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The role of mindfulness in early adolescent psychological adjustment and well-being Lawlor, Molly Stewart 2007

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THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN EARLY ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT AND WELL-BEING by MOLLY STEWART LAWLOR B.A., The University of Victoria, 1998  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Counselling Psychology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 2007  © Molly Elizabeth Stewart Lawlor 2007  Abstract Within thefieldof positive psychology, investigations of human potential and well-being have recently focused on mindfulness, a unique quality of consciousness. Mindfulness has been defined as the practice of being aware of one's thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. Investigations of mindfulness have primarily focused on adult populations and have revealed mindfulness to be related to a variety of indicators of well-being such as optimism, positive affect, self-regulation, and lower rates of depression and anxiety. The present study investigated the relationship of mindfulness and well-being within a population of early adolescents. Early adolescence is marked by changes across cognitive, social and biological areas of functioning. Despite improvement of competencies, as children move through early adolescence both their sense of optimism and self-concept decline. Additionally, early adolescents experience more instances of negative affect and fewer instances of positive affect than younger children. Because mindfulness has been found to be related to such constructs of well-being in adults, the question arises, what role mindfulness might play in positive adolescent development and well-being? There are currently no specific instruments designed to assess mindfulness in children or adolescents. As such, wefirsttested the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003; modified by Benn 2004). Scores from the MAAS, along with a battery of wellbeing indicators were analyzed to answer the following 3 questions: 1) Is the modified MAAS a psychometrically sound measure when used with early adolescents? 2) Are there within and between group differences in scores on the MAAS? 3) Do early  Ill  adolescents display similar relationships between mindfulness and indicators of wellbeing as have been found with adults? Results indicated two important findings. First, the modified MAAS was found to have high internal consistency, a one factor solution and evidence of validity yielding support for its use with early adolescents. Second, mindfulness was found to be related in expected directions to indicators of well-being across the domains of traits and attributes, emotional disturbance, emotional well-being and eudiamonic well-being. Indeed, these findings offer important insight into the role mindfulness may play in early adolescent development.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  List of Tables  vi  List of Figures  vii  Acknowledgments  viii  INTRODUCTION Paradox of Adolescence: Emotional Storm and Stress Quality of Consciousness: Mindfulness and Well-being Mindfulness Through Cultivation and as a Natural Capacity Mindfulness and Self-Determination Theory The Measurement of Mindfulness Purpose of the Present Study METHOD Participants Assessment Procedure Measures Demographic Information Mindfulness Traits and Attributes Emotional Disturbance Emotional-subjective well-being Eudiamonic well-being Ethical Considerations RESULTS  1 2 5 6 8 9 10 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 15 16 17 18  Psychometric Properties of the Modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale ..18 Descriptive statistics 18 Confirmatory factor analysis 19 Reliability 21 Scale and Item statistics 21 Gender and age differences 23 Well-being Correlations  23  V  DISCUSSION  26  STRENGTH AND LIMITATIONS  30  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  31  REFERENCES  33  APPENDIXES  40  Appendix A - Teacher Consent Form Appendix B - Parent Consent Form Appendix C - Student Recruitment Letter Appendix D - Student Assent Form Appendix E - Demographic Questionnaire Appendix F - Mindfulness Appendix G - Self-concept Appendix H - Optimism Appendix I - Depression Appendix J - Anxiety Appendix K - Positive and Negative Affect Appendix L - Autonomy Appendix M - Relatedness Appendix N - Competence  40 44 48 50 52 54 57 59 61 62 66 68 70 72  vi List of Tables  Table  Page  1. Means, Standard Deviations for the Modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale 2. Means and Standards Deviations for Individual MAAS Items 3. Item-Total Statistics 4. Correlations of the MAAS with measures of well-being in the present and Brown and Ryan (2003) studies  19 22 22 25  Vll  L i s t of Figures  Page Figure 1.  One factor solution  20  Vlll  Acknowledgements  I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Kimberly SchonertReichl, who has been so generous with her time and expertise. I am thankful to have had the significant opportunity to learn and work with such a brilliant and supportive mentor. Dr. Bruno Zumbo has been instrumental throughout the process of this project. I am so appreciative for his generous contribution, wisdom and guidance. I thank Dr. Marv Westwood for participating on my committee. And, to Dr. Richard Young, I express my appreciation for his meaningful contributions as a reader on this project. I want to acknowledge The Hawn Foundation (formerly, The Bright Light Foundation) for funding the larger research study which provided the data for the present study. Finally, I want to thank my husband, Jonathan for his continued support and encouragement.  1 Introduction  In recent years, a burgeoning literature has emerged on the study of conditions that promote psychological well being and societal development. Indeed, rather than over-focusing on the study of psychological ill-being or psychopathology, a growing number of authors have called for psychologists to pay greater attention to the study of human potential, and well-being (Seligman & Csikzentmihalyi, 2000). This field has been characterized as the field of positive psychology. In their introduction to this new area of psychology Seligman and Csikentmihalyi (2000) affirmed that "a science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless." In addition to research within the adult population, the science of positive psychology has been expanding to include younger populations (Clonan et al., 2004; Huebner & Gilman, 2003; Terjesen et al., 2004), which compliment investigations of well-being among children and adolescents (Gilman & Huebner, 2003; Huebner, 2004; Huebner et al., 2005). Specifically, within a positive psychology framework is the assumption that environments can be promoted to foster individual strengths. This has been a guiding principle of research examining the role of classroom environment and child and adolescent school adjustment (Battistich et al., 1997; Eccles et al., 1997, Osterman, 2000; Kerr et al., 2005; Wentzel, 1999). Mindfulness, that is the practice of being aware of one's thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally, has emerged as one focus of study within the positive psychology movement. Literature examining the benefits of mindfulness as both a positive individual trait and a therapeutic meditative practice have grown in recent  2 years. These investigations have revealed mindfulness to be associated with greater reports of a number of dimensions of well-being (Brown & Kasser, 2005; Brown & Ryan, 2003; Grossman et. al, 2003). Despite this growing body of literature, a review has revealed the research on the benefits of mindfulness, both through as a natural capacity and through cultivation has been primarily investigated with adult populations. Hence, the present study will extend the study of mindfulness by examining the relations of dispositional mindfulness and well-being during early adolescence. The Paradox of Adolescence: Emotional Storm and Stress Adolescence has historically been considered a time of incredible emotionality, development and experience. It has been over one hundred years since G. Stanley Hall (1904; as cited by Arnett, 1999) described adolescence as a time of extreme emotional lability, or "storm and stress." This view has since been examined and subsequently rejected by researchers (e.g., Eccles et al., 1993; Offer & Schonert-Reichl, 1992), suggesting that the experience of extreme emotional turmoil is not inevitable and universal among adolescence. In his paper reconsidering the storm and stress paradigm, Arnett (1999) argued for a modified view of storm and stress that takes into account cultural variations and individual differences across three key areas: conflict with parents, mood disruptions and risk behaviour. He noted that not all adolescents experience storm and stress, but storm and stress is more probable during this developmental stage than at other life stages. Arnett went on to describe the paradox of adolescence as a time of increased storm and stress and also a time for incredible growth and positive experience. Citing Offer and Schonert-Reichl (1992), Arnett concluded that "to view adolescence as a time of storm and stress is not to say that adolescence is characterized only by storm and  stress. Even amidst the storm and stress of adolescence, most adolescents take pleasure in many aspects of their lives, are satisfied with most of their relationships most of the time, and are hopeful about the future." Although the majority of individuals (80%) pass through adolescence without experiencing this "storm and stress," research suggests that 20 to 25% of children are at risk for serious mental health, emotional and behavioural problems (e.g., Offer & Schonert-Reichl, 1992; Romano et al, 2001). Moreover, research has suggested that although the onset of adolescence has not been found to be associated with increased emotional variability, the early adolescent age-period heralds the onset of changes in average mood. Of primary concern is the evidence that adolescence is associated with an increase in negative affect (Larson & Asmussen, 1991). For instance, Larson and Lampman-Petraitis (1989) tracked hour-to-hour emotional states reported by early adolescents (aged 9 to 15) and found that older adolescents reported fewer occasions of extreme positive states and more occasions of mildly negative states than younger adolescent reports. Larson and Lampman-Petriatis discussed two possible explanations for the finding of higher negative affect among older, early adolescents than younger adolescents: 1) There are differences in how younger and older early adolescents interpret experiences of affect, and 2) There exists real changes in internal and external  experiences of affect. Whether these differences in affective experiences are denoted by real change or interpretation, the result is that as early adolescents move through this developmental period, they perceive fewer occasions of positive affect and more frequent experiences of negative affect.  