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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical incident study of poetry therapy Miller, David West 1991

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A CRITICAL INCIDENT STUDY OF POETRY THERAPY by DAVID WEST MILLER B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l (c) David West BRITISH 1991 M i l l e r , COLUMBIA 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of r.niTNRF.T.T.TNCE PSYCHOLOGY The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date APRILS 1991 DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s study e x p l o r e s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c technique i n a group c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g . F i v e a d u l t immigrants/refugees ( l e s s than f i v e years i n Canada and who were l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as an a d d i t i o n a l language) from Hong Kong, Iran, Guatamala, Colombia, and one Canadian Native Indian v o l u n t e e r e d f o r and completed a workshop, " S e t t l i n g i n Canada", and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n subsequent data c o l l e c t i o n procedures. Flanagan's (1954) C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique was used t o d i s c o v e r what p o e t i c events f a c i l i t a t e and what p o e t i c events h i n d e r the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Non—poetic events were ana l y s e d i n the same f a s h i o n . Data was drawn from t h r e e sources. Two post—workshop c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d data from which 10 p o e t i c and 8 non—poetic f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , and 1 p o e t i c and 2 non—poetic h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s were induced. These c a t e g o r i e s were supported by workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s and by p o e t r y produced by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p o e t r y used i n a v a r i e t y of ways f a c i l i t a t e s e x p l o r a t i o n of and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s , i n c r e a s e s s e l f — e s t e e m and confidence, promotes d i a l o g u e among workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s and others, expands one's d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , and enhances p e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop s t a t e d t h a t these f a c t o r s helped them s e t t l e i n Canada. i i i T able of Contents A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of Appendices v i i Acknowledgements v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 L i t e r a t u r e Review 5 Poetry 6 P r i m i t i v e Poetry . . . 6 Greek Concepts of Poetry 10 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Views of Poetry 13 Emotion i n Poetry 17 F i g u r a t i v e Language 2 6 Poetry Therapy 36 T h e r a p e u t i c Q u a l i t i e s of Poetry 36 Poetry and Therapy Working Together . . . . 42 The Scope of Poetry Therapy 57 Poetry Therapy With Groups 59 Loss, Immigration, and G r i e f 67 Methodology 7 9 P a r t i c i p a n t s 79 S e l e c t i o n 79 Demographic Information' 84 i v Data G a t h e r i n g Methods . 85 St a n d a r d i z e d Open—Ended Interviews 91 Workshop Leader Observations 98 P a r t i c i p a n t Created Poetry 100 Procedure 101 Data A n a l y s i s 103 C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique 103 Workshop Leader Observations 110 A n a l y s i s of Poems I l l R e s u l t s 113 R e s u l t s One: F a c i l i t a t o r s and Hindrances of S e t t l i n g i n Canada 113 A. P o e t i c F a c i l i t a t o r s and Hindrances of S e t t l i n g i n Canada 113 B. Non—Poetic Workshop F a c i l i t a t o r s and Hindrances of S e t t l i n g i n Canada 125 R e s u l t s Two: R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of The Category System 133 R e l i a b i l i t y 133 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate 134 Exhaustiveness 136 Content V a l i d i t y 138 R e s u l t s Three: Workshop Leader Observations . . 140 P o e t i c Observations 140 Non—Poetic Observations 142 Other Themes From Leader Observations . . . 144 R e s u l t s Four: The Poems; How They Complement the C a t e g o r i e s 14 6 D i s c u s s i o n 180 Summary of R e s u l t s 180 L i m i t a t i o n s 182 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 185 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 190 Research I m p l i c a t i o n s 193 Summary 195 References 196 Appendices 206 L i s t of Tables 1. Exhaustiveness of the Category System v i i L i s t of Appendices A. Advertisement 206 B. Subject Consent Form 207 C. Summary of events and a c t i v i t i e s of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada Workshop 208 D. S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop c u r r i c u l u m 210 Acknowledgement I thank Dr. L a r r y Cochran, Dr. Marvin Westwood, and Dr. Ronald Jobe f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and encouragement through the r e s e a r c h and completion of t h i s t h e s i s . To the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop— —thank you f o r s h a r i n g your l i v e s with each other and with me. For Donna who has seen me through more than I thought p o s s i b l e ; your l o v e has made t h i s p o s s i b l e . A very s p e c i a l s a l u t e to Stanley Cooperman (1929 — 1976) who h e l d the m i r r o r and persuaded me to b e l i e v e . The debt i s p a i d . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Each year thousands of immigrants and refugees a r r i v e i n Canada with mixed f e e l i n g s about l e a v i n g t h e i r homeland and s e t t l i n g i n Canada. S t r i p p e d of f a m i l i a r f a c e s , sounds, landmarks and customs, they are not who they once were and they do not yet know who they are to become. They have a mu l t i t u d e of l o s s e s , t h e i r g r i e f may be c r i p p l i n g . For some the p o t e n t i a l l y d e v a s t a t i n g aspects of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n are m i t i g a t e d with the passage of time. But f o r a l l t h e r e are times, o f t e n spread over s e v e r a l years, when awareness of s p e c i f i c l o s s e s may occur thereby p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g r i e v i n g and some measure of r e s o l u t i o n of l o s s e s . Poetry can p r o v i d e a way f o r immigrants or refugees t o a c t i v e l y i d e n t i f y such l o s s e s as absent or m i s s i n g f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , l o s s of employment and job s t a t u s , l o s s of one's n a t i v e language, and i f having to l e a r n E n g l i s h or French as a new language, the l o s s of ready communication with people i n t h e i r new community. Poetry can a l s o p r o v i d e a way of e x p l o r i n g and r e s o l v i n g the g r i e f a r i s i n g from such l o s s e s . T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study attempts to' shed some l i g h t on the e f f e c t of p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y group c o u n s e l l i n g technique to help new immigrants and refugees become more s e t t l e d i n Canada through r e c o g n i t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n and some measure of r e s o l u t i o n of t h e i r l o s s e s and attendant g r i e f . 2 There i s a reasonably d i v e r s e body of r e s e a r c h t h a t documents the t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s of p o e t r y with i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, and s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s , o f t e n i l l u m i n a t i n g the i s s u e s of l o s s and g r i e f . But a review of the l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d to produce any r e s e a r c h f o c u s i n g on the use of p o e t r y to h e l p e x p l o r e and r e s o l v e i s s u e s of l o s s and g r i e f with immigrants and refugees or with people who are i n the process of l e a r n i n g a new language, E n g l i s h , the language i n which the workshop was conducted. For thousands of years p o e t r y has been r e c o g n i z e d as a most p r e c i s e method of communicating knowledge and understanding of a l l aspects of human l i f e . The r o o t s of p o e t r y are b u r i e d i n song which i n t u r n i s s u e s from dance. From k i n e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , through rhythmic v o c a l i z a t i o n to s e l e c t i o n of s y m b o l i c a l l y charged words, humans, f o r m i l l e n n i a , have expressed themselves i n p o e t r y to achieve p r e c i s e ends (Bowra, 1962). Evidence from p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t poetry, o f t e n couched i n song, can serve the dual purpose of a m e l i o r a t i n g s u f f e r i n g and g r i e f i n the speaker, and i n the l i s t e n e r ; t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when po e t r y i s used i n a community of l i k e minded persons (Astrov, 1962; Norman, 1982; Rothenberg, 1985). Likewise the a n c i e n t Greeks r e c o g n i z e d t h i s phenomenon as " c a t h a r s i s " , the power of a e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , f o r example poetry, to r e f i n e or purge emotions. 3 Much of c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g theory have, as t h e i r assumed base, the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l spoken word. Freud, Jung and A d l e r a l l a t t e s t t o the power of the s y m b o l i c a l l y charged word. Words used i n p o e t r y seem to possess an even g r e a t e r power. As an " a r t " form the words i n a poem take on a s l i p p e r y q u a l i t y t h a t engenders r a p i d e v o c a t i o n of a f f e c t ; i t i s one way of b r i d g i n g from the mundane to a person's p r i v a t e garden or t h e i r p r i v a t e h e l l . I t i s t h i s p o t e n t i a l v o l a t i l i t y of p o e t r y t h a t allows a person d i r e c t experience of t h e i r emotions. The "words", whether w r i t t e n f o r o n e s e l f , spoken to a s m a l l group or performed i n a p l a y c a r r y s t r o n g powers of h e a l i n g . Gcina Mhlope (1991) a South A f r i c a n w r i t e r , r e p o r t s t h a t she "wrote about a l l kinds of t h i n g s . . . . w r i t i n g was l i k e therapy. I c o u l d d e s c r i b e t h i n g s on paper t h a t I c o u l d not d e s c r i b e by t a l k i n g to a person. My po e t r y was very p e r s o n a l . . . very much about my i n n e r f e e l i n g s " (p. 20). The Los Angeles Times a r t s e d i t o r d e s c r i b e s a r e a d i n g by La Loca (Pamala Karol) a contemporary U.S. poet, as r e v e a l i n g "the act of making poetry as i t s own k i n d of h e a l i n g " ( B a r r e t t , 1990). At the 1990 Vancouver F r i n g e F e s t i v a l Shane McCabe presented h i s powerful one man p l a y No  P l a c e L i k e Home d e p i c t i n g the h o r r o r s of an abused c h i l d h o o d . An Edmonton song w r i t e r had w r i t t e n a powerful and h e a l i n g poem i n response to the p l a y , a testament to c a t h a r s i s . 4 Much of the r e s e a r c h on poetry therapy has been anecd o t a l i n nature p r o v i d i n g a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n about what happened but l i t t l e i n the way of v a l i d and r e l i a b l e r e p o r t i n g of how changes occu r r e d . In t h i s study t h r e e strands of data c o l l e c t i o n were used: C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique (Flanagan, 1954), workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , and the poems produced by the workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s the use of the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique t h a t p r o v i d e s v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about how, from the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p o i n t of view, the m u l t i f a r i o u s medium of poetry has f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered t h e i r p rocess of becoming s e t t l e d i n Canada. The workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s and the poems produced by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the workshop p r o v i d e c o r r o b o r a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i n g the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i l l h e lp t o r e f i n e the des i g n of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop, an e i g h t p a r t workshop u s i n g p o e t r y t o help immigrants and refugees s e t t l e i n Canada. But more i m p o r t a n t l y t h i s study w i l l p r o v i d e new i n f o r m a t i o n about an a n c i l l a r y c o u n s e l l i n g approach t h a t o f f e r s great p o t e n t i a l gains f o r c l i e n t s but i s at present, i n l a r g e measure, s t i l l " w a i t i n g i n the wings." 5 L i t e r a t u r e Review Th i s l i t e r a t u r e review i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s and e x p l o r e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d t o p i c s : p o e t r y ; p o e t r y therapy; and l o s s , immigration and g r i e f . The f i r s t s e c t i o n , poetry, reviews the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the use and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s of words i n p o e t r y . Beginning with the p l a c e of the p o e t i c i n p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s a case i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the c e n t r a l i t y of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n i n d a i l y l i f e . Greek concepts of p o e t r y are noted as a b r i d g e i n t o "modern" a t t i t u d e s toward poems. P s y c h o l o g i c a l examinations of " p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n " l e a d to a d i s c u s s i o n of the emotional f r e i g h t of p o e t r y . V a r i o u s f i g u r e s of speech and t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n promoting i n s i g h t and "meaning—making" processes complete t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n . Poetry therapy, the second s e c t i o n , l i n k s the process of p o e t r y with the process of c o u n s e l l i n g . The t h e r a p e u t i c q u a l i t i e s of p o e t r y are explored, p r o v i d i n g a base f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of how p o e t r y and therapy work t o g e t h e r to b e n e f i t c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t s . A b r i e f review of the scope of a p p l i c a t i o n s of p o e t r y therapy i s f o l l o w e d by a d e t a i l e d examination of the use of poetry therapy with groups. Loss, Immigration, and g r i e f , the t h i r d s e c t i o n , concludes the l i t e r a t u r e review. T h i s s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s the v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by immigrants and refugees as they attempt to s e t t l e i n a new country. A case i s made f o r the n e c e s s i t y of e x p l o r i n g , understanding, and h o p e f u l l y 6 r e s o l v i n g l o s s e s r e l a t e d t o e m i g r a t i n g to Canada as an a i d to s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Poetry P r i m i t i v e p o e t r y . Many i f not a l l " p r i m i t i v e " and a n c i e n t s o c i e t i e s used words (or meaningful sounds) i n ceremonies t h a t were v i t a l t o the w e l l being of t h a t s o c i e t y . Almost i n v a r i a b l y , words, magical s p e l l s , verses and charms, were sung or chanted by magicians or shamans as p a r t of r i t u a l or sa c r e d ceremonies (Durant, 1935; Rothenberg, 1985) . Among North American Indians, A s t r o v (1962), notes t h a t p o e t r y i s "the 'word' . . . the d i r e c t i n g agency t h a t stands p o w e r f u l l y behind every 'doing', as the r e a l i t y above a l l t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y " (p. 3); poetry never stands on i t s own, r a t h e r i t " e x i s t s only i n connection with music — t h a t i s , as song" (p. 21). This powerful connection between words and music has con t i n u e d throughout h i s t o r y . The sense of the s p i r i t u a l b a s i s of poetry has a l s o s u r v i v e d as noted by Hayden, "The making of a poem, l i k e a l l other c r e a t i v e endeavours, i s . . . a s p i r i t u a l act, a form of worship" (White, 1989, p. 66). What i s the impetus f o r e x p r e s s i n g o n e s e l f i n p o e t i c ways? A s t r o v (1962) w r i t e s t h a t a person's " p s y c h i c needs, 7 f o r example the need of s p i r i t u a l i n g e s t i o n and proper o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l the m u l t i f o r m p e r c e p t i o n s and impressions r u s h i n g f o r ever upon the i n d i v i d u a l from without and w i t h i n " (p. 12) are the u l t i m a t e source of p o e t r y . But what i s the purpose of such e x p r e s s i o n ? Above a l l , i t seems t h a t the word, both i n song and i n t a l e , was meant to maintain and to p r o l o n g the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e i n some way or a n o t h e r — t h a t i s , to cure, t o h e a l , to ward o f f e v i l , and to f r u s t r a t e death. H e a l i n g songs, and songs intended to support the powers of germination and of growth i n a l l t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , f a i r l y outnumber a l l other songs of the American Indian". (Astrov, 1962, p. 19) H e a l i n g or c u r i n g through the "word" i s a c e n t r a l task of p o e t r y and poets (Graves, 1966; Kaminsky, 1974). Among p r i m i t i v e h e a l e r s the a d d i t i o n of music to the word i s regarded as an even more e f f e c t i v e way of h e a l i n g than a cure a r r i v e d at through surgery or medicine alone (Blinderman, 1973). Keeping the c u r a t i v e aspects of poetry i n mind Graves, c i t e d by M orrison (1973), d e s c r i b e s the process of c r e a t i n g a poem and how t h a t process helps to h e a l the author. The pathology of p o e t i c composition i s no s e c r e t . A poet f i n d s h i m s e l f caught i n some b a f f l i n g emotional problem which i s of such urgency t h a t i t sends him i n t o a- s o r t of t r a n c e . And i n t h i s t r a n c e h i s mind works, with a s t o n i s h i n g boldness and p r e c i s i o n on s e v e r a l 8 i m a g i n a t i v e l e v e l s at once. The poem i s e i t h e r a p r a c t i c a l answer to h i s problem or e l s e i t i s a c l e a r statement of i t ; and a problem c l e a r l y s t a t e d i s h a l f way t o s o l u t i o n . (p. 79) Poetry has i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n community e x p r e s s i o n and one of the r e s u l t s of t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s a long h i s t o r y of promoting harmony w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. The chanted or sung word i s not simply used by the poet to e x e r t a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e but "to b r i n g about a change, e i t h e r i n h i m s e l f or i n nature or i n h i s f e l l o w b eings" (Astrov, 1962, p. 19). S e v e r a l authors (Durant, 1935; Norman, 1982; Radin, 1956) note examples from v a r i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n s and c u l t u r e s (Sumerian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Indian, North American Indian-etc.) of the p e r c e i v e d power of the word to e f f e c t change. The Psalms are o f t e n p resented as an example of a body of h e a l i n g poems t h a t are e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e ; poems t h a t not only face the angst of separateness but a l s o p r o v i d e a way toward community and wholeness (eg., Psalm 22 i n Rosenberg, 1976, p. 11). Some b e l i e v e t h a t the Psalms r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a person's choice and commitment p a r t i c u l a r l y c oncerning t h e i r c h o i ce of the r i g h t e o u s path as opposed to a wicked path (Gelberman & Kobak, 1969). I f the value judgement i s removed from the two paths and the concepts of wholeness and incompleteness are s u b s t i t u t e d i t i s q u i t e easy to a p p r e c i a t e the g e n e r a l t h r u s t of the Psalms; a body of song " r e f l e c t i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s , of 9 e x i s t e n c e , the s t r u g g l e to remain f a i t h f u l t o i d e a l s , the overcoming of doubt . . . and the conquest of d e s p a i r " (Gelberman & Kobak, 1969, p. 135). Even though much s o — c a l l e d modern p o e t r y does not d i s p l a y an e x p l i c i t l i n k with song i t i s a s s o c i a t e d with rhythm. Meerloo (1969) notes t h a t rhythm i s p e r v a s i v e i n our l i v e s ; from the e a r l i e s t i n t r a — u t e r i n e e xperiences through e a r l y mother—infant i n t e r a c t i o n s t o o l d age, rhythm i n v a r i o u s g u i s e s i s present and a c t i v e i n our l i v e s whether we are aware of i t or not. The p e r v a s i v e n e s s of rhythm p r o v i d e s a v a s t range of ways to become connected not only with the v a r i o u s p a r t s of our i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s but a l s o with others i n p o t e n t i a l l y h e a l i n g and g e n e r a t i v e community a c t i v i t i e s . Poetry i s one such rhythmic a c t i v i t y t h a t helps us r e c o g n i z e and respond to what i s i n some ungrasped way, f a m i l i a r . "Western" c i v i l i z a t i o n had i t s founding and i n i t i a l f l o w e r i n g i n the Mediterranean b a s i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the Greeks. The Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s us with much of our o f t e n unexamined approach t o l i f e . I t i s t h i s s o c i e t y and i t s view of poetry t h a t i s next c o n s i d e r e d . 10 Greek concepts of poetry . A r i s t o t l e and P l a t o had d e f i n i t e ideas about the power and f u n c t i o n of poetry . But long b e f o r e t h e i r p r o t r a c t e d arguments about the p l a c e of poetry i n s o c i e t y the Greeks had been worshipping A p o l l o as the dual god of medicine and of p o e t r y (Leedy, 1969). In The Republic, P l a t o (1957) s t a t e s t h a t p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n s of g r i e f and melancholy (much the way women and "common people" behave) a c t i v e l y undermine the s t a b i l i t y of the R e p u b l i c by d i s t r a c t i n g people from t r u e r e a l i t y . P l a t o ' s t r u e r e a l i t y i s not composed of the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the poet, indeed he has argued that the poet or " i m i t a t o r " i s p r o d u c i n g an a r t th a t i s two removes from r e a l i t y . God's c r e a t i o n , or God's "forms" are r e a l i t y ; f o r example a ca r p e n t e r may copy one of God's forms, say a t a b l e (one remove) and the poet may observe t h i s t a b l e and have h i s say about i t (two removes). No matter how one's s o u l i s s t i r r e d by the poet, P l a t o d i s c o u n t s the l a t t e r as a trea c h e r o u s f e l l o w s l y l y c o n f u s i n g c i t i z e n s about the " r e a l " nature of t r u t h . Thus P l a t o banishes poets from h i s Rep u b l i c because they " p o l l u t e the understanding of a l l those who hear them". Even though P l a t o r e c o g n i z e s the r e a l i t y of emotions he does not accept the f u l l e x p r e s s i o n of them as be i n g i n any way conducive t o understanding the g r e a t e r t r u t h and thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g to s o c i e t y . One cannot help but wonder at P l a t o ' s d i s — e a s e with h i s own emotional nature, h i s d i s — e a s e 11 with h i s i r r a t i o n a l nature. ' I t i s i r o n i c t h a t h i s l i t e r a r y t a l e n t s , h i s a b i l i t y t o sound the depths of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i s perhaps g r e a t e r than t h a t of A r i s t o t l e , the man who answered P l a t o ' s c h a l l e n g e to make a case f o r a l l o w i n g a p l a c e f o r the poet i n s o c i e t y ( A r i s t o t l e , 1976) . A r i s t o t l e re—frames the whole q u e s t i o n of the value of the poet. A c c o r d i n g to A r i s t o t l e the poet makes no p r e t e n s i o n of d i s p l a y i n g P l a t o ' s r e a l i t y of f i r s t forms; r a t h e r the poet roams f r e e l y i n the world of humankind and expresses t h a t world, nothing more or l e s s . E l s e , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s (1976) s t a t e s t h a t "when the poet ' i m i t a t e s ' human a c t i o n . . . he i s i m i t a t i n g something very r e a l and d i r e c t , and i f he has any experience of l i f e and any p o e t i c (= dramatic) t a l e n t he can g i v e us a v a l u a b l e e x t e n s i o n of our o r d i n a r y experience" (p. 6). A r i s t o t l e i n s i s t s on the emotional as w e l l as the i n t e l l e c t u a l content of p o e t r y . I t seems t h a t he r e c o g n i z e s the f a c t of emotion, something t h a t P l a t o appears uncomfortable with, and chooses to focus on what to do with aroused emotions. One t h i n g t h a t i s p o s s i b l e , and t h i s r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the emotions of p i t y and f e a r , i s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of these powerful emotions from something h u r t f u l to f e e l i n g s t h a t are b e n e f i c i a l . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c o u l d amount to a t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . In her i l l u m i n a t i n g book The Moon and the V i r g i n , H a l l (1980) comments on the f u n c t i o n s of attendants or "therapeutes" at Trophonios i n Greece. These attendants had 12 the primary f u n c t i o n of "paying a t t e n t i o n " to the words of the i n i t i a t e s a f t e r they emerged from s o l i t u d e where they sought a new b e a r i n g i n the world. H a l l notes t h a t the poet and the p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t are a l s o people who pay a t t e n t i o n to words and are thus capable of h e l p i n g others to f i n d t h e i r b e a r i n g s i n l i f e and to help h e a l the psyche. She i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s not only important f o r i n i t i a t e s t o remember t h e i r experience but i t i s important f o r them to share t h e i r experience with others, with t h e r a p e u t e s . P r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s and a n c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n s have made a l a r g e p l a c e i n t h e i r s o c i e t i e s f o r p o e t r y i n i t s v a r i o u s g u i s e s of chanting, song, r i t u a l , and ceremony. Rothenberg (1985) comes to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s i n c e p o e t r y a p p a r e n t l y e x i s t e d i n every c u l t u r e i t was no mere luxury but a t r u e n e c e s s i t y f o r the f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i e t y . Barron (1974) suggests t h a t because poetry i s a u n i v e r s a l a e s t h e t i c communication i t i s somehow " r e l a t e d to some b a s i c or fundamental human q u a l i t y " (p. 8 8 ) . But i n what ways can poetry be construed as a n e c e s s i t y i n "modern" western c i v i l i z a t i o n ? Graves (1966) asks h i m s e l f much the same q u e s t i o n and answers t h a t "the f u n c t i o n of p o e t r y i s r e l i g i o u s i n v o c a t i o n of the Muse; i t s use i s the experience of mixed e x a l t a t i o n and h o r r o r t h a t her presence e x c i t e s " (p. 14). It i s to some p s y c h o l o g i c a l views of the e x a l t a t i o n and h o r r o r that we t u r n to at t h i s time. 13 P s y c h o l o g i c a l views of p o e t r y . The study of the human psyche p r e s e n t s us with many c h a l l e n g e s . One of the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e s r e v o l v e s around our ways and means of communicating with one another. Poetry may p r o v i d e a unique medium of c u r a t i v e and g e n e r a t i v e communication. Freud developed s e v e r a l approaches to the unconscious through the a r t of p o e t r y : as a p r o j e c t i v e , d e t e r m i n i n g the r o l e of the unconscious r e g a r d i n g d e l e t i o n s , and the f o r g e t t i n g of names and s e t s of words i n memorized poems (Blades & G i r u a l t , 1982) . He c o n s i d e r s the poet to be a b r i d g e between a vast unconscious r e s e r v o i r of emotion and the c a t h a r t i c working out of those f e e l i n g as they become concious through the medium of poetry. I t i s through language, t h a t "treasure—house of myths, legends, and f a i r y t a l e s " (Blades & G i r u a l t , 1982, p. 6) t h a t the poet i s able to express emotions t h a t can t r a n s p o r t the l i s t e n e r through experiences they d i d not know they were capable of apprehending. Echoing A r i s t o t l e ' s i d e a of c a t h a r s i s , Freud s t a t e s t h a t "many emotions which are e s s e n t i a l l y p a i n f u l may become a source of enjoyment to the s p e c t a t o r or hearers of a poet's work" (Freud, 1956, p. 124). "Words were o r i g i n a l l y magic and to t h i s day words have r e t a i n e d much of t h e i r a n c i e n t magical power. . . . words provoke a f f e c t s and are i n g e n e r a l the means of mutual i n f l u e n c e among men" 14 (Freud, 1977, p. 17). Thus Freud helped pave the way f o r a modern t h e r a p e u t i c use of poetry . A n s e l l (1978) presents, a case f o r d e v e l o p i n g a s t r o n g p a r t n e r s h i p between the ego and the unconscious. While acknowledging the u s e f u l n e s s of the ego he laments- the f e a r expressed, at l e a s t among psy c h o a n a l y s t s , of the unconscious, the p l a c e where "passsions raged, where dreams u n f o l d e d [where] poets roam f r e e l y and l i s t e n f o r echoes t h a t may have been v o i c e s t h a t once s t i r r e d men to pa s s i o n s beyond t h e i r understanding" (p. 18). I t i s p r e c i s e l y the experience of what i s beyond our understanding t h a t i s at once the only way of making meaning, as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the ego's f u n c t i o n of d e l i n i a t i n g " o b j e c t i v e " knowledge, and the way of smashing p r e v i o u s l y h e l d meaning. I t i s the a r t i s t , the poet, A n s e l l contends, who "moves r e s t l e s s l y through areas of human experience t h a t seem beyond c h a r t i n g and map making" (p. 21). I t i s t h i s m e d i a t i n g ' i n f l u e n c e of the a r t i s t t h a t can allow p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory t o take g r e a t e r advantage of what i t means to be human. Jung developed the concept of archetypes, h i g h l y charged p o t e n t i a l experiences t h a t t r a n s c e n d the i n d i v i d u a l e x perience to present a c o l l e c t i v e , p r i m i t i v e r e a l i t y t h a t i s o f t e n s y m b o l i c a l l y c l o t h e d i n words. Myth c o n s t i t u t e s the most p r i m i t i v e l i n g u i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of archetypes; poetry, a c o n s t i t u e n t of myth, p r o v i d e s a language whereby p r i m o r d i a l or a r c h e t y p a l f o r c e s may be m o b i l i z e d (Jung, 1966). Perhaps a s i m i l a r i t y between the unconscious and 15 poetry, t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i n condensed and o f t e n c r y p t i c form, lends p o e t r y a s p e c i a l c a p a c i t y f o r r o u s i n g our p r i m o r d i a l yearnings f o r the experiences t h a t make .us human. The process of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i s l i k e n e d t o the process of "a l i v i n g t h i n g implanted i n the human psyche" (Jung, 1966, p. 75). Th i s c r e a t i v e aspect of humankind serves as a powerful r e g u l a t o r of our psyches. . . . j u s t as the one—sidedness of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o nscious a t t i t u d e i s c o r r e c t e d by r e a c t i o n s from the unconscious, so a r t re p r e s e n t s a process of s e l f -r e g u l a t i o n i n the l i f e of na t i o n s and epochs. (Jung, 1966, p. 83) The p r o j e c t e d i n n e r l i f e of an i n d i v i d u a l or poet speaks, by n e c e s s i t y , of i t s own s e l f , but i t i s the c o l l e c t i v e elements t h a t speak t o o t h e r s . I t i s t h i s combination of u n i v e r s a l and p a r t i c u l a r t h a t b r i d g e s from person t o person. Other p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i s t s l e n d t h e i r support t o t h i s " b r i d g i n g " power of poetry, A d l e r (1956) s t a t e s : Some day soon i t w i l l be r e a l i z e d t h a t the a r t i s t i s the l e a d e r of mankind on the path to the ab s o l u t e t r u t h . Among p o e t i c works of a r t which have l e d me to the i n s i g h t s of I n d i v i d u a l Psychology the f o l l o w i n g stand out as p i n n a c l e s : f a i r y t a l e s , the B i b l e , Shakespeare, and Goethe. . . . U n t i l recent times i t was c h i e f l y the poets who best succeeded i n g e t t i n g the cl u e t o a person's s t y l e of l i f e . T h e i r a b i l i t y to 16 show the i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g , a c t i n g and dying as an i n d i v i s i b l e whole i n c l o s e s t connection with the ta s k s of h i s environment rouses our h i g h e s t a d m i r a t i o n . (p. 329) Psychodrama, a p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c approach developed by Moreno (1946), lauds the b e n e f i t s of c a t h a r s i s e x p e r i e n c e d by "the author — the c r e a t o r and p a t i e n t of the p r i v a t e drama — . . . the a c t o r who l i v e s i t out, and . . . the audience which co—experiences the events" (p. 17). Although he i s r e f e r r i n g t o "drama" h i s comments c o u l d be a p p l i e d e q u a l l y t o the authoring, speaking, s i l e n t r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g of p o e t r y c r e a t e d by o n e s e l f and o t h e r s . Much of Moreno's therapy r e s t s on a found a t i o n of s p o n t a n e i t y as the common p r i n c i p l e of c a t h a r s i s . S i m i l a r l y the "spontaneous" or " i n s p i r e d " poem can sometimes y i e l d g r e a t e r c a t h a r t i c r e s u l t s , f o r both author and r e c i p i e n t , than a poem over which the c r e a t o r has l a b o u r i o u s l y re—worked the o r i g i n a l push of e x p r e s s i o n . C a t h a r s i s , or some s o r t of emotional t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i s i n t e g r a l t o any c u r a t i v e or h e a l i n g communication. Thought or r e f l e c t i o n i s not d i s c o u n t e d but i t must be yoked with emotion. I t i s the p l a c e of emotion i n poetry t h a t i s next c o n s i d e r e d . 17 Emotion i n po e t r y . In an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "Poetry as A f f e c t i v e Communication", Siomopoulos (1977) s t a t e s t h a t p o e t r y i s based on "the p r i m o r d i a l s h a r i n g s i t u a t i o n " ( i . e . , mother and c h i l d ) and i s expressed through shared language, " l i n g u i s t i c competence", and symbology t h a t i s unconscious, and, the r e s e a r c h e r would add, co n s c i o u s . I t i s not c l e a r i f Siomopoulos' t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g shared symbology a p p l i e s t o cross—language p o e t i c experiences, f o r example i t would be too much to expect a Russian speaker to glean a l l the symbolic nuances of E n g l i s h idioms. Indeed i t i s d i f f i c u l t enough when d e a l i n g with people who speak the same language but have, f o r i n s t a n c e , d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l backgrounds. Siomopoulos does however make a s t r o n g case f o r emotion b e i n g the fundamental s p i r i t of poetry; h i s statement r e g a r d i n g the c r e a t i o n and communication of a poem i s worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The process of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i s a complex one, but the poem can be c o n s i d e r e d a product of the poet's unconscious f a n t a s y a c t i v i t y i n i t s r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with the data of sensory r e g i s t r a t i o n and formal s y n t h e s i s i n a p u b l i c v e h i c l e . As unconscious wishes or f a n t a s i e s emerge, they are enveloped w i t h i n an a f f e c t i v e tone. T h i s a f f e c t i v e tone has to be expressed i n the poem by the use of the reso u r c e s of language. The poem, as a sensory impression, w i l l 18 subsequently r e a c t i v a t e or f a c i l i t a t e the emergence of unconscious f a n t a s i e s i n the reader. Since the f a n t a s i e s a c t i v a t e d i n the reader must be s i m i l a r but not i d e n t i c a l t o the poet's f o r the a e s t h e t i c experience to ensue, the emotion t r a n s f u s e d must  p r o v i d e the matrix f o r the communication between poet  and reader. [ i t a l i c s added] (Siomopoulos, 1977, p. 507) There appears to be an i n s i s t e n c e on the "unconscious f a n t a s y a c t i v i t y " as the genesis of a poem and the subsequent s t i m u l a t i o n of the reader's unconscious f a n t a s i e s . The word f a n t a s y i s " d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t , i f i t r e p r e s e n t s r e a l i t y at a l l , i t i s e i t h e r whimsical or v i s i o n a r y , not p r i m a r i l y e i t h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e or r e p r o d u c t i v e " ( E n g l i s h & E n g l i s h , 1958, p. 203). Whimsy and v i s i o n are c e r t a i n l y welcome i n poet r y but p o e t r y t h a t i s communicable i s , i f n o t h i n g e l s e , c o n s t r u c t i v e and r e p r o d u c t i v e . A r i s t o t l e s t a t e s i t s u c c i n c t l y , " . . . the emotional e f f e c t s ought to c a r r y across to the s p e c t a t o r without e x p l i c i t argument, while the p r o o f s have to be d e l i b e r a t e l y produced i n speech, by the speaker" ( A r i s t o t l e , 1976, p. 52). However Siomopoulos does make a c o n v i n c i n g case f o r p o e t r y b e i n g an a l l i n c l u s i v e a f f e c t i v e communication between poet and reader. Concerning the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t r a n s l a t i n g p o e t r y from one language or c u l t u r e to another A s t r o v (1962) comments t h a t i t i s im p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s l a t e s t y l e , but thought and the emotional environment of the thought can be r e s t a t e d ; "one can hope t o make the t r a n s l a t i o n exact only i n s p i r i t [ i t a l i c s added], not i n l e t t e r " (p. 6). In an essay t i t l e d "The N e c e s s i t y t o Speak", H a m i l l (personal communication, October 31, 1989) w r i t e s : We t h i n k p o e t r y i s about emotions. We are dead wrong. Poetry i s not about. Take the rhyme out of poetry, and th e r e i s s t i l l p o etry; take the rhythm out of i t , and th e r e i s s t i l l p o etry; take even the words themselves away, and poetry remains . . . . The poet i d e n t i f i e s a circumstance i n which the poetry r e v e a l s i t s e l f . The poet i s the v e h i c l e used by poetry so t h a t i t can touch us. From the i n s i d e out. . . . We say the poem touches us, sometimes even deeply. (p. 7) T h i s sense of the poem "touching" us i s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by Barron (1974) . The p o e t i c or c r e a t i v e s t y l e i s capable of t o u c h i n g when i t tunes i n on a wave l e n g t h t h a t i s consonant with the p e r s o n a l language or deeper senses of the r e c i p i e n t . T h i s i s the moment of c o n t a c t . I t i s the moment when the r e c e i v e r r e c o g n i z e s and f e e l s t h a t which i s being given, as h i s own. . . . The word " p o e t i c " i s f r e q u e n t l y a s c r i b e d to t h a t communication which, i n some meaningful way, touches the i n n e r senses. (p. 88) 20 T h i s "emotional t o u c h i n g " i s s t a t e d even more c o n c r e t e l y by Kaminsky (1974) who r e l a t e s a s t o r y of a f r i e n d who witnessed a Bushman medicine man t e l l i n g how he came i n t o h i s power, he was i n s t r u c t e d to s i n g h i s medicine song, t o : "Get up and s i n g i t . . Teach i t to the people. Sing i t to them and touch them while you are s i n g i n g i t " (p. 105) . Poetry " i s the supreme form of emotive [ i t a l i c s added] language" (Richards, 1925, p. 273); "The Egyptians knew t h a t music and f e e l i n g [ i t a l i c s added] are the twin essences of p o e t r y ; i f these were present, the outward shape d i d not matter" (Durant, 1935, p. 177). T h i s l a s t quote h i n t s at the broad range of communication forms t h a t c o u l d be construed as " p o e t i c " . Poetry has very l i t t l e t o do with s p e c i f i c p r e — o r d a i n e d forms and e v e r y t h i n g to do with the emotional and c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t on the r e c i p i e n t (Lawler, 1972; P r e s c o t t , 1922; Rothenberg, 1972). A fundamental purpose of e x p r e s s i n g o n e s e l f i n an emotional way i s s t a t e d by H a m i l l (personal communication, October 31, 1989) he w r i t e s of the n e c e s s i t y to speak out i f he i s to save h i s s o u l . Poetry "has been a means . . . a way to f i n d my way out of H e l l " . It doesn't matter what c o n s t i t u t e s a persons H e l l , t h a t v a r i e s , what i s important i s the a b i l i t y t o "name t h i n g s p r o p e r l y , f o r , as Kung Fu Tze s a i d , ' A l l wisdom i s rooted i n l e a r n i n g to c a l l t h i n g s by the r i g h t name'" (p. 5). 