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Archaeocyatha from the Colville and Salmo area of Washington and British Columbia Greggs, Robert G. 1957

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ARCHAEOCYATHA FROM THE COLVILLE AND SALMO AREA OF WASHINGTON AND BRITISH COLUMBIA by ROBERT G. GREGGS B.A., Queen's University, 1955 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n the Department of GEOLOGY AMD GEOGRAPHY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard Members of the Department of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1957 NOTE This t i t l e page i s incorrect. The program of the ceremony of Congregration indicates Master of Science, and the Registrar's Office confirms t h i s . U.B.C. Library, May 27, 1957. i ABSTRACT Archaeocyathids are an extinct group of animals that l i v e d and thrived i n the warm, clear marine waters of the Lower Cambrian. In general shape, they resemble rugose corals, but in skeletal d e t a i l s , numerous differences between these groups e x i s t , i . e . inner and outer walls, central c a v i t i e s , p a r i e t i e s , etc. are unique to Archaeocyathids. The Archaeocyathids which are the subject of t h i s thesis were collected by Dr. H. L i t t l e from the South Fork of the Salmo River, and from north.of C o l v i l l e , Washington. In the Salmo area, they occur i n a narrow band of limestone at the base of the Laib group. The C o l v i l l e c o l l e c t i o n i s from an outcrop of Old Dominion limestone. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and description of the species present i n these c o l l e c t i o n s are the main considerations of the the s i s . Two new species are described, Ethmophyllum lineatus and Syringocnema  c o l v i l l e n s i s . The former species occurs i n the Lower Cambrian limestone of the Laib group, Salmo area; the l a t t e r i s repor-ted from the Old Dominion limestone of the C o l v i l l e area. Archaeocyathids may be useful i n the c o r r e l a t i o n of Lower Cambrian formations, providing further accurately located ( s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y ) c o l l e c t i o n s are made. At present, insuf-f i c i e n t stratigraphic data are available to erect Archaeocyathid zones. However, some attempt to correlate the known Archaeo-cyathid occurrences i s made. In c o r r e l a t i n g the ten known Archaeocyathid occur-rences from Washington to the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , i t i s suggested i i that the most southerly, C o l v i l l e , Washington, i s s t r a t i g r a -p h i c a l l y lower than the Salmo occurrence, and that the l a t t e r i s , i n turn, s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y lower than the northern l o c a l i t i e s . These northern occurrences are considered to be l a t e Lower Cambrian. The age assigned to the northern l o c a l i t i e s i s , i n general, based on s t r a t i g r a p h i c and paleontological evidence other than that afforded by Archaeo-cyathids. The occurrences of Archaeocyathids i n the northern part of the C o r d i l l e r a are given below with t h e i r related l i t h o l o g i c unit where possible: 1) C o l v i l l e , Washington - Old Dominion limestone 2) Salmo, B.C. - lower part of the Laib group 3) Dogtooth Range, B.C. - Donald formation 4) Quesnel Lake, B.C. - Cariboo series 5) S i n c l a i r M i l l s , B.C. -6) Pine Pass, B.C. - Misinchinka schists 7) Aiken Lake, B.C. - upper Wolverine complex 8) McDame Creek, B.C. - Atan group 9) Wolf Lake, Yukon T e r r i t o r y - Lord's group B and c units 10) Quiet Lake, Yukon T e r r i t o r y -I t i s believed that these occurrences outline the western edge of the geosyncline present i n t h i s region i n Lower Cambrian time. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Geology and Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada, Date A p r i l 1, 1957.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to acknowledge the invaluable assistance given by Dr. V. J . Okulitch i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of species, preparation of i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and t r a n s l a t i o n of several Russian publications. Grateful acknowledgment i s made to Dr. G. E. Rouse f o r many thought-provoking discussions on the problems i n -volved. To Mr. D. W. Angold, many thanks fo r his many valuable suggestions. F i n a l l y , thanks are due to Mrs. W. L i t t l e and my wife f o r t h e i r constructive c r i t i c i s m of the manuscript. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i i ARCHAEOCYATHA FROM THE COLVILLE AND SALMO AREAS OF WASHINGTON AND BRITISH COLUMBIA Introduction 1 Di s t r i b u t i o n and Morphology of Archaeocyatha . . Morphology 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n 3 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS OF ARCHAEOCYATHA FROM THE COLVILLE AND SALMO AREAS OF WASHINGTON AND BRITISH COLUMBIA Faunal L i s t of Archaeocyatha C o l v i l l e Area 5 Salmo Area 6 Genus Monocyathus Bedford and Bedford 7 Monocyathus sp 7 Genus Archaeopharetra Bedford and Bedford . . . . 7 Archaeopharetra typica Bedford and Bedford . 8 Genus A.jacicyathus Bedford and Bedford 11 A.jacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) . . . . . 11 Ajacicyathus rimouski"~0kulitch 12 Genus Archaeocyathellus Ford 13 Archaeocyathellus sp 13 Genus Ethmophyllum Meek 14 Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch 15 Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek 16 Ethmophyllum lineatus n. sp 17 Genus Archaeocyathus B i l l i n g s 18 Archaeocyathus atlanticus B i l l i n g s 19 Archaeocyathus borealis Okulitch 20 Genus Protopharetra Bornemann 21 Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch 22 Protopharetra sp 23 Page Genus Pycnoidocyathus Taylor 24 Pycnoidocyathus columbianus (Okulitch) . . . . 24 Pycnoidocyathus amourensis (Okulitch) . . . . 26 Genus Dendrocyathus Okulitch and Roots 28 Dendrocyathus~sp 28 Genus Archaeosycon Taylor 29 Archaeosycon sp 29 Genus Claruscyathus Vologdin . . . . 30 Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin 30 Genus Syringoenema Taylor 31 Syringoenema c o l v i l l e n s i s n. sp 31 Genus Syringocyathus Vologdin 33 Syringocyathus canadensis Okulitch 33 ARCHAEOCYATHID LOCALITIES IN WASHINGTON, BRITISH COLUMBIA AND THE YUKON TERRITORY C o l v i l l e , Washington 36 Salmo, B.C 39 Dogtooth Mountains, B.C 41 S i n c l a i r M i l l s , B.C 43 Quesnel Lake and Pine Pass, B.C. 44 Aiken Lake, B.C 45 McDame Area, B.C 46 Wolf Lake, Yukon T e r r i t o r y 47 Quiet Lake, Yukon T e r r i t o r y 4# CONCLUSION 49 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY , 52 EXPLANATION OF PLATES 60 Plate I - Monocyathus sp., Archaeopharetra typica, Claruscyathus solidus, A.jacicyathus  nevadensis, Archaeosycon sp., Facing page 60 Plate II - Protopharetra sp., Protopharetra  dunbari, Archaeocyathus borealis, Archaeocyathus a t l a n t i c u s , Ajacicyathus  nevadensis, Pycnoidocyathus~cblumbianus, Pycnoidocyathus sp. ". '. '. .Facing page 62 Page Plate I I I - Ajacicyathus rimouski, Archaeocyathus  bor e a l i s , Syringocnema c o l v i l l e n s i s n. sp., Ethmophyllum whitneyi, Pycnoidocyathus amourensis, Ethmophyl-lum americanum, Pycnoidocyathus c f . columbianus, Syringocyathus sp.., Facing page 64 Plate IV - Protopharetra dunbari, Ethmophyllum  lineatus n. sp., Ethmophyllum  americanum, Ethmophyllum c f . americanum, Ethmophyllum whitneyi, A.jacicyathus  nevadensis, Archaeocyathellus sp. Archaeocyathus at l a n t i c u s , Facing page 66 ARCHAEOCYATHA FROM THE COLVILLE AMD SALMO AREAS OF WASHINGTON AND BRITISH COLUMBIA INTRODUCTION In 1948, Dr. H. Litt le of the Geological Survey of Canada, made a fine collection of Archaeocyathids from the Lower Cambrian of the Salmo area. The fossils were collected "in the eastern part of the map area, from the 200-foot band of limestone at the base of the Laib group, from a point 1,000 feet south of the International Boundary to a point nearly 5 miles to the north". (Litt le , 1950). This material was sent to the University of British Columbia for study by Dr. V. J . Okulitch. The faunal l i s t of Archaeo-cyathids from this area was published in Dr. Li t t le ' s report (Little, 1950), but no detailed descriptions of these Archaeocyathids were made. In the following year, 1949, Dr. Litt le made another extensive collection of Archaeocyathids from the Colville area, from a west-facing bluff of Old Dominion limestone about 1 mile north of Colville, Washington. This material had not been examined in any detail previous to this thesis. Both of the above collections were later supplemen-ted with material collected by Dr. Okulitch from the same localit ies. The Archaeocyathids were preserved in limestones of three main types. The limestone containing the best preserved 2 f o s s i l s was medium grey, fine-grained, and contained l i t t l e a rgillaceous material. A second limestone contained such quantities of brown argillaceous material that the l a t t e r re-placed outer portions of the Archaeocyathids. Consequently, the preservation of f o s s i l s i n t h i s matrix was poor. The t h i r d limestone was a creamy white, s l i g h t l y metamorphosed rock i n which the Archaeocyathids appeared as mere shadowy outlines. The s p e c i f i c determination of f o s s i l s i n t h i s l a s t rock type was very d i f f i c u l t . Sixty thin-sections containing 275 specimens were made from the C o l v i l l e material,, and eleven polished rock samples incorporating some f i f t y specimens from the Salmo area were studied. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and description of these specimens comprise the main portion of t h i s t h e s i s . An attempt to correlate the Lower Cambrian of Washington, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon i s made using Archaeocyathids and relevant geologic reports. Faunal l i s t s from the above areas are included, and the problem of zoning the Lower Cambrian on the basis of Archaeocyathids i s discussed b r i e f l y . DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOLOGY.OF ARCHAEOCYATHA Morphology Typical skeletons of Archaeocyathids are cone- or. cup-shaped, but saucer-like, crenulated forms do occur. The skeletons are usually preserved as the o r i g i n a l calcareous material, but s i l i c e o u s skeletons are found, notably i n South A u s t r a l i a . 