a major source of p a i n . Coupled with these p e r c e p t i o n s ; f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and lack of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e are evidenced by two h i g h l y ranked items "I b e l i e v e that m a j o r i t y group persons are s u p e r i o r to  Chinese persons." (z=2.02), and "I b e l i e v e that members of the  m a j o r i t y group look and express themselves b e t t e r than  Chinese." J_z=1.95). A l s o , the above mentioned items i m p l i c i t l y assume h i g h regard and admiration f o r the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e to the detriment of t h e i r own. "I p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e with persons  of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e rather than Chinese persons." (z=l.64) and "I p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l events of  the m a j o r i t y group o n l y . " (z=l.37) f o r i n s t a n c e , suggest easiness and acceptance of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ' s l i f e s t y l e and v a l u e s at the b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l . However, t h i s a c c e p t a b i l i t y seems to emerge at a p e r i p h e r a l l e v e l as suggested by the f o l l o w i n g Resistance and Immersion Stage items "I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t  persons of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=l.73) and "I f i n d myself  r e f e r r i n g the members of the m a j o r i t y group as honkies, p i g s ,  r a c i s t s , e t c . " (z=1.14). Thus, although admiration and l i k i n g emerge as prominent themes toward members of the m a j o r i t y 59 c u l t u r e ; these a t t i t u d e s seem to be overshadowed by anger and resentment. Along with c e r t a i n amount of resentment; a low l e v e l of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t i s evidenced by one Dissonance Stage item, t h i s i s , "Sometimes, I f e e l proud of being Chinese  and sometimes not." (z=1.81). Items c l u s t e r i n g at the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum f o r Person Factor II were d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage 46.68 perce n t , Resistance and Immersion Stage 26.66 percent, Dissonance Stage 13.33 percent, and I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage 13.33 percent (see Table I I I ) . The o r d e r i n g of items and the themes emerging from them a l s o tends to suggest a d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n while a p p r e c i a t i n g and admiring the mainstream c u l t u r e a t the same time. The S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness stage i s n e g a t i v e l y r e f l e c t e d i n the negative z scores on items such as "I admire Chinese persons who s t r i v e to maintain t h e i r  language and t r a d i t i o n s . " (z=-l.66), and "I support and  respect other Chinese persons who are proud of t h e i r  t r a d i t i o n s . " (z=-1.52). These i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e and experience t h e i r c u l t u r a l background as an handicap which needs to be e l i m i n a t e d . Once more, shame and r e g r e t on the one hand, and a d m i r a t i o n on the other appear to be c l e a r p a t t e r n s f o r these persons. T h i s p a t t e r n i s a l s o evident through R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage items i n d i c a t i n g r e j e c t i o n of s e l f and 60 m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . "I f e e l more comfortable around Chinese  persons r a t h e r than persons of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=-2.17) and "I think o f myself as being Chinese rather than a member  of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=-1.76) show a r e s e n t f u l and s e l f -d e v a l u a t i v e a t t i t u d e . The Dissonance Stage item "Sometimes I f e e l proud of  being Chinese and sometimes not." (z=-l.09) emerged on both ends of the continuum suggesting the acknowledgment of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t at one end and the absence of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t at the other. This apparent c o n t r a d i c t o r y tendency may be one p a r t of the o v e r a l l theme emerging f o r t h i s f a c t o r ; t h i s being, the unconscious c o n f l i c t between b l i n d c onformity t o the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and u n d e r l y i n g resentment toward i t at the same time. In ending, the q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s f o r Person Factor II suggests as emerging themes o v e r t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , l i f e s t y l e , and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e while simultaneously r e j e c t i n g , r e s e n t i n g and s e l f - d e v a l u a t i n g the p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n . Coupled with these a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, resentment, r e g r e t and c o n f u s i o n on the one hand, and f e e l i n g s of acceptance, l i k i n g and admiration on the other are embodied w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r . 61 Person f a c t o r I I I ; B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t A c c o r d i n g to the th r e e persons l o a d i n g on Person F a c t o r I I I , 14 items c l u s t e r e d a t the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum and 13 items c l u s t e r e d at the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum (see Table V ) . Of the 14 items at the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum; 57.2 percent were Dissonance Stage items, 21.4 percent were Resistance and Immersion Stage items, 14.3 percent were Conformity Stage items, and 7.1 percent were I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage items (see Table I I I ) . The emerging p a t t e r n seems to suggest a tendency toward dissonance and e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c o nfusion with overlapping a t t i t u d e s from the Conformity and Resistance and Immersion Stage. Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person Factor I I I Table V Z-score Item II Most l i k e Me n 2.3049 My sense of who I am moves back and f o r t h between being Chinese and being p a r t of the m a j o r i t y group. 2.2204 I am q u e s t i o n i n g the value of many aspects of the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group. 1.7594 I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t i e s (Indo-Canadians, Vietnamese, Japanese) should become and be more l i k e the m a j o r i t y group or go back to t h e i r country of o r i g i n . 1.7171 I f e e l more comfortable around Chinese persons rather than persons of the m a j o r i t y group. 1.5903 I speak Chinese more o f t e n than E n g l i s h . 62 1.5903 I b e l i e v e that members of the m a j o r i t y group look and express themselves b e t t e r than Chinese. 1.3829 I am q u e s t i o n i n g whether the way of l i f e of the m a j o r i t y group i s that b e n e f i c i a l to me. 1.2561 I f e e l confused, at times I f e e l l i k e being p a r t of the m a j o r i t y group, other times I f e e l l i k e being Chinese. 1.2561 I spend l o t s of time wondering whether the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group i s good f o r me. 1.2561 There are some p o s i t i v e values i n the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group, but I am unsure as to whether to i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o my way of l i f e . 1.1716 I think of myself as being Chinese rather than a member of the m a j o r i t y group. 1.1294 Sometimes I f e e l proud of being Chinese and sometimes not. 1.0065 I f e e l d i s a p p o i n t e d with the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group, even though I used to think very h i g h l y of i t befor e . "Least L i k e Me" -2.2626 I b e l i e v e that people, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n , have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s . -2.2626 A person's o r i g i n of race has l i t t l e to do with whether or not he/she i s a good person. -1.8017 I b e l i e v e my a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and s e l f -worth have nothing to do with race. -1.7171 I f e e l a t ease with myself whether I am w i t h members of the m a j o r i t y group or with Chinese persons. -1.7171 I f e e l comfortable with myself, as I am, wherever I am. -1.5481 I f i n d myself t r u s t i n g some members of the m a j o r i t y group more than o t h e r s . -1.4675 Being a unique i n d i v i d u a l who i s not l i k e other t y p i c a l Chinese i s becoming more important to me 63 than being someone who l i v e s and t h i n k s i n the Chinese way. -14252 I b e l i e v e that i t i s u s e f u l f o r other Chinese persons to explore the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of the m a j o r i t y group. -1.3829 I b e l i e v e that the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements f o r me and Chinese persons. -1.3407 I th i n k other m i n o r i t y persons experience as many d i f f i c u l t i e s as Chinese persons do. -1.2562 I respect and p r a c t i c e my c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , but I a l s o f e e l p u l l e d toward c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s of the m a j o r i t y group. -1.2139 I p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e with persons of the m a j o r i t y group rather than Chinese persons. -1.0065 I am wondering whether the s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by the m a j o r i t y group about other m i n o r i t y groups are r e a l l y t r u e . Q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of items appears to i n d i c a t e i n t e n s e confusion and c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t between the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y groups. Items m a n i f e s t i n g t h i s b i c u l t u r a l dilemma and h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s person f a c t o r are "My sense of who I am moves back and f o r t h between  being Chinese and being part of the m a j o r i t y group. 1 1 j_z=2.30) , "I am q u e s t i o n i n g the value of many aspects of the c u l t u r e of  the m a j o r i t y group." (z=2.22), "I am q u e s t i o n i n g whether the  way of l i f e of the m a j o r i t y group i s that b e n e f i c i a l to me." (z=1.38), and "I f e e l confused, at times I f e e l l i k e being  part of the m a j o r i t y group, other times I f e e l l i k e being  Chinese." (z-1.25). I t appears as i f these persons have been placed i n a pendulum, moving back and f o r t h , under a constant 64 st a t e of v a c i l l a t i o n and i n d e c i s i o n . A l s o , perhaps through some experience encountered, these people are wondering about the advantages and rewards inherent i n the c u l t u r a l values of the m a j o r i t y group. T h i s b i c u l t u r a l dilemma i s a l s o manifested i n a t t i t u d e s toward the s e l f . For i n s t a n c e , the item "Sometimes I f e e l proud of being Chinese and sometimes not." (z=l.12) suggests v a c i l l a t i n g f e e l i n g s of p r i d e and shame w i t h i n the s e l f . Furthermore, the c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t appears to have emerged through independent items as w e l l . On the one hand, t h i s person f e e l s more a t ease with h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f as evidenced by the R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage item "I f e e l  more comfortable around Chinese persons r a t h e r than persons  of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=l.71), and on the other hand, the person admires m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while undermining h i s / h e r s e l f as e x e m p l i f i e d by the Conformity Stage item "I b e l i e v e that members of the m a j o r i t y group look  and express themselves b e t t e r than Chinese." One other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the concomitance of these two tendencies w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r may be that they are o v e r l a p s from the R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage and the Conformity Stage. Items at the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum f o r Person F a c t o r I I I were d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage 61.6 perce n t , I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage 23.0 percent, Dissonance Stage 7.7 percent and Conformity Stage 7.7. percent (see Table I I I ) . The emerging 65 pa t t e r n s at t h i s end of the continuum seem to show high l e v e l s of uneasiness with one's e t h n o - c u l t u r a l s e l f and an i n c r e a s e d tendency to make e v a l u a t i o n s of s e l f and others based on e t h n o - c u l t u r a l r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s rather than on persons' own m e r i t s . S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness items i n d i c a t i n g d i s c o m f o r t with o n e s e l f , f o r i n s t a n c e , are "I b e l i e v e my  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and s e l f - w o r t h have nothing t o  do with r a c e . " (z=-l.80), "I f e e l at ease with myself whether  I am with members of the major i t y group or with Chinese  persons." (z=-l.71) and "I f e e l comfortable with myself, as I  am, wherever I am." ( z - - l . 