21 T h i s sentiment, the n e c e s s i t y of speaking out and naming the experience as a way of making meaning, as a way out of H e l l , i s echoed by numerous commentators on the p o e t i c and t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . "To say the name i s to begin the s t o r y " (Norman, 1982, p. 45) . "The 'true—poem' ( ' p r i m i t i v e ' or not) doesn't r e p r e s s but c o n f r o n t s what's most d i f f i c u l t to face — not only the g r e a t — e x i s t e n t i a l — l i f e — c r i s e s , e t c . , i s s u e s — o f — r e a l i t y , e t c . , but p e r s o n a l events o u t s i d e a l l r i t u a l p a t t e r n " (Rothenberg, 1985, p. 510). "My p o e t r y i s , or should be, u s e f u l to me f o r one reason: i t i s the r e c o r d of my i n d i v i d u a l s t r u g g l e from darkness towards some measure of l i g h t . . . . My p o e t r y i s or should be, u s e f u l to others f o r i t s i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d i n g of t h a t same s t r u g g l e with which they are n e c e s s a r i l y a c quainted" (Thomas, 1960, p. 119). "The i n d i v i d u a l who, i n the hour of smarting change and i n the face of f o r e i g n ideas and b e w i l d e r i n g new ways of l i f e , g i v e s vent to h i s sentiments and thoughts w i l l perhaps al l o w a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o the hidden recesses of h i s s o u l than he does i n t a l e and speech and song produced i n times of s h e l t e r e d and u n d i s t u r b e d t r a d i t i o n " (Astrov, 1962, p. 53) . " . . . the poem [ f o r some] i s a way out [of being 'mixed up'] — yet something more than a p s y c h o l o g i c a l excresence. I t should be l i s t e n e d to and i n many i n s t a n c e s , honored" (Roethke, 1965, p. 45). "In order f o r poetry t o work, thoughts, images, and memories 'have t o be turned to bloo d w i t h i n us, to glance and gesture, nameless and no longer d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o u r s e l v e s ' " ( H a l l , 1980, pp. 177-78). The use of the word "nameless" i n t h i s l a s t quote i s not meant t o imply a f o r g e t t i n g but r a t h e r a s t r o n g e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with one's thoughts, images, and memories; a name i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o tr a n s f o r m t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b l o o d i s a more i n t i m a t e , and powerful, stance toward t h a t p a r t of one's l i f e . By way of i l l u s t r a t i n g the power of naming and speaking, c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g poems. A Poison Tree I was angry with my f r i e n d : I t o l d my wrath, my wrath d i d end. I was angry with my foe: I t o l d i t not, my wrath d i d grow. W i l l i a m Blake from A Poison Tree i n Songs of Experience (p.559) 2 3 Ode In t i m a t i o n s of i m m o r t a l i t y From R e c o l l e c t i o n s  Of E a r l y Childhood Now, while the b i r d s thus s i n g a joyous song, And while the young lambs bound As t o the tab o r ' s sound, To me alone t h e r e came a thought of g r i e f : A t i m e l y u t t e r a n c e gave t h a t thought r e l i e f , And I again am s t r o n g : W i l l i a m Wordsworth from Ode, I n t i m a t i o n s of  Immortality From R e c o l l e c t i o n s  Of E a r l y Childhood, (p. 150) The words chosen f o r a poem and the manner i n which the words are broadcast have a s t r o n g e f f e c t on t h e i r r e l e v a n c e to l i s t e n e r s and read e r s . A r i s t o t l e says "the s p e c i f i c e x c e l l e n c e of v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n i n poetry i s to be c l e a r without being low. The c l e a r e s t , of course, i s t h a t which uses the r e g u l a r words [words t h a t are employed by a given people] f o r t h i n g s " ( A r i s t o t l e , 1976, pp. 58,59). This i s a f i n e argument f o r making sure a poet chooses words t h a t h i s audience w i l l understand and accept as c l e a r and r e g u l a r . S p e c i a l c h a l l e n g e s are presented r e g a r d i n g t h i s matter when working with a group of neophyte poets who come from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t language and c u l t u r a l backgrounds who have been i n an E n g l i s h speaking environment f o r only a few ye a r s . In p r i m i t i v e p o e t r y there i s a focus on the spoken word. "Poems are c a r r i e d by the v o i c e & are sung or chanted or spoken i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . . . . Forms are o f t e n open. C a u s a l i t y i s o f t e n set a s i d e " (Rothenberg, 1985, p. XXVI). Poetry i s g e n e r a l l y something v o i c e d and l i s t e n e d to, i t has only been i n the l a s t few c e n t u r i e s t h a t the p r i n t e d poem has appeared as something t h a t can be read s i l e n t l y . But whether a poem i s read s i l e n t l y or sung or chanted something must happen t o r e c i p i e n t s of the poem i f i t i s to l i v e beyond i t s f i r s t u t t e r a n c e . Jung (1966) d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n : . . . a work of a r t i s not a human being, but i s something supra—personal. I t i s a t h i n g and not a p e r s o n a l i t y . . . . Indeed, the s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of a t r u e work of a r t r e s i d e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t has escaped from the l i m i t a t i o n s of the p e r s o n a l and has soared beyond the p e r s o n a l concerns of i t s c r e a t o r , (p. 71) Among the Swampy Cree Indians a poem once spoken, no matter how p e r s o n a l , transcends the s i n g u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y and becomes community p r o p e r t y (Norman, 1982). T h i s can occur only i f there i s some commonality of experience between the 25 c r e a t o r and h i s or her audience. Such a s u c c e s s f u l poem i s d e s c r i b e d as: . . . a c l a s s of experiences which do not d i f f e r i n any c h a r a c t e r more than a c e r t a i n amount, v a r y i n g f o r each c h a r a c t e r from a standard experience. We may take as t h i s standard experience the r e l e v a n t experience of the poet when contemplating the completed composition. (Richards, 1925, pp. 226,227) A standard experience must be shared by the poet and the l i s t e n e r s i f t h e r e i s to be mutual understanding. Among the most common experiences of humankind i s l o s s i n i t s innumerable forms and powerful e f f e c t ( P o l l i o , Barlow, F i n e & P o l l i o , 1977). Even i f two people have a l i m i t e d shared vocabulary i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r them to understand each the o t h e r ' s experience of l o s s because these experiences are so p e r v a s i v e i n our l i v e s . "Common to a l l are the sounds of f e e l i n g " (Barron, 1974, p. 90). A wide range of p o s s i b l e and p o t e n t i a l forms of "poetry" have been noted ( v i z . , songs, dances, sounds, touching, r e a d i n g words, l i s t e n i n g to words) but f o r the purpose of the present study poetry i s p r i m a r i l y language, words. Likewise psychotherapy (or c o u n s e l l i n g ) i s , among other m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , the v o i c i n g and l i s t e n i n g of words. What are the s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s of words t h a t a l l o w f o r mutual understanding? The next s e c t i o n of t h i s review e x p l o r e s v a r i o u s p r o p e r t i e s of language t h a t allow f o r r a p i d and powerful communication. 26 F i g u r a t i v e language. The communication system of language can be viewed as a framework of t h r e e elements: s e m a n t i c i t y , displacement, and p r o d u c t i v i t y . S e m a n t i c i t y r e f e r s to the meaning f u n c t i o n of language. The displacement f a c t o r of l i n g u i s t i c forms concerns the a b i l i t y t o represent an idea, or i d e a of a behavior, apart from the i n i t i a l circumstance where i t was f i r s t e l i c i t e d . . . . p r o d u c t i v i t y , i n v o l v e s the a b i l i t y t o put tog e t h e r the v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c forms i n t o novel c r e a t i v e arrangements. (Blades & G i r u a l t , 1982, pp. 4,5) These t h r e e elements i n prose can support and strengthen the i n t e g r i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the contents of h i s or her l i f e (Progoff, 1975). Likewise poetry makes use of these same thr e e elements t o guide the i n d i v i d u a l through a v a r i e t y of in n e r e x p l o r a t i o n s . In a study of group therapy i t . was found t h a t "members of poetry therapy groups . . . demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r degree of s e l f -e x p l o r a t i o n than the members of the non—poetry groups" (Ross, 1977, p. 54). P o e t i c language i s a r i c h language. I t has a q u a l i t y of b e i n g g r e a t e r than a s t r i n g of words having only c a u s a l r e f e r e n t s . 27 P o e t i c language g e n e r a l l y , by reason of i t s openess, tends toward semantic p l e n i t u d e r a t h e r than toward a c a u t i o u s semantic economy. The power of speaking by i n d i r e c t i o n and by evoking l a r g e r , more u n i v e r s a l meanings than the same u t t e r a n c e taken i n i t s l i t e r a l sense would warrant, i s one s p e c i e s of semantic p l e n i t u d e . But i t may a l s o be t h a t the tenor of an image or of a s u r f a c e statement i s not s i n g l e ; the semantic arrow may p o i n t i n more than one d i r e c t i o n [Indeed any image or statement i s never s i n g l e nor i s i t simply a matter of choosing between two meanings, good or bad. "Man's world i s manifold, and h i s a t t i t u d e s are m a n i f o l d . What i s m a n i f o l d i s o f t e n f r i g h t e n i n g because i t i s not neat and simple. Men p r e f e r t o f o r g e t how many p o s s i b i l i t i e s are open to them" (Walter Kaufmann i n Buber, 1970, p. 9 ) ] . When two such d i v e r s e l y intended meanings are s h a r p l y oppossed, the r e s u l t i s paradox. But even when doubleness of meaning i s not pushed to the p o i n t of c o n t r a r i e t y i t may o f t e n be the case t h a t more than one meaning i s suggested simultaneously by a c e r t a i n word or phrase or image. Or, more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , t here may be a group of v e r b a l symbols, put t o g e t h e r i n a c e r t a i n syntax and suggesting c e r t a i n images, some more o v e r t l y then others, with the r e s u l t t h a t the i n t e r p l a y of meanings and h a l f meanings i s f a r more copious than 28 any l i t e r a l paraphrase c o u l d ever formulate. (Wheelright, 1962, p. 57) Very few persons have a knowledge of more than 10% of t h e i r mother tongue (Johnson, 1956; Oilman, 1962) . Thus when d e s i r i n g t o express one's thoughts and f e e l i n g s of a h i t h e r t o p e r s o n a l l y unexplored g e s t a l t i n d i v i d u a l s do not always have the more l i t e r a l l y p r e c i s e words to express t h e i r thoughts and f e e l i n g s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n people can only a t t a c h new and m u l t i p l e meanings to t h e i r c u r r e n t vocabulary thereby producing a m u l t i — l a y e r e d communication t h a t i s h o p e f u l l y a balance between i d i o s y n c r a t i c meaning, and shared meaning. As a r e s u l t of t h i s process i n d i v i d u a l words and phrases are asked to c a r r y a h e a v i e r burden of m u l t i p l e meanings. T h i s process c a r r i e s the seeds of c o n f u s i o n and enlightenment. C e r t a i n l y f o r the author of a c o n s c i o u s l y developed poem, as opposed to an " i n s p i r e d " or " d i c t a t e d " poem, t h e r e i s a s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d of e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t r a -p s y c h i c enlightenment or i n c r e a s e d " v i s i o n " or understanding as a r e s u l t of forming a new g e s t a l t . Heninger (1978) notes t h a t : 1. Poetry exposes unconscious f o r c e s to consciousness and o r g a n i z e s them i n t o an understandable form. T h i s i s a t h e r a p e u t i c process. It makes arrangements out of derangements, harmony out of disharmony and order out of chaos. 29 2. Poetry p r o v i d e s a camouflage t h a t allows the w r i t e r (and reader) to v e n t i l a t e unacceptable, e m o t i o n a l l y laden ideas and unconscious c o n f l i c t s . I t allows these ideas and c o n f l i c t s to circumvent the u s u a l r e p r e s s i v e b a r r i e r s and come to the s u r f a c e . At the same time, i t exposes them to the o b s e r v i n g ego so they can be examined and orga n i z e d . 3. There i s c l a r i t y t h a t comes from p o e t r y . T h i s c l a r i t y i s a k i n to i n s i g h t . With poetr y one can see more i n t o o n e s e l f and become more i n t i m a t e l y a c q u a i n t e d with one's own unconscious ideas and f e e l i n g s . Poetry can p r o v i d e a more honest way of l o o k i n g at p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s . (p. 56) A common complaint among l i s t e n e r s or readers of poetry i s t h a t i t i s o f t e n u n c l e a r or c o n f u s i n g p r e c i s e l y because the r e c i p i e n t i s not p r i v y to the authors p r i v a t e v o cabulary. I f members of a given language group are more or l e s s l i m i t e d t o a common, more or l e s s l i t e r a l , use of 10% of t h e i r language, imagine the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r -p s y c h i c c o n f u s i o n among a group of people who have d i f f e r e n t mother languages and who are attempting to communicate with each other i n a language t h a t i s new to each member! One would t h i n k t h a t such people w r i t i n g and s h a r i n g poems of p a r t i c u l a r symbolic, metaphoric, and a f f e c t i v e r i c h n e s s might s u f f e r from e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n f u s i o n between each other. However i t i s reasonable to b e l i e v e t h a t i f a person 30 i s comfortable with the m u l t i p l i c i t y of l i f e he or she w i l l be able t o understand the r i c h n e s s of meanings i n a poem. In her book On Death And Dying, Kubler—Ross (1969) uses the p o e t r y of Rabindranath Tagore to head her c h a p t e r s . T h i s can be viewed as one way of h e l p i n g people understand a phase of l i f e t h a t p r e s e n t s g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s of " t r a n s l a t i o n " ( i . e . , the t r a n s l a t i o n from l i f e t o death) than t h a t encountered amongst people whose main d i f f i c u l t y u nderstanding each other i s merely t h a t they do not yet share a f l u e n t common language and are s t r u g g l i n g t o adapt to a new c u l t u r e . Some poetry t h e r a p i s t s r e p o r t success with c l i e n t s who do not read or w r i t e the language i n use i n the group (Lerner, 1982) .' S i m i l a r l y Blanton (1960) notes t h a t " i t i s even p o s s i b l e to be s t i r r e d by the language of great p o e t r y without q u i t e understanding i t s meaning" (p. 6). Since Blanton was r e f e r r i n g to poetry he heard r e c i t e d when he was a young boy b e f o r e he understood the meanings of some of the words i t i s assumed he means t h a t "great p o e t r y " can be d e f i n e d by as l i t t l e as the sound and p r e s e n t a t i o n of the poem. In f u r t h e r support of the b e l i e f t h a t i t i s not necessary f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o know a l l the words used f o r h e a l i n g or c u r i n g , i t i s r e p o r t e d that Yakut shamen have a " p o e t i c vocabulary of 12,000 words, three times as many words as are known by the' r e s t of the community" (Blinderman, 1973, p. 135). I t appears that i f the 31 p a r t i c i p a n t s or r e c i p i e n t s do not know a l l the words i t does not reduce, and may even i n c r e a s e , the p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y of the shaman to h e a l . In a l l f a i r n e s s i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t words or songs are g e n e r a l l y one p a r t of a h e a l i n g process t h a t might a l s o i n c l u d e dance, magical e f f e c t s , and music. P r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s are examples of the phenomenon t h a t p o e t r y therapy can be one a n c i l l a r y technique among many t h a t can be e f f i c a c i o u s i n a community or group h e a l i n g p r o c e s s . Concerning the semantics of poetry therapy Lerner (1976) reminds us of K o r z y b s k i ' s g u i d e l i n e s : The word i s not the t h i n g . The map i s not the t e r r i t o r y . The symbol i s not the t h i n g symbolized. (p. 417) A l l of which should remind us to a v o i d being u n i v e r s a l l y l i t e r a l ; t o a v o i d the danger of a c c e p t i n g the a r t i f a c t f o r the s p i r i t . But what can be s a i d with any c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the process of a s c r i b i n g meaning to f i g u r e s of speech, such as metaphor, used i n p o e t i c language i n the s e r v i c e of t h e r a p e u t i c i n s i g h t ? . . . metaphor i s an u b i q u i t o u s aspect of language . . . i t i s the speaker or l i s t e n e r who decides whether some communication i s l i t e r a l or metaphoric . . . [ s i m i l a r l y ] , i n s i g h t occurs and those who experience i t are the u l t i m a t e judges of i t s occurrence or non-occurrence. (Barlow, P o l l i o & Fine, 1977, p. 218) 32 Metaphor i s a f i g u r e of speech t h a t we a l l employ when attempting t o communicate something f o r which we have not the p r e c i s e l i t e r a l meaning words. Metaphoric speech (one c o u l d e a s i l y s u b s t i t u t e p o e t i c speech) i n therapy p r o v i d e s a way of communication t h a t allows f o r novel and f r u i t f u l ways of c o n s t r u i n g the world. This i s accomplished by the process of the c l i e n t or t h e r a p i s t s t a t i n g one t h i n g i n terms of another and the task i s then t o determine what the two givens have i n common c o n s i d e r i n g the context of the interchange (Fine, P o l l i o & Simpkinson, 1973) . V i s u a l l y t h i s i s a s i t u a t i o n not u n l i k e a c r e a t i v e s h i f t i n g of two c i r c l e s or spheres t o form a Venn diagram, the r e s u l t s of which are mutually i n t e l l i g i b l e and p l a u s i b l e . T y p i c a l l y the area i n t e r s e c t e d or o v e r l a y e d generates new i n s i g h t . Some (Barlow et a l . , 1977) s p e c u l a t e that "metaphoric language c o n s t i t u t e s not only the contents of s p e c i f i c t h e r a p e u t i c i n s i g h t s but a l s o the thematic i n t e r f a c e upon which psychotherapy proceeds" (p. 212). But how would t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n f i t when c o n s i d e r i n g u s i n g poetry, o f t e n composed of metaphoric language, as an a n c i l l a r y p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c approach with a d u l t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as an a d d i t i o n a l language? Might not t h e r e be some h e s i t a t i o n t o embark on what appears to be a r i s k y venture i n t o a l i n g u i s t i c jungle? I t appears that F i n e et a l . (1973) would not h e s i t a t e : When [a person] attempts to convey . . . f e e l i n g s (or se n s a t i o n s , or ideas or whatever) to another person, he 33 must put f o r t h some e f f o r t to f i n d words t h a t f i t h i s experience s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . When th e r e are no s u i t a b l e words a v a i l a b l e i t i s sometimes necessary . . . to ' assume t h a t the other person w i l l not take h i s words l i t e r a l l y . T h i s i s accomplished by s h i f t i n g t o another l e v e l — the metaphoric l e v e l — and by a p p l y i n g i m a g i n a t i o n and i n t u i t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i l l i n the gap brought about by an inadequate v o c a b u l a r y . (p. 87) T h i s attempt at communication moves from the c l i e n t out to others but the process i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e to the c l i e n t l o o k i n g inward, attempting through the use of novel metaphor to communicate with him or h e r s e l f r e g a r d i n g aspects of the s e l f t h a t are not understood. The poet's job i s to "show . . . a world completely absorbed and possessed by the human mind (Frye, 1963, p. 11). There are s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s of metaphor w i t h i n the context of psychotherapy. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t c o u l d be used as a s o r t of c h e c k l i s t when a n a l y s i n g the meaning of poems w r i t t e n by c l i e n t s : 1. Metaphors p r o v i d e a model of w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y out novel ways of l o o k i n g at behavior. 2. Metaphors s i m p l i f y events i n terms of a schema, or concept, t h a t emphasizes some p r o p e r t i e s more than o t h e r s . 34 3. Metaphors g i v e communications an i n t i m a t e or pe r s o n a l q u a l i t y because of the concrete r e f e r e n t s of me t a p h o r i c a l imagery. 4 . Metaphors have a h a l f — p l a y f u l , h a l f — s e r i o u s q u a l i t y t h a t permits the t h e r a p i s t to communicate about i n t i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a t i e n t without appearing as i n t r u s i v e as a more c o n v e n t i o n a l mode of d e s c r i b i n g the p a t i e n t might appear. The d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between person and metaphoric r e f e r e n t s may help the p a t i e n t to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s without g e n e r a l i z e d avoidance or defense a g a i n s t new concepts of h i m s e l f . 5. Metaphors a s s e r t the a f f e c t i v e e q u i v a l e n c e of appa r e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r concepts or events. An apt metaphor may permit the p a t i e n t to observe h i s own ways of equating s i t u a t i o n s and thus open p o s s i b i l i t i e s of d e a l i n g with the s i t u a t i o n s as d i f f e r e n t i n important r e s p e c t s . 6. Metaphors h i g h l i g h t s u b t l e s o c i a l r o l e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the p a t i e n t ' s mode of r e l a t i n g to others when they r e f e r to i n t e r a c t i o n s between an o b j e c t and i t s environment. 7. Metaphors t r a n s f e r r e a d i l y to new s i t u a t i o n s t h a t the person ent e r s , or o l d ones he r e — e n t e r s . T h i s i s because they r e f e r to r a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s r a t h e r than to d i s c r e t e elements, and can thus be a p p l i e d i n a 35 great v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s . (Fine et a l . , 1973 pp. 90,91) F u r t h e r t o the id e a of u s i n g these seven p o i n t s as a c h e c k l i s t i t ought to be p o s s i b l e "to observe some aspects of the way a p a t i e n t changes h i s world i n therapy by examining the metaphors he produces over time" (Barlow et a l . , 1977, p. 215). The p r o d u c t i o n of metaphors would supposedly run on a t r a c k p a r a l l e l to the process of g a i n i n g i n s i g h t . The phenomenon of i n s i g h t can range from c l i e n t i n s i g h t viewed as an i n t e r p r e t i v e f u n c t i o n of the t h e r a p i s t t h a t i s accepted by the c l i e n t as v a l i d , to the other extreme of i n s i g h t viewed as a complex c l i e n t or p a t i e n t c e n t r e d p r o c e s s . There i s a l s o a wide d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the primary f o r c e of i n s i g h t : i n t e l l e c t or emotion. P o l l i o et a l . (1977) conclude that "the t h e r a p i s t i s now viewed as p r o v i d i n g an i n t e r a c t i o n matrix w i t h i n which the p a t i e n t c a r r i e s on the n a t u r a l l y r e s t o r a t i v e and i n t e g r a t i v e p e r s o n a l process known as i n s i g h t " (p. 124). I n s i g h t and f i g u r a t i v e language i s most c o n s i s t e n t l y expressed i n therapy by a p a t t e r n " represented by an a l t e r n a t i o n of f i g u r a t i v e and l i t e r a l statements i n which the l i t e r a l statements embodying an i n s i g h t f u l experience o f t e n f o l l o w s upon n e i g h b o r i n g areas of high novel f i g u r a t i v e a c t i v i t y " ( P o l l i o et a l . , 1977, p. 142). They a l s o note t h a t i n s i g h t i s experienced " e i t h e r w i t h i n the context of novel f i g u r a t i v e language or w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s 36 of e x p l i c i t l y l i t e r a l language" (p. 141), but i s absent, w i t h i n the context of t r i t e or f r o z e n f i g u r a t i v e language. Of course v i r t u a l l y a l l l e a r n e r s of a new language w i l l f i n d a l l f i g u r a t i v e language novel when f i r s t p r e s e n t e d with i t , a s i t u a t i o n o f f e r i n g much p o t e n t i a l f o r i n s i g h t . The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n of f i g u r a t i v e language and i n s i g h t can be summed up i n the f o l l o w i n g : The e f f e c t s of poetry, as a r t i s t s know, depend upon communication of meanings achieved by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of contending elements, so t h a t one p e r c e i v e s not only what i s between the l i n e s , but a l s o "between the betweens." Such subverbal, or i n t e r v e r b a l , meanings are i p s o f a c t o i n the area of the uncanny. (Barker, 1968, p. 74) Even more s u c c i n c t l y he s t a t e s t h a t these e f f e c t s tend t o make one's h a i r stand on end! Poetry Therapy Th e r a p e u t i c q u a l i t i e s of poetry. Poetry therapy as an a n c i l l a r y technique had i t s germination (and s t i l l has i t s roots) i n b i b l i o t h e r a p y or l i t e r a t h e r a p y . L i t e r a t h e r a p y or b i b l i o t h e r a p y , "the s p e c i f i c use of l i t e r a r y works and/or l i t e r a r y forms 37 (metaphors, s i m i l e s , a l l e g o r i e s , etc.) to f a c i l i t a t e and enhance the process of psychotherapy" (Shiryon, 1977, p. 73) has a long h i s t o r y . Fables and a l l e g o r i e s have been t o l d s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of speech with r e s u l t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth but i t was d u r i n g the mid 1800's at the P e n n s y l v a n i a H o s p i t a l t h a t p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s were encouraged to w r i t e p o e t r y f o r the h o s p i t a l newspaper, The I l l u m i n a t o r . T h i s i s an e a r l y example of the conscious connection between l i t e r a t u r e , or more p r e c i s e l y poetry, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes (Mazza, 1979). In 1904 at the McLean H o s p i t a l near Boston the f i r s t l i b r a r y f o r the mentally i l l was b u i l t . S e v e r a l years l a t e r group therapy, f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons a p a r t i c u l a r l y powerful mode of therapy when j o i n e d w i t h - l i t e r a t u r e , was developed (Abrams, 1978). The g e n e r a l approach of l i t e r a t h e r a p y i n v o l v e s the t h e r a p i s t p r e s e n t i n g a l i t e r a r y work, o f t e n a s h o r t s t o r y or f a b l e and the l i s t e n e r s are then encouraged to respond to the t h e r a p i s t and other members of the group. H o p e f u l l y i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l p e r s o n a l i z e the s t o r y and present s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s f o r subsequent working out i n the group (Shiryon, 1977). A number of aims or goals of l i t e r a t h e r a p y are l i s t e d by M a r g o l i s (1971) and A n g e l o t t i (1985) t h a t r e f l e c t t h i s b a s i c medical model of "diagnosing" the i l l n e s s and then " p r e s c r i b i n g " l i t e r a t u r e i n the hopes of a c h i e v i n g a "cure". This approach i s s i m i l a r to the poetry therapy of Leedy (1969, 1973) who makes use of what he c a l l s the 38 " i s o p r i n c i p l e " of s e l e c t i n g and p r e s e n t i n g a poem t h a t c l o s e l y matches the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e of h i s c l i e n t or c l i e n t s . The i s o p r i n c i p l e i s a concept borrowed from music therapy where music i s s e l e c t e d t h a t corresponds t o the c l i e n t ' s mood (Crootof, 1969). I t i s not, however, s u f f i c i e n t to simply present poems th a t c l o s e l y match the mood of c l i e n t s , i n a d d i t i o n i t i s h e l p f u l t o s e l e c t poems th a t a l s o c o n t a i n " l i n e s or stanzas t h a t r e f l e c t hope and optimism, e s p e c i a l l y toward t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n " (Leedy, 1969, p. 67). I t i s important f o r the c l i e n t to understand t h a t no matter how d i f f i c u l t or gloomy h i s or her s t a t e , the poet has not only experienced that s t a t e but has a l s o triumphed, i n some way, over the d i f f i c u l t y . One of the p i o n e e r s of poetry therapy, Blanton (1960), s t r e s s e s the simple c a t h a r t i c t h e r a p e u t i c experience of i d e n t i f y i n g with the emotion expressed i n a poem. Through the experience of c a t h a r s i s c l i e n t s tend to move from a g e n e r a l or u n i v e r s a l understanding of a poem to a p e r s o n a l and s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n and i n s i g h t . A movement from "out t h e r e " i n t o a tender and p r i v a t e p e r s o n a l p l a c e . I t i s t h i s freedom to keep the poem at arms l e n g t h or a l l o w i t c l o s e r t h a t p r o v i d e s much s a f e t y and c o n t r o l f o r the c l i e n t (Kaminsky, 1974). The poem i s a " t h i r d t h i n g " , something to t a l k "about" should the c l i e n t d e s i r e t o keep some d i s t a n c e from t h e i r p e r s o n a l p a i n . There are numerous examples from f o l k l o r e and the B i b l e to support the value of 39 p r o v i d i n g t h i s means of e l e c t i v e d i s t a n c i n g (Shiryon, 1977). Perhaps the primary d i f f e r e n c e between l i t e r a t h e r a p y and poet r y therapy i s t h a t poetry, due to i t s condensed p r e s e n t a t i o n , can bypass much th a t i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and s u r p r i s e the l i s t e n e r or reader with i t s emotional impact thus p r o v i d i n g a necessary balance with i n t e l l e c t u a l i n s i g h t i n the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . Here's an example: ELEPHANTS The cracked cedar bunkhouse hangs behind me l i k e a gray pueblo i n the sundown where I s i t to carve an elephant from a hunk of brown soap f o r the Indian boy who l i v e s i n the v i l l a g e a mile back i n the bush. The a l c o h o l i c t r u c k — d r i v e r and the cat s k i n n e r s i t b e s i d e me with t h e i r eyes c l o s e d — a l l of us w a i t i n g out the l a s t hour u n t i l we go back on the grade and I t r y to f o r g e t the f o r e v e r clank c l a n k clank across the grade pounding the stones and e a r t h to powder f o r hours i n mosquito—darkness of the endless c o l d mountain n i g h t . The elephant takes form — my k n i f e c a r e s s e s smooth soap s c a l i n g o f f c u r l s of brown which the boy saves to take home to h i s mother i n the v i l l a g e . F i n i s h e d , I hand the c a r v i n g to him and he looks at the image of the great beast f o r a long time then s e t s i t on dry cedar and looks up at me: What's an elephant he asks me so I t e l l him of the elephants and t h e i r j ungles — the s t o r y of the elephant graveyard which no—one has ever found and how the s i l e n t animals of the r a i n — f o r e s t 41 go away to d i e somewhere i n the l i m b e r l o s t of d i s t a n c e s and he s m i l e s at me t e l l s me of h i s f a t h e r ' s graveyard where h i s people have been b u r i e d f o r years. So f a r back no—one remembers when i t s t a r t e d and I ask him where the graveyard i s and he t e l l s me i t i s gone now where no—one w i l l ever f i n d i t b u r i e d under the grade of the new highway. P a t r i c k Lane (1969) In t h i s poem there i s a balance between " i n f o r m a t i o n " or "content" to t h i n k about, and the emotional impact of the l a s t two l i n e s which "get through" i n an immediate emotional way. A second branch of poetry therapy i s espoused by Lerner (1976, 1982) and L i p p i n (1982) who take advantage of the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c i p r o c i t y i n poetry therapy groups by f o s t e r i n g an atmosphere t h a t allows f o r a great amount of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c l i e n t p r o d u c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r own poems. This approach of encouraging c l i e n t s to produce t h e i r own poems i s supported by A n g e l o t t i (1985); "the c l i e n t . . . may not o b t a i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t from r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e , but h i s own p r o d u c t i o n of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l may o f f e r i n s i g h t s i n t o h i s f e e l i n g s and thoughts" (p. 28). In a d d i t i o n t o Leedy's p r e s c r i p t i v e approach and L e r n e r ' s more i n t e r a c t i v e approach A n g e l o t t i (1985) comments on what he c o n s i d e r s a t h i r d branch of p o e t r y therapy, one based on psychodramatic p r i n c i p l e s . As has been noted above psychodrama p l a c e s l a r g e emphasis on s p o n t a n e i t y ; "events emerge from the a c t i o n o c c u r i n g at the moment i n the group" ( A n g e l o t t i , 1985, p. 29). The p r e v i o u s l y noted p r i n c i p l e s of p o e t r y therapy may be employed but the d i r e c t i o n flows from the moment by moment i n t e r a c t i o n s . These t h r e e branches of p o e t r y therapy o f t e n i n t e r t w i n e but they a l l stem from the more p r o s a i c and l i t e r a l b i b l i o t h e r a p y or l i t e r a t h e r a p y . Poetry and therapy working t o g e t h e r . What happens when a person experiences p o e t r y and therapy at the same time? The answer i s extremely complex. I t i s perhaps s i m p l e s t to begin by g e t t i n g a b e t t e r understanding of the experience of poetry alone, both l i s t e n i n g t o i t and w r i t i n g i t . 43 Simply r e a d i n g poetry to o n e s e l f can be a thoroughly complex experience, C o l l i e r and Kuiken (1977) found t h a t readers experienced: s a t i s f a c t i o n or f r u s t r a t i o n , images which at times had no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the poem per se, emotions which were o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t , and h i s own a c t i v e attempts t o d e r i v e a meaning from an " o b j e c t " which at f i r s t r e f u s e d t o be understood. (p. 223) The authors a l s o p o i n t out that because of t h i s complexity the only adequate way to r e p o r t t h e i r f i n d i n g s was i n a q u a l i t a t i v e phenomenological way. Th i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g f o r as E o r s i (1972) has noted: What makes the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the l y r i c poet t o the world immeasurably complex i s the f a c t t h a t l y r i c a l p o e t r y i s always the product of a moment . . . . As a r e s u l t , a poet may w r i t e poems t h a t express q u i t e c o n t r a d i c t o r y views — poems, l e t us say, of r e v o l u t i o n a r y hope and poems of d e s p a i r — d u r i n g the same p e r i o d of h i s l i f e ; each i s the a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n of an emotion or mood. (p. 45) D i f f e r e n t poems may express views t h a t c o n t r a d i c t each other but of course i t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e to express w i t h i n one poem a number of c o n t r a d i c t o r y views. By 1915 "modern" poetry had become " i n t r o s p e c t i v e " and d e a l t with " e x p r e s s i o n and communication of momentary phases i n the poet's mind" ( P r a t t , 1963, p. 2 4 ) . P r a t t continues with remarks on the f r e e i n g of modern poetry from a l l 44 e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s and forms and s u b s t i t u t i n g the poets i n n e r experience and sense of musical rhythm as paramount i n the e x p r e s s i o n of p o e t r y t h a t i s t r u e and f e l i c i t o u s t o the poet's experience and i n t e n t ( P r a t t , 1963). To r e t u r n b r i e f l y to the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of metaphor, Frye (1982) notes t h a t much of the B i b l e i s w r i t t e n i n verse t h a t overwhelmingly r e l i e s on f i g u r e s of speech (e.g., metaphor), to convey "the t r u t h " . I f the bedrock of western l i t e r a t u r e , as Frye b e l i e v e s the B i b l e to be, i s i n h e r e n t l y metaphoric, how can we not expect the experience of modern poetry to be complex? F e n o l l o s a (1936) w r i t e s , "metaphor, the r e v e a l e r of nature, i s the very substance of p o e t r y " (p. 23), and Roethke (1965) s t a t e s t h a t "the metaphor i s a s y n t h e s i s , a b u i l d i n g up, a c r e a t i o n of a new world, however incomplete, crude, tawdry, naive i t may be" (p. 45). Examples abound of poetry t h a t opens the way to new worlds. 