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The Blaimore formation of southern Saskatchewan Rousell, Don Herbert 1956

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The Blairmore Formation of Southern Saskatchewan by Don Herbert R o u s e l l B.S.C., U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1 9 5 2 , A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree o f Master of Science i n the Department of Geology. We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree of Master of Science. Members of the Department of Geology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1 9 5 6 . V A b s t r a c t Rocks of the Lower Cretaceous Blairmore formation extend over the whole of southern Saskatchewan. Along out-crop areas i n western Manitoba, the Blairmore has undergone e r o s i o n a l t r u n c a t i o n . E q u i v a l e n t beds are found over almost the e n t i r e western i n t e r i o r p l a i n s of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . i n southern Saskatchewan and adjacent western Manitoba the formation c o n s i s t s p r i n c i p a l l y of f i n e to coarse quart-zose sandstone, shale, s a l t and pepper sandstone, l i g n i t e , c l a y i r o n s t o n e , k a o l i n i t e shale, and various mixtures of shaly sandstone and sandy shale. The Blairmore of the area i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e a r e a l u n i t s and r e l a t e d to adjacent, more thoroughly s t u d i e d areas. The d i v i s i o n s are: M a n n v i l l e , Kootenai, Dakota, Swan R i v e r , and A s h v i l l e areas. The s t r a t i g r a p h y of each area i s des-c r i b e d and environment and source areas discussed. O i l i n commercial q u a n t i t i e s has been found i n the Blairmore formation. The most l i k e l y areas of f u t u r e e x p l o r -a t i o n are suggested. I CONTENTS Chapter Page L i s t of i l l u s t r a t i o n s IV L i s t of p l a t e s IV Ab s t r a c t V I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purpose and Scope of Study 2 Acknowledgments 3 I I REGIONAL STUDY OP THE BLAIRMORE FORMATION AND CORRELATIVES General Statement 1+ Southern A l b e r t a and F o o t h i l l s Ii Northern and C e n t r a l A l b e r t a £ L l o y d m i n i s t e r - V e r m i l i o n Area 8 Manitoba 11 Northern States 12 Saskatchewan l l | . I l l DESCRIPTIVE STRATIGRAPHY General Statement 16 Mannville Area 16 D e f i n i t i o n 16 Thickness 16 R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds 17 D e s c r i p t i o n 17 I I . Kootenai Area 19 D e f i n i t i o n 19 Thickness 19 R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds 20 D e s c r i p t i o n 20 Lower Kootenai member 20 1st Cat Creek Member 22 Dakota Area 23 D e f i n i t i o n 23 Thickness 23 R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds 23 D e s c r i p t i o n 23 Swan R i v e r Area 26 D e f i n i t i o n 26 Thickness 26 R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds 26 D e s c r i p t i o n 27 A s h v i l l e Area 28 D e f i n i t i o n 28 Thickness 28 R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds 28 D e s c r i p t i o n 28 Thin S e c t i o n Study 29 IV TECTONIC INTERPRETATION Pre-Blairmore Tectonic H i s t o r y 32 I l l Tectonic f e a t u r e s 32 Pre-Blairmore-Post J u r a s s i c Surface 3 1 + V INTERPRETATIVE STRATIGRAPHY General Statement 36 Mannville Area 36 Kootenai Area 37 Dakota Area 1+0 Swan Riv e r Area 1+1 A s h v i l l e Area l+l VI PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Producing F i e l d s 1+3 Petroleum P o s s i b i l i t i e s 1+1+-Conclusions 1+5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1+7 •APPENDIX-. D e s c r i p t i o n of Selected Wells Well No. We l l Name 67 Tidewater Duperow Cr. #1 52 Tidewater P e l e t i e r Cr. #1 53 79 I m p e r i a l Tidewater C a r l y l e ftl 5k 99 Socony Buchanan #1 55 1+5 Imperial Foxwarren #1 56 IV Figure L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 Index Map Showing Thesis Area - f o l l o w i n g page 3 2 C o r r e l a t i o n Chart of Saskatchewan Blairmore - f o l l o w i n g page,16 3 Map Showing A r e a l S u b d i v i s i o n s - f o l l o w i n g page 16 1± L i t h o l o g i c Symbols Used On S t r a t i g r a p h i c Sections - f o l l o w i n g page 3?0 L i s t of P l a t e s 1 S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n A-A' i n pocket 2 S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n B-B' i n pocket 3 S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n C-C i n pocket k. S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n D-D1 i n pocket £ S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n E-E 1 In pocket 6 S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n F-F 1 i n pocket 7 S t r u c t u r a l Contour Map On Top of Blairmore i n pocket 8 Isopach-Percent Sand Map i n pocket 9 Pre-Cretaceous P a l e o g e o l o g i c a l Map i n pocket -1-Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n Rocks of Lower Cretaceous Age u n d e r l i e an extensive area of the i n t e r i o r p l a i n s of North America. The western edge reaches, and l o c a l l y extends i n t o the Rocky Mountains. Their northern l i m i t , f r i n g i n g the exposed Canadian S h i e l d , i s roughly that of the Upper Cretaceous as shown on the G e o l o g i c a l Map of North America. The e a s t e r n margin out-crops i n western Manitoba, extends southward i n t o Minnesota and Iowa, and continues to the Gulf Coast. Lower Cretaceous outcrops i n the United States are l o c a t e d at the eastern e r o s i o n a l edge i n North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska; along a b e l t of u p l i f t s i n northern Montana; i n the Black H i l l s of South Dakota; and the eastern edge of the Front Range. Lower Cretaceous outcrops i n Canada are found on the e r o s i o n a l f r i n g e ; western Manitoba, the edge of the s h i e l d and the f o o t h i l l s b e l t of the Rockies. Thus the vast m a j o r i t y of Lower Cretaceous rocks of Canadaane i n the subsurface, b u r i e d beneath a t h i c k mantle of Upper Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y sediments. Subsurface s t u d i e s i n the Canadian P l a i n s have been l a r g e l y hindered by l a c k of data. P r i o r to the l a s t decade subsurface i n f o r m a t i o n was scanty and l i m i t e d to a few s c a t t e r e d bore h o l e s or l o c a l o i l f i e l d s . The d i s c o v e r y of the Leduc o i l -f i e l d i n 1914.7 caused a "tremendous increase i n d r i l l i n g and -2-and now w e l l s are l o c a t e d across the whole of the i n t e r i o r p l a i n s . Most p u b l i s h e d papers on subsurface stratigraphy-are l i m i t e d to rocks of J u r a s s i c and o l d e r Age which have so f a r proved most p r o d u c t i v e . However, the Lower C r e t a -ceous, e s s e n t i a l l y the Blairmore formation, has been l a r g e l y neglected. Purpose and Scope of Study This t h e s i s i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of a Blairmore study made during the summer of 1951+.. During that, time samples and cores of over 100 w e l l s were examined. Most of these are recorded on s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the t h e s i s . Some 35 a d d i t i o n a l e l e c t r i c l o g s were used f o r c o n t r o l on the maps. Numerous other logs were examined f o r c o r r e l a t i o n purposes. Cored w e l l s .in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a good e l e c t r i c l o g were chosen wherever p o s s i b l e f o r the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s . An attempt i s made to describe and account f o r the s t r a t i g r a p h y of the Blairmore formation df southern Saskat-chewan. I n Chapter I I a review of the l i t e r a t u r e of Blairmore e q u i v a l e n t s i n A l b e r t a , the northern S t a t e s , and Manitoba serves as a guide i n p l a c i n g the Saskatchewan Blairmore i n the proper p e r s p e c t i v e . Wickenden (1932) s t a t e s -- "The Lower Cretaceous, where i t i s exposed to the west, i n southern A l b e r t a , con-t a i n s only non-marine d e p o s i t s . I n w e l l s i n southwestern A l b e r t a the top of the Lower Cretaceous i s g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d -3-at the f i r s t occurrence of deposits that c o n t a i n c o a l o r are e v i d e n t l y non-marine. Do these non-marine beds extend i n t o Southern Saskatchewan and i f so, how f a r east? I n the northwest, i n the Athabaska and Peace R i v e r v a l l e y s , marine Lower Cretaceous deposits occur. Do these extend southeast i n t o southern Saskatchewan?" The w r i t e r hopes that t h i s r e p o r t w i l l at l e a s t p a r t l y answer these questions. Acknowledgements The Tidewater Associated O i l Co., Regina, Saskatchewan made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . The w r i t e r wishes to e s p e c i a l l y thank the f o l l o w i n g members of the Tidewater s t a f f who were ever ready to provide t e c h n i c a l advice: R. L>. M i l n e r , H. A. G o r r e l l , G. E. Thomas, and W. Myrah. The f o l l o w i n g o i l companies provided data, much of which was c o n f i d e n t i a l at the time: The C a l i f o r n i a Standard Co., Imperial O i l Co., Socony Vacuum O i l Co., Sohio O i l Co. Mr. J . Ambler, Sohio O i l Co., provided data on the Ll o y d m i n i s t e r f i e l d . This t h e s i s was prepared under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Dr. W.H. Mathews of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. His guidance and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m are g r e a t l y appreciated by the w r i t e r . Mr. W. R. Danner provided many h e l p f u l suggestions. Mr. J . A. Donnan prepared the t h i n s e c t i o n s . Chapter I I REGIONAL STUDY OP THE BLAIRMORE FORMATION AND CORRELATIVES. General Statement In order to g a i n an understanding of the Blairmore of southern Saskatchewan, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s a broad review of Blairmore c o r r e l a t i v e s elsewhere i s e s s e n t i a l . A b r i e f summary of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e has been made. Southern A l b e r t a and F o o t h i l l s Dawson (l88£) f i r s t examined the Lower Cretaceous i n the f o o t h i l l s and eastern Rockies. He named the lower beds Kootenai (now Kootenay), c a l l e d the o v e r l y i n g beds Dakota (Blairmore) and" assigned them to the Upper Cre t a -ceous. Leach (1911), working i n the Blairmore area, named the beds o v e r l y i n g the Kootenay ( i . e . Dawson's Kootenai) Blairmore and p l a c e d them i n the Lower Cretaceous. Thompson and Axford (19f>3) provide a d e t a i l e d B l a i r -more s e c t i o n near the c l a s s i c a l area. Here, the Blairmore. c o n s i s t s of 1,800 f e e t of non-marine greenish and r e d d i s h shales, l i g h t brown to greenish sandstones, and some con-glomerate. A p e r s i s t e n t bed of f i n e conglomerate, about 25 f e e t t h i c k ; e x i s t s at the base and l i e s on the Kootenay. Another conglomerate i s present near the top and s e v e r a l beds of greenish limestone are present i n the .lower p a r t . P l a n t remains and f r e s h water s h e l l s suggest a non-marine environment. - 5 -Further west, i n the Rockies proper, the Blairmore reaches a thickness of 6 , 5 0 0 f e e t . Thinning i s r a p i d toward the east and i n the v i c i n i t y of Lethbridge, A l b e r t a the Blairmore i s 700 f e e t t h i c k . U p l i f t and exposure of c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s , to the west of the present Rockies, provided the source of both Kootenay and Blairmore sediments. The Kootenay formation does not extend i n t o the p l a i n s . Subsidence of the A l b e r t a Syncline was s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d at that