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A petrographic study of the relationship of the Timiskaming [sic] to Grenville subprovince Johnston, William George 1947

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A PETROGRAPHIC STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE TIMISKAMING TO GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE  BY  WILLIAM GEORGE.JOHNSTON  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the. Degree o f MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE  i n the Department  of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. APRIL 1947  4~/74-7.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r i t e r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e and guidance r e c e i v e d from Dr. H.C. Gunning o f t h e Department o f Geology and Geography under whom t h i s t h e s i s was a t t e m p t e d . A s s i s t a n c e from o t h e r members of t h e s t a f f o f the Department of Geology and Geography  i s also  gratefully'acknowledged,  and a l s o t h e r e c e i p t o f two specimens o f K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e from Dr. E.L. Bruce of the" Department University, Kingston, Ontario. '  o f Geology, Queen's  ABSTRACT A s t u d y o f the g r a n i t i c r o c k types a l o n g the C o n t a c t of the Tiralskatning and G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e s t o t h e e a s t of l a k e Timagami has been made.  I n the v i c i n i t y o f the  c o n t a c t o f the two s u b p r o v i n c e s i n the g r a n i t e s o f t h e G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e i s a wide zone o f f a u l t i n g near  which  the r o c k s show, wide spread c a t a c l a s t i c t e x t u r e due t o -  crushing.  I n t h i s area t h e g r a n i t e i n the G r e n v i l l e sub-  p r o v i n c e i s v e r y d i s t i n c t from the Algoman g r a n i t e o f t h e Timiskaming  s u b p r o v i n c e and l a t e r than i t .  The g r a n i t e i n .  the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e i s much f r e s h e r than t h e Algoman g r a n i t e and u n l i k e the Algoman i s h i g h i n p o t a s h f e l d s p a r as d e t e r m i n e d b y R o s i w a l a n a l y s e s . r e s p e c t s i t s t r o n g l y resembles  I n the l a t t e r and o t h e r  the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e i n  Pardo and Dana townships and t o the s o u t h a l o n g t h e n o r t h shore o f l a k e Huron.  I n S i s k township i t c o n t a i n s a r a t h e r  r a r e amphibole h a s t i n g s i t e which i s a l s o found i n the C r e i g h t o n g r a n i t e of K i l l a r n e y age.  CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION  -  1  SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE  5  PRESENT WORK  12-  FIELD OBSERVATIONS  , 1 3  , TIMISKAMING SUBPROVINCE  13  CONTACT ZONE  14  • GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE LABORATORY STUDY  14  .  16  ALGOMAN INTRUSIVES  16  INTRUSIVES IN.THE GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE  17.  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ALGOMAN AND THE GRANITE OF GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE  19  COMPOSITIONAL DIFFERENCES  20  RELATION BETWEEN THE ALGOMAN AND GRENVILLE INTRUSIVES  26  CORRELATION OF THE GRANITE I N THE GRENVILLE WITH THE KILLARNEY GRANITE  27  THE PRE TIMISKAMING GRANITE  27  CONCLUSIONS  29  ILLUSTRATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY "• MAP IN BACK POCKET.  .  32 40  1 •A PETROGRAPHIG STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE TIMISKAMING TO GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE. INTRODUCTION The c o n t a c t between the Tiiniskaming and  Grenville  g e o l o g i c a l s u b p r o v i n c e s of the Canadian s h i e l d i s a f a i r l y s t r a i g h t l i n e , t r e n d i n g n o r t h - e a s t from K i l l a r n e y on G e o r g i a n Bay t o the f o o t of l a k e T i m i s k a m i n g , and beyond as f a r as mapping has been c a r r i e d o u t .  ( F i g u r e , page  2.)  The n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the Timiskaming s u b p r o v i n c e i s l a r g e l y " g r a n i t e " w h i c h c o n t a i n s i n i t bands o f K e e w a t i n and Timiskaming s e r i e s c l o s e l y f o l d e d a l o n g e a s t west a x e s . the  K i r k l a n d Lake a r e a and t o the e a s t t h e s e s e r i e s  In  appear  c o n f o r m a b l e ; however at P o r c u p i n e t h e r e i s a v e r y d e f i n i t e u n c o n f o r m i t y , as a l s o e x i s t s between r o c k s c l a s s e d as Keewatin and Timiskaming i n n o r t h - w e s t e r n O n t a r i o .  The  Keewatin i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y composed of l a v a ' a n d p y r o c l a s t i c s i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h minor amounts of i r o n f o r m a t i o n and sediments.  clastic  The Timiskaming s e r i e s i s made up of some con-  g l o m e r a t e , c l a s t i c sediments and l a v a s . n o r t h o f l a k e Wanapetei  I n t h e - a r e a t o the  and t o t h e west o f l a k e Timiskaming  the -above r o c k s are o v e r l a i n by the C o b a l t s e r i e s composed of c o n g l o m e r a t e , s l a t e c o n g l o m e r a t e , and s l a t e o v e r l a i n by quartzite.  I n the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the a r e a the S t o b i e ,  C o n i s t o n and H i l l groups may Timiskaming.  c o r r e s p o n d t o the K e e w a t i n and  These r o c k s are thought t o be  a l t h o u g h t h i s i s not a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n .  pre-Huronian  The S t o b i e and  C o n i s t o n groups t o the south of the Sudbury b a s i n are f a u l t e d  upward a g a i n s t the Bruce s e r i e s the l o w e s t member o f the Huronian.  The t h r e e members o f the H u r o n i a n ,  the Bruce,  and Whitewater a r e s e p a r a t e d by u n c o n f o r m i t i e s .  Cobalt  Intrusive  r o c k s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the Nip-is s i n g d i a b a s e and the Sudbury n i c k e l e r u p t i v e , b o t h , o f which a r e c u t by the Killarney granite.  The l a t e s t Igneous r o c k i s an o l i v i n e  d i a b a s e w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by s m a l l but wide-spread  dykes.  TABLE OF FORMATIONS OF THE TIMISKAMING SUBPROVINCE NORTHERN PORTION  SOUTHERN PORTION MODIFIED AFTER COOKE O l i v i n e diabase Trap (dykes) K i l l a r n e y , Murray Keweenawan and C r e i g h t o n granites N o r i t e and M i c r o pegmatite Whitewater s e r i e s Period of erosion  O l i v i n e diabase N i p i s s i n g . diabase  Upper Huronian (Animikie)  .  Olivine'diabase B i r c h Lake G r a n i t e ? Nipissing  diabase  Intense f o l d i n g p o s s i b l y g r a n i t e intrusion. Cobalt Series  M i d d l e Huronian  '  - C o b a l t "Series  Unconformity Lower Huronian  -  Bruce S e r i e s .  Pre-Huronian Matachewan d i a b a s e Algoman g r a n i t e Intense f o l d i n g Timiskaming  Granite i n t r u s i o n , probably  Series  S t o b i e Group,  Local unconformities Keewatin  folding  . H i l l Group =  C o n i s t o n Group.  A d e t a i l e d account  o f the geology o f t h e G r e n v i l l e  s u b p r o v i n c e w i l l n o t be attempted  here.  I t w i l l suffice to  say the r o c k s o f t h a t s e r i e s i n the a r e a under d i s c u s s i o n a r e composed o f b i o t i t e and hornblende  g n e i s s e s which have i n  some p l a c e s been i n t i m a t e l y i n t r u d e d i n l i t - p a r - l i t f a s h i o n by g r a n i t i c m a t e r i a l .  G n e i s s i c , p i n k and g r e y g r a n i t e s o c c u r  at M a r t i n r i v e r and e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g t h e c o n t a c t between t h e two  subprovinces. The  interest.  southern.portion of this contact i s of p a r t i c u l a r To the e a s t o f i t the H u r o n i a n  sediments which  c o n t i n u e 500 m i l e s t o the west and r e a c h t h i c k n e s s e s o f 23,000 f e e t suddenly d i s a p p e a r d i a g o n a l l y a c r o s s t h e i r  strike  a g a i n s t a g r e a t area o f g r a n i t e g n e i s s s e p a r a t i n g t h e r o c k s of the Timiskaming  subprovince  from those o f the G r e n v i l l e  and H a s t i n g s s e r i e s , o c c u r i n g i n g r e a t e s t p r o f u s i o n some 150 m i l e s to. t h e s o u t h - e a s t .  Attempts t o c o r r e l a t e the r o c k s  a c r o s s t h i s area have so f a r f a i l e d as the s e d i m e n t a r y remnants i n t h i s i n t e r v e n i n g g r a n i t e a r e t o o h i g h l y metamor-: phosed.  S i n c e a c o r r e l a t i o n o f the sediments i s i m p o s s i b l e  the r e l a t i v e ages o f t h e g r a n i t e i n each s u b p r o v i n c e  might  shed some l i g h t on the r e l a t i v e ages o f t h e o t h e r r o c k s . A l l p r e v i o u s work toward  s o l v i n g t h i s problem has been done  from G e o r g i a n Bay as far. n o r t h as Sudbury.  