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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Pre-Jurassic sedimentation, tectonism and stratigraphy in southern Alberta and adjoining areas of British.. Johnson, Ronald Dwight 1956

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fM*JtJMSSIC SEDIMENTATION, TECTONISM AMD STRATIGRAPHY IH SOUTHERN ALBERTA AND ADJOINIHQ AREAS O F BRITISH COLUMBIA AND MONTANA  by RONALD DWIGHT JOHNSON  A THESIS SUBMITTED IH PARTIAL FULFILKEHT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOB THI DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (  i n the Department of GEOLOGY and GEOGRAPHY  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of Master of Science  Members of the Department of GEOLOGY and GEOGRAPHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19S&  fill  ABiTBACT  The pre •Jurassic tectonic event® of the area controlled th® nature of sedimentation. These tectonic events were the result of Movements of the members of the tectonic framework. The nature of the tectonic framework was established during Beltiaa sedimentation and ires Inherited by the Paleozoic  em.  airing the Paleozoic era, th© movements of various menbers of th® tectonic framework resulted in four sequences or cycles of sedimentation. Tectonisa and it® control upon sedimentation from Seltian to pre-Jurassic tiiae is shown as Beltiaa sedinentation and the succeeding sedimentary cycles are discussed.  Type loca-  l i t i e s are defined for the Belt! n and Paleozoic strata o f each sequence as they occur i n the area. Problems of a«ge determination for the stratigraphic units are discussed and the correlation of these unitb within and beyond the are;, presented. These correlations show the relationship of the stratigraphic nomenclature of Montane and Alberta. Since the thesis i s nainly limited to . ublisiied inforaatio i , i t indicates the present status of published geological thought in the area.  DC  ACdGWL£IX!»ffiK<S  I'he writer i s  indebted  to the California Standard  Company whose Fellowship (California Standard Company Graduate  Fellevthip, 1952-53)  enabled this study to be  undertaken,  The  writer also wishes to express his appreciation for the aug-  geatloa*  aad  constructive criticisms  of Dr, Chm&iag aad  members  of the Department. A special thanks le extended to Dr.  T.«T, Okulitch under  whose guidance this thesis was written.  Ill  COHTEHTS  Pag®  Aekaowledgeosnts .............•«...<••.•••.•»•».<••>• • • • » • • • • «  IX  Chapter Is INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter II: fill BELT SERIES ...  4  Area! Distribution and facies Develorpment Facies of tae Beltian Sediments ftlaeier Park Facies of the Belt Series Aa Outline of the Order of Presentation of the Various. Stratigraphic Units of the Glacier Park Facies ......... Description of th® Slteier Park Facie® Correlation of the Belt Series ... Fort Steele and Aldrldge formations, Southeastern 3. C. ... Belt Paleogeography Post-Algonltian—Pre-Caa'brian Dlastrophism in Western Canada The Lipalian Interval .... Post-Beltian—Pre-Carabrian Sedimentation Close of the Lipalian Interval Chapter H I *  fSCTOHISM AND S EDBCENTA!P I ON SORING THI PALEOZOIC H A feeioale Framework Daring the Paleozoic era Distribution of Sediments Within the Geos^aeline Depositions! Cycles Paleozoic Sedimentary Sequences  Chapter IY5 THE SAUK 8&iUMCE  ,  4 6 7 8 10 21 21 23 26 Z6 2? 29  30 30 32 3^ 35  37  Cambrian  37  The lager Formation  42  Middle Cambrian Middle Cambrian Formations of Northwestern Montana Middle Cambrian of Southern Alberta Middle Cambrian of Southeastern British Columbia .......... Upper Cambrian Llthology, Thickness and Distribution of Cambrian Sediment®  46  Lover Cambrian 39 Lower Cambrian Formations of Southeastern British Columbia. hO The Cranbrook Formation 40 Age of the Cranbrook Formation 41  Age of the Eager Formation  43 48  52 54 55 57  IT Chapter T t THS TIPPECANOE SBQUMCS  Page  60  OrdLovician .. .. ...«•...••..»»».••.«.«...«..»».»...».«»«.. 60 Silurian--JPrs-Upper Devonian Interval ....... 63 Ilk Point Formation .. .......... . •.. 63 Age of the Elk Point Formation . 64 Silurian (?) Strata in Vaterton Park 68 Ghost River Formation 69 J_g® ©aft Correlation of the Ghost liver formation 70 Teotonism Daring the Tippecanoe Sequence 7k A Theory on the Sequence of Tippecanoe Events ?6 Chapter 7 1 : THS KASKASKIA SEQUENCE  81  Stratigraphy of the Kaskaskla Sequence 82 History of the Kaskaskian loaenclature in Canada ........ 82 Devonian Stratigraphy of the Area 83 Falrholae 'Formation 83 Age of the F^irholne formation 85 AXsxo Format1011 ......................................... 85 Age and Correlation of Fairholia© and Aleaso Foraations ... 86 Beef and Off-Eeef facies of the ilexo and fairholase Ffits.. 88 Palliser Formation 89 Correlation of the Palliser Formation ................... 90 Ssshaw Formation 91 Age and Correlation of the Emhwr formation .............. 92 Origin ef the latshrar Shale 94Fessil Zones of the Upper Devonian 95 Missiesipplan Stratigraphy of the Area 99 Banff Formation ••.*•.••.•••*.»•*».••..«•••.••.•••..»..«• 100 Hun die Format i on ....»..........................*........ 102 Correlation of the Banff and Bundle Formations .......... 105 Yakinikak Formation, Montana 107 Kaskaskian Sediments in the Rocky Mountain Trench 10? Charles Formation 109 Tectonism ant: I t s Effect Upon Sedimentation During the I&slaaskf® Sequence.. 110 Cycles of Sedimentation within the Kaskaekia Sequence ... 115 iTidence Segffljrdiag Westward Thinning of feskaskiaa Se&inents... 116 Chapter YII: THE ABSAEOKA SEQUIICE  118  Canadian Stratigraphy of the Absaroka Sediments ......... 118 Rocky Mountain Formation 119 Spray River (?) Formation 122 Montana Stratigraphy of the Ahsaroka Sequence , 124 B i g Snowy Group •» 125 Aneden Formation 126  T  Pa&e  (Quadrant Formation ............. • ........ 1 2 6 Phosphoria J1ormation •...........•......»..•»..<»•>•....« 127 Chugvater (Spearfish) Formation ........... 127 Corrtl&tion of Absaroka Sedinents ........................ 128 Distribution, Thickness, and Lithofacies of the ' 130  Absaroka Sediments  Isotonic Events of the Absaroka Sequence Chapter Till:  134 136  SOMMAlY  Bibliography  143  Appendix ...................................................  149  vixjsmsiovs  fig.  (* - indicates illustration follow® page listed)  X. Index map o f southern Alberta and adjacent parts of  Montana and British Columbia, shoving location of the  thesis area ..........#....................»..».........  1 S  2. Distribution of Areas of Belt Outcrop .................. 3.  Correlation Chart of the Belt Series  4 . Map of Glacier aad Waterton Lakes  .....pocket  national Parks .......  5 . Belt pale oleography.  10  23 A  • 6. Distribution and thickness of Beltian strata in Montana. 7. Thickness of Paleozoic strata 8. Synthetic map  5  25 * 30 &  of Ctuabrian seaways in central Cordilleran region.....  38  9. Map of late Yaucoblan lands and seaways in central  Cordilleran region... 39 10. Correlation of Lover Cambrian Sections .« 44 11. Mep of Albertaa lands and seaways  in central  Cordilleran region...  46  TI  Fig.  Pag®  12. Correlation of Middle Cambrian  .......pocket  13. fable Of formations for the little Belt Mtns., Montana... 14. Croixaa Seaways 15.  56  Isopaeh and lithofacies of Cambrian system  5? *  16. Present distribution aad isopachs .of Cambrian system .... 1?.  Isopaeh and lithofacies of Ordovician system  Pr©-Middle Devonian paleogeology  58 60 ft  18. Present distribution aad Isopachs of Ordovician system ... 19.  53 &  61  63 ±  ,  20. Present distribution aad isopachs of Middle DevonianSilurian .... 64 21.  Isopach aad lithofacies map of basal DsYonian unit in northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains areas  72*  22. Correlation Chart of Upper Devonian formations....pocket 23. I&skaskian formations of th® Area  82 4  24. Historical Development of Upper Devonian Nomenclature in Western Canada ,  83 *  25. Reef and Off-Reef Facie® of th® Alexo and  Fairholma  RIB..  26. Generalised stratigraphic columns Illustrating Devonian correlations in central and northwestern Montana 27.  Devonian strata in central and northwestern Montana .....  28. Rhynchonellid sones of Upper Devonian in the Canadian Rocky Mountains  88 *  91 * 91 * 99 *  29. Historical Development of Miaeissippian Nomenclature in Vestern Canada  103 *  30. Madison group. Composite die^rarnnatie cross section .... 105 * 31. fable showing tentative correlation of Carboniferous strata in th© northern Rocky Mountains .................. 105 * 32. Thickness of Madison group subsequent to late Paleozoic and early Mesosoic erosion 106* 33. Eastward development of the Big Snowy Group 109 *  fig. 34. 35•  36.  Pag© Isopach and lithofacies map of total Upper Devonian in northern. Rocky Mountain and Great Plains area  Ill *  Isopach aad lithofacies nap of lover limestone unit in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains areas ....  112 x  Isopach and lithofacies map of djolooite-eyaporite unit in northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains areas  112 x  37. Isopach and lithofacies map of post-eveporite unit in northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains areas  113 *  38. Isopach and lithofaciea of Lower Mississippian  114 x  39. Correlation of Ahsarokan formations  .....pocket  40. Isopach and lithofacies of Upper Mississipplan (C; ester-  ian). 41.  system  •. 131 x  Isopach and lit of&cies of Permian system  44. Present distribution and isopachs of Permo-Pennsylvanian 45.  x  Isopach map of Big Snowy group showing distribution and thickness subsequent to late Paleozoic and early Mesosoic erosion 131 x  42. Zsopach and lithofaciea of PennsylTanlan 43.  130  131 x 132  Present distribution and isopachs of Trlacsic system.... 133  46. Post-Paleosoie—pre-Mesosoic pal©©geography and structure 134 x  Map:-Cranbrook-Lethbridge Area (included for reference purposes) in pocket  psi-juBissic ssamimnsim, mmmm m> sumsim&wc III SOUfHBRil ALBJSREA AHD ADJOIHIBB AREAS 0? BRITISH COLUMBIA AND MOMMA  Chapter I  iiraowcfioi  fhis thesis present® aa integrated study ef the preJurassic stratigraphy and sedimentation in southern Alberta aad i n the adjoining area® of British Columbia and Montana, An attempt is made t© relate th® cause—the tectonism, to the effect—the sedimentation. In most stratigraphic studies i t is necessary to indues a regional concept based on specific evidence, Such a regional concept of the stratigraphy and sedimentation has been gradually derived for the thesis area, although certain unsolved stratigraphic problems break i t s continuity. Where a stratigraphic problem exist®, one or sore hypotheses which attempt to satisfy the specific evidence and yet f i t harmoniously into th© regional concept are presented, Shis thesis seeks to present the regional concept aad examine the various hypotheses i n the light of accumulated knowledge now available ia published material. The thesis area is defined as the area between the 48° and 50° parallels west froa the fourth meridian to the western side of the Rocky Mountain trench (see Figure 1 ) . Ia the body of the  F i g u r e 1.  