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Acculturative stress, self esteem and ethnic identity among 2nd generation Sikh adolescents Sidhu, Kamaljit Kaur, 1990

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ACCULTURATIVE STRESS, SELF ESTEEM AND ETHNIC IDENTITY AMONG 2ND GENERATION SIKH ADOLESCENTS By KAMALJIT KAUR SIDHU B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1986 P.D.P., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n , THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1990 c K a m a l j i t K. S i d h u , 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Relationships between acculturative stress, self esteem, and ethnic identity were studied with 2nd generation male and female Sikh adolescents in grade 8, 9, and 10. Students were given the Cawte Acculturative Stress Scale, Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Overall, 2nd generation Sikh students were found to have a high level of acculturative stress. Within the multiple regression analysis of Acculturative Stress scores on the F u l l scale and Subscale scores of Self Esteem, significant relationships were found for the F u l l scale score and the General Self Esteem score. A multiple regression analysis of Acculturative Stress and Full scale and Subscales of Ethnic Identity did not result in any signif i c a n t relationships. A Stepwise Regression analysis included as the independent variables a l l the F u l l scale and Subscale scores for Self Esteem and Ethnic Identity. It resulted i n only three independent variables with significant b weights, General Self Esteem, Social Self Esteem and Ethnic Behaviors, which combined accounted for 43% of the variance (r=.66). Gender differences were found with males having s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and lower sco r e s on Affirmation/belonging and Social Self Esteem than females. The school that a student attended was found to be related to scores on Other Group Orientation, General Self Esteem, \ i l Home/peers S e l f Esteem, and e t h n i c l a b e l t h a t a student of the s c o r e s on the F u l l I d e n t i t y . F u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem. The s u b s c r i b e s i s a good i n d i c a t o r S c a l e and Subscales of E t h n i c i i i DEDICATION To Gian Singh Sandhu and Surinder Kaur Sandhu, I owe thanks f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y to create a family environment of open communication and encouragement w i t h i n which I always f e l t loved and needed throughout my formative years. To Joginder Singh Sidhu and Surinder Kaur Sidhu, I extend my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r multidimensional support which allowed me to complete my graduate work while minimally f u l f i l l i n g the r o l e of wife and mother. I am a l s o deeply touched by the f a i t h , understanding and commitment to my success shown to me by my husband, Hardip Singh. I thank you a l l with the deepest of g r a t i t u d e . A s p e c i a l d e d i c a t i o n to my daughter, Harneet Kaur, and her cousins Amarjot Kaur and Harleen Kaur, and a l l other members of the 2nd generation of Sikh-Canadians. I hope that t h i s research w i l l a i d the development and establishment of your b i c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Love Kamaljit iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank Dr. Marv Westwood f o r h i s encouragement and support i n the process of my s e l f -awareness about my b i - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . The self-knowledge I have a c q u i r e d t o date i s j u s t the b e g i n n i n g of a l i f e l o n g journey. I am a l s o g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. A r t More f o r h i s guidance and c o u n t l e s s hours spent i n s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and documentation of t h i s t h e s i s . As w e l l , thanks t o Dr. Walte r B o l d t f o r h i s k i n d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Thanks a l s o t o Dr. Ishu Ishiyama. Others t o whom I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the process of the r e s e a r c h and documentation are S c o t t Lawrence, Randy Tonks, Updesh Kapoor, and E r i c h and Judy K l a s s e n . F i n a l l y , thanks t o the s c h o o l s and the stud e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i DEDICATION i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V TABLE OF CONTENTS v i LIST OF TABLES v i i i CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 Background . . . 2 Purpose of the Study 4 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study 4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 9 CHAPTER 11 Review of the Related L i t e r a t u r e 10 I d e n t i t y 10 Erikson's Model 10 Ethnic I d e n t i t y 12 A c c u l t u r a t i o n and A c c u l t u r a t i v e Stress 14 Se l f esteem , 18 The Ethnic Adolescent 21 A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and Ethnic I d e n t i t y 25 CHAPTER 111 Methodology 29 Research Questions, Design and Procedures.. 29 Sample 30 Instrumentation 31 Cawte A c c u l t u r a t i v e Stress Scale.... 31 Multigroup Ethnic I d e n t i t y Measure.. 32 Coopersmith S e l f Esteem Inventory... 33 Design 34 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Research 34 Data C o l l e c t i o n 35 Hypothesis 35 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 36 CHAPTER IV Results 37 Demographic Data 38 A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and Ethn i c I d e n t i t y 38 A c c u l t u r a t i v e Stress and S e l f Esteem.... 42 A c c u l t u r a t i v e Stress and Ethnic I d e n t i t y 43 Gender 46 Other questions 46 Summary of Results 49 vi CHAPTER V Di s c u s s i o n 53 Summary of Central Findings 54 A c c u l t u r a t i v e Stress and S e l f Esteem.... 55 A c c u l t u r a t i v e Stress and Ethnic I d e n t i t y 56 Gender D i f f e r e n c e s 57 Other Questions 60 Conclusions 62 Implications and Future Research 63 References 68 Appendices 74 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Demographic data i n c l u d i n g Gender, Grade, Age, S i b l i n g s , P o s i t i o n i n Fa m i l y , E t h n i c S e l f Label and School Attended 39 Table 2. Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 40 Table 3. I n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 41 Table 4. R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on F u l l s c a l e and Subscale s c o r e s of S e l f Esteem ,. 42 Table 5. R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on F u l l s c a l e and Subscale s c o r e s of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 44 Table 6. Stepwise R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on a l l F u l l S c a l e and Subscale s c o r e s of S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 45 Table 7. A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y s c o r e s s e p a r a t e d by Gender 47 Table 8. Mean F u l l s c a l e and Subscale s c o r e s f o r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y by School Attended 48 Table 9. Mean sco r e s f o r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y f o r S e l f E t h n i c L a b e l s by Students 50 Table 10. Means of Scores on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y by Age of Students 51 v i i i 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Canada i s made up of p e o p l e from a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c backgrounds. Each m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group has i t s own v a l u e s , customs, e t h i c s and ways of l i f e t h a t members b r i n g w i t h them upon i m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e i r new c o u n t r y . Some of t h e s e new c u l t u r e s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e p r e v a l e n t European mainstream c u l t u r e i n Canada. In a p l u r a l s o c i e t y , a c c u l t u r a t i o n ( B e r r y , Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) i s i n e v i t a b l e a t b o t h t h e group and t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . T h i s phenomenon i s u s u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree w i t h i n one s e t of p e o p l e , i n t h i s case t h e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group, t h a n i n t h e dominant group. R e s e a r c h shows t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n by no means i s an easy p r o c e s s f o r e t h n i c p e r s o n s and d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i l l undergo a c c u l t u r a t i o n w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of s t r e s s ( B e r r y et a l . , 1987). Basu (1989) speaks of the ABCD (American Born Confused ' D e s i s ' ) phenomenon which seems t o have become a major i s s u e among t h e E a s t I n d i a n p e o p l e i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The a u t h o r summarizes t h a t "many I n d i a n c h i l d r e n brought up i n t h e U.S. c o n f r o n t the f a m i l i a r dilemma of b e i n g t o r n between two c u l t u r e s . T r y i n g t o adapt s o c i a l l y but l o o k i n g f o r e i g n , burdened by t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r I n d i a n p a r e n t s and American p e e r s , u n c e r t a i n of which h e r i t a g e t o c l a i m as t h e i r own and 2 w i t h o u t a sense of b e l o n g i n g , they seem d e s t i n e d t o be m i s f i t s i n b o t h c u l t u r e s . For them, y o u t h i s o f t e n a time of c r i s e s " (Basu, 1989, p. 98). The a r t i c l e goes on t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n by u s i n g cases of American born E a s t I n d i a n s who have undergone t h i s t y pe of s t r e s s , and a r e s t i l l not s e p a r a t e from i t . The s a l i e n c e of t h i s i s s u e t o e t h n i c a d o l e s c e n t s has a l s o been n o t e d by o t h e r s ( P a d i l l a , Wagatsuma, & L i n d h o l m , 1985; Saran, 1985; Saran & Eames, 1980; S e t h i & Calhoun, 1986; Sung, 1985). Background j A d o l e s c e n c e , i n g e n e r a l , i s d e s c r i b e d as a time of g r e a t change. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of development, an i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t s u n d e r g o i n g r a p i d p h y s i c a l changes, has i n c r e a s i n g c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , i s more aware of s e l f , and has s u b s t a n t i a l l y more s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d on him/her. A c h i e v i n g a sense of i d e n t i t y i s an i m p o r t a n t t a s k f o r a d o l e s c e n t s i n E r i k s o n ' s (1959) e i g h t s t a g e p s y c h o - s o c i a l t h e o r y of development. At t h i s t i m e , i n d i v i d u a l s f a c e s an i d e n t i t y c r i s e s which must be overcome i n o r d e r t o move i n t o t h e n e x t s t a g e of ego development. For t h e e t h n i c a d o l e s c e n t who i s growing up i n two c u l t u r e s , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y may be a s u b - i s s u e of o v e r a l l i d e n t i t y development (P h i n n e y & Rotheram, 1 9 8 6 ) . R o s e n t h a l (1986) s t a t e s t h a t i n a d j u s t i n g t o a l l t h e normal changes of a d o l e s c e n c e t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r chaos and c o n f u s i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the 3 e t h n i c t e enager has a c c u l t u r a t i v e c o n f l i c t s t o d e a l w i t h d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of development, and c o n s e q u e n t l y w i l l a f f e c t s p e c i f i c elements of i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . ^ _ _ ^ ^ E t j n T l c c h i l d r e ^ i ^ h ^ _ _ e j [ r t ^ r the je,duca44ona.l s.ystem^are immersed i n the b e l i e f framework and n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of mainstream c u l t u r e " (de Anda, 1984). Upward m o b i l i t y i n s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n may e n t a i l r e j e c t i n g the e t h n i c c u l t u r e as t hey embrace the mainstream c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o succeed. A l t h o u g h m i n o r i t y p a r e n t s want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be s u c c e s s f u l and encourage s t r u c t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i s o f t e n f e a r e d ( S aran & Eames, 1980). M i n o r i t y e t h n i c c h i l d r e n a r e thus caught between two f o r c e s p u l l i n g them i n o p p o s i n g d i r e c t i o n s . P a r e n t s e n f o r c e maintenance of e t h n i c c u l t u r e w h i l e peer a c c e p t a n c e and upward m o b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e mainstream s o c i e t y may r e q u i r e t h a t t h e a d o l e s c e n t conform t o dominant community v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r s . B e r r y and A n n i s (1974) suggest t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i s g r e a t e r w i t h i n c r e a s e d c u l t u r a l d i s p a r i t y between the m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group and the mainstream c u l t u r e . Members of t h o s e groups t h a t a r e h i g h l y d i s s i m i l a r from mainstream s o c i e t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a l u e s , language, and customs may i n c u r more d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d j u s t i n g t o membership i n b o t h c u l t u r e s . B e r r y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) , i n a r e v i e w of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s a s s e r t t h a t i t can r e s u l t i n lowered mental h e a l t h s t a t u s ( e s p e c i a l l y c o n f u s i o n , a n x i e t y , 4 d e p r e s s i o n ) , f e e l i n g s of m a r g i n a l i t y and a l i e n a t i o n , and i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n . P s y c h o s o m a t i c symptomology may a l s o r i s e s i n c e mental i l l n e s s i s l e s s a c c e p t a b l e i n some m i n o r i t y immigrant p o p u l a t i o n s then i t i s i n mainstream s o c i e t y . But not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s u n d e r g o i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e h i g h l e v e l s of s t r e s s . Demographic, s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ( B e r r y & A n n i s , 1974; B e r r y et a l . , 1987) a r e m e d i a t o r s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i o n and s t r e s s . R e s e a r c h shows t h a t p o s s e s s i o n of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a l l o w a d a p t a t i o n t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n may ease th e amount of s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by an i n d i v i d u a l . Some of t h e s e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : e d u c a t i o n , age, gender, c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , p r i o r i n t e r c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s , f a m i l y c o n t e x t , and c o n t a c t e x p e r i e n c e s . Purpose of t h e Study The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o d i s c o v e r i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and two o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , w i t h i n 2nd g e n e r a t i o n male and female S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grades 8, 9, and 10. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e Study The I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s i n Canada t o t a l more than 200,000 (Naidoo & D a v i s , 1988) and c o m p r i s e s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y w i t h i n the Canadian mosaic. D i s s i m i l a r i t y between mainstream s o c i e t y and t h i s s u b c u l t u r e o c c u r s i n terms of p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , r e l i g i o n , language, and customs. T h i s c u l t u r a l d i s p a r i t y p o i n t s t o a p o s s i b i l i t y of h i g h l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1987) w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group. The a s s o c i a t i o n of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s w i t h poor p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , r e s u l t i n g i n poor s e l f concept and problems w i t h adjustment has l e d t o much i n v e s t i g a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s s t u d i e s shows t h a t t h e major f o c u s of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been t h e r e f u g e e and new immigrant e x p e r i e n c e , and s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s have f o r t h e most p a r t , been i g n o r e d . The p r e s e n c e of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s among new immigr a n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t between group d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f esteem but may e x i s t , but r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s g e n e r a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . A k o o d i e (1980) compared t h e s e l f c o n c e p t s of West I n d i a n , E a s t I n d i a n , and Canadian h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and o b s e r v e d no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n s e l f c o n c e p t s between t h e s e groups. On t h e o t h e r hand, Hogg, Abrams, and P a t e l (1987) l o o k e d a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , s e l f - e s t e e m , and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of I n d i a n ( i m m i g r a n t s from I n d i a ) and Anglo-Saxon B r i t i s h a d o l e s c e n t s and found lower o v e r a l l s e l f - e s t e e m i n I n d i a n s as compared t o Anglo-Saxon y o u t h . Phinney ( i n p r e s s ) a l s o d i s c o v e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and s e l f esteem among 6 e t h n i c h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . These c o n f l i c t i n g s e l f esteem r e s u l t s may be due t o the groups s t u d i e d , i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n the measures f o r s e l f - e s t e e m , or e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n ( R o s e n t h a l , 1986; Verma, 1988). Verma (1988) f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t s e l f - e s t e e m i s c u l t u r a l l y grounded and t h e r e f o r e i t i s m e a n i n g l e s s t o suggest b e t t e r or worse s e l f - e s t e e m i n any group. I n t r a - g r o u p v a r i a b l e s may a c t u a l l y be more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n between group d i f f e r e n c e s . Some i n t r a - g r o u p r e s e a r c h does e x i s t . One s t u d y by P a d i l l a , Wagatsuma, and L i n d h o l m (1985) l o o k e d a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n and s t r e s s among Japanese and Japanese-Americans and found t h a t l a t e i m migrants ( o v e r age 14 a t time of m i g r a t i o n ) and 2nd g e n e r a t i o n s u b j e c t s had more s t r e s s and lower s e l f - e s t e e m than e a r l y i m m i g r a n t s (under age 14 a t time of m i g r a t i o n ) and 3 r d g e n e r a t i o n s u b j e c t s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e 2nd g e n e r a t i o n a r e m o s t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r e n t s and mainstream s o c i e t y . Gender d i f f e r e n c e s have a l s o been s u g g e s t e d w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Hogg et a l . (1987) and Louden (1978) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t I n d i a n females had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s e l f -esteem th a n I n d i a n males. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o i n c r e a s e d v u l n e r a b i l i t y of females t o b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s ( R o s e n t h a l , Moore, & T a y l o r , 1983) or t o h i g h e r p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of females (Sharma, 1980). A l t h o u g h many s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out on s t r e s s and s e l f esteem, and s e l f esteem and i d e n t i t y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p s found between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e c u l t u r e -s p e c i f i c . O b s e r v a t i o n s of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n b i c u l t u r a l adjustment are b e g i n n i n g t o grow among I n d i a n immigrants (Basu, 1989) and t h e p r e v a l e n c e of t h e s e problems i s s u r e t o i n c r e a s e d r a m a t i c a l l y as more 2nd g e n e r a t i o n c h i l d r e n r e a c h a d o l e s c e n c e . Saran (1985) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e i s s u e of adjustment w a r r a n t s immediate a t t e n t i o n by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y b u i l d s on p r e v i o u s a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h and i n v e s t i g a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s . The m a j o r i t y of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n immigrant p o p u l a t i o n i s of the S i k h f a i t h . S i n c e S i k h s and o t h e r E a s t I n d i a n subgroups d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r r e l i g i o n , customs, and o v e r a l l c u l t u r e , homogeneity w i t h i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s i n c r e a s e d by s p e c i f i c a l l y s t u d y i n g a t S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . S p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s . 1) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e degree of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s e l f esteem among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s ? 8 I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e degree of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s ? Are t h e r e gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem, and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s ? 9 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms A c c u l t u r a t i o n : I s c u l t u r e change which r e s u l t s from c o n t i n u o u s f i r s t hand c o n t a c t between two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l groups. A c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s : R e f e r s t o one k i n d of s t r e s s o r s a r e i d e n t i f i e d p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . s t r e s s , t h a t i n which the as h a v i n g t h e i r s o u r c e i n t h e S e l f Esteem: Is an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e judgements of h i m / h e r s e l f , p e r s o n a l judgements of one's s e l f w o r t h ; as measured by the C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f Esteem I n v e n t o r y ( S c h o o l Form). E t h n i c i d e n t i t y : I s " t h a t p a r t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t which d e r i v e s from h i s knowledge of h i s membership of a s o c i a l group ( o r groups) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v a l u e and e m o t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d t o t h a t membership" ( T a j f e l , 1981, p. 255). 2nd g e n e r a t i o n : R e f e r s t o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e b o r n i n Canada but t h e i r p a r e n t s e m i g r a t e d from I n d i a . 10 CHAPTER 11 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a r e v i e w of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e on a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . Due t o a l a c k of r e s e a r c h knowledge about the e x p e r i e n c e s of S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s , t h e a u t h o r has i n c l u d e d a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n on t h e e t h n i c a d o l e s c e n t , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from her own o b s e r v a t i o n s . I d e n t i t y E r i k s o n ' s Model E r i k s o n (1959) t a k e s a p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d approach t o development. In h i s model, E r i k s o n p r e s e n t s a sequence of e i g h t d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s w h i c h span t h e e n t i r e l i f e c y c l e . Each of t h e s e p s y c h o s o c i a l s t a g e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e r i e s of s t a g e s p e c i f i c c r i s e s which must be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s o l v e d b e f o r e one can move up t o the nex t s t a g e of development. Each c r i s e s i n v o l v e s a marked s h i f t i n one's p e r s p e c t i v e . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p s y c h o s o c i a l a f f e c t s upon the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s / h e r attempt t o cope w i t h t h e s e c r i s e s E r i k s o n r e c o g n i z e s an i n t e r p l a y of b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w i t h t h e s o c i a l environment and c a l l s t h i s an e p i - g e n e t i c approach. E r i k s o n (1959) d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a g e s of development i n terms of extreme c o p i n g s t y l e s , s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t i v e 11 s o l u t i o n s v e r s u s u n s u c c e s s f u l m a l a d a p t i v e s o l u t i o n s . These s t a g e s of development a r e 1) b a s i c t r u s t v s . m i s t r u s t ; 2) autonomy v s . shame and doubt; 3) i n i t i a t i v e v s . g u i l t ; 4) i n d u s t r y v s . i n f e r i o r i t y ; 5) i d e n t i t y v s . i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n ; 6) i n t i m a c y v s . i s o l a t i o n ; 7) g e n e r a t i v i t y v s . s t a g n a t i o n ; 8) i n t e g r i t y v s . d e s p a i r . E g o - i d e n t i t y i s d e f i n e d by E r i k s o n (1959, p. 102) as "a mutual r e l a t i o n i n t h a t i t connotes b o t h a p e r s i s t e n t sameness w i t h i n o n e s e l f ( s e l f s a m e n e s s ) and a p e r s i s t e n t s h a r i n g of some k i n d of e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r w i t h o t h e r s . " In a f u r t h e r attempt t o make t h i s c o n s t r u c t c l e a r e r E r i k s o n says " a t one t i m e , t h e n , i t w i l l appear t o r e f e r t o a c o n s c i o u s sense of i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y ; a t an o t h e r t o an u n c o n s c i o u s s t r i v i n g f o r a c o n t i n u i t y of p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r ; at a t h i r d , as a c r i t e r i o n f o r the s i l e n t d o i n g of ego s y n t h e s e s ; and, f i n a l l y , as a maintenance of an i n n e r s o l i d a r i t y w i t h a group's i d e a l s and i d e n t i t y " (p. 102). I d e n t i t y i s an i s s u e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e c y c l e but i t becomes paramount d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . R e s o l u t i o n of ego-i d e n t i t y a t t h i s s t a g e moves t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a p o i n t of s u b j e c t i v e wholeness or i d e n t i t y a c h i e v e d . On the ot h e r h a n d , l a c k of r e s o l u t i o n can l e a d t o r o l e c o n f u s i o n and "the danger of t h i s s t a g e i s i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n " ( E r i k s o n , 1959, p. 95). A d o l e s c e n c e p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e many r o l e s as the i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p s h i s / h e r i d e n t i t y . I s s u e s 12 of c a r e e r , p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , gender and moral v a l u e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . I f t h e a d o l e s c e n t i s not s u c c e s s f u l i n the f o r m a t i o n of an e g o - i d e n t i t y i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he/she may withdraw, becoming i s o l a t e d from peers and f a m i l y , or may l o s e h i s / h e r i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the crowd. E t h n i c I d e n t i t y E t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s an a l l u s i v e term and t h e r e seems t o be no consensus as t o i t s ' d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s due t o a l a c k of c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s f o r r e l a t e d terms such as e t h n i c group and e t h n i c i t y . The most common a t t r i b u t e s of " e t h n i c " a p p e a r i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l w i t h a n c e s t r a l o r i g i n , same c u l t u r e or s o c i a l customs, r e l i g i o n , r a c e or p h y s i c a l appearance, and language ( I s a j i w , 1974). E t h n i c i t y encompasses much more th a n t h i s . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and r u l e s of s o c i a l conduct (Rotheram and P h i n n e y , 1987). F r e d e r i k B a r t h ( I s a j i w 1974) s t r e s s e s t h a t the i m p o r t a n t d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s of e t h n i c groups a r e t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . Emphasis upon t h e s e i n r e s e a r c h i n c r e a s e s knowledge about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e boundary between t h o s e t h a t a r e the " i n g r o u p " and o u t s i d e r s . Ingroup b o u n d a r i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s of t h e most i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e group. F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s , f o r example, d i s t i n g u i s h themselves from non-French-Canadians a c c o r d i n g t o t h e spoken language ( G i l e s , T a y l o r , 13 Lambert & A l b e r t , 1976). W i t h i n group b o u n d a r i e s s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n of group c o h e s i v e n e s s and u n i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n an "us" f e e l i n g . Due t o g r e a t e r s h a r e d knowledge amongst tho s e w i t h i n t h e boundary i n d i v i d u a l group members a r e more l i k e l y t o be judged on p e r s o n a l performance and a b i l i t y . I n t e r a c t i o n of group members w i t h o u t s i d e r s b r i n g s up the i d e a of double b o u n d a r i e s (Royce, 1982). T h i s r e f e r s t o one boundary m a i n t a i n e d from t h e i n s i d e by group members and another imposed from the o u t s i d e . U n l i k e t h e i n s i d e boundary, t h e o u t s i d e boundary i n v o l v e s l a b e l l i n g of group members based on assumptions and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . O f t e n t h e s e e x t e r n a l l a b e l s or s t e r e o t y p e s a r e p e r c e i v e d as n e g a t i v e by group members (Casas & P o n t e r o t t o , 1987). N e i t h e r t h e i n t e r n a l n or t h e e x t e r n a l boundary i s permanent. As groups a c c u l t u r a t e , b o u n d a r i e s b e g i n t o change as w e l l as d i s a p p e a r . A r e c e n t s t u d y by Stephan and Stephan (1989) gave e v i d e n c e of the e r o s i o n of t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s t h r o u g h i n t e r m a r r i a g e . T a j f e l (1981, p.255) s t a t e s t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s " t h a t p a r t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t w h i c h d e r i v e s from h i s knowledge of h i s membership of a s o c i a l group ( o r groups) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v a l u e and e m o t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d t o t h a t membership." De Vos (1975) adds t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i n c o r p o r a t e s knowledge of who one i s s u b j e c t i v e l y as w e l l as how one i s p e r c e i v e d from the o u t s i d e and r e q u i r e s maintenance of s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t b e h a v i o u r . T h i s e n a b l e s o t h e r s t o p l a c e t h e group or i n d i v i d u a l i n some s o c i a l c a t e g o r y and p e r m i t s a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n . L i t t l e e m p i r i c a l d a t a e x i s t s on e t h n i c i d e n t i t y development ( P h i n n e y , 1989). Most r e s e a r c h t o dat e d e a l s w i t h young c h i l d r e n and l a t e a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o a d o l e s c e n t s , Phinney (1989) p o i n t s out t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s i m p o r t a n t because i t a f f e c t s " t h e o v e r -a l l a djustment of m i n o r i t y group a d o l e s c e n t s . " A c c o r d i n g t o B e r r y , Kim, Minde, and Mok (1987) a c c u l t u r a t i o n o c c u r s i n p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s ( t h o s e i n which two or more e t h n i c groups e x i s t i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n ) when t h e r e i s " c o n t i n u o u s f i r s t hand c o n t a c t between two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l g r o u p s " (p. 491) " l e a d i n g t o changes i n e i t h e r or b o t h c u l t u r a l g r o ups". G e n e r a l l y , t h e p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s used t o d e s c r i b e a change i n the m