4 Extending this previous research, Larson and Ham (1993) investigated the increase in negative affect in adolescence in relation to life changes. A culmination or "pile-up" of life changes, such as school changes, pubertal development, cognitive development and social role development, has been a proposed occurrence in early adolescence, which is hypothesized to cause significant distress and disorder in adolescence (e.g., Compas, Howell, Phares, Williams & Giunta, 1989; Eccles, 1999). Larson and Ham found that indeed, a relationships exists between greater numbers of life changes experienced by early adolescents and their reports of more frequent experiences of negative affect - what the researchers noted as "emotional storm and stress." Further, their data suggested that 1) early adolescents experienced more negative life events than younger, pre-adolescents, and 2) these negative events take on a stronger relationship with negative affect in early adolescents than in pre-adolescents. What do these findings tell us? The paradox of adolescence, likened to a time of high risk and high yield outcomes, offers researchers two avenues to explore: 1) Why do some adolescents experience difficulty? And 2) what are the conditions and processes that facilitate healthy development that avoids emotional storm and stress? Positive psychology would urge researchers to consider the latter. Returning to the construct of mindfulness, research has indicated that mindfulness is associated with higher reports of positive affect and lower reports of negative affect, as reported in adults. Could this also be the case in adolescence? Could mindfulness act as a protective factor against the rise of the experience of negative affects as individuals move through this developmental stage of early adolescence? To begin to answer this question,  5 in this study we examined the relation of mindfulness to positive and negative affect in a group of early adolescents. Quality of consciousness: Mindfulness and Well-being The construct of mindfulness has been defined in more than one way within the literature; however, all definitions are in accord in the notion suggesting that mindfulness is a way of directing attention. It is considered to be a state of consciousness, which incorporates self-awareness and attention with a core characteristic of being open, receptive and non-judgmental (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al., 2003). Within the literature concerning mindfulness-based interventions for therapeutic settings, mindfulness has been defined as focusing one's attention, to experiences within the present moment in an accepting or non-judgmental way (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Although attention and awareness are consistent features of normal functioning, a further conceptualization of mindfulness as proposed by Brown and Ryan (2003) describe mindfulness as "a quality of consciousness that is characterized by clarity and vividness of current experience and functioning and thus stands in contrast to the mindless, less 'awake' states of habitual or automatic functioning that may be chronic for many individuals." For example, when an individual is in the shower, they can be attuned to the moment-moment sensory experience of the warm water, while also peripherally aware of the differing scents of shampoos and soaps. On the contrary, Brown and Ryan (2003) describe "mindlessness" as the relative absence of mindfulness. Consciousness that is constrained is some way (e.g. rumination on events in the past, anxieties about the future) pulls awareness away from the present experience. Mindfulness can also be compromised by dividing attention with multiple tasks (e.g.  6 talking on the phone while watching television), preoccupation with concerns that limit focus on the present moment and/or by refusing to acknowledge a thought, emotion, motivation or perceived object. Being mindful requires awareness and focus on current experience, versus "automatic pilot," which involves engaging in behaviour that is out of awareness and attention, that compulsive or automatic (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al., 2003). Although there is no literature to date investigating mindfulness as defined above in early adolescence, some research within an educational environment, with children, has been initiated by Langer (1993; 2000), and Langer and Moldoveanu (Langer & Moldoveanu, 2000), however, this work proposes an alternative definition of mindfulness. Langer describes mindfulness as an open, creative, probabilistic state of mind that results from "drawing novel distinctions, examining information from new perspectives, and being sensitive to context." This conceptualization of mindfulness differs from the present definition, in that it stresses particular, active cognitive approaches to external stimuli. In contrast, the definition adopted by Kabat-Zinn (1990), Brown and Ryan (2003), and others emphasize an open awareness to both external and internal stimuli. For the purposes of the present study we adopted this definition of Mindfulness, as outlined by Brown and Ryan (2003). Mindfulness Through Cultivation and as a Natural Capacity Mindfulness practices, have been long been considered effective means to wellbeing and ward off psychological ill-being. Mindfulness training involves the cultivation of conscious attention and awareness to the present moment. The origins of mindfulness are derived from centuries old Eastern meditation traditions. Specifically, in Buddhist  7 traditions, mindfulness practices are utilized to facilitate sukha, genuine and enduring happiness. Buddhist scholars, Allan Wallace and Mathieu Ricard and Western psychologists Paul Ekman and Richard Davidson, engaged in a dialogue examining Buddhist and Psychological perspectives on emotions and well-being. The authors concluded that Buddhist practices, such as training in mindfulness, could offer a therapy for all, not just those afflicted with mentally distressed, but also for those who want to improve the quality of their lives (Ekman et al., 2005). Increasingly, the potential benefits of these practices are being considered in Western culture (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Krazner, 2004; Williams & Teasdale, 2003). These meditative practices are being used for therapeutic means without requiring any commitment to Buddhist religious doctrines. Recent research on interventions that utilize training in mindfulness has revealed improvements in a variety of well-being outcomes from depression (Segal, et al., 2003), anxiety disorders (Miller, Fletcher, & Kabat-Zinn, 1995) treatment for chronic pain (e.g.; Kabat-Zinn, 1990) and quality of life in cancer patients (Carlson, Speca, Patel, & Goodney, 2003). Recently, mindfulness-based programming has been implemented with schoolaged children. A universal primary prevention program, Mindfulness Education (ME), designed to foster children's mindful awareness, problem solving ability, self-regulation, goal setting, conflict resolution and prosocial behaviours, was piloted in 6 elementary school classrooms in the Vancouver, B.C. school district in 2005. Results from this quasi-experimental study revealed a modest positive effect across constructs of optimism, social emotional competence, attention and concentration and decrease aggressive behaviours reported by teachers (Schonert-Reichl & Lawlor, 2007). A program adapted  8 from the Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy program (Segel, Williams, Teasdale, 2004) was investigated by Semple Lee and Miller (2006) in a group of school-aged children. Findings revealed significant reductions in teacher rated attention problems. Additionally, trends were reported regarding fewer reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Certainly, this growing body of literature provides evidence that the cultivation of mindfulness through training has beneficial outcomes in the treatment of a variety of psychological and physical ailments, however the purpose of the present study was to investigate mindfulness as an individually differing, natural capacity and it's relation to early adolescent psychological adjustment. In his 2003 commentary on mindfulness-based intervention, Kabat-Zinn commented that all individuals are likely capable of mindfulness, but may differ in regards to their propensity to be mindful. In a similar vein, Brown and Ryan (2003) investigated mindfulness as a naturally occurring characteristic, varying among individuals, and within individuals over time. These investigations found mindfulness to be positively associated with a variety of well-being constructs, (e.g., optimism, positive affect, and self-actualization) while being negatively related to indicators of psychological and emotional disturbance (e.g. negative affect, depression, anxiety, and rumination). Overall, high reports of mindfulness were found to be related to enhanced self-awareness and were predictive of self-regulation and positive emotional states. Mindfulness and Self-Determination Theory  Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) is an approach to motivation and personality, which postulates that humans have three innate psychological needs autonomy, relatedness (belonging) and competence. These fundamental needs may be  9 viewed as innate, organismic tendencies. Research guided by self-determination has revealed that when these three fundamental needs are satisfied, individuals exhibit enhanced self-motivation and mental health; conversely, not meeting these three needs is related to diminished motivation and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). How is Self-Determination theory linked to mindfulness? In the aforementioned series of studies, Brown and Ryan (2003) found, as they hypothesized, that mindfulness was associated with the fulfillment of the three fundamental needs outlined by SDT, autonomy, relatedness and competence. Currently there is a lack of research within the literature looking at dispositional mindfulness in children and/or adolescence; however a large body of literature exists examining the role of fundamental needs, autonomy, relatedness and competence, as outlined by Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) in children and adolescents. These investigations highlight the importance of adolescent fulfillment of these three fundamental needs and also the conditions that foster these basic needs, which in turn, promote positive processes of self-motivation and personality integration. Findings from adult literature inform us that mindfulness facilitates the fulfillment of fundamental needs; the present research will investigate whether mindfulness is playing a similar role in early adolescent euidonomic well-being. The Measurement of Mindfulness  The literature has provided evidence that mindfulness is a naturally occurring characteristic of consciousness that varies between and within individuals. Nonetheless, prior to embarking on an investigation of the potential benefits of mindfulness, it is critically important to develop a measure of the construct of mindfulness that is reliable  10 and valid . Thus, the first step in Brown and Ryan's (2003) research investigating the 1  relation of mindfulness to well-being was the development of an instrument. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) assesses "individual differences in the frequency of mindful states over time." The test developers utilized samples from college students, general adult population, mindfulness practitioners and a clinical population to carry out a series of studies (correlational, quasi-experimental, and laboratory) which demonstrated the MAAS measured a unique quality of consciousness. Specifically, results indicated the MAAS to have 1) a clear unidimentional factor structure; 2) good test-retest reliability and agreement; and 3) evidence of convergent and discrimminant validity. Purpose of the Present Study  Working within a positive psychology framework, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between an individual disposition, mindfulness, and dimensions of traits and attributes, emotional disturbance, emotional well-being and eudaimonic well-being in an effort to inform the literature regarding the ingredients of positive psychological adjustment during adolescence. This study targets early adolescents because a review of the literature revealed that the dispositional mindfulness has not been investigated within this population. The literature suggests adolescents meeting their needs for autonomy, belonging and competence as specified in SelfDetermination theory of self-regulation, achieve better school adjustment and well-being (Battistich et al., 1997; Eccles et al., 1997; Osterman, 2000). Interestingly, research with In addition to the MAAS, there are other measures of mindfulness such as the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS: Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004) and the Mindfulness/Mindlessness Scale (MMS; Bodner & Langer, 2001). We chose to utilize the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003) because this instrument assesses mindfulness as it has been operationalized in the present study. 1  11 adults has shown an important correlation between mindfulness and the basic needs autonomy, belonging and competence; hence, it is important to investigate the possibility that mindfulness plays an important role in psychological well-being and self-regulation in adolescents as has been found in adults. Additionally, research informs us that early adolescents experience less positive affect and more negative affect than their younger peers. Research with adults reveals that high scorers on the MAAS report more positive affect and less negative affect. It is important to explore the possibility that mindfulness provides the same positive benefits for early adolescents as it does for adults. Because there are no specific instruments designed to assess mindfulness in children or adolescents, we first tested the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003; modified by Benn 2004) and examined individual and gender variances reported on the modified scale. Second, we examined correlations between mindfulness and a variety of indicators of well-being to investigate the whether the patterns of relationships are similar for early adolescents as has been found in adults. Scores from the MAAS, along with a battery of psychological well-being indicators will be analyzed to answer the following three questions: 1) Is the revised Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003, modified by Benn, 2004) a reliable and psychometrically sound measure when used with a population of early adolescents? 2) Are there individual differences in scores on the MAAS among individual early adolescents and are there differences across age and between gender? 3) Do early adolescents display similar relationships between mindfulness and indicators of well-being as has been found in research with adult populations?  12 Method Participants  Data for the present study were taken from a larger quasi-experimental designed study evaluating a universal primary prevention program. Only the pre-test data were used. Classroom teachers were recruited to be involved with the prevention program through an information memorandum sent to elementary schools across the school district. Interested teachers were told about the program evaluation at an information session, and that participation in the evaluation component of the program was voluntary. Children were recruited from classrooms in which the teachers expressed a willingness to participate. A total of 286 4 , 5 , 6 , and 7 grade children drawn from 12 classrooms th  th  th  th  participated in the present study. There were 140 girls and 146 boys with a mean age of participants was 11.43 years (SD = 1.07) with a range of 9.42 to 13.49 years. With regard to first language learned, 58% of the participants identified English as the first language they learned at home, while the majority of the remaining participants identified Chinese as their first language. All of those students who were designated as English as a Second Language (ESL) were identified by teachers as competent in English enough to complete the measures in the present study. Students were drawn from schools across a range of socioeconomic status. Participation in the study was voluntary and required both parental consent and student assent. The overall participation rate of students across classrooms was 82%. Assessment Procedure  At the onset of the research study, the purpose and the procedures of the study  13 were explained to classroom teachers in order to solicit their participation in the program evaluation study (see Appendix A). Subsequently, classroom visits were scheduled whereby the study was explained to the students and parental permission forms and student recruitment forms were given out to students (see Appendix B and Appendix C, respectively). As an incentive for students to return their signed forms (indicating either a "yes" or "no"), they were informed that their class would receive a pizza party. Students were told that their participation was voluntary and that they would be included in the pizza party regardless of parental consent and participation. Arrangements were made with the classroom teacher to administer the questionnaires to students with parental consent one week later. Students without parental consent were given independent assignments by their classroom teacher. On the day of data collection, students were given a student assent form (see Appendix D), whereby they were told that their participation was voluntary, and that there would be no consequences if they chose not to participate. The first author and one trained research assistant collected pretest prior to the commencement of the ME Program and again at the end of the school year, after the program had ended. Questionnaires were administered in one session of approximately 45-minutes (one class period) in length. All items on the questionnaire were read aloud to students by the research assistants. Students were encouraged to answer honestly and to ask any questions if they did not understand any of the questions or items on the instruments. Students were also informed that their responses would be kept confidential, and only the researchers, not the teachers, parents, principal, etc, would see their completed questionnaires.  Measures Demographic Information. A demographic questionnaire (see Appendix E) was administered to each student to gather information about their gender, age, grade, first language, and family composition. Mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2004, modified by Benn, 2004, see Appendix F) is a 15 item scale with a response format from 1 (almost always) to 6 (almost never) that assesses individual differences in the "frequency of mindful states over time." Items are distributed across cognitive, emotional, physical, interpersonal and general domains. The original test developers report the MAAS to be a reliable and valid instrument with reported internal consistency of .85 (Brown & Ryan, 2003). This study reports an internal consistency (alpha) of .844. Traits and Attributes. Two measures were used to assess attributes of self. Reports on self-concept (General and School Self-Concept) were measured using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ; Marsh, 1993, see Appendix G). Reliability for both self-concept subscales was satisfactory (a = .83 General self-concept; a = .87 School self-concept). Optimism was assessed using one subscale from the Resiliency Inventory (Song, 2003, see Appendix H). Internal consistency was found be satisfactory a = .74. Emotional Disturbance. Two measures designed to assess children's mental health, specifically internalizing problems depression and anxiety, will be utilized. The Child Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1992, see Appendix I), designed for schoolaged children and adolescents, is a 27 item self-report scale, which assess depressive symptoms. Items consist of three choices, 0 (absence of symptom), 1 (mild symptom);  and 2 (definite symptom). By summing all 27 items a total depression score is created, with higher scores indicating more severe depressive symptoms. The CDI is a widely used instrument with acceptable internal consistence, criterion and concurrent validity. In the present investigation the internal consistency measured via Cronbach's alpha was .89. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS; Spence, 1994, see Appendix J) is 47 item self-report measure designed to evaluate symptoms of anxiety; specifically containing six subscales assessing separation anxiety, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic-agoraphobia, generalized anxiety, and fear of physical injury. The test developers report confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supporting six factors consistent with the hypothesized subtypes of anxiety. The current investigation reports at high internal consistency at .92 assessed with Cronbach's alpha for the anxiety total sum score. Emotional-subjective well-being.  One measure to assess affective arousal, the  24 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988, see Appendix K). 24 emotion words (12 positive; 12 negative) are rated according how much the respondent has felt that emotion over the last week. Responses are rated from 1 (Not much) to 4 (Most of the time). Internal consistency was found to be satisfactory for both positive and negative affects sum scores (a = .75 Positive affect; a = .85 Negative affect).  16 Eudiamonic well-being.  Three measures were used to assess the three  fundamental needs outlined by self-determination theory. Autonomy was measured with 2  the one subscale from The Sense of Classroom as a Community Scale (Battistich et al., 1997, see Appendix L), which assesses students' feelings of autonomy and influence in their classroom. 