45 from [Song Of Myself] I am the poet of the body, And I am the poet of the s o u l . The p l e a s u r e s of heaven are with me, and the p a i n s of h e l l are with me, The f i r s t I g r a f t and i n c r e a s e upon myself . . . . the l a t t e r I t r a n s l a t e i n t o a new tongue. Whitman (1973) (21) (pp. 52,53) from [Song Of Myself] Do I c o n t r a d i c t myself? Very w e l l then I c o n t r a d i c t myself; I am l a r g e I c o n t a i n m u l t i t u d e s . Whitman (1973) (51) (p. 96) 46 from And How Long? How much does a man l i v e , a f t e r a l l ? Does he l i v e a thousand days, or one only? For a week, or f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s ? How long does a man spend dying? What does i t mean to say ' f o r ever'? Lost i n t h i s p reoccupation, I set myself to c l e a r things, up. Neruda (1972, p. 353) from The Book Of Hours Put out my eyes, and I can see you s t i l l ; slam my ears t o, and I can hear you yet; and without any f e e t can go to you; and tongueless, I can conjure you at w i l l . Break o f f my arms, I s h a l l take h o l d of you and grasp you with my heart as with a hand; a r r e s t my heart, my b r a i n w i l l beat as t r u e ; and i f you set t h i s b r a i n of mine a f i r e , then on my b l o o d I yet w i l l c a r r y you. R i l k e (1975, p.- 37) What does the poet wish t o happen i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind, t h a t o f f s p r i n g of the union of b r a i n and heart? For some poets t h e r e may be an i n t e n t i o n to s t i r up a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t l i f e c o n t a i n s many unanswerable q u e s t i o n s Others may wish to accompany the l i s t e n e r s on the journey t h e i r l i v e s . The Journey the heart/never f i t s / t h e journey — Jack G i l b e r t To begin with, i t begins and ends with the heart, t h a t long t u n n e l with the darkness at i t s end. So t h a t the journey i s a k i n d of d e f e a t the o r d i n a r y heart s u r v i v e s . L i k e the man who buys flowers f o r h i s love — of course, the flowers d i e . He d i e s . Or she d i e s . Or i s i t t h e i r l o v e . Such a sequence of events we name The Journey and which, t h a t i t might l i v e , the heart c o n t r i v e s . H a m i l l (1984, p. 41) Perhaps the poet wishes to produce i n the reader "one long shudder of r e c o g n i t i o n " ( J a r r e l l i n W i l l i a m s , 1969, p. X). Or perhaps the poet wishes to produce poetry t h a t i s "remarkable f o r i t s empathy, sympathy, i t s muscular and emotional i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with i t s s u b j e c t s " ( J a r r e l l i n 49 W i l l i a m s , 1969, p. X I ) . I t beomes apparent t h a t the " s u b j e c t " of many good poems i s i n some way a l s o the reader or l i s t e n e r . No matter what a poet intends f o r h i s or her reader or l i s t e n e r they w i l l go through t h e i r own process of making sense of a poem. Now what about w r i t i n g poetry? What a c t u a l l y happens when a person w r i t e s a poem? The process of begi n n i n g w r i t i n g p o e t r y and b e g i n n i n g psychotherapy share a common urge to understand or know more, t o f i n d out. W r i t e r s have r e p o r t e d a " t e n s i o n and an an x i e t y about f i n d i n g out what the poem i s r e a l l y about" (Rothenberg, 1972, p. 241). L i s t e n to what Roethke (1948) has t o say: 50 C u t t i n g s (LATER) Th i s urge, w r e s t l e , r e s u r r e c t i o n of dry s t i c k s , Cut stems s t r u g g l i n g to put down f e e t , What s a i n t s t r a i n e d so much, Rose on such lopped limbs to a new l i f e ? I can hear, underground, t h a t sucking and sobbing, In my v e i n s , i n my bones I f e e l i t , — The s m a l l waters seeping upward, The t i g h t g r a i n s p a r t i n g at l a s t . When sprouts break out, S l i p p e r y as f i s h , I q u a i l , l e a n t o beginnings, sheath—wet. from THE LOST SON and Other Poems (p. 12) Another way of p h r a s i n g t h i s from the standpoint of a ps y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c beginning i s : what i s t h i s process I have begun r e a l l y about? In both cases there i s u n c e r t a i n t y about where the process w i l l l e a d . What i_s c e r t a i n i s the p e r c e i v e d need t o engage i n the process. T h i s i s t r u e of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l experience as a poet and as a ps y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c c l i e n t . 51 I n s p i r a t i o n i n poetry may or may not be present and may never a r r i v e , but i n s i g h t , the process of g i v i n g meaning, when making poems and when engaged i n therapy, w i l l h o p e f u l l y occur. I n s i g h t and i n s p i r a t i o n can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the following_way: P s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t i n v o l v e s d i r e c t r e n d e r i n g of pr e c o n s c i o u s and unconscious m a t e r i a l i n t o consciousness with a s s i m i l a t i o n by the ego [a process of g i v i n g meaning], whereas both the i n c e p t i o n o f a p o e t i c process and the i n s p i r a t i o n s t h a t occur at the be g i n n i n g or along the way are i n d i r e c t and complex me t a p h o r i c a l embodiments of the poet's unconscious and  pre c o n s c i o u s emotional c o n f l i c t s . (Rothenberg, 1972, p. 242) He conti n u e s with a comment on the s i m i l a r i t i e s of v e r b a l communications i n poetry and psychotherapy. Both s t r u c t u r e and content are important f o c i f o r the p o e t i c process and f o r psychotherapy. In p o e t i c c r e a t i o n , the poet focuses on s t r u c t u r e and content s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and by h i m s e l f ; i n psychotherapy, the p a t i e n t pays a t t e n t i o n s o l e l y to the content . . . . [while the t h e r a p i s t i s ] f r e e r to focus i n t e n s i v e l y on s t r u c t u r e [ i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n t e n t ] . (Rothenberg, 1972, p. 246) The aims of the two processes may d i f f e r . Poetry has the a b i l i t y t o be p r i v a t e and u n i v e r s a l whereas therapy tends t o move i n an inward d i r e c t i o n . P s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c 52 communication i s i n a i d of the c l i e n t becoming more i n t e g r a t e d with him or h e r s e l f . Of course t h e r e are numerous c r o s s r o a d s at which i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use poetry as an a i d to p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Where p o e t r y and therapy have a s t r o n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with each other i s at the end of both p r o c e s s e s ; both the poet and the c l i e n t decide when the process i s ended. T h i s ending, Rothenberg (1972) b e l i e v e s , i s r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l freedom from antecedent c o n s t r a i n t s , freedom from whatever a n x i e t i e s and concerns i m p e l l e d a person toward w r i t i n g a poem or engaging i n psychotherapy i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Rothenberg (1972) q u a l i f i e s the s t r e n g t h of t h i s freedom when c o n s i d e r i n g the poet who has completed the poem. Although the p o t e n t i a l i s there f o r much i n s i g h t , p e r s o n a l growth, and i n t e g r a t i o n , the poet i s o f t e n l e f t with much l e s s than the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c c l i e n t i n the way of i n c r e a s e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . A f t e r a l l , most people do not w r i t e poems s p e c i f i c a l l y i n order to s o l v e t h e i r problems. Some s o r t of e x p l i c i t t h e r a p e u t i c use of the poem may be c a l l e d f o r to achieve i n s i g h t through the agency of a poem. But not everyone i s as c a u t i o u s as Rothenberg i n p r a i s e of the act of w r i t i n g a poem, " . . . poetry i_s 'therapy' . . . . The very act of c r e a t i n g i s a s e l f — s u s t a i n i n g experience, and i n the p o e t i c moment the s e l f becomes both the m i n i s t e r i n g ' t h e r a p i s t ' and the comforted ' p a t i e n t ' " (Harrower, 1972, p. 31). Dylan Thomas might have agreed 53 with Harrower, and a c c o r d i n g to C h a l i f f (1973) Emily D i c k i n s o n i s a poet who seems "not only to have used her poetry f o r a c a t h a r t i c purpose, but to have been aware t h a t she was doing so and, i n f a c t , to have seen t h i s as a purpose of p o e t r y " (p. 25). What i s important t o note i s t h a t both p o e t r y and therapy move i n the same d i r e c t i o n , toward p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom. Rothenberg (1972) sums up the r o l e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom i n the p o e t i c p r o c e s s : . . . the poet s t r u g g l e s with h i s own psyche. He manages t o unearth some of i t s deeper and more hidden aspects and he achieves some r e l i e f and r e s o l u t i o n of problems as w e l l as a degree of freedom. The good reader of the f i n i s h e d poem empathizes with the poet's s t r u g g l e f o r freedom and v i c a r i o u s l y e x periences some of the poet's r e l i e f and r e s o l u t i o n . The reader a l s o e x periences wonder and a n x i e t y about the a c t u a l unconscious processes r e v e a l e d . On the one hand, he i s r e l i e v e d and re a s s u r e d t o see processes i n the poet which are somewhat l i k e h i s own. On the other hand he i s t h r e a t e n e d ( a l l great a r t i s a n x i e t y provoking) and he i s s t i m u l a t e d t o work on or t h i n k about c o n f l i c t s and problems i n h i m s e l f . When he does work on these problems a f t e r r e a d i n g the poem, or at a much l a t e r date, he a l s o progresses toward g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom. (p. 253) 54 The paradigm presented by Rothenberg (1972) shows i n some d e t a i l the processes of c r e a t i n g a poem, of engaging i n psychotherapy, and e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i n k between poet and reader t h a t can engender the same process seen i n the poet and the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c c l i e n t . Using t h i s paradigm as a framework of p o e t i c — p s y c h o l o g i c a l process a number of b e h a v i o r a l and s e l f — r e p o r t s t u d i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s of the experience of p o e t r y i n psychotherapy can be commented on. Psychotherapy g e n e r a l l y occurs w i t h i n an e x p l i c i t c o n text. I f p o e t r y i s used as an a n c i l l a r y technique i n psychotherapy i t must somehow f i t the t h e r a p e u t i c context. What i s necessary i s to c r e a t e an environment t h a t f o s t e r s the c l i e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y with the thoughts and f e e l i n g s expressed i n a poem w r i t t e n by the c l i e n t or someone e l s e . Regarding the s t a t u s of p o e t r y Stainbrook (1978) emphasizes t h a t "the d e s i r e and the r e a d i n e s s to surrender some c o n t r o l of h i s [the c l i e n t ' s ] t h i n k i n g to the s t r u c t u r e d and o r g a n i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n of the poem i s enhanced by the c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t y a t t r i b u t e d to the poem as a work of a r t " (p. 7). I t i s most important to be aware of t h i s f a c t o r when working with people from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Although t h e r e i s p o t e n t i a l f o r " i n t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l involvement with a poem" and " e f f e c t i v e p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c r e s o l u t i o n of d i s t r e s s and c o n f l i c t " , p a r t i a l l y through the ae g i s of the c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n of poetry ( i . e . , i t s a b i l i t y 5 5 to inform evoke, d i r e c t , maintain, and modify behaviour i n a i d of c r e a t i n g and forming new c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) , Stainbrook (1978) c a u t i o n s us t h a t , depending on s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s "poems d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n v i t e , r e p e l , or simply do not engage hig h p e r s o n a l involvement" (pp. 7,8). T h i s view i s echoed by C o l l i e r and Kuiken (1977) who i d e n t i f y the condensation of complexity i n p o e t r y as a p o s s i b l e reason f o r the d i v e r s e range of experience of p o e t r y . The p r e s c r i p t i v e i s o p r i n c i p l e approach to p o e t r y therapy o u t l i n e d by Leedy (1969, 1973) i s v i g o r o u s l y denounced by Lawler (1972) who contends t h a t t r u e p o e t r y cannot be t r e a t e d l i k e a formed c u l t u r a l " t h i n g " t h a t can be a p p l i e d as needed. He proposes a poetry therapy t h a t t h r i v e s on a genuine urge toward i n n e r "beingness", something t h a t has nothing to do with outer forms save by d e f a u l t . Heninger (1977) has c l i e n t s w r i t e t h e i r own poems, o f t e n with the r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d c l i e n t i n s i g h t . He b e l i e v e s t h a t through the process of w r i t i n g "one o f t e n expresses elements of thought t h a t r e a d i n g or t a l k i n g cannot pry l o o s e " (p. 39). He uses numerous terms ( v i z . , expresses, breakthrough, processed, sense of v e n t i l a t i o n , i l l u m i n a t i o n , r e l i e f of t e n s i o n , etc.) t h a t do not r e a l l y t e l l us what the c l i e n t ' s concrete experiences are. V a r i o u s a f f e c t i v e elements of po e t r y therapy groups and p o e t r y t e a c h i n g groups are r e p o r t e d by Shiryon (1977) . 56 Some b e l i e v e humans change a c c o r d i n g to developmental models. F u c h e l (1985) uses E r i c k s o n ' s (1963) e i g h t stage model.- Lawler (1972) uses a more " o r g a n i c " process of the i n d i v i d u a l "becoming" more e n r i c h e d through a c y c l e of encounter, r e s t , and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s c y c l e i s repeated over and over u n t i l the person becomes an " i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y " . Both Fuchel and Lawler b e l i e v e t h i s k i n d of i n t e g r a t i o n can be accomplished through p o e t r y . S i m i l a r l y Barron (1974) s t a t e s t h a t "the p o e t i c communication [ i . e . , i n t e l l e c t and thought converted i n t o f e e l i n g , emotion, imagery] has the c a p a c i t y t o c o n c i s e l y and p o i g n a n t l y r e f l e c t the changing, s h i f t i n g stages of man's development and h i s t o r y " (p. 87); t h a t i s , c h i l d r e n w r i t e " p r i m i t i v e " (nominative) poetry, and mature a d u l t s w r i t e symbolic p o e t r y . Barron's c o n t e n t i o n may apply t o n a t i v e speakers of the language of the poem but i s suspect when a p p l i e d t o authors w r i t i n g i n a second language. S e v e r a l reasons f o r the c a t h a r t i c value of poetry are mentioned by Blades and G i r u a l t (1982) . These i n c l u d e the re a d i n g of poetry, as i t i n v o l v e s the i n t e r a c t i o n of both d i r e c t e d and u n d i r e c t e d thought; the presence of h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of imagery, symbolism and metaphor, and p o e t i c language as i t may bypass f i x e d r i g i d defenses, thus a l l o w i n g the c l i e n t t o make meanings which help i n the h e a l i n g p r o c e s s ; and rhythm i n poetry can be s e l e c t e d to induce s p e c i f i c types of emotional r e a c t i o n s w i t h i n the c l i e n t . 57 By s e t t i n g a meaningful yet somewhat p r o s a i c problem-poem—topic f o r him or h e r s e l f the poet stands a good chance of e x p e r i e n c i n g , at some time d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of the poem, a dramatic i n s p i r a t i o n t h a t focuses d i f f u s e d a n x i e t y thus p a v i n g the way f o r i n s i g h t (Rothenberg, 1972). In a r e l a t e d comment Heninger (1977) notes t h a t " p u t t i n g words i n t o condensed, rhyming or m e t r i c p a t t e r n s b r i n g s out unique concepts. I t i s i n n o v a t i v e as the process r e q u i r e s a r e -working of the o l d and pushes toward a rearrangement i n a novel f a s h i o n " (p. 39). Research i n t o the v a r i e d uses of p o e t r y i n therapy c o n f i r m the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l of t h i s approach. But what are the v a r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s of poetry therapy and how, s p e c i f i c a l l y , does poetry therapy apply to group c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g s ? The next two s e c t i o n s of t h i s review w i l l address these q u e s t i o n s . The scope of poetry therapy. Poetry therapy as an a n c i l l a r y technique i s used with people of d i f f e r e n t ages, i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s , and p r o v i d e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s , couples, f a m i l i e s , and groups who have a wide v a r i e t y of problems and i s s u e s on which they work i n therapy. 58 Poetry therapy i s used with c h i l d r e n (Bishop, 1978; Gladding & Hanna, 1982), and a d o l e s c e n t s (Jones, 1969; Mazza, 1981) . A d u l t s , the focus of t h i s study, are the s u b j e c t s of numerous a r t i c l e s (Buck & Kramer, 1974; Fuchel, 1985; Harrower, 1969; Lerner, 1976, 1982). People over the age of 65 are a l s o s t u d i e d (Arnott, 1985). There are many d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s i n which p o e t r y therapy i s used. P r i s o n s (Barkley, 1973; H a m i l l , p e r s o n a l communication, October 31, 1989), community c e n t r e s (Irwin, 1988), n u r s i n g homes (Barton, 1984), medical h o s p i t a l s (Ranee & P r i c e , 1973), p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l s (Antebi, 1986; Press, 1979), schools, c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s (Lessner, 1974), and of course there are a great number of p o e t r y therapy p r a c t i t i o n e r s who use poetry i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i s e . A great v a r i e t y of c l i e n t problems or i s s u e s are addressed by p o e t r y t h e r a p i s t s . A l c o h o l i s m (Mazza, 1979), drug abuse (Schechter, 1973), sexual i d e n t i t y (Bowman, 1981), i l l n e s s and advanced age (Kaminsky, 1974), d e p r e s s i o n (Edgar, 1979), homelessness (Irwin, 1988), and post t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r (Geer, 1983). Poetry therapy i s used with a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of people: with i n d i v i d u a l s (Blanton, 1960), and combinations of i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y and group work (Gladding, 1985; Gladding & Mazza, 1983), and t h e r e i s a reasonably l a r g e amount of l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to poetry therapy as a p p l i e d to the group therapy p r o c e s s . 59 The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed shows t h a t most p r a c t i t i o n e r s use p o e t r y as a way to e x p l o r e the changing i s s u e s p r e s e n t e d by c l i e n t s . There i s a focus on the c l i e n t s e x p l o r i n g wherever they may r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g on a s p e c i f i c t o p i c at the b e g i n n i n g of therapy. Although the e n t i r e range of human emotion can be e x p l o r e d through p o e t r y therapy t h e r e appears t o be no l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t i n g s t u d i e s t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y address the l o s s e s and concerns of recent immigrants and refugees. Poetry therapy with groups. At the outset i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to be reminded of the long and a n c i e n t h i s t o r y of the v a l i d i t y of words, u s u a l l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n with music, used i n groups f o r h e a l i n g . Many r e s e a r c h e r s note the e f f e c t of people i n a therapy group b e n e f i t t i n g from the "work" of one i n d i v i d u a l . Blinderman (1973) p r e s e n t s numerous examples of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s where communal h e a l i n g occurs even though the shaman, or " t h e r a p i s t " , i s d i r e c t i n g h i s or her e f f o r t s toward only one or a few i n d i v i d u a l s . Kaminsky (1974) has w r i t t e n an e n l i g h t e n i n g book about h i s experiences u s i n g poetry therapy with groups of o l d e r people i n New York. For our purposes here i t w i l l be u s e f u l to b r i e f l y o u t l i n e the format f o r h i s groups. His approach 60 combines the best of what has been reviewed r e g a r d i n g the flow of any g i v e n p o e t r y therapy s e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e can be viewed as a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e f o r s u c c e s s f u l p o e t r y therapy groups. Four areas are p o r t r a y e d t h a t i n t e r m i n g l e yet are sometimes more l i n e a r i n t h e i r occurance. F i r s t , poems are read t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s ; most of these e a r l y poems are l i t e r a l l y generated and " d i c t a t e d " by the group members, the t h e r a p i s t merely records and reads them or d u p l i c a t e s them f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n at the next meeting. Through t h i s process members slowly, a f t e r s e v e r a l weeks, come to b e l i e v e t h a t what they say can be p o e t r y . The n a t u r a l o f f s p r i n g of t h i s process i s the gradual appearance of member produced poems tha t have been w r i t t e n o u t s i d e of group meeting time. I t g e n e r a l l y takes s e v e r a l months f o r t h i s s h i f t t o occur. The second area of focus i s studying, i n the group, the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' poems; poems o f t e n d e r i v e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' u t t e r i n g s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s . A goal here i s h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s r e a l i z e t h a t poetry i s not something f o r e i g n to them but r a t h e r something they a l r e a d y "do" t h a t simply needs to be made e x p l i c i t and i d e n t i f i e d . Most people possess a c e r t a i n i n nate p o e t i c sense but t h i s knowledge has been b u r i e d under a l i f e t i m e of e d i c t s from " e x p e r t s " who d i c t a t e what poetry i s , as i f poetry were something not l i v i n g i n the mouths of speakers. Once group members become aware of d i f f e r e n t p o e t i c forms and conventions, forms and conventions born of speech, they are i n t r o d u c e d to numerous 61 poems w r i t t e n by a v a r i e t y of poets. A good resource of poems f o r poetry t h e r a p i s t s i s found i n Kaminsky (1974, p. 80) . Group poetry therapy begins to flower when group members s t a r t to contact themselves and each other. T h i s t h i r d area of focus can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : the p e r s o n a l experience of c a t h a r s i s , self—awareness, r e f l e c t i o n on the process of c a t h a r s i s ; and d i a l o g u e with others, an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of o t h e r s . This t h i r d focus i s not so much concerned with poems as much as with where the poems end and the person a u t h e n t i c a l l y continues i n t o what c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a meta—poem, a deeper understanding of what i t means to be human. The f o u r t h focus i s on community. Here the poem may be a c e l e b r a t i o n of what has l e d to t h i s p o i n t , a r e c o g n i t i o n of the uniqueness and commonality of the people i n the poe t r y therapy group. Of course such a process can be c y c l i c a l . A c e l e b r a t i o n of community can be expressed through spontaneous utterances that can be recorded and s t u d i e d by members who then delve i n t o new p a r t s of themselves and others to a r r i v e at yet another miraculous community of unique commonality. The speech, the poetry, through r e f l e c t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n i s one c r e a t i v e way toward >urgeoning and fecund wholeness. Why use poetry i n a group s e t t i n g ? For a l l the reasons hat make any group therapy h e l p f u l . Groups p r o v i d e : 62 1. A heterogenous s o c i a l s e t t i n g i n which i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s may be learn e d , and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one's b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e . 2. A sense of community t h a t can p r o v i d e support. 3. A s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on the behavior and a t t i t u d e s of members. 4. A p l a c e t o experience powerful emotions with group acceptance, p r o v i d i n g a wider base of acceptance of one's emotions. 5. A m i l i e u t h a t r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . 6,. An o p p o r t u n i t y t o focus on and help peers who have s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . 7. A v a r i e t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t can s t i m u l a t e i n s i g h t i n t o and understanding of one's problems and behaviors.-8. Sources of comparison of thoughts, f e e l i n g s and be h a v i o r s . 9. A v a r i e t y of sources of feedback. 10. A remedial environment f o r the s o l u t i o n of problems. 11. Peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t are needed f o r h e a l t h y s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e development (Johnson & Johnson, 1982, pp. 441— 443) . Some reg a r d poetry as a means of " s t i m u l a t i n g group development toward i n c r e a s i n g d i r e c t n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n " (Buck & Kramer, 1974, p. 57); a process t h a t can move toward i n c r e a s e d intimacy and cohesion i n a group, f o s t e r i n g the t h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s noted above. 63 T h e r a p e u t i c f a c t o r s i n group therapy t h a t are s i m i l a r t o those a l r e a d y mentioned but are perhaps more a p p l i c a b l e t o c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s which are more, r a t h e r than l e s s , d i s t u r b e d are o f f e r e d by Yalom (1985). I t i s u s e f u l to note t h a t the use of poetry i n therapy was begun with the more s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d p a t i e n t and i t was the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of poetry with these people t h a t l e d to an understanding of how powerful p o e t r y c o u l d be with the average person (Abrams, 1978) . "In s e l e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s f o r the poetry therapy experience" Lerner (1982) found t h a t " . . . the same c r i t e r i a p r e v a i l t h a t apply to r e g u l a r group therapy s e s s i o n s " (p. 231). I t i s important to s t r e s s the f a c t t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l poetry t h e r a p i s t s regard poetry as one of many t o o l s t h a t can be used i n the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . The use of p o e t r y does not d i c t a t e who the person may be who may b e n e f i t , r a t h e r any person s u i t a b l e f o r group therapy might b e n e f i t from the j u d i c i o u s use of poetry. Are there any persons who may not b e n e f i t from a poetry therapy group? In t h e i r study i n v o l v i n g a group of undergraduates Edgar and Hazley (1969) suggest t h a t i t i s probably wise to exclude p o t e n t i a l group members who have " l i t e r a r y ambitions c a t h e c t e d to the i d e a l i z e d image" (p. 118). They s p e c u l a t e t h a t poetry therapy f o r these i n d i v i d u a l s may only serve to b o l s t e r t h e i r p o s s i b l y unhealthy s e l f image as an a r t i s t . 64 While some po e t r y therapy groups have as few as 6 members (Mazza & P r i c e , 1985) , most groups range from 6 to 15 members (Antebi, 1986), some have as many as 20 — 30 members (Arnott, 1985), and B l y (1990), u s i n g myth, f a i r y t a l e s and poetry, has worked with as many as 700 men at weekend workshops. The number of t h e r a p i s t s or f a c i l i t a t o r s v a r i e s ; as many as 5 f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r 10 or 15 group members i n p s y c h i a t r i c s e t t i n g s t o 1 or 2 f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r up t o 20 or 30 n u r s i n g home r e s i d e n t s , and th e r e are many groups where t h e r e i s 1 t h e r a p i s t f o r perhaps 8 — 1 2 group members. Some groups are "open" (Abrams, 1978), "semi—open" (Buck & Kramer, 1974) , and " c l o s e d " (Mazza & Prescott,' 1981). The goals of therapy appear to d i c t a t e whether a group i s open or c l o s e d . Groups have s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g l e n gths of meeting times, but one and one h a l f hours was common. Numbers of s e s s i o n s ranged from a low of 4 one and one h a l f hour s e s s i o n s , t o 12 s e s s i o n s of one hour l e n g t h , to ongoing s e s s i o n s open to new members with no agreed upon f i n i s h i n g date. Some changes i n and among group members r e q u i r e d as much as one year or longer to be manifest (Kaminsky, 1974). Obviously profound changes such as i n c r e a s e d awareness of others and development of a sense of community seldom or never occurs i n groups t h a t meet as few as fou r times. However t h i s does not di s c o u n t the remarkable gains r e p o r t e d 65 i n p o e t r y therapy groups as e a r l y as the f i r s t s e s s i o n (Lerner, 1982). Most t h e r a p i s t s use a v e r s i o n of Leedy's (1969, 1973) i s o p r i n c i p l e , but the method and s p i r i t of s e l e c t i n g or a r r i v i n g at a poem t h a t r e f l e c t s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l g e s t a l t of the group v a r i e s . Leedy (1969) uses a d i a g n o s t i c approach, b r i n g i n g a poem to the group t h a t h o p e f u l l y addresses a c c u r a t e l y the mood of the group. At the other extreme Kaminsky (1974) a c t s as a s c r i b e , w r i t i n g what the group members say, and tu r n s i t i n t o a poem which becomes a most p r e c i s e e x p r e s s i o n of the group. No matter which i n i t i a l approach i s used the way i s q u i c k l y opened t o a great v a r i e t y of poetry therapy "techniques" designed to pave the way toward the t h e r a p e u t i c gains noted e a r l i e r . One technique or approach does warrant p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n and t h a t i s the c o l l a b o r a t i v e poem. S e v e r a l authors note t h a t they use such a poem to end s e s s i o n s , begin s e s s i o n s , and to p r o v i d e a sense of shared concern amongst members. In these and other ways the c o l l a b o r a t i v e poem i s used as a k i n d of "glue" t h a t can h o l d a group t o g e t h e r or h e l p to show and focus new d i r e c t i o n . However, l e s t one t h i n k t h a t poetry therapy i s merely a matter of s e l e c t i n g and a p p l y i n g techniques i t i s perhaps a p p r o p r i a t e t o quote Kaminsky (1974): More important than s p e c i f i c formulas or poem—ideas are methods f o r a r r i v i n g at them, the c r e a t i v e process by which the poet [or t h e r a p i s t ] comes up with the idea, 66 or s e i z e s the f i r e t h a t i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o burn up the classroom and hands i t back so t h a t i t s a f e l y g i v e s heat and l i g h t [ i . e . , i n s i g h t and meaning]. (p. 72) In the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed there i s a c l e a r p r o g r e s s i o n i n s u c c e s s f u l p o e t r y therapy groups through s t a n d a r d group development stages ( i . e . , i n i t i a l , t r a n s i t i o n , working, and t e r m i n a t i o n ) . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g as poetry i s almost i n v a r i a b l y used as an a n c i l l a r y , not primary, approach t o group c o u n s e l l i n g or therapy. Many i n d i v i d u a l s i n groups are slow t o become v u l n e r a b l e but p o e t r y ' w i t h i t s p r o p e r t y of being able t o " r e f e r t o people i n the immediate s i t u a t i o n while g i v i n g the appearance of communicating about u n r e l a t e d i s s u e s " (Buck & Kramer, 1974, p. 66) allows a great l a t i t u d e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o experiment with being d i r e c t and v u l n e r a b l e while r e t a i n i n g the o p t i o n of r e t r e a t i n g behind the n o t i o n t h a t " i t ' s only a poem!" Loss, Immigration, and G r i e f from The F l o w e r i n g Past There i s no p o e t r y when you l i v e t h e r e . Those stones are yours, those n o i s e s are your mind, The f o r g i n g thunderous trams and s t r e e t s t h a t b i n d You to the dreamed — of bar where s i t s d e s p a i r Are trams and s t r e e t s : p o e t r y i s otherwhere. The cinema f r o n t s and shops once l e f t behind And mourned, are mourned no more. S t r a n g e l y unkind Seem a l l new landmarks of the now and here. Malcolm Lowry, 1962, p. 16 68 In t h i s s e c t i o n the i s s u e of l o s s i n g e n e r a l and the l o s s e s t h a t r e l a t e more d i r e c t l y to immigration t o a new c o u n t r y / c u l t u r e are addressed along with a d i s c u s s i o n of the f u n c t i o n of g r i e v i n g as an outgrowth of e x p e r i e n c i n g l o s s . What i s l o s s ? Quite simply " l o s s may be d e f i n e d as a s t a t e of b e i n g d e p r i v e d of or being without something one has had" (Peretz, 1970, p. 4) . Consider f o u r d i f f e r e n t forms of l o s s : 1. The l o s s of a s i g n i f i c a n t l o v e d or va l u e d person, not n e c e s s a r i l y through death but a l s o by any number of ways the former r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l t e r e d . 2. Loss of some aspect of the " s e l f " ; as above, the l o s s need not be dramatic or f i n a l but may o f t e n i n v o l v e an a c c r e t i o n of " s m a l l e r " l o s s e s t h a t are r e l a t e d t o one's o v e r a l l mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of o n e s e l f . 3. Loss of e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s such as homeland, money, or p r i z e d p o s s e s s i o n s . 4. Developmental l o s s e s t h a t a l l humans are h e i r to such as becoming an a d u l t and l e a v i n g behind the "pl e a s u r e s of youth" o f t e n b e f o r e the p l e a s u r e s of being an a d u l t are f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d (Peretz, 1970). A l l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of l o s s noted are e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i b i n g a l t e r a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t matter most to us are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y to p a r t i c u l a r people whom we love — husband or wife, parents, c h i l d r e n , dearest f r i e n d — and sometimes t o p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s — a home or 69 p e r s o n a l t e r r i t o r y — t h a t we i n v e s t with the same l o v i n g q u a l i t i e s . These s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which we experience as unique and i r r e p l a c e a b l e , seem to embody most c r u c i a l l y the meaning of our l i v e s . . . . I f we l o s e these [ r e l a t i o n s h i p s ] , we s u f f e r g r i e f . (Marris, 1982, p. 185) The nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p with the l o v e d o b j e c t i s a c r u c i a l determinant of g r i e f . " I t i s almost a x i o m a t i c t h a t the i n t e n s i t y of g r i e f i s determined by the i n t e n s i t y of l o v e [ f o r the l o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p ] " (Worden, 1982, pp. 29,30). I t i s important to r e c o g n i z e t h a t " l o s s i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a r e a l event and a p e r c e p t i o n by which the i n d i v i d u a l endows the event with p e r s o n a l or symbolic meaning" (Peretz, 1970, p. 6). S t r e s s i n l i f e i s p o t e n t i a l l y damaging. " I t may be s a i d without h e s i t a t i o n t h a t f o r man the most important s t r e s s o r s are emotional, e s p e c i a l l y those c a u s i n g d i s t r e s s . . . i t i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e t h a t , i n our l i f e events the s t r e s s o r e f f e c t s depend not so much upon what we do or what happens to us but on the way we take i t " (Selye, 1976, p. 370) . Loss i s an experience that t h r e a t e n s a persons s u r v i v a l i n v a r i o u s ways, from d i r e c t p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l to a r e -forming of one's s e l f — d e s c r i p t i o n t h at may f l y i n the face of how a person wants to construe him or h e r s e l f . I t seems as though the conscious experience of, and e x p l o r a t i o n of l o s s might be something we would want to a v o i d . Who would 70 w i l l i n g l y put themselves through the p a i n f u l process of g r i e f or mourning t h a t begins with a r e c o g n i t i o n of l o s s having occurred? L i f t o n (1975) has suggested t h a t "there i s no l o v e without l o s s . And t h e r e i s no moving beyond l o s s without some e x p e r i e n c i n g of mourning. To be unable to mourn i s to be unable to e n t e r the great human c y c l e of death and r e b i r t h " (p. v i i ) . In North American s o c i e t y the most p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e toward l o s s and g r i e v i n g i s to attempt to ignore i t or t r y to "get over" the l o s s as soon as p o s s i b l e . P e r e t z (1970) comments t h a t the U.S.A.: . . . b u i l t on the themes of the vigorous e x t e n s i o n of man's boundaries, a c q u i s i t i o n s , and competition, needed, i n some ways, to deny l o s s . . . . G r i e f , r a t h e r than being encouraged as a d a p t i v e l y e s s e n t i a l , i s viewed somewhat s h o r t — s i g h t e d l y as i n i m i c a l to the smooth workings of a h i g h l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . " (p. 17) There are s e v e r a l types of r e a c t i o n to l o s s (Peretz, 1970), but they can be reduced to a four p a r t paradigm: 1. Chronic g r i e f r e a c t i o n s . 