UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Elementary school counsellors' perceptions of their current role and their ideal role with parents and… Samis, Kymberle A 1991

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ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COUNSELLORS' PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR CURRENT ROLE AND THEIR IDEAL ROLE WITH PARENTS AND FAMILIES by KYMBERLE A. SAMIS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH September, 1991 ® Kymberle A. Samis, COLUMBIA 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date cioptpmhpr ?r\ , 1 QQ1 DE-6 (2/88) Abstract T h i s study sought t o i d e n t i f y B.C. elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f : (a) the extent t o which they are c u r r e n t l y u s i n g s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members (fa m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y therapy, parent education,' parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , parent c o u n s e l l i n g ) ; (b) the extent t o which they would l i k e t o use these forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ; (c) the need f o r sch o o l d i s t r i c t s t o o f f e r s e r v i c e s f o r f a m i l y members; (d) the ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s of these f u n c t i o n s t o the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r r o l e ; (e) the s e v e r i t y of the b a r r i e r s h i n d e r i n g c o u n s e l l o r s ' performance of the s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ; and (f) what i s needed t o overcome these b a r r i e r s . The a c c e s s i b l e sample of 327 elementary c o u n s e l l o r s was determined through w r i t t e n c o n t a c t with s c h o o l d i s t r i c t Heads of Student S e r v i c e s . The survey instrument, developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s study, was completed and r e t u r n e d by 249 (76.2%) c o u n s e l l o r s . Sample means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d t o determine the c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c u r r e n t and i d e a l extent of use of the s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s as w e l l as s i x other " t r a d i t i o n a l " s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . To determine i f the d i f f e r e n c e s between these c u r r e n t and i d e a l means were s i g n i f i c a n t , t w o - t a i l e d p a i r e d samples t t e s t s were conducted. Sample mean and standard d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s w e re a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o p e r f o r m i n g t h e s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t o f t h e s i x f o r m s o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n , B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d l i k e t o p e r f o r m p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n (M=1.86) a n d f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n (M=2.33) t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t ( " O f t e n " ) ; t h e y a l s o b e l i e v e t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e . P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , a n d f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n w e r e r e p o r t e d a s t h e f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s most a p p r o p r i a t e l y o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . "Work L o a d " a n d "Work S c h e d u l e " were c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d a s t h e l a r g e s t b a r r i e r s t o p e r f o r m i n g e a c h o f t h e s i x d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n . The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y made b y c o u n s e l l o r s t o o v e r c o m e t h e b a r r i e r s t o f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c l u d e d : (a) h i r e more c o u n s e l l o r s ; (b) p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g ; (c) p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h a more a d e q u a t e s p a c e i n w h i c h t o w o r k ; a n d (d) r e d e f i n e , c l a r i f y a n d n a r r o w t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . i v Table of Contents page A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i i D e d i c a t i o n x Acknowledgements x i Chapter 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Background t o the Problem ' 1 Purpose of t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n 7 D e f i n i t i o n s 8 Research Questions 10 Assumptions 11 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 11 Chapter 2: Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 13 Parent Education, C o n s u l t a t i o n , and C o u n s e l l i n g 14 Awareness of i n f l u e n c e of parents on c h i l d r e n 14 D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i n t e r v e n t i o n forms 15 R a t i o n a l e s f o r i n t e r v e n i n g with parents 17 I n t e r v e n t i o n models and c l i e n t i s s u e s 21 E f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h 22 B a r r i e r s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n with parents 25 C r i t i c i s m s of parent c o n s u l t a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n 27 Family C o n s u l t a t i o n , C o u n s e l l i n g , and Therapy 28 D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i n t e r v e n t i o n forms 28 V I n t e r p s y c h i c v e r s u s i n t r a p s y c h i c m o d e l s 30 S h i f t t o w a r d s f a m i l y s y s t e m s p e r s p e c t i v e 31 R a t i o n a l e s f o r f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n 32 E f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h 35 F a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s a n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r . . . . 37 I n t e r v e n t i o n m o d e l s a n d c l i e n t i s s u e s 40 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n 40 B a r r i e r s t o f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n 42 The R o l e o f The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r 43 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e a c h e r , a n d c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e p t i o n s . . . 45 R o l e c o n t r o v e r s y 51 C h a p t e r 3: M e t h o d 54 Sa m p l e 54 D e s i g n 55 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p m e n t . . . 55 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 57 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 60 D a t a A n a l y s i s 61 C h a p t e r 4: R e s u l t s 63 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e t u r n s 63 D e m o g r a p h i c a n d B a c k g r o u n d R e s u l t s 63 D e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 69 E d u c a t i o n 69 P a r e n t a n d f a m i l y t r a i n i n g 69 Work e x p e r i e n c e 69 Work a s s i g n m e n t 70 v i R e s u l t s Summary 7 0 Research Questions 71 Research q u e s t i o n 1 71 Research q u e s t i o n 2 73 Research q u e s t i o n 3 75 Research q u e s t i o n s 4 and 5 77 Research q u e s t i o n s 6 and 7 80 Research q u e s t i o n 8 88 Research Questions R e s u l t s Summary 90 Chapter 5: D i s c u s s i o n 93 D i s c u s s i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of R e s u l t s 93 Demographic, background, and w o r k - s e t t i n g data 93 Current and i d e a l extent of use of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s 95 Role of elementary c o u n s e l l o r and the d i s t r i c t w i t h f a m i l y members 100 B a r r i e r s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members 101 C o u n s e l l o r recommendations 107 L i m i t a t i o n s 112 I m p l i c a t i o n s and Future Recommendations 115 Recommendations r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r par e n t s and f a m i l i e s 115 Recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h 118 References 120 v i i A p p e n d i c e s ; 133 A p p e n d i x A. R e q u e s t f o r C o u n s e l l o r Names 134 F o l l o w - u p R e q u e s t 135 A p p e n d i x B. C o v e r i n g L e t t e r 136 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 138 A p p e n d i x C. F i r s t F o l l o w - u p L e t t e r 145 S e c o n d F o l l o w - u p L e t t e r 147 L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i i p a g e T a b l e 1. D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s 64 T a b l e 2. E d u c a t i o n o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s 65 T a b l e 3. P a r e n t a n d F a m i l y T r a i n i n g 66 T a b l e 4. Work E x p e r i e n c e o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s 67 T a b l e 5. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Work A s s i g n m e n t 68 T a b l e 6. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r s ' C u r r e n t E x t e n t o f I n t e r v e n t i o n Use 72 T a b l e 7. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r s ' I d e a l E x t e n t o f I n t e r v e n t i o n Use 74 T a b l e 8. Mean D i f f e r e n c e s B e t w e e n C u r r e n t a n d I d e a l E x t e n t o f I n t e r v e n t i o n Use ...76 T a b l e 9. H e l p i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l R o l e A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r F a m i l y Member I n t e r v e n t i o n s 78 T a b l e 10. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n 81 i x T a b l e 1 1 . Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o P a r e n t C o n s u l t a t i o n 82 T a b l e 12. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o P a r e n t C o u n s e l l i n g 83 T a b l e 13. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o F a m i l y C o n s u l t a t i o n 84 T a b l e 14. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o F a m i l y C o u n s e l l i n g 85 T a b l e 15. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d B a r r i e r s t o F a m i l y T h e r a p y 8 6 X D e d i c a t i o n I would l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o a l l elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . Your commitment and e f f o r t s towards improving the emotional and s o c i a l h e a l t h of c h i l d r e n deserves both r e c o g n i t i o n and support. x i Acknowledgments I wish t o thank Dr. John A l l a n f o r h i s unceasing support and a s s i s t a n c e throughout the d u r a t i o n of t h i s study, and e s p e c i a l l y f o r h i s encouragement and enthusiasm f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . For t h e i r review of my study and t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e suggestions I thank the other members of my committee, Dr. John F r i e s e n , and Dr. Norm Amundson. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Dr. Frank E c h o l s f o r the e x t r a o r d i n a r y amount of time he made a v a i l a b l e t o me t o c o n s u l t about the design of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o a s s i s t with the data a n a l y s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o Dawn Thompson, whose constant love, support and encouragement throughout t h i s process helped t o make the journey l e s s s t r e s s f u l . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank a l l the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n both the p i l o t s t u d i e s and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t s e l f ; without t h e i r involvement t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem I t has long been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the f a m i l y i s the s i n g l e most i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r on the p e r s o n a l i t y development of the c h i l d (Adler, 1927; Dinkmeyer & C a r l s o n , 1977; D r e i k e r s & S o l t z 1964; Freud, 1929; Ginot, 1965). I t i s w i t h i n the f a m i l y t h a t the c h i l d l e a r n s b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s , a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as w e l l as how t o respond t o the s o c i a l and academic t a s k s of s c h o o l (Adler, 1927; D r e i k e r s & S o l t z , 1964; N i c o l l , 1984). Family s t r u c t u r e and atmosphere c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the mental h e a l t h of the c h i l d (Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1984). D y s f u n c t i o n a l p a r e n t / c h i l d and f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s are r e c o g n i z e d as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o maladaptive s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d (Adler, 1927; D r e i k e r s & S o l t z , 1964; N i c o l l , 1984). Hence f o r n e a r l y 7 decades, a u t h o r i t i e s have emphasized the importance of s t u d y i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s at home as a b a s i s f o r understanding s o c i a l , emotional, and/or b e h a v i o r a l problems at sch o o l (e.g., A d l e r , 1927; D r e i k e r s & S o l t z , 1964; Muro & Dinkmeyer, 1977). D e s p i t e t h i s awareness, c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y focused on the i n d i v i d u a l student t o the e x c l u s i o n of parents or f a m i l y . I t i s 2 t h e r e f o r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n l o n g s t a n d i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s (Brown & Brown, 1976; F r i e s e n & D e r , 1984; P a l m o , L o w r y , W e l d o n , & S c i o s c i a , 1984; Umansky & H o l l o w a y , 1 9 8 4 ) . The s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e 1960s a n d 1970s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e i s s u e s w i t h r a t i o n a l e s f o r , m o d e l s o f , a n d r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n . I n t h e 1980s a n d now i n t h e 1990s t h i s r e s p o n s e h a s e x p a n d e d a n d i n t e n s i f i e d ; a g r e a t e r number o f p r o p o s a l s a r e b e i n g o f f e r e d f o r t h e u s e o f f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s s u c h a s c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d / o r t h e r a p y t o t r e a t s c h o o l p r o b l e m s . T h i s s h i f t i s l a r g e l y due t o an a w a r e n e s s t h a t f o r o v e r a d e c a d e , b o t h s o c i e t y a n d t h e f a m i l y h a v e b e e n e x p e r i e n c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f t u r m o i l . M o re a n d more c h i l d r e n a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m s o c i e t a l v i o l e n c e , p o v e r t y a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t , a b u s e , s u b s t a n c e a b u s e , a n d f a m i l y i n s t a b i l i t y . D i v o r c e a n d s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e common, a n d t h e number o f t w o - c a r e e r , b l e n d e d a n d f o s t e r f a m i l i e s i s r i s i n g . Many c h i l d r e n t o d a y a r e b e i n g r a i s e d w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t n e c e s s a r y t o w e a t h e r t h e s t r e s s o r s o f f a m i l y a n d s o c i e t a l c h a n g e ( C o l d i c u t t , G r e e n , & J o b s o n , 1988) . T h e s e i s s u e s a r e a f f e c t i n g s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r , r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e a t s c h o o l ( B e c k , 1984; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ; M c D a n i e l , 1 9 8 1; N i c o l l , 1984; P a l m o e t 3 a l . , 1984). "For many e d u c a t o r s , c h i l d r e n and y o u t h t o d a y a r e a ^ g e n e r a t i o n a t r i s k ' " ( C o l d i c u t t , Green, & Jobson, 1988, p. 8 ) . F o r t h e p a s t 25 y e a r s i t has been r e p e a t e d l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , s h o u l d assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s t o p a r e n t s and f a m i l i e s (Luckey, 1967; Shaw, 1971; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1972; D i e k m e i e r , 1989; Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1984). The p r i m a r y r a t i o n a l e i s e f f e c t i v e l y s t a t e d by S t r o t h e r and Jacobs (1986): Because t h e f a m i l y and t h e s c h o o l f u n c t i o n as t h e two most s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and development o f t h e c h i l d , i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d one a n o t h e r t h r o u g h d i r e c t communication and c o o p e r a t e t o h e l p t h e c h i l d , (p. 292) A number o f o t h e r arguments have been o f f e r e d t o encourage s c h o o l s t o t a k e on t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f academic e d u c a t i o n , s c h o o l s a r e now b e i n g c a l l e d upon t o p r o t e c t , a i d , and n u r t u r e c h i l d r e n ( C o l d i c u t t , Green, & Jobson, 1988) . I t i s argued t h a t d e s p i t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t can s u p p o r t and educate p a r e n t s , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l i s t h e optimum c h o i c e s i n c e i t has maximum a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s (Nye, 1988). The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i s a s s e r t e d t o be t h e most i d e a l s e t t i n g f o r i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h p a r e n t s and f a m i l i e s s i n c e t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d i s s t i l l 4 v e r y d e p e n d e n t upon a n d c o n n e c t e d t o t h e f a m i l y ( L u c k e y , 1 9 6 7 ) , a n d t h e s c h o o l i s t h e one r e s o u r c e t h a t i s i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c h i l d a n d t h e f a m i l y on a l o n g - t e r m a n d f r e q u e n t b a s i s ( B e c k , 1 9 8 4 ) . I t h a s a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c a d e m i c r e m e d i a t i o n i s n o t as e f f e c t i v e a s r e m e d i a t i n g f a m i l y d y s f u n c t i o n ( B e r n s t e i n , 1 9 8 0 ) . N o n e t h e l e s s , a gap c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d f o r , a n d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p a r e n t a n d f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s ( D i n k m e y e r & D i n k m e y e r , 1978; Umansky & H o l l o w a y , 1984; C a r r e i r o & S c h u l z , 1 9 8 8 ) . S c h o o l s a r e c r i t i c i z e d , b o t h b y t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d b y e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s ( i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r , December, 1990) f o r s e e i n g " c h i l d r e n o n l y i n t e r m s o f what s h o u l d be a r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w segment o f t h e i r l i v e s , a n d t h a t i s what k i n d o f g r a d e s t h e y make" (McComb, 198 1 , p. 2 7 7 ) . I n f a c t , t h e r e a s o n s most o f t e n g i v e n f o r t h e l a c k o f s e r v i c e s f o r p a r e n t s a n d / o r f a m i l i e s a r e c o n n e c t e d t o t h i s c r i t i c i s m : l a c k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t , i n a d e q u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n s , t r a i n i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s , i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e , a n d u n m a n a g e a b l e c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o s . T h e s e b a r r i e r s r e f l e c t t h e l a c k o f p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o c a r i n g f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h o f s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s h a v e b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h a n g i n g 5 t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s ( D i n k m e y e r & D i n k m e y e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . F o r some t i m e now, e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e b e e n a s k e d t o d e v e l o p p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r p r o g r a m s a n d t o e n g a g e i n s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t s t o i m p l e m e n t t h o s e p r i o r i t i e s ( A l l a n & R o s s , 1979; B o n e b r a k e & B o r g e r s , 1984; W i l g u s & S h e l l e y , 1 9 8 8 ) . R e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s ( W i l g u s & S h e l l e y , 1 9 8 8 ) , p r i n c i p a l s ( B o n e b r a k e & B o r g e r s , 1 9 8 4 ) , a n d c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s ( B o n e b r a k e & B o r g e r s , 1984; C a r r e i r o & S c h u l z , 1988) b e l i e v e t h a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y s h o u l d be p l a c e d on p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n / c o n t a c t / c o n s u l t a t i o n t h a n p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s . S t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u g g e s t t h a t d i r e c t o r s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ( A l l a n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p r i n c i p a l s , a n d p r i m a r y a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s ( A l l a n , D o i & R e i d , 1979) b e l i e v e t h a t f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s a r e among t h o s e o f g r e a t e s t i m m e d i a t e n e e d . S p e c i a l s e r v i c e s d i r e c t o r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s ( A l l a n & B o l l a n d , 1981) p l a c e d an e v e n h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on t h e n e e d f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s . I n r e c e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r , a number o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d be i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h p a r e n t s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e y a r e c u r r e n t l y d o i n g so (May t o November, 1 9 9 0 ) . To d a t e t h e r e i s o n l y one u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y , a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n c a r r i e d o u t by B e c k ( 1 9 8 4 ) , t h a t f o c u s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o w a r d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f 6 f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n the elementary and middle s c h o o l s e t t i n g , as w e l l as elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g as a r o l e f u n c t i o n . School c o u n s e l l o r s and c o u n s e l l o r educators i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Milwaukee r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g : t h e r e i s a need f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ; f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n of the sc h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e ; b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t i n g the implementation of f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n c l u d e a l a c k of time, a heavy work load, and no a p p r o p r i a t e time t o meet with f a m i l i e s . In a d d i t i o n , s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i s an area i n which they would l i k e t o o b t a i n more t r a i n i n g and i n c r e a s e t h e i r involvement. Beck's (1984) study presupposes t h a t f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g should be o f f e r e d i n the elementary s c h o o l s by s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . Thus f a r t h e r e has been no attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the wider range of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Nor does t h i s or any other study address the l a c k of d i s t i n c t i o n made between the terms c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g and therapy i n r e l a t i o n t o sch o o l c o u n s e l l o r r o l e s . Moreover, i t has thus f a r been assumed t h a t i f the elementary s c h o o l i s t o i n t e r v e n e with p a r e n t s and f a m i l i e s , i t would a u t o m a t i c a l l y be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r . F i n a l l y , while academic and t h e o r e t i c a l understanding have progressed, the lo n g - s t a n d i n g b a r r i e r s t o any k i n d of involvement of parents and/or f a m i l i e s i n s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g programs s t i l l e x i s t . 7 I t seems important, e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t of the c u r r e n t debate about r o l e f u n c t i o n s and c o u n s e l l o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h a t elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s themselves be c o n s u l t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c u r r e n t and p o t e n t i a l r o l e w i t h f a m i l y members, the s e v e r i t y of the b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t i n g them from p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l y members, and the p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s f o r overcoming b a r r i e r s . Purpose of t h i s Study The primary purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o determine the p e r c e p t i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia's elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s of t h e i r c u r r e n t r o l e and t h e i r i d e a l r o l e with p a r e n t s and f a m i l i e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s r e s e a r c h sought t o i d e n t i f y elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f : (a) the extent t o which they are c u r r e n t l y u s i n g s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members (fa m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y therapy, parent educa t i o n , parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , and/or parent c o u n s e l l i n g ) ; (b) the extent to which they would l i k e t o use these forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ; (c) the need f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o o f f e r s e r v i c e s f o r f a m i l y members; (d) the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of these f u n c t i o n s to the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r r o l e ; (e) the s e v e r i t y of the b a r r i e r s h i n d e r i n g c o u n s e l l o r s ' performance of the s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ; and (f) what i s needed to overcome these b a r r i e r s . 8 D e f i n i t i o n s For the purposes of t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n o l o g y and d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l apply: Elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . That person employed and l a b e l l e d "elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r " by the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . F amily. C o n s i s t s o f at l e a s t one c h i l d and one parent or guardian. I d e a l . The c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the type and amount of s e r v i c e they would l i k e t o be able t o o f f e r t o f a m i l y members. Family C o n s u l t a t i o n . The c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d e s short-term a s s i s t a n c e t o he l p a f a m i l y understand a c h i l d ' s problem w i t h i n the context of both the sch o o l and the f a m i l y ; p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about community and s c h o o l programs t h a t may be of a s s i s t a n c e ; may r e f e r the f a m i l y f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g or therapy; and/or o f f e r s suggestions t o f a m i l y members about how to a s s i s t the c h i l d both at s c h o o l and at home. Family C o u n s e l l i n g . The c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e t o h e l p a f a m i l y r e s o l v e i s s u e s (e.g., l o s s , i l l n e s s , s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l y adjustment) t h a t are l i n k e d t o d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a c h i l d i s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n s c h o o l . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d take the form of g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , f a c i l i t a t i n g awareness of p a i n f u l emotions, and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r improving communication s k i l l s and problem 9 s o l v i n g . Family Therapy. The t h e r a p i s t becomes i n v o l v e d i n an i n t e n s i v e treatment process with a f a m i l y i n which one or more c h i l d r e n are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s at s c h o o l . The t h e r a p e u t i c process i s intended to c r e a t e s h i f t s i n world views, i n t e r p e r s o n a l p a t t e r n s , h i e r a r c h i e s , r o l e s , and r u l e s . Involvement and change occurs at a deeper l e v e l than with f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . Parent E d u c a t i o n . The c o u n s e l l o r f a c i l i t a t e s e d u c a t i o n a l meetings with a group of parents whose c h i l d r e n may or may not be e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s at s c h o o l . The primary focus of these meetings i s t o h e l p p a r e n t s l e a r n more e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and to improve t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Parent C o n s u l t a t i o n . The c o u n s e l l o r a s s i s t s p a r e n t s t o understand t h e i r c h i l d w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l context o f the s c h o o l ; p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about s c h o o l or community programs which may be of a s s i s t a n c e ; and o f f e r s suggestions r e g a r d i n g p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s which may h e l p the c h i l d t o grow both at sc h o o l and at home. Parent C o u n s e l l i n g . The c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e t o p a r e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y or as a couple r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l i s s u e s such as d i v o r c e , l o s s , substance abuse, f a m i l y of o r i g i n i n f l u e n c e s on p a r e n t i n g , c h i l d b e h a v i o r i n f l u e n c e s on the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , e t c . These i s s u e s u s u a l l y come to the a t t e n t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r because of d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t 10 the c h i l d i s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n s c h o o l . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 1. To what extent are elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s c u r r e n t l y u s i n g each of the f o l l o w i n g s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members: f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y therapy, parent educa t i o n , parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , and/or parent c o u n s e l l i n g ? 2 . To what extent would elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i d e a l l y l i k e t o use each of these forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members? 3. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between the c u r r e n t extent and the i d e a l extent of c o u n s e l l o r s ' use of these forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ? 4. Which forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members do elementary c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e should be o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 5 . Which forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members do elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e ? 6. What are the c o u n s e l l o r - p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members? 7. To what degree do elementary c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e these b a r r i e r s t o be h i n d e r i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o perform each of the s i x forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members? 8. What are the recommendations of elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s f o r overcoming these b a r r i e r s ? 11 Assumptions T h i s study assumes t h a t : (a) the s c h o o l and the f a m i l y are the two most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e s on the development of the c h i l d ; (b) the sch o o l and the f a m i l y s h o u l d communicate about the c h i l d ' s development; (c) s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g programs, as p a r t of t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o students, should o f f e r some form of s e r v i c e t o parents and/or f a m i l i e s . Significance of the Study T h i s study i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1. U n l i k e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , i t takes one aspect of elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i m i t e d to " c o n t a c t with parents, 11 and examines i t i n d e t a i l . 2. T h i s study extends Beck's (1984) r e s e a r c h on f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n elementary s c h o o l s . I t p r o v i d e s data about other c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s with f a m i l y members, as p e r c e i v e d by c o u n s e l l o r s . Moreover, i t extends t h i s r e s e a r c h t o a Canadian context. 3. The data p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about the c u r r e n t s t a t e of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s t o and i s p e r c e i v e d by elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 4. The data p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about the i d e a l s t a t e of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s t o and i s p e r c e i v e d by elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 5. Through data a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , recommendations are made f o r mo d i f y i n g the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r as i t p e r t a i n s t o p a r e n t s and f a m i l i e s . 6 . An a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data permits recommendations f o r t r a i n i n g elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . 7 . The data p r o v i d e s r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about c o u n s e l l o r - p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s , t h e i r s e v e r i t y , and recommended s o l u t i o n s . 13 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE As i n d i c a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , both parent and fa m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s have been recommended f o r use by the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r i n a s s i s t i n g students. This chapter presents a review of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t to these two general areas of i n t e r v e n t i o n , as w e l l as to the r o l e of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o fa m i l y members. The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter reviews i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h parents, i n c l u d i n g parent education, parent c o n s u l t a t i o n and parent c o u n s e l l i n g . The s p e c i f i c areas di s c u s s e d are as f o l l o w s : school c o u n s e l l o r s ' r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of parents on the development of the c h i l d ; the d i f f i c u l t i e s of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the three forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n ; r a t i o n a l e s o f f e r e d f o r the school c o u n s e l l o r ' s use of these i n t e r v e n t i o n s ; appropriate models of i n t e r v e n t i o n s ; c l i e n t i s sues f o r which these i n t e r v e n t i o n s are deemed appropriate; e f f e c t i v e n e s s research; b a r r i e r s preventing the school c o u n s e l l o r from performing these f u n c t i o n s ; and f i n a l l y , c r i t i c i s m s of these i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The second s e c t i o n reviews i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h the f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , and f a m i l y therapy. S p e c i f i c areas discussed i n c l u d e : the l a c k of agreement r e g a r d i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s between the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s ; a comparison of the i n d i v i d u a l or i n t r a p s y c h i c model with the i n t e r p s y c h i c model or f a m i l y systems theory; r a t i o n a l e s f o r the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s use of f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s ; e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h ; the debate r e g a r d i n g which form(s) of f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s (are) a p p r o p r i a t e t o the elementary c o u n s e l l o r r o l e ; models suggested t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the s c h o o l s e t t i n g ; c l i e n t i s s u e s f o r which these i n t e r v e n t i o n s are deemed a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations made f o r the elementary c o u n s e l l o r ' s implementation of f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s ; and f i n a l l y , the b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t i n g the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r from p e r f o r m i n g these f u n c t i o n s . The t h i r d and f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter reviews the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r with parents and f a m i l i e s as p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s themselves, as w e l l as the c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding the vagueness of t h i s r o l e . Parent Education, Consultation and Counselling Awareness of the i n f l u e n c e of parents on c h i l d r e n . The s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e of the 1960s and 1970s saw an i n c r e a s e d awareness of parent and f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e on the c h i l d , and expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I t responded by o f f e r i n g r a t i o n a l e s and models f o r parent education, c o n s u l t a t i o n , 15 a n d / o r c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d p r e s e n t i n g r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s . C o o n e y (1981) p o s i t e d a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r movement i n t h e 1 960s a n d o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r as p a r e n t e d u c a t o r . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l e m p h a s i s o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r e m e d i a t i o n , p r o v i d e d an i d e a l s e t t i n g f o r p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n . C l a r k e - S t e w a r t (1981) r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h e n e e d s o f p a r e n t s i n t h e 1 9 7 0 s : p a r e n t s w e re i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e n a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h e s c h o o l was n o t s e e n a s e f f e c t i v e i n c h a n g i n g c h i l d r e n ; f a m i l i e s w e r e u n d e r g r e a t s o c i e t a l s t r e s s ; t h e r e was e v i d e n c e t h a t many p a r e n t s w e r e n o t e f f e c t i v e ; a n d new s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e on c h i l d r e a r i n g became a v a i l a b l e . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r m s . D e s p i t e g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t a s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e p a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s r e v e a l s c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g what f o r m t h i s work s h o u l d t a k e . T h e r e i s a l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r m s . A u t h o r s h a v e f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t h e t e r m s p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y a n d i t i s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s (Bundy & P o p p e n , 1986; 16 E r c h u l & C o n o l e y , 1 9 9 1 ; Medway, 1 9 8 8 ) . B r own a n d Brown (1975) c l a i m e d t h a t p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g o r p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f p r o c e s s a n d c o n t e n t . F rom t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i s an i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s an a g e n d a o r c u r r i c u l u m a n d i n w h i c h t h e l e a d e r u s e s more t r a d i t i o n a l p e d a g o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . H owever, t h e s e a u t h o r s d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . T a v o r m i n a ( 1 9 7 4 ) , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , e q u a t e d p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c h i l d a s t h e c l i e n t i n b o t h . I t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a p a r e n t g r o u p i s i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l o r f o r t h e r a p e u t i c o u t c o m e s . F i n e (1989) e x p l a i n e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t r y i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d p a r e n t g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g : A l t h o u g h s u c h a d i s t i n c t i o n c a n be made, t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e r a p y t e n d s t o d i s s o l v e i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . When a g r o u p o f p e o p l e come t o g e t h e r r e p e a t e d l y , s h a r i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a n d c o n c e r n s , t h e p r o c e s s s o o n t a k e s on an * a i r ' o f g r o u p t h e r a p y e v e n when t h e o s t e n s i b l e g o a l s a r e e d u c a t i o n a l . (p. 14) The t e r m s p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d p a r e n t t r a i n i n g a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . A c c o r d i n g t o Dembo, S w e i t z e r a n d L a u r i t z e n ( 1 9 8 5 ) , p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i s t h e more 17 g e n e r a l term, while parent t r a i n i n g , subsumed under parent e d u c a t i o n , i s d e f i n e d as a process t h a t i n c l u d e s at l e a s t the component of t e a c h i n g a s p e c i f i c s k i l l or s e t of s k i l l s . Dinkmeyer (1968) d e f i n e d parent c o n s u l t a t i o n as the procedure through which parents and c o u n s e l l o r s communicate, with an emphasis on j o i n t p l a n n i n g and c o l l a b o r a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he o u t l i n e d the a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n as s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s , c o o r d i n a t i n g , comparing o b s e r v a t i o n s , p r o v i d i n g a sounding board, and d e v e l o p i n g t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s f o r a c t i o n . Dinkmeyer and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have used the term parent c o n s u l t a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e an e d u c a t i o n a l parent group (Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1978; Dinkmeyer & McKay, 1974; Muro & Dinkmeyer, 1977). Parent c o n s u l t a t i o n i s d e f i n e d by Bundy and Poppen (1986) as "...a h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o u n s e l l o r and one or more persons (those r e c e i v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n ) who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g care and t r a i n i n g f o r c h i l d r e n " (p. 216). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s open t o a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g those which are d e f i n e d by others as parent c o u n s e l l i n g or parent e d u c a t i o n . R a t i o n a l e s f o r i n t e r v e n i n g with p a r e n t s . Over the past 3 decades a number of r a t i o n a l e s have been o f f e r e d f o r the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s implementation of parent c o n s u l t i n g , c o u n s e l l i n g and/or educ a t i o n programs. Because of the aforementioned d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the i n t e r v e n t i o n forms, these r a t i o n a l e s o f t e n o v e r l a p . An 18 a ttempt i s made here t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e where p o s s i b l e . The r a t i o n a l e s g i v e n f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d i n g p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n and/or f o r w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s i n g e n e r a l i n c l u d e : 1. I t makes c o u n s e l l o r s more v i s i b l e and a p p r o a c h a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e who have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s (Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1978; Muro & Dinkmeyer, 1977). 2. I t p r o v i d e s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o o f f e r s e r v i c e s t o p a r e n t s r a t h e r t h a n i n v o l v i n g them o n l y when t h e r e i s a p r o b lem o r c r i s i s (Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1978). 3. These s e r v i c e s can p r o v i d e t h e means t o d e a l w i t h t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r s e r v i c e s and t h e f r e q u e n t l y unmanageable c o u n s e l l o r - p u p i l r a t i o . (Brown & Brown, 1975; Bundy & Poppen, 198 6; Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1978; Shaw, 1971; S t r o t h e r & J a c o b s , 1986; Umansky & H o l l o w a y , 1984). 4. Working w i t h p a r e n t s a d d r e s s e s t h e need t o f o c u s on p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r e m e d i a t i o n (Brown & Brown, 1975; Bundy & Poppen, 1986; S t r o t h e r & J a c o b s , 1986). 5. S i n c e p a r e n t s a r e t h e major i n f l u e n c e on t h e c h i l d ' s development, c h a n g i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r can have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h e c h i l d ' s development (Brown & Brown, 1975; Conroy, 1987; Tavormina, 1974). 6. Working w i t h p a r e n t s s t r e n g t h e n s t h e e f f i c i e n c y and impact o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h t h e c h i l d ((Brown & Brown, 1975; Bundy & Poppen, 1986; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1972; Simon, 1988). 7. S c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e f r e q u e n t l y t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o whom p a r e n t s t u r n f o r a s s i s t a n c e ( G e t z & Gunn, 1 9 8 8 ) . S t r o t h e r a n d J a c o b s (1986) a d v o c a t e d t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s u s e o f c o n f e r e n c e - t y p e c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d o u t l i n e d t h e b e n e f i t s o f s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s w o u l d p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r a n d t o l e a r n ways t o c o p e w i t h i t . The c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d g a i n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c h i l d ' s f a m i l y w o r l d , a s w e l l a s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how t h e c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d a f f e c t s h e r o r h i s s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d b e h a v i o r . F i n a l l y , t h e c o n f e r e n c e s w o u l d a f f o r d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d p r e v e n t t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l . The f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e s h a v e b e e n o f f e r e d f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s : 1. W h i l e t h e r o l e o f p a r e n t i s one o f t h e most c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k s t h a t c a n be u n d e r t a k e n , p a r e n t i n g i s a t a s k f o r w h i c h p a r e n t s a r e e x t r e m e l y u n p r e p a r e d a n d u n d e r e d u c a t e d ( D i n k m e y e r & D i n k m e y e r , 1984; F i n e , 1988; Muro & D i n k m e y e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . 2. C o r r e c t i v e e f f o r t s i n w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a r e b e s t e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s ; s i n c e p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i s an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e d u c a t o r s a n d c a n most e f f e c t i v e l y be 20 p r o v i d e d through the s c h o o l (Muro & Dinkmeyer, 1977). 3. These programs h e l p parents t o f i n d a mutual source of support, t o become aware of and understand the impact of t h e i r a c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and f e e l i n g s on t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and t o r e a l i z e t h a t other parents have s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s ( C arlson, 1972; Luckey, 1967; Muro & Dinkmeyer, 1977). 4. Parents l e a r n communication s k i l l s which, t r a n s f e r r e d t o the home, can p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the p e r s o n a l i t y development of the c h i l d and m aintain the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p (Luckey, 1967). 5. Parent e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o work with a l a r g e r number of parents than does a one t o one c o n s u l t a t i o n s i t u a t i o n . 6. The s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r does not have t o be an expert i n c h i l d development or f a m i l y therapy and only needs to be t r a i n e d i n parent e d u c a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n ( K e l l y , 1976). 7. There w i l l be a c o n t i n u i n g need f o r parent e d u c a t i o n i n the f u t u r e because i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l have l e s s of an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s due t o s m a l l e r f a m i l y s i z e , an i n c r e a s e d use of c h i l d care o u t s i d e the home, and i s o l a t i o n from other f a m i l y members d u r i n g c h i l d - r e a r i n g years (Clarke-Stewart, 1977). D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t p a r e n t s ' own p e r s o n a l i s s u e s f r e q u e n t l y have a d i r e c t impact on the c h i l d , t h e r e has thus f a r been no attempt t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c r a t i o n a l e s f o r the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o parents 21 r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h i s i s i n p a r t due t o t h e l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n work w i t h p a r e n t s t h a t i s e d u c a t i o n a l a n d work t h a t i s t h e r a p e u t i c . I n a d d i t i o n , w h i l e some a u t h o r s a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t b e n e f i t s a r e t o b e g a i n e d b y p a r e n t s t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e i r own f e e l i n g s a n d p r o b l e m s ( L u c k e y , 1967; N a v i n & B a t e s , 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e r e s t i l l e x i s t s a s t r o n g b e l i e f t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s f i r s t p r i o r i t y i s t o a s s i s t i n c o r r e c t i n g t h e c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n t e r v e n t i o n m o d e l s a n d c l i e n t i s s u e s . T h e r e a r e a number o f t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s o r a p p r o a c h e s t o p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d / o r c o n s u l t a t i o n s u g g e s t e d f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' u s e , t h e most p o p u l a r o f w h i c h i n c l u d e : P a r e n t E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g ( G o r d o n , 1 9 7 5 ) ; a number o f b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ( e . g . , B e c k e r , 1 9 7 1 ) ; A d l e r i a n p a r e n t s t u d y g r o u p s ( D r e i k u r s & S o l t z , 1 9 6 4 ) ; S y s t e m a t i c T r a i n i n g f o r E f f e c t i v e P a r e n t i n g ( D i n k m e y e r & McKay, 1 9 7 6 ) ; a n d G i n o t ' s h u m a n i s t i c a p p r o a c h ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The u s e o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n o r c o n s u l t a t i o n h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d a n d / o r i m p l e m e n t e d t o i m p r o v e t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e m e d i a l r e a d e r s ( N a v i n & B a t e s , 1 9 8 7 ) ; t o i m p r o v e p a r e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s ( G o l d & R i c h m o n d , 1 9 7 9 ) ; t o p r o m o t e p a r e n t a l s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g (Downing, 1974; L u c k e y , 1 9 6 7 ) ; t o i m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s ( G i n o t , 1965; B r e d h o f t & Hey, 1 9 8 5 ) ; t o p r e v e n t c h i l d a b u s e (Bundy & P o p p e n , 1986; D o w n i n g , 1 9 8 2 ) ; 22 a n d t o l e a r n a n d i m p r o v e u p on p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s ( B e c k e r , 1 9 7 1 ; Bundy & P o p p e n , 1 9 8 6 ) . A number o f a u t h o r s h a v e c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f c h i l d r e n (Bundy & P o p p e n , 1986; D i n k m e y e r & C a r l s o n , 1973; Umansky & H o l l o w a y , 1 9 8 4 ) . They a d v o c a t e a more h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h i n w h i c h c o u n s e l l i n g h e l p s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c h i l d , a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d l i v e s ( D i n k m e y e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . E f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h . R e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s i s l i m i t e d t o t h e g r o u p p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n o r c o n s u l t a t i o n m o d e l . T h i s r e s e a r c h h a s p r o d u c e d m i x e d r e s u l t s a n d h a s many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f l a w s , m a k i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o d raw any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s . To d a t e , no p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a p p r o a c h h a s s u r f a c e d as c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r ( G e t z & Gunn, 1988; H e n r y , 1 9 8 1 ) . Bundy a n d P o p p e n (1986) r e v i e w e d a r t i c l e s f r o m t h e f i r s t 19 v o l u m e s o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l  G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l l i n g J o u r n a l a n d i s s u e s o f t h e S c h o o l  C o u n s e l l o r s i n c e 1957 i n w h i c h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s p r o v i d e d c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s . O n l y 8 s t u d i e s t h a t f o c u s e d on p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n / e d u c a t i o n (4 A d l e r i a n , 3 PET, 1 M u l t i m o d a l p a r e n t t r a i n i n g ) met t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n . F r om t h e s e s t u d i e s t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l o f t h e p a r e n t g r o u p s h a d a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . S i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s r e s u l t e d on s u c h m e a s u r e s a s p a r e n t a t t i t u d e s , s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n , c h i l d - r e a r i n g b e h a v i o r , p a r e n t - c h i l d 23 c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . B a s e d on t h e s e r e s u l t s t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d e n l a r g e t h e i r c o n s u l t a t i o n r o l e . W h i l e Bundy a n d P o p p e n (1986) h i n t a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y f l a w e d , t h e y p r o v i d e no d e t a i l s a s t o how a n d why. Dembo, S w e i t z e r , a n d L a u r i t z e n (1985) e v a l u a t e d 48 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r a l , PET, a n d A d l e r i a n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . O n l y t h r e e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s u s e d s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . W h i l e t h e s e r e v i e w e r s f o u n d t h a t c e r t a i n c h a n g e s i n p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s a n d / o r c h i l d b e h a v i o r w e re e v i d e n t a s a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s , t h e s e c h a n g e s were n o t a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t a n d w e r e f r e q u e n t l y d e p e n d e n t u pon t h e t y p e o f a s s e s s m e n t a n d e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h u s e d . Few o f t h e s t u d i e s met t h e c r i t e r i a o f a w e l l d e s i g n e d r e s e a r c h s t u d y , a n d t h o s e t h a t w e re b e t t e r d e s i g n e d p r o d u c e d m i x e d r e s u l t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e w e re n o t e n o u g h w e l l d e s i g n e d s t u d i e s t o be a b l e t o draw d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , n o r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f one t y p e o f p r o g r a m o v e r a n o t h e r f o r a c e r t a i n t y p e o f f a m i l y o r p e r s o n . A l a c k o f r a n d o m i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s , a b s e n c e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e u s e o f c o n t r o l g r o u p s , f a i l u r e t o c o l l e c t p r o c e s s d a t a , a n d a l a c k o f l o n g - t e r m f o l l o w - u p d e s i g n s w e re some o f t h e common r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s t h a t Dembo e t a l . (1985) f o u n d i n many o f t h e s t u d i e s . M e a s u r e m e n t p r o b l e m s 24 i n c l u d e d : a r e l i a n c e on s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a , t h e u s e o f m e a s u r e s v a l i d a t e d f o r c l i n i c a l r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , a n d t h e measurement o f g e n e r a l c h i l d - r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s w i t h o u t a f o c u s on t h e a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e o f p a r e n t s t o w a r d t h e i r own c h i l d r e n . Medway a n d Updyke (1985) r e v i e w e d 24 s t u d i e s p u b l i s h e d b e t w e e n 1973 a n d 1984 t h a t i n v o l v e d g r o u p p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( b e h a v i o r a l , r e f l e c t i v e o r PET, a n d A d l e r i a n ) . W h i l e many o f t h e s e s t u d i e s h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y r e v i e w e d b y Dembo e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Medway a n d Updyke u s e d an a l t e r n a t e p r o c e d u r e ( m e t a - a n a l y s i s ) t o c a r r y o u t h i s r e v i e w . The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e p r o g r a m s were e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n showed an i m p r o v e m e n t t h a t was 62% g r e a t e r t h a n a s i m i l a r u n t r a i n e d p o p u l a t i o n . The few s t u d i e s t h a t u s e d f o l l o w - u p m e a s u r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g a i n s e n d u r e d . However, a g a i n , l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e s t u d i e s u s e d a d e q u a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s . C l e a r l y , r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h p a r e n t s i s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e q u a l i t y . A s Harmon a n d B r i m (1980/ a s c i t e d i n F i n e , 1988) c o n c l u d e , "Our s u m m a t i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h . . . r e s t s on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t i t i s w o e f u l l y i n a d e q u a t e - a r e f l e c t i o n on t h e s t a t e o f r e s e a r c h a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y on p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f " (p. 2 5 4 ) . D e s p i t e t h e s e m i x e d r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s c o n t i n u e d t o 25 e n c o u r a g e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h a n d s e r v i c e s t o p a r e n t s ( e g . D i n k m e y e r & D i n k m e y e r , 1984) B a r r i e r s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s . N e a r l y 25 y e a r s l a t e r a gap c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d f o r , a n d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , o r c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s ( C a r r e i r o 6 c S c h u l z , 1988; D i n k m e y e r & D i n k m e y e r , 1984; S p l e t e & B e r n s t e i n , 1 9 8 1 ; Umansky & H o l l o w a y , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s , b a s e d on r e s e a r c h a n d / o r c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , g i v e n f o r t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f c o u n s e l l o r s t o o f f e r p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n o r e d u c a t i o n . C o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g s l o w t o p r o v i d e c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n c o n s u l t a t i o n ( D i n k m e y e r & D i n k m e y e r , 1984; E r c h u l & C o n o l e y , 1 9 9 1 ; K a h n w e i l e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The t r a i n i n g t h a t d o e s e x i s t h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d as " i n s u f f i c i e n t " b o t h b y t h i s l i t e r a t u r e a n d by s t u d e n t s o r g r a d u a t e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y a t U.B.C. ( i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r ) . S p l e t e a n d B e r n s t e i n (1981) c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s a n d f o u n d t h a t 95% (n=136) o f t h e r e p o r t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t a u g h t m a s t e r s s t u d e n t s c o n s u l t a t i o n t o p i c s a n d s k i l l s , e i t h e r i n a s e p a r a t e c o u r s e o r a s p a r t o f o t h e r c o u r s e s . However, on a v e r a g e , c o n s u l t a t i o n t o p i c s 26 re p r e s e n t e d only 15% of the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d and l e s s than o n e - h a l f o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r e d t h e i r students t o take a separate course i n c o n s u l t a t i o n . While the authors concluded t h a t the pr e v a l e n c e of c o n s u l t a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n programs i s more widespread than a n t i c i p a t e d , they a l s o s t a t e d t h a t i t s t i l l may not be c o n s i d e r e d a c r i t i c a l component t o the p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s . Umansky and Holloway (1984) have claime d t h a t a l a c k of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support h i n d e r s the sc h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s a b i l i t y t o work with p a r e n t s . However Muro and Dinkmeyer (1977) argued t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would be very s u p p o r t i v e of c o u n s e l l o r s who implement sy s t e m a t i c parent c o n s u l t a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l programs t h a t are developmental and continuous, r a t h e r than c r i s i s based. Schools have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r t a k i n g a predominantly c r i s i s o r i e n t e d approach with parents and f a m i l i e s which f r e q u e n t l y leads t o r e s e n t f u l and d e f e n s i v e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s (Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1984; K e l l y , 1976). Other f a c t o r s p u r p o r t e d t o prevent elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s from i n t e r v e n i n g with parents i n c l u d e : an i n f l e x i b l e work schedule t h a t does not p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r evening meetings with working parents ( c o n s u l t a t i o n with c o u n s e l l o r s i n School D i s t r i c t # 36, S u r r e y ) ; the f a c t t h a t parent c o n s u l t a t i o n i s o f t e n g i v e n l e s s p r i o r i t y than the many other c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s and i s t h e r e f o r e l e f t u n a t t e n d e d ( K e l l y , 1 9 7 6 ) ; a n d a f a i l u r e on t h e p a r t o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s t o e n g a g e i n p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h (Umansky & H o l l o w a y , 1984) w h i c h h i n d e r s c h a n g e a n d t e n d s t o l e a v e t h e m i n e f f e c t i v e a n d o p e n t o c r i t i c i s m . D i n k m e y e r a n d D i n k m e y e r (1978) h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s do n o t t a k e e n o u g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s t a t e o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n : "Do c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r own l i v e s ? Or do t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t c h o i c e i s o n l y f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s ? " (p. 1 0 0 ) . L a t e r (1984) t h e s e same a u t h o r s a s s e r t e d t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o l d f a u l t y b e l i e f s i n t h a t t h e y s e e t h e m s e l v e s as c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g o n l y w i t h s t u d e n t s . M o r e o v e r , Muro a n d D i n k m e y e r (1977) c o n t e n d e d t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s o n l y "pay l i p s e r v i c e " (p. 329) t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f a m i l y a n d p a r e n t s ' i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . C r i t i c i s m s o f p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n . W h i l e t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i s b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t s i n s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s , t h e r e a r e a l s o a number o f c r i t i c i s m s b e i n g made o f t h e p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d / o r e d u c a t i o n m o d e l . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f f a m i l y s y s t e m s t h e o r y , p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n a r e i n v o l v e d i n a p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e a n d p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r f a i l i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t t h e y c a n h a v e on t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y ( D o h e r t y & R y d e r , 1980; F i n e & 28 J e n n i n g s , 1985; G e t z & Gunn, 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s make t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m s o f p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s : (a) t h e s e p r o g r a m s t e n d t o assume t h a t c a u s a l i t y i n a p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s u n i d i r e c t i o n a l ; (b) c h i l d r e n a r e t y p i c a l l y l e f t o u t o f t h e p r o c e s s ; (c) p a r e n t s r e c e i v e t h e i n d i r e c t message t h a t t h e y a r e a t f a u l t , w h i c h c a n r e s u l t i n l e s s c o n f i d e n c e a n d more g u i l t ; (d) s i n c e m o t h e r s a t t e n d much more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n f a t h e r s , t h e s e p r o g r a m s c a n h a v e a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e c h i l d - r e a r i n g p a r t n e r s h i p a n d c r e a t e f a m i l y d i v i s i o n ; a n d (e) t y p i c a l l y t h e same s k i l l s a r e t a u g h t t o a l l p a r e n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h f a m i l y . C o n c e r n h a s a l s o b e e n r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e e t h i c a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n t r a i n i n g p a r e n t s t o become more e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l l e r s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n s ' b e h a v i o r . P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a r e s o m e t i m e s v i e w e d a s r e i n f o r c i n g g r o s s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o v e r t m a n i p u l a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s ( D o h e r t y & R y d e r , 1980; F i n e & J e n n i n g s , 1985; S a p o n - S h e v i n , 1 9 8 2 ) . Family Consultation, Counselling, and Therapy D i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r m s . A s w i t h t h e p a r e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d t h e r a p y p r o v e s t o be an a r d u o u s t a s k . O f t e n t h e t e r m s f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h no c l e a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t e r m s o f o b j e c t i v e s , a c t i v i t i e s o r c l i e n t 29 d y s f u n c t i o n . I n f a c t , t h i s r e v i e w e r f o u n d o n l y one s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g a r t i c l e t h a t a t t e m p t e d t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e a n d d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s (McComb, 1981) . McComb (1981) v i e w s f a m i l y work a s a l a d d e r . On t h e f i r s t r u n g s h e p l a c e s f a m i l y c o n f e r e n c i n g , w h i c h c a n p r o v i d e t h e f a m i l y w i t h t h e i n s i g h t n e c e s s a r y t o r e t u r n home a n d r e a l i g n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . She b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e c o u n s e l l o r who h a s s k i l l s i n p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c i n g a n d k n o w l e d g e o f f a m i l y s y s t e m s . On t h e n e x t r u n g o f t h e l a d d e r McComb (1981) p l a c e s f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , w h i c h s h e v i e w s a s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f a m i l i e s whose g r o w t h p a t t e r n s h a v e become s t u c k f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e . To p r o v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e t h e c o u n s e l l o r must h a v e s t u d i e d , o b s e r v e d , a n d r e c e i v e d s u p e r v i s i o n i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h a c e r t i f i a b l e f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t . A t t h e t o p o f t h e l a d d e r i s f a m i l y t h e r a p y . T h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s s u i t a b l e f o r f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h one o r more members d e m o n s t r a t e s a s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r . McComb (1981) b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d r e f e r t h i s t y p e o f f a m i l y t o a q u a l i f i e d t h e r a p i s t a n d p r o v i d e s u p p o r t t o t h e f a m i l y ' s s t u d e n t members w h i l e t h e y a r e i n s c h o o l . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h McComb ( 1 9 8 1 ) , W h i t a k e r d e f i n e d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h o s e f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h a c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s ( e . g . , n o t d o i n g s c h o o l w ork o r r u n n i n g a w a y ) . He u s e d t h e 30 term therapy f o r the treatment of f a m i l i e s who are g r o s s l y d i s t u r b e d , or i n which one of i t s members i s p s y c h o t i c or has a s e r i o u s psychosomatic i l l n e s s . However Whitaker acknowledged t h a t i t i s f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two i n t e r v e n t i o n forms. I n t e r p s y c h i c versus i n t r a p s y c h i c models. The f i e l d of f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g or therapy i s i t s e l f r e l a t i v e l y new, and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g even newer. H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s form of i n t e r v e n t i o n has been performed as a t h e r a p e u t i c process by mental h e a l t h s p e c i a l i s t s i n n o n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s (Knox, 1981). While f a m i l y therapy and/or c o u n s e l l i n g have not always been v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , they are now more f r e q u e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r t r e a t i n g c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1981; Palmo et a l . , 1984). The major assumptions upon which f a m i l y systems theory i s b u i l t are r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g approach t h a t i s f a m i l i a r to most sc h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1981). School c o u n s e l l o r s are u s u a l l y o n l y t r a i n e d i n t h e o r i e s based on the l i n e a r model of d y s f u n c t i o n i n which the cause of maladaptive behavior i s viewed as r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l (Perosa & Perosa, 1981) . In c o n t r a s t t o i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g , which focuses on u n c o v e r i n g and/or r e l i e v i n g a c l i e n t ' s i n t r a p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g or therapy focuses on the f a m i l y s y s t e m i t s e l f ( G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s t h e s y s t e m s p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f how f a m i l y members i n f l u e n c e one a n o t h e r . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e c h i l d i s s e e n a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e s t r e s s e s a n d s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y o r t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , o r b e t w e e n t h e t w o , r a t h e r t h a n as h a v i n g an i n t r a p s y c h i c p r o b l e m (Worden, 1 9 8 1 ) . S h i f t t o w a r d s f a m i l y s y s t e m s p e r s p e c t i v e . The s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e p a s t d e c a d e r e f l e c t s an i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i m p a c t o f t h e f a m i l y on t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . Many a u t h o r s a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g r o w i n g n e e d f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o work w i t h f a m i l i e s . S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s ( e . g . , A m a t e a & F a b r i c k , 1984; G o l d e n , 1983; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ; M c D a n i e l , 1 9 8 1 ; W i l c o x o n & Comas, 1987) a n d b o o k s ( e . g . , G o l d e n & C a p u z z i , 1986; H a n s e n & Okun, 1984; W a l s h & G i b l i n , 1988) d e s c r i b e t h e u s e o f f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d / o r t h e r a p y i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s c h o o l p r o b l e m s . Two s p e c i a l i s s u e s o f The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r ( v o l . 2 8 ( 3 ) , 1 9 8 1 ; v o l . 2 9 ( 2 ) , 1981) a n d o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d  C o u n s e l i n g J o u r n a l ( v o l . 1 5 ( 3 ) , 1 9 8 1 ; v o l . 1 9 ( 1 ) , 1984) a r e e x c l u s i v e l y d e v o t e d t o t h e t o p i c o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . The r e c e n t e m e r g e n c e o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s t o i n v o l v e f a m i l y members i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t r e s u l t e d i n p a r t f r o m c o n t i n u e d f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1984; P a l m o e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . A n o t h e r f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s new d e v e l o p m e n t i s a s h i f t i n t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f r o m an e m p h a s i s on t e s t i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g t o a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l , e m o t i o n a l a n d a d j u s t m e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s ( N i c o l l , 1 9 8 4 ) . The a p p a r e n t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s h a s b e e n an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c h o o l ( b o t h a c a d e m i c a n d b e h a v i o r a l ) a n d p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( F r i e s e n , 1976; N i c o l l , 1984; P a l m o e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o F r i e s e n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , t h r e e r e a s o n s a c c o u n t f o r t h e g r o w i n g n e e d t o i n c l u d e f a m i l i e s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g . F i r s t , t h e r e i s i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e may be a symptom o f an u n h e a l t h y e n v i r o n m e n t . S e c o n d l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e f a m i l y a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e p r e s e n t s an i d e a l f o c u s f o r p r e v e n t i o n a n d i n t e r v e n t i o n . A n d t h i r d l y , w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y s c h o o l c o n c e p t , t h e r e a r e f e w e r b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y ; t h e f a m i l y i s b e c o m i n g t h e n a t u r a l f o c u s f o r p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y p r e v e n t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t . R a t i o n a l e s f o r f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t s a number o f r a t i o n a l e s f o r o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s ( c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d / o r t h e r a p y ) i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s . Many a r e s i m i l a r t o 33 t h e r a t i o n a l e s g i v e n f o r w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s . T h o s e d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e : 1. A t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n c a n p r e v e n t f u r t h e r a n d more s e r i o u s l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ( B e r n s t e i n , 1980) . 2. The a p p r o a c h e s u s e d i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g / t h e r a p y a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n d p r e v e n t i o n - o r i e n t e d s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s (Knox, 1 9 8 1 ) . 3. S c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o p e r s u a d e a f a m i l y t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on a r e f e r r a l f o r f a m i l y t h e r a p y (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1984; N i c o l l , 1984) . 4. C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s , a n d i n d i v i d u a l a n d g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g a r e s o m e t i m e s i n e f f e c t i v e f o r e l i m i n a t i n g p r o b l e m b e h a v i o r (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1 9 8 4 ) . 5. W o r k i n g w i t h i n a s y s t e m s p e r s p e c t i v e p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l b a s e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o many a r e a s o f s c h o o l i n t e r v e n t i o n ( F r i e s e n , 1976; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ) . 6. The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i s f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d i n t o e v a l u a t e a n d u n d e r s t a n d a c h i l d ' s c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r . T h i s may be more a c c u r a t e l y a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t o f t h e c h i l d ' s f a m i l y a t m o s p h e r e (Worden, 1 9 8 1 ) . 7. The s c h o o l a n d s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r a r e v i e w e d a s much l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o p a r e n t s t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g 34 a g e n c i e s w h i c h o f t e n c a r r y t h e s t i g m a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g " m e n t a l l y i l l " ( N i c o l l , 1 9 8 4 ) . 8. F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e s c h o o l makes t h i s s e r v i c e a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l f a m i l i e s r e g a r d l e s s o f i n c o m e ( N i c o l l , 1984) . 9. The s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i s i n t h e o p t i m a l p o s i t i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t a c t w i t h b o t h t h e c h i l d a n d a l l o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e ( D i e k m e i e r , 1989; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ) . 10. C o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e a r e q u i c k e r a n d more e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t l a s t i n g c h a n g e ( D i c o c c o , C h a l f i n , & O l s o n , 1987; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ; N i c o l l , 1984) . 11. S i n c e some c h i l d r e n a r e r e s i s t a n t t o c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e f a m i l y c a n i n c r e a s e m o t i v a t i o n t o s e e k h e l p a n d may a v o i d d e s p e r a t e a c t i n g o u t o r t h e w o r s e n i n g o f symptoms, w h i c h o f t e n s e r v e a s a means o f f o r c i n g t h e f a m i l y t o t a k e a c t i o n (Framo, 1 9 8 1 ) . 12. Many s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y o v e r t h e p a s t d e c a d e ( e . g . , d i v o r c e , s i n g l e -p a r e n t a n d b l e n d e d f a m i l i e s , t w o - c a r e e r f a m i l i e s , s u b s t a n c e a b u s e ) a r e a f f e c t i n g s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r , r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e a t s c h o o l ( B e c k , 1984; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ; M c D a n i e l , 1 9 8 1 ; N i c o l l , 1984; P a l m o e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . 35 13. The e f f o r t s o f s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l c a n e i t h e r be s u p p o r t e d o r s a b o t a g e d b y t h e f a m i l y ( G o l d e n , 1 9 8 3 ; N i c o l l , 1 984; P a l m o e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . 14. C o u n s e l l o r s c a n g a i n b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a n d p e r s o n a l l y f r o m p u r s u i n g s k i l l s i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c a n g a i n more c o n t r o l a n d a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n a b o u t t h e i r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s (Palmo e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . E f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h . To d a t e t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o e m p i r i c a l l y s u p p o r t t h e s e r a t i o n a l e s , n o r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ( e i t h e r i n a n d o f i t s e l f o r i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o g r a m s ) . T h i s i s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f b o t h t h e r e c e n c y o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g / t h e r a p y i n g e n e r a l a n d i n t h e s c h o o l s , a n d t o t h e o v e r a l l l a c k o f a d e q u a t e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e s e a r c h . A few d o c u m e n t e d p r o j e c t s a n d p r o g r a m s i n d i c a t e t h a t work w i t h t h e f a m i l y i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e c u s t o m a r y a p p r o a c h t h a t i s t y p i c a l l y c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e s c h o o l s , w h ere t h e c h i l d i s t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t a n d i n t e r v e n t i o n ( B e r n s t e i n , 1 980; D i e k m e i e r , 1 989; D o n i g a n & G i g l i o , 1 9 7 1 ) . Goodman a n d K j o n a a s (1984) c o n d u c t e d a f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g p r o j e c t i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g u s i n g H a l e y ' s (1976; as c i t e d i n Goodman & K j o n a a s , 1984) p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e t h o d o f f a m i l y t r e a t m e n t . They p r o v i d e d s h o r t - t e r m c o u n s e l l i n g t o ' f a m i l i e s t h a t w e r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l . Of t h e 13 f a m i l i e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d , 9 (64%) r e c e i v e d a t e r m i n a t i o n r a t i n g of e i t h e r problem r e s o l v e d (7) or s i g n i f i c a n t p rogress (2). Two f a m i l i e s who s t a r t e d l a t e i n the s c h o o l year r e p o r t e d some changes, two r e f u s e d ongoing s e r v i c e , and one was r e f e r r e d f o r m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Seventy-eight percent of the f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d t o the p r o j e c t were w i l l i n g t o accept s e r v i c e s without q u e s t i o n i n g the s c h o o l ' s sponsorship. Based on these outcomes, the authors concluded t h a t g i v e n the proper m o t i v a t i o n and support, s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s can develop b a s i c f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s and p r o v i d e b r i e f and e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s . They f u r t h e r recommended t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s be c a r r i e d out to compare the e f f e c t s of f a m i l y versus i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g with p r e - and p o s t - f o l l o w up t e s t s . Sloan (1986) used a c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n t o study the e f f e c t s of c o u n s e l l i n g and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n on the s e l f -concept of h i g h - r i s k elementary students with b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n s e l f - c o n c e p t s and b e h a v i o r a l q u o t i e n t s f o r both groups. He concluded t h a t t h i r d - , f o u r t h - , and f i f t h - g r a d e students who are "high r i s k " with b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s may evidence improved s e l f - e s t e e m and b e h a v i o r a l q u o t i e n t s whether they and t h e i r f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d i r e c t c o u n s e l l i n g and c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e s or whether a s s i s t a n c e i s g i v e n i n d i r e c t l y through the classroom t e a c h e r . B a s e d on t h e s e v e r y l i m i t e d r e p o r t s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members i s e f f e c t i v e , t h e r e i s n o t e n o u g h e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . F a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s a n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r . Some d i s a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n t o t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r a s w e l l a s r e g a r d i n g what f o r m t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s h o u l d t a k e ( c o n s u l t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d / o r t h e r a p y ) . The l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y o b v i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e c o n f u s i o n . Many r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o work w i t h s e v e r e l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s who r e q u i r e i n t e n s i v e a n d l o n g - t e r m f a m i l y t h e r a p y . R a t h e r , s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d p r e p a r e a n d r e f e r s u c h c a s e s t o a m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ( B e c k , 1984; G o l d e n , 1 9 8 3 ; Goodman & K j o n a a s , 1984; F r i e s e n , 1976; McComb, 1 9 8 1 ; P a l m o e t a l . , 1984; S t r o t h e r & J a c o b s , 1986; Worden, 1981) . T h e r e a r e o t h e r s who, t h r o u g h o v e r v i e w s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s a n d p r a c t i c e s , h a v e i m p l i e d t h a t f a m i l y t h e r a p y i s an a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r t o u s e (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1 9 8 1, Framo, 1 9 8 1 ; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ) . However, i t i s u n c l e a r a s t o w h e t h e r o r 38 n o t t h e s e a u t h o r s w e re s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r p r o v i d e s h o r t - t e r m o r l o n g - t e r m t h e r a p y . A n o t h e r o p i n i o n h o l d s t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d o n l y become i n v o l v e d i n b r i e f f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( G o l d e n , 1983; Worden, 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s r e q u i r e s c o u n s e l l o r s t o h a v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f a m i l y d y n a m i c s t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e t h e m t o a s s e s s f a m i l i e s , p r o v i d e s h o r t - t e r m c o n s u l t a t i o n t o p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s , a n d e f f e c t i v e l y r e f e r more d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s f o r t h e r a p y . As a f a m i l y c o n s u l t a n t , t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i s i n a c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t o move t h e more d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l y i n t o t h e r a p y (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1 9 8 4 ) . S u c h r e f e r r a l s a r e a l s o s e e n a s n e c e s s a r y f o r m a n a g i n g t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s h e a v y work l o a d ( B o b e l e & C o n r a n , 1988; D o w n i n g , 1 9 8 5 ) . C a r l W h i t a k e r h a s s a i d (McComb, 1981) t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s may a l r e a d y h a v e t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n d u c t f a m i l y c o n f e r e n c e s . He recommended t h a t f a m i l y c o n f e r e n c e s be u s e d t o p r e v e n t p r o b l e m e s c a l a t i o n a n d a l s o t o p r e p a r e a n d r e f e r t h e f a m i l y who n e e d s more i n t e n s i v e t h e r a p y . G o l d e n (1983) h a s s t a t e d t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e n e i t h e r t h e t i m e n o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t t o c o n d u c t f a m i l y t h e r a p y . He recommended a b r i e f f a m i l y c o n f e r e n c e m o d e l ( n o t t o e x c e e d 5 c o n f e r e n c e s ) i n w h i c h t h e c o u n s e l l o r c a n a s s i s t a f a m i l y i d e n t i f i e d a s " f u n c t i o n a l " t o e f f e c t i v e l y manage s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s a n d c h i l d h o o d m i s b e h a v i o r . O t h e r s ( B e c k , 1984; K e a t , 1974; Knox, 1 9 8 1 ; P a l m o e t a l . , 1984; W a l s h & G i b l i n , 1988; W i l c o x o n & Comas, 1987) h a v e a s s e r t e d t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d h a v e c o m p e t e n c i e s i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s v i e w c l a i m t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s c a n be a c q u i r e d w i t h a m a n a g e a b l e amount o f t r a i n i n g . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s want t o u s e a n d a r e u s i n g f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1 9 8 1 ; P a l m o e t a l . , 1984; W i l c o x o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . W i t h o u t e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , W i l c o x o n (1986) c o n t e n d e d t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t u a l r a t i o n a l e f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d h a v e b e e n p r a c t i s i n g t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s c h o o l s . A m a t e a a n d F a b r i c k (1981) c l a i m e d t h a t "many" s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e a t t e n d i n g s h o r t t e r m t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s a n d a r e e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l y i n g s y s t e m s p r i n c i p l e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s . They a s s e r t e d t h a t many o f t h e s e c o u n s e l l o r s a r e r e p o r t i n g more r a p i d r e s u l t s w i t h " c e r t a i n " c a s e s t h a n o c c u r r e d p r e v i o u s l y w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Lombana a n d Lombana (1982; as c i t e d i n B e c k , 1984) f o u n d t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d b y t h e f e w e s t p a r e n t s a r e t h e most d e m a n d i n g i n t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t r a i n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( i . e . , f a m i l y t h e r a p y ) . T h o s e a c t i v i t i e s n e e d e d by t h e g r e a t e s t number o f p a r e n t s a r e t h o s e t h a t r e q u i r e l i t t l e s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g a n d demand t h e l e a s t amount o f t i m e ( e . g . , b r i e f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y 40 c o n f e r e n c i n g ) . B e c k (1984) b e l i e v e s t h a t t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e l a t t e r , t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r may a l r e a d y h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g o r r e q u i r e o n l y b r i e f t r a i n i n g . I n t e r v e n t i o n m o d e l s a n d c l i e n t i s s u e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e b a t e r e g a r d i n g w h i c h f o r m s o f f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , on a more s p e c i f i c l e v e l , n e a r l y e v e r y m a j o r t h e o r y o f f a m i l y t h e r a p y o r c o u n s e l l i n g h a s b e e n recommended f o r u s e i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . A d l e r i a n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ( K e r n & C a r l s o n , 1 9 8 1 ; N i c o l l , 1 9 8 4 ) , S t r a t e g i c f a m i l y t h e r a p y (Amatea & L o c h a u s e n , 1988; L e w i s , 1 9 8 6 ) , S t r u c t u r a l f a m i l y t h e r a p y ( C a r l s o n , 1987; P e r o s a & P e r o s a , 1 9 8 1 ) , Bowen's t h e o r y o f f a m i l y t h e r a p y ( M u l l i s & B e r g e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , a n d S a t i r ' s m o d e l o f f a m i l y t h e r a p y (Knox, 1 9 8 1 ; S e l i g m a n , 1981) h a v e a l l b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s s u i t a b l e f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g . F a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r h a s b e e n recommended t o a s s i s t f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : a l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d ( P e r o s a & P e r o s a , 1 9 8 1 ) ; f a m i l i e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( L e s t e r & A n d e r s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; s t e p f a m i l i e s ( K o s i n s k i , 1983; L u t z , J a c o b s , & M a s s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s ( B a r u t h & B u r g g r a f , 1984; G r e e n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; a n d d u a l - c a r e e r f a m i l i e s ( B o s w e l l , 1981) . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g what s t e p s t o t a k e i n o r d e r t o i m p l e m e n t f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n 41 o f f e r e d . Wilcoxon and Comas (1987) have suggested t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s i n c r e a s e t h e i r understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s of f a m i l y systems theory and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . They m a i n t a i n t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s should a l s o become aware of the a v a i l a b l e f a m i l y s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r communities and the methods f o r r e f e r r i n g students and f a m i l i e s t o them, and become f a m i l i a r with c u r r e n t f a m i l y - b a s e d r e s e a r c h t o enhance t h e i r understanding of f a m i l y dynamics and to a s s i s t them i n making r e f e r r a l d e c i s i o n s . F i n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d i d e n t i f y ways to p r o v i d e follow-up f o r the student i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g once f a m i l y therapy has t e r m i n a t e d . Palmo et a l . (1984) have i d e n t i f i e d changes t h a t must occur b e f o r e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s can p r o v i d e f a m i l y t h e r a p y / c o u n s e l l i n g . F i r s t , c o u n s e l l o r s need t o be g i v e n a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g so t h a t they might have both the s k i l l s and the c o n f i d e n c e t o understand and manage a v a r i e t y of f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s . Secondly, i n order t o p r o v i d e e f f i c i e n t and c o n s i s t e n t s e r v i c e s , c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l have t o be f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r s.chedules t o a l l o w f o r s e s s i o n s d u r i n g the evenings, on Saturdays and d u r i n g summer h o l i d a y s . T h i r d l y , c o u n s e l l o r s should p r o v i d e f a m i l y therapy f o r f a m i l i e s of s p e c i a l students ( g i f t e d , e m o t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y d i s t u r b e d , and handicapped). And f i n a l l y , they should i n c l u d e other types of i n t e r v e n t i o n with p a r e n t s (e.g., parent groups). McComb (1981) b e l i e v e s t h a t f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g must be b a s e d upon t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r s , j u d i c i o u s a n d t i m e l y a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , a n d t h e c o n s e n t a n d c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r . B a r r i e r s t o f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . Many o f t h e same b a r r i e r s t h a t a r e s a i d t o h i n d e r p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o g r a m s a r e r e p o r t e d as o b s t a c l e s t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g o r t h e r a p y i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g b a r r i e r s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g l i t e r a t u r e : (a) i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e ( B e c k , 1984; G o l d e n , 1 9 8 3 ; S t r o t h e r & J a c o b s , 1 9 8 6 ) ; (b) work o v e r l o a d a n d v a s t numbers o f s t u d e n t s ( B e c k , 1984; W a l s h & G i b l i n , 1 9 8 8 ) ; (c) p a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e ( S t r o t h e r & J a c o b s , 1 9 8 6 ) ; (d) t h e a t t i t u d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( B e c k , 1 9 8 4 ) ; (e) t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g t o t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r r o l e ( B e c k , 1 9 8 4 ) ; ( f ) t h e s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f m e m b e r s h i p t o t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f  M a r r i a g e a n d F a m i l y T h e r a p y w h i c h i n t i m i d a t e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a n d r e n d e r t h e m h e s i t a n t t o e n t e r t h i s f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e (Amatea & F a b r i c k , 1 9 8 1 ; W i l c o x o n , 1 9 8 7 ) ; (g) t h e p r e s e n t r o l e o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a s d e f i n e d b y t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y o v e r b u r d e n s t h e m w i t h m e n i a l t a s k s a n d t h u s p r e v e n t s them f r o m e x p a n d i n g u p o n a n d i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g / t h e r a p y f u n c t i o n s (McComb, 1 9 8 1 ) . An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r b e f o r e t h e e l e m e n t a r y 43 s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n any f o r m o f f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t r a i n i n g ( K e r n & C a r l s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . B o t h i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g i n e x i s t i n g c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( B e c k , 1984; B o b e l e & C o n r a n , 1988; G o l d e n , 1983) a n d a g e n e r a l l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c q u i r i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g ( F i n e , 1989; G o l d e n b e r g & G o l d e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ; N i c o l l , 1984; P e r o s a & P e r o s a , 1981) a r e f r e q u e n t l y s a i d t o h i n d e r t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s . I t h a s b e e n recommended t h a t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o t a k e c o u r s e work i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h e o r y a n d d y n a m i c s o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , c o u n s e l l o r s c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f e d u c a t i o n work s h o p s , c o u r s e s , a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h one o f t h e many f a m i l y t h e r a p y i n s t i t u t e s , s e m i n a r s , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d by a c c r e d i t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , ( W i l c o x o n & Comas, 1 9 8 7 ) , a n d / o r f a m i l y t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s i n o r d e r t o g a i n s k i l l s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . They m i g h t a l s o f o r m a g r o u p o f t h e i r own, a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a p r i v a t e c l i n i c o r p r a c t i t i o n e r who w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o s u p e r v i s e o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o - t h e r a p y w i t h t h e m ( W h i t a k e r i n McComb, 1 9 8 1 ) . The R o l e o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r F o r some t i m e now, t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s l a c k o f a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n a n d i t s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . C o u n s e l l o r s a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o d e v e l o p p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r p r o g r a m s a n d t o engage i n s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t s t o i m p l e m e n t t h o s e p r i o r i t i e s ( A l l a n & R o s s , 1979; B o n e b r a k e & B o r g e r s , 1984; F u r l o n g , A t k i n s o n , & J a n o f f , 1979;' W i l g u s & S h e l l e y , 1 9 8 8 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y h a v e b e e n a s k e d t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n g r u e n c e , o r l a c k t h e r e o f , b e t w e e n t h e i r p r o g r a m s , what t h e y a c t u a l l y do, a n d how o t h e r s o u t s i d e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n v i e w t h e i r r o l e ( B o n e b r a k e & B o r g e r s , 1984; Kameen, R o b i n s o n , & R o t t e r , 1985; V a l i n e , H i g g i n s , & H a t c h e r , 1982; W i l g u s & S h e l l e y , 1988) . T h i s n e x t s e c t i o n r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o how c o u n s e l l o r s a n d o t h e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l v i e w t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . T h i s r e s e a r c h h a s p r i m a r i l y b e e n c o n d u c t e d u s i n g o n e - s h o t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s u r v e y s a n d s u f f e r s f r o m many o f t h e common m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s d e s i g n . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s e d were d e s i g n e d b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a n d f ew were s u b j e c t e d t o a p r e - t e s t , p u t t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s a t r i s k . C o n n e c t e d t o t h i s p r o b l e m o f v a l i d i t y i s t h e l o w r e s p o n s e r a t e o f many s t u d i e s ( b e l o w 60%) a n d t h e l a c k o f a t t e m p t s made t o i n c r e a s e r e s p o n s e r a t e t h r o u g h f o l l o w - u p . I n a d d i t i o n , a w i d e v a r i e t y o f t e r m s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r e s u m a b l y s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s ( e . g . p a r e n t c o n t a c t , p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , p a r e n t h e l p , p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n ) . F i n a l l y , t h e r e s u l t s a r e o f t e n v a g u e l y a n d i n c o m p l e t e l y p r e s e n t e d , l e a v i n g room f o r d o u b t s a b o u t 45 t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e a c h e r , a n d c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e p t i o n s . A l l a n (1977) c o n d u c t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d D i r e c t o r s r e g a r d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n t h e B.C. s c h o o l s y s t e m . The c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s p e r c e i v e d t o be o f g r e a t e s t i m m e d i a t e n e e d i n c l u d e d w o r k i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l y (84%) a n d i n g r o u p s ( 8 0 % ) , a n d t e a c h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n ( 8 2 % ) . F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g was r a t e d f i f t h (57%) a n d r e s p o n d e n t s commented t h a t i n s e v e r e s i t u a t i o n s , c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d r e f e r f a m i l i e s t o c o m m u n i t y a g e n c i e s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e e x t r e m e l y u n r e a l i s t i c a n d u n m a n a g e a b l e c a s e l o a d s o f c o u n s e l l o r s : 2000 t o 8000 s t u d e n t s t o 1 c o u n s e l l o r a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e recommended 500 t o 1 by t h e B.C. S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . A l l a n a n d B o l a n d (1981) c o n d u c t e d a s i m i l a r c o u n s e l l i n g n e e d s s u r v e y w i t h t h e Heads o f S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s o f 58 n o n -u r b a n B.C. s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The Head was a s k e d t o p a s s one q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t o one o f t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . The Heads ( 5 5 % r e t u r n r a t e ) i n d i c a t e d , i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y , t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s w o u l d h e l p t h e i r d i s t r i c t : i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g ( 8 8 % ) ; c l a s s r o o m management t e c h n i q u e s ( 8 1 % ) ; f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ( 7 8 % ) ; a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s ( 7 5 % ) . C o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s o f g r e a t e s t i m m e d i a t e n e e d were c l a s s r o o m management, f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d i n d i v i d u a l 46 c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n t h a t i n no other study has f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g been r a t e d over i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . The c o u n s e l l o r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study (22% return) r e p o r t e d t h a t p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s with classroom coping s k i l l s , e s t a b l i s h i n g s p e c i f i c management s t r a t e g i e s , p a r e n t i n g groups, and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g were the i n t e r v e n t i o n s they found to be the most s u c c e s s f u l . The l a r g e s t handicaps t o p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s were u n r e a l i s t i c workloads and a l a c k of time. The B.C. elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s surveyed by Medland (1976) f e l t t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s should be mainly student centered; however, i n terms of c o n s u l t i n g with s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s , they r e p o r t e d t h a t the prime r e c i p i e n t should be p a r e n t s . While 81% r e p o r t e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s should h e l p p arents understand the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e i r c h i l d may be having i n s c h o o l , only 41.8% b e l i e v e d t h i s was p r e s e n t l y happening. Seventy-six percent s a i d c o u n s e l l o r s should h e l p p arents t o p l a n more e f f e c t i v e ways of communicating with and d i s c i p l i n i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Only 38% f e l t t h i s was being done. Wilgus and S h e l l e y (1988) i n v e s t i g a t e d t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of how elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s spend t h e i r time, how the t e a c h e r s expect c o u n s e l l o r s t o spend t h e i r time, and the a c t u a l percentage of time spent i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r 19% o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' a c t u a l t i m e , o t h e r n o n - c o u n s e l l i n g j o b s a c c o u n t e d f o r 1 5 % , s t a f f c o n s u l t a t i o n f o r 14%, p a r e n t c o n t a c t f o r 8%, g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g f o r 7% a n d p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r 3% o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' a c t u a l t i m e . The r e m a i n i n g 34% o f c o u n s e l l o r s ' t i m e was d e v o t e d t o i n d i r e c t c o u n s e l l i n g f u n c t i o n s ( i e . t e s t i n g , c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n , e t c . ) . The t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d l i k e c o u n s e l l o r s t o p l a c e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n . A l l a n , D o i , a n d R e i d (1979) s e n t t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o 150 random a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . They were t o be c o m p l e t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l , a p r i m a r y t e a c h e r , a n d an i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t a s t o t h e n e e d s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . The t h r e e a r e a s o f g r e a t e s t i m m e d i a t e n e e d were i n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g , h e l p w i t h d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m s , a n d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . P r i n c i p a l s a n d t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t c o n s u l t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s was a k e y s k i l l r e q u i r e d o f c o u n s e l l o r s a n d t h i s was f o l l o w e d by l i m i t e d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . I t was s u g g e s t e d by B e c k (1984) a n d by c o u n s e l l o r s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r (May t o December, 1990) t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s a p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r t o s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' w o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s . B o n e b r a k e & B o r g e r s (1984) h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s a g r e e d on t h e c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c o n s u l t i n g f u n c t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d r e c e i v e t h e most a n d t h e l e a s t 48 emphasis. They agreed t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s and par e n t s i s important (ranked by c o u n s e l l o r s as 2nd and 4th r e s p e c t i v e l y and by p r i n c i p a l s as 3rd and 5 t h ) . Moreover, i n communication with the present author, elementary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s have expressed the view t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s should be i n t e r v e n i n g with parents more f r e q u e n t l y than they are c u r r e n t l y doing so (May t o December, 1990). Merchant and Z i n g l e (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d c u r r e n t c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s i n Canadian urban areas. They found t h a t over two t h i r d s of the respondents "conduct(ed) parent conferences t o d i s c u s s a c h i l d ' s needing h e l p i n terms of a s p e c i a l c l a s s or agency r e f e r r a l " (p.207). T h e i r r e s e a r c h a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t c r i s i s - o r i e n t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n i s frequent and c o n s u l t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g normal c h i l d development i s i n f r e q u e n t . Group work with parents i s a l s o i n f r e q u e n t . The r e s e a r c h e r s suggested t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s should put more e f f o r t i n t o t e a c h e r and parent group c o n s u l t a t i o n and group c o u n s e l l i n g with c h i l d r e n i n order t o b e t t e r cope wi t h the c o u n s e l l o r - p u p i l work l o a d . A l l a n and Ross (1979) surveyed B.C. elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c u r r e n t and i d e a l r o l e . The c o u n s e l l o r s spent 39% of t h e i r time with students (25% i n d i v i d u a l l y and 14% i n groups), 21% with t e a c h e r s , and 16% with parents (12% i n d i v i d u a l l y and 4% i n groups). When asked how they would i d e a l l y l i k e t o spend t h e i r time, c o u n s e l l o r s responded t h a t they would l i k e t o 49 s p e n d more t i m e w i t h p a r e n t s (an i n c r e a s e f r o m 16% t o 2 0 % ) . C o n g r u e n t w i t h t h i s f i n d i n g w e r e t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' r e p o r t s t h a t t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o be more i n v o l v e d i n p r e v e n t a t i v e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . " O v e r l o a d " a n d " l a c k o f t i m e " w e r e t h e m a i n i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s t o s u c c e s s f u l r o l e f u l f i l m e n t . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n C a l i f o r n i a r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e amount o f t i m e t h e y a c t u a l l y s p e n d a n d w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o s p e n d i n a number o f r o l e a c t i v i t i e s ( F u r l o n g , A t k i n s o n , & J a n o f f , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e s e c o u n s e l l o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r t i m e i s a c t u a l l y s p e n t p e r f o r m i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r : c o u n s e l l i n g , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s , p u p i l a p p r a i s a l , a n d p a r e n t h e l p . I d e a l l y t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o s p e n d t h e i r t i m e : c o u n s e l l i n g , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t h e l p , a n d c h a n g e a g e n t . However, a 38% r e t u r n r a t e must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when j u d g i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e r e s u l t s . M o r s e a n d R u s s e l l (1988) i n v e s t i g a t e d K a n s a s e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r a c t u a l a n d i d e a l r o l e s a n d t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e s e r o l e s . P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n was n o t r a n k e d among t h e f i v e h i g h e s t r o l e f u n c t i o n s a n d no r e p o r t s w e r e g i v e n a s t o w h ere i t was r a n k e d f o r e i t h e r t h e a c t u a l o r i d e a l r o l e . However t h e a u t h o r s d i d r e p o r t t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d t e a c h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n a s s i m i l a r r o l e s a n d w o u l d l i k e t o be more i n v o l v e d i n b o t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , 50 c o n f l i c t was f o u n d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l a n d i d e a l r o l e f u n c t i o n s a n d p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n h a d one o f t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . Once a g a i n , h o w e v e r , t h i s s t u d y c o n t a i n s many o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , a f a c t w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s . The m a j o r i t y o f c o u n s e l l o r s r e s p o n d i n g t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t i n 5 C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s ( C a r r e i r o & S c h u l z , 1988) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y s p e n t l i t t l e a c t u a l t i m e i n c o n t a c t w i t h p a r e n t s . However, t h e y r a n k e d t h i s a c t i v i t y h i g h i n v a l u e a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o s p e n d more t i m e c o n t a c t i n g p a r e n t s . To d a t e t h e r e i s o n l y one u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y , a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n c a r r i e d o u t by B e c k ( 1 9 8 4 ) , t h a t f o c u s e s d i r e c t l y on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o w a r d t h e i r r o l e w i t h f a m i l i e s . T h i s s t u d y was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d m i d d l e s c h o o l s e t t i n g , as w e l l as t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a s a r o l e f u n c t i o n . S c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n M i l w a u k e e r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : 90.4% o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s a n d 9 2 . 3 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e ; 4 0.4% o f c o u n s e l l o r s a n d 6 9 . 6 5 % o f c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d do more f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ; 8 1 . 5 % o f c o u n s e l l o r s a n d 7 8 . 3 % o f c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s f e l t t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g t o be o f f e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g w e re work l o a d ( 8 1 . 6 % ) , l a c k o f t r a i n i n g ( 7 1 . 1 % ) , a n d no s a t i s f a c t o r y t i m e ( 6 4 . 0 % ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s , l a c k o f t r a i n i n g ( 8 4 . 6 % ) , w ork l o a d ( 8 0 . 8 % ) , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e (65.4%) were t h e most s e v e r e b a r r i e r s . R o l e c o n t r o v e r s y . Any a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r r e q u i r e s t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s d e t e r m i n e what t h e i r f u n c t i o n s a r e , p r o v i d e r a t i o n a l e s f o r t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , a n d c o m m u n i c a t e t h e i r r o l e a n d f u n c t i o n s t o b o t h t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . Many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e w a r n e d t h a t i f c o u n s e l l o r s do n o t t a k e t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e s t a t u s quo w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d ; o t h e r s o u t s i d e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o f e s s i o n w i l l d i c t a t e c o u n s e l l o r s ' r o l e (Boy, 1972; Day, 1980; S c h r a d e r , 1989; W i l g u s & S h e l l e y , 1 9 8 8 ) . C o u n s e l l o r s a r e t o l d b y t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , s t u d e n t s , a n d p a r e n t s what t h e i r r o l e o u g h t t o b e . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o meet t h e demands o f s o many o t h e r s , t h e y h a v e f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r i d e n t i t y ( C a r r , 1979; V a l i n e e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o c r i t i c i s m b y o u t s i d e f o r c e s i s t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' l a c k o f a l e g a l l y 52 i d e n t i f i e d o r w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d s e t o f s k i l l s o r k n o w l e d g e (Day & S p a r a c i o , 1 9 8 0 ) . M o r e o v e r , w i t h o u t a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e , c o n s i s t e n t s e r v i c e s c a n n o t be p r o v i d e d a n d i t becomes e a s i e r f o r l o w p r i o r i t y a c t i v i t i e s t o r e p l a c e h i g h p r i o r i t y a c t i v i t i e s . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e i r r a t e o f c h a n g e . Wrenn (1979) b e l i e v e s t h a t i n o r d e r f o r t h i s t o h a p p e n , c o u n s e l l o r s must f i r s t come t o a c c e p t t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e n o t t h e i r o n l y c l i e n t s ; t e a c h e r s , s t a f f , a n d p a r e n t s a l s o r e q u i r e t h e i r s e r v i c e s . M o r e o v e r , he h a s c l a i m e d t h a t w h i l e c o u n s e l l o r s f r e q u e n t l y c o m p l a i n a b o u t b e i n g t o l d what t o do, t h e y r a r e l y t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o make i t c l e a r t o t h e i r e m p l o y e r what t h e y b e l i e v e t h e i r f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d b e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e Boy (1972) a g r e e s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s n e e d t o e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s , he h a s a l s o a r g u e d t h a t t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d be c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s . F rom h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e b e s t way t o a f f e c t t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l i z e d w o r l d i s t o c o u n s e l t h e s t u d e n t ; h e n c e , c o n s u l t a t i o n s h o u l d be a s e c o n d a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . I f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r d o e s n o t make c o u n s e l i n g ( s t u d e n t s ) h i s m a j o r r o l e , t h e n he w i l l f o r e v e r be p u l l e d i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s d e p e n d i n g u p on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h o s e who t u g a t h i s s l e e v e (p. 168) . R e g a r d l e s s o f c u r r e n t d e b a t e s a s t o what t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e s h o u l d b e , a s W i l g u s a n d S h e l l e y (1988) so a p t l y s t a t e d : The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e d e f i n i n g t h e c o u n s e l o r ' s r o l e , c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t i n g t h a t r o l e , a n d g i v i n g l i f e t o t h e c o u n s e l o r o f t h e f u t u r e l i e s w i t h i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l o r . A s u p p o r t i v e c o u n s e l o r p a r t n e r s h i p c a n f a c i l i t a t e t h i s p r o c e s s o f r e s p o n s i b l e s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n , t e a c h e r s , a n d p a r e n t s , (p.265) Day a n d S p a r a c i o (1980) h a v e a d d e d t h a t d e s p i t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n a n d c r i t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , many c o u n s e l l o r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r e d u c a t o r s t r e a t t h e s i t u a t i o n a s an o l d i s s u e a n d do n o t a c t i v e l y a n d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a i m e d a t f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e . 54 CHAPTER 3 METHOD T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s of t h i s s t u d y : sample, d e s i g n , c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a , and d a t a a n a l y s i s . These s e c t i o n s d i s c u s s t h e p r o c e s s e s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e a c c e s s i b l e sample, d e s i g n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o l l e c t t h e d a t a , and f i n a l l y t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e sample. Sample At t h e t i m e t h a t t h i s s t u d y was conducted, t h e r e e x i s t e d no e s t a b l i s h e d l i s t i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s was due i n p a r t t o a l a c k o f d i r e c t p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g f o r t h e s e programs p r i o r t o September 1990, as w e l l as t o t h e u n s p e c i f i e d membership r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e B.C. S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s membership l i s t i n g does not d i s t i n g u i s h between e l e m e n t a r y and secondary c o u n s e l l o r s (L. Green, p e r s o n a l communication, J a n u a r y 16, 1990; V. J o s h i , p e r s o n a l communication, November 1990). The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y was a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. To i d e n t i f y an a c c e s s i b l e sample, a l e t t e r was s e n t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r s o f e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s o f a l l 76 B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , r e q u e s t i n g t h e names and s c h o o l a d d r e s s e s o f 55 t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . F o r t y - s i x s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s i n i t i a l r e q u e s t , r e p o r t i n g 240 e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s . An a d d i t i o n a l 18 d i s t r i c t s r e s p o n d e d t o a s e c o n d r e q u e s t f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . I n t o t a l , 64 d i s t r i c t s (84%) r e p o r t e d 327 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 92% o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . D i s t r i c t s t h a t d i d n o t r e s p o n d t e n d e d t o be s m a l l a n d r u r a l , w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y do n o t e m p l o y e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s . The s a m p l e f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f t h o s e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s who c o m p l e t e d a n d r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . D e s i g n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p m e n t . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a i d e d i n t h e i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t t o be u s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y . B a s e d on t h i s i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n A u g u s t 1990 w i t h 7 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L o w e r M a i n l a n d ( B u r n a b y , D e l t a , S u r r e y , a n d V a n c o u v e r ) . I n t e r v i e w s w e r e s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , r e q u e s t i n g c o u n s e l l o r s t o comment g e n e r a l l y on t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e r o l e o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s , a n d t o a n s w e r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s l e d t o t h e f i r s t r e v i s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . "Working" d e f i n i t i o n s of the s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ( f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y therapy, parent educa t i o n , parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , parent c o u n s e l l i n g ) were a l s o developed at t h i s time. These d e f i n i t i o n s p r e f a c e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and were in t e n d e d i n i t i a l l y t o be p r e s e n t e d as an o p t i o n a l aide t o a s s i s t respondents with making d i s t i n c t i o n s between the i n t e r v e n t i o n forms. In December 1990 a second p i l o t study was c a r r i e d out with the r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , "working" d e f i n i t i o n s , and a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d stamped r e t u r n envelope were sent t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of 15 Lower Mainland elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . The accompanying cover l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d the purpose of the proposed study and requested t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p i l o t by both completing and commenting on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Of the 15 c o u n s e l l o r s , 13 or 87% responded. Of these, 2 c o u n s e l l o r s commented on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e without completing i t , r e s u l t i n g i n 11 (73%) completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s p i l o t group i n d i c a t e d t h a t they found the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to be c l e a r and easy t o complete. E i g h t y -two percent of respondents r e p o r t e d t h a t they had i n f a c t used the "working" d e f i n i t i o n s to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t h a t the o p t i o n a l component would be removed and t h a t respondents i n the 57 a c t u a l study would be asked t o use these d e f i n i t i o n s t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s adjustment was made i n an attempt t o l e s s e n the v a r i a b i l i t y between respondents r e g a r d i n g t h e i r understanding of these terms. C o u n s e l l o r comments o b t a i n e d from t h i s p r e - t e s t were reviewed and, where a p p r o p r i a t e , f i n a l changes were made t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The purpose of t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n i s t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items (see Appendix B). "Part I I , " item 2 of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked c o u n s e l l o r s t o i n d i c a t e how o f t e n they "would l i k e " t o perform 13 d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s ; item 3 of t h i s s e c t i o n asked them t o i n d i c a t e how o f t e n they c u r r e n t l y "do" perform these same f u n c t i o n s . These two q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were designed t o address r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 1 t o 3 as f o l l o w s : 1. To what extent are elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s c u r r e n t l y u s i n g each of the f o l l o w i n g s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members: f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y therapy, parent educa t i o n , parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , and/or parent c o u n s e l l i n g ? 2. To what extent would elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i d e a l l y l i k e t o use each of these forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members? 58 3. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between the c u r r e n t extent and the i d e a l extent of c o u n s e l l o r s ' use of these forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ? S i x a d d i t i o n a l d i r e c t c o n t a c t f u n c t i o n s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the r o l e of the sch o o l c o u n s e l l o r , were i n c l u d e d i n order t o p r o v i d e a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d context w i t h i n which t o e x p l o r e the frequency of use of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . As w e l l , parent c o n s u l t a t i o n was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , c o n s u l t a t i o n v i a the telephone and face t o face, t o more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the methods used by sch o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t o perform t h i s f u n c t i o n . While the author acknowledges t h a t many elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s assume other d u t i e s (e.g. program p l a n n i n g , assessment, c u r r i c u l u m development), f o r the purposes of t h i s study, i t was decid e d t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would focus e x c l u s i v e l y on d i r e c t c o u n s e l l i n g , c o n s u l t i n g , and therapy s e r v i c e s with students, s t a f f , p a r e n t s , and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e item 1 of "Part I I " asked c o u n s e l l o r s the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "In your o p i n i o n , should the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s f o r parents and f a m i l i e s be o f f e r e d by: the a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r a i n e d elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ; another h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t h i n the sch o o l d i s t r i c t ; or another h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o u t s i d e the sch o o l d i s t r i c t ? " T h i s item was designed t o address r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 4 and 5 as f o l l o w s : 5 9 4. Which forms of intervention with family members do elementary counsellors believe should be offered by the school d i s t r i c t ? 5 . Which forms of intervention with family members do elementary school counsellors believe to be appropriate to t h e i r role? The fourth item of "Part I I " of the questionnaire asked counsellors to use a rating scale from 1 (not a barrier) to 4 (large barrier) to rate nine factors i n terms of how greatly they hindered t h e i r a b i l i t y to perform each of the six d i f f e r e n t forms of intervention with family members. This item was designed to address the following research questions: 6. What are the counsellor-perceived b a r r i e r s to intervention with family members? 7. To what degree do elementary counsellors perceive these b a r r i e r s to be hindering t h e i r a b i l i t y to perform each of the six forms of intervention with family members? F i n a l l y , questionnaire item number 5 of t h i s same section addresses research question 8 which requests the recommendations of elementary counsellors for overcoming the ba r r i e r s to family member intervention. In addition to these items which s p e c i f i c a l l y address the research questions of t h i s study, elementary counsellors were requested to provide the following background information: gender; age; education and t r a i n i n g ; 60 c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; a n d w o r k - s e t t i n g f a c t o r s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s a r e b o t h c l o s e d ( L i k e r t - t y p e , a n d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e ) a n d open f o r m , a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n I n M a r c h 1 991, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l was s e n t t o e a c h o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s on t h e c o m p i l e d l i s t ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . A d o u b l e e n v e l o p e s t r a t e g y was u s e d t o p e r m i t t h e r e c o r d i n g o f n o n -r e s p o n d e n t s f o r f o l l o w - u p w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a n o n y m i t y . B o t h a c o d e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e ( s e l f - a d d r e s s e d a n d stamped) a n d a b l a n k e n v e l o p e were s e n t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . R e s p o n d e n t s w ere a s k e d t o a n o n y m o u s l y c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p l a c e i t i n t h e b l a n k e n v e l o p e f i r s t , t h e n i n t h e r e t u r n e n v e l o p e , a n d t o r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h i n one week o f r e c e i v i n g i t . The two r e t u r n e n v e l o p e s w e re s e p a r a t e d b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a s t h e y w e re r e c e i v e d , t h u s p e r m i t t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s w h i l e p r e v e n t i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a t c h i n g c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o r e s p o n d e n t s . By A p r i l 1 2 t h , 166 o r 5 0 . 