3 Both single and double walled Archaeocyathids are known. In the double walled forms, the walls are connected by regular v/ertical plates - p a r i e t i e s , and/or by synapticulae, tabulae, taenia and dissepiments - i r r e g u l a r rod- and p l a t e - l i k e elements. A l l the sk e l e t a l tissues are perforated by pores that vary i n size from f i n e to coarse. The l i v i n g tissue i s thought to have been a layer one c e l l thick, coating most of the ske l e t a l surfaces. Communication between the various chambers of the organism and the outside was achieved by numerous pores. Archaeocyathids are assumed to have reproduced sex-u a l l y and by budding. The former method produced motile larvae -which resulted i n saucer-, cup-, and cone-like forms. The l a t t e r produced various arborescent structures. D i s t r i b u t i o n At the peak of t h e i r development, Archaeocyathids were present i n nearly a l l the warm, clear, shallow seas of the Lower Cambrian. A very low tolerance to s i l t y or muddy water, and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to cope with encrusting algae probably prevented a complete pervading of a l l the seas. Nevertheless, the cosmopolitan nature of Archaeocyathids and t h e i r explosive type of evolution indicate they were well suited f o r the environment they did inhabit. Some of the more important l o c a l i t i e s where Archaeo-cyathids occur are i n Au s t r a l i a , S i b e r i a , the Yukon, B r i t i s h Columbia, Nevada, Washington, C a l i f o r n i a , V i r g i n i a , Mexico, Newfoundland, Labrador, Spain, and Sardinia. A l l these l o c a l i -t i e s are Lower Cambrian i n age. Reports by Vologdin (1939) 4 and Bornemann (1886) of the occurrence of Archaeocyathids in rocks of Middle Cambrian have been since refuted by Zhuravleva (1951a). It is now accepted that they are confined solely to the Lower Cambrian. 5 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS OF ARCHAEOCYATHA FROM THE COLVILLE AND SALMO AREAS'OF WASHINGTON AND BRITISH COLUMBIA Faunal L i s t of Archaeocyatha from the C o l v i l l e Area PHYLUM ARCHAEOCYATHA CLASS MONOCYATHEA ORDER MONOCYATHIDA Family Monocyathidae Monocyathus sp. ORDER ARCHAEOPHYLLIDAE Family Archaeophyllidae Archaeopharetra typica Bedford and Bedford CLASS ARCHAEOCYATHEA ORDER AJACICYATHIDA Family Ajacicyathidae A.jacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) Ajacicyathus rimouski" Family Ethmophyllidae Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek ORDER METACYATHIDA Family Archaeocyathidae Archaeocyathus atlanticus B i l l i n g s Archaeocyathus borealis Okulitch Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch Protopharetra sp. 6 Family Pycnoidocyathldae. Pycnoidocyathus columbianus (Okulitch) Pycnoidocyathus amourensis (Okulitch) Pycnoidocyathus sp. Dendrocyathus sp. Family Metacoscinidae Archaeosycon sp. Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin ORDER SYRINGOCNEMIDA Family Syringocnematidae Syringocnema c o l v i l l e n s i s n.sp. Syringocyathus sp. Faunal L i s t of Archaeocyatha from the Salmo Area PHYLUM ARCHAEOCYATHA CLASS ARCHAEOCYATHEA ORDER AJACICYATHIDA Family Ajacicyathidae A.jacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) A.jacicyathus rimouski Okulitch Archaeocyathellus sp. Family Ethmophyllidae Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek Ethmophyllum lineatus n. sp. ORDER METACYATHIDA Family Archaeocyathidae Archaeocyathus atlanticus B i l l i n g s Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch Protopharetra sp. 7 Family Pycnoidocyathidae Pycnoidocyathus amourensis (Okulitch) ORDER SYRIFGOCNEMIDA Family Syringocnematidae Syringocyathus canadensis Okulitch PHYLUM ARCHAEOCYATHA Vologdin, 1937 GLASS MONOCYATHEA Okulitch, 1943 ORDER MONOCYATHIDA Okulitch, 1935 \ Family Monocyathidae Bedford and Bedford, 1934 Genus Monocyathus Bedford and Bedford, 1934 Monocyathus sp. Plate I - l : i This very simple form i s represented by one specimen i n transverse section from the C o l v i l l e area. The specimen i s s l i g h t l y e l l i p t i c a l i n section, diameters of 1.2 mm. and 0.9 mm. The single wall i s approximately 0.1 mm. thick and perforated by f i n e pores. The only other known occurrence of t h i s genus i s in Lower Cambrian rocks of South A u s t r a l i a . ORDER ARCHAEOPHYLLIDA Okulitch, 1943 Family Archaeophyllidae Vologdin, 1931 Genus Archaeopharetra Bedford and Bedford, 1936 8 Archaeopharetra ty p i c a Bedford and Bedford 1936 Plate I - 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 : A problem exists i n the precise d i s t i n c t i o n between the ontogeny of the genera Archaeopharetra and Protopharetra. The two genera resemble each other i n t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y and lack of well-organized s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . They d i f f e r i n that Archaeopharetra lacks an inner wall and central cavity. Other differences are the imperforate tissues and generally smaller size of Archaeopharetra spp., p a r t i c u l a r l y A. typ i c a , and the development i n Protopharetra of more-pronounced mesh-like structures. It i s s t i l l open to question, however, whether Archaeopharetra i s a v a l i d genus, or merely a v a r i a t i o n i n growth stages of Protopharetra. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of tiss u e into the poorly developed inner wall and central cavity charac-t e r i s t i c of Protopharetra could be accomplished i n Archaeopharetra by very minor changes i n the s k e l e t a l structure. This organization could occur i n the adult stage, with accom-panying development of perforate walls and mesh-like structures to produce specimens i d e n t i c a l to those of Protopharetra. This confusion i n the ontogeny of Archaeopharetra and Proto-pharetra w i l l be c l a r i f i e d only when abundant, perfect specimens of t h e i r various species are found. U n t i l that time, i t can only be suggested that they may be congeneric. This i s the f i r s t time specimens have been referre d to A. ty p i c a since Bedford and Bedford described i t i n 1936. The species i s represented by f i v e well-preserved specimens from the Salmo l o c a l i t y . These were studied as thin-sections, 9 four transverse and one l o n g i t u d i n a l . General Shape: A blunt, cone-like form; small; c i r c u l a r ' t o e l l i p t i c a l i n transverse section; specimens vary from 2.5 to 6 mm. i n diameter; the specimen studied as a l o n g i t u d i n a l section has a length of 15 mm., a greatest diameter of 2.5 mm., tapering down to a diameter of 1 mm.; annulations of the outer wall were observed i n t h i s l o ngitudinal section. Outer Wall: Thick; well-defined; imperforate. I n t e r i o r of Cup: No inner wall or central cavity; flattened, rounded bars more or l e s s f i l l the cup; a l l s k e l e t a l structures i n the cup are imperforate. Horizon and L o c a l i t y : Lower Cambrian of C o l v i l l e , Washington; and Lower Cambrian of South A u s t r a l i a . Remarks: It was at f i r s t thought that the specimens designated as A. t y p i c a might well be referred to Rhizacyathus radix. However, on close examination of Bedford and Bedford's (1936, 1937, 1939) o r i g i n a l descriptions and plates of these species, i t was f e l t that they are a c t u a l l y conspecific. They d i f f e r only i n that Rhizacyathus radix has s l i g h t l y stouter s k e l e t a l structures than A. t y p i c a . This thickening could be caused by secondary c a l c i f i c a t i o n or by some minor environmental f a c t o r . Since Archaeopharetra has p r i o r i t y , the specimens are referred to t h i s genus. I f we accept the present c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and consider Archaeopharetra and Protopharetra as d i s t i n c t , v a l i d genera, 10 we are faced with the contradictory procedure of including Archaeopharetra i n the Metacyathida. By d e f i n i t i o n Metacyathida are Archaeocyathids with two perforate walls. A. t y p i c a has only one wall, and that i s imperforate. This fa c t i s mentioned i n the o r i g i n a l description of A. ty p i c a . where Bedford and Bedford (1936) state that "the outer wall i s coated with s i l i c a and pores are not v i s i b l e " . Also i n t h e i r l a t e r publications of 1937 and 1939, numerous plates of Archaeopharetra appear, none of which shows perforate outer walls. The specimens of A. typica from the C o l v i l l e c o l l e c t i o n are well-preserved calcareous skeletons, yet even these show no pores i n the outer wall. I t can be only con-cluded that the outer wall of A. typica i s imperforate. It i s therefore suggested that Archaeopharetra be referred to the family Archaeophillidae of the class Monocyathea, a family whose genera are characterized by the possession of one imperforate wall. This proposed change i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been followed i n t h i s t h e s i s . The genus Protopharetra i s acceptable i n the present taxonomic l o c a t i o n within the family Archaeocyathidae of the class Archaeocyathea. One exception to the above suggestion might be noted. Archaeopharetra vologdini, described by Bedford and Bedford (1939) , does not comply with the defined l i m i t s of the genus i n that i t possesses a porous inner wall and a central cavity. No redescription or redesignation of t h i s species i s proposed here, but i t should be probably referred to genus Protopharetra. 11 CLASS ARCHAEOCYATHEA Okulitch, 1943 ORDER AJACICYATHIDA Bedford and Bedford, 1939 Family Ajacicyathidae Bedford and Bedford, 1939 Genus A.jacicyathus Bedford and Bedford, 1939 A.jacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch, 1943) Plate 1 - 7 ; Plate 11-10, 11; Plate IV - 6:.. This species i s represented by numerous specimens from the Colville area, but by two only from the Salmo area. With the exception of one specimen, they are a l l smaller than the type i.e. 2 mm. in diameter as compared with 3 mm. Intervallum coefficient varies from 0.7 to 0.85, in this res-pect agreeing well with the type intervallum coefficient of 0.8 to 1.0. The parietal coefficient varies from 5 to 6.8, which i s slightly higher than that of the type. This may be due to the small size of the specimens. Further growth could increase the diameter without increasing the number of parieties present. In substantiation of this, the specimen of greatest diameter has the lowest parietal coefficient. Outer Wall: Thin to moderately thick in places, with numerous pores perforating, and partly perforating the wall. These l a t -ter pores are located in the thicker portions of the outer wall and may be upwardly inclined tubes. Parieties: Regularly arranged; usually straight, although some are gently curved; perforated by large pores; but many parieties are imperforate in thin-section, suggesting that the pores are widely spaced. . Number of parieties varies from 10 1 2 to 13 where the diameter of the specimen i s 2 mm. Inner Wall: Stout, thick, simple; perforated by large pores. Horizon and L o c a l i t y : Lower Cambrian at C o l v i l l e , Stevens County, Washington; and on the south fork of the Salmo River at the base of the Laib Group, B.C. This species has pre-viously been reported from Caborca, Northwestern Sonora, Mexico; Inyo County, C a l i f . ; S i l v e r Peak, Nevada; the P u r c e l l Range, B r i t i s h Columbia; and from the McDame area, B r i t i s h Columbia. Ajacicyathus rimouski Okulitch 1943 Plate III - 1, 2 , 3: This species i s well represented by several specimens from both the C o l v i l l e and Salmo l o c a l i t i e s . In contrast to A. nevadensis, A. rimouski i s more abundant i n the c o l l e c t i o n from the Salmo area. General Shape: A. rimouski resembles A. nevadensis, but d i f -f e r s i n the number of p a r i e t i e s and r e l a t i v e width of the intervallum. The r a t i o of intervallum to diameter of central cavity varies from 1.1 to 1.4, and the p a r i e t a l c o e f f i c i e n t varies from 7.1 to 8.8. Outer Wall: Moderately thick, simple; two or three large