The work done by  the w r i t e r i s based on f i e l d work f a r t h e r n o r t h - e a s t the boundary o f the two s u b p r o v i n c e s trans-Canada Railroad.  along  i n the v i c i n i t y of the  Highway and t h e Timiskaming  and N o r t h e r n  Ontario  5  SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE Many c o r r e l a t i o n s between the G r e n v i l l e and s u b p r o v i n c e s have been* proposed.  Timiskaming  I n 1907 M i l l e r (1) page 49  and (3) page .221-223 s t a t e s t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d the Keewatin i r o n formation at Cobalt p a r t of the G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s was much b e t t e r developed a d j a c e n t parts, of Quebec.  which  i n s o u t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o and i n t h e He c o n s i d e r e d the o v e r l y i n g  H a s t i n g s s e r i e s i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n O n t a r i o as b e i n g s i m i l a r t o the Hurohiah. set  M i l l e r and K n i g h t (3) page 281 and 1913 (4)  f o r t h much the same c o r r e l a t i o n .  They c o r r e l a t e d a  s e r i e s o f ' v o l c a n i c s i n the' Madoc d i s t r i c t w i t h the Keewatin. They b e l i e v e d the G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s o v e r l a y t h e Keewatin and the two were s e p a r a t e d by an e r o s i o n a l u n c o n f o r m i t y .  Both  had been i n t r u d e d by the L a u r e n t i a n g r a n i t e and were o v e r l a i n unconformably  by the H a s t i n g s s e r i e s l a t e r i n t r u d e d by the  Algoman . g r a n i t e . classification. in l i t - p a r - l i t  G e o l o g i s t s (5) f o r some years f o l l o w e d t h i s The g r a n i t e which had i n t r u d e d the sediments  f a s h i o n was c a l l e d L a u r e n t i a n w h i l e t h a t i n  l a r g e r dykes and s t o c k l i k e masses was c a l l e d Algoman. work by W i l s o n (6) and H a r d i n g  Later  (7)- has shown t h a t the G r e n v i l l e  and H a s t i n g s a r e r e a l l y a conformable  group and t h a t t h e r e i s  p r o b a b l y o n l y one g r a n i t e i n t h e G r e n v i l l e  subprovince.  While t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the age r e l a t i o n s between  References  r e f e r t o t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y , page  40  6 the Timiskaming  and G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e s was t a k i n g p l a c e  the f a c t t h a t a p o s t Huronian  g r a n i t e e x i s t e d on the n o r t h  shore o f l a k e Huron was e s t a b l i s h e d . a' post Huronian  g r a n i t e i n 1849.  Murray (8)had d e s c r i b e d  Later geologists dis-  c r e d i t e d h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s ; and i t was n o t u n t i l 1925 t h a t ' C o l l i n s showed Murray's o b s e r v a t i o n s were the a c t u a l case. i  The  o n l y r e a l endeavour t o s o l v e the problem o f t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two s u b p r o v i n c e s was c a r r i e d out by Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s  ( 9 ) , who mapped a l a r g e area on the n o r t h  shore o f l a k e Huron from K i l l a r n e y e a s t and northward Nipissing. extends  C o l l i n s and Q u i r k e conclude  eastward  to lake  the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e  from K i l l a r n e y a t l e a s t t o l a k e N i p i s s i n g .  They c o n s i d e r t h e r e i s some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e g r a n i t e of the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e  may be K i l l a r n e y i n age.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e i s i n sharp i n t r u s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Huronian e x t r e m i t y o f the Timiskaming  sediments ( e a s t e r n  subprovince;- ).  This contact  has been the l o c u s o f a g r e a t f a u l t w i t h d i s p l a c e m e n t s i d e up.  east  The area t o the s o u t h e a s t o f t h i s f a u l t c o n s t i t u t e s  one o f the deepest h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n s anywhere- exposed on the earth's c r u s t .  To the s o u t h - e a s t o f t h i s c o n t a c t l i n e a r e  f o u n d remnants o f the C o b a l t and Bruce s e r i e s w h i c h can be unmistakenly  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the unmetamorphosed C o b a l t and  Bruce s e r i e s t o the west up t o f i v e m i l e s from t h e g r a n i t e sediment c o n t a c t .  Beyond t h i s the h i g h l y metamorphosed  c h a r a c t e r o f the remnants makes d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n impossible.  The profound metamorphism o f . t h e s e remnants i s due t o  the depth o f b u r i a l and h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s .  The  contact  a u r e o l e s around i s o l a t e d masses 'of K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e are v e r y minor.  The  g n e i s s e s are composed of H u r o n i a n  sediments t r a n s -  formed t o g r a n i t i c m a t e r i a l by p r e s s u r e , heat and change o p e r a t i v e a t g r e a t - d e p t h . this i s :  (a) The  The  evidence  chemical  they give f o r  m i n e r a l s are 'crowded w i t h i n c l u s i o n s  and  t h e r e i s (b) a v e r y c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y i n the c h e m i c a l composi t i o n between the " i n t r u d i n g " and i n t r u d e d m a t e r i a l , (c) the q u a r t z , g r a i n s o f the igneous  p o r t i o n o f the g n e i s s e s and  of  some g r a n i t e have a d e t r i t a l appearance. They e x p l a i n the u n c o n f o r m i t y  produced by the n o r t h -  west t r e n d i n the g n e i s s e s near l a k e N i p i s s i n g as b e i n g due  to  r a d i a t i n g f o l d s from a c e n t r e n e a r Burwash. They show t h a t age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s on r a d i o a c t i v e m i n e r a l s from the K i l l a r n e y i n t r u s i v e s and the G r e n v i l l e appear t o agree f a i r l y c l o s e l y .  The  s u g g e s t i o n s put f o r t h by  Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s t h a t the sedimentary G r e n v i l l e subprovince geologists.  subprovince  p o r t i o n o f the  i s H u r o n i a n has been q u e s t i o n e d by some  Wilson,'s (10) o b j e c t i o n s are as  follows:  " l . The b e l t o f banded g n e i s s e s t h a t occurs on the shore o'f G e o r g i a n Bay between K i l l a r n e y and P a r r y Sound . c o n t i n u e s n o r t h - e a s t e r l y t o the south end of Lake Timiskaming and beyond f o r many hundreds o f m i l e s , whereas the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e as shown by i t s i n t r u s i v e r e l a t i o n s t o the Huronian C o b a l t s e r i e s t e r m i n a t e s e a s t of Lake W a n a p i t e i , almost midway between Georgian Bay and Lake Timiskaming. I f the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e terminates i n a north e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , i s i t not p r o b a b l e t h a t i t t e r m i n a t e s i n a s o u t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n as w e l l ? 2. I f the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e were i n t r u d e d i n t o a b e l t of banded, g n e i s s e s i t would almost c e r t a i n l y i n j e c t i t s e l f a l o n g t h e i r planes o f f o l i a t i o n and banding so t h a t i t s c o n t a c t would be t r a n s i t i o n a l j u s t as Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s have d e s c r i b e d .  8 3. The G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s , throughout most o f the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e , except i n l o c a l areas around the margins o f some b a t h o l i t h s , c o n s i s t s o f i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e , mas.sive q u a r t z i t e r e s e m b l i n g v e i n q u a r t z i n appearance, and s i l l i m a n i t e g a r n e t g n e i s s h a v i n g the t e x t u r e o f g r a n i t e but the c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f pure s h a l e . As one proceeds northward i n t o the b e l t o f banded g n e i s s e s t h a t s e p a r a t e s the G r e n v i l l e from the Timiskaming s u b p r o v i n c e the presence o f G r e n v i l l e sediments i s i n d i c a t e d by areas o f t r e m o l i t i c l i m e s t o n e , bands o f q u a r t z i t e c o n t a i n i n g f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s a l o n g minute f r a c t u r e s and b e l t s of g a r n e t g n e i s s . The banded g n e i s s e s i n the i n t e r v e n i n g areas as shown by c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s have the c o m p o s i t i o n , f o r the most p a r t , of normal g r a n i t e o r i n p l a c e s o f d i o r i t e and t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t h e i r c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s to i n d i c a t e t h a t l a r g e amounts of G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s have been t r a n s f o r m e d d i r e c t l y I n t o g r a n i t e o r g r a n i t e g n e i s s i n the manner t h a t C o l l i n s and Q u i r k e b e l i e v e t o have, o c c u r r e d i n the case of the Huronian o f the K i l l a r n e y d i s t r i c t . • 4. I f a l a r g e p a r t o f the g r a n i t e o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n O n t a r i o o r of the b e l t o f banded g n e i s s e s of K i l l a r n e y age and the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e was i n t r u d e d d u r i n g the Keweenawan t h e n t h i s r e g i o n was m o u n t a i n - b u i l t and denuded t o a penep l a i n i n the i n t e r v a l t h a t e l a p s e d between the Keweenawan and the e a r l y P a l a e z o i c , when the sediments of t h i s age t h a t now r e s t on the s u r f a c e of the Pre-Cambrian were d e p o s i t e d . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether a l l t h i s c o u l d o c c u r i n so s h o r t an i n t e r v a l of t i m e . 5. The Keweenawan, a c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t o f the Committee of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Research C o u n c i l on the measurement of g e o l i g i c t i m e , ranges i n age from 510 t o 550 m i l l i o n y e a r s . The age of the g r a n i t e s , o r pegmatites a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r a n i t e , i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n O n t a r i o i n 17 out o f 20 a n a l y s i s of u r a n i n i t e as t a b u l a t e d by E l l s w o r t h range from 985 t o 1,125 m i l l i o n y e a r s . Three a n a l y s e s o f u r a n i n i t e i n Henvey township, w i t h i n the area mapped by Q u i r k e as K i l l a r n e y , gave r a t i o s e q u i v a l e n t t o 835, 792 and 792 m i l l i o n years r e s p e c t i v e l y . E l l s w o r t h s t a t e s t h a t the Henvey " m a t e r i a l i s not i n the b e s t stage of p r e s e r v a t i o n , but n e v e r t h e l e s s i t s r a t i o i s so much lower t h a n any of the o t h e r u r a n i n i t e s t h a t i t must be c o n s i d e r e d as p r o b a b l y r e a l l y younger". ...... A c c o r d i n g to these d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , the g r a n i t e s o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n O n t a r i o w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f those i n Henvey township were p r o b a b l y i n t r u d e d d u r i n g the l a t e A r c h e a n and are not o f K i l l a r n e y age". I n a r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n Cooke (11) a l s o seems t o d i s f a v o r Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s views a l t h o u g h a d m i t t i n g the presence  of a post Huronian  granite.  He s a y s ; (11) page 6,  9 "The w r i t e r has d i s c o v e r e d two remnants o f p r e - H u r o n i a n formations,, w h i c h he terms t h e H i l l and G o n i s t o n groups. T h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c column.is o t h e r w i s e unknown, h u t the d i s c o v e r y ,of t h e C o n i s t o n group may have an important b e a r i n g on the problem"'. F u r t h e r he p o i n t s o u t , (11) page 1 1 , .They ( c h e r t bands i n the C o n i s t a n Group.) do seem t o resemble the p u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s , o f the s o c a l l e d " i r o n f o r m a t i o n " o f the G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s i n s o u t h eastern Ontario. He a l s o says (11) pages 16, 17, and 18; " t h e d i s c o v e r y of these r o c k s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s has a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the c o n c l u s i o n s .announced by Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s i n "The Disappearance o f t h e Huronian". I n t h a t work these a u t h o r s d e c i d e t h a t c e r t a i n remnants o f sediments found i n the g r a n i t e here and t h e r e between K i l l a r n e y v i l l a g e and Delamere township a r e remnants o f H u r o n i a n f o r m a t i o n s . They base t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , v e r y s o u n d l y , on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p e t r o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r o f these much metamorphosed remnants i s such t h a t they c o u l d have been" formed from t h e d i f f e r e n t members o f t h e H u r o n i a n system; and t h a t where two o r more members a r e f o u n d , t h e i r s u c c e s s i o n i s t h e same as i n the unmetamorphosed H u r o n i a n s u c c e s s i o n . v  " I t w i l l be observed t h a t the remnants t h e y d e s c r i b e l i e o n l y about 24 m i l e s s o u t h o f the c o n t a c t d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s r e p o r t . The w r i t e r made a c r o s s - s e c t i o n from the c o n t a c t t o Wanup S t a t i o n , a d i s t a n c e o f 6 m i l e s , and w i t h i n t h a t d i s t a n c e a l l remnants o f sediments b e l o n g i n d u b i t a b l y t o the C o n i s t o n group, and a l l d i p t o the s o u t h . Throughout t h a t d i s t a n c e , a g a i n , there, i s c o n t i n u o u s evidence o f upt h r u s t s from the s o u t h . " "These two f a c t o r s oppose one a n o t h e r , i n c o n s i d e r i n g . what may have happened i n t h e r e m a i n i n g 18 m i l e s t o the sedimentary remnants d e s c r i b e d by Q u i r k e . I f the southern dip i s c o n t i n u e d , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h i n t h a t • d i s t a n c e some s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y o v e r l y i n g s e r i e s may come i n , , and t h a t s e r i e s c o u l d w e l l be o f H u r o n i a n age. On the o t h e r hand, t h e c o n t i n u i n g u p l i f t on t h e .south, due a p p a r e n t l y t o b a t h o l i t h l c i n j e c t i o n from below, by t i l t i n g t h e whole r e g i o n upward from a hinge l i n e on t h e C o n i s t o n - M i s s i s s a g i c o n t a c t . would cause the C o n i s t o n group t o c o n t i n u e much f a r t h e r t o the s o u t h t h a n i t n o r m a l l y w o u l d , and might even e l i m i n a t e e n t i r e l y t h e younger s t r a t a . Only a f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g s e c t i o n c o u l d d i s c o v e r what a c t u a l l y happened; i n the meantime i t would be b e s t t o r e g a r d Q u i r k e ' s c o n c l u s i o n s as t e n t a t i v e , and p o s s i b l y s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n " . P e t t i J o h n (12) has made a p e r t i n e n t remark w h i c h has d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h i s problem.  He s a y s ;  10  "One of the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of the Archean i s the s i n g u l a r s c a r c i t y o f t r u e q u a r t z i t e and almost t o t a l l a c k of l i m e s t o n e . The G r e n v i l l e , c o n s i d e r e d A r c h e a n by.some, c o n t a i n s b o t h l i m e s t o n e s and q u a r t z i t e s ' I f i t be A r c h e a n , i t r e p r e s e n t s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n t h a n the Archean sediments" (of n o r t h e r n and n o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o ) . s  In n o r t h e r n Quebec Gussow (13) has c o r r e l a t e d a g r a n i t i c mass w e l l w i t h i n the Timiskaming of  s u b p r o v i n c e w i t h the g r a n i t e  the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e on the b a s i s o f c h e m i c a l compos-  ition.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t c a r e f u l s t u d y might b r i n g  more such g r a n i t e masses t o l i g h t w h i c h would be of g r e a t importance the two  i n the s o l u t i o n o f the age r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  subprovinces.  The. o n l y o t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f an i n t r u s i v e w i t h i n the Timiskaming  s u b p r o v i n c e which might be s u s p e c t e d of b e l o n g i n g  to a p e r i o d o f a c i d igneous a c t i v i t y o t h e r than the Algoman and L a u r e n t i a n has been d e s c r i b e d by M i l l e r  (1) page 65 a t  Cobalt. "Two t h i n r o c k - s e c t i o n s examined show i t to. be made up o f f e l d s p a r , q u a r t z and a c o l o r e d c o n s t i t u e n t . The f e l d s p a r predominates and c o n s i s t s o f m i c r o c l i n e , and an a c i d p l a g i o c l a s e showing f i n e a l b i t e tv/inning l a m e l l a e . ...» The c o l o r e d c o n s t i t u e n t i s not abundant. ' I t was a p p a r e n t l y a mica, but i s now r e p r e s e n t e d by c h l o r i t i c m a t e r i a l . T h i s dyke i s not u n l i k e c e r t a i n s m a l l dykes i n the M o n t r e a l R i v e r a r e a (James township e t c . ) known as a p a l i t e s . The l a t t e r a r e , however, g e n e r a l l y under e i g h t e e n i n c h e s i n w i d t h , w h i l e t h a t on the U n i v e r s i t y p r o p e r t y averages about f i f t y f e e t . " The f o r e g o i n g i s a b r i e f summary of the b r o a d e r phases of the problem  c h i e f l y from a p o i n t o f view o f the a r e a  K i l l a r n e y t o Sudbury.  