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A revision of the stratigraphy of the Lea Park formation in west central Saskatchewan Hughes, Richard David 1947

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A R E V I S I O N OF  THE  OF  LEA  THE  STRATIGRAPHY  PARK  FORMATION  I N WEST  CENTRAL  S A S K A T C H E W Ai\N  by Richard David Hughes •  •  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER  OF  ARTS  i n the Department of GEOLOGY  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1947  CONTENTS  Abstract Introduction Objectives Methods Acknowledgements and previous work Summary of the Battle River surface formations Geology Physiography and character of the region Sedimentation i n the Western geosyncline Lea Park shale Lea Park sand Rlbstone Creek formation Grizzly Bear formation Tertiary (?) deposits Pleistocene deposits and history Regional structure Palaeontology Appendix Logs of deep wells Literature cited  Illustrations Plate I A I B  Morainal topography between Prongua and Lindequist. A l k a l i lake near Prongua.  II A  Lea Park sandstone alongside Pipestone Creek bridge.  II B  Sandstone beds i n the Lea Park shale near North Battleford.  Ill  Distorted varved clay beds near North B a t t l e f o r d .  Table of Formations  5  Stratigraphic section of Bata Petroleums No. 16 Figures  Maps  '  27  1  Key map of the deep wells  50  2  Correlation of sands i n the w e l l logs  50  ( i n pocket) Geology of the Battle River area, Saskatchewan. P r o - g l a c i a l lakes of the Battle Riyer area and geology permit areas. B a t t l e f o r d Sheet No. 267  Canada, Department of Mines and Resources.  i  A B S T R A C T  The  Lea Park f o r m a t i o n  i s an e q u i v a l e n t of the  Cretaceous M i l k R i v e r and Pakowki formations Alberta.  Upper Cretaceous sediments o f the  Provinces  are d e r i v e d from l a n d masses which  the Western g e o s y n c l i n e .  of  Upper  southern  Prairie bordered  R e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Upper  Cretaceous non-marine sediments from the seaward margin of d e l t a s by e p e i r i c sea c u r r e n t s r e s u l t e d i n the  de-  p o s i t i o n of marine sand l e n s e s w i t h i n the mud-bottomed basin.  P a l a e o n t o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a are the most h e l p f u l  f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g these marine from o t h e r non-marine environments. The  Lea Park formation  c o n s i s t s , between  and B a t t l e f o r d , of f o u r s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s . shale u n i t contains the Epistomina  Lloydminster The  basal  c a r a c o l l a microfauna.  O v e r l y i n g i t i s a shale c h a r a c t e r i z e d by V e r n e u i l i n a bearpawensis.  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a sand and  sandstone  f a c i e s w i t h a marine megafauna.  The  f o u r t h and  member i n the Lea Park formation  i s o f marine s h a l e .  Upward the Lea Park formation passds i n t o the Creek, a b r a c k i s h water a r e n i t e f o r m a t i o n .  highest  Ribstone  1.  A REVISION OF THE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LEA PARK FORMATION IN WEST CENTRAL  SASKATCHEWAN  Introduction The Permit  w r i t e r mapped the s u r f a c e geology o f three  areas taken up by Bata Petroleums L t d . d u r i n g p a r t  of August and September of 1946. approximately and  Geological  The l e a s e s are l o c a t e d  between l o n g i t u d e s 108 degrees and 110 degrees,  near l a t i t u d e 53 degrees.  The boundaries a r e a r t i f i c i a l  so they cannot be r e f e r r e d to p h y s i o g r a p h i c  features.  They  are o u t l i n e d on Map Number 2 accompanying t h i s r e p o r t .  Objectives An attempt has been made to c l a r i f y  the r e g i o n a l c o r -  r e l a t i o n s by means o f our i n c r e a s e d data, to adopt mappable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f the s t r a t a , and t o present  s e v e r a l new  i d e a s about t h e o r i g i n o f the L e a Park sand and o t h e r Upper Cretaceous s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems.  Some emphasis w i l l be  p l a c e d on r e g i o n a l geology although  o n l y a l i m i t e d a r e a was  examined. to  I t was necessary  to v i s i t  exposures o f f the l e a s e s  c o l l e c t data on the r e g i o n a l geology.  Recent  information  from the U n i t y gas f i e l d has been embodied i n t h i s r e p o r t .  Methods The  f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out on the b a s i s o f a 1 i n c h  map. ' to  4 miles reconnaissance-  the f i e l d . portation.  v  Twenty t h r e e days were spent i n  A h a l f t o n 1946 Fargo t r u c k was used f o r t r a n s -  2. No d i f f i c u l t y was  experienced  i n approaching  w i t h i n short  walking d i s t a n c e o f exposures w i t h t h i s v e h i c l e . of  outcrops were t i e d i n to s e c t i o n boundaries  comfass surveys.  by pace-and-  F o s s i l s c o l l e c t e d were l a b e l e d f o r l a b o r -  a t o r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n work. r e p o r t was  Locations  v  L i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the  read a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  library.  Only p o s i t i v e s u r f a c e out-crops and r e l i a b l e w e l l samples were mapped because the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t d i s c o n t i n u o u s water w e l l sands, i f t a b u l a t e d , may  have l e d to m i s i n t e r -  1. p r e t a t i o n s of s t r u c t u r e i n the past  (cf 7  )•  Acknowledgements and P r e v i o u s Work T h i s t h e s i s was  w r i t t e n under Dr. M.Y.Williams  guidance.  Dr. W i l l i a m s read over and d i s c u s s e d the i d e a s presented; the w r i t e r i s deeply  indebted to him.  The author wishes to  acknowledge the c l e a r c u t i n s t r u c t i o n s and many u s e f u l sugg e s t i o n s g i v e n by Dr. J.O.G. Sanderson who field  work.  Mr.  Clarence G. Matthews  innumerable o c c a s i o n s was traverses.  1  directed  the  h e l p f u l advice  of great v a l u e i n p l a n n i n g  on the  Mr.J.A. Donnan prepared t h i n s e c t i o n s o f the  Lea Park sand.  Without the a e g i s of Bata Petroleums L t d .  the f i e l d work would not have been attempted.  The w r i t e r  wishes to thank the company o f f i c e r s f o r p e r m i s s i o n to use f i e l d notes f o r t h e s i s m a t e r i a l . B a t t l e f o r d and F o r t P i t t sheets of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey 1. Numbers e n c l o s e d i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r to l i s t number i n the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d .  3  of  Canada were u s e f u l p r i n c i p a l l y f o r easy l o c a t i o n o f the  sedimentary rock exposures.  Hume and Hage made a p r e l i m i n a r y  study o f the geology o f the e a s t e r n part o f the a r e a and p u b l i s h e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n Eagle H i l l s A n t i c l i n e , . B a t t l e f o r d Area, Saskatchewa.n.  The Geology o f East*-central A l b e r t a by the  same authors was the most u s e f u l r e p o r t on the B a t t l e R i v e r area s t r a t i g r a p h y .  Other w r i t i n g s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s  i g a t i o n a r e compiled i n the l i s t o f l i t e r a t u r e  invest-  cited.  Summary o f the B a t t l e R i v e r Surface Formations The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r d i g i t a t i o n o f shales and sandstones o f Upper Cretaceous f o r m a t i o n s p r o v i d e a problem, in  f i e l d mapping^with  which i t i s n o t easy t o cope.  I t seems  a d v i s a b l e t o map sand and sandstone s t r a t a o f t h i s area as i s o l a t e d tongues u n t i l they have been c o r r e c t l y  correlated.  Hume and Hage (7) have attempted t o c o r r e l a t e f o r m a t i o n s on the  one c r i t e r i o n o f apparent s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n but met  with l i t t l e success. The Upper Cretaceous formations were l a i d a l t e r n a t i n g marine and non-marine plains.  down under  environments near a l l u v i a l  The c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the f o r m a t i o n s were d e r i v e d  from the e r o s i o n o f l a n d masses t o the west and p o s s i b l y t h e east.  I n g e n e r a l , the L e a Park s h a l e s are marine, the L e a  Park sands are marine and p r o b a b l y , i n p a r t , non-marine.  Lea  Park s h a l e s are medium t o dark grey i n c o l o u r i n the upper part.  Lea Park sand and sandstone c a r r y a f o s s i l marine fauna  and would f i t best i n t o a marine p a t t e r n .  These  elastics  range from very f i n e g r a i n e d t o somewhat medium g r a i n e d the base, from l i g h t grey t o medium ( s l i g h t l y b l u i s h ) from l o o s e t o very w e l l i n d u r a t e d , and a r e l o c a l l y l i m y , and a r k o s i c .  grey,  silty,  Although some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  r i v e r l a i d d e p o s i t s a r e l o c a l l y present,  they appear to have  been r e d i s t r i b u t e d under marine c o n d i t i o n s . Creek formation  near  r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r d i g i t  The Ribslone  of coarser  elastics  r e a u l t i n g from e r o s i o n w i t h i n the western l a n d mass by, most probably,  the i d e n t i c a l drainage  the Lea Park sands. Creek formation  pattern that  S l i p p e r (19) c o n s i d e r e d  provided  the Ribstone  t o be o f b r a c h i s h water o r i g i n .  Recent work  i s i n agreement with h i s f i n d i n g s . The  o r i g i n of the c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the Upper Cretaceous  beds w i t h i n the second p r a i r e step has y e t to be s t u d i e d .  It  i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the Canadian S h i e l d was a p o s i t i v e l a n d mass undergoing e r o s i o n d u r i n g Upper Cretaceous time.  The p o s i t i o n s o f the e a s t e r n borders  Cretaceous sea are not known.  o f the Upper  The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t  s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f mud were d e r i v e d from pre-Cretaceous formations  o f the e a s t .  Conceivably muds from the e a s t e r n  uplands i n t e r c a l a t e d with some c o a r s e r e l a s t i c s from the western mountains.  T h i s may have r e s u l t e d i n the m a r g i n a t i o n  o f the c h i e f l y non-marine M i l k R i v e r f o r m a t i o n by the lower Lea Park s h a l e s , and such p a t t e r n s as the b i f u r c a t i o n o f the Ribstone  Creek formation by the V a n e s t i shale tongue d u r i n g  e a r l y B e l l y R i v e r time.  5  FORA'/P-IIFTRA ZO'^o  SASK j b^ ">n<» i en • • ?w Creek 50f'(Tj i n Vera formation area? b»it here upper contact eroded. ! nperrao?t in Vers, area, Lea rsjr*w shale ' 120* in Alberta 4-  t  T  sand E0  p:  1  Upper T.ea Park shale  U  lover Lee Perk shale  Non-nari n«•Sanc and sandstone.  larine .Medium grvjT, T i I t y . F o n taine ra-rfcher-of -pearl fragnoits  l  •  Lenses .Trace t o "arine and po?-70' thick i n i b l y non-aarine. V n t area. Cray to yellow 3and and send" '' thick i n '.ferine. Medium ifciddy Lake wall qrey shale,calcareous l o c n l l v .  B  ''arine. Light t c dark srey shale. Tracei of bent onIte. Locally sclcareou~. .  i  •  6*  Geology Physiography and  Character o f the Region  Most of the area i s p a r t o f the t h i r d prairie step w i t h a median a l t i t u d e of 2000 to 2200 f e e t .  The Eagle  Hills  are continuous with the M i s s o u r i Coteau and demarcate the t h i r d from second s t e p . and  The  topography i s l e v e l to  the i n f l u e n c e of P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n i s seen  out the r e g i o n .  The n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t i s d r a i n e d  by the North Saskatchewan R i v e r .  The  rolling through-  directly  central portion i s  t r i b u t a r y to the B a t t l e R i v e r which f i n a l l y f l o w s i n t o North Saskatchewan at B a t t l e f o r d . has a c q u i r e d an i n t e r i o r drainage  The  The  southwestern s e c t o r  system of creeks and  b a s i n s superimposed on the m o r a i n a l  lake  topography.  North Saskatchewan R i v e r a t North B a t t l e f o r d has  about lj50 f e e t belqw the top of the n o r t h e a s t bank. v a l l e y i s about one m i l e wide. map  the  The  As i t e n t e r s the accompanying  sheet i t flows southeastwardly  m i l e s west and  cut  in a slight  curve but  two  f o u r n o r t h o f North B a t t l e f o r d i t i s d i v e r t e d  to the southward f o r three m i l e s .  Above B a t t l e f o r d the  banks range from steep to n e a r l y v e r t i c a l , but  river's  six miles  below the c i t i e s the northeast bank has a slope of o n l y 250 1  f e e t i n three m i l e s .  Along most of the r i v e r there  are  mid-channel sand i s l a n d s up t o two m i l e s long',however t h e r e i s a nine m i l e s t r e t c h without and 18.  The  any  i n township 4 5 , ranges 17  r i v e r i s i n a stage o f e a r l y m a t u r i t y .  f a c t t h a t the channel  i s p r e - g l a c i a l e x p l a i n s the  o f outcrops along the  river.  1  Battleford and North Battleford.  The  scarcity  "7. B a t t l e R i v e r f l o w s i n a p r e - g l a c i a l channel.  This r i v e r  i s 50 t o 75 f e e t wide w i t h i n a f l o o d p l a i n r a n g i n g from one h a l f to one m i l e i n width.  The meander b e l t v a r i e s from  one h a l f t o t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a m i l e broad.  Old meander  s c r o l l s were not observed a l o n g the hanks but slumping c e r t a i n l y have obscured t h e i r presence. would  River  terracing  be easy t o confuse with the p o s t - g l a c i a l l a k e  near the o u t l e t o f the r i v e r .  