Index map of southern A l b e r t a and adjacent p a r t s o f Montana and B r i t i s h Columbia, showing l o c a t i o n o f the t h e s i s a r e a .  -2.  thesis, the tern "the area" is used synonoraously with the terra "the thesis area."  Shis particular area was chosen l a order  that the thought of loth American and Canadian geologists regarding th© geological history of this part of North America could he utilisedi also, the Canadian nomenclature could he correlated with the American counterpart. The area is suitable for a study of this nature as i t contain® portions of the two major tectonic units—the North American Cordilleran geosyncllne and the n'orth American interior craton, and two of the minor tectonic units— ''ontania, and the Sweetgrase arch. Three other minor tectonic units—the Central Montana trough, the Williston basin and the Wyoming shelf—are nearby. The interrelated movements of these units strongly influenced the nature of sedimentation and, therefore, the stratigraphy of southern Alberta, southeastern British Columbia and northern Montana. The Pre-Cambrian and Paleosoic s tratifirephy of the area is outlined in the following chapters, for each period or sedimentary sequence a stratigraphic type locality is established, and the stratigraphic units of the type locality are defined.  The  stratigraphic section at the type locality is correlated with other sections within and beyond the area. Special attention Is drawn to local differences in nomenclature. Finally, an attempt is made to relate the distribution aad lithology of the various strattgrsfhie units with the tectonic events which governed their deposition.  -3-  Many  of tli© stratigraphic and sedimentary problems  which s t i l l exist in tho area are outlined. Undoubtedly some of these problems have been solved by Individuals and organizations who have not as yet published their findings. Since this thesis utilizes mainly published Information, i t serves to illustrate the present position of published geological thought and data pertinent to the area, aad to present a comprehensive study of its sedimentation, tectonicm and stratigraphy.  /  -4-  Chapter II  IHS BELT SKBISS  The Belt aeries, which Is the lowest stratigraphic division to outcrop within the area, consists of elastic and nonclastic sediments with minor lavas and intrusive roeks. Portions of this series outcrop in British Columbia, Alberta, Idaho aad Montana} their distribution in the area being restricted to regions lying south of the Crowsnest Pass, aad along the Becky Mountain trench. The Belt series in the area rests in progressive overlap, lying unconforraably on Archean rocks (Walcott, 1906, p.18), The Belt series in turn is uuconformably overlain by Paleosoic formations (Deiss, 1935, p.122). The rocks of the Belt series wer® first described by Dawson (1675, pp.6?-68) who assigned them to the Cambrian and youncer systems, Dawson•s work was followed by descriptions of the series by Bauerman (1885, pp.1-41) and then Halcott (1899, p.201). who named the series. However, th© first detailed work t  was done by Willi® (1902, pp.305-352) who assigned the Belt series to tba Algonkiaa period, A detailed regional study of the Belt series published by Fenton and Fenton (1937) provides most of the information for the Pre-Cambrian portion of this thesis.  AreaA Distribution and, l^iffs. ^ye^oj^ent the regional study of the Belt series (Feuten and Fenton, 1937, p.1877) reveals this series to have various facies  developments at different localities, These facies developments are illustrated by changes in "lithology, stratigraphic sequence, thickness, recorded conditions of depositlo ., fauna, and flora." The areal distribution of Belt outcrop io illustrated by Figure 2 which is subdivided to portro* graphically tlie areal extent of the various facies. Fourteen sectioBl of the Belt series are presented in Figure 3« The locations of twelve of these sections are indicated in Figure 2, while the remaining two sections (Sections 4 and 5) ore located northwest of the area covered by Figure 2:  Section 5—in tlie northwest corner of the thesis area,  and Section 4—beyond the nortxiwest corner of the thesis area. The geographical relationships of the 6ix facies described on the following page are illustrated below by Figure 2; their stratigraphic relationships are illustrated b„ the correlation chart of the Belt series, Figure J.  Figure 2. Distribution of Areas of Belt Outcrop (Fenton and Feiiton, 1<;37. P.I876)  -6-  l^m.Qt  ...the Jsitiaft. Sediments (Fentoa and Fenton, 1 9 3 7 .  P-18?7)  Meagher, fac^es • Includes th® standard section of th® series In the Belt Mountains and probably the little Belt •ectlenj extends westward to Prickly Bear Creek. Distinguished by great thickness of the Spokane and presence of Greys on member at its base. THs* 3; S^c.13 aad 14] BlaekffQot fiaflys-ft Characterised by development of Grinnell aad Appekunny silt-clay argillites in place of the calcareous Chamberlain and by great thickness of Slyeh, Spokane, and Sheppard or Helena, called "Upper Siyeh" by Clapp and Deiss. C?lg. 3; .Sec. 12] Glacier Pftft Tflff*W Development of the series in Glacier National Park, Montana, Vatsrton Lakes National Park, Alberta, westward to the Flathead trough. Grades into the doninantly clastic Purcell facies. [Fig. 3; Sec. 8] Gallon, Faejgft  A transitional stage between the Glacier Park and Purcell facies. Distinguished from the former by more elastics In the Siyeh and Helena; from the latter by finer elastics below th© Siyeh and presence of Altgra siliceous dolomites. [Fig. 3 ; Sec,  7]  Purest Efrcies. , ^ iV . . ... Marked by abundant elastics throughout, with reduction ef carbonate rocks. Quartzites, thick in lower portions, reach the known base (lowest observed member] of the Belt. [Fig. 3; Sec. 5 and 6] ,0„peux d'Alene Facies Closely related to the Purcell. Characterized by sandstones and argillaceous beds throughout the Striped Peak (z lower Spokane), by reduction of carbonate rocks in the Siyeh equivalent,(lower Wallace), and by tripartite division of the Havalli, which is clastic throughout. [Fig, 3 ; Sec. l]  Tha Interrelationship of the various facies of the Belt series will not he discussed further. However, the Belt series, as i t is developed in the Glacier Park facies, will be described in detail In the following section.  glacier; Park gaols® of the Belt Series The Glacier Park facies Is arbitrarily defined as the • type section for the Belt series within the area, for the following reasons? 1) fhe standard section for this series is in the Belt Mountains, south of the area 2) She Glacier Park facies occupies an intermediate position between Canadian and American occurrences of the series 3) The Glacier Park section is better known to Canadian geologists than other American sections of th® series 4 ) A fairly complete section of Beltiaa sediments Is in Glacier Park fhe following description of the Glacier Park Belt section (see figure 3; Section 8) represents extracts from Fenton and Penton (1937, pp.1880-1904). The definition of each member, formation, and group is presented and the type locality of each stratigraphic unit Is given. Igneous unit® which occur in the Belt series are also described,  Aa OftftlM of Jfot..OmflMTuM Presentation gf, the Various, Stratl^rap^cttylfopf thefflM*WTM s F„fic,iff,ft RAYA1LI GROUP  Definition and type locality  Altya I o r a ^ o h  Ravalli Group Brief description Brief description Brief description ^ -  Definition aad type locality Altyn formation Waterton Member Definition' and type locality Hell Rearing Member Definition and type locality Carthev Member Definition and type locality  m^mmr  ?o«aatlpa Definition and type locality Appekunny formation Siagleshot Member Definition and type locality Applstoki Member Definition aad type locality Scenle Point Member Definition and type locality Definition sad type locality Grinnell Formation Rising Wolf Member Definition and type locality led Gap Member Definition and type locality Rising Bull Member Definition and type locality  PISGAS ©ROUP  Definition and type locality Plegan Group  Brief description Brief description Brief description  -9-  fiaitiojrand type locality  Siyeh Formation Definition and type locality Goathaunt Member Definition and type locality O^llsj^a, ..fre^ufpf, lone Definition aad type locality Granite Park Member Definition and type locality  mmWm  Z o i M  Definition and type locality  Definition and type locality  MISS0OU &BDW Definition aad type locality  rtla Member  loosTille Member  Mt. low® Member  Missoula Group Definition Definition Definition Definition  aad aad and aad  type type type type  locality locality locality locality  Brief description  IGMHJB BOOKS General description Early Klntla late Spokane Burly Spakaae or late Siyeh late Grinnell  Brief Brief Brief Brief  description description description description  The definitions of the various stratigraphic units of the Belt series as these units occur ia the Glacier Park area are presented in detail in the following section.  - Dcacri >tion of the Ulacier Park Facies 'Hie i;eor.raphical positions mentioned In the following descriptions are indicatod in Figure 4.  Fit-ure •>• t'ap of Glacier and Waterton Lakes national Perks (Fenton and Fenton, 1937, P-1873)  -11-  1ATALL1 OB0QP Definitiont Domin&atly clastic rocks which form the lowest major division of the Belt series i a the Meaner, Blackfoot Ga©yon, Glacier Park, and Galton feels®, hut are uaterl&ia by the Prichard elastics in the Purcell faoiaa. la th© Glacier Park facies, they Include the seal-clastic and carbonate Altyn formation, which preauaaMy grades westward!? Into elastics. Thickness 7,800 to 15,000 feet, Type Locality; Hills along the Jocko River, near Ravalli, Montana.  