2. • Delayed g r i e f r e a c t i o n s . 3. Exaggerated g r i e f r e a c t i o n s . 4. Masked g r i e f r e a c t i o n s (Worden, 1982). V i v i a n Rakoff, eminent Canadian p s y c h i a t r i s t , who has been an immigrant or a migrant s e v e r a l times says t h a t "every act of immigration i s l i k e s u f f e r i n g a b r a i n s t r o k e . 71 One has to l e a r n t o walk again, to t a l k again, t o move around the world again, and, probably most d i f f i c u l t of a l l , one has to l e a r n t o r e — e s t a b l i s h a sense of community" ( F u l f o r d , 1984). No doubt any immigrant c o u l d echo these words. Many problems await immigrants and refugees i n t h e i r new c o u n t r i e s : d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g the language of the new country may p r e d i s p o s e one to d e p r e s s i o n ( N i c a s s i o , Solomon, Guest & McCullough, 1986), l o n e l i n e s s (Sadler, 1978), s o m a t i z a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems (Brown, 1987), and a host of other problems. Selye (1976) notes t h a t "there appears t o be agreement on the f a c t t h a t severe s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s t r e s s p r e d i s p o s e s t o a number of maladies, not only t o t y p i c a l psychosomatic d i s e a s e s but even t o i n f e c t i o n s , by d e c r e a s i n g g e n e r a l r e s i s t a n c e " (p. 382) . What a c t u a l l y happens when a person moves from one c u l t u r e t o another? There are four t r a d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between g e o g r a p h i c a l movement and mental h e a l t h : 1. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l concept of l o s s and g r i e f . 2. Locus of c o n t r o l . 3. S e l e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n . 4. E x p e c t a t i o n s of the immigrant (Furnham & Bochner, 1986). None of these approaches alone are s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s e xperienced by immigrants but f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the present study the f i r s t approach, t h a t 72 of attempting to understand and accept t h e i r l o s s and g r i e f , holds most promise f o r a l l e v i a t i o n of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g . Most of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop had one o v e r r i d i n g e x p e c t a t i o n of Canada, t h a t i t would be safe ( i . e . , people are not k i l l e d or murdered on the s c a l e p r a c t i s e d i n t h e i r home c o u n t r y ) . Regarding s e l e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n these p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not, i n g e n e r a l , have much c h o i c e r e g a r d i n g s e l e c t i o n of the country to which they f l e d . Some were Inland Refugees having no formal p r e — acceptance by Canada. Regarding locus of c o n t r o l most refugees, at l e a s t i n t h e i r f i r s t years i n Canada, experience being at the mercy of the Canadian Government concerning t h e i r p r i v i l e g e of remaining i n Canada. T h i s i s no i l l u s i o n , i t i s a f a c t . Once an immigrant or refugee becomes a Landed Immigrant t h e r e are more c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e to be e x e r c i s e d by h i s or her i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . Using the approach of p s y c h o l o g i c a l l o s s and g r i e f seems to be the best choice, no matter what e x p e c t a t i o n s are e n t e r t a i n e d , no matter how the e m i g r a t i o n was e f f e c t e d and no matter where one's loc u s of c o n t r o l i s found t h e r e are p e r v a s i v e aspects of l o s s t h a t may f i n d t h e i r c u r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n through g r i e f . I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e that " c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n may have an important i n f l u e n c e on i d e n t i t y and may c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n which fundamental aspects of i d e n t i t y are c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , depending on the t i m i n g and circumstances of the move" (Levy—Warren, 1987, p. 305). She 73 continues by noting, the s i m i l a r i t y between l e a v i n g one's c u l t u r e of o r i g i n and the l o s s of a lov e d person. She f u r t h e r notes the v a r i e t y of responses t o the l o s s of one's c u l t u r e , and how one's response i s connected t o one's p e r c e p t i o n of the l o s s as e i t h e r p e r s o n a l impoverishment or an impoverishment of the e x t e r n a l world. At any r a t e " l o s s " i n one form or another i s the r e s u l t . There are a great number of f a c t o r s t h a t can a f f e c t a person moving from one c u l t u r e to another. Among them are the e f f e c t s of negative l i f e events on a c c u l t u r a t i o n (Furnham & Bochner, 198 6). Rahe, McKean and A r t h u r (1967) c o n s i d e r e d a score of 164 on Holmes and Rahe's S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g Scale (Holmes & Rahe, 1967) to be high. I t has been suggested t h a t a t y p i c a l immigrant may score i n excess of 3 0 0 on the s c a l e (Furnham & Bochner, 1986). Based on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s knowledge of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop a score of over 5 5 0 based on the p r e v i o u s 12 months experiences would not be unusual f o r any one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s number, 5 5 0 , cannot convey the sheer heartbreak and misery experienced by many immigrants and refugees t o Canada. Of course there are other f a c t o r s t h a t a m e l i o r a t e the p o t e n t i a l f o r p e r s o n a l c o l l a p s e such as i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between how people respond to the s t r e s s o r s of em i g r a t i o n . There i s , however, one f a c t o r t h a t seems to stand out from the others i n terms of p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f from m u l t i p l e l o s s e s ; a s o c i a l support network. Furnham and Bochner (1986) note t h a t "when s t r e s s f u l e x periences are shared by a group or a community, b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s f o r mental h e a l t h may o f t e n r e s u l t " (p. 180) . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e at t h i s p o i n t to comment on one p e r v a s i v e experience of immigration; s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s . S a d l e r (1978) has noted four dimensions of l o n e l i n e s e x p e r i e n c e d by refugees and immigrants: 1. I n t e r — p e r s o n a l . 2. S o c i a l , w i t h i n the new c u l t u r e . 3. C u l t u r a l , s e p a r a t i o n from t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e and homeland. 4. P s y c h o l o g i c a l , a host of d i f f i c u l t i e s r anging from the m i l d l y n e u r o t i c t o p s y c h o t i c . Although t h e r e i s no evidence to support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s o r s n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d d i s t r e s s , i n c r e a s e d experience of and p e r s i s t e n c e of s t r e s s o r s tend to make coping with immigration more d i f f i c u l t (Sadler, 1978). I t i s important to note t h a t " l o n e l i n e s s does not come from having no people about one, but from being unable to communicate the t h i n g s t h a t seem important t o o n e s e l f " (Sadler, 1978, p. 163). I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand t h a t f o r those immigrants l e a r n i n g to speak the language of t h e i r new country i t can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to develop and f o s t e r b a s i c "meaning-b e a r i n g " r e l a t i o n s h i p s with e s t a b l i s h e d c i t i z e n s of t h e i r new country. 75 L o n e l i n e s s and the n e c e s s i t y of attachment has been researched e x t e n s i v e l y by Weiss (1973, 1982) . He b e l i e v e s t h a t "any severe d i s r u p t i o n of s o c i a l r o l e [ i n c l u d i n g emotional l o s s ] would seem capable of producing s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n " (1973, p. 145), and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n may l e a d to l o n e l i n e s s . He notes t h a t " l o n e l i n e s s was a s s o c i a t e d with i s o l a t i o n . . . but was most marked among those who had r e c e n t l y — w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s f i v e years or so [ i t a l i c s a d d e d ] — s u s t a i n e d l o s s e s of e s s e n t i a l t i e s , whether they had other t i e s or not" (Weiss, 1973, p. 152) . Among those who experience emotional and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n t h e r e i s almost a d e s p e r a t i o n to be i n c o n t a c t with people i n any way t h a t w i l l a l l e v i a t e the p a i n of l o n e l i n e s s ; a y e a r n i n g f o r r e — i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a network t h a t can p r o v i d e meaning. The answer to the problem of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n can be found when people develop what he c h a r a c t e r i z e s as f r i e n d s h i p s or " a f f i l i a t i o n s " ; " a s s o c i a t i o n s i n which shared i n t e r e s t s and s i m i l a r i t y of circumstances p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r mutual l o y a l t y and a sense of community" (Weiss, 1982, p. 174). People who f o r any number of reasons, do not have t h e i r f a m i l i a r community of meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s stand to s u f f e r from l a c k of a f f i l i a t i o n and then experience emotional or s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . S o c i a l support can be d e f i n e d as " i n f o r m a t i o n t e l l i n g the person t h a t they are cared f o r , h e l d i n high esteem and a member of a communication network with mutual o b l i g a t i o n s " 76 (Furnham & Bochner, 1986, p. 186). The concept of s o c i a l support i s r e f i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: S o c i a l support has a s t r u c t u r e ( s i z e , s e t t i n g , r e c i p r o c i t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y and make—up of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) , a content (what form the h e l p takes such as emotional, f i n a n c i a l ) and a process (the way i n which an i n d i v i d u a l develops, n u r t u r e s and uses s u p p o r t i v e networks) . (Furnham & Bochner, 1986, p. 186) Of course d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e " f i n e t u n i n g " of the s t r u c t u r e , content and pro c e s s . For example Vietnamese refugees tend to regard g e t t i n g h elp f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems shameful and as a consequence tend to somatize t h e i r problems (Brown, 1987) .- S p e c i f i c advice and d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g medical a t t e n t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . Merely s i t t i n g and t a l k i n g about one's problems i s regarded as i m p r a c t i c a l and a lu x u r y f o r the r i c h . The emotional aspect of l o n e l i n e s s can be a l l e v i a t e d through an e m o t i o n a l l y i n t e n s e sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p or, to a l e s s e r extent, a l l a y e d through a powerful but non—sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p with a c o u n s e l l o r or t h e r a p i s t (Weiss, 1973). What i s s t a r t l i n g i s the f a c t t h at Weiss has drawn h i s s u b j e c t s from w i t h i n the U.S.A.! Imagine how much more d i s r u p t i v e i t i s to experience emotional and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n as the r e s u l t of the o f t e n j a r r i n g c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n i n c u r r e d when moving from one country to another. 77 Weiss' (1973, 1982) concepts of emotional and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n are s i m i l a r to Levy—Warren's (1987) concepts of c u l t u r e shock (impoverishment of s e l f ) , and c u l t u r e l o s s (impoverishment of e x t e r n a l world, e x t e r n a l o b j e c t l o s s ) . I t i s important to note the d i f f e r e n c e between s o l i t u d e and l o n e l i n e s s . S o l i t u d e may be t y p i f i e d as a s t a t e of bei n g alone f r e e l y chosen and f r e e l y enjoyed whereas l o n e l i n e s s i s marked by a t e r r i b l e l o n g i n g t o be with others (Moustakas, 1961). There can be no doubt t h a t emotional and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n l e a d i n g to l o n e l i n e s s can be a severe burden. G r i e f or mourning i s the most common r e a c t i o n to l o s s (Bowlby, 1988; Peretz, 1970; Worden, 1982) . The determinants of g r i e f can be summed up i n the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Who the deceased person was. 2. Nature of the attachment. 3. Mode of death. 4. H i s t o r i c a l antecedents. 5. P e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . 6. S o c i a l v a r i a b l e s (Worden, 1982, pp. 29-31). Although Worden r e f e r s to persons i t does no i n j u s t i c e to h i s o u t l i n e to add the concept of " r e l a t i o n s h i p to the o b j e c t . " G r i e f i s a r e a c t i o n t o the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the whole s t r u c t u r e of meaning dependent on [the l o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p ] r a t h e r than to the [simple] absence of [the l o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p / o b j e c t ] . . . . Correspondingly, 78 people work through g r i e f by r e t r i e v i n g , c o n s o l i d a t i n g , and t r a n s f o r m i n g the meaning of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the person [or o b j e c t ] they have l o s t , not by abandoning i t . . . . Through t h i s ambivalence (of u n r e s o l v e d g r i e f ) runs an i n s i s t e n t s e arch f o r some reason t o go on l i v i n g t h a t w i l l not r e p u d i a t e or i n v a l i d a t e the c h e r i s h e d and now — f r a g i l e meaning of the r e l a t i o n s h i p they have l o s t . (Marris, 1982, p. 195) Loss, immigration, and g r i e f can be a p a r t i c u l a r l y p a i n f u l combination of events. As has been noted, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l support network can be most u s e f u l i n a l l e v i a t i n g . l o n e l i n e s s . The S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop p r o v i d e s one such network, i t p r e s e n t s an avenue i n t o the f u t u r e . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to e x p l o r e t h e i r l o s s and g r i e f i n a safe, s u p p o r t i v e environment. I t i s t h i s process of e x p l o r i n g and coming to terms with one's past and present while t a k i n g steps i n t o the f u t u r e t h a t p r o v i d e s balance, and h o p e f u l l y , a more r a p i d and s u c c e s s f u l s e t t l i n g i n Canada. 79 Methodology The S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop was designed by the r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t s e s s i o n s , each s e s s i o n was two hours i n l e n g t h . The workshop was conducted one aft e r n o o n per week f o r e i g h t c o n s e c u t i v e weeks. The r e s e a r c h e r performed the r o l e of workshop l e a d e r / f a c i l i t a t o r . Each s e s s i o n combined t e a c h i n g , w r i t i n g , and group c o u n s e l l i n g on i s s u e s of poetry, l o s s and g r i e f , immigration, and s e t t l i n g i n Canada. A p e r s o n -c e n t r e d c o u n s e l l i n g approach was used i n a l l i n t e r a c t i o n s with p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s S e l e c t i o n . C r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop f e l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : the requirements f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the workshop and the requirements of the r e s e a r c h procedures. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were drawn from the immigrant and refugee students (approximately 3,000 i n number) a t t e n d i n g King Edward Campus (KEC) of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (VCC). KEC i s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y l o c a t e d i n a working c l a s s neighbourhood of Vancouver, B.C. 80 p r o v i d i n g a broad range of academic secondary s c h o o l completion courses i n c l u d i n g E n g l i s h as a second language (ESL) and a v a r i e t y of t r a d e and s e r v i c e programs. Aside from "Canadian" students, people who a t t e n d KEC come from a broad v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l backgrounds. The VCC O f f i c e of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Research has l i s t e d , i n order of g r e a t e s t t o l e a s t number, the " f i r s t languages" spoken by students. Cantonese, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Mandarin rep r e s e n t most students f o l l o w e d by P o l i s h , Japanese, P e r s i a n ( F a r s i ) , Korean, and Punjabi (personal communication January, 1991). These language groups encompass the vast m a j o r i t y of immigrant and refugee students at KEC although dozens of other language groups are a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n s m a l l e r number. I t should be noted t h a t while almost a l l of these students were i n the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada t h i s was not t r u e f o r the Japanese. V i r t u a l l y a l l of the Japanese students were i n the category of " I n t e r n a t i o n a l " student and by d e f i n i t i o n were i n Canada f o r a l i m i t e d time only ( s e v e r a l months) due to v i s a r e s t r i c t i o n s . Thus i t would be i n a c c u r a t e t o i n c l u d e Japanese people among the s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d groups of immigrants and refugees at KEC. A d v e r t i s i n g f o r the program c o n s i s t e d of an 8 1/2" by 11" h a n d b i l l (appendix A) posted at numerous p u b l i c l o c a t i o n s at KEC. This same advertisement was p r i n t e d f o r thr e e c o n s e c u t i v e weeks i n the KEC in—house weekly organ f o r s t a f f and f a c u l t y . Furthermore, copies of the h a n d b i l l were 81 hand d e l i v e r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r to a l l members of the KEC c o u n s e l l i n g department and to approximately 40 ESL t e a c h e r s to whom the r e s e a r c h e r spoke b r i e f l y r e g a r d i n g the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop as k i n g them to b r i n g i t to the a t t e n t i o n of any i n t e r e s t e d students. The h a n d b i l l focused on the workshop as a program designed to h e l p people become more s e t t l e d i n Canada and t h a t one of the ways t h i s would be attempted would be through the use of p o e t r y . I n t e r e s t e d people were i n s t r u c t e d t o p r e — r e g i s t e r at the KEC c o u n s e l l i n g department where they a l s o arranged f o r a 1/2 hour pre—workshop i n t e r v i e w with the r e s e a r c h e r . The pre—workshop i n t e r v i e w addressed two areas of concern: s u i t a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the workshop, and w i l l i n g n e s s to engage i n the r e s e a r c h procedures. The f i r s t i s s u e was addressed by seven q u e s t i o n s : 1. Are you an immigrant or refugee? 2. Have you been i n Canada f o r at l e a s t one year but fewer than f i v e years? 3. Is your E n g l i s h l e v e l at the grade 10 l e v e l or b e t t e r ? 4. Do you l i k e poetry? 5. Are you w i l l i n g t o t r y and w r i t e your own poetry? 6. Are you w i l l i n g to share your poems with others i n a group c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g ? 7. Have you been t o r t u r e d at any time i n your l i f e ? 82 The f i r s t two questions double check on requirements requested i n the a d v e r t i s i n g . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n was not o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d and was open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The. r e s e a r c h e r ' s concern here was to a s c e r t a i n t h a t p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s experienced d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g i n t h i s c u l t u r e because of marked d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian c u l t u r e and t h e i r "home" c u l t u r e . The second q u e s t i o n was designed to ensure t h a t p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were not i n the midst of a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d to recent a r r i v a l i n Canada. Th i s one year minimum a l s o allowed time f o r a c q u i r i n g some competence i n the E n g l i s h language f o r those who d i d not speak E n g l i s h when they a r r i v e d . The f i v e year maximum was designed to act as a d i v i s i o n , a l b e i t somewhat a r b i t r a r y , between having d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g ( l e s s than f i v e years) and f e e l i n g more or l e s s s e t t l e d (greater than f i v e years) . The r e s e a r c h e r has s i n c e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 10 years and longer i s not too long a time to be engaged with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s e t t l i n g i n Canada. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s aim was to exclude those who d i d f e e l more or l e s s s e t t l e d i n Canada. The t h i r d q u e s t i o n ensured that p a r t i c i p a n t s were capable of communicating adequately i n E n g l i s h , the only language a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s would have i n common. Questions four, f i v e and s i x e x p l o r e d p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' understanding and l i k i n g of poetry, t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to w r i t e t h e i r own p o e t r y i f they had not done so before, and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to be v u l n e r a b l e to the extent of s h a r i n g t h e i r poems with other p a r t i c i p a n t s and the workshop l e a d e r . 83 Question seven r e q u i r e s some e x p l a n a t i o n . Given t h a t a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of immigrants and refugees have s u r v i v e d t o r t u r e t h i s was a p e r t i n e n t area to e x p l o r e as the workshop was not designed to address u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s of s u r v i v a l of t o r t u r e but r a t h e r the more "normal" l o s s e s and g r i e f a s s o c i a t e d with a g e o g r a p h i c a l move from one c u l t u r e to another. I n d i v i d u a l s who had s u r v i v e d t o r t u r e were r e f e r r e d to a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l o r s or agencies (e.g., Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the S u r v i v o r s of T o r t u r e , VAST). W i l l i n g n e s s to engage i n the r e s e a r c h procedures was e x p l o r e d v i a the s u b j e c t consent form (appendix B). The nature and purpose of the two follow—up i n t e r v i e w s was e x p l a i n e d . In a d d i t i o n the use of p a r t i c i p a n t w r i t t e n poems as one of the r e s e a r c h measures was e x p l a i n e d . S e l e c t i o n to the workshop was at the d i s c r e t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s impressions based on the pre—workshop i n t e r v i e w . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i n g one p a r t i c u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . One of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had l i v e d i n Canada f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l of her l i f e but had only r e c e n t l y moved from a r u r a l s e t t i n g t o Vancouver. Although a g e o g r a p h i c a l move i s i n v o l v e d t h i s i n i t s e l f h a r d l y q u a l i f i e d her as an immigrant l e t alone a refugee. However, the f a c t she was a n a t i v e i n d i a n whose f i r s t language and c u l t u r e was not E n g l i s h i n c l i n e d the r e s e a r c h e r toward a c c e p t i n g her as a p a r t i c i p a n t . I f one compares the los.ses i n c u r r e d by n a t i v e Indians with i n d i v i d u a l s from other, more d i s t a n t c u l t u r e s t h e r e w i l l be 84 found numerous s i m i l a r i t i e s : l o s s of language, l o s s of s o c i e t a l support, l o s s of p e r s o n a l emotional support, p r e j u d i c e , and so on. Not a l l n a t i v e Indians would r e g a r d themselves as immigrants or refugees i n t h e i r own country. T h i s i n d i v i d u a l d i d have a c l e a r sense t h a t she was e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g i n "white", urban Canada and because she was able t o s a t i s f y the remaining c r i t e r i a the r e s e a r c h e r dec i d e d t o accept her i n t o the group. At the time t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was accepted i n t o the workshop she was one of 11 p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l l of whom the r e s e a r c h e r hoped would complete the workshop and r e s e a r c h procedures. I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t at the time of her acceptance t h a t she would be one of 5 to complete the r e s e a r c h procedures. Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . The f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , four female and one male, who completed the r e s e a r c h procedures came from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and spoke d i f f e r e n t languages: Hong Kong, Cantonese; Colombia, Spanish; E l Salvador, Spanish; Iran, F a r s i ; and Canada, n a t i v e d i a l e c t . In a d d i t i o n , a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s spoke and wrote E n g l i s h approximately to the grade 10 l e v e l . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ages were 44, 32, 40, 39, and 52. Length of time r e s i d e n t i n Canada were 44, 3, 4, 4, and 4 85 1/2 years. Two p a r t i c i p a n t s had completed secondary s c h o o l i n t h e i r home country, a t h i r d completed a 4 year u n i v e r s i t y program i n I n d u s t r i a l Psychology, the other two p a r t i c i p a n t s had completed l e s s than grade 12 i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s . Three p a r t i c i p a n t s were s t u d y i n g ESL, one was s t u d y i n g ESL and academic courses, the f i f t h was s t u d y i n g academic courses. Each of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had experienced changes i n t h e i r employment or use of time as a r e s u l t of moving t o Vancouver. Before moving to Vancouver the d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s had worked as an I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g i s t , s m a l l b u s i n e s s p e r s o n (two peo p l e ) , k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher, and i t i n e r a n t l a b o u r e r . In Vancouver these people are a l l students, none have incomes t h a t come c l o s e to matching t h e i r former income save the person who worked as a labourer,- t h r e e of the f i v e c o u l d not f i n d work because t h e i r E n g l i s h s k i l l s are not good enough and/or they l a c k e d "Canadian work experience", one worked as a c a r e t a k e r , and one was a f u l l — t i m e student. Data Ga t h e r i n g Methods Th i s e x p l o r a t o r y study employed q u a l i t a t i v e data g a t h e r i n g methods. Three strands of evidence were c o n s i d e r e d t o ensure m u l t i p l e sources of evidence and a chai n of evidence: s t a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w s , 86 o b s e r v a t i o n s by the workshop l e a d e r / r e s e a r c h e r , and poems c r e a t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the e i g h t week d u r a t i o n of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. Three strands of evidence allowed f o r converging l i n e s of i n q u i r y ( i . e . , t h e r e were m u l t i p l e measures of the same phenomenon) t h a t addressed p o t e n t i a l problems of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , and r e l i a b i l i t y ( i . e . , t h e r e was c l e a r c r o s s — r e f e r e n c i n g of method and evidence between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the s t u d y ) . By u t i l i z i n g these t h r e e strands the three requirements of q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h : i n t e r v i e w i n g , o b s e r v i n g and a n a l y s i n g , was s a t i s f i e d (Patton, 1980, 1990; Yin, 1984). Q u a l i t a t i v e data i s not l i m i t e d by pre—determined c a t e g o r i e s of a n a l y s i s and as a r e s u l t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r freedom t o ex p l o r e the breadth and depth of expe r i e n c e . This i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the q u a n t i t a t i v e paradigm which seeks t o measure change on pre—determined v a r i a b l e s . By d e f i n i t i o n a focus on p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s excludes much of a persons experience. Patton (1990) s t r e s s e s the d e s i r a b i l i t y of s e l e c t i n g the most a p p r o p r i a t e paradigm or combination of paradigms to achieve the r e s e a r c h g o a l . The q u a l i t a t i v e paradigm was used i n t h i s study because the primary i n t e n t of the re s e a r c h e r was to ex p l o r e r a t h e r than q u a n t i f y the breadth and depth of each p a r t i c i p a n t s experience i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e found no m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o poetry being used as an a n c i l l a r y technique with a group of immigrants or refugees s t r u g g l i n g with the problems of s e t t l i n g i n t h e i r 87 new country. Therefore i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e at t h i s stage of r e s e a r c h to begin by e x p l o r a t i o n r a t h e r than r u s h i n g i n and examining p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s that may or may not be c e n t r a l t o the experience of immigrants and refugees. S e v e r a l themes of q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y are d i s c u s s e d by Patton (1990), f o u r of which, i n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s , unique case o r i e n t a t i o n , p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and i n s i g h t , and empathic n e u t r a l i t y , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o two of the methods of data g a t h e r i n g employed: s t a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w s and workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . Then the method of o b t a i n i n g poems, the t h i r d s t r a n d of evidence, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . I n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e g i n n i n g with s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s and then b u i l d i n g toward g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s , no p r e — e x i s t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s are imposed on the phenomenon. T h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d with deductive approaches t h a t begin with a g e n e r a l theory or c o n s t r u c t from which hypotheses are developed and s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s t a r g e t e d f o r study. I n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to e x p l o r a t i o n of a phenomenon. Stan d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w s were employed i n t h i s study to gather data on the s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l experiences of' p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s m a t e r i a l was then analysed i n t o c a t e g o r i e s by way of Flanagan's (1954) C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique. P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t with p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a way t h a t 'makes p o s s i b l e " d e s c r i p t i o n and understanding of both e x t e r n a l l y 88 observable behaviors and i n t e r n a l s t a t e s " (Patton, 1990, p. 47) r e q u i r e s the r e s e a r c h e r to get i n v o l v e d with the sources of data at a l e v e l t h a t i s b e h a v i o r a l l y s i m i l a r t o those persons he or she i s s t u d y i n g . Furthermore the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l experience of an a c t i v i t y or program i s c r u c i a l t o the process of r e f l e c t i n g on the experience of p a r t i c i p a n t s and o n e s e l f as a way of making meaning, and a c h i e v i n g i n s i g h t , r e g a r d i n g the v a r i o u s experiences under study. Contrary t o a more " o b j e c t i v e " or q u a n t i t a t i v e approach where the r e s e a r c h e r attempts to a v o i d b i a s i n g the data through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , t h i s aspect of q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h emphasizes the value of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l experience as a c r i t i c a l way of understanding the • phenomenon. In a d d i t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some of the program a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., w r i t i n g and speaking poems), he recorded e x t e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s of beh a v i o r s , experiences, f e e l i n g s and thoughts of p a r t i c i p a n t s and h i m s e l f throughout the workshop. These o b s e r v a t i o n s and the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l i n s i g h t s formed the second s t r a n d of data c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s study. Empathic n e u t r a l i t y means the r e s e a r c h e r attempts "to understand the world as i t i s , to be t r u e to c o m p l e x i t i e s and m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s as they emerge, and to be balanced i n r e p o r t i n g both c o n f i r m i n g and d i s c o n f i r m i n g evidence (Patton, 1990, p. 55) The r e s e a r c h e r has attemped to minimize b i a s by employing a Rogerian person—centered s t y l e of d i a l o g u e when i n t e r v i e w i n g and i n a l l other i n t e r a c t i o n s 89 with p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the course of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. St a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w s can be l o o s e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a phenomenological approach, as t h e r e i s a focus on what people experience and how they i n t e r p r e t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . Patton (1990) h i g h l i g h t s the u n d e r l y i n g assumption of phenomenology; "there i s an essence or essences to shared e x p e r i e n c e s . . . . The experiences of d i f f e r e n t people are bracketed, analysed, and compared to i d e n t i f y the essences of the phenomenon" (p. 70). H e u r i s t i c i n q u i r y , a form of phenomenological i n q u i r y , was a l s o employed. Whereas a phenomenological approach s t r e s s e s shared essences, an h e u r i s t i c i n q u i r y focuses on the p e r s o n a l experiences and i n s i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l . The focus of h e u r i s t i c i n q u i r y i s on the r e s e a r c h e r having an i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and experience of the phenomenon under study and the p a r t i c i p a n t s or c o -r e s e a r c h e r s s h a r i n g an i n t e n s i t y of experience with the phenomenon. Observations of the workshop s e s s i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r addressed t h i s l i n e of i n q u i r y . There are, however, c o m p l i c a t i n g i s s u e s of t h i s r e s e a r c h t o take i n t o account. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s primary focus was on the experience of poetry as an a n c i l l a r y technique i n a group c o u n s e l l i n g context. The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' primary focus was on the experience of immigration and t h e i r attendant l o s s e s and g r i e f . What r e s e a r c h e r and p a r t i c i p a n t s shared was the S e t t l i n g i n Canada Workshop, an 90 i n t e n s e process f o r a l l concerned a l b e i t with d i f f e r e n t , yet o v e r l a p p i n g f o c i . The r e s e a r c h e r d i d not share the i n t e n s i t y of the experience of immigration with p a r t i c i p a n t s while the p a r t i c i p a n t s , to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree d i d share the i n t e n s i t y of the experience of p o e t r y with the r e s e a r c h e r . I f h e u r i s t i c i n q u i r y i n v o l v e s a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the essence of the i n d i v i d u a l i n experience and phenomenology focusses on a shared essence of experience, t h i s study encompassed both approaches. The two f o c i of t h i s study, e v a l u a t i o n of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada Workshop, and e x p l o r a t i o n of the e f f e c t of poetr y on i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , take advantage of two r e s e a r c h models t h a t Patton (1990) c o n s i d e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h : process e v a l u a t i o n , and • i n d i v i d u a l i z e d outcome e v a l u a t i o n . Process e v a l u a t i o n focuses on understanding how something happens as oppossed to l o o k i n g at the outcomes. "By d e s c r i b i n g and understanding the dynamics of program processes, i t i s p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e c r i t i c a l elements t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d to program successes and f a i l u r e s " (Patton, 1990, p. 96). I n d i v i d u a l i z e d outcome e v a l u a t i o n focuses on how d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s and programs can meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l s (Patton 1990). The goal of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop was to help people s e t t l e i n Canada; i t was 91 c r u c i a l t o gain, an understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l outcomes r e g a r d i n g t h i s goal of the workshop. I n d i v i d u a l s had program experiences of processes and outcomes t h a t were s i m i l a r t o the other p a r t i c i p a n t s , and those same i n d i v i d u a l s had experiences of p r o c e s s e s and outcomes t h a t were q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from other p a r t i c i p a n t s . In the present study the s t a n d a r d i z e d open-ended i n t e r v i e w s were designed to e l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s of the processes and outcomes of the workshop, i n p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s of how poetry helped or hindered p a r t i c i p a n t s i n becoming more s e t t l e d i n Canada. St a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w s . The s t a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Patton (1980,1982,1990) as having the exact wording and sequencing of q u e s t i o n s determined i n advance. The b a s i c purpose of t h i s approach i s to minimize i n t e r v i e w e r e f f e c t s ; the same ques t i o n s are asked i n the same order of a l l i n t e r v i e w e e s i n an e f f o r t to present a "standard s t i m u l u s " to the i n t e r v i e w e e . The b e n e f i t s of t h i s approach i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d c o m p a r a b i l i t y of responses which f a c i l i t a t e s o r g a n i z a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the data. However M i s h l e r (1986) contends t h a t the g r e a t e s t value of an i n t e r v i e w i n g process l i e s i n the s h i f t i n g c o n t e x t u a l ground of meaning between the i n t e r v i e w e r and i n t e r v i e w e e . Indeed he found i n 92 a review of r e s e a r c h on int e r v i e w e e response e f f e c t s t h a t "the i d e a of a standard stimulus i s c h i m e r i c a l and t h a t the quest f o r 'equivalence of i n t e r v i e w s i n terms of int e r v i e w e r — r e s p o n d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n ' i s m i s d i r e c t e d and bound to f a i l " (p. 21). Th i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h a v a i l e d i t s e l f of a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the s t a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w . While a t t e n d i n g t o e x a c t l y worded and sequenced q u e s t i o n s (see below), the r e s e a r c h e r was f l e x i b l e i n pr o b i n g and d e c i s i o n -making " i n determining when i t . . . [was] a p p r o p r i a t e to ex p l o r e c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s i n g r e a t e r depth or even t o undertake whole new areas of i n q u i r y t h a t were not o r i g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the i n t e r v i e w instrument" (Patton, 1990, p. 287). T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y reduced the problem of s t i f l i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the respondents, a matter of no sm a l l concern when d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds and the v a r i e d a b i l i t i e s of the respondents to express themselves i n E n g l i s h were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Indeed the e f f e c t of t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y t o i n t e r v i e w beyond the pre—determined i n t e r v i e w instrument allowed a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the respondents t o express t h e i r own understandings i n t h e i r own terms; such e x p r e s s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g (Patton, 1982). The two post—workshop i n t e r v i e w s were composed of three d i f f e r e n t kinds of ques t i o n s which tap three d i f f e r e n t areas of i n f o r m a t i o n . 