i n o r i t y e t h n i c c u l t u r e . Berry, e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) , n ote t h a t more r e c e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h i s phenomenon o c c u r s a t the group l e v e l and a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c c u l t u r a t i o n ) . F o r t h e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group t h a t i s a c c u l t u r a t i n g , changes can be p h y s i c a l ; as i n new ty p e of h o u s i n g , new p l a c e t o l i v e , i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , e t c . ; b i o l o g i c a l , such as new d i s e a s e s , n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s , A c c u l t u r a t i o n and A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s 15 i n t e r b r e e d i n g l e a d i n g t o mixed p o p u l a t i o n s ; c u l t u r a l , changes o r i g i n a l p o l i t i c a l , economic, t e c h n i c a l , l i n g u i s t i c , r e l i g i o u s , and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which may be changed or r e p l a c e d ; and new s e t s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as i n i n g r o u p , o u t g r o u p , dominance p a t t e r n s ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1987). For the a c c u l t u r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes i n c l u d i n g b e h a v i o u r a l and mental h e a l t h s h i f t s a r e p o s s i b l e . I t i s assumed t h a t f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e , a c c u l t u r a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n a c r i s e s . But i n some c a s e s , t h e p r o c e s s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n may produce what i s termed " a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s . . . t h e r e i s o f t e n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of s t r e s s b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h o c c u r s d u r i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n , such as lowered mental h e a l t h s t a t u s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n f u s i o n , a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n ) , f e e l i n g s of m a r g i n a l i t y and a l i e n a t i o n , h e i g h t e n e d p s y c h o s o m a t i c symptom l e v e l , and i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n " ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1987, p. 492). The a u t h o r s c i t e f i v e f a c t o r s which may moderate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i o n and s t r e s s . These a r e the n a t u r e of t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , t y p e of a c c u l t u r a t i n g group, modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , demographic and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The n a t u r e of t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y r e f e r s t o whether t h e r e i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l or a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t i d e o l o g y i n the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . I n t h e former t h e r e i s a t o l e r a n c e f o r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y whereas t h e l a t t e r s t r e s s e s conformism t o the dominant i d e o l o g y . U l l o a (1986) n o t e s t h a t i n g e n e r a l , the s c h o o l system f o c u s e s and r e i n f o r c e s the c u l t u r e of t h e dominant group. S o c i e t y ' s a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e s have been i d e n t i f i e d as r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h e r s t r e s s f o r the a c c u l t u r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s ( B e r r y et a l . , 1987). The t y p e of a c c u l t u r a t i n g group r e f e r s t o whether t h i s a c c u l t u r a t i n g group i s co m p r i s e d of r e f u g e e s , i m m i g r a n t s , N a t i v e P e o p l e s , e t h n i c groups, or s o j o u r n e r s . Membership w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t groups may i n v o l v e v a r y i n g degrees of v o l u n t a r i n e s s , movement, and permanence of c o n t a c t w i t h the dominant s o c i e t y . I n v o l u n t a r y c o n t a c t such as t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d by r e f u g e e s or N a t i v e P e o p l e s , may l e a d t o h i g h e r s t r e s s t h a n v o l u n t a r y c o n t a c t by i m m i g r a n t s . The mode of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s based upon two i s s u e s t h a t a l l a c c u l t u r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and groups a r e f a c e d w i t h . These a r e t h e d e s i r e , o r l a c k t h e r e o f , t o : a) m a i n t a i n c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y , and b) have c o n t a c t w i t h the l a r g e r s o c i e t y ( B e r r y , 1986; B e r r y e t a l . , 1987). Groups and i n d i v i d u a l s can be a s c r i b e d t o f o u r d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e s e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . These a r e a s s i m i l a t i o n , s e p a r a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , and m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n . A s s i m i l a t i o n o c c u r s when an i n d i v i d u a l does not want t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r e v i o u s c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y . I n s t e a d , t h e r e i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e dominant c u l t u r e , on a r e g u l a r d a i l y b a s i s . R o s e n t h a l e t a l . (1983) c o n c l u d e 17 t h a t emphasis on a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the s h o r t term can cause g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s of c o n f l i c t f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . I n c r e a s e d s t r e s s w i t h t h i s p a t t e r n of a c c u l t u r a t i o n has a l s o been n o t e d by o t h e r s ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1987). S e p a r a t i o n i s the phenomenon of m a i n t a i n i n g one's own o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e and a l a c k of i n t e r e s t or even a v o i d a n c e i n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e dominant s o c i e t y . T h i s may cause d i f f i c u l t i e s because of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e dominant c u l t u r e . I n t e g r a t i o n i s s a i d t o o c c u r when t h e r e i s maintenance of t h e o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e and an i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the dominant group. T h i s i s the d e s i r e d mode of a c c u l t u r a t i o n ( B e r r y , 1985; B e r r y et a l . , 1987, O r t i z & A r c e , 1984; R o s e n t h a l et a l . , 1983). O r t i z and A r c e (1984) demonstrated t h a t C h i c a n o s who i n c o r p o r a t e d b o t h American and M e x i c a n c u l t u r e were p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r than t h o s e who r e j e c t e d M e x i c a n c u l t u r e . Wong-Rieger and Q u i n t a n a (1987) a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t b i c u l t u r a l i s m i s t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y form of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a s s i m i l a t i o n , and t h e n s e p a r a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , G r i f f i t h (1983) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n c r e a s e d adjustment and lower p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s f o r M e x i c a n American a d u l t s who had g i v e n up t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s v e r s u s M e x i c a n American a d u l t s who had m a i n t a i n e d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s y e t i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A nglo-American c u l t u r e . 18 The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y , t h a t of m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s when t h e r e i s l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g one's c u l t u r a l i n t e g r i t y u s u a l l y due t o e n f o r c e d c u l t u r a l l o s s , and l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h t h e dominant group, o f t e n due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or e x c l u s i o n . S e l f Esteem S e l f - c o n c e p t i s a c o n s t r u c t t h a t has been s t u d i e d f o r a ve r y l o n g t i m e ; as f a r back as 1890 when W i l l i a m James p r e s e n t e d h i s i n s i g h t s . R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t has been c a r r i e d out by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n many d i s c i p l i n e s i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , p s y c h i a t r y , e d u c a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , law, s o c i a l work, m e d i c i n e , n u r s i n g , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , and c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y ; t o name a few. S u r p r i s i n g l y , today t h e r e i s s t i l l c o n f u s i o n over t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h i s term. Rosenberg (1979) i n a r e v i e w of t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t says t h a t one b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n of the s e l f i s t h a t between the s e l f as o b j e c t of one's own knowledge and e v a l u a t i o n and t h e s e l f as s u b j e c t or agent. S u b j e c t i v e l y , s e l f concept i s d e f i n e d as " t h e t o t a l i t y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i m s e l f as an o b j e c t . Not o n l y i s t h i s s t r u c t u r e e x p e r i e n c e d as the c o r e of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s but i t a l s o has major s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r h i s t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and b e h a v i o u r " (Rosenberg, 1979, p. i x ) . T h i s above d e f i n i t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s t h r e e b road r e g i o n s of the s e l f - c o n c e p t . The e x t a n t s e l f i s how t h e i n d i v i d u a l sees h i m / h e r s e l f . I t i n c l u d e s components of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d e s i r e d s e l f i s how the i n d i v i d u a l would l i k e t o see h i m / h e r s e l f . T h i s can be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o t h e i d e a l i z e d image, committed image, and the moral image. The p r e s e n t i n g s e l f i s how t h e i n d i v i d u a l shows h i m / h e r s e l f t o o t h e r s . T h i s s e l f i s s i t u a t i o n bound , but " a t the c o r e , and f r e q u e n t l y c r o s s s i t u a t i o n a l l y , t h e r e i s a more or l e s s c o n s i s t e n t s e l f t h a t we e l e c t t o p r e s e n t t o the w o r l d " (Rosenberg, 1979, p. 4 6 ) . As d e s c r i b e d above, t h e s e l f -concept i s a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . In o t h e r words, i t i s a s e t of i d e a s about something. S e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - c o n s i s t e n c y a r e t h e m o t i v e s of s e l f - c o n c e p t . S e l f - e s t e e m r e f e r s t o t h e d e s i r e t o t h i n k w e l l of o n e s e l f and the s e l f - c o n s i s t e n c y m o t i v e i s t h e d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t from change or t o m a i n t a i n the p i c t u r e t h a t one has of o n e s e l f . " I m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y , t h e r e i s w i d e s p r e a d agreement w i t h Howard K a p l a n ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the s e l f esteem m o t i v e i s u n i v e r s a l l y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y . . . a dominant m o t i v e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n a l system (Rosenberg, 1979, p.54). I t t a k e s p r e c e d e n t over a l l o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v e s . S e l f esteem can i n c l u d e a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n toward an o b j e c t . A p e r s o n w i t h h i g h s e l f -esteem i s one who has s e l f - r e s p e c t and s e l f w o rth. W h i l e t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s w e l l aware of p e r s o n a l m e r i t s , r e c o g n i t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n t o f a u l t s w hich need t o be overcome. E v i d e n c e e x i s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who have h i g h s e l f esteem a r e more l i k e l y t o be happy w i t h l i f e ( W y l i e , 1974). The terms n e g a t i v e s e l f esteem or low s e l f - e s t e e m a r e used t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e who " l a c k r e s p e c t f o r s e l f , c o n s i d e r themselves unworthy, i n a d e q u a t e , or o t h e r w i s e s e r i o u s l y d e f i c i e n t (Rosenberg, 1979). S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have found an a s s o c i a t i o n of low s e l f esteem w i t h d e p r e s s i o n (Beck, 1967; Rosenberg, 1965). S e l f - c o n c e p t r e s e a r c h has l o o k e d a t the whole range of human development. S e l f concept i n c h i l d r e n i s b e l i e v e d t o be formed by the same p r i n c i p l e s but d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e s t h a n a d u l t s . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o l o o k a t a d o l e s c e n c e because " i t i s i n the p r e a d u l t y e a r s t h a t t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t emerges, e v o l v e s , and c r y s t a l l i z e s ; t h i s i s the time of l i f e when the s e l f - c o n c e p t i s most m a l l e a b l e , and when s o c i a l and deve l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s o p e r a t e i n t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g and sometimes unexpected, ways (Rosenberg, 1979, p. x i ) . Rosenberg (1979) t a k e s a phenomenological s t a n c e when he s t a t e s t h a t s o c i a l f a c t o r s do not have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t . " C l a s s or r a c e o r r e l i g i o n o r sex do not a f f e c t t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t ; what they do i s t o s u b j e c t the i n d i v i d u a l t o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e t of s o c i a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e i n t e r p r e t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s i t u a t i o n " (Rosenberg, 1979, p. x i v ) . Perhaps t h i s i s why we can not expect a l l i n d i v i d u a l s of a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group t o have "low s e l f - e s t e e m " or " h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m . " I n summarizing t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m i n o r i t y s t a t u s and s e l f - e s t e e m , Rosenberg (1979) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e has been a l o t of r e s e a r c h e q u a t i n g m i n o r i t y s t a t u s and lower s e l f -esteem because of t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l r e a s o n s : 1) m i n o r i t y groups a r e l o o k e d down upon by o t h e r s ( d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n s p r i n c i p l e ) 2) m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s l o o k down on themselves by i n t e r n a l i z i n g s o c i e t y ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r group ( g e n e r a l i z e d o t h e r ) 3) m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s compare " u n f a v o r a b l y i n i m p o r t a n t e v a l u a t e d r e s p e c t s w i t h the p r e s t i g i o u s m a j o r i t y ( t h e s o c i a l comparison p r i n c i p l e ) " (p. 175). The E t h n i c A d o l e s c e n t H i g h c u l t u r a l d i s p a r i t y between t h e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y and mainstream c u l t u r e has been one of t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s . S i k h c u l t u r e i s much more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d , s t r e s s e s t h e extended f a m i l y , and i s geared more towards i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of members r a t h e r t h a n independence, as t h e g o a l of development. Some a d o l e s c e n t s a r e a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e two c u l t u r e s but o t h e r s go t h r o u g h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of s t r e s s i n f i n d i n g t h i s b a l a n c e . 