would  A t Unwin^old r i v e r  plains  terraces  are w e l l p r e s e r v e d but these may have been d e r i v e d by the a c t i o n o f the Manito Lake - Marsden d i v e r s i o n channel waters. Near the i n t e r s e c t i o n of B a t t l e R i v e r by Highway 40 the northwest bank i s t e r r a c e d but the southeast i s slumped. R e s i s t a n t sandstones are exposed a l o n g B a t t l e R i v e r  wherever  the d r i f t overburden has been s t r i p p e d . Drummond Creek emerges from the Eagle H i l l s i n Sweetgrass I n d i a n Reserve between t i l l 60 f e e t h i g h .  Upstream,  and g r a v e l cutbanks some  where cut by Highway 40, the creek  i s small and meanders i n a v a l l e y about 50 f e e t deep.  There  the cutbanks have stood up w e l l and a r e composed of d r i f t c o n t a i n i n g the l a r g e s t e r r a t i c s seen i n the d i s t r i c t . a consequent  stream w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o P l e i s t o c e n e  Buzzard Coulee i s comparable R i v e r gorge but i s n e a r l y d r y .  It i s  deposits.  i n s i z e t o the B a t t l e  I t served as a d i v e r s i o n  channel i n p o s t - g l a c i a l time but i n ago may antedate the Pleistocene  epoch.  Lakes are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f those d i s t r i c t s served by an i n t e r i o r drainage system.  Thackeray Lake has the l o n g  8.  narrow o u t l i n e o f an abandoned channel.  W i n n i f o r d Lake,  although o n l y two m i l e s southwest of B a t t l e R i v e r a t B a t t l e f o r d , has not been able t o m a i n t a i n i t s former  j u n c t i o n with  the North Saskatchewan R i v e r at s e c t i o n 16, township 43, The l a k e i n s e c t i o n 23,  range 16.  township 43,  range 18  o c c u p i e s a c o n s t r u c t i o n a l d e p r e s s i o n g r e a t e r than 115 below any p e r i p h e r a l o u t l e t .  I t has r e s u l t e d  b l o c k i n g on the south and east and may kettle.  from m o r a i n a l  be i n p a r t a l a r g e  Bedrock i s exposed on i t s n o r t h bank.  a l k a l i l a k e (see P l a t e 1,B) s e c t i o n 35»  feet  The  tiny  i n the southwest q u a r t e r o f  township 43, range 18, o c c u p i e s a d e p r e s s i o n  w i t h i n a moraine.  Lake t e r r a c e s and  sloughs are l i n e a t e d  between Brada (near North B a t t l e f o r d ) and  the North  Sask-  atchewan R i v e r . Manito Lake i s the l a r g e s t body of water i n the a r e a . I t i s bounded on the southwest by a sand dune t e r r a n e and on the n o r t h and east by e l i f f e d g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s . bedrock exposures  are known around i t s shores.  It  No appears  to be the n o r t h e a s t f r a c t i o n of a l a r g e p o s t - g l a c i a l l a k e which extended  i n t o A l b e r t a on the west and towards Vera,  Saskatchewan on the southeast.  Dune f o r m a t i o n of the l a k e  sands by winds blowing o f f the i c e sheet have p i l e d  the  sands up h i g h e r then the l o c a l f l u v i a l base l e v e l of the l a t e i c e shrinkage p e r i o d . The Eagle H i l l s , are a conspicuous  although terminated at B a t t l e R i v e r ,  topographic f e a t u r e .  They r i s e i n some  plaoes to over 2400 f e e t above sea l e v e l and are  approximately  9.  800  f e e t h i g h e r than the l e v e l of the North Saskatchewan R i v e r .  The H i l l s are a p r e - g l a e i a l e r o s i o n escarpment. Upper Cretaceous s t r a t a , exposed i n were mantled with d r i f t  Pipestone  Formed of Creety,  during P l e i s t o c e n e time.  they  At the  time  of the r e t r e a t of the l a s t g l a c i e r s the r i d g e dammed a prog l a c i a l lake. The and  u t i l i z e d t e r r a n e s are g i v e n over to wheat  c a t t l e ranching - the main i n d u s t r i e s of the  farming  region.  Farmhouses i n the r u r a l areas are one h a l f to one m i l e and  evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n the a r a b l e s e c t o r s .  uction.  principal  Lloydminster(9).  towns are North B a t t l e f o r d , B a t t l e f o r d and Lloydminster  The  apart  d e r i v e s a small revenue from crude o i l prod-  The main v i l l a g e s o f the r e g i o n are Delmas, Prongua,  Rockhaven, Cloan, Edam, Paynton, Maidstone, Waseca, Lashburn, M a r s h a l l , Lone Rock, Marsden, and  Neilburg.  Both the Canadian N a t i o n a l and  the Canadian P a c i f i c  ways have east to west through l i n e s a c r o s s the a r e a . Canadian N a t i o n a l a l s o m a i n t a i n s to Carruthers.  range 22,  The  a spur l i n e from B a t t l e f o r d  The main l i n e s of the two  U n i t y , i n township 44,  Rail-  south.of  r a i l w a y s pass through the area under c o n s i d -  eration. Highway 5 i s the one Lloydminster.  trunk road from B a t t l e f o r d to  Highway 40 i s being improved and now  i s located  a c r o s s Sweetgrass Indian Reserve c l o s e to the r a i l w a y ,  and  j o i n s with Highway 29 north of Prongua.  Highway 29,  B a t t l e f o r d to W i l k i e , i s g r a v e l e d  f o r a short d i s t a n c e *  except  from  10. Secondary and l o c a l roads p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o n e a r l y a l l o f the area but t h e i r c o n d i t i o n depends on the weather. r a i n f a l l most o f the mud sandy roads may  After a  roads become extremely s l i p p e r y but  remain p a s s a b l e .  N a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a number o f f l o r a l s p e c i e s p e c u l i a r l y adapted t o l o c a l environments.  These have been  l i s t e d by Mr. J . M i t c h e l l i n S o i l Survey of Southern atchewan. slides.  Sask-  P r i c k l y pears (Opuntia) f l o u r i s h near b e n t o n i t i c  mud  B l a c k p o p l a r (Populus b a l s a m i f e r a ) i s common on the  Eagle H i l l s .  Canoe b i r c h ( B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a ) and common a l d e r  (Alnus incana) make up l o c a l deciduous groves. (Pinus banksiana) was  Jack pine  noted i n some o f the sand dune r e g i o n s .  The area i s s e m i - a r i d w i t h an average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n of about 15 i n c h e s .  The s o i l  i s s u p p l i e d w i t h water  by the s p r i n g thaw and by i n f r e q u e n t r a i n s through l a t e s p r i n g t o summer.  There i s an extreme annual range i n  temperature between - 50°F t o over 100°F. v e r y dependable  and g r a i n - k i l l i n g f r o s t s have occured i n  the month of J u l y . may  The weather i s not  Wind and dust storms a r e not common but  be quite s t r o n g .  Sedimentation i n the Western G e o s y n c l i n e The  sediments o f Lea Park and B e l l y R i v e r age were  d e p o s i t e d w i t h i n a p h y s i o g r a p h i c and s t r u c t u r a l b a s i n termed the W e s t e r n g e o s y n c l i n e . 1  Marine beds were l a i d  i  down w i t h i n an e p e r i c sea which l a y between m a r g i n a l 1. The Eastern geosyncline i s c a l l e d the Appalachian trough.  11. a l l u v i a l p l a i n s of the west and a l a n d mass t o the east of the present P a l a e o z o i c - Pre-Cambrian c o n t a c t .  This  was  a G u l f sea w i t h an o u t l e t toward the southeastward. appears to  There  t o have been f r e e drainage from the e n c i r c l i n g l a n d s  the sea. The  contact between the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n and  the  u n d e r l y i n g A l b e r t a f o r m a t i o n g i v e s l i t t l e h i n t f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a change i n provenance. of  I f the a x i s  the g e o s y n c l i n e moved o n l y i n a v e r t i c a l path we might  expect a r e c o r d of continuous sedimentation a l o n g t h a t l i n e which would y i e l d  some suggestions of what the a d j a c e n t  l a n d s were l i k e .  However the a x i s (or ages) became a f u n c t i o n  of  other v a r i a b l e s such as sources and a v a i l a b i l i t y of  sediments depending on the m i g r a t i o n of d i v i d e s on contiguous uplands.  the  A s t r i p of c o n t i n e n t a l sediments  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the western margin of the sea.  was  This  s t r i p ' s seaward l i m i t s were very s h a r p l y demarcated by marine s h a l e s and little  sands.  Even so i t i s obvious t h a t we  can  form  o p i n i o n of the adjacent l a n d s from d i r e c t c o n t r a c t s  between the r o c k s  themselves.  P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r s of e l a s t i c s a r e u s e f u l i n determining the nature of' provenances.  Character i s determined  parent m a t e r i a l , the degree of weathering,  and by  by  the  subsequent  e r o s i o n and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The Lea Park and l a t e r s h a l e s ed c o n t a i n very f i n e g r a i n - a l l u v i a l e l a s t i c s , eroded shore v  1. Provenance refers to a terrane from which an association of sediments was derived.  12. m a t e r i a l , a e o l i a n dusts, and f l o a t o f organic  origin.  Amongst  these components, sea wave e r o s i o n has produced unmeasured but  enormous q u a n t i t i e s of muds.  of the sea were subjected and  The windward shore or shores  t o a l l the r i g o u r s o f wave sweeping,  a consequent r e p r e s s i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s f a v o r a b l e t o l i f e  along  that c o a s t l i n e would i n c r e a s e the tendency towards ab-  normal s u r f a c e denudation.  The questions  o f c l i m a t i c temper-  a t u r e s and seasonal weather w i t h i n the environment are worthy of thought even i f they a r e o n l y p o s t u l a t i v e . evidence t o show that the sea f r o z e over.  There i s no  In the p e r i o d s when  tho mean temperature o f t h e r e g i o n was high  the l e s s e n i n g i n  v i s o o s i t y o f tho wator would r o o u l t i n o i g n i f i o a n t l y wave c r o o i o n by windo.  Waves movihg, ; i n a c r o s s a s t e e p l y c  d i p p i n g beach r e t a i n t h e i r power f o r concerted shoreline.  inoroaood  c u t t i n g of the  Waves which must t r a v e l a c r o s s low f l a t s have t h e i E  power d i s s i p a t e d i n b u i l d i n g up an o f f s h o r e bar and b r i n g i n g the shore t o a mature Transportation  stage. of e l a s t i c s does not n e c e s s a r i l y cease  a f t e r d e p o s i t i o n i n the r i v e r d e l t a has been accomplished. V a r i o u s agencies a r e c o n s t a n t l y a c t i v e i n the sea which redistribute transportable materials.  Mention has been made  of the r o l e of waves i n a t t a c k i n g shores; very e f f e c t i v e  in truncating d e l t a strata.  would b r i n g i n t o suspension the f i n e s t  they may a l s o be Any  turbulence  e l a s t i c s and render  them a v a i l a b l e f o r l a t e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Undertows a c t i n g  13. over a l o n g time w i l l c o n t r o l the m i g r a t i o n of a p p r e c i a b l e volumes of coarse and  f i n e grained mineral p a r t i c l e s .  Along  shore c u r r e n t s r e s u l t i n d i r e c t e d l a t e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . C. I l l i n g  (11) has observed t h a t " i n s t a b i l i t y o f the  f l o o r d u r i n g the processes  o f sedimentation  creates  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the marine c u r r e n t s which govern the i o n of the sand l e n s e s . "  Dr.  V.  sea guiding distribut-  Marine c u r r e n t s w i l l be f u r t h e r  d i s c u s s e d when the p o s s i b l e mode of o r i g i n o f the Lea  Park  sand i s suggested. The  e p e i r i c sea was  properties.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l  Condensation was  p e r p e t u a l but probably  of  no  r e a l importance except to remove dust from the atmosphere. E v a p o r a t i o n was sea may  present a t a l l times.  Cloud d e r i v a t i v e s of the  have been blown about, changed t o r a i n , and p r e c i p i t a t e d .  L i t t l e i s known o f the S h i e l d l a n d mass but i t would seem t h a t , because t h e r e , e l e v a t i o n s were brought about by movements, the b o r d e r l a n d  would be low and present no  graphic b a r r i e r t o c l o u d passage. sea would tend t o prevent erranean*  epeirogenic  The heat c a p a c i t y o f the  extreme temperatures.  environment, although  physio-  This  'medit-  i t s e f f e c t s were lessened when  the sea became n e a r l y l a n d l o c k e d ,  i s a fundamental  conception  one must keep i n mind whether c o n s i d e r i n g sedimentation, zones o f the cold-blooded Cretaceous time.  life  r e p t i l e s , o r p l a n t growth o f Upper  14 The  sea water was  chemically a c t i v e .  concerned w i t h i t s d i s s o l v i n g power.  There was  s a l t s t o accumulate because the sea was A t l a n t i c Ocean by way shown t h a t the  o f the  s a l t content  'Gulf,  We  are  principally  no tendency f o r  j o i n e d t o the open '  E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have  i n a sea o f t h i s type does not  increase' over a r e s t r i c t e d p e r i o d o f time.  No  salt  deposits  are known w i t h i n the remnant bounds of the Lea Park s h a l e . Now  t h a t the main p o i n t s o f the environment and i t s  c o n t r o l s have been reviewed, the next step w i l l be an attempt t o f i t the g e o l o g i c a l formations  i n t o the p i c t u r e .  Cretaceous seas of the Western g e o s y n c l i n e Sandy f a c i e s tongue eastward i n t o a gross  In  had mud  general  bottoms.  shale body.  If  the r e g i o n i s viewed i n east-west v e r t i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n a z i g - z a g contact between the shale and contact v a r i e s both v e r t i c a l l y and  sand i s seen.  l a t e r a l l y with  This  time.  