8 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h a d r e s p o n d e d . A s t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e h a d d i m i n i s h e d , a f o l l o w - u p r e m i n d e r l e t t e r was s e n t a t t h i s t i m e t o a l l n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . A s e c o n d r e s p o n s e r e c o r d was k e p t a n d when a d e c r e a s e i n r e s p o n s e s was a g a i n n o t e d , a f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r a l o n g w i t h a n o t h e r c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d t o e a c h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s e c o n d f o l l o w - u p (May 9 t h ) 210 o r 6 4 . 2 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h a d r e s p o n d e d . By J u n e 1 4 t h t h i s s e c o n d f o l l o w - u p r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l 253 (77.4%) c o m p l e t e d a n d r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . D a t a A n a l y s i s The S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS-X) was u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . F o r d e m o g r a p h i c , b a c k g r o u n d , a n d w o r k - s e t t i n g d a t a ( e n t i t l e d " G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n " on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , c a s e s w e re c o u n t e d a n d f r e q u e n c i e s w e re r e p o r t e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was t o d e s c r i b e t h e s a m p l e o f B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n i n " P a r t I I " a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g w h i c h o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h e y b e l i e v e s h o u l d o f f e r e a c h o f t h e s i x f o r m s o f s e r v i c e t o f a m i l y members. The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s q u e s t i o n was r e c o r d e d a n d t a l l i e d f o r e a c h i t e m a n d t h e p e r c e n t a g e s c a l c u l a t e d . F o r q u e s t i o n s 2 a n d 3 o f " P a r t I I , " r e s p o n d e n t s w e re a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y c u r r e n t l y p e r f o r m ( q u e s t i o n 2) a n d w o u l d l i k e t o p e r f o r m ( q u e s t i o n 3) a l i s t o f 13 p o t e n t i a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . E a c h o f t h e f i v e r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s was a s s i g n e d a s c o r e : v e r y o f t e n = 5, o f t e n = 4, s o m e t i m e s = 3, a l m o s t n e v e r = 2, a n d n e v e r = 1. R e s p o n d e n t s ' s c o r e s w e re r e c o r d e d a n d s a m p l e means a n d 62 standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r each f u n c t i o n f o r both c u r r e n t and i d e a l c a t e g o r i e s c a l c u l a t e d . To determine the d i s c r e p a n c y between the c u r r e n t extent and the i d e a l extent t o which the c o u n s e l l o r s perform the d i f f e r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g f u n c t i o n s , a mean d i f f e r e n c e score was c a l c u l a t e d . Based on these mean d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s , t values were c a l c u l a t e d i n order t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c u r r e n t and i d e a l means. D e s p i t e the o r d i n a l nature of t h i s data, the t t e s t has been found t o p r o v i d e an ac c u r a t e estimate of s i g n i f i c a n c e (Borg & G a l l , 1983; Glass & Hopkins, 1984). Question 4 of "Part I I " asked c o u n s e l l o r s t o r a t e p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s i n terms of how l a r g e a hinderance they are t o pe r f o r m i n g each of the s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n with f a m i l y members. Each of the f o u r b a r r i e r c a t e g o r i e s ( l a r g e b a r r i e r , moderate b a r r i e r , s m a l l b a r r i e r , not a b a r r i e r ) was as s i g n e d a score from 4 ( l a r g e b a r r i e r ) t o 1 (not a b a r r i e r ) . Respondents' scores were reco r d e d and sample means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r each b a r r i e r -i n t e r v e n t i o n p a i r c a l c u l a t e d . Any r e p o r t e d a d d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s (open-ended p o r t i o n of q u e s t i o n 4), as w e l l as recommendations f o r overcoming b a r r i e r s (question 5) were recorded, analyzed f o r commonalities and the percentages f o r c a t e g o r i e s c a l c u l a t e d . 63 CHAPTER 4 R e s u l t s In i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s study, t h i s chapter f i r s t addresses the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n r a t e and the demographic r e s u l t s . A b r i e f summary then p r o v i d e s a context w i t h i n which t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s i n g e n e r a l . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items i n terms of the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s they were designed t o address. The chapter concludes with a summary of the r e s u l t s s p e c i f i c t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s i n g f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Returns Of the 327 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t were m a i l e d t o B.C. elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , 253 (77.4%) were completed and r e t u r n e d . Four (1.2%) of these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed by c h i l d care workers and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not be used f o r the purposes of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The remaining 249 (76.2%) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n s t i t u t e d the data f o r t h i s study. Demographic and Background R e s u l t s Tables 1 through 5 present the demographic, educa t i o n , t r a i n i n g , work experience and w o r k - s e t t i n g data f o r the c o u n s e l l o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study and who r e p r e s e n t B.C. elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . 64 T a b l e 1 D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s n % o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n d e n t s G e n d e r F e m a l e 139 55.8 M a l e 110 44.2 Age 20-29 5 2.0 30-39 58 23.4 40-49 136 54.8 50-59 42 16.9 60 + 7 2.8 T a b l e 2 E d u c a t i o n o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s 65 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c n % o f r e s p o n d e n t s U n d e r g r a d u a t e B.Ed. 92 B.A. 33 B . S c . 9 D i p l o m a i n c o u n s e l l i n g 2 D i p l o m a i n t e a c h i n g 4 Two d e g r e e s 31 D i p l o m a s i n c o u n s e l l i n g a n d t e a c h i n g 1 D e g r e e , d i p l o m a i n c o u n s e l l i n g 13 D e g r e e , d i p l o m a i n t e a c h i n g 44 D e g r e e , d i p l o m a s i n c o u n s e l l i n g 3 a n d t e a c h i n g O t h e r 15 G r a d u a t e No g r a d u a t e d e g r e e 45 M.Ed. 147 M.A. 42 M.A a n d M.Ed. 7 O t h e r 8 37.2 13.4 3.6 .8 1.6 12. 6 . 4 5.3 17.8 1.2 6.0 18.1 59.0 16.7 2.8 3.2 66 T a b l e 3 P a r e n t a n d F a m i l y T r a i n i n g n % o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n d e n t s C o u r s e s o r w o r k s h o p s t a k e n r e : W o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s 196 81.0 W o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s 226 91.1 S u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g F a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n 61 24.5 F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g 103 41.4 F a m i l y t h e r a p y 66 26.5 P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n 68 27.3 P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n 56 22.5 C o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t s 104 41.8 C o u p l e s c o u n s e l l i n g 43 17.3 67 T a b l e 4 Work E x p e r i e n c e o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s n % o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e s p o n d e n t s E l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r 2 y e a r s o r l e s s 3 o r 4 y e a r s 5 t o 9 y e a r s 10 y e a r s o r more C o u n s e l l o r o u t s i d e t h s c h o o l s y s t e m 73 29.6 63 25.5 47 19.0 64 25.9 65 26.1 68 T a b l e 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Work A s s i g n m e n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c n % o f r e s p o n d e n t s P e r c e n t a g e o f a s s i g n m e n t 5 0 % o r l e s s 60% t o 90% 100% Number o f a s s i g n e d s c h o o l s One Two T h r e e F o u r F i v e o r more C o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o 499 s t u d e n t s o r l e s s 5 00-749 750-999 1000 o r more O t h e r f a m i l y w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d a t t h e s c h o o l O t h e r f a m i l y w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t 43 44 162 36 60 60 43 49 39 25 55 127 45 118 17.3 17.7 65.1 14.5 24.2 24.2 17.3 19.8 15. 9 10.2 22.4 51.5 18.1 48.8 69 The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f summary, h i g h l i g h t i n g t h o s e r e s u l t s w h i c h a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a n d w h i c h w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5. D e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e n e a r l y e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e s o f m a l e (44.2%) a n d f e m a l e (55.8%) e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s , a n d t h a t more t h a n h a l f (54.8%) o f t h e s e c o u n s e l l o r s a r e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 40 a n d 49. E d u c a t i o n . Two h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y - s i x o r 9 1 . 1 % o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d h o l d i n g an u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e . The u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e most o f t e n r e p o r t e d was a B.Ed. ( 5 4 . 5 % ) , a n d 7 3 . 1 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e h a d t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ( B . E d , a n d / o r D i p l o m a i n t e a c h i n g ) . I n t e r m s o f g r a d u a t e l e v e l e d u c a t i o n , 8 1 . 1 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h o l d a m a s t e r s ' s d e g r e e , t h e m a j o r i t y ( 6 1 . 8 % ) , an M.Ed. P a r e n t a n d f a m i l y t r a i n i n g . The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e t a k e n w o r k s h o p s o r c o u r s e s c o n c e r n i n g c o u n s e l l i n g o r t h e r a p y w i t h p a r e n t s (81.0%) a n d f a m i l i e s ( 9 1 . 1 % ) . C o u n s e l l o r s s e e k s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g most f r e q u e n t l y f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g (41.4%) a n d c o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t s (41.8%) a n d l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y f o r c o u p l e s c o u n s e l l i n g ( 1 7 . 3 % ) . O n l y 2 7 . 3 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e o b t a i n e d s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g i n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n . Work e x p e r i e n c e . Few o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s (26.1%) h a v e p r a c t i c e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n i n s e t t i n g s o u t s i d e o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . More t h a n h a l f (55.7%) o f t h e m h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d as e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s f o r 4 o r f e w e r y e a r s . 70 Work a s s i g n m e n t . The m a j o r i t y o f B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s a r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e ( 6 5 . 1 % ) , w o r k i n 3 o r more s c h o o l s ( 6 1 . 3 % ) , a n d a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 500 o r more s t u d e n t s ( 8 4 . 1 % ) . Few (18.1%) o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d a n y o t h e r f a m i l y w o r k e r s ( c o n s u l t a n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , o r t h e r a p i s t s ) e m p l o y e d a t t h e i r s c h o o l . T h o s e t h a t w e r e r e f e r r e d t o most f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d c h i l d c a r e w o r k e r s , s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a n d " F a m i l y A d v a n c e m e n t W o r k e r s " ( j o i n t l y e m p l o y e d b y V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d a n d F a m i l y S e r v i c e s ) . N e a r l y h a l f (48.8%) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a m i l y w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h e s e c o n s u l t a n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , a n d t h e r a p i s t s w e r e most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d t o be d i s t r i c t c o u n s e l l o r s , s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c o m m u n i t y y o u t h a n d f a m i l y w o r k e r s , a n d " F a m i l y A d v a n c e m e n t W o r k e r s . " R e s u l t s Summary I n g e n e r a l t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s o f t h e i r r o l e , b o t h c u r r e n t l y a n d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r v i s i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e . C o u n s e l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s t a f f ( t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e t c . ) , a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e y w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o p e r f o r m t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t . T e l e p h o n e c o n s u l t a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s ' most f r e q u e n t f o r m o f c o n t a c t w i t h p a r e n t s ; h o w e v e r t h e y w o u l d i d e a l l y p r e f e r t o c o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s f a c e t o f a c e . E v e n s o , t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o c o n s u l t w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s more o f t e n t h a n w i t h p a r e n t s . The o n l y f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o u s e t o a n y l a r g e e x t e n t i s f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n . H e n ce, d e s p i t e a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o p e r f o r m f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y s e e t h e m s e l v e s f i r s t a s c o u n s e l l o r s t o c h i l d r e n , s e c o n d l y a s c o n s u l t a n t s t o s t a f f a n d o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h i r d l y a s c o n s u l t a n t s t o p a r e n t s , a n d f o u r t h a s f a m i l y c o n s u l t a n t s . Research Questions R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1. "To what e x t e n t a r e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s c u r r e n t l y u s i n g e a c h o f t h e s i x f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members: p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y ? " T a b l e 6 l i s t s t h e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e c u r r e n t e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y u s e 13 c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n r a n k e d 3 r d ( v i a t e l e p h o n e M=1.99 , SD=.80) a n d 4.5 ( f a c e t o f a c e M=2.18, SD=.73) a n d i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p e r f o r m e d " O f t e n . " The r e m a i n i n g f i v e f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s w e r e r a n k e d a s t h o s e f u n c t i o n s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g T a b l e 6 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r s ' Current E x t e n t o f I n t e r v e n t i o n Use I n t e r v e n t i o n n M a SD C o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s 249 1.30 .55 C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s t a f f 248 1.59 .73 P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n -t e l e p h o n e 249 1. 99 . 80 P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n -f a c e t o f a c e 249 2.18 .73 C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s 249 2.18 . 86 G r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g 249 2.53 . 93 C l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n 249 2.78 1. 03 C o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f 249 2. 92 . 93 F a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n 247 2. 93 1.02 P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n 240 3.21 . 92 P a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g 249 3.31 1.01 F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g 247 3.57 .99 F a m i l y t h e r a p y 246 4.50 .78 aMean r a n g e = 1-5 where 1 d e n o t e s " O f t e n " , 3 d e n o t e s " S o m e t i m e s " , 4 " V e r y O f t e n " , 2 : d e n o t e s " A l m o s t d e n o t e s N e v e r " , a n d 5 d e n o t e s " N e v e r " . 73 p e r f o r m e d t o t h e l e a s t e x t e n t , f r o m f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n (M=2.93, SD=1.02) w h i c h r a n k e d 9 t h a n d i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d " S o m e t i m e s " t o f a m i l y t h e r a p y (M=4.50, SD=.78) w h i c h r a n k e d 1 3 t h a n d i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d " A l m o s t N e v e r . " T h e s e r e s u l t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s a r e c u r r e n t l y p e r f o r m i n g , t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t , t h o s e f u n c t i o n s t h a t h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . They a r e c o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s " V e r y O f t e n " (M=1.30, SD=.55), a n d c o n s u l t i n g w i t h s t a f f (M=1.59, SD=.73), p a r e n t s (Ms=1.99 a n d 2 . 1 8 ) , a n d o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s (M=2.18, SD=.86) " O f t e n . " R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2. "To what e x t e n t w o u l d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i d e a l l y l i k e t o u s e e a c h o f t h e s e ( s i x ) f o r m s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members?" T a b l e 7 l i s t s t h e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y " w o u l d l i k e " t o p e r f o r m t h e s e same 13 f u n c t i o n s . The means i n d i c a t e t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d l i k e t o u s e a l l f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t e l e p h o n e p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n ) more f r e q u e n t l y . However i n r e l a t i o n t o some o f t h e more " t r a d i t i o n a l " s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , t h i s i n c r e a s e d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y r a n k i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d l i k e t o u s e f a c e t o f a c e p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n more " O f t e n " (M=1.86), t h e y w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o c o n s u l t w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s more " O f t e n " (M=1.81). Table 7 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of C o u n s e l l o r s ' Ideal Extent  of I n t e r v e n t i o n Use I n t e r v e n t i o n n Ma SD C o u n s e l l i n g students 247 1.37 .64 C o n s u l t a t i o n with s t a f f 246 1.50 . 65 C o n s u l t a t i o n with other p r o f e s s i o n a l s 248 1.81 . 69 Parent c o n s u l t a t i o n -f a c e t o face 247 1.86 . 63 Group C o u n s e l l i n g 247 2.00 . 84 Parent c o n s u l t a t i o n -telephone 245 2.02 .86 Family c o n s u l t a t i o n 247 2.33 . 90 Classroom i n s t r u c t i o n 246 2. 62 1.11 Parent e d u c a t i o n 244 2.73 .83 C o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f 248 2.89 . 92 Family c o u n s e l l i n g 247 3.03 1.15 Parent c o u n s e l l i n g 244 3. 04 1.07 Family therapy 234 3. 97 1.12 aMean range = 1-5 where 1 denotes "Very Often", 2 denotes "Often", 3 denotes "Sometimes", 4 denotes "Almost Never", and 5 denotes "Never". 75 B o t h t h e means a n d r a t i n g p o s i t i o n s o f f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n (M=2.33, SD=.90) a n d p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n (M=2.73, SD=.83) ( 7 t h a n d 9 t h r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i n d i c a t e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d l i k e t o u s e t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s more f r e q u e n t l y . H owever, t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o p e r f o r m f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n ( " O f t e n " ) more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n ( " S o m e t i m e s " ) . F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ( 1 1 t h , " S o m e t i m e s " ) , p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g ( 1 2 t h , " S o m etimes") a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y ( 1 3 t h , " A l m o s t N e v e r " ) r e t a i n t h e l o w r a n k i n g t h a t t h e y were g i v e n i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a l l o t h e r f u n c t i o n s , c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d s t i l l l i k e t o p e r f o r m t h e s e t o t h e l e a s t e x t e n t . W h i l e t h e o r d e r o f t h e f r e q u e n c y r a t i n g c h a n g e s somewhat b e t w e e n c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l f u n c t i o n s , e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o p e r f o r m t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t t h o s e same " t r a d i t i o n a l " s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e y a r e c u r r e n t l y most o f t e n p e r f o r m i n g . They w o u l d l i k e t o c o u n s e l s t u d e n t s a n d c o n s u l t w i t h s t a f f " V e r y O f t e n , " a n d c o n s u l t w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d p a r e n t s , a n d c o u n s e l g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s " O f t e n . . " R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 3. " I s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e c u r r e n t e x t e n t a n d t h e i d e a l e x t e n t o f c o u n s e l l o r s ' u s e o f t h e s e f o r m s o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ? " T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s b o t h t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s a n d t v a l u e s f o r t h e 13 c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n 76 T a b l e 8 Mean D i f f e r e n c e s B e t w e e n C u r r e n t a n d I d e a l E x t e n t o f I n t e r v e n t i o n Use I n t e r v e n t i o n Mean D i f f e r e n c e 3 t P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n -.4768 - 8 . 7 2 * * P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n -f a c e t o f a c e -.3279 - 7 . 3 1 * * P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n -t e l e p h o n e .0245 0.50 P a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g -.2705 - 4 . 3 2 * * F a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n -.6000 - 9 . 6 6 * * F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g -.5407 -7 . 92** F a m i l y t h e r a p y -.5279 - 8 . 9 0 * * C o u n s e l l i n g s t u d e n t s .0688 1.79 C l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n -.1463 - 2 . 6 7 * * G r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g -.5344 - 1 0 . 0 6 * * C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s t a f f -.0857 - 1 . 9 7 * C o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f -.0282 -0.51 C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s -.3790 - 6 . 8 4 * * a N e g a t i v e t v a l u e s d e n o t e h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y f o r i d e a l u s e . P o s i t i v e t v a l u e s d e n o t e h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y f o r c u r r e n t u s e . *p_<.05. **p_<.01. o f t e l e p h o n e p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , a l l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l mean s c o r e s f o r f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t (t=+2.601, p_=.01). Thus t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o u s e p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n ( f a c e t o f a c e ) , p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y more t h a n t h e y a r e c u r r e n t l y d o i n g s o . Of t h e 6 " t r a d i t i o n a l " c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l u s e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n ( t = - 2 . 6 7 , p_=.008), g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g ( t = - 1 0 . 0 6 , p_=.000), a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( ( t = -6.84, p_=.000). Hence t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d a l s o i d e a l l y l i k e t o p e r f o r m t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s more t h a n t h e y do c u r r e n t l y . R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 4 a n d 5. Q u e s t i o n 4 a s k s " W h i c h f o r m s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members do e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e s h o u l d be o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? " Q u e s t i o n 5 a s k s : "Which f o r m s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members do e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e ? " I n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s t h e s e two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d c o u n s e l l o r s t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , a n o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r e m p l o y e d b y t h e d i s t r i c t , o r a n o t h e r 78 T a b l e 9 H e l p i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l R o l e A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r F a m i l y Member  I n t e r v e n t i o n s C o u n s e l l o r I n t e r v e n t i o n n % S c h o o l % D i s t r i c t % O t h e r P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n 234 56.0 21.8 22.2 P a r e n t C o n s u l t a t i o n 242 97.1 2.1 . 8 P a r e n t C o u n s e l l i n g 241 38. 6 11.2 50.2 F a m i l y C o n s u l t a t i o n 242 81.4 4.5 14.0 F a m i l y C o u n s e l l i n g 241 43. 6 15. 8 40.7 F a m i l y T h e r a p y 242 7.0 14. 0 78. 9 N o t e . D i s t r i c t = a n o t h e r h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ; O t h e r = o t h e r h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s n o t e m p l o y e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . e m p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e d i s t r i c t ) t h e y b e l i e v e s h o u l d o f f e r e a c h o f t h e s i x d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . The r e s u l t s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9. " S c h o o l " a n d " d i s t r i c t " c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e n t a g e s w e re c o m b i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e s h o u l d be o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v o l v e d . P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n ( 9 9 . 2 % ) , f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n ( 8 5 . 9 % ) , a n d p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n (77.8%) w e r e i n d i c a t e d a s t h e f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s most c l e a r l y b e l i e v e s h o u l d be o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . E l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s a r e somewhat more d i v i d e d a s t o w h e t h e r p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s h o u l d be o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( 4 9 . 8 % a n d 5 9 . 4 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) o r by an o u t s i d e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l ( 5 0 . 2 % a n d 4 0 . 7 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . They c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t f a m i l y t h e r a p y i s an i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t s h o u l d n o t be t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r n o r t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( 7 8 . 9 % ) . C o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n (97.1%) a n d f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n (81.4%) a r e i n t e r v e n t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e . A l i t t l e o v e r h a l f r e p o r t e d p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n (56.0%) a s an a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f u n c t i o n , w h i l e l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g (38.6%) a n d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g (43.6%) a s i n t e r v e n t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y 80 s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . The r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 1 t h r o u g h 5 s u g g e s t t h a t , i n t e r m s o f f a m i l y members, t h e m a j o r i t y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r r o l e s h o u l d b e p r i m a r i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n . They a r e somewhat d i v i d e d a s t o w h e t h e r p a r e n t o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i s a r o l e - a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y , h o w e v e r t h e r e i s a c l e a r c o n s e n s u s t h a t f a m i l y t h e r a p y s h o u l d n o t be p a r t o f t h e i r r o l e a s s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s 6 a n d 7. Q u e s t i o n 6 a s k s : "What a r e t h e c o u n s e l l o r - p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members?" T a k i n g t h i s f u r t h e r , Q u e s t i o n 7 a s k s : "To what d e g r e e do e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e t h e s e b a r r i e r s t o be h i n d e r i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m e a c h o f t h e s i x f o r m s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members?" T a b l e s 10 t h r o u g h 15 l i s t , f r o m l a r g e s t t o s m a l l e s t , t h e s a m p l e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r -p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s e v e r i t y f o r e a c h i n t e r v e n t i o n . The means f o r "Work L o a d " i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was r a t e d a s t h e l a r g e s t b a r r i e r f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I t was r a t e d a s a " L a r g e b a r r i e r " (M=3.64, SD=.89) t o f a m i l y t h e r a p y a n d a s a " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r " (M=3.06-3.50) t o t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The means f o r "Work S c h e d u l e " i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t a n d most c o n s i s t e n t b a r r i e r ; c o u n s e l l o r s r a t e d i t as a " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r " (Ms=2.91-3.50) t o 5 o u t o f T a b l e 10 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d  B a r r i e r s t o P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n B a r r i e r n M a SD Work l o a d 241 3.44 .84 Work s c h e d u l e 241 3.15 1.00 P a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e 240 2.16 . 94 L a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s 241 1.88 1.13 R o l e d e f i n i t i o n 237 1.83 1.08 L a c k o f t r a i n i n g 240 1.50 .84 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e 239 1.33 . 68 T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 241 1.27 . 66 T e a c h e r a t t i t u d e 239 1.26 . 61 aMean r a n g e = 1 t o 4 where 2 d e n o t e s " S m a l l b a r r i e r " , 1 d e n o t e s 3 d e n o t e s "Not a b a r r i e r " , " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r " , 4 d e n o t e s " L a r g e b a r r i e r " . 82 T a b l e 11 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d  B a r r i e r s t o P a r e n t C o n s u l t a t i o n B a r r i e r n M a SD Work l o a d 240 2.70 1 .09 Work s c h e d u l e 243 2.49 1 .06 P a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e 239 1.75 . 83 L a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s 241 1.72 1 . 05 R o l e d e f i n i t i o n 236 1.29 . 65 L a c k o f t r a i n i n g 240 1.21 .57 T e a c h e r a t t i t u d e 239 1.15 .42 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e 239 1.12 .39 T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 240 1.08 .36 aMean r a n g e = 1 t o 4 where 1 d e n o t e s "Not a b a r r i e r " , 2 d e n o t e s " S m a l l b a r r i e r " , 3 d e n o t e s " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r II 4 d e n o t e s " L a r g e b a r r i e r " . 83 Table 12 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d  B a r r i e r s t o Parent Counselling B a r r i e r n Ma SD Work l o a d 239 3.31 . 90 Work schedule 240 3. 05 1.01 Role d e f i n i t i o n 236 2.35 1.16 Parent r e l u c t a n c e 238 2.26 . 93 Lack of f a c i l i t i e s 240 1.96 1.15 Lack of t r a i n i n g 239 1.59 .88 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e 236 1.57 . 88 T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 239 1.41 . 84 Teacher a t t i t u d e 237 1.36 .75 aMean range = 1 t o 4 where 2 denotes "Small b a r r i e r " , 1 denotes 3 denotes "Not a b a r r i e r " , "Moderate b a r r i e r " , 4 denotes "Large b a r r i e r " . 84 T a b l e 13 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d  B a r r i e r s t o Family C o n s u l t a t i o n B a r r i e r n M a SD Work l o a d 239 3.06 1.00 Work s c h e d u l e 237 2. 91 1.06 P a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e 237 2.14 .93 L a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s 239 2.01 1.10 R o l e d e f i n i t i o n 236 1.81 1.05 L a c k o f t r a i n i n g 238 1.47 . 81 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e 237 1.36 .74 T e a c h e r a t t i t u d e 237 1.29 . 63 T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 238 1.24 . 