Ravalli Group Feet Faraatlea. Red with some green a r g i l l i t e , sands tone, and sandy quartssite 2000- 3500  ffiri^paj^ A  P B f ^ W , ypraatlqn. Green-gray to light- or dark-gray a r g i l l i t i c and sandy qpiartsite and quartsltic a r g i l l i t e j some massive whitish  qpartslte  3500-10,000  Altya, Formation. Impure, siliceous, a r g i l l a ceous to sandy or pebbly limestone, with bed.® ef calcareous, pebbly sandstone. Hot exposed west ©f the continental divide  Beffiaiticat Dolomites, limestones, limy arglllites, sandstones, and minor mud breccias which form the lower cslcareo-aaGaesian division i a the Belt sediaeats ©f the Glacier Park facies. The sediments shew considerable variety i a c o l o r , t e x t u r e , aad bedding; they contain mud crack®, ripple mark®, mxA many beds of flat-pebble and edgewise conglomerates. Their upper limit Is the base o f the Appekunny, with which they show some iatergr&datienj their lower limit is concealed beneath the Lewis t h r u s t . Thickness, 2180 to 2480 feet. Type Locality; Oliffa at the foot of Appekunny Mountain, about a mile northeastward from Swiftcurrent Falls, Glacier Halloas! Park. Entire section exposed only in Waterton Lakes Park, where i t i s complicated by f a u l t s and folds..  1400  -12-  Altyn Formation  Waterton Member jPtf^ftiont Dolomites, dark-gray and reddish, weathering to gray, reddish brown and buff, in beds 1 to 4 feet thick. Most beds are finely laminated, laminae numbering 10 to 6o per inch. Io gand grains were notleed. Some strata suggest thickly bedded, limy a r g i l l i t e s . Daly's analysis shows 23.60 per cent ealeite, 21.17 per eent magnesium carbonate, and 34.4-7 per cent orthoelase. fhe member grades upward into dolomites of the Hell Bearing member} Its base i s not vislblej its known thick- ness i s about 230 feet. type Locality; C l i f f s at Cameron Falls on Cameron ("Oil") Creek, near Waterton Park, Hell tearing Member Definition; Dolomite and dolomitic limestones, variably siliceoust blue-gray to greenish gray, weathering to gray, buff, or cream; beds 2 to 24 inches thick. Many beds show laminae of limestone and dolomite and apparently primary dolomite nodules, associated with blostroaes of Collenla albertensls n, sp. Thickness estimated at 1200 to 1300 feet. fsroe Locality; Hell Soaring Falls, Waterton Lakes Park. Well exposed on the eastern slope of Mt. Carthew. Carthew Member Dsf^ftl^lons Magaesian limestones, dolomites, quartsites, and intermediate rocks which grade upward into the basal Appekunny. Colors range from blue-gray through buff to brown and dark brownish red} bedding i s thin to thick, led beds, especially, show thin laminae. Thickness i s estimated at 700 to 900 feet. fvpe Locality; Eastern c l i f f s of Caraeronian Mountain above Cameron Creek, Waterton Lakes Park. WeH exposed on the eastern face of Berths Mountain, on slopes between Viray Peak and the Harrows of Waterton Lake, and oa th® northern c l i f f s of Gable Mountain, Glacier National Park.  -1>  Btflnitloai  Argillite interbedded with quartsite, conglomerate, and minor beds of argillaceous limestone; prevailingly green, greenish-gray to brownish, with some dull red, white, and purplish beds* Shin-bedded te thlete-bedded, with fine laminae; massive only la quarts conglomerates aad quartziteo, Grades into adjacent formations. In Its eastern phases, the thickness is 2500 to 5500 feet; in western, i t is as much as 10,000 feet. fppB...papa$Lpr.i Aijpekunay Mountain, north of Valley, Glacier lational Park,  Swiftcurrent  Appekunay Formation  Slngleshot Member Deflaltioat Argillites and qpartaltss, laterbedded with 'buff to greenish siliceous dolomite and dolomitle sandstone. Politic rocks are gray, gray green, reddish, aad black; quartsites ar® greenish, pink, or white. Mud cracks, ripple marks, and mud breccias are abundant. In some places, a basal coarse, pinkish sandstone rests on the Altyn with slight angular unconformity. Thickness 300 to 400 feet. l^pe..Local,!tyt Slngleshot Mountain near Glacier national Park.  St.  Mary Lake,  Appistoki Member Pefinltloat Gray, green, olive-brown, and rusty-gray argillites in thin minor but thick major beds, interbedded with thickly stratified, greenish, white, or pink quartzites, flat-pebble breccias, mud cracks, and ripple marks are abundant; rain and sleet prints are present in some layers. M s member iatergrades with other members, yet preserves fairly well-marked limits. Thickness in the Lewis Range, 2000 to 2200 feet. Type Locality; Appistoki Peak, near Two Medicine Lake, Glacier lational Park.  -14-  Seeaic Point Member Definition; * Argillites, sandstones, and gravelly conglomerates; green, purplish, buff, brown, and dull brownishred at the type locality. Northward and westward from the type locality, the member grades into thickly bedded, coarsely mud-cracked argillites, which give way to thick quarts!tes and subordinate gray and iron-stained a r g i l l i t e s . Mud breccias, mud cracks, and ripple marks are abundant. Thickness, 200 to ?00 feet.  ffips, .localityi  Scenic Point, overlooking Two Medicine falley, Glacier lational Park,  MMfrloa-* »®<1 or purplish argillites and white to lightgreen quartzites, lying between the Appekunny and the succeeding Plegaa group. Textures, colours, and bedding are highly variable; ripple marks, mud cracks, and current marks are abundant, as are rain or hail prints in some members. Thickness, 1500 to 3500 feet. Type Locality; Grinnell Point (Stark Point of some maps), at the head of Swiftcurrent, formerly McDemott Lake, Grinnell formation lisIng Wolf Member Definition; A basal member, i n which variable white and pink quartsites are Interbedded with red argillites which range from laminae to strata 5 feet thick. Symmetrical and asymmetrical ripple marks are common; mud cracks are prevalent, as are cross-bedding, mud breccias, and mud balls. Thickness, 200 to ?00 feet.  Locality; Southern oaal Park. Glacier Satioa Type  slopes of Using Wolf Mountain,  led Gap Member Definition; Argillites i n thin minor and thick major beds; dominantly red, but incidentally brownish or green; interbedded with pink, white, or greenish-white qu&rtsite®, brown sandstones, and sandy a r g i l l i t e s . Typically developed in the Lewis lange, north of Many Glaciers; recognizable elsewhere by its thick beds of red argillite with flat mud-crack polygons. Maximum thickness, 2800 feet.  -15*  Type^. .L^e^^t Mountain between Bed Gap aad Ptarmigan Wall, Glacier Rational Park, Siting Ball Member Defiaitloi» Argillites., quarts!te®, aad mod breccias forming the initial transition between the Grlnnell and Slyeh; physical characteristics Ilk©, those of the Using Wolf. Thickness, 600 to 1100 feet. r  gyp® Locality Upper cliff® of Ht. Hockwell (Using Ball @f the Bl&ckfeet), south of Upper Two Medicine Lake, Glacier  Rational Park.  PIEGASJ GROUP  SefialtloBi L^aestones, dolomites, and doaln&ntly argillaceous elastics which lie between the Missoula aad Ravalli groups. Despite variation, they form the sols toalnaatly caLcareo-raagnesian group ia the Meagher facies and the second ia the Glacier Park. Even in western facies, clastic strata contain much dolomite and line. The group is characterized by great development of calcareous algae. Thickness, 2780 to 14,300 feet. Type Locality; Plegaa Mountain, Glacier Batlonal Park. Well exposed on Mounts Mould, Wilbur, Cleveland, Liaehaa, aad ether high peaks of the Glacier-Waterton region.  Plegan Group  Feet  argillites. Gateway (Sheppard? Formation. Songlooerates, Conglomerates, argillites, grits, siliceous dolomites, and llstestoae®  1000  .yormatijBft. Argillites, purple aad green, interbedded with aandy qu&rtsites and porphyritie-asygdaloidal basalts (PuTcell)  920 •  Argillites, purple and green; nay include equivalents of the uppermost Slyeh in the Glacier Park and Galton facies..  500 +  Sstitpaft  Siyeh...Jtogeftipa. Limestone, thin-bedded to massive, s i l i ceous "concretionary*,, grays weathers gray or buff  T  Argillite® aad sandstones, thin-bedded, green to purple;  also a lenticular conglomerate, 200 feet thick.  1000  2000 5420 *  -16.  Peflnltloa: The second dorainantly ealcareo-nagnes ian formation i n tlie Glacier Park facies. It includes a r g i l l i t e s , quartsite®, and extensive mod breccias, as well as thick .algal deposits. Domlnantly, i t i s dark gray to blacks «&1 dolomites weather buff or fawn. Their color of weathering i s not mentioned i n sections. Thickness, 2900 to 4000 feet i n the Lewis Range; 5400 feet i n the liaekfoot Canyon facies. Tvoe Locality1 Mt. Siyeh, Glacier national Park.  Siyeh formation  Zone Peflal^loRi  Upper phase of the transition between the and arenaceous Grinnell to the dolomltic and limy Siyeh. O^iartiltes, argillites, and argillaceous dolomites weather to green, brownish, or buff; purplishred argillites are subordinate and are limited to the lower ?5 feet. Grades into the member above. Thickness, 500 to 900 feet.  arglllltlc  Type Localityi Ridge forming Cut Bank Pass, between the Cut Bank and the Dry fork valleys, Glacier National Park, WeH exposed on Dawson Paes and in c l i f f s near Grinnell Glacier, Goathaunt Member Def^^lt loni Limestones, dolomites, and subordinate oolites, dolofflitic sandstones, and argillites, thickly bedded; prevailingly dark-gray. Mud breccias, commonly containing coarse sand and pebbles, are abundant i n northern exposures. Mud cracks are common i n carbonaceous layers; ripple marks are obscure. Collegia w i l l l s i i a, sp, common, especially i n th© Lewis Range.Thickness, 2000 to 3200 feet. i  Type,, Iieej&^tyj. South wall of the cirque between I t . Goathaunt aad Mt. Cleveland. Well exposed In high peaks of Waterton-Glacler Parks.  •17-  Collerxia  tmpmpm  Zone  Definition; Dark-gray, crystalline to amorphous limestones In on© or more massive blostromes with thinly bedded calcareous or doloaitic intercalations. Biostroraes with thinly bedded calcareous or dolomitic intercalations. Blostroaes consist of little except Gollenlfe fregueni Walcott and £ . ysrslforals, n. sp. Thickness, 1 0 0 to 156 feet. gyps Locality: Eastern slope of Swifteurrent Pass on the granite Park t r a i l . Illustrated by Campbell and the writers. Granite Park Member Definition: Magnesian limestones, oolites, argillites, and qu&rtgltes represent the final stage of Slyeh sedimentation. Colors range through gray, greenish gray, and brown; textures vary areally. Large colonies of Cellenift w i l ^ i e i l n. sp. are abundant at several horizons, fhlckness, 280 to 900 feet. Type Locality; Cliffs of the Continental Divide southeastward from Granite Park, Glacier latlonal Park, where the strata are crossed by a trail to the dike above Grinnell Glacier. Well exposed In Hole-in-the-Wall Basin, near Boulder Peak, and on the trail from Alderson to Carthew lakes, Waterton Lakes Park.  