Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A revision of the stratigraphy of the Lea Park formation in west central Saskatchewan Hughes, Richard David 1947

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1947_A8 H8 R3.pdf [ 12.82MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0053539.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0053539-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0053539-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0053539-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0053539-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0053539-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0053539-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

A R E V I S I O N OF T H E S T R A T I G R A P H Y OF T H E L E A P A R K F O R M A T I O N I N W E S T C E N T R A L S A S K A T C H E W Ai\N by Richard David Hughes • • A Thesis submitted i n Par t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of M A S T E R OF A R T S in the Department of G E O L O G Y The University of Bri t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1947 C O N T E N T S Abstract Introduction Objectives Methods Acknowledgements and previous work Summary of the Battle River surface formations Geology Physiography and character of the region Sedimentation i n the Western geosyncline Lea Park shale Lea Park sand Rlbstone Creek formation Grizzly Bear formation Tertiary (?) deposits Pleistocene deposits and history Regional structure Palaeontology Appendix Logs of deep wells Literature cited Illustrations Plate I A Morainal topography between Prongua and Lindequist. I B A l k a l i lake near Prongua. II A Lea Park sandstone alongside Pipestone Creek bridge. II B Sandstone beds i n the Lea Park shale near North Battleford. I l l Distorted varved clay beds near North Battleford. Table of Formations 5 Stratigraphic section of Bata Petroleums No. 16 ' 27 Figures 1 Key map of the deep wells 50 2 Correlation of sands in the well logs 50 Maps (in pocket) Geology of the Battle River area, Saskatchewan. Pro-glacial lakes of the Battle Riyer area and geology permit areas. Battleford Sheet No. 267 Canada, Department of Mines and Resources. i A B S T R A C T The Lea Park formation i s an equivalent of the Upper Cretaceous Milk River and Pakowki formations of southern Alberta. Upper Cretaceous sediments of the P r a i r i e Provinces are derived from land masses which bordered the Western geosyncline. Redistribution of Upper Cretaceous non-marine sediments from the seaward margin of deltas by e p e i r i c sea currents resulted i n the de-position of marine sand lenses within the mud-bottomed basin. Palaeontological c r i t e r i a are the most h e l p f u l f o r distinguishing these marine from other non-marine environments. The Lea Park formation consists, between Lloydminster and Battleford, of four s t r a t i g r a p h i c units. The basal shale unit contains the Epistomina caracolla microfauna. Overlying i t i s a shale characterized by Verneuilina  bearpawensis. This i s followed by a sand and sandstone faci e s with a marine megafauna. The fourth and highest member i n the Lea Park formation i s of marine shale. Upward the Lea Park formation passds into the Ribstone Creek, a brackish water arenite formation. 1. A REVISION OF THE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LEA PARK FORMATION IN WEST CENTRAL SASKATCHEWAN Introduction The writer mapped the surface geology of three Geological Permit areas taken up by Bata Petroleums Ltd. during part of August and September of 1946. The leases are located approximately between longitudes 108 degrees and 110 degrees, and near l a t i t u d e 53 degrees. The boundaries are a r t i f i c i a l so they cannot be referred to physiographic features. They are outlined on Map Number 2 accompanying t h i s report. Objectives An attempt has been made to c l a r i f y the regional cor-r e l a t i o n s by means of our increased data, to adopt mappable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the strata, and to present several new ideas about the o r i g i n of the Lea Park sand and other Upper Cretaceous st r a t i g r a p h i c problems. Some emphasis w i l l be placed on regional geology although only a l i m i t e d area was examined. It was necessary to v i s i t exposures o f f the leases to c o l l e c t data on the regional geology. Recent information from the Unity gas f i e l d has been embodied i n t h i s report. Methods The f i e l d work was carried out on the basis of a 1 inch map. ' to 4 miles reconnaissance- v Twenty three days were spent i n the f i e l d . A half ton 1946 Fargo truck was used f o r trans-portation. 2. No d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n approaching within short walking distance of exposures with t h i s vehicle. Locations of outcrops were t i e d i n to section boundaries by pace-and-comfass surveys. F o s s i l s c o l l e c t e d were labeled for labor- v atory i d e n t i f i c a t i o n work. Lit e r a t u r e pertaining to the report was read at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y . Only p o s i t i v e surface out-crops and r e l i a b l e well samples were mapped because the writer believes that discontinuous water well sands, i f tabulated, may have l e d to misinter-1. pretations of structure i n the past (cf 7 )• Acknowledgements and Previous Work This thesis was written under Dr. M.Y.Williams guidance. Dr. Williams read over and discussed the ideas presented; the writer i s deeply indebted to him. The author wishes to acknowledge the clearcut instructions and many useful sug-gestions given by Dr. J.O.G. Sanderson who directed the f i e l d work. Mr. Clarence G. Matthews1 h e l p f u l advice on innumerable occasions was of great value i n planning the traverses. Mr.J.A. Donnan prepared t h i n sections of the Lea Park sand. Without the aegis of Bata Petroleums Ltd. the f i e l d work would not have been attempted. The writer wishes to thank the company o f f i c e r s for permission to use f i e l d notes for thesis material. Battleford and Fort P i t t sheets of the Geological Survey 1. Numbers enclosed i n brackets r e f e r to l i s t number i n the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d . 3 of Canada were useful p r i n c i p a l l y for easy l o c a t i o n of the sedimentary rock exposures. Hume and Hage made a preliminary study of the geology of the eastern part of the area and published t h e i r findings i n Eagle H i l l s A n t i c l i n e , .Battleford  Area, Saskatchewa.n. The Geology of East*-central Alberta by the same authors was the most useful report on the Battle River area stratigraphy. Other writings referred to i n t h i s invest-igation are compiled i n the l i s t of l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d . Summary of the Battle River Surface Formations The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c discontinuous i n t e r d i g i t a t i o n of shales and sandstones of Upper Cretaceous formations provide a problem, i n f i e l d mapping^with which i t i s not easy to cope. I t seems advisable to map sand and sandstone strata of t h i s area as isol a t e d tongues u n t i l they have been c o r r e c t l y correlated. Hume and Hage (7) have attempted to correlate formations on the one c r i t e r i o n of apparent s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n but met with l i t t l e success. The Upper Cretaceous formations were l a i d down under alternating marine and non-marine environments near a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . The constituents of the formations were derived from the erosion of land masses to the west and possibly the east. In general, the Lea Park shales are marine, the Lea Park sands are marine and probably, i n part, non-marine. Lea Park shales are medium to dark grey i n colour i n the upper part. Lea Park sand and sandstone carry a f o s s i l marine fauna and would f i t best into a marine pattern. These e l a s t i c s range from very f i n e grained to somewhat medium grained near the base, from l i g h t grey to medium ( s l i g h t l y bluish) grey, from loose to very well indurated, and are l o c a l l y s i l t y , limy, and arkosic. Although some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r i v e r l a i d deposits are l o c a l l y present, they appear to have been re d i s t r i b u t e d under marine conditions. The Ribslone Creek formation represents an i n t e r d i g i t of coarser e l a s t i c s r e a u l t i n g from erosion within the western land mass by, most probably, the i d e n t i c a l drainage pattern that provided the Lea Park sands. Slipper (19) considered the Ribstone Creek formation to be of brachish water o r i g i n . Recent work i s i n agreement with his findings. The o r i g i n of the constituents of the Upper Cretaceous beds within the second praire step has yet to be studied. It i s generally recognized that the Canadian Shield was a positive land mass undergoing erosion during Upper Cretaceous time. The positions of the eastern borders of the Upper Cretaceous sea are not known. The writer believes that s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of mud were derived from pre-Cretaceous formations of the east. Conceivably muds from the eastern uplands intercalated with some coarser e l a s t i c s from the western mountains. This may have resulted i n the margination of the c h i e f l y non-marine Milk River formation by the lower Lea Park shales, and such patterns as the b i f u r c a t i o n of the Ribstone Creek formation by the Vanesti shale tongue during early B e l l y River time. 5 SASK FORA'/P-IIFTRA ZO'^o t j b^4- ">n<» Creek formation i en • •? w 50f'(Tj in Vera area? b»it here upper contact eroded. Non-nari n«•Sanc and sandstone. !Tnperrao?t larine .Medium l Lea rsjr*w shale ' in Vers, area, 120* in Alberta grvjT, T i I t y . Fon-taine ra-rfcher-of -pearl fragnoits • E-sand Lenses .Trace to 70' thick in V n t area. "arine and po?--ibly non-aarine. Cray to yellow 3and and send-0 p: U 1 Upper T.ea Park shale " '' thick in ifciddy Lake wall '.ferine. Medium qrey shale,cal-careous locnllv. • lover Lee Perk shale B ''arine. Light tc dark srey shale. Tracei of bent onIte. Locally sclcar-eou~. . i 6* Geology Physiography and Character of the Region Most of the area i s part of the t h i r d prairie step with a median a l t i t u d e of 2000 to 2200 feet. The Eagle H i l l s are continuous with the Missouri Coteau and demarcate the t h i r d from second step. The topography i s l e v e l to r o l l i n g and the influence of Pleistocene g l a c i a t i o n i s seen through-out the region. The northeastern part i s drained d i r e c t l y by the North Saskatchewan River. The central portion i s t r i b u t a r y to the Battle River which f i n a l l y flows into the North Saskatchewan at Battleford. The southwestern sector has acquired an i n t e r i o r drainage system of creeks and lake basins superimposed on the morainal topography. The North Saskatchewan River at North Battleford has cut about lj50 feet belqw the top of the northeast bank. The v a l l e y i s about one mile wide. As i t enters the accompanying map sheet i t flows southeastwardly i n a s l i g h t curve but two miles west and four north of North Battleford i t i s diverted to the southward for three miles. Above Bat t l e f o r d the r i v e r ' s banks range from steep to nearly v e r t i c a l , but six miles below the c i t i e s 1 the northeast bank has a slope of only 250 feet i n three miles. Along most of the r i v e r there are mid-channel sand islands up to two miles long',however there i s a nine mile stretch without any i n township 4 5 , ranges 17 and 18. The r i v e r i s i n a stage of early maturity. The fact that the channel i s p r e - g l a c i a l explains the s c a r c i t y of outcrops along the r i v e r . 