66 aMean r a n g e = 1 t o 4 where 2 d e n o t e s " S m a l l b a r r i e r " , 1 d e n o t e s 3 d e n o t e s "Not a b a r r i e r " , " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r " , 4 d e n o t e s " L a r g e b a r r i e r " . T a b l e 14 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d  B a r r i e r s t o Family Counselling B a r r i e r n M a SD Work l o a d 239 3.50 .87 Work s c h e d u l e 239 3.31 .94 R o l e d e f i n i t i o n 238 2.74 1 .20 P a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e 237 2.49 . 99 L a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s 240 2.30 1 .22 L a c k o f t r a i n i n g 240 2.01 1 . 05 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e 237 1.81 1 . 09 T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 239 1.59 1 .00 T e a c h e r a t t i t u d e 235 1.47 . 81 aMean r a n g e = 1 t o 4 where 1 d e n o t e s "Not a b a r r i e r " , 2 d e n o t e s " S m a l l b a r r i e r " , 3 d e n o t e s " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r II 4 d e n o t e s " L a r g e b a r r i e r " . 86 Table 15 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of C o u n s e l l o r P e r c e i v e d  B a r r i e r s t o Family Therapy B a r r i e r n Ma SD Work l o a d 228 3. 64 .89 Role d e f i n i t i o n 232 3.53 . 91 Work schedule 231 3.50 . 94 Lack of t r a i n i n g 234 2.86 1.20 Parent r e l u c t a n c e 223 2.78 1.04 Lack of f a c i l i t i e s 231 2.44 1.29 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a t t i t u d e 225 2.37 1.25 T h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 233 2.12 1.26 Teacher a t t i t u d e 222 1.73 1.00 aMean range = 1 to 4 where 1 denotes "Not a b a r r i e r " , 2 denotes "Small b a r r i e r " , 3 denotes "Moderate b a r r i e r " , 4 denotes "Large b a r r i e r " . 87 6 f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . W i t h r e g a r d t o p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , "Work S c h e d u l e " was r a t e d a s a " S m a l l b a r r i e r " (M=2.49, SD=1.06). P a r e n t R e l u c t a n c e , " " L a c k o f F a c i l i t i e s , " a n d " L a c k o f T r a i n i n g " r e c e i v e d t h e r a t i n g s o f "Not a b a r r i e r " o r " S m a l l b a r r i e r " w i t h r e g a r d t o a l l f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s e x c e p t f a m i l y t h e r a p y . " R o l e D e f i n i t i o n " was r a t e d s i m i l a r l y , e x c e p t w i t h r e g a r d t o f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y , w here i t was r a t e d a s a " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r . " " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A t t i t u d e , " " T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e , " a n d " T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n " r e c e i v e d t h e r a t i n g s o f "Not a b a r r i e r " o r " S m a l l b a r r i e r " ( M s = l . 0 8 - 2 . 3 7 ) , a n d were r e p o r t e d b y c o u n s e l l o r s t o be h i n d e r i n g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e t o t h e l e a s t e x t e n t f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o compare i n t e r v e n t i o n s b a s e d on o v e r a l l b a r r i e r s e v e r i t y , a mean s c o r e f o r a l l 9 b a r r i e r s f o r e a c h i n t e r v e n t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d . I n o r d e r o f b a r r i e r s e v e r i t y f r o m t h e l e a s t t o t h e g r e a t e s t , i n t e r v e n t i o n s w e r e r a n k e d a s : p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n (M=1.61), f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n (M=1.92), p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n (M=1.98), p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g (M=2.09), f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g (M=2.36), a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y (M=2.77). I n g e n e r a l , as t h e l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c r e a s e d , s o t o o d o e s t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o p e r f o r m i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n . 88 C o u n s e l l o r s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o r e p o r t any a d d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o w o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l y members. T h i s o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n was r e s p o n d e d t o by 126 (50.6%) c o u n s e l l o r s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s r e i t e r a t e d a n d h i g h l i g h t e d some o f t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t t h e y h a d a l r e a d y r a t e d . T h o s e most f r e q u e n t l y r e i t e r a t e d w e r e : (a) Work l o a d o r c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o (n=44), (b) i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n w o r k s c h e d u l e (n=24), (c) i n a d e q u a t e a n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s ( n =15), a n d (d) t h e b r o a d n e s s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r r o l e ( n =14). The 4 most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d a d d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s i n c l u d e : (a) A l a c k o f a d e q u a t e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t o w h i c h t o r e f e r p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s ( n = l l ) , (b) a l a c k o f f u n d i n g f r o m t h e m i n i s t r y (n=10), (c) c u l t u r a l a n d l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t (n=10), a n d (d) a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s , s c h o o l s t a f f a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ( n=10). R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 8. "What a r e t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s f o r o v e r c o m i n g t h e s e b a r r i e r s ? " O p e n-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m number 5, " P a r t I I " was r e s p o n d e d t o by 194 (77.9%) o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s . The 8 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y made b y t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s i n c l u d e : 89 1. H i r e more c o u n s e l l o r s ; decrease the c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o ; p r o v i d e more c o u n s e l l i n g time f o r s c h o o l s (n=108). Comment e.g., "There i s no way these p a r e n t / f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i d e a s c o u l d even be c o n s i d e r e d without a VERY s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the number of c o u n s e l l o r s h i r e d i n the d i s t r i c t and the c o u n s e l l o r xtime a l l o t t e d . ' " 2. P r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s with i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g , d i s t r i c t workshops and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g (n=41). Comment e.g., "More t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y therapy, a c c e s s i b l e weekend workshops, s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g . " 3. P r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s with an a p p r o p r i a t e space i n which t o work (n=34). Comment e.g., "Not the book-room, medical room, storage room." 4. Redefine, c l a r i f y and narrow the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r (n=34). Comment e.gs., "Remove ^teaching' f u n c t i o n . . . " "Reducing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e demands on c o u n s e l l o r s would a l s o permit more time t o undertake f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . " 5. Educate t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p a r e n t s and the community about the need f o r and the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r (n=27). Comment e.g., "Continued A a d v e r t i s i n g ' of the r o l e , e x p e r t i s e , and mandate wit h t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and par e n t s ; as w e l l as with other agencies i n the community." 6. Make work hours f o r c o u n s e l l o r s f l e x i b l e (n=22). Comment e.g., "Freedom t o work i n [the] evening, i n s t e a d of 90 [ d u r i n g t h e ] d a y , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g e x p e c t e d t o do b o t h . " 7. I n c r e a s e t h e c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s t o w h i c h f a m i l i e s c a n be r e f e r r e d (n=16). Comment e.g., "The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s t o w h i c h I c a n r e f e r h a s d i s a p p e a r e d o v e r t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . I f p e o p l e d o n ' t h a v e $60-$80 p e r h o u r t h e y d o n ' t r e c e i v e t h e r a p y , t h e w a i t l i s t s a r e h u g e . " 8. I n c r e a s e d s u p p o r t f r o m s c h o o l b o a r d s a n d t h e m i n i s t r y ( n = 15). Comment e . g s . , " I n c r e a s e d m i n i s t r y ( p r o v i n c i a l ) s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e f i s c a l f r a m e w o r k , p l u s d i s t r i c t s u p p o r t a n d s e r v i c e s . " I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , 21 c o u n s e l l o r s made comments d i r e c t l y s t a t i n g t h a t w o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g o r t h e r a p y i s n o t t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . One c o u n s e l l o r w r o t e : " I do n o t s e e my m y s e l f a s a p a r e n t c o u n s e l l o r , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l o r , o r e v e n a f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t . C o n s u l t i n g y e s , c o u n s e l l i n g n o . " Research Question R e s u l t s Summary The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e c u r r e n t l y u s i n g p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n " O f t e n , " f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , a n d p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g " S o m e t i m e s , " a n d a r e " A l m o s t N e v e r " p r o v i d i n g f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y t h e r a p y . They a r e c o n s u l t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e more o f t e n t h a n i n p e r s o n . E l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o c o n s u l t w i t h p a r e n t s i n p e r s o n more " O f t e n " t h a n b y t e l e p h o n e ; t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o u s e f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n " O f t e n , " p a r e n t 91 e d u c a t i o n , parent c o u n s e l l i n g and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g "Sometimes," and would s t i l l "Almost Never" l i k e t o use f a m i l y therapy i n t e r v e n t i o n s . While these semantic c a t e g o r i e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e h i g h e r i d e a l frequency r a t i n g s , t t e s t s d i d r e v e a l t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s would l i k e t o use a l l forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n , with the e x c e p t i o n of telephone parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , more f r e q u e n t l y than they do c u r r e n t l y . However when both c u r r e n t and i d e a l f r e q u e n c i e s are c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c o u n s e l l o r s ' performance of other " t r a d i t i o n a l " f u n c t i o n s , these f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s are not a p r i o r i t y . Moreover, c o u n s e l l o r s would a l s o l i k e t o be able to perform some of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s more o f t e n than they are c u r r e n t l y a b l e t o . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t elementary c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. b e l i e v e t h a t f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n and parent c o n s u l t a t i o n are the f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s most a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r r o l e . In a d d i t i o n , the m a j o r i t y r e p o r t e d t h a t i n terms of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t should be o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t (parent e ducation, parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n ) , they themselves would be the most a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l o r s to c a r r y out these f u n c t i o n s . "Work Load" and "Work Schedule" were c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d as the l a r g e s t b a r r i e r s t o p erforming each of the 92 s i x d i f f e r e n t forms o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n . " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A t t i t u d e , " "Teacher A t t i t u d e , " and " T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n " were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d as t h e s m a l l e s t b a r r i e r s t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' performance o f each i n t e r v e n t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , as t h e l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c r e a s e s , so t o o does t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o p e r f o r m i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n . A number o f recommendations were made t o overcome t h e b a r r i e r s t o f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n . Those most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d i n c l u d e : (a) h i r e more c o u n s e l l o r s ; (b) p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g ; (c) p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h a more adequate space i n which t o work; (d) r e d e f i n e , c l a r i f y and narrow t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ; and (e) educate t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p a r e n t s and t h e community about t h e need f o r and t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . 93 CHAPTER 5 Discussion T h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s u b s e c t i o n s : demographic, background and work-s e t t i n g d a t a ; t h e c u r r e n t and i d e a l e x t e n t o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n use; t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r w i t h p a r e n t s and f a m i l i e s ; b a r r i e r s t o f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n ; and c o u n s e l l o r recommendations. At t i m e s t h e s e s e c t i o n s o v e r l a p i n an attempt t o d i s c u s s t h e p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s u l t s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r a d d r e s s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations f o r f u t u r e changes and r e s e a r c h . >* Discussion, and Interpretation of Results Demographic, background, and w o r k - s e t t i n g d a t a . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f male (44.2%) and female (55.8%) e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C.. T h i s f i n d i n g was unexpected, as i t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t women g r e a t l y outnumber men i n t h i s p r o f e s s i o n . Over h a l f (54.8%) o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. are between t h e ages o f 40-49. T h i s r e s u l t i s s i m i l a r t o Beck's (1984) Milwaukee s t u d y i n which t h e average age o f c o u n s e l l o r s was 42. T h i s f i n d i n g might be a consequence o f two f a c t o r s : (a) many elementary c o u n s e l l o r s have a t e a c h i n g c a r e e r b e f o r e becoming c o u n s e l l o r s ; and (b) u n i v e r s i t y graduate c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs i n B.C. p r e f e r t o admit more "mature" and e x p e r i e n c e d i n d i v i d u a l s . R e l a t i v e l y few elementary c o u n s e l l o r s (26.1%) have been employed as c o u n s e l l o r s o u t s i d e of the s c h o o l system, while more than h a l f (55.1%) have been elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s f o r only 4 or fewer y e a r s . These r e s u l t s might a l s o r e f l e c t the p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s of many sc h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . They may a l s o be a consequence of the r e l a t i v e l y new emergence of elementary c o u n s e l l i n g as a separate p r o f e s s i o n and the recent i n c r e a s e i n the h i r i n g of elementary c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C.. Compared with the 323 B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d f o r t h i s study, t h e r e were only 97 c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d i n 1979 ( A l l a n & Ross, 1979). In t h i s study, 81.8% of the c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d having a master's degree, 59.0% of which h e l d M.Ed.'s and 16.7% h e l d M.A.'s. Compared with the r e s u l t s of A l l a n and Ross (1979) i t appears t h a t B.C. c o u n s e l l o r s are more h i g h l y educated than p r e v i o u s l y (69% i n 1979) and are more f r e q u e n t l y choosing the M.Ed. (35% i n 1979) over the M.A. (27% i n 1979). Over 91% of the c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h i s study h o l d an undergraduate degree. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t while c u r r e n t l y c o u n s e l l o r s are p r o v i d i n g minimal s e r v i c e s f o r f a m i l y members, the l a r g e m a j o r i t y have taken courses or workshops 95 a d d r e s s i n g t h e t o p i c s o f c o u n s e l l i n g o r t h e r a p y w i t h p a r e n t s (81.0%) a n d f a m i l i e s ( 9 1 . 1 % ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , w h i l e c o u n s e l l o r s " A l m o s t N e v e r " u s e f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a s a m e t h o d o f i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d o n l y " S o m e t i m e s " p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l i n g f o r p a r e n t s , more c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g h a d s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g (41.4%) a n d c o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t s (41.8%) t h a n i n t h e o t h e r f o r m s o f f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g may be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n B.C. t e n d t o f o c u s t h e i r s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g component on " c o u n s e l l i n g " r a t h e r t h a n on e d u c a t i o n o r c o n s u l t a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . R e g a r d i n g t h e w o r k - s e t t i n g o f B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e m a j o r i t y w ork f u l l - t i m e ( 6 5 . 1 % ) , w o r k i n 3 o r more s c h o o l s ( 6 1 . 3 % ) , a n d h a v e a c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o g r e a t e r t h a n t h e 500 t o 1 recommended b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ( 8 4 . 1 % ) . I t i s d i s t r e s s i n g t o n o t e t h a t 5 1 . 5 % o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 1000 o r more s t u d e n t s a n d o n l y 1 5 . 9 % a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e recommended number o f s t u d e n t s . C u r r e n t a n d i d e a l e x t e n t o f u s e o f f a m i l y member  i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d i d e a l l y l i k e t o p e r f o r m a l l f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t e l e p h o n e p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e y do c u r r e n t l y . P a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n , f o l l o w e d b y f a m i l y 96 c o n s u l t a t i o n are the methods of f a m i l y member c o n t a c t t h a t they both c u r r e n t l y and would i d e a l l y l i k e t o use t o the g r e a t e s t extent ("Often"). In r e l a t i o n s h i p t o these two f a m i l y member c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t o other t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , elementary c o u n s e l l o r s are not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v o t i n g t h e i r time t o parent e d u c a t i o n ("Sometimes"), parent c o u n s e l l i n g ("Sometimes") or f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ("Sometimes") and are e s p e c i a l l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o v i d i n g f a m i l y therapy ("Almost Never"). These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with the su g g e s t i o n made by a number of authors t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o v i d e s the means to d e a l with unmanageable c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o s (e.g., Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1978; Merchant & Z i n g l e , 1977; Umansky & Holloway, 1984). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n t h i s study, the frequency of both c u r r e n t and i d e a l performance decreases as the d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n c r e a s e s . B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s c u r r e n t l y perform t o the g r e a t e s t extent those f u n c t i o n s which can most e a s i l y be performed w i t h i n the sch o o l s e t t i n g and w i t h i n s c h o o l hours: c o u n s e l l i n g students, c o n s u l t a t i o n with s t a f f , and telephone parent c o n s u l t a t i o n . While these r e s u l t s might be e x p l a i n e d by such f a c t o r s as t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , r o l e d e f i n i t i o n and t r a i n i n g , they may j u s t as l i k e l y be a consequence of unmanageable c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o s and the e x p e c t a t i o n s 97 f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o work d u r i n g c l a s s hours. In f a c t , other f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study would seem t o support t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n : elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s would l i k e t o c o n s u l t with parents i n person more f r e q u e n t l y than by telephone; and "Work Load" and "Work Schedule" are the two g r e a t e s t b a r r i e r s t o the performance of a l l s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t h a t p a rents and f a m i l y are primary i n f l u e n c e s on the c h i l d , the f i n d i n g t h a t elementary c o u n s e l l o r s would l i k e t o c o n s u l t with p r o f e s s i o n a l s more f r e q u e n t l y than with p a r e n t s or f a m i l i e s was unexpected. A couple of p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s e x i s t f o r t h i s f i n d i n g . F i r s t , because elementary c o u n s e l l o r s work p r i m a r i l y i n i s o l a t i o n with minimal peer c o n t a c t , t h i s f i n d i n g may r e f l e c t a need f o r g r e a t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l support and s u p e r v i s i o n . I t i s a l s o e q u a l l y l i k e l y t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s see t h i s f u n c t i o n as c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r r o l e as c o n s u l t a n t s : by r e f e r r i n g p arents and f a m i l i e s t o other s e r v i c e s they are able t o serve more stude n t s . However the l a t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s somewhat c o n f u s i n g i n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t some c o n s u l t a t i o n with parents and/or f a m i l i e s i s necessary i n order t o make s u c c e s s f u l r e f e r r a l s t o other s e r v i c e s . I t i s a l s o s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t not onl y would elementary c o u n s e l l o r s l i k e t o be more i n v o l v e d i n classroom i n s t r u c t i o n , but they would a l s o p r e f e r t o engage i n t h i s 98 a c t i v i t y more o f t e n than i n parent e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . The author's own experience had l e d her t o assume t h a t elementary c o u n s e l l o r s were s t r u g g l i n g t o be acknowledged as c o u n s e l l o r s r a t h e r than t e a c h e r s . I t i s u n c l e a r whether t h i s r e s u l t r e f l e c t s an a c t u a l d e s i r e t o be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g or expresses comfort w i t h a r o l e w i t h which many have experience. I t can a l s o be surmised t h a t classroom i n s t r u c t i o n may be viewed as another means t o both manage and perhaps escape an overwhelming c a s e l o a d . S t i l l another p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s ; perhaps t h i s r e s u l t r e f l e c t s a d e s i r e not t o teach t r a d i t i o n a l classroom s u b j e c t s , but r a t h e r t o te a c h guidance programs (e.g., " L e a r n i n g f o r L i v i n g " ) t o classrooms of students. Morse and R u s s e l l (1988) focused p r i m a r i l y on the t r a d i t i o n a l aspects of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r r o l e , however some important comparisons can s t i l l be made with the p r e s e n t study. Both B.C. and Kansas elementary c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they would l i k e t o be i n v o l v e d i n parent c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t . In a d d i t i o n , the d i s c r e p a n c i e s found i n t h i s study between the c u r r e n t and i d e a l f r e q u e n c i e s of f u n c t i o n performance are c o n s i s t e n t with the c o n c l u s i o n s made by Morse and R u s s e l l (1988) t h a t c o n f l i c t e x i s t s between the a c t u a l and i d e a l f u n c t i o n s of elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . The r e s u l t s of the present study are not c o n s i s t e n t with those of Fu r l o n g , A t k i n s o n , and J a n o f f (1979) who found t h a t 99 t h e a c t u a l a n d i d e a l r o l e s o f C a l i f o r n i a e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a r e c o n g r u e n t . However, i n b o t h s t u d i e s c o u n s e l l o r s r a n k e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g o f s t u d e n t s a s t h e a c t i v i t y t h a t c u r r e n t l y d o e s a n d i d e a l l y w o u l d t a k e most o f t h e i r t i m e , w i t h c o n s u l t i n g r a n k e d s e c o n d , a n d p a r e n t h e l p t h i r d . A d i r e c t a n d p r e c i s e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h t h o s e o f t h e B e c k (1984) s t u d y , w h i c h f o c u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , c a n n o t be a c c u r a t e l y a c c o m p l i s h e d due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n a n d d a t a a n a l y s i s . However, a g e n e r a l c o m p a r i s o n d o e s r e v e a l some i m p o r t a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s . M i l w a u k e e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s ( B e c k , 1984) w e r e e v e n l y d i v i d e d : h a l f r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y c u r r e n t l y p e r f o r m e d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g " S o m e t i m e s , " (49.5%) a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f " N e v e r " ( 4 9 . 5 % ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , l e s s t h a n h a l f (35.6%) o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y c u r r e n t l y p e r f o r m f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g " S o m e t i m e s , " w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f (53.4%) u s e d t h i s f u n c t i o n " A l m o s t N e v e r " o r " N e v e r . " C o n c e r n i n g t h e i d e a l u s e o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , 4 0 . 4% o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s i n B e c k ' s (1984) s t u d y s a i d t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o do "More" f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . However, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t one o f B e c k ' s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e d d i r e c t l y on d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l r a t i n g s , no a d e q u a t e a t t e m p t was made t o m e a s u r e t h e s e , n o r was a n y a t t e m p t made t o d i s c u s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s r e s u l t i n a n d o f i t s e l f nor i n r e l a t i o n t o other c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . In the cu r r e n t study, r e s u l t s o f a p a i r e d samples t t e s t (t=-7.92, p=.000) between c u r r e n t and i d e a l means i n d i c a t e d t h a t B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s would i d e a l l y l i k e t o use f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g t o a g r e a t e r extent than they c u r r e n t l y do. However, i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , parent c o n s u l t a t i o n , f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , and parent educa t i o n , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g i s not a p r i o r i t y f o r B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s . Role of elementary c o u n s e l l o r s and the d i s t r i c t with  f a m i l y members. C o n s i s t e n t with the above f i n d i n g s , the m a j o r i t y of B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e t h a t parent and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n are the most a p p r o p r i a t e f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o t h e i r r o l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t only a l i t t l e over h a l f (56.0%) of the c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d parent edu c a t i o n as an a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n ; i n the past, the sc h o o l has been regarded as the most a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g i n which t o p r o v i d e t h i s s e r v i c e (Muro & Dinkmeyer, 1977). I t i s a l s o important t o h i g h l i g h t t h a t while parent and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g are not p r i o r i t i e s i n terms of time (would l i k e to perform "Sometimes"), a s i z e a b l e percentage (38.6% and 43.6% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) of the c o u n s e l l o r s b e l i e v e these t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s t o be performed by elementary c o u n s e l l o r s . An a n a l y s i s of the frequency r e s u l t s of the i d e a l extent of performance f o r these two 101 i n t e r v e n t i o n s d o e s n o t p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e f i n d i n g s . I n t e r m s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l y members, p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n w e r e a l l deemed a p p r o p r i a t e . However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s v i e w t h e i r own r o l e a s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s . I n f a c t , a n o t h e r d i s t r i c t h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be a more a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f o r p r o v i d i n g any o f t h e s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . W i t h r e g a r d t o p a r e n t c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s a r e f a i r l y e v e n l y d i v i d e d a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e l y o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( 4 9 . 8 % a n d 5 9 . 3 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) o r b y o t h e r c o m m u n i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( 5 0 . 2 % a n d 4 0 . 7 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . B a r r i e r s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s i n B e c k ' s s t u d y r e p o r t e d "Work L o a d " (81.6%) a s a b a r r i e r t o f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , n o t o n l y was "Work L o a d " r a t e d a s a " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r " b o r d e r i n g on a " L a r g e b a r r i e r " (M=3.50) t o f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , b u t i t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t o be t h e most s e v e r e b a r r i e r t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l l t h e f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t were u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . "Work S c h e d u l e " (M=3.31), r e p o r t e d a s t h e s e c o n d most s e v e r e b a r r i e r t o f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g b y B.C. e l e m e n t a r y 102 c o u n s e l l o r s , was r e p o r t e d t o be a b a r r i e r ( r e f e r r e d t o a s " L a c k o f Time") b y t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (64.0%) o f M i l w a u k e e c o u n s e l l o r s ( B e c k , 1 9 8 4 ) . W h i l e " L a c k o f T r a i n i n g " was r e p o r t e d b y t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (71.1%) o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e B e c k (1984) s t u d y , i n t h i s s t u d y i t was r a t e d a s a " S m a l l b a r r i e r " (M=2.01) t o f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s l a s t i n c o n s i s t e n c y may be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y 2 5 . 4 % o f t h e M i l w a u k e e c o u n s e l l o r s h a d t a k e n a c o u r s e i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , w h e r e a s 9 1 . 1 % o f B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e t a k e n a c o u r s e o r w o r k s h o p i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g o r f a m i l y t h e r a p y , a n d 4 1 . 1 % h a v e r e c e i v e d s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . O n l y 1 0 . 5 % o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s i n B e c k ' s (1984) s t u d y r e p o r t e d " C o n t r a c t R e s t r a i n t s " a s a b a r r i e r t o f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , w h i l e t h i s s t u d y ' s c o m p a r a b l e c o u n t e r p a r t " R o l e D e f i n i t i o n , " was r a t e d a s a " M o d e r a t e b a r r i e r " (M=2.74). However t h e r e s u l t s o f b o t h s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A t t i t u d e " (M=1.81 a n d 2 0 . 