93 The f i r s t post—workshop i n t e r v i e w composed of f i v e q u e s t i o n s r e p r e s e n t s two kinds of q u e s t i o n s . o p i n i o n / v a l u e 1. Do .you f e e l more capable of s e t t l i n g i n Canada due to the workshop? ex p e r i e n c e / b e h a v i o r 2. T h i n k i n g back over the whole workshop are t h e r e any experiences t h a t stand out as h e l p i n g you get more s e t t l e d i n Canada? ex p e r i e n c e / b e h a v i o r 3 . Again, t h i n k i n g back over the whole workshop are th e r e any experiences t h a t stand out as h i n d e r i n g you, making i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r you to get more s e t t l e d i n Canada? o p i n i o n / v a l u e 4.. O v e r a l l do you f e e l more s e t t l e d i n Canada? exp e r i e n c e / b e h a v i o r • 5. How have you changed? How are you more capable of s e t t l i n g i n Canada due to the workshop? The "experience/behavior" questions e l i c i t " d e s c r i p t i o n s of experiences, behaviors, a c t i o n s and 94 a c t i v i t i e s " (Patton, 1990, p. 290). Questions 2. and 3. were designed to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop t h a t was u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g the workshop process and content. Question 5. focused more on the c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o r a l outcome changes t h a t might have o c c u r r e d i n a p a r t i c i p a n t as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the workshop, i n a d d i t i o n , t h i s q u e s t i o n might e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about a respondents changes t h a t might be observable only by the respondent (e.g., a change of a t t i t u d e ) . Patton appears to l i m i t t h i s k i n d of q u e s t i o n (experience/behavior) to e l i c i t i n g answers t h a t d e s c r i b e only what i s observable to the r e s e a r c h e r . In t h i s study the f i e l d of t h i s type of q u e s t i o n was extended to i n c l u d e the experiences of p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t might by t h e i r very nature be unobservable (e.g., "When I looked at a f t e r the e x e r c i s e , I experienced ) . There was no c e r t a i n t y t h a t an experience of t h i s nature would be observed by the r e s e a r c h e r unless the respondent informed the r e s e a r c h e r of i t s occurrence. The " o p i n i o n / v a l u e " questions e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about what people t h i n k or f e e l or understand about some i s s u e . Question 1. focused on a persons p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y , e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d or decreased, to s e t t l e i n Canada as a r e s u l t of the workshop. This q u e s t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d at the outset the p a r t i c i p a n t s o v e r a l l judgement 95 about t h e i r success i n meeting the major s t a t e d goal of the workshop. The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n was used as a check f o r c o n s i s t e n c y with q u e s t i o n s 2. and 3.. Question 4. i s a broad q u e s t i o n which allowed the respondent to s t a t e h i s or her o p i n i o n about whether or not they t h i n k they are more s e t t l e d i n Canada. P e r i o d . A person might a t t r i b u t e t h e i r degree of " s e t t l e d n e s s " to any number of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g , but not n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o , the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. The value of t h i s q u e s t i o n l a y i n the p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n about numerous f a c t o r s t h a t respondents might have found u s e f u l , or not u s e f u l , i n the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. It i s obvious t h a t a q u e s t i o n designed to e l i c i t e x periences and behaviors might a l s o garner o p i n i o n s and v a l u e s and v i c e v e r s a . In a d d i t i o n e i t h e r of these types of q u e s t i o n s might e l i c i t responses more to do with f e e l i n g s . No response was r e f u s e d but the domain f o r which the q u e s t i o n was designed was always e x p l o r e d i n the i n t e r v i e w . Now l e t us t u r n to the second post—workshop i n t e r v i e w . For each poem c r e a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t the f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s were asked. o p i n i o n / v a l u e f e e l i n g 1. What were your thoughts and f e e l i n g s as you wrote t h i s poem? 96 o p i n i o n / v a l u e f e e l i n g 2 . What are your thoughts and f e e l i n g s now as you r e -read/hear t h i s poem again? o p i n i o n / v a l u e 3 . Has w r i t i n g t h i s poem helped you become more s e t t l e d i n Canada? ex p e r i e n c e / b e h a v i o r — i f yes: 3 .(a) How has w r i t i n g t h i s poem helped you become more s e t t l e d i n Canada? — i f no: proceed d i r e c t l y to q u e s t i o n 4 . o p i n i o n / v a l u e 4 . Has w r i t i n g t h i s poem hindered you, made i t harder f o r you to become more s e t t l e d i n Canada? ex p e r i e n c e / b e h a v i o r — i f yes: 4 .(a) How has w r i t i n g t h i s poem hindered you, made i t harder f o r you to become more s e t t l e d i n Canada? In a d d i t i o n t o e l i c i t i n g thoughts about a p a r t i c u l a r poem the respondent's f e e l i n g s were s p e c i f i c a l l y sought i n que s t i o n s 1. and 2.. " F e e l i n g " q u e s t i o n s are aimed at understanding the emotional responses of people to t h e i r 97 experiences, b e h a v i o r s and thoughts. Question 1. sought to exp l o r e the poet's thoughts and f e e l i n g s at the time of w r i t i n g the poem. T h i s r e q u i r e d the respondent t o e x e r c i s e h i s or her memory and although there was the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of f o r g e t t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s s urrounding the p a r t i c u l a r a ct of c r e a t i o n , events of p a r t i c u l a r s a l i e n c e were evoked through the process of r e a d i n g or l i s t e n i n g to a poem th a t had meaning f o r the l i s t e n e r / a u t h o r . The i n f o r m a t i o n from q u e s t i o n 1. a c t e d as a base l i n e a g a i n s t which i n f o r m a t i o n from q u e s t i o n 2. was compared. Question 2. e x p l o r e d the author's c u r r e n t thoughts and f e e l i n g s about a poem w r i t t e n at l e a s t s e v e r a l weeks p r e v i o u s l y . Answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n d e s c r i b e d the changes t h a t had occured a f t e r a passage of time i n the respondent's thoughts and f e e l i n g s about a p a r t i c u l a r meaningful poem and the events surrounding i t s c r e a t i o n . The f i r s t two ques t i o n s brought to the f o r e thoughts and f e e l i n g s about a p a r t i c u l a r poem, i n e f f e c t p r o v i d i n g the necessary s e t t i n g a g a i n s t which q u e s t i o n s 3 . and 4 . were me a n i n g f u l l y answered. Question 3 . e l i c i t e d the respondent's thoughts about whether a p a r t i c u l a r poem had been h e l p f u l i n the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. I f the poem had been h e l p f u l q u e s t i o n 3 . ( a ) e l i c i t e d v a r i o u s experiences and behaviors t h a t had supported h i s or her a f f i r m a t i v e answer. I f the answer to 98 q u e s t i o n 3. was "no" then the i n t e r v i e w e r proceeded d i r e c t l y to q u e s t i o n 4.. Question 4. e l i c i t e d the respondent's thoughts about whether a p a r t i c u l a r poem had hindered h i s or her process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. I f indeed the poem had h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g , q u e s t i o n 4.(a) e l i c i t e d r e l e v a n t experiences and beh a v i o r s r e g a r d i n g t h i s matter. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a person c o u l d respond i n the neg a t i v e t o both q u e s t i o n s 3. and 4.. I f t h i s o c c u r r e d the r e s e a r c h e r attempted to explore the person's thoughts, f e e l i n g s , b e h a v i o r s and experiences i n an attempt to have the person i d e n t i f y f o r themselves the e f f e c t of a given poem on t h e i r l i v e s . Of course i f a person appeared r e l u c t a n t or i n c a p a b l e of choosing one d i r e c t i o n or another t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was duly recorded. As a r e s u l t of conducting the i n t e r v i e w s t h e r e was a mass of i n f o r m a t i o n about each respondent's f e e l i n g s , thoughts, b e h a v iors and experiences r e g a r d i n g poetry, the workshop process and content and the o v e r a l l process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . A f t e r each s e s s i o n of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop the workshop l e a d e r / r e s e a r c h e r composed h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of the s e s s i o n . These o b s e r v a t i o n s focused on d e s c r i p t i o n s of 99 experiences, behaviors, thoughts and f e e l i n g s of the r e s e a r c h e r and p a r t i c i p a n t s , and any aspect of the context ( i . e . , the s e t t i n g , a c t i v i t i e s , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and poems) i n which a p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n o c c u r r e d (Patton, 1990; Werner and Schoepfle, 1987). A t h r e e step process of g a t h e r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s s t a r t e d with broad d e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s from which the r e s e a r c h e r chose areas f o r more focused o b s e r v a t i o n s from which he d e c i d e d on s e l e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s . Although t h i s was a narrowing or e x c l u d i n g process the broader f l a v o u r of the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s was continued throughout the r e s e a r c h . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n continued i n a r e c u r r i n g c y c l e (Spradley, 1980). Some of the advantages of o b s e r v a t i o n a l data i n c l u d e : i n c r e a s e d understanding of the context of the experience, the chance t o observe what p a r t i c i p a n t s might have d i s r e g a r d e d as mere " r o u t i n e " , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of l e a r n i n g about " s e n s i t i v e " occurrences (e.g., non-verbal communication) t h a t people might not be w i l l i n g to t a l k about i n the post—workshop i n t e r v i e w s (Patton, 1980). There are a great v a r i e t y of approaches to g a t h e r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l data. In t h i s study the r e s e a r c h e r was p r i m a r i l y f u l f i l l i n g the r o l e of workshop l e a d e r and as such he was known by the p a r t i c i p a n t s to be o b s e r v i n g what oc c u r r e d but there was no r e c o r d i n g of o b s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g the workshop s e s s i o n s . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s knew the purpose of the workshop, to gather i n f o r m a t i o n that would shed l i g h t on 100 the u s e f u l n e s s of poetry and the workshop process i n h e l p i n g people s e t t l e i n Canada. As-workshop l e a d e r the r e s e a r c h e r was prese n t f o r a l l g a t h e r i n g s of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. The o b s e r v a t i o n s and f i e l d — g e n e r a t e d i n s i g h t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r were recorded by hand on 8 1/2" by 11" sheets of paper kept i n a separate b i n d e r . P a r t i c i p a n t c r e a t e d poetry. W r i t i n g and s h a r i n g poetry was an e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d goal of the workshop. This goal was t a l k e d about d u r i n g the pre—workshop i n t e r v i e w as p a r t of the i n t e r v i e w schedule of ques t i o n s , and as p a r t of the s u b j e c t consent form. P a r t of the content of the workshop focused on t e a c h i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s how to make poems. P a r t i c i p a n t s were encouraged to w r i t e t h e i r own poems and share them with others i n the group; t h i s s h a r i n g was g e n e r a l l y accomplished by the author r e a d i n g t h e i r poem aloud or, i f asked, the workshop l e a d e r would read the poem aloud. Copies of the poems were requested by the r e s e a r c h e r as they were w r i t t e n as p a r t of the data r e q u i r e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t of poe t r y i n h e l p i n g or h i n d e r i n g s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Poetry i s a very p a r t i c u l a r form of communication, with o n e s e l f and with o t h e r s . I n t e r v i e w i n g and o b s e r v i n g are e s s e n t i a l l y p u b l i c a c t s r e q u i r i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t t o be "other" d i r e c t e d w i t h i n a set time frame whereas p o e t r y can 101 be a p r i v a t e act r e q u i r i n g some form of s o l i t a r y i n t r o s p e c t i o n . I t i s the p o t e n t i a l l y p r i v a t e aspect of p o e t r y t h a t p r o v i d e s a unique s t r a n d of evidence i n t h i s study. Procedure During the t h r e e weeks p r i o r to the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the workshop p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s met i n d i v i d u a l l y with the r e s e a r c h e r f o r the pre—workshop i n t e r v i e w f o r approximately 1/2 hour. As noted e a r l i e r s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s expressed i n t e r e s t i n j o i n i n g the workshop a f t e r i t had begun. Consequently some p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n i t i a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d p r i o r to the second, t h i r d , and i n two cases, the f o u r t h s e s s i o n . At the i n i t i a l pre—workshop i n t e r v i e w each p a r t i c i p a n t was asked seven questions which were designed to help s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e members f o r the workshop. F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n each p a r t i c i p a n t read and signed a copy of the W r i t t e n Subject Consent Form (appendix B) a f t e r the r e s e a r c h e r read the form aloud. T h i s l a t t e r was done to help ensure the p a r t i c i p a n t f u l l y understood the form; a l l p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as an a d d i t i o n a l language, one had very l i m i t e d v i s i o n and another was b l i n d and "read" a b r a i l l e copy of the consent form. 102 The consent form o u t l i n e d the g e n e r a l nature, procedures and purpose of the study i n c l u d i n g the f a c t t h a t the two follow—up i n t e r v i e w s would be tape recorded. A f t e r the consent form was s i g n e d the p a r t i c i p a n t was encouraged to ask any q u e s t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r about the workshop, i n t e r v i e w s or the study. The next c o n t a c t with p a r t i c i p a n t s was at the workshop s e s s i o n s or a telephone c a l l t o remind them of the next s e s s i o n . The f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the workshop were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the f i r s t post—workshop i n t e r v i e w between 7 and 14 weeks a f t e r the l a s t workshop s e s s i o n . Before a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n s at t h i s f i r s t i n t e r v i e w the r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d t o each p a r t i c i p a n t a b r i e f typed summary of the content of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop (appendix C) as a reminder of the range and v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g and a c t i v i t i e s . The second post—workshop i n t e r v i e w was completed f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s between 15 and 25 weeks a f t e r the l a s t workshop s e s s i o n . There were a v a r i e t y of reasons f o r the v a r i a b l e and lengthy times between completion of the workshop and c o l l e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w data; these reasons w i l l be noted i n the D i s c u s s i o n chapter. The f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the workshop and i n t e r v i e w s r e p r e s e n t e d three language groups, Spanish, Cantonese, and F a r s i i n a d d i t i o n to E n g l i s h . The open—ended i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o these languages to h e l p ensure t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s f u l l y understood what type of 103 i n f o r m a t i o n the r e s e a r c h e r was r e q u e s t i n g d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . As the r e s e a r c h e r asked h i s q u e s t i o n s i n E n g l i s h the p a r t i c i p a n t s i l e n t l y read the same q u e s t i o n i n h i s or her f i r s t language. One p a r t i c i p a n t had l i m i t e d v i s i o n ; the pre and post—workshop i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s and a l l other w r i t t e n workshop m a t e r i a l s were photocopied i n a g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d format. These post—workshop i n t e r v i e w s were between 30 and 90 minutes i n l e n g t h and took p l a c e i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o f f i c e l o c a t e d at KEC. Data A n a l y s i s C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique. In 1954 Flanagan p u b l i s h e d "The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique". T h i s a r t i c l e o u t l i n e s a method of c o l l e c t i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s of behavior and experiences of o n e s e l f and others t h a t allow development of p r a c t i c a l procedures to improve the f u n c t i o n i n g of some aim or p r o c e s s . For example, Cohen and Smith (1976) have w r i t t e n at l e n g t h about the phenomenon of group l e a d e r s being c o n f r o n t e d by group members i n a way t h a t r e q u i r e d some response from the l e a d e r . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s surrounding such phenomenon were s t u d i e d by u s i n g Flanagan's C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique to determine ways f o r group l e a d e r s t o respond i n a f a c i l i t a t i v e manner. In a more recent a r t i c l e Flanagan (1978) d e s c r i b e d a study designed to d e f i n e the q u a l i t y of l i f e of Americans; he o u t l i n e d how the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique was used to get i n f o r m a t i o n from "experts" on the phenomenon under study. In t h i s study the experts were more than 3,000 Americans r e p o r t i n g on t h e i r own experiences, b e h a v i o r s , thoughts and f e e l i n g s i n a d d i t i o n to r e p o r t i n g on the experiences and b e h a v i o r s of o t h e r s . T h i s r e l i a n c e on s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s c h a r a c t e r i z e s the present study. Respondents were asked to r e p o r t on t h e i r e x periences, behaviors, thoughts and f e e l i n g s . The aim of the present study was not only to determine which experiences, behaviors, thoughts, and f e e l i n g s helped and h indered the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada but more s p e c i f i c a l l y how d i d poetry help or h i n d e r the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada w i t h i n the context of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. Both f o c i of t h i s study, the f u n c t i o n and e f f e c t of poetry, and the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop, r e l i e d on the C r i t i c a l I n c i d ent Technique to shed l i g h t on what helped and what hindered. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , d e s c r i b e d as "extreme behavior or a " s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n " (Flanagan, 1954, p. 338) with r e s p e c t to the g e n e r a l aim of the study, encompassed the f o l l o w i n g spheres of l i f e . Experience; what happened t a person, i n c l u d i n g one's thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Behavior; 105 what a person d i d or d i d not do. F e e l i n g ; what a person f e l t , g e n e r a l l y t r a c e a b l e to a b o d i l y s e n s a t i o n . Thought; what a person thought about h i s or her experience and/or beh a v i o r and/or f e e l i n g . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s garnered from the i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d onto 4" by 6" index cards. Each c a r d c a r r i e d on one face the coded i d e n t i t y of the person r e p o r t i n g the i n c i d e n t and the data source of the i n c i d e n t . On the obverse was noted the experience, behavior, f e e l i n g or thought t h a t helped or hindered the aim of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. The i n c i d e n t s were then d i v i d e d i n t o two groups co r r e s p o n d i n g to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s two areas of i n t e r e s t . The f i r s t group c o n s i s t e d of data r e l a t e d to p o e t r y and how the use of p o e t r y , i n the workshop s e t t i n g helped or h indered the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Data f o r t h i s group of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s was c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y from the second post—workshop i n t e r v i e w and, to a l e s s e r extent, from the f i r s t post—workshop i n t e r v i e w . The second group c o n s i s t e d of data r e l a t e d t o how the "non—poetic" aspects of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop helped or hindered the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Data f o r t h i s group was c o l l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y from the f i r s t post—workshop i n t e r v i e w and, to a l e s s e r extent from the second post—workshop i n t e r v i e w . There was a c e r t a i n amount of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t o v e r l a p between these f i r s t two groups, a f t e r a l l p o e t r y was a constant theme throughought the workshop. However i t became 106 apparent t h a t experiences other than p o e t r y (e.g., i n t e r p e r s o n a l dynamics i n the workshop) were c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n the context of the workshop r e l a t e d t o the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. The r e s e a r c h e r i n c l u d e d t h i s second group f o r the sake of p l a c i n g the " p o e t i c " i n c i d e n t s i n context and as v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r improving the design of the workshop. A f t e r d i v i d i n g the data i n t o these two groups the next step i n data a n a l y s i s was to induce a set of c a t e g o r i e s from the f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s of the f i r s t group such t h a t the i n c i d e n t s w i t h i n each category were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a d i s t i n c t and w e l l d e f i n e d experience, behavior, f e e l i n g or thought which helped or f a c i l i t a t e d s e t t l i n g i n Canada through the medium of poetry . I n c i d e n t s t h a t d i s p l a y e d s i m i l a r i t i e s were p l a c e d t o g e t h e r t o form s e v e r a l p i l e s of p r o v i s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . T i t l e s or names, d e s c r i p t i v e of the essences of the i n c i d e n t s i n any one p i l e , were att a c h e d t o the d i f f e r e n t groups of i n c i d e n t s and the remaining i n c i d e n t s were s o r t e d , i f p o s s i b l e , i n t o those p r o v i s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . I f an i n c i d e n t d i d not f i t w e l l i n an e x i s t i n g category i t formed i t s own p r o v i s i o n a l category, and i f an i n c i d e n t i n i t i a l l y p l a c e d i n one category seemed more l i k e those appearing i n another p i l e , t h a t i n c i d e n t was s h i f t e d . In a d d i t i o n the category d e s c r i p t i o n s were m o d i f i e d to s u i t the s h i f t i n g essences of the de v e l o p i n g c a t e g o r i e s . 107 When a l l i n c i d e n t s were s o r t e d the c a t e g o r i e s were examined f o r i n t e r n a l homogeneity and e x t e r n a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y . Some c a t e g o r i e s were d i v i d e d i n two, other c a t e g o r i e s were c o l l a p s e d t o g e t h e r to form one new category. When i t became apparent t h a t the i n c i d e n t s were a c c u r a t e l y s o r t e d the d e s c r i p t i v e names f o r the c a t e g o r i e s were examined f o r accuracy (Flanagan, 1954; Patton, 1990). The aim was to o b t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of concret e i n c i d e n t s which r e f e r r e d t o the same experience, behavior, f e e l i n g or thought. A category was formed on the b a s i s of grouping two or more s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d from at l e a s t two p a r t i c i p a n t s . The h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s from the f i r s t group were then c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to the same procedure. The next step i n data a n a l y s i s was to e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c a t e g o r i e s . A sample of two p r o t o t y p i c a l i n c i d e n t s were drawn from each category (one i n c i d e n t from c a t e g o r i e s with fewer than two i n c i d e n t s ) of h e l p i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . A r a t e r was h i r e d to c l a s s i f y the sample. The re s e a r c h e r d e s c r i b e d the f e a t u r e s of each category to the r a t e r and emphasized the key f e a t u r e s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d each category from others to which i t h e l d a resemblance. S i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s were d e s c r i b e d together i n thematic groups so t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s between them c o u l d be h i g h l i g h t e d . 108 When the r a t e r was engaged i n s o r t i n g the sample, the re s e a r c h e r observed the process so t h a t the r a t e r c o u l d l a t e r be que s t i o n e d r e g a r d i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . In uncovering the r a t e r ' s reasonings, i t was p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r l e g i t i m a t e problems, or o v e r s i g h t s i n the category system. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was h e l p f u l i n improving the category system. I t was decided i n advance t h a t the c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of 80% of the sample would i n d i c a t e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i a b i l i t y . At t h i s p o i n t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s were determined f o r each category. These were ob t a i n e d by co u n t i n g the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s who produced at l e a s t one i n c i d e n t i n the category under s c r u t i n y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s an i n d i c a t o r of the v a l i d i t y of the category. I f two or more p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e experiences which are s i m i l a r enough such t h a t they can be grouped together to form a category, then the f a c i l i t a t i n g or h i n d e r i n g e f f e c t of the category has a c q u i r e d a c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v i t y . I f the i n c i d e n t s i n a category are obtained from only one p a r t i c i p a n t , the category i t s e l f i s suspect. I f i t i s ambiguous or u n c l e a r the r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d be tempted to p l a c e h i s own meanings onto the i n c i d e n t s of the category. In e x c e p t i o n a l cases i t i s p o s s i b l e to have a category formed by one i n c i d e n t from one p a r t i c i p a n t . The i n c i d e n t would have to c o n t a i n f e a t u r e s t h a t would make i t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from a l l other c a t e g o r i e s . However, the v a l i d i t y of such a t h i n l y p o p u lated category would be suspect (Boychuck, 1985). 109 The second group of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , those "non-p o e t i c " i n c i d e n t s t h a t helped or hindered s e t t l i n g i n Canada through the agency of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop were c a t e g o r i z e d and checked f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y i n the same way as the f i r s t group of i n c i d e n t s . The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique was researched by Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964), they concluded t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by t h i s method was both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . E xhaustiveness of the category scheme induced from the i n t e r v i e w s was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. A l l i n c i d e n t s i n a given group from the same s u b j e c t were p l a c e d t o g e t h e r . The f i r s t 10% of i n c i d e n t s from each i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t were combined i n t o one group of i n c i d e n t s , t h i s group formed group one of 10 such groups. As each group of 10% of the t o t a l number of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s was p l a c e d i n t o the e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s i t was p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n how exhaustive the category scheme was by n o t i n g at what p o i n t the vast m a j o r i t y of c a t e g o r i e s were re p r e s e n t e d by i n c i d e n t s . Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964) c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i f 95% of the c a t e g o r i e s had appeared as a r e s u l t of p l a c i n g about tw o — t h i r d s of the i n c i d e n t s i t was probable t h a t data c o l l e c t i o n had not been stopped too e a r l y . A check on content v a l i d i t y of the p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s was accomplished by s u b m i t t i n g the category scheme to an expert i n the f i e l d of m u l t i — c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g and 110 p o e t r y . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l was i n s t r u c t e d to determine f o r each category ( h e l p i n g and hindering) whether or not i t s presence would help or h i n d e r the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . The workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a wealth of a n e c d o t a l m a t e r i a l s u i t a b l e f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g and s u p p o r t i n g the c a t e g o r i e s d e r i v e d from the process of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique. Upon repeated readings of the l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of o b s e r v a t i o n s and themes emerged t h a t r e l a t e d t o the p o e t i c and non—poetic f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s process of a n a l y s i n g the l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s had s i m i l a r i t i e s to the process of a r r i v i n g at c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . Themes t h a t arose from the workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t were not r e f l e c t e d i n the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s were noted. "Observations" notes Patton (1990) "provide a check on what i s r e p o r t e d i n i n t e r v i e w s ; i n t e r v i e w s , on the other hand, permit the observer to go beyond e x t e r n a l behavior to e x p l o r e the i n t e r n a l s t a t e s of persons who have been observed" (p. 245). I l l A n a l y s i s of poems. Poems c r e a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s were examined i n a v a r i e t y of ways t h a t i l l u m i n a t e d t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n h e l p i n g or h i n d e r i n g s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Before commenting on these d i f f e r e n t approaches i t i s necessary to d e f i n e the word "poet". Deutsch (1957) p r o v i d e s a l u c i d d e f i n i t i o n . The poet i s a person of s e n s i b i l i t y who uses words to d i s c o v e r and expl o r e the world, both i n n e r and outer. He f i n d s out the q u a l i t y of an experience, great or t r i v i a l , t e r r i b l e or gay, by t a l k i n g , perhaps by s i n g i n g , to h i m s e l f . He t r i e s to r e -c r e a t e and so to extend the experience; at the same time he attempts to understand i t . The poem i s the way i n which he makes these e f f o r t s , as i t i s a l s o the r e s u l t of them. I t i s the b r i d g e between the world and h i m s e l f , across which the reader walks f o r a l i v e l i e r , a wider, or a deeper view. (p. 108) It i s important to re c o g n i z e that a p p l y i n g the term poet to a person has very l i t t l e to do with the v a r i o u s p o e t i c forms t h a t are o f t e n used to frame experience. Sidney (1932) i n h i s A p ologie For P o e t r i e noted that v a r i o u s set forms of w r i t i n g p o e t r y such as h e r o i c verse (iambic pentameter), were "but an ornament and no cause to Poetry" (p. 12). The poems w r i t t e n by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s workshop c o u l d best be d e s c r i b e d as l y r i c a l inasmuch as they express 112 the p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g of the author. The p o e t i c aspect of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop focused on the f u n c t i o n of p o e t r y r a t h e r than form. The f u n c t i o n of p o e t r y i n t h i s workshop can be summed up by s a y i n g i t expresses p e r s o n a l experience, behavior, f e e l i n g , and thought. I t w i l l be noted t h a t these f o u r realms are fundamental to humanistic c o u n s e l l i n g approaches, s p e c i f i c a l l y the p r a c t i s e of empathy (Egan, 1986). By s t r e s s i n g a freedom from the r u l e s of E n g l i s h grammar the r e s e a r c h e r endeavoured to loosen the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' E n g l i s h tongue i n the hopes of encouraging the making of p o e t r y t h a t would be r i c h i n concept i f poor i n e x e c u t i o n , c o n t a i n i n g powerful i f awkward images, and would present a more complete r a t h e r than sketchy understanding of t h e i r p rocess of d e a l i n g with the i s s u e s t h a t f r u s t r a t e t h e i r process of' s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Poems w r i t t e n as a r e s u l t of the workshop were used to i l l u s t r a t e and support the r e s u l t s of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s . Noting v a r i o u s f i g u r e s of speech, images, d e s c r i p t i o n s , and where p o s s i b l e , thematic development both w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l poems and i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s group of poems, were c o n s i d e r e d the most v a l u a b l e use of the poems produced. In a d d i t i o n , words or e x p r e s s i o n s i n the poems t h a t r e l a t e t o any of the four f u n c t i o n s of the p o e t i c content ( i . e . , to express one's experience, behavior, f e e l i n g , and thought) were noted. 113 R e s u l t s R e s u l t s One: F a c i l i t a t o r s and Hindrances of S e t t l i n g i n Canada A. P o e t i c F a c i l i t a t o r s And Hindrances Of S e t t l i n g In Canada S i x t y seven f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s r e l a t e d to p o e t r y were c o l l e c t e d from the post—workshop i n t e r v i e w s , twenty f i v e from the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , f o r t y two from the second. From these i n c i d e n t s ten c a t e g o r i e s were induced which d e s c r i b e p o e t i c experiences, events and behaviors which f a c i l i t a t e s e t t l i n g i n Canada. What f o l l o w s i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the ten f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s . Each category i s b r i e f l y d e f i n e d then f o l l o w e d by the number of i n c i d e n t s comprising the category. P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s are i n d i c a t e d by a number out of f i v e and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g percentage c o n v e r s i o n . The c a t e g o r i e s range i s g i v e n and then i l l u s t r a t e d by p r o v i d i n g at l e a s t one p r o t o t y p i c a l i n c i d e n t from the data. Only one h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t was c o l l e c t e d from the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t w i l l f o l l o w the f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s . 