I f a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t the c o a r s e r e l a s t i c s were d e r i v e d under normal r i v e r e r o s i o n i s t r u e i t i s r e a d i l y understood why  the movement of the d e l t a f r o n t would depend  mainly on the s u p p l i e s and  d i s p o s i t i o n s o f sediments.  Broad c l i m a t i c c y c l e s c o u l d d e f i n i t e l y c o n t r o l d e l t a growth A  by f u n c t i o n i n g as an e r o s i o n i n h i b i t o r under a r i d  conditions  and as an e r o s i o n s t i m u l a t o r when a s t a t e of humidity predominates. The h i s t o r y of the d i a s t r o p h i c movements which i n v o l v e d the b a s i n i s debatable. from e f f e c t .  The  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o separate  cause  s i m p l i f i e d tableau u s u a l l y envisioned i s  15 of a geosyncline  being  concurrently  depressed and raudded so  t h a t i t s southwest-northeast p r o f i l e remains e s s e n t i a l l y static.  Epeirogenic  equilibrium.  movements tended t o m a i n t a i n t h i s  Orogeny i s of secondary importance and  i n s o f a r as i t e f f e c t e d the western supply materials. along  that  only  o f sedimentary  When s u b - a e r i a l p l a n a t i o n has-been e s t a b l i s h e d  g e o s y n c l i n a l margins q u i t e a s m a l l p o s i t i v e change i n  the p o s i t i o n of sea l e v e l w i l l permit the waters t o encroach over very l a r g e a r e a s .  As the s h o r e l i n e passes, i n l a n d the  former s u b - a e r i a l sediments w i l l ' b e f l o o d e d and  eroded,  e s p e c i a l l y i f they have not been submerged below the marine base l e v e l o f e r o s i o n .  Later s t r a t a w i l l contact  the under-  l y i n g rocks along an e r o s i o n a l u n c o n f o r m i t y . I s o s t a s y impresses i t s e l f on the g e o l o g i c  column.  always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e r o s i o n , both i n a c a u s i t i v e and resultive relationship. determines the A. W.  The  range i n t h i c k n e s s  of A l b e r t a - - - may  in a  r a t e of i s o s t a t i c movement o f t e n o f groups of s t r a t a .  Nauss (14) has w r i t t e n ; "a g e n e r a l  province  It i s  Dr.  s i n k i n g o f the whole  have r e s u l t e d from the  withdrawal  of s u b c r u s t a l m a t e r i a l t o f o r m the Crowsnest v o l c a n i c s i n the mountains, (and)  allowed the Upper Cretaceous ocean t o  advance t o the f o o t o f the S e l k i r k Mountains."  Withdrawals  of magmatic m a t e r i a l s t o form v o l c a n i c e m i s s i o n s are always f o l l o w e d by a s s o c i a t e d down-warpings. Coast Range r e g i o n was  elevated  not  F o r example  d u r i n g the Cenozoic era  widespread emissions o f v o l c a n i c r o c k s .  The  the  despite  Crowsnest v o l -  -  16.  c a n i c s were probably d e p o s i t e d w i t h i n an area l i t t l e than the area from which they were d e r i v e d .  larger  Granted t h a t  t h e r e may have been a s i n k i n g of the S e l k i r k Mountains from which the Crowsnest v o l c a n i c s were extruded, the a d d i t i o n o f flows and beds t o t h e i r s u r f a c e would m a i n t a i n n e a r l y the i n i t i a l altitude.  L i n e a t i o n s of v o l c a n i c b e l t s a r e determined  by zones o f weakness.  A v a i l a b l e magma would be present beneath  the S e l k i r k Mountain weak zone so i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o p o s t u l a t e any l a t e r a l supply o f molten m a t e r i a l s .  I t i s concluded  t h a t i s o s t a s y alone f u r n i s h e d mechanisms f o r the maintenance of the b a s i n and, most probably, f o r the major advances and r e t r e a t s o f the Upper Cretaceous sea (28). Dr. C. H. Crickmay (2) proposed t h a t a range of mountains e x i s t i n g d u r i n g the Cretaceous p e r i o d i n the r e g i o n o f the present S e l k i r k range be termed the Z e p h y r i a Mountains. h i g h l a n d mass i s evidenced by the c r i t e r i o n o f g r a i n change i n sediments and by s t u d i e s i n palaeogeography. has been c a l l e d t o our a t t e n t i o n t h a t :  This  size It  "From west t o east  a c r o s s t h e s outhern p l a i n s the beds c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the Lea Park o f Saskatchewan show the f o l l o w i n g changes:  i n south-  western A l b e r t a there are p a r t l y marine sands a t t h e base f o l l o w e d by non-marine sands and s h a l e s above; i n s o u t h e a s t e r n A l b e r t a t h e r e are p o s s i b l y p a r t l y marine sands a t the base f o l l o w e d by non-marine  sands and s h a l e s w i t h , a t the t o p ,  marine s h a l e s ; i n southern Saskatchewan the s t r a t a are e n t i r e l y marine and mostly s h a l e s ; and i n Manitoba t h e r e are  17. marine s h a l e s and  calcareous  shales.  So from west to  east  non-marine c o n d i t i o n s give p l a c e to marine, sands  disappear,  and the s h a l e s become p a r t l y c a l c a r e o u s " ( 2 ) .  Zephyria  Mountains were, without doubt, a l o f t y c h a i n . and  The  Swift  streams  creeks f u r n i s h e d coarse e l a s t i c s to more mature r i v e r s i n  the l a r g e r v a l l e y s .  D e l t a s , b u i l t eastward i n t o the  t i n e n t a l sea, provided istribution.  epicon-  sediments t o marine a g e n c i e s f o r r e d -  There does not appear to have been much, i f any,-  p l a i n f l o o d i n g with, development of t y p i c a l r e d beds, c r a c k s , and  mud  c r o s s b e d d i n g i n t h i s area because such r o c k f e a -  t u r e s n e i t h e r were observed i n the w e l l c u t t i n g s examined  nor  i n the outcrops v i s i t e d . Dr. F. -H. McLearn (2) d e s c r i b e s  the scene as an  "invasion  of m a r g i n a l a l l u v i a l p l a i n s b u i l t out from the west." g e o l o g i s t s have p o i n t e d represent  out t h a t non-marine tongues  c o n d i t i o n s where d e p o s i t i o n was  subsidence (2)>  S t i l l another t h a t : "the  can  more e f f e c t i v e than stratigraphy of  p o s t - b a s a l Upper Cretaceous s t r a t a i s complicated  by  f a c t t h a t the sediments were d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from the lands west o f the u p l i f t e d and  seaway.  Other  As these highlands  were  the high-  repeatedly  a c t i v e l y eroded, vast q u a n t i t i e s o f sand and  were c a r r i e d down t o the Cretaceous sea, and  coarser  mud  material  accumulating t o form a c o a s t a l p l a i n , l o c a l l y extended i n t o great d e l t a s while the f i n e r m a t e r i a l was evenly  over the sea Dr. Nauss (14)  d i s t r i b u t e d more  floor." has w r i t t e n , "marine shale members i n the  18.  V e r m i l l i o n area have sharp lower c o n t a c t s but g r a d a t i o n a l upper ones.  The  and Hendricks  same phenomenon was  (1941) i n New  Mexico.  observed by Sears, Hunt They e x p l a i n i t as being  due to sedimentation i n a c o n t i n u a l l y s i n k i n g b a s i n .  When  the r a t e of accumulation  exceeds the r a t e of s i n k i n g the b a s i n  g r a d u a l l y becomes f i l l e d ,  and continued d e p o s i t i o n r e s u l t s i n  c o a r s e r non-marine e l a s t i c s , which r e s t withaa contact on the subjacent marine s h a l e .  gradational  L a t e r , when the r a t e  o f submergence surpasses sedimentation, the sea  spreads  over the low c o a s t a l p l a i n w i t h a r a p i d i t y which i s a consequence of the lowness and f l a t n e s s of the t e r r a n e , and which r e s u l t s i n marine shale l y i n g with a sharp c o n t a c t on the submerged d e t r i t u s . "  T h i s has not occured i n the case of the  Lea Park sand with i t s g r a d a t i o n a l top and bottom c o n t a c t s and i t s marine  facies.  The Lea Park  sand has probably been d e r i v e d a s a l a r g e  complex s p i t or beach from  d e l t a sands.  o f a l e n s e r a t h e r than a tongue.  I t has the appearance  More s t r a t i g r a p h i o work i n  east c e n t r a l A l b e r t a i s necessary b e f o r e i t s bounds can be defined.  I t may  be that i t c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l  sheet-like  bodies f o r the f a c i e s i s pinched out i n A l t o b a No.2  between  e  occurences  i n Colony No.  2 and Bata No. 16.  A comparable'^  s i t u a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d i n the southeastern U n i t e d S t a t e s : '•Florida was  completely submerged throughout most o f the  (Cenozoic) e r a f o r i t i s made of t h i c k marine l i m e s t o n e s r e s t i n g on a l a t e Cretaceous f l o o r .  U n t i l Miocene time i t  19  wa.s  so f a r from shore t h a t l i t t l e d e t r i t a l sediment reached i t ,  but  s i n c e t h a t date f i n e sand from the C a r o l i n a streams h&Z'j  drifted  southward with the  shore c u r r e n t s to form beaches  the east coast l i k e t h a t of Daytona" The  (17).  e a s t e r n margin of the g e o s y n c l i n e  topic f o r investigation.  I t has  (1)  J u s t when the u p l i f t  (2)  How  (3)  What stage of e r o s i o n was  high the  called attention eastern  on the s i t e of A l b e r t a ,  Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, f o l l o w e d and iments were subject to e r o s i o n .  intriguing  "Emergence of the  part of the C o r d i l l e r a n g e o s y n c l i n e ,  Triassic  forma an  Dr. McLearn (2) has  to the" main p o i n t s of the problem:  along  the P a l a e o z o i c  sed-  not yet been e s t a b l i s h e d :  occured.  sediments of the  trough  were u p l i f t e d .  reached by the end  of  time."  Dr. Wickenden has shown ( 2 ) : "that the J u r a s s i c d e p o s i t s i n the east, on the  s i t e of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, are  not e n t i r e l y marine, but  that non-marine d e p o s i t s are  as w e l l , r e c o r d i n g a m a r g i n a l  a l l u v i a l or d e l t a p l a i n  T h i s a l l u v i a l p l a i n does not appear to have been b u i l t from the western border of the  sea, l i k e  those o f the  present there. out Cret-  aceous, because no-non-marine J u r a s s i c d e p o s i t s have been found i n the west. out  Nor  from the southwest.  i t was  b u i l t out  does i t appear to have been b u i l t There remains the p o s s i b i l i t y  from the e a s t e r n shores o f the  I t f o l l o w s that•Cretaceous  marine e r o s i o n of the  that  sea." eastern  20.  shore l i n e was  probably more e f f e c t i v e than s u b a e r i a l p l a n -  a t i o n o f the S h i e l d l a n d l e s s .  T h i s would e x p l a i n the l a c k  d>f coarse e l a s t i c s along the eastern margin of the Upper Cretaceous d e p o s i t s .  Marine e r o s i o n , i t i s thought,would then  r e s u l t i n a broadjcoastal beach.  There would  tend to be a  minimum of sediment f o r m a t i o n because t h i s land-form would e f f e c t i v e l y m a i n t a i n i t s e l f i n t h i s environment by d e s t r o y i n g the power of wave c u t t i n g . The past d i s c u s s i o n has d e a l t w i t h , what the w r i t e r cons i d e r s to be. the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f the g e o s y n c l i n a l sedimentary e v o l u t i o n . w i l l be examined  Next the Upper Cretaceous f o r m a t i o n s  i n d i v i d u a l l y , h i s t o r i c a l l y , and i n d e t a i l .  Lea Park Shale The Lea.Park shale was named by Dr. J . A. A l l a n  (1). I t  occurs t y p i c a l l y between Lea Park and B a t t l e f o r d on the banks of the North Saskatchewan  River.  by the Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n .  The shale beds are o v e r l a i n Downwards i t passes i n t o  c a l c a r e o u s shale o f the A l b e r t a f o r m a t i o n . Dr. R.T.D. Wickenden i n t o two zones.  (2) has d i v i d e d the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n  The Lower Lea Park i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  f o r a m i n i f e r a E p l s t o m i n a c a r a c o l l a which, he s t a t e d ,  indicated  "general e q u i v a l e n c e of t h i s p a r t of the f o r m a t i o n with the M i l k R i v e r of A l b e r t a . "  The Upper Lea Park zone c o n t a i n s the  v e r n e u i l i n a bearpawensis Wickenden equivalent.  fauna and i s a Pakowki  T h i r d and f o u r t h Zones a r e added by t h e w r i t e r . the Lea Park sand w i t h a m e g a - f o s s i l  fauna.  i s marine shale and has been d e s c r i b e d (8) and Bata No. 16 (p. 27) w e l l l o g s .  The t h i r d i s  The f o u r t h zone  i n the Muddy Lake I t i s t y p i f i e d by  c a r r y i n g Haplophragmoides rugosa which was f o r m e r l y t o the G r i z z l y Bear s h a l e . of the Lea Park formation thickness  ascribed  T h i s r e v i s i o n of t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y means t h a t i n the Rush Lake w e l l the  o f t h e formation  i s 1450 f e e t i n s t e a d o f 1140 f e e t  as p r e v i o u s l y measured. (2). Dr. Nauss (14), working i n the V e r m i l l i o n a r e a , two  u s e f u l f o r a m i n i f e r a l horizons  found  i n t h e upper Lea Park.  T h i r t y f e e t below t h e t o p o f the Lea Park a new s p e c i e s of Bulimina  was d i s c o v e r e d .  Two hundred f e e t below the t o p  of the Lea Park a new s p e c i e s o f Anomalina a s s o c i a t e d  with  Neobulimina canadensis. Cushman and Wickenden occured  along  w i t h p y r i t e having an o o l i t i c - l i k e s t r u c t u r e .  He o b s e r v e s  the "upper 200 f e e t c o n s i s t s o f s i l t y shale c o n t a i n i n g fragments and n u c u l i d pelecypods t o g e t h e r  plant  with some gray  c l a y - s h a l e and t h i n l e n s e s o f f i n e - g r a i n e d sand.W  This  d e s c r i p t i o n c l o s e l y f i t s the uppermost Lea Park, s t u d i e d by the present  w r i t e r near t h e North B a t t l e f o r d b r i d g e ,  t h a t no f o s s i l pelecypod^s were found i n t h a t  except  locality.  Cone-in-cone s t r u c t u r e s have not been d e s c r i b e d l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s a r e a . Pakowki-Foremost contact  i n the  They have been found marking the i n southern A l b e r t a  (29).  