1 Battleford and North Battleford. "7. Battle River flows i n a p r e - g l a c i a l channel. This r i v e r i s 50 to 75 feet wide within a floodplain ranging from one half to one mile i n width. The meander belt varies from one h a l f to three quarters of a mile broad. Old meander s c r o l l s were not observed along the hanks but slumping would c e r t a i n l y have obscured their presence. River t e r r a c i n g would be easy to confuse with the p o s t - g l a c i a l lake plains near the outlet of the r i v e r . At Unwin^old r i v e r terraces are well preserved but these may have been derived by the action of the Manito Lake - Marsden diversion channel waters. Near the in t e r s e c t i o n of Battle River by Highway 40 the northwest bank i s terraced but the southeast i s slumped. Resistant sandstones are exposed along Battle River wherever the d r i f t overburden has been stripped. Drummond Creek emerges from the Eagle H i l l s i n Sweet-grass Indian Reserve between t i l l and gravel cutbanks some 60 feet high. Upstream, where cut by Highway 40, the creek i s small and meanders i n a v a l l e y about 50 feet deep. There the cutbanks have stood up well and are composed of d r i f t containing the largest e r r a t i c s seen i n the d i s t r i c t . I t i s a consequent stream with reference to Pleistocene deposits. Buzzard Coulee i s comparable i n size to the Battle River gorge but i s nearly dry. It served as a di v e r s i o n channel i n p o s t - g l a c i a l time but i n ago may antedate the Pleistocene epoch. Lakes are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of those d i s t r i c t s served by an i n t e r i o r drainage system. Thackeray Lake has the long 8. narrow outline of an abandoned channel. Winniford Lake, although only two miles southwest of Battle River at Ba t t l e -ford, has not been able to maintain i t s former junction with the North Saskatchewan River at section 16, township 43, range 16. The lake i n section 23, township 43, range 18 occupies a constructional depression greater than 115 feet below any peripheral ou t l e t . It has resulted from morainal blocking on the south and east and may be i n part a large k e t t l e . Bedrock i s exposed on i t s north bank. The t i n y a l k a l i lake (see Plate 1,B) i n the southwest quarter of section 35» township 43, range 18, occupies a depression within a moraine. Lake terraces and sloughs are lin e a t e d between Brada (near North Battleford) and the North Sask-atchewan River. Manito Lake i s the largest body of water i n the area. It i s bounded on the southwest by a sand dune terrane and on the north and east by e l i f f e d g l a c i a l deposits. No bedrock exposures are known around i t s shores. It appears to be the northeast f r a c t i o n of a large p o s t - g l a c i a l lake which extended into Alberta on the west and towards Vera, Saskatchewan on the southeast. Dune formation of the lake sands by winds blowing o f f the ice sheet have p i l e d the sands up higher then the l o c a l f l u v i a l base l e v e l of the late i c e shrinkage period. The Eagle H i l l s , although terminated at Battle River, are a conspicuous topographic feature. They r i s e i n some plaoes to over 2400 feet above sea l e v e l and are approximately 9 . 800 feet higher than the l e v e l of the North Saskatchewan River. The H i l l s are a p r e - g l a e i a l erosion escarpment. Formed of Upper Cretaceous stra t a , exposed i n Pipestone Creety, they were mantled with d r i f t during Pleistocene time. At the time of the retreat of the l a s t g l a c i e r s the ridge dammed a pro-g l a c i a l lake. The u t i l i z e d terranes are given over to wheat farming and c a t t l e ranching - the main industries of the region. Farmhouses i n the r u r a l areas are one h a l f to one mile apart and evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n the arable sectors. The p r i n c i p a l towns are North Battleford, B a t t l e f o r d and Lloydminster ( 9 ) . Lloydminster derives a small revenue from crude o i l prod-uction. The main v i l l a g e s of the region are Delmas, Prongua, Rockhaven, Cloan, Edam, Paynton, Maidstone, Waseca, Lashburn, Marshall, Lone Rock, Marsden, and Neilburg. Both the Canadian National and the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -ways have east to west through l i n e s across the area. The Canadian National also maintains a spur l i n e from Battleford to Carruthers. The main l i n e s of the two railways pass through Unity, i n township 44, range 22, south.of the area under consid-eration. Highway 5 i s the one trunk road from Ba t t l e f o r d to Lloydminster. Highway 40 i s being improved and now i s located across Sweetgrass Indian Reserve close to the railway, and joins with Highway 29 north of Prongua. Highway 29, from Battleford to Wilkie, i s graveled except for a short distance* 10. Secondary and l o c a l roads provide access to nearly a l l of the area but t h e i r condition depends on the weather. After a r a i n f a l l most o f the mud roads become extremely slippery but sandy roads may remain passable. Native vegetation includes a number of f l o r a l species p e c u l i a r l y adapted to l o c a l environments. These have been l i s t e d by Mr. J . M i t c h e l l i n S o i l Survey of Southern Sask-atchewan. P r i c k l y pears (Opuntia) f l o u r i s h near bentonitic mud s l i d e s . Black poplar (Populus balsamifera) i s common on the Eagle H i l l s . Canoe b i r c h (Betula papyrifera) and common alder (Alnus incana) make up l o c a l deciduous groves. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) was noted i n some of the sand dune regions. The area i s semi-arid with an average annual precip-i t a t i o n of about 15 inches. The s o i l i s supplied with water by the spring thaw and by infrequent rains through l a t e spring to summer. There i s an extreme annual range i n temperature between - 50°F to over 100°F. The weather i s not very dependable and g r a i n - k i l l i n g f r o s t s have occured i n the month of July. Wind and dust storms are not common but may be quite strong. Sedimentation i n the Western Geosyncline The sediments of Lea Park and B e l l y River age were deposited within a physiographic and s t r u c t u r a l basin termed the Western 1geosyncline. Marine beds were l a i d i down within an eperic sea which lay between marginal 1. The Eastern geosyncline is called the Appalachian trough. 11. a l l u v i a l plains of the west and a land mass to the east of the present Palaeozoic - Pre-Cambrian contact. This was a Gulf sea with an outlet toward the southeastward. There appears to have been free drainage from the e n c i r c l i n g lands to the sea. The contact between the Lea Park formation and the underlying Alberta formation gives l i t t l e hint f o r the inte r p r e t a t i o n of a change i n provenance. I f the axis of the geosyncline moved only i n a v e r t i c a l path we might expect a record of continuous sedimentation along that l i n e which would y i e l d some suggestions of what the adjacent lands were l i k e . However the axis (or ages) became a function of other variables such as sources and a v a i l a b i l i t y of sediments depending on the migration of divides on the contiguous uplands. A s t r i p of continental sediments was ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of the western margin of the sea. This s t r i p ' s seaward l i m i t s were very sharply demarcated by marine shales and sands. Even so i t i s obvious that we can form l i t t l e opinion of the adjacent lands from d i r e c t contracts between the rocks themselves. Physical characters of e l a s t i c s are useful i n determining the nature of' provenances. Character i s determined by the parent material, the degree of weathering, and by subsequent erosion and transportation. The Lea Park and l a t e r shales ed contain very f i n e g r a i n - v a l l u v i a l e l a s t i c s , eroded shore 1. Provenance refers to a terrane from which an association of sediments was derived. 12. material, aeolian dusts, and f l o a t of organic o r i g i n . Amongst these components, sea wave erosion has produced unmeasured but enormous quantities of muds. The windward shore or shores of the sea were subjected to a l l the rigours of wave sweeping, and a consequent repression of conditions favorable to l i f e along that coastline would increase the tendency towards ab-normal surface denudation. The questions of climatic temper-atures and seasonal weather within the environment are worthy of thought even i f they are only postulative. There i s no evidence to show that the sea froze over. In the periods when tho mean temperature of the region was high the lessening i n vi s o o s i t y of tho wator would rooult i n o i g n i f i o a n t l y inoroaood wave crooion by windo. Waves movihg,c; i n across a steeply dipping beach r e t a i n t h e i r power for concerted cutting of the shoreline. Waves which must t r a v e l across low f l a t s have theiE power dissipated i n building up an offshore bar and bringing the shore to a mature stage. Transportation of e l a s t i c s does not necessarily cease after deposition in the r i v e r delta has been accomplished. Various agencies are constantly active i n the sea which redi s t r i b u t e transportable materials. Mention has been made of the role of waves i n attacking shores; they may also be very e f f e c t i v e in truncating d e l t a strata. Any turbulence would bring into suspension the f i n e s t e l a s t i c s and render them available for l a t e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . Undertows acting 13. over a long time w i l l control the migration of appreciable volumes of coarse and f i n e grained mineral p a r t i c l e s . Along shore currents r e s u l t i n directed l a t e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . Dr. V. C. I l l i n g (11) has observed that " i n s t a b i l i t y of the sea f l o o r during the processes of sedimentation creates guiding conditions f o r the marine currents which govern the d i s t r i b u t -ion of the sand lenses." Marine currents w i l l be further discussed when the possible mode of o r i g i n of the Lea Park sand i s suggested. The e p e i r i c sea was characterized by c e r t a i n physical properties. Condensation was perpetual but probably of no r e a l importance except to remove dust from the atmosphere. Evaporation was present at a l l times. Cloud derivatives of the sea may have been blown about, changed to r a i n , and p r e c i p i t a t e d . L i t t l e i s known of the Shield land mass but i t would seem that, because there, elevations were brought about by epeirogenic movements, the borderland would be low and present no physio-graphic b a r r i e r to cloud passage. The heat capacity of the sea would tend to prevent extreme temperatures. This 'medit-erranean* environment, although i t s e f f e c t s were lessened when the sea became nearly landlocked, i s a fundamental conception one must keep i n mind whether considering sedimentation, l i f e zones of the cold-blooded r e p t i l e s , or plant growth of Upper Cretaceous time. 14 The sea water was chemically a c t i v e . We are p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with i t s d i s s o l v i n g power. There was no tendency f o r s a l t s to accumulate because the sea was joined to the open ' A t l a n t i c Ocean by way of the ' G u l f , Empirical studies have shown that the s a l t content i n a sea of t h i s type does not increase' over a r e s t r i c t e d period of time. No s a l t deposits are known within the remnant bounds of the Lea Park shale. Now that the main points of the environment and i t s controls have been reviewed, the next step w i l l be an attempt to f i t the geological formations into the picture. In general Cretaceous seas of the Western geosyncline had mud bottoms. Sandy facies tongue eastward into a gross shale body. I f the region i s viewed i n east-west v e r t i c a l cross-section a zig-zag contact between the shale and sand i s seen. This contact varies both v e r t i c a l l y and l a t e r a l l y with time. I f a generalization that the coarser e l a s t i c s were derived under normal r i v e r erosion i s true i t i s r e a d i l y understood why the movement of the delta front would depend mainly on the supplies and dispositions of sediments. Broad climatic cycles could d e f i n i t e l y control delta growth A by functioning as an erosion i n h i b i t o r under a r i d conditions and as an erosion stimulator when a state of humidity predominates. The history of the diastrophic movements which involved the basin i s debatable. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate cause from e f f e c t . The s i m p l i f i e d tableau usually envisioned i s 15 of a geosyncline being concurrently depressed and raudded so that i t s southwest-northeast p r o f i l e remains e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t i c . Epeirogenic movements tended to maintain t h i s equilibrium. Orogeny i s of secondary importance and that only insofar as i t effected the western supply of sedimentary materials. When sub-aerial planation has-been established along geosynclinal margins quite a small p o s i t i v e change i n the position of sea l e v e l w i l l permit the waters to encroach over very large areas. As the shoreline passes, inland the former sub-aerial sediments will'be flooded and eroded, e s p e c i a l l y i f they have not been submerged below the marine base l e v e l of erosion. Later strata w i l l contact the under-l y i n g rocks along an erosional unconformity. Isostasy impresses i t s e l f on the geologic column. I t i s always associated with erosion, both i n a causitive and i n a r e s u l t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The rate of i s o s t a t i c movement often determines the range i n thickness of groups of s t r a t a . Dr. A. W. Nauss (14) has written; "a general sinking o f the whole province of Alberta - - - may have resulted from the withdrawal of subcrustal material to form the Crowsnest volcanics i n the mountains, (and) allowed the Upper Cretaceous ocean to advance to the foot of the S e l k i r k Mountains." Withdrawals of magmatic materials to form volcanic emissions are not always followed by associated down-warpings. For example the Coast Range region was elevated during the Cenozoic era despite widespread emissions of volcanic rocks. The Crowsnest v o l -- 16. canics were probably deposited within an area l i t t l e larger than the area from which they were derived. Granted that there may have been a sinking of the Selkirk Mountains from which the Crowsnest volcanics were extruded, the addition of flows and beds to t h e i r surface would maintain nearly the i n i t i a l a l t i t u d e . Lineations of volcanic b e l t s are determined by zones of weakness. Available magma would be present beneath the Sel k i r k Mountain weak zone so i t i s not necessary to post-ulate any l a t e r a l supply of molten materials. I t i s concluded that isostasy alone furnished mechanisms f o r the maintenance of the basin and, most probably, f o r the major advances and retreats of the Upper Cretaceous sea (28). Dr. C. H. Crickmay (2) proposed that a range of mountains exis t i n g during the Cretaceous period i n the region of the present Selkirk range be termed the Zephyria Mountains. This high land mass i s evidenced by the c r i t e r i o n of grain s i z e change i n sediments and by studies i n palaeogeography. I t has been c a l l e d to our at t e n t i o n that: "From west to east across thes outhern plains the beds correlated with the Lea Park of Saskatchewan show the following changes: i n south-western Alberta there are p a r t l y marine sands at the base followed by non-marine sands and shales above; i n southeastern Alberta there are possibly p a r t l y marine sands at the base followed by non-marine sands and shales with, at the top, marine shales; i n southern Saskatchewan the s t r a t a are e n t i r e l y marine and mostly shales; and i n Manitoba there are 17. marine shales and calcareous shales. So from west to east non-marine conditions give place to marine, sands disappear, and the shales become p a r t l y calcareous"(2). The Zephyria Mountains were, without doubt, a l o f t y chain. Swift streams and creeks furnished coarse e l a s t i c s to more mature r i v e r s i n the larger v a l l e y s . Deltas, b u i l t eastward into the epicon-t i n e n t a l sea, provided sediments to marine agencies f o r red-i s t r i b u t i o n . There does not appear to have been much, i f any,-p l a i n flooding with, development of t y p i c a l red beds, mud cracks, and crossbedding i n t h i s area because such rock fea-tures neither were observed i n the well cuttings examined nor i n the outcrops v i s i t e d . Dr. F. -H. McLearn (2) describes the scene as an "invasion of marginal a l l u v i a l plains b u i l t out from the west." Other geologists have pointed out that non-marine tongues can represent conditions where deposition was more e f f e c t i v e than subsidence (2)> S t i l l another that: "the stratigraphy of post-basal Upper Cretaceous strata i s complicated by the f a c t that the sediments were derived l a r g e l y from the high-lands west of the seaway. As these highlands were repeatedly u p l i f t e d and a c t i v e l y eroded, vast quantities of sand and mud were carried down to the Cretaceous sea, and coarser material accumulating to form a coastal p l a i n , l o c a l l y extended into great deltas while the f i n e r material was d i s t r i b u t e d more evenly over the sea f l o o r . " Dr. Nauss (14) has written, "marine shale members i n the 1 8 . Vermillion area have sharp lower contacts but gradational upper ones. The same phenomenon was observed by Sears, Hunt and Hendricks (1941) i n New Mexico. They explain i t as being due to sedimentation i n a continually sinking basin. When the rate of accumulation exceeds the r a t e of sinking the basin gradually becomes f i l l e d , and continued deposition r e s u l t s i n coarser non-marine e l a s t i c s , which rest withaa gradational contact on the subjacent marine shale. Later, when the rate of submergence surpasses sedimentation, the sea spreads over the low coastal p l a i n with a r a p i d i t y which i s a con-sequence of the lowness and f l a t n e s s of the terrane, and which res u l t s in marine shale l y i n g with a sharp contact on the submerged d e t r i t u s . " This has not occured i n the case of the Lea Park sand with i t s gradational top and bottom contacts and i t s marine f a c i e s . The Lea Park sand has probably been derived as a large complex spit or beach from delta sands. It has the appearance of a lense rather than a tongue. More stratigraphio work i n east central Alberta i s necessary before i t s bounds can be defined. It may be that i t consists of several sheet-like bodies for the f a c i e s i s pinched out i n Altoba No.2 between e occurences i n Colony No. 2 and Bata No. 16. A comparable'^ situation i s recognized i n the southeastern United States: '•Florida was completely submerged throughout most of the (Cenozoic) era for i t i s made of thick marine limestones resting on a l a t e Cretaceous f l o o r . U n t i l Miocene time i t 19 wa.s so f a r from shore that l i t t l e d e t r i t a l sediment reached i t , but since that date fi n e sand from the Carolina streams h&Z'j d r i f t e d southward with the shore currents to form beaches along the east coast l i k e that of Daytona" (17). The eastern margin of the geosyncline forma an i n t r i g u i n g topic f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Dr. McLearn (2) has call e d attention to the" main points of the problem: "Emergence of the eastern part of the C o r d i l l e r a n geosyncline, on the s i t e of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, followed and the Palaeozoic sed-iments were subject to erosion. It has not yet been established: (1) Just when the u p l i f t occured. (2) How high the sediments of the trough were u p l i f t e d . (3) What stage of erosion was reached by the end of T r i a s s i c time." Dr. Wickenden has shown (2): "that the Jurassic deposits i n the east, on the s i t e of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, are not e n t i r e l y marine, but that non-marine deposits are present as well, recording a marginal a l l u v i a l or d e l t a p l a i n there. This a l l u v i a l p l a i n does not appear to have been b u i l t out from the western border of the sea, l i k e those of the Cret-aceous, because no-non-marine Jurassic deposits have been found i n the west. Nor does i t appear to have been b u i l t out from the southwest. There remains the p o s s i b i l i t y that i t was b u i l t out from the eastern shores of the sea." It follows that•Cretaceous marine erosion of the eastern 20. shore l i n e was probably more ef f e c t i v e than subaerial plan-ation of the Shield l a n d l e s s . This would explain the lack d>f coarse e l a s t i c s along the eastern margin of the Upper Cretaceous deposits. Marine erosion, i t i s thought,would then re s u l t i n a broadjcoastal beach. There would tend to be a minimum of sediment formation because t h i s land-form would e f f e c t i v e l y maintain i t s e l f i n t h i s environment by destroying the power of wave cutting. The past discussion has dealt with, what the writer con-siders to be. the guiding p r i n c i p l e s of the geosynclinal sedimentary evolution. Next the Upper Cretaceous formations w i l l be examined i n d i v i d u a l l y , h i s t o r i c a l l y , and i n d e t a i l . Lea Park Shale The Lea.Park shale was named by Dr. J . A. A l l a n (1). It occurs t y p i c a l l y between Lea Park and Battleford on the banks of the North Saskatchewan River. The shale beds are o v e r l a i n by the Ribstone Creek formation. Downwards i t passes into calcareous shale of the Alberta formation. Dr. R.T.D. Wickenden (2) has divided the Lea Park formation into two zones. The Lower Lea Park i s characterized by the foraminifera Eplstomina caracolla which, he stated, indicated "general equivalence of t h i s part of the formation with the Milk River of Alberta." The Upper Lea Park zone contains the verneuilina bearpawensis Wickenden fauna and i s a Pakowki equivalent. Third and fourth Zones are added by the writer. The t h i r d i s the Lea Park sand with a mega-fossil fauna. The fourth zone i s marine shale and has been described i n the Muddy Lake (8) and Bata No. 16 (p. 27) well logs. It i s t y p i f i e d by carrying Haplophragmoides rugosa which was formerly ascribed to the G r i z z l y Bear shale. This r e v i s i o n of the stratigraphy of the Lea Park formation means that i n the Rush Lake well the thickness of the formation i s 1450 feet instead of 1140 feet as previously measured. (2). Dr. Nauss (14), working i n the Ver m i l l i o n area, found two u s e f u l f o r a m i n i f e r a l horizons i n the upper Lea Park. Th i r t y feet below the top of the Lea Park a new species of Bulimina was discovered. Two hundred feet below the top of the Lea Park a new species of Anomalina associated with Neobulimina canadensis. Cushman and Wickenden occured along with pyrite having an o o l i t i c - l i k e structure. He observes the "upper 200 feet consists of s i l t y shale containing plant fragments and nuculid pelecypods together with some gray clay-shale and t h i n lenses of fine-grained sand.W This description closely f i t s the uppermost Lea Park, studied by the present writer near the North Ba t t l e f o r d bridge, except that no f o s s i l pelecypod^s were found i n that l o c a l i t y . Cone-in-cone structures have not been described i n the l i t e r a t u r e on thi s area. They have been found marking the Pakowki-Foremost contact i n southern Alberta (29). The writer was impressed by t h e i r widespread occurence both i n 22. i n c i p i e n t stages and i n complete development i n surface outcrops of the Lea Park formation. The structures-were noted near Big Gully Creek, -alongside the road in S.E.1/4, se.28,, tp.43, rge.17, W.