2 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a n d " L a c k o f F a c i l i t i e s " (M= 2.30) o r "No F a c i l i t i e s " (19.3%) a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l b a r r i e r s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s b y e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s . The r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g t h e ' b a r r i e r s "Work L o a d " a n d "Work S c h e d u l e " a r e a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t by A l l a n a n d R o s s ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T w e l v e y e a r s ago, B.C. e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t " o v e r l o a d " a n d " l a c k o f t i m e " were 103 the main i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s t o s u c c e s s f u l job completion. Hence, these f a c t o r s continue to h i n d e r c o u n s e l l o r s i n the performance of t h e i r r o l e . In g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g b a r r i e r s are c o n s i s t e n t with and support the r e s u l t s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d r e g a r d i n g the elementary c o u n s e l l o r s ' r o l e i n , and extent of performance of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . T h i s i s most e v i d e n t i n t h a t a l l nine b a r r i e r s were r a t e d as the l e a s t severe t o performing parent and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n , the two methods of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n that, c o u n s e l l o r s would l i k e t o perform t o the g r e a t e s t extent and deem the most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e . "Role D e f i n i t i o n , " r a t e d as a "Large b a r r i e r " t o f a m i l y therapy (M=3.53) supports the f i n d i n g t h a t the m a j o r i t y of c o u n s e l l o r s (93%) do not b e l i e v e t h i s t o be a f u n c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r r o l e . Furthermore, i n comparison t o the other f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s , a l l b a r r i e r s were r a t e d as more severe ( e i t h e r as "Moderate" or "Large") t o the performance of f a m i l y therapy, a s e r v i c e they would not l i k e t o p r o v i d e ("Almost Never"). However, t h e r e i s no way t o determine whether the s e v e r i t y of the b a r r i e r s a c t u a l l y impedes c o u n s e l l o r s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o perform t h i s f u n c t i o n , or whether a l a c k of w i l l i n g n e s s to perform t h i s f u n c t i o n strengthens the c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of b a r r i e r s e v e r i t y . Contrary t o the b e l i e f s h e l d by Umansky and Holloway 104 (1984), " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A t t i t u d e " was not r e p o r t e d t o g r e a t l y h i n d e r the c o u n s e l l o r s ' performance of any of the f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The same was found f o r both "Teacher A t t i t u d e " and " T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n . " These r e s u l t s suggest, at l e a s t from the p e r s p e c t i v e of elementary c o u n s e l l o r s , t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s , and the c o u n s e l l o r s themselves are not t o any great degree p r e v e n t i n g elementary c o u n s e l l o r s from working with parents or f a m i l i e s . Considered i n p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h the f i n d i n g s as a whole, i t would seem t h a t elementary c o u n s e l l o r s are not t h e o r e t i c a l l y opposed t o working with parents and f a m i l i e s ; they j u s t do not see these f u n c t i o n s as p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r r o l e . The f i n d i n g t h a t "Parent Reluctance" i s a "Moderate b a r r i e r " t o elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' implementation of f a m i l y therapy p r o v i d e s some support t o the c l a i m of S t r o t h e r and Jacobs (1986) t h a t parents are u n w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o c e s s . However, these r e s u l t s may be a consequence not only of parent r e l u c t a n c e but a l s o of c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g ; few r e p o r t e d t h a t they were t r a i n e d i n f a m i l y therapy and t h e r e f o r e are l i k e l y unprepared t o engage r e l u c t a n t parents and/or f a m i l i e s i n the process of therapy. The two g r e a t e s t b a r r i e r s t o f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s , "Work Load" and "Work Schedule," c o u l d e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found between what B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s are doing and what they would l i k e t o 105 be doing i n terms of working with parents and f a m i l i e s . I t may a l s o be the case t h a t these b a r r i e r s account f o r a great d e a l of the r o l e c o n f l i c t e x p e r i e n c e d by c o u n s e l l o r s i n terms of t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s as w e l l . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these b a r r i e r s becomes even g r e a t e r i n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t a number of the c o u n s e l l o r s r e i t e r a t e d "work l o a d " or " c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o " (n=44) and " l a c k of f l e x i b i l i t y i n work schedule" (n=24) when requested t o i n d i c a t e a d d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . Regarding the l a t t e r , one c o u n s e l l o r wrote of the d i f f i c u l t y i n : " . . . s c h e d u l i n g s e r v i c e s t o meet p a r e n t / f a m i l y needs while a l s o having t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the amount of time t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r puts i n t o the job." The problems of time and work l o a d are i n t e r c o n n e c t e d and the comments made by elementary c o u n s e l l o r s g i v e the impression t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n t working c o n d i t i o n s l e a d them to f e e l overwhelmed and hopeless about t h e i r jobs: "My c a s e l o a d i s so f u l l I can b a r e l y keep my head above water coping with s c h o o l i s s u e s . Even though I know i n my heart i f I had the time t o work with the home i n many cases the sch o o l problems would improve"; "The job of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r i s enormously s t r e s s f u l . " A few (n=15) c o u n s e l l o r s r e i t e r a t e d t h a t inadequate and i n a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s h i n d e r e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r y out t h e i r r o l e f u n c t i o n s . One c o u n s e l l o r wrote t h a t a " l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s i s a p e r e n n i a l problem, not 106 j u s t f o r working with p a r e n t s . I t doesn't stop me from doing anything, i t merely stops me from doing i t e f f e c t i v e l y . " C o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they worked i n " c l o s e t s , " " p r i n c i p a l s ' o f f i c e s , " " s t a f f rooms," and "nurses' rooms." However these comments are i n c o n s i s t e n t with the c o u n s e l l o r s ' mean r a t i n g s t h a t r e p o r t e d "Lack of F a c i l i t i e s " as a "Small b a r r i e r . " Other c o u n s e l l o r s (n=14) r e i t e r a t e d t h a t the broadness of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r r o l e was a major b a r r i e r t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r p arents and f a m i l i e s . One c o u n s e l l o r wrote: "I don't t h i n k i t s p o s s i b l e t o do what i s expected of us at the sch o o l l e v e l (seeing i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, c l a s s e s , c o n s u l t a t i o n ) AND see parents and e s p e c i a l l y f a m i l i e s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . " The most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d " a d d i t i o n a l " b a r r i e r s were i n d i c a t e d as such by a small number of respondents. Eleven elementary c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t a l a c k of adequate and a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the community was a b a r r i e r t o working w i t h parents and f a m i l i e s . These c o u n s e l l o r s made such comments as: " . . . f a m i l i e s have t o wait 3-4 months f o r f a m i l y s e r v i c e s or pay $50 t o $60/hour f o r p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e work. I can o f t e n see the momentum f o r change completely d i s a p p e a r i n a matter of minutes." T h i s l a c k of s e r v i c e s may account f o r the r e l u c t a n c e of c o u n s e l l o r s t o even c o n s u l t with parents or f a m i l i e s , s i n c e they have few r e f e r r a l r e s o u r c e s t o o f f e r . 107 Ten c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t a l a c k o f f u n d i n g f r o m t h e m i n i s t r y i s a b a r r i e r t o p a r e n t o r f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . One c o u n s e l l o r w r o t e t h a t t h e r e i s a " P o o r a t t i t u d e o f t h e m i n i s t r y t o w a r d s i t s p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e f o r t h e s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l i s s u e s o f c h i l d r e n . " The same number o f c o u n s e l l o r s (n=10) b e l i e v e t h a t c u l t u r a l a n d l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e c o u n s e l l o r a n d c l i e n t h i n d e r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o w ork w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s : " . . . i n V a n c o u v e r w h e r e I work 5 0 % - 6 0 % o f t h e f a m i l i e s do n o t s p e a k E n g l i s h . " F i n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s (n=10) r e p o r t e d as a b a r r i e r t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s , s c h o o l s t a f f , a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r : " T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o n o t s e e c o u n s e l l o r s a s p r o f e s s i o n a l s . " O t h e r b a r r i e r s t h a t were m e n t i o n e d (n=5 t o 9 ) , a n d may be i m p o r t a n t t o be a ware o f i n t h e f u t u r e , i n c l u d e : (a) m a ndate c o n f u s i o n o f t h e m i n i s t r i e s r e g a r d i n g whose r o l e i t i s t o w ork w i t h f a m i l i e s ; (b) t h e a t t i t u d e o f t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h a t c h i l d r e n c a n a n d s h o u l d be " f i x e d " ; (c) c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y ( e . g . , d u a l c a r e e r f a m i l i e s ) ; (d) a l a c k o f t r a i n i n g a n d / o r s u p e r v i s i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; a n d (e) f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , some c o u n s e l l o r s f e l t t h a t t h e s c h o o l i s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r c o n d u c t i n g f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g o r t h e r a p y . C o u n s e l l o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e l o w p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o many o f t h e f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n 108 comparison with t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y (77.9%) of the responding c o u n s e l l o r s o f f e r e d recommendations f o r overcoming the b a r r i e r s t o working with parents and f a m i l i e s . T h i s may i n p a r t be due t o the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the recommendations c o u l d be a p p l i e d to a l l forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h a t i s , both those which c o u n s e l l o r s would, and those which they would not l i k e t o perform. Furthermore, many of the recommendations (e.g., h i r e more c o u n s e l l o r s , r e d e f i n e the c o u n s e l l o r r o l e , p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e space i n which to work, etc.) can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d as i s s u e s with which c o u n s e l l o r s have been g e n e r a l l y concerned f o r some time. The f o l l o w i n g i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the e i g h t most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d recommendations. Overwhelmingly, c o u n s e l l o r s (n=108) recommended t h a t i n order f o r them t o be able to work with parents and f a m i l i e s , the p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o must be d r a s t i c a l l y reduced. In t h e i r words, "more elementary c o u n s e l l o r s need t o be h i r e d " or s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s must "provide more c o u n s e l l i n g time f o r s c h o o l s . " I t was suggested t h a t one c o u n s e l l o r be h i r e d f o r every elementary s c h o o l or f o r every 300 t o 400 students. Given the p r e s e n t r a t i o , t h i s recommendation makes i n t u i t i v e sense, not o n l y i n terms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n but a l s o i n terms of the r o l e c o n f l i c t g e n e r a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d by B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r s . The second l a r g e s t number (n=41) of c o u n s e l l o r s recommended t h a t i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s be p r o v i d e d t o overcome b a r r i e r s . T h i s i s s u r p r i s i n g i n t h a t "Lack of T r a i n i n g " was r a t e d as e i t h e r "Not" or onl y a "Small" b a r r i e r t o 5 out of the 6 f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Some of the suggestions t h a t were made f o r p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l l o r s with such t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e d : (a) " T r a i n i n g programs o f f e r e d through summer i n s t i t u t e s . . . ; " (b) " . . . a c c e s s i b l e weekend workshops, s u p e r v i s e d t r a i n i n g . " ; (c) " i n - s e r v i c e ... with t r a i n e d , a c c r e d i t e d , t e a c h i n g s u p e r v i s o r s i n f a m i l y systems th e o r y and p r a c t i c e . " ; and (d) "U.B.C. c o u n s e l l i n g psychology c o u l d set up a c e r t i f i c a t i o n program d u r i n g the evenings or on Saturdays t o accommodate the c o u n s e l l o r s who need a r e f r e s h e r course or t o l e a r n how to work with f a m i l i e s . " T h i r t y - f o u r elementary c o u n s e l l o r s recommended t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s be p r o v i d e d with an a p p r o p r i a t e space i n which t o work. T h i s recommendation i s c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d at a ge n e r a l l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e space, not j u s t f o r c a r r y i n g out f u n c t i o n s with parents or f a m i l i e s . One c o u n s e l l o r r e p o r t e d t h a t she i s "... o f t e n d i s t r e s s e d by the l a c k of p r i v a c y . " T h i s recommendation c o n t r a d i c t s the low b a r r i e r r a t i n g s t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s gave t o "Lack of f a c i l i t i e s " f o r a l l s i x f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s . With s p e c i f i c r e g a r d t o space f o r s e s s i o n s with two or more i n d i v i d u a l s , another c o u n s e l l o r recommended "that m i n i s t r y b u i l d i n g requirements ensure 110 f a c i l i t i e s f o r s m a l l group meetings i n each s c h o o l . " C o u n s e l l o r s (n=34) a l s o recommended t h a t the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r be narrowed, c l a r i f i e d and/or r e d e f i n e d . Many c a l l e d f o r a r e d u c t i o n or a removal of t e a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s from t h e i r r o l e . Here again, t h e r e was a sense t h a t elementary c o u n s e l l o r s a l r e a d y f e e l overwhelmed with the demands of t h e i r r o l e . I f they are t o be expected t o work with f a m i l i e s , "...the r o l e of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r i n f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s has t o be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . " However, few of these c o u n s e l l o r s made such recommendations as: "Change the r o l e d e f i n i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n s ' problems are s y s t e m i c a l l y based and c o u n s e l l i n g must i n c l u d e f a m i l y members." C o u n s e l l o r impressions of a l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l c r e d i b i l i t y are e v i d e n t i n t h e i r recommendations t h a t t e a c h e r s , p arents and the community be educated r e g a r d i n g the importance and the r o l e of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r (n=27). Given t h a t "Work Schedule" was r a t e d as the second l a r g e s t b a r r i e r t o i n t e r v e n i n g with f a m i l y members, i t i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t more c o u n s e l l o r s (n=22) d i d not recommend f l e x i b l e work schedules. Experience o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n : the author has been i n c o n t a c t with many elementary c o u n s e l l o r s who c i t e i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r work schedule as a reason f o r not I l l working with parents and f a m i l i e s , but who have made no attempt t o get p e r m i s s i o n from t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o c r e a t e f l e x i b i l i t y ; i n r e a l i t y many are r e l u c t a n t t o work evenings. Elementary c o u n s e l l o r s (n=16) a l s o recommended an i n c r e a s e i n the number of community agencies t o which f a m i l i e s can be r e f e r r e d . The l a c k of such f a c i l i t i e s i s f r e q u e n t l y h i g h l i g h t e d by such comments as: "The s t r u c t u r e of the f a c i l i t i e s t o which I can r e f e r has disa p p e a r e d over the l a s t f i f t e e n y e ars. I f people don't have $60 to $80 per hour they don't r e c e i v e therapy, the wait l i s t s are huge." F i f t e e n c o u n s e l l o r s made recommendations such as: "More support from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , board and e n t i r e s c h o o l system f o r s c h o o l based c o u n s e l l i n g . " The form t h i s support c o u l d take was suggested t o be "encouragement," " d i r e c t i o n , " and "fun d i n g . " A number of other recommendations were suggested f o r overcoming the b a r r i e r s t o p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r parents and f a m i l i e s . Although o f f e r e d by only a s m a l l number (n=6 to 12) of c o u n s e l l o r s , these recommendations may nonetheless be important t o any f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of r o l e m o d i f i c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t these recommendations: (a) " C o u n s e l l o r s networking, s h a r i n g , and problem s o l v i n g " ; (b) " i n c r e a s e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l i a i s o n w ith o t h e r agencies to c o o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e s " ; (c) " c r e a t e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r r o l e " ; (d) " c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs should emphasize more f a m i l y t r a i n i n g " ; (e) as a job requirement " a l l elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s should have t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y systems c o u n s e l l i n g and therapy"; (f) " C o u n s e l l o r s should p r i o r i t i z e t h e i r time and g o a l s " ; and (g) educate t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g "classroom management," "the s o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l needs of c h i l d r e n , " and " l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . " Rather than o f f e r i n g recommendations, a few (n=21) c o u n s e l l o r s used the open-ended q u e s t i o n t o c l e a r l y s t a t e t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t working with f a m i l i e s i n c o u n s e l l i n g or therapy i s not the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r : "Working wi t h f a m i l i e s i s not nor should i t be the r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r - cannot be a l l t h i n g s t o a l l p eople." A p p a r e n t l y f e e l i n g the p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on the s c h o o l system f o r the emotional h e a l t h of c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s , one c o u n s e l l o r wrote t h a t "Government and community need to see these s e r v i c e s as community s o c i a l demands, not as more and more demands t o be made upon the s c h o o l system." S i m i l a r l y , another c o u n s e l l o r suggested t h a t " c o u n s e l l i n g the f a m i l y needs to be done i n the community as a p a r t of s o c i e t y not as a s c h o o l f u n c t i o n . " Limitations The scope of t h i s study was r e s t r i c t e d t o elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; i t s f i n d i n g s may t h e r e f o r e only be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h i s group of c o u n s e l l o r s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was 113 d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r i t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s no d a t a t o s u p p o r t i t s r e l i a b i l i t y . I n o r d e r t o h e l p e s t a b l i s h f a c e v a l i d i t y p r i o r t o a c t u a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , two p i l o t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e B.C. L o w e r M a i n l a n d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e v i s e d b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e p i l o t s . T h e s e p i l o t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t some o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s seemed t o be a f f e c t e d b y t h e i r n e e d t o a p p e a r c o n s i s t e n t a n d c o m p e t e n t . As a r e s u l t , t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s was c h a n g e d somewhat; c o u n s e l l o r s w e r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e " i d e a l " s c e n a r i o b e f o r e t h e " c u r r e n t " one i n an a t t e m p t t o l e s s e n t h i s t e n d e n c y t o " l o o k g o o d . " E v e n t h o u g h a d i s c r e p a n c y was f o u n d b e t w e e n c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l p e r f o r m a n c e on most f u n c t i o n s , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e a l l t e n d e n c y o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o " l o o k g o o d " ; h e n c e t h i s f a c t o r may h a v e r e d u c e d t h e d e g r e e o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , w h i l e t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 7 6 . 2 % i s q u i t e a d e q u a t e , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e 2 3 . 8 % who d i d n o t r e s p o n d r e p r e s e n t a b i a s e d s a m p l i n g ( B o r g & G a l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . The r e s p o n s e r a t e may a l s o h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d b y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t r i k e s t h a t w e r e o c c u r r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . I n a d d i t i o n , some o f t h e comments made b y c o u n s e l l o r s who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e f o l l o w - u p m a i l i n g s s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r h a p s t h e i n i t i a l r e q u e s t t o " r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h i n one week of receiving i t , " (see Appendix B), rather than "A.S.A.P.," deterred some from responding. These factors should be considered i n future studies. Concerning the questionnaire i t s e l f , there are some changes that would be recommended i n the event that i t or a modified version were used i n the future. In "Part I" item 5 the f i r s t category should have read " 5 0 0 or l e s s " instead of " 4 9 9 or l e s s " i n order to more accurately r e f l e c t the B r i t i s h Columbia School Counsellors' Association counsellor/pupil r a t i o recommendations. For item 8 of t h i s same section "Diploma i n teaching" would have been better described as "Diploma or C e r t i f i c a t e i n teaching" i n order to more accurately r e f l e c t the language used i n B.C. to describe such t r a i n i n g (see Appendix B). Many counsellors appeared to misunderstand the actual intent of item 12 of "Part I" and responded i n terms of whether or not any type of consultant, counsellor or therapist was employed at t h e i r school or i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . This item could have been more accurately written as: "Are there any other family counsellors, family consultants, and/or family therapists employed..." i n order to more c l e a r l y specify "family" workers. The questionnaire's request for written descriptions of these helping professionals assisted i n the inter p r e t a t i o n and categorization of these responses; however, the accuracy of t h i s information was unavoidably lessened. 115 F i n a l l y , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i n "Part I I , " item 1 the c o u n s e l l o r s were i n s t r u c t e d to choose on l y one response, some r e p o r t e d t h a t c e r t a i n parent and/or f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s should be o f f e r e d by more than one type of h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l . Since t h i s study was i n t e r e s t e d i n c o u n s e l l o r p e r c e p t i o n s of the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s to the elementary c o u n s e l l o r r o l e and t o the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , m u l t i p l e responses were p r i o r i t i z e d as f o l l o w s : any time a respondent checked "School C o u n s e l l o r , " t h i s response was recorded, and others ignored; i f they checked "Another In s i d e the School D i s t r i c t " as w e l l as "Another Outside the School D i s t r i c t , " the former was recorded. These i s s u e s may have been more a c c u r a t e l y addressed i f c o n t a i n e d i n t h r e e separate items. I m p l i c a t i o n s and F u t u r e Recommendations While the p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l i n g , i t i s hoped t h a t some of t h i s study's f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be u s e f u l t o those i n v o l v e d i n the development and implementation of elementary c o u n s e l l i n g programs i n other r e g i o n s of Canada. Recommendations r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r p a r e n t s and  f a m i l i e s . Elementary c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. b e l i e v e t h a t parent c o n s u l t a t i o n and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n are the two most a p p r o p r i a t e forms of f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n t o t h e i r r o l e . Moreover, they would l i k e t o be i n v o l v e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s "Often." However t h e r e are a number of b a r r i e r s which c o u n s e l l o r s p e r c e i v e t o be h i n d e r i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e such s e r v i c e s , or f o r t h a t matter, any other form of s e r v i c e t o parents or f a m i l i e s . Given these f i n d i n g s , i n combination with c o u n s e l l o r recommendations as w e l l as the u n d e r l y i n g assumption t h a t elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g programs should o f f e r some form of s e r v i c e t o parents and/or f a m i l i e s , i t i s recommended t h a t elementary c o u n s e l l o r s and those i n v o l v e d i n the t r a i n i n g and h i r i n g of these p r o f e s s i o n a l s begin t o a c t i v e l y work towards making parent and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d aspect of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r r o l e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the p r a c t i c a l recommendations p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s study are as f o l l o w s : 1. More e f f o r t s must be made t o decrease c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o s t o r e f l e c t the 500 t o 1 t h a t has been recommended by the B r i t i s h Columbia School C o u n s e l l o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s recommendation i s the most important,.not only i n order t o r e a l i z e the c o u n s e l l o r s ' wishes t o c o n s u l t w i t h more parents and f a m i l y members, but a l s o t o address the h i g h degree of r o l e c o n f l i c t and s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by elementary c o u n s e l l o r s . 2. Elementary c o u n s e l l o r s need both p e r m i s s i o n and support i n order t o be able t o c r e a t e f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e i r work schedules. In t h i s way they w i l l be ab l e t o meet 117 the needs of working parents without having t o overextend themselves. 3. C o u n s e l l o r educators need t o examine the congruence between t h e i r t r a i n i n g programs, the r o l e demands t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a c t u a l l y face and the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e they would l i k e t o f u l f i l . 4. Increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be taken by the p r o v i n c e ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s . 5. School c o u n s e l l o r graduate l e v e l t r a i n i n g programs should p l a c e more emphasis on i n s t r u c t i o n i n f a m i l y systems the o r y and parent and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n s k i l l s . 6. A l t e r n a t e t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s must be developed t h a t are a c c e s s i b l e to r u r a l c o u n s e l l o r s as w e l l as t o c o u n s e l l o r s who are a l r e a d y working i n the f i e l d . 7. Knowledge of and s k i l l s i n parent and f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n should be necessary job q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . 8. Since parent c o u n s e l l i n g , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , and f a m i l y therapy are not p r i o r i t i e s f o r elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , nor can they r e a l i s t i c a l l y be accomplished i n a d d i t i o n t o the many other r o l e requirements, a s u f f i c i e n t number of community resources must be e s t a b l i s h e d i n order t o accommodate r e f e r r a l s and p r o v i d e these s e r v i c e s . 9. The p r o v i s i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e space f o r c o u n s e l l o r s i n which t o work with c h i l d r e n and s m a l l groups ( i . e . , 118 p a r e n t s , f a m i l i e s , s t u d e n t s ) s h o u l d be made m a n d a t o r y i n e v e r y s c h o o l t h a t r e c e i v e s t h e s e s e r v i c e s . 10. The r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r a s a c o n s u l t a n t t o p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s must be c l a r i f i e d a n d e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h p r o m o t i o n a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n o f s c h o o l s t a f f , p a r e n t s , a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y as a w h o l e . F u r t h e r m o r e t h i s r o l e component s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s d i s t r i c t s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e c o n s i s t e n t s e r v i c e s f o r B.C. s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . 11. F i n a l l y , e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s must become more a c t i v e a n d "must assume l e a d e r s h i p i n d e f i n i n g t h e i r own r o l e , r a t h e r t h a n w a i t i n g u n t i l t h e demands a n d d e f i n i t i o n s o f o t h e r s s h a p e t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' r o l e " ( M o r s e & R u s s e l l , 1988, p . 6 1 ) . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Were some o f t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a d e c r e a s e i n c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o , t o be r e a l i z e d , i t w o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o c a r r y o u t a n o t h e r s i m i l a r s t u d y i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t s o f b a r r i e r r e d u c t i o n on t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' c u r r e n t a n d i d e a l d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s t o p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . An e d u c a t i o n a l a n d t r a i n i n g n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t w o u l d h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n , t i m i n g , f o r m , a n d c o n t e n t n e e d s o f e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l l o r s i n t e r m s o f p a r e n t a n d f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . S i n c e t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r a f f e c t s a n d i s a f f e c t e d by many p o p u l a t i o n s , i t w o u l d be 119 worthwhile t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p e r c e p t i o n s and needs of these groups. Students, parents, and sc h o o l p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be c o n s u l t e d r e g a r d i n g the c u r r e n t and i d e a l r o l e of the elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r with parents and f a m i l i e s , and/or the needs of students, parents and f a m i l i e s c o u l d be asse s s e d r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . Perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , a gr e a t d e a l more r e s e a r c h needs t o be conducted i n order t o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of sc h o o l based f a m i l y member i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n comparison with the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t focus p r i m a r i l y on the i n d i v i d u a l student. 