The  w r i t e r was impressed by t h e i r widespread occurence both i n  22.  i n c i p i e n t stages and i n complete  development i n s u r f a c e  outcrops of the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n .  The  structures-were  noted near B i g G u l l y Creek, -alongside the road i n S.E.1/4, se.28,, tp.43, rge.17, W.^rd  mer.,  on a roadcut i n North  B a t t l e f o r d , i n a cutbank o f B a t t l e R i v e r ( c e n t e r , sec.22, tp.44, rge.18, W.^rd  mer.), and on the n o r t h bank o f B a t t l e  R i v e r i n N.E.1/4, sec.11, tp.47, r g e . 2 5 , W.Jrd mer.  An  example of the sequences of the s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t e d  strata  measured on the n o r t h bank of B i g G u l l y i s as f o l l o w s : Sandstone, m o t t l e d r u s t y and grey. Top I  1  0"  obscured.  Sand, grey-green, f i n e to medium g r a i n ,  massive.  F a r t h e r east and u n d e r l y i n g the above: 3  T  0"  Sand, as above.  2" to 4|-"  Band of cone-in-cone s t r u c t u r e , v e r y l e n s i n g , b u f f to cream.  4"  "Ironstone", chocolate brown, a p h a n i t i e -grained, weathers out i n nodules and grades downwards i n t o :  t r a c e to 14" Sandstone, hard, grey, f i n e g r a i n , a r k o s i c . 2" to 3"  Cone-in-cone s t r u c t u r e .  2" to 4"  Shale, f r i a b l e , d u l l l i g h t grey, s h a t t e r e d texture.  The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f the l i m e s t o n e  cone-in-cone  s t r u c t u r e i s i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with the sand s i z e e l a s t i c s as w e l l as with s h a l e s .  That  i s , there seems to be no evidence to make  us assume that the ease of sedimentation occured i n a sand,  mud,  23 limestone  order.  Nauss (14) accounts of  f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n the t h i c k a e s s  the Lea Park formation i n two ways. 1,  i  "Sedimentation  He s t a t e s :  was slower i n the n o r t h e a s t where f a r t h e r  from sources of the s h a l e s . 2.  The upper l i m i t  of the Lea Park occured a t h i g h e r  s t r a t i g r a p h i c l e v e l s on the n o r t h e a s t because marine conditions l a s t e d longer there." These statements data.  r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f our new  Present knowledge i s meagre r e g a r d i n g the sources of  the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n . source The  Moreover, mere d i s t a n c e s from a  terrane would not seem t o be the o n l y f a c t o r i n v o l v e d .  sediments were e f f e c t e d by marine t r a n s p o r t i n g agencies,  the r a t e s o f l o c a l and wide subsidences, and the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of  the lower contact s u r f a c e .  F u r t h e r , because t h i n n i n g of  the Lea Park shale i s o f f s e t - t o a c e r t a i n extent - by l o c a l t h i c k e n i n g s of the Ribstone  Creek sands, i t i s fundamental  i  t h a t the r e v e r s e o f Nauss* f i r s t likely.  statement  At Hudson Bay O i l and Gas No.l  tp.49, r g e . 12, W.3*4. mer.) the Ribstone  would be more (l.s.jj, Creek  sec.8, formation  measures 285 f e e t t h i c k , the Lea Park shale 615 f e e t , or a t o t a l of 900 f e e t of s t r a t a .  The t h i c k n e s s of the Ribstone  Creek f o r m a t i o n i n the Muddy Lake w e l l i s not known - i t may be t h a t i t i s not present, the Lea Park i s 995 f e e t i n depth. Some d i s t a n c e t o the southward the Lea Park shale i n the Rush Lake w e l l i s 1450 f e e t t h i c k and a sand o v e r l y i n g i t , which may be a Ribstone  Creek e q u i v a l e n t , i s 60 f e e t  thick.  24 :  There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the t h i c k n e s s of shale but i t i s not  shown that the Lea Park l a s t e d to a  higher h o r i z o n on the n o r t h e a s t . with the age o f a stratum, times o f d e p o s i t i o n .  the  Thickness  has l i t t l e  to do  index f o s s i l s w i l l a i d i n d a t i n g  Both at Muddy Lake and at Rush Lake  the uppermost Lea Park, Haplophragmoides rugosa b e a r i n g , have been o v e r l a i n by presumably Ribstone  Creek  d u r i n g a n e a r l y contemporaneous sedimentation  shales  equivalents  o f non-marine(?)  beds. F i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n s of some t y p i c a l exposures of Lea Park shales follow: 1.  Location: Center sec. 22, tp.44, r g e . l 8 . Altitude: B a t t l e R i v e r water l e v e l about 1560  feet.  Cutbank on south s i d e o f B a t t l e R i v e r . 35  2.  !  Shale, (somewhat obscured), d i r t y medium grey(wet), h a c k l y , blocky, d i s r u p t e d crushed appearance. L o c a l l y s t a i n e d with l i m o n i t e and ochre. About 20 f e e t above water l e v e l there i s a ban.d of l a r g e (l£* by 4') c o n c r e t i o n s , b u f f to yellow, c i r c u l a r s p e l l i n g . - Appears t o have cone-in-cone s t r u c t u r e a t top of c o n c r e t i o n s . One c o n c r e t i o n i s a hard black c a l c a r e o u s rock v e r t i c a l l y veined with c a l c i t e . Outcrop continuous around meander.  L o c a t i o n : N.W.J, sec.36, tp.41, rge.15 A l t i t u d e : around 1550 f e e t . Roadcut.  Estimated  50 f e e t above North Saskatchewan R i v e r .  5 p l u s Shale: banded at top. Yellow ( l i m o n i t i c ) and l i g h t grey 1". to 3" bants. One band of y e l l o w brown c l a y i r o n s t o n e , n o d u l a r - l i k e . Hackly to f r i a b l e . In bottom p a r t shale i s f r i a b l e , medium t o dark grey, s l i g h t l y earthy. A l l somewhat d i s t o r t e d . Few minute b l a c k c a r bonaceous specks or fragmentary p l a n t remains. Trace of t i n y pockets of f i n e to medium quartz g r a i n s . D e l t a i c ? T  25.  3.  Location: Altitude:  Center sec.17, t p . 4 6 , 1700 f e e t  approximately.  Meander on T u r t l e l a k e Creek. east s i d e . Lea Park Shale.  4.  rge.l8  F i f t y f o o t high cutbank on  Blocky t o h a c k l y , no bedding, medium t o l i g h t grey, f r i a b l e . Few l a r g e c o n c r e t i o n s of s i l t s t o n e , medium g r e y . Well developed selenite crystals. B a c u l i t e s sp. 1» l o n g . L o c a l d u l l ochrous s t a i n i n g .  L o c a t i o n : N.W.£, sec. J l , t p . 4 7 , reg.19 A l t i t u d e 1775  feet.  South s i d e o f Highway 26, east bank o f c o u l e e . Lea Park Shale:  5.  moist, h a c k l y , medium grey, oohrous. E l l i p s o i d a l c o n c r e t i o n s to 5 f e e t b u f f and red-brown s t a i n e d ; c a l c i t e c r y s t a l s on f r a c t u r e f a c e s ; s i l t s t o n e , limy,, some blue s t a i n i n g .  L o c a t i o n : N.E.§, sec.22, t p . 4 8 ,  rge.21  A l t i t u d e : about 1700 f e e t . West bank of North Saskatchewan R i v e r . 7to"  Drift,  5*0"  Lea Park shale, f i n e l y h a c k l y , r u s t y t o ochrous.  3 6"  Shale, more b l o c k y , medium grey, h a c k l y , some l i g h t y e l l o w s t a i n i n g , i n small bands.  f  small boulders.  l'O" 10*0"  Concretions, discontinuous. Shale, much the same as above, but c o a r s e l y h a c k l y , t r a c e s o f ochrous s t a i n i n g on some bedding planes, l i g h t yellow s t a i n s . S e l e n i t e c r y s t a l s to 1".  20»0"  Obscured  1'0'!  Shale, medium t o dark grey  (moist), h a c k l y .  65*  Obscured t o water's edge.  Probably  shale.  26. 6.  Location: S.E.J,  tp.46,  sec.4,  reg.27.  A l t i t u d e : about l8j>0 f e e t . Roadcut between Unwin s t o r e and ? 1*  7.  railway tracks.  Loam plus  Shale, medium to dark grey, l i m o n i t i c , h a c k l y to b l o c k y . Contained a 6" angular b l o c k of hard, b l u e - g r e y sandstone, s p e c k l e d w i t h o r i e n t e d carbonaceous p a r t i c l e s . Few s m a l l •"• pobkets of medium g r a i n w e l l rounded q u a r t z sand.  Location: N.E.J,  sec.28,  around 2000  Altitude:  tp.46,  rge.27  feet.  Near r a i l w a y f i l l over coulee, 50 f e e t below t r a c k s , south end o f c u l v e r t . South end:  5*0"  Boulder c l a y i n two bands. Lower l i g h t grey, upper medium grey.  l 0"  G r a v e l conglomerate, pebbled, medium grey. P o s t - T e r t i a r y .  f  0'6" 6 0'' T  Opposite  Sandstone, l e n s i n g , b l u e - g r e y c o n c r e t i o n s . ' Lea Park. Shale, medium grey, b l o c k y , f a i r l y w e l l banded, some f i n e sand l e n s e * w i t h t r a c e s of r e d m i n e r a l s .  s i d e (north of culvert): 12*  p l u s s h a l e , medium grey, brown on some bedding p l a n e s . Sand l e n s e s t o 2", f i n e g r a i n e d . Shale has a c o n c h o i d a l f r a c t u r e , blocky, p y r i t i c . Pelecypoda fossils. F i n e b l a c k and brown carbonaceous m a t e r i a l .  Lea Park Sand A sand, sampled i n the Verbata No.2 the Bata No.  16 w e l l , was  w e l l and  cored i n  c o r r e l a t e d with a sand t h a t had  27.  STRATI GRAPHIC  BATA  SECTION  PETROLEUMS  N o . 16. L o c a t i o n S e c £4,Tp. 41, Rge~ 2-4 W 3 r-d. m**-. Elevation: ie5o'±(K.B.) Scale. I U c h - IO Feet Compiled ^ r o m c o i - e s . :  Dt,«o-fp4-ion Shalt, m u l l m M ,  •»».•'»«•' - • * ^1  21o'  S«*4  S  nut).  3«MU+W»*,«W«^. *~««  StlaJ*.,  <-***r<J  f j ^ ' * * •*"•"•»  TVjjli  Mrn'Mki*.  i »i»t»»V«.  (l«iy<M,l>^4ii  +» well  w»«H)  28.  been encountered w i t h i n the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n by w e l l s near the 4th m e r i d i a n .  F i r s t mention of t h i s sand i s i n  O i l and Gas i n Western Canada  where Hume wrote: "In R i b -  stone-Biaekfoot a r e a d r i l l i n g has demonstrated the e x i s t e n c e of two d i s t i n c t  sandstone h o r i z o n s separated by marine  shales.  The upper sandstone h o r i z o n i s at the base of the Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n .  The lower i s w i t h i n the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n ,  has a t h i c k n e s s o f 50 to 70 f e e t , and i t s base i s 180 to 190 f e e t below the base o f the upper or. Ribstone Creek sandstone. the  Both sandstones c a r r y water, but a p p a r e n t l y  p o s i t i o n s of the_water h o r i z o n s v a r y .  The water w e l l  on the farm on Mr. Garton i n Sec.24, Tp.46, Rangel, W.4th Mer., from which gas was e s c a p i n g f o r many y e a r s p r i o r to the d i s c o v e r y o f the Ribstone s t r u c t u r e , o b t a i n s both water and gas from the Lea Park sandstone. the  gas occured at a depth o f 290  315  feet."  I t was r e p o r t e d  that  f e e t and the water at  In The Geology of E a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a ( 1 0 )  further  r e f e r e n c e i s made to the sand: "In Ribstone a r e a t h e r e i s a sand i n some w e l l s 70 f e e t t h i c k , the top of which i s 110  f e e t below what i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the top of the Lea  Park f o r m a t i o n . . .  In V e g r e v i l l e U t i l i t i e s No.2  36, t p . 5 1 , rge.15, (W.3rd  well, sec.  mer.), the top o f the Lea Park  f o r m a t i o n i s with d i f f i c u l t y separated f r o m the o v e r l y i n g Ribstone Creek beds. to a depth o f 630  Sands a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h s h a l e s continue  f e e t and at 500  to 570  f e e t the s h a l e s  - c o n t a i n f o r a m i n i f e r a , below which i s a sand from 570  to  630  29.  f e e t with fragments o f c o a l a t 630 f e e t  . . .  In some w e l l s ,  as a t V e g r e v i l l e , the sand here i n c l u d e d i n the Lea Park formation c o u l d have as r e a d i l y been i n c l u d e d with the R i b stone Creek f o r m a t i o n .  However, as i n every w e l l examined  marine shale i s known t o occur above t h i s s o - c a l l e d Lea Park sand . . . the base o f the Ribstone  Creek f o r m a t i o n i s drawn  at the base o f a sand that i s a p p a r e n t l y p r e s e n t i n a l l w e l l s . To the east o f Ribstone  area i n Saskatchewan, a t A l t o b a No.  2 w e l l . . . the Lea Park sand i s r e l a t i v e l y t h i n and proba b l y d i s a p p e a r s eastward." At a much e a r l i e r date, i n 1925. logists Ribstone  the government geo-  (6) mapping s u r f a c e outcrops o f a p p a r e n t l y Creek sand remarked on i t s s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t i n g  f a c i e s t h u s : " 0 n B i g g u l l y the f o s s i l i f e r o u s strat«a a r e assigned to the Ribstone  Creek formation:  (1) because the  s t r a t a seem l i t h o l o g i c a l l y c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the sediments found  i n t h i s formation elsewhere;  and (2) because such an  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n accord with what i s known concerning the r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The data g i v e n above i n d i c a t e t h a t the Ribstone Lea Park contact must d i p eastward from Ribstone  Creek  t o the  Canadian P a c i f i c r a i l w a y s e c t i o n i n range 27, W.3rd mer., south o f the B a t t l e r i v e r .  Coal i s r e p o r t e d to occur on  the banks of B a t t l e r i v e r south of Paynton, and an outcrop a s s i g n e d t o the Ribstone  Creek was seen on the n o r t h bank o f  B a t t l e r i v e r on t h e L i t t l e Pine and Lucky Man Indian r e s e r v e  30. i  south, o f Maskwa h i l l  i n t p . 4 6 , range 22, W.3rd mer.  As  the e l e v a t i o n of these occurances of the Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the exposures on the Canadian P a c i f i c r a i l w a y track i n range 27, the d i p must be considered t o be eastward.  T h i s eastward d i p i s a l s o proved  by the f a c t that on P i p e s t o n e creek, a small t r i b u t a r y o f B a t t l e r i v e r f l o w i n g p a s t Prongua, the base of the R i b s t o n e Creek formation i s approximately at an e l e v a t i o n of1,620 f e e t , so that t h e r e i s an eastward d i p o f 220 f e e t between the Canadian P a c i f i c r a i l w a y track exposures on range 27 and the exposures on P i p e s t o n e creek on range 18 - a d i s t a n c e of 60 m i l e s .  