22 For t h e S i k h a d o l e s c e n t , a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s s t r a i n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . S i d i q u e (1977) p o i n t s out t h a t a t t h i s time i n development, p a r e n t a l r e s i s t a n c e of " b a s i c " f a m i l y v a l u e s i s l i k e l y t o be c h a l l e n g e d by t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n . P a r e n t s f e a r t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s v a l u e system w i l l change t o t h a t of American pee r s w i t h s o c i a l i z a t i o n between the two groups. I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s may thus a r i s e due t o i s s u e s of i n d i v i d u a l freedom, gender-based dou b l e s t a n d a r d s , c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , d a t i n g and m a r r i a g e , and s o c i a l change ( K u r i a n , 1986). The amount of c o n f l i c t e x p e r i e n c e d by c h i l d r e n i s a f f e c t e d by t h e chosen mode of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . S e p a r a t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d by a d o l e s c e n t s who c l i n g onto f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and v a l u e s and t o t a l l y r e j e c t t h e dominant s o c i e t y . V a l i d a t i o n f o r t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t s o c c u r s i n t h e home. These c h i l d r e n a r e t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t o have t h e l e a s t amount of s t r e s s a t home. Teachers and peers on t h e ot h e r h a n d , may view a S e p a r a t e d a d o l e s c e n t as a l o n e r , not w e l l i n t e g r a t e d , or not a d a p t i n g t o s c h o o l and Canadian l i f e . G i b s o n (1988) i n a s t u d y of C a l i f o r n i a S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s n o t e d t h a t g i r l s a r e more l i k e l y t o m a i n t a i n p a r e n t a l c u l t u r e and v a l u e s , or e x p e r i e n c e S e p a r a t i o n . T h i s has a l s o been demonstrated i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s (McDermott, R o b i l l a r d , Char, Tseng, & A s h t o n , 1983). 23 Some a d o l e s c e n t s may choose t o A s s i m i l a t e and t a k e on the c u l t u r a l norms of the dominant group, r e j e c t i n g t h e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group i n t h e p r o c e s s . These i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l have t h e most amount of c o n f l i c t w i t h p a r e n t s ( R o s e n t h a l , 1984). A s s i m i l a t i o n can oc c u r i n the form of p h y s i c a l , c o g n i t i v e , and b e h a v i o u r a l changes. Changing one's e t h n i c name may be one of t h e f i r s t phenomenon of t h i s . The a d o l e s c e n t w i l l t a k e on a new " A n g l o " name w h i c h may or may inot be s i m i l a r t o h i s / h e r e t h n i c name. For example, S u i Y i I may p r e f e r Sue and B a l j i t may l i k e t o be c a l l e d B i l l . I t has been n o t e d t h a t p e o p l e w i l l f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g t o whether they a r e c a l l e d by t h e i r e t h n i c or " A n g l o " name ( p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w by a u t h o r . ) I n s u p p o r t of t h i s , T e r r e l and T e r r e l (1988) found t h a t A f r i c a n American males w i t h A f r i c a n names had h i g h e r s e l f concept than t h o s e who had American names. R e g a r d l e s s of how a s s i m i l a t e d one i s , p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s cause one t o be l a b e l l e d as e t h n i c , and tr e a t m e n t as su c h by o u t s i d e r s ( G o l d s t e i n , 1988) i s l i k e l y . The a d o l e s c e n t who f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h i s l i m i t a t i o n may be d e v a s t a t e d and d e p r e s s e d , r e s u l t i n g i n ident-i-t-y— con-f-us-i-on-.-> Many immigrant p a r e n t s a r e not c o m p l e t e l y aware of the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s and c o n f l i c t s t h e i r b i c u l t u r a l c h i l d r e n a r e un d e r g o i n g and the c h i l d r e n themselves have not been s u c c e s s f u l i n e n l i g h t e n i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s . These p a r e n t s d e v e l o p s t e r e o t y p e s about main s t r e a m s o c i e t y from what they 24 observe i n t h e media. P a r e n t s p e r c e i v e mainstream s o c i e t y as h a v i n g immoral v a l u e s and a l a c k of s t r u c t u r e and b o u n d a r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . M a i n s t r e a m members a r e c a t e g o r i z e d as p r o m i s c u o u s , smokers, d r i n k e r s , and drug a d d i c t s . I t i s no wonder t h a t m i n o r i t y e t h n i c p a r e n t s a r e a f r a i d t h a t i f they condoned some a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e r e may be no l i m i t s t o t h i s p r o c e s s . Thus t h e r e i s a s t r o n g f e a r t h a t s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s w i l l be l o s t t o dominant s o c i e t y . Based on s t e r e o t y p e s and assumptions about mainstream s o c i e t y , p a r e n t a l power may be o v e r e x e r c i s e d i n an attempt t o p r e v e n t c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s c r e a t e s f e e l i n g s of anger and resentment towards t h e p a r e n t s , as i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n a quote from an e d i t o r i a l a r t i c l e s e n t i n by a young g i r l t o an I n d i a n newspaper ( K u r i a n , 1986, p. 42). 'We have grown up i n American c u l t u r e y e t we a r e e x p e c t e d t o s t i c k t o our I n d i a n h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r e . . . o u r p a r e n t s don't t r u s t our American f r i e n d s . They seem t o t h i n k t h a t a l l A m e r i c a n t e e n a g e r s d r i n k o r t a k e d r u g s . ...Our p a r e n t s demand t h a t we spend a l l our t i m e a t home; we can not make a F r i d a y n i g h t movie or go out f o r a p i z z a w i t h a group of g i r l s . T h i s h u r t s us s i n c e we want t o be a c c e p t e d by our American f r i e n d s . ' 25 K u r i a n (1986) p o i n t s out t h a t not a l l p a r e n t s a r e l i k e t h i s , some p a r e n t s a r e becoming q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e i n p r o v i d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n more independence and say i n m a t t e r s . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i s an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e depending on one's c o p i n g s t y l e and s t r a t e g i e s . Some a d o l e s c e n t s r e s o l v e i t t h r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n of the two c u l t u r e s ( S a r a n , 1985), u s u a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where communication between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i s q u i t e good and t h e p a r e n t s themselves a r e somewhat i n t e g r a t e d . Other a d o l e s c e n t s who p e r c e i v e no r e s o l u t i o n of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s may run away from home, or even attempt s u i c i d e . S i d d i q u e (1977) n o t e s t h a t I n d i a n f a m i l y p a t t e r n s i n Canada a r e changing toward a r e t e n t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s p l u s an a d o p t i o n of Canadian p a t t e r n s . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A A d o l e s c e n c e has been d e s c r i b e d as a time of g r e a t change. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of development, one undergoes r a p i d p h y s i c a l changes, has i n c r e a s i n g c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , and has s u b s t a n t i a l l y more s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d on him/her. In a d j u s t i n g t o a l l t h e s e changes t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r "chaos and c o n f u s i o n " ( R o s e n t h a l , 1986, p. 157). Phinney and Rotheram (1987, p. 153) s t a t e t h a t t h e dev e l o p m e n t a l changes of a d o l e s c e n c e " i n f l u e n c e the p r o c e s s 26 of d e f i n i n g one's own i d e n t i t y . . . among them that of e t h n i c i t y . " The p o s s i b i l i t y that a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s may r e s u l t i n poor p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g causing a ne g a t i v e s e l f concept and problems with adjustment has l e d to many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups were thought to be homogeneous and many comparative group i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were undertaken but few deal d i r e c t l y with the Indian immigrants i n Canada. A number of between group s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out to compare g l o b a l s e l f - c o n c e p t and v a r i o u s components of i t . Akoodie (1980) compared the s e l f concepts of West Indian, Indian (from I n d i a ) , and Canadian h i g h school students and found no d i f f e r e n c e i n s e l f concepts. Martinez and Dukes (1987), on the other hand, p r o v i d e d evidence that m i n o r i t i e s tend to have lower l e v e l s of s e l f esteem than Whites on p u b l i c ( i n t e l l i g e n c e ) t r a i t s but high e r l e v e l s f o r p r i v a t e ( s a t i s f a c t i o n with s e l f ) t r a i t s . Research w i t h Anglo-Saxon and Indian a d o l e s c e n t s i n B r i t a i n found lower s e l f esteem i n the e t h n i c s u b j e c t s (Hogg, Abrams, & P a t e l , 1987). Verma (1988) comments on the l a c k of consensus of these s t u d i e s and suggests t h a t the r e s u l t s may be a product of the i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n the measures used. Verma (1988) i n d i c a t e s a need f o r w i t h i n group s t u d i e s of s e l f esteem. In such a study, Phinney (1989) g i v e s evidence of i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of s e l f esteem among 27 a d o l e s c e n t s who were i d e n t i t y a c h i e v e d but o t h e r s t u d i e s have found no r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and s e l f -esteem (Grossman, 1982; R o s e n t h a l e t a l . , 1983). R e s e a r c h has shown t h a t e t h n i c females may be more v u l n e r a b l e t o b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s than males ( B e r r y & K o s t o v c i k , 1983; R o s e n t h a l e t a l . , 1983) and g e n e r a l l y have lower s e l f esteem (Hogg, Abrams, & P a t e l , 1987; M a r t i n e z & Dukes, 1987). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t women may be under more s t r e s s due t o c o n f l i c t i n g e t h n i c and dominant group v a l u e s , e s p e c i a l l y where d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o sex r o l e s as w e l l as p a t r i a r c h a l v e r s u s n o n - p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t i e s where men have h i g h e r s t a t u s ( R o s e n t h a l , Moore, & T a y l o r , 1983). Gender and i d e n t i t y has s p e c i f i c a l l y been s t u d i e d t o s u p p o r t the i d e a t h a t one's o v e r a l l i d e n t i t y comes out of a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s ( R o s e n t h a l , 1986). M i n o r i t y group membership i s one of t h e s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y s uch as Canada a r e exposed t o . E x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h has been u n d e r t a k e n i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g m i n o r i t y group membership and i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n . W h i l e some f i n d i n g s show t h a t m i n o r i t y group a d o l e s c e n t s may have more d i f f i c u l t y t h a n dominant group a d o l e s c e n t s i n f o r m i n g an i d e n t i t y ( T z u r i e l & K l e i n , 1977), o t h e r s s uggest t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( R o s e n t h a l , Moore, & T a y l o r ; 1983). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the l a c k of d i f f e r e n c e i n R o s e n t h a l e t a l . ' s s t u d y i s due t o 28 t h e i r usage of same r a c e a d o l e s c e n t s i n s t u d y i n g i d e n t i t y . Membership i n a m i n o r i t y group may not be as r e l e v a n t t o l e v e l of s e l f esteem as e t h n i c group s t a t u s . In summary, t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s u g g e s t s t h a t h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i s r e l a t e d t o i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n and lower s e l f esteem i n m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group members. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s have a l s o been found w i t h e t h n i c females p e r c e i v i n g more c o n f l i c t s and lower o v e r a l l s e l f esteem t h a n males. The p r e s e n t s t u d y l o o k s a t 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grade 8, 9, and 10 t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c u l t u r e bound. 29 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY The i n t e n t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o dete r m i n e whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e l e v e l s of j c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f - e s t e e m , and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y of 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . The s u b j e c t s were grade 8, 9, and 10 male and female s t u d e n t s from f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s i n urban B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l i n d i v i d u a l s were bor n i n Canada, p a r e n t s were i m m i g r a n t s , and b o t h p a r e n t s were S i k h . A r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y s u g g e s t e d : a) an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s e l f - e s t e e m , w i t h some s t u d i e s showing females t o have h i g h e r s t r e s s and lower s e l f esteem, and b) a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e methodology f o r answ e r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i s d e s c r i b e d . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s , D e s i g n , and P r o c e d u r e s The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s e l f esteem of 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grade 8, 9, and 10? 30 2) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grade 8, 9, and 10? 3) Are t h e r e gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ? Sample The p o p u l a t i o n from which t h e sample was drawn i n c l u d e s 2nd g e n e r a t i o n , male and f e m a l e , S i k h s i n e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e l i v i n g i n an urban s e t t i n g i n Canada, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5-10,000. The sample i n c l u d e d male and f e m a l e , grade 8, 9 and 10 s t u d e n t s from f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s c r i t e r i a , a l l s u b j e c t s were 2nd g e n e r a t i o n Canadians and b o t h p a r e n t s were S i k h . A minimum of 90 male and female s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o have a s u f f i c i e n t amount of d a t a f o r c a r r y i n g out r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 73 females and 41 males. One q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not c o n t a i n the gender of t h e s t u d e n t but the responses were used f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s , f o r an a c t u a l t o t a l of 115 s u b j e c t s . Sample s e l e c t i o n was conducted by o b t a i n i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o c a r r y out the s t u d y from the School Board of c o n c e r n . I n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s were then c o n t a c t e d by l e t t e r w i t h a t e l e p h o n e f o l l o w - u p . S u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n was c a r r i e d out by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e Student L o c a t o r w i t h i n 31 each s c h o o l and s e a r c h i n g f o r s t u d e n t s whose l a s t names or f i r s t names appeared t o be S i k h i n o r i g i n . U s i n g t h i s l i s t , t h e P e r s o n a l School Records f o r each s t u d e n t were s e a r c h e d f o r : a) f i r s t name of p a r e n t s t o v e r i f y i f b o t h p a r e n t s were S i k h , b) p l a c e of b i r t h of the s t u d e n t - s t u d e n t s were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s t u d y i f born i n Canada. P a r e n t s o f each of t h e s h o r t l i s t e d s t u d e n t s were s e n t a consent form f o r s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S t u d e n t s whose p a r e n t s agreed t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n t a k e p a r t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h were used as s u b j e c t s . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n S u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were a d m i n i s t e r e d a measure f o r each of t h e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y ; a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m . Cawte A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e The measure f o r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i s a p s y c h o s o m a t i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t has been r e p o r t e d and used by John B e r r y (1987) but o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d by Cawte. I t c o n s i s t s of 20 i t e m s from t h e C o r n e l l M e d i c a l Index (CMI) of Brodman, Erdman, Longe, and Gershenson and W o l f f (1952) chosen on c l i n i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s among A b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t 10 items a r e from the s o m a t i c s e c t i o n of t h e CMI, they a r e i n t e n d e d t o a s s e s s 32 p s y c h o s o m a t i c symptoms i n c u l t u r e s where p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems a r e s o m a t i c i z e d . Items 11-20 a r e aimed at measuring a n x i e t y (11,12,15,16,19,20), d e p r e s s i o n (13,14) and i r r i t a b i l i t y ( 17,18). I t i s answered w i t h a " y e s " or "no" t o t h e 20 i t e m s and a s c o r e i s d e r i v e d by s i m p l y a d d i n g up the number of " y e s " r e s p o n s e s . H i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a h i g h e r s c o r e on t h e Cawte s c a l e . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r t h i s measure i s q u i t e h i g h (Cronbach's a l p h a of .7 -.8) and i s s u p p o r t e d by e x t e r n a l v a l i d a t i o n by B e r r y e t a l . (1987). A r e v i e w by B e r r y , Kim, Minde and Mok (1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s a good i n d i c a t o r of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , h a v i n g been used i n over 30 s t u d i e s of t h i s t y p e . M u l t i g r o u p E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Measure The M u l t i g r o u p E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Measure (MEIM) i s a r e v i s e d form of t h e P hinney E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Measure o r i g i n a l l y r e p o r t e d by Jean Phinney (1989). The MEIM c o n s i s t s of t h r e e s u b s c a l e s t h a t measure d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y : 1) e t h n i c I d e n t i t y Achievement (7 i t e m s ) a s s e s s e s t h e amount of e x p l o r a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n of i d e n t i t y i s s u e s , 2) t h e A f f i r m a t i o n / B e l o n g i n g s u b s c a l e (5 i t e m s ) measures p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards one's e t h n i c group and a sense of b e l o n g i n g , 3) the E t h n i c B e h a v i o u r s u b s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 2 i t e m s . I n a d d i t i o n , Phinney has i n c l u d e d 6 it e m s about Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h i s i s not a s u b s c a l e of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . A 4 - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e r a n g i n g from " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e i s used f o r the s u b j e c t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e s ponse. S c o r i n g i n v o l v e s r e v e r s i n g of n e g a t i v e i t e m s and f i n d i n g t h e mean f o r each s u b s c a l e . The s c o r e thus c o n s i s t s of a v a l u e between 1 and 4. Phinney ( i n p r e s s ) p r e s e n t s a Cronbach's a l p h a of .81 f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and .90 f o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , f o r r e l i a b i l i t y . P hinney found a s i n g l e f a c t o r f o r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y t h r o u g h f a c t o r a n a l y s i s but s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s u b s c a l e s w i l l be u s e f u l f o r p r o v i d i n g more d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . The M u l t i g r o u p E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Measure i s a f a i r l y new measure t h a t i s s t i l l i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n s t a g e . The few s t u d i e s i t has been used w i t h i n d i c a t e some i n t e r n a l / e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f Esteem I n v e n t o r y The C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - e s t e e m I n v e n t o r y ( S c h o o l Form) i s a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g of 4 s u b s c a l e s : G e n e r a l s e l f , s o c i a l s e l f - p e e r s , home-parents, and s c h o o l -academic. These were d e r i v e d t h r o u g h f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of a l l t h e i t e m s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The measure p r e s e n t s g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e or u n f a v o u r a b l e s t a t e m e n t s about the s e l f t o wh i c h t h e s u b j e c t s a r e t o respond ' l i k e me" or " u n l i k e me." A l i e s c a l e i s i n c l u d e d t o a s s e s s d e f e n s i v e n e s s i n t h e s u b j e c t s . I t i s one of t h e most w i d e l y used and p o p u l a r measures of s e l f esteem (Johnson, R e d f i e l d , M i l l e r , & Simpson, 1983) and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a l i d i t y has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d ( P a d i l l a e t a l . , 1985). R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .87 - .92 f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . D e s i g n T h i s i s a b a s i c c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d y t h a t l o o k e d f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s . Dependant v a r i a b l e - degree of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s Independent v a r i a b l e s - degree of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y - l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m L i m i t a t i o n s of the Research The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e f i n d i n g s from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o a p o p u l a t i o n o t h e r t h a n 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h s t u d e n t s i n grade 8, 9 and 10 r e s i d i n g i n t h e lower m a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h C olumbia s h o u l d be done w i t h c a r e . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n may be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . R e s u l t s need t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h some c a u t i o n s i n c e t h e M u l t i g r o u p E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Measure i s a new s c a l e and more r e s e a r c h i n t h e way of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a a r e n e c e s s a r y . Problems w i t h s e l f r e p o r t 35 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e i n h e r e n t i n any type of r e s e a r c h and do not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . Dafra C Q U 3 C U O * V The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n each s c h o o l , i n a group format and by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . A l l s u b j e c t s from a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e t e s t a t one s i t t i n g . S t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o complete the t h r e e measures and the background s h e e t . The t o t a l t ime commitment from each s t u d e n t was about 20 mi n u t e s . At a l l t i m e s , s t r i c t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of r e s u l t s was m a i n t a i n e d as s t u d e n t s were not r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e t h e i r names on the t e s t s . I n t h e case of i n c o m p l e t e d a t a , t h e means were c a l c u l a t e d on t h e n o n - m i s s i n g i t e m s f o r t h e M u l t i g r o u p E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Measure. F or t h e Cawte S c a l e and t h e Coo p e r s m i t h s c a l e , t h e mean was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the n o n m i s s i n g i t e m s and was added t o t h e s c o r e of t h e n o n m i s s i n g i t e m s t o o b t a i n a t o t a l s c o r e f o r each s u b s c a l e . H y p o t h e s i s There i s an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e degree of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and, degree of s e l f esteem and degree of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grade 8, 9 and 10, w i t h sex d i f f e r e n c e s between males and fe m a l e s . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was used t o a s s e s s whether t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as w e l l as s e l f - e s t e e m . A c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s was used as t h e dependant v a r i a b l e and t h e independant v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t h e t o t a l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m . A p<.05 l e v e l was used t o t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t - r a t i o s and F - v a l u e s and r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . A p l o t of the r e s i d u a l s v e r s u s t h e f i t t e d s c o r e s was a n a l y z e d t o a s s e s s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f u r t h e r . CHAPTER IV 37 RESULTS The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s e l f esteem among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n male and female S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grades 8, 9, and 10 ? 2) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n male and female S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s i n grades 8, 9, and 10? 3) Are t h e r e any gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f - e s t e e m , and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ? Three measures, one f o r each of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 115, 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h s t u d e n t s i n grades 8, 9, and 10. These d a t a were a n a l y z e d and the r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I n t h i s c h a p t e r demographic i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t s and s t a t i s t i c a l means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of a l l the v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f i r s t . T h e r e a f t e r , r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the o r d e r of t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . 38 L a s t l y , secondary q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g from t h e s t u d y a r e ad d r e s s e d . Demographic Data A l l s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y were r e q u e s t e d t o p r o v i d e some demographic i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e m s e l v e s . T a b l e 1 shows t h a t t h e r e were 41 males and 73 females i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . One s t u d e n t d i d not s t a t e h i s / h e r gender so h i s / h e r responses were i n c l u d e d i n a l l t h e a n a l y s i s except where gender was used as a v a r i a b l e . A t o t a l of 115 a d o l e s c e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . A l l respond e n t s were i n grades 8-10 and t h e i r ages ranged from 13 y e a r s t o 17 y e a r s . Most s t u d e n t s had 4 or- l e s s s i b l i n g s and t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e f a m i l y o r d e r were no h i g h e r than 4. In response t o the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m about the e t h n i c l a b e l by which they i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s , most s t u d e n t s (72/114) r e f e r r e d t o s e l f as e i t h e r Canadian S i k h or E a s t I n d i a n . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y The Cawte A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s Measure, C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f Esteem I n v e n t o r y ( S c h o o l Form), and t h e M u l t i g r o u p Measure of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 115 s t u d e n t s . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. T a b l e 1 Demographic Data i n c l u d i n g Gender. Grade. Aae. S i b l i n g s . P o s i t i o n i n F a m i l y . E t h n i c S e l f L a b e l and School A t t e n d e d # of s u b j e c t s Gender: Males 41 Females 73 Unknown 1 T o t a l 115 Grade: 8 40 9 46 10 29 Age: 13 26 14 36 15 40 16 12 17 1 S i b l i n g s : 0 1 1 28 2 44 3 26 4 12 5 2 6 1 7 1 P o s i t i o n i n F a m i l y : 1 44 2 38 3 22 4 11 E t h n i c S e l f L a b e l : C a nadian 14 E a s t I n d i a n 28 Indo-Canadian 13 S i k h 16 Canadian S i k h 44 School A t t e n d e d A 23 B 19 C 32 D 41 40 T a b l e 2 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y V a r i a b l e Mean SD F u l l S c a l e S c o r e s A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s 5.99 3.77 S e l f Esteem 60.93 17.64 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 2.86 0.56 S u b s c a l e S c o r e s S e l f Esteem G e n e r a l 15.97 5.08 S o c i a l / p e e r s 6.14 1.63 Home/parents 4.20 2.50 School/academic 4.55 1.96 L i e S c a l e 2.71 1.64 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g 3.08 0.72 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d 2.78 0.57 E t h n i c B e h a v i o u r 2.63 0.85 Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n 3.17 0.59 N=115 The mean of 5.99 f o r t h e l e v e l of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s of t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s a h i g h l e v e l of p s y c h o s o m a t i c symptoms i n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . Comparison of the means f o r t h e S e l f Esteem f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r from t h i s s t u d y w i t h the norms p r e s e n t e d f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s shows t h a t they a r e s i m i l a r . The E t h n i c I d e n t i t y f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s of our s u b j e c t s a r e a t about the same l e v e l as P h i n n e y ' s ( i n p r e s s ) . T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s c o r e s on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y . N e i t h e r t h e E t h n i c I d e n t i t y f u l l s c a l e o r s u b s c a l e s were T a b l e 3 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . S e l f Esteem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y V a r i a b l e AS EI AB EIA EB OGO GSE SO HO SCH TSE E t h n i c I d e n t i t y ( E I ) .07 A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g -.01 .85* (AB) E t h n i c I d e n t i t y .07 .88* .59* A c h i e v e d (EIA) E t h n i c B e h a v i o u r s (EB) .17 .65* .43* .50* O t h e r Group O r i e n t a t i o n .02 .20* .09 .28* .04 (OGO) G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem -.59* .07 .08 .03 .04 .10 (GSE) S o c i a l / p e e r s S e l f -.07 .03 .06 - .001 .02 .11 .43 Esteem (SO) -.002 .56* Home/parents S e l f -.38* .13 .24* -.01 .05 .17 Esteem (HO) .02 .56* .29* S c h o o l / a c a d e m i c S e l f -.42* .14 .03 .19 .03 .30* Esteem (SCH) JU .55* T o t a l S e l f Esteem (TSE) -.54* .14 .16 .07 .05 .09 .92 .71* . 65* L i e S c a l e ( L I E ) -.12 .10 .15 .06 .07 -.15 .22* .09 .30* .18 .26" * V a l u e s of r=. 