from  The a r e a under p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  f i r s t mapped i n a r a p i d reconnassance  manner by A.E.  Barlow.  He w r i t e s ( 1 4 ) ; "The  g r a n i t e on b o t h s i d e s .of l a k e Timiskaming  appear t o  11  grade g r a d a t i o n a l l y i n t o g n e i s s i c forms. The l a t t e r show many v a r i a t i o n s , and o f t e n pass a b r u p t l y from d i o r i t e - g n e i s s i n t o g r a n i t e - g n e i s s , the l a t t e r b e i n g by f a r the most prevalenttype." I n t h i s same work Barlow d e s c r i b e s the l a r g e mass o f N i p i s s i n g l i k e d i a b a s e i n F l e t t and Angus townships w h i c h he b e l i e v e d o l d e r than the s u r r o u n d i n g g n e i s s . Todd (15) i n a much l a t e r work says ; "In the s o u t h e r n g r a n i t e area ( s o u t h e a s t o f R a b b i t l a k e and the M a t a b i t c h u a n r i v e r ) the t h r e e o r more ages o r g e n e r a t i o n s of g r a n i t e and g r a n i t e g n e i s s and pegmatite p r e s ent have been g r e a t l y b r e c c i a t e d and i n t e r m i x e d by f a u l t movements." Todd b e l i e v e s the C o b a l t sediments o v e r l y a l l t h r e e ages of g r a n i t e .  Bruce (16) has mapped a g r a n i t e i n Pardo and  Dana townships w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s t o be K i l l a r n e y .  Quartz  b i o t i t e g n e i s s e s a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r t o those i n the townships of O l i v e , M i l n e , F l e t t and S i s k he a s s i g n e d t e n t a t i v e l y t o the Sudbury s e r i e s .  F a i r b a i r n (17) from work i n the townships o f  S c a d d i n g , D a v i s , S t r e e t and L o n g h r i n c o n s i d e r s the r o c k s c l a s s i f i e d as S u d b u r i a n by Bruce are C o b a l t sediments w h i c h have been g r a n i t i z e d a t g r e a t depth and are s e p a r a t e d from the u n g r a n i t i z e d sediments by a f a u l t whose d i s p l a c e m e n t i s e a s t s i d e up. From the f o r e g o i n g i t i s seen t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the age o f the g r a n i t e o f the G r e n v i l l e subp r o v i n c e i n the a r e a a d j a c e n t t o the Timiskaming s u b p r o v i n c e . • •These a r e : 1. 2. 3. 4.  Pre Keewatin L a u r e n t i a n ( p o s t K e e w a t i n and pre Timiskaming) Algoman Killarney. .  12 No g r a n i t e has as yet been i d e n t i f i e d as p r e - K e e w a t i n "in the Timiskaming s u b p r o v i n c e .  I t seems improbable t h a t  such a l a r g e a r e a o f p r e - K e e w a t i n g r a n i t e c o u l d e x i s t w i t h o u t some evidence o f i t s p r e s e n c e .  However, a p r e - K e e w a t i n  g r a n i t e would e x p l a i n the presence o f g r a n i t e pebbles i n the Timiskaming conglomerates which are a p p a r e n t l y conformable i n some areas w i t h the Keewatin b e t t e r t h a n a L a u r e n t i a n g r a n i t e f o r which there i s l i t t l e  i f any e v i d e n c e .  An  Algoman g r a n i t e would not e n t i r e l y e x p l a i n the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of the H u r o n i a n .  Even a g r e a t u p l i f t a l o n g the e a s t e r n s i d e  of the c o n t a c t o f the two s u b p r o v i n c e s would h a r d l y account f o r removal by e r o s i o n o f the H u r o n i a n sediments t o the l a s t remnant.  H u r o n i a n sediments must have o v e r l a i n a g r e a t  p o r t i o n of e a s t e r n Canada a t one t i m e .  Rocks a t Lake  M i s t a s s i n i and the B e l c h e r I s l a n d s are p r o b a b l y . H u r o n i a n .  A  s e r i e s o f sediments i n N o r t h e r n Quebec can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the H u r o n i a n o f l a k e S u p e r i o r w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c e r t a i n t y . Some o f these r o c k s o f H u r o n i a n age have been i n t r u d e d by granite. The absence of H u r o n i a n sediments t o the e a s t o f t h i s l i n e between the G r e n v i l l e and Timiskaming s u b p r o v i n c e s can be e x p l a i n e d by w i d e s p r e a d i n t r u s i o n o f a K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e and l a t e r u p l i f t o f the e a s t s i d e and e r o s i o n l e a v i n g o n l y p l u t o n i c l y metamorphosed sediments. PRESENT WORK The p r e s e n t work was a number o f advantages.  c a r r i e d out i n an a r e a t h a t p r e s e n t s U n l i k e the areas t o the s o u t h t h e r e  I  13 i s p r e s e n t here a g r a n i t e (Algoman) w h i c h i s p r e - C o b a l t .  This  a l l o w s a d i r e c t comparison between the g r a n i t e of the Grenville  s e r i e s and a g r a n i t e c o n s i d e r e d Algoman i n the  aming s u b p r o v i n c e .  I f the g r a n i t e i n the G r e n v i l l e  p r o v i n c e i s Algoman i n age the s i m i l a r i t y .  Timisksub-  i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o p o i n t out  A l t h o u g h the c o u n t r y i s h e a v i l y .wooded and  o u t c r o p s ^ s c a r c e , f r e s h r o c k c u t s a l o n g the trans-Canada way  provide e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s f o r close The f i e l d work done was  i n two weeks.  v  high-  examination.  r a t h e r b r i e f , being c a r r i e d  I t c o n s i s t e d of a f a i r l y d e t a i l e d  out  examination  o f the geology and c o l l e c t i o n s o f specimens f o r l a b o r a t o r y study a l o n g the highway and the Timiskaming Ontario Railroad. Opechee l a k e s was  and  Northern  A t r a v e r s e of O l i v e , Opechee Bays and also-made. FIELD OBSERVATIONS  Timiskaming  Subprovince.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two s u b p r o v i n c e s have been c o m p l i c a t e d by the presence placement. The  of f a u l t s of r a t h e r l a r g e d i s -  There has been, c o n s i d e r a b l e p o s t - C o b a l t movement.  C o b a l t s e r i e s everywhere has s t e e p d i p s and i n some p l a c e s  has been i n t e n s e l y sheared.  Otherwise  I t i s f r e s h and shows  no s i g n of b e i n g i n t r u d e d by g r a n i t e . The g r a n i t e on the Timiskaming  s i d e o f the  i s a t l e a s t of two ages o r g e n e r a t i o n s .  subprovince  A l i g h t g r e y grano-  d i o r i t e i s cut by. a p i n k i s h s y e n i t e , ( f i g u r e 1 ) .  Both are'  coarse g r a i n e d , c o n t a i n p l a g i o c l a s e and the m a f i c m i n e r a l appears t o be hornblende.  There i s a v e r y l i t t l e  mafic  . 1 4 mineral present in.the pink type.  Both types were l a t e r  almost everywhere broken i n t o b l o c k s from t e n t o twenty f e e t to a s i d e . . Movement has t a k e n p l a c e s h i f t i n g the b l o c k s about i n a most c o m p l i c a t e d manner.  S l i c k e n s i d e s ,are p r e s e n t  on the b l o c k s but.no m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o r h y d r o t h e r m a l  alter-  a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e a l o n g the f r a c t u r e s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f some e p i d o t e n o t e d a t a couple of l o c a l i t i e s a l o n g a s e t of' f r a c t u r e s ' s t r i k i n g N 60° .W.  A few t r a p dykes up to f o u r  i n c h e s wide o c c u r i n some f r a c t u r e s .  The p i n k type of s y e n i t e  becomes more p l e n t i f u l to the s o u t h e a s t u n t i l f i n a l l y i t c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e s the g r e y g r a n o d i o r i t e . C o n t a c t Zone The  a c t u a l c o n t a c t between the two s u b p r o v i n c e s  f a u l t o r u s u a l l y a se'ries o f steep d i p p i n g f a u l t s .  is a The  faults  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f a hundred f e e t o r more of h i g h l y sheared g r a n i t e c o n s i s t i n g o f q u a r t z eyes i n a micaceous mettrix. displacement  The  a l o n g these f a u l t s has- been c o n s i d e r a b l e j u d g i n g  from the d e f o r m a t i o n .  S l i c k e n s i d e s i n d i c a t e ' an  almost  v e r t i c a l movement w i t h the e a s t side' moving up r e l a t i v e t o the west. was  A n o t h e r type o f f a u l t which may  observed  be c o n s i d e r a b l y younger  a t Pan Lake.' I t dipped about 40° E and c o n s i s t e d  of about f o u r f e e t o f l o o s e b r e c c i a t e d m a t e r i a l s i m i l a r t o the g r a n i t e g n e i s s o f the hanging  and f o o t w a l l s .  d i s p o s i t i o n o f the f r a g m e n t s ,  movement along- i t ' seemed to be  e a s t s i d e up.  Grenville  From the  Subprovince  When t h i s f a u l t zone i s c r o s s e d a t P a n . l a k e , dark g r e e n b i o t i t e g n e i s s e s o c c u r to the s o u t h - e a s t .  