I f t h i s v a l u e of the d i p i n an eastward  dir-  e c t i o n be accepted as c o r r e c t i t f o l l o w s that the marine sediments i n township 47, ranges 25 t o 27, a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o , l i e above the base of the Ribstone Creek and consequently, as assumed f o r other reasons, must belong to the Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n . The change eastward o f the Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n from non-marine 47,  on Ribstone creek to marine i n p a r t i n township  ranges 25 to 27, would not be s u r p r i s i n g i f the Ribstone  Creek f o r m a t i o n continued eastward as p a r t l y marine.  There  i s no evidence, however, that such i s the case, since on Pipestone creek near Prongua no marine f o s s i l s could be found and s m a l l c o a l seams have been r e p o r t e d .  To the n o r t h , on  B i g g u l l y , there are many exposures o f sands and sandstones c a r r y i n g marine f o s s i l s , the same as those found i n township 47,  31.  ranges 25 to 27.  At one l o c a l i t y on the n o r t h bank of B i g  g u l l y , on the west side of tp.49, range24, W.5rd mer.,  there  i s a most unusual occurence o f f o s s i l s i n many cases i n masses of 5 inches or so i n diameter, i n a sand so s o f t that i s may  be scooped out of the bank by hand.  The  shells  of Axinea sp. occur i n many cases with both v a l v e s a t t a c h e d and  i n p e r f e c t p r e s e r v a t i o n ; the s h e l l s have the  appearance  superficial  of having undergone no change whatever s i n c e  their deposition.  Along with these s h i l l s was found a bac-  u l i t e l e s s p e r f e c t l y p r e s e r v e d , although with i t was an toma s h e l l so t h i n that i t was  transparent.  I t would  oxyappear  from the number of unbroken s h e l l s with both v a l v e s attached that the s h e l l s had been e n g u l f e d i n the sand d e p o s i t s , f o r i n a number of i n s t a n c e s , although the i n t e r i o r of the s h e l l was f i l l e d with sand, the v a l v e s were c l o s e d .  This i s  considered good evidence f o r d e p o s i t i o n i n s i t u , the poorer p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the b a c u l i t e might  although  indicate  transportation." Confusion o f Lea Park sand with Ribstone Creek aand has been continuous i n t o even the most r e c e n t s t r a t i g r a p h i o work done i n the r e g i o n .  Wickenden(24), d e s c r i b i n g the Muddy  Lake w e l l l o g , w r i t e s :  "the G r i z z l y Bear and Ribstone  Creek  formations are p l a c e d a r b i t r a r i l y on the b a s i s of l i t h o l o g y and  position." Dr. Sanderson  d i r e c t e d the w r i t e r to examine the outcrops  of sandstones along Pipestone Creek and B a t t l e R i v e r . Sanderson  surmised t h a t these sandstones might  be  Dr.  correlative  32. w i t h the sand cored i n Bata No. 16 and w i t h the Lea Park sand near the 4th m e r i d i a n .  T h i s was a c t u a l l y found t o be the  case and the r e g i o n a l g e o l o g i c a l map  has been redrawn  ( i n pocket.);.  The o r i g i n o f the sand has been proposed, e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper, as a d e l t a sand which was shore c u r r e n t s t o form a subaqueous  r e d i s t r i b u t e d by l o n g  near-shore s t r i p w i t h  p o s s i b l y s p i t - l i k e extensions and embayraents.  The sand has  p r o v i d e d an environment f a v o r a b l e t o marine l i f e .  I n one of  the rock specimens c o l l e c t e d , a p i e c e o f f o s s i l i z e d wood and B a c u l i t e s sp. were found c l o s e t o g e t h e r .  T h i s r u l e s out the  use of p l a n t remains as i n d i c a t i v e o f a non-marine w i t h i n t h i s sand.  The wood might i n d i c a t e p r o x i m i t y o f the  marine shore t o a r i v e r mouth. of sand which may  environment  be the extreme  Near North B a t t l e f o r d ,  lenses  eastward f i n g e r i n g s o f the  Lea Park sand c o n t a i n many carbonaceous p l a n t fragments, w h i c h i s c e r t a i n l y s u g g e s t i v e of non-marine  sedimentation.  study i s n e c e s s a r y before the sands' complex s t a t e d w i t h any  Further  o r i g i n can be  certainty.  Meteoric water enters the bed i n the r e g i o n o f the B a t t l e r i v e r , and elsewhere where i t has not been s e a l e d o f f by o v e r l y i n g s h a l e s , and, i n f l u e n c e d by the f o r m a t i o n a l d i p and g r a v i t y , migrates southeastward,  The Lea Park sand i s  a s p l e n d i d a q u i f e r but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , c a l c i u m carbonate o f the cemented becomes hard.  p o r t i o n s i s d i s s o l v e d by the groundwater  which  The p r a c t i c e o f s e a l i n g i t o f f w i t h c a s i n g  and cement i n a l l gas w e l l s of the r e g i o n prevents i t from  33.  f l o o d i n g the g a s i f e r o u s h o r i z o n s . I t i s suggested  t h a t , u n t i l a more complete s e c t i o n i s  cored and recovered, the Bata No. 16 w e l l l o g be taken to represent the type s t r a t i g r a p h y .  Some exposures  o f the Lea  Park sand are d e s c r i b e d t o f u r n i s h the reader with some idea of the v a r i a t i o n of l i t h o l o g y w i t h i n the beds:  1.  Location:S.W.J,  sec.6,tp.44,rge.l7.  A l t i t u d e of Battle River  1,550 f e e t .  Mouth o f Pipestone Greek, and 300 f e e t n o r t h on Battle River. Strata:  L o c a l l y slumped along cutbank.  ?  Till  ?  Shale, y e l l o w i s h  3*  (estimated) Clay, b l a c k (carbonaceous) white i n t e r b e d s .  and  White phase i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y  j o i n t e d , t r a c e o f f i n e varves, extremely bant t o tongue.  Bedding i s l e n s - l i k e and not  sharply defined. 20*  grades downward i n t o  Lea Park Sand and sandstone, extremely crossbedded  somewhat blocky,  and f o r e s e t from the  west.  Massive,  sand.  Clean b u t . t r a c e s of l i m o n i t e s t a i n i n g  on some beds.  Fine grained  salt-and-pepper  Top o f t h i s sand i s estimated  at 30 t o 3 3 ' f e e t above the B a t t l e R i v e r . crossbedding may be a e o l i a n i n p a r t . 2.  absor-  L o c a t i o n : center, sec.33,  tp.43,rge.l8  The  34  A l t i t u d e about 1,800 At Pipestone Strata:  10* 0"  feet.  Creek b r i d g e , 1/4 m i l e n o r t h o f Prongua. Sandstone, banded on weathered s u r f a c e . Some bands are peppered with black onaceous m a t e r i a l .  carb-  Large (3* hy 1*)  sandstone c o n c r e t i o n s at the top.  Sandstone  g r a i n s are f i n e to medium, sub-angular t o sub-rounded, quartz and c h e r t . consolidated.  Somewhat  Bands v a r y from 1/8" to 1/2",  are f l a g g y and e s p e c i a l l y p r e v a l e n t below the c o n c r e t i o n a r y l a y e r . mica-like mineral. more laminated.  Traces o f a white  Beds above c o n c r e t i o n s  Few 1" i r o n s t o n e nodules  i n lower p a r t . . Outcrop i s l i m o n i t e s t a i n e d and weathers i n curves with p r a c t i c a l l y no flat 3.  tops but some f l a t overhangs.  L o c a t i o n : N.W.J, sec.1-9, t p . 4 7 , A l t i t u d e about 1,730 Small  Exposure A.  See P l a t e 11A.  rge.20.  feet.  coulee.  1» 0" Lea Park sand, yellow, f i n e g r a i n , few c l a y l e n s e s , orange coloured nodules to 1  T  0  n  4", c e n t r e s blue b l a c k .  Clay, d u l l ash grey, and  t r a c e s of l i g n i t e  carbonaceous m a t e r i a l .  35. 4 0" T  Sand, massive, grey, f i n e to medium g r a i n , subangular to  subrounded.  Exposure B: 30 f e e t south and 3 f e e t lower than the above exposure. ? l»0  Till rt  Lea Park.  Sandy c l a y , ashy t e x t u r e , carbon-  aceous. l*B  n  Sand, mauve grey with a l a t e r a l g r a d a t i o n to  c h o c o l a t e brown, f i n e g r a i n e d , subangular  grains. 3*0" Sand, green-grey (moist), f i n e to medium g r a i n s , mostly q u a r t z , s a l t - a n d - p e p p e r i n g . Contains t w i g - l i k e l i m y molds to 1"  wide.  Exposure C: 100 f e e t south of b r i d g e , roadcut 15 f e e t h i g h . Lea Park sand.  Medium g r a i n , subrounded,  salt-  and-pepper, abundant green m i n e r a l s . Massive, f a i n t bedding, mauve sandstone c o n c r e t i o n s at the top.. Near the base i s a lignitic  l e n s e , chocolate-brown,  inter-  d i g i t e d with sandstone, i t t a p e r s towards the  4.  south.  V e r t i c a l lime f i s s u r e  L o c a t i o n : N.E.J, sec.11, t p . 4 7 , A l t i t u d e around 1,875 Old  cutbank on f i r s t  feet. terrace.  rge.25  fillings.  36.  Strata:  P o s t - T e r t i a r y : 1 0" T  Gravel, r i v e r , b o u l d e r s to  ?  4"  L i n e a t i o n of sandstone conc r e t i o n s to 2  15'0"  Lea Park:  T  long,  Sand, l o o s e , yellow, and  quartz  c h e r t , t r a c e s of green  mineral, 3'0"  Laurentian  f i n e grained,  subrounded.  Sandstone, r u s t y m o t t l e d  and  l i g h t grey, a r k o s i c , f i n e  grained  coherent, Abundant chert peppered i n the a l t e r e d f e l d s p a t h i c m a t r i x . to 3 f e e t ,  Contains c o n c r e t i o n s ellipsoidal,  l i g h t grey, a r k o s i c ,  some s p a t t e r i n g s of carbonaceous matter.  Exposure 100  feet easterly:  L a t e r a l g r a d a t i o n w i t h i n the Park beds of upper(13 ) f  Lea  sand  stratum to a 4 f o o t band of hard, l i g h t grey arkose from which "sandstone b a l l s " derived. 4  Contains  are  concretions  to 4 f e e t l o n g , dark grey to b u f f medium g r a i n arkose.  Another 23 f e e l e a s t e r l y there i s : 1 0" T  post-Tertiary gravel Lea  Park  overlying  37.  1 0" T  Concretionary b e l t . to  Concretions  4 feet long, fractured, c a l c i c ,  s t a i n e d tan and white,  i n t e r i o r s are  chocolate brown peppered with chert. 2*6"  Enclosed i n a s i l t y  Sand, s l i g h t l y mottled, coherent,  fine  sandstone.  splintery,  yellow, f i n e g r a i n e d , a r k o s i c ,  Contains crude  e  con-in-cone  structure.  L o c a t i o n N.E.J,sec.32,tp.43,reg.l6. A l t i t u d e : about 1600 Roadcut 3/10 highway.  feet.  mile n o r t h of bridge  Outcrop 156  (east end)  on main  feet long.  See P l a t e IIB. 4*0"  Shale, r e d d i s h - y e l l o w , h a c k l y , r a t h e r massive.  1*0"  Shale, y e l l o w and grey,  0»3"  Cone-in-cone s t r u c t u r e a s s o c i a t e d l a t e r a l l y with  silty,  t h i n l y bedded.  i r o n s t o n e nodules and c o n c r e t i o n s . 2 0" T  Sandstone, beds and l e n s e s , l i g h t grey, massive to  t h i n l y bedded, f i n e g r a i n e d , w e l l c o n s o l i d a t e d .  Contains 1/16"  to 1/8"  fragments of brown and  b l a c k p l a n t fragments. 0*10" 0  1  Shale, earthy, massive d u l l brown.  4" Sandstone, f i n e g r a i n e d ,  crossbedded.  0' 5" Sandstone c o n c r e t i o n s (grade l a t e r a l l y i n t o a f i n e g r a i n e d ; these one f o o t l o n g c o n c r e t i o n s are enclosed by s h a l e , d u l l grey brown, with a  bed)  38.  d i s r u p t e d crushed t e x t u r e . l^l*  ShaIe|oyellow, r e d , d u l l b l u e grey e t c . , abundantly crossbedded, grades downward into  ltO"  sandstone.  Sandstone, weathers y e l l o w .  Fine b l a c k laminae  p r o b a b l y of carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . w e l l rounded q u a r t z g r a i n s .  Mostly  Relatively  unconsolidated. 5*0"  Shale, y e l l o w , b u f f , r e d brown, medium grey laminae -|" to 2".  L o c a l l y crossbedded on a  f i n e s c a l e - d i r e c t i o n s o f beds p a t t e r n l e s s , paper-thin black l i n e s .  S i l t y to f i n e  Blocky to c o a r s e l y h a c k l y . into  sandy*  Grades downward  siltstone.  Ribstone Creek Formation The Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n was named by Mr. Slipper Alberta.  (19).  S.E.  The type a r e a i s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Wainwright,  S l i p p e r d e s c r i b e d the f o r m a t i o n as " g r e e n i s h y e l l o w ,  massive, s o f t sandstone at top, green and carbonaceous  shales  and c o a l , l i g h t grey sandstone at base," and c o n s i d e r e d i t to be o f b r a c & i s h water o r i g i n .  Nauss (14) has s t u d i e d the  f o r m a t i o n r e c e n t l y and he w r i t e s : "The lower contact of the Ribstone Creek sandstone i s g r a d a t i o n a l .  The s i l t y shale o f  the Lea Park grades upward through laminated s i l t f i n e sand of the b a s a l Ribstone Creek,"  and he  i n t o the  further  s t a t e s : "The Ribstone Creek i s d i v i d e d i n t o an upper and a  39. lower p a r t by the V a n e s t i tongue.  The contact between t h i s  tongue and the lower Ribstone Greek i s sharp.  The upper  Ribstone Creek i s a t h i n sand member which i s about 40 f e e t t h i c k near M a n n v i l l e and t h i n s eastward.  I t i s f a i r l y porous  and i s the a q u i f e r f o r numerous water w e l l s i n the V e r m i l l i o n area."  'Dr. Nauss* l i t h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n : " T h i s u n i t  (Rib-  stone Creek formation) c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f medium-grained friable  sandstone.  In many l o c a l i t i e s i t i s cemented  with  calcite  i n t o a hard gray slabby rock which weathers to a b u f f  or l i g h t y e l l o w c o l o u r , " compares c l o s e l y with the outcrops along B l a c k f o o t Creek. Comparison o f the accompanying map with e a r l i e r survey maps w i l l show where the Lea Park sand had been i n c l u d e d i n the  Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n .  I t i s not p o s s i b l e to t e l l  the  two sands apart by megascopic examination.  exposures o f Ribstone Creek beds were measured  1.  Location: N . E . J ,  The f o l l o w i n g i n the f i e l d :  seo.12, tp.42, ige .17  Railway c u t , 750 f e e t south of s e c t i o n fence; at  track l e v e l .  