10 items are rated on a 5-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (Never) to 5 (Always). Reliability was found to be satisfactory, a = .87. Relatedness was measured with the Classroom Supportiveness subscale from the Sense of Classroom as a Community Scale (Battistich et al., 1997, see Appendix M), which assesses classroom supportiveness, the degree to which students feel their classmates are supportive helpful, and mutually concerned. Students rate items on a 5 point scales ranging from 1 (Disagree a lot) to 5 (Agree a lot.). Satisfactory internal consistency level, .87, was assessed via Cronbach's alpha. Finally, reports of Competence were collected with the Academic Goals Questionnaire (Roeser et al. 1996, see Appendix N), which consists of two subscales assessing academic efficacy and academic goal orientation. 9 items are rated on a 5 point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (Not at all like me) to 5 (Always like me). The internal consistency assessed via Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for both subscales of the questionnaire (a - .90, academic efficacy; a= .76 academic goal orientation).  2  Due to logistical time constraints during data collection not all 286 students were able to complete the measures for autonomy. A group of 178 students completed the additional measures for autonomy and competence. The correlations examining the relationships with autonomy represent n= 178. Due to logistical time constraints during data collection not all 286 students were able to complete the measures for competence. A group of 178 students completed the additional measures for autonomy and competence. The correlations examining the relationships with competence represent n= 178. 3  Ethical considerations  Any research with children holds additional ethical concern due to the natural vulnerability of this population. Efforts are made to be cognizant of this fact throughout the research, specifically by offering as much information as possible to teachers, parents and students themselves, so they can make a well-informed decision to participant in the study. Although this study itself is not experimental, the data is being collected as part of a larger intervention study, so there were possible risks with any untested prevention or intervention program. Additional consideration is also given to the relative personal nature of the questionnaires, specifically the questionnaires assessing psychological disturbance (depression and anxiety). Parents were informed via the consent form and students via the information form and verbally in class that "a small number of students may exhibit levels of emotional well-being that warrant further investigation. The names of these students will be given to the school counsellor who will contact them individually. She/he will be prepared to work with these individuals if the student and family choose to do so. Your students' scores and original questionnaires will however, not be made available to anyone." It is hoped that this study may inform the literature, but also, perhaps help to identify students who are at risk who may not have been referred to a school counsellor without the questionnaire data.  18 Results Results from the present study will be presented in two sections. The first section reports on the analysis conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis, reliability testing and item analysis we employed to answer the questions, (1) is the revised Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003, modified by Benn, 2004) a reliable and psychometrically sound measure when used with a population of early adolescents? and, (2) Are there individual differences in scores on the MAAS among individual early adolescents and are there differences across age and between gender? The second section will present the findings regarding the relationship of the modified MAAS with measures of well-being. We performed a series of correlations performed to answer the third research question, 3) Do early adolescents display similar relationships between mindfulness and indicators of well-being as has been found in research with adult populations? Psychometric Properties of the Modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale Descriptive statistics. Table 1 includes the descriptive statistics of the sample including age, gender and grade; additionally the means and standard deviations of the total score on the 15-item modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale are presented.  19 Table 1 Means, Standard Deviations for the modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale n  32 50 41 23 146 30 49 34 27 140 62 99 75 50 286  Gender boy  girl  Total  M 4.41 4.74 4.47 4.23 4.51 4.62 4.46 4.34 4.12 4.40 4.51 4.60 4.41 4.17 4.46  Grade 4 5 6 7 Total 4 5 6 7 Total 4 5 6 7 Total  SD  .98 .76 .71 .66 .80 .82 .95 .78 .59 .83 .90 .87 .74 .62 .81  Confirmatory Factor Analysis. To test whether the modified MAAS was a unidimensional measure, we performed a CFA of the single-factor model proposed by Brown and Ryan (2003) on the total sample of 286 early adolescents, using a maximum likelihood estimation and the LISREL 8.54 program (Joreskog & Sorbom, 2002). The fit indices of the model indicated that the correspondence between the single factor-model and the sample covariance matrix was good, X (90, n =286) = 157.48 (goodness-of-fit 2  index [GFI] = .93, comparative fit index [CFI] = 91, incremental fit index [IFI] = .97, parsimony normed fit index [PNFI] = .80, root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .051. All 15 items of the scale were significantly related to the latent factor (all ps < .00001). See figure 1.  20 Figure 1 One factor solution  21  Examination of the factor loadings for each item revealed that item 3 ("I find it hard to stay focused on what's happening in the present moment"), item 7 ("It seems that I am doing things automatically without really being aware of what I am doing"), item 12 ("I walk into a room, and then wonder why I went there"), item 13 ("I can't stop thinking about the past or the future"), and item 14 ("I find myself doing things without paying attention"), exhibited the highest loading (> .90). Conversely, item 1 ("I could be feeling a certain way and not realize it until later"), item 10 ("I do jobs, chores, or schoolwork automatically without being aware of what I'm doing"), and item 15 ("I snack without being aware that I'm eating") had lower factor loadings (< .50). These factor loadings suggest items assessing cognitive and general domains are more highly related to the latent factor, than items assessing emotional and physical domains. Reliability. The internal consistency (alpha) was .844 for the total group (n = 286). Additionally, we computed separate Cronbach alphas for gender. The Cronbach's alpha for boys was .837 (n = 139). The internal consistency (alpha) for girls was .851 (n 4  = 133). Reliability analyses indicate a high internal consistency found for the modified 5  Mindful Attention Awareness Scale when used with a population of early adolescence. Scale and item statistics. To examine whether this population of early adolescents exhibited variability reporting on the modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale we examined the means and standard deviations for each item on the scale (see Table 2). Additionally, we examined the item-total statistics (mean and variance) for each item if it were deleted from the scale (see Table 3). Results indicate there was satisfactory variability reported on the modified MAAS. 4 Note: 7 male subjects were excluded for the reliability testing due to missing values. 5  Note: 7 female subjects were excluded for the reliability testing due to missing values.  22 Table 2 Means and Standards Deviations for Individual MAAS Items Item MAAS 1 MAAS 2 MAAS 3 MAAS 4 MAAS 5 MAAS 6 MAAS 7 MAAS 8 MAAS 9 MAAS 10 MAAS11 MAAS 12 MAAS 13 MAAS 14 MAAS 15 (n = 272)  M  SD  2.5515 2.3640 2.6250 2.7463 2.3235 2.2169 2.5221 2.4412 2.2610 2.3529 3.0993 3.1581 3.1397 2.4449 1.7978  1.24977 1.52345 1.47269 1.44964 1.47991 1.50056 1.42961 1.29013 1.36166 1.41958 1.60065 1.68803 1.65100 1.27609 1.27404  Table 3 Item-Total Statistics  Item  Scale M if Item Deleted  Scale Variance if Item Deleted  MAAS 1 MAAS 2 MAAS 3 MAAS 4 MAAS 5 MAAS 6 MAAS 7 MAAS 8 MAAS 9 MAAS 10 MAAS 11 MAAS 12 MAAS 13 MAAS 14 MAAS 15  35.49 35.68 35.42 35.30 35.72 35.83 35.52 35.60 35.78 35.69 34.94 34.89 34.90 35.60 36.25  138.30 130.92 128.81 133.84 133.00 134.95 127.84 133.29 131.51 138.46 132.67 126.77 128.10 127.61 137.78  Corrected Item- Cronbach's Total Correction alpha if Item Deleted .84 .35 .49 .83 .57 .83 .42 .84 .44 .84 .37 .84 .63 .83 .51 .83 .54 .83 .29 .85 .41 .84 .54 .83 .52 .83 .66 .82 .36 .84  23 Gender and age differences. To examine whether significant gender and age differences existed in mindfulness as measured by the MAAS, we performed an age by gender ANOVA. Results indicated there were no significant gender differences. There was a significant age difference found between grade 5 students and grade 7 students, with younger students scoring higher on mindfulness, F (3, 278) = 3.31,/? = .02. In summary, our series of analysis revealed the modified MAAS to be a unidimensional, psychometrically sound instrument when used with a population of early adolescents. Well-being Correlations Among this population of early adolescents, the MAAS displayed similar relationships to well-being scales as was found by Brown and Ryan (2003) with and adult population, although less strongly, still significantly. Table 4 displays the correlations between the MAAS and well-being scales; additionally Table 4 displays the correlations between the MAAS and well-being scales reported by Brown and Ryan (2003). Examining the relationship between the MAAS and the positive attributes, optimism and self-concept, the MAAS was found the be positively and significantly related to school self-concept and optimism. The MAAS was found to be positively related to general self-concept, although not significantly. As in Brown and Ryan's 2003 study, the MAAS was related to both positive and negative indicators of well-being in consistently expected directions. Regarding emotional disturbance, the MAAS was found to be significantly inversely related to both anxiety and depression. Correlations with emotional subjective well-being as measured by the PANAS, revealed the MAAS to be significantly and positively related to positive  affect, and significantly and inversely related to negative affect. Again, these findings mirror those of Brown and Ryan (2003). A satisfactory relationship between indicators of eudaimonic well-being and the MAAS was found; the MAAS was significantly and positively related to autonomy and both dimensions of competence, academic efficacy and personal achievement goals. Although not significant, there was a positive relationship found between the MAAS and relatedness as measured by the Classroom supportiveness subscale. We speculate the findings in the present study, particularly for relatedness, may not be as strong because the measures are context specific, inquiring solely on school experiences.  