7 1 ) . The emerging theme suggests gr e a t t e n s i o n , p a i n and d i s t r e s s as w e l l as experiences of m a r g i n a l i t y due to c o n f l i c t u a l c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n s . A t t i t u d e s and per c e p t i o n s of o t h e r s a l s o seem to be based on that which i s provoking the c r i s i s f o r these persons, that i s , e t h n o - c u l t u r a l background. T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by two h i g h l y ranked items "I b e l i e v e that people r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r  o r i g i n , have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s . " (z=-2.26) and "A person's o r i g i n or race has l i t t l e t o do with whether or not  he/she i s a good person." (z=-2.26). Thus, judgments of others seem to be overshadowed by the person's own c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . While the e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c o n f u s i o n experienced by these persons l o a d i n g on t h i s f a c t o r seems evident; a d e c r e a s i n g 66 l e v e l of t r u s t f o r members of the m a j o r i t y group a l s o appears as a theme. T h i s g r a d u a l l y emerging theme i s e x e m p l i f i e d by two S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness items: "I b e l i e v e  that the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements f o r me  and Chinese persons." (z=-l.38) and "I b e l i e v e that i t i s  u s e f u l f o r oth e r Chinese persons to explore the c u l t u r a l  values of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=-l.42). I t appears as i f these persons have had some l e v e l of c u l t u r a l exchange of values and l i f e s t y l e with the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e from which they a re now r e t r a c t i n g themselves with f e e l i n g s of d i s t r u s t and r e j e c t i o n . O v e r a l l , the emerging p a t t e r n s i n Person F a c t o r I I I appear to be intense b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t , lack o f s e l f -acceptance and belonging as w e l l as some l e v e l o f m i s t r u s t f o r the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . Person f a c t o r IV: C u l t u r a l Emersion As a r e s u l t of the three persons loading on Person F a c t o r IV, 12 items c l u s t e r e d at the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum and 13 items c l u s t e r e d at the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum (see Table V I ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f items per stage f o r the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum was as f o l l o w s : R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage 67.0 pe r c e n t , Dissonance Stage 25.0 percent and Conformity Stage 8.0 percent (see Table I I I ) . Emerging p a t t e r n s s t r o n g l y suggest a tendency toward the Resistance and Immersion Stage with o v e r l a p p i n g 67 a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s from the Dissonance Stage and perhaps r e s i d u a l elements from the Conformity Stage. Table VI Value of Items of Persons Who Loaded on Person Factor IV Z-score Item "Most l i k e Me" 2.6160 I b e l i e v e that the way of l i f e of the m a j o r i t y group i s h a r m f u l / d e s t r u c t i v e to Chinese persons. 2.0928 I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t persons of the m a j o r i t y group. 2.0928 I am d i s t r u s t i n g persons of the m a j o r i t y group more and more. 1.7253 I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t i e s (Indo-Canadians, Vietnamese, Japanese) should become and be more l i k e the m a j o r i t y group or go back to t h e i r country of o r i g i n . 1.6286 I am q u e s t i o n i n g whether the way of l i f e of the m a j o r i t y group i s that b e n e f i c i a l to me. 1.5884 I think that members of the m a j o r i t y group should f e e l g u i l t y about the way that they have t r e a t e d Chinese people i n the past. 1.3605 I f e e l good when surrounded by other Chinese persons only.. 1.3469 I f e e l more comfortable when I am around people from other m i n o r i t y groups rather than people from the m a j o r i t y group. 1.3119 I d i s t r u s t e v e r y t h i n g that has to do with the m a j o r i t y group. 1.1671 I p a r t i c i p a t e i n Chinese c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l events o n l y . 68 1.1671 1.1242 -2.3155 -2.0876 -2.0876 -1.9909 -1.7923 -1.5053 -1.2502 -1.1483 -1.1483 -1.1055 -1.1002 I i n v o l v e myself i n Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ( a r t , shows, t h e a t r e , dance meeting) only. These days, I f i n d myself wanting to be more in v o l v e d with the Chinese community and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , and l e s s i n v o l v e d with a c t i v i t i e s of the ma j o r i t y c u l t u r e . "Least L i k e Me" A person's o r i g i n or race has l i t t l e to do wi t h whether or not he/she i s a good person. The l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group seems to have p o s i t i v e elements i n the same manner that the Chinese l i f e s t y l e does. I b e l i e v e that i t i s u s e f u l f o r other Chinese persons to explore the c u l t u r a l values of the m a j o r i t y group. I admire and respect the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group. I b e l i e v e that the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements f o r me and other Chinese persons. I b e l i e v e that people, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n , have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s . I b e l i e v e my a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s e l f -worth have nothing to do with race. Sometimes I wish I could be more l i k e persons of the ma j o r i t y group than l i k e Chinese, other times I am glad I am Chinese. I f e e l at ease with myself whether I am wi t h members of the m a j o r i t y group or with Chinese persons. I am wondering whether the Chinese l i f e s t y l e i s bet t e r than the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group f o r Chinese persons. I f i n d myself t r u s t i n g some members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e more and more. 69 -1.0464 I r e s p e c t and p r a c t i c e my c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , but I a l s o f e e l p u l l e d toward c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s of the m a j o r i t y group. -1.0035 I f e e l q u i t e uncomfortable when people t r e a t me as a Chinese rather than as an i n d i v i d u a l . A t t i t u d i n a l emerging themes from the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum f o r Person F a c t o r IV, appear t o be r e s p e c t , acceptance, l o y a l t y and commitment toward the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and m i s t r u s t , s u s p i c i o n and r e j e c t i o n toward the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . Coupled with these a t t i t u d e s , u n d e r l y i n g anger and resentment toward the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and a p p r e c i a t i o n toward the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n appear to be the a f f e c t i v e components w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r ; see Table VI. Conformity Stage items r e f l e c t i n g s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t toward the m a j o r i t y group f o r i n s t a n c e , are manifested by items such as: "I b e l i e v e that the way of l i f e o f the m a j o r i t y  group i s h a r m f u l / d e s t r u c t i v e to Chinese persons." (z=2.61), "I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t persons  of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=2.09), and "I d i s t r u s t e v e r y t h i n g  that has to do with the m a j o r i t y group." (z=l.31). While these a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t r e j e c t i o n and anger toward the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ; concern f o r and p r o t e c t i o n of the s e l f , members of the same m i n o r i t y and other m i n o r i t i e s seems a l s o evident i n these items. There appears to be, however, an incongruence w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r w i t h regards to other m i n o r i t i e s i n that the 70 person f e e l s more comfortable around persons from other c u l t u r e s r a t h e r than persons of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e while a t the same time expecting other m i n o r i t i e s to become and be more l i k e members of the m a j o r i t y group. T h i s i s expressed by the Conformity Stage item "I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t i e s (Indo- Canadians, Vietnamese, Japanese) should become and be more  l i k e the m a j o r i t y group or go back to t h e i r country of  o r i g i n . " (z=1.72). T h i s incongruence may r e f l e c t t e n s i o n and perhaps f r u s t r a t i o n toward i n d i v i d u a l s of other m i n o r i t i e s who s t r i v e t o maintain t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s due to the s t r o n g l o y a l t i e s these people are ex p e r i e n c i n g toward t h e i r own e t h n i c group. Another p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h i s incongruence c o u l d be that t h i s Conformity Stage item i s one of the l a s t remnants of the Conformity Stage. The 25.0 percent of the items accounted f o r by the Dissonance Stage w i t h i n the "Most l i k e Me" end of the continuum seems to suggest c o n f u s i o n but a l s o movement from previous a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e to an i n c r e a s e d s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t . T h i s p a t t e r n i s r e f l e c t e d i n items such as "I am d i s t r u s t i n g persons of the m a j o r i t y group more  and more." (z=2.09), "I am q u e s t i o n i n g whether the way of l i f e  of the m a j o r i t y group i s that b e n e f i c i a l to me." (z=l.62), and "These days, I f i n d myself wanting to be more i n v o l v e d with  the Chinese community and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , and l e s s  i n v o l v e d with a c t i v i t i e s of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . " (z=l.12) . Thus, although puzzlement and gradual r e j e c t i o n of p r e v i o u s l y 71 he l d b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s toward the m a j o r i t y group i s obvious i n these items, a t t r a c t i o n toward and i n t e r e s t i n the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n i s a l s o manifested. As w e l l , R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage items which r e f l e c t not only i n t e r e s t but a l s o r e s p e c t , l o y a l t y and commitment toward the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n , appear to be f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s person f a c t o r . Items e x e m p l i f y i n g these a t t i t u d e s a re "I f e e l good when surrounded by other Chinese  persons only." (z=l.36), "I p a r t i c i p a t e i n Chinese s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l events only." (z=l.16) and "I i n v o l v e myself i n  Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ( a r t , shows, t h e a t r e ,  dance, meetings) only." (z=l.16). These items suggests that f o r these persons t h e i r e t h n o - c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and other fellow-members from the same c u l t u r a l background r e p r e s e n t a source of comfort, w e l l being and s a t i s f a c t i o n . A l s o , s t r e s s i n g the word "only" suggests some l e v e l of r e j e c t i o n of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l ' s l i f e s t y l e . Item d i s t r i b u t i o n c l u s t e r i n g a t the "Least l i k e Me" end of the continuum f o r Person Factor IV was S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage 46.2 percent, I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage 30.8 percent, Dissonance Stage 15.4 percent and Conformity Stage 7.6 percent (see Table I I I ) . The c l u s t e r i n g and o r d e r i n g of these items suggests a d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward members of the m a j o r i t y group as w e l l as a hig h regard f o r and a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the s e l f and members of the same m i n o r i t y . 72 S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage items such as "I b e l i e v e i t i s u s e f u l f o r other Chinese persons to explore  the c u l t u r a l values of the m a j o r i t y group." (z=-2.08) and "I b e l i e v e t hat the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements  f o r me and other Chinese persons." (z=-l.79), as, w e l l as, the Conformity Stage "I respect and admire the l i f e s t y l e of the  m a j o r i t y group." (z=-l.99) appear to i n d i c a t e m i s t r u s t , r e j e c t i o n and a d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . A l s o , i t appears as i f these i n d i v i d u a l s have had some pr e v i o u s negative experiences with the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e or have p r e v i o u s l y been d i s s o c i a t e d from t h e i r c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and perhaps a re-encounter with the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n has allowed them to re-emerge with new p e r c e p t i o n s . Furthermore, t h e i r judgments and e v a l u a t i o n s of s e l f and others are clouded by t h e i r e t h n o - c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l views. This i s e x e m p l i f i e d through items l i k e "A person's o r i g i n or  race has l i t t l e to do with whether or not he/she i s a good  person." ^_z=-2.31) and "I b e l i e v e that people, r e g a r d l e s s of  t h e i r o r i g i n , have strengths and l i m i t a t i o n s . " (z=-l.50). Thus, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of one's q u a l i t i e s are determined by one's r a c i a l or c u l t u r a l background. These p e r c e p t i o n s seem congruent with the emerging theme mentioned above, that i s , d e p r e c i a t i o n of c u l t u r a l values of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ; i n that depending on one's e t h n o - c u l t u r a l background one may be p e r c e i v e d p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y . 