pores per intersept, such that pore area nearly equals area of sk e l e t a l material. P a r i e t i e s : Numerous; straight, or gently curved; slender, 13 long, rarely perforated by large pores, which tend to appear in the parieties close to the inner wall. Inner Wall: Stout, thick, occasionally perforated by large pores. Horizon and Locality: Lower Cambrian of "Colville, Washington, and on the south fork of the Salmo River. A. rimouski has been also reported from Caborca, Mexico; and from the type locality at Bic Harbour, Rimouski County, Quebec. Genus Archaeocyathellus Ford, 1873 Archaeocyathellus sp. Plate IV - 8: This species is represented by one very minute specimen from the Salmo locality. Preservation of this specimen is sufficiently good so that definite allocation to the genus Archaeocyathellus could be made. However, since the species are distinguished by pore pattern, not visible in the specimen, specific identification is impossible. General Shape: Specimen was studied as a transverse section on a polished surface; slightly oval in section, diameters of I mm. and 0.6 mm; intervallum about 0.2 mm. wide; central cavity 0.4 mm. in diameter; intervallum coefficient of 0.5; II parieties were counted in an average diameter of 0.8 mm., giving a parietal coefficient of 13.8. Outer Wall: Longitudinally fluted, furrows coinciding with 14 the junction of the parieties and the outer wall; pores not visible; thick; secondary calcification possible. Parieties: Short, stout, regularly arranged; imperforate. Inner Wall: Not furrowed or fluted; pores not visible; thick. Horizon and Locality: Lower Cambrian from the south fork of the Salmo River, B.C. Numerous other occurrences are cited in the literature: Rocky Mountain Cordillera; New York State, U.S.A.; Australia, Spain and Russia. Family Ethmophyllidae Okulitch, 1943 Genus Ethmophyllum Meek, 1868 The genus Ethmophyllum is well represented in the collections from the Colville and Salmo areas. The Salmo locality is especially abundant in specimens of the three species described below. This genus is considered to be one of the most highly organized genera of the Archaeocyatha (Okulitch, Zhuravleva). The mathematical regularity observed in the arrangement of parieties, the pore distribution in the outer wall, and the complex inner wall confirm this impression. As a result of this high degree of organization, and from the findings of Zhuravleva (1955), the occurrence of Ethmophyllum is regarded as indicative of late Lower Cambrian horizons. Thus Ethmophyllum is of great importance in zoning the Lower Cambrian by Archaeocyatha. 15 Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch, 1952, Plate I I I - 11; Plate IV - 5, 9, 1.2: Only two specimens of t h i s species are present i n the c o l l e c t i o n from the C o l v i l l e area, but i t i s a common species from the Salmo l o c a l i t y . I t i s e a s i l y distinguished from E. whitneyi by i t s very large central cavity, r e l a t i v e l y narrow intervallum, and numerous p a r i e t i e s . The inner wall of E. americanum i s usually s l i g h t l y l e s s complex than that of E. whitneyi. In general shape, i t i s a long cone-like structure si m i l a r to other Ethmophyllum species. One incomplete specimen was 55 mm. long and 7 mm. i n diameter at the l a r g e r end. The p a r i e t a l c o e f f i c i e n t s of the specimens varied from 7«4 to 8.8; type specimen has p a r i e t a l c o e f f i c i e n t of 7.6. The intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t was more variable, ranging from 0.18 to 0.4. This c o e f f i c i e n t i n the type material varies from 0.14 to 0.16. Outer Wall: Moderately thick to t h i n ; f i n e l y perforate by 3 to 4 pores per intersept i n some specimens, 6 to 8 pores per intersept i n others. P a r i e t i e s : Numerous, short, stout; apparently imperforate; straight, simple. Inner Wall: Complex, consisting of one row of shallow cup-l i k e processes projecting into the central cavity; these processes appear to be arranged i n v e r t i c a l as well as horizon-t a l rows; occasionally fragments of a smaller, secondary row 16 are v i s i b l e ; perforated by coarse pores; s k e l e t a l material very thick in comparison with p a r i e t i e s and outer wall. Horizon and L o c a l i t y : From the Lower Cambrian of Sonora, Mexico, the type l o c a l i t y ; and from the Lower Cambrian of C o l v i l l e , Washington, and Salmo, B.C. Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek 1868 Plate I I I - 7, S; Plate IV - 7, 10: -The c o l l e c t i o n of Archaeocyathids from the Salmo l o c a l i t y i s r i c h i n well-preserved specimens of t h i s species. So p r o l i f i c and numerous are they that the fauna i s v i r t u a l l y dominated by them. E. whitneyi also occurs at the C o l v i l l e l o c a l i t y , but to a very minor extent. In general shape, E. whitneyi i s slender, tapering and cone-like, with occasional annulations on the surface. Outer Wall: Moderately thick; 4 to 6 s l i t - l i k e pores per intersept, the number of pores being constant f o r any one specimen, but varying from specimen to specimen. P a r i e t i e s : Numerous, short, thick elements; regularly ar-ranged; 36 p a r i e t i e s in one specimen of 6 mm. diameter; very r a r e l y perforated by pores, but occasionally pores do occur in the p a r i e t i e s near the inner wall. Inner Wall: Complex arrangement i n rows, one or two, of v e s i c l e s apparently derived from fusion and waving of the ends of p a r i e t i e s ; i n longitudinal section, v e s i c l e s appear 17 to be attenuated cup-like projections opening upward; struc-t u r a l elements of the inner wall are stronger, stouter than those of the p a r i e t i e s or outer wall; occasional large pores perforate a l l inner wall components. Horizon and L o c a l i t y : E. whitneyi occurs i n the Lower Cambrian at the South Forks of the Salmo River, B.C. and from the C o l v i l l e area. Other North American l o c a l i t i e s are: S i l v e r Peak D i s t r i c t , Nevada; Inyo County,. C a l i f o r n i a ; and Caborca, Mexico. Ethmophyllum lineatus n. sp. Plate IV - 2, 3, 4-This new species i s represented by seven specimens from the Salmo l o c a l i t y . A l l the specimens were studied i n polished section. The species i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Ethmophyllum i n possessing a complex inner wall, and f i n e , regularly arranged p a r i e t i e s , but a t y p i c a l i n i t s bowl-like conformation. General Shape: A flattened, saucer-like form with a very narrow intervallum; the intervallum width varies from 1 mm. to 1.75 mm., with 2.4 to 2.8 p a r i e t i e s per millimeter. Since only fragmental specimens are available, the p a r i e t a l and intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t s cannot be accurately determined. Estimates of these are; p a r i e t a l c o e f f i c i e n t - 200:30, i n t e r -vallum c o e f f i c i e n t - 1.5:27. Outer Wall: Thin; perforated by 6 to 8 f i n e pores per i n t e r -sept i n some specimens, 9 to 11 i n others. IB P a r i e t i e s ; Very s h o r t , s t r a i g h t , s l e n d e r ; numerous; a p p a r e n t -l y i m p e r f o r a t e ; s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h o s e o f E. americanum. I n n e r W a l l : Complex, c o n s i s t i n g o f 1 t o 2 rows o f f i n e , n arrow v e s i c l e s ; t h e v e s i c l e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f E. w h i t n e y i , b u t w i t h s h o r t e r d i a m e t e r s ; p e r f o r a t e by o c c a s i o n a l l a r g e p o r e s ; t h i c k s k e l e t a l m a t e r i a l composes t h e i n n e r w a l l . H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y : Lower Cambrian a t t h e South F o r k s o f the Salmo R i v e r , near t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, i n B.C. H o l o t y p e : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P a l e o n t o l o g y C o l l e c -t i o n - No. SB-14. P a r a t y p e : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P a l e o n t o l o g y C o l l e c -t i o n - No. SC-9. ORDER METACYATHIDA B e d f o r d and B e d f o r d , 1936 F a m i l y A r c h a e o c y a t h i d a e T a y l o r , 1910 Genus Arc h a e o c y a t h u s B i l l i n g s , 1861 T h i s genus i s v e r y common i n t h e C o l v i l l e c o l l e c t i o n , but o n l y two specimens o f Ar c h a e o c y a t h u s o c c u r i n m a t e r i a l from t h e Salmo l o c a l i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e specimens, i n -c l u d i n g t h e two from t h e Salmo c o l l e c t i o n , i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e s p e c i e s , A. a t l a n t i c u s . T h i s i s a common s p e c i e s , b e i n g almost w o r l d - w i d e i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . One o t h e r s p e c i e s o f Ar c h a e o c y a t h u s d e s c r i b e d here i s A. b o r e a l i s . I t i s not w e l l - r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n from C o l v i l l e , and i s absent from t h e Salmo c o l l e c t i o n . 19 The r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y of Archaeocyathus, as well as Protopharetra, i n the Salmo c o l l e c t i o n further suggests that the Cambrian rocks of the Salmo area are r e l a t i v e l y high i n the Lower Cambrian. This problem w i l l be discussed- l a t e r i n the c o r r e l a t i o n of various Archaeocyathid zones i n the Yukon, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Washington. A. a t l a n t i c u s B i l l i n g s , 1861 Plate II - 7 , S, 9 ; Plate IV - I I : This species i s represented by numerous well-preserved specimens. They are p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant i n the C o l v i l l e c o l -l e c t i o n . , General Shape: Gently tapering, cone-like form; c i r c u l a r i n transverse section, but occasionally showing minor undulations of the outer margin; diameters of the specimens range from 5.0 to 7.5 mm., with corresponding intervallum widths from 1.3 to 2 .4 mm.; the central cavity diameters vary from 1.4 to 3.6 mm.; these measurements give an average intervallum co-e f f i c i e n t of O .65, the actual c o e f f i c i e n t s vary from 0 .5 to 0 . 