25 Table 4 Correlations of the MAAS with measures of well-being in the present and Brown and Ryan (2003) studies Scale  Present Study Correlation  Self-Description Questionnaire School self-concept General self-concept Resiliency Inventory (Optimism subscale) Spence Anxiety Scale Child Depression Inventory PANAS Positive Affect PANAS Negative Affect  Scale  Brown and Ryan (2003) Correlation  Traits and attributes Rosenberg self-esteem  29****  22**  .11 .33**  LOT Optimism  27****  Emotional Disturbance -.39** POMS Anxiety -.47** BDI Depression  -.26***  Emotional-subjective well-being .19** PANAS Positive Affect -.55** PANAS Negative Affect  30****  Eudaimonic well-being Autonomy Classroom as Community .18* scale (autonomy subscale) Classroom as Community .11 Relatedness scale (supportiveness sub-scale) Academic Goals Competence Questionnaire 16* Academic efficacy 16* Personal Achievement goals *p<.05 **p<.01 ***/?<.001 ****;?<.0001.  41 * * * *  _ 39****  .34**** .31*** .39****  26 Discussion  Two important findings arose from the results from this study. First, the modified MAAS was found to be a psychometrically sound instrument when used with a population of early adolescents. Not only do the results suggest an appropriate measure for use with this population, but it is indicated that mindfulness is a naturally occurring quality of consciousness differing among early adolescents. The second important finding highlights that not only do early adolescents exhibit the propensity to be mindful, but mindfulness within this population is related to indicators of well-being across the domains of traits and attributes, emotional disturbance, emotional well-being and eudiamonic well-being in accordance with Brown and Ryan's (2003) findings within an adult population. Indeed, these findings offer important insight into the role mindfulness may play in positive early adolescent development. Early adolescence is a period marked by tremendous change across cognitive, social and biological areas of functioning which influence identity development. However, despite increases in competencies, research has shown that as children move through early adolescence both their sense of optimism and self-concept decline (Eccles et al., 1989; Schonert-Reichl, 2007; Wigfield et al, 1991). This decline can partially be explained by 1) Increased in cognitive ability which facilitate reflection on successes and failures, 2) children's widening contexts which incorporate peers, adults and activities outside their immediate families, and 3) the introduction of social comparison and competition. Within Self-determination theory, Deci and Ryan (1995) distinguish two types of self-esteem, or self-concept. Contingent self-esteem is described as self-concept or self-  27 worth that is dependent upon reaching particular standards, appearing a certain way, or accomplishing specific goals; this self-esteem is motivated by the desire to appear worthy to self and others. On the other hand, non-contingent self-esteem is defined by the absence of a need for self-esteem because fundamentally, self-worth exists unwavered by successes and failures. Contingent self-esteem is highly driven by social comparison, whereas, non-contingent self-esteem is associated with autonomous self-regulation dependent on awareness of one's motivations and underlying values. In their 2003 commentary Ryan and Brown discussed the findings from their 2003 study examining mindfulness in relation to self-esteem and well-being and argued that optimal human functioning reflects right action not self-esteem. Brown and Ryan (2003) found that mindfulness was associated with higher well-being, specifically, more autonomous regulation, and satisfaction with one's behaviour or, non-contingent self-esteem. Individuals low in mindfulness, however, reported lower well-being, and were more likely to engage in poor decision-making and approval motives, or contingent selfesteem. Being mindful, in the present moment may enable an individual to have more awareness of their underlying fundamental needs, which facilitates more autonomous behaviour and appropriate decision-making constituting healthy self-regulation. As early adolescents enter a period where increased peer involvement encourages social comparison and increased academic expectations in the school context breeds competition, they are particularly vulnerable to adopting a contingent sense of selfesteem. Children who are more mindful as they move through adolescence may be less likely to rely on contingent self-esteem to buoy their self-worth. Mindfulness may play an important role in identity development, as it facilitates internal awareness and  28 autonomous action. This in turn, may aid adolescents to develop a more authentic sense of self, less prone to external influences via social comparison and competition and more in tune with their underlying values. Internalizing disorders, namely anxiety and depression, are conditions which primary feature is disordered mood or emotion. These disorders are dependent on developmental trends and first appear in pre and early adolescence, with an average age of onset for anxiety disorders 7.2 years, and depression disorders appearing slightly later with an average age of onset of 8.4 years (Kovacs & Devlin, 1998). Studies have revealed that stable within-person traits may predispose an individual to an internalizing disorder, specifically, negative affectivity, which is the tendency towards sensitivity to negative stimuli (Clark, Watson, & Mineka, 1994). Kovacs and Devlin (1998) proposed that negative affectivity reflects a temperament-personality characteristic that constitutes impairment in the ability to regulate negative mood or emotion. Because early adolescence is marked by an increase in reports of negative affect (Larson & Ham, 1993; Larson & Lampman-Petriatis, 1989), this is a particularly vulnerable period for those exhibiting a tendency for negative affectivity to develop anxiety or depression. Emotion regulation has been defined by Eisenberg and her colleagues (2000) as "the process of initiating, maintaining, modulating, or changing the occurrence, intensity, or duration of internal feeling states and emotion-related physiological processes, often in the service of accomplishing one's goals." A key feature of both emotion regulation and mindfulness is attention, while, a primary diagnostic criteria for both anxiety depression is a lack of attention or inability to concentrate (DSM-IV). Mindfulness is a state of hypoarousal combined with non defensive responding to what is in awareness. As such,  29 mindfulness may help facilitate emotion regulation by decreasing the tendency towards rumination and absorptive states of consciousness. Our findings suggest mindfulness to be an important component a positive development relating to psychological adjustment and that mindfulness may act as a protective factor against the development of depression or anxiety. Brown and Ryan (2003) found, as they hypothesized, that mindfulness was associated with the fulfillment of the three fundamental needs outlined by SDT, autonomy, relatedness and competence. The authors discussed how mindfulness may help facilitate self-regulation and subsequently the fulfillment of fundamental needs. Specifically, open-awareness, or mindfulness may make an individual more likely to be attuned to prompts arising from basic needs; in turn, this awareness would increase the likelihood of an individual engaging in behaviour that is congruent with personal values and fulfills their fundamental needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence. Erikson described the developmental challenge for the developmental stage of school-age child (6-12) as acquiring competence. This stage is followed by the challenge of creating identity. Early adolescents are immersed in the task of industry; failure in this task, according to Erikson, results in a sense of inferiority. Mindful awareness, encouraging attunement to internal cues, may assist individuals to engage in industrious tasks that are most congruent with activities that would stimulate intrinsic motivation, and subsequently, attain a sense a competence. Successful completion of this stage, (i.e. acquiring a sense of competence across personally relevant and meaningful domains) would make an individual better equipped to enter the next stage of development, identity formation, at the end of early adolescence, to answer the question, "Who am I?"  30 Strengths and Limitations Some generalizability of the findings of this study is possible because we used a large and ethnically diverse Canadian sample (n =286). The sample size also enable us to perform a Confirmatory Factor analysis on the one factor modeled proposed by Brown and Ryan (2003) for the Mindful Attention Awareness scale. The present investigation utilized measures to assess the relevant constructs that had good psychometric properties and are widely used within the literature. In our design, we were able to match the majority of constructs in the domains of traits and attributes, emotional disturbance, emotional-subjective well-being and eudaimonic well-being that Brown and Ryan (2003) used in their validation study of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Limitations of this study include the sole use self-report measures, which can introduce bias regarding under or over-reporting. Our sample, although a satisfactory size, was ethnically and socio-economically diverse, which complicates our ability to generalize findings to specific homogenous populations. Additionally, the crosssectional and correlational design of this study limits the interpretations that can be made regarding our findings. Although the results suggest significant relationships between mindfulness and several indicators of well-being, they can not be interpreted causally. Longitudinal studies are required to ascertain any causal relationship between mindfulness and adolescent development and well-being.  31 Summary and Conclusions  Our confirmatory factor analysis, reliability testing and item scale statistics reveal the modified MAAS to be a psychometrically sound instrument when used with a population of early adolescents. The variability we found among this group of early adolescents suggest that mindfulness may not be static across adolescence. Of particular interest, is the that mindfulness was found to be higher in younger early adolescents than in older early adolescents. The correlation patterns show that overall, high scorers on the MAAS tended to report better psychological adjustment across the domains of traits and attributes, emotional disturbance, emotional well-being and eudainomic well-being. Findings indicate the mindfulness is an important element of positive early adolescent development. The finding that younger peers exhibited higher levels of mindfulness than older early adolescents is important as it relates to the increases in risk that early adolescents face as they move through this developmental period. This mirrors the patterns of psychological distress manifesting as anxiety and depression, which increase as a function of age. Moreover, during this developmental period, early adolescents are experiencing more negative affect and less positive affect, while at the same time exhibit decreasing optimism and self-concept. These findings lead one to wonder how mindfulness fits into adolescent resiliency. Our results suggest that mindful awareness encourages self-regulated action and well-being, which in turn protect individuals from psychological ill-being. Longitudinal examination of mindfulness in relation to adolescents resiliency is needed to gain a fuller picture of the role mindfulness plays in positive development and adolescent well-being.  