Definitioni Argillaceous and arenaceous strata lying between the caleareo-raacnesian formations of the Plegan group. The beds range frora sandstones and soft shales to quartaltes and argillites; doainantly red and green, though brown, buff, and gray are also seen. Thickness, 180 to 7^*00 feet. Spokane Hills, east of Helena, Montana. Discussion; Argillites, interbedded with green basalts,  lie above the Siyeh formation, from Dawson Pass northward through Wsterton Lakes Park and in the Purcell Bang©.  -18-  SUmmA. tsm&iw Argillaceous aad siliceous dolomites and raagnesiaa limestones in tMs strata out thick feeds; dark-grey, green-gray, or brown, Baeslly, there are interbeds of graenlsh-whlte magneaian quartaites. Hippie marks, mud cracks, channel f i l l i n g s , aad edgewise mud breccias are characteristic, the latter chiefly i n siliceous layers; there la l i t t l e or no red a r g i l l i t e , This formation represents the final sta,.:© of Megan cal care o-ma, ^ne s ian sedimentat i o n , Thickness, 5^5 to 1500 feet.  .DJ^I^IQIU  Type Locality: Cliffs of the Lewis Bangs near Sheppard Glacier, f e l l exposed oa Mt. Carthew, Boulder, and Swiftcurrent peaks, and. mountains near Logan Pass, as well as l a the valley of the Middle Pork of the Flathead l i v e r .  MISSOULA GROUP Definition: Argillites, quartsites, and. sandstones, with minor beds of conglomerate, limestone, and calcareous shale. Ripfle marks, mud. cracks, salt crystal easts* and rain prints are characteristic. Thickness, 10,000 to 18,000 feet. Type Localityt Slopes east and west of Rattlesnake Creek, northeast of Missoula, Montana.  Missoula Group  Definition; Argillites, thinly bedded, domlnantly green and red but with a buff-weathering member, Interbedded argillaceous quartaites and sandstones and two lenticular biostromes of limestone. This represents the i n i t i a l stage of Missoula clastic sedimentation. Thickness, 2800 to feet.  2900  Tvne Locality;  Miller Peak, southeast of Missoula, Montana.  •19-  l i a t l a Member Paflnltloat Argillites and argillaceous sandstones, thinly bedded, dominaatly bright red; thin beds of quartsite aad piskleh grey limestone. Contains 30 t© 40 feet of purplish aaygdeloldal lam. lipple marks, mud cracks, chaaael®, rala prints, and casts of salt crystals are characteristic; algae are present only i n dolomite®, which they form. Thickness., 860 to 900 feet. Type Locality; Pyraraidal peaks of Akamlna Ridge, west of Waterton Lakes national Park. Well exposed on Mt. Rows, Mt. Carthew, I t . Custer, and oa Boulder Peak. looavilie Member  Definition:  Thin-bedded, f i s s i l e a r g i l l i t e aad a r g i l l a ceous sandstones, green, green-gray, and olive; weather rusty 'buff, .light pray, or browa. Mud cracks, ripple Mirks, and salt crystals are connon. Thickness, 550 'to 1000 feet. Type. Locality; Three miles east-northeast of the Phillips Creek cascade, near Roosville, British Columbia.  Mt. Rows Meaber Definition; led ouartaites, in thin to thick heds, assay of which show erossbedding, ripple marks, and mod conglomerates. The ausrtsites grade upward into rose-red argillites, which are thinly bedded aad f i s s i l e . Thickness, about 1500 feet. Type, Locality; South crest of Mt. Rowe, aear Akamina Pass, W&tertoa Lakes national Park.  P^l^ereqtAftteA Hissoula ftroup About 4800 feet of argillites aad sandstones overlies the Miller Peak formation l a the Flathead Range, anal! sytmetrleal ripple marks and interference marks are abundant, as are said cracks, which enclose flat polygons i a argillites aad convex polygons in quartaites. Polygons rang® from 1 to 36 laches i n width. Large ones are secttadarlly cracked, l a i n prints are numerous i n aorae layers; others show annelid burrows.  -20-  XGBBOUS BOCKS Tha Belt series In the Glacier Park facies Includes igneous rocks of two types: diabasie basalt lavas in the Grinnell, Spokane, aad Untla, and gabbro or gabbro-dorlte sills and dikes cutting formations from the Altyn to the Spokane. In addition, there are minor exposures of augite-aadesite, aelanite, phonollte, and other rocks. The earliest lava le the basic amygdaloidal basalt in the Using Bull member of the Grinnell formation. It is composed largely of secondary chlorite, quarts, and calclte, with abundant labradorlte crystals and pores filled by deep-green chlorite. The second lava is the Purcell. At its most southerly exposures, west of Grinnell Mountain, the Purcell includes two major flows, the f i r s t , 30 t© 42 feet in thickness, the second 18 feet thick. The basal 20 to 25 feet of the.lower flow contains ellipsoids or "pillows0, 10 to 25 inches In diameter, separated by cherty inclusions; the lavas surround detached masses of modified argillite 2 to 12 feet thick, the base [of the Lava] being irregular. The upper 10 to 17 feet is a massive, ropy lava. The second main flow is massive and amygdaloidal, containing mud inclusions, steam tubes, aad irregular cavities—evidences of subaqueous extrusion, Earthward, the thickness and number of flows increase. . . Daly's [1912, p.219] sections show 390 feet of amygdaloid, porphyry, and mud breccia in the Galton Baage and 4-65 feet of varied lavas in the Purcell. "Pillows", Irregular inclusions, veslches, steam tubes, and ropy structure characterize the flows. Prevailing colors are dark blue green to olive green. Sequence of igneous events in the Glacier Park facies: Basaltic flow, 40 feet thick; subaqueous. Basaltic flows, 35 to 275 f©®* late Spokane thick; subaqueous. Intrusions ta sheets and dikes, Barly Spokane, or tlie latter as much as 300 latest Siyeh f e e t wide (at the foot.of Lake Janet). They rose within 35° feet of the top of the Siyeh. Basaltic flow and copper-bearing tats Grinnell intrusions, flow 20 to 40 feet thick; probably subaqueous. (Localized intrusions of undetermined dates; probably Altyn in part.)  'Barly Klntla  -21-  of taa Belt Series  flerrelatlon  A correlation of the Belt formations and members within aad beyond the area is illustrated by Fifiure 3, which is essent i a l l y the work of Fenton and Fenton exception of Section® 4 aad 5, work of Rice  (1937, p.1878) with the  These two sections represent the  (1937, 19^1).  lorthweet of the Glacier Park section, two formations, which are stratigraphically lower than any occurring l a Glacier Park, have been described by Schofield (1915) aad Rice (1937, 19^1)• These two formations, the Fort Steele and the Aldrldge, form the basal portion of the Belt series l a the Graabrook area, fhe Fort Steele aad Aldridge formations are described i a the following section.  Fort Steele and Aldridge Formations.,. Southeastern British Columbia  2he Fort  Steele formation, as described by Rice  (1937.  Pp.4-6), is composed of a series of quartiites, argillites aad liaestones which have an exposed thickness of 7,000 feet aad & possibly  BRich  greater total thickness.  The Fort Steele formation  lies conformably under the Aldridge formatioa but the lower contact i s uafortuaately obscured. This formation contains at least four members. The lowest or "white quartaite" member has a miaiimia thickness of 1,000  feet. It is composed of pure quartsites aad argillaceous  -22-  quartsitea  with numerous white quartsitic hods up to 30 foot i n  thickness. This white quartaite member grades into the second or •striped a r g i l l i t e  n  member which is composed of 2,000 to 3,000  feet of alternating, narrow (approximately 1 inch) bands of dark grey argillite and white-to-grey quartalte. Above the "striped  argillite"  member l i e 2,000 to 3,000 feet of massive, black  ealcareous-to-dolomitic argillite which contains l a part minor white lines parallel to the bedding plane. Shis massive, dolomitic a r g i l l i t e member i s overlain by the uppermost member of the formatiori which consists of 300 to 500 feet of massive, grey-green, dolomitic argillite grading laterally into bluish limestone, The type locality for the Fort Steele formation is on the spur from Laklt Creek to Lakit Mountain, near Fort Steele, British Columbia. A fact of particular interest pointed out by Bice  (1937t P»5) is the occurrence of carbonates in the Fort Steele formation. Previously, the oldest carbonates in British Columbia were found in th© Kitchener formation—20,000 feet atratigraphically higher than the upper member of the Fort Steele formation. The presence of carbonates in the Fort Steele formation might eventually provide a clue to environmental conditions during early Proteroaoic time once th® relationship between the presence of organisms and the deposition of carbonates i s thoroughly understood.  The AM^lto, feSMtlffl ha® been described by Bice  (1937. pp.6-?) as a 16,000 feet.  than  fonaatioa of treaeadeus thickness, not less  He described It as "composed essentially of  grey,  rusty weathering  being  predominantly argillite  a r g i l l i t e aad argillaceous  quartslte",  i a the Bocky Mountains and a r g i l -  laceous filartaite la the Pure© 11 Baage. Primary sedimentary structures such as "arosebeddiag, mad-cracks, and ripple-ciarks* are  eonmoa i a  fonaatioa.  th® Aldridge  At the tine fenton aad featoa (193?) defined the facies, the Aldridge fonaatioa was stratigraphic  unit  cropping  in  thought to be the lowest  of the Belt series.  described,the Fort .Steele  formation,  However, when Bice (193?)  i t became the lowest out-  horltoa of the Belt series. The presence of carbonates  the Fort Steele formation alters the definition  facies  Purcell  slightly  (see preceding section, faeces,  of,,  of the Purcell ,the..BeM  Sediments). The Purcell facies, however, is s t i l l doainaatly elastic aad  the  kaowa base  of the Belt  series  Is s t i l l  a  quart-  alte.  The Belt sea, as illustrated i a Figure 5, was essentially a long, narrow, shallow body of water (Featoa aad Featoa,  193?,  PP.193S«19*0) which was particularly responsive to ^variations i a precipitation oa adjoining lands* because of the limited influence which could be exerted upon i t by the distant oceans. The margins  F i g u r e 5. B e l t paleo-eo^raphy. c l i n e s , w h i t e ; narir>e "basins, (Fenton and F e n t o n ,  Lands, d a r k ; ,;eosyns t i p p l e d at "bordars.  1937, P.1939)  of the sea, therefore, were somewhat brackish. During periods of drought or emergence the sea would become highly saline. There were apparently no great depressions or high areas within the trough, although an Algonkian archipelago in the vicinity of central western Montana and a large island l a central southern Montana did exist (Boise, 1935, pp«10M)»  2!he members of this  archipelago wer® composed of Archean granites, gneisses, and schists.  