9 2 . This v a r i a t i o n i n the intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t i s t y p i c a l of the general v a r i a b i l i t y of the species. Outer Wall: R e l a t i v e l y thick; well-defined; perforated by numerous coarse pores; i n transverse section these pores i n some portions of the wall resemble canals; t h i s appearance i s due d i r e c t l y to the thick wall. Intervallum: Wide; f i l l e d by i r r e g u l a r s k e l e t a l tissue which 20 forms the walls of very i r r e g u l a r curving canals; the whole intervallum resembles a cl o s e l y knit mesh of tissue enclosing anastomosing, polygonal canals; the canal walls are perforate by abundant large pores. Inner Wall: Of variable thickness, but thick even i n the thinner portions; perforated at frequent i n t e r v a l s by large pores; these pores may represent the inner terminal ends of the intervallum canals opening into the central cavity. Central Cavity: Moderately large; e l l i p t i c a l to c i r c u l a r i n transverse section; contains no s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . Horizon and L o c a l i t y : As previously stated, A, atlanticus i s an extremely common species. The more important l o c a l i t i e s are i n Au s t r a l i a , Russia, Spain, and North America. In North America, A. atlanticus occurs i n Lower Cambrian rocks of Labrador; S i l v e r Peak, Nevada; the McDame area, P u r c e l l Range, Aiken Lake area, and the Salmo area, of B r i t i s h Columbia; and i n the C o l v i l l e area, Washington. Archaeocyathus borea l i s Okulitch, 1955 Plate II - 6; Plate I I I - 4: Two specimens from the C o l v i l l e area represent t h i s species. Both specimens appear as transverse sections; one i s complete, the other has a portion of the outer wall and intervallum missing. Despite the sca r c i t y of good specimens, the narrow central cavity, fine intervallum t i s s u e , and t h i n outer wall c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A. borealis are unmistakable. The specimens are quite small. The diameter of the larger i s 5.0 mm., with a central cavity diameter of 1.0 mm. This y i e l d an intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t of 2.0, which d i f f e r s only s l i g h t l y from the type c o e f f i c i e n t of 1.66. Outer Wall: Appears as a t h i n f i l m ; perforated by numerous small pores. Intervallum: Very wide; s i m i l a r to A. a t l a n t i c u s i n general appearance of s k e l e t a l tissues and canals, but d i f f e r s i n the f i n e r and more delicate construction of the sk e l e t a l elements, and in the reduction i n diameter of the canals; numerous small pores perforate the canal walls and other t i s s u e s of the -intervallum. Inner Wall: Relatively t h i n ; perforated by frequent moderate sized pores; these perforations produce a ragged appearance, such that the intervallum tissues seem to protrude through the inner wall into the central cavity. Central Cavity: Very narrow; well-defined; c i r c u l a r to e l l i p t i c a l i n outline; clear of any s k e l e t a l elements. Horizon and L o c a l i t y : From the Lower Cambrian of the McDame area, B r i t i s h Columbia, and from the C o l v i l l e area, Washington Genus.; Protopharetra Bornemann, 1886 Of a l l the Archaeocyathid genera from the Lower Cambrian of the C o l v i l l e l o c a l i t y , Protopharetra i s probably the most abundant in terms of actual number of specimens. Thi 22 abundance of a simple, unspecialized genus suggests that t h i s zone i s one of the lowermost Archaeocyathid horizons i n the Cambrian. Protopharetra also occurs i n the Lower Cambrian of the Salmo area but i n fewer numbers. Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch, 1943 Plate II - 4,5; Plate IV - 1: Several specimens of t h i s species occur i n the c o l l e c t i o n s from the C o l v i l l e and Salmo l o c a l i t i e s . The specimens studied were transverse sections i n polished rock fragments or i n thin-sections. Preservation was excellent in most cases, although some secondary c a l c i f i c a t i o n had occurred, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the outer walls. General Shape: Almost c i r c u l a r i n transverse section; diameters of the specimens varied from 3.0 mm. to 4.5 mm.; intervallum widths of 1.3 mm. to 1.9 mm., with corresponding central cavity diameters from 0.4 mm. to 0.6 mm., r e s u l t i n g i n an average intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t of 3.0. Outer Wall: R e l a t i v e l y thick, spongy structure with a few large pores. Intervallum: Very wide; f i l l e d by a mesh of stout, perforate, anastomosing rods and curved bars, which form more or l e s s complete lacunae. There i s no decrease i n the size of these c e l l s near the inner wall, d i f f e r i n g i n t h i s respect from sim i l a r structures i n Syringocnema. Inner Wall: Hot clear or distinct in most specimens, but sufficient is observed to outline the central cavity; where present, the inner wall is thick and perforated by rare, large pores. Central Cavity: Very narrow, circular in transverse section; not well-marked in most specimens. Horizon and Locality: Found in the Lower Cambrian of Labrador Inyo County, California; probably Aiken Lake area, B.C.; Salmo area, B.C.; and Colville area, Washington. Protopharetra sp. Plate II - 1, 2, 3: This species includes a variety of Protopharetra forms which represent the bulk of the Archaeocyathid specimens from the Colville area. They exhibit the characteristics of the genus, and, in addition, some minor features that are not truly typical. Only one specimen of this generalized Protopharetra species occurred in material from the Salmo River locality. General Shape: The large number of thin sectioned specimens available show a l l views and orientations of the species. The cup varies in shape from turbinate to cylindrical; sometimes within irregular outline, but generally circular. The speci-mens range from 3.5 mm. to 11.5 mm. in diameter, and from 9.0 to 30 mm. in length. Outer Wall: Consistently thin, and finely perforate in a l l 24 specimens; smooth o u t e r s u r f a c e ; i n n e r s u r f a c e w i t h rods and b a r s f u s e d t o i t a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . I n t e r v a l l u m : Wide; c r o s s e d by a t h i c k , i r r e g u l a r mesh o f b a r s , r o d s , and a l s o i n some specimens by c u r v e d , t h i n d i s -s e p i m e n t a l t i s s u e ; i n some, t h e mesh i s v e r y r o u g h l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o p a r i e t y - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s ; a l l t h e t h i c k r o d s , b a r s , and p a r i e t y - l i k e elements a r e p e r f o r a t e d by c o a r s e , l a r g e p o r e s ; t h e d i s s e p i m e n t a l t i s s u e s a r e n e v e r p e r f o r a t e d . I n n e r W a l l : P o o r l y d e v e l o p e d o r absent i n n e a r l y a l l specimens; i n o t h e r s , t h e i n n e r w a l l i s formed by f u s i o n o f b a r s and r o d s . C e n t r a l C a v i t y : C o m p l e t e l y a b s e n t , o r an i l l - d e f i n e d zone i n t h e c e n t e r o f the cup where s k e l e t a l t i s s u e i s absent o r s c a r c e . H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y : P r o t o p h a r e t r a i s a v e r y c o s m o p o l i t a n genus. I t has been r e p o r t e d f rom the Lower Cambrian o f S p a i n , S a r d i n i a , R u s s i a , A u s t r a l i a , and N o r t h A merica. P r o t o p h a r e t r a s p . , as d e s c r i b e d above, o c c u r s i n t h e Lower Cambrian r o c k s o f C o l v i l l e a r e a , Washington, and from t h e Salmo a r e a , B.C. F a m i l y P y c n o i d o c y a t h i d a e O k u l i t c h , 1950 Genus P y c n o i d o c y a t h u s T a y l o r , 1910 P y c n o i d o c y a t h u s columbianus ( O k u l i t c h , 1943) „ P l a t e I I - 12; P l a t e I I I - 12, 14: T h i s common s p e c i e s o f t h e n o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a n g e o s y n c l i n e i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e C o l v i l l e c o l l e c t i o n by two specimens: a t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n and an o b l i q u e l o n g i t u d i n a l 25 section. None of the specimens from the Salmo l o c a l i t y can be assigned, with any certainty, to t h i s species. General Shape: A short, turbinate cone; occasional transverse annulations; c i r c u l a r i n transverse section; largest specimen i s 15 mm. i n diameter; width of central cavity, 5.5 mm., giving, an intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t of 0 . 7 1 , which i s s l i g h t l y larger than that of the type. Outer Wall: Thin; perforated by numerous, fi n e pores; par-t i a l l y replaced i n both specimens by brown argillaceous mater-i a l . Intervallum: Wide; crossed by f a i r l y regular p a r i e t i e s carry-ing synapticulae and dissepiments; numerous, large pores per-forate the p a r i e t i e s ; 30 p a r i e t i e s occur i n a diameter of 15 mm., y i e l d i n g a p a r i e t a l .coefficient of 2 . 0 . Inner Wall: Not well-preserved i n the transverse section, and, of course, not v i s i b l e at a l l i n the oblique l o n g i t u d i n a l sec-t i o n ; apparently rather t h i n , and perforated by large pores. Central Cavity: Wide; well-defined, and free of s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . Horizon and L o c a l i t y : Reported from Lower'Cambrian rocks of the Dogtooth Range, and from the McDame area of B r i t i s h Columbia, and from C o l v i l l e , Washington. 26 Pycnoidocyathus amourensis (Okulitch, 1943) Plate I I I - 9, 10: Several poorly preserved specimens from the C o l v i l l e and Salmo c o l l e c t i o n s are referred to t h i s species. These specimens resemble the type i n the development of a narrow central cavity, a wide intervallum f i l l e d with numerous, f a i r l y regular, stout, perforate p a r i e t i e s , and i n the presence of short dissepiments and synapticulae. No accurate estimates of the intervallum and p a r i e t a l c o e f f i c i e n t s can be made since the outer walls have been either replaced by ar-gillaceous material, or removed by fr a c t u r i n g of the rock. Outer Wall: Absent i n a l l specimens, except f o r a small por-t i o n i n one specimen; moderately thick; f i n e l y perforate. Intervallum: Wide; contains numerous, coarsely perforate p a r i e t i e s crossed by dissepiments and synapticulae. Inner Wall: Well-defined; perforated by small pores. Horizon and L o c a l i t y : P. amourensis i s known from the Lower Cambrian of Labrador, at Point Amour and Taylor's Gulch; McDame area, B.C.; and from the Dogtooth Range, near Golden, B.C. The specimens described above occur i n rocks of Lower Cambrian age from Salmo, B.C., and from C o l v i l l e , Washington. Pycnoidocyathus sp. Plate 1 1 - 1 3 : The single specimen of t h i s species was found i n a 27 f a i r l y pure, white, c r y s t a l l i n e limestone fragment from the C o l v i l l e l o c a l i t y . In the course of preparing a t h i n -section f o r study, a l l but the actual thin-section was des-troyed. The specimen now appears on a glass s l i d e as an incomplete transverse section. In general shape, the specimen i s long, attenuated, and saucer-like. From estimations of the curvature of the incomplete specimen, t h i s saucer may have been from 10 to 12 cms. i n diameter. P a r i e t a l and intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t s are r e l a t i v e l y meaningless for specimens with t h i s shape, but the number of intersepts per millimeter i s a useful r a t i o . In t h i s specimen there are approximately three p a r i e t i e s per millimeter. The t o t a l length, i n transverse section, of the specimen i s over 2.6 cms.; the width i s constant at 1.5 mm. Outer Wall: F a i r l y thick; simple; appears perforate by large pores. Intervallum; Extremely narrow; crossed by very short, numerous p a r i e t i e s , which are perforated by abundant, medium-sized pores; the p a r i e t i e s are joined by short, thin, curved dissepiments and occasional synapticulae; i n general, the p a r i e t i e s are more regular, and better defined than i s t y p i c a l of Pycnoidocyathus. Inner Wall: Thick; perforated by numerous, large pores. Central Cavity: This i s not v i s i b l e as such, but must have been very large and wide. The area of the s l i d e that corresponds 2 8 to the central cavity i s covered by many small specimens of other Archaeocyathids. Remarks: P. sp. appears to be related to Pycnoidocyathus i n much the same manner as A.jacicyathus undulatus i s to Ajacicya-thus. Both species possess saucer-like shapes with numerous short p a r i e t i e s , very narrow intervallums, and wide central c a v i t i e s . P. sp. d i f f e r s from A.jacicyathus undulatus i n the development of synapticulae and dissepiments; otherwise the two species are very s i m i l a r . Horizon and L o c a l i t y : From the Lower Cambrian of the C o l v i l l e area, Washington. Genus Dendrocyathus Okulitch and Roots, 1947 Dendrocyathus sp. Only one fragmental specimen of t h i s genus was found i n material from the C o l v i l l e l o c a l i t y . The specimen i s a segment of a transverse section comprising the outer wall, intervallum, and the entire inner wall and central cavity. Diameter of the complete specimen was probably 3 . 