1. Self—esteem and confidence i n c r e a s e d a f t e r a c q u i r i n g the  new s k i l l of making poems. (Number: 12, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 4 or 80%) Range: Increasing s e l f — e s t e e m and confidence began when the 114 task of w r i t i n g a poem, i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d as a very d i f f i c u l t task, was accomplished. For some the simple act of w r i t i n g a poem was s u f f i c i e n t to i n c r e a s e s e l f — e s t e e m and confidence, f o r others an e x p l i c i t c onnection was made with p r e v i o u s l y experienced d i f f i c u l t t a sks such as s i n g i n g a song. In some cases c l e a r examples were gi v e n of how the new s k i l l of w r i t i n g poetry had changed t h e i r l i v e s (e.g., a new understanding of how the act of w r i t i n g p o e t r y confirms f e e l i n g s and thoughts, and how the act of poetry helps o r g a n i z e one's l i f e ) . T h i s process of i n c r e a s i n g s e l f -esteem and confidence o c c u r r e d without the b e n e f i t of di a l o g u e with o t h e r s . I l l u s t r a t i o n - : "In the past I never known t h a t I can wrote poem because i n my ima g i n a t i o n I thought to w r i t e poem was very c o m p l i c a t e d but I t h i n k i t ' s not not com p l i c a t e d . . . j u s t your i m a g i n a t i o n — i f you want to w r i t e about flowers or about your daughter or about your Mom or about e v e r y t h i n g i s only j u s t your i m a g i n a t i o n . But I d i d i t . I d i d i t never b e f o r e and I s a i d 'I can't w r i t e any poem, I never w r i t e a poem' and was very i n t e r e s t i n g f o r me when I read my poem . . . I know I was i n s p i r e d i n my past i n my l i f e but I was s u r p r i s e d when I read the [my] poem, I say 'I wrote t h i s ? ' because I don't know f o r me was, O K . " 2. Increased confidence i n a b i l i t y to w r i t e the E n g l i s h  language. (Number: 4, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 40%) 115 Range: The simple act of complying with a request to w r i t e poems i n E n g l i s h , and the subsequent d i s c o v e r y t h a t one possesses g r e a t e r s k i l l at w r i t i n g E n g l i s h than i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d , l e d one person t o c o n s i d e r a p p l y i n g f o r a program of s t u d i e s r e q u i r i n g competence i n the E n g l i s h language. Another person f e l t great p r i d e now t h a t she was able t o i n c l u d e , i n her resume, the s k i l l of w r i t i n g p o e t r y . I l l u s t r a t i o n s : a.) "I t h i n k t h e r e i s another change [due to the workshop] I, s i n c e I came to Canada I was w i l l i n g t o study something about psychology and one time I thought about Langara, take some courses, but I, but because my E n g l i s h was s t i l l no good I, f o r me d i f f i c u l t but a f t e r I d i d the, a f t e r I I w r i t e i n the [ S e t t l i n g i n Canada] workshop I t h i n k I'm gonna be able to go i n t o the psychology course. I t h i n k t h i s i s the most important change f o r me." b.) "I f e e l more confidence about my E n g l i s h [as a r e s u l t of w r i t i n g poetry] and i f I f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n w r i t e E n g l i s h I f e e l more c o n f i d e n t to speak with people with Canadian people, t o w r i t e . I t h i n k even though at the f i r s t I d i d n ' t know how a poem help me r i g h t now I know t h a t t h a t helped me because I f e e l more c o n f i d e n t about my E n g l i s h s k i l l . And i f I f e e l c o n f i d e n c e with my E n g l i s h I f e e l c o n f i d e n c e l i v i n g i n Canada because i s e a s i e r f o r me i f I can communicate with the other people. For example, around, I don't know, two months ago I have a t e s t i n Langara because I apply f o r the Childhood Education [program] and I put i n my resume, an a b i l i t y , I put I can p l a y with c h i l d r e n , I can 116 read the book i n the e x c i t i n g way, I can make poem, yes I put I can w r i t e a poem f o r c h i l d r e n . . . I f e e l proud of me th a t r i g h t now I can i n c l u d e another a b i l i t y [ w r i t i n g poetry] i n my resume." 3. E x p e r i e n c i n g expanded d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f . (Number: 1, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 1 or 20%) Range: The p a r t i c i p a n t appears to have c o n s o l i d a t e d a broader d e f i n i t i o n of h e r s e l f , c o n s t r u c t e d an a d d i t i o n a l meaning f o r her new l i f e , through w r i t i n g the poem. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "When I wrote t h i s poem [subject 2, poem 7] i t remembers me when I came to King Edward Campus the f i r s t time and I was i n the v i s u a l l y impaired program and t h e r e were two, two students from UBC they was doing p r a c t i s e i n th a t classroom, one of them t o l d me that i t was so important to teach i n KEC because i t a m u l t i — c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . . . she t o l d me i t ' s the p l a c e where are more, more i n t e r n a t i o n a l students . . . when she t o l d me t h a t I say 'Why i s i t important?' Why i s she f i n d i t important, f o r me i s the same but a f t e r some time, a f t e r I was i n your c l a s s [the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop] I s t a r t e d t o t h i n k t h i s was very important, t h a t ' s when I wrote t h i s poet, t h i s poem. At t h a t time I remember t h a t student t e l l i n g me t h a t . " 117 4. Increased confidence upon h e a r i n g workshop l e a d e r read  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s own poems, f o l l o w e d by i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e  among p a r t i c i p a n t s . (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 40%) Range: P a r t i c i p a n t s expressed g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r poems. Reasoning ranged from simply l i k i n g the sound of the l e a d e r s v o i c e , t o r e c o g n i t i o n of the l e a d e r s more s k i l l f u l use of i n t o n a t i o n , to s u r p r i s e t h a t one's poem was somehow " b e t t e r " upon h e a r i n g i t read by the group l e a d e r , to a sense of g r e a t e r confidence i n one's a b i l i t y and s k i l l i n w r i t i n g a poem, i n u s i n g the E n g l i s h language. T h i s category has s i m i l a r i t i e s to numbers two and th r e e but the medium f o r i n c r e a s e d confidence and an expanded d e f i n i t i o n of o n e s e l f , or new meaning f o r one's l i f e , comes from h e a r i n g one's poems read by the workshop l e a d e r . Hearing one's poems read by another can p r o v i d e the author with another persons understanding of the author. I t i s as i f the author has given the reader h i s or her s o u l and the reader then speaks the author's s o u l a c c o r d i n g to the speaker's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t p r o v i d e s a new view of the author to the author and to the others present, making f o r r i c h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s of e x p l o r a t i o n of one's s e l f , one's l i f e . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I s u r p r i s e d because when, e s p e c i a l l y when you [the workshop leader] read the, my poem because you know you can read i n b e t t e r way than me, I was s u r p r i s e d t h a t f o r me hear very n i c e , but not i n my v o i c e . " 118 5. I n s i s t e n t drawing out of f e e l i n g s when w r i t i n g poems. (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 40%) Range: W r i t i n g a poem i s regarded as a very powerful and p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous a c t i v i t y because p o e t r y gets " i n your h e a r t " . There i s a sense t h a t the process of w r i t i n g a poem b r i n g s the world i n t o g r e a t e r c l a r i t y and when t h a t happens one's f e e l i n g s may change. Often the poet has only a vague n o t i o n of h i s or her f e e l i n g s , and the process of w r i t i n g makes these f e e l i n g s more con c r e t e . Sometimes the poem i s regarded as the only a c c e p t a b l e way of e x p r e s s i n g the f e e l i n g s at t h a t time. I l l u s t r a t i o n s : a.) " [ W r i t i n g the poem] makes me e x p l a i n , see what's i n s i d e I guess because I guess probably t h i s i s a l l lumped i n s i d e , t h i s i s something I've never t o l d nobody . . . i t ' s r e a l l y p e r s o n a l . " b.) "Maybe i f I c o u l d w r i t e i t out sometimes . . . I t r y not to t h i n k about those t h i n g s . . . I can't t a l k about i t yet, but maybe i f I w r i t e i t out." 6. E x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s i n a poem. (Number: 11, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 5 or 100%) Range: For some, the e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g was d i f f i c u l t ; i t brought p a i n f u l f e e l i n g s to the f o r e . But d e s p i t e the pa i n some d i s c o v e r e d great freedom i n e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s i n w r i t i n g f o r the f i r s t time. For one p a r t i c i p a n t w r i t i n g a poem allowed him to express s t r o n g e r f e e l i n g s than when t a l k i n g about h i s f e e l i n g s . There i s a sense t h a t w r i t i n g a 119 poem i s regarded as a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n a l way to express f e e l i n g s . Indeed one p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d t h a t p o e t r y i s to h i s s p i r i t what food i s to h i s body. I l l u s t r a t i o n s : a.) " [ W r i t i n g a poem] i s much I b e l i e v e t h i s i s much deeper, you know because when I went t o w r i t e something I I I I, got deeply a l l my thoughts and I t r i e d to deeply f e e l what what I am s a y i n g something but then [when] I t a l k with someone — t h i s i s j u s t repeat of many times t o say the same t h i n g s . [Writing] the poem i s not the same [as t a l k i n g ] , i t [ w r i t i n g poetry] goes very deep, very deep." b. ) "That's b e a u t i f u l , I l i k e i t [my poem i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n ] , i t ' s very n i c e , . . . t h a t ' s to me a very good good poem you know, i t e x p l a i n s my f e e l i n g , you know. I can't speak, I c o u l d a l s o add I'm somehow l i k e b l i n d you know, and a l s o deaf because I have no way to communicate with my tongue and when I can't express myself through my language [ F a r s i ] and i t ' s j u s t by a c t i n g and f e e l i n g somethings you know; i t ' s very very important [ f o r me to express myself i n p o e t r y ] . " c. ) "I f e e l i t i s l i k e a medicine f o r me to p a r t i c i p a t e i n many t h i n g s but now I f e e l t h a t w r i t i n g p o e t r y i s more important, has been f o r me more important than w r i t i n g anything, these poems are i n f o r m a l , or something l i k e t h a t , but w r i t i n g w r i t i n g i n r e g u l a r c l a s s i s more, I don't know, . . . w r i t i n g [ i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s ] i s more b o r i n g because, because i s n ' t normal no one teacher say express your f e e l i n g s and you say poetry i s to express f e e l i n g s , and i t 120 ' has been important f o r me because I never be f o r e t r i e d t o express f e e l i n g s by w r i t i n g , so I t h i n k t h i s poem and a l l of them make me more comfortable." d.) " I t [the poem] seems ah r e a l l y what I want to say, something i n s i d e my heart, mmmm, yah." 7. P e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g i n c r e a s e d through the a e g i s of  one's own poem. (Number: 15, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 60%) Range: In most cases problems were s o l v e d i n t r a — p s y c h i c a l l y and i n c l u d e d s h i f t s i n c o g n i t i v e and emotional understanding. A number of i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e problems connected with s e t t l i n g i n Canada being s o l v e d while i n the process of w r i t i n g the poem, others d e s c r i b e a poem as being fundamental to a problem changing or s h i f t i n g s e v e r a l days a f t e r w r i t i n g the poem and yet others r e l a t e i n s t a n c e s of viewing problems i n a more benign context upon r e — r e a d i n g t h e i r poems at v a r i a b l e lengths of time a f t e r composition. In some i n s t a n c e s the s o l v i n g of a problem was a t t r i b u t e d to a poem t h a t c o n t a i n s no h i n t of the problem i n q u e s t i o n , indeed the poet was not always aware of the problem u n t i l he or she had w r i t t e n the poem and r e c o g n i z e d an answer to an unposed q u e s t i o n . In one i n s t a n c e a p a r t i c i p a n t s o l v e d a problem through a sequence of two poems w r i t t e n weeks ap a r t . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "Well, I can s l e e p now, t h a t ' s my b i g g e s t t h i n g t h a t nobody c o u l d ever help me do. [I can s l e e p now because] I brought out some t h i n g s [ i n the workshop] t h a t I 121 d i d n ' t know I had. I t a l k e d about my Dad and t h i n g s we used to do and say, I d i d n ' t know t h a t ' s there, I d i d n ' t , I I thought i t was maybe something r e a l l y bad but I guess i t wasn't . . . I thought i t might have been some bad h o r r i b l e memories t h a t was ther e , t h a t ' s why I couldn't s l e e p , I was sca r e d to know, but a f t e r I found out i t wasn't, i t , i t was j u s t my Dad. I remember him t e l l i n g me 'When I d i e ' he says 'don't c r y about me' he says ' j u s t t h i n k good of me and then look a f t e r Mom.' And I, but I h i d th a t away, I never brought t h a t out bef o r e [before the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop], and I used t o have him i n my way t h i n k i n g : he's not gone, he's not gone and then I'd go v i s i t him and then I'd remember when I'd get to the house — he's not here, he's gone. And I d i d th a t f o r q u i t e a few years but then I f i g u r e d I got to stop i t and I f o r g o t about him, I d i d n ' t t h i n k about him. But I guess t h a t ' s why I couldn't s l e e p a f t e r t h a t . [But a f t e r w r i t i n g a poem—letter, to my Dad], s i n c e then I s l e e p , anytime now, and I can go to bed at ni g h t and s l e e p . . . i t ' s a b i g change, be f o r e I c o u l d never s l e e p . I'd take s l e e p i n g p i l l s , I'd walk around, I'd do e x e r c i s e s , I'd t r y to eat, t r y not to eat, t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g — d i d n ' t work . . . I read i t [the poem—letter] every now and then, I read i t to my k i d s . " 8. Increased d i a l o g u e with workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s and others subsequent to w r i t i n g a poem. (Number: 7, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 4 or 80%) 122 Range: Dialogue o c c u r r e d at a l e v e l of simple i n c r e a s e d c o n v e r s a t i o n with "Canadians", sometimes about the t o p i c of poetry, t o the poet d i s c u s s i n g h i s or her f e e l i n g s or thoughts with others, t o , i n one i n s t a n c e , the poet and her f r i e n d t a l k i n g about mutually experienced d e s i r e s and f e a r s about s e t t l i n g i n Canada, d e s i r e s and f e a r s t h a t were i n i t i a l l y expressed i n the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s poem. I l l u s t r a t i o n : " [ I f e e l ] more c o n f i d e n t because when I put t h a t on the paper [subject 2, poem 4] i s i t ' s t r u e t h a t I thought I was unable to make f r i e n d s i n an i n an strange country t o me but now i t ' s not so d i f f i c u l t I f i n d i t ' s not d i f f i c u l t and uh when I wrote t h i s one [poem 4] I, I, I, comment something about t h i s poem with a f r i e n d of mine who i s French Canadian because she and I have been g e t t i n g more and more f r i e n d s [ f r i e n d l y ] so I t a l k e d to her about i t , but I d i d n ' t say anything e l s e about the c l a s s . I t a l k e d to her about t h i s poem [ t h i s poem about the concern of making f r i e n d s i n a strange country] and I t a l k e d to her because, I f e l t t h a t i t i t g i v e me more f r i e n d l y with her which i s important f o r me to s e t t l e i n Canada to get more f r i e n d s and uh to get more Canadian or French Canadian, French Canadians are Canadians too so i t i s important f o r me, to s e t t l e i n Canada." 9. Increased d i a l o g u e among p a r t i c i p a n t s a f t e r h e a r i n g  another workshop p a r t i c i p a n t read t h e i r own poem. (Number: 6, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 60%) 123 Range: For some th e r e i s the simple enjoyment of h e a r i n g someone read to them, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the poem expresses f e e l i n g s . I f the person r e a d i n g t h e i r poem a l s o t a l k s "about" t h e i r poem, t a l k s about t h e i r f e e l i n g s and thoughts and problems surrounding the content of the poem, t h a t i s regarded as even more h e l p f u l i n terms of understanding how d i f f e r e n t people d e a l with the d i f f i c u l t i e s of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. I l l u s t r a t i o n : " [ I t was h e l p f u l ] at t h a t time, yeah, l i s t e n i n g t o a poem and a person has to, has to e x p l a i n t h e i r problems and t a l k about i t . " 10. Importance of the workshop l e a d e r t a l k i n g "about"  d i f f e r e n t poems. (Number: 1, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 1 or 20%) Range: A sense t h a t what was taught to the p a r t i c i p a n t was i n some r e s p e c t s more v a l u a b l e than the poetry produced by the p a r t i c i p a n t . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "Sometimes you were t a l k i n g about [poems], e x p l a i n i n g about them. For me t h a t was more important than what I have w r i t t e n . " F o l l o w i n g i s the one p o e t i c c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t h a t h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g i n Canada. 1. P a i n f u l content of poem. (Number: 1, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 1 or 20%) 124 Range: A sense t h a t the i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g c r e a t e s a powerful l o n g i n g f o r some aspect of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e i n t h e i r n a t i v e country t h a t cannot be s a t i s f i e d i n Canada. While c o n s i d e r e d a h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t t h i s category can be regarded as an extreme example of the f a c i l i t a t i n g category number s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s i n a poem. In the present category the f e e l i n g i s p e r c e i v e d as c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. I t i s , however, a c l e a r example of l o s s and p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g r i e v i n g the d i s t a n t f r i e n d . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I was f e e l i n g miss my f r i e n d so [when I wrote t h i s poem}, I t h i n k i s not, i t i s t h a t I don't want t o read i t . . . because i t doesn't help me t o s e t t l e i n Canada when I remember my f r i e n d i t i s not, i t i s not- the best f o r me. I don't know why I wrote i t but maybe because I was so i n t e r e s t e d t o , to w r i t e something about, t o w r i t e p o e t r y f o r the, f o r the course, the c l a s s and uh t h a t day I, t h a t ' s one of my days t h a t I wasn't f e e l i n g w e l l , i t [the poem] i s not a one to help me . . . because sometimes I want to stay with her, I want to share with her and uh, I t h i n k ah t h i s [poem] doesn't help me." 125 B. Non—Poetic Workshop F a c i l i t a t o r s And Hindrances Of  S e t t l i n g In Canada T h i r t y seven f a c i l i t a t i n g i n c i d e n t s r e l a t i n g t o non-p o e t i c experiences, events and behaviors were c o l l e c t e d from the two post—workshop i n t e r v i e w s , t h i r t y f o u r from the f i r s t and only t h r e e from the second i n t e r v i e w . From these i n c i d e n t s e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s were induced which d e s c r i b e the non—poetic workshop experiences, events and b e h a v i o r s which f a c i l i t a t e d s e t t l i n g i n Canada. What f o l l o w s i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s . Each category i s b r i e f l y d e f i n e d , f o l l o w e d by the number of i n c i d e n t s comprising the category. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s i n d i c a t e d by a number out of f i v e f o l l o w e d by i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g percentage. The range of i n c i d e n t s i s g i v e n and then i l l u s t r a t e d by at l e a s t one p r o t o t y p i c a l i n c i d e n t . S i x h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s forming two c a t e g o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d which had a s t r o n g impact on the workshop. One of the c a t e g o r i e s r e f e r to an experience t h a t was w e l l beyond the c o n t r o l of the workshop design while the other category r e f e r s to a phenomenon that can be addressed by r e v i s i o n of the workshop desi g n . The h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w i n g the f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to help r e f i n e the design of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. 126 1. Opportunity t o p r a c t i s e speaking E n g l i s h . (Number: 1, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 1 or 20%) Range: The u s e f u l n e s s of committing o n e s e l f t o an E n g l i s h speaking p r o c e s s . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "Using E n g l i s h i n the workshop was u s e f u l f o r me because i f I use Spanish most of the time I go back, so I need t o speak E n g l i s h and you gave me a great o p p o r t u n i t y to do i t . " 2. Becoming aware of f e e l i n g s . (Number: 6, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 40%) Range: I n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e becoming aware of f e e l i n g s t h a t are o f t e n p a i n f u l o r . i n some way p e r c e i v e d as dangerous t o r e c o g n i z e . R e l i e f i s expressed when the f e e l i n g s are e v e n t u a l l y regarded as OK and normal. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "[The S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop brought up] other t h i n g s but I can't t a l k about i t now, i t brought t h i n g s up t h a t I never — I put back i n my mind t h a t I never ever t o l d anybody and I t h i n k about i t every day but I'm not ready t o t a l k about i t r i g h t now, t h a t ' s what happens. I kinda t o l d my daughter about i t a l i t t l e b i t but she understood and I t o l d her 'I can't t e l l you anymore', I don't want to b r i n g i t r i g h t out, I don't know why . . . I never thought of i t bef o r e but s i n c e then [the workshop] i t came up and I don't t a l k about i t . I t h i n k about i t every n i g h t . " 127 3. E x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s and thoughts. (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 60%) Range: A l l the i n c i d e n t s express v a r y i n g degrees of s u r p r i s e at the p l e a s u r e s of i n c r e a s e d communication with classmates, f r i e n d s and f a m i l y . The e x p r e s s i o n of p r e v i o u s l y w i t h h e l d f e e l i n g s were p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t . I l l u s t r a t i o n : " [ Before the workshop] I never b e f o r e had shared the way I l i v e i n Canada with anybody, I, I, I, be f o r e I l i v e d my own l i f e and my f a m i l y l i f e and I have f r i e n d s but I never, I never have shared with them about [my experiences] s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Even i n my f a m i l y , j u s t a l i t t l e b i t i n an i n d i r e c t way and not a d i r e c t way." 4. Awareness of e x p e r i e n c i n g common problems. (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 60%) Range: A l l the i n c i d e n t s s t a t e c l e a r l y an awareness of the common d i f f i c u l t i e s of s e t t l i n g i n a new country. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "[The h e l p f u l atmosphere of the workshop developed because] a l l of us we had the same problem, not the the same same way to s t r u g g l e f o r the problem but we had the same problem and t h a t was the most uh uh common and important t h i n g among us you know to understand each o t h e r . " 5 . New c o g n i t i v e understandings. (Number: 5, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 40%) Range: This category i s q u i t e broad i n range. Three of the i n c i d e n t s focus on l e a r n i n g how to a p p r e c i a t e the good 128 t h i n g s i n l i f e r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on what i s bad. Another i n c i d e n t r e f e r s to a g r e a t e r understanding of d i f f e r e n c e s between c u l t u r e s , and the l a s t i n c i d e n t r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g i n the workshop. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I remember the [ h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n of immigration] c y c l e you g i v e us . . . has helped me a l o t [to understand my s i t u a t i o n ] because my s i t u a t i o n was very happy at the b e g i n n i n g [when I a r r i v e d i n Canada] . . .[then] I become more and more unhappy." 6. Opportunity to t a l k with others about common problems. (Number: 8, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 4 or 80%) Range: From simple enjoyment of t a l k i n g - with people who have s i m i l a r problems, to d i s c u s s i n g common goals and l e a r n i n g about d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . Some i n c i d e n t s concern t a l k i n g w i t h i n the workshop hours and others r e f e r to t a l k i n g c o n t i n u i n g with p a r t i c i p a n t s o u t s i d e workshop hours. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "What I can say i s t h a t the workshop you know, I can say i t helped me to f i n d or to put i n order the v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s of me as a immigrant to Canada. For example I remember we t a l k e d about the d i f f i c u l t y with the, f i r s t i s hard the language and uh second i s uh having no f a m i l y and a l s o not uh not uh enough communication with people you know, f e e l i n g i s o l a t e d then and not not having the r i g h t job f o r example and these s o r t of t h i n g s and somehow maybe the cost o f the k i n d of food and the weather something l i k e t h a t . These t h i n g s you know i t helped me to 129 know e x a c t l y a l l d i f f i c u l t y which I have, [but before] I couldn't have i t — I couldn't see i t . . . and I f e l t t h i s [ load of d i f f i c u l t i e s ] very s t r o n g l y you know. 7. G a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r s . (Number: 1, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 1 or 20%) Range: L e a r n i n g about concrete p r a c t i c a l b e h a v i o r s t h a t may h e l p a person become more s e t t l e d . I l l u s t r a t i o n : "I remember the man he i s come from Iran or something l i k e t h a t so he says he want to ah s e t t l e i n Canada you should i n v o l v e d i n s o c i e t y so ah so I I t h i n k l a t e r I would l i k e to phone, I know that i n the newspaper i n l i b r a r y you want to.become a v o l u n t e e r you can phone them because t h a t man he say he a l s o i s a v o l u n t e e r some p l a c e to help the people so they they can i n v o l v e d with s o c i e t y so I t h i n k l a t e r I would l i k e to t r y to become a v o l u n t e e r to l e a r n more things' i n Canada. 8. P e r c e i v i n g one's problems as s m a l l compared to the  problems of o t h e r s . (Number: 6, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 60%) Range: Some of these i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e a comparison between one's own problems and the problems of other p a r t i c i p a n t s . Other i n c i d e n t s continue on to d e s c r i b e how the p a r t i c i p a n t has changed as a r e s u l t of r e f l e c t i n g on h i s or her p e r c e i v e d s e v e r i t y ' of problems. 130 I l l u s t r a t i o n : " L i s t e n i n g t o the other people t e l l t h e i r problems, I was t h i n k i n g , I thought my problems were so bad but I l i s t e n t o some others, my problems are no t h i n g compared t o t h e i r s . " F o l l o w i n g are the two h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s . 1. Poor workshop attendance. (Number: 2, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 2 or 40%) Range: E x p r e s s i o n of bewilderment at the f l u c t u a t i n g attendance and s p e c u l a t i o n as to the reason f o r i t s occurrence. I l l u s t r a t i o n : "The only t h i n g I f e e l a l i t t l e b i t sad when I saw t h a t we were a few, only a few people t h a t one day we came j u s t t h r e e or f i v e and another day j u s t two and I say 'Why? They [other workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s ] l o s e t h i s good o p p o r t u n i t y ? ' " 2. Lack of c l o s e emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (Number: 4, P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate: 3 or 60%) Range: The l a c k of f a m i l y and/or a good f r i e n d with whom to share one's l i f e . I l l u s t r a t i o n s : a.) "One of the l a d i e s you know she was t a l k i n g about how she's alone, she f e e l s very l o n e l y , i s f a r from her f a m i l y you know, I can understand t h i s very deeply, very deeply, because t h i s ' i s my problem too." 131 b.) "I wanted [want] a very good f r i e n d a c l o s e f r i e n d , deep f r i e n d you know but s t i l l I haven't f i n d anybody here." Although t h i s l a s t category d e s c r i b e s i n c i d e n t s t h a t are f o r a l l i n t e n t s and purposes beyond the c o n t r o l of workshop design i t i s i n c l u d e d because i t i l l u s t r a t e s a p e r v a s i v e theme i n the workshop t h a t h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g i n Canada. I t should be noted t h a t one p a r t i c i p a n t d i d s t a t e t h a t she thought the workshop helped a l l e v i a t e her l o n e l i n e s s . The f i r s t s et of c a t e g o r i e s , those p e r t a i n i n g to f a c i l i t a t i n g p o e t i c i n c i d e n t s can be grouped under f i v e l a r g e r headings. The f i r s t f o u r c a t e g o r i e s are g e n e r a l l y concerned with i n c r e a s i n g confidence and expansion of one's d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f . The f i f t h and s i x t h c a t e g o r i e s i l l u s t r a t e the c e n t r a l i t y of f e e l i n g s . The seventh and e i g h t h c a t e g o r i e s r e f e r t o problem s o l v i n g , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g d i a l o g u e with o t h e r s . The n i n t h and to a c e r t a i n extent the f o u r t h note the importance of v o c a l i z i n g poetry, and the t e n t h category r e f e r s t o the value of the group l e a d e r i n the r o l e of an expert i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d , i n some sense a c u l t u r a l mediator. The one h i n d e r i n g category has a l r e a d y been l i n k e d with the s i x t h category. The second set, those r e f e r r i n g to f a c i l i t a t i n g non-p o e t i c i n c i d e n t s can be matched with three of the above l a r g e r headings. The f i r s t non—poetic f a c i l i t a t i n g category f i t s w e l l with the f i r s t l a r g e r heading, namely i n c r e a s i n g 132 c o n f i d e n c e . The second and t h i r d are concerned with the c e n t r a l i t y of f e e l i n g . And the f o u r t h through e i g h t h c a t e g o r i e s s i t comfortably under the heading of problem s o l v i n g . The second h i n d e r i n g category, l a c k of c l o s e emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s , has s t r o n g t i e s with the s i n g l e p o e t i c h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t . V i r t u a l l y a l l of the non—poetic c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d support or are analogous to the p o e t i c i n c i d e n t s . 133 R e s u l t s Two: R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the Category System  R e l i a b i l i t y . Once the c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y was t e s t e d by f o l l o w i n g the procedure o u t l i n e d i n Data A n a l y s i s . Nineteen p o e t i c i n c i d e n t s were s o r t e d by a r a t e r i n t o ten f a c i l i t a t i n g and the one h i n d e r i n g category with 89% accuracy. F o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n with the r a t e r and r e -examination of the two c a t e g o r i e s and two i n c i d e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s h o r t f a l l i n accuracy i t became apparent t h a t one of the i n c i d e n t s d i s p l a y e d s t r o n g elements of both c a t e g o r i e s under review. The i n c i d e n t i n q u e s t i o n was r e -c a t e g o r i z e d with no v i o l e n c e i n t o the e x i s t i n g category system.' Three of the c a t e g o r i e s have one i n c i d e n t only t h e r e f o r e making a t o t a l of nineteen i n c i d e n t s f o r e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s . E i g h t e e n non—poetic i n c i d e n t s were s o r t e d by the r a t e r i n t o e i g h t f a c i l i t a t i n g and two h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s with 100% accuracy. Two of the c a t e g o r i e s have one i n c i d e n t only thereby e x p l a i n i n g the t o t a l of eighteen i n c i d e n t s s o r t e d i n t o ten c a t e g o r i e s . The near p e r f e c t r e p l i c a t i o n of s o r t i n g i n c i d e n t s i n t o f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s by the r a t e r p r o v i d e s 134 s t r o n g support f o r the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c a t e g o r i e s . Because of t h i s support i t may be assumed t h a t f a c t o r s such as r e s e a r c h e r s b i a s and s u b j e c t i v i t y r e l a t e d to formation of the c a t e g o r i e s have been minimized P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e p r o v i d e s a measure of v a l i d i t y of a give n category. Among the p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s only one, ex p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s i n a poem, obt a i n e d a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of 100%, t h a t i s , a l l f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s produced at l e a s t one i n c i d e n t i n t h i s category. Two c a t e g o r i e s , s e l f -esteem and conf i d e n c e i n c r e a s i n g a f t e r a c q u i r i n g the new s k i l l of making poems, and i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e with workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s and others subsequent to w r i t i n g a poem, obt a i n e d a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of 80%. Per s o n a l problem s o l v i n g i n c r e a s i n g through the aegis of one's own poem, and he a r i n g another workshop p a r t i c i p a n t read t h e i r own poem, obt a i n e d a r a t e of 60%. Increased c o n f i d e n c e upon h e a r i n g the workshop l e a d e r read p a r t i c i p a n t s own poems, i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n a b i l i t y t o w r i t e the E n g l i s h language, and the i n s i s t e n t drawing out of f e e l i n g s when w r i t i n g poems — 40% p a r t i c i p a t i o n . And f i n a l l y the three c a t e g o r i e s comprised ' of one i n c i d e n t each, 20% p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e , e x p e r i e n c i n g expanded d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , importance of the workshop 135 l e a d e r t a l k i n g "about" poems, and the one h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t / c a t e g o r y — p a i n f u l content of poem. Almost h a l f the c a t e g o r i e s show 6 0 % or b e t t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g reasonably s t r o n g v a l i d i t y of the category. Of those s i x c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by l e s s than 6 0 % p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r e e are s i n g l e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s and are open to s e r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n . However, c o n s i d e r i n g the s m a l l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study i t i s not unreasonable to assume t h a t the t h i n l y r e p r e s e n t e d c a t e g o r i e s might be more t h i c k l y populated i n a s i m i l a r study i n v o l v i n g a g r e a t e r number of s u b j e c t s . Among the non—poetic c a t e g o r i e s the g r e a t e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 8 0 % , r e f l e c t e d the f a c i l i t a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y to t a l k with others about common problems. Four c a t e g o r i e s , awareness of e x p e r i e n c i n g common problems, e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s and thoughts, p e r c e i v i n g one's problems as s m a l l compared to the problems of others, and the h i n d e r i n g category of l a c k i n g c l o s e emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s had 6 0 % p a r t i c i p a t i o n . New c o g n i t i v e understandings, becoming aware of f e e l i n g s , and the h i n d e r i n g category of poor workshop attendance have 4 0 % p a r t i c i p a t i o n . And two c a t e g o r i e s , g a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from others, and having the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i s e speaking E n g l i s h had r a t e s of 2 0 % . F u l l y h a l f the non—poetic c a t e g o r i e s possess p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of 6 0 % or b e t t e r i n d i c a t i n g reasonably s t r o n g v a l i d i t y of those c a t e g o r i e s . O f the remaining c a t e g o r i e s two are s i n g l e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s a l e r t i n g the 136 r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e i r l a c k of v a l i d i t y as measured by p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e . Of course the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s completing the study i n d i c a t e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r these s i n g l e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s to f l o u r i s h i n a s i t u a t i o n where a g r e a t e r number .of p a r t i c i p a n t s are i n v o l v e d . I t i s p r e c i s e l y because of the low number of p a r t i c i p a n t s completing the study t h a t these s e v e r a l s i n g l e i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s of p o e t i c and non—poetic i n c i d e n t s are c o n s i d e r e d . Exhaustiveness. Exhaustiveness of the category system was a s c e r t a i n e d by the method used by Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964) o u t l i n e d i n Data A n a l y s i s . As was noted i n the s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g exhaustiveness, i f 95% or 20 of the 21 c a t e g o r i e s are re p r e s e n t e d by i n c i d e n t s when about two t h i r d s or 66% of the i n c i d e n t s are pl a c e d , then i t i s probable t h a t data c o l l e c t i o n was not stopped too e a r l y . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the number of c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d a f t e r placement of each group of 10% of the t o t a l number of f a c i l i t a t i n g and h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t s . 137 Table 1 Exhaustiveness of the Category System Group C a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d 1 9 2 12 3 13 4 14 5 16 6 17 7 17 8 20 9 21 100% 10 21 Note the l a r g e unexpected jump from 17 to 20 c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d as a r e s u l t of d i s t r i b u t i n g the e i g h t h group of i n c i d e n t s . Such a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e i n c r e a s e from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of one group i s expected e a r l i e r on, as i s shown by the jump from 9 to 12, but not when the e i g h t h group i s d i s t r i b u t e d . Due t o the random nature of a s s i g n i n g order to each i n d i v i d u a l s t o t a l number of i n c i d e n t s before being taken, 10% at a time, i n t o 10 groups of 10% of the t o t a l number of 138 i n c i d e n t s , i t i s not unreasonable t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t the i n c r e a s e from 17 to 20 might j u s t as e a s i l y have occured with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the seventh group. Had t h i s indeed occured then 95% of the c a t e g o r i e s would have appeared a f t e r about 65% of the i n c i d e n t s were d i s t r i b u t e d . At any r a t e the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s covered by the jump from 17 to 20 are rep r e s e n t e d by only f o u r i n c i d e n t s . C o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i v e l y small r a t i o of t o t a l i n c i d e n t s t o c a t e g o r i e s , 111:21 or 5.3 i n c i d e n t s per category, the l e v e l of exhaustiveness of the c a t e g o r i e s i s remarkably sound, p a r t i c u l a r l y when compared to the r a t i o of i n c i d e n t s t o c a t e g o r i e s , 1847:86 or 21.5 i n c i d e n t s per category, i n Andersson and N i l s s o n ' s (1964) study. Content v a l i d i t y . The category system of p o e t i c f a c i l i t a t o r s and hindrances of s e t t l i n g i n Canada were reviewed by an expert i n m u l t i — c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g and poetry. T h i s i n d i v i d u a l has p u b l i s h e d numerous books of poetry and has worked f o r many years i n the c a p a c i t y of a m u l t i — c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l o r , c u r r e n t l y i n the Vancouver secondary s c h o o l system. He concluded t h a t the p o e t i c f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s as they are presented i n the context of t h e r a p e u t i c group work would promote or f a c i l i t a t e s e t t l i n g i n Canada. He agrees with the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t p o e t r y can be u s e f u l i n a c o u n s e l l i n g 139 s e t t i n g when i t i s used as an a n c i l l a r y approach, t h a t i s , an approach t h a t gains much of i t s s t r e n g t h from i t s s e t t i n g i n standard group c o u n s e l l i n g theory and p r o c e s s e s . He a l s o agreed with the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t although the one p o e t i c h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t e d an opening t o f a c i l i t a t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n of l o s s and g r i e f , i t remains a h i n d e r i n g category as long as the p a r t i c i p a n t chooses t o stop her e x p l o r a t i o n of l o s s , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the i n c i d e n t . As a r e s u l t of t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n a c e r t a i n measure of content v a l i d i t y f o r the p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s can be assumed. As noted above the non—poetic f a c i l i t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s were found t o complement the l a r g e r groupings of f a c i l i t a t i v e p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s . 140 R e s u l t s Three: Workshop Leader Observations Observations of the workshop s e s s i o n s are d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the p o e t i c c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the non—poetic c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s , and o b s e r v a t i o n s of other themes noted by the r e s e a r c h e r . P o e t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s . Four c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s , ten, s i x , e i g h t and nine had a tendency t o occur, i n order, q u i t e o f t e n d u r i n g the workshop. Hearing the workshop l e a d e r t a l k about d i f f e r e n t poems ( a f t e r r e a d i n g them), f o l l o w e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s through w r i t i n g a poem, was o f t e n complemented with i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e among p a r t i c i p a n t s whether or not they read t h e i r poems aloud to the other p a r t i c i p a n t s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y good example of t h i s phenomenon o c c u r r e d i n the s i x t h s e s s i o n . The workshop l e a d e r read two poems, Another S p r i n g by Tu Fu (Rexroth 1971) and the f i r s t stanza of Poem For A D i s t a n t F r i e n d by Ryokan (1977). The p a r t i c i p a n t s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d the poems and t h e i r f e e l i n g s about being away from home and then were i n s t r u c t e d to w r i t e a poem about one of th r e e t o p i c s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as 141 c a u s i n g major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Upon f i n i s h i n g w r i t i n g , two p a r t i c i p a n t s wanted to read t h e i r poems aloud. T h i s was f o l l o w e d by i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e about l o s s of f a m i l y or f r i e n d s among a l l the group members. Category seven, p e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g through the a e g i s of one's own poem, was l e s s v i s i b l e . However the most s t r i k i n g example of t h i s o c c u r r e d i n s e s s i o n f i v e when two p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s c o v e r e d , through a s t r u c t u r e d m u l t i p l e poem w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y , t h a t they shared the same p e r s o n a l problem, d i f f i c u l t y i n s l e e p i n g . One of the p a i r s o l v e d her problem through the process of w r i t i n g three l i n k e d poems. Category four, a p a r t i c i p a n t e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e upon h e a r i n g the workshop l e a d e r read the p a r t i c i p a n t s poem, o f t e n f o l l o w e d by i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e , tended to occur i n two types of s i t u a t i o n s . One of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had very poor e y e s i g h t and was o f t e n unsure of how her poem would sound when read by someone who c o u l d scan ahead on the l i n e of poetry, thereby r e a d i n g more q u i c k l y and smoothly. When the workshop l e a d e r read her poems her v i s a g e would change from concern and worry to b r i g h t c o n f i d e n c e and p l e a s u r e at h e a r i n g her poem read as she c o u l d not read i t . S i m i l a r scenes were repeated many times with other p a r t i c i p a n t s who were p l e a s a n t l y s u r p r i s e d to hear t h e i r poems read aloud by the workshop l e a d e r i n a c o n f i d e n t " E n g l i s h " v o i c e . T h e i r newfound s k i l l of making poems sounded w e l l to them. 142 Category one, an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f — e s t e e m and co n f i d e n c e a f t e r a c q u i r i n g the new s k i l l of making poems o c c u r r e d f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , but one person i n p a r t i c u l a r demonstrated a s t r o n g i n c r e a s e . A f t e r commenting f o r two s e s s i o n s about her grave concern about her a b i l i t y to w r i t e poetry, she f i n a l l y took the plunge, h e s i t a n t l y , and produced a poem. A f t e r she had read i t aloud she was la u g h i n g about how d i f f i c u l t i t was to w r i t e a poem about p o e t r y . O b v i o u s l y i t was l e s s d i f f i c u l t than she had a n t i c i p a t e d ! T h i s person u l t i m a t e l y wrote more poems than any other p a r t i c i p a n t . The remaining f a c i l i t a t i n g p o e t i c c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t c a t e g o r i e s , two, thr e e , and f i v e : i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n a b i l i t y to w r i t e the E n g l i s h language, e x p e r i e n c i n g expanded d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , and i n s i s t e n t drawing out of f e e l i n g s when w r i t i n g poems were not documented by the workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y the one p o e t i c h i n d e r i n g i n c i d e n t , p a i n f u l content of poem, was not documented through the l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . Non—poetic o b s e r v a t i o n s . C a t e g o r i e s t h r e e , f o u r and s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s and thoughts, awareness of e x p e r i e n c i n g common problems, and the o p p o r t u n i t y to t a l k with others about common problems, tended t o occur together.' S t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s i n s e s s i o n s one and two such as the p a r t i c i p a n t s meeting one another, 143 and spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n s i n s e s s i o n four about d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h l e d to s t r e n g t h e n i n g group cohesion. Time and again t h i s p a t t e r n would repeat i t s e l f ; i n s e s s i o n f i v e with the commonality of s l e e p i n g problems, s e s s i o n s i x with the commonality of p a i n when remembering one's home country, or i n s e s s i o n e i g h t where a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s agreed t h a t they shared f e e l i n g s about common problems of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , l o s i n g job s t a t u s , and most p e r v a s i v e of a l l , the l o s s of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . Category two, becoming aware of f e e l i n g s , was evidenced most o f t e n by p a r t i c i p a n t s suddenly becoming aware of p a i n f u l f e e l i n g s . In s e s s i o n t h r e e the t e a c h i n g of the emi g r a t i o n process e l i c i t e d sharp sorrow f o r two p a r t i c i p a n t s . In s e s s i o n s i x , with support from f e l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s one person r e a l i z e d h i s deep p a i n when he t a l k e d about h i s home country. P r i o r to t h i s s e s s i o n he had a s s i d u o u s l y avoided any t a l k of what and who he had l e f t behind. Category f i v e , new c o g n i t i v e understandings, was o f t e n connected t o t e a c h i n g by the workshop l e a d e r about poetry, e m i g r a t i o n , p e r s o n a l energy management and so on. But j u s t as o f t e n new understanding grew out of p a r t i c i p a n t generated i n s i g h t s such as the d i s c o v e r y f o r two p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f a m i l y and f r i e n d s had a s t r o n g e f f e c t on t h e i r s l e e p p a t t e r n s . 144 G a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from others, category seven, was demonstrated numerous times by p a r t i c i p a n t s o f f e r i n g and r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about E n g l i s h s t u d i e s , s e l f — h e l p groups, t i p s on how to r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n and ways of coping with the v a r i o u s o d d i t i e s of North Americans. C a t e g o r i e s one, o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i s e speaking E n g l i s h , and e i g h t , p e r c e i v i n g one's problems as s m a l l compared to the problems of others were not documented by the l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . Of the two h i n d e r i n g non—poetic c a t e g o r i e s , poor workshop attendance was noted by two p a r t i c i p a n t s i n s e s s i o n s with low attendance. They were s u r p r i s e d at the too frequent low attendance. One s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the t o p i c of the workshop might have been too p a i n f u l f o r some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Other themes from l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . I t i s worth n o t i n g again t h a t the primary i s s u e s t h a t make s e t t l i n g i n Canada d i f f i c u l t as observed by the workshop l e a d e r , f a l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : d i f f i c u l t y l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , l a c k of adequate employment, and most d e v a s t a t i n g of a l l , the absence of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e there was unanimous agreement t h a t Canada i s a p e a c e f u l p l a c e to l i v e , i n other words they need not f e a r f o r t h e i r l i v e s while l i v i n g here. A major f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study was the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of attendance at the workshop s e s s i o n s . Great d i f f i c u l t y was encountered by the r e s e a r c h e r i n implementing s e s s i o n plans t h a t i n c l u d e d a l l or at l e a s t the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s are r i d d l e d with r e f e r e n c e s to c h a g r i n and shock at the u n p r e d i c t a b l e attendance, and f r u s t r a t i o n at having to completely r e v i s e p l a n s at v i r t u a l l y each s e s s i o n . 146 R e s u l t s Four: The Poems; how they Complement the C a t e g o r i e s The 16 poems produced by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop are the r e s u l t of s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d poem w r i t i n g t a s k s or t o p i c s suggested by the workshop l e a d e r or workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some i n d i v i d u a l s submitted only one poem while one submitted e i g h t poems. The poems are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the complete range of t o p i c s and t e a c h i n g s found i n the workshop. They do repre s e n t the t o t a l of poems submitted by the f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the workshop. The r e s e a r c h e r had a n t i c i p a t e d a g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n of poems t h a t c o u l d have demonstrated, through an i n d i v i d u a l s sequence of poems, a process of e x p l o r i n g and f o c u s i n g on s p e c i f i c l o s s e s and a s s o c i a t e d g r i e f , f o l l o w e d by some measure of r e s o l u t i o n of d i f f i c u l t i e s surrounding the p a r t i c u l a r l o s s . T h i s s o r t of documentary evidence c o u l d be l i k e n e d t o viewing a f i l m t h a t has a beginning, middle and end. What was produced i s more l i k e a s e r i e s of snapshots d e p i c t i n g v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t stages of e x p l o r a t i o n or r e s o l u t i o n encountered i n the lengthy process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. There was change w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . While the simple act of w r i t i n g a poem appears to have f a c i l i t a t e d s e t t l i n g i n Canada a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d they f e l t more s e t t l e d as a r e s u l t of a l l aspects of the workshop. 147 What f o l l o w s are the poems, grouped by p a r t i c i p a n t and i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, and a d i s c u s s i o n of how the d i f f e r e n t poems i l l u s t r a t e and support the d i f f e r e n t f a c i l i t a t i v e and h i n d e r i n g p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , the non—poetic c a t e g o r i e s . 148 Subject 1 Poem 1 A Poem i s most people i n my Country t h i n k s Poems are Keeping the people l a s y but f o r e me are l i k e Sunshine f o r growing the weats. In i t s r e f e r e n c e to poetry as a l i f e engendering f o r c e ( v i z . , the sun), t h i s poem, e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y w r i t t e n d u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n , i l l u s t r a t e d the s t r o n g d e s i r e of the poet to express h i m s e l f as a growing organism. There i s a symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p h i n t e d at here, a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t a p p a r e n t l y was not supported i n h i s n a t i v e country. Although not s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y t h e r e i s a sense t h a t i n Canada the poet can grow v i g o r o u s l y i n h i s chosen way. This person s t a t e d i n the f i r s t post workshop i n t e r v i e w t h a t p o e t r y i s l i k e food (wheat?) f o r h i s s o u l . His simple e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g about poetry i l l u s t r a t e s category s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s i n a poem. 149 Subject 1 This poem, w r i t t e n i n F a r s i , was Poem 2 i n t e r p r e t e d t o the r e s e a r c h e r and read back to the author to ensure accuracy March 2 6, 1990. R e b i r t h I am not a c h i l d but I l i v e i n my c h i l d h o o d no t a l k i n g no communication I r e c o g n i z e only with my eyes my hands, my f e e t my tongue i s s t i l l and s i l e n t i n my mouth my v o i c e has [a roughness] I am not a c h i l d but I l i v e i n my c h i l d h o o d my thoughts are stuck i n my mind I have no p e r s o n a l i t y [I don't know who I am i n t h i s s o c i e t y ] — [ l o s s of s e l f when u s i n g a new language] I wish I was a r e a l c h i l d I enjoy and p l a y and I grow I was happy without worrying I wouldn't s u f f e r f o r l e s s o n s [study] work and not having f r i e n d s I am sure t h i s time w i l l pass I w i l l r e t u r n t o my past l i f e my v o i c e w i l l become musical [piano] [ v i o l i n ] my heart w i l l be happy when I hear my v o i c e s i n g i n g [ i n a c t i o n ] [musical] [melodious] 1. my thoughts w i l l get a l i v e [wake up] again 2 . n i c e v o i c e 3. happy I w i l l be a l i v e and happy again t h i s i s the hope which makes me move Thi s poem expresses s t r o n g f e e l i n g s , category s i x , of l o s s of v o i c e , l o s s of one's a b i l i t y to communicate f r e e l y with words. His tongue i s " s t i l l and s i l e n t " . He compares h i m s e l f t o a c h i l d but knows t h a t he has the burdens of an a d u l t i n a new country. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t d e s p i t e h i s extreme f r u s t r a t i o n with h i s i n a b i l i t y to communicate f r e e l y , the author chose to t i t l e h i s poem R e b i r t h . T h i s poem has s i m i l a r i t i e s to s u b j e c t two's poem 8, a sense of a new be g i n n i n g out of a f r u s t r a t i n g e x i s t e n c e , he hopes t h a t h i s v o i c e w i l l once again become musical, l i k e a piano or v i o l i n . T h i s poem was pres e n t e d d u r i n g the l a s t s e s s i o n of the workshop and r e p r e s e n t s the c u l m i n a t i o n of the workshop process f o r t h i s i n d i v i d u a l . He f u l l y r e c o g n i z e s and grapp l e s with h i s d i f f i c u l t y with E n g l i s h yet can express hope f o r h i s f u t u r e . Subject 2 Poem 1 U n t i t l e d most people i n Columbia speak about poetr y but I never b e f o r e spoke about p o e t r y Few people i n Colombia make a joke [laugh] about poetr y but I ever had been i n d i f f e r e n t about p o e t r y . Other people i n Colombia enjoy w r i t i n g or r e a d i n g poetry but I never b e f o r e spent time t h i n k i n g about poetr y 153 T h i s poem i s a c l e a r example of the low l e v e l of p o e t i c experience enjoyed by most of the people i n the workshop. I t r e f e r s t o category s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s i n a poem, f e e l i n g s of i n d i f f e r e n c e r e l a t e d to a l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s poem a l s o s t a t e s very c l e a r l y the poet's p r e v i o u s b e h a v i o r s i n r e l a t i o n t o the experience of not speaking or t h i n k i n g of p o e t r y . T h i s person was p a r t i c u l a r l y w o r r i e d about her a b i l i t y t o w r i t e poetry, she r e q u i r e d a f a i r amount of reassurance t h a t she would be given a l l the h e l p she needed. A c e r t a i n amount of courage and r i s k t a k i n g was r e q u i r e d . Hearing her poem spoken aloud by the workshop l e a d e r allowed her to f e e l more secure i n her new s k i l l . E v e n t u a l l y she wrote a t o t a l of e i g h t poems, f a r more than anyone e l s e . 154 Subject 2 Poem 2 U n t i t l e d Leave my home country d i d n ' t make sense f o r me i t was hard to make the d e c i s i o n to leave f a m i l y and f r i e n d s I l a s t e d s i x years maturing the i d e a t o l i v e i n Canada I f i l t unable t o leave t h e r e but, once I made the d e c i s i o n I f a c e d the r e a l i t y I thought I have t o be able, slowly, to nake f r i e n d s b r i n g my f a m i l y over of course they wanted T h i s poem expresses f e e l i n g s , category s i x , and h i g h l i g h t s the poet's c a u t i o n ; s i x years taken t o decide whether or not to emigrate. The f i r s t two stanzas i l l u s t r a t e her ambivalence while the t h i r d stanza shows r e c o g n i t i o n of an important task, the n e c e s s i t y of making f r i e n d s i n Canada. The theme of f r i e n d s h i p and f a m i l y continues through her next t h r e e poems. Th i s poem a l s o touches on category t h r e e , e x p e r i e n c i n g an expanded d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , when she becomes a person who i s capable of f a c i n g "the r e a l i t y " of e m i g r a t i o n . Her experience, behavior, f e e l i n g and thought are a l l c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n t h i s poem p r o v i d i n g a balanced p r e s e n t a t i o n of her l i f e at the time of e m i g r a t i o n . Subject 2 Poem 3 U n t i t l e d slow I took Canada f o r my country I making f r i e n d s I'm b r i n g i n g my f a m i l y over I f e e l happy, centered and safe l i v i n g here. I enjoy most t h i n g s even the s m a l l e r ones. Again t h e r e i s e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g , category s i x , c a u t i o u s happiness and optimism. Two behaviors seem r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her happiness, she i s making f r i e n d s , and she i s b r i n g i n g her f a m i l y over. Her f e e l i n g of s a f e t y i n Canada, an experience t h a t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o her happiness, continues i n her comment on Poem 4 . Subject 2 Poem 4 U n t i t l e d I remember when I was p l a n n i n g to leave my home country I remember how busy I was s e l l i n g my house f u r n i t u r e and every t h i n g e l s e j u s t f o r pennys I remember my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s b r i n g i n g me a l l k i n d of a t t e n t i o n s and I a c e p t i n g them I f e l t e x i t e d and sad I remember I coudn't f e e l c e n t e r e d I f e l t t o t a l l y out the p l a c e I a l s o remember my f i r s t year i n Canada i n a q u i e t and small c i t y no even h e a r i n g the no i s e of the cars or c h i l d r e n laughing, j u s t s e e i n g r e t i r e d people and snow I f e l t confuse and alone 158 no job no f r i e n d s no house, but home and f a m i l y working t o g e t h e r to s u r v i v e the new l i f e The f i r s t h a l f of t h i s poem speaks of l e a v i n g , the second h a l f of having a r r i v e d . Both halves have ambivalence as t h e i r predominant f e e l i n g , category s i x , t h a t emerges as a r e s u l t of r e c a l l i n g her experiences, thoughts and beh a v i o r s surrounding the ending of her " o l d l i f e " and the be g i n n i n g of her "new l i f e " . A d i f f i c u l t t r a n s i t i o n . There i s a f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y p r i o r t o l e a v i n g and a strange s i l e n c e upon a r r i v i n g . T h i s poem a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s i n a v a r i e t y of ways category seven, p e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g i n c r e a s e d through the a e g i s of one's own poem. This poem along with her Poem 8 r e s o l v e d her problem of a v o i d i n g the "small c i t y " . A f t e r w r i t i n g Poem 4 she began t o t h i n k about the "small c i t y " even though i t f e l t l i k e "a bad dream", a f t e r whe wrote Poem 8 she deci d e d to r e t u r n f o r a v i s i t t o the "small c i t y " t h a t f o r m e r l y h e l d n o t h i n g but p a i n f u l memories f o r her. Her ambivalence surrounding s e l l i n g her p o s s e s s i o n s was a l s o r e s o l v e d through w r i t i n g t h i s poem. Upon r e f l e c t i o n she decid e d t h a t being safe i n Canada was more important than the l o s s of her p o s s e s s i o n s . Another problem s o l v e d was t h a t of making f r i e n d s . T h i s change o c c u r r e d when she t a l k e d with a person subsequent to w r i t i n g the poem, category e i g h t . She a l s o commented on the i n s i s t e n t drawing out of f e e l i n g s when w r i t i n g t h i s poem, category f i v e , and e x p e r i e n c i n g an expanded d e f i n i t i o n of h e r s e l f , category t h r e e , as she r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was nothin g bad about remembering d i f f i c u l t and p a i n f u l memories. 160 Subject 2 Poem 5 U n t i t l e d I met you when I j u s t got married and you j u s t bought your house your house r i g h t a cross of my house Your husband and my husband same age and same p r o f f e s s i o n They s t i l l good f r i e n d s your c h i l d r e n and my c h i l d r e n contemporaries, p l a y e d t o g e t h e r and went t o same sch o o l your youngest son passed away j u s t when two of my sons j u s t l e f t t o Canada We had shared and s t i l l s h a r i n g : sadness and happiness i t doesn't matter how f a r we are 161 f o r a l l these reasons and much more you lov e me and I lo v e you: You miss me and I miss you i t doesn't matter how f a r we are Th i s poem i l l u s t r a t e s the one p o e t i c h i n d e r i n g category, category one, p a i n f u l content of poem. The author chose t o not d i s c u s s t h i s poem at any l e n g t h d u r i n g the post—workshop i n t e r v i e w because of her f e e l i n g of i n t e n s e l o n g i n g to be with her f r i e n d . Two elements of the poem, shared experiences and behaviors, and l e n g t h of the f r i e n d s h i p stand out as st r o n g determinants of attachment and l o v e . I t i s her r e f l e c t i o n on what she no longer has t h a t produces t h i s poignant poem. Subject 2 Poem 6 I had a g r a t e job my job was g r a t e I s e l e c t e d p e r s onnel i n a b i g company, then I f o l l o w e d up t h e i r performers to get them promoted There were days when I worked over time; working over time d i d n ' t mean I made e x t r a money I hadn't t h a t r i g h t but my job was g r a t e I worked i n a warm atmosphere i n a l o v e l y o f f i c e and I enjoyed doing my job 163 Six years I passed t h e r e [spent there] then I f e l t f r e e working without s u p e r v i s i o n , happy working with people and s e l f c o n f i d e n t doing my job I never f o r g e t a had a greate job. There i s c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g , category s i x , but not an overpowering sense of l o s s as i n the p r e v i o u s poem. Her thoughts about her o v e r a l l experience- and s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s are.unambiguously s t a t e d . T h i s poem appears to mark a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n the poet's a t t i t u d e toward her memories of l i f e i n her n a t i v e country and her a t t i t u d e toward her new l i f e i n Canada. As can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g quote from the second post workshop i n t e r v i e w t h i s poem a l s o enabled her to r e s o l v e a p e r s o n a l problem, category seven; t h a t of r e l i n q u i s h i n g her need to perform the same k i n d of work i n Canada. "The poem g i v e s me, makes me f e e l I don't need t h a t job now . . . i t [the poem] doesn't make me f e e l sad or, i t make me f e e l t h a t I, I'm more, more s e t t l e d i n Canada because even though I have t h a t k i n d of job [a good job i n Colombia] which was great f o r me, i s more important to me now to be 164 s e t t l e d i n Canada . . . to be s e t t l e d i n Canada means to l o s e t h a t job, . i t means I have to l o s e t h a t job so at f i r s t when I was t h e r e [ i n Canada] I thought I was unable to l i v e without t h a t but now I f e e l t h a t I can l i v e without t h a t job and I can do so many t h i n g s and I f e e l , b e a u t i f u l ? b e a u t i f u l ? I don't know, I don't know what's the word? . . . When I had t h a t job I f e l t important, not more important than other people, no, I f e l t , i s because I cannot f i n d the word t o e x p l a i n you . . . I say important but maybe i s not the r i g h t word, but now I f e e l important too, i n a d i f f e r e n t way, I f e e l I can do so many t h i n g s f o r the others without having t h a t k i n d of job." Subject 2 Poem 7 U n t i t l e d L i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y i s something wonderful. something I had never thought L i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y l e t one see the e a r t h s m a l l e r and the a worald wider. Enthusiasm and s u r p r i s e mark t h i s poem as being born e n t i r e l y out of the poet's new and s t r e n g t h e n i n g l i f e i n Canada. Because she has now had the experience of exposure to people from many c u l t u r e s , has worked with these people and had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t on her experience and behavior her f u t u r e seems suddenly to be t h i c k with e x t r a o r d i n a r y p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s poem i l l u s t r a t e s her 166 expanded d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , category t h r e e , and category s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g i n a poem. In t h i s poem she begins t o use f i g u r a t i v e language f o r the f i r s t time. Her concept of the e a r t h becoming s m a l l e r — we l i v e i n a g l o b a l v i l l a g e , and the world b e i n g w i d e r — t h e r e i s p r e v i o u s l y unthought of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , mark a s h i f t i n her w i l l i n g n e s s t o take more r i s k s with u s i n g the E n g l i s h language. I t i s a l s o a smal l example of category two, based on her sequence of poems, showing her i n c r e a s i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n her a b i l i t y t o w r i t e the E n g l i s h language. Subject 2 Poem 8 U n t i t l e d I was s t a n d i n g on a b r i d g e l o o k i n g at the b e a u t i f u l Okanagan Lake I f e l t deeply i n thought. The water was q u i e t , p e a c e f u l the time was running. I was deeply t h i n k i n g what to do Suddenly the water s t a r t e d r u s h i n g down the channel. then I thought; as the water, I have to move too. Yes, I must move out of P e n t i c t o n I f e l t bored, desperated and anxious of E n g l i s h but, where do I go to l e a r n E n g l i s h ? to Vancouver. I s a i d . 168 then the lake s t i l l b e a u t i f u l the water kept r u s h i n g down and I kept deeply i n thought I had move down to Vancouver. In t h i s her f i n a l poem w r i t t e n f o r the workshop, the author demonstrates a comparatively s t r o n g command of symbolic e x p r e s s i o n i n w r i t i n g E n g l i s h . Something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from her e a r l i e r l i t e r a l poems. Standing on a b r i d g e r e q u i r e s one to move, sooner or l a t e r , i n one of two d i r e c t i o n s . I t i s a p o i n t of t r a n s i t i o n . And although she i s attempting to t h i n k her way through her dilemma i t i s only when the " b e a u t i f u l l a k e " , the " p e a c e f u l " water gets her a t t e n t i o n by " r u s h i n g " does she know what t o do. In other words she takes her cue from her immediate environment, not from a memory. There i s a sense t h a t her immediate environment, Canada, p r o v i d e s a l l the input t h a t i s r e q u i r e d f o r her to "move", i n t h i s case a move to Vancouver where she can l e a r n E n g l i s h . C o n f i r m a t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of her d e c i s i o n comes i n the l a s t stanza where she r e f l e c t s on and gains support f o r her d e c i s i o n from her immediate environment, the water " r u s h i n g down" toward the c o a s t . 169 T h i s poem i l l u s t r a t e s category two, i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n a b i l i t y t o w r i t e the E n g l i s h language based on her sequence of poems, category s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g i n a poem, and category seven, s o l v i n g a problem through one's poem. Subject 3 Poem 1 My Dream When I was young My dream was to be a teacher Because I love c h i l d r e n and because I enjoy p l a y i n g with these l i t t l e person who make me to f e e l happy, who make me to f o r g e t a l l my problems who make me to t h i n k t h a t I have the world i n my hands. However, the r e a l i t y i s other My dream i s s t i l l a dream I cannot be a teacher i n t h i s country Because I need a high E n g l i s h l e v e l e d u c a t i o n So I have t o c o n t i n i o u s i n the school as student U n t i l l I be able t o be a teacher I am going t o work hard, because I want my dream become t r u e . To be with you c h i l d r e n of the world. 171 There i s a c e r t a i n w i s t f u l n e s s , f r u s t r a t i o n , and d e t e r m i n a t i o n expressed i n t h i s poem t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s category s i x . And although her problem i s not completely solved, the process of a c h i e v i n g f r u i t i o n of her dream i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d i l l u s t r a t i n g category seven. 172 Subject 4 Poem 1 U n t i t l e d E n g l i s h , you are no easy f o r me. Although you seem l i k e a t r e a t u r e i s l a n d , so many j e w e l l e r y i n s i d e of i t and I e a g e r l y want to get them. But th e r e are l o t s h i t c h s on the way. Everytime I use you. I seem can't express myself t o t a l l y . I f e e l l e a r n i n g you so sl o w l y . I f e e l f r u s t r a t e and r e s t l e s s and make me l o s t c o n f i d e n c e . Do I have ch o i c e stop l e a r n i n g ? No. I know. i f I don't know you w e l l . How can I happyly l i v e here. 173 Revised v e r s i o n by the r e s e a r c h e r . Requested by and approved as acc u r a t e by the author. U n t i t l e d E n g l i s h , you are not easy f o r me, you seem l i k e a t r e a s u r e i s l a n d with many jewels i n s i d e of you. I e a g e r l y want to get them but t h e r e are l o t s of h i t c h e s on the way. Every time I use you i t seems I cannot express myself t o t a l l y . L e a r n i n g you i s a slow b u s i n e s s . I f e e l f r u s t r a t e d and r e s t l e s s and I l o s e c o n f i d e n c e . Do I have a ch o i c e t o stop l e a r n i n g ? No! I know t h a t i f I don't know you w e l l I cannot l i v e h a p p i l y here i n Vancouver. 174 T h i s poem i s a c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n of the f r u s t r a t i o n f e l t with the d i f f i c u l t y of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , category s i x . I t has s i m i l a r i t i e s with the p r e v i o u s poem by s u b j e c t 3 as the authors are determined t o s o l v e t h e i r problem, category seven, or achieve t h e i r goals by continued s t u d y i n g of E n g l i s h . 175 The next t h r e e poems, Sleep, My S p i t i t , and u n t i t l e d by s u b j e c t 5 are a s e r i e s of poems t h a t were w r i t t e n d u r i n g one s e s s i o n . Subject 5 Poem 1 Sleep I f I only can s l e e p good f o r one ni g h t with out, waking up. and walking around. hoping t h a t I won't wake anyone up. I f I only c o u l d s l e e p a l l n i g h t and not having bad dreams about someone I know and wondering where they are t o n i g h t . I f only I c o u l d s l e e p a l l n i g h t and not look at the s t a r s t o n i g h t and watch out f o r t h a t moon or l i s t e n t o the r a i n . 