time to accommodate a l l sediments. Apparently sedimentation was continuous between the J u r a s s i c F e r n l e and the Kootenay, During Blairmore time subsidence of the A l b e r t a syn-c l i n e d i d not keep pace w i t h sedimentation so that f r e s h and b r a c k i s h water deposits spread across the p l a i n s , pos-s i b l y as f a r east as Saskatchewan. Northern and C e n t r a l A l b e r t a Badgley (1952) provides the most comprehensive study of the Lower Cretaceous and c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . Here the Mann-v i l l e group (Blairmore) i s d i v i d e d i n t o three formations. From o l d e s t to youngest they are McMurray, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids. The marine J o l i Fou o v e r l i e s the M a n h v i l l e , The u n d e r l y i n g d e t r i t a l D e v i l l e formation may be i n p a r t J u r a s s i c . The McMurray formation i s predominately non-marine -6-and c o n s i s t s of quartzose sandstone, dark grey shale, much of i t p y r i t i c , pelecypods, f i s h fragments and some c o a l . The dominantly marine Clearwater c o n s i s t s of dark marine shales, g l a u c o n i t i c marine greywackes, s i l t s t o n e s , q u a r t z i t e s , and some non-marine shale, greywacke and. c o a l . The Grand Rapids formation i s dominantely non-marine, d e l t a i c . I t c o n s i s t s of a complex succession of i n t e r -bedded greywackes, s i l t s t o n e s , and shales w i t h s e v e r a l t h i n c o a l beds. The Lower Cretaceous of the Peace River-Pouce Coupe' area can be subdivided i n t o . a s i m i l a r succession as the Edmonton-Athabaska-Lloydminister Area. The Bullhead group i s equivalent to the D e v i l l e and McMurray. L i k e the D e v i l l e , i t may be i n p a r t J u r a s s i c . The Bluesky and lower p a r t of the S p i r i t R i v e r formation i s equ i v a l e n t to the Clearwater. The upper p a r t of the S p i r i t R i ver and the lower p a r t of the Peace R i v e r Is equivalent to the Grand Rapids formation. Wickenden (1951) examined Lower Cretaceous s e c t i o n s on Peace R i v e r below the mouth of Smoky Riv e r . On l i t h o l o g i c b a s i s he suggests environments and source of sediments f o r the Lower Cretaceous. Seas came i n from the north and the l a n d mass supplying most of the sediments l a y to the west and southwest. A low l y i n g land mass probably a l s o l a y to the east, i n the s h i e l d area. An o f f l a p - o n l a p r e l a t i o n s h i p -7-i s v i s u l i z e d together w i t h d e l t a i c d e p o s i t i o n and s h i f t i n g s h o r e l i n e s . The McMurray formation, where i t outcrops along the Athabaska r i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y of the town of McMurray, A l b e r t a , i s of unique economic importance. The sand i s saturated w i t h t a r or bitumen. The l a r g e s c a l e cross-bedding has been i n t e r p r e t e d as f o r e s t beds of a d e l t a . To the west d r i l l i n g i n d i c a t e s sand i s being replaced by a shale f a c i e s . A s h i e l d source i s suggested. McLearn (I9I4.5) discusses the northern f o o t h i l l s r e g i o n . Here, the o l d e s t Cretaceous Bullhead group i s d i v i d e d i n t o the Dunlevy (Kootenay) and G-ething (McMurray), both essen-t i a l l y non-marine. Mathews (I9I4.6), working i n the Carbon Creek-Mount B i c k f o r d Map Area d i v i d e d the Bullhead i n t o a lower marine and upper non-marine s e c t i o n . The Gething, about ljl+OO f e e t t h i c k conformably o v e r l i e s the Dunlevy. I t c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of coarse to f i n e grained, t h i c k to t h i n bedded, r i p p l e marked sandstone; s i l t s t o n e s ; grey to b l a c k shale; c l a y i r o n s t o n e ; and c o a l seams. Northward, i n the area of the S i k a n n i R i v e r , important d i f f e r e n c e s are noted and the B u l l h e a d cannot be subdivided. S t i l l f u r t h e r n o r t h the group t h i n s out and i s absent on the Alaska Highway and on L i a r d R i v e r . The Port St. John Group, o v e r l y i n g the Bullhead, i s l a r g e l y marine. Along Pine R i v e r the P o r t St. John has been subdivided i n t o the Moosebar, Commotion, Hasler, Goodrich - 8 -and C r u i s e r i n ascending order. These c o n s i s t of dark marine shale and some sandstone. They are about li . , 8 0 0 f e e t t h i c k . F u r t h e r north, along Buckinghorse and S i k a n n i R i v e r s , the F o r t St. John u n d e r l i e s the Buckinghorse and S i k a n n i formations. The Buckinghorse c o n s i s t s of 3 j 0 0 to 3>600 f e e t of dark shale w i t h marine f o s s i l s . The S i k a n n i i s comprised of 980 f e e t of dark shale w i t h f o u r t h i c k sandstone members i n the lower p a r t . S t i l l f u r t h e r north, on L i a r d R i v e r , the F o r t S t . John i s i+,750 f e e t t h i c k and c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of dark shale w i t h sandstone toward the centre of the s e c t i o n . L l o y d m i n i s t e r - V e r m i l i o n Area The discovery of o i l i n the Lower Cretaceous at Ver-m i l i o n (I9I4.O) and L l o y d m i n i s t e r (I9I1I4-) has r e s u l t e d i n i n t e n s i v e d r i l l i n g and study i n the area. Nauss ( 19l i5) proposed the name Man n v i l l e formation f o r beds of Lower Cretac«ous age i n the V e r m i l i o n area. They d i f f e r from equ i v a l e n t beds i n the Peace Ri v e r and McMurray d i s t r i c t s i n that they are l a r g e l y non-marine; from the Rocky Mountain Blairmore i n c o n t a i n i n g near shore quartzose sands and a marine sh a l e ; from the southern A l b e r t a Lower Cretaceous i n that they l a c k red and green shale. Because of t h e i r l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n the Mannville has been d i v i d e d i n t o s i x members r a t h e r than formations. These are, from o l d e s t to youngest: - 9 -Dlana member -- c h i e f l y rounded unconsolidated quartz sand interbedded w i t h s i l t and shale; g r a i n s c oarsest near the base and a t t a i n a s i z e of 1 m.m., v a r i a b l e t h i c k n e s s , 0 to l5Q f e e t , due to f i l l i n g of Paleozoic depressions; the Diana i s s i m i l a r to the McMurray formation; w e l l rounded, w e l l s o r t e d , f r o s t e d sand g r a i n s suggest a beach deposit. Cummings member -- l a r g e l y dark grey to b l a c k shale c o n t a i n i n g abundant p y r i t e and foramin-i f e r a ; c o a l seam near the base; some s a l t and pepper sandstone; thickness 0 to 90 f e e t ; t h i n s toward the south and i s absent near Wainwright; thickens toward the north; Nauss suggests i t i s the wedge edge of the C l e a r w a t e r shale. I s l a y member — 0 to 60 f e e t of w e l l s o r t e d , rounded f r o s t e d quartz sand; t h i n c o a l seams i n the upper p a r t . T o v e i l member — l a r g e l y massive, coarse s a l t and pepper sandstone, and grey shale w i t h abundant p l a n t remains and some t h i n c o a l seams; sand g r a i n s are dark smoky quartz and angular quartz and are p o o r l y sorted; thickness ranges from 75> to 116 f e e t . B o r r a d a i l e member — w e l l rounded quartz sand w i t h an average g r a i n s i z e of O.lj? m.m.; p y r i t e nodules; grey shale c o n t a i n i n g woody p l a n t fragments. 0 ' S u l l i v a n member — s a l t and pepper sandstone, grey shale and s e v e r a l prominent c o a l seams. Nauss suggests a geologic h i s t o r y f o r the Lower Cre-taceous of the member. Lower Cretaceous seas advanced from the north upon the eroded and i r r e g u l a r Devonian limestone. 'The beach sands of the Diana accumulated along the shores. The seas readvanced to a p o i n t south of Ver-m i l i o n . The marine muds of the Cumraings were deposited i n q u i e t waters. The beach sands of the I s l a y mark the r e -t r e a t of the sea. The T o v e l l member suggests a d e l t a i c -10-deposit of a northward f l o w i n g r i v e r . A s h i f t of the r i v e r mouth allowed the reworking of the upper p a r t of the T o v e l l and the formation of the B o r r a d a i l e . Another s h i f t of the r i v e r brought the mouth back to the V e r m i l i o n area and de-p o s i t e d the d e l t a i c 0'.Sullivan. Goal was deposited i n nearby swamps. The L l o y d m i n i s t e r area, l y i n g to the east of V e r m i l i o n and s t r a d d l i n g the Saskatchewan-Alberta boundry has been described by Wickenden (191+8). The s i x f o l d s u b d i v i s i o n of Nauss can be traced i n t o L l o y d m i n i s t e r area. The M a n n v i l l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s which represent changes i n con-d i t i o n s and source of sediments. They resemble i n p a r t the McMurray, Clearwater and Grand Rapids on Athabaska R i v e r . Lower D i v i s i o n (Diana) -- c l e a n , f i n e g r a i n e d quartz sand, w i t h p a r t i n g s of carbon and dark grey shale; l a c k of glauponite and marine f o s -s i l s and numerous i n c l u s i o n s of carbonized p l a n t f o s s i l s suggests a c o n t i n e n t a l e n v i r o n -ment; thickness - 97 to 160 f e e t . Middle D i v i s i o n (Cummings, I s l a y , T o v e l l , B o r r a d a i l e , p l u s shale and c o a l above them) — during t h i s time the area was l i k e l y the s i t e of a d e l t a w i t h the d e p o s i t i o n of s i l t , sand, and shale of marine-brackish water o r i g i n ; such c o n d i t i o n s would l e a d to considerable l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s ; marine beds are more common inthe east and north than i n the west and southwest p a r t of the area; the base i s a sand c o n t a i n i n g a l i t t l e g l a u c o n i t e ; over-l a i n by a dark grey, f o s s i l i f e r o u s marine shale; Wickenden suggests the l a t t e r occupies an extensive area In the p l a i n s of A l b e r t a and western Saskatchewan; s a l t and pepper sandstone, shale and f i n e , c l e a n quartz sandstone o v e r l i e s the marine shale; a quartz sand bed c a l l e d the L l o y d m i n i s t e r sand and i s probably e q u i v a l e n t to the I s l a y ; -11, the top of the middle d i v i s i o n p l a c e d at the top of a c o a l or carbonaceous shale and medium grey marine shale; the l a t t e r shale seems to mark the upper l i m i t of marine c o n d i t i o n s . Upper D i v i s i o n ( 0 * S u l l i v a n ) — non-marine s a l t and pepper sandstone w i t h some f i n e grained quartz sandstone, s i l t , c l a y , and c o a l ; d e l -talc; c o n d i t i o n s may have p r e v a i l e d , although the sea was l i k e l y more remote than during d e p o s i t i o n of the middle member; the upper boundry of the Mannville i s placed at the con-t a c t between the predominately non-marine shale; the l a t t e r contains Haplophr agmoides gigas microfauna. In summary, d e p o s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s i n the L l o y d m i n i s t e r -V e r m i l i o n area were l a r g e l y d e l t a i c . They were c o n t r o l l e d by a s h i f t i n g shore l i n e w i t h complex i n t e r f i n g e r i n g o f marine, b r a c k i s h , and c o n t i n e n t a l sediments. The f i n e grained, b a s a l quartz sand may have had an eastern or Pre-Cambrian source, Wickenden (19^8) suggests that s a l t and pepper sands were deri v e d from the west. They are charac-t e r i s t i c of the Lower Cretaceous of the west, but do not appear i n the east (Manitoba), Manitoba The presence of Mesozoic s t r a t a i n western Manitoba account f o r the physiographic f e a t u r e r e f e r r e d to as the f i r s t p r a i r i e step. These s t r a t a d i p g e n t l y to the west and southwest. K i r k (1930) r e l a t e d "Basal Beds" u n d e r l y i n g the Ash-v i l l e to the Dakota sandstone