She main axis of the trough lay to the west of the  archipelago "from Suby mountain northward to, and beyond the International Boundary, and westward through Idaho and into eastern Washington." The western border of the trough (see figure 5) i s approximately parallel to its axle, extending northward from southwestern Idaho, through northeastern Washington and eastern British Columbia.  The eastern shoreline of the Belt sea on the  Pre-Carabrlaa granites of the Canadian Shield complex i s largely hypothetical.  Only i n areas where concentrated d r i l l i n g has  been done i s the shoreline placed with any degree of accuracy. In southern Alberta, the eastern limit of Belt sediment has been shown (McGahee, 19^9, p.613) to be west of the Princess area of southeastern Alberta. The area contributing the greatest amount of sediment to the Be It ian trough was the highlands of southwestern Idaho (ronton and Teuton, 1937, p.19^0). In general, the h i l l s on the western margin of the trough presumably supplied most of  -25-  the sediment, which would be augmented In part by detritus from the archipelago and perhaps by very fin® material from the distant lawlying eastern granitic shores, fhe pale©geography of Beltiaa time is reflected la the facies changes of its sediments (featoa sad featoa, 1937, pp.1935-1938) • Carbonates of the eastern facies grade laterally into clastic members of the western facies, indicating a doraiaaatly western seuree of sediment, i l l formations of the Glacier Park facies are essentially la gradations! contact, Joined by transitory aenbers. These members ladlcate "shallowing aad occasional emergence, with actioa of waves and currents, lacreaeed salinity ©f muds, aad crystallisation of salt."  The Belt series would,  therefore, seem to be "unlfled areally aad vertically" with oost of ita sedlmeats indicating a marine environment. The pre seat distribution aad thickness of the Belt sedimeats ia Montana are Illustrated la figure 6. It is important to note that the sedimeats of two troughs have been preserved. The aorthwest-trendlag trough, which coataias a tremendously thick gefueaee of Belt sediments, was a structurally weak erustal aoae aad was inherited by the Paleosoic era as the Cordilleras geosyadlae of Paleozoic geography. The easttrending trough, which contains a much thinner section of Belt sediments, was also inherited by the Paleozoic era as the consistently negative Central Montana trough of th© Paleozoic cratoaic area*  The Montania area exhibited intermittent posi-  tive tendencies until Upper Devonian time aad there is some  f Igor© 6, Distribution aad thickness of Beltlan strata In Montana, shown hy generalised "form" isopachs, (Sloes, 1950* p.429)  -26-  evldsnco time.  to suggest tat®  tendency continued through trlaesic  These units w i l l be discussed i n later chapters.  Aa unconformity between Beltian and Cambrian strata was f i r s t observed by Waleott (1099. pp.210-215) and later substantiated by ether workers. Uventually, Deles (1935) published a treatise ©a tha nature of the unconformity, postulating the conditions responsible for its  formation.  He (Deles, 1935.  p.123) envisioned a major period of erogenic movement in western Montana, the original uplift of which ended Beltlan sedimentation. In Montana, the effect of this orogeny (Delss, 1935, pp.111-112) extended at least as far north as Pentagon Mountain (near latitude  48° at longitude 113°). Delss stated that "local folds with dips of 30 degrees were produced, and the beds were elevated at least  20,000  feet above the surrounding region" producing the Helena  mountains. This u p l i f t , which marked the close of the PreCaabrian era, was followed by a long period of erosion—the iipalian Interval.  fhe Upalian  Interval  Irosion during the lipalian interval reduced the high Helena mountain mass to near-peneplain conditions. Delss  (1935,  p.124) supported this theory of a long aad 'active period of erosion with th® following evidences  -2?-  That the Middle Caabriim sea-bottom, upon which th® Flathead (basal Cambrian sands) was deposited, was a base-leveled plane, Is substantiated by .the distribution and remarkably uniform thickness [In a regional sense but withraanylocal irregularities (Deles, 1939» p.3*0], lithologie character, and transitional sequence of the thin Flathead sandstone and the superjacent Wolsey shale, fhe writer believes i t to be impossible for a formation to be deposited over 35.000 square miles to an average thickness of only 108 feet unless the surface upon which the formation wee laid down was essentially a plane. As a conclueioa to his study, Deiss talned  that the  existence of the unconformity  (1935,  P»12^) oaia-  between the  Beltian  and overlying strata, which resulted from aa erosional interval of great magaitude, waa "eoaclueive proof of the pre-Cambriaa «ge of the Beltiaa eedlmeats."  Along the Rocky Meuatala trench northwest of  aad  ta the  Keetenay Lake  the  - Bevelstoke area, a group of sedimeats  known as the ¥iadenaere series (Walker, 1926, pp.13-20) lies uncoaformably upon the  Purcell  series,  fhe Windermere series i s ,  i a turn, uaeoaformably overlain by Lower Cambrian strata. series has beea assigned a late Pre-Cambriaa age  by  This  Rice (19*1,  P.24X However, Park and Caanoa (19^3) aad Cheritoa (19*9) have coasidered at least part of i t as early Paleosoic i a age. As described by Walker (1926), the series coaslsts of a lower fonaatioa, th© Toby, composed of coarse clastic derivatives of the Purcell facies of the Belt series, aad a thick upper series of  -28-  volcaaic and detri'tal elastics with  minor carbonate®.  Eh®  Windermere series w i l l not he described further except to show i t s relationship to the events  which occurred  in the area.  fhe Windermere series appears to be the result ©f rapid  erosion and short transportation of sediments from aa adjoining high land  aaas  (Walker, 1926,  p.lSh Cheritea  (19^9, p.58) dis-  cussed the Windermere series aad concluded that its source of sediment was the Puree 11 mountains. This coaelusioa was based partly ©a the work of Park aad Oaaaoa  (19^3) whe, although they  could act determine aa area of provenance of sediments for  the  coarse basal conglomerate, found stratigraphic evidence of'a source area aorth cf northeastern Washington (Park aad Caaaoa, 19^3, p.13) f#r sediments immediately overlying the conglomerate, l i c e (19*1, p.23) did aot suggest a source ©f sediment but stated  that seme fragments la the basal conglomerate of the Windermere series  iadicate a •granite iatrusive  source of at least  some of  the aedimeate.* He also stated that "ao granite of pre-Wladermere age i s kaowa to be exposed ia British eolurabla,* The ancestors! Purcell mountains (lice, 1937, P<M  were probably the  result of  the same orogeais movemeats which built the Helena mountains ia Meataaa (Deis®, 1935. P.1G6)- She erosioa of Archeaa gaeiss and schist from the Helena mountains (Beiss, 1935. p . l l l ) repreeeats  a possible source of the granitic material i a the basal conglomerate of the Windermere series..  -29-  Th® orogeny which  built  th® Helena and aneestoral Purcell  mountains and closed Beltlan sedimentation appears to have initiated sedimentation of the Windermere series.  The Windermere series i s ,  therefore, of the same age as the f i r s t part of the Mpallan interval.  As the process of peneplanatloa continued into the latter  part of the Llpalian interval, the areal extent of the erosion increased until i t included the deposition area of the Windermere series,  close  0/  ,fte, M w M w  When the  toSmmh  Lower Cambrian seas transgressed the area,  closing the Mpaliaa interval, the sediments of th© lowermost Cambrian formation, the Cranbrook, were deposited on the Llpalian peneplain. The nature of this peneplain has been previously described.  It should be noted, however, that the peneplain was  partially over areas of folded and eroded Beltlan sediments aad partially over areas of tilted (Walker, 1926, pp. 17,18) Windermere sediments,  Th© result was an unconformable contact between  Lower Cambrian and Windermere strata in the areas of Windermere sedimentation, and between Lower Cambrian, leltian and older sediments i n the areas of Beltlan sedimentation.  •30-  Chapter I I I  fSGfOIIM JUD ftBXKBHSAxIGff OTtXW THE FilEOSOXO KBA  fhe Horth American Cordllleraa geesyaellae and adjoining i'  pertions ef the eratoa, in tae vicinity of tae k9 parallel, were Q  inundated, for much of Paleozoic time*  Xa this area, sediments  were received oa a tectonic framework partially inherited from the Pre-Cambriaa era. She moveraeat of the various members, or elements, ef this framework resulted in a cyclic type of deposition which largely coatrolled the  nature  ef  aedimeatatioa from  Cambrlaa t© very late Paleozoic—pre-Mlddle Jurassic time, Sloss (1950)  ladlcated the chief members of this tectonic framework  which were active ia the northwestern United States aad southern Caaada, and gave a regional picture ©f the resulting sedimentary eyeles. Webb (1951) made a similar study for westers Canada. Shis thesis employs the regional picture outlined by Sloss (1950) aad Webb (1951) as a pattern late whieh may be fitted details of Paleozoic aedimeatatioa, tectonlsm and stratigraphy for the thesis  Teetoalp,, Frameworfe Parlay, Within the area, the Paleeaolc teetoaic framework was composed of two major aad two miaor units. One major unit was the Cordilleraa geosyacliaal belt which occupied approximately the western quarter of the area (see Figure 7), aad in which thicknesses  Figure 7« Thickness of Paleozoic strata, shown hy generalised, isopachs. (Sloss, 1950, p. 4 2 5 ) .  •31-  ©f Paleeaole sediments in excess of 5»000 feet were preserved. The eastern three-quarters of the area represents a portion of  the other major structural u n i t , the craton, which i n general received less than 5*000 feet of sediments. One minor u n i t , namely, the Sweetgrass arch, was within the cratonlc area. I t is outlined i n Figure 7 ay a Bread northeast-trending son® containing lesser amounts of Paleosoic sediments.  