^rd mer., on a roadcut i n North Battleford, i n a cutbank of Battle River (center, sec.22, tp.44, rge.18, W.^rd mer.), and on the north bank of Battle River i n N.E.1/4, sec.11, tp.47, rge .25, W.Jrd mer. An example of the sequences of the structure and related strata measured on the north bank of Big Gully i s as follows: Sandstone, mottled rusty and grey. Top obscured. I 1 0" Sand, grey-green, f i n e to medium grain, massive. Farther east and underlying the above: 3 T 0" Sand, as above. 2" to 4|-" Band of cone-in-cone structure, very lensing, buff to cream. 4" "Ironstone", chocolate brown, aphanitie -grained, weathers out i n nodules and grades downwards into: trace to 14" Sandstone, hard, grey, f i n e grain, arkosic. 2" to 3" Cone-in-cone structure. 2" to 4" Shale, f r i a b l e , d u l l l i g h t grey, shattered texture. The most s t r i k i n g feature of the limestone cone-in-cone structure i s i t s association with the sand size e l a s t i c s as well as with shales. That i s , there seems to be no evidence to make us assume that the ease of sedimentation occured i n a sand, mud, 23 i limestone order. Nauss (14) accounts for the var i a t i o n i n the thickaess of the Lea Park formation i n two ways. He states: 1, "Sedimentation was slower i n the northeast where farther from sources of the shales. 2. The upper l i m i t of the Lea Park occured at higher stratigraphic l e v e l s on the northeast because marine conditions lasted longer there." These statements require modification as a r e s u l t of our new data. Present knowledge i s meagre regarding the sources of the Lea Park formation. Moreover, mere distances from a source terrane would not seem to be the only f a c t o r involved. The sediments were effected by marine transporting agencies, the rates of l o c a l and wide subsidences, and the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the lower contact surface. Further, because thinning of the Lea Park shale i s of f s e t - to a certain extent - by l o c a l thickenings of the Ribstone Creek sands, i t i s fundamental i that the reverse of Nauss* f i r s t statement would be more l i k e l y . At Hudson Bay O i l and Gas No.l ( l . s . j j , sec.8, tp.49, rge. 12, W.3*4. mer.) the Ribstone Creek formation measures 285 feet thick, the Lea Park shale 615 feet, or a t o t a l of 900 feet of s t r a t a . The thickness of the Ribstone Creek formation i n the Muddy Lake well i s not known - i t may be that i t i s not present, the Lea Park i s 995 feet i n depth. Some distance to the southward the Lea Park shale i n the Rush Lake well i s 1450 feet thick and a sand overlying i t , which may be a Ribstone Creek equivalent, i s 60 feet thick. 24 : There i s a considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the thickness of the shale but i t i s not shown that the Lea Park l a s t e d to a higher horizon on the northeast. Thickness has l i t t l e to do with the age of a stratum, index f o s s i l s w i l l aid i n dating times of deposition. Both at Muddy Lake and at Rush Lake the uppermost Lea Park, Haplophragmoides rugosa bearing, shales have been overlain by presumably Ribstone Creek equivalents during a nearly contemporaneous sedimentation of non-marine(?) beds. F i e l d descriptions of some t y p i c a l exposures of Lea Park shales follow: 1. Location: Center sec. 22, tp.44, rge . l 8 . A l t i t u d e : Battle River water l e v e l about 1560 feet. Cutbank on south side of Battle River. 35 ! Shale, (somewhat obscured), d i r t y medium grey(wet), hackly, blocky, disrupted crushed appearance. L o c a l l y stained with limonite and ochre. About 20 feet above water l e v e l there i s a ban.d of large (l£* by 4') concretions, buff to yellow, c i r c u l a r s p e l l i n g . - Appears to have cone-in-cone structure at top of concretions. One concretion i s a hard black calcareous rock v e r t i c a l l y veined with c a l c i t e . Outcrop continuous around meander. 2. Location: N.W.J, sec.36, tp.41, rge.15 A l t i t u d e : around 1550 feet. Roadcut. Estimated 50 feet above North Saskatchewan River. 5T plus Shale: banded at top. Yellow ( l i m o n i t i c ) and l i g h t grey 1". to 3" bants. One band of yellow brown clay ironstone, nodular-like. Hackly to f r i a b l e . In bottom part shale i s f r i a b l e , medium to dark grey, s l i g h t l y earthy. A l l somewhat distorted. Few minute black car-bonaceous specks or fragmentary plant remains. Trace of t i n y pockets of f i n e to medium quartz grains. Deltaic? 25. 3. Location: Center sec.17, tp .46, rge . l 8 A l t i t u d e : 1700 feet approximately. Meander on Turtlelake Creek. F i f t y foot high cutbank on east side. Lea Park Shale. Blocky to hackly, no bedding, medium to l i g h t grey, f r i a b l e . Few large concretions of s i l t s t o n e , medium grey. Well developed selenite c r y s t a l s . Baculites sp. 1» long. Local d u l l ochrous staining. 4. Location: N.W.£, sec. J l , tp .47, reg.19 Alti t u d e 1775 feet. South side of Highway 26, east bank of coulee. Lea Park Shale: moist, hackly, medium grey, oohrous. E l l i p s o i d a l concretions to 5 feet -buff and red-brown stained; c a l c i t e c r y s t a l s on fracture faces; s i l t s t o n e , limy,, some blue staining. 5. Location: N.E.§, sec.22, tp .48, rge.21 A l t i t u d e : about 1700 f e e t . West bank of North Saskatchewan River. 7to" D r i f t , small boulders. 5*0" Lea Park shale, f i n e l y hackly, rusty to ochrous. 3 f 6" Shale, more blocky, medium grey, hackly, some l i g h t yellow staining, i n small bands. l'O" Concretions, discontinuous. 10*0" Shale, much the same as above, but coarsely hackly, traces of ochrous staining on some bedding planes, l i g h t yellow stains. Selenite c r y s t a l s to 1". 20»0" Obscured 1'0'! Shale, medium to dark grey (moist), hackly. 65* Obscured to water's edge. Probably shale. 26. 6. Location: S.E . J , sec.4, tp . 4 6 , reg . 2 7 . A l t i t u d e : about l8j>0 f e e t . Roadcut between Unwin store and railway tracks. ? Loam 1* plus Shale, medium to dark grey, l i m o n i t i c , hackly to blocky. Contained a 6" angular block of hard, blue-grey sandstone, speckled with oriented carbonaceous p a r t i c l e s . Few small •"• pobkets of medium grain well rounded quartz sand. 7. Location: N.E . J , sec.28, tp . 4 6 , rge .27 A l t i t u d e : around 2000 feet. Near railway f i l l over coulee, 50 feet below tracks, south end of culvert. South end: 5*0" Boulder clay i n two bands. Lower l i g h t grey, upper medium grey. l f 0 " Gravel conglomerate, pebbled, medium grey. Post-Tertiary. 0'6" Sandstone, lensing, blue-grey concretions. ' Lea Park. 6 T 0' ' Shale, medium grey, blocky, f a i r l y well banded, some fine sand lense* with traces of red minerals. Opposite side (north of culvert): 12* plus shale, medium grey, brown on some bedding planes. Sand lenses to 2", f i n e grained. Shale has a conchoidal fracture, blocky, p y r i t i c . Pelecypoda f o s s i l s . Fine black and brown carbon-aceous material. Lea Park Sand A sand, sampled i n the Verbata No.2 well and cored i n the Bata No. 16 well, was correlated with a sand that had 2 7 . S T R A T I G R A P H I C S E C T I O N BATA P E T R O L E U M S N o . 16. Loca t ion : Sec £4,Tp. 41, Rge~ 2-4 W 3 r-d. m**-. Elevation: ie5o'±(K.B.) Scale. I U c h - IO Feet Compiled ^ r o m c o i - e s . Dt,«o- fp4- ion S h a l t , m u l l m M , f j ^ ' * * •*"•"•» S<-***r<J •»».•'»«•' - • * - nut). ^ 1 3«MU+W»*,«W«^. *~«« T V j j l i Mrn'Mki*. 21o' S t l a J * . , i »i»t»»V«. S«*4 ( l « i y < M , l > ^ 4 i i +» well w»«H) 28. been encountered within the Lea Park formation by wells near the 4th meridian. F i r s t mention of t h i s sand i s i n O i l and Gas i n Western Canada where Hume wrote: "In Rib-stone-Biaekfoot area d r i l l i n g has demonstrated the existence of two d i s t i n c t sandstone horizons separated by marine shales. The upper sandstone horizon i s at the base of the Ribstone Creek formation. The lower i s within the Lea Park formation, has a thickness of 50 to 70 feet, and i t s base i s 180 to 190 feet below the base of the upper or. Ribstone Creek sandstone. Both sandstones carry water, but apparently the positions of the_water horizons vary. The water well on the farm on Mr. Garton i n Sec.24, Tp .46, Rangel, W.4th Mer., from which gas was escaping f o r many years p r i o r to the discovery of the Ribstone structure, obtains both water and gas from the Lea Park sandstone. It was reported that the gas occured at a depth of 290 feet and the water at 315 f e e t . " In The Geology of East-central Alberta(10) further reference i s made to the sand: "In Ribstone area there i s a sand i n some wells 70 feet thick, the top of which i s 110 feet below what i s considered to be the top of the Lea Park formation. . . In V e g r e v i l l e U t i l i t i e s No.2 well, sec. 36, tp . 5 1 , rge.15, (W.3rd mer.), the top of the Lea Park formation i s with d i f f i c u l t y separated from the overlying Ribstone Creek beds. Sands al t e r n a t i n g with shales continue to a depth of 630 feet and at 500 to 570 feet the shales - contain foraminifera, below which i s a sand from 570 to 630 29 . feet with fragments of coal at 630 feet . . . In some wells, as at V e g r e v i l l e , the sand here included i n the Lea Park formation could have as r e a d i l y been included with the Rib-stone Creek formation. However, as i n every well examined marine shale i s known to occur above t h i s so-called Lea Park sand . . . the base of the Ribstone Creek formation i s drawn at the base of a sand that i s apparently present i n a l l wells. To the east of Ribstone area i n Saskatchewan, at Altoba No. 2 well . . . the Lea Park sand i s r e l a t i v e l y t h i n and prob-ably disappears eastward." At a much e a r l i e r date, i n 1925. the government geo-l o g i s t s (6) mapping surface outcrops of apparently Ribstone Creek sand remarked on i t s strongly contrasting f a c i e s thus : "0n Big g u l l y the f o s s i l i f e r o u s strat«a are assigned to the Ribstone Creek formation: (1) because the strata seem l i t h o l o g i c a l l y c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the sediments found i n t h i s formation elsewhere; and (2) because such an interp r e t a t i o n i s i n accord with what i s known concerning the regional structure. The data given above indicate that the Ribstone Creek Lea Park contact must dip eastward from Ribstone to the Canadian P a c i f i c railway section i n range 27, W.3rd mer., south of the Battle r i v e r . Coal i s reported to occur on the banks of Battle r i v e r south of Paynton, and an outcrop assigned to the Ribstone Creek was seen on the north bank of Battle r i v e r on the L i t t l e Pine and Lucky Man Indian reserve 3 0 . i south, of Maskwa h i l l i n tp .46, range 22, W.3rd mer. As the elevation of these occurances of the Ribstone Creek formation i s considerably lower than the exposures on the Canadian P a c i f i c railway track i n range 27, the dip must be considered to be eastward. This eastward dip i s also proved by the fac t that on Pipestone creek, a small t r i b u t a r y of Battle r i v e r flowing past Prongua, the base of the Ribstone Creek formation i s approximately at an elevation of1,620 feet, so that there i s an eastward dip of 220 feet between the Canadian P a c i f i c railway track exposures on range 27 and the exposures on Pipestone creek on range 18 - a distance of 60 miles. I f t h i s value of the dip i n an eastward d i r -ection be accepted as correct i t follows that the marine sediments i n township 47, ranges 25 to 27, already referred to, l i e above the base of the Ribstone Creek and consequently, as assumed for other reasons, must belong to the Ribstone Creek formation. The change eastward of the Ribstone Creek formation from non-marine on Ribstone creek to marine i n part i n township 47, ranges 25 to 27, would not be surprising i f the