and placed them i n the Upper Cretaceous. Wickenden (19lj.5>) suggests a Lower Cretaceous -12-age f o r the Swan Riv e r Group ( B l a i r m o r e ) . I n s o u t h - c e n t r a l Manitoba they l i e between marine J u r a s s i c and marine A s h v i l l e . North of Swan R i v e r , where no marine J u r a s s i c has been r e c -ognized, the Swan R i v e r Group r e s t s on Devonian rocks. The most sou t h e r l y exposure of the Swan R i v e r formation i s along Wilson R i v e r , near the town of Dauphin. In general the sequence c o n s i s t s of interbedded f i n e grained sands and sandstone, s h a l e s , s i l t , and c o a l . Thick-ness v a r i e s from a few f e e t to over I4.OO f e e t i n the north. P o s s i b l y the area around Swan R i v e r and extending westward to Hudson Bay J u n c t i o n i n Saskatchewan was a l o c a l b a s i n during Swan R i v e r Time. Toward the north the presence of c o a l suggests the s e c t i o n i s dominately non-marine. Towards the south glauconitie and fragments of marine molluscs suggest the group i s at l e a s t p a r t l y marine. Ower (19^3) does not recognize Swan R i v e r e q u i v a l e n t s i n southwestern Manitoba. He d i v i d e s the A s h v i l l e Into two u n i t s , c o r r e l a t e s the lower u n i t (D-2) w i t h the P e l i c a n shale ( J o l i Pou) and suggested a Lower Cretaceous Age.. Northern States Rocks of Blairmore age i n the W i l l i s t o n b a s i n area are from o l d e s t to youngest Lakota, Minnewaste, Fuson, and P a l l R i v e r (sometimes c a l l e d Dakota f o r m a t i o n ) . They have been desc r i b e d by G r i e s ( 1 9 5 2 ) . Lakota — non-marine, t h i c k , massive sandstones interbedded w i t h shale or c l a y and o c c a s i o n a l c o a l seams and conglomerate s t r e a k s ; i n out--13-crops In the Black H i l l s , t h i c k n e s s v a r i e s from 75 to L}.85 f e e t : sandstones are l a r g e l y f i n e to medium quartz sand; In channel f i l l i n g s and h e a v i l y cross bedded members, the sand i s coarser, and l o c a l l y c o n g l o m e r i t i c ; sands i n the upper p a r t are f i n e r than b a s a l sands. Minnewaste formation — maximum thickness 35 f e e t ; limestone withrminor shale; a l o c a l calcareous phase of Fuson-Lakota d e p o s i t i o n , and scicxardipg to Gries should not be considered a formation. Fuson formation — grey or va r i e g a t e d shales and sandstone; Gries i s of the o p i n i o n the Fuson should not be considered a formation,.but a c l o s i n g shaly phase of the Lakota. F a l l R i v e r sandstone — In the Black H i l l s area c o n s i s t s of a coarse b a s a l sandstone and upper grey to v a r i e g a t e d c l a y s , w i t h t h i n slabby sand-stones. C o r r e l a t i o n s between the Dakota formation, where i t was f i r s t described i n Nebraska, w i t h subsurface and outcrop beds f u r t h e r west have been subject to much controversy. Gries (195i+) has c l a r i f i e d t h i s somewhat. In the type are, the Dakota r e s t s on Pre-Cambrian and i s i n p a r t Upper Cretaceous. What has been c a l l e d the Dakota formation i n North Dakota i s simply a western tongue of the Dakota of the type area. The name F a l l R i v e r sandstone i s suggested f o r t h i s tongue. In Montana equ i v a l e n t Lower Cretaceous rocks are Kooteaai formation (not the Kootenai of Dawson or the Kootenay) and the o v e r l y i n g "Basal Colorado Sandy Zone" or F i r s t Cat Creek Member. Kootenai formation — interbedded v a r i c o l o r e d to mottled shale o r claystone and p o o r l y s o r t e d , o f t e n tuffaceous to a n d e s i t i c sandstone; an upper sand-stone o f t e n greenish and f l a k e d w i t h b i o t i t e ; the b a s a l sandstone (Lakota or t h i r d Cat Creek) o f t e n coarse grained to conglomerate. -Ill-F i r s t Cat Creek — marine; interbedded b l a c k or grey.shale, sandstone, and s i l t s t o n e ; a l o c a l w e l l developed sandstone o f t e n found at the base. Saskatchewan Fraser et a l ( 1935) d i s c u s s the Blairmore from data obtained from a few s c a t t e r e d deep w e l l s . They suggest a p o s s i b l e three f o l d s u b d i v i s i o n of non-marine ( ? ) , marine (on the b a s i s of Haplophragmoides gigas microfauna) and non-marine. A t e n t a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n may be made w i t h Lower Cre-taceous of northern A l b e r t a . The marine s e c t i o n may be equivalent to Clearwater or Loon R i v e r and the o v e r l y i n g c o a l bearing zone w i t h the upper p a r t s of the Grand Rapids and Peace R i v e r sandstone. They recognize that across the p l a i n s from east to west the Blairmore coarsens and thickens and t h a t the e n t i r e l y non-marine beds of the west pass i n t o p a r t l y non-marine, p a r t l y marine i n the middle or eastern p a r t s of the p l a i n s . To e x p l a i n t h i s they envisage a r i s e of a great l a n d mass, Zephyria, on the s i t e of the S e l k i r k , P u r c e l l , and other ranges west of the Rockies. E r o s i o n of Zephyria b u i l t out a l l u v i a l p l a i n s and d e l t a s to the east. Maximum d e l t a i c expansion supposedly took place during Inoceramus Cado-t t e n s i s , Upper Peace R i v e r , or A l b i a n time. The d e l t a ex-tended across southern Saskatchewan i n t o Manitoba. Hadley and M i l n e r (1953) attempt; -to r e l a t e Lower Q.*e-taceous beds of southwestern Saskatchewan to equivalent - 1 5 -beds i n northern Montana, ^hey f e e l the use of the term Blairmore to cover both marine and non-marine beds i n Sas-katchewan i s not e n t i r e l y acceptable. They suggest the marine Upper Blairmore i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the over-l y i n g marine Colorado formation than the u n d e r l y i n g non-marine Blairmore. The Montana term "Basal Colorado Sandy Zone" (Dakota or F i r s t Cat Creek) should be adopted i n s t e a d of Upper Blairmore. The Montana Kootenai should be a p p l i e d to the lagoonal lower B3a irmore of Saskatchewan. -16-Chapter I I I DESCRIPTIVE STRATIGRAPHY General Statement V a r i a t i o n s i n t h i c k n e s s , l i t h o l o g y , and source areas provide a l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r d i v i d i n g the Blairmore forma-t i o n of Saskatchewan i n t o f i v e d i s t i n c t i v e A r e a l U n i t s . Although boundaries have been drawn on the map ( P i g . 3) as s o l i d l i n e s , they are a c t u a l l y g r a d a t i o n a l . The w r i t e r pro-poses adoption of s t r a t i g r a p h i c nomeclature of surrounding, more thoroughly s t u d i e d areas. The a p p l i c a t i o n of the name Blairmore to the i n t e r v a l i n question, across the whole of southern Saskatchewan, should be used o n l y i n a general sense. Mannville Area D e f i n i t i o n This forms a broad southeast tongue-like p r o j e c t i o n i n the northwestern p a r t of the area and i s r e l a t e d to the Mannville formation of V e r m i l i o n - L l o y d m i n i s t e r area. The name Mannville formation i s proposed to cover the Blairmore formation of t h i s area. Thickness The average thickness of the tongue i s lj.00 f e e t , a l -though thicknesses of £50 f e e t are reached In l o c a l depres -si o n s . The l a t t e r may be accounted f o r by f i l l i n g of uneven topography. C O R R E L A T I O N C H A R T OF S A S K A T C H E W A N B L A I R M O R E co o UJ o < UJ or o or UJ o N.W. S A S K . + C E N T . A L T A . S.W. S A S K . + MONT. S . E . S A S K + N.D. N .E . S A S K . + M A N . W E S T E R N M A N . M A N V I L L E F O R M A T I O N C O L O R A D O G R O U P F I R S T CAT C R E E K M E M B E R K O O T E N A I F O R M A T I O N O < or o u. < I— o < F A L L R I V E R M E M B E R F U S O N M E M B E R L A K O T A M E M B E R J U R A S S I C SWAN R I V E R F O R M A T I O N M I S S I S S I P P I A N D E V O N I A N A S H V I L L E F O R M A T I O N F I G U R E 2 A R E A L SUBDIVISIONS OF SASK. BLA IRM0RE F I G U R E 3 -17-R e l a t i o n to u n d e r l y i n g beds The northern p o r t i o n i s u n d e r l a i n by d o l o m i t i c green and red s i l t y shales of the Devonian Qu'Apelle Group. Tteward the south and southwest the Lodgepole limestone ( M i s s i s s i -ppian) overlaps the Devonian and u n d e r l i e s the M a n n v i l l e . The southern edge of the Mannville i s u n d e r l a i n by the Shauna-von and Vanguard formations of J u r a s s i c Age. D e s c r i p t i o n The Tidewater Duperow Or. #1 w e l l i s f u l l y cored through-out the s e c t i o n and i s given i n the appendix as a type w e l l . This w e l l i s the most n o r t h e r l y of those examined and pre-sumably bears the c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Mannville i n the L l o y d m i n i s t e r - V e r m i l i o n area. The general l i t h o l o g y of the area c o n s i s t s of i n t e r -bedded f i n e grained sandstone, s i l t y shale,, dark carbonaceous shale, a bed of Coarse grained sandstone and calcareous s a l t and pepper sandstone. The l a t t e r c o n s i s t s of quartz g r a i n s and carbonaceous fragments cemented i n a calcareous m a t r i x . I n d i v i d u a l beds seldom exceed 15 or 20 f e e t . This i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the e l e c t r i c l o g . Dark c o l o r i n d i c a t e s l a c k of o x i d a t i o n . The above f e a t u r e s , together w i t h the p o o r l y sorted nature of the sediments i n d i c a t e s r a p i d b u r i a l under f l u c t u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The b a s a l beds i n the n o r t h c o n s i s t of f i n e brown or green shale, s l i g h t l y s i l t y , w i t h some carbonaceous m a t e r i a l or l i g n i t e . Further south, the Mannville t h i n s and sand-stone r e s t s on the Devonian. -18-Overlying the shale i s a bed of f i n e grained sandstone c o n t a i n i n g heavy o i l . W e l l #66 i s the southern l i m i t o f the o i l . No o i l occurs i n the b a s a l beds of s e c t i o n D-D1, to the east. A s a l t and pepper sandstone, over 20 f e e t t h i c k , per-s i s t s as f a r south as w e l l #63. I t i s best developed i n w e l l #61+. where i t l i e s on the Devonian and i s 75 f e e t t h i c k . . (The s a l t and pepper sandstone i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h carbonaceous lenses. A t h i n s e c t i o n of the former i s des-c r i b e d at the end of the chapter. A r a t h e r heterogeneous sequence, d i f f i c u l t to subdivide, o v e r l i e s the s a l t and pepper sandstone. Fine-grained, grey and brown, i n p a r t calcareous sandstone i s the main type w i t h s i l t y or carbonaceous shale i n t e r b e d s . Thin limestone beds are o c c a s i o n a l l y present but are not confined to any p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n . Clay ironstone concre-t i o n s or s i d e r i t e p e l l e t s are o c c a s i o n a l l y found. The above s e c t i o n , toward the south, becomes shaly and grades i n t o Kootenai l i t h o l o g y . An o v e r l y i n g t h i n b l a c k shale may correspond to the b l a c k shale at the base of the F i r s t Cat Creek i n Kootenai area. This i s f o l l o w e d by about i+0 f e e t of coarse to very coarse sandstone. Glauconite i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the sand i n w e l l #68. The g r a i n s are sub-rounded but become angular to the south, In w e l l #65. Further south g r a i n s i z e diminishes and the thickness of the u n i t decreases to n i l . - 1 9 -A dark grey to bl a c k shale separates the above from a sandy s e c t i o n which marks the top of the Ma n n v i l l e . The sand i s l i g h t green, f i n d grained, and s l i g h t l y g l a u c o n i t i c i n the extreme north. Toward the south the sand i s p o o r l y sorted, coarse, medium and f i n