Stratum: Sand, grey, weathers yellow, f i n e to medium g r a i n , c l e a n , quartz and c h e r t ; r a t h e r massive, l o o s e , m o i s t , with y e l l o w i s h h o r i z o n t a l g r a i n s sub-rounded to rounded.  2. . L o c a t i o n : E. center, sec.14, tp.42, f g a . 1 7 A l t i t u d e : about 2,050 f e e t .  streaks;  40. Exposure west s i d e o f Highway 4, roadcut.  West of  Porter. Strata:  2*0"  Clay, lumpy, s h a l y , p o s t - T e r t i a r y .  2*0?  sand, Ribstone Creek, white, c l e a n , q u a r t z , minor c h e r t peppering.  No c o l o u r e d q u a r t z e s .  M o s t l y f i n e - g r a i n e d , some medium, to subrounded.  3.  2,025  Strata:  Porous and m o i s t .  sec.34, tp.46, rge.27«  L o c a t i o n : S. boundary, about  Subangular  feet.  On r a i l w a y c u t .  1*0", Sandstone, crossbedded,  lensing,  grey, f i n e g r a i n , a r k o s i c , p l a t y with bedding 3'0"  Altitude:  light 3/8".  planes.  Sand, yellow, f i n e - g r a i n e d , s e l e n i t i c .  Base obscured.  4.  Location: N . E . J ,  sec.l,  A l t i t u d e : about  2,060  tp.47, rgg.27 feet.  Northeast corner of s e c t i o n i n r a i l w a y c u t . Stratum:  15' Sand, l i g h t grey , g r a i n s angular to rounded,  some r e d d i s h m i n e r a l s . weathering  Contains l a r g e , brown  c o n c r e t i o n s o f hard, blue  sandstone.  Grades l a t e r a l l y t o a brown sand.  5.  Location:  Center, N . E . J ,  A l t i t u d e : about  2,075  sec. 11,  tp.47, rge.27.  feet.  Ten f e e t above r a i l r o a d t r a c k s on the north s i d e . Stratum:  10» Sand, massive,  slightly  arkosic.  f i n e - g r a i n e d , q u a r t z and c h e r t ,  6.  Location: N . E . J , sec.24, tp.46, rge.28 A l t i t u d e : about 2,150  feet  Outcrop on the west side of the road. Strata:  Post-Tertiary: l»'6f T i l l , earthy, boulders to  4".  l'O" Ironstone concretions, b e a u t i f u l concentric banding, rusty shades, some blrliish staining on one  rock.  0 3"  Gravel, Laurentian pebbles up to  2*6"  Sand, yellow,, fine-grained, a few  T  2". scattered  pebbles. Otjrt Gravel, Laurentian pebbles to ^" and  ironstone  fragments to 1" i n a coarse, grey sand matrix. Overlies Ribstone Creek sand: 20 l  7.  rt  Sand, yellow, massive fine-grained.  Location: S. end,  sec.27, tp.46, r g e . 2 8 .  A l t i t u d e : around 1,950  feet.  On the east bank of Blackfoot Creek. Strata: Post-Tertiary:  ?  Ribstone Creek: ?  Till,  shaly, yellow and grey.  Sandstone, hard, platy, slumped.  ltO"  Sand, shaly, quartz and grey and  8.  chert,  yellow.  Location: N.end, sec.22, tp.46, r g e . 2 8 . A l t i t u d e : around 1,950  feet.  On the bank of Blackfoot Creek. Strata:  30 t  11  Sandstone, hard, platy, yellow,  salt-and-  42*.  pepper, a r k o s i c , 1 0" T  slumped.  Sand, grey, f i n e to medium g r a i n ,  subrounded,  clean.  G r i z z l y Bear Formation No known exposures o f G r i z z l y Bear age occur i n the area . T h i s f o r m a t i o n a l name was g i v e n by S.E. S l i p p e r i n 1917 f o r a, "dark b l u e , grey, marine shale, c o n t a i n s i r o n s t o n e and sandstone nodules.  Some beds of y e l l o w incoherent  sandstone" (19), surfaced near Wainwright, A l b e r t a .  Nauss(14)  s t a t e s : "The G r i z z l y Bear tongue i s absent west of Minburn and Fabyan, from where i t t h i c k e n s eastward to a maximum of 110 f e e t .  S t i l l f a r t h e r east the sand bed d i v i d i n g the  G r i z z l y Bear and V a n e s t i tongues p r o b a b l y d i s a p p e a r s ( l o g of L l o y d m i n s t e r No.3,  Wickenden, 1941)".  An outcrop o f shale i n a r a i l w a y cut on the N.E.1/4, sec. 29, tp.43, rge.18, a short d i s t a n c e west of Prongua been thought to be o f G r i z z l y Bear age ( 7 ) . ieved t h i s shale belongs to uppermost  I t i s now  Lea Park.  dirty  There was a t r a c e of medium g r a i n ,  q u a r t z , sand pockets; some c h e r t ; s e l e n i t e few i r o n s t o n e nodules.  bel-  The exposure  c o n s i s t e d o f two f e e t of shale, e a r t h y , crumpled, medium brown grey.  had  clean  (?) f l a k e s ; a  M o t h e r - o f - p e a r l fragments were s c a t t e r e d  abundantly through i t , and some p i e c e s o f s h e l l s were uncovered but were t o o f r a g i l e f o r c o l l e c t i o n .  Tertiary(?) Deposits A d e p o s i t of q u e s t i o n a b l e age was examined  i n S.E.  1/4,  43.  sec. 15,  t p . 4 7 , r g e . 2 5 , on the north bank o f the B a t t l e  R i v e r near water l e v e l . ? I'D"  The sect i o n vvwas:  Till Sand, l i g h t grey,  f i n e to medium g r a i n , crossbedded,  c l e a n , channeled i n t o u n d e r l y i n g 3 0" ,  Sand, mottled,  sand.  f i n e g r a i n , yellow and grey.  And  c l o s e by there was: 8*0"  Sand(sandstone), blue-grey, to5",  few s c a t t e r e d  boulders  l o c a l carbonaceous bands with d i p s t o 30°.  Mixture  of f o s s i l s : b a c u l i t e s , pelecypod^s, bone.  The bone has been i d e n t i f i e d by Dr. I . McTaggart Cowan as belonging  to the anatomy o f the Family Bovidae.  The beds  have been d e r i v e d i n p a r t from Upper.Cretaceous rocks and are p o s s i b l y e i t h e r l a t e T e r t i a r y or I n t e r g l a c i a l .  However  the slumping of g l a c i a l d r i f t onto Recent beds could g i v e the same sequence, so a t present  t h e i r age remains undetermined.  P l e i s t o c e n e Deposits and H i s t o r y The P l e i s t o c e n e h i s t o r y o f t h i s r e g i o n has not been worked out i n d e t a i l .  The physiographic  of the G l a c i a l t i m e , i n c l u d e  features,remnants'  t e r m i n a l and r e c e s s i o n a l moraines,  ground moraines, sand p l a i n s o f p r o - g l a c i a l lake beds, d i v e r s i o n channels and smaller c o u l e e s .  S o i l s r e f l e c t the nature  Of P l e i s t o c e n e parent m a t e r i a l s t h e r e f o r e the w r i t e r ' s map o f g l a c i a l f e a t u r e s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n agreement with the S o i l Survey r e p o r t  (13).  P o s t - P l e i s t o c e n e deformation  associated  with the withdrawal o f the ice-sheet would be r e f l e c t e d i n  44* i s o s t a t i c c r u s t a l balancing.  These movements might p o s s i b l y  be able, under a l a r g e enough d i f f e r e n t i a l s t r e s s , to r e s u l t i n s t r u c t u r e b u i l d i n g w i t h i n the Lower Cretaceous g a s i f e r o u s sands but the w r i t e r does not see how a s t r e s s l a r g e enough could be b u i l t up to a c t i v a t e doming a f t e r t h i s f a s h i o n . The t h i c k n e s s o f the ground moraine v a r i e s a good d e a l throughout the area.  I t i s e n t i r e l y absent i n some p a r t s but  i s extremely deep i n o t h e r s .  Along Drummond Creek i t was seen  to reach a maximum t h i c k n e s s f o r the l e a s e s . (7)  r e p o r t i t up t o 175  village.  feet  Hume and Hage  t h i c k i n the v i c i n i t y o f C u t k n i f e  No drumlin b e l t s were recognized; a l l d r u m l i n - l i k e  forms l a y roughly p a r a l l e l to what was the apparent g l a c i a l front.  Widespread maraines were observed south o f Hockhaven.  The many random l a k e s i n township 41, range 16, are nested i n m o r a i n a l topography.  Cooper Creek has the t y p i c a l  l o c k i n g spurs of Recent o r i g i n .  inter-  It i s a p o s t - g l a c i a l adjust-  ment to the physiography but has made l i t t l e p r o g r e s s i n d r a i n i n g the m o r a i n a l b e l t .  There was no water i n t h e upper  g u l l y at the time examined.  Cooper. Creek v a l l e y v a r i e d from  a 30 to 50 f o o t d i s e c t i o n i n S.-E.i, sec. 9, tp.42, r g e . l 6 , to a 50 to 75 f o o t deep gorge at the bridge i n S.E.f, tp.42, rge.16.  sec.15,  The creek bedwas bottomed with sandy g r a v e l  c o n t a i n i n g b o u l d e r s l e s s than 6 inches i n diameter. A l t h o u g h " i n southern Saskatchewan  . . . the Coteau  a moraine appears to mark the l i m i t s o f ^ l a t e Wisconsin advance of the i c e " (12), the Eagle H i l l s do not seem t o represent the t e r m i n a l moraine, so much as a temporary d e p o s i t i o n a l  45. zone of the impeded advancing  ice-sheet.  The H i l l s b u f f e r e d  the g l a c i a l f r o n t by d e c r e a s i n g i t s v e l o c i t y u n t i l the a l t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s hetween the North Saskatchewan R i v e r v a l l e y and the c r e s t of the escarpment were brought by i c e accumulation.  to a common l e v e l  Then the i c e was a b l e to advance  south-  westward a l o n g a "shearing p l a n e " developed w i t h i n the g l a c i e r mass a t a h o r i z o n determined  by  flow o u t l e t s along /and above  the Eagle H i l l s escarpment.  A p r o t e c t i v e , stagnant phase or  stratum of the c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i e r w i t h i n the North  Sask-  atchewan v a l l e y would e x p l a i n the absence of any great g l a c i a l deposits there.  The most e f f e c t i v e stage of advance i n the  area i s assumed, but not proven,  t o be l a t e  Wisconsin.  Dr. Crickmay(10) has r e p o r t e d "two d i s t i n c t boulder c l a y s of d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r separated by s t r a t i f i e d  sands...around Frog  Lake i n the n o r t h e a s t corner o f K i t s c o t y map-area"  On the  north bank o f B i g G u l l y Creek the f o l l o w i n g u p r i g h t s e c t i o n was measured:' 5,»0" G r a v e l , sandy and c l a y e y . 12'0" 4'0"  Gumbo t i l l ,  mostly c l a y w i t h s c a t t e r e d pebbles.  Outwash: L a u r e n t i a n boulders t o 8"; sand m a t r i x ,  grey  with y e l l o w s p e c k l i n g s , mostly quartz, g r a i n s coarse up t o small (1/8'!) pebbles, c l e a n , porous, loose.  No observable bedding.  Base  obscured.  T h i s sequence suggests two advances of the i c e - s h e e t . C r o s s - s e c t i o n s of l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e p r o - g l a c i a l l a k e s were mapped i n the course o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  These l a k e s  had l a i n between the northern i c e f r o n t and southern moraines  46. and an escarpment.  Margins of 'the sands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  these l a k e s have been mapped by the S o i l Survey and are i n corporated  i n Map No.2 o f t h i s r e p o r t .  Meota  1  light  textured  s o i l i s a s s o c i a t e d with the s a n d h i l l r e g i o n o f Manito Lake and  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the sandy, stone f r e e nature  o f the  s o i l together w i t h evidence o f wind e r o s i o n . In sharp c o n t r a s t i s the B l a i n e Lake medium t o heavy t e x t u r e d s o i l s found east o f Range 18, ford area. The  i n the North B a t t l e -  T h i s i s a t h i n d e p o s i t u n d e r l a i n by boulder  clay.  d i f f e r e n c e between the Meota and the B l a i n e Lake sand  types appeared to be, to the w r i t e r , one o f degree and nature of weathering r a t h e r than o f parent m a t e r i a l .  The east and  north c l i f f s of Manito Lake a r e composed o f g l a c i a l  till  and on a small promontory, i n N.E. £ sec. 12, tp.44, rge.27. there i s an e r o s i o n remnant o u t l i e r o f t i l l high.  On the east s i d e the remnant i s aproned by L a u r e n t i a n  boulders up to 4 f e e t i n diameter. it  some 75 f e e t  i s composed almost wholly  size particles.  The beach p l a i n  of sands with only t r a c e s o f g r a v e l  The sand i s f i n e t o coarse  quartz, r e d d i s h m i n e r a l s ,  surrounding  grained,  and micas, and i s angular  No Cretaceous sand exposures are known i n the area.  contains t o rounded. It.would  appear that most o f the sand was d e r i v e d from the breakdown o f g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s and by l a t e r c l e a n s i n g by wind and water o f much of t h e i r c l a y m a t e r i a l s .  Manito Lake has l a s t e d from l a t e  P l e i s t o c e n e time, when i t presumably extended southwestward i n t o A l b e r t a and southeastward i n t o the Vera area, to the p r e s e n t . 1,  Meota i s a s o i l t y p e - l o c a l i t y name.  :  •  I t i s not known when Lake B a t t l e f o r d  47. was  abandoned, but i t  appears t o have become dismembered soon a f t e r the North Saskatchewan R i v e r r e - o c c u p i e d i t s v a l l e y .  The l a k e s , A t t e n and  Bushy, between C u t k n i f e Creek and B a t t l e R i v e r are the l a s t r e l i c s of Lake B a t t l e f o r d south o f the B a t t l e R i v e r .  The  e a r l y s l a c k e n i n g o f l a c u s t r i n e and a e o l i a n agencies i n the B a t t l e f o r d r e g i o n l e f t those sands l e s s worked over than the Manito sands, and e x p l a i n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n s o i l t e x t u r e as a f u n c t i o n of time.  the d i f f e r e n c e s  It i s interesting  to note t h a t Manito Lake may be deepening a t the p r e s e n t time w i t h l o s s of sand by shore dune f o r m a t i o n and d r i f t . The v a l l e y of the North Saskatchewan B a t t l e f o r d time i s of some importance. g l a c i a l l a k e was  R i v e r d u r i n g Lake  A p p a r e n t l y the pro-  b i s e c t e d by the v a l l e y (see map).  Under  l a c u s t r i n e c o n d i t i o n s the v a l l e y could not have been occupied by a r i v e r ,  t h e r e f o r e i t may  have been f i l l e d by stagnant  i c e f r o z e n t o the sub-stratum.  The North Saskatchewan  v a l l e y , which determined Lake B a t t l e f o r d bottom l e v e l ,  River was  s t e a d i l y lowered d u r i n g the m e l t i n g of the i c e and f i n a l l y the  h i g h l e v e l p o r t i o n s of the lake were abandoned. V a r v e d ' c l a y s were seen a t a few l o c a l i t i e s ; - near the  northeast end o f the North B a t t l e f o r d b r i d g e ; o v e r l a i n by  1.  Lake B a t t l e f o r d : i t i s proposed t h a t the i n d i c a t e d p r o - g l a c i a l l a k e be thus termed because o f i t s l o c a t i o n i n the v i c i n i t y o f the B a t t l e f o r d s .  