73 In summarizing, the themes emerging f o r Person F a c t o r IV are r e s p e c t , acceptance, a p p r e c i a t i o n and a c t i v e commitment f o r the e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r a c t i c e s of the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n and concern f o r members of the same m i n o r i t y and s u s p i c i o n m i s t r u s t , anger and d e p r e c i a t i o n toward members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . Summary of person f a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Person f a c t o r I as d e f i n e d thus f a r o f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l evidence of Synergetic A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s at both ends of the continuum. For persons w i t h high l o a d i n g s on t h i s f a c t o r , i t appears that they have evolved a f i r m sense of s e l f - w o r t h , s e l f - r e s p e c t and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r e t h n o - c u l t u r a l s e l f and persons of the same m i n o r i t y group. S e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r i d e on one's e t h n o - c u l t u r a l group as w e l l as a need to be regarded as an autonomous person beyond apparent e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a l s o appears to r e f l e c t these persons' a t t i t u d e s . Besides, understanding and acknowledgment of op p r e s s i v e experiences encountered by v a r i o u s e t h n o - c u l t u r a l groups, and a c t i v e involvement to e l i m i n a t e these experiences i s expressed by these persons. Emerging a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s toward members of the m a j o r i t y group appear to be openness, l i k i n g and t r u s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those who manifest c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y and empathy f o r o t h e r s . Consequently, i t seems as i f these i n d i v i d u a l s have been a b l e 74 to d i s c e r n t h e i r sense of c u l t u r a l s e l f . They seem to have emerged with a s t r o n g sense of awareness and amalgamation of v a r i o u s e t h n o - c u l t u r a l elements i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d and unique sense of s e l f h o o d . Contrary to Person Factor I's emerging themes; Person F a c t o r I I ' s themes r e f l e c t a d e p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the s e l f and other persons of the same m i n o r i t y group. T h i s d e v a l u a t i v e a t t i t u d e expresses i t s e l f through f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , shame, resentment and r e g r e t f o r h o l d i n g c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which s i n g l e them out from the r e s t of s o c i e t y . Coupled with these p e r c e p t i o n s ; o v e r t p r e f e r e n c e s , acceptance, and a d m i r a t i o n toward members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i s expressed by adopting the l i f e s t y l e , costumes and value system of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . T h i s acceptance and admiration seems to be t i n t e d , however, by a s l i g h t unconscious i n t e r n a l i z e d anger. Thus, although s t r o n g l i k i n g and admiration emerged at the o v e r t l e v e l , s l i g h t resentment and anger at the covert l e v e l appeared as a tendency. A l s o , a t t i t u d e s and perceptions toward members of other m i n o r i t y groups d i d not emerged w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r . I t seems as i f t h e i r major concern i s centered on the two main f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n and experiences; (a) the m a j o r i t y , and (b) the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n . As f a r as the stages of i d e n t i t y development i s concerned, person f a c t o r I I ' s a t t i t u d i n a l themes r e f l e c t a tendency toward the Conformity 75 Stage along with a marginal l e v e l of c o n f l i c t as r e f l e c t e d by the Dissonance Stage items. N e v e r t h e l e s s , shame and r e g r e t versus l i k i n g and admiration appear to be the dominant themes fo r t h i s person f a c t o r . The predominant theme i n Person Factor I I I appears to be e t h n o - c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . For these persons, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f tend to v a c i l l a t e between f e e l i n g s of p r i d e and shame. A high l e v e l of uneasiness appear to be manifested through c u l t u r a l i n d e c i s i o n , t e n s i o n and d i s t r e s s as t r u s t and acceptance of m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l elements decreases and the i n d i v i d u a l experiences lac k of belonging and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e . A l s o , f o r these persons, the f o c a l p o i n t seems to be the b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the s e l f r a ther than other m i n o r i t i e s as i m p l i e d by the l a c k of emerging items r e f e r r i n g to other m i n o r i t i e s . While Dissonance Stage a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s p r e v a i l as s a l i e n t p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h i s person f a c t o r ; Conformity Stage and R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage a t t i t u d e s appear to surround the c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t as perhaps o v e r l a p p i n g elements from these two stages. F i n a l l y , the emerging p a t t e r n s f o r Person F a c t o r IV are a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r and respect of the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and d e p r e c i a t i o n f o r and r e j e c t i o n of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . These persons show concern, r e s p e c t , l o y a l t y , p r o t e c t i o n and acceptance not o n l y toward the s e l f but a l s o toward members of the same m i n o r i t y group. A c t i v e commitment and involvement with one's c u l t u r e of o r i g i n i s a p r e v a l e n t theme. 76 Along with same-group and s e l f - a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e s ; m i s t r u s t , anger and resentment toward the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e a re prominent themes. I t appears as i f these persons are p r o t e c t i n g themselves and t h e i r fellow-group members from the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e due to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of i t as harmful and d e s t r u c t i v e . In a d d i t i o n , o v e r l a p p i n g a t t i t u d e s from the Dissonance Stage emerged as movement from previous acceptance to i n c r e a s e d s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t . F i n a l l y , o b s e r v a t i o n of the emerging item d i s t r i b u t i o n (see Table I I I ) w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n of items that loaded on the four f a c t o r s suggests a flow to items o r g a n i z a t i o n and perhaps a p a t t e r n i n the process of a c h i e v i n g e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n the D i s c u s s i o n S e c t i o n . Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Person F a c t o r s Examination of Table VII i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r Person F a c t o r I ( M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n ) 93 percent chose to answer the instruments i n E n g l i s h rather than Chinese, 54 percent have l i v e d i n Canada between 10 and 20 years, and 63 percent were o r i g i n a l l y from Hong Kong. A l s o , 86 percent of t h i s group was s i n g l e and between the ages of 20 and 30 y e a r s . Thus, the m a j o r i t y of persons c l u s t e r i n g on t h i s f a c t o r speak the language of the mainstream c u l t u r e are s i n g l e and young a d u l t s . A l s o , about one h a l f of these persons had been i n Canada an average of 15 years and some were o r i g i n a l l y from Canada. 77 Person Factor I I ( C u l t u r a l C o n f o r m i t y ) 1 s choice i n answering the instruments was 57 percent i n E n g l i s h , 86 percent have l i v e d i n Canada between 0 and 10 years, and 54 percent were o r i g i n a l l y from China. A l s o , a l l persons composing t h i s group were married and 72 percent were between the ages of 30 to 40 years. These group of persons have l i v e d i n Canada f o r an average of 5 years suggesting l e s s c o n t a c t with the mainstream c u l t u r e . A l s o , the m a j o r i t y of persons i n t h i s group appear o l d e r than i n the p r e v i o u s group and they were a l l married. Thus, length of c o n t a c t with the host c u l t u r e , age and m a r i t a l s t a t u s may perhaps be r e l a t e d t o a need to conform i n order to s u r v i v e i n the new environment. A l l persons c l u s t e r i n g on Person F a c t o r I I I ( B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t ) chose to answer the instruments i n E n g l i s h d e s p i t e the c o n f l i c t experienced. The m a j o r i t y of them have l i v e d i n Canada between 0 and 10 years i n d i c a t i n g that perhaps t h i s i s the time frame when the c o n f l i c t i s l i k e l y to occur. In person f a c t o r IV ( C u l t u r a l Emersion), 67 percent chose to answer the instruments i n Chinese; a l l of them have l i v e d i n Canada between 0 and 10 years and 67 percent were o r i g i n a l l y from Hong Kong. A l s o , 67 percent of persons composing t h i s group were married and between 20 and 30 years of age. 78 Table VII Demographic Information by Person Factors Factor I Awareness I n t e g r a t i o n F a c t o r II Factor I I I C u l t u r a l B i - c u l t u r a l Conformity C o n f l i c t F a ctor IV C u l t u r a l Emersion Sex: Male Female 54% 46% 14% 86% 33% 67% 100% Answ. Inst. E n g l i s h Chinese 93% 7% 57% 43% 100% 33% 67% Age 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 85% 15% 14% 72% 14% 33% 67% 67% 33% M a r i t a l S i n g l e 86% Status M a r r i e d 7% Divor c e d 7% 100% 33% 67% 33% 67% Years i n Canada 0-10 10-20 A l l / L i f e 23% 54% 23% 86% 14% 67% 33% 100% Hong Kong 63% Honduras 7% Country Taiwan 7% of China O r i g i n Canada 23% P h i l i p p i n e s 43% 57% 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% 67% 33% n = 13 79 Chapter F i v e : D i s c u s s i o n Summary of Re s u l t s In t h i s study, e t h n i c i d e n t i t y was co n s i d e r e d to i n f l u e n c e v a r i a b i l i t y and heterogeneity w i t h i n e t h n i c groups. S p e c i f i c a l l y , Atkinson et a l . ' s (1979) model of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development was t e s t e d f o r i t s v a l i d i t y with persons of Chinese o r i g i n . The r e s u l t s , however, r e v e a l e d p a r t i a l support of the model. As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d the model proposed by Atkinson e t a l . p o s t u l a t e s f i v e stages of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development. Four person f a c t o r s , however, emerged from the q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e analyses performed. Person F a c t o r I captured very c l o s e l y the S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stage. Person F a c t o r II r e f l e c t e d a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of the Conformity Stage. Person Factor I I I demonstrated a t t i t u d e s of the R e s i s t a n c e and Immersion Stage and Person Factor I V s tendencies were toward the Dissonance Stage. Thus, the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage d i d not emerge as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r w i t h i n the present study. The l a c k of evidence f o r the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to weakness i n item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , or to the absence of such stage i n the process. During item g e n e r a t i o n , great emphasis was pl a c e d on item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among st a g e s . R e l a t i v e ease i n item g e n e r a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f o r the Conformity, Resistance and Immersion, Dissonance and 80 S y n e r g e t i c A r t i c u l a t i o n and Awareness Stages was evidenced. For the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage, however, item generation was p r o b l e m a t i c due to i t s d e f i n i t i o n as a stage, and the need to d i s c r i m i n a t e two stages i n which the person i s e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n f l i c t (Dissonance and I n t r o s p e c t i o n ) . In the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage the l e v e l of f r u s t r a t i o n and c o n f l i c t experienced i n order to g a i n greater l e v e l s of i n d i v i d u a l autonomy i s l e s s i n t e n s e than the c o n f l i c t experienced i n the Dissonance Stage. A l s o , i n t e n s i t y of emotional c o n f l i c t coupled with b e l i e f s and experiences i n the two stages v a r i e s g r e a t l y . In the Dissonance