5 mm. General Shape: C i r c u l a r i n transverse section, presumably a conical, cup-like form. Outer Wall: Smooth exterior; thick; coarsely perforate. Intervallum: Wide, approximately four times wider than the central cavity; crossed by numerous, complex p a r i e t i e s which branch from inner to outer wall; p a r i e t i e s appear bead-like i n transverse section because of the many large pores; no synapticulae or taenia t y p i c a l of the genotype, D. unexpectans are present. Inner Wall: Thick, perforated by medium-sized pores. Central Cavity: Very narrow; e l l i p t i c a l i n transverse section free of any sk e l e t a l t i s s u e . Horizon and L o c a l i t y : From the Lower Cambrian of C o l v i l l e , Washington. Genotype i s from the Lower Cambrian of Aiken Lake area, B.C. Family Metacoscinidae Bedford and Bedford, 1936 Genus Archaeosycon Taylor, 1910 Archaeosycon sp. Plate I - 10: Two specimens from the C o l v i l l e c o l l e c t i o n are ten-t a t i v e l y assigned to t h i s genus. Positive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can-not be made since both specimens are oblique lo n g i t u d i n a l sections that do not show the inner wall and central cavity. Tentative i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based on the occurrence of convex, perforate tabulae; porous, loosely arranged p a r i e t i e s ; and the presence of some vesicular tissue i n the remaining open spaces General Shape: C y l i n d r i c a l , with transverse ambulations occur' rin g 4 to 5 mm. apart; length of incomplete specimen, 17 mm.; diameter of same specimen, 5 to 6.5 mm. Outer Wall: Thick, coarsely perforate; p a r t i a l l y removed from 30 both specimens. Intervallum: Numerous thick parieties; parieties appear as rows of bead-like elements, a result of numerous coarse pores; fine, rarely perforate, downward (?) arching tabulae occur in both specimens; tabulae are. f a i r l y numerous; vesicular tissue partially f i l l s the central area of one specimen. Inner Wall: Not vis i b l e . Horizon and Locality: Lower Cambrian of Colville, Washington; and the type loca l i t y of L'Anse au Loup, Labrador. Genus Claruscyathus Vologdin, 1932 Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin, 1937 Plate I - 8, 9, 11, 12: More than thirty specimens have been identified as C. solidus, a l l from the Lower Cambrian of Col v i l l e , Washington. This species was f i r s t reported by Vologdin (1932) from Middle Cambrian rocks of Siberia. Zhuravleva (1955) has since shown this to be erroneous, and the Siberian strata in question are actually of Lower Cambrian age. General Shape: Irregularly shaped, but in general a cylindrical form; one specimen measured 30 mm. in length with a diameter of 8 mm. Outer Wall: Thick, irregular in outline; perforate. Intervallum: Very wide; numerous, f a i r l y well-defined, coarsely 31 perforate parietiesj the numerous tabulae are relatively thin, perforate, and appear to be upwardly convex, but d i f f i c u l t to be certain of this since the irregular shape of the specimens renders i t d i f f i c u l t to determine with precision their orienta-tion; the central cavity i s not well-defined, but merely a zone where skeletal structures are absent. Horizon and Locality: Lower Cambrian of Co l v i l l e , Washington. This i s the f i r s t report of this species from North America. Other lo c a l i t i e s are in Siberia and Antarctica. ORDER SYRINGOCNEMIDA Okulitch, 1935 Family Syringocnematidae Taylor, 1910 Genus Syringocnema Taylor, 1910 Syringocnema colvillensis n. sp. Plate III - 5, 6: This species is represented by two transverse views in thin-section from the Colville collection. Both specimens are well preserved, except that the outer wall and portions of the intervallum of one specimen have been removed by fracturing of the rock. Despite the lack of a longitudinal section, there is no d i f f i c u l t y in definitely identifying the specimens as belonging to a new species of Syringocnema. The characteristic tube-filled intervallum, the relatively large size of these tubes, and the narrow central cavity are the main distinguish-ing features of the species. General Shape: Other Syringocnema species possess a long cone-like form, and in the absence of longitudinal sections, i t i s 32 assumed that t h i s species has a similar shape. In transverse section, the outer margin of the cup i s deeply indented or crenulated, about 20 crenulations occurring in a diameter of 5 mm. Both specimens are roughly e l l i p t i c a l i n section with diameters of 5.5 mm. and 3.5 mm. Width of intervallum varies from 1.3 mm. to 2.6 mm. i n the type specimen, with a diameter of 0.9 mm. This y i e l d s an average intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t of 2.5. In comparison, the intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t of the geno-type, S. favus, i s 0.75. Outer Wall; Thick; i r r e g u l a r o u t l i n e ; apparently perforated by coarse pores, which are probably the constricted ends of the tube-like c e l l s of the intervallum. Intervallum: Very wide; well-defined; bridged from outer to inner wall by long, polygonal, tube-like c e l l s ; these c e l l s are i n c l i n e d gently downwards from the outer to inner wall, but curve sharply down i n the v i c i n i t y of the inner wall; i n trans-verse section, t h i s c e l l structure appears as elongated, narrow c e l l s near the outer wall, shorter, narrow c e l l s i n the central parts of the intervallum, and at the inner wall the c e l l s be-come abruptly polygonal and considerably smaller; diameters of the tube-like c e l l s decrease from 0.3 mm. at the outer wall to 0.1 mm. at the inner wall; a l l c e l l s are perforated by occasion-a l large pores. Inner Wall: Thick; well-defined; perforated by abundant large pores; as i n the outer wall, t h i s i s probably a r e s u l t of the 33 penetration of the inner wall by the tube c e l l s . Central Cavity: Marrow; c i r c u l a r , even when outer margin of cup i s e l l i p t i c a l ; free of any s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . Horizon and L o c a l i t y : From the old Dominion formation, Lower Cambrian of the C o l v i l l e area, Washington. Remarks: Syringocnema c o l v i l l e n s i s n. sp. d i f f e r s from S. favus in the possession of a considerably narrower central cavity, and coarser, fewer tube c e l l s i n the intervallum. It i s s i m i l a r to S. eleganta and S. minuta i n the polygonal shape of the tube c e l l s , but has coarser textured intervallum structures. Holotype: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Paleontology C o l l e c t i o n No. CL2a-l. Paratype: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Paleontology C o l l e c t i o n No. C018b-1. Genus Syringocyathus Vologdin, 1937 Syringocyathus canadensis Okulitch, 1955 One specimen of t h i s species was discovered i n the Salmo material. The precise i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the specimen was made possible by exposure of both transverse and l o n g i t u -d i n a l views on polished surfaces. The l o n g i t u d i n a l section was s l i g h t l y oblique, but s u f f i c i e n t l y centered to show the inner wall and central cavity. General Shape: C y l i n d r i c a l , tapering; smooth exterior; great-est diameter, 6.6 mm.; length, 12 mm.; intervallum width, 34 1.4 mm., and diameter of central cavity, 1.0 mm., thus an intervallum coefficient of 1.5. This agrees well with the type intervallum coefficient i .e . 1.3. Outer Wall; Thick, spongy; perforated by numerous, large coarse pores. Intervallum: Relatively wide; f i l l ed by upward and outwardly inclined tubes or pipes, producing a coarse honeycomb effect in transverse section; the tubes are inclined at an angle of 30° with the axis of the cup, and vary in diameter from 0.2 to 0.3 mm.; a l l tube walls are perforated by coarse pores. Inner Wall: Thick; coarsely perforated by terminations of the inclined tubes. Central Cavity: Narrow; clear of vesicular tissue; tendency to be e l l ipt ical in transverse section. Horizon and Locality: The type specimen is reported from the Lower Cambrian of the McDame area, B.C. The specimen des-cribed above is from the south fork of the Salmo River, B.C. Syringocyathus sp. Plate III - 13: One of the specimens of Syringocyathus from the Col-v i l le area differs slightly from the previous species described. The differences are in the intervallum coefficient, and the angle between the inclined tubes and the cup axis. In a l l other respects, the specimen is very similar to S. canadensis. Since 35 the species i s only represented by one fragmental longitudinal section, i t i s not recorded as a new species. Further study of Syringocyathus may, i n f a c t , show t h i s specimen to be a v a r i a t i o n of S. canadensis. General Shape: Elongated, tubular cup; smooth exterior; i n t e r -vallum width variable, but generally about 1.75 mm., central cavity diameter of 2.5 mm., thus an intervallum c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.9; length of fragment, 20 mm. Outer Wall: Thick, perforated by i n c l i n e d tubes; very similar to S. canadensis. Intervallum: Narrow; crossed by upwardly i n c l i n e d tubes, the angle between the tubes and the cup axis varying from 45° to o ° 50 , i n contrast to the 30 angle i n S. canadensis; tube diameters vary from 0.2 to 0.3 mm.; the tube walls are per-forated by coarse pores. Inner Wall: Thick; perforated by large pores, the terminal ends of the i n c l i n e d tubes. Central Cavity: Wide; free of any s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . Horizon and L o c a l i t y : From the Lower Cambrian of C o l v i l l e , Washington. 