They c o n s i s t o f a  15 high, p r o p o r t i o n of b i o t i t e i m p a r t i n g a g l i s t e n i n g t o surfaces.;. Quartz  cleavage  seems to. be the o n l y o t h e r m i n e r a l p r e s e n t .  I n many p l a c e s these g n e i s s e s have been i n t i m a t e l y i n j e c t e d . by g r a n i t e s t r i n g e r s a l t h o u g h g r a n i t e i n the form of dykes o r o t h e r r e g u l a r shaped b o d i e s i s n o n - e x i s t a n t .  The g r a n i t e  occurs i n b o d i e s t h a t p i n c h and s w e l l , ( f i g u r e 2 ) . b i o t i t e g n e i s s e s g i v e way  The  l o c a l l y to minor b o d i e s of f e l d s p a r  g n e i s s up to 100 f e e t wide and e l o n g a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f s t r i k e o f the b i o t i t e g n e i s s , ( f i g u r e s 3 and 4 ) . marked f e a t u r e o f these' g n e i s s e s i s the presence o r banding.  The  A very of  bedding  i n t r i c a t e c r u m p l i n g of t h i s s t r u c t u r e would  seem t o i n d i c a t e bedding  r a t h e r than igneous  banding.  I n a f e l d s p a r g n e i s s a l o n g the highway 300 f e e t s o u t h of the O l i v e , S i s k township, boundary i s an i n c l u s i o n w h i c h can be d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d as a metamorphosed s l a t e cut by minute v e i n l e t s o f e p i d o t e .  This s l a t e contains small  f l a t t e n e d , l e n t i c u l a r unconnected masses of g r a n i t e up t o s i x i n c h e s l o n g w h i c h are p a r a l l e l t o the s c h i s t o s i t y of the enclosing rock.  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f these  inclusions  were o b t a i n e d by b r e a k i n g the e n c l o s i n g r o c k a l o n g the cleavage p l a i n s .  I n no case were they found t o be  connected.  The n e a r e s t exposed g r a n i t i c m a t e r i a l i s over 200 f e e t from t h i s p a r t i c u l a r outcrop.  T h i s i n c l u s i o n appears t o have been  a s l a t e conglomerate s i m i l a r t o those o f the C o b a l t U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e . g r a n i t i c pebbles  series.  are too h i g h l y crushed  to  i d e n t i f y the o r i g i n a l t e x t u r e o f the r o c k or i t s m i n e r a l s i n thin section.  16 These f a c t s would seem to i n d i c a t e these' r o c k s are p a r a g h e i s s e s w h i c h have undergone metamorphism a t g r e a t The  depth.  g e n e r a l s t r i k e o f these r o c k s i s n o r t h - e a s t a l t h o u g h  the  ptygmatic f o l d i n g p r e s e n t l e a d s to c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n . The  d i p s are even more v a r i a b l e than the s t r i k e s but are i n  general  south-east.  The  g r a n i t e i n the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e  is a biotite  g r a n i t e w i t h v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of b i o t i t e , q u a r t z and spar.  The  feld-  c l e a v a g e f a c e s of the f e l d s p a r have a much b r i g h t e r  l u s t e r than those i n the Algoman' g r a n i t e . . J u s t s o u t h of M a r t i n r i v e r on the highway t h e r e o c c u r s a l a r g e g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e , ; the o n l y one o f any s i z e seen i n the G r e n v i l l e  area  I t has a v e r y marked p r i m a r y g n e i s ' s o s i t y s t r i k i n g n o r t h - e a s t . I t appears to be a composite i n t r u s i v e ; the north-west margin i s made up c h i e f l y of b i o t i t e o r t h o c l a s e and q u a r t z .  The  central portion i s b i o t i t e granite with orthoclase crystals up t o two  inches long.  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t are  pegmatite  dykes c o n t a i n i n g mica, q u a r t z and o r t h o c l a s e c r y s t a l s up t o t h r e e inches i n d i a m e t e r .  f  LABORATORY STUDY Algoman I n t r u s i v e s . These are medium g r a i n e d r o c k s composed l a r g e l y o f p l a g i o c l a s e , hornblende,  q u a r t z , and o c c a s i o n a l l y b i o t i t e , p o t a s h  f e l d s p a r as m i c r o c l i n e and o r t h o c l a s e was one  section.  and t i t a n i t e .  observed  i n only  A c c e s s o r y minerals- are z i r c o n , a p a t i t e ,  pyrite,  These r o c k s a l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d show  no s i g n o f d e f o r m a t i o n .  The  q u a r t z g r a i n s i n some s l i d e s show  17 s t r a i n shadows.  The  p l a g i o c l a s e i s very u n i f o r m l y a l t e r e d  as much as s e v e n t y p e r c e n t  ( f i g u r e s 5 and 6) to  secondary  m i n e r a l s z o i s i t e , s e r i c i t e , e p i d o t e , and minor c h l o r i t e carbonate. magnetite  The hornblende  and  i s almost e n t i r e l y a l t e r e d t o  and f r a y e d mats of c h l o r i t e .  The b i o t i t e has a l s o  a l t e r e d to c h l o r i t e , the a s t e r i s m o f the b i o t i t e r e m a i n i n g i n the c h l o r i t e .  The  c h i e f c o m p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n these  r o c k s are i n the p r o p o r t i o n of q u a r t z p r e s e n t .  Those w i t h a  h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of q u a r t z have a p l a g i o c l a s e o f  composition  Ab95 An5 w h i l e those w i t h a low q u a r t z c o n t e n t have a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f hornblende  and the p l a g i o c l a s e i s n e a r Ab60  An40. ; Hence they v a r y from g r a n o d i o r i t e s to q u a r t z INTRUSIVES IN THE  diorites.  GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE  These r o c k s show much g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n t h a n the Algoman . types a l t h o u g h t h e y have s t r o n g resemblances w h i c h i n d i c a t e they are a l l v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .  The  most common m i n e r a l s .  are q u a r t z , p o t a s h f e l d s p a r and minor p l a g i o c l a s e .  The  p o t a s h f e l d s p a r o c c u r s most commonly as m i c r o c l i n e , ( f i g u r e The p l a g i o c l a s e i s u s u a l l y a l b i t e around A.b92 An8 Ab85 A n l 5 .  7)  varying to  In many s e c t i o n s the p l a g i o c l a s e and o r t h o c l a s e  and r a r e l y m i c r o c l i n e c o n t a i n i n c l u s i o n s o f  muscovite.  I n c l u s i o n s o f b i o t i t e are sometimes p r e s e n t i n the p l a g i o c l a s e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a g n e i s s ( f i g u r e s 3 and 8) formed from the r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f sediments has t h i s same f e a t u r e . other"essential B i o t i t e and muscovite are u s u a l l y the o n l y r r > p ^ _ e m i n e r a l s p r e s e n t and r a r e l y make up more than s i x p e r c e n t of the  rock.  P l e o c h r o i c h a l o e s are'common i n the b i o t i t e , o c c u r r i n g most  18 commonly i n t h e b i o t i t e o f t h e g n e i s s e s . up t o 0.08 mm.  They'have  diameters  They almost always o c c u r i n p a r t i n g s f o l l o w i n g  the c l e a v a g e o f the b i o t i t e .  I n the g r a n i t i c rocks they are  most common where t h e r o c k s have s u f f e r e d dynamic metamorphism. Here, they r e a c h d i a m e t e r s up t o 0.06 mm.  I n one s l i d e the  nucleous was d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d as z i r c o n .  The normal  b i o t i t e shows the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l e o c h r o i s m l i g h t y e l l o w t o ;• d a r k brown. • Some b i o t i t e has been b l e a c h e d and i s o n l y s l i g h t s l y p l e o c h r o i c b u t u n l i k e the above shows h i g h i n t e r f e r e n c e colors.  Around Red Water l a k e the r o c k s have s u f f e r e d con-  s i d e r a b l e dynamic, metamorphism, and the b i o t i t e has been t o some e x t e n t a l t e r e d t o green b i o t i t e , e p i d o t e and c h l o r i t e . Moscovite  i s p r e s e n t i n v e r y s m a l l f l a k e s u s u a l l y w i t h random  o r i e n t a t i o n i n the p l a g i o c l a s e . b i o t i t e and muscovite  C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  i s e p i d o t e w h i c h appears t o have formed  as a d e u t e r i c m i n e r a l . The  f e l d s p a r s are extremely f r e s h .  Where e x t e n s i v e  d e f o r m a t i o n has o c c u r r e d t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n t o s e r i c i t e , c h l o r i t e , 'with some e p i d o t e and c a r b o n a t e .  This  a l t e r a t i o n has taken p l a c e a l o n g minute shear p l a n e s .  The  r e d c o l o r a t i o n o f the p o t a s h f e l d s p a r i n hand specimen i s due  t o h e m a t i t e as some i s v i s i b l e i n minute c r a c k s and around  the margins o f the p o t a s h f e l d s p a r g r a i n s under t h e m i c r o s c o p e . The  l a r g e g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e mass i n S i s k  township  ( f i g u r e s 7, 9,) p r e v i o u s l y mentioned has a s l i g h t l y assemblage o f m i n e r a l s . color.  