e grained, g e n e r a l l y calcareous. This sand provides a good e l e c t r i c l o g break w i t h the o v e r l y i n g marine Colorado Shale. Kootenai Area D e f i n i t i o n The area so defined comprises about 1/3 of the area of study and occupies the southwestern p o r t i o n of the province. Blairmore beds are d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the Kootenai-P i r s t Cat Creek of- Montana. The w r i t e r proposes t h a t the non-marine s e c t i o n o v e r l y i n g the J u r a s s i c and u n d e r l y i n g the bl a c k shale bed of the F i r s t Cat Creek be c a l l e d the Lower Kootenai Member. The o v e r l y i n g marine s e c t i o n Is to be c a l l e d F i r s t Cat Creek member and inc l u d e d i n the Kootenai (Blairmore) formation. Thickness The isopach map ( P l a t e 8 ) shows two tongues of t h i c k e r d e p o s i t i o n p r o j e c t i n g from the southwest i n t o southern Sas-katchewan. A maximum thic k n e s s of 1+.00 f e e t i s a t t a i n e d i n the eastern tongue, s l i g h t l y west of the t h i r d meridian. A saddle separates t h i s from another tongue at the western edge of Saskatchewan. Here thickness reaches 300 f e e t . There appears to be a p l a t f o r m i n the area of the town -20-of S w i f t Current. Northeast of here a minimum Blairmore thickness of 100 f e e t i s recorded. R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds Most of the area i s u n d e r l a i n by Upper Vanguard shale. The J u r a s s i c has undergone e r o s i o n a l t r u n c a t i o n toward the n o r t h . Here the Blairmore i s u n d e r l a i n by Middle and Lower Vanguard, and i n the extreme northwest perhaps even the M i s s i s s i p p i a n may u n d e r l i e the Blairmore. D e s c r i p t i o n Lower Kootenai Member — Tne non-marine Lower Kootenai Member v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y from w e l l to w e l l . Thus-, no s i n g l e w e l l d e s c r i p t i o n f i t s the e n t i r e area. L i t h o l o g i c d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r w e l l #52 i s g i v e n i n the appendix. In the southeastern p a r t of t h i s area a s a l t and pep-per sandstone, of v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s , commonly l i e s at o r near the base of the Kootenai. O c c a s i o n a l l y , as i n w e l l s #3 and #6lj., f i n e to medium sandstone u n d e r l i e s s a l t and pepper sandstone. This sand contains t h i n beds of carbonaceous shale and p l a n t remains. To the west, i n w e l l s #11 and #12, dark grey shale and f i n e grained sandstone occupies the p o s i t i o n of s a l t and pepper sandstone. Carbonaceous m a t e r i a l Is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the sandstone. In the northwest, i n w e l l s #19 and #20, the s a l t and pepper sandstone dominates the Kootenai s e c t i o n . West and -21-north of these w e l l s s a l t and pepper sandstone i s i n s i g -n i f i c a n t or absent u n t i l the area of Mannville sedimenta-t i o n i s encountered. A dominately shaly sequence o v e r l i e s the b a s a l sandy beds. I n the south grey shale predominates w i t h some red, green, yellow and bl a c k shales. Toward the east, along s e c t i o n A-A', the sequence becomes sandy, w i t h t h i n i n t e r -beds of carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . South of S w i f t Current the Kootenai s e c t i o n t h i n s con-s i d e r a b l y and the shaly s e c t i o n i s not represented. Probably t h i s was an area of non-deposition or m i l d e r o s i o n . In the ar^a of the P o s t e r t o n o i l f i e l d , where the Kootenai r e s t s ' o n the Lower Vanguard, near or on the ero-s i o n a l edge of the Middle Vanguard sand, a f i n e grained quartzose sand i s developed. This sand was l i k e l y d e r i v e d from the Middle Vanguard. North of here the s e c t i o n above the s a l t and pepper sandstone c o n s i s t s of green, greenish-grey,'and some bl a c k and brown shale. Throughout the s e c t i o n s i d e r i t e p e l l e t s or c l a y ironstone concretions are f r e q u e n t l y found interbedded i n a cream, k a o l i n i t i c m a t r i x . They do not occupy a p a r t i -c u l a r s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n and cannot be c o r r e l a t e d as a d i s t i n c t i v e u n i t between w e l l s . A t h i n s e c t i o n of s i d e r i t e p e l l e t s was examined and a d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n c l u d e d at the end of the chapter. The top of the Kootenai, i n the southwest and northwest, - 2 2 -c o n s i s t s mainly of f i n e grained sandstone interbedded w i t h grey, greenish-grey, b l a c k and red shale. Toward the south-east f i n e grained calcareous sandstone becomes prominent w i t h fewer shale breaks. Along s e c t i o n B-B 1, g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t . 1 The trend seems to be to a s h a l i e r s e c t i o n toward the east. I n w e l l s #57, #58 and #59, i n the north, a s a l t and pepper sandstone i s at or near the top of the Kootenai. F i r s t Cat Creek member — The F i r s t Cat Creek marine member i s o v e r l a i n by the Colorado shale'and separated from the u n d e r l y i n g Lower .Kootenai Member by a prominent b l a c k shale h o r i z o n . This member can be traced over 3 5 , 0 0 0 square miles of southern Saskatchewan.. I t i s best developed w i t h i n the Kootenai area, but does exte<nd as a fringe beyond. L o c a l l y , I t Is as t h i c k as the Lower Kootenai Member. As shown on the cross sec-t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l beds 10 or 15 f e e t t h i c k are tr a c e a b l e f o r over 100 m i l e s . The base i s marked by a b l a c k shale of remarkable per-s i s t e n c e . I n many w e l l s t h i s contains a bed of grey shale near the centre. Thickness Is approximately 25 f e e t , t h i n -ning at the d e p o s i t i o n a l edge of the shale. The s e c t i o n o v e r l y i n g the bl a c k shale c o n s i s t s of s i l t s t o n e , s i l t y s hale, t h i n b l a c k shale beds and f i n e grained sandstone, o c c a s i o n a l l y calcareous. The top i s u s u a l l y a f i n e grained calcareous sandstone. I n a few w e l l s west of S w i f t Current, coarse, angular quartz g r a i n s mark the top of the F i r s t Cat Creek, -23-Dakota Area D e f i n i t i o n The term Dakota formation i s a p p l i e d to an area o f d i s t i n c t i v e l i t h o l o g y i n southeastern Saskatchewan <en& south-eastern Manitoba. The s e c t i o n i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the so c a l l e d Dakota Group (Lakota, Fuson, F a l l R i v e r ) of eas t e r n Montana and North Dakota. The w r i t e r recognizes that "Dakota" has been a p p l i e d i n s e v e r a l senses. Here, Dakota covers the s e c t i o n between the J u r a s s i c and the o v e r l y i n g Colorado shale. Some d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n p l a c i n g the northern boundary of the area. Sediments here have a northern, as w e l l as southern source. The boundary was pl a c e d where the course b a s a l sand became shaly. Here, sands d e r i v e d from the nort h are replaced by a shaly f a c i e s . Thickness The maximum thickness i s I4.OO f e e t . Beds t h i n compari-t i v e l y r a p i d l y i n the v i c i n i t y of the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border. The average thickness i s about 3$0 f e e t . R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds The Dakota formation i s u n d e r l a i n by Vanguard formation i n the south and the Shaunavon formation toward the north. Both are of J u r a s s i c age. D e s c r i p t i o n A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of w e l l #79 i s inc l u d e d i n the appendix and may be considered as a type s e c t i o n f o r the - 2 k -area. The Dakota formation i s d i v i d e d Into three members which are approximately e q u i v a l e n t to s i m i l a r l y named f o r -mations i n North Dakota. They are, from o l d e s t to youngest, Lakota, Fuson, F a l l R iver. The b a s a l Lakota member i s a heterogeneous sandstone u n i t , o f t e n reaching 125 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s . The upper p a r t Is u s u a l l y shaly. G r a i n s i z e i s v a r i a b l e but very coarse to granule s i z e are present. Grains are u s u a l l y angular and broken although sub-rounded g r a i n s are not uncommon. Some are f r o s t e d and p i t t e d , a few are c l e a r . Rose, and some yellow, g r a i n s are prominent i n a d d i t i o n to c l e a r q uartz. The beds have a h i g h p o r o s i t y . C a l c i t e . and cream k a o l i n i t e are cementing m a t e r i a l . Where the Jurassic-Cretaceous contact has been cored (wells # 3 9 , #1+0 and #1+1), the base of the Blairmore i s marked by a s t r i k i n g pebble conglomerate. I t c o n s i s t s of rounded quartz pebbles, and i n one case a dolomite pebble, embedded i n a m a t r i x of f i n e p y r i t i c sand o r shal e . This conglo-merate marks a time of maximum energy c o n d i t i o n s I n the Blairmore of southern Saskatchewan. The u n d e r l y i n g J u r a s s i c shale i s brown. This may suggest a p e r i o d of weathering and an ancient s o i l h o r i z o n . The Fuson, o v e r l y i n g the coarse b a s a l sands, i s a dominately shaly s e c t i o n , '-^he l i t h o l o g y i n the southern p a r t of the Dakota area c o n s i s t s of f i n e grained, l o c a l l y calcareous shale, interbedded w i t h grey and bl a c k carbona-- 2 5 -ceous shale. Red, y e l l o w , and green shale occurs l o c a l l y . O c c a s i o n a l l y , s i d e r i t e p e l l e t s are: found near the top of the s e c t i o n . Toward the n o r t h the Fuson becomes sandy. Well #L|.0 contains over 125 f e e t of brown medium-grained sandstone. Further north, i n w e l l #82, the sand becomes coarse and angular. A northern source Is apparent. The upper member i n the Dakota area, the F a l l R i v e r , i s a sandy s e c t i o n . Thickness averages 100 f e e t . The t h i c k e s t s e c t i o n i s near the Swan R i v e r boundary and due to the presence of sediments d e r i v e d from the north. The F a l l R i v e r member Is separated from the u n d e r l y i n g Fuson by a dark grey, p a r t l y carbonaceous shale. This c o r -responds to the b l a c k shale at the base of the F i r s t Cat Creek. Thus the F a l l R i v e r and F i r s t Cat Creek members are d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d . The shale i s not present i n the nor-thern p a r t of the area. The F a l l R i v e r c o n s i s t s of f i n e , medium and sometimes calcareous, sandstone. I t may c o n t a i n coarse w e l l rounded and angular sand g r a i n s . The top of the F a l l River Member i s u s u a l l y marked by a t h i n , f i n e - g r a i n e d calcareous sand-stone. Toward the north the s e c t i o n becomes shaly. Well #82, near the Swan R i v e r Area boundary, contains sands derived., from the north. A 50 f o o t sandstone u n i t , at the base of the F a l l R i v e r , i s composed of coarse f r o s t e d , u s u a l l y rounded sand g r a i n s . These g r a i n s become coarser and more angular toward the north, i n t o the Swan Riv e r area. - 2 6 -Swan R i v e r Area D e f i n i t i o n This area i s bounded on the south by the Dakota area, and on the east by the Mannville area. I t i s d e l i m i t e d to cover t h a t p a r t of the Blairmore whose sediments were l a r g e l y d e r i v e d from the Pre-Cambrian.to the north and northeast. Where t h i s area forms a common corner w i t h Mannville and Dakota areas, exact r e l a t i o n s h i p s are somewhat obscure because of l a c k of data. C o r r e l a t i o n between Swan R i v e r formation subsurface beds and outcrop s e c t i o n s are not c l e