She area to which  the term "Sweetgrass arch" was applied "coincides roughly i n position, hut aot i n trend, with the Cretaceous and Tertiary Sweetgrass arch" (Sloes, 1950, p.428). Sloss (1950, p.428) has extended the use of this term—generally reserved for the Cretaceous and Tertiary structure—to include the Paleosoic feature, t h i s usage has seen followed i n the present paper. The ©ther minor u n i t , Montania, was an intermittently positive area variously l y i n g within aad along the eastern edge of the geosyncllnal unit i n northwestern Montana, southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia and southwestern Alberta. Its position, unfortunately, Is not clearly depicted by the isopachs of Figure ?.  The presence of Montania  either as a land bridge or island at least during Beltlan and Cambrian paleogeography has been shown by Beiss (1935. 1941), However, lay (1951, p.8) believed the stratigraphic evidence used to substantiate the presence of the land bridge (Montania) during Lower Cambrian time may well be interpreted as merely indicating a sinuous Lower Cambrian coastline, Beiss (1941, pp.1101, 1104), however, indicated the presence of Montania i n Middle and %>per  -32-  Cambrian time. Although Sloss  (1950, p.431)  did not present  Meatanla as one of the tectonic units, he indicated this area as being devoid of Cambrian sediments*  lor the purposes of this  paper, the term "Moataaia" refers to this area which exhibited intermittently positive, tendencies during Paleosoic time, and to its island archipelago predecessor of the Beltl&n sea. South of the area, an easterly trending gone of thick faleosolc sediments Joins the geosyaelinal area with the Villiston basin to the southeast of the area (see figure ?)« Both the Villiston basin and the connecting trough—referred to by Sloss as .the Central Montana trough—were negative areas through much of the Paleozoic era* North of the Central Montana trough, the Sweetgrass arch exhibited positive tendencies to a fluctuating degree, while south of the Central Montana trough, the Wyoming shelf exhibited very stable tendencies, fhe interrelationship between the movements of these structural units, aad the relation of these movements te the nature of sedimeatatioa is established for each sedimentary seouence,  M^^p^pX  gedjme%t#l within the l a m e l l a e ,  |  Siace depositloa, the Paleosolc strata of the geosyaclinal belt suffered deformation and, in part, intrusion aad raetamorphisn. "Therefore," Sloss stated, "isopaeh values and patterns In Idaho add westernmost Montana [aad British Columbia] are highly interpretive aad subject to radical revision by workers who interpret the data  -33-  differently."  Such i t the case l a southern British Columbia  near the 117° longitude where Sloss (1950, p.425) (see Figure 7) Indicated the presence of 25,000 feet of Paleosoic sediments. Figures 15 aad 17 show that he regarded 20,000 feet of these sediments as Cambrian in age, the upper 5,000 feet as Ordoviclan. Sloes  (1950* p.434) described  the Ordoviclan sediments as "black,  siliceous, graptolitic shales" occurring "interbedded with thin and erratic greywackes."  Sloes probably was referring to the Ordo-  viclan Ledbetter slate of northeastern Washington, Park and Cannon (1943, pp.19-22) gave the maximum thickness of the Ledbetter as 2,500 feet and correlated the formation with part of the Pend Oreille group which, in turn, was correlated with the Lardeau series, fhe thickness of the Lardeau series (Bice, 1941, p.21) was estimated to be between 10,000 and 15,000 feet. Park and Cannon (1943, p.6) correlated that portion of the Windermere series below the supposed Ledbetter equivalent and above the Irene volcanics, with strata i n northeastern Washington of known aad probable Cambrian age.  They quoted Daly (1912) and Walker  (1934) as giving a thickness of approximately 20,000 feet to this section. It appears probable, therefore, that the isopach pattern presented by Sloss (1950, p.425) of the Lower Paleosoic stratigraphy of southern British Columbia near longitude 117° is based largely upon the correlations of Park aad Cannon (1943). Klce (194l,p.24) aad Lord,Hage aad Stewart (1947,p.233) considered the Windermere series as being older than the Cranbrook formation.  which underlies age.  the lager formation of proven Lower Cambrian  loth writers assigned the formation tentatively to a Sate  Pre-Cambrian age, thereby differing- with the Interpretation of Slots (1950). She preceding- discussion i s presented not to prove the correct correlation of the.Windermere series, but to present the possible  source  of information used by Sloss to postulate the  thickness of Lower Paleosolc sediments in southern British Columbia near the HT® longitude, the problems involved i n the,, s t r a t i graphic analysis Of the Windermere series are considered beyond the scope of this paper.  A typical depositional cycle has been defined (Sloss, 1950, p.450) as having four stages: (1)  Transgressive overlap with relatively homogeneous and stable tectoaism.  (2)  Increasing definition of tectonic elements and their Influence on sedimentation.  (3)  Culmination of differentiation of tectonic framework into positive and negative elements.  (k) General u p l i f t , with erosion of positive elements. Within the area, four such cycles, or sedimentary sequences, occurred during the Paleoaoic e r a .  These sedimentary sequences,  which were named and defined by Sloss (1950, p«**5G), are summarised briefly in the following Section.  -35-  Urtiffiftte  irtAwwilig,-  9l^*„9m  Mummm  (Sauk Sequence)  ,  Cycle one existed from Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovielan time and ended with the uplift of ths Sweetgrass arch and the accompanying erosion of the Lower Ordovician sediments and,^ to some extent, Dpper Cambrian sediments in tlie Sweetgrass arch area, ffiffiflft. PfeB (Tippecanoe Sequence) Cycle two included Kiddle and Upper Ordovician and a l l of Silurian time.  This cycle ended, as did Cycle one, with the  uplifting of the Sweetgrass arch and the subsequent eroding of Silurian and Ordovician sediments froa the Sweetgmss arch area. Cycle Thjye  (Kaakaskia Sequence)  Cycle three began i n the Lower or Middle Devonian and ended i n the Lower Missiestppian. Again, as with Cycles on© and two, Cyele three ended with the usual uplift aad erosion. Cycle Four  (Absaroka Sequence)  Cycle four has less distinct time limits.  It began  during early Dpper Mississippian and was not completed until Sometime in the Mesoaoic era. Sloss was inclined to believe that the uplifting of the Sweetgrass arch which ended this stage occurred at a post-Triassic—pre-Middle Jurassic date.  -36-  ffhese four Paleozoic sedimentary cycles for© the basis  upon which  the sedimentation and stratigraphy of each period i s  outlined and discussed.  An attempt i s made to show how the  d e t a i l e d work of various authors lias been used to formulate a regional concept of Paleoaoic sedimentation,  Possible variations  to above interpretation® of these cycles are Introduced and con-  sidered.  •37-  Chapter IT  THE  SAUK SSqUSMCE  The Sauk oequence comraeaced during Lower Cambrian tiro with the transgression of the seas following the inherited geosyaeliaal area of the Pre-Cambriaa during the first stage of the cycle. The second stage resulted la further transgression of the seas accompanied by definition of the tectonic elements and the deposition ef Middle Cambrian sediments over most of the area. This  definition  of tectonic elements was culminated during  stage three in late Upper Cambrian or early Lower Ordovician time when the Sweetgrass arch evidenced a positive tendency. Puring stage four—a general period of emergence—the Sauk sequence was terminated by the uplift and  erosion  of Lower Ordovician sedi-  ments , i f such were deposited, and of varying amounts of Upper Cambrian sediments. The effects of this eroslonal stage were most  pronounced  on the strongly positive Sweetgrase arch. The  pale ©geography and stratigraphy of the Sauk sequence is considered in detail as each major time unit of the Cambrian is discussed,  Cambrian Montaaia, the island barrier of the Pre-Cambriaa seaway, was inherited by the Cambrian, aad strongly influenced the nature of sedimentation throughout that period. It has been postulated (Deles, 19*1) that the w&ueobian (Lower Cambrian) seas, approaching from the north aad the south in narrow restricted  - -  troughs  (  were separated by Montania which f o m e d a l a n d b r i d g e  550 n i l e s wide i n the Idaho a r e a and tlint i t was not u n t i l i l i d d l e Cambrian ( A l b e r t a n )  t i n e tliat the C o r d i l l e r a n seaways j o i n e d ,  i n u n d a t i n g Montania and s p r e a d i n g eastward. Upper Canbrian (Croixan)  tine,  However, d u r i n g e a r l y  the western p a r t o f Montania wae  u p l i f t e d and the e n t i r e seaway then l a y to the east o f Montania.  Figure 0. Synthetic map of Cambrian seaways in central Cordilleran region. (Deiss, 1941, p.1094) As a r e s u l t o f n o n - d e p o s i t i o n o r e r o s i o n o f Lower Devonian, S i l u r i a n and O r d o v i c i a n sediments, Middle and Upper Devonian s t r a t a l i e d i s c o n f o i n a b l y on eroded i l i d d l e Cambrian s t r a t a i n the r e , , i o n o f northwestern Montana.  F i g u r e 3 ( D e i s c , 1941, p.1094)  -39-  indicates the various units of the Cordilleran seaways of the Cambrian.  Lower Cambrian The Waucoblan Cordilleran 3eaway, extending southward from the Arctic, flooded only the northwestern corner of the nap area (Deiss, 19^-1). The distribution of Lower Cambrian strata within the area Is therefore limited to southeastern BritiGh Columbia. The regional Lower Camhricn paleoleography, as interpreted by Deiss (19^1), is shown in Figure 9.  Figure 9  Map of late Waucobian lands and seawcys in central Cordilleran region. (Deiss, 19*1, p.1100)  -40-  A different Interpretation of tlx© paleogeography of Waueoblan time was presented hy Kay (1951, p.8), who doubted the existence of Montania as a land bridge during this time* Hie interpretation is presented in the following excerpt? Paleogeographers hare frequently considered the western belt in Early Cambrian not to hare had a single continuous geosyncllne, but two geosynclines north and south of a land, Montania . . . . . In southeastern British Columbia, th© Lower Cambrian thins by overlap aad coarsen® southeastward . . . and the series is absent in western Montana . . . . This has been attributed to advance toward a transverse land joining' the craton to Cascadia, a hypothetical borderland discussed later. The stratigraphy can as well be attributed t© the most extensive early Cambrian sea shore having a sinuous trend more southerly than that of the preserved sections. The detritus would thus be th® shore sediment laid along the margin of the eratonal land. There is disagreement regarding the regional extent of th® positive area,- However, both writers recognise th© existence of a positive area in the region referred to as Montania.  