176 Subject 5 Poem 2 My S p i r i t "I know Dad" t h a t you know why I caned s l e e p "so why caned you l e t me s l e e p " why caned you j u s t count the sheep with me and l e t me s l e e p . "I know dad" t h a t you have l a v e d me here alone and I miss you very much everyday but I know someday w i l l meet again. "But p l e a s e " l e t me s l e e p one n i g h t with out waking up t i l l morn Subject 5 Poem 3 U n t i t l e d "My L i t t l e Blue B i r d " why can't you s l e e p , you know 111 be r i g h t here", by your s i d e , and I ' l l never leave you. so go to s l e e p and I ' l l look a f t e r e v e r y t h i n g f o r you. I ' l l l e t no harm comes t o you. so never t h i n k t h a t your are alone, because I ' l l alway be c l o u s e by. so go to s l e e p now my " l i t t l e Blue B i r d " and get some r e s t . "and Don't t h i n k about s l e e p . " These t h r e e poems show a p r o g r e s s i o n from e x p r e s s i o n of exhaustion and hopelessness through a year n i n g f o r an answer to her dilemma to reassurance t h a t a l l w i l l be w e l l . Category s i x , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g i n a poem i s shown i n the f i r s t two poems and her problem of insomnia i s solved, category seven, through the aegis of the t h i r d poem. 178 Subject 5 Poem 4 F r i e n d s J a n i c e Today i s day I w i l l never f o r g e t because t h r e e year ago, I l o s e d a good f r i e n d . we had now time f o r goodbeys. but every year on march the 12 at s i x o c l o c k I ' l l always remembe what a good f r i e n d I l o s e d . F r i e n d my Mom In a l l these years, I never Knew you mom, where have you been. I was so busy i n a l l my l i f e I never got to meet, and to Know you, t i l l now. you are such a good f r i e n d I wish we meet sooner. What F r i e n d Dad I wish I c o u l d meet a f r i e n d l i k e my dad. i f t h e r e s anouther men l i k e him I would l i k e to meet him. My F r i e n d Mary 'Mary' My c l o s e e s f r i e n d , she alway t h e r e when I need here. i t seemes l i k e she Knows j u s t when I want her. l i k e new years she was t h e r e to b r i n g me home, now she was here t h i s weekend and she i s going to take my c h i l d r e n f o r s p r i n g break. This group of f o u r " f r i e n d s " echoes a theme noted e a r l i e r — the power and n e c e s s i t y of f r i e n d s h i p . Her f o u r f r i e n d s i n c l u d e her daughter and f a t h e r , both of whom are dead, her mother who she has r e c e n t l y re—met, and a peer, Mary, who seems to combine elements of the other t h r e e . E x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g , category s i x , although understated, i s e v ident i n t h i s poem. 180 D i s c u s s i o n Summary Of R e s u l t s R e s u l t s from the data i n d i c a t e t h a t the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop was s u c c e s s f u l i n h e l p i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s to s e t t l e i n Canada. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based on the 18 f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s induced from u s i n g Flanagan's C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique (1954), workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , and e x p l i c a t i o n of the poems produced by p a r t i c i p a n t s . The 18 f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s (10 p o e t i c and 8 non-p o e t i c ) were found t o be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e c a t e g o r i e s of change. They can be reduced to a f i v e p a r t r e c u r r i n g c y c l e : e x p l o r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s , i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e , awareness of others, and i n c r e a s e d s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s c y c l e was mutually developed and supported by both p o e t i c and non—poetic a c t i v i t i e s and p r o c e s s e s . Of the 3 h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s one, p a i n f u l content of a poem, i l l u s t r a t e s the power of poetry t o evoke powerful, and i n t h i s case n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d , f e e l i n g s . A second, poor workshop attendance, draws our a t t e n t i o n to a l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study. The t h i r d , l a c k of c l o s e emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s , while not a problem t h a t the workshop set out to d i r e c t l y a l l e v i a t e , i l l u s t r a t e s a concern t h a t must be addressed i n any program designed to help immigrants s e t t l e . 181 Workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s c o r r o b o r a t e some i n d i v i d u a l f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s and support the i n t e r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d a f a c i l i t a t i n g p o e t i c c y c l e s i m i l a r to the one noted above but with the a d d i t i o n of b e g i n n i n g with the workshop l e a d e r r e a d i n g a poem and t a l k i n g about i t f o l l o w e d by the other d e s c r i p t o r s . A non-p o e t i c r e c u r r i n g c y c l e was a l s o noted: e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s and thoughts, awareness of e x p e r i e n c i n g common problems, f o l l o w e d by the o p p o r t u n i t y to t a l k with others about the problem. In a d d i t i o n a p e r s i s t e n t t r i a d of misery was noted i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s expressed r e p e a t e d l y and i n v a r i o u s ways, t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s with: l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y employment, and most p e r v a s i v e of a l l , coping with the r e a l i t y of absent or m i s s i n g f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . The content of the poems p r o v i d e d a s o b e r i n g look at some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . They a l s o r e v e a l e d at f i r s t hand t h e i r s t r u g g l e s with the E n g l i s h Language. Most of the poems were q u i t e l i t e r a l , r a t h e r l i k e prose, but they d i d present genuine p o r t r a i t s of the authors i n the midst of w r e s t l i n g with t h e i r new l i v e s . V i r t u a l l y a l l aspects of poetry, as i t was pr e s e n t e d i n the workshop, f a c i l i t a t e d s e t t l i n g i n Canada. 182 L i m i t a t i o n s There are a number of l i m i t a t i o n s t o g e n e r a l i z i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. One area of d i f f i c u l t y concerns the low number of p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p l a c e s t r o n g r e l i a n c e on r e s u l t s garnered from only f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s even i f the r e s u l t s were found to be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . In a d d i t i o n the f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the workshop may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the broad range of immigrants and refugees who e n t e r Canada each year. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n r e c r u i t i n g and r e t a i n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s concern about r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s . P r i o r t o the f i r s t s e s s i o n 8 p a r t i c i p a n t s had been s e l e c t e d and were expected at the f i r s t s e s s i o n . Two attended the f i r s t s e s s i o n . During the f o l l o w i n g week the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d and accepted 3 new p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d were telephoned to remind them of the next s e s s i o n . As many as 11 p a r t i c i p a n t s were expected, 7 attended. Of those 7 one was a person the r e s e a r c h e r had never met. This new person had been i n v i t e d by a f r i e n d who was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the workshop. The new person was welcomed and informed t h a t he would be i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r the s e s s i o n t o a s c e r t a i n h i s s u i t a b i l i t y to continue i n the workshop. This i n d i v i d u a l d i d meet the c r i t e r i a and was welcomed to the remaining s e s s i o n s . 183 N e i t h e r he nor h i s f r i e n d r e t u r n e d f o r any of the remaining s e s s i o n s . Between the second and t h i r d s e s s i o n s p a r t i c i p a n t s were again telephoned t o remind them of the next s e s s i o n . As many as 12 people were expected, 5 attended. Of those 5, one, again, was a person the r e s e a r c h e r had never met. Someone had t o l d her about the workshop and she simply a r r i v e d with no warning at the t h i r d s e s s i o n . She proved s u i t a b l e f o r the workshop and i n d i c a t e d she wanted t o be p a r t of the group but s a i d she had to get p e r m i s s i o n of her husband t o co n t i n u e . She d i d not r e t u r n . Between the t h i r d and f o u r t h s e s s i o n s 2 more p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d and accepted. For the f o u r t h s e s s i o n as many as 15 people were expected, only 7 attended. At t h i s time s e l e c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s ceased. From the f i f t h through e i g h t h s e s s i o n no new people were admitted t o the workshop, only d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the 5 people who completed the workshop continued to a t t e n d . Attendance d u r i n g the remaining s e s s i o n s ranged from 1 to 5 persons. The 5 who completed the workshop may rep r e s e n t those immigrants and refugees who are not c u r r e n t l y overwhelmed by the v a r i o u s demands of s e t t l i n g . There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e reasons f o r these attendance d i f f i c u l t i e s o c c u r r i n g : p a i n f u l t o p i c ( i . e . , l o s s and g r i e f ) , d i f f i c u l t t a sks (e.g., w r i t i n g poems), E n g l i s h language demands too hig h or not c h a l l e n g i n g enough. Some i n d i v i d u a l s were unable to atte n d because of s p e c i f i c 184 reasons ( v i z . , job i n t e r v i e w s , h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n due to p r e v i o u s i n j u r i e s from s u r v i v a l of t o r t u r e , l i f e t h r e a t e n i n g surgery performed on spouse, job duty c o n f l i c t s , s t u d y i n g f o r s c h o o l examinations, unexpected demands from c h i l d r e n , e t c . ) . The E n g l i s h s k i l l l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the study ranged from approximately grade 8 to 10 l e v e l s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t most of the data came from s t a n d a r d i z e d open—ended i n t e r v i e w s where p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o express themselves i n E n g l i s h , t here i s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the nuances of t h e i r e xperiences, be h a v i o r s , f e e l i n g s and thoughts were " l o s t i n the t r a n s l a t i o n " . The s e l f — r e p o r t i n g nature of these i n t e r v i e w s combined with the lower l e v e l s of s k i l l with E n g l i s h encourage c a u t i o n when i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . In a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a lengthy time delay between completion of the workshop and the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . T h i s delay was caused by a f i v e week labour d i s p u t e at King Edward Campus. For some i n d i v i d u a l s t h e r e was a f u r t h e r d elay betwen the f i r s t and second post—workshop i n t e r v i e w s because they were e i t h e r out of town, working, or unable to keep appointments f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. One i n d i v i d u a l r e — s c h e d u l e d her second i n t e r v i e w three times because v a r i o u s f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s s u e s took precedence d u r i n g the i n i t i a l l y scheduled appointments. As was noted i n R e s u l t s the t e s t of exhaustiveness appears t o i n d i c a t e t h a t data c o l l e c t i o n ended too soon, 185 however, because of the r e l a t i v e l y low number of i n c i d e n t s c o l l e c t e d the exhaustiveness t e s t must be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n . With these l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r theory, p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h can be c o n s i d e r e d . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study v a l i d a t e and extend much of the r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c technique as d e s c r i b e d i n the L i t e r a t u r e Review. Using the 10 f a c i l i t a t i n g p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s (the non—poetic c a t e g o r i e s are subsumed i n the p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s ) of s e t t l i n g i n Canada as a framework f o r d i s c u s s i o n , the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w i l l be noted. The p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s can be grouped i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s : 1. I n c r e a s i n g confidence and expansion of one's d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f . 2. The c e n t r a l i t y of f e e l i n g s . 3. Problem s o l v i n g , o f t e n through d i a l o g u e with o t h e r s . 4. Importance of v o c a l i z i n g p o e t r y . 5. Importance of the group l e a d e r being an expert i n p o e t r y . 186 The f i r s t s e c t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g c o n f i d e n c e and expansion of one's d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f i s a phenomenon noted by numerous r e s e a r c h e r s . Some of these f i n d i n g s are new, some extend known theory and others support c u r r e n t t h e o r y . Upon a c q u i r i n g the s k i l l of w r i t i n g p o e t r y t h e r e was a r a p i d i n c r e a s e of s e l f c o n f i d e n c e among p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s c o n f i d e n c e stemmed from the sheer p l e a s u r e of l e a r n i n g how to use the E n g l i s h language with more p r o f i c i e n c y both i n w r i t i n g p o e t r y and i n other a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s was unexpected and although r e s e a r c h e r s such as Harrower (1972) b e l i e v e i n the t h e r a p e u t i c value of simply w r i t i n g a poem she i s r e f e r r i n g t o the act of c r e a t i o n i t s e l f as b e i n g the t h e r a p e u t i c agent r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l e f f e c t of b e i n g able t o use language more p r o f i c i e n t l y . Kaminsky (1974) notes some i n c r e a s e i n confidence among h i s group members as they l e a r n to w r i t e p o e t r y but h i s r e s u l t s have more to do with people r e f i n i n g s k i l l s r a t h e r than a c q u i r i n g s k i l l s . D e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of E n g l i s h s k i l l among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h i s l a c k d i d not appear t o reduce the b e n e f i t s of the workshop ( i . e . , enhanced s e t t l i n g i n Canada). Both Blanton (1960) and Lerner (1982) note s i t u a t i o n s where i n d i v i d u a l s have b e n e f i t t e d from exposure to p o e t r y when they c o u l d not have f u l l y understood the words. The r e s u l t s of the present r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a poetry therapy group to b e n e f i t from exposure to poetry even i f a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s are i n the process of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as an a d d i t i o n a l 187 language. T h i s f i n d i n g ought t o remove any h e s i t a t i o n about u s i n g p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y technique with persons with low language s k i l l s . T h i s apparent a b i l i t y of p o e t r y t o t r a n s c e n d language b a r r i e r s a l s o has an emotional or f e e l i n g component t h a t w i l l be examined p r e s e n t l y . The second s e c t i o n , the c e n t r a l i t y of f e e l i n g s , i s d e s c r i b e d by numerous w r i t e r s (Astrov, 1962; Durant, 1935; H a m i l l , p e r s o n a l communication October 31, 1989; Siomopoulos, 1977) as the core of p o e t i c communication. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study s t r o n g l y support these and other w r i t e r s . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the workshop expressed f e e l i n g s through w r i t i n g poems and some noted t h a t the process of w r i t i n g poems had the powerful e f f e c t of a c t i v e l y drawing out t h e i r f e e l i n g s . T h i s l a s t process was not found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . There i s r e s e a r c h t h a t r e p o r t s the urgency t o w r i t e (Rothenberg, 1972) and statements r e g a r d i n g the i n t e n s i t y of the process of w r i t i n g (Rothenberg, 1985) but nowhere i s found mention of the i n s i s t e n t drawing out of f e e l i n g s while w r i t i n g p o e t r y as i s r e p o r t e d by some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. C a t h a r s i s , both through p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and through e x p e r i e n c i n g the emotional e x p r e s s i o n of others was a constant theme throughout the workshop. Many w r i t e r s ( A r i s t o t l e , 1976; Freud, 1977; Moreno, 1946) note the c u r a t i v e or h e a l i n g power of c a t h a r s i s . 188 The t h i r d s e c t i o n , problem s o l v i n g , o f t e n through d i a l o g u e with others, i s noted by Graves ( c i t e d i n Morrison, 1973). T h i s process of problem s o l v i n g begins and o f t e n ends with w r i t i n g and t h i n k i n g about the poem one has w r i t t e n . When poem w r i t i n g l e d to i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e with o t h e r s , o f t e n an E n g l i s h speaking Canadian, a concern r a i s e d i n the poem was o f t e n a l l e v i a t e d through the d i a l o g u e . T h i s process of w r i t i n g l e a d i n g t o d i a l o g u e with E n g l i s h speaking Canadians appears t o be extremely important t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r p rocess of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n , importance of v o c a l i z i n g poetry, has a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the people i n the workshop. Th i s s e c t i o n encompasses h e a r i n g others read t h e i r own po e t r y and h e a r i n g the workshop l e a d e r (who speaks E n g l i s h well) read p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o e t r y . T h i s process has elements of c a t h a r s i s (Blades & G i r u a l t , 1982) but i n a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o be v u l n e r a b l e i n e x p r e s s i n g o n e s e l f t o other group members i n a language t h a t i s awkward i n t h e i r mouths and e a r s . The content of a poem may be very i n t i m a t e but the in t i m a c y of content p a l e s beside the in t i m a c y of p r o c e s s . T h i s process of t a k i n g r i s k s , and b e i n g accepted, i n a new language was not found i n the l i t e r a t u r e and may be a v a l u a b l e marker i n the development of a group t h a t aims toward s e t t l i n g i n a new country. Hearing the workshop l e a d e r read p a r t i c i p a n t s ' poems allows group members to hear a model of good E n g l i s h p r o n u n c i a t i o n . But i t i s the second p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n , 189 the i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e among p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t cements the gains made p r e v i o u s l y . The f i f t h s e c t i o n , importance of the group l e a d e r b e i n g an "expert" i n po e t r y i s of dubious v a l i d i t y . Only one p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s c a t e g o r y / s e c t i o n but i t i s i n c l u d e d because the p a r t i c i p a n t was q u i t e c l e a r t h a t he va l u e d the t e a c h i n g above h i s own poem p r o d u c t i o n . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h supports the value of people producing t h e i r own poems ( A n g e l o t t i , 1985) as a more sure way of o b t a i n i n g i n s i g h t . The author of the present study c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h i s f i f t h s e c t i o n i s an a b e r r a t i o n t h a t r e f e r s more to the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c u l t u r a l norm of resp e c t f o r t e a c h e r s i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s i n d i v i d u a l wishing t o e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the r e s e a r c h e r r a t h e r than the p a r t i c i p a n t e x p l o r i n g other aspects of h i s process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. In summary the p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s i n c o r p o r a t e and v a l i d a t e much of the extant theory on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of poe t r y as an a n c i l l a r y p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c technique. F i n d i n g s from the present study a l s o extend c u r r e n t knowledge of e f f e c t s of u s i n g p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y t echnique. The s e l f c onfidence generated among p a r t i c i p a n t s was i n i t i a l l y r e l a t e d to a c q u i r i n g the new s k i l l of w r i t i n g poetry, furthermore t h i s s k i l l p r o v i d e d immediate b e n e f i t i n f o s t e r i n g d i a l o g u e with E n g l i s h speaking Canadians thereby h a s t e n i n g t h e i r goal of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a s c r i b e s i n c r e a s i n g s e l f c onfidence t o i n s i g h t 190 developed through w r i t i n g a poem, and r e f l e c t i n g on the content and the process, not to the concre t e s k i l l development of ma n i p u l a t i n g language. A concern t h a t low l e v e l s of E n g l i s h would hamper the use of p o e t r y was unfounded as the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t "common to a l l are the sounds of f e e l i n g " (Barron, 1974, p. 90) . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t when w r i t i n g a poem they exp e r i e n c e d a s t r o n g drawing out of t h e i r f e e l i n g s almost as i f the poem was an animate being t h a t demanded f u l l engagement with t h e i r f e e l i n g s . T h i s experience i s h i n t e d at by Rothenberg (1985) but not with the same i n t e n s i t y . The f o r t h s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s a phenomenon, v o c a l i z i n g poetry, t h a t has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . Through the aegis of t h e i r own poetry, group members took the r i s k of experimenting not only with s h a r i n g content (Blades & G i r u a l t , 1982) but with s h a r i n g t h e i r awkwardness with the E n g l i s h language. T h i s e x t r a r i s k t a k i n g appears to have enhanced group cohesion and supported s i m i l a r r i s k t a k i n g o u t s i d e the workshop. P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study are r e v e a l e d i n the p o e t i c and non—poetic f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s 191 d e s c r i b e d i n R e s u l t s . These i m p l i c a t i o n s can be viewed as p a r t a k i n g of f o u r d i s t i n c t yet i n t e r r e l a t e d realms: f e e l i n g s , thoughts, experiences, and b e h a v i o r s . Standard group c o u n s e l l i n g procedures enabled the workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s t o take f u l l advantage of a s a f e and s u p p o r t i v e environment i n which to e x p l o r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s and thoughts, a l l o w new experiences i n t o t h e i r awareness, and experiment with new b e h a v i o r s . Becoming aware of f e e l i n g s and e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s and thoughts o c c u r r e d w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the p o e t i c c o n t e x t . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n a s p e c i f i c order of occurrence but the non—poetic c a t e g o r i e s of becoming aware of f e e l i n g s and e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s and thoughts along with the p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s of e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s i n a poem, and i n s i s t e n t drawing out of f e e l i n g s when- w r i t i n g poems work to g e t h e r to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e f e e l i n g s . These f e e l i n g s are o f t e n p a i n f u l i n nature but the p a i n i s somewhat o f f s e t by the p l e a s u r e of i n c r e a s e d communication with o t h e r s . Another grouping i l l u s t r a t e s a combination of experience, f e e l i n g s , thoughts, and b e h a v i o r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s had the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n d u l g e i n the behavior of p r a c t i s i n g speaking E n g l i s h . T h i s speaking of E n g l i s h o c c u r r e d while p a r t i c i p a n t s t r i e d out the behavior of w r i t i n g poems. Once the s k i l l of w r i t i n g a poem was a c q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s went through a c o g n i t i v e process of d e c i d i n g they f e l t good about t h e m s e l v e s — t h e y then f e l t more c o n f i d e n t . That c o n f i d e n c e 192 a l s o a p p l i e d t o the persons f e e l i n g s about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o w r i t e the E n g l i s h language. P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o f e l t i n c r e a s i n g c o n f i d e n c e upon having the experience of h e a r i n g the workshop l e a d e r read p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own poems, f o l l o w e d by t h e i r b e h a v i o r of i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e among themselves. T h i s b e h a v i o r of i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e o c c u r r e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s and with other E n g l i s h speaking Canadians a f t e r the experi e n c e of h e a r i n g another workshop p a r t i c i p a n t read t h e i r own poem and subsequent to w r i t i n g a poem. Often the awareness of e x p e r i e n c i n g common problems, a thought, l e d to the behavior of t a k i n g advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a l k with others about those common problems. One i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t e d the experience of g a i n i n g some p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n from another p a r t i c i p a n t ' s comments. New c o g n i t i v e understandings, i n p a r t i c u l a r p e r c e i v i n g one's problems as smal l compared t o the problems of others o c c u r r e d with about h a l f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Of the t h r e e remaining c a t e g o r i e s noted i n R e s u l t s One, the importance of the workshop l e a d e r t a l k i n g about d i f f e r e n t poems d e s c r i b e s an experience r e p o r t e d by only one p a r t i c i p a n t who d i d t h i n k t h i s experience was important. The second, e x p e r i e n c i n g expanded d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f was a l s o r e p o r t e d by only one person. I t i l l u s t r a t e s a s h i f t i n her thought or d e f i n i t i o n of h e r s e l f . The f i n a l category, p e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g through the aegis of one's own poem i l l u s t r a t e s a concrete b e n e f i t of the workshop. T h i s 193 process i n v o l v e s f e e l i n g s , thoughts and b e h a v i o r s i n a d d i t i o n t o having the experience of the o p p o r t u n i t y to w r i t e poems. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study support the p r a c t i c a l value of u s i n g p o e t r y as a way i n t o e x p l o r i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Far from being an a c t i v i t y t h a t draws people toward vagueness and fantasy, poetry, as i t i s used i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop, can be a way t o b r i n g people face to face with s e r i o u s concrete i s s u e s of d a i l y l i v i n g t h a t c u r r e n t l y hamper s e t t l i n g i n Canada. In p a r t i c u l a r the a c t i v i t y of s e t t i n g a t o p i c or i s s u e f o r w r i t i n g a poem appears very h e l p f u l i n f o c u s i n g energy on t h a t t o p i c or i s s u e . In summary the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a v a r i e t y of experiences, l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of workshop design, which f o s t e r e d an awareness of f e e l i n g s and thoughts t h a t o f t e n l e d to experimenting with new b e h a v i o r s i n a i d of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Research I m p l i c a t i o n s As a r e s u l t of the present study numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s p resent themselves f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The most s e r i o u s shortcoming of the present study was a d i f f i c u l t y with attendance. ESL p o p u l a t i o n s are not known f o r having l e i s u r e time. By p r e s e n t i n g the S e t t l i n g i n 194 Canada workshop as p a r t of a c r e d i t b e a r i n g c l a s s , attendance problems would be minimized and a more accurate e v a l u a t i o n of the workshop would be p o s s i b l e . I f members of a f u t u r e S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop possess h i g h e r E n g l i s h language s k i l l s (e.g., grade 12) the poe t r y produced may be much r i c h e r i n terms of f i g u r a t i v e language. T h i s would allow f o r more s u b t l e and p o t e n t i a l l y more powerful p s y c h o l o g i c a l change amongst p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p r e s e n t study employed set poem forms and t o p i c s as a n a t u r a l outgrowth of workshop t e a c h i n g content. With an ESL p o p u l a t i o n t h a t f u n c t i o n e d at a high e r l e v e l (e.g., grade 12) and had some s o p h i s t i c a t i o n with poe t r y i t would be more f e a s i b l e t o reduce or e l i m i n a t e set poem forms and t o p i c s . T h i s change would allow a more p a r t i c i p a n t c e n t r e d workshop format. The p r o d u c t i o n of an ongoing (e.g., weekly) " p u b l i c a t i o n " of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' poems by and f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s would add a new dimension to the workshop ex p e r i e n c e . In the present study i n d i v i d u a l s wrote and spoke t h e i r poems but d i d not have the o p p o r t u n i t y to see them " l e g i t i m i z e d " i n any other way. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t with more c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t y a s c r i b e d to t h e i r c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l b e l i e v e even more so i n themselves as f u l l y f u n c t i o n i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g members, not only of the workshop group, but with t h e i r f a m i l i e s and the l a r g e r community. 195 Summary Th i s study e x p l o r e s . t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c technique i n a group c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g . F i v e a d u l t immigrants/refugees ( l e s s than f i v e years i n Canada and who were l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as an a d d i t i o n a l language) from Hong Kong, Iran, Guatemala, Colombia, and one Canadian N a t i v e Indian v o l u n t e e r e d f o r and completed a workshop, " S e t t l i n g i n Canada", and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n subsequent data c o l l e c t i o n procedures. Flanagan's (1954) C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique was used to d i s c o v e r what p o e t i c events f a c i l i t a t e and what p o e t i c events h i n d e r the process of s e t t l i n g i n Canada. Non—poetic events were ana l y s e d i n the same f a s h i o n . Data was drawn from three sources. Two post—workshop c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d data from which 10 p o e t i c and 8 non—poetic f a c i l i t a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s , and 1 p o e t i c and 2 non—poetic h i n d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s were induced. These c a t e g o r i e s were supported by workshop l e a d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s and by p o e t r y produced by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p o e t r y used i n a v a r i e t y of ways f a c i l i t a t e s e x p l o r a t i o n of and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s , i n c r e a s e s s e l f — e s t e e m and confidence, promotes d i a l o g u e among workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s and others, expands one's d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f , and enhances p e r s o n a l problem s o l v i n g . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop s t a t e d t h a t these f a c t o r s helped them s e t t l e i n Canada. 196 REFERENCES Abrams, A. S. (1978). Poetry therapy i n the P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l . In A. Lerner (Ed.), Poetry i n the t h e r a - p e u t i c experience (pp. 63—71). New York: Pergamon P r e s s . A d l e r , A. (1964) . 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Yin, R. K. (1984) . Case study r e s e a r c h : Design and  methods. B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage. An eight part workshop using p o e t r y to help you understand the problems and difficulties of living in Canada. FOR IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES WHO HAVE BEEN IN CANADA 1 - 5 YEARS Monday afternoons 2:30 - 4:30 February 5 - March 26 at KEC Counselling. Information and pre-registration in the counselling department IMS1W28 207 Appendix B Wr i t t e n Subject Consent Form S e t t l i n g i n Canada Workshop l e a d e r : David M i l l e r , ~~ . Th i s 8 p a r t workshop (a t o t a l of 16 hours) u s i n g poetry, yours and others, i s designed t o he l p you begin t o understand and r e s o l v e your l o s s e s and your g r i e f c o n c e r n i n g l e a v i n g your home country and s e t t l i n g i n Canada. There w i l l be a p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r v i e w and two tape rec o r d e d follow—up i n t e r v i e w s , each approximately one hour i n l e n g t h . In a d d i t i o n , 5 — 2 0 hours of time may be r e q u i r e d over the l e n g t h of the workshop t o read and w r i t e p o e t r y between workshop s e s s i o n s . T o t a l minimum time r e q u i r e d of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s workshop: 18 hours. Your i d e n t i t y w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l , a l l r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s t h a t bear your name w i l l be de s t r o y e d upon completion of t h i s r e s e a r c h . The only e x c e p t i o n w i l l be any poems you may wish t o have p u b l i s h e d . You may f r e e l y choose t o p a r t i c i p a t e or not to p a r t i c i p a t e . I f you choose not to p a r t i c i p a t e or i f you wish t o withdraw from the workshop at any time you may do so. No matter what you choose a l l s e r v i c e s of KEC w i l l continue t o be a v a i l a b l e t o you. David M i l l e r i s a v a i l a b l e t o answer any que s t i o n s you may have r e g a r d i n g t h i s workshop. I have r e c e i v e d a copy of t h i s consent form and I consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the S e t t l i n g i n Canada workshop. signed, p a r t i c i p a n t T h i s workshop i s p a r t of David M i l l e r ' s M.A. t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , s u p e r v i s e d by Dr. L a r r y Cochran of the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 0 8 Appendix C Summary of Events and A c t i v i t i e s of the S e t t l i n g i n Canada Workshop Presented t o P a r t i c i p a n t s at the F i r s t P o s t -Workshop Interview S e t t l i n g i n Canada — e x e r c i s e t o meet other people i n the group — t a l k i n g about our e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the workshop — the d i f f i c u l t y of con n e c t i n g your past and your f u t u r e with your p r e s e n t l i f e — how a person i n t e r a c t s with the world (me — the world) — your f a m i l y h i s t o r y / s t o r y — d i f f e r e n t problems people have: homelessness m i s s i n g f a m i l y members m i s s i n g f r i e n d s no jobs l o n e l i n e s s — how f e e l i n g s and thoughts go i n t o a poem — 4 p a r t s of a poem: what happened t o you what d i d you do what you tho u g h t / t h i n k what you f e l t / f e e l — the boundary of po e t r y i s your i m a g i n a t i o n — 7 steps i n the process of e m i g r a t i o n — the most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g s about l i v i n g i n Vancouver — the problem of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Vancouver — how d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o l e a r n E n g l i s h — the good t h i n g s about l i v i n g i n Vancouver — the energy management model Throughout the meeting the f o l l o w i n g happened: — d i f f e r e n t people i n the group wrote and read poems about: language d i f f i c u l t i e s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s jobs, l o s s of s t a t u s — t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t poem w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e s such a For me a poem i s . . . w r i t i n g a "duet" poem w r i t i n g about the e m i g r a t i o n process w r i t i n g a letter—poem to someone not presen t "This i s the problem . . . Th i s i s what'I need t o f e e l b e t t e r . . . s h a r i n g experiences and s t o r i e s with each other poems read by the workshop l e a d e r 210 Appendix D S e t t l i n g i n Canada Workshop C u r r i c u l u m T h i s e i g h t p a r t workshop, two hours per s e s s i o n f o r e i g h t weeks, u s i n g p o e t r y as an a n c i l l a r y p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c technique i s designed t o help immigrants and refugees become more s e t t l e d i n Canada. Sess i o n 1 — I n t r o d u c t i o n s , o u t l i n e , and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the workshop — I n t r o d u c t i o n t o poetry — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems — Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 2 — C r o s s — c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on poetry — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems — Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 3 — The f o u r p a r t s of a poem ( f e e l i n g s , thoughts, experiences, and behaviors) — The o v e r a l l process of e m i g r a t i o n — Family h i s t o r y and p e r s o n a l process of e m i g r a t i o n — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems — Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 4 — What p a r t i c i p a n t s l i k e and don't l i k e about l i v i n g i n Canada — Symptoms of l o s s and g r i e f — H e a l i n g nature of poetry — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems — Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 5 D e a l i n g with symptoms of l o s s and g r i e f Energy management model S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 6 — F o c u s i n g on major l o s s e s ( v i z . , language, j o b / s t a t u s , f a m i l y / f r i e n d s ) — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems — Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 7 — I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t e r m i n a t i o n of the workshop/loss and g r i e f — E s t a b l i s h i n g support networks — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e / s h a r i n g poems — Poetry read by group l e a d e r S e s s i o n 8 — S t r u c t u r e d poem e x e r c i s e f o c u s i n g on problems and needs/sharing poems — Closure/group poem e x e r c i s e For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n contact David M i l l e r c/o The C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology Department, UBC. 

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