different  The b i o t i t e p r e s e n t i s dark green i n  The amphibole h a s t i n g s i t e i s p r e s e n t .  Titanite often  19 makes up t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t of t h e r o c k .  A v e r y minor amount r  of carbonate i s p r e s e n t "as a p r i m a r y m i n e r a l .  •  Other m i n e r a l s  i d e n t i f i e d are z i r c o n , a p a t i t e , e p i d o t e , m a g n e t i t e , p y r i t e and pyroxene.  The few g r a i n s o f p l a g i o c l a s e p r e s e n t a r e u s u a l l y  a l t e r e d t o c h l o r i t e , a y e l l o w powder and s e r i c i t e .  The  f e l d s p a r i s over s e v e n t y f i v e p e r c e n t p o t a s h f e l d s p a r microcline.  chiefly  The pyroxene i s a l t e r e d t o c h l o r i t e . DIFFERENCES.BETWEEN THE ALGOMAN AND THE GRANITE OF THE GRENVILLE SUBPROVINCE  The most s t r i k i n g p e t r o g r a p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two r o c k types i s i n the a l t e r a t i o n ( f i g u r e s 5 and-6 show the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l t e r a t i o n i n the Algoman i n t r u s i v e s ) .  The  p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r o f the Algoman i n t r u s i v e s i s u n i f o r m l y and q u i t e h i g h l y a l t e r e d .  Comparison w i t h any o f the  i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the g r a n i t e o f the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e i l l u s t r a t e this difference.  will  The o n l y e x t e n s i v e a l t e r a t i o n s i n  the f e l d s p a r s of the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e i n t r u s i v e s i s near zones o f d i s l o c a t i o n ;  The i n c l u s i o n s i n t h e f e l d s p a r o f these  r o c k s are c h i e f l y muscovite w h i c h have•sharp  contacts .against  the f e l d s p a r . Minor d i f f e r e n c e s a r e the absence o f p l e o c h r o i c h a l o e s i n the b i o t i t e i n the Algoman and t h e i r presence- i n the G r e n v i l l e intrusives.  A s t e r i s m i s p r e s e n t i n the b i o t i t e of the Algoman  w h i l e absent i n the G r e n v i l l e i r i t r u s i v e s .  I n ' c o n t r a s t t o the  s t r u c t u r e l e s s A.lgoman the G r e n v i l l e type i n t r u s i v e s u s u a l l y have a p r i m a r y g n e i s s i c c h a r a c t e r ( f i g u r e 9 ) . The f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f c a t a c l a s t i c t e x t u r e s ( f i g u r e 10). i n the Grenv-  20 i l l e ' t y p e and pointed  t h e i r absence i n the Algoman has  a l r e a d y been  out. COMPOSITIONAL DIFFERENCES  I f g r a n i t e s of more than one compositional  age are p r e s e n t  i n the  area  d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be apparent i f t h e y e x i s t .  It i s a w e l l established f a c t that granite i n t r u s i v e s of the Algoman r e v o l u t i o n are e x t r e m e l y low i n p o t a s h . of s i m i l a r t y p e s b e l o n g i n g considerable  potash.  Rocks  to the K i l l a r n e y r e v o l u t i o n c o n t a i n  Moore and Armstrong (18) have a l s o noted  this : "The K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e shows i n t h i n s e c t i o n t h a t the f e l d s p a r i s mainly orthoclase w i t h a l i t t l e a l b i t e . This i s i n c o n t r a s t to the Algoman g r a n i t e , which c o n t a i n s a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s o d i c p l a g i o c l a s e . " Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s  (9) page 102  point  out,  "These g n e i s s e s and g r a n i t e , w h i c h are termed K i l l a r n e a n , are c h a r a c t e r i z e d throughout the map a r e a by c e r t a i n s t r o n g f a m i l y resemblances which f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . They are n o t a b l y low i n i r o n o x i d e s , l i m e , and magnesia, and h i g h I n a l k a l i s , w i t h soda and p o t a s h i n a r a t i o of about 2 t o 3. They c o n t a i n a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of p o t a s h f e l d s p a r t o p l a g i o c l a s e and they are r e d i n c o l o r , v a r y i n g from p i n k to deep salmon. The K i l l a r n e a n g r a n i t e s t h a t are i n t r u s i v e i n the H u r o n i a n at v a r i o u s p l a c e s f a r t h e r west a l o n g the n o r t h shore of l a k e Huron a l s o p o s s e s ^ t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " The  f o l l o w i n g , t a b l e s (page 22) r e p r e s e n t  chemical  analyses  t a k e n from the l i t e r a t u r e and r e c a s t to  analyses  f o r comparison w i t h R o s i w a l  analyses  Rosiwal  (page  23)  c a r r i e d out on r e p r e s e n t a t i v e specimens c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d by the p r e s e n t w r i t e r . I t can be r e a d i l y seen from a s t u d y of the a n a l y s e s . presented of the two  and diagram page 24 t h a t the c h e m i c a l g r a n i t i c types under study  compositions  are v e r y " s i m i l a r -  21 t o those o f the Algoman and K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e s i n o t h e r areas. I n a d d i t i o n t o the o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the f e l d s p a r and t h e l a c k o f amphibole i n t h e G r e n v i l l e i n t r u s i v e s and i t s c o n s i s t e n t o c c u r r e n c e  i n the  Algoman i t i s worthy o f note t h a t the o n l y amphibole i n the G r e n v i l l e specimens s t u d i e d was i n the number 41 specimens f r o m S i s k township.  T h i s amphibole i s h a s t i n g s i t e w h i l e the  o n l y amphibole i n t h e Algoman i s h o r n b l e n d e .  A l s o the  G r e n v i l l e i n t r u s i v e s a r e v e r y much l o w e r i n m a f i c m i n e r a l s than t h e Algoman.  A comparison o f R o s i w a l l a n a l y s i s made  w i l l make t h i s e v i d e n t .  MINERAL COMPOSm-ONSfVOLffilETRT-^ KILLARNEY A Orthoclase Albite Anorthite Quartz White Mica Biotite Magnetite Titanite Hornblende Sericite Totals A. B. C. D. P. G.  41.6 17.1 1.9 34.1 1.4 4.0 0.5 0.1  100.7  B 28.4 27.9 8.53 28.3 .96 5.63  C  ALGOMAN D  32.3 23.4 7.1 32.6  30.01 26.1 6.8 32.2  2.5  4.74  E 30.1 27.2 1.52 37.9  99.9  G  15.9 30.5 17.6 10.5  3.90 32.2 5.56 37.5  3.3  2.0 99.8  P  11.8  25.2 99.9  100.0  99.7  8.07 v  99.1  A n a l y s e s 11_ and IV Page 51 Memoir 160, K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e from K i l l a r n e y Bay, O n t a r i o A n a l y s e s 111 and V l l Page 5 1 , Memoir 160, G n e i s s c l o s e t o K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e i n c h a r a c t e r from K i l l a r n e y , O n t a r i o . A n a l y s i s No. V I Page 90, Memoir 160, G r e i g h t o n g r a n i t e , S n i d e r township. A n a l y s i s No. V Page 20 Memoir 160, B i r c h l a k e g r a n i t e , Hyman t o w n s h i p . Page 15 Ont. Dept o f M i n e s , V o l . XXX.1V P a r t 111 1925, McDonald l a k e , South L o r r a i n township. Page 1 1 , Ont. Dept o f M i n e s , VolXXXV p a r t 111 1926, James l a k e , B e s t township  ROSIWAL  KILLARNEY S107 49.2 Potash f e l d s p a r 9.24 f .86 A n o r*t ° h i t e (*f e l d s p^a r )'' , 35.1 Quartz Hornblende .86 Biotite Muscovite, 4.74 Apatite T i t a n i t e and A p a t i t e Garnet and A p a t i t e Garnet and B i o t i t e • Epidote 1 M  0  Totals.  100.0  ANALYSES - (volume p e r cent) ALGOMAN  KILLARNEY ? •410 • 72.2 5.17 . .49 13.6 6.84  26 55.5 5.52 .78 21.4  6A 65.0 10.4 1.48 21.7  14.2  5 2.8 34.7 21.9 28.6 12.0  --  42.0 8.8 7.44 31.0 9.7  2.6 100.0  100.0  100.1  C M a r t i n l a k e S i s k township  26  Red Water l a k e A s k i n township A A s k i n township  5  A s k i n township  6  C A s k i n township Law township  • .8 A s k i n township  —  65.9 7.7 4.3 21.1 1.15  .99.8 '' 100.7 '  41  6  8 •  1.25  2.4  S107 ^ L o t 8 Con V I Dana township  486  48 B. 5.30 46.6 2.7 24.8 20.0  0.86  . 1.9  100.2  6G  to  100.2  TKe Orve.  c^p  K«\Uvne^ or\  -t-hc-  ( cvo  &SKQ  p k ^ . o c l ^ i e  /^|\  »n+o  v*i<jHt,  4-ched).  feldspfc*".  {eld&pav.  I  a  cjvo^p  o n  He  5fip a r a k d G> F  is its  a> £ 8 - 4 °U  J(o %  leff  And  -the. P\\<\otr\<*^  C o n s i d e r a b l e  pot^sK  p ot^al,  C o i - n p  feldspav-  -feUspo*-  t>nA  a,  nd  o  S  ,  ^  ,  0  '  n  ^ '  3C-47t>  4 8 */o  pU^iotl,  26 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ALGOMAN AND GRENVILLE INTRUSIVES M i c r o s c o p i c s t u d y has shown t h a t a s y e n i t e (page 13) o r i g i n a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be a l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n of .the Algoman ( f i g u r e 1)• c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o one d e s c r i b e d by Todd (15) t o the- n o r t h i s r e a l l y a p a r t o f the g r a n i t e o f t h e G r e n v i l l e subprovince.  The reason f o r t h i s b e l i e f i s t h a t i t c o r r e s p -  onds t o the G r e n v i l l e type I n t r u s i v e s i n p e t r o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r and c o m p o s i t i o n  (see a n a l y s i s 6A page 2 3 ) .  