Ribstone Creek formation continued eastward as p a r t l y marine. There i s no evidence, however, that such i s the case, since on Pipestone creek near Prongua no marine f o s s i l s could be found and small coal seams have been reported. To the north, on Big g u l l y , there are many exposures of sands and sandstones carrying marine f o s s i l s , the same as those found i n township 47, 31. ranges 25 to 27. At one l o c a l i t y on the north bank of Big gully, on the west side of tp.49, range24, W.5rd mer., there i s a most unusual occurence of f o s s i l s i n many cases i n masses of 5 inches or so i n diameter, i n a sand so soft that i s may be scooped out of the bank by hand. The s h e l l s of Axinea sp. occur i n many cases with both valves attached and in perfect preservation; the s h e l l s have the s u p e r f i c i a l appearance of having undergone no change whatever since t h e i r deposition. Along with these s h i l l s was found a bac-u l i t e l e s s p e r f e c t l y preserved, although with i t was an oxy-toma s h e l l so thin that i t was transparent. It would appear from the number of unbroken shells with both valves attached that the s h e l l s had been engulfed i n the sand deposits, f o r i n a number of instances, although the i n t e r i o r of the s h e l l was f i l l e d with sand, the valves were closed. This i s considered good evidence f o r deposition i n s i t u , although the poorer preservation of the baculite might indicate transportation." Confusion of Lea Park sand with Ribstone Creek aand has been continuous into even the most recent stratigraphio work done i n the region. Wickenden(24), describing the Muddy Lake well log, writes: "the G r i z z l y Bear and Ribstone Creek formations are placed a r b i t r a r i l y on the basis of l i t h o l o g y and p o s i t i o n . " Dr. Sanderson directed the writer to examine the outcrops of sandstones along Pipestone Creek and Battle River. Dr. Sanderson surmised that these sandstones might be co r r e l a t i v e 32. with the sand cored i n Bata No. 16 and with the Lea Park sand near the 4th meridian. This was a c t u a l l y found to be the case and the regional geological map has been redrawn ( i n pocket.);. The o r i g i n of the sand has been proposed, e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper, as a delta sand which was redistributed by long shore currents to form a subaqueous near-shore s t r i p with possibly s p i t - l i k e extensions and embayraents. The sand has provided an environment favorable to marine l i f e . In one of the rock specimens collected, a piece of f o s s i l i z e d wood and Baculites sp. were found close together. This rules out the use of plant remains as ind i c a t i v e of a non-marine environment within t h i s sand. The wood might indicate proximity of the marine shore to a r i v e r mouth. Near North Battleford, lenses of sand which may be the extreme eastward fingerings of the Lea Park sand contain many carbonaceous plant fragments, which i s c e r t a i n l y suggestive of non-marine sedimentation. Further study i s necessary before the sands' complex o r i g i n can be stated with any certainty. Meteoric water enters the bed i n the region of the Battle r i v e r , and elsewhere where i t has not been sealed o f f by overlying shales, and, influenced by the formational dip and gravity, migrates southeastward, The Lea Park sand i s a splendid aquifer but, unfortunately, calcium carbonate of the cemented portions i s dissolved by the groundwater which becomes hard. The practice of sealing i t o f f with casing and cement i n a l l gas wells of the region prevents i t from 3 3 . flooding the gasiferous horizons. It i s suggested that, u n t i l a more complete section i s cored and recovered, the Bata No. 16 well l og be taken to represent the type stratigraphy. Some exposures of the Lea Park sand are described to furnish the reader with some idea of the va r i a t i o n of l i t h o l o g y within the beds: 1. Location:S.W.J, sec.6,tp.44,rge.l7. A l t i t u d e of Battle River 1,550 feet. Mouth of Pipestone Greek, and 300 feet north on Battle River. L o c a l l y slumped along cutbank. Strata: ? T i l l ? Shale, yellowish 3* (estimated) Clay, black (carbonaceous) and white interbeds. White phase i s perpendicularly jointed, trace of fine varves, extremely absor-bant to tongue. Bedding i s l e n s - l i k e and not sharply defined. grades downward into 20* Lea Park Sand and sandstone, somewhat blocky, extremely crossbedded and foreset from the west. Massive, Fine grained salt-and-pepper sand. Clean but.traces of limonite staining on some beds. Top of t h i s sand i s estimated at 30 to 33 'feet above the Battle River. The crossbedding may be aeolian i n part. 2. Location: center, sec.33, tp .43,rge . l8 34 A l t i t u d e about 1,800 feet. At Pipestone Creek bridge, 1/4 mile north of Prongua. Strata: 10* 0" Sandstone, banded on weathered surface. Some bands are peppered with black carb-onaceous material. Large (3* hy 1*) sandstone concretions at the top. Sandstone grains are fine to medium, sub-angular to sub-rounded, quartz and chert. Somewhat consolidated. Bands vary from 1/8" to 1/2", are flaggy and es p e c i a l l y prevalent below the concretionary l a y e r . Traces of a white mica-like mineral. Beds above concretions more laminated. Few 1" ironstone nodules i n lower part. . Outcrop i s limonite stained and weathers i n curves with p r a c t i c a l l y no f l a t tops but some f l a t overhangs. See Plate 11A. 3. Location: N.W.J, sec.1-9, tp .47, rge .20. Altitude about 1,730 feet. Small coulee. Exposure A. 1» 0" Lea Park sand, yellow, fine grain, few clay lenses, orange coloured nodules to 4", centres blue black. 1T 0 n Clay, d u l l ash grey, traces of l i g n i t e and carbonaceous material. 35. 4 T 0" Sand, massive, grey, f i n e to medium grain, subangular to subrounded. Exposure B: 30 feet south and 3 feet lower than the above exposure. ? T i l l l»0 r t Lea Park. Sandy clay, ashy texture, carbon-aceous. l*Bn Sand, mauve grey with a l a t e r a l gradation to chocolate brown, fine grained, subangular grains. 3*0" Sand, green-grey (moist), f i n e to medium grains, mostly quartz, salt-and-peppering. Contains twig-like limy molds to 1" wide. Exposure C: 100 feet south of bridge, roadcut 15 feet high. Lea Park sand. Medium grain, subrounded, s a l t -and-pepper, abundant green minerals. Massive, f a i n t bedding, mauve sandstone concretions at the top.. Near the base i s a l i g n i t i c lense, chocolate-brown, i n t e r -d i g i t e d with sandstone, i t tapers towards the south. V e r t i c a l lime f i s s u r e f i l l i n g s . 4. Location: N.E.J, sec.11, tp . 4 7 , rge.25 A l t i t u d e around 1,875 feet. Old cutbank on f i r s t terrace. 36. Strata: Post-Tertiary: 1T0" Gravel, r i v e r , Laurentian boulders to 4" ? Lineation of sandstone con-cretions to 2T long, Lea Park: 15'0" Sand, loose, yellow, quartz and chert, traces of green mineral, f i n e grained, subrounded. 3'0" Sandstone, rusty mottled and l i g h t grey, arkosic, f i n e grained coherent, Abundant chert peppered i n the altered feldspathic matrix. Contains concretions to 3 feet, e l l i p s o i d a l , l i g h t grey, arkosic, some spatterings of carbonaceous matter. Exposure 100 feet easterly: Lateral gradation within the Lea Park beds of upper(13 f) sand stratum to a 4 foot band of hard, l i g h t grey arkose from which "sandstone b a l l s " are derived. Contains concretions 4 to 4 feet long, dark grey to buff medium grain arkose. Another 23 f e e l easterly there i s : 1T0" post-Tertiary gravel overlying Lea Park 3 7 . 1 T0" Concretionary b e l t . Concretions to 4 feet long, fractured, c a l c i c , stained tan and white, i n t e r i o r s are chocolate brown peppered with fine chert. Enclosed i n a s i l t y sandstone. 2*6" Sand, s l i g h t l y mottled, s p l i n t e r y , coherent, yellow, f i n e grained, a r k o s i c , e Contains crude con-in-cone structure. Location N.E.J,sec .32,tp .43,reg . l6. A l t i t u d e : about 1600 feet. Roadcut 3/10 mile north of bridge (east end) on main highway. Outcrop 156 feet long. See Plate IIB. 4*0" Shale, reddish-yellow, hackly, rather massive. 1*0" Shale, yellow and grey, s i l t y , t h i n l y bedded. 0»3" Cone-in-cone structure associated l a t e r a l l y with ironstone nodules and concretions. 2 T0" Sandstone, beds and lenses, l i g h t grey, massive to t h i n l y bedded, fi n e grained, well consolidated. Contains 1/16" to 1/8" fragments of brown and black plant fragments. 0*10" Shale, earthy, massive d u l l brown. 0 1 4" Sandstone, f i n e grained, crossbedded. 0' 5" Sandstone concretions (grade l a t e r a l l y into a bed) f i n e grained; these one foot long concretions are enclosed by shale, d u l l grey brown, with a 38. disrupted crushed texture. l ^ l * ShaIe|oyellow, red, d u l l blue grey etc., abundantly crossbedded, grades downward into sandstone. l t O " Sandstone, weathers yellow. Fine black laminae probably of carbonaceous material. Mostly well rounded quartz grains. R e l a t i v e l y unconsolidated. 5*0" Shale, yellow, buff, red brown, medium grey laminae -|" to 2". Locally crossbedded on a fin e scale-directions of beds patternless, paper-thin black l i n e s . S i l t y to f i n e sandy* Blocky to coarsely hackly. Grades downward into s i l t s t o n e . Ribstone Creek Formation The Ribstone Creek formation was named by Mr. S.E. Slipper (19). The type area i s i n the v i c i n i t y of Wainwright, Alberta. Slipper described the formation as "greenish yellow, massive, soft sandstone at top, green and carbonaceous shales and coal, l i g h t grey sandstone at base," and considered i t to be of brac&ish water o r i g i n . Nauss (14) has studied the formation recently and he writes: "The lower contact of the Ribstone Creek sandstone i s gradational. The s i l t y shale of the Lea Park grades upward through laminated s i l t into the fin e sand of the basal Ribstone Creek," and he further states: "The Ribstone Creek i s divided into an upper and a 39. lower part by the Vanesti tongue. The contact between t h i s tongue and the lower Ribstone Greek i s sharp. The upper Ribstone Creek i s a t h i n sand member which i s about 40 feet thick near Mannville and thins eastward. It i s f a i r l y porous and i s the aquifer for numerous water wells i n the Vermillion area." 'Dr. Nauss* l i t h o l o g i c a l description: "This unit (Rib-stone Creek formation) consists l a r g e l y of medium-grained f r i a b l e sandstone. In many l o c a l i t i e s i t i s cemented with c a l c i t e into a hard gray slabby rock which weathers to a buff or l i g h t yellow colour," compares clos e l y with the outcrops along Blackfoot Creek. Comparison of the accompanying map with e a r l i e r survey maps w i l l show where the Lea Park sand had been included i n the Ribstone Creek formation. It i s not possible to t e l l the two sands apart by megascopic examination. The following exposures of Ribstone Creek beds were measured i n the f i e l d : 1. Location: N . E . J , seo.12, tp.42, ige .17 Railway cut, 750 feet south of section fence; at track l e v e l . Stratum: Sand, grey, weathers yellow, fine to medium grain, clean, quartz and chert; rather massive, loose, moist, with yellowish horizontal streaks; grains sub-rounded to rounded. 2. . Location: E. center, sec.14, tp.42, f g a . 1 7 A l t i t u d e : about 2 ,050 feet. 40. Exposure west side of Highway 4, roadcut. West of Porter. Strata: 2*0" Clay, lumpy, shaly, post-Tertiary. 2*0? sand, Ribstone Creek, white, clean, quartz, minor chert peppering. No coloured quartzes. Mostly fine-grained, some medium, Subangular to subrounded. Porous and moist. 3. Location: S. boundary, sec.34, tp.46, rge.27« A l t i t u d e : about 2,025 feet. On railway cut. Strata: 1*0", Sandstone, crossbedded, lensing, l i g h t grey, f i n e grain, arkosic, platy with 3/8". bedding planes. 3'0" Sand, yellow, fine-grained, s e l e n i t i c . Base obscured. 