a r l y understood. The w r i t e r has a p p l i e d tire name A s h v i l l e to dominately shaly beds to the east, This s u b d i v i s i o n , based on thickness and l i t h o l o g y , appears j u s t i f i e d . Thickness The Swan R i v e r formation reaches a maximum thickness of 1+50 f e e t north of Canora, Saskatchewan, i n w e l l s #98 and #99. This t h i c k s e c t i o n extends as a broad tongue from the north and may have been a l o c a l b a s i n during Blairmore time. West of t h i s l o c a l b a s i n , thickness i s about 275 f e e t over a broad p l a t f o r m . I n 'the extreme western p a r t of the area the Swan R i v e r i s t h i n n e s t , l e s s than 100 f e e t . R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds In the south and southwest, the Swan R i v e r i s u n d e r l a i n by the Lower. Vanguard, Shaunavon, and Gravelbourg forma-t i o n s of J u r a s s i c Age. In the east the Lodgepole ( M i s s i s s i --27-p p i a n ) , and i n the n o r t h the Devonian, u n d e r l i e the Swan R i v e r f o r m a t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n The extent o f the area, coupled w i t h l i t h o l o g i c v a r i a -t i o n s even between adjacent w e l l s , makes a g e n e r a l i z e d des-c r i p t i o n d i f f i c u l t . In the t h i c k n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n , t y p i f i e d by well#99» the b a s a l beds c o n s i s t o f f i n e g r a i n e d , i n p a r t c a l c a r e o u s sandstone, inte3?bedded w i t h some grey s h a l e and l i g n i t e . Toward the south, the Swan R i v e r t h i n s and the B a s a l beds are not re p r e s e n t e d . Above these l a g o o n a l beds i s a coarse g r a i n e d sandstone, 50 to 75 f e e t thick.' S o r t i n g i s poor, g r a i n s are v e r y coarse to granule s i z e , angular, f r o s t e d and p i t t e d . Some c l e a r quartz g r a i n s are p r e s e n t . How much o f the above beds are rep r e s e n t e d by sectlonD-D 1 to the e a s t , i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . The coarse g r a i n e d b a s a l sandstone i s d e s c r i b e d above seems to be re p r e s e n t e d i n w e l l #1)+, In the northwest, a heterogeneous sequence of f i n e g r a i n e d sandstone, grey s h a l e , and l i g n i t e l i e s above the coarse sand, A coarse angular sandstone bed i s near the top. The top of the Swan R i v e r sequence i s marked by a f i n e g r a i n e d c a l c a r e o u s sandstone which i s a p p a r e n t l y p r e v a l e n t over the e n t i r e area. - 2 8 -A s h v i l l e Area D e f i n i t i o n This area has been d e l i m i t e d to cover a sequence of beds c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y of shale and f i n e g r a i n e d sandstone. The A s h v i l l e area l i e s a t the eastern margin of the area of study, i n the v i c i n i t y of the Saskatchewan-Manitoba boun-dary. The name A s h v i l l e was f i r s t a p p l i e d to beds which o v e r l i e the Swan R i v e r formation i n outcrop s e c t i o n ( K i r k 1 9 2 9 ) . Ower ( 1953) examined the subsurface s t r a t i g r a p h y of southwestern Manitoba. . He suggests the Swan R i v e r formation, as defined, from outcrop areas, i s not represented I n the subsurface.of southwestern Manitoba. The A s h v i l l e formation was d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . Ower i s of the o p i n i o n that the lowen may b e , i h i p a r t , e q u i v a l e n t to the Swan R i v e r . Thickness Along the grada t i o n a l u c o n t a c t w i t h areas to the west, the A s h v i l l e averages 200 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s . Although s p e c i f i c data i s l a c k i n g , the isopach p a t t e r n suggests r a p i d t h i n n i n g , probably to a zero edge, toward the east. R e l a t i o n to Underlying Beds The A s h v i l l e r e s t s on the Lower Vanguard ( l u r a s s i c ) i n the south and Devonian i n the north. D e s c r i p t i o n The A s h v i l l e formation c o n s i s t s of f i n e g rained sand-stone w i t h interbedded black and green shale. There are a few t h i n beds of medium grained sandstone near the top. - 2 9 -Sorae of the shale i s b e n t o n i t i c . In the south, near the i n t e r n a t i o n a l border.the sec-t i o n i s s h a l i e r , whereas i n the n o r t h f i n e grained sandstone i s mibre p r e v a l e n t . Some s i d e r i t e i s found i n w e l l #1|.5>. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s w e l l i s i n c l u d e d i n the appendix. Thin S e c t i o n Study An attempt to make t h i n s e c t i o n s of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s u i t e of specimans was thwarted by the unconsolidated na-ture of much of the m a t e r i a l . A slab was f i r s t impregnated by heating i n l i q u i d p l a s t i c . This was allowed to c o o l . The s l a b was then Glass lapped u n t i l a l l p l a s t i c was removed from the surface, l e a v i n g the vugs f i l l e d . Impregnation and g l a s s l a p p i n g were repeated s e v e r a l times and the s e c t i o n completed i n the standard manner. Tidewater Porgan Cr.' #1 W e l l #63 Thin s e c t i o n at 2 3 2 2 f e e t . Thickness of bed — 10 f e e t . Limestone. The limestone shows s p h e r u l i t i c t e x t u r e ; under crossed n i c o l s i n d i v i d u a l s p h e r u l i t e s show dark ccrosses resembling a u n i a x i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e f i g u r e ; as the stage i s r o t a t e d successive grains become e x t i n c t and the cross remains p a r a l l e l to the cross h a i r s . The limestone was l i k e l y p r e c i p i t a t e d as a s e m i - s o l i d aud or m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e ooze; shrinkage and con-s o l i d a t i o n , w i t h e x p u l s i o n of water produced the s p h e r u l i t i c t e x t u r e . The s e c t i o n i s cut by a t h i n c a l c i t e v e i n . P y r i t e i s dessemin-ated throughout the s e c t i o n . -30 Tidewater Duperow Gr. #2 Well #66 Thin s e c t i o n at 267U- f e e t . S a l t and pepper sandstone. Quartz comprises the " s a l t " . Sphericity:' — average = 0 . 5 ; some;jgrains 0.3; only a few g r a i n s are 0 . 9 . Roundness — average = 0.5; some are 0.1; a few g r a i n s have a roundness of 0 . 9 and s p h e r i c i t y of 0 . 9 . G r a i n s i z e — ranges from 0.02 m.m. to 1 m.m.; average s i z e = 0 . 1 m.m. In general most quartz g r a i n s have a f a i r l y sharp e x t i n c t i o n ; a few g r a i n s possess very i r r e g u l a r e x t i n c t i o n . "Pepper" — In hand speciman the m a t e r i a l i s b l a c k and s o f t and may be carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . I n t h i n s e c t i o n each g r a i n i s composed of what are l i k e l y t i n y quartz or chert fragments enclosed i n a black carbonaceous m a t r i x . Under h i g h power these fragments e x h i b i t undulatory e x t i n c t i o n i n c o n t r a s t to the l a r g e r " s a l t " quartz g r a i n s . Dark grey or r e d d i s h brown a l t e r e d m a t e r i a l i s s c a t t e r e d throughout'the s l i d e ; opaque under crossed n i c o l s ; under r e f l e c t e d l i g h t the m a t e r i a l has a b u f f or m i l k y appearance suggestive of leucoxene. A few g r a i n s of f r e s h or s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d p l a g i o c l a s e are s c a t t e r e d throughout the s l i d e ; f o r two g r a i n s i n the zone J. O.TO X ,AO16-12" the composition i s at l e a s t as c a l c i c as An30 The s e c t i o n contains a few g r a i n s of p y r i t e . Tidewater I m p e r i a l P l a t o #1 Well#6l S e c t i o n at 2739 f e e t . In hand speciman t h i s is a b r i c k red, a r g i l -laceous sandstone; quartz fragments are sub-rounded and up to 0.6 m.m. i n s i z e ; enclosed i n a l i m o n i t e s t a i n e d c a l c i t e matrix. Anglo Canadian Coates #2-13 Depth — 1959 f e e t . 1 For meaning of f i g u r e s r e f e r to chart p. 81 of Krumbein and S l o s s (1951). -31-L o c a t i o n -- unknown. Speciraan from the Fuson sha l e . S i d e r i t e p e l l e t s or c l a y ironstone c o n c r e t i o n s . The p e l l e t s over most of t h e i r area appear clouded o r s t a i n e d w i t h e i t h e r hematite o r l i m o n i t e . Along some of the unstained edges the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h i g h b i r e f r i n g e n c e of carbonate i s seen. Th i s , together w i t h the a l t e r a t i o n , appears to confirm the sugges-t i o n that the concretions are a c t u a l l y s i d e -r i t e . Tidewater Morse Gr. #1 Well #29 S e c t i o n at 331+0 f e e t . F i n e - g r a i n e d sandstone. Quartz i s angular w i t h a low roundness f a c t o r ; g r a i n s i z e ranges from 0.1 m.m. to p a r t i c l e s too small to measure; most of the quartz possesses a s l i g h t l y undulatory. e x t i n c t i o n . The clayey m a t r i x contains some muscovite, c h l o r i t e , and b i o t i t e ; some l i m o n i t e s t a i n i n g i s present; a tra c e of p l a g i o c l a s e and m i c r o c l i n e . C a l c i t e i s present as f i n e c r y s t a l l i n e g r a i n s . -32-Chapter IV TECTONIC INTERPRETATION Pre-Blairmore Tectonic H i s t o r y The general t h i c k e n i n g of a l l Pre-Blairmore beds to the southeast suggests the W i l l i s t o n b a s i n was an a c t i v e negative element since Cambrian time. The Paleogeologic Map of the pre-Blairmore ( P l a t e 9 ) shows that from south to north the Blairmore r e s t s on p r o g r e s s i v e l y o l d e r beds. This f e a t u r e i s due to e r o s i o n a l t r u n c a t i o n r a t h e r than a depo-s i t i o n a l edge. Two periods of t i l t i n g and e r o s i o n are evident. A prolonged p e r i o d of e r o s i o n occurred i n p o s t - M i s s i s -s i p p i a n time. Upward t i l t i n g to the north eroded M i s s i s s i p p i a n beds and exposed the Devonian i n the Northern p a r t o f the area. Pennsylvanisn and Permian beds are absent. J u r a s s i c s e d i -ments lapped over o l d e r rocks. T i l t i n g caused withdrawal of J u r a s s i c Seas. E r o s i o n was not as extensive as i n the post-M i s s i s s i p p i a n p e r i o d . Basal J u r a s s i c beds r e s t on Devonian i n the northern p a r t of the area. Tectonic features The northern extent of the W i l l i s t o n b a s i n i s a prominent f e a t u r e on the s t r u c t u a l map w i t h depths of 1600 f e e t subsea, i n the deepest p a r t . A northwestern nose has been c a l l e d Moose Jaw s y n c l i n e by various w r i t e r s . Although Blairmore -33-sediments do t h i c k e n toward the b a s i n , the nature of the l i t h o l o g y suggests t h i s i s due more to p r o x i m i t y to source areas r a t h e r than a negative f e a t u r e of the b a s i n . S e d i -ments are shallow water. The b a s i n was l i k e l y s t a b l e during Blairmore time. A prominent dome extends from the south i n t o the Koo-t e n a i area. This i s a northern extension of the Bowdoin dome of northern Montana. Blairmore sediments t h i c k e n over the dome, e s p e c i a l l y on the eastern f l a n k . The upwarp was a post Blairmore f e a t u r e . I n the v i c i n i t y of the town of S w i f t Current and to the northeast, Blairmore sediments are t h i n n e s t . This f e a t u r e i s r e f l e c t e d on the s t r u c t u r a l contour map as a r e l a t i v e l y broad area w i t h a f l a t o r g e n t l y d i p p i n g surface. T h i s , together w i t h the l i t h o l o g y suggests a s t a b l e p l a t f o r m between areas to the no r t h and south which were r e c e i v i n g sediments. Isopach l i n e s , i n the northeastern corner of the Swan Ri v e r area, trend toward c l o s u r e . This suggests a l o c a l b a s i n although the s t r u c t u r a l contours show a