36 ARCHAEOCYATHID LOCALITIES IF WASHINGTON, BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND THE YUKON TERRITORY Archaeocyathids are known to occur at ten l o c a l i t i e s from Washington to the Yukon i n the North American C o r d i l l e r a . In nearly every l o c a l i t y they are found i n r e l a t i v e l y pure limestones which indicate t h e i r preference f o r environment i n clear shallow marine seas. The Lower Cambrian sea of Western North America i s thought to have been geosynclinal i n nature. The Archaeocyathids appear to be r e s t r i c t e d to the western shore of t h i s geosyncline, since none have been yet reported from i t s eastern l i m i t s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The ten Archaeocyathid l o c a l i t i e s are: C o l v i l l e , Washington - Old Dominion limestone Salmo River, B.C. - lower part of the Laib group Dogtooth Range, B.C. - Donald formation Quesnel Lake, Turk's Nose, B.C. - Cariboo Series S i n c l a i r M i l l s , B.C.-Pine Pass, B.C. - Misinchinka schists Aiken Lake, Osilinka Valley, B.C. - upper group of the Wolverine Complex McDame Creek, B.C. - Atan group Wolf Lake, Yukon - Lord's (1944) Group B and Group C sediments Quiet Lake, Yukon - rocks of the Kay group of claims COLVILLE, WASHINGTON The Archaeocyathids of the C o l v i l l e area were 37 co l l e c t e d from a west-facing b l u f f of Old Dominion limestone, about 1 mile north of the v i l l a g e of C o l v i l l e ( L i t t l e , 1950). Because of the extensive f a u l t i n g that has occurred i n t h i s area, t h i s outcrop of Old Dominion limestone could not be located r e l a t i v e to the underlying Addy quartzite or to any other stratigraphic horizon. Faunal L i s t from the C o l v i l l e L o c a l i t y Ajacicyathus nevadensis xx A. rimouski . ~. ". '. '. ~ xx Ethmophyllum whitneyi x E. americanum~ '. T\ o Archaeocyathus atlanticus . . . . xxx A. borealis . ". ". '. ! ". T . . . . o rare — o Archaeopharetra t y p i c a x few — x Pycnoidocyathus amourensis . . . x common — xx P. columbianus x abundant — xxx P. n. sp o Claruscyathus solidus . xxx Protopharetra dunbari xx P. sp. xxx Dendrocyathus sp o Syringocnema c o l v i l l e n s i s n. sp. o Monocyathus sp. '. '. ". T . . . . o This Archaeocyathid fauna i s unique i n abundant specimens of Archaeocyathus at l a n t i c u s , Protopharetra sp., and Claruscyathus solidus. These species resemble one another i n possessing r e l a t i v e l y poorly organized s k e l e t a l structures. They cannot be considered as very primitive forms, however, since some degree of organization i s present i n the development of an inner wall and central cavity. Comparison of these species with Ethmophyllum whitneyi emphasizes t h e i r i n f e r i o r organization and suggests that they may be early forms i n the evolution of Archaeocyatha. Thus, the impression i s received that the Old Dominion of the C o l v i l l e area, i s i n part at l e a s t , 3 3 low or middle Lower Cambrian i n age. This impression i s further borne out by the work of Zhuravleva and Zelenov (1955). They report that the lower 'bioherms' of the Loxver Cambrian of Russia are characterized by the genera Archaeocyathus, Monocyathus, and A.jacicyathus, a l l of which are present i n the c o l l e c t i o n from the C o l v i l l e l o c a l i t y . A further i n d i c a t i o n of the approximate p o s i t i o n i n the Lower Cambrian of t h i s Archaeocyathid zone i s afforded by f o s s i l evidence from the underlying Addy quartzite formation. This formation was discovered to be f o s s i l i f e r o u s i n 1949 and the following species have been since i d e n t i f i e d (Okulitch, 1951): Micromitra (Paterina) sp. Kutorgina c f . cingulata ( B i l l i n g s ) Kutorgina sp. R u s t e l l a c f . edsoni Walcott Hyol i t h e l l u s sp. Nevadia addyensis Okulitch In regard to t h i s l a s t species, Dr. Okulitch states that "the presence of the rare genus Nevadia, with i t s very primitive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , suggests the lower portion of the Lower Cambrian". From the above evidence i t can be t e n t a t i v e l y con-cluded that the Archaeocyathid zone of the Old Dominion lime-stone i s early Lower Cambrian i n age. It may now be possible to compare other Archaeocyathid c o l l e c t i o n s with that of the Old Dominion and to suggest t h e i r probable stratigraphic positions i n the Lower Cambrian. 39 SALMO, B.C. In the eastern part of the Salmo map area there i s a long narrow band of limestone that comprises the basal unit of the Laib group. The band trends almost due north, and extends from the International Boundary to a point five miles north. In 194$ Dr. L i t t l e discovered Archaeocyathids in the limestone band. Collections were made from two or more lo c a l i t i e s in the limestone unit. The collection of Archaeocyathids from the area studied by the writer was contained in a greenish-grey, fine-grained limestone. The l i s t appearing in Dr. L i t t l e ' s report i s a compilation of a l l the Archaeocyathids identified by Dr. Okulitch from the limestone band. This explains the variation between the two faunal l i s t s given below; Faunal Lists from the Salmo Locality L i t t l e , 1950 Ajacicyathus nevadensis . . x A. undulatms . ~ '. \ T~ . . x A. purcellensis x Ethmophyllum wh'itneyi . . . xxx E. americanum . . . . . . . xx E. sp. ". ". T x (Toscinocyathus dentocanis . o C. sp o CT cf. miniporosus . . . . o Archaeocyathus atlanticus . x Pycnoidocyathus amourensis x P. columbianus '. '. ". '. ~ . o P. donaldi. T~ o P^ sp o Copleicyathus ? laminosus . o Claruscyathus obliquus. 7 . o Protopharetra sp. . . . . . x This thesis  A.jacicyathus. nevadensis . .x Ethmophyllum whitneyi . . .xxx E. americanum xx E. lineatus x Archaeocyathus atlanticus .x Pycnoidocyathus amourensis.x Syringocyathus canadensis .o Protopharetra sp x L i t t l e , 1950 This t h e s i s P. dunbari x Archaeocyathellus sp. . . . o Archaeocyathellus sp. . . . o Paracoscinus sp o rare — • o, few — x, common — xx, abundant — xxx The dominant genus i n t h i s Archaeocyathid zone of the Laib group i s Ethmophyllum, p a r t i c u l a r l y the species E. whitneyi. This species i s present i n l i m i t e d numbers i n the Archaeocyathid zone of the Old Dominion. Thus the position of E. whitneyi in the Laib supplants that occupied by Claruscya-thus solidus, Archaeocyathus atl a n t i c u s , and Protopharetra sp. i n the Old Dominion. The faunal differences between these l i t h o l o g i c units are: the presence of Archaeocyathus b o r e a l i s , Archaeopharetra typica, Pycnoidocyathus sp., Archaeosycon sp., Claruscyathus solidus, Dendrocyathus sp., Syringocnema  c o l v i l l e n s i s and Monocyathus sp. i n the Old Dominion and t h e i r absence i n the Laib group; and the presence of A.jacicyathus  undulatus, A. purcellensis,. Coscinocyathus dentocanis, C. sp., C. cf. miniporosus, Pycnoidocyathus donaldi, P. sp., Coplei-cyathus (?) laminosus, Claruscyathus obliquus, Archaeocyathel-lus sp., and Paracoscinus sp. i n the Laib group and t h e i r absence i n the Old Dominion. I f only the variations i n the frequencies of Ethmophyllum whitneyi, Claruscyathus solidus, Archaeocyathus  at l a n t i c u s , and Protopharetra sp are considered, the faunal differences are s t i l l marked. These faunal differences may be ecological i n nature. At present, l i t t l e i s known of the ecology of Archaeocyatha. Their r e s t r i c t i o n to limestones 41 indicates a preference f o r a marine environment of moderately-shallow, clear water, but the ecological requirements of p a r t i c u l a r species are unknown. The faunal differences be-tween the Laib and the Old Dominion may be due to ecology. It would seem more probable, however, from the l i m i t e d information available that d i f f e r e n t Archaeocyathid zones are being cor-related. The zones may be s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y only several hundred feet apart. Because of the presence of Coscinocyathus  dentocanis, C. c f . miniporosus, Archaeocyathellus sp., Paracoscinus sp., and abundant Ethmophyllum whitneyi i n the basal Laib, i t i s suggested that the base of the Laib might be correlated with some horizon s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above the Archaeocyathid zone of the Old Dominion limestone. How f a r above cannot be determined, since neither the stratigraphic position of the Old Dominion Archaeocyathid zone nor the stratigraphic i n t e r v a l between the two Archaeocyathid zones, C o l v i l l e and Salmo, are known. DOGTOOTH MOUNTAINS, B.C. The Archaeocyathids from the Dogtooth Mountains were col l e c t e d from the Donald formation where the l a t t e r outcrops i n the canyons of Holt and Canyon Creeks. The specimens were systematically c o l l e c t e d (Okulitch, 194$) and located with reference to Evans' stratigraphic section of the Donald formation (Evans, 1932). 42 Faunal L i s t from the Donald Formation A.jacicyathus nevadensis . . .x A. purcellensis . . . . . . . .xx A. undulatus x Coscinocyathus dentocariis . .o C. rhyacoensis o C. sp o Archaeocyathus atlanticus . .x A. taeniatus . .o Copleicyathus (?) laminosus .o Pycnoidocyathus donaldi . . ,x P. columbianus xx P. septimus x JR. sp o Archaeosycon evansi o Claruscyathus obliquus . . .o Pycnoidocoscinus rectiporus .o The specimens representing four of the species, Coscinocyathus dentocanis, C. rhyacoensis, C. sp., and Pycnoidocyathus columbianus were collected by C. Evans i n 1928. The remainder were c o l l e c t e d by Dr. V. J . Okulitch i n 1946. A l l the specimens, except those col l e c t e d by C. S. Evans, are s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y located with reference to the Donald -St. Piran contact. Claruscyathus solidus i s the lowest specimen, s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y , occurring i n Evans' Bed 2, 25 feet to 175 feet above the base of the Donald formation. Ajacicya-thus nevadensis, A. purcellensis , A. undulatus, Archaeocyathus  at l a n t i c u s , A. taeniatus, Copleicyathus (?) laminosus, Pycnoidocyathus sp., Archaeosycon evansi, and Pycnoidocoscinus  rectiporus occur i n Bed 5 of the Donald formation, 330' to 370' above the St. Piran contact. Pycnoidocyathus septimus from Bed 7 i s the highest reported species. This faunal suite i s remarkable f o r i t s abundant species of Ajacicyathus, rare — 0 few — x common — xx abundant xxx 43 Coscinocyathus, and Pycnoidocyathus, and f o r the absence of Ethmophyllum species. From previous stratigraphic studies the Donald formation i s considered to be Lower Cambrian i n age and i s d i r e c t l y overlain by the Middle Cambrian Canyon Greek forma-t i o n . The stratigraphic position of the Donald has been established on paleontological evidence other than that of Archaeocyathids, i . e . Kutorgina, Olenellus, Dorypyge, Rustella etc. On the evidence afforded by these genera i t i s possible to e s t a b l i s h the Archaeocyathids of the Donald as l a t e Lower Cambrian i n age. The upper part of the Laib group and the Donald formation are correlated at present, and so i t i s r e l a t i v e l y certain that the Donald Archaeocyathid fauna i s younger than the Laib fauna. The absence of Coscinocyathus, Pycnoidocoscinus, and a more abundant Pycnoidocyathus assemblage i n the Donald con-s t i t u t e the main differences between the faunal of these two l i t h o l o g i c , units. The Laib Archaeocyathid fauna contains numerous Ethmophyllum , and Pycnoidocyathus amourensis, Archaeocyathellus sp., and Paracoscinus sp. not present i n the Donald formation. It i s