This  s i m p l i f i e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s u b p r o v i n c e s i n t h a t the f a u l t i n g  (page 14) mentioned i s c o n f i n e d t o the  G r e n v i l l e subprovince itic  s i d e o f the c o n t a c t l e a v i n g the gran-  types of t h e G r e n v i l l e i n i n t r u s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  Algoman o f t h e Timiskaming  subprovince.  A l o n g t h i s i n t r u s i v e c o n t a c t the p o t a s h f e l d s p a r s o f the G r e n v i l l e type i n t r u s i v e r e p l a c e the p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r o f the Algoman ( f i g u r e 1 1 ) .  During, t h i s replacement the  m i c r o c l i n e e x p e l s the a l t e r a t i o n p r o d u c t s and  o f the p l a g i o c l a s e  i s f r e e o f i n c l u s i o n s except f o r v e r y minor ones, t o o  minute t o i d e n t i f y . observed  I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f replacement  m i c r o c l i n e r e p l a c e d the p l a g i o c l a s e a l o n g  directions.  cleavage  The p l a g i o c l a s e n o t r e p l a c e d d u r i n g t h i s  appears t o undergo r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , becoming f r e s h . m a i n t a i n s i t s i n c l u s i o n s b u t they r e c r y s t a l l i z e .  process It  This i s  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the s e r i c i t e w h i c h r e c r y s t a l l i z e s  into  l a r g e r g r a i n s and e x h i b i t s sharp c o n t a c t s w i t h the h o s t feldspar.  The e p i d o t e and z o i s i t e c r y s t a l s seem t o r e c r y s t a l -  27 l i z e and d i m i n i s h i n s i z e g i v i n g sharp c r y s t a l against' the f e l d s p a r .  boundaries  I t i s worthy of note t h a t s o u t h e a s t  from the c o n t a c t between the two s u b p r o v i n c e s i n c l u s i o n s i n the f e l d s p a r d i s a p p e a r . .CORRELATION OF THE GRANITE IN THE GRENVILLE WITH THE KILLARNEY GRANITE The g r a n i t e i n the G r e n v i l l e area s t u d i e d has s t r o n g resemblance  t o the n o r t h e r n most r o c k s mapped as K i l l a r n e y  i n Pardo and Dana townships. evidence to c o r r e l a t e them.  There seems t o be s u f f i c i e n t The c o m p o s i t i o n , absence of  amphibole, p r e s e n t o f the same type o f i n c l u s i o n s i n the p l a g i o c l a s e , p l e o c h r o i c h a l o e s i n the b i o t i t e , and c a t a c l a s t i c t e x t u r e s a r e i d e n t i c a l .  protoclastic  A petrographic  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e from Pardo and Dana townships would merely be a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s a l r e a d y g i v e n f o r t h e g r a n i t e o f the G r e n v i l l e  subprovince.  (Compare f i g u r e s 12 and 13 w i t h the G r e n v i l l e type I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the o n l y amphibole  intrusive). present  i n a l l the s e c t i o n s examined was the r a t h e r r a r e h a s t i n g s i t e . w h i c h occurs a l s o i n the C r e i g h t o n g r a n i t e which i s K i l l a r n e y i n age. T h i s g r a n i t e shows the same m i n e r a l assemblage and and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as specimens No. 4 1 , from S i s k  township.  THE pre-TIMISKAMING GRANITE i A l t h o u g h t h e r e appears  t o be s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o  i n d i c a t e t h e g r a n i t e o f the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e i s younger than the Algoman a h a s t y e x a m i n a t i o n of pre-Timaskaraing g r a n i t i c types was made i n o r d e r - t o see i f t h e r e was any  28  .'  . '  s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e g r a n i t e i n the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e . Specimens o f t h i s g r a n i t e w e r e " o b t a i n e d from'the n e a r e s t source, .namely Archean  (Timiskaming t y p e ) conglomerates near H a i l e y -  bury. These conglomerates  d i p about 70° north., They a r e made  up o f c l o s e l y packed w e l l - w o r n e l l i p t i c a l six  i n c h e s i n l e n g t h b u t a v e r a g i n g l e s s t h a n t h r e e , embedded i n  a fine grained argillaceous matrix. of  shaped pebbles up t o ,  W e l l over f i f t y p e r cent  the pebbles a r e a c i d l a v a s and l i g h t w e a t h e r i n g a c i d  intrusive rocks.  Green c h e r t , i r o n f o r m a t i o n , and b a s i c l a v a  pebbles a r e a l s o found. Twelve of t h e c o l l e c t e d specimens  were examined m i c r o -  s c o p i c a l l y and were w i t h one e x c e p t i o n h y p a b y s s a l p o r p h y r i e s . Pheno.crysts o f q u a r t z , h o r n b l e n d e , and zoned p l a g i o c l a s e a r e p r e s e n t i n a f i n e g r a i n e d groundrnass o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r . The q u a r t z p h e n o c r y s t s a r e u s u a l l y w e l l rounded.  The h o r n -  blende p h e n b c r y s t s show e x c e l l e n t development o f c r y s t a l faces.  A l t e r a t i o n o f the p l a g i o c l a s e has been c h i e f l y t o  z o i s i t e ; the hornblende t o . c h l o r i t e and e p i d o t e . The p l u t o n i c r o c k mentioned  above i s a coarse g r a i n e d  s y e n i t e made up of c l o s e l y k n i t f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s up t o one cm. i n l e n g t h .  F i l l i n g minor i n t e s t i c e s between the f e l d s p a r  g r a i n s and i n l a r g e g r a i n s i s a green m a f i c m i n e r a l .  Under  the microscope the r o c k i s made up c h i e f l y o f o l i g o c l a s e and what appears t o have been an amphibole'now almost  entirely  a l t e r e d t o e p i d o t e and c h l o r i t e . The pre Timiskaming g r a n i t i c types a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  29 p o r p h y r i t i c i n h a b i t and possess r a t h e r s t r o n g d i f f e r e n c e s t o the G r e n v i l l e type i n t r u s i v e s ( f i g u r e 14 and 1 5 ) .  Amphibole  i s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t and a l l the f e l d s p a r appears t o be plagioclase. CONCLUSIONS From t h i s study i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e two v e r y d i s t i n c t g r a n i t i c types i n the a r e a .  Some e v i d e n c e has been  p r e s e n t e d t o show t h a t one type l y i n g t o the s o u t h e a s t o f the c o n t a c t between the Timiskaming and G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e s i s younger t h a n the Algoman g r a n i t e .  These two g r a n i t e s can  be r e a d i l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b o t h i n f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y work. I t would appear t h a t the A.lgoman g r a n i t e has had a l o n g and complex h i s t o r y b e f o r e granite originated.  the younger ( G r e n v i l l e )  E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s seen i n t h e r a t h e r  i n t e n s e a l t e r a t i o n of. t h e f e l d s p a r s t o c h l o r i t e , epidote  sericite,  and z o i s i t e as w e l l as the a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e  amphibole.  This a l t e r a t i o n i s r e g i o n a l i n character  no r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t r u s i o n o f the younger g r a n i t e .  and"has There i s  some r e a s o n - t o b e l i e v e t h a t the younger g r a n i t e near the c o n t a c t w i t h the o l d e r i s made up i n p a r t o f a r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the o l d e r .  The d i s s i m i l a r i t y between pre .Timiskaming  g r a n i t e and t h e younger g r a n i t e has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d o u t . From a s t u d y o f e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h i s younger g r a n i t e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e g r a n i t e  through-  out the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e (4) page 46, (5) pages 11 and 13, (19), (20).  30 Some e v i d e n c e has. been p r e s e n t e d t o show the younger . g r a n i t e resembles townships.  the K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e i n Pardo and Dana  . F u r t h e r , an uncommon o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e amphibole  h a s t i n g s i t e i n a g r a n i t i c mass i n S i s k township i s s i m i l a r to an o c c u r r e n c e i n the G r e i g h t o n g r a n i t e o f K i l l a r n e y age i n S n i d e r township.  •  I t i s e v i d e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f f a u l t i n g has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e younger g r a n i t e b o t h from f i e l d e x a m i n a t i o n and widespread  c a t a c l a s t i c t e x t u r e s pre'sent.  