Lowfr, .Cambrian Formations of Southeastern 3 r i t i s h Qplqmbi*  Two formations occurring in the Cranbrook area have been assigned to the Lower Cambrian. They are the Cranbrook formation aad the Eager formation, both of which have been defined and discussed in detail by Bice (1937, pp.18-21).  The Cranbrook-formation, fhe Cranbrook formation consists of "a series of quartsites, conglomerates and carbonate rocks" (Hlee, 1937, p.18) with  .41-  a 600-foot basal quartsite member resting unconformably on the Purcell series, fat® quartzite member is composed of white, rose-red, green-to-grey, massive, coarse-grained, siliceous rock In four-foot beds, with minor partings of argillite, and conglomerate, fhe formation contains such structures as ripple marks, cross-bedding and intraforsatlonal breccias, lice (193?, P.19) noted that the base of the fort Steel© formation, the lowermost member of the Purcell series, is the only other formation in the area to contain a similar thickness of light-coloured siliceous rock. The basal quartsite member grades upwards (Rice, 1937. p.19) "into thin-bedded, sandy magnesite which, in turn, grades into a bed of rock magnesite about 150 feet thick" at the type locality for the Cranbrook formation near Marysville, British Columbia. This part of the formation contains "a central band 30 to 50 feet thick" of "remarkably pure . . . coarsely crystalline, light creamy grey", buff-grey weathering magnesite. The upper member of the Cranbrook formation varies from a quartsite into which the underlying magnesite grades in the Marysville area, to a "blue-grey, blue-weathering limestone" (Bice, 1937* P.19) in other localities.  AfP of the n ^ m t e formation fhe exact age of the Cranbrook formation.Is unknown However, i t must be younger than the Purcell series upon which  -42-  it rest® unconfoxwably, yet older than th© lager formation which it underlies and which ha® 'been accurately dated a® upper Lower Cambrlaa in age. Rice (1937, pp.20-21) argued that while i t is conceivable that the Cranbrook formation may be "equivalent to the Pre-Cambrian, Upper Purcell, and Windermere series", the fact that i t unconformably overlies the Purcell series and is 11 theologically dissimilar to the other sediments, presupposes i t to b© of Cambrian age. The only fauaal evidence is annelid-like markings and "punctate" forms which are similar to "those found in the Lower Donald, suggesting that the Cranbrook formation is Paleosoie rather than Pre-Cambrian in age." The Donald overlies the Olenellus sone in the Dogtooth Range (Okulitch, 1949, pp.18-19), However, since the Qlenellua-Boania sone, which will be discussed in a later section, has been proven to be the uppermost marker horison of the Lower Gambrian, and since the Eager formation, which will be discussed la the following section, contains the QleaelluB-Bon&la sone and overlies the Cranbrook formation, the Cranbrook formation cannot be correlated with the Lower Donald formation. The Cranbrook formation is regarded by the writer on ths basis of its lithology and stratigraphic position as Lower Cambrian in age, representing the earliest Paleosoic sedimentation in the area.  The Eager Formation fhe lager formation is composed of argillaceous sediments which outcrop in the Cranbrook area of the Rocky Mountain trench. This formation was described (Rice, 1937, P.21) as con-  ^3-  sisting of dark gray, In part often blue-grey, olive-green or reddish, often rusty weathering, sometimes platy, argillites "•distinguishable fro® the Aldridg© argillite by a silky fibrous appearance.H fhe lager formation is generally non-calcareous but contains minor beds of calcareous argillites and "small, lightcoloured calcareous lenses an inch or so long" throughout much of the formation. Bortheast of Wyeliffe, British Columbia, the uppermost recognised member of th® later formation is a "white and grey, crystalline limestone."  ,  fhe Eager formation is "believed to contain, over 6,000 feet of strata resting with slight disconfornity upon the Cranbrook formation. However, since the lager-Oraabrook contact is obscured, the thickness of the lager formation and the nature of the contact are unknown, fhs exact nature of the depositions! environment of the Eager formation is unknown as i t does not everywhere overlie th© Cranbrook formation. These local absences of Eager sediments (lice, 1937, p.21) may be due to lack of deposition which would suggest a local, aulti-lasinal type of environment; or alternatively, a local removal of Eager sediments by erosion. Because of the great thickness of the Sagar formation and the sllghtaess of the disconfornity between th® lager and Cranbrook formations, the later theory of removal by erosion would seem the most credible.  jkep of the J S ^ r Formation l i c e (1937, P.21) credited Schofield with correlating  -44-  th* Eager formation with the lower part of the Barton formation, and Walker with correlating the lager formation with the Mount Whyte formation of the Kicking Horse Pass area. Both these correlations were based on paleontological evidence. Problems arising- from these two correlations ar© outlined in the following discussion, which should be read with reference to Figure 10 as i t indicates the present accepted correlation of the Cranbrook and lager formations.  1Fauna! Horizons  Oleaellut-SSSlia *  2  3  Mt. Bosworth B.C.  Ptarmigan Peak Alberta  Cranbrook B.C.  St. Piran 4  St. Piran  Sandstone  775«  ±  •  *  Sandstone  lager  230*  Formation  Fort Mountain Sandstone  6000'(4) Cranbrook Formation  865' ! I i I i Figure 10.  Sections 1,2 - modified after Delss (19*K>»P.783) including suggested revision® by Hasetti (1951, PP.53-62)  600'(T)  1  Section 3 -based oa the work of Rice (1937)  and Best  1 (1952)  Correlation oftowerCambrian Sections  -45-  The presence of the Olenellus-Boanla fauna! aone la the lager formation (Best, 1952, P.3) enables this formation to be readily correlated with the Ptarmigan Peak section of the field, British Columbia, area. Best (1952, p.3) has tentatively correlated the lager formation with the Peyto limestone which, as defined by lasetti (1951, p.55), la the uppermost member of the St, Piran formation. However, It must be noted that Deiss (1940, p.?83) considered the Qleaellus-Boanla zone as representing the  lowest member of  the Mount Whyte formation, lasetti (1951, p.57)  carefully discussed Deles's reasons for placing' the Mount WhyteSt. Piran contact below the Oleasllus-Bonnia aone and then stated his reasons for refuting Deiss*s decision, lasetti fully substantiated his decision to place the Planellua-Bonaia aone in the St. Piran formation. Basetti (1951, p.54) concluded: . . . a l l arguments favor placing the St. Piran-Mount Whyte boundary at the top and not at the base of the OlenelluB-bearlrw; limestone or calcareous sandstone, contrary to current usage. This correlation, placing the base of the Middle Cambrian at the base of the Mount Whyte formation, which was redefined (Baeetti, 1951 i p.54) as being above the Qlenellus^oaala sens, will be used in this paper. Therefore, the Eager formation represents uppermost Lower Cambrian. The unfossiliferous Cranbrook fonaatioa might then be tentatively correlated with fort Mountain sandstone which is the basal member of the Ptarmigan Peak section (see figure 10).  Within the Cranbrook a r e a , another f o r m a t i o n , the B u r t o n , was w i t h some m i s g i v i n g s a s s i g n e d a Mi; d i e Cambrian age b y Schofield  (1915, PP»43-4?)  who d e s c r i b e d i t i n some d e t a i l .  This  thesis  agrees w i t h S c h o f i e l d ' E f i n a l d e c i s i o n to regard the Burton format i o n as b e i n ^ e n t i r e l y o f Middle Cambrian a g e , age o f the Burton f o r m a t i o n i s diecusseo  Tlie problem o f the  a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n the  followin ; section.  •iddle Cambrian D u r i n g the A l b e r t a n epoch, Montania waB more submerged than a t any other t i n e i n the e a r l y part o f the P a l e o z o i c e r a  LEG E  NO  nc'tnt  0  Figure 11, Map of All  central Cordillc:  Epsiri c 't«  t«01  lands and seaways i n  ,ion. (Deiss,19^1,p.1101)  -47-  (Dsiss, 1941, p.llOi). Only a small Island la northwestern Montana remained of the once great land bridge. She epeiric seas transgressed eastward over th® foreland of th© craton in the central, Montana trough area (see figure 11 on the preceding' page), fhe coarse clastic basal member of the Middle Cambrian section was deposited by this sea, Delss (1941, p.1103) described the nature of deposition of this basal member la the following manner: Bast of Montania the sea transgressed eastward, over the peneplaned western edge of Laurentia, and in i t was deposited the Flathead sandstone of Montana (Deiss, 1936, pp.1326-1328). As the sea quickly spread eastward i t reworked the regollth and the sands brought in by streams, thus depositing a continuous spread of sand from west to east (Deiss, 1939a, p . 6 0 ) . Consequently the basal ilbertan in Montana becomes progressively younger eastward . . . . fhe eastern edge of the geosyaeline proper, in northern Montana, was close to the meridian 112® 30* because east of this line the sediments become more clastic, contain a larger number of intraforaatioaal conglomerates, and are much thinner . . . » The great proportion of carbonates in northwestern Montana indicate that Montania was lying nearly at sea level during most of the Albertan* fhe type section for the Middle Cambrian has been arbitrarily defined as the northwestern Montana section (Deiss, 1939, p.55) because of its central location ia the area. The correlations shown in Figaro 12 are related to the northwestern Montana section, as presented in Section 4 of Figure 12.  -48-  As late as 1938. the definitions for the Middle Cambrian formations of northwestern Montana were under continual revision. Deiss  (1939)  clarified the situation hy defining and giving the  thickness and description of each formation. At present, the Middle Cambrian is composed of nine formations (see Figure 12) ia the following chronological orderi  i  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)  !8  Flathead sandstone Gordon shale Damnation limestone Dearborn limestone Pagoda limestone Pentagon shale Steamboat shale Switchback shale Devils Glen dolomite  Definitions of these formation®, as outlined by Deiss  (1939.  