possible that Coscinocyathus, Pycnoidocoscinus, and abundant Pycnoidocyathus species are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Archaeocyatha of l a t e Lower Cambrian. SINCLAIR MILLS, B.C. A small number of well-preserved Archaeocyathids were co l l e c t e d from t h i s area by Dr. K.D. Watson i n the summer of 1950. The f o s s i l l o c a l i t y i s four miles southeast of 44 S i n c l a i r M i l l s on the southwest bank of the Fraser River. The specimens are preserved i n a l i g h t grey, fine-grained limestone. The following species have been i d e n t i f i e d from the S i n c l a i r M i l l s Archaeocyathid c o l l e c t i o n : A.jacicyathus a.jax Pycnoidocyathus c f . donaldi A. nevadensis P^ sp. Ethmophyllum whitneyi Protopharetra sp. Coscinocyathus dentocanis Archaeofungia sp. C. sp. This Archaeocyathid fauna has not been studied i n any d e t a i l , but i t bears some s i m i l a r i t y to the Donald fauna. The following species are common to both faunae: Protopharetra sp., Pycnoidocyathus c f . donaldi, Coscinocyathus dentocanis and Ethmophyllum whitneyi. Archaeosycon sp. and A.jacicyathus  ajax are found only i n the S i n c l a i r M i l l s fauna. In most respects, however, the S i n c l a i r M i l l s fauna resembles that contained i n Bed 5 of the Donald formation. I t i s probable, then, that the S i n c l a i r M i l l s fauna i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y high i n the Lower Cambrian succession. QUESNEL LAKE AND PINE PASS, B.C. These Archaeocyathid l o c a l i t i e s are considered together because very l i t t l e i s known of either. In the Quesnel Lake area, Archaeocyathids are known to occur i n Lower Cambrian rocks that outcrop on the southeast slope of Turk's Nose Mountain, at the bend of the Cariboo River, between Sandy Lake and Spectacles Lake. These outcrops of the Cariboo Series are located just below f o s s i l i f e r o u s Middle 45 Cambrian s t r a t a . No species have been described from these outcrops. The specimens from the Pine Pass area were so poorly preserved that i t was possible to state only that they were Archaeocyatha. The specimens were found i n an outcrop of badly sheared Misinchinka s c h i s t s . The f o s s i l i f e r o u s outcrop i s located at a low elevation i n the v a l l e y of the Misinchinka Creek, west of Pine Pass. AIKEN LAKE, B.C. The Archaeocyathids of the Aiken Lake area occur i n a small limestone lens i n the upper portion of the Wolverine Complex. This Complex i s l i t h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r to and i s probably a north-west extension of the belt of "Proterozoic" rocks of the Cariboo d i s t r i c t . The outcrop containing the Archaeocyathids i s located approximately s i x miles north of Wasi Lake near the Osilinka River. The specimens from t h i s l o c a l i t y were coll e c t e d by F. Roots i n 1946. Faunal L i s t from Aiken Lake Area A.jacicyathus purcellensis . . xx A. cf. purcellensis 0 A. clarus 0 A. o s i l i n k a 0 rare — 0 Coscinocyathus sp 0 few — x Archaeocyathus c f . at l a n t i c u s 0 common — xx Protopharetra r o o t s i 0 abundant — xxx L sp 0 Pycnoidocyathus sp 0 Dendrocyathus unexpectans . . 0 This fauna does not appear to have any close a f f i n i t y with other Archaeocyathid faunae of the Lower Cambrian. Certain 46 s i m i l a r i t i e s to the C o l v i l l e fauna are apparent i n the presence of Archaeocyathus c f . a t l a n t i c u s , Protopharetra sp., and Dendrocyathus sp. i n both faunae. The Aiken Lake fauna i s also s i m i l a r to that of the Donald, since Coscinocyathus sp., Pycnoidocyathus sp., and A.jacicyathus purcellensis are common to both. Thus the Aiken Lake fauna may occur s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y between the C o l v i l l e and Salmo Archaeocyathid zones, but no de f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n i s possible. McDAME AREA, B.C. The Archaeocyathids from t h i s area were collected by Dr. H. Gabrielse during the summers from 1950 to 1953. Collections were made at nine separate l o c a l i t i e s from the Lower Cambrian limestones of the Atan group, (Gabrielse, 1954). These c o l l e c t i o n s may be from one general zone, but no stratigraphic data to determine t h i s i s ava i l a b l e . Faunal L i s t from the McDame Area Ajacicyathus nevadensis . . ,o Ajacicyathus u n d u l a t u s T . . ,x Ethmophyllum s'p. . . . . . . .o Ethmophyllum cf. ratam . . , .x Thalamocyathus sp. . . . . ,o Coscinocyathus dentocanis . .xxx ¥p~. '. ". '. . . . ". '. T . .xx Archaeocyathus atlanticus . ,x A. c f . latus. I ii ii r~ii T . .o X T l o c u l i f o r m i s o A. borealis . T . o Archaeopharetra sp. x Pycnoidocyathus amourensis. ,x P. columbianus" ii '. '. ". T~. .xx Archaeofungia "obliqua . . . .o A. sp. . .. . '. ". T T . . . .o Metacoscinus gabrielensis . ,o M. deasensis .x Archaeosycon sp o Syringocyathus canadensis . .o rare -- o few — x common — xx abundant xxx 47 This fauna, assuming i t to be from one zone, has remarkable s i m i l a r i t i e s to the Donald fauna of the P u r c e l l Range. Species common to both are: Ajacicyathus nevadensis, A.jacicyathus undulatus, Coscinocyathus dentocanis, C. sp., Archaeocyathus a t l a n t i c u s , Pycnoidocyathus columbianus and Archaeosycon sp. The Coscinocyathus species are the most abundant i n the McDame fauna, whereas the Pycnoidocyathus species predominate i n the Donald fauna. Since the Atan group i s assigned a Lower and Middle Cambrian age, and no cor r e l a t i o n with i t and other Cambrian formations has yet been attempted, no adequate c o r r e l a t i o n of i t s Archaeocyathid fauna can be made. I t i s suggested, however, that the Archaeocyathid zone of the Atan group may be cor-r e l a t i v e with that of the Donald. WOLF LAKE, YUKON TERRITORY Archaeocyathids, comprising four separate c o l l e c t i o n s , were c o l l e c t e d from two l o c a l i t i e s i n the Wolf Lake area. These were collected by W.H. Poole i n 1955 from Lord's group B and group C sediments. The f o s s i l i f e r o u s outcrops occur south of Rancheria River i n the. southeastern corner of the map area (Poole, 1 9 5 5 ) . No stratigraphic information i s available f o r the various c o l l e c t i o n s and the species l i s t e d below are grouped according to t h e i r occurrence i n Lord's group B or group C sediments. Faunal L i s t from Wolf Lake Area Group B sediments Group C sediments A.jacicyathus purcellensis xx Coscinocyathus tubicornis o A.jacicyathus yukonensis . o C_;_ sp o Coscinocyathus dentocanis xxx Pycnoidocyathus amourensis o C. multiporosus o P. oc c i d e n t a l i s . '. ". ~. 7~ xx C. cassiarensis . . . . . x C. veronicus o Carinacyathus perforatus. x Archaeocyathus at l a n t i c u s o rare — o L sp o few — x Pycnoidocyathus solidus . o common — xx Loculiformis e l l i p t i c u s . xx abundant — xxx Metacoscinus poolensis. . x The preponderance of Coscinocyathus species, and to a lesser extent, Pycnoidocyathus suggests an a f f i n i t y between the Wolf Lake fauna and that of the Donald. This r e l a t i o n indicates a late Lower Cambrian age f o r the Archaeocyathids of the Wolf Lake occurrence. QUIET LAKE, YUKON TERRITORY A small c o l l e c t i o n of Archaeocyathids was made from Lower Cambrian strata of t h i s area i n 1955 by Dr. Aho and Mr. Padgham. These f o s s i l i f e r o u s s t r a t a outcrop on a ridge "which separates the head waters of the White Creek and Ketza River i n the P e l l y Mountains " (Kawaze, 1956). More prec i s e l y , "the f o s s i l l o c a l i t y i s approximately 1000' north-west from the northwest corner of the Kay No. 31 claim" (Kawaze, 1956). Mr. Padgham (personal communication) reports that two or more Archaeocyathid zones are present i n the area. The upper (?) zone occurs i n a massive limestone, the lower, in a calcareous, shaly rock. The f o s s i l s i n t h i s l a t t e r zone are very numerous, well-preserved and e a s i l y c o l l e c t e d . 49 Faunal L i s t from the Quiet Lake Area Ethmocoscinus (?) sp. . . Coscinocyathus inequivallus C. serratus  Pycnoidocyathus columbianus P. c f . dissepimentalis Metacoscinus sp. . . . Claruscyathus ketzaensis . o xx o x rare -- o x few — x o common — xx xx abundant -- xxx The fauna i s very si m i l a r to those of the Wolf Lake and Dogtooth Range. The presence of the genus Claruscyathus i s suggestive of the lower part of the Donald formation, but the Coscinocyathus - Pycnoidocyathus assemblage i s more t y p i c a l of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y higher Archaeocyathid zone i n Bed 5 of the Donald. The Quiet Lake fauna i s probably l a t e Lower Cambrian i n age. CONCLUSION From the preceding descriptions of the Archaeocyathid l o c a l i t i e s , t h e i r faunae, and t h e i r known str a t i g r a p h i c posi-tions, several conclusions are possible. It must be emphasized, however, that any conclusions are necessarily tentative, since the stratigraphic evidence on which they are based lacks d e t a i l or i s otherwise incomplete. The Archaeocyathid zone of the Old Dominion limestone of the C o l v i l l e area appears to be s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y lower than that of the Laib group. The Laib fauna may be s t r a t i g r a p h i c -a l l y lower than any of the Archaeocyathid zones north of the Salmo area, i . e . Dogtooth, S i n c l a i r M i l l s , Aiken Lake etc. Thus the middle (or lower) Lower Cambrian zones are character-ized by abundant specimens of Archaeocyathus a t l a n t i c u s , 50 Protopharetra sp., and Claruscyathus solidus. The next s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y higher zone i s marked by numerous species of Ethmophyllum, and an absence of Claruscyathus solidus, Archaeopharetra typica, and Monocyathus sp. The highest Lower Cambrian Archaeocyathid zone bears a fauna characterized by species of Coscinocyathus and Pycnoidocyathus. It i s worth noting at t h i s point that there appears to be a trend f o r the known Archaeocyathid zones to become higher s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y within the Lower Cambrian from south to north. The significance of t h i s trend has not been con-sidered i n t h i s t h esis, and further study of these Lower Cambrian zones may show the trend to be due solely to insuf-f i c i e n t stratigraphic data. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY For s a t i s f a c t o r y accurate correlation of the Lower Cambrian by Archaeocyatha, i t i s necessary to know pr e c i s e l y the horizons at which they occur, the type of occurrence, i . e . reef, lens, or bed. The c o l l e c t i o n s should be s u f f i c i e n t l y large to permit estimates of the r e l a t i v e abundance of the various species present. I t i s suggested that the recommenda-tions given below be considered i n the c o l l e c t i o n of Archaeocyathids. 