Despite the aforementioned limitations, this study provides validation for the use of the modified Mindful Attention Awareness Scale with early adolescents, and offers insight into the role mindfulness play in the psychological adjustment and well-being of this population. These findings highlight the importance of including the construct of mindfulness in further investigations into positive adolescent development. Furthermore, these findings also speak to the potential usefulness of mindfulness training in primary prevention and intervention efforts with school-aged children.  33 References Arnett, J.J. (1999). 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Developmental Psychology, 27, 552-565.  Appendix A: • Teacher Consent Form  41 THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  fjjBC"  Faculty of Education l i f  UBC Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4  Tel: 604-822-0000 Fax: 604-822-0000  Page 1 of 3 Dear  educ.ubc.ca  Teacher:  You and your students have been selected to be participants in a research project that I am conducting at your school entitled "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success through Mindfulness Education." This study is a partnership between administrators and staff at the VSB and myself (Dr. Kim Schonert-Reichl at UBC) and a UBC graduate student, Ms. Molly Stewart Lawlor, to evaluate the "Mindfulness Education" curriculum now being implemented in several Vancouver elementary classrooms. Teachers who participate will receive a copy of the results of the study along with some suggestions and guidelines for facilitating mindfulness in intermediate grade students. Portions of the data from the study will be used for Molly Stewart Lawlor's MA thesis at UBC. Listed below are several aspects of this project that you need to know. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to promote mindfulness in children. All of the children in your class are being asked to participate. It is hoped that the results of this study will help parents and educators better understand children's emotional and social development and therefore be better equipped to improve education for all. This project is being funded by a grant from the The Bright Light Foundation, founded by Goldie Hawn to "creatfe] a more peaceful and tolerant world by supporting both research efforts and global education programs that target our youth". For more information about the foundation,  please visit the website: brightlightfoundation.net  Study Procedures: Students who participate in this study will be asked to fill out several questionnaires designed to assess children's social and emotional understanding, prosocial behaviours, emotional well-being, classroom belonging, and academic efficacy. Completion of these questionnaires will take approximately 50 minutes for two sessions. One session will take place sometime during the next month and the second will take place at the end of the school year. Participating students will be administered questionnaires in their classrooms. Note that we will read out loud aloud questionnaires to students. In our project, we are not, in any sense "testing" the children. There are no right or wrong answers - we simply want to know how children understand themselves and emotion. Some of the children who participate in the study will be in classrooms receiving a program designed to specifically promote mindfulness while other children in the study will be in regular classrooms. Students who do not participate will be given something else to do in their class related to regular classroom lessons.  42 Page 2 of 3 In addition to obtaining information from children, classroom teachers are being asked to complete a brief checklist assessing various dimensions of each child's social behaviours in the classroom. You will be asked to complete this checklist twice - once during the next month and again at the end of the school year. Each checklist will take approximately 5-10 minutes to complete per child. You will receive a $25.00 gift certificate from Chapters as a token of appreciation for your help with our research. Due to the nature of this study, a small number of students may exhibit levels of emotional well-being that warrant further investigation. The names of these students will be given to the school counsellor who will contact them individually. She/he will be prepared to work with these individuals if the student and family choose to do so. Your students' scores and original questionnaires will however, not be made available to anyone. Confidentiality: All of your answers will be completely confidential and will not be available to teachers, parents, or other school personnel. No specific child or teacher will be referred to by name or identified in any way in the report of the results. Questionnaires will be coded and kept in a locked file cabinet in the Dr. Kim Schonert-Reichl's office. Contact: If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us (information below). If you have any concerns about your treatment as a research participant, you may contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at 604-822-8598. Participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time, even after signing this consent form. Refusing to participate or withdrawal will not jeopardize your job or professional standing in any way. Sincerely, Dr. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl Associate Professor  Molly Stewart Lawlor Project Coordinator  43 Page 3 of 3 TEACHER CONSENT FORM Study Title: "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Though Mindfulness Education." Researcher: Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology and Special Education, University of British Columbia, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 (KEEP THIS PORTION FOR YOUR RECORDS) I have read and understand the attached letter regarding the study entitled "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Though Mindfulness Education." I have also kept copies of both the letter describing the study and this permission slip. Yes, I will participate. No, I will not participate. S ignature Please Print Date  K  v  J**.  J**.  t>_^  <j_^  J**.  a**.  <_^a**.  <\^>-  «>_^  <a_^  <a_^  j**.  <r<  <_^-  I have read and understand the attached letter regarding the study entitled "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Though Mindfulness Education." I have also kept copies of both the letter describing the study and this permission slip. Yes, I will participate. No, I will not participate. Signature Please Print Date  Appendix B : Parent Consent Form  45 THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  [UBC  Faculty of Education Ip  UBC Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4  Tel: 604-822-0000 Fax: 604-822-0000 r,  ,  ~  Page 1 of3 c  educ.ubc.ca  Dear Parent/Guardian: Educators at the Vancouver School Board, Ms. Molly Stewart Lawlor, a graduate student at UBC, and I are conducting a research project entitled "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success through Mindfulness Education" at your child's elementary school along with several other elementary schools in Vancouver. The project is concerned with developing an understanding of how children develop mindfulness and in turn, a positive self-regard, and healthy adjustment and achieve success in school. Portions of the data from the study will be used for Molly Stewart Lawlor's MA thesis at UBC. Listed below are several aspects of this project that you need to know. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to promote social and emotional understanding in children. All of the children in your child's class are being asked to participate. It is hoped that the results of this study will help parents and educators better understand children's social, emotional and academic development and therefore be better equipped to improve education for all. Purpose:  Study Procedures: Students who participate in this study will be asked to fill out a series of two questionnaires in his/her classroom. Completion of these questionnaires will take approximately 50 minutes for two sessions. One session will take place sometime during the next month and the second will take place at the end of the school year. The questionnaires will ask children to report on their feelings about themselves, their classroom, their emotional well-being, and their academic competence. In our project, we are not, in any sense "testing" the children. There are no right or wrong answers - we simply want to know how children understand themselves, emotions, and cognitions. Some of the children who participate in the study will be in classrooms receiving a program specifically designed to promote mindfulness while other children in the study will be in classrooms not receiving the program. In addition to obtaining information directly from the children, classroom teachers are being asked to complete a checklist assessing various dimensions of your child's classroom behaviours. Children who do not participate in this research will be given an activity to do related to their regular classroom instruction.  Due to the nature of this study, a small number of students may exhibit levels of emotional well-being that warrant further investigation. The names of these students will be given to the school counsellor who will contact them individually. She/he will be prepared to work with these individuals if the student and family choose to do so. Your child's score and original questionnaires will however, not be made available to anyone. Confidentiality: All of your child's answers will be completely confidential and will not be available to teachers, parents, or other school personnel. No specific child will be referred by name or identified in any way in the report of the results. Children's names will be removed from any questionnaires  46 Page 2 of 3 and be replaced w i t h a code n u m b e r . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be kept in a locked file cabinet in m y office at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Contact: If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to call me at . If you have any concerns about the treatment of your child or his/her rights as a research subject, you may contact the Director of Research Services at the University of British Columbia at 604-8228598. Participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to have your child participate or withdraw from the study at any time, even after signing the consent form. Also, we always respect the child's wishes as to whether he or she wants to participate. Refusing to participate or withdrawal will not jeopardize your child's education or class marks in any way.  