h i g h . This might be conveniently c a l l e d Swan R i v e r Basin. The broad north-south trending Sweet Grass arch, toward the A l b e r t a Boundary, i s not a prominent f e a t u r e on the s t r u c t u r e map. The Blairmore t h i n s over the arch and i t was a p o s i t i v e element during Blairmore time. - 3h -Pre-Blairmore-Post-Jurassic Surface Structural contour maps oh any prominent horizon from the Cambrian to the Recent a l l show downward t i l t i n g toward the south. This, plus thicken-ing to the south for a l l formations beginning at the Cambrian, suggest the prolonged ac t i v i t y of the Williston basin. A simple structural contour map, such as the one prepared (Plate 7)# i n comparison with the isopach (Plate 8), suggests the former map bears l i t t l e relationship to the topography of the Blairmore surface at ithe close of Blairmore time and the i n i t i a t i o n of the marine transgression of Colorado time. In fact any structural map i s simply a reflection of post-Blairmore warping. A means of portrayal of the depositional surface at the i n i t i a t i o n of Blairmore deposition i s suggested. The lower member of the Shaunavon formation i s a limestone unit. This i s the most persistent Jurassic unit i n Saskatchewan even though calcareous shale i s developed toward the east. Presumably at the close of Lower Shaunavon time conditions were at an optimum of s t a b i l i t y and the top of the Lower Shaunavon would be essentially a planar surface. The writer suggests an isopach map of the Upper Shaunavon and Vanguard formations would provide a guide to the extent of post-Jurassic erosion and the topography at the i n i t i a t i o n of Blairmore deposition. This method however, would be dependent on more or less uniform post-Jurassic u p l i f t rather than irregular warping. The Blairmore would f i l l i rregularities of the erosional surface. - 35 -The thick Blairmore sections on the idopach map are not necessarily a reflection of deposition i n topographic lows. They are related more to proximity to source areas. The percent sand map generally follows isopach trends. The sections are shalier further from source areas. -36-Chapter V INTERPRETATIVE STRATIGRAPHY General Statement Blairmore sediments i n southern Saskatchewan are con-t r o l l e d by f a c t o r s such as nature and i n f l u e n c e o f u n d e r l y i n g beds, pre-Blairmore topography, l o c a t i o n and t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y of source areas, t e c t o n i c elements w i t h i n the area, and en-vironments. The i n t e r p l a y of such f a c t o r s has enabled the w r i t e r to d i v i d e the Blairmore i n t o f i v e s t r a t i g r a p h i c areas. The i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t r a t i g r a p h y of each area, f o r the purpose of o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i l l be discussed s e p a r a t e l y . Mannville Area Sediments of the Mannville area are l a r g e l y of d e l t a i c o r i g i n . They represent the southern extremety of a d e l t a whose deposits were concentrated l a r g e l y i n the L l o y d m i n i s t e r -V e r m i l i o n area. Source areas l a y to the west, i n the C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n . A sea l a y to the northeast during most of Mannville time. The dark c o l o r of the sediments ( l a c k of o x i d a t i o n ) plus l a -t e r a l and v e r t i c a l changes of the s e c t i o n suggest r a p i d depo-s i t i o n under s h i f t i n g • c o n d i t i o n s . The b a s a l beds are l i g n i t e and f i n e grained sandstone. This suggests s l u g g i s h streams meandering over l o w - l y i n g swampy land. -37-The o v e r l y i n g s a l t and pepper sandstones d e f i n i t e l y had a western source. They are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the A l b e r t a Blairmore but are not represented i n c e n t r a l and eastern Saskatchewan. S a l t and pepper sandstone was derived from Metamorphic c r y s t a l l i n e rocks. Here they represveht winnowing of greywakes which are represented f u r t h e r west. The o v e r l y i n g f i n e grained sandstone and shale r e p r e -sent a l e s s e n i n g of a c t i v i t y i n the source area. They I n d i c a t e a l l u v i a l deposits of s l u g g i s h streams. A t h i n , f r e s h water limestone bed i s of shallow water o r i g i n and was deposited when there was l i t t l e i n f l u x from source areas. The upper coarse grained quartzose sand l i k e l y had a s h i e l d source. A s s o ciated g l a u c o n i t e suggest the sand formed a marine beach. This might be explained by northward t i l t i n g , toward the c l o s e of Blairmore time. A sea l a y toward the south ( F i r s t Cat Creek). The quartz g r a i n s are angular i n the south, sub-rounded toward the north. This may be due to a reworking of the beach by a r e t r e a t i n g shore l i n e which brought about the widespread marine inundation of Colorado time. Kootenai Area Sediments of the Kootenai formation are d e r i v e d from the west or southwest. The l a t t e r Is suggested because a -38-tongue which p r o j e c t s i n t o Saskatchewan appears to t h i c k e n to the south. S a l t and pepper sandstone, f r e q u e n t l y found d i r e c t l y o v e r l y i n g the J u r a s s i c , i s one of the dominant l i t h o l o g i c types of t h i s formation. I t appears to f i l l l o c a l i r r e g u l a r -i t i e s of the Pre-Blairmore s u r f a c e . P o o r l y sorted, angular, quartz together w i t h a calcareous matrix suggests d e l t a i c d e p o s i t i o n by s l u g g i s h streams. The s u p r i s i n g l y f r e s h appearance of f e l d s p a r suggests e r o s i o n of c r y s t a l l i n e rocks r a t h e r than reworking of o l d e r sediments. Pine grained sandstone and shale are contemporaneous w i t h s a l t and pepper sandstone. Iriterbedded l i g n i t e and carbon aceous shale represent l o c a l swamp c o n d i t i o n s . Clay ironstone concretions or s i d e r i t e , embedded i n a cream k a o l i n i t i c matrix, represent s p e c i a l l o c a l e n v i r o n -mental c o n d i t i o n s . They are not present i n any p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n . The i r o n was probably p r e c i p i t a t e d when mechanical d e p o s i t i o n was i n abeyance. Under normal c o n d i t i o n s i r o n i s c o m p a r i t i v e l y i n s o l u b l e . Organic aci d s and carbon d i o x i d e both increase the s o l u b i l i t y of i r o n . Decaying b a c t e r i a could supply these agents and reduce the i r o n to the ferrous s t a t e . Under the petrographic microscope the nodules are d e f i n i t e l y s i d e r i t e . The i r o n may have pre-c i p i t a t e d and undergone pene-contemporaneous segregation i n t o nodules, p o s s i b l y around a decaying organic nucleus. The environment was l i k e l y a stagnant f r e s h water lagoon. -39-The i n f l u e n c e of s t r a t a u n d e r l y i n g the Kootenai reaches economic importance along the e r o s i o n a l edge of the Middle Vanguard J u r a s s i c sandstone. The o v e r l y i n g b a s a l Kootenai sands are re-worked Middle Vanguard sandstone. The Lower Vanguard shale, u n d e r l y i n g the Middle Vanguard, has a f a i r l y even t h i c k n e s s . Where t h i s s e c t i o n i s f u l l y represented, some of the o v e r l y i n g sand must be J u r a s s i c . Where the Lower Vanguard i s t h i n (undergone e r o s i o n ) , then the sand i s assigned to the Kootenai. The F i r s t Cat Creek member i s marine. Thin beds w i t h i n the member may be e a s i l y t r a c e d from w e l l to w e l l and many are tr a c e a b l e over the e n t i r e Kootenai area. The b a s a l b l a c k shale i s present w e l l beyond the boun-da r i e s of the Kootenai area. This represents r a p i d ingress of seas from the west and southwest. Waters were probably stagnant. This black shale, although i t thinned c o n s i d e r a b l y , spread across the Dakota area. I n the southern p a r t , the shale i s o v e r l a i n by the F a l l R i v e r sandstone. Thus the F i r s t Cat Creek may be d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the F a l l R i v e r . The F i r s t Cat Creek i s of Blairmore age and should not be considered as a sandy phase of the Colorado. F i r s t Cat Creek beds were deposited along a shore l i n e which s h i f t e d northward and southward. The f a i l u r e of the sea to r e t r e a t to the southwest and the general downward s i n k i n g i n i t i a t e d the widespread marine c o n d i t i o n s of Colo-rado time. - l i O -Dakota Area The isopach-percent sand map shows the Dakota f o r -mation t h i c k e n i n g and becoming sandier toward the south and southwest. Many of the quartz fragments of the Lakota mem-ber are rose i n c o l o r . The Pre-Cambrian Q u a r t z i t e s of Min-nesota also possess a d i s t i n c t i v e rose hue. (W. R. Danner — personal communication). The w r i t e r suggests t h i s as the source area of Dakota sediments. The b a s a l Lakota represnt a beach sand. The m a t e r i a l was transported by streams moving northward. The f r o s t e d and p i t t e d nature of the g r a i n s suggests the sands were s h i f t e d by winds. Probably dunes were b u i l t up i n the v i c i n i t y of the beaches. This s e c t i o n becomes f i n e r grained and s h a l i e r toward the north, away from the source area. Probably open water l a y to the north and to the east, i n the A s h v i l l e area. The middle Fuson Shale member represents decreasing e r o s i o n i n the source area. The o c c a s i o n a l red shale bed may i n d i c a t e l o c a l exposure. In one w e l l a shale b r e c c i a at the Lakota-Fuson contact i n d i c a t e s d e f i n i t e l o c a l e r o s i o n . Whether a l o c a l diastem was present over the e n t i r e area at t h i s time i s unknown. Toward the Swan R i v e r area coarse sands occur i n the Fuson member but these have a northern source. Widespread, although temporary, marine c o n d i t i o n s occurred at the end of Fuson d e p o s i t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by a t h i n b l a c k shale. The F a l l R i v e r sandstone i s a beach sand. Sediments were der i v e d from the south and the s h o r e l i n e s h i f t e d toward the -1+1-north. Toward the Swan R i v e r boundary some of the upper sands have a northern source. Swan R i v e r Area Sediments of the Swan Riv e r area were d e r i v e d from the Pre-Cambrian s h i e l d to the north and northeast. The t h i c k s e c t i o n i n the northeastern p a r t of the area may be a l o c a l b a s i n . Although data i s incomplete, the i s o -pach l i n e s trend toward c l o s u r e to the north. The b a s a l beds of l i g n i t e and f i n e grained sandstone represent a swamp or lagoonal environment. Upward t i l t i n g to the n o r t h i n i t i a t e d increased e r o s i o n of the s h i e l d . The coarse grained sandstone above the l i g n i t e and f i n e grained sandstone represents a southward moving beach d e p o s i t . The sh o r e l i n e r e t r e a t e d and advanced again near the c l o s e of Swan Ri v e r time. The second advance was not as extensive as the f i r s t . A s h v i l l e Area Sediments of the A s h v i l l e formation are f i n e grained calcareous sandstone and green, b l a c k and grey shale. This i s i n c o n t r a s t to. the coarser sediments of Dakota and Swan... Rive r areas to the west. During Blairmore time t h i s area was covered by a shallow sea. I t was probably a s i t e of m i l d e r o s i o n o r non-deposi-t i o n during much of Blairmore time. Sediments are o f f - s h o r e deposits and were l i k e l y r e c e i v e d both from Dakota and Swan -U2-R i v e r areas. Shallow swampy c o n d i t i o n s o c c a s i o n a l l y p r e -v a i l e d as a t t e s t e d by t h i n l i g n i t e beds. During the depo-s i t i o n of the b l a c k shale at the base of the F i r s t Cat Creek t h i s sea was probably continuous w i t h the sea which i n i t i a t e d i n the Kootenai area ( F i r s t Cat Creek). A bay of the A s h v i l l e sea seems to have been f r e q u e n t l y present i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l area between Dakota-Swan Ri v e r areas. Some of the lower shaly beds may be J u r a s s i c ( S t o t t 1 9 5 5 ) • This would suggest an even longer p o s t - J u r a s s i c i n t e r v a l of non-depo s i t i o n . -1+3-Chapter VI PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Producing F i e l d s O i l p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n , the area of study i s l i m i t e d to two areas. P r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t i o n occurs i n the area n o r t h west of S w i f t Current. Here the Kootenai i s u n d e r l a i n by Middle Vanguard sandstone. This sandstone underwent l o c a l reworking during Blairmore time. D i f f i c u l t y i s frequently, experienced i n a s s i g n i n g the sand a J u r r a s i c o r Cretaceous age. The main f i e l d s i n the area are: Fo s t e r t o n — 30 miles northwest of S w i f t Current; production from the Lower Cretaceous J u r a s s i c Roseray sand member, Cantuar -- 19 miles northwest of S w i f t Current; p r o d u c t i o n from the b a s a l Blairmore Cantuar and Roseray sand as w e l l as the Middle Vanguard. Battrum — 10 miles northeast of F o s t e r t o n f i e l d ; Roseray and Upper Shaunavon ( J u r a s s i c ) production. G u l l Lake — 2$ m i l e s southwest of Fo s t e r t o n ; production from the Cantuar member and Shaunavon formation. Java — 10 m i l e s west of S w i f t Current. Success — 8 miles northeast of Cantuar; produc-t i o n from the Cantuar sand. T h e F o s t e r t o n f i e l d , t y p i c a l of the area, i s described by Bowie (19£k). I t l i e s at the western end of the Moose Jaw embayment and the northwestern f l a n k of the Coburg s y n c l i n e . The trap i s c o n t r o l l e d by both s t r a t i g r a p h y and s t r u c t u r e . The f i e l d i s a shallow dome w i t h approximately k0 f e e t of c l o s u r e . The sand i s medium to f i n e grained, rounded and w e l l sorted. The c l a y o r k a o l i n content i s v a r i a b l e . P o r o s i t y decreases toward the outer margins of the f i e l d . The Wapella f i e l d l i e s i n the Kootenai area of eastern Saskatchewan. Production i s from b a s a l Blairmore (Lakota) and J u r a s s i c sandstone. These beds represent a beach sand, near the edge of the A s h v i l l e sea. Petroleum P o s s i b i l i t i e s With the exception of l o c a l t h i n limestone beds, a l l Blairmore sediments are c l a s t i c . This, together w i t h the l a c k of intense t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y suggests f u t u r e Blairmore o i l f i e l d s w i l l be simple s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r a l t r a p s . The Bowdoin dome might seem a f a v o r a b l e s t r u c t u r e f o r o i l accumulation. However, the sediments here c o n s i s t of impervious s a l t and pepper sandstone and shaly sandstone. O i l occurs i n the upper p a r t of the Lower Kootenai mem-ber i n Well #52. However, the sand bed i s t h i n and the o i l may have migrated toward the F o s t e r t o n area. W i t h i n the Mannville area o i l occurs i n the t h i n sandy beds at the base of the s e c t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these members are t h i n and are f r e q u e n t l y interbedded w i t h l i g n i t e . The upper coarse grained sandstonemembers are barren. Fur-ther e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h i s area, e s p e c i a l l y toward the north, might prove f r u i t f u l . T h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e l o c a t i n g areas where the d e l t a was at a s t i l l stand. Waves would have s u f f i c i e n t time to rework and s o r t the sands, thus i n c r e a s i n g -1+5-the p o r o s i t y . In the Wapella area e x p l o r a t i o n might be d i r e c t e d t o -ward f i n d i n g a f u r t h e r extension of the Wapella sand. Toward the south the Lakota sand possesses e x c e l l e n t p o r o s i t y , yet i s b a r r e n of o i l . P o s s i b l y the o i l has migrated up d i p to the Wapella area. I n t h i s area the sand becomes shaly and impervious. P o s s i b l y t h i s prevents the o i l from f u r t h e r m i g r a t i o n and may be a c l u e to the o i l occurrence In the Wapella f i e l d . O i l has not been observed In the P a l l R i v e r sand. I t becomes shaly toward the north. Although the Swan R i v e r formation contains numerous coarse sandy beds w i t h good p o r o s i t y , no o i l was observed by the w r i t e r . The Devonian may have been the source of i much of the Blairmore o i l . P o s s i b l y during P o s t - M i s s i s s i -ppian e r o s i o n the o i l migrated to the surface of the exposed Devonian and was d i s s i p a t e d . Gussow (1951+) suggests that o i l contained In the f i e l d s of A l b e r t a d i d not migrate u n t i l Post-Blairmore time. I f there i s o i l i n the Swan R i v e r f o r -mation i t may have migrated up dip and i s now north of the area of study. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that o i l i n commercial q u a n t i t i e s w i l l be found i n the A s h v i l l e formation. The beds c o n s i s t l a r g e l y of marine shales and f i n e grained shaly sandstones. Conclusions Before any conclusions on the o r i g i n and environments -k6-of Blairmore sediments of southern Saskatchewan could be reached, a d e t a i l e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n was necessary. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by means of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s . A great deal of f u t u r e work remains. Firmer c o r r e l a -t i o n s between the Blairmore of southern Saskatchewan and surrounding areas should be made. L i t t l e i s known about the Blairmore north of the area of study. Even i n southern Saskatchewan there remain l a r g e areas where knowledge of the Blairmore formation remains obscure. The w r i t e r hopes t h i s t h e s i s w i l l provide at l e a s t a framework f o r f u t u r e workers. -k 7-B i b l i o g r a p h y Badgley, P. G. (1952) — "Notes on the Subsurface S t r a -tigraphy and O i l and Gas Geology of the Lower Cretaceous S e r i e s of C e n t r a l A l b e r t a " — Geol. Surv. Can. Paper 52 - 1 1 . Bowie, A. B. (1951}-) — "A re p o r t on the F o s t e r t o n F i e l d " — O i l i n Canada, V o l . 6 , No. 3 8 , pp. 23 - 2 8 . Brown, R. W. ( 19k6) — " F o s s i l P l a n t s and J u r r a s i c -Cretaceous Boundary i n Montana and A l b e r t a " — B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., V o l . 3 0 , No. 2 , pp. 238 - 2 i i 8 . Cobban, W. A. (1951) — "Colorado shale of C e n t r a l and Northwestern Montana and E q u i v a l e n t Rocks of Black H i l l s " . B u l l , Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., V o l . 3 5 , No. 1 0 , pp. 2170 - 2 1 9 0 . Crowley, A. J . ( 1 9 5 U -- " P o s s i b l e Lower Cretaceous U l l i f t i n g of Black H i l l s , Wyoming and South Dakota." --B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., V o l . 3 5 , No. 1, pp. 83 - 1 0 7 . Douglas, J . W. (1951) — " P r e l i m i n a r y Map, Pincher Creek A l b e r t a " -- Geol. Surv. Can. Paper 5 l - 2 2 . F r a n c i s , D. R. (195^) — "The J u r a s s i c Sediments ofSaska-tchewan. " « r e p o r t 1 3 , Saskatchewan Department of  M i n e r a l Resources. Fras e r , F. J . , McLearn, F. H., R u s s e l l , L. S., Warren, P. S., and Wickenden, R. T. D. ( 1935) — "Geology of Southern Saskatchewan" — Geol. Surv. Can. Memoir 1 7 6 . G a l l u p , W. B., and Hamilton, G. J . (1953) — "The Orogenic H i s t o r y of the W i l l i s t o n Basin, Saskatchewan." — Guidebook, k t h Annual F i e l d Conference, B i l l i n g s Geolo-g i c a l S o c i e t y , pp. 123 - 1 3 6 . G r i e s , J . P. (1951}-) '— "Cretaceous Rocks of W i l l i s t o n B asin." — B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. V o l . 3 8 , No. k, pp. k k 3 - \£T. • Gussow, W. C. ( 1 9 5 k ) — "Outline of the Time of M i g r a t i o n of O i l and Gas i n , A l b e r t a , Canada." — O i l i n Canada, V o l . VI, No. 3 9 , pp. 30 - k 2 . Hadley, H. D., andMilner, R. T., (1953) "Regional S t r a t i g r a p h y of the Lower Cretaceous and J u r a s s i c . " — Ouidebook, k t h Annual F i e l d Conference, B i l l i n g s  G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , pp. 05 - 06. -14-8-Hatch, P. H., R a s t a l l , R. H.,and Black, M . (1938) — "The Petology of the Sedimentary Rocks" — Thomas Murby & Co., London, England. Henderson, J. P.. (191+5) — " P a l l Creek Map Area." — G-eol. Surv. Can Paper 1+5-19. Hume, G. S., and Hage, C. 0. (19lj-l) — "The Geology of East C e n t r a l A l b e r t a . " — Geol. Surv. Can. Memoir 232. I r w i n , J . S. (1931) — " S t r a t i g r a p h i c C o r r e l a t i o n s and Nomenclature i n P l a i n s of Southern A l b e r t a . " — B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., V o l . 15, No. 10, pp. 1129 - 1139. Kamen-Kaye, M. (1953) — "The Tectonic Patterns of South-western Saskatchewan, Canada." Guidebook. 1+th Annual  F i e l d Conference. B i l l i n g s G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , pp. 118 -122. Karlstrom, T. N. V. (191+8) — "Geology and Ore Deposits of the Hecla Mining D i s t r i c t , Beaverhead Country, Mon-tana." State of Montana Bureau of Mines. Geology Memoir  No. 25. K i r k , S. R. f l 9 2 9 ) - "Cretaceous S t r a t i g r a p h y of the Mani-toba Escarpment." — Geol. Surv. Can. Summ. Rpt., Part B, pp. 112 - 135. K l i n e , V. H. (191+2) -- " S t r a t i g r a p h y of North Dakota" — B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol.. V o l . 26, No. 3, pp. 336 -379. Krumbein, ¥. C. and Sloss, L . L. ( 1 9 5 D — " S t r a t i g r a p h y and Sedimentation." — W. H. Freeman and Co., San Fran-c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a . Krumbein, W. C., S l o s s , L J J . , and Dapples, E. C. (I9I4.9) -— "Sedimentary Tectonics and Sedimentary Environments." — B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Oeol.. V o l . 33, No. 11, pp. 1859 - 1891. Leach, W. W. (19H) — "Geology of the Blairmore Map Area." — Geol. Surv. Can. Summ. Rpt., pp. 192 - 200. Lindsey, K. B. (1951+) — "Petroleum i n the W i l l i s t o n B asin, I n c l u d i n g P a r t s of Montana, North and South Dakota, and Canada." — U.S. Bureau of Mines Report  of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s No. 50^5^ -1+9-L i n k , T. A. (1931) — " A l b e r t a S y n c l i n e , Canada." — B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., V o l . 15, No. 5, pp. 1+91 -Loranger, D. M. (195D — "Useful Blairmore M i c r o f o s s i l s i n C e n t r a l and Southern A l b e r t a , Canada." -- B u l l . Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., V o l . 35, No. 11, pp. 231+b" - 2367. Mathews, W. H. (191+6) Geology and Coal Resources of the Carbon Creek-Mount B i c k f o r d Map-Area." B r i t i s h  Columbia Department of Mines, B u l l . No. 21+.. McLearn, P. H. (1932) — "Problems of the Lower Cre t a -ceous of the Canadian I n t e r i o r . " -- Trans. Royal Soc. of Canada. Th i r d S e r i e s , V o l . XXVI, Sec. IV, pp. 57 -McLearn, P. H. (191+1+) — " R e v i s i o n of the Paleogeography of the Lower Cretaceous of the Western I n t e r i o r of Canada." — Geol. Surv. Can. Paper lu+-32. Nauss, A. W. (191+5) — "Cretaceous S t r a t i g r a p h y of the Ve r m i l i o n Area, A l b e r t a , Canada." — B u l l . Am. Assoc.  Pet. Geol.. V o l . 