4. Location: N . E . J , s e c . l , tp.47, rgg.27 A l t i t u d e : about 2,060 feet. Northeast corner of section i n railway cut. Stratum: 15' Sand, l i g h t grey , grains angular to rounded, some reddish minerals. Contains large, brown weathering concretions of hard, blue sandstone. Grades l a t e r a l l y to a brown sand. 5. Location: Center, N . E . J , sec. 11, tp.47, rge.27. A l t i t u d e : about 2,075 f e e t . Ten feet above r a i l r o a d tracks on the north side. Stratum: 10» Sand, massive, fine-grained, quartz and chert, s l i g h t l y arkosic. 6. Location: N.E .J , sec.24, tp.46, rge.28 Altitude: about 2,150 feet Outcrop on the west side of the road. Strata: Post-Tertiary: l»'6f T i l l , earthy, boulders to 4". l'O" Ironstone concretions, beautiful concentric banding, rusty shades, some blrliish staining on one rock. 0 T 3" Gravel, Laurentian pebbles up to 2". 2*6" Sand, yellow,, fine-grained, a few scattered pebbles. Otjrt Gravel, Laurentian pebbles to ^" and ironstone fragments to 1" in a coarse, grey sand matrix. Overlies Ribstone Creek sand: 2l0rt Sand, yellow, massive fine-grained. 7. Location: S. end, sec.27, tp.46, rge . 2 8 . Altitude: around 1,950 feet. On the east bank of Blackfoot Creek. Strata: Post-Tertiary: ? T i l l , shaly, yellow and grey. Ribstone Creek: ? Sandstone, hard, platy, slumped. ltO" Sand, shaly, quartz and chert, grey and yellow. 8. Location: N.end, sec.22, tp.46, rge . 2 8 . Altitude: around 1,950 feet. On the bank of Blackfoot Creek. Strata: 3 t 0 1 1 Sandstone, hard, platy, yellow, salt-and-42*. pepper, arkosic, slumped. 1 T0" Sand, grey, fine to medium grain, subrounded, clean. G r i z z l y Bear Formation No known exposures of G r i z z l y Bear age occur i n the area . This formational name was given by S.E. Slipper i n 1917 for a, "dark blue, grey, marine shale, contains ironstone and sandstone nodules. Some beds of yellow incoherent sandstone" (19), surfaced near Wainwright, Alberta. Nauss(14) states: "The G r i z z l y Bear tongue i s absent west of Minburn and Fabyan, from where i t thickens eastward to a maximum of 110 feet. S t i l l farther east the sand bed d i v i d i n g the G r i z z l y Bear and Vanesti tongues probably disappears (log of Lloydminster No.3, Wickenden, 1941)". An outcrop of shale i n a railway cut on the N.E.1/4, sec. 29, tp.43, rge.18, a short distance west of Prongua had been thought to be of G r i z z l y Bear age (7). It i s now b e l -ieved t h i s shale belongs to uppermost Lea Park. The exposure consisted of two feet of shale, earthy, crumpled, d i r t y medium brown grey. There was a trace of medium grain, clean quartz, sand pockets; some chert; selenite (?) flakes; a few ironstone nodules. Mother-of-pearl fragments were scattered abundantly through i t , and some pieces of s h e l l s were uncovered but were to o f r a g i l e f o r c o l l e c t i o n . Tertiary(?) Deposits A deposit of questionable age was examined i n S.E. 1/4, 4 3 . sec. 15, tp .47, rge .25, on the north bank of the Battle River near water l e v e l . The sect ion vvwas: ? T i l l I'D" Sand, l i g h t grey, fine to medium grain, crossbedded, clean, channeled into underlying sand. 3 , 0" Sand, mottled, f i n e grain, yellow and grey. And close by there was: 8*0" Sand(sandstone), blue-grey, few scattered boulders to5", l o c a l carbonaceous bands with dips to 30°. Mixture of f o s s i l s : baculites, pelecypod^s, bone. The bone has been i d e n t i f i e d by Dr. I. McTaggart Cowan as belonging to the anatomy of the Family Bovidae. The beds have been derived i n part from Upper.Cretaceous rocks and are possibly either late T e r t i a r y or I n t e r g l a c i a l . However the slumping of g l a c i a l d r i f t onto Recent beds could give the same sequence, so at present t h e i r age remains undetermined. Pleistocene Deposits and History The Pleistocene history of t h i s region has not been worked out i n d e t a i l . The physiographic features,remnants' of the G l a c i a l time,include terminal and recessional moraines, ground moraines, sand plains of p r o - g l a c i a l lake beds, div-ersion channels and smaller coulees. S o i l s r e f l e c t the nature Of Pleistocene parent materials therefore the writer's map of g l a c i a l features i s substantially i n agreement with the S o i l Survey report (13). Post-Pleistocene deformation associated with the withdrawal of the ice-sheet would be r e f l e c t e d i n 44* i s o s t a t i c c r u s t a l balancing. These movements might possibly be able, under a large enough d i f f e r e n t i a l stress, to r e s u l t in structure building within the Lower Cretaceous gasiferous sands but the writer does not see how a stress large enough could be b u i l t up to activate doming afte r t h i s f a s h i o n . The thickness of the ground moraine varies a good deal throughout the area. It i s e n t i r e l y absent i n some parts but i s extremely deep i n others. Along Drummond Creek i t was seen to reach a maximum thickness for the leases. Hume and Hage (7) report i t up to 175 feet thick i n the v i c i n i t y of Cutknife v i l l a g e . No drumlin belts were recognized; a l l drumlin-like forms l a y roughly p a r a l l e l to what was the apparent g l a c i a l front. Widespread maraines were observed south of Hockhaven. The many random lakes i n township 41, range 16, are nested in morainal topography. Cooper Creek has the t y p i c a l i n t e r -locking spurs of Recent o r i g i n . It i s a p o s t - g l a c i a l adjust-ment to the physiography but has made l i t t l e progress i n draining the morainal b e l t . There was no water in the upper g u l l y at the time examined. Cooper. Creek v a l l e y varied from a 30 to 50 foot disection i n S.-E.i, sec. 9, tp.42, rge.l6, to a 50 to 75 foot deep gorge at the bridge i n S.E.f, sec.15, tp.42, rge.16. The creek bedwas bottomed with sandy gravel containing boulders less than 6 inches i n diameter. Although"in southern Saskatchewan . . . the Coteau a moraine appears to mark the l i m i t s of^late Wisconsin advance of the i c e " (12), the Eagle H i l l s do not seem to represent the terminal moraine, so much as a temporary depositional 45. zone of the impeded advancing ice-sheet. The H i l l s buffered the g l a c i a l front by decreasing i t s v e l o c i t y u n t i l the a l -titude differences hetween the North Saskatchewan River v a l l e y and the crest of the escarpment were brought to a common l e v e l by ice accumulation. Then the ice was able to advance south-westward along a "shearing plane" developed within the g l a c i e r mass at a horizon determined by flow outlets along /and above the Eagle H i l l s escarpment. A protective, stagnant phase or stratum of the continental g l a c i e r within the North Sask-atchewan v a l l e y would explain the absence of any great g l a c i a l deposits there. The most e f f e c t i v e stage of advance i n the area i s assumed, but not proven, to be la t e Wisconsin. Dr. Crickmay(10) has reported "two d i s t i n c t boulder clays of diff e r e n t character separated by s t r a t i f i e d sands...around Frog Lake i n the northeast corner of Kitscoty map-area" On the north bank of Big Gully Creek the following upright section was measured:' 5,»0" Gravel, sandy and clayey. 12'0" Gumbo t i l l , mostly clay with scattered pebbles. 4'0" Outwash: Laurentian boulders to 8"; sand matrix, grey with yellow specklings, mostly quartz, grains coarse up to small (1/8'!) pebbles, clean, porous, loose. No observable bedding. Base obscured. This sequence suggests two advances of the ice-sheet. Cross-sections of l a t e Pleistocene p r o - g l a c i a l lakes were mapped i n the course of thi s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These lakes had l a i n between the northern ice front and southern moraines 46. and an escarpment. Margins of 'the sands associated with these lakes have been mapped by the S o i l Survey and are i n -corporated i n Map No.2 of t h i s report. Meota 1 l i g h t textured s o i l i s associated with the san d h i l l region of Manito Lake and i s characterized by the sandy, stone free nature of the s o i l together with evidence of wind erosion. In sharp contrast i s the Blaine Lake medium to heavy textured s o i l s found east of Range 18, in the North B a t t l e -ford area. This i s a thi n deposit underlain by boulder clay. The difference between the Meota and the Blaine Lake sand types appeared to be, to the writer, one of degree and nature of weathering rather than of parent material. The east and north c l i f f s of Manito Lake are composed of g l a c i a l t i l l and on a small promontory, i n N.E. £ sec. 12, tp.44, rge.27. there i s an erosion remnant o u t l i e r of t i l l some 75 feet high. On the east side the remnant i s aproned by Laurentian boulders up to 4 feet in diameter. The beach p l a i n surrounding i t i s composed almost wholly of sands with only traces of gravel size p a r t i c l e s . The sand i s f i n e to coarse grained, contains quartz, reddish minerals, and micas, and i s angular to rounded. No Cretaceous sand exposures are known i n the area. It.would appear that most of the sand was derived from the breakdown of g l a c i a l deposits and by l a t e r cleansing by wind and water of much of th e i r clay materials. Manito Lake has lasted from l a t e Pleistocene time, when i t presumably extended southwestward into Alberta and southeastward into the Vera area, to the present. 1, Meota i s a s o i l t y p e - l o c a l i t y name. : • 47. I t i s not known when Lake Battleford was abandoned, but i t appears to have become dismembered soon a f t e r the North Sask-atchewan River re-occupied i t s v a l l e y . The lakes, Atten and Bushy, between Cutknife Creek and Battle River are the l a s t r e l i c s of Lake B a t t l e f o r d south of the Battle River. The early slackening of lacustrine and aeolian agencies i n the Battleford region l e f t those sands less worked over than the Manito sands, and explains s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the differences i n s o i l texture as a function of time. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Manito Lake may be deepening at the present time with loss of sand by shore dune formation and d r i f t . The v a l l e y of the North Saskatchewan River during Lake Battleford time i s of some importance. Apparently the pro-g l a c i a l lake was bisected by the v a l l e y (see map). Under lacustrine conditions the v a l l e y could not have been occupied by a r i v e r , therefore i t may have been f i l l e d by stagnant ice frozen to the sub-stratum. The North Saskatchewan River valley, which determined Lake Battleford bottom l e v e l , was ste a d i l y lowered during the melting of the ice and f i n a l l y the high l e v e l portions of the lake were abandoned. Varved'clays were seen at a few l o c a l i t i e s ; - near the northeast end of the North B a t t l e f o r d bridge; overlain by 1. Lake Batt l e f o r d : i t i s proposed that the indicated p r o - g l a c i a l lake be thus termed because of i t s location i n the v i c i n i t y of the Bat t l e f o r d s . 48* t i l l and underlain by Lea Park sand, 3.00*. feet' norths of the mouth of Pipestone Creek along Battle River; near S.E.