20 or above a r e s i g n i f i c a n t 42 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . Three of t h e f o u r s u b s c a l e s ( G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem, Home/parents S e l f Esteem, and School/academic S e l f Esteem), and t h e f u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and S e l f Esteem A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s was f i r s t r e g r e s s e d on t h e f u l l s c a l e s c o r e s and s e c o n d l y on the s u b s c a l e s c o r e s of S e l f Esteem. The r e s u l t s of t h e s e r e g r e s s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4, i n c l u d i n g b w e i g h t s , and t and R-square v a l u e s . R e g r e s s i o n of t h e f u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem s c o r e g i v e s a t - v a l u e (t= -6.90) and F r a t i o of 47.57, df= 1,114 , t h a t a r e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e =.05 l e v e l . The R-square f o r f u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem a c c o u n t s f o r 29.9% of the v a r i a n c e i n t h e a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s s c o r e s f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y . T a b l e 4 R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s on f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s of s e l f - e s t e e m . P r e d i c t o r b weight t R sq F u l l s c a l e r e g r e s s i o n S e l f Esteem -0.12 -8.90 * 29.6% S u b s c a l e r e g r e s s i o n G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem -0.44 -5.43 * S o c i a l / p e e r s 0.56 2.94 * Home/parents -0.09 -0.63 School/academic -0.29 -1.69 L i e S c a l e 0.08 0.44 41.4% * p<.05 43 R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on t h e s u b s c a l e s of S e l f Esteem r e s u l t e d i n an R square of 41.4 and an F r a t i o of 15.3, df= 5,109 t h a t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e a =.05 l e v e l . The two s u b s c a l e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem (b = 0.44) and S o c i a l S e l f Esteem (b = 0.56). The R-square v a l u e f o r t h e combined s u b s c a l e s i s much l a r g e r (41.1%) than t h e R square v a l u e f o r t h e f u l l s c a l e s e l f esteem s c o r e s a l o n e ( 2 9 . 6 ) . The combined s u b s c a l e s t h e r e f o r e account f o r more of t h e of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s s c o r e s t h a n f u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem by i t s e l f . The r e s i d u a l s of t h i s r e g r e s s i o n were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e f i t t e d v a l u e s . T h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h a t 95% of t h e r e s i d u a l s f e l l w i t h i n +/- 2.00. The n o r m a l i t y a ssumption was met s i n c e t h e r e i s no apparent p a t t e r n t o t h e d a t a . F u r t h e r i n s p e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the assumption of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e had not been v i o l a t e d , t h e F t e s t s c o r e s a r e t h e r e f o r e v a l i d . There i s independence about t h e mean of r e s i d u a l s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y The second q u e s t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h q u e r i e d about a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s was r e g r e s s e d on t h e f u l l s c a l e s c o r e s of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y . The r e s u l t s of t h e s e r e g r e s s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5, i n c l u d i n g b w e i g h t s , 44 t and R sq u a r e . R e g r e s s i o n of the f u l l s c a l e E t h n i c I d e n t i t y s c o r e s gave an i n s i g n i f i c a n t t v a l u e and F r a t i o . The R square f o r f u l l s c a l e E t h n i c I d e n t i t y a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 0.4% of the v a r i a n c e i n t h e A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s s c o r e s . R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on t h e s u b s c a l e s of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l t h o u g h the R square of t h e combined s u b s c a l e s i s g r e a t e r (3.7%) than the R square f o r the f u l l s c a l e a l o n e ( 0 . 4 % ) . T a b l e 5 R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on F u l l S c a l e and S u b s c a l e s c o r e s ofi E t h n i c H tent j , fry Independant v a r i a b l e b weight R- sq t F u l l s c a l e r e g r e s s i o n E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 0.44 0. 4% 0 .70 S u b s c a l e r e g r e s s i o n A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g -0.63 -1 .01 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d 0.24 0 .28 E t h n i c B e h a v i o r 0.88 1 .80 Other.Group O r i e n t a t i o n 0.09 3. 7% 0 .14 * p<.05 The r e s i d u a l and f i t t e d s c o r e s were p l o t t e d f o r t h i s r e g r e s s i o n . N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of t h e d a t a l i e w i t h i n +/-2.00. F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s showed t h a t a l l assumptions about n o r m a l i t y , homogeneity of the sample and independence about the mean were s a t i s f i e d . A model of t h e r e g r e s s i o n of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s on a l l t h e f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s of s e l f esteem and e t h n i c 45 i d e n t i t y was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h the use of a s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n ( T a b l e 6 ) . T a b l e 6 S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n of A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s on the F u l l S c a l e and S u b s c a l e S c o r e s f o r S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y b weight t R-sq Step 1 Ge n e r a l S e l f Esteem -0.44 Step 2 G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem -0.52 S o c i a l / p e e r s S e l f Esteem 0.54 Step 3 Ge n e r a l S e l f Esteem -0.52 S o c i a l / p e e r s S e l f Esteem 0.54 E t h n i c B e h a v i o u r 0.85 p< .05 Only t h r e e v a r i a b l e s appear as a r e s u l t of t h e S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n . I n t h e f i n a l s t e p t h e v a r i a b l e s were G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem (b=-0.52), S o c i a l / p e e r S e l f Esteem (b=0.54) and E t h n i c b e h a v i o u r (b=0.85). As a r e s u l t of t h e s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n , 43% of t h e r e g r e s s i o n was ac c o u n t e d f o r , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o an r=0.66 between A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . 0.78 35.16% •8.53 2.88 39.64% -8.86 2.96 2.69 43.32% Gender The t h i r d q u e s t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e d whether t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and t h e f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f - e s t e e m and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . The t o t a l number of s u b j e c t s f o r the gender c a t e g o r y were 114 s i n c e one s u b j e c t d i d not i n d i c a t e gender on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l the t o t a l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s were broken down by gender. The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e i n T a b l e 7. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and a number of o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . S i k h males have h i g h e r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s s c o r e s ( t = 2 . 7 4 ) , lower S o c i a l S e l f Esteem s c o r e s (t=2.22) and lower A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g s c o r e s (t=-2.06) t h a n S i k h females i n t h i s s t u d y . Other Q u e s t i o n s Demographic d a t a were c o l l e c t e d on a l l s u b j e c t s . A two way ANOVA was c a r r i e d out f o r a l l f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s on 4 demographic v a r i a b l e s ; s c h o o l , e t h n i c s e l f l a b e l , age, and grade. As r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e 8, t h e s c h o o l a t t e n d e d by t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s c o r e s on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n , G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem, Home-parents S e l f Esteem, and T o t a l S e l f Esteem. T a b l e 7 A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y s c o r e s s e p a r a t e d by Gender V a r i a b l e Mean SD t Female Male Female Male F u l l s c a l e r e g r e s s i o n A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s 4. .83 6. ,67 3, ,11 3, ,97 2, .74* E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 2, .86 2, .89 0 , .57 0 .55 -0 .27 S e l f Esteem 60, .53 61, .12 18, ,42 16, .28 -0, .18 Sub s c a l e r e g r e s s i o n E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g 3. .27 2, ,98 0. ,71 0 , .71 -2, .06* E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 2, .71 2, .82 0, .59 0, .56 0 .88 Ach i e v e d E t h n i c Behavior 2. , 64 2, .63 0. ,88 0. ,81 0, .02 Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n 3, .24 3, .02 0, .55 0 , .64 1, .83 S e l f Esteem General S e l f Esteem 15. .88 16, ,04 5. ,24 4. ,87 -0, .18 S o c i a l / p e e r s 6, .38 5, .66 1, .50 1, .77 2 , .22* Home/parents 3, , 90 4, .63 2. ,46 2. ,49 -1, ,51 School/academic 4. .64 4, .37 2, .00 1, . 92 0 , .73 L i e S c a l e 2 . 75 2 , 61 1. ,52 1. ,87 0 . ,42 *p<.05 T a b l e 8 Mean f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . S e l f E s teem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y by Schoo l a t t e n d e d V a r i a b l e Schoo l A B C D (23) (32) (41) (19) A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s 6, ,78 6, .75 5, .76 4, .26 * T o t a l E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 2, .89 2, .78 2 .87 2 .96 A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g 3. .12 2, .88 3, .13 3. .28 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d 2, .81 2, .75 2 .73 2, .88 E t h n i c Behav io r 2. .57 2. .70 2, .67 2, .47 Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n 3, .43 3, .26 3, .02 2, .99 * Genera l S e l f Esteem 14. .04 16. .22 15, .71 18. .47 S o c i a l / p e e r s 6, .26 5, .88 6, .32 6, .05 Home/parents 3. ,57 3. ,97 4. .00 5. ,79 * Schoo l / academic 4, .04 4, . 66 4, .42 5, .26 T o t a l S e l f Esteem 54. ,09 60. ,69 60. .22 71. ,16 * L i e S c a l e 2, .52 3, .16 2, .42 2, .84 * p<.05 Table 9 shows that the E t h n i c Label that student's p r e f e r t o be c a l l e d by i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the subsc a l e scores of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y but not A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s or S e l f Esteem. These E t h n i c Labels i n c l u d e d Sikh, Canadian S i k h , Indo-Canadian, East Indian, and Canadian. Those a d o l e s c e n t s who r e f e r t o themselves as "Canadian" had lower s c o r e s on the su b s c a l e s of A f f i r m a t i o n / B e l o n g i n g , E t h n i c I d e n t i t y Achieved, and E t h n i c Behavior. "Indo-Canadians" had the h i g h e s t s c o r e on Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n . The age of a student was found to have no r e l a t i o n s h i p with s c o r e s on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem, or E t h n i c I d e n t i t y . The mean scores f o r age of students on a l l of these v a r i a b l e s are presented i n Table 10. A n a l y s i s of the v a r i a n c e of the sco r e s on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s or E t h n i c I d e n t i t y by the grade of each student showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s was p l o t t e d a g a i n s t E t h n i c I d e n t i t y to i n v e s t i g a t e a possibl e . c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two v a r i a b l e s . No c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. A p l o t of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y a g a i n s t S e l f Esteem a l s o showed a l a c k of any c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Summary of R e s u l t s O v e r a l l , 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s were found to have a h i g h l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s as i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e 9 Mean s c o r e s f o r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s , S e l f Esteem and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y f o r S e l f E t h n i c L a b e l s by s t u d e n t s V a r i a b l e S e l f E t h n i c L a b e l 1 2 3 4 5 (14) (44) (28) (13) (16) A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s 5. .57 5. .36 6. .69 6. .56 6. .11 T o t a l E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 2 , .41 2, .76 2 , .76 3, .01 3, .05 * A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g 2. .47 2. , 94 2. ,86 3. .28 3. .36 * E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d 2, .43 2, .71 2, .63 2, .91 2, .92 * E t h n i c Behav io r 2, .18 2. ,34 2. ,92 2. , 91 2. ,76 * Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n 3, .17 3, . 10 3, .55 2, .87 3, .20 * G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem 15. .79 17. ,21 17. ,46 14. ,38 15. ,39 S o c i a l / p e e r s 6, .29 5, .93 7, .00 5, .75 6. .11 Home/parents 3. .57 4. ,18 4. ,08 3. ,50 4. ,71 S choo l / a cademic 5, .07 4, ,82 4. .54 4. .44 4. ,25 T o t a l S e l f Esteem 59. .00 62. .96 64. ,62 56. ,12 60. ,91 L i e S c a l e 2, .00 2, .68 2, . 69 2, . 56 3, .02 * p<,05 (1) Canad ian (2) Ea s t I nd i an (3) I ndo -Canad ian (4) S i k h (5) Canad ian S i kh T a b l e 10 Means of Scores on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . S e l f Es teem, and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y by Age of s t u d e n t s Age V a r i a b l e 13 (26) 14 (36) 15 (40) 16 (12) A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s 6, .12 5, .94 5, .63 6, .83 T o t a l E t h n i c I d e n t i t y 2. ,95 2. ,91 2. ,73 2, ,94 A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g 3, .22 3, .16 2 .90 3 .12 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d 2, .80 2, .84 2, .70 2, .80 E t h n i c Behav i o r 2 .67 2, .64 2 . 48 2 .92 O ther Group O r i e n t a t i o n 3. .26 3, ,26 3, .09 2, .98 G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem 16 .54 15, .31 16, .48 15, .42 S o c i a l / p e e r s 6, .04 5, .94 6. .35 6, .17 Home/parents 4 .73 3, .92 4, .05 4, .42 S choo l / a cademic 4. .39 4. ,72 4. ,38 5. ,00 T o t a l S e l f Esteem 61, .81 59, .22 62, .10 60 , .83 L i e S c a l e 2. .46 2. ,83 2. ,48 3. ,50 * p<.05 52 the s c o r e s on t h e Cawte A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s s c o r e s and the f u l l s c a l e s c o r e of S e l f Esteem. The p r e s e n t s t u d y a l s o g i v e s e v i d e n c e t h a t A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o E t h n i c B e h a v i o u r but i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem. A s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n showed t h a t t h e G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem s c o r e i s the b e s t i n d i c a t o r of s c o r e s on A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s . S i k h males i n t h i s s t u d y had h i g h e r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and lower A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g and lower S o c i a l S e l f Esteem than S i k h females i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . The School t h a t a s t u d e n t a t t e n d e d was found t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e s c o r e s on Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n , G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem, Home S e l f esteem, and T o t a l S e l f Esteem. The s c o r e s on the F u l l S c a l e and S u b s c a l e s of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e E t h n i c S e l f L a b e l t h a t a s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t e s w i t h . S i k h c h i l d r e n who r e f e r t o themselves as "Canadian" had t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s on t o t a l E t h n i c I d e n t i t y , A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g , and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d . Those s t u d e n t s who i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s as "Indo-Canadian" had t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s on t h e Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n s u b s c a l e . 