I would appreciate it if you would indicate on the slip provided on the attached page whether or not your son/daughter has permission to participate. W o u l d y o u then k i n d l y sign and date the slip a n d have y o u r son/daughter r e t u r n it to school t o m o r r o w ? Thank you very much for considering this request. Sincerely,  Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Ph.D., Associate Professor  Molly Stewart Lawlor Project Coordinator  47 Page 3 of 3  PARENT CONSENT FORM  Study Title: "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Through Mindfulness Education" Researcher: Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education, University of British Columbia 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 Office: 604-822-2215, Fax: 604-822-3302 (KEEP THIS PORTION FOR YOUR RECORDS) I have read and understand the attached letter regarding the study entitled "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Through Mindfulness Education." I have also kept copies of both the letter describing the study and this permission slip. (CHECK ONE) Yes, my son/daughter has my permission to participate. No, my son/daughter does not have permission to participate. Parent's signature Son or Daughter's Name Date <?S>  ^Vfc.  %s  %s <f<*.  Q_>"  «^Nh  _?N_  o^-  _rx_ _rx_  (DETACH HERE ARE RETURN TO SCHOOL) I have read and understand the attached letter regarding the study entitled "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Through Mindfulness Education." I have also kept copies of both the letter describing the study and this permission slip. (CHECK ONE) Yes, my son/daughter has my permission to participate. No, my son/daughter does not have permission to participate. Parent's signature Son or Daughter's Name Date  Appendix C: Student Recruitment Letter  49 THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  UBC  Faculty of Education W  UBC Faculty of Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4  Tel: 604-822-0000 Fax: 604-822-0000 educ.ubc.ca  Dear [NAME OF SCHOOL] Elementary School Student:  You have been selected to participate in a research project that we are conducting at  [NAME OF SCHOOL] Elementary School entitled "Promoting Social and Academic Success Through Mindfulness Education." This study is being organized by educators at the  Vancouver School Board and Dr. Kim Schonert-Reichl and Ms. Molly Stewart Lawlor from the University of British Columbia. Portions of the data from the study will be used for Molly Stewart Lawlor's MA thesis at UBC. Listed below are several aspects of this project that you need to know. •  The purpose of this study is to help us learn more about how children your age think about yourself and school. By taking part in our research project you will help us  better understand what is important to children your age so that we can help all children receive a good education. If you decide to take part in this study, we will ask you to fill out some questionnaires that ask you about your background, your feeling about yourself and school. You will complete one set of questionnaires in the next couple of weeks and another set of questionnaires in June. We will be there to explain the directions and make sure you understand the instructions. Children who do not participate in this research will be given an activity to do related to their regular classroom instruction. •  •  It is not a test and there are no right or wrong answers - just your answers, we are  only interested in finding out your opinions and feelings. We think that if we are to learn more about children in elementary school, we have to come to the children and ask them in person. So, you can help teach us how children think and feel. It is hoped that the results of this study will help teachers and parents better understand the way that students think and improve education for all. Your answers on the questionnaires will be completely confidential (private, secret)  What this means is that we will not and can not show your answers to your teachers, your parents, your friends, or anyone else. Your name will NOT be kept with your answers so that no one by the researchers will know who answered the questions.  In order for you to participate in the study, you need to take home the attached permission slip and give it to your parents so that they may sign it. Please do your best to return the permission slip to your teacher by TOMORROW. Thank you for considering this request. We hope you agree to participate. Sincerely, Dr. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl  Molly Stewart Lawlor Project Coordinator  Appendix D : Student Assent Form  51 THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  I  UBC  Faculty of Education lH  U B C Faculty o f Education 2125 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , B C , Canada V 6 T 1Z4  Tel: 6 0 4 - 8 2 2 - 0 0 0 0  Fax: 604-822-0000 educ.ubc.ca  Student Assent Form  The purpose of this form is to give you the information you need in order to decide whether or not you want to be in our research study "Promoting Children's Social and Academic Success Through Mindfulness Education." The purpose of this study is to help us learn more about how students your age think about school experiences, friends and themselves. By taking part in our research project you will help us better understand what is important to Canadian students your age. This study is being organized by Dr. Kim Schonert-Reichl, and Ms. Molly Stewart Lawlor at the University of British Columbia. By taking part in our research project you will help us better understand what is important to children your age so that we can help all children receive a good education. If you decide to take part in this study, we ask you tofillout some questionnaires that ask you about your background, your feelings about yourself, your classroom, and your classmates. This is not a test. THERE ARE NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS. WE ARE ONLY INTERESTED IN YOUR OPINIONS, SO PLEASE ANSWER HONESTLY. Remember no one at school or in your community (not even your parents, teacher, or school principal) will ever see your answers (they will be confidential) - so please answer honestly.  It is your choice whether or not your want to take part in this study at any time during the study and there will be no consequences. If you choose not to participate, it will not affect your marks. Students who do not participate will be given something else to do in their class related to regular classroom lessons. We will be happy to answer any questions you have before signing or later. Please indicate that you have read this form by printing your name on the line below. You may have a copy of this consent form for your records. Thank you for your help.  Date  Name (Please print)  Appendix E: Demographic Questionnaire  53 TELL US ABOUT YOURSELF  Name:  Grade  1. Are you a boy or a girl? (CIRCLE ONE) BOY 2. What is your birthdate?  (month)  (day)  GIRL (year you were born)  3. Which of these adults do you live with MOST OF THE TIME? (Check all the adults you live with). Mother Grandmother 1/2 Mom, 1/2 Dad Father Grandfather Stepfather Stepmother Other adults (EXPLAIN, for example, aunt, uncle, mom's boyfriend, foster parents) 4. Do you have any brother(s) in your family? (include stepbrothers) • Yes • No If yes, how old are they 5. Do you have any sister(s) in your family? (include stepsisters) • Yes • No If yes, how old are they 6. What is the first language you learned at home? 7. Which language(s) do you speak at home? 8. Which language do you prefer to speak?  Appendix F: Mindfulness  55  DAY-TO-DAY EXPERIENCES Directions: Below is a collection of statements about your everyday experience. Using the scale below, please circle the number that best describes how often you have each experience. Please answer according to what really describes your experience rather than what you think your experience should be. Please treat each item separately from every other item. Thank you!! 1 Experiences  Almost  Not  Never  often at all  1.  I could be feeling a certain way  HREHH Not very Often  .  6 Almost  Often  Very often  Somewhat  Always  1  2  3  4  5  6  1  2  3  4  B___f|19  6  1  2  3  4  5  6  4  5  6  6  and not realize it until later. 2.  I break or spill things because of carelessness, not paying attention, or thinking of something else.  3. I find it hard to stay focused on what's happening in the present moment. 4.  2  Usually, I walk quickly to get where I'm going without paying attention to what I experience  5.  Usually, I do not notice if my  lllill§lliiMs:s41:  1  2  3  4  5  1(111(1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  6  1  2  ?  4  5  6  4  5  6  body feels tense or uncomfortable until it gets really bad 6.  I forget a person's name almost as soon as I've been told it for the first time.  7.  It seems that I am doing things automatically without really being aware of what I am doing  8.  I rush through activities  •^ifr'S'"'"'  without being really attentive to them. 9.  I focus so much on a future goal I want to achieve that I don't pay attention to what I am doing right now to reach it.  1  2  3  56 10. I do jobs, chores, or schoolwork automatically without being aware of what I'm doing. 11. I find myself listening to someone with one ear, doing something else at the same time. 12. I walk into a room, and then wonder why I went there. 13. I can't stop thinking about the past or the future. 14. I find myself doing things without paying attention. 15. I snack without being aware that I'm eating.  SIMM  2  lfli^^»|ISil§lil  3  "-  4  Biliil^^Bll^Hl  5  6  ••Hi  3  4  5  6  3 ^^^^^^^^^  4  5  6  2  3  4  5  6  "l  SliPBi  3  4  l  2  3  4  I  2  >?i:x/:i1  6 5  6  Appendix G: Self-Concept  58 H O W I DESCRIBE MYSELF D i r e c t i o n s : The following sentences describe ways children might feel about themselves. For each sentence, indicate how well it describes you by circling the number that describes HOW TRUE it is for you. Read each sentence carefully. Answer honestly. Always Sometimes Often Never Hardly Description Ever 1. I am good at school subjects  2  1  2. I enjoy doing work in all school subjects.  3  4  5  3  4  5  3. I do lots of important things.  1  2  3  4  5  4. In general, I like being the way I am  1  2  3  4  5  5. I get good marks in all school subjects.  1  2  3  4  5  6. Overall, I have a lot to be  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  9. I am interested in all school subjects.  1  2  3  4  5  10. Other people think that I am a good  1  2  3  4  5'  11. I look forward to all school subjects.  1  2  3  4  5  12. A lot of things about me are good.  1  2  3  4  5  13. Work in all school subjects is easy for me.  1  2  3  4  5  14. I'm as good as most other people.  