Immediately  t o the  north-west o f the c o n t a c t i n the area under d i s c u s s i o n , the C o b a l t s e r i e s i s u n d e r l a i n by Algoman g r a n i t e and n o t the Keewatin s e r i e s . '  The non-igneous p o r t i o n o f r o c k s i n the  G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e a r e p a r a g n e i s s e s , n o t metamorphosed l a v a s . ' S i n c e the g r a n i t e o f t h e G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e i s younger than the Algoman g r a n i t e i t seems most l i k e l y t o exp l a i n the p a r a g n e i s s e s o f the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e as p a r t of  t h e C o b a l t s e r i e s which i s p r e s e n t t o t h e n o r t h - w e s t o f  the c o n t a c t . There i s a t l e a s t some evidence i n t h i s a r e a f o r the p o s s i b l e e x t e n t i o n northward o f Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s (9) e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e H u r o n i a n .  Some  s u p p o r t i n g evidence f o r t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n has been g i v e n by Henderson ( 2 1 ) . I n the V i l l e - M a r i e and G u i l l e t  (Mud) Lake  Map-Areas t o the n o r t h - e a s t o f l a k e Timiskaming he d e s c r i b e s two g r a n i t i c r o c k t y p e s .  One o c c u p y i n g what i s p r o b a b l y the  western e x t r e m i t y of the G r e n v i l l e subprovince i n ' t h a t area i s c h i e f l y made up o f m i c r o c l i n e w i t h b i o t i t e and minor amounts  31 of o l i g o c l a s e .  To the west o f t h i s i s a g r a n i t e w i t h h i g h  p l a g i o c l a s e content p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e s o f the two s u b p r o v i n c e s i s m a i n t a i n e d northward.  A l s o Norman (22) b e l i e v e s mountain  b u i l d i n g t o o k p l a c e i n l a t e ^ Precambrian  times i n t h e  Chibougami d i s t r i c t o f Quebec (page 2 ) . H i s reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g t h i s a r e : ( l ) east-west  f o l d i n g i n the K e e w a t i n  s e r i e s i s t r u n c a t e d by l a t e r n o r t h - e a s t f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g a t t h e c o n t a c t o f the G r e n v i l l e and Timiskaming (2)  subprovinces.  T h i s f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g accompanied by mountain  b u i l d i n g i s l a t e r than and hence a f f e c t s l a t e pre Cambrian sediments w h i c h he b e l i e v e s can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the C o b a l t series.  (3) The f a u l t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r u s t s from the s o u t h -  e a s t , have c o n s i d e r a b l e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l  displacements  and a r e h e a l e d by v e r y f r e s h o l i v i n e diabase dykes w h i c h i n o t h e r areas are t h e l a t e s t o f pre Cambrian r o c k s .  Norman  a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t i f the s t r i k e o f these dykes and f a u l t s be p r o j e c t e d southward they i n t e r s e c t l a k e Huron n e a r K i l l a r n e y bay and hence a r e a l o n g the s t r i k e o f f a u l t s des c r i b e d by Q u i r k e and C o l l i n s s e p a r a t i n g the Timiskaming from the G r e n v i l l e  subprovince.  32  F i g . 2.  P i n c h ana s w e l l bodies o f g r a n i t e i n the G r e n v i l l e s u b p r o v i n c e O l i v e township x l / 4 0  35  F i g . 3.  Feldspar gneiss O l i v e township, t h i n s e c t i o n Hammer and handle t h i r t e e n i n c h e s l o n g .  F i g . 4.  Paragneiss Olive  township.  33.  34  Figure 6 F i g . 5 and 6.  T h i n s e c t i o n s 5 and 8 A s k i n township, Algoman showing h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d spar and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l t e r a t i o n . Crossed n i c o l s x 1 2  Pig.  7.  T h i n s e c t i o n 41C K i l l a r n e y type g r a n i t e , S i s k towns h i p showing h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of p o t a s h f e l d s p a r ( m i c r o c l i n e ) . Quartz, p l a g i o c l a s e a l t e r e d to c h l o r i t e and t i t a n i t e are the o t n e r m i n e r a l s . Crossed  Fig.  8.  T h i n s e c t i o n 33, f e l d s p a r g n e i s s , S i s k township showing p l a g i o c l a s e g r a i n s w i t h b i o t i t e i n c l u s i o n s Crossed n i c o l s x 12.  36  P i g . 9.  T h i n s e c t i o n 41C S i s k township showing p r i m a r y g n e i s s o s i t y . M i n e r a l s p r e s e n t are h a s t i n g s i t e (opaoue), b i o t i t e and t i t a n i t e i n a groundmass of q u a r t z ana o r t h o c l a s e . P l a i n l i g h t x 12.  G a t a c l a s t i c t e x t u r e , the s m a l l l i g h t g r a i n s are g r a n u l a t e d q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r . Note the s t r a i n shadows i n the q u a r t z and mica i n c l u s i o n s i n the feldspar. Crossed n i c o l s x 3 5 .  P i g . 11.  T h i n s e c t i o n 7a O l i v e t o w n s h i p , p l a g i o c l a s e g r a i n s (algoman) under the c r o s s h a i r s p a r t l y r e p l a c e d by m i c r o c l i n e o f the G r e n v i l l e i n t r u s i v e . Tongues o f m i c r o c l i n e p r o j e c t i n t o the p l a g i o c l a s e . C r o s s e d  F i g . 12.  T h i n s e c t i o n S110 K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e l o t 6, Con. 1 Pardo t o w n s h i p , note tne mica i n c l u s i o n s i n the p l a g i o c l a s e and the p l a g i o c l a s e g r a i n broken and h e a l e d by mica. Crossed n i c o l s x 35.  F i g . 13.  T h i n s e c t i o n S107 K i l l a r n e y g r a n i t e l o t 8 Con VI i^ana t o w n s h i p , showing h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of p o t a s h f e l d s p a r ( r a i c r o c l i n e ) and c a t a c l a s t i c texture. Crossec n i c o l s x 12.  F i g s . 14 and 15.  Pre-Tirniskaming p o r p h y r y showing p h e n o c r y s t s of p l a g i o c l a s e hornblende and q u a r t z . Crossed n i c o l s x 12.  40 BIBLIOGRAPHY' 1.  Miller,  2.  M i l l e r , W.G. and K n i g h t , C y r i l W., •  3. •  .  W.G.,  .  :  4.  '  Report o f the Bureau o f Mines, O n t a r i o 1907, P a r t ' 11 The G r e n v i l l e - H a s t i n g s U n c o n f o r m i t y , S i x t e e n t h Report o f the O n t a r i o Bureau of M i n e s , 1907. The L a u r e n t i a n System^ O n t a r i o Bureau of M i n e s , 1911, P a r t 1 Pre Cambrian Geology o f S o u t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o , P a r t 1_1, 22nd Report o f t h e O n t a r i o Bureau o f Mines, 1913.  5. . B a k e r , M.B.,  The Geology o f K i n g s t o n and V i c i n i t y , Ont. Bureau o f M i n e s , 2 5 t h Ann. Rept. 1914, P a r t 111  6.  W i l s o n , M.S.,  Madoc s h e e t , Map 559 A, Mines and G e o l . B r a n c h , Can. Dept Mines and R e s o u r c e s , 1940.  7.  H a r d i n g , W.D.,  Geology o f K a l a d a r and Kennebec Townships, Ont. Dept o f M i n e s . V o l . L I , P a r t I V , 1942.  8.  Murray, A l e x a n d e r ,  On the N o r t h Coast o f Lake Huron, G.S.C. Rept. o f P r o g ; 1847-48, pages 93 - 124.  9.  Q u i r k e , T.T., and C o l l i n s , W.H.-,  The Disappearance o f the H u r o n i a n , G.S.C. Memoir 160, 1930.  10. W i l s o n , M.E.,  Geology d e r E r d e , Geology o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , V o l . 1 page 290 - 293, 1939  11. Cooke, H . C ,  Some Problems o f Sudbury Geology page 6, B u l l e t i n No. 3. G.S.C. 1945.  .12. P e t t i j o n n , F . J . ,  Archean Sedimentation B u l l e t i n of G.S.A. V o l . 54, page 960, 1943.  13. Gussow, W.C.,  Petrogeny o f the M a j o r A c i d I n t r u s i v e s o f the R o u y n - B e l l R i v e r a r e a o f N o r t h w e s t e r n Quebec. R.C.S. P a r t I V page 129, 1937.  14. B a r l o w , A.E.,  M a r g i n a l n o t e s , G e o l . Surv. Can. Map. No. 606, 1908.  41 1-5. \Todd, E.W.  The M a t a k i t c h u a n A r e a , Ont. Dept o f Mines, V o l . XXXIV, P a r t 111 1925  16.  B r u c e , E.L.,  Geology o f the Townships o f J a n e s , McNish, Pardo and Dana, Ont., Dept of Mines, V o l . X L 1 , c a r t I V , 1932  17.  F a i r b a i r n , .H.W.,  Geology of t h e A s h i g a i n i Lake A r e a . Ont. D p t o f Mines, V o l . XLV111 P a r t X, 1939. e  18.  Moore, E.S., and A r m s t r o n g , H.S.,  Geology,of t h e E a s t B u l l Lake A r e a , Ont. Dept. o f Mines, V o l . L l l P a r t V I , 1943.  19.. S a t t e r l y , J . ,  M i n e r a l Occurrences i n P a r r y Sound D i s t r i c t , Ont. Dept o f Mines, V o l . L I , P a r t 11 1942, Page 11.  20.  Wright, J.F., •  B r o c k v i l l e , M a l l o r y t o w n Map Area G.S.C. Memoir 134,: page 28, 1923.  21.  Henderson, J . F . ,  Geology and M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s o f V i l l e - M a r i e and G u l l l e t (Mud) Lake Map a r e a s , Quebec. Memoir 201, G.S.G. Page 17, 1936.  22.  Norman, G.W.Hy,  The n o r t h - e a s t Trend o f L a t e P r e Cambrian T e c t o n i c . F e a t u r e s i n t h e ,Chibougami D i s t r i c t Quebec. R.S.G. P a r t I V , Page 119, 1936.  LIBRARY University of British Columbia  Vancouver, Canada  

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