53 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The major purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . The a c c u l t u r a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who e x p e r i e n c e h i g h a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s a l s o have poor s e l f esteem and h i g h l e v e l s of i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n , among o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems. Between group s t u d i e s on the l e v e l s of s e l f esteem a r e g e n e r a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h i n group r e s e a r c h may be more r e l e v a n t i n t h e s t u d y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Gender s t u d i e s have been based on t h e assumption t h a t males and females have d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s ( P h inney & R o s e n t h a l , 1986). Some r e s e a r c h e r s suggest t h a t women have more b i c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s and lower s e l f esteem, but more e t h n i c b e h a v i o u r s t h a n males. The p r e s e n t s t u d y s e t out t o e x p l o r e whether the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , found i n the l i t e r a t u r e a r e c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c . No such s t u d i e s have p r e v i o u s l y been c a r r i e d out w i t h S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . 54 The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were: 1) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s e l f esteem i n 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s ? 2) I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i n 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s ? 3) A r e t h e r e any gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s c o r e s on a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ? Summary of C e n t r a l F i n d i n g s S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s have a h i g h l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s . The mean s c o r e s f o r t o t a l a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s f o r bo t h males and females t o g e t h e r i s s i m i l a r t o t h e l e v e l s found i n M a l a y s i a n and Vietnamese r e f u g e e s ( B e r r y and K o s t o v c i k , 1983). T h i s g i v e s e v i d e n c e of a h i g h l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s among S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s and c o n f i r m s r e c e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s by the I n d i a n media (Basu, 1989). The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y c o n f i r m e d p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s of a s t r o n g i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and f u l l s c a l e and g e n e r a l S e l f Esteem. The o t h e r s u b s c a l e s of s e l f esteem were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s . Gender d i f f e r e n c e s were found w i t h r e s p e c t t o l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s o c i a l s e l f - e s t e e m . The f i n d i n g of h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s amongst S i k h males was 55 u n p r e d i c t e d by the l i t e r a t u r e . I t has g e n e r a l l y been assumed t h a t females have a more d i f f i c u l t t i me a c c u l t u r a t i n g due t o h i g h d i s s i m i l a r i t y of women's r o l e s between t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and mainstream c u l t u r e . The g i r l s i n t h i s s t u d y had h i g h e r l e v e l s of S o c i a l S e l f Esteem than the boys, c o n f i r m i n g t h a t females may have h i g h e r s e l f esteem f o r p u b l i c t r a i t s . Two-way ANOVA between t h e s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d by s u b j e c t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t S c hool A t t e n d e d i s a v e r y good i n d i c a t o r of a s t u d e n t ' s s c o r e of Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n , G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem, T o t a l S e l f Esteem, and Home-parents S e l f Esteem. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s t u d e n t s who l a b e l themselves "Canadian" were found t o have lower f u l l s c a l e and s u b s c a l e s c o r e s f o r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n was h i g h e r i n s u b j e c t s r e f e r r i n g t o themselves as "Indo-Canadian ." A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and S e l f Esteem The r e s u l t s from t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n f i r m e d p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s of an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and s e l f - e s t e e m (Ber^y_je_t__al-.-^. 1987). S i n c e s e l f esteem a f f e c t s one's t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and b e h a v i o r (Rosenberg, 1979) i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s would be r e l a t e d t o p o o r e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g . I n d i v i d u a l s who have low s e l f 56 esteem l a c k s e l f worth and s e l f r e s p e c t , and f e e l t h a t they are somehow d e f i c i e n t (Rosenberg, 1979). No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and the School-academic, or Home-parents s u b s c a l e s of S e l f Esteem. A n a l y s i s of the histogram f o r the Home-peers s u b s c a l e showed that the responses d i d not occur i n a normal p a t t e r n . T h i s may be due to confused f e e l i n g s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h parents or i t may have been caused by f a l s e responses. Sikhs value m a i n t a i n i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y about f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s . Some of the v a r i a n c e measured by the home-parents s u b s c a l e may be due to Sikh students not wanting to p u b l i c l y negate the home environment. The l i e s c a l e would not p i c k up on defe n s i v e n e s s i n t h i s subcategory because i t only asks q u e s t i o n s about the s e l f , not one's f a m i l y . S i k h students' s e l f esteem w i t h regards to the home may be b e t t e r accessed through q u a l i t a t i v e means. The l i e s c a l e scores f o r students i n t h i s study were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h enough to omit any of the data from a n a l y s i s . A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and E t h n i c I d e n t i t y The r e s u l t s p r o v i d e no evidence t o support the c o n t e n t i o n that a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i s r e l a t e d to degree of over a l l e t h n i c i d e n t i t y as measured by the Mu l t i g r o u p E t h n i c i d e n t i t y Measure (MEIM). One would expect that 57 i n c r e a s e d a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i d e n t i t y c o n f u s i o n would r e s u l t i n an i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and degree of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . No such r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n d i c a t e d by r e g r e s s i o n of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s on e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . P hinney ( i n p r e s s ) n o t e s t h a t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s had h i g h e r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y achievement s c o r e s t h a n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n her i n v e s t i g a t i o n and p o s t u l a t e s t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y achievement may a c t u a l l y be a g e - s p e c i f i c . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was conducted w i t h grade 8, 9, and 10 s t u d e n t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t most of t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g i d e n t i t y e x p l o r a t i o n , a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e l a c k of r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and i d e n t i t y achievement i n t h i s s t u d y . Gender D i f f e r e n c e s The f i n d i n g t h a t S i k h males d i s p l a y h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s than females i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1987). The age and g e n e r a t i o n s t a t u s of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y i s d i f f e r e n t than B e r r y e t a l . ' s and t h i s may account f o r t h e v a r y i n g r e s u l t s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h i g h e r s t r e s s i n females i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s may be a by p r o d u c t of a response s t y l e i n a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s ( B e r r y & K o s t o v c i k , 1983). F i n d i n g s by N a d i t c h and M o r r i s s e y (1976) may p r o v i d e a n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . In t h e i r s t u d y of female Cuban 58 i m m i g r a n t s , i n t r o v e r t e d s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d r e a c t i n g more s t r e s s f u l l y t o v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r maladjustment t h a n e x t r o v e r t e d s u b j e c t s . I f t h i s i s t r u e f o r e t h n i c m i n o r i t y males, h i g h e r l e v e l s of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s i n males i n our sample may be i n d i c a t i v e of more i n t r o v e r s i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e s e males, as compared t o t h e females i n our s t u d y . I f S i k h females a r e more e x t r o v e r t e d , then i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t they s h o u l d s c o r e h i g h e r on the s o c i a l s e l f - p e e r s u b s c a l e , than S i k h males i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . B e r r y and K o s t o v c i k (1983) l o o k e d a t r e f u g e e s and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t not s p e n d i n g a l o t of time w i t h Canadians or b e i n g a c l o s e f r i e n d w i t h Canadians can l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s . They suggest t h a t a l a c k of knowledge about whom t o t u r n t o i n t i m e s of c o n f l i c t may a l s o r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . The a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as a c o u n s e l l o r i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n g e n e r a l , e t h n i c females a r e more l i k e l y t o seek c o u n s e l l i n g . T h i s may a l s o e x p l a i n why S i k h males have h i g h e r s t r e s s i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . A d d i t i o n a l l y , h i g h e r a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l s i n I n d i a n males and w i l l i n g n e s s t o marry out of t h e i r c u l t u r e presumably l e a d s t o g r e a t e r " d i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the e t h n i c c u l t u r e " and i n e v i t a b l y t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l y I n d i a n (Hogg & P a t e l , 1987). T h i s d i s c o v e r y may cause c o n f u s i o n and s t r e s s f o r S i k h males. On the o t h e r hand, t h i s gender d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o l e s s r i g i d r u l e s and lower s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a t home f o r males. T h i s would cause more s t r e s s f o r males i n the s c h o o l environment, where they a r e ex p e c t e d t o conform t o s c h o o l s t a n d a r d s and s t r u c t u r e . Females would f u n c t i o n w e l l i n s c h o o l because f o r them, c o n f o r m i t y t o r u l e s i s s i m i l a r l y r e i n f o r c e d and ex p e c t e d b o t h a t home and s c h o o l . Our r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s c o n f i r m a t i o n of a p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e i n g female and h a v i n g h i g h e r S o c i a l S e l f Esteem ( M a r t i n e z & Dukes, 1987) The s i m p l e s t e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s h i g h e r s c o r e i s r e l a t e d t o a tendency by females t o agree w i t h p e r s o n a l s t a t e m e n t s and i s r e f l e c t e d on the measure of s e l f esteem. On t h e o t h e r hand, R a v i n d e r (1987) demonstrated t h a t I n d i a n women d i s p l a y i n g more f e m i n i n e t r a i t s s c o r e d h i g h e r on s e l f esteem t h a n I n d i a n males. She argues t h a t s e x - r o l e norms a r e h i g h l y d e f i n e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s such as t h o s e of I n d i a . S i n c e c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e s e norms i s encouraged, rewarded, and r e i n f o r c e d , one would expect h i g h e r l e v e l s of s e l f esteem i n t h e s e women. No such l i n k between s o c i a l s e l f esteem and gender has been found nor i s ex p e c t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i e n t e d s o c i e t i e s such as Canada. I f t h i s argument h o l d s , t h e n i t s h o u l d a l s o f o l l o w t h a t females i n our s t u d y would have had h i g h e r l e v e l s of s e l f esteem on t h e home-parents s u b s c a l e due t o t h e p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t t h e y r e c e i v e i n t h a t environment. The l a c k of 60 such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the present study may be due to the l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y of the o v e r a l l responses on t h i s s u b s c a l e , as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that any p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s from the encouragement r e c e i v e d at home are counterbalanced by f e e l i n g s of u n f a i r n e s s due to d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of the two sexes ( G r i e v e , Rosenthal, & C a v a l l e , 1988). Gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l s e l f esteem may a l s o be due to s t r o n g e r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among females (Berry & K o s t o v c i k , 1983) an i n c r e a s e d "communal o r i e n t a t i o n " or the s o c i a l change b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e of e t h n i c females (Hogg et a l . , 1987). The l a c k of gender d i f f e r e n c e s found i n F u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem i n our sample c o n t r a d i c t s f i n d i n g s by Louden (1978) where males had higher l e v e l s than females. The s l i g h t l y h igher A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g scores f o r females i n t h i s study drew s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s to a f i n d i n g by Hogg, Abrams, and P a t e l (1987). The g r e a t e r emphasis of the S i k h c u l t u r e on the maintenance of Si k h values and e t h i c s by females may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Phinney ( i n press) found no such gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n her study. Other Questions Using a 2 way ANOVA f u l l s c a l e and su b s c a l e scores of the f o u r s c h o o l s were analyzed. I t was found that the 61 schoo l tha t a s tudent a t tends i s a good i n d i c a t o r of the s co re s on Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n , Genera l S e l f Esteem, Home-parents, and T o t a l S e l f Esteem. W i t h i n schoo l and o u t s i d e of s choo l v a r i a b l e s may be med i a t i n g these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t the economic background of the student_ population__aj^___ea.ch s.c.hpol i s d i f f e r e n t or the community make-up (percentage of S ikhs ver sus o t h e r s ) v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the f our s c h o o l s . I t c o u l d a l s o be tha t those s tudent s who l i v e i n an a rea w i th g r e a t e r e t h n i c m ix tu re would have h i ghe r Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s same m i x t u r e , as we l l as the p r o x i m i t y to the Gurudwara may be a v a r i a b l e tha t a f f e c t s the s co re s on e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . W i t h i n s choo l f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s may i n c l u d e the type of a c c u l t u r a t i o n p o l i c y of the schoo l -whether i n t e g r a t i o n or a s s i m i l a t i o n i s s t r e s s e d . An i n t e g r a t i o n mode would be___expected to r e s u l t i n h i g h e r S e l f Esteem s c o r e s . Of cou r se , another p o s s i b i l i t y i s tha t s tudent s c o p i e d from each o t h e r , r e s u l t i n g i n s choo l d i f f e r e n c e s on some v a r i a b l e s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t appears reasonab le tha t the e t h n i c l a b e l one a p p l i e s to s e l f would be r e l a t e d to e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . S tudents i n t h i s s tudy were p re sen ted w i th a c h o i c e of f i v e terms which have been a p p l i e d to immigrants from I nd i a . These are Indo Canad ian, S i k h , Canadian S i k h , East I nd i an , and Canad ian. The r e s u l t s from 2 way ANOVA 62 c o n f i r m t h a t the l a b e l a s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i e s w i t h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c o r e s on t h e F u l l s c a l e and S u b s c a l e s of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y ( A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g , E t h n i c I d e n t i t y A c h i e v e d , E t h n i c B e h a v i o r ) . S t u d e n t s who r e f e r t o themselves as "Canadian S i k h " had h i g h e r s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e of t h e s e s u b s c a l e s . Other Group O r i e n t a t i o n was h i g h e s t i n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who l a b e l themselves "Indo-Canadian." C o n c l u s i o n s In t h i s s t u d y , A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s s c o r e s were found t o be i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h F u l l S c a l e and G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem s c o r e s of s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y . A s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n was c a r r i e d out on a l l t h e independent v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 6) and showed t h a t t h e G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem s u b s c a l e a l o n e a c c o u n t s f o r 35.16% of t h e v a r i a n c e i n the A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s s c o r e s and does b e t t e r t h a n the F u l l s c a l e S e l f Esteem s c o r e . The G e n e r a l S e l f Esteem s u b s c a l e i s thus an e x c e l l e n t i n d i c a t o r of t h e l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s . The S o c i a l - p e e r s s u b s c a l e was t h e 2nd most p o w e r f u l i n d i c a t o r and a t t r i b u t e d t o 4.48% of t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e ( I t must be kept i n mind t h a t t h i s r e s u l t may be due t o s t a t i s t i c a l e f f e c t . ) . E t h n i c B e h a v i o r a c c o u n t s f o r about 3.68% of t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n and was the t h i r d most p o w e r f u l i n d i c a t o r of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s . 