£, sec.19, tp.43, rge.16, on the bank of Battle River; east end of Highway 40 bridge over the Battle River. These clays may be a l l that i s l e f t of a lac u s t r i n e deposit l a i d down i n an i n t e r g l a c i a l period. They do not appear to be related to the sandy p r o - g l a c i a l lakes. Diversion channels were adjustments i n drainage patterns brought about by the flood-waters of l a t e Pleistocene time. They served to carry away the overflow of waters from the pr o - g l a c i a l lakes. It has been advocated by Dr. L.F. Wi l l s (27) that: "The existence of these r i v e r v a l l e y s ( i n the United Kingdom) where no r i v e r now runs i s best explained on the assumption that mush of the i r excavation took place under tundra-conditions i n the Pleistocene; for i f the sub-soil were perennially frozen, these rocks would lose t h e i r permeability, and the thaw-waters and the r a i n f a l l would run of f at the surface. Probably also the greater p r e c i p i t a t i o n under G l a c i a l conditions would mean a higher water-table i n the rocks." The major channels encountered were the Marsden -Unwin channel, Buzzard Coulee, and possibly Battle River. It i s thought that water flowed from Manito Lake northwestwardly into the l i n e a r topographic depression near Marsden and northward to a Battle River outlet near Unwin. This i s a gorge-like feature which winds about considerably as i f o r i g i n a l l y controlled by an e a r l i e r v a lley, rather than formed a by a cutting back of p o s t - g l a c i a l channel. It i s characterized A 4 9 . throughout i t s length by gravel f i l l which was brought down from Manito Lake. Consequently the spillway's history may include piracy by Manito Lake waters, sudden deepening by flushing waters with deposition of sediments i n the Battle River gorge, l a t e r increased deposition along the channel i t s e l f , rejuvenation, and f i n a l l y abandonment. If the f i r s t floods from Manito Lake clogged up the Battle River v a l l e y below Unwin, or i f i t became ice-jammed a t that point, i t : i s possible that Buzzard Coulee may have been modified and become the normal drainage way for Battle River waters f o r a time. The l i n e up of the Marsden - Unwin channel with the upper part of Buzzard Coulee would suggest a genetic rel a t i o n s h i p . On the west bank of Cooper Creek, in sec.2, tp.42, rge.l6, an abundant spring flowed out of a Pleistocene sand and gravel bed. The water was issuing from a coarse grained sand that overlay a medium grained sand. It was tastele s s and odorless but appeared to be 'cementing gravels with c a l -cium carbonate. The water was numbing to the hand and f e l t to be near freezing temperature. Proximity of artesian water temperatures to the mean annual temperature of the region (35°F.) has been taken to ^ indicate deep seated ori g i n s (18). This was the only large spring seen i n the f i e l d . Regional Structure The Lea Park and Ribstone Creek formations l i e on the east limb of a very broad geosyncline. There i s , i n general, DRILL HOLES NUMBERED IN FIGURES 1 AND 2 1. Northwest lannville No. 1 2. Lloydminster Gas t e l l No. 2 3. Colony No. 2 4. Altoba Ho. 1 5. Altoba No. 2 6. Meridian No. 1 7. Ribstone Oils No. 2 8. Bat a Petroleums No. 16 9. Muddy Lake Well (Northwest Co..) 10. Grainlands Ltd. Water Well . 11. Lloydminster No. 3 12. Messander Royalties No. 1 5 1 . a low measurable dip to the west or southwest. Minor struc-tures have been developed contemporaneously with strata deposition, or have been superimposed on the formation, Lateral gradations in l i t h o l o g y prevent attempts to measure dips by surface surveys. Subsurface horizons prove to be the most useful from which to plot structure contours. The base of the Ribstone Creek i s of not much value i n such work, and even i f only used l o c a l l y i t may be misleading. The Lea Park sand might be useful i n the Bate lease areas for structure d r i l l i n g correlations (cf3). It would be essential to investigate i t s r e l a t i o n to the Lower Cret-aceous gas-bearing sands by means of convergence studies before an attempt to predict structure at depth could be made. It would tend to r e f l e c t only the post-late Lea Park deformations, however compaction,of underlying sediments would also e f f e c t i t . Foraminiferal studies are extremely r e l i a b l e f o r cor-r e l a t i o n of beds. If the species i s o l a t e d by Nauss from 30 feet and 200 feet below the top of the Lea Park are at a l l widespread they would be useable for shallow structure d r i l l i n g i n areas north of Muddy' Lake. Haplophragmoides  rugosa seems to be diagnostic of a thi n shale member extending (?) from Muddy Lake to Rush Lake. The d e f l e c t i o n of the North Saskatchewan River at North Battleford may r e f l e c t structure although normally we would not expect the r i v e r to be controlled by structure in a region of nearly horizontal s t r a t a . 5 2 i Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the structure present i n the surface and near-surface beds of the area. The structure of these beds does not conform very cl o s e l y with the structure of the Lower Cretaceous - Upper Cretaceous contact. The Ribstone Creek and Lea Park sands have an i n i t i a l dip as well as ac-quired deformational dips. Dr. Sanderson(l6) has pointed out: "The d r i l l i n g i n the Unity area has revealed another important feature that i s a l i t t l e s u r prising - that i s , the occurence of closed structures over l o c a l areas several thousand acres i n extent, the range of closure be|ng from 70 to 100 feet. The o r i g i n of such structures within t h i s vast area - nearly wholly lacking i n s t r u c t u r a l deformation - remains to be explained.'* The Battle River region i s only a short distance north of the Unity area and should be just as favorable s t r u c t u r a l l y , f o r gas traps. Dr. Nevin (15) has written: " I t should be remembered that a l l the e f f e c t s of actual u p l i f t could be given by a regional subsidence, during which l o c a l areas lagged behind." Deformed beds of Pleistocene deposits were commonly seen throughout the f i e l d area. Varved clays, on the roadcut near the east end of the North Battleford bridge, are crushed and folded (see Plate I I I ) . In the S.E.£, sec.25, tp.42, rge .17. Lea Park sands and shales are d i s t o r t e d and t i l t e d up to 30° but t h i s crumpling does not seem to be due to slumping. Ice action, either as the moving g l a c i e r front or as f l o a t i n g 53 : ice-bergs or as ice shove along p r o - g l a c i a l lake shores caused these minor structures (5). The aands and clays do not pppear to have been frozen at the time of deformation because the beds are p l a s t i c a l l y folded rather than competently faulted. 5 4 Palaeontology We are concerned mainly with palaeozoology. Coal and plant fragments occur in .the Lea Park and Ribstone Creek formations but no studies have been made of them. • Foraminifera are the most r e l i a b l e index f o s s i l s obtained from d r i l l cuttings of marine beds. These protozoa by a dispersal and maintenance of numbers together with species evolution characterize horizons i n the marine sediments. Later changes i n population often took place by extinction although opportunities f o r migration or adaptation were open. When a species occupies a wide geographical range and a narrow stratigraphic range i t becomes valuable f o r long distance c o r r e l a t i o n s . Nauss (14) has l i s t e d foraminifera species occuring i n the Lea Park formation within the Vermilion area. Wickenden (4,23,24,25,26) has studied species occuring i n the P r a i r i e Provinces but has not published complete check l i s t s . Dr. P.S. Warren (22) has expressed an opinion that Pholadomya subventricosa M. and H. i s the best index f o s s i l of t the Lea Park formation, and that Baculites ovatus Say, Baculites  ovatus var. haresi Reeside, Baculites aquilaensis Reeside, Baculites aquilaensis var. feeparatus Reeside are a l l "good" indic^es to the Lea Park. No megafossil indices are known from the Ribstone Creek formation but oysters are found i n at least one horizon. Dr. Hume (10) co l l e c t e d Baculites sp., Liopistha undata, Corbula? sp., and Protocardia b o r e a l i s Whiteaves from an exposure of the Lea Park shale on a r a i l r o a d embankment along the Battle River i n tp.45, rge.27, West 3rd meridian. 55 The following collections l i s t e d (10). as occuring i n the Ribstone Creek formation should be referred to the Lea Park sand: Sec. 21, tp.46, rge.24 Baculites cf grandis Sec. 9> tp.47, rge.25 Goniomya americana Oxytoma nebrascana Protocardia cf pertenuis Astarte sp. Baculites cf grandis Sec. 15, tp.47, rge.25 Pecten n. sp. cf s i l e n t i e n s i s Baculites cf grandis Sec. 36, tp .46, rge.27 Pecten a. sp. cf s i l e n t i e n s i s C a l l i s t a sp. Sec. 19, tp.49, rge.24 and sec.24, tp. 49, rge.25 on Big Gully: Axinea sp. 1 Oxytoma sp. Lunatria concinna Protocardia cf pertenuis Modiola meeki Baculites sp. Small c o l l e c t i o n s of f o s s i l s made by the writer were composed 0 f cephalopodas and pelecypode's. The species i d e n t i f i e d were: N. E . J , sec.22, tp.48, rge.21 on the bank of the North j Saskatchewan River from Lea Park shale: Baculites grandis H. and. M. South sec.16, tp .47, rge.25 on the north bank of the Battle River from Lea Park sandstone: Baculites ovatus var. haresi Reeside Pecten n.sp. cf s i l e n t i e n s i s Protocardia pertenuis (M. and H.) Pte r i a nebrascana (E. and S.) P t e r i a linguiformis (E. and S.) Inoceramus sp. adolescent. 56 A P P E N D I X LOGS OF DEEP WELLS No'rthe'as-tc; Mannville Well No. 1. Location: l . s . l , sec . l 8 , tp.50 rge.8, W.4th mer. Altit u d e (rotary table): 2,094 feet. Sample descriptions by Nauss (14, p.l609) Depth(feet) Birch Lake sandstone: Buff sand and oyster shells 0 - 1 0 Gri z z l y Bear tongue: Grey and buff shale and sandlO - 80 Upper Ribstone Creek format ion: Grey shale and coal 80 - 90 Coarse, grey sand 90 mm 110 Grey sand, some shale 110 - 120 Vanesti tongue: Grey shale 120 - 150 Lower Ribstone Creek f o r -mation: Coarse, grey sand 150 - 190 Fine sand and s i l t 190 - 230 Coarse sand 230 - 240 Fine sand 240 - 270 Lea Park formation: Grey shale, microfauna 270 Lloydminster Gas Well No. 2. Location: S.W.^ -, sec.12, tp .50, rge.28, W.Jrd mer. Altitude: 2,105 feet. Sample descriptions by Nauss (14, l6l6) 57 Depth (feet) G l a c i a l d r i f t : Grey clay and brown sand 0 - 150 Ribstone Creek: Greenish grey fine-grained sand 150 - 170 Lea Park Shale: Massive grey shale, m i c r o f o s s i l s and p y r i t e 170 - 950 Colony No. 2. Location: l . s . l 6 , sec.23, tp.49, rge .28, W.3rd.mer. Alt i t u d e 2,139 feet. Horizons from Hume and Hage (10) Depth to Ribstone Creek - Lea Park contact: 220 feet Sand i n Lea Park formation at 350 f e e t . Depth to Lea Park - Alberta formation contact: 1,020 feet, Altoba(Manitou) No.2. Location: l . s . 9 , sec.29, tp .47, rge .26, W.3rd mer. Altit u d e : 2,017 feet. Horizons from Hume and Hage (10) Depth to Ribstone Creek - Lea Park contact: 140 feet Depth to Lea Park - Alberta formations' contact: 910 feet Meridian No.l. Location: l . s . 4 , sec . l 6 , tp .43, r g e . l , W.4th mer. Alt i t u d e : 1,938 feet. Sample descriptions by Hume and Hage (10) Depth(feet) G l a c i a l d r i f t v 0 - 60 Lea Park formation: Grey shale, a l i t t l e sand 60 - JO 58 Grey shale, f o s s i l s h e l l s at 80 feet. 70 170 Lea Park sand: grey, shaly sand 170 200 Fine, grey sand 200 230 Grey shale 230 930 Alberta formation 930 Ribstone O i l s No.2 Location: l . s . 5 , sec.25, tp.46, r g e . l , W.4th mer. A l t i t u d e : 2,087 feet. Horizons from Hume and Hage (10) Ribstone Creek - Lea Park contact at a depth of 140 feet. Base of Lea .Park sand occurs at a depth of 320 feet. Lea Park - Alberta formations' contact at lj030 feet. Bate.Petroleums No.16 Location: l . s . , sec.24, tp.41, rge.24, W.3rd mer. Altitude:l , 9 2 3 feet (ground); 1.930 feet (Kelly bushing). Sample descriptions by Hughes : see graphic l o g . Location: l . s . 1 1 , sec.7 , t p . 3 9 , rge.2 2 , W.Jrd mer. A l t i t u d e : 1 , 8 9 4 feet; date, Total depth: Sample descriptions by Wickenden ( 2 4 ) . Formation boundaries by Hughes, 1 9 4 7 . Muddy Lake Well (Northwest Co,). 