29, No. 1, pp. 1605 - 1629. Ower, J . R. (1953) — "The Subsurface S t r a t i g r a p h y of Southwestern Manitoba." Can. I n s t . Min. and Met., Vo l . 1+6, pp. 735 - 71+3. Perry, E. S. (1937) — "Natural Gas i n Montana," — State  of Mont. Bureau of Mines and Geology Memoir No. 3. R u s s e l l , L. S. and Landes, R. W. (19I4.O) — Geology of the Southern A l b e r t a P l a i n s . " — Geol Surv. Can.  Memoir 221. S t o t t , D. P. (1955) — " J u r a s s i c S t r a t i g r a p h y of Mani-toba." — Manitoba Department o f Mines and Na t u r a l  Resources. Pub. 51+-2. Taylor, J . H. (191+9) — "Petrology of the Northhampton Sand Ironstone Formation." — Memoirs Geol. S o c i e t y of  Great B r i t a i n , Code No. 62-371. Thompson, R. S. and Axford, D. W. (1953) .— "Notes on the Cretaceous of Southern A l b e r t a " — Guidebook, 3rd  Annual F i e l d Conference, A l b e r t a S o c i e t y of Petroleum  G e o l o g i s t s , pp~ 33-59. -50-Wlckenderi, R. T. D. ( 1 93D — " V a r i a t i o n s i n th i c k n e s s of Cretaceous Formations i n Southern Manitoba." --Geol. Surv..Can. Summ. Rpt.for 1 9 3 0 , P a r t B., pp. 72 - 1 0 3 . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1932) -- "Notes on Some Deep Wells i n Saskatchewan." — Trans. Royal Soc. Can.. V o l . XXVI Sec. IV, pp. 1 7 7 - 1 9 6 . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (191+5") — "Meso z o i c S t r a t i g r a p h y of the E a s t e r n P l a i n s , Manitoba and Saskatchewan." Geol.  Surv. Can. Memoir 2_>9. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (19I4.8) — "The Lower Cretaceous of the L l o y d m i n i s t e r O i l and Gas Area, A l b e r t a and Sas-katchewan. 11 Geol. Surv. Pan. Paper 1+8-21. - - - - - - - - (19I+9) — "Some Cretaceous Sections along Athabaska R i v e r from the Mouth of C a l l i n g R i v e r to B e l o w Grand Rapids, A l b e r t a . " — Geol. Surv. Can.  Paper 1+9-15". - - - - - - - - (1951) — "Some Lower Cretaceous Sec-t i o n s on Peace R i v e r Below the Mouth of Smoky R i v e r , A l b e r t a . " — Geol. Surv. Can. Paper $1-16. W i l l i a m s , M. Y. (19hh) — " G e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s along the Alaska Highway from F o r t Nelson B.. C. to Watson Lake, Yukon." Geol. Surv. Can. Paper 1+1+-28. L I T H O L O G I C S Y M B O L S C O L O R S C H E M E C O A R S E GRAINED S A N D S T O N E MEDIUM G R A I N E D S A N D S T O N E o o o o J • • • • G R E Y GREENISH G R E Y G R E E N B L A C K R E D Y E L L O W B R O W N V A R I -C O L O R E D F INE G R A I N E D S A N D S T O N E S I L T S T O N E S H A L E C A L C A R E O U S S H A L E D O L O M I T I C S H A L E C A R B O N A C E O U S S H A L E I -+ - f L I G N I T E S I D E R I T E K A O LIN 1 T E K C H E R T 1 — 1 P Y R I T E P B R E C C I A D D H B E N T O N I T E B M I C A M O I L • P L A N T F R A G M E N T S F F I G U R E 4 - 5 i -Appendix We l l #67 Tidewater Duperow Cr. #1 Depth i n f e e t L i t h o l o g y Mannville Formation 2210-2215 S i l t y shale — l i g h t and dark grey; some l i g h t green g l a u c o n i t i c shale and s i l t -stone; t r a c e of l i g h t greenish grey sand-stone. 2 2 1 5 - 2 2 2 0 Shale — b l a c k ; t r a c e of. l i g h t green, f i n e grained, w e l l sorted g l a u c o n i t i c sandstone, 2220-221+5 Sandstone, l i g h t g r e y i s h green, f i n e grained, good p o r o s i t y ; p a r t i n g of b l a c k shale at 2 2 7 0 . . 221+5-2270 Shale — dark grey, p a r t i n g s of g l a u c o n i -t i c sandstone. 2 2 7 0 - 2 2 7 5 Shale - dark grey, s i l t y . 2 2 7 5 - 2 2 9 0 Sandstone — green to grey, s l i g h t l y g l a u • c o n i t i c , coarse grained, l o c a l l y s h aly, good p o r o s i t y . 2 2 9 0 - 2 3 0 0 Shale T - b l a c k : numerous p a r t i n g s and. I n c l u s i o n s of l i g h t greenish-grey sand-stone. 2 3 0 0 - 2 3 1 0 Sandstone — l i g h t grey, f i n e grained, calcareous; interbedded b l a c k shale. 2 3 1 0 - 2 3 3 0 Shale -- dark grey, s i l t y . 2 3 3 0 - 2 3 5 0 S i l t y shale — dark grey, hard. 2 3 5 0 - 2 3 6 0 Sandstone -- l i g h t tan-grey, f i n e grained, calcareous, indurate. 2 3 6 0 - 2 3 8 0 Sandstone — l i g h t grey to white, f i n e grained, g e n e r a l l y s o f t , good p o r o s i t y . 2 3 8 0 - 2 3 8 5 S i l t s t o n e — l i g h t grey. 2 3 8 5 - 2 3 9 0 S a l t and pepper sandstone. - 5 2 -2390-21+15 Shale — l i g h t and dark grey, s i l t y , s c a t -t e r e d carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . 21+15-21+25 Sandstone — l i g h t grey, f i n e grained, clayey, s o f t , carbonaceous fragments. 21+25-21+30 S i l t y shale — l i g h t and dark grey, sandy. 2l+30-2li35 Dolomite — l i g h t brown, s i l t y . 21+35-21+50 Sandstone — l i g h t grey, very f i n e grained to s i l t y . 21+50-21+75 Sandstone — l i g h t grey, very f i n e grained, clayey. 21+75-21+80 S i l t y dolomite — l i g h t brown, f i n e l y g r a -n u l a r . 21+80-21+90 Sandstone — l i g h t grey to white, f i n e grained, clayey m a t r i x . 21+90-21+95 Calcareous sandstone — l i g h t grey, medium grained, hard. 21+95-2505 Shaly sandstone and s i l t y shale — dark grey. 2 5 0 5 - 2 5 2 0 S i l t y s h a l e , dark grey; trace of b l a c k shale. 2 5 2 0 - 2 5 3 5 S a l t and pepper sandstone -- calcareous. 2.53^-^55 S i l t y shale — l i g h t grey; t r a c e of l i g n i t e , 2 5 5 5 - 2 5 6 0 Clayey sandstone — l i g h t brown, f i n e grained, o i l saturated; t r a c e of l i g n i t e . 2 5 6 0 - 2 5 9 0 S i l t y shale — dark grey, carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . 2590 -2600 Sandstone — l i g h t broim, f i n e g r a i n e d , o i l saturated. 2 6 0 0 - 2 6 0 5 S i l t y shale -- hard, massive. 2 6 0 5 - 2 6 1 0 L i g n i t e . - 5 3 -2610-2620 Shale — l i g h t brown, s i l t y , carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . J u r a s s i c 2620-2622 Shale -- l i g h t green to white; s l i g h t l y d o l o m i t i c shale. 2622- Dolomitic shale — l i g h t green, s o f t , waxy. We l l #52 Tidewater P e l l e t i e r Cr. #1 epth i n f e e t L i t h o l o g y Colorado formation -3535 Shale — dark grey to b l a c k , s l i g h t l y s i l t y . F i r s t Cat Creek member 3535-3550 Sandstone -- medium to coarse grained, w e l l rounded,some broken g r a i n s ; interbedded w i t h dark grey shale. 3550-3560 s h a l e — dark grey; trace of f i n e g r a i n e d sandstone. 3560-3575 Sandstone — grey, f i n e g rained, dense, calcareous. 3575-3590 Shale — dark grey to black , carbonaceous. 3590-3600 Sandstone; grey f i n e grained. 3 6 0 0 - 3 6 0 5 Siiale — dark grey. 3605-3615 S i l t s t o n e and grey shale. 3615-3635 Shale — l i g h t and dark grey. 3635-36kO Sandstone, — grey, very f i n e grained. 36LuO-3675 Shale — dark grey to black,: carbonaceous; some interbedded s i l t s t o n e . Lower Kootenai member" 3 6 7 5 - 3 6 9 5 Sandstone — grey, f i n e grained, o i l saturated; t h i n b l a c k shale p a r t i n g . -5a-3695-3700 S a l t and pepper sandstone — l o c a l l y c a l -careous, p y r i t i c . 3 7 0 0 - 3 7 2 0 Shale — green; t r a c e o f r e d s h a l e ; sandy toward base. 3 7 2 0 - 3 7 2 5 S a l t and pepper sandstone. 3725-3765 Shale — grey, b l a c k , r e d and green. 3 7 6 5 - 3 7 8 0 Shale — brown, sandy. 3 7 8 0 - 3 8 0 5 Shaly sandstone — grey, f i n e g r a i n e d , evidence o f slumping; some carbonaceous fragments. 3805-3807 Shale — green; some i n c l u s i o n s o f y e l l o w shale fragments. 3 8 0 7 - 3 8 1 5 Shale — green sandy toward base. J u r a s s i c 3 8 l 5 - Shaly sandstone -- green f i n e g r a i n e d , f r i a b l e . Well #79 I m p e r i a l Tidewater G a r l y l e #1 Depth i n f e e t L i t h o l o g y Colorado f o r m a t i o n - 2 6 6 0 Shale — dark grey to b l a c k , carbonaceous, Dakota f o r m a t i o n 2 6 6 0 - 2 6 6 5 Sandstone — f i n e g r a i n e d , c a l c a r e o u s . 2 6 6 5 - 2 6 7 0 Sandstone -- medium g r a i n e d , angular. 2 6 7 0 - 2 6 8 5 Sandstone.-- grey, v e r y f i n e g r a i n e d . 1 2 6 8 5 - 2 7 5 0 Sandstone — grey, f i n e g r a i n e d , f r i a b l e , l o c a l l y c a l c a r e o u s . 2 7 5 0 - 2 7 6 0 Shale — dark grey. 2 7 6 0 - 2 7 8 0 Sandstone — medium g r a i n e d , angular; shale p a r t i n g a t base. -55-2 7 8 0 - 2 8 5 0 Sandstone -- medium,. some coarse grained, angular and sub-rounded, rose c o l o r e d ; b l a c k shale p a r t i n g toward base. 2 8 5 0 - 2 9 0 0 Sandstone — medium grained; s h a l y p a r t i n g s . 2 9 0 0 - 2 9 0 2 B r e c c i a ; b l a c k shale fragments i n gr e e n i s h grey, calcareous shale m a t r i x . 2 9 0 2 - 2 9 0 5 Sandstone — very f i n e g r a i n e d , s l i g h t l y calcareous. 2 9 0 5 - 2 9 1 0 Shale -- dark greenish grey. 2 9 1 0 - 2 9 6 0 Sandstone -- very f i n e to medium grained, some pink g r a i n s , carbonaceous m a t e r i a l ; good p o r o s i t y . 2 9 6 0 - 2 9 6 5 Shale — yellowish-green. 2 9 6 5 - 3 0 1 5 Sandstone -- grey, p o o r l y sorted, very f i n e to very coarse g r a i n s ; some c o a l y i n c l u s i o n s . 3 0 1 5 - 3 0 2 5 Sandstone — very coarse to granule s i z e , rose and yellow g r a i n s . 3 0 2 5 - 3 0 2 8 3 h a l e — green, d e n s e , s l l c k e n s l i d e d , p y r i t i c c o n c r e t i o n s . 3 0 2 8 - 3 0 3 0 Interbedded green shale and very f i n e grained sandstone; numerous yel l o w shale fragments; bedding i r r e g u l a r , dips shallow to steep. J u r a s s i c 3 0 3 0 - Shale -- green, dense. Well #99 Socony Buchanan #1 Depth i n f e e t L i t h o l o g y Colorado formation - 1 0 8 5 s h a l e ->- medium grey, s l i g h t l y calcareous. Swan R i v e r formation 1085-1100 Sandstone -- grey, some brown, f i n e grained, densa, - 5 6 -n o o - 1 1 0 5 1 1 0 5 - H 2 0 1120-1125 H 2 5-H35 1135-1190 1190-125 1250-1255 1255-1265 1265-1285 1285-1355 1355-11+35 i)+35-il+l|-0 1I+I+0-1I+70 11+70-1525 1525-151+0 151+0-1560 1560-1565 1 5 6 5 -Shale. — grey. Sandstone -- brown, f i n e grained, dense. Shale — b l a c k . Sandstone -- grey, f i n e grained. Sandstone -- medium to coarse grained, angular and broken; grey shale p a r t i n g s . Sandstone — grey, brown, f i n e grained, calcareous. Sd;der'ite-* Sandstone — f i n e grained, and interbed-ded grey shale. Shale -- dark grey and l i g n i t e ; S i l t s t o n e — grey and yellow; shale — yellow and grey; t r a c e of c o a l . Sandstone — medium to coarse grained; coarser toward the base. Shale —,. brown. Interbedded dark grey shale and f i n e grained sandstone. Sandstone — grey, f i n e grained. L i g n i t e . S i l t s t o n e grading i n t o f i n e grained c a l -careous sandstone at the base. Shale — dark brown and dark grey. Devonian Limestone — l i g h t grey and cream. Well #1+5 I m p e r i a l Poxwarren #1 Depth i n f e e t L i t h o l o g y Colorado formation - 5 7 --1280 Shale — dark grey, dense. A s h v i l l e formation 1280-1325 Sandstone — grey, f i n e .grained, shaly, carbonaceous fragments. 1325-1335 Shale — b l a c k , carbonaceous. 1335-131+5 Sandstone -- grey, f i n e grained, a r g i l -laceous and s i l t y ; calcareous and c a r -bonaceous at base; dark grey shale p a r t i n g at base. 13U-5-1380 Sandstone — grey, f i n e , grained; shaly p a r t i n g s ; s i d e r i t e . 1 3 8 0 - l k l 5 Sandstone grey, f i n e - g r a i n e d , a r g i l -laceous. I k l 5 - l k 2 0 Shale — dark grey, and s i d e r i t e . II4.2O-IL3O Sand — f i n e grained, carbonaceous f r a g -ments . I k 3 0 - l k 6 0 Interbedded f i n e grained sandstone and grey shale. I k 6 0 - l 5 0 5 . Interbedded l i g h t grey, f i n e grained sand-stone, and green shale. 1505-1510 Shale — green and red; ;calcareous f i n e grained sandstone; trace of chert. 1510-1520 Sandstone -- grey, f i n e grained, calcareous, 1520-1525 Shale — red and green, b e n t o n i t i c . M i s s i s s i p p i a n 1 5 2 5 - Limestone — b u f f , f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , dense. 

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