120 R e f e r e n c e s A d l e r , A. ( 1 9 2 7 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g human n a t u r e . T r a n s l a t e d b y W. B. W o l f e . G a r d e n C i t y , N.Y.: G a r d e n C i t y . A l l a n , J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The n e e d f o r t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e B.C. s c h o o l s y s t e m . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 11, 3 3 - 3 9 . A l l a n , J . , & B o l a n d , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g i n n o n - u r b a n a r e a s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The B.C. C o u n s e l l o r , 3., 30-37. A l l a n , J . , D o i , K., & R e i d , C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . N e e d a s s e s s m e n t : A s u r v e y o f p r i n c i p a l s , p r i m a r y a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e i n B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 14, 2 7 - 3 1 . A l l a n , J . , & R o s s , P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A s u r v e y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. The B.C. C o u n s e l l o r , 1, 15-22. A m a t e a , E. S., & F a b r i c k , F. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . M o v i n g a f a m i l y i n t o t h e r a p y : C r i t i c a l r e f e r r a l i s s u e s f o r t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 31, 2 8 5 - 2 9 4 . A m a t e a E. S., & L o c h a u s e n , L. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . B r i e f s t r a t e g i c i n t e r v e n t i o n : A new a p p r o a c h t o s c h o o l c o u n s e l i n g p r a c t i c e . 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( 1 9 8 8 ) . A c t i v i t i e s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n C a n a d a . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 23, .63-68. C h r i s t e n s e n , 0. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . F a m i l y e d u c a t i o n : A m o d e l f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 7, 1 2 1-129. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , K. A. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . P o p u l a r p r i m e r s f o r p a r e n t s . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 33, 3 5 9 - 3 6 9 . C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , K. A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n a n d P o l i c y A n a l y s i s , 3^ 4 7 - 5 8. C o l d i c u t t , P., G r e e n , L., & J o p s o n , G. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n b r i e f t o t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n . 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S o c i a l Work i n E d u c a t i o n , 8, 14-30. Framo, J . L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F a m i l y t h e o r y a n d t h e r a p y . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 15, 2 0 5 - 2 1 3 . F r a z i e r , F., & M a t t h e s , W. A. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n : A c o m p a r i s o n o f A d l e r i a n a n d b e h a v i o r a l a p p r o a c h e s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 9_, 31-38. F r e u d , S. ( 1 9 2 9 ) . G r o u p p s y c h o l o g y a n d t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e eg o . N.Y.: Bantam. F r i e s e n , J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . F a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g : A new f r o n t i e r f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 10, 180-184. F r i e s e n , J . D., & D e r , D. F. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The o u t c o m e s o f t h r e e m o d e l s o f c o u n s e l i n g a n d c o n s u l t i n g . 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E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d  C o u n s e l i n g , 17, 1 31-136. G i n o t , H. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . B e t w e e n p a r e n t a n d c h i l d . N.Y.: A v o n . G l a s s , G. V., & H o p k i n s , K. D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s  i n e d u c a t i o n a n d p s y c h o l o g y . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . G o l d , P., & R i c h m o n d , L. J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . C o u n s e l i n g p a r e n t s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 14, 1 6 - 2 1 . G o l d e n , L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . B r i e f f a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 17, 2 8 8 - 2 9 3 . G o l d e n , L., & C a p u z z i , D. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . H e l p i n g f a m i l i e s h e l p  c h i l d r e n : F a m i l y i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h s c h o o l r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . S p r i n g f i e l d , I L : Thomas. G o l d e n b e r g , I . , & G o l d e n b e r g , H. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F a m i l y s y s t e m s a n d t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 28, 165-177. Goodman, R. W., & K j o n a a s , D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l f a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g : A p i l o t p r o j e c t . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , 63, 2 5 5 - 2 5 7 . G o r d o n , T. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . P.E.T.: P a r e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g . N.Y.: A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y . G r e e n , B. J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . H e l p i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 15, 2 4 9 - 2 6 1 . H a n s e n , J . C , & Okun, B. F. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . F a m i l y t h e r a p y w i t h s c h o o l r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . R o c k v i l l e : A s p e n . H e n r y , S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C u r r e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f p a r e n t t r a i n i n g . S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y R e v i e w , 10, 4-14. K a h n w e i l e r , W. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r a s c o n s u l t a n t : A h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w . The P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 57, 3 7 4 - 3 8 0 . Kameen, M., R o b i n s o n , E., & R o t t e r , J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C o o r d i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s : A s t u d y o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f e l e m e n t a r y a n d m i d d l e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d  C o u n s e l i n g , 20, 97-104. K e a t , D. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . F u n d a m e n t a l s o f c h i l d c o u n s e l i n g . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n - M u f f l i n . K e l l y , F. D. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The c o u n s e l o r ' s r o l e i n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 23, 33 2 - 3 3 8 . 128 K e r n , R. M., & C a r l s o n , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A d l e r i a n f a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 15, 3 0 1 - 3 0 6 . K o s i n k i , F. A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . I m p r o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s t e p f a m i l i e s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 17, 2 0 0 - 2 0 7 . Knox, B. E. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g : An i n - s e r v i c e m o d e l . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 29, 20 2 - 2 0 7 . L e s t e r , C. F., & A n d e r s o n , R. S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C o u n s e l i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n : The s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r ' s r o l e . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 29, 14 7 - 1 5 5 . L e w i s , W. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . S t r a t e g i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n o f s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 33, 37 5 - 3 7 8 . Lombana, J . , & Lombana, A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The home s c h o o l p a r t n e r s h i p : A m o d e l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s . P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 61, 35-40. L u c k e y , E. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . P a r e n t e d u c a t i o n : A f u n c t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 1_, 2 5 5 - 2 6 2 . L u t z , E. P., J a c o b s , E. E., & M a s s o n , R. L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S t e p f a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g : I s s u e s a n d g u i d e l i n e s . The S c h o o l ' C o u n s e l o r , 28, 189-194. McComb, B. (1981) . An i n t e r v i e w w i t h C a r l W h i t a k e r . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 15, 195-204. M c D a n i e l , S. H. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . T r e a t i n g s c h o o l p r o b l e m s i n f a m i l y t h e r a p y . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 15, 2 1 4 - 2 2 2 . M e d l a n d , S. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T e a c h e r s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s '  r o l e c o n g r u e n c e . U n p u b l i s h e d m a j o r p a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . Medway, F. J . , & U p d y k e , J . F. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . M e t a - a n a l y s i s o f c o n s u l t a t i o n outcome s t u d i e s . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f  Community P s y c h o l o g y , 13, 4 8 9 - 5 0 5 . M e r c h a n t , D., & Z i n g l e , H. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g u i d a n c e i n C a n a d i a n u r b a n a r e a s : A s t u d y o f p r e s e n t c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s . C a n a d i a n C o u n s e l l o r , 11, 2 0 1 - 2 0 9 . M o r s e , C , & R u s s e l l , T. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . How e l e m e n t a r y c o u n s e l o r s s e e t h e i r r o l e : An e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l  G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 23, 5 4 - 6 1 . M u l l i s , F., & B e r g e r , M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The u t i l i t y o f Bowen's t h e o r y o f f a m i l y t h e r a p y f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 28, 1 9 5 - 2 0 1 . Muro, J . , & D i n k m e y e r , D. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . C o u n s e l i n g a n d c o n s u l t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s . I n J . Muro, & D. D i n k m e y e r ( E d s . ) , C o u n s e l i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d m i d d l e s c h o o l s (pp. 3 2 9 - 3 5 6 ) . Dubuque, I A : Wm. C. Brown. 130 N a v i n , S. L., & B a t e s , G. W. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . I m p r o v i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e m e d i a l r e a d e r s : A p a r e n t c o u n s e l i n g a p p r o a c h . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 22., 2 0 3 - 2 0 9 . N i c o l l , W. G. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s a s f a m i l y c o u n s e l o r s : A r a t i o n a l e a n d t r a i n i n g m o d e l . The S c h o o l  C o u n s e l o r , 3 1, 279-284. P a l m o , A. J . , L o w r y , L. A., W e l d o n , D. P., & S c i o s c i a , T. M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S c h o o l s a n d f a m i l y : F u t u r e p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 3 1, 2 7 2 - 2 7 8 . P e r o s a , L. M., & P e r o s a , S. L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r ' s u s e o f s t r u c t u r a l f a m i l y t h e r a p y w i t h l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 29, 1 5 2 - 1 5 5 . S a p o n - S h e v i n , M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . E t h i c a l i s s u e s i n p a r e n t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 16, 34 1 - 3 4 7 . S c h r a d e r , M. K. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . The image o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r : Whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 36, 2 2 9 - 2 3 3 . S e l i g m a n , L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . An a p p l i c a t i o n o f S a t i r ' s m o d e l o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 29, 133-139. Shaw, M. C. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The f e a s i b i l i t y o f p a r e n t g r o u p c o u n s e l i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l G u i d a n c e a n d C o u n s e l i n g , 4_, 4 3 - 5 3 . S i m o n , D. J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e s a s t h e r a p e u t i c moments. P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 62, 612-616. S l o a n , D. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f c o u n s e l i n g a n d f a m i l y c o n s u l t a t i o n on t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t o f h i g h - r i s k e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s w i t h b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 47, 12-A. S p l e t e , H., & B e r n s t e i n , B. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A s u r v e y o f c o n s u l t a t i o n t r a i n i n g a s a p a r t o f c o u n s e l o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . P e r s o n n e l a n d G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 59, 4 7 0 - 4 7 2 . S t r o t h e r , J . , & J a c o b s , E. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . P a r e n t a l c o n s u l t a t i o n : A p r a c t i c a l a p p r o a c h . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 33, 2 9 2 - 2 9 6 . T a v o r m i n a , J . B. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . B a s i c m o d e l s o f p a r e n t c o u n s e l i n g : A c r i t i c a l r e v i e w . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 8 1, 8 2 7 - 8 3 5 . Umansky, D., & H o l l o w a y , E. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The c o u n s e l o r a s c o n s u l t a n t : F rom m o d e l t o p r a c t i c e . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 3 1, 329-338. V a l i n e , W., H i g g i n s , E., & H a t c h e r , R. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e r o l e o f t h e c o u n s e l o r : An e i g h t y e a r f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 29, 2 0 8 - 2 1 1 . W a l s h , W. M., & G i b l i n , N. J . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . F a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . S p r i n g f i e l d : C h a r l e s C. Thomas. W i l c o x o n , S. A. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . F a m i l y c o u n s e l i n g p r a c t i c e s : S u g g e s t e d r e a d i n g g u i d e f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 33, 2 7 2 - 2 7 8 . W i l c o x o n , S. A., & Comas, R.E. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C o n t e m p o r a r y t r e n d s i n f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g : What do t h e y mean f o r t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 34, 2 1 9 - 2 2 5 . 132 W i l g u s , E., & S h e l l e y , V. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r : T e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d a c t u a l f u n c t i o n s . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 35, 2 5 9 - 2 6 6 . Worden, M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y s y s t e m . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 28, 1 7 8 - 1 8 8 . Wrenn, C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P r o p o s e d c h a n g e s i n c o u n s e l o r a t t i t u d e s : T o w a r d y o u r j o b . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l o r , 25, 8 1 - 9 0 . 133 Appendix A Request f o r c o u n s e l l o r names Follow-up request T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 134 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 November 5, 1990 D e a r Head o f S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s / S u p e r v i s o r o f E l e m e n t a r y C o u n s e l l o r s : I am a M.A. c a n d i d a t e i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f D r . J o h n A l l a n ( F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ) I am c a r r y i n g o u t a s t u d y r e g a r d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s how e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s c u r r e n t l y a n d i d e a l l y p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d / o r f a m i l i e s . I w o u l d g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e i t i f y o u c o u l d s e n d me a l i s t i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n y o u r d i s t r i c t , a l o n g w i t h t h e names a n d a d d r e s s e s o f t h e i r s c h o o l s , s o t h a t I c a n m a i l my b r i e f s u r v e y t o them. P l e a s e m a i l t h e l i s t o f names a n d a d d r e s s e s t o : Dr. J o h n A l l a n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y 5780 T o r o n t o R o a d V a n c o u v e r , B.C. V6T 1L2 T h i s s t u d y w i l l a s s i s t i n b o t h t h e t r a i n i n g a n d p r a c t i c e o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Thank-y o u i n a d v a n c e f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n a n d commitment t o i m p r o v i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f o u r p r o f e s s i o n . S i n c e r e l y , Kym S a m i s T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 135 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 J a n u a r y 28, 1991 D e a r Head o f S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s / S u p e r v i s o r o f E l e m e n t a r y C o u n s e l l o r s : I am a M.A. c a n d i d a t e i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f D r . J o h n A l l a n ( F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ) I am c a r r y i n g o u t a s t u d y r e g a r d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s how e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s c u r r e n t l y a n d i d e a l l y p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d / o r f a m i l i e s . A r e v i e w o f r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f a d v o c a t e s f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . However t h i s i s s u e h a s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e d i r e c t i n p u t f r o m e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s . I n November 1990 I w r o t e t o y o u r e q u e s t i n g a l i s t i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n y o u r d i s t r i c t , a l o n g w i t h t h e names a n d a d d r e s s e s o f t h e i r s c h o o l s . A s I h a v e n o t y e t r e c e i v e d a r e p l y f r o m y o u , I w o u l d l i k e t o make a s e c o n d r e q u e s t f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s o t h a t I c a n m a i l my b r i e f s u r v e y t o them. The d a t e t o m a i l my q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d r a w s n e a r a n d i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . P l e a s e m a i l t h e l i s t o f names a n d a d d r e s s e s t o : D r . J o h n A l l a n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y 5780 T o r o n t o R o a d V a n c o u v e r , B.C. V6T 1L2 I f y o u r d i s t r i c t d o e s n o t e m p l o y any e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s o r i f f o r a ny r e a s o n y o u do n o t w i s h t o s e n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , p l e a s e l e t me know. T h a n k - y o u i n a d v a n c e f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n a n d commitment t o i m p r o v i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f o u r p r o f e s s i o n . S i n c e r e l y , Kym S a m i s Appendix B Covering l e t t e r Questionnaire T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 137 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 M a r c h 1 1, 1991 D e a r C o u n s e l l o r : The r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i s c u r r e n t l y a t o p i c o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n a n d c o n c e r n . A r e v i e w o f r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f a d v o c a t e s f o r s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h i s c o u n s e l l o r r o l e i s s u e . A s an M.A. c a n d i d a t e i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t U.B.C. u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f D r . J o h n A l l a n ( F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ; phone 228-4625) , I am i n v e s t i g a t i n g E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c u r r e n t  a n d i d e a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h i c h h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s u r v e y , i s t o d e t e r m i n e how e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. a r e c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s , a n d how t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o work w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s . I w o u l d g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e i t i f y o u c o u l d s p a r e some o f y o u r v a l u a b l e t i m e t o c o n t r i b u t e y o u r v i e w s b y c o m p l e t i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Y o u r r e s p o n s e s w i l l be u s e d t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g : t h e r o l e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r w i t h p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l i e s ; a ny n e c e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e demands made upon c o u n s e l l o r s ; a n d any n e c e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s s o t h a t t h e y more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t j o b demands a n d l e a r n i n g n e e d s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d t a k e no more t h a n 25 t o 35 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e . " W o r k i n g " d e f i n i t i o n s o f c o u n s e l l o r f u n c t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t y o u . P l e a s e do n o t p u t y o u r name on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Once y o u h a v e c o m p l e t e d i t , d e p o s i t i t i n t h e p r o v i d e d b l a n k e n v e l o p e f i r s t a n d t h e n i n t h e p r e - a d d r e s s e d s t a m p e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e . T h i s w i l l e n s u r e t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f y o u r r e s p o n s e s ; no c o n n e c t i o n w i l l be made b e t w e e n any i n d i v i d u a l a n d h e r o r h i s a n s w e r s . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e assumes y o u r c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d , o f c o u r s e , y o u h o l d t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o p a r t i c i p a t e o r t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y a t any t i m e . Please return the questionnaire within one week of receiving i t . A f i n a l r e p o r t on t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be f o r w a r d e d t o a l l B.C. s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r s o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r s . T h a n k - y o u f o r y o u r t i m e a n d i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n . S i n c e r e l y y o u r s , K y m b e r l e S a m i s D e p t . o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 138 K L K M E N T A R Y S C H O O L C O U N S E L L O R S U R V E Y : Y O U R R O L E W I T H P A R E N T S A N D F A M I L I E S KYMBERLE SAMIS The University of British Columbia 1991 139 DEFINITIONS The following are "working" definitions of six different forms of intervention with parents and families. Please use these definitions to complete the questionnaire. Because we are primarily concerned with elementary school counselling, for the purpose of this questionnaire, a family consists of at least one child and one parent or guardian. Parent Education. The counsellor facilitates educational meetings with a group of parents whose children may or may not be experiencing difficulties at school. The primary focus of these meetings is to help parents leam more effective parenting skills and to improve their relationships with their children. Parent Consultation. The counsellor assists parents to understand their child within the educational and social context of the school; provides information about school or; community programs which may be of assistance; and offers suggestions 'regardingparenting skills which may help the child to grow both at school and at home. Parent Counselling. The counsellor provides assistance to parents individually or as a couple regarding personal issues such as divorce, loss, substance abuse, family of origin influences on parenting, child behaviour influences on the marital relationship, etc. These issues usually come to the attention of the counsellor because of difficulties that the child is experiencing in school. Family Consultation. The counsellor provides short-term assistance to help a child and his or her family explore and understand the child's problem within the context of both the school and the family; provides information about community and school programs that may be of assistance; may refer the family for family counselling or therapy; and/or offers suggestions to family members about how to assist the child both at school and at home. Family Counselling. The counsellor provides assistance to help a child and his or her family resolve issues (e.g., loss, illness, single-parent family adjustment) that are linked to difficulties that the child is experiencing in school. This assistance could take the form of giving information, facilitating awareness of painful emotions, and teaching strategies for improving communication skills and problem solving. Family Therapy The therapist becomes involved in an intensive treatment process with a family in which one or more children are experiencing difficulties at school. The therapeutic process is intended to create shifts in world views, interpersonal patterns, hierarchies, roles, and rule?. Involvement and change occurs at a deeper level than with family counselling. 14 Elementary School Counsellor Survey Part I - General Information DIRECTIONS: Please check or fill in the appropriate responses to questions 1 through 12. 1. Gender: O Female O Male 2. What is your age? O 20-24 O 45-49 O 25-29 O 50-54 O 30-34 O 55-59 O 35-39 O 60-64 O 40-44 O 65+ 3. For what percentage of time are you currently employed as an elementary school counsellor? O 30% or less O 40% O 50% O 60% O 70% O 80% O 90% O 100% 4. How many schools are you responsible for1? 5. What is your counsellor/pupil ratio (i.e., how many students, in total, attend the schools for which you'are responsible)? O499orless O500->749 C>750-*999 0 1000-»1249 Ol250->1499 Ol500ormore 6. Have you worked as a counsellor outside of a school system? If yes, for how many years? -7. How many years have you been employed as-an elementary school counsellor? . 8. Please indicate if you hold any of the following undergraduate degrees or diplomas. O BEd. O BvS.W. O Diploma in guidance counselling. O- Other. O B.A. O B.Sc. O Diploma in teaching. 9. Please indicate if you hold any of the following graduate degrees. O M-Ed. O M.S.W. O Other O M.A. O M.Sc. 141 10. Have you taken any courses or workshops which specifically addressed the topic of counselling or therapy with: (a) Parents (b) Families Oyes Ono Oyes O no 11. Have you ever received supervised training in (please check): (Supervised training is here defined as at least IS hours of contact with a counsellor trainer regarding face to face work with clients). O Family Consultation O Parent Education O Counselling Adults O Family Counselling O Parent Consultation O Couples Counselling O Family Therapy 12. Are there any other family counsellors, consultants, and/or therapists employed: (a) at your school? O yes O no If yes, please explain their function. (b) in your school district? O yes O no If yes, please explain their function. Part II - Counselling Services 1. In your opinion, should the following services for parents and families be offered by: the appropriately trained elementary school counsellor; another helping professional from within the school district; or another helping professional outside the school district? Please place ONE check in each section for each item. School Counsellor Another INSIDE The School Ofstrlct Another OUTSIDE The School DIStrlo! Parent Education Parent Consultation (lace to face) Parent Counselling (individual or couple) Family Consultation Family Counselling Family Therapy 142 2. Here are some potential school counsellor functions. Please place ONE check in each section for each item in terms of how often you WOULD LIKE to perform these functions. 1 WOULD LIKE to do this: Very Often Often Sometlmos Almost Never Never Parent Education Parent Consultation (face lo lace) Parent Consultation (telephone) Parent Counselling (Individual or couple) Family Consultation Family Counselling Family Therapy Counselling Students (one on one) Classroom Instruction Group Counselling Consultation with Staff (Teachers and Administration) Counselling Staff (Teachers and Administration) Consultation with other Professionals 3. Please place ONE check for each item in terms of how often you DO these same potential elementary school counsellor functions. 1 DO this: Very Often Often Sometimes Almost Never Never Parent Education Parent Consultation (l.ico to face) Parent Consultation (telephone) Parent Counselling (individual or couple) Family Consultation Family Counselling Family Therapy Counselling Students (one on one) Classroom Instruction Group Counselling Consultation with Staff (Teachers and Administration) Counselling Sufi (Teachers and Administration) Consultation with other Professionals 143 4. Please rate each of the following items in terms of how great a barrier they are, for you as a school counsellor, to performing each of the six different forms of intervention with family members. Please choose one response for each barrier-intervention pair from the following scale: 4 = large barrier 3 = moderate barrier 2 = small barrier 1 = not a barrier Paront Education Parent Consultation Paront Counselling Family Consultation Family Counselling Family Therapy Work Load Rota Definition Work Schodulo Laokof Facilities Lack of Training Paront Reluctance Teacher Attitude Administrative Attitude My Theoretical Orientation Are there any other barriers to working with family members which have not been included in the above list? Please explain: 144 5. What are your recommendations for overcoming these barriers? Thank-you for your time and important contribution to this study. Appendix C F i r s t f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r Second f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r 146 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 A p r i l 12, 1991 Dear C o u n s e l l o r s : We hope you had an e n j o y a b l e and r e l a x i n g S p r i n g Break. Now t h a t you ar e back t o work we would r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e your t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o complete and r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e we sen t t o you i n March ( e n t i t l e d "Elementary S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r Survey: Your R o l e W i t h P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s " ) . Your v o i c e r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e r o l e o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t ! S i n c e r e l y y o u r s , Dr. John A l l a n Kym Samis U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1L2 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 147 Department of Counselling Psychology Faculty of Education 5780 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 May 10, 1991 Dear C o u n s e l l o r : In March we sent the e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a l l elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s i n B.C. (n = 327). While many have responded, t h e r e are s t i l l many others (33%) who have not v o i c e d t h e i r views about what t h e i r r o l e s hould be with parents and f a m i l i e s . Thus f a r the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the m a j o r i t y of c o u n s e l l o r s are overburdened with an unmanageable c o u n s e l l o r / p u p i l r a t i o , and are f r u s t r a t e d with the l a c k of time they have t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n alone and/or f a m i l y members. At the same time, the l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s do not take enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r changing t h e i r r o l e . The e n c l o s e d survey i s aimed d i r e c t l y at these two problems. I t s r e s u l t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be widely c i r c u l a t e d (e.g., t o the B.C.S.C.A., B.C.T.F., and d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r s ) i n order t o maximize i t s impact. However both the v a l i d i t y and f o r c e of i t s p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are l e s s e n e d with each c o u n s e l l o r who does not p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r each and every B.C. elementary c o u n s e l l o r t o have a v o i c e r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e r o l e . P l e a s e take the time t o c o n t r i b u t e your o p i n i o n s and recommendations by completing and r e t u r n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , not j u s t " f o r the sake of the c h i l d r e n " - but t h i s time a l s o f o r y o u r s e l f . S i n c e r e l y yours, Dr. John A l l a n Kym Samis 

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