Stage, the person i s confronted by two s i g n i f i c a n t and competing c u l t u r e s while i n the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage the person i s c o n f l i c t e d by h i s / h e r conscious d e c i s i o n of moving away or detaching from r i g i d views. Thus, v a r y i n g degrees of emotional i n t e n s i t y and experience were accounted f o r i n item g e n e r a t i o n and item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the two stages. However, the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage items generated may have not had the s t r e n g t h necessary to capture the b a s i c tenets conveyed by the d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s stage. Another probable e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the non-emergence of the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage may be that i n f a c t i t i s not a c o n s i d e r a b l e stage i n e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development f o r persons of Chinese o r i g i n . In e f f e c t most of the i d e n t i t y models reviewed i n the l i t e r a t u r e p o s t u l a t e four major stages or world views. Besides, the d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s stages w i t h i n these models accorded c l o s e l y the 81 emerging f a c t o r s w i t h i n the present study. Furthermore, the two e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d models (Cross, 1971; Keefe & P a d i l l a , 1988) a l s o evolved four s i g n i f i c a n t stages of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development. Cross's model i n p a r t i c u l a r , evolved s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s to the ones found i n the present study. In s p i t e these e x p l a n a t i o n s , f u r t h e r study i s necessary i n order to a r r i v e at more d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of I n t r o s p e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n the development of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . As evidenced by the q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s ; of the 44 p a r t i c i p a n t s o n l y 26 emerged as r e p r e s e n t i n g the f o u r d i f f e r e n t person f a c t o r s . The p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s of 18 persons were not accounted f o r i n the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . I t may be that as I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage items f a i l e d to capture the essence of t h i s stage, some of those i n d i v i d u a l s may i n f a c t h o l d I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . S t i l l , another e x p l a n a t i o n i s that s i n c e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development i s a dynamic process e v o l v i n g along a continuum, some of those i n d i v i d u a l may be i n between stages and not n e c e s s a r i l y embedded at a p a r t i c u l a r stage w i t h i n the continuum. Parham & Helms (1981) reported a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n that not a l l of t h e i r s t u d e n t - s u b j e c t were accounted f o r w i t h i n the s t a g e s . 82 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Person F a c t o r s Person Factor I was l a b e l l e d M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and  I n t e g r a t i o n . The b a s i c themes f o r these persons r e v e a l e d high l e v e l s of awareness, a p p r e c i a t i o n and re s p e c t f o r t h e i r ethno-c u l t u r a l background, other persons from the same c u l t u r e , other m i n o r i t y groups and the major i t y c u l t u r e . C u l t u r a l awareness appears to imply high s e n s i t i v i t y , understanding and compassion as w e l l as acceptance, acknowledgment and encouragement of one's c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and the c u l t u r e of others w i t h i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l rather than b i c u l t u r a l frame of re f e r e n c e . A l s o , these p e r c e p t i o n s seemed to have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o new meanings of s e l f and o t h e r s . Thus, these persons appear to have evolved a unique sense of t r a n s c u l t u r a l s e l f (Ishiyama, 1989). Person Factor I I was e n t i t l e d C u l t u r a l Conformity. These persons' a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s appeared h i g h l y d e p r e c i a t i v e of s e l f and ot h e r s of the same m i n o r i t y while p a s s i v e l y a c c e p t i n g , admiring and conforming to the c u l t u r a l values and l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group. Preferences f o r p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m a j o r i t y group appeared t o be t i n t e d with some covert form of anger and resentment, however. Since s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e s toward other m i n o r i t i e s d i d not emerged; i t appeared as i f the f o c a l p o i n t of these persons' energy i s toward s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n - m a j o r i t y group a p p r e c i a t i o n . 83 Person Factor I l l ' s t i t l e was B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t . C e n t r a l to persons c l u s t e r i n g i n t h i s f a c t o r i s the b i c u l t u r a l dilemma experienced between two major competing f o r c e s ; the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group. Surrounded by t h i s c o n f l i c t , these persons appear to be e x p e r i e n c i n g la c k of belonging and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , l i t t l e awareness of t h e i r b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t and experiences of m a r g i n a l i t y and fragmentation. C u l t u r a l Emersion was the t i t l e proposed f o r Person F a c t o r IV. Persons grouping w i t h i n t h i s f a c t o r emerged wi t h a p p r e c i a t i v e and r e s p e c t f u l a t t i t u d e s toward the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n coupled with i n c r e a s e d s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t toward the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group. I t i s a l s o evidenced t h a t these i n d i v i d u a l s have had previous negative encounters with the m a j o r i t y group, and have re-emerged with strong f e e l i n g s of p r o t e c t i o n and l o y a l t y toward the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and person of the same m i n o r i t y group. A t t i t u d e s toward other m i n o r i t y groups appeared l e s s important f o r these people; except as an e x p e c t a t i o n of others to accept the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . Consequently, these persons appear entrenched i n a b i c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n i n which they need to p r o t e c t themselves. D e s c r i p t i o n of the O v e r a l l Emerging P a t t e r n An o v e r a l l emerging p a t t e r n of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y emerged from item d i s t r i b u t i o n . From the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 81 items 84 u t i l i z e d i n the Q-Sort, 56 items were accounted f o r by the four person f a c t o r s . The p a t t e r n and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y appears to be from C u l t u r a l Conformity, B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t , C u l t u r a l Emersion to M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n . In the C u l t u r a l Conformity Stage the person's main focus i s on p a s s i v e l y conforming to and accepting while e x p e r i e n c i n g some u n d e r l y i n g resentment toward the mainstream c u l t u r e . As the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process evolves c o n f u s i o n s e t s i n and i n t e n s i f i e s t r a n s f o r m i n g i t s e l f i n t o B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t . The B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t appears as the c e n t r a l theme with o v e r l a p p i n g a t t i t u d e s from the preceding C u l t u r a l Conformity Stage and the f o l l o w i n g C u l t u r a l Emersion Stage. Although the c e n t r a l theme of the C u l t u r a l Emersion Stage i s s e l f and same mi n o r i t y a p p r e c i a t i o n ; o v e r l a p p i n g a t t i t u d e s from the previous B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t and l a s t remnants from the C u l t u r a l Conformity Stage are s t i l l p r e s e n t . Throughout these three stages there appears to be very l i t t l e awareness of experiences and p e r c e p t i o n s . As the person continues to evolve, g r e a t e r c u l t u r a l awareness emerges. I t i s not c l e a r from the emerging items how c u l t u r a l awareness comes about. However, perhaps due to the s t r o n g c o n f l i c t e d experiences which the person has encountered, the r e s u l t may be some kind of gradual s y n t h e s i s of c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e l f . 85 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e R e s u l t s A l t h o u g h p a r t i a l s u p p o r t f o r A t k i n s o n e t a l . ' s (1979) m o del was f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y ; t h e r e s u l t s a r e i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y f r o m a c o n c e p t u a l / t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t b u t a l s o f r o m a p r a c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . What f o l l o w s t h e n i s a d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c i r c u m s c r i b e d by two m a j o r f l a w s : (1) t h e t e n d e n c y t o v i e w e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s h o m o g e n e o u s l y , and (2) t h e l a c k o f c o n c e p t u a l p a r a d i g m s i n c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h . T h i s s t u d y ' s a t t e m p t s t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f a t h e o r e t i c a l model w h i c h p r o p o s e s h e t e r o g e n e i t y w i t h i n e t h n i c g r o u p s p r o v e d t o be f r u i t f u l . I n v a l i d a t i n g t h e m o d e l w i t h p e r s o n s o f C h i n e s e o r i g i n , a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t m o d el e v o l v e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s ; t h e C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y D e v e l o p m e n t M o d e l . T h i s m o d e l a p p e a r s t o be g r o u n d e d on t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f f o u r d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m . The d e f i n i n g f o u r s t a g e s d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and b e l i e f s t h e p e r s o n h o l d s t o w a r d t h e c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n and t h e m a i n s t r e a m c u l t u r e . The f o u r e m e r g i n g s t a g e s a r e C u l t u r a l C o n f o r m i t y , B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t , C u l t u r a l E m e r s i o n and M u l t i c u l t u r a l A w a r e n e s s a n d I n t e g r a t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t t h r e e m e n t i o n e d s t a g e s , t h e p e r s o n a p p e a r s f u l l o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y e m o t i o n s embedded w i t h i n a b i c u l t u r a l f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e . I n 86 the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n Stage, the person's inner s e c u r i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n allows him/her to h o l d a m u l t i c u l t u r a l frame of r e f e r e n c e . A l s o , the f i r s t three mentioned stages tend t o focus on a f f e c t i v e components; while the c o g n i t i v e domain appears to predominate i n the l a s t stage. Furthermore, throughout t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process, dynamic f o r c e s i n t e r a c t i n such a way that i n the f i r s t three stages t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s are a c t i v e l y o p e r a t i n g u n t i l some form of s y n t h e s i s i s achieved i n the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n Stage. The d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process evolves through mainstream c u l t u r e ( o t h e r s ) , to b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t ( s e l f ) , to c u l t u r e of o r i g i n ( s e l f ) to f i n a l l y m u l t i c u l t u r a l and t r a n s c u l t u r a l s e l f . A l s o , i t appears t h a t the boundaries of these stages are not c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d and o v e r l a p p i n g a t t i t u d e s from neighbouring stages may emerge, however c e n t r a l i t y of stage appears to be maintained. Based on the f i n d i n g s of the present study and the proposed conceptual model, i t i s hoped that research with e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s w i l l continue to search f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s u t i l i z i n g e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y or other v a r i a b l e s tapping i n t o i n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y . Besides, i t i s suggested that as long as researchers continue to i n v e s t i g a t e c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s ( u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s , preferences f o r type of h e l p , expectations of treatment, counselor p r e f e r e n c e s and o t h e r s ) independently of s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s f o r the 87 c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t ; research w i l l undoubtedly continue to be c u l t u r a l l y b iased. Negligence to account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l continue to confound f i n d i n g s and be of l i t t l e use f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Another t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n a r i s i n g from t h i s study i s what are the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s such as a c c u l t u r a t i o n , a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a d a p t a t i o n , adjustment, and so on. I t appears from the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t there i s a tendency to i n t e r p r e t these processes and u t i l i z e these terms interchangeably and without due c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i t has been e x t e n s i v e l y argued i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the need to develop and implement methodological t o o l s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , i n p a r t i c u l a r r esearch with the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n North America. In u t i l i z i n g Q-Methodology i n the present study, c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y and n o n - i n t r u s i v e n e s s was r e f l e c t e d through the q u a l i t y of s e l f - r e f e r e n c e assumed by t h i s method. C u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y was judged by the f l e x i b i l i t y i t allowed p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s s e s s i n g t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s , thoughts and f e e l i n g s while i n t e r a c t i n g with them f r e e l y . D e s p i t e i t s non-i n t r u s i v e n e s s and apparent s e n s i t i v i t y , the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of Q-Methodology f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study. 