63 The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h g i v e s e v i d e n c e t h a t S i k h males have h i g h e r A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s and lower S o c i a l S e l f Esteem and A f f i r m a t i o n / b e l o n g i n g than S i k h f e m a l e s . E t h n i c i d e n t i t y appears t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e t h n i c l a b e l t h a t S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s a p p l y t o th e m s e l v e s . I n a d d i t i o n , s e l f esteem was__found j t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l t h a t a s t u d e n t a t t e n d s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d out on r e f u g e e s and new i m m i g r a n t s . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was un d e r t a k e n t o compensate f o r t h e l a c k of such s t u d i e s w i t h 2nd g e n e r a t i o n a d o l e s c e n t s growing up i n a b i c u l t u r a l environment. There a r e a number of r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e from the p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s l e v e l s of ^ n d ^ g e n e r a t i o n S i k h adolescents are s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h , w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s s c o r e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o r r e f u g e e s i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( B e r r y & K o s t o v c i k , 1983). F u r t h e r ^ s t u d i e s a r e needed t o c o n f i r m t h i s f i n d i n g among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n a d o l e s c e n t s of o t h e r m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups i n Canada. A need a l s o e x i s t s f o r b e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and s e l f esteem. The Cawte A c c u l t u r a t i v e S t r e s s S c a l e p r o v i d e s an a c c u l t u r a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s and F u t u r e R e s e a r c h ~~1 64 stress score calculated from items about psychosomatic symptomology. While the assumption that within some minority ethnic cultures, including Sikh, mental health i s commonly defined i n somatic terms may hold for the 1st generation and those back i n the country of o r i g i n , this may not be completely true for acculturated 2nd generation i n d i v i d u a l s . A d d itionally, some items on the Cawte Acculturative Stress Scale may be considered somewhat in s e n s i t i v e depending on the c u l t u r a l group that t h i s measure i s applied to. A need therefore exists for a measure of acculturative stress that accounts for acculturation of the 2nd generation as well as being s e n s i t i v e to the s p e c i f i c culture i t i s used with. For future studies with Sikh adolescents a modified version of the Cawte may be more appropriate for assessing acculturative stress. Since the Multigroup Ethnic I dent i.t.y_ Measure (MEIM) i s f a i r l y new, further research i s required to validate i t within the Sikh adolescent population. The lack of a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between acculturative stress and ethnic i d e n t i t y i n the present study may be due to the measurement of ethnic i d e n t i t y . Grade 8, 9, and 10, 2nd generation Sikh adolescents may be at a very early stage of i d e n t i t y development. On the otherhand, th i s finding could be possibly related to an i n a b i l i t y of the MEIM to accurately assess ethnic i d e n t i t y within t h i s population. 6 5 T h i s f u r t h e r emphasizes t h e complex n a t u r e of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring t h i s c o n s t r u c t . A need e x i s t s f o r a c u l t u r a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e measure of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y would have low s e l f esteem s c o r e s on t h e Home-parents S u b s c a l e of the C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f Esteem I n v e n t o r y . The l a c k of such a f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t s o b s e r v a t i o n s by the e t h n i c media (Basu, 1989) and t h e a u t h o r , and may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e i t e m s i n t h i s s u b s c a l e do not a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s s e l f esteem of S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , more v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , and s e l f esteem need t o be d e v e l o p e d f o r c a r r y i n g out r e s e a r c h w i t h 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . Other r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y a re as f o l l o w s : a) t h e r e i s a need t o l o o k a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n and i d e j i t _ i t y development as p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n s t a t i c v a r i a b l e s ; b) f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d i e s w i t h i n the S i k h c u l t u r e s h o u l d l o o k a t d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y between g e n e r a t i o n s ; c) f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n a c r o s s c u l t u r e s t o e s t a b l i s h whether i t i s a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s ; d) supplementary t o the p r e s e n t s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a from t h i s s t u d y , o t h e r a n a l y s e s c o u l d be made whi c h l o o k a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s based on h i g h , medium, and 66 low s c o r e s on these v a r i a b l e s ; and, e) i t i s a l s o recommended t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h should be enhanced with q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 1st g e n e r a t i o n parents and 2nd ge n e r a t i o n c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n to the r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s , a number of p r a c t i c a l recommendations a l s o come out of t h i s study. I t has p r e v i o u s l y been observed that e t h n i c i n d i v i d u a l s | are l e s s l i k e l y to seek and continue c o u n s e l l i n g than members of mainstream s o c i e t y (Sue, 1977). C u l t u r e s p e c i f i c c o u n s e l l i n g models which i n c o r p o r a t e 2nd g e n e r a t i o n c l i e n t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r 1st g e n e r a t i o n immigrant parents are r e q u i r e d . While a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t may f belong to a 2nd g e n e r a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s person i s a f f e c t e d by the a c c u l t u r a t i v e process of h i s / h e r parents. One thus needs to be aware of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e l p -seeking behaviour of both g e n e r a t i o n s . While adolescents may be very w i l l i n g to seek c o u n s e l l i n g , t h e i r parents may not be s u p p o r t i v e of i t . The present evidence f o r a hig h l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s p o i n t s to a need f o r school-based programs to deal with t h i s i s s u e . I t can not be assumed that the small number of e t h n i c a d o l e s c e n t s seeking c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h i n the school system i s i n d i c a t i v e of a lack of b i c u l t u r a l adjustment problems f o r 67 these youths. School c o u n s e l l o r s need to take a more a c t i v e stance i n a i d i n g the adjustment of these i n d i v i d u a l s . The f i n d i n g of s i g n i f i c a n t s e l f esteem d i f f e r e n c e s between s c h o o l s i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e s a need to look at school based v a r i a b l e s that may be r e l a t e d to t h i s . F a c t o r s such as a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t and i n t e g r a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e s or p o l i c i e s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers may be a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s f i n d i n g . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have g e n e r a l l y shown that females have more s t r e s s then males. The r e s u l t s of the present study c o n t r a d i c t these f i n d i n g s and i n d i c a t e h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s f o r males. Government funded s o c i a l programs need to take t h i s i n t o account. The present i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s , s e l f esteem and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y among 2nd g e n e r a t i o n S i k h a d o l e s c e n t s . 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London: U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s . 74 APPENDICES BACKGROUND INFORMATION Name of S c h o o l : Age: Grade: Sex: Male Female Number of b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s : You are c h i l d number: O c c u p a t i o n of F a t h e r : O c c u p a t i o n of Mother : Do you d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f as: (mark o n l y one) a) S i k h b) C a n a d i a n - S i k h c) Canadian d) E a s t - I n d i a n e) I n d o - C a n a d i a n CAWTE ACCULTURATIVE STRESS SCALE P t t a M anaww Y M or No to each of the following questions by circling the appropriata Laosr. 1. Co you have pains in the heart or cheat? Y N 2. Do you usually bekh a lot after eating? Y N 3. Do you constantly suffer from bad constipation? Y N 4. Do your muscles and joints constantly feel stiff? Y N 5. Is your skin very sensitive or tender? Y N 6. Do you suffer badly from savers headaches? Y N 7. Do you often have spells of severe dizziness? Y N 8. Do you usually get tired and exhausted in the morning? Y N 9. Do you wear yourself out worrying about your health? Y N 10. Do you usually have great difficulty in failing asleep or staying asleep? Y N 11. Do strange people or places make you afraid? Y N 12. Do you wiah you always have someone at your side to advise you? Y N 13. Do you usually feel unhappy and depressed? Y N 14. Do you often wish you were dead and away from it all? Y N 15. Does worrying continually get you down? Y N 16. Are you extremely shy or sensitive? Y N 17. Does) it make you angry to have anyone tall you what to do? Y N 18. Do people often annoy or irritate you? Y N 19. Do you often shake or tremble? Y N 20. Do you often break out in a cold sweat? Y N THE MULTIGROUP ETHNIC IDENTITY MEASURE l a rM« country, people COM froa a lot of different cultural and char* ara nany different words to describe tho different background* or ethnic p-gyps, that paopla COM froa. Soae axaaplas of cho names of ethnic groups ara Maxlc an-American, Hispanic, Blaok, Asian-American, Aaarieaa Indian, Anglo-American, and Bhite. Every parson is born into an ethnic group, or soaatiaa* two groups, but-paopla diffar on how important thair a t h n l c l t v is to tbaa, bov thay feel about i t , and how ouch chair behavior i s affected by i t . These questions are about your ethnicity or your ethnic group and how you feel about i t or react to i t . Please f i l l in: In tern* of ethnic group, I consider myself to be -Use the nuabers given below to indicate how aueh you agree or disagree with each stateaent. 4:Strongly 3:Somewhat 2:Sbaevhae 1: Strongly agree agree disagree disagree 1- I have spent time trying to find out more about ay own ethnic group, such as i t s history, traditions, and customs. 2- I «a active i n organizations or social groups that Include mostly members of ay own ethnic group. 3- 1 have a clear sense of ay ethnic background and what i t means for as. 4- I like meeting and getting to know people froa ethnic groups other than ay own. 5- 1 think a l o t about how ay l i f e w i l l be effected by ay ethnic group membership. 6- I sa happy that I aa a member of the group I belong to. 7- I sometimes feel i t would be better i f different ethnic groups didn't try to aiz together. 3- I aa not very clear about the role of ay ethnicity in ay l i f e . 9- I often spend time with people froa ethnic groups other than my own. 10- I really have not spent much time trying to learn more about the culture and history of my ethnic group. 11- I have a strong sense of belonging to my own ethnic group. 80 Use rha nuabers given belov Co judicata how much you agree or disagrae viea each scataaenc. 4:Serongly 3:SooevhaC 2:Somewha£ l:Strongly agree agrae disagree disagree 12- I understand pretty well what my ethnic group membership means to me, i n Coras of how to relate Co my own group and other groups. 13- In order Co learn mora about my ethnic background, I have often Calked Co other people about my ethnic group. 14- I have a loc of pride in my ethnic group and it3 accomplishments. 15- I don'C cry very hard co become friends with people from other ethnic groups. 16- I participate in cultural practices of my own group, such aa special food, music, or customs. 17- X aa Involved i n accivicies vich people from other ethnic groups. 13- I feel a strong accachnenc cowards my own ethnic group. 19- I enjoy being around people froa echnic groups ocher chan my own. 20- I feel good about my cultural or echnic background. 81 MULTIGROUP ETHNIC IDENTITY MEASURE SCORING ETHNIC IDENTITY: The t o t a l s c o r e i s d e r i v e d by r e v e r s i n g n e g a t i v e i t e m s , summing a c r o s s i t e m s , and o b t a i n i n g the mean (Items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8R*, 10R, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20). S u b s c a l e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y by summing the items and o b t a i n i n g the mean. A f f i r m a t i o n and b e l o n g i n g (Items 6, 11, 14, 18, 20) E t h n i c i d e n t i t y achievement (Items 1, 3, 5, 8 r * , 10R*, 12, 13) E t h n i c b e h a v i o r s (Items 2, 16) E t h n i c s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e t h n i c i t y : S e l f -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( s e l f l a b e l ) and e t h n i c i t y ( P a r e n t s ' e t h n i c group or groups) a r e not s c o r e s but a r e used as background i n f o r m a t i o n . I . OTHER-GROUP ORIENTATION (Items 4, 7R*, 9, 15R*, 17, 19) Items marked w i t h "R" a r e t o be r e v e r s e d i n s c o r i n g 

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