59 Depth (feet) Missing 0 - 40 Be l l y River beds Shale, sandy, l i g h t grey; coal fragments 40 - 70 Missing 70 - 80 Coal, l i t t l e shale 80 - 90 Shale, medium to l i g h t grey, some sand and coal 90 - 150 Missing 1 150 - 165 Lea Park formation Shale, medium grey, Haplophragmoides rugosa To"5~- 250 Lea Park sand equivalent. Shale, sandy, medium grey, glauconitic 250 - 300 Missing 300 - 540 Shale, medium grey 340 - 550 Shale, dark buff and grey, Verneuilina sp. 550 - 56O Shale, medium grey 5&0 - 570 Shale, dark buff and grey 570 - 660 Shale,medium grey 660 - 850 Wickenden's Lower Lea Park zone: Shale, medium grey, but darker than above ; Epistomina caracolla 850 - 1,150 Alberta formation: white speckled, calcareous shale. Grainlands Ltd. Water Well Location: N.W.^ , sec.34, tp.40, rge.20, W. 3rd mer. Al t i t u d e : 2,190 feet; date, 1914. Total depth: 226.5 feet Sample descriptions by Carter and Smith, Consulting Mining Engineers, Toronto, and Hume and Hage, (7) 60 Thickgness Depth (feet) Surface s o i l and yellow clay 16 16 Gravel with water 1 17 Blue clay ' 2 3 40 Sand and Blue clay 69.5 109.5 Fine sand with water 1.5 111 Blue clay 14.5 125-5 Sand and gravel (3 inches pebbles), water 1 126.5 Considered to be the base of the d r i f t . Sand and clay 65.5 192 Fine sand, t h i n seam of coal (possibly 6 inches to 1 foot thick; water) 3 195 Blue clay with fine sand 208 Blue clay (water shut o f f by casing) 6 214 Dark chocolate clay with f i n e sand and small pieces of coal 3 217 Blue clay with thin seams of coal 1/16" to 1/4" thick 5 222 E.ine grey sand; flow of water. Water rose to 6 feet from the surface 4.5 226.5 Top of Ribstone Creek formation considered by Hughes to be near an elevation of 1,968 feet. At 222 feet deep. Lloydminster No.3* Location: l . s . l 6 , sec.26, tp .49, rge .28, W.3rd mer. Alt i t u d e : 2,120 feet Sample descriptions by Wickenden (25) and Hume and Hage (10). Depth (feet) Missing 0 - 80 Shale, some glauconite. G r i z z l y Bear? 80 - 100 Water from 95 to 112 f e e t . 61 Shale, sandy, medium grey. Traces of plant remains. Ribstone Creek? Water 160 - 16? feet. 1G0 - 200 Cement - traces of shale? Water from 217 to 220 200 - 230 Lea Park, upper member. Foraminifera. 230 - 760 Lea Park, lower member. Epistomina oaracolla. 760 - 1,010 Messender Royalties No.l. Location: l . s . l , sec.21, tp .45, rge.18, W.3rd mer. Elevation: 1,863 feet. Total depth: 2,020 feet Sample descriptions not reported. Rush Lake Well Location: l . s . 2 , sec.20, tp .19, rge.11, W.3rd mer. Alt i t u d e : 1,750 feet approximately. Sample descriptions by Hume (8) Formation boundaries by Hughes (1947) Thickness Depth (feet) D r i f t 20 20 B e l l y River beds(?) Shale, medium grey 20 40 Missing 10 50 Sand, grey, pepper and sa l t 20 70 Sandy shale, medium to l i g h t grey 40 110 62 Lea Park formation: Shale, medium grey; gas at 318 feet. Haplophragmoides rugosa fauna 230 340 Sand, medium grey; l i t t l e shale 10 350 Sandy shale, brownish grey 50 400 Sand, f i n e grained 20 420 Shale, somewhat sandy, medium grey . 490 910 Shale, Epistomina caracolla 650 1560 63 LITERATURE CITED 1. A l l a n , J.A* Sections along North Saskatchewan River and Red Deer and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Between the Third and F i f t h Meridians; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1917 pt.C, pp.9-1?. 2. Fraser, F.J., McLearn, F.H., etfal. Geology of Southern Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv.,.Canada, Mem. 176 (1935) 3. Furnival, G.M., and Tpv e l l , W.M. Structure d r i l l i n g i n o i l exploration, Southern Alberta; C.I.M.M. Trans., vol.48 pp.726 - 744 (1943) 4. Furnival, G.M., Cypress Lake Map-area, Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.242 (1946) 5. Hopkins, O.B. Some Structural Features of the Plains Area of Alberta Caused by Pleistocene Glaciation; Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , vol.34 pp.419-430 (19-32) 6. Hume, G.S. O i l prospects i n the v i c i n i t y of Battle River at the Alberta - Saskatchewan bound-ary; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1925, pt.B, pp.1 - 13. 7. Hume, G.S., and Hage, CO. Preliminary report, Eagle H i l l s A n t i c l i n e , Battleford Area, Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Paper 3 5 - 3 . 8. Hume, G.S* O i l and Gas i n Western Canada; Geol. Surv., Canada, Econ. Geol. Ser. No.5 (1933) 9. Hume G.S. and Hage, CO. The Lloydminster Gas and O i l Area, Alberta and Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada Paper 4 0 - 1 1 . 10. Hume, G.S. and Hage, CO. The Geology of East-central Alberta; G§ol, Surv., Canada, Mem, 232 (1941) 11. I l l i n g , V. C. Geology applied to petroleum; The O i l Weekly, Houston, Texas, August 2 6 , 1946. 64 12. Johnston, W.A., and Wickenden, R.T.D. Gl a c i a l Lake Regina; Trans. Roy. S o c , Canada, 3rd. ser., vol.24, sec.4, pp.41-4.9 (1930) 13. M i t c h e l l , J . , Moss, H.C, and Clayton, J.S. S o i l Survey of Southern Saskatchewan; S o i l Surv. Rept. No. 12, College of Agriculture, Univ. of Sask., June, 1944. 14. Nauss, A.W. Cretaceous stratigraphy of Vermilion area, Alberta, Canada; B u l l . A.A.P.1G., vol . 2 9 , no. 11, pp. 1605 - 1629 (Nov. 1945) 13. Nevin, CM. P r i n c i p l e s of Structural Geology; John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1931. Second Edi t i o n , 1936. < 16. Sanderson, J.O.G. Progress of petroleum geology i n Western Canada to 1945; C.I.M.M. Titans. vol.49, pp. 256 - 266 (1946) 17. Schuchert, C. and Dunbar, CO. Outlines of H i s t o r i c a l Geology; Wiley New York, 1941. 18. Simpson, H.E. Groundwater Resources of Regina, Sask-atchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1929, pt. B, pp.65 - H I ; 19. Slipper, S.E. Viking Gas F i e l d ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summary Rept. 1917, pt.C, pp. 6 - 9. 20. Warren, P.S. O i l and Gas Prospects i n Central Sask-atchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Summary Rept. 1929, PP. 40 - 47. 21. Invertebrate Palaeontology of Southern Plains of Alberta; B u l l . A.A.P.G., v o l . 15, PP. 1283 - 1291. 22. The Fauna of the Lea Park Shale: Royal Canadian Inst., Trans., vol.- 20, pt . 2 , p.225 (1935) 23. Wickenden, R.T.D. The New Species of Foraminifera from the Upper Cretaceous of the P r a i r i e Provinces; Trans. ROY. S o c , Canada, 3rd. ser., v o l . 26, sec.4, pp.85 - 91 (1932) 65 24. 25. 26. 27. W i l l s , L. J . 28. Williams, M.Y. 29. Notes on some deep wells i n Saskatchewan: Trans. Roy. S o c , Canada. 3rd. ser., vol .26 sec.4, pp. 177-196 (1932) Cretaceous Marine Formations Penetrated i n Wells near Lloydminster, Saskatchewan; Trans. Roy. Can. Inst., vol23, pp. 147 -155 (1941) Mesozoic Stratigraphy of the Eastern Plains, Manitoba and Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.239 (1945) The Physiographical Evolution of Great B r i t a i n ; Edward Arnold and Co., London (1929) Land Movements and Sedimentation; B u l l . Geol. Soc. America, vol . 4 3 , pp. 993 - 1002 (1932) and Dyer, W.S. Geology of Southern Alberta and Southwestern Saskatchewan; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.163 (1930) MAPS Geol. Surv., Canada; Dept. of Mines and Resources: Geology. Fort P i t t (Sask.), East ha l f , Map 489A West half , Map 490A Battleford(Sask.), East half, Map 491A West half, Map 492A Ribstone Creek (Alberta) PLATE I r i A. L'orainal topography between Prongua and Liride-quis-t,looking east fron knob i n S.W.£, sec.35, tp.43, rge.18, W.3rd mer. r ^ B. Looking west over a l k a l i lake toward Prongua below Eagle K i l l s skyline, from S »W»£> sec.35, tp.43, rge.18, W.3rd raer. PLATE II A. "Lea Park sandstone" alongside Pipestone Creek bridge, north from Prongua. B. Sandstone beds in the Lea Park shale near North Battleford, N.E.-£, sec.32, tp.43, rge.16, ',7.3rd mer. PLATE I I I Disto r t e d varved c l a y beds near North B a t t l e f o r d , N.E.-J, sec.3 2 , t p . 4 3 , rge.16, 7 . 3 r d mer. I Ooo' G E O L O G I C A L D E P T . ~3 53od L E G E N D U P P E R C R E T A C E O U S P I P C H L A K E F O R M A T I O N ? R I B S T O N E C R E E K F O R M A T I O N ' L E A P A R K F O R M A T I O N S - ' i - id Qnd « a n d s t o n e . R o c k o u t c r o p s v i S i * Erosion e s c a v - p m e n ' t 5u»jb and k«obs P l a t D ^ i e s , s u n d U i l l s V a K v e J cla«j b e d s S a n d of ^kdv«l o l«po*i+'i ) i»i4"« o f po»"V - Gi I i i c » a I B o K C - h o l e foK o ' l o r S Intc»-n-»i+-i"en+ l a k e <md sfvedm P q ^ a l l e l o f U - r . t u d e F o s s i l l o c d l < " t j Mo mama I zone /I 4 A / A ' b 3 9 Q 53 ° o o b 110 oo' N O R T H — B A T T L E F O R D c o l e I m c h t o A m i l e s A » a. • o P R E L I M I N A R Y M A P B A T T L E R I V E R A R E A W E S T C E N T R A L S A S K A T C H E W A N C o m p i l t d I94 fc 1911 lOoo' O BH G E O L O G I C A L D E P T . "3 53°oo' L E G E N D U P P E R C R E T A C E O U S PIPCH L A K E F O R M A T I O N ? R I B S T O N E C R E E K F O R M A T I O N R o c W cx-'TCKops V i s i t e d S I ' ^ ' H ' j u i n o l u l a ' V i n ^ E r o s i o n e s c a v p m c n t >^u^ :> a n d k n o b s F l a t D«oeb , i u n d k i l l * V d K V e d cla«j b e d s S a n d o r ^ v d v « l o i e p o& i ' T s , i n + e * - -ov- po*"^" - G I a c i a l I n f c t - w i + + c n + l a k e c i n d s + v e a m P a r a l l e l U f . T u d e . F o s s i I I o c cl I > \~ y M o r r a i n a l zone D i v e r s i o n c h a n n e l M d v ^ i n s °£ d e p o s i t s a s s o c i a t e d u / iVn. l a f * P l * i * T o e * . w c , laU«< /I 4 A/ 4T 53°od S c a l e I i n c h +o 4 m i l e s 4 » a. i o P R E L I M I N A R Y M A P B A T T L E R I V E R A R E A W E S T C E N T R A L S A S K A T C H E W A N C o m p i l e d I 9 4 fc S A S K A T C H E W A N , C A N A D A Canaim jflepartmcnt of Jflincs ano Resources H O N O U R A B L E T. A. C R E R A R , Minister; C. C A M S E L L , Deputy Minister S U R V E Y S A N D E N G I N E E R I N G B R A N C H J M W A R D L E , D i r e c t o r (Fort Pitt—317) S1XTIONAL S H E E T N ° 2(>7 S^te, R- 16 i08°15' R.I4 'ISjoeoaf 110*00' J R. 17 108°15' R.| 6 Reprinted.1938 (Tnimpiiitf Lake—217) T H E D E C L I N A T I O N O F T H E C O M P A S S N E E D L E J A N U A R Y , 1 9 2 8 Reference Reference Ra i lway , steam, dpub le track . . o g i e . ™ * aaa sta, or s lop DIAGRAM OF TOWNSHIP l l0"OO' l O B ' o o T h e d e c l i n a t i o n o l t h e c o m p a s s n e e d l e at any p l a c e a l o n g a red l i n e is the d e c l i n a t i o n g i v e n o n that red l i ne . A t o the r p l a c e s t h e d e c l i n a t i o n i s b e t w e e n t h o s e g i v e n o n t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g r e d l i n e s ; t h u s at t h e p l a c e m a r k e d A , b e c a u s e it i s h a l l w a y between the two red l i n e s m a r k e d N . 23' E. a n d N . 2 4 * E - . the d e c l i n a t i o n o l the c o m p a s s n e e d l e i s N . 2 3 * 3 0 ' E . The d e c l i n a t i o n ot t h e c o m p a s s n e e d l e is d e c r e a s i n g 7 m i n u t e s a n n u a l l y . e lec t r ic R o a d , c l a n I, t runk road „ „ 2. secondary thoroughfare -„ „ 3. tecal road w e l l t rave l led _ „ „ 4 . „ „ s l i gh t l y t ravel led P a c k trai l or pa th , Telegraph or te lephone T T T T T T T T T T T . T T „ „ „ along r o a d , — T - - T -Power transmission l ine | i • • i . • M . Non -perenn ia l stream ^ — - T " 1 * ^ — C a n a l , i r r igat ion / Dra inage d i tch F a l l F a l l t | | „ ^ R a p i d G l a c i e r A lkal ine flat WEST OF THIRD MERIDIAN Scale 8 m i l e s t o 1 i n c h or L:190,080 Miles 1 () 5 10 Mi l.s M a r s h . b o g o r o p e n m u s k e g ... W o o d e d m u s k e g o r s w a m p N o n - p e r e n n i a l l a k e S a n d W o o d . Post o f f i ce T.legt«ph o f f i ce B u i l d i n g C h u r c h Compiled, drawn and printed at the office oft/ie Surveyor General, Ottawa, July, 1928, from surveys by the Topographical Survey of Canada; and from information supplied by Dominion and Provincial Departments and by Railway Companies. Revision of map of March, 1915 Contour interval 50 feet Datum is mean sea level Highway routes 4 0 , etc. Price 25 cents. In folder form or linen backed 50 cents. S c h o o l JT Elevator ® M i n e or quarry W C o n t o u r * Depress ion contour < f """*""• , ' . Height m feet 2 0 5 0 D e p t h m feet 10 Tr iangulat ion stat ion _ A G a r a g e _ _ 6 7> 


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items