48*  till  and u n d e r l a i n by Lea Park sand, 3.00*. f e e t ' norths of the  mouth o f Pipestone Creek along B a t t l e R i v e r ; near S.E.£, sec.19, tp.43, rge.16, on the bank of B a t t l e R i v e r ; end  of Highway 40 bridge over the B a t t l e R i v e r .  east  These c l a y s  may be a l l that i s l e f t of a l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t l a i d down i n an i n t e r g l a c i a l p e r i o d .  They do not appear to be r e l a t e d  to the sandy p r o - g l a c i a l l a k e s . D i v e r s i o n channels were adjustments i n drainage brought about by the flood-waters They served  of l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e  to c a r r y away the overflow  pro-glacial lakes.  patterns time.  o f waters from the  I t has been advocated by Dr. L.F. W i l l s (27)  t h a t : "The e x i s t e n c e of these r i v e r v a l l e y s ( i n the United Kingdom) where no r i v e r now runs i s best explained assumption t h a t mush of t h e i r excavation tundra-conditions  took p l a c e under  i n the P l e i s t o c e n e ; f o r i f the s u b - s o i l  were p e r e n n i a l l y f r o z e n , these rocks would l o s e permeability,  on the  their  and the thaw-waters and the r a i n f a l l would r u n  o f f a t the s u r f a c e .  Probably a l s o the g r e a t e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n  under G l a c i a l c o n d i t i o n s would mean a higher water-table i n the r o c k s . "  The major channels encountered were the Marsden -  Unwin channel, Buzzard Coulee, and p o s s i b l y B a t t l e R i v e r . I t i s thought that water flowed from Manito Lake northwestwardly i n t o the l i n e a r topographic  depression  near Marsden and  northward to a B a t t l e R i v e r o u t l e t near Unwin.  This i s a  g o r g e - l i k e f e a t u r e which winds about c o n s i d e r a b l y as i f o r i g i n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by an e a r l i e r v a l l e y , r a t h e r than formed a  by a c u t t i n g back of p o s t - g l a c i a l channel.  A  It i s characterized  49.  throughout i t s l e n g t h by g r a v e l f i l l from Manito Lake.  which was brought down  Consequently the s p i l l w a y ' s h i s t o r y  may  i n c l u d e p i r a c y by Manito Lake waters, sudden deepening by f l u s h i n g waters w i t h d e p o s i t i o n o f sediments i n the B a t t l e R i v e r gorge, l a t e r itself,  i n c r e a s e d d e p o s i t i o n along the channel  r e j u v e n a t i o n , and f i n a l l y abandonment.  f l o o d s from Manito Lake  I f the f i r s t  clogged up the B a t t l e R i v e r  valley  below Unwin, or i f i t became ice-jammed a t t h a t p o i n t , i t : i s p o s s i b l e that Buzzard Coulee may become the normal drainage way a time. the  have been m o d i f i e d and  f o r B a t t l e R i v e r waters f o r  The l i n e up o f the Marsden - Unwin channel with  upper part of Buzzard Coulee would  suggest a g e n e t i c  relationship. On the west bank o f Cooper r g e . l 6 , an abundant and g r a v e l bed.  Creek, i n sec.2, tp.42,  s p r i n g flowed out of a P l e i s t o c e n e sand  The water was  i s s u i n g from a coarse g r a i n e d  sand t h a t o v e r l a y a medium g r a i n e d sand.  I t was  tasteless  and o d o r l e s s but appeared to be 'cementing g r a v e l s with c a l cium carbonate. to  The water was numbing to the hand and  be near f r e e z i n g temperature.  felt  P r o x i m i t y of a r t e s i a n  water temperatures to the mean annual temperature of the r e g i o n (35°F.) has been taken to ^ i n d i c a t e deep seated o r i g i n s (18). T h i s was  the o n l y l a r g e s p r i n g seen i n the  field.  Regional Structure The Lea Park and R i b s t o n e Creek formations l i e on the east l i m b o f a very broad g e o s y n c l i n e .  There i s , i n g e n e r a l ,  DRILL HOLES NUMBERED IN FIGURES 1 AND 2 1. Northwest l a n n v i l l e No. 1 2. Lloydminster Gas t e l l No. 2 3. Colony No. 2 4. Altoba Ho. 1 5. Altoba No. 2 6. Meridian No. 1 7. Ribstone Oils No. 2 8. Bat a Petroleums  No. 16  9. Muddy Lake Well (Northwest Co..) 10. Grainlands Ltd. Water Well . 11. Lloydminster No. 3 12. Messander Royalties No. 1  51.  a low measurable d i p to the west or southwest.  Minor  struc-  t u r e s have been developed contemporaneously w i t h s t r a t a d e p o s i t i o n , or have been superimposed on the f o r m a t i o n , L a t e r a l g r a d a t i o n s i n l i t h o l o g y prevent attempts t o measure d i p s by s u r f a c e surveys.  Subsurface h o r i z o n s prove to be  the most u s e f u l from which to p l o t s t r u c t u r e c o n t o u r s .  The  base of the Ribstone Creek i s o f not much v a l u e i n such work, and even i f only used l o c a l l y i t may be m i s l e a d i n g . The Lea Park sand might be u s e f u l i n the Bate l e a s e areas f o r s t r u c t u r e d r i l l i n g  correlations  (cf3).  I t would  be e s s e n t i a l to i n v e s t i g a t e i t s r e l a t i o n to the Lower C r e t aceous g a s - b e a r i n g sands by means o f convergence b e f o r e an attempt t o p r e d i c t made.  studies  s t r u c t u r e at depth could be  I t would tend to r e f l e c t o n l y the p o s t - l a t e Lea  Park deformations, however compaction,of u n d e r l y i n g sediments would a l s o e f f e c t i t . F o r a m i n i f e r a l s t u d i e s are extremely r e l i a b l e f o r c o r r e l a t i o n of beds.  I f the species i s o l a t e d by Nauss from 30  f e e t and 200 f e e t below the top of the Lea Park a r e a t a l l widespread they would be useable f o r shallow s t r u c t u r e drilling  i n areas n o r t h o f Muddy' Lake.  rugosa seems to be d i a g n o s t i c of a t h i n  Haplophragmoides shale member extending  (?) from Muddy Lake t o Rush Lake. The d e f l e c t i o n of the North Saskatchewan North B a t t l e f o r d may r e f l e c t  River at  structure although normally  we would not expect the r i v e r t o be c o n t r o l l e d by s t r u c t u r e in a region of nearly horizontal  strata.  52i  F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u c t u r e present near-surface does not  beds o f the a r e a .  The  i n the s u r f a c e  s t r u c t u r e of these  beds  conform very c l o s e l y with the s t r u c t u r e of the  Lower Cretaceous - Upper Cretaceous c o n t a c t .  The  Ribstone  Creek and Lea Park sands have an i n i t i a l dip as w e l l as quired deformational  ac-  dips.  Dr. Sanderson(l6) has p o i n t e d out:  "The  U n i t y area has r e v e a l e d another important little  drilling  i n the  f e a t u r e that i s a  s u r p r i s i n g - t h a t i s , the occurence of c l o s e d s t r u c t u r e s  over l o c a l areas  s e v e r a l thousand acres i n extent,  of c l o s u r e be|ng from 70 to 100  feet.  The  s t r u c t u r a l deformation  the range  o r i g i n o f such  s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h i s vast area - n e a r l y wholly  lacking i n  - remains to be explained.'*  The  B a t t l e R i v e r r e g i o n i s o n l y a short d i s t a n c e n o r t h of the area and traps.  and  should be j u s t as f a v o r a b l e s t r u c t u r a l l y , f o r Dr. Nevin (15)  has  written:  that a l l the e f f e c t s of a c t u a l u p l i f t r e g i o n a l subsidence,  Unity  gas  " I t should be remembered could be g i v e n by a  d u r i n g which l o c a l areas lagged  behind."  Deformed beds of P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s were commonly seen throughout the f i e l d a r e a .  Varved c l a y s , on the roadcut  the east end o f the North B a t t l e f o r d b r i d g e , are folded  (see P l a t e I I I ) .  crushed  near and  In the S.E.£, sec.25, tp.42, r g e . 1 7 .  Lea Park sands and  s h a l e s are d i s t o r t e d and  but t h i s crumpling  does not  seem t o be due  t i l t e d up to to slumping.  a c t i o n , e i t h e r as the moving g l a c i e r f r o n t or as  floating  30° Ice  53 :  i c e - b e r g s or as i c e shove along p r o - g l a c i a l l a k e caused these minor s t r u c t u r e s (5). not pppear because faulted.  shores  The aands and c l a y s do  to have been f r o z e n at the time of deformation  the beds are p l a s t i c a l l y  folded rather  than  competently  54  Palaeontology We  are concerned mainly with palaeozoology.  fragments occur but no  i n .the Lea Park and Ribstone  Coal and  Creek  formations  s t u d i e s have been made of them. • F o r a m i n i f e r a are  most r e l i a b l e index f o s s i l s obtained from d r i l l marine beds.  These protozoa  numbers together with  plant  the  c u t t i n g s of  by a d i s p e r s a l and maintenance of  species evolution characterize horizons  i n the marine sediments.  L a t e r changes i n p o p u l a t i o n  took p l a c e by e x t i n c t i o n although or a d a p t a t i o n were open.  often  opportunities f o r migration  When a s p e c i e s occupies  a wide  g e o g r a p h i c a l range and a narrow s t r a t i g r a p h i c range i t becomes valuable f o r long distance c o r r e l a t i o n s .  Nauss (14) has  f o r a m i n i f e r a s p e c i e s o c c u r i n g i n the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n the V e r m i l i o n a r e a .  Wickenden (4,23,24,25,26) has  s p e c i e s o c c u r i n g i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s  listed within  studied  but has not  published  complete check l i s t s . Dr. P.S.  Warren (22)  has expressed  an o p i n i o n that  Pholadomya s u b v e n t r i c o s a M.  and H.  i s the best index f o s s i l of t  the Lea Park f o r m a t i o n , and  t h a t B a c u l i t e s ovatus Say,  Baculites  ovatus v a r . h a r e s i Reeside, B a c u l i t e s a q u i l a e n s i s Reeside, Baculites aquilaensis var.  feeparatus  i n d i c ^ e s to the Lea Park.  No m e g a f o s s i l  from the Ribstone l e a s t one  Reeside are a l l "good" i n d i c e s are known  Creek f o r m a t i o n but o y s t e r s are found i n at  horizon.  Dr. Hume (10) c o l l e c t e d B a c u l i t e s sp., L i o p i s t h a undata, Corbula? sp., and  P r o t o c a r d i a b o r e a l i s Whiteaves from an  exposure of the Lea Park shale on a r a i l r o a d embankment the B a t t l e R i v e r i n tp.45, rge.27, West 3rd  meridian.  along  55 The f o l l o w i n g c o l l e c t i o n s l i s t e d  (10). as o c c u r i n g i n the  Ribstone Creek f o r m a t i o n should be r e f e r r e d to the Lea Park sand: Sec. 21, tp.46, rge.24  Baculites cf grandis  Sec. 9> tp.47, rge.25  Goniomya americana Oxytoma nebrascana Protocardia cf pertenuis A s t a r t e sp. Baculites cf grandis  Sec. 15, tp.47, rge.25  Pecten n. sp. c f s i l e n t i e n s i s Baculites cf grandis  Sec. 36,  Pecten a. sp. c f s i l e n t i e n s i s C a l l i s t a sp.  t p . 4 6 , rge.27  Sec. 19, tp.49, rge.24 and sec.24, t p . 49, rge.25 on B i g G u l l y : Axinea sp. Oxytoma sp. L u n a t r i a concinna Protocardia cf pertenuis Modiola meeki B a c u l i t e s sp.  1  Small c o l l e c t i o n s o f f o s s i l s made by the w r i t e r were composed  0  f cephalopodas and pelecypode's.  The  species  i d e n t i f i e d were: N.E.J,  sec.22,  tp.48, rge.21 on the bank of the North j  Saskatchewan  R i v e r from Lea Park shale: B a c u l i t e s g r a n d i s H.  and. M. South  sec.16, t p . 4 7 ,  rge.25  on the n o r t h bank of the B a t t l e  R i v e r from Lea Park sandstone: B a c u l i t e s ovatus v a r . h a r e s i Reeside Pecten n.sp. c f s i l e n t i e n s i s P r o t o c a r d i a p e r t e n u i s (M. and H.) P t e r i a nebrascana (E. and S.) P t e r i a l i n g u i f o r m i s (E. and S.) Inoceramus sp. a d o l e s c e n t .  56  A P P EN D I X LOGS OF DEEP WELLS  No'rthe'as-tc; M a n n v i l l e Well No. 1. Location: l . s . l , Altitude  s e c . l 8 , tp.50 rge.8, W.4th mer.  ( r o t a r y t a b l e ) : 2,094 f e e t .  Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s by Nauss (14, p.l609) Depth(feet) B i r c h Lake sandstone:  Buff sand and o y s t e r s h e l l s  G r i z z l y Bear tongue:  Grey and b u f f shale and sandlO - 80  Upper Ribstone Creek format i o n :  Grey shale and c o a l  80  Coarse, grey sand  90  Vanesti  tongue:  Lower Ribstone Creek mation:  Lea Park f o r m a t i o n :  for-  0-10  Grey sand, some shale  110  Grey shale  120  Coarse, grey sand  150  F i n e sand and s i l t  190  Coarse sand  230  Fine sand  240  Grey shale, microfauna  270  Lloydminster Gas Well No. 2. L o c a t i o n : S.W.^-, sec.12, t p . 5 0 , rge.28, W.Jrd mer. A l t i t u d e : 2,105 f e e t . Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s by Nauss (14, l 6 l 6 )  mm  -  -  90 110 120  150 190 230 240 270  57  Glacial drift:  Grey clay and brown sand  Depth ( f e e t ) 0 - 150  Ribstone Creek:  Greenish grey f i n e - g r a i n e d sand  150 - 170  Lea  Park Shale:  Massive grey s h a l e , m i c r o f o s s i l s and p y r i t e 170 - 950 Colony No. 2.  Location: l . s . l 6 ,  sec.23, tp.49, r g e . 2 8 , W.3rd.mer.  A l t i t u d e 2,139 f e e t . Horizons from Hume and Hage (10) Depth t o Ribstone Creek - Lea Park contact:  220 f e e t  Sand i n Lea Park f o r m a t i o n a t 350 f e e t . Depth t o Lea Park - A l b e r t a f o r m a t i o n c o n t a c t :  1,020 f e e t ,  Altoba(Manitou) No.2. Location: l . s . 9 ,  sec.29, t p . 4 7 , r g e . 2 6 , W.3rd mer.  A l t i t u d e : 2,017 f e e t . Horizons from Hume and Hage (10) Depth t o Ribstone Creek - Lea Park c o n t a c t :  140 f e e t  Depth to Lea Park - A l b e r t a f o r m a t i o n s ' c o n t a c t : 910 f e e t Meridian No.l. Location: l.s.4,  s e c . l 6 , t p . 4 3 , r g e . l , W.4th mer.  A l t i t u d e : 1,938 f e e t . Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s by Hume and Hage (10) Depth(feet) Glacial drift Lea  0 - 60  v  Park f o r m a t i o n : Grey s h a l e , a l i t t l e  sand  60 - JO  58  Grey shale, f o s s i l  s h e l l s at 80 f e e t .  