1) Collections from separate zones be kept d i s t i n c t , and stratigraphic i n t e r v a l s between the zones noted.; 2) Collections be accompanied by detailed l i t h o l o g i c descriptions of the enclosing sediments; 51 3) C o l l e c t i o n s should be referred to some known horizon, i . e . formation boundary, Olenellus zone etc. It i s appreciated that i t i s not always possible to follow the above suggestions in the f i e l d . Faulting, poor or discontinuous outcrop, and a shortage of time a l l tend to prevent adequate c o l l e c t i o n of f o s s i l material. Further laboratory study of the phyllum, i f suitable c o l l e c t i o n s were available, might res u l t i n the erection of several Archaeocyathid zones. Ecological studies might also be p r o f i t a b l y pursued to determine environmental controls of certain species, i . e . t h e i r tolerance to t u r b i d i t y , depth of water required etc. I t i s known that Archaeocyathids preferred an environment that was unsuitable f o r t r i l o b i t e s . Where t r i l o b i t e s occur i n the sediments, Archaeocyathids are absent. Thus a system of zoning the Lower Cambrian on the basis of these two groups of animals would provide a method of cor-r e l a t i o n applicable to a variety of sedimentary f a c i e s . 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alcock, F.J.., 1938, Geology of St. John Region, New Brunswick; Geol. Surv. Can.,Memoir 216. Armstrong, J.E., 1946, Preliminary Map of the Aiken Lake Area (south h a l f ) , B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Can., Preliminary Map 46 - 11 . 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U.S.S.R., v o l . 56, pp. 57-77. 60 EXPLANATION OF PLATES Plate I Page Figure 1 - Monocyathus sp . 7 X 13.0, Oblique transverse section i l l u s -trating single thick inner wall. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CLlld - 22. Figure 2 - Archaeopharetra typica Bedford and Bedford. . . 8 X 7.5. Oblique transverse section. Note coarse texture of skeletal tissue. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CL2d - 1. Figure 3 - Archaeopharetra typica Bedford and Bedford. . . 8 X8.2. Oblique transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. C018a - 1. Figure 4 - Archaeopharetra typica Bedford and Bedford. . . 8 X5.1. Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CL3b - 2. Figure 5 - Archaeopharetra typica Bedford and Bedford. . . 8 X5 .4. Longitudinal section showing tendency of skeletal tissues to curve downward in the central region of the cup. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CL2b - 1. Figure 6 - Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin 30 X4.3. Longitudinal section. Note upwardly curved tabulae, and coarsely perforated parieties. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CLllb - 3. Figure 7 - Ajacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) . 11 X8.5. Transverse section showing simple walls and straight regular parieties. U.B.C. Paleo Coll. No. C017b - 2. Figure 8 - Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin 30 X5 .4. Transverse section i l l u s t r a t i n g thin tabulae and stout perforate parieties. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CL10b-4. Figure 9 - Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin . 30 X5 .4. Transverse section.. U.B.C. Paleo. Coll. No. CL9b - 6. Figure 10- Archaeosycon sp 29 X4.6. Transverse section. Poorly preserved specimen showing fine curved tabulae. U.B.C. Paleo. Co l l . No. CLla - 2. r u n , j 61 Plate I Page Figure 11 - Claruscyathus solidus. Vologdin . . 30 X4.9; Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL9b - 9. Figure 12 - Claruscyathus solidus Vologdin 30 X4.9. Oblique longitudinal section i l l u s -t r a t i n g p a r i e t i e s and curved tabulae. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL2d - 7. 62 Plate II Page Figure 1 - Protopharetra sp. .... 23 X3.0. Transverse section. Poorly preserved specimen i l l u s t r a t i n g f i n e i r r e g u l a r s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . U.B.C. Paleo C o l l . No. CL20b - 3. Figure 2 - Protopharetra sp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 X 3 . 4 . Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo C o l l . No. CL8a - 4 . Figure 3 - Protopharetra sp 23 X5 . 7 . Oblique longitudinal section. Note mesh-like s k e l e t a l t i s s u e . U.B.C. Paleo C o l l . No. CL4b - 2. Figure 4 - Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch . . . 22 X8.1. Transverse section. Stouter s k e l e t a l tissues than in Protopharetra. sp. and very narrow central cavity. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL7b - 8. Figure 5 - Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch . ... 22 X9.3. Transverse section. Note narrow central cavity. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. C L l l a - 6. Figure 6 - Archaeocyathus borealis Okulitch . 20 X6.6. Transverse section. Fragmental specimen i l l u s t r a t i n g wide intervallum. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL20f - 2. Figure 7 - Archaeocyathus atlanticus B i l l i n g s 19 X6.6. Transverse section. Note well-defined inner wall and central cavity. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL20c - 3. Figure 8 - Archaeocyathus atlanticus B i l l i n g s 19 X7 .3 . Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL20e - 2. Figure 9 - Archaeocyathus atlanticus B i l l i n g s 19 X5.0. Transverse section, Mote wide central cavity and thick inner wall. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL20c - 2. Figure 10- A.jacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) 11 X13.2. Transverse section. I l l u s t r a t e s regular p a r i e t i e s and coarsely perforate inner wall. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. C L l l c - 6. 63 Plate II Page Figure 11 - A.jacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) 11 X13.1. Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo C o l l . No. CL7b - 7. Figure 12 - Pycnoidocyathus columbianus (Okulitch) . . . . 24 X2.8. Transverse section showing thi n p a r i e t i e s perforate by large pores. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. C L l l a - 11. Figure 13 - Pycnoidocyathus sp 26 X5.0. Transverse section. Note short p a r i e t i e s and thin connecting dissepiments. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. C017b - 6 . 6 4 P l a t e I I I Page F i g u r e 1 - A j a c i c y a t h u s r i m o u s k i O k u l i t c h . 12 X13.2. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . Note abundant p a r i e t i e s . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CL6b - 7 . F i g u r e 2 - A.ja c i c y a t h u s r i m o u s k i O k u l i t c h 12 X12.4. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n o f p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d specimen. U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CL7b - 3. F i g u r e 3 - A.ja c i c y a t h u s r i m o u s k i O k u l i t c h . . . . . . . . 12 X13.1. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CL3a - 2. F i g u r e 4 - Archaeocyathus b o r e a l i s O k u l i t c h 20 X6.4. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . Note wide i n t e r -v a l l u m , f i n e l o c u l i . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CL3a - 2. F i g u r e 5 - Syringocnema c o l v i l l e n s i s n. sp 31 X10.0. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . I l l u s t r a t e s wide i n t e r v a l l u m , t h i c k i n n e r w a l l . P a r a t y p e . U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. C018b - 1. F i g u r e 6 - Syringocnema c o l v i l l e n s i s n. sp 31 X7.5. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . H o l o t y p e . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CL2a - 1. F i g u r e 7 - Ethmophyllum w h i t n e y i Meek 16 X10.1. O b l i q u e t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . Note complex i n n e r w a l l , and s l i t - l i k e p o r e s o f th e o u t e r w a l l . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CLIOb - 6 . F i g u r e 8 - Ethmophyllum w h i t n e y i Meek 16 X10.7. O b l i q u e t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. CL5a - 2. F i g u r e 9 - P y c n o i d o c y a t h u s amourensis ( O k u l i t c h ) 26 X7.4. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . Outer w a l l c o r r o d e d . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. C L l l e - 6. F i g u r e 10- P y c n o i d o c y a t h u s amourensis ( O k u l i t c h ) 26 Xo.0. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. C L l l b - 1. 65 Plate I I I Page Figure 11 - Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch . . . . . . . . . 15 X5.2. Transverse section i l l u s t r a t i n g the wide central cavity and narrow intervallum. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL20e - 9 . Figure 12 - Pycnoidocyathus cf. columbianus 24 X2.4. Longitudinal section, s l i g h t l y oblique. Note e l l i p t i c a l pores of inner wall. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL12a - 2. Figure 13 - Syringocyathus sp 34 X4.2. Oblique longitudinal section. Note downward and inwardly i n c l i n e d tubes i n the intervallum. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CL20e - 2. Figure 14 - Pycnoidocyathus c f . columbianus 24 X2 .4 . Longitudinal section. I l l u s t r a t e s horn-l i k e shape of complete cup. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. CLll c - 7 . 66 Figure 1 -Figure 2 -Figure 3 -Figure 4 -Figure 5 -Figure 6 -Figure 7 -Figure 8 -Figure 9 -Figure 10-Plate IV Page Protopharetra dunbari Okulitch 22 X4."0. Oblique transverse section. Note i r r e g u l a r mesh-like t i s s u e . U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SC - 6. Ethmophyllum lineatus n. sp. . . 17 X6.1. Transverse section. I l l u s t r a t e s complex inner wall, short p a r i e t i e s , and attenuated form of the species. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SC - 9. Holotype. Ethmophyllum lineatus n. sp 17 X6.7• Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SB - 14. Paratype. Ethmophyllum lineatus n. sp. 17 X6.3. Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SE - 1. Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch 15 X5.7. Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SC - 7. Ajacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch) 11 X8.7. Transverse section, i l l u s t r a t i n g f i n e , regular p a r i e t i e s . U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SB - 4. Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek 16 X5.4. Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SK - 1. Archaeocyathellus sp. . 13 X5.5« Transverse section, showing longitudinal furrows of outer wall. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SC - 14a. Ethmophyllum c f . americanum 15 X5.7. Longitudinal section. Portion of specimen i l l u s t r a t e s s h e l f - l i k e projections of the inner wall. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SC - 12. Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek 16 X6 .4. Transverse section. U.B.C. Paleo. C o l l . No. SA - 10. 67 P l a t e IV Page F i g u r e 11 - A r c h a e o c y a t h u s a t l a n t i c u s B i l l i n g s 19 X5.5. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . No. SB - 7 . F i g u r e 12 - Ethmophyllum c f . americanum 15 X3 . 7 . T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . Wider c e n t r a l c a v i t y t h a n i s t y p i c a l o f E. americanum. U.B.C. P a l e o . C o l l . 'No. SK - 3 . 

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