88 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The evolvement of the C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y Development Model along with i t s four stages may a l s o o f f e r p r a c t i c a l avenues fo r the c o u n s e l o r / p r a c t i t i o n e r intending to f a c i l i t a t e experiences f o r the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t . The suggestions that f o l l o w emphasize not only c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c but a l s o c u l t u r e - g e n e r a l awareness and understanding. In t h i s context, c u l t u r e - g e n e r a l s i g n i f i e s e t h n o - c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of i n d i v i d u a l s embedded i n the mainstream c u l t u r e and the d i f f e r e n c e s that emerge from v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s . Based on the emerging p a t t e r n s , i t i s expected that not a l l persons from a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group w i l l respond homogeneously to e m o t i o n a l / p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p as g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d . In a d d i t i o n , s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s may be p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y depending on the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y stage the person f i n d s h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f . Thus, persons i n the C u l t u r a l Conformity Stage may be more l i k e l y to seek h e l p from a mainstream c o u n s e l i n g c e n t r e , may apparently f e e l more comfortable s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g t o a mainstream counselor and may r e a d i l y attempt to accommodate to suggestions made by h i s / h e r mainstream cou n s e l o r . A t k i n s o n et a l . (1979) i n d i c a t e d that these persons' p r e s e n t i n g problem may tend to focus on perso n a l r e l a t e d i s s u e s and d i s r e g a r d e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s and c o n f l i c t s . 89 For persons e x p e r i e n c i n g B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t , i t may be more d i f f i c u l t to search f o r any kind of help. The B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t appears to be f a i r l y intense, and l i t t l e awareness of the c o n f l i c t may combine i n t o a s t a t e of h e l p l e s s n e s s . However, i t appears that when these persons decide to seek help; i t may be the h e l p from someone who demonstrates knowledge and awareness of the person's c u l t u r e of o r i g i n . In attempting to f i n d some r e s o l u t i o n to t h e i r dilemma; they may search f o r s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s who are viewed as r o l e models from the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n . A l s o , the p r e s e n t i n g problems may tend t o r e f l e c t i s s u e s r e l a t e d to t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t , s e l f -i d e n t i t y and t h e i r c u l t u r a l and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense of b e l o n g i n g . I t appears that f o r persons with C u l t u r a l Emersion a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s , counseling (as g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d ) may not be a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , due to the i n c r e a s e d s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t experienced toward the mainstream c u l t u r e ; c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e s may be d i s c o u n t e d . A l s o , because p e r s o n a l support appears t o emanate from the c u l t u r e of o r i g i n ; counselors from the same c u l t u r e may be sought and may be more e f f e c t i v e i n working with these persons. Besides, p r e s e n t i n g problems may r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l or i n t e r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s rather than e t h n o - c u l t u r a l concerns. F i n a l l y , persons i n the M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n Stage have achieved greater p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , thus, the l i k e l i h o o d of seeking help due to 90 c u l t u r a l i s s u e s may d i m i n i s h g r e a t l y . However, i f the need f o r c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e s a r i s e s ; these persons may tend to search f o r a t t i t u d i n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s with s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s rather than e t h n o - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . In c o n c l u s i o n , these p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f f e r e d are h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e . Consequently, i t i s suggested t h a t they be taken o n l y as g u i d e l i n e s u n t i l f u r t h e r research i s conducted on these i s s u e s . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Socio-economic Status Socio-economic stat u s was not measured i n t h i s study d e s p i t e the f a c t t h at researchers (Sue, 1979, 1981; P o n t e r o t t o , 1988) have s t r o n g l y argued on the e f f e c t s of t h i s v a r i a b l e on the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t person. In the Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the y e a r l y income of respondents was r e q u i r e d , however, the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s decided not to answer t h i s q uestion. Perhaps the q u e s t i o n was not phrased adequately, or i t may r e f l e c t a high l e v e l of i n t r u s i o n on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l i v e s . I f p o s s i b l e , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h should i n c o r p o r a t e a d i s t i n c t instrument to measure t h i s v a r i a b l e rather than j u s t one item w i t h i n a m u l t i t u d e of items. 91 Other methods of data c o l l e c t i o n Another l i m i t a t i o n r e f e r s to the f a c t t h a t only one method was u t i l i z e d i n data c o l l e c t i o n . C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y appears to r e l a t e to many aspects of a person's l i f e and the person i s engaged i n a continuous t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . This suggests that through one instrument one may not be a b l e to capture a l l of the e x p e r i e n t i a l connotations to c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . A l s o , from the r e s u l t s i t i s unc l e a r what p a r t i c u l a r events accounted f o r the movement from one stage to another i n the p r o c e s s . Perhaps a l o n g i t u d i n a l study would account f o r the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process across time and acr o s s s i t u a t i o n s . Recommendations Although some suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h have al r e a d y been provided, other recommendations are o f f e r e d below. F i r s t , i n l i g h t of the r e s u l t s emerging from t h i s study; i t i s ev i d e n t that e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , as d e f i n e d , i s an a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e to measure in t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y . Second, a model of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y development w i t h i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l framework emerged with four accompanying s c a l e s . Although the model and s c a l e s r e f l e c t the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y development of persons of Chinese o r i g i n ; the general assumptions may or may not be r e f l e c t e d i n other e t h n i c groups. Thus, the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x p l o r i n g the c u l t u r a l 92 i d e n t i t y development of other e t h n i c groups ( H i s p a n i c s , Japanese, Indo-Canadians, Iranians) w i t h i n a Canadian context may prove u s e f u l and f r u i t f u l . Furthermore, i t i s necessary to examine Atkinson et a l . ' s model with other e t h n i c groups i n order t o t e s t i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y with them. In a d d i t i o n , e t h n o - c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s may be r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s . C e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or tendencies may i n f l u e n c e ethno-c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s or v i c e - v e r s a . Future research should con s i d e r what p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s and how are they r e l a t e d to e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . A l s o , moving beyond homogeneity through a v a r i a b l e such as e t h n o - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w i l l a l s o a s s i s t r e searchers and p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e i r understanding of c l i e n t - p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s . I t i s expected that depending on the stage of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y development the person f i n d s h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f ; the c o u n s e l i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , p r e f e r e n c e s f o r type of help, c o u n s e l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and so f o r t h w i l l vary a c c o r d i n g l y . Perhaps t h i s w i l l a s s i s t us i n making sense and o r g a n i z i n g the abundant and at times c h a o t i c l i t e r a t u r e on c o u n s e l i n g process v a r i a b l e s with the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . Summary and Conclusion As i n d i c a t e d by researchers (Casas, 1985; P o n t e r o t t o , 1988) the c l i e n t v a r i a b l e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y has been overlooked i n the l i t e r a t u r e d e s p i t e i t s v i a b i l i t y i n tapping i n t r a - g r o u p 93 v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n e t h n i c groups (Atkinson et a l . , 1979; Ford, 1987; Sue, 1981) and i t s i n f l u e n c e on counseling process v a r i a b l e s (Ford, 1987; Hector & Fray, 1987; Parham & Helms, 1981). Although e t h n i c i d e n t i t y models have been e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d with Blacks (Parham & Helms, 1981) and Chicanos (Keefe & P a d i l l a , 1987); the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development of persons of Chinese o r i g i n remained unexplored (Leong, 1986). Consequently, t h i s study explored the heterogeneity w i t h i n persons of Chinese o r i g i n . In doing so, Atkinson et a l . ' s (1979) model of M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y Development was t e s t e d f o r i t s v a l i d i t y v i a Q-Sort. Q-Methodology proved u s e f u l as a method i n s t u d y i n g e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and i n t e s t i n g the model. Factor a n a l y s i s and q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d p a r t i a l support f o r the model. The analyses allowed f o r the emergence of four f a c t o r s : M u l t i c u l t u r a l Awareness and I n t e g r a t i o n , C u l t u r a l Conformity, B i c u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t and C u l t u r a l Emersion. Recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h focused on t e s t i n g A t k inson et a l . ' s model with other e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups w i t h i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l context, e x p l o r i n g other v a r i a b l e s which may be r e l a t e d to e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , and the need to account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the study of c o u n s e l i n g process v a r i a b l e s with m i n o r i t y persons. L i m i t a t i o n s of the study centered on the l a c k of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r socio-economic s t a t u s , and the need to study e t h n i c i d e n t i t y l o n g i t u d i n a l l y i n order to e x p l o r e the evolvement of e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s over time. 94 References Atkinson,D.R. (1985). Research on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g and psychotherapy: A review and update of reviews. In P. Pedersen (Ed.) Handbook of c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l i n g and therapy. Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Atkinson,D.R., Morten,G., & Sue,D.W. (1979). 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Year of birth 3. Place of birth 4. Sex: Male_ Female 5. Your Occupation 6. Parents Occupation 7. Yearly Income (approximate gross): Your own income Family income . 8. Years and country where education completed: Years Country Elementary Secondary Vocational Technical College : University 9. Current Marital Status: a. Single b. Married c. Separated d. Widowed 10. 11. Number of children Number of children or dependents living with you 12. Is your first language: 110 a. Cantonese b. Mandarin c. English d. Other 13. I speak more than 50% of the time. 14. How many years have you been in Canada? 15. Country of origin: China Singapore Hong Kong Taiwan Malaysia : Other 16. To what extent do you feel your ethnic identity influences the way you think and feel? Very Much Somewhat Very little Not at all 17. To what extent do you perceive yourself to be immersed in the Chinese community. Very much Somewhat Very little Not at all 18. Please list any organizations or informal groups to which you belong I l l Art A- rh M / . ^ * f : — 3. % i ^ 5?-s. m% 7 -$ 4 iz >^ ( a a m &L ) 3- iVL H vi A Vj- £- & ^  t<Z- & 1 i-Lmlni J% fib • ; A % — — t % fi -ifir -W iii •• b. 'hh — ic. -r A . // Jfc fc Al <r? 3- -r & % % ^ 112 IX. 4% "f - X-*. m%n k £ 1% c % V£ ,3 ii It. ( X) AL &. ' * ?%. /* A m & • * fr * ^  h £ :  '4. 2 & - ^ ^ #T -*5Er . ^ #~ ^ j" 'f # • If ^ <- ^ ' ^ ' * • '7 *£• A ii & ^ * >- ^ A ** ^ 4 ~ R ^ ^ 3 t 1 - j L » * i y,j £ A* ir* 1&- k * $ & % f- K & f t : Appendix C D e s c r i p t i o n of the Stages o f M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y Development 1 1 4 DESCRIPTION OF THE STAGES OF MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT  MODEL STAGE ONE: CONFORMITY. M i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s stage of development are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r unequivocal preference f o r dominant c u l t u r a l values over those of t h e i r own c u l t u r e . Their c h o i c e of r o l e m o d e l s / l i f e s t y l e , v a l u e s y s t e m , e t c . , a l l f o l l o w the lead of the dominant group. Those p h y s i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which s i n g l e them out as a m i n o r i t y person are a source of pain,and are e i t h e r viewed with d i s d a i n or are repressed from consciousness. Their views of s e l f , f e l l o w group members,and other m i n o r i t i e s i n general are clouded by t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the dominant c u l t u r e . A. - A t t i t u d e toward s e l f : S e l f d e p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . I n d i v i d u a l s who acknowledge t h e i r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p h y s i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s c i o u s l y view them as a source of shame. I n d i v i d u a l s who r e p r e s s awareness of t h e i r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p h y s i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e p r e c i a t e themselves at a subconscious l e v e l . B. - A t t i t u d e toward members of the same m i n o r i t y : Group  d e p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . Fellow m i n o r i t y group members are viewed a c c o r d i n g to dominant held b e l i e f s of m i n o r i t y s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. C. - A t t i t u d e toward members of d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t i e s :  D i s c r i m i n a t o r y a t t i t u d e . Other m i n o r i t i e s are viewed a c c o r d i n g to the dominant group's system of m i n o r i t y 115 s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . , t h o s e m i n o r i t y groups that most c l o s e l y resemble the dominant group i n p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are viewed as more f a v o r a b l y than those l e s s s i m i l a r ) . D.- A t t i t u d e toward members of the dominant group: Group  a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . Members of the dominant group are a d m i r e d / r e s p e c t e d / a n d o f t e n viewed as i d e a l models. C u l t u r a l values of the dominant s o c i e t y are accepted without q u e s t i o n . STAGE TWO: DISSONANCE STAGE In t h i s stage which i s t i p i f i e d by c u l t u r a l c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t , t h e m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l encounters i n f o r m a t i o n and/or experiences that are i n c o n s i s t e n t with p r e v i o u s l y accepted values and b e l i e f s , a n d consequently i s l e d to qu e s t i o n and to some degree c h a l l e n g e a t t i t u d e s acquired i n the Conformity Stage. A. - A t t i t u d e s toward s e l f : C o n f l i c t between s e l f - d e p r e c i a t - ing and s e l f - a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e s . With a growing aware-ness of m i n o r i t y c u l t u r a l s t r e n g t h s comes a f a l t e r i n g sense of p r i d e i n s e l f . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p h y s i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s t y p i f i e d by a l t e r n a t i n g f e e l i n g s of shame and p r i d e i n s e l f . B. - A t t i t u d e toward members of same m i n o r i t y : C o n f l i c t  between g r o u p - d e p r e c i a t i n g and g r o u p - a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e s . Dominant held views of m i n o r i t y s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses begin to be questioned as new c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s 116 r e c e i v e d . C u l t u r a l values of the m i n o r i t y group begin to have an appeal. C. - A t t i t u d e toward members of a d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t y :  C o n f l i c t between dominant-held views of m i n o r i t y h i e r a r c h y  and f e e l i n g s of shared experience. The i n d i v i d u a l begins to q u e s t i o n the dominant-held system of m i n o r i t y s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and experiences a growing sense of comradership with other opressed people. Most of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h i c energy at t h i s l e v e l , h o w e v e r , i s devoted to r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s toward s e l f 7 t h e same m i n o r i t y , and the dominant group. D. - A t t i t u d e toward members of the dominant group: C o n f l i c t  between g r o u p - a p p r e c i a t i n g and g r o u p - d e p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a growing awareness that not a l l c u l t u r a l values of the dominant group are b e n e f i c i a l to him/ her. Members of the dominant group are viewed with growing s u s p i c i o n . STAGE THREE: RESISTANCE AND INMERSI ON STAGE In t h i s stage of development,the m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l completely endorses m i n o r i t y - h e l d views and r e j e c t s the dominant s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . Desire to e l i m i n a t e oppression of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m i n o r i t y group becomes an important m o t i v a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior. 117 A. - A t t i t u d e toward s e l f : S e l f - a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l at t h i s stage a c t s as an e x p l o r e r and d i s c o v e r e r of h i s / h e r h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e , s e e k i n g out i n f o r m a t i o n and a r t i f a c t s which enhance h i s / h e r sense of i d e n t i t y and worth. C u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which once e l l i c i t e d f e e l i n g s of shame and d i s g u s t at t h i s stage they become symbols of p r i d e and honor. B. - A t t i t u d e toward members of the same m i n o r i t y : Group- a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a s t r o n g sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with and commitment to h i s / h e r m i n o r i t y group,as enhancing i n f o r m a t i o n about the group i s a c q u i r e d . Members of the group are admired,respected and o f t e n viewed as i d e a l models. C u l t u r a l values of the m i n o r i t y group are accepted without q u e s t i o n . C. - A t t i t u d e toward members of a d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t y : C o n f l i c t  between f e e l i n g s of empathy for other m i n o r i t y experiences  and f e e l i n g s of c u l t u r o c e n t r i s m . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a growing sense of camarderie with persons from other m i n o r i t y groups,to the degree to which they are viewed as s h a r i n g s i m i l a r forms of opp r e s s i o n . A l l i a n c e s with other groups tend to be short - 1ived,however,when t h e i r values come in c o n f l i c t with those of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m i n o r i t y group. The dominant group's system of m i n o r i t y s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s rep l a c e d by a system which values most those m i n o r i t y groups t h a t are c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own group. 118 D.- A t t i t u d e toward members of the dominant group: Group- d e p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l t o t a l l y r e j e c t s the dominant s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , a n d experiences a sense of d i s t r u s t and d i s l i k e f o r a l l members of the dominant group. STAGE FOUR: INTROSPECTION STAGE In t h i s stage of development,the m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l experiences f e e l i n g s of d i s c o n t e n t and d i s c o m f o r t with group views r i g i d l y held i n the Resistance and Inmersion Stage,and d i v e r t s a t t e n t i o n to notions of greater i n d i v i d u a l autonomy. A. - A t t i t u d e toward s e l f : Concern with b a s i s of s e l f - a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences c o n f l i c t between notio n s of r e s p o n s a b i 1 i t y and a l l e g i a n c e to the m i n o r i t y group and notions of personal r e s p o n s a b i l i t y . B. - A t t i t u d e toward members of same m i n o r i t y : Concern with  unequivocal nature of group a p p r e c i a t i o n . While a t t i t u d e s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are continued from the preceding Resistance and Inmersion Stage,concern begins to b u i l d up reg a r d i n g the iss u e of group-usurped i n d i v i d u a l i t y . C. - A t t i t u d e toward members of a d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t y : Concern  with e t h n o c e n t r i c b a s i s f o r judging o t h e r s . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a growing uneasiness with m i n o r i t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s from c u l t u r o c e n t r i s m and the great e r value placed on groups e x p e r i e n c i n g the same oppression than those e x p e r i e n c i n g a d i f f e r e n t oppression. 119 D.- A t t i t u d e toward members of the dominant group: Concern  with the b a s i s of group d e p r e c i a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences c o n f l i c t between a t t i t u d e s of complete d i s t r u s t f o r the dominant s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e and a t t i t u d e s of s e l e c t i v e t r u s t and d i s t r u s t a c c o r d i n g to dominant i n d i v i d u a l ' s demostrated behaviors and a t t i t u d e s . The i n d i v i d u a l a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the u t i l i t y of many of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s / y e t i s confused as to whether to i n c o r p o r a t e such elements i n t o h i s / h e r m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . STAGE FIVE: SYNERGETIC ARTICULATION AND AWARENESS M i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s stage experience a sense of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t with regard to c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . C o n f l i c t s and d i s c o m f o r t s experienced i n the I n t r o s p e c t i o n Stage have been r e s o l v e d , a l l o w i n g g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l and f l e x i b i l i t y . C u l t u r a l values of other m i n o r i t i e s as w e l l as those of the dominant group are o b j e c t i v e l y examined and accepted or r e j e c t e d on the b a s i s of p r i o r experience gained i n e a r l i e r stages of i d e n t i t y development. Desire to e l i m i n a t e a l l forms of oppression becomes an important m o t i v a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior. A.