Lea Park sand: grey, s h a l y sand F i n e , grey sand Grey shale  Ribstone O i l s  Altitude:  170  170  200  200  230  230  930  930  Alberta formation  Location: l.s.5,  70  sec.25,  No.2  tp.46, r g e . l , W.4th mer.  2,087 f e e t .  Horizons from Hume and Hage  (10)  Ribstone Creek - Lea Park contact at a depth o f 140 Base of Lea .Park sand o c c u r s at a depth of 320  Bate.Petroleums Location:  feet.  f o r m a t i o n s ' contact at lj030  Lea Park - A l b e r t a  feet.  feet.  No.16  l . s . , sec.24, tp.41, rge.24, W.3rd mer.  Altitude:l,923  feet  Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s  (ground); 1.930  feet  (Kelly bushing).  by Hughes : see g r a p h i c l o g .  Muddy Lake Well (Northwest Co,). Location: l . s . 1 1 , Altitude: 1,894 Total  s e c . 7 , t p . 3 9 , r g e . 2 2 , W.Jrd  mer.  f e e t ; date,  depth:  Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s by Hughes,  1947.  by Wickenden ( 2 4 ) .  Formation boundaries  59  Depth Missing  (feet)  0 - 40  B e l l y R i v e r beds Shale, sandy, l i g h t grey; c o a l fragments 40 - 70 70 - 80  Missing Coal, l i t t l e  80 - 90  shale  Shale, medium to l i g h t grey, some sand and c o a l Missing  90 - 150 150 - 165  1  Lea Park f o r m a t i o n Shale, medium grey, Haplophragmoides rugosa To"5~- 250 Lea Park sand e q u i v a l e n t .  Shale,  sandy, medium grey, g l a u c o n i t i c  250 - 300  Missing  300 - 540  Shale, medium grey  340 - 550  Shale, dark b u f f and grey, V e r n e u i l i n a sp.  550 - 56O  Shale, medium grey  5&0 - 570  Shale, dark b u f f and g r e y  570 - 660  Shale,medium grey  660 - 850  Wickenden's Lower Lea Park zone: Shale, medium grey, but darker than above ; Epistomina c a r a c o l l a 850 - 1,150 A l b e r t a formation: white s p e c k l e d , c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e . G r a i n l a n d s L t d . Water W e l l L o c a t i o n : N.W.^, sec.34,  tp.40, rge.20, W. 3rd mer.  A l t i t u d e : 2,190 f e e t ; date, 1914. T o t a l depth: 226.5 f e e t Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s by C a r t e r and Smith, C o n s u l t i n g Mining Engineers, Toronto, and Hume and Hage, (7)  60  Surface s o i l and y e l l o w  Thickgness  16  clay  Gravel with water Blue c l a y '  2  Sand and Blue  clay  Blue  Considered  17  3  40  1.5  109.5  111  14.5  125-5  (3 i n c h e s p e b b l e s ) , water 1  126.5  clay  Sand and g r a v e l  (feet)  16  1  69.5  Fine sand with water  Depth  t o be the base of the d r i f t .  Sand and c l a y F i n e sand, t h i n seam o f c o a l ( p o s s i b l y 6 i n c h e s to 1 f o o t t h i c k ; water) Blue c l a y with f i n e  65.5  192  3  195 208  sand  6  214  and small p i e c e s of c o a l  3  217  Blue c l a y with t h i n seams of c o a l 1/16" t o 1/4" t h i c k  5  222  E.ine grey sand; flow of water. Water rose t o 6 f e e t from the s u r f a c e  4.5  226.5  Blue c l a y  (water  shut o f f by casing)  Dark chocolate c l a y w i t h f i n e  sand  Top o f Ribstone Creek formation c o n s i d e r e d by Hughes t o be near an e l e v a t i o n  of 1,968 f e e t .  At 222 f e e t deep.  L l o y d m i n s t e r No.3* Location: l . s . l 6 , Altitude:  2,120  sec.26, t p . 4 9 ,  r g e . 2 8 , W.3rd mer.  feet  Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s  by Wickenden (25) and Hume and Hage  Missing Shale, some g l a u c o n i t e . G r i z z l y Bear? Water from 95 to 112 f e e t .  (10).  Depth ( f e e t ) 0 - 80 80 - 100  61  Shale, sandy, medium grey. T r a c e s of p l a n t remains. Ribstone Creek? Water 160 - 16? f e e t .  1G0 - 200  Cement - t r a c e s o f s h a l e ? Water from 217 to 220  200 - 230  Lea Park, upper member.  Foraminifera.  Lea Park, lower member. oaracolla.  Epistomina  230 - 760 760 -  1,010  Messender R o y a l t i e s N o . l . Location: l . s . l ,  sec.21, t p . 4 5 ,  E l e v a t i o n : 1,863  feet.  rge.18, W.3rd mer.  T o t a l depth: 2,020 f e e t Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s not r e p o r t e d . Rush Lake Well Location: l . s . 2 , A l t i t u d e : 1,750  sec.20,  t p . 1 9 , rge.11, W.3rd mer.  f e e t approximately.  Sample d e s c r i p t i o n s by Hume (8) Formation boundaries by Hughes (1947) Thickness  Depth  20  20  Shale, medium grey  20  40  Missing  10  50  Sand, grey, pepper and s a l t  20  70  Sandy s h a l e , medium t o l i g h t grey  40  110  Drift B e l l y R i v e r beds(?)  (feet)  62  Lea Park f o r m a t i o n : Shale, medium grey; gas at 318 f e e t . Haplophragmoides rugosa fauna Sand, medium grey; l i t t l e Sandy s h a l e , brownish  shale  grey  Sand, f i n e g r a i n e d Shale, somewhat sandy, medium grey Shale, Epistomina c a r a c o l l a  230  340  10  350  50  400  20  420  . 490  910  650  1560  63  LITERATURE CITED 1.  A l l a n , J.A*  S e c t i o n s along North Saskatchewan R i v e r and Red Deer and South Saskatchewan R i v e r s , Between the T h i r d and F i f t h M e r i d i a n s ; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1917 pt.C, pp.9-1?.  2.  F r a s e r , F . J . , McLearn, F.H., etfal. Geology o f Southern Saskatchewan; Surv.,.Canada, Mem. 176 (1935)  3.  F u r n i v a l , G.M., and T p v e l l , W.M. Structure d r i l l i n g i n o i l exploration, Southern A l b e r t a ; C.I.M.M. Trans., v o l . 4 8  Geol.  pp.726 - 744 (1943)  4.  F u r n i v a l , G.M., Cypress Lake Map-area, Saskatchewan; Surv., Canada, Mem.242 (1946)  5.  Hopkins, O.B.  Geol.  Some S t r u c t u r a l Features o f the P l a i n s Area o f A l b e r t a Caused by P l e i s t o c e n e G l a c i a t i o n ; Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , v o l . 3 4  pp.419-430 (19-32)  6.  Hume, G.S.  O i l p r o s p e c t s i n the v i c i n i t y of B a t t l e R i v e r a t the A l b e r t a - Saskatchewan boundary; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1925, pt.B, pp.1 - 1 3 .  7.  Hume, G.S., and Hage, C O . P r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , Eagle H i l l s A n t i c l i n e , B a t t l e f o r d Area, Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Paper 3 5 - 3 .  8.  Hume, G.S*  9.  Hume G.S. and Hage, C O . The Lloydminster Gas and O i l Area, A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada Paper 4 0 - 1 1 .  10.  Hume, G.S. and Hage, C O . The Geology o f E a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a ; G§ol, Surv., Canada, Mem, 232 (1941)  11.  I l l i n g , V. C.  O i l and Gas i n Western Canada; Geol. Surv., Canada, Econ. Geol. Ser. No.5 (1933)  Geology a p p l i e d t o petroleum; The O i l Weekly, Houston, Texas, August 2 6 , 1946.  64 12.  Johnston, W.A.,  and Wickenden, R.T.D. G l a c i a l Lake Regina; Trans. Roy. S o c , Canada, 3rd. s e r . , vol.24, sec.4, pp.41-  4.9 (1930) 13.  M i t c h e l l , J . , Moss, H.C, and C l a y t o n , J.S. S o i l Survey o f Southern Saskatchewan; S o i l Surv. Rept. No. 12, C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Univ. of Sask., June, 1944.  14.  Nauss, A.W.  Cretaceous s t r a t i g r a p h y o f V e r m i l i o n a r e a , A l b e r t a , Canada; B u l l . A.A.P.1G., v o l . 2 9 , no. 11, pp. 1605 - 1629 (Nov. 1945)  13.  Nevin, C M .  P r i n c i p l e s of S t r u c t u r a l Geology; John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1931. Second E d i t i o n , 1936.  16.  Sanderson, J.O.G. Progress o f petroleum geology i n Western Canada to 1945; C.I.M.M. Titans. vol.49, pp. 256 - 266 (1946)  17.  Schuchert, C. and Dunbar, C O . O u t l i n e s of H i s t o r i c a l Geology; New York, 1941.  <  Wiley  18.  Simpson, H.E.  Groundwater Resources o f Regina, Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1929, p t . B, pp.65 - H I ;  19.  S l i p p e r , S.E.  V i k i n g Gas F i e l d ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summary Rept. 1917, pt.C, pp. 6 - 9.  20.  Warren, P.S.  O i l and Gas P r o s p e c t s i n C e n t r a l Saskatchewan; G e o l . Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1929, PP. 40 - 47.  21.  I n v e r t e b r a t e P a l a e o n t o l o g y o f Southern P l a i n s o f A l b e r t a ; B u l l . A.A.P.G., v o l . 15, PP. 1283 - 1291.  22.  The Fauna of the Lea Park Shale: Royal Canadian I n s t . , Trans., vol.- 20, p t . 2 ,  p.225 (1935) 23.  Wickenden, R.T.D. The New S p e c i e s of F o r a m i n i f e r a from the Upper Cretaceous o f the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s ; Trans. ROY. S o c , Canada, 3rd. s e r . , v o l . 26, sec.4, pp.85 - 91 (1932)  65  24.  Notes on some deep w e l l s i n Saskatchewan: Trans. Roy. S o c , Canada. 3rd. s e r . , v o l . 2 6 sec.4, pp. 177-196 (1932)  25.  Cretaceous Marine Formations Penetrated i n Wells near L l o y d m i n s t e r , Saskatchewan; Trans. Roy. Can. I n s t . , vol23, pp. 147 155  26.  27.  (1941)  Mesozoic S t r a t i g r a p h y of the E a s t e r n P l a i n s , Manitoba and Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.239 (1945) W i l l s , L. J .  The P h y s i o g r a p h i c a l E v o l u t i o n o f Great B r i t a i n ; Edward A r n o l d and Co., London  (1929)  28.  W i l l i a m s , M.Y.  Land Movements and Sedimentation; B u l l . Geol. Soc. America, v o l . 4 3 , pp. 993 - 1002  (1932)  29.  and Dyer, W.S. Geology o f Southern A l b e r t a and Southwestern Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.163  (1930)  MAPS  Geol. Surv., Canada; Dept. o f Mines and Resources: Geology. Fort P i t t  (Sask.), East h a l f , West h a l f , B a t t l e f o r d ( S a s k . ) , East h a l f , West h a l f , Ribstone Creek ( A l b e r t a )  Map 489A Map 490A Map 491A Map 492A  PLATE  r  A.  r  B.  I  i  L'orainal topography between Prongua and Liridequis-t,looking east f r o n knob i n S.W.£, sec.35, tp.43, rge.18, W.3rd mer.  ^  Looking west over a l k a l i lake toward Prongua below Eagle K i l l s skyline, from S »W»£> sec.35, tp.43, rge.18, W.3rd raer.  PLATE  II  A.  "Lea Park sandstone" alongside Pipestone Creek bridge, north from Prongua.  B.  Sandstone beds i n the Lea Park shale near North B a t t l e f o r d , N.E.-£, sec.32, tp.43, r g e . 1 6 , ',7.3rd mer.  PLATE  Distorted  III  varved c l a y beds near North B a t t l e f o r d ,  N.E.-J, s e c . 3 2 ,  tp.43,  rge.16, 7 . 3 r d  mer.  I  G E O L O G I C A L  Ooo'  D E P T .  LEGEND  ~3  Rock UPPER PIPCH  outcrops  viSi*  CRETACEOUS L A K E  FORMATION?  Erosion 5u»jb  /I  escav-pmen't  A /  k«obs  and  4  Plat RIBSTONE  CREEK  FORMATION'  VaKveJ LEA  P A R K  FORMATION  Sand  beds  cla«j  of  ^kdv«l  of  foK  Pq^allel Fossil  )  of  or  o'l  lake  Intc»-n-»i+-i"en+ Qnd « a n d s t o n e .  ol«po*i+'i  i»i4"«  po»"V - Gi I i i c » a I  BoKC-hole  S-'i-id  A'  D ^ i e s , s u n d Uills  <md  S  sfvedm  U-r.tude  locdl<"tj  Mo mama  I zone  53od  53°oo  b3  9 b Q  NORTH — BATTLEFORD  110  oo' cole  A  »  a.  •  o  I m c  h  t o A  PRELIMINARY  miles  BATTLE WEST  RIVER  CENTRAL  MAP AREA  SASKATCHEWAN  Compiltd  I94fc  1911  G E O L O G I C A L  lOoo'  D E P T .  LEGEND  "3  RocW  UPPER  O BH  PIPCH  CRETACEOUS L A K E  F O R M A T I O N ?  Visited  cx-'TCKops  SI'^'H'j  uinolula'Vin^  Erosion  escavpmcnt  ^>u^:>  /I 4 A/  a n d knobs  Flat R I B S T O N E  C R E E K  FORMATION  D«oeb , i u n d VdKVed Sand  kill*  cla«j  beds  or^vdv«l ov-  Parallel  in+e*--  lake  cind  s+veam  Uf.Tude. I o c cl I > \~ y  Morrainal  zone  Diversion Mdv^ins u/iVn.  oiepo&i'Ts,  po*"^" - G I a c i a l  I n f c t - w i ++cn+  Fossi I  4T  channel °£ d e p o s i t s  laf*  associated  Pl*i*Toe*.wc,  laU«<  53°oo'  53°od  Scale 4  »  a.  i  o  I inch  +o 4  PRELIMINARY  m i l e s  BATTLE W E S T  RIVER  C E N T R A L  MAP AREA  S A S K A T C H E W A N  Compiled  I 9 4 fc  Canaim jflepartmcnt of Jflincs ano R e s o u r c e s H O N O U R A B L E T. A. C R E R A R , Minister; C. C A M S E L L , Deputy Minister SURVEYS  SASKATCHEWAN, CANADA  A N DENGINEERING J  M  WARDLE,  BRANCH  S1XTIONAL  Director  (Fort Pitt—317)  ^Ste, R- 16 i08°15'  110*00'  R. 17  J  THE  DECLINATION  OF T H ECOMPASS  Reference  NEEDLE  JANUARY, 1928  Reference  R a i l w a y , s t e a m , d p u b l e track  M a r s h . b o g o r o p e n m u s k e g ...  ..ogie.™*  aaa  DIAGRAM OF TOWNSHIP  Wooded muskeg o r swamp  sta,  electric  Non-perennial lake  or s l o p  R o a d , c l a n I, t r u n k road „  „  2. s e c o n d a r y t h o r o u g h f a r e  „  „  3 . tecal road w e l l t r a v e l l e d  „  „  4.  „  „  „  „  „  C a n a l , irrigation  T.legt«ph o f f i c e  Scale 8 T  T  T  T  T  along r o a d  P o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n line . Non-perennial stream  Post office  ,  Telegraph or t e l e p h o n e  T  T  T  , | i •  •  T  T  T  .  T  lOB'oo  T h e d e c l i n a t i o n o l t h e c o m p a s s n e e d l e a t a n y p l a c e a l o n g a r e d l i n e is t h e d e c l i n a t i o n g i v e n o n that red line.  At other places the declination is between those given o n the neighbouring r e d l i n e s ; thus  at t h e p l a c e m a r k e d A , b e c a u s e it i s h a l l w a y b e t w e e n t h e t w o r e d l i n e s m a r k e d N . 23' the d e c l i n a t i o n o l the c o m p a s s needle i s N . 2 3 * 3 0 ' E . The d e c l i n a t i o n ot t h e c o m p a s s needle is d e c r e a s i n g 7 m i n u t e s annually.  E. a n d N . 2 4 * E - .  Fall Rapid Glacier A l k a l i n e flat  Miles 1  ()  or L:190,080  5  i . • M  Contour interval 50 feet  ^—-T" *^— 1  /  Fall  T  m i l e s t o 1 i n c h  — T--T-  Datum is mean sea level  Drainage ditch ll0"OO'  Wood.  _  slightly travelled  P a c k trail o r p a t h  Sand  WEST OF THIRD MERIDIAN  -  t | |  „  ^  Highway routes 4 0 , etc. Price 25 cents. In folder form or linen backed 50 cents.  Building Church  10 Mi l.s  School  JT  Elevator  ®  M i n e o r quarry  W  Contour* Depression contour  < f  H e i g h t m feet  """*""• ,' . 2050  D e p t h m feet  10  Triangulation station Garage  _ _  R.I4 'ISjoeoaf  108°15' R.| 6  Compiled, drawn and printed at the office oft/ie Surveyor General, Ottawa, July, 1928, from surveys by the Topographical Survey of Canada; and from information supplied by Dominion and Provincial Departments and by Railway Companies. Revision of map of March, 1915  (Tnimpiiitf Lake—217)  Reprinted.1938  S H E E T N ° 2(>7  _  A 6  7>  

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