i  3  4  15. I like all school subjects.  1  3  4  llllllll^^ 7. I learn things quickly in all school subjects. 8. I can do things as well as most other jljiiipiop^  16. When I do something, I do it well  1  2 2 2  3  4  5 5  Appendix H: Optimism  60  ABOUT ME..  Directions: For each sentence, indicate how well it describes you by circling the number that describes HOW TRUE it is for you. Read each sentence carefully. Answer honestly. Thank you!!  1.  I have more bad times than good.  2.  More good things than bad things will happen  3.  I start most days thinking I'll have a bad day.  4.  Even if there are bad things. I'm able to ^ce the good things about me and my life  5.  I'm bored by most things in life.  6.  I think things will get worse in the future.  7.  1 am optimistic about school life.  S.  I think that I am a luck\ one.  9.  When something bad happens to me, I think that it will last long.  Not at all liki- nu-  A little bit like nil-  Kind of likr nu.-  A lot like II1C  lik<.' MIL'  1  2  3  4  5  |  »  J  M  \|w;l\s  |  i  2  3  4  5  l  2  3  4  5  -? 3 1  i  2  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  61  Appendix I: Depression  The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI - Kovacs, 1992), is available from Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, California, 90025  Appendix Anxiety  63  WHA TOOT  WORRY  ABOUT?  Directions: Please put a circle around the word that shows how often each of these things happen to you. There are no right or wrong answers. Thank you!! 1.  I worry about things.  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  2.  I am s c a r e d o f t h e d a r k .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  3.  W h e n I have a p r o b l e m , I g e t a funny  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  f e e l i n g in my s t o m a c h . 4.  I feel afraid.  Never  Sometimes , Often  Always  5.  I would f e e l a f r a i d o f b e i n g on my own  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  a t home. 6.  I f e e l s c a r e d when I have to t a k e a test.  7.  I f e e l a f r a i d i f I have t o use public toilets or bathrooms  8.  I w o r r y a b o u t b e i n g away f r o m my parents.  9.  I f e e l a f r a i d t h a t I will m a k e a f o o l o f m y s e l f in f r o n t o f people.  10.  I w o r r y t h a t I will do b a d l y a t my s c h o o l work  11.  I am popular a m o n g s t o t h e r k i d s my own age  12.  I w o r r y t h a t s o m e t h i n g a w f u l will happen t o s o m e o n e in my f a m i l y .  13.  I suddenly f e e l as i f I can't b r e a t h e when t h e r e is no r e a s o n f o r t h i s .  14.  I have t o k e e p c h e c k i n g t h a t I have done t h i n g s r i g h t ( l i k e t h e s w i t c h is o f f , o r t h e d o o r is l o c k e d ) .  15.  I f e e l s c a r e d i f I have t o s l e e p on my own.  16.  I have t r o u b l e going t o s c h o o l in t h e mornings b e c a u s e I f e e l n e r v o u s o r afraid.  64 17.  I am good a t s p o r t s .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  18.  I am s c a r e d o f d o g s .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  19.  I can't s e e m t o g e t b a d o r s i l l y t h o u g h t s  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  out o f my h e a d . 20.  W h e n I have a p r o b l e m , my h e a r t b e a t s really f a s t .  21.  I suddenly s t a r t t o t r e m b l e o r s h a k e when t h e r e is no r e a s o n f o r t h i s .  22.  I w o r r y t h a t s o m e t h i n g b a d will happen t o me.  23  I am s c a r e d o f going t o t h e d o c t o r s o r dentists.  24.  W h e n I have a p r o b l e m , I f e e l s h a k y .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  2b  I am s c a r e d o f b e i n g in h i g h p l a c e s o r  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  lifts (elevators). 26.  I am a good p e r s o n .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  27  I have t o t h i n k o f s p e c i a l t h o u g h t s t o  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  s t o p b a d t h i n g s f r o m happening (like numbers or words). 28.  I f e e l scared i f I h a v e t o t r a v e l in t h e c a r , o r on a Bus o r a t r a i n .  29.  I w o r r y w h a t o t h e r people t h i n k o f me.  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  30.  I am a f r a i d o f b e i n g in c r o w d e d places  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  (like shopping c e n t r e s , t h e m o v i e s , buses, busy  playgrounds).  31.  I f e e l happy.  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  32.  All of a sudden I feel really scared f o r  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  no r e a s o n a t a l l . 33.  I am s c a r e d o f i n s e c t s o r s p i d e r s .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  34.  I suddenly become d i z z y or faint when  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  t h e r e is no r e a s o n f o r t h i s . 35  I f e e l a f r a i d i f I have t o t a l k in f r o n t o f my class.  36.  M y heart suddenly s t a r t s to beat too q u i c k l y f o r no r e a s o n .  65 37  I w o r r y t h a t I will s u d d e n l y g e t a  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  s c a r e d f e e l i n g w h e n t h e r e is n o t h i n g t o be a f r a i d o f . 38.  I like m y s e l f .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  39.  I am a f r a i d o f b e i n g in small c l o s e d  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  places, l i k e t u n n e l s o r small r o o m s 40.  I have t o do s o m e t h i n g s o v e r and o v e r again (like w a s h i n g my h a n d s , cleaning o r p u t t i n g t h i n g s in a c e r t a i n  41.  order).  I get b o t h e r e d by bad or silly thoughts o r p i c t u r e s in my mind.  42.  I have t o do s o m e t h i n g s in j u s t t h e r i g h t way t o s t o p b a d t h i n g s happening.  43  I am p r o u d o f my s c h o o l w o r k .  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  44.  I would f e e l s c a r e d i f I h a d t o s t a y  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  away f r o m h o m e o v e r n i g h t . 45  NO  I s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g e l s e t h a t you a r e really a f r a i d of?  46.  Please w r i t e d o w n w h a t i t is.  47  How often a r e you a f r a i d o f t h i s thing?  Never  Sometimes  Often  Always  Appendix K: Positive and Negative Affect  67 LA TEL y, I HA VE BEEN  FEELING...  Below is a list of 24 words that describe a lot of feelings people have. Please read each one carefully. Circle the number in the appropriate column which best describes how you have been feeling during the past couple of days, including today.  Directions:  [• 1  Alert  NOT MUCH  A LITTLE  A LOT  MOST OF THE TIME  1  2  3  4  '• 2  Distracted  1  2  3  3  Energetic  1  2  3  Tired  1  2  Rested  1  2  5  Confiisvri 7  Pleased  ,;. • 4  •••••  3  4  3  4  2 i  Sad  2 2  flMMBNsNRllHfl  9  Calm  10  Stressed-Out  11  Friendly  12  Mom-  13  Safe  i  4  2  4 2  i  4  3  1 i  Scared  2  4  3  2  4  15  Interested  i  16  Bored  i  17  Patient  1  Grouchy  1  19  Relaxed  1  20  Worried  BBPM1  21  Hopeful  i  2  3  4  2">  Disappointed  23  Angry  I  2  3  4  24  Happy  2  3  2  3 2  4  3 R  4 4  3  HPB1MI 2  4  3  4  • *»;;  4  Appendix L Autonomy  69 FEELINGS ABOUT MY CLASSROOM  Directions: For the following sayings, think about yourself and people your age when you answer. For each sentence, circle the number that describes H O W T R U E it is for you. Read each sentence carefully. Answer honestly. Thank you!  Never  Hardly e\er  Sometimes  Often  Always  1. In my class students have a say in deciding what goes on.  1  2  3  4  5  2. The teacher lets us do things our own way.  1  3. In my class the teacher is the only one who decides on the rules.  1  Feelings About my Classroom  4. The teacher lets mo choose what I will work  w.uii !•<  2  3  4  5  2  3  4  5  3  4  5  4  5  3  4  5  SHIliiPiiiiiii! • M i l - ' ' CJS^':  4  ,' 5. '  2111 i  5. In my class the teacher and students together plan what we will do.  6. In m\ class I get to do things thai 1  •4  •  '.:  1  7. In my class the teacher and students decide together what the rules will be.  1  2  8. The teacher in my class asks the students to help decide what the class should do.  1  IIlllII^IIflB  9. Students in my class can get a rule changed if they think it is unfair.  1  2  10. In m\ class the students get to help plan what they will do.  Appendix M: Belonging/Relatedness  71  S T U D E N T S  I N AAY  CLASSROOM  Directions: For the following sayings, think about yourself and people your age when you answer. For each sentence, circle the number that describes H O W T R U E it is for you. Read each sentence carefully. Answer honestly. Thank you!! Disagree a Disagree a Don't agree or dio.mn-ilittle lot  ;v'" 1.  Students in my class are willing to go out of their way to help someone.  2.  My classmates care about my work just as much as  3. My class is like a famiK. 4.  I  2  i  -»  i  2  3  Afjree a little  \»rw a I"!  4  5  4  5  4  5  4  5  4  5  The students in m\ class realk care about each  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 3  5.  A lot of students in my class like to put others down.  6.  Students in my class help each other learn.  7.  Students in my class help each other, even if they are not friends.  i  8.  Students in my class get along together ver\ well.  'i  9.  Students in my class just look out for themselves.  i  2  3  iiiiifi^  ,7  3  i  2  3  10. Students in ni\ class are mean to each other. 11. When I'm having trouble with my schoolwork, at least one of my classmates will try to help. 12. Students in my class treat each other with respect.  5,'! ~.^9 2  •''  3 ,.¥• '• 3  3  •3  • '. f  5 4  r-P  5  -.  Appendix N: Academic Competence  73  SCHOOL WORK  Directions: For each sentence, indicate how well it describes you by circling the number that describes H O W T R U E it is for you. Read each sentence carefully. Answer honestly. Thank you!! Siliiuil \ \ i n k  1.  I'm certain I can learn the skills taught in school this year.  2.  1 can dn e\en the hardest school work if 1  3.  If I have enough time, I can do a good job on all my school work.  4.  I can do almost al! the work in school if I don't give up.  5.  Even if the work in school is hard, I can learn it.  6.  I'm certain I can figure out how to do the most difficult school work.  7.  Understanding the work in school is more important to me than the mark I get.  8.  I like school work that I will learn from even if I make a lot of mistakes.  9.  The main reason I do my work in school is because I like to learn.  Always me  .Not at all like nic  A little bit like me  Kind of like- M i l '  A lot like me  1  2  3  4  5  i  2  3  4  5  i  2  3  4  5  i  2  3  4  5  IIBIB i  3  2  3  5  1  4  5  like  

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