- A t t i t u d e toward s e l f : S e l f - a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a s t r o n g sense of s e l f - w o r t h , s e l f -confidence and autonomy as a r e s u l t of having e s t a b l i s h e d 120 h i s / h e r i d e n t i t y as i n d i v i d u a l s member of a m i n o r i t y group,and/or a member of the dominant c u l t u r e . B. - A t t i t u d e toward members of the same m i n o r i t y : Group- a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a str o n g sense of p r i d e i n the group without having to accept group valu e s u n e q u i v o c a l l y . Strong f e e l i n g s of empathy with the group experience coupled with an awareness that each member of the group i s an i n d i v i d u a l . C. - A t t i t u d e toward members of a d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t y : Group- a p p r e c i a t i n g a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a s t r o n g sense of r e s p e c t f o r the group's c u l t u r a l values coupled with an awareness t h a t each member of the group i s an i n d i v i d u a l . The i n d i v i d u a l a l s o experiences a grea t e r understanding and support f o r a l l oppressed p e o p l e , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m i n o r i t y group. D. - A t t i t u d e toward members of the dominant group: A t t i t u d e  of s e l e c t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l experiences s e l e c t i v e t r u s t and l i k i n g f o r members of the dominant group who seek to e l i m i n a t e r e p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s of the group. The i n d i v i d u a l a l s o experiences an openess to the c o n s t r u c t i v e elements of the dominant c u l t u r e . Appendix D R a t i n g Form 41* w ro - ui i— -n < a — > (3 -t _ 01 3 o ro rt 0) —• a rt ro 3 -ti c £ rt -h 01 01 -t> 01 01 ro (0 0 < ro ro ro rt 3 a ro ro 3 3 a w - ro T ro — ro ro —• a a - —• —• 3 TJ 01 — C 01 D c — ro 3 3 3 Ul n 0 3 01 rt -» n 7? X 0 Ul 3 3 n 3 o -J — O o o ro c O O 0 01 3 £ — 3 3 3 i—i 3 3 3 3 3 3" rt 3 -Tt cr a ro 9 i» ro 0 0 < 3 C ro -*, 0 a 3 < rt cr (D in —. ro 0 o 01 3 (D T ro a> 3 ro 0 o 0) ID a 10 3 01 IT (A 3 £ 3 rj — O ro 0) o 3 o 01 ro 3 rt ro 3- —• < 3 n ro — d> O 3 rt rt 0 3 rT r» 01 £ 0 01 ro 3 cr < X 01 0) 3 o in 01 It 3" C a < ro a a ro 3 3 £ ro 10 o ro 0 3 01 3 3 -j ID 3 — 01 3 3 01 < 0 ID 3 rt IQ 0 3 a < 3 ui 3 3 o a ro •< O ro U) c Ul n 0 fl 3 O 3 3 3 3 C 01 a 01 cr T3 — 3 01 3 3 ro 01 3 o ro 01 S> c 3- a a •j ro Ul 3 VI 3 CO 3 (0 CO ro 01 01 < 3 —* — O 3 01 ro o • < 01 — Ul ' rt rj 3 IQ 3 01 c ro 3 01 0) 3 01 3 ro 01 0 3 3 O a a Ul 3 TT ro - 0 c — to Ul •o 0) 01 ro O 3 ro £ n 3 3 01 0 . 3" 3 0) Ul 3 ro — 3 —' o 01 3 ~z 3 a — 0 3 a a ro Ul < Ul ro 3 01 (D ro ro 3 3 3 < Ul 3 01 Ul (Q 3 O •< 3" 0 ro c 3 ro 3 3 0) •a ro 3 in rt — 3 VI 01 3 BEHAVIOURAL o o COGNITIVE > t-t z AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY STAGES DISSONANCE STAGES RESISTANCE STAGES INTROSPECTION STAGES AWARENESS STAGES Z 2 I RATING FORM DOMAIN STAGES BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY DISSONANCE RESISTANCE INTROSPECTION AWARENESS 11. I f e e l at ease with myself 12. I have more Canadian f r i e n d s than Chinese f r i e n d s 13. I o r g a n i z e my l i f e a c c o r d i n g to the Canadian way of l i f e 14. I p a r t i c i p a t e i n Chinese c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l events o n l y 15. I speak more Chinese than E n g l i s h 1 spend l o t s of time d i s c u s s i n g Chinese a f f a i r s IS. I spend l o t s of time wondering whether the Canadian l i f s t y l e i s b e t t e r f o r me 17. I g i v e l o t s of energy and time to my e t h n i c group but a l s o f i n d that I need some freedom from i t 18. My sense of who I am moves back and f o r t h between be i n g Chinese and b e i n g Canadi an 19. I t h i n k of myself as bei n g Chinese r a t h e r than Canadian 20. I p r e f e r to have Canadian r a t h e r than Chinese p e o p l e as f r i ends RATING FORM OOMAIN | STAGES BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE I CONFORMITY DISSONANCE RESISTANCE INTROSPECTION AWARENESS 21. I b e l i e v e my a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , I n t e l l i g e n c e and s e l f - w o r t h have n o t h i n g to do with r a c e 22. I i n v o l v e myself in Chinese a f f a i r s to the extent that my i n d i v i d u a l i t y d i s a p p e a r s SAME MINORITY 23. I f e e l annoyed when Chinese persons don't speak f l u e n t Engl i s h 24 . I admire Chinese persons who s t r i v e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r language and t r a d i t i o n s 25. I f e e l good when surrounded by o t h e r Chinese persons 26. Other Chiense persons are so Involved with the Chinese community, and I wonder i f t h i s 1s a l l they see 27. I am wondering whether the Chinese l i f e - s t y l e i s b e t t e r than Canadian l i f e - s t y l e f o r Chinese people 2fi. t a p p r e c i a t e and re s p e c t o t h e r Chinese persons, but I do not l i m i t myself to them o n l y RATING FORM DOMAIN STAGES BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE 1 AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY DISSONANCE RESISTANCE INTROSPECTION AWARENESS 29. I Involve myself In Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ( a r t shows, t h e a t r e , dance, meetings) o n l y 30. 1 r e s p e c t and p r a c t i c e my c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , but I a l s o f e e l p u l l e d toward Canadian c u l t u r a l forms. 31. At times I a p p r e c i a t e Chinese people f o r what they a r e , other times I d i s l i k e them 32. I i n v o l v e myself i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n even i f ' ther e a r e no o t h e r Chinese people Involved 33. I b e l i e v e Chinese people tend to be sneaky and take advantage of what Canadians o f f e r them 3<1 . I b e l i e v e Canadians are s u p e r i o r to Chinese 35. Chinese people do not have as much to be proud of as Canadians do 36. I support and r e s p e c t o t h e r Chinese who are proud of t h e i r t rad i t i ons 37 . I b e l i e v e i t i s f u n c t i o n a l f o r other Chinese to e x p l o r e the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of Canadians 38. I am b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e that Canadian v a l u e s are not that bad a f t e r a 11 \ RATING FORM DOMAIN STAGES BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY 1 DISSONANCE RESISTANCE INTROSPECTION AWARENESS OTHER MINORITIES 39. I f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e when I am around people from o t h e r m i n o r i t y groups r a t h e r than Canadians 40. I sympathize with members of o t h e r m i n o r i t y groups because they a r e oppressed as much as Chinese people are 41. I am wondering whether the s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by Canadians about o t h e r m i n o r i t y groups are r e a l l y t r u e 42. I would r a t h e r be around o t h e r m i n o r i t y groups that are more s i m i l a r t o Canadians 43. Persons from o t h e r m i n o r i t y groups e x p e r i e n c e the same p r e j u d i s m and o p p r e s s i o n that Chinese persons do 44. I i n v o l v e myself in causes that w i l l h e l p not o n l y Chinese peop l e but a l l oppressed people 45 . I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t i e s (Indo-Canad1ans, Vietnamese. Japanese) s h o u l d become and be more l i k e Canadians or go back to t h e i r own c o u n t r y r r> C RATING FORM DOMAIN STAGES BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY DISSONANCE RESISTANCE INTROSPECTION AWARENESS 46. I b e l i e v e It 1s b e t t e r f o r other m i n o r i t y - g r o u p s to f o r g e t about t h e i r dark and s t r a n g e lands and e x p e r i e n c e l i f e the way Canadians do 47. I b e l i e v e that o t h e r m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t Canadians 48. Other m i n o r i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e as many d i f f i c u l t i e s as Chinese i n d i v i d u a l s do 49. At times, I understand the f e e l i n g s of o p p r e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r m i n o r i t y persons, but most of the time I f e e l they s h o u l d become and be more l i k e Canadians 50. I b e l i e v e that people r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s 31. A person's o r i g i n or race has l i t t l e to do with whether or not he/she Is a good person 52. R e g a r d l e s s of whether other m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s are s i m i l a r to my own m i n o r i t y - g r o u p or not, I r e s p e c t and admire them l i k e my own group RATING FORM DOMAIN STAGES BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY DISSONANCE RESISTANCE INTROSPECTION ul Ul UJ Z Ul a < 3 < MAJORITY GROUP (CANADIANS) 53 . I d i s t r u s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t h a s t o do w i t h C a n a d i a n s 54. I a d m i r e a n d r e s p e c t t h e l i f e - s t y l e o f C a n a d i a n s 55. I f e e l g o o d when i n t h e company o f o t h e r C a n a d i a n s 5G. I am b e g i n n i n g t o d i s t r u s t C a n a d i a n s 57. I f e e l d o u b t f u l a b o u t t h e w o r t h / v a l u e o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e 58. T h e r e a r e some p o s i t i v e v a l u e s I n t h e C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . b u t I f e e l u n s u r e a s t o w h e t h e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o my way o f 1 i f e 59. I h a v e g o o d f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s t h o s e . C a n a d i a n s who a r e a c t i v e l y c o m m i t t e d i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t s o c i a l , r a c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n . 60. When I am a r o u n d C a n a d i a n s , I f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e . 6 1 . I f i n d m y s e l f r e f e r r i n g t o C a n a d i a n s a s h o n k i e s . p i g s , r a c 1 s t s , e t c . 62 . I f i n d m y s e l f t r u s t i n g some C a n a d i a n s more t h a n o t h e r s . r r O 0) CO O) CD cn -j cn cn 01 cn cn -fa cn CJ -i CT >-> -t 3 3" "CT if 3 . 3 3 (D CT y CU CU CD a CD CD 3 CD CU < ~i 3 CD CU 3 CD r+ 3 a cn O n 3" 3 3 3 ro 0 3 W "O C 3 3 CD CU n X) CD n 3 3 3 — ?r 3 — c O 3 7T 3 7T \ ro CD 3 (D Cu D) ' CD "O — CD a < cn (D a — in 3 CU o CD ro CD tn 3" 3 — CD CD CT CD cn to Cu 0) -.. cn CU ro 3 CT 3 3 r+ O ro a tu ~~i 3* ro CT 3 O 3 a c 3 (D n CD — —- 3 CT O o O in ~J 0) 3 — 3 3 CD CD DJ CU 0 tfi 3 -*> (D UJ cn 3 3 — 3 3 O CD r-f ro XJ tn 0) 3 01 < •y 3 a 3" ro O a ro CD ro O ui a* o 3 cn in EU (D cn 0) CD 3 3 3 < 3 O o LO — 3" CA T3 c O Q> r-f ro ro CD 3 CT 3* CT O a O CU CD (D tn ro — TJ CT a < r> ro ^ . 3 0 ro cu QJ to 3 3 3" O TT ro CD 3 n Ui ro 01 ro tn o 3 CO CD £ o n> o 3 3 tu 0 3 01 cu a CQ T3 < cn Ui  0 3 a> c CD CD CU 3 3 ~i 3 a ro ro CD — tn O ~h c 0) X O 3 o — < Cu r> TJ < 3 — CD 3 CU 3 TJ cn CD — ro 3 CD Cu 3 < CU tfl cn CU a CD cn "O a tn CT CD 0 CU 0 £ < tn < Q> rt- C ro 3 3 tn — ro 0 Ui (D 3 < 3 3 a ro cn 3 <D 0 — ro CD CD 3 CD ro I-*- in — -t> < O Ui ro ro ro B 3 cn < 3 -*» ro tu O 3 cr a -J in ID in r* 3 a> 3 r* CD 3 CD — 3" CD < 3 0) 3 BEHAVIOURAL a a COGNITIVE > z AFFECTIVE CONFORMITY STAGES DISSONANCE STAGES RESISTANCE STAGES INTROSPECTION STAGES 1 I i AWARENESS 6zl ADDITIONAL ITEMS'. BEHAVIOURAL DOMAIN COGNITIVE DOMAIN AFFECTIVE DOMAIN CONFORMITY STAGES DISSONANCE STAGES RESISTANCE STAGES INTROSPECTION STAGES ! AWARENESS STAGES OCT Appendix E Items f o r the Q-Sort 132 ITEMS FOR THE Q-SORT 1. I am ashamed of l o o k i n g and being Chinese 2. I f e e l more a t t r a c t i v e and more i n t e l l i g e n t than persons of the m a j o r i t y group 3. I am uncomfortable w i t h my Chinese background 4. I f e e l more com f o r t a b l e around Chinese persons r a t h e r than persons of the m a j o r i t y group 5. I f e e l confused, at times I f e e l l i k e being p a r t of the m a j o r i t y group, other times I f e e l l i k e being Chinese 6. I am confused as to whether the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group i s good f o r me 7. I f e e l t o r n between my own c u l t u r a l group and my own i n d i v i d u a l i t y 8. I wonder whether to adhere completely to Chinese group v a l u e s or have some autonomy 9. I f e e l comfortable with myself, as I am, wherever I am 10. I f e e l a t ease with myself whether I am with members of the m a j o r i t y group or with Chinese persons. 11. I p r e f e r to a s s o c i a t e with persons of the m a j o r i t y group r a t h e r than Chinese persons 12. I or g a n i z e my l i f e a c c o r d i n g to the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group 13. I p a r t i c i p a t e i n Chinese c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l events o n l y 14. I p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l events of the m a j o r i t y group o n l y 15. I speak Chinese more o f t e n than E n g l i s h 16. I spend l o t s of time wondering whether the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group i s good f o r me 17. I gi v e l o t s of time and energy to my e t h n i c group, but a l s o f i n d t h a t I need some freedom from i t 18. My sense of who I am moves back and f o r t h between being Chinese and being p a r t of the m a j o r i t y group 19. I t h i n k of myself as being Chinese r a t h e r than a member of the m a j o r i t y group 20. I p r e f e r to have persons of the m a j o r i t y group as f r i e n d s r a t h e r than persons of Chinese o r i g i n 21. I b e l i e v e my a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s e l f -worth have nothing to do with race 22. I i n v o l v e myself i n Chinese a f f a i r s to the extent t h a t my i n d i v i d u a l i t y d i s a p p e a r s 23. I f e e l annoyed when Chinese persons don't speak f l u e n t E n g l i s h 24. I admire Chinese persons who s t r i v e to maintain t h e i r language and t r a d i t i o n s 25. I f e e l good when surrounded by other Chinese persons o n l y . 26. Other Chinese persons are so i n v o l v e d with the Chinese community , and I wonder i f t h i s i s a l l they see 27. I am wondering whether the Chinese l i f e s t y l e i s b e t t e r than the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group f o r Chinese persons 28. I a p p r e c i a t e and r e s p e c t other Chinese persons, but I do not l i m i t myself to them 29. I i n v o l v e myself i n Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ( a r t , shows, theatre,dance,meetings) o n l y 30. I r e s p e c t and p r a c t i c e my c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , but I a l s o f e e l p u l l e d towards c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s of the m a j o r i t y group 31. At times I a p p r e c i a t e Chinese people f o r what they a r e , other times I d i s l i k e them 32. I i n v o l v e myself i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n even i f there are no other Chinese persons i n v o l v e d 33. I b e l i e v e Chinese people tend to be sneaky and take advantage of what the m a j o r i t y group o f f e r s them 34. I b e l i e v e t h a t m a j o r i t y group persons are s u p e r i o r to Chinese persons 35. I b e l i e v e Chinese i n d i v i d u a l s do not have as much to be proud of as i n d i v i d u a l s of the m a j o r i t y group do 36. I support and r e s p e c t other Chinese who are proud of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s 37. I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s u s e f u l f o r other Chinese persons to e x p l o r e the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of the m a j o r i t y group 38. I am b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e t h a t the v a l u e s of the m a j o r i t y group are not t h a t bad a f t e r a l l 39. I f e e l more com f o r t a b l e when I am around people from other m i n o r i t y groups r a t h e r than people from the m a j o r i t y group 40. I b e l i e v e t h a t members of other m i n o r i t y groups are as oppressed as Chinese people are 41. I am wondering whether the s t e r e o t y p e s h e l d by the m a j o r i t y group about other m i n o r i t y groups are r e a l l y t r u e 42. I p r e f e r to spend my time around other m i n o r i t y groups t h a t are more s i m i l a r t o the m a j o r i t y group 43. Persons from other m i n o r i t y groups experience the same o p p r e s s i o n and p r e j u d i c e t h a t Chinese persons do 44. I i n v o l v e myself i n causes t h a t w i l l h e lp not onl y Chinese people, but a l l oppressed people v45. I b e l i e v e t h a t other m i n o r i t i e s (Indo-Canadians, Vietnamese, Japanese) s h o u l d become and be more l i k e the m a j o r i t y group or go back to t h e i r country of o r i g i n 46. I b e l i e v e i t i s b e t t e r f o r other m i n o r i t y groups to f o r g e t about t h e i r o r i g i n and experience l i f e the way the m a j o r i t y group does 47. I b e l i e v e that other m i n o r i t y persons should not t r u s t persons of the m a j o r i t y group 48. I t h i n k other m i n o r i t y persons experience as many d i f f i c u l t i e s as Chinese persons do 49. At times I understand the f e e l i n g s of o p p r e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by other m i n o r i t y persons, but most of the time I t h i n k they s h o u l d become and be more l i k e persons of the m a j o r i t y group 50. I b e l i e v e t h a t people, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o r i g i n , have s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s 51. A person's o r i g i n or race has l i t t l e to do v i t h whether or not he/she i s a good person 52. I d i s t r u s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t has to do with the m a j o r i t y 136 group 53. I admire and r e s p e c t the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group 55. I am d i s t r u s t i n g persons of the m a j o r i t y group more and more 56. I am q u e s t i o n i n g the value of many aspects of the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group 57. There are some p o s i t i v e values i n the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group, but I am unsure as to whether to i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o my way of l i f e 58. I have good f e e l i n g s towards those members of the m a j o r i t y group who are a c t i v e l y committed i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t s o c i a l , r a c i a l , and c u l t u r a l oppression 59. When I am around members of the m a j o r i t y group, I f e e l uncomfortable 60. I f i n d myself r e f e r r i n g to members of the m a j o r i t y group as honkies, p i g s , r a c i s t s , e t c . 61. I f i n d myself t r u s t i n g some members of the m a j o r i t y more than others 62. I b e l i e v e t h a t the way of l i f e of the m a j o r i t y group i s h a r m f u l / d e s t r u c t i v e to Chinese persons 63. I t h i n k t h a t members of the m a j o r i t y group should f e e l g u i l t y about the way they have t r e a t e d Chinese people i n the past 64. I b e l i e v e t h a t members of the m a j o r i t y group look and express themselves b e t t e r than Chinese 65. The people I r e s p e c t the most are the members of the m a j o r i t y group 66. I am q u e s t i o n i n g whether the way of l i f e of the m a j o r i t y group i s t h a t b e n e f i c i a l t o me 67. The l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group seems to have p o s i t i v e elements i n the same manner t h a t the Chinese l i f e s t y l e does 68. I b e l i e v e t h a t the m a j o r i t y group has some c o n s t r u c t i v e elements f o r me and Chinese persons. 69. Sometimes I f e e l proud of being Chinese and sometimes not 69. Sometimes I wish I c o u l d be more l i k e persons of the m a j o r i t y group than l i k e Chinese, other times I am g l a d I am Chinese 70. I f e e l confused, on the one hand I want to be part of the m a j o r i t y group, but on the other hand I am not sure i f I r e a l l y want to be p a r t of i t . 71. I f e e l d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group, eventhough I used to t h i n k very h i g h l y of i t b e f o r e 72. I miss being p a r t of the Chinese c u l t u r e a t times, but I a l s o enjoy the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y group 73. These days, I f i n d myself wanting to be more i n v o l v e d w i t h the Chinese community and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , and l e s s i n v o l v e d v i t h a c t i v i t i e s of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e 74. I t h i n k myself as a Chinese f i r s t and as a member of the m a j o r i t y group second. 75. Being a unique i n d i v i d u a l vho i s not l i k e other t y p i c a l Chinese i s becoming more important to me than being someone who l i v e s and t h i n k s i n the Chinese way. 76. I t h i n k much of me i s s t i l l Chinese, but I wonder i f I can be more of a person not so i n f l u e n c e d by my c u l t u r e 77. My being a Chinese and l i v i n g i n a Chinese way sometimes pre v e n t s me from being more of a unique i n d i v i d u a l ; f r e e of c u l t u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n t h i n k i n g and l i v i n g . 78. I have experi e n c e d a l o t of pressure and e x p e c t a t i o n s of other Chinese people i n terms of how I should t h i n k f e e l and a c t and I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t eventhough I r e s p e c t t h e i r views and v a l u e s . 79. I f e e l q u i t e uncomfortable when people t r e a t me as a Chinese r a t h e r than as an i n d i v i d u a l . 80. These days I wonder i f the c o s t of being a good Chinese i s the l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l uniqueness. 81. There are c e r t a i n a s p e c t s to the l i f e s t y l e of the m a j o r i t y group t h a t I a p p r e c i a t e , but I am not sure i f I should p r a c t i c e them as they do. 139 • * J #C % & * 2 & d i - 8 : * * ^  ^% % ^  ^ ' ^ ^ - A - st_ * 1 J & , «C X . ^  r4 Jfe 4 $ £ ^ ^ .5- )•£" "7" ^ ^ ^ -£ -b -^7 m j<% I 6 f - i ^ - A . W A ^ J*fr f A . ^ 4 < ^ & * f ^ ^ i ^ a ^ * / 0 & & > lie. A J ^ A _ * C ^ ^ >C - * T £ j 11 L %f fr- A %r fc\ ^ X *c A. * i l% rttt. • 140 «g ^ ^ A. rfl f# %i % h t x Jfc ?L •fry e% ?i\ %a $ . . • * '1 n •?' > ^ i f ^ -ft j -Ifc ft, *j* *a- 2 v* •S' -<J n i> . -?* % t ^ % % ite & $L x £ . %K fa % L. h% K\ *>i to * M ! X>. n ^ ^ * ' & «a k 141 n K a % JL * tc }tP\ H & n & ^ ^ ^ i l|i ^ *z bote t% t & ^ -t )\ J-U *i % 4 ^ ^ ^ ** f~ %L % JL i* \%, « f £ At HI <tf w a*. % * fK VT . 7 51 i ; *t ^ <<-fv. 4/ ffi * ^ * 5 t & \ T a % A. it . , 4* 4F- -ft -iL * 3 / f ^ < j t if iwf 4 ; rij- & *- % ML * 3^ -ft ** f *- f ^ * it -fi *7 12- ~ti * % A . *5* & n *% $ tx-h & x 1 4 2 ^ *? * £ A.. * C * i n i t - u $ n * * u H f% n r t W > & ~ & &7 ' i f 4 l £. *(• 9f 3 1 ft & £ ^ $1 h f£ ft? <*g i l ^ A . 4L M ft *h * k z fr \ %t *h *f 2 *J ** n & t- a . & f & 1- At v 143 jt- ^ i < t ^ ^ ^ ^ « ^ | ^ *H te va H Ik & m *" f * ^ tfc A? £ A* ? it i% w iii. *7 * Vi ft. j H~ Ay M n t H Hr K. **1 % % /, e r ft AJ #^ t j% <i j \x^n if) & t , * &i& £ $ 4& + $Lh*k AS- £ ^ | £ 8^ + £ ^ ^ * u ><\ iff A *i ' ' T ^ t^. ^- ~ - . ^ - ^ 67 ^ v *!- w-*^ *9 ifj. if- £ *t £r . *Sz. li fi n it # ^ *'J i * * -£ £ * £ T J 144 %K t$ | SK ft Ifc & *- *t> •JML * ^ ii fl % *? i t HE 5r$r fL i i *t fk i l . t-l f.H $. 4o j% it w ) i t * ^ * #• ^ 6 i *i>o fK % % L -H j •& •tr* fi f A . £ f L £ t £ ^ *£-£ & « ^ m & k rt fx. ^L. Hg. £ i l ^ . : * * I" T " A - * R JL j ix ft ^ &7 ^ 145 -irK k_ % H 4 * 'J Mi " U j, tic ft i* rt t VxT < <n t •*•> 4r t. *(>1 fSiM | fLh i& %\ & A. % ^ fa - J±.S5Lil Vj * l i % « t * i L ^ - A . ) ^  4 ^  ; B % 7^ J£ % L k- f A. ^ 7 c & * \ S b . ^ • I i . - , '.s i - 7- * ^ * 7/ if %• •* & f f ) %L N & <ti i . AC I f i f - f f v%. ^ ^ ^ „ t <'r ^ ^ t t i s ^ IT ^ 3fec fti ijt fr 7 i ^ . * 7 5 - f c i t & • £ £ I *r 7. 61 7-f * A f & A> * £ % & k-| A . . * I & ft & Il Z -146 p 7-r .ft *v *- n ^ h - w A® >ft to £ r± % A. .. ^ ^ h - US W % A-3 f t £ £- ^ A* £ ^ f-if" 7^ ^ f£ 4> S ^ * "t '-'^  ^  <1 d. Si* ^ -ft i>"7 A_ 77 ' ^ f l^l ^ i f^r fif ?f ^ fa -jfc- & m * ; i ^ 7^ m ft- % '$ A- i>l & & A. t% it 11 <\S- 1 *\ %= *e if'A-5< M *f f£- & i - fc- $ ^ £ L ii§3 f t st i 1 -fc. 1- B ^ ^ ^ 14-7 Appendix F Consent Form 14-9 ft -ft- T ^ - g = ^ A- | Afr W & fa Sf- J^ f < %%"4- ~ y\ % X i l x% W % <rt 0 67 -k- *$? ^ $~ ~% 4£ %_ J*>C Z~ ^~ & x% / f * <| T i f t "I a A- 3 l y> ^ <^  f£ f l . i l *jf %' /f- * f ^ * f £ £ A, ^  % A. U ' i ^ H x£ *<7 £ - J £ i i ^ - ^ & 1 _ J L * 2 . 3. rfL & ~% ^ *t k- & ft % -f^f ^ fft f\. T "X-i i - * * L >fc **T £ * ^ *fe ^ ^ & ^ '*3 ^ 1 . ^ i i *ft *yj % rt 3° tr /•-I . ^ f 4M ^ - 4$ ^ ?sj n ^ A- * -r^ *~ ft & M *.'*- <*i ^% <•* *•* fr• 1$. *- -IE- ^ 3f .»*. & n % ^. n ^ < % M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ( ^ *y m ° ^ ^). ^ ^ 150 Appendix G I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Q-Sort Procedure 151 INSTRUCTIONS FOR.... Q - S O.RT .PROCEDURE PURPOSE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s t o . h e l p us l e a r n more a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e s i n a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e and t h e r e s u l t i n g c h a n g e s t h a t may o c c u r . To do t h i s , we w o u l d l i k e y o u t o s o r t i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g a r a n g e o f b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r s a c c o r d i n g t o what i s most l i k e y o u . Pi.RE.CXIONS.1 1. Take t h e i t e m s f r o m t h e l a r g e w h i t e e n v e l o p e and r e a d them o v e r once b e f o r e y o u b e g i n s o r t i n g . 2. S o r t t h e i t e m s a c c o r d i n g t o what i s most l i k e you and l e a s t l i k e you i n t o two e q u a l p i l e s on t h e two g r e e n m a t s . The mats a r e l a b e l l e d "Mpst L i k e Me" and ? L e a s t L.i„ke.....M.e" . 3. N e x t , s o r t t h e "Most L i k e Me" i t e m s and p l a c e them on t h e s m a l l o r a n g e m a t s . N o t e t h a t t h e number o f i t e m s t o be p u t on e a c h o r a n g e mat i s s p e c i f i e d on t h e mat. P l a c e t h e 2 c a r d s t h a t a r e most l i k e y o u t o y o u r f a r l e f t , on Mat 1. C o n t i n u e s o r t i n g , p u t t i n g t h e r e q u i r e d number o f i t e m s on e a c h mat. Work f r o m Mat 1 t o Mat 5. P u t t h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s on Mat 6. 4 . Now, s o r t t h e " L e a s t L i k e Me" i t e m s i n t h e same way w o r k -i n g f r o m t h e f a r r i g h t , Mat 11 t o Mat 7 . A g a i n p u t t h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s on Mat 6 . 5. R e a r r a n g e i t e m s i f y o u w i s h , b u t be s u r e t o have t h e r e q u i r e d number of i t e m s on e a c h mat. 6. Now p u t t h e i t e m s on e a c h mat i n t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g 152 s m a l l white enve lops and s e a l them. 7. F o l d the s o r t i n g mat and p l a c e i t i n the brown enve lop p r o v i d e d . tt OJ\ n # 153 i>u. t\ frfc «1 ii ^ | | ^ 475 A$ %. y$. )7] tf-y 3 ^ /ft % *•] i ) -vg ^ & i i /-WL i * A - ^ r ^ (IS: - ^ £ ^ y? ^ , *fc * « & B f t - A . % - " -5- ?g V A fi^ • _ 3 . 4 £ ^ £ " & * i 3 ^ ^ ^ " 3 L jjt X & i«y -i ^ h i . ii n •& & s% n £ 4 i ^ <*, ^ ^ ^ 3 X fe i *-J ej] ,v7 -fe. *fi ^  67 «y 5-^ . TT ^ * * L +. >h m i l x ' %L *• *a ' ii 1% % . ft *1L & & * *t . r . ^ %- ^ t 67 £ t T ^ f ^ / | S 1 . * - ^ & i. & 4- - ^ ± £ v % Z'l ^ ^ n ^ ^ 

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