37), are presented belowi  . , , the thickness [of the Flathead sandstone] varies greatly within short distances ia northwestern Montana . . . from deposition of greater thicknesses of sand in local depressions of the irregular Beltlan land surface [the regional aspect of this surface being a •baseleveled plane* (Deiss, 1935. p.124)]. 'fhe Flathead everywhere grades upward into the Gordon (basal Wolsey) through an interval of ehaly sandstone, sandstone and sandy shale, and finally shaly sandstone intercalated with fissile shale. In many localities the transition is • so uniform that a natural boundary separating the formations does not exist, these facts strongly support the conclusion that the variation in thickness of the basal sandstone (Flathead) is largely the result of horizontal aad vertical gradation and that the Flathead and Gordon represent one continuous period of deposition.  pp.3*~  -49-  » . . drab greea and "brown f is Bile micaceous shales and intercalated sandstones and limestones which overlie the Flathead sandstone everywhere in northwestern Montana* fhe most striking characteristic of the Gordon shale is its drab green-gray and brown color combined with its fisslllty. Fossils are ettreoely numerous and often well preserved in the upper chocolate-brown aad underlying green f i s s i l e shales.  •flWPMMa Umeatone The Gordon shale ie overlain conformably in northwestern Montana by the Damnation limestone. The formatioa. . . consists of the combined original Damnation and Nannie Basin limestones. . . . The diagnostic characteristics of the Damnation limestone are its position upon the Gordon shale; the bright-buff pebbly slopes at the base of the formation overlain by buff-gray cliffs; the coarsely oolitic, dark tan or blue-gray, thin-bedded fosslllferoua limestone in the lower part; the fine-grained to chocolategray, thia- and irregular-bedded limestone ia the upper three-fourths; the flakes, nodules, aad locally thin bands of dull-buff arenaceous clay irregularly disseminated throughout the limestones; and the presence of the characteristic GlossoDleura-Kootenia fauna In the basal 10 feet of the formation. The Damnation limestone ranges in thickness from 100 feet to 225 feet and averages 155 feet throughout the area. .Dearborn, Llmsetoa?, The Dearborn limestone lies conformably upon, but is clearly separated from, the hard chocolate-gray beds of the Damnation limestone everywhere in northwestern Montana. The Dearborn ranges ia thickness from 272 feet to 363 feet on Hd Mountain aad averages 298' feet.  -50-  Th© Dearborn formation consists of two parts; a lower shaly interval and a much thicker (average 263 feet, 80,2 m.) upper limestone interval.  The Dearborn limestone in northwestern Montana is overlain conformably and is often transitional into the Pagoda limestone which averages 305 feet and ranges i n thickness from a minimum of 92 feet i n the northern part of the area near Pentagon Mountain to a maximum of 396 feet in the southern part of the area on Kid Mountain, The formation thinned against the shore of the old Montana Island which lay north of Pentagon Mountain during Pagoda time. The Pagoda limestone, except in the Pentagon region, consists of a lower shaly or thin-bedded part, and an upper massive, thick-bedded, more or less oolitic part. Pentagon Shale The Pentagon shale is present only in the northern part of the area ia the Lewis and Clark Bangs, where i t ha® beea traced southward from Pentagon Mountain for 14 miles. The Peatagoa fonaatioa is not recognisable in any of the sections in the central and southern parts of northwestern Montana; and, although the formation may be partly equivalent to the upper and lower parts of the Pagoda aad Steamboat limestones ia these sections, no natural or recogalsable boundaries and no fossils characteristic of the Pentagon shale are present, Trilobites and braehiopods are most abundant In a 4-foot zone which lies approximately 30 feet above the base of the formation. The most diagnostic character of the Pentagon shale is the presence of many trilobites and braehiopods in the lower half concentrated largely in the upper part of the lower 30 feet (9.1 m.) of the formation.  Steamboat LlmestMf.  Th© Steamboat limestone overlies the Pentagon shale in the northern sections and the Pagoda limestone in the  -51-  eeatml aad southern sections in northwestern Montana* The formation ranges l a thickness from 216 feet near Pentagon Mountain to 353 feet on the ridge between l i d aad Gordon mountains and averages 274 feet throughout the area. fhe chocolate-gray and tan, generally thick-be&ded, massive, hard- limestone which weathers gray and forms drab-buff c l i f f s , irregularly and widely separated by one to four 2- to 14-foot intervals of dull-green f i s s i l e shale and nodular or shaly limestone, the presence of a IlQchas-pls fauna l a the shaly Interval near' the middle of the formatloa, and the stratigraphic position of the formation upon the Pagoda or Pentagon formation and beneath the Switchback shale readily distinguish the Steamboat limestone everywhere in northwestern Montana,  M l c&laek, Shale fhe Switchback shale rests conformably upoa the Steamboat limestone everywhere in northwestern Montana, aad except for the Flathead sandstone, is the thinnest Cambrian formatioa in the area. Its maximum thickness, 253 feet, is developed on the ridge east of Kid Mountain, and its minimum thickness, ?0 feet, on Scapegoat Basin, The formation usually consists of green and gray, soft, slightly calcareous, more or less arenaceous, fissile to chunky shale, and interbedded gray, crystalline, thiaand flaggy-beaded, rusty-weathering linestcue in the lower third to half; and buff-gray to brown, fine-grained, arenaceous, aagnesian, massive limestone which weathers buff and forms plates or angular fragments in the upper two-thirds to one-half of th® formation, fragmentary and unidentifiable fossils have been found in the limestones of the Switchback,  The Devils Slen dolomite i s the thickest Cambrian formation and forms the top of the Middle Cambrian series l a northwestern Montana, Th© formation rests conformably upoa and i s transitional downward into the Switchback shale wherever the two formations have been observed. The Devils Glen thickens from a minimum of 1 7 9 feet in the aorthera part of the area at Pentagon Mountain to a maximum of 5 ^ 5 feet In the southeastern  •52-  part of the area near th© Dearborn Elver and averages 353 feet (ICf.S) a.) throughout northwestern Montana, fhe great variation in the thickness of th© formation. 386 feet (117.8 i a , ) , seems to be the result of erosion between %per Cambrian and Devonian time, and not of differential deposition. The distinguishing characteristics of the Devils Glen are Its extreme massiveaeee, prominent thick beds, high magneslan content which causes i t to weather to sugary surfaces, and its tendency to form high rounded or sheer c l i f f s . Fossils have never been found In the Devils Glen dolomite, and the high magnesian content precludes the possibility of aay well-preserved ones being present. The fauna of these formations, as reported by Deiss (1941), with the definitions of th© formations, is included as an appendix to this thesis.  Middle Ceft>rlaa of, Southern, Alberta la Canada, the Middle Cambrian of the southeastern Rocky Mountains and the southern plains is relatively unknown. Approximately 70 miles north of the area along the foothills, Beach  (1943)  measured the Cambrian strata and subdivided i t into four units. He teatatively assigned the entire section, totalling approximately 2,200  feet, to the Middle Cambrian (see Figure  12,  Section 7 ) .  Farther north, the uppermost Cambrian unit of Beach  (1943,  pp.6-7  & 1 0 ) , commonly kaowa as th© Ghost Elver fonaatioa, had previously been assigned a Devonian (T) age. The problem of the age of the Ghost River formation is fully discussed in the following chapter.  -53-  In the plains area of southeastern Alberta, Bussell and Landes  (1940, pp.6-9) described a cored  section (Commonwealth-  Hilfc Elver; Lad. 8, Sec. 9. Twp. 3, Bge. 15, ¥.4) from approxi- ^ mately 15 miles north of the international border. Kiey sumaarized their detailed Ascription of the Cambrian section as consisting of "about 465 feet predominantly limestone and dolomite, underlain by 42 feet of shale," Bussell and Landes  (1940, p.9)  lacked sufficient evidence to correlate their Cambrian seotlon with other known sections in northwestern Montana or the Bow-Ucking Horse Pass area of the Canadian locfcies. They considered i t wiser not to apply stratigraphies! names to their Cambrian section until such time as future drilling revealed the presence of a basal clastic member which could be correlated with the Flathead sandstone of northwestern Montana, However, they did present a eneralized section of th® Cambrian formations of southern Montana (Russell and Landes, 1940, p.8). Doles  (1936,  pp.1257-1338)*  however, had previously redefined many of the Cambrian formations of southern Montana. As a result, the term "Togo limestone" was dropped entirely from the literature was redefined  (pp.1336-7) as "the  (p,1337).  The Dry Greek shale  youngest Cambrian formation" and  the Park shale as the "youngest Middle Cambrian formation." fhe The section as presented by Russell and Landes  (1940)  has been  compared in Figure 13 with the same section as redefined by Deiss  (1936).  Figure 13.  TABLE 01  FOR THE LITTLE BELT MOUNTAINS,  FORMATIONS  MONTAHA  as presented by Russell aad Landes (19*0, p.8)  Age  Little  Upper Cambrian  Belt  Mountains  logo Limestone Dry Creek shale  Middle Cambrian  1  Pilgrims limestone Park shale  i  u 3 pi  Meagher limestone Wolsey shale Flathead quartzite  The above correlation as corrected to conform with Deiss (I936), who redefined the Cambrian formations. Age Upper Cambrian  Little Belt Mountains Dry Creek shale Pilgrims limestone Park shale  Middle Cambrian  Meagher limestone Wolsey shale Flathead quarts! te  «54-  lUMto  Cambrian it Southeastern British e^y^n the Burton formation of southeastern British Columbia  was assigned by Schofield  (1915,  P.47),  with some misgivings, to  a Middle Cambrian age, Th& formation was described (Schofield, 1915, P.43) as consisting of 7 4 feet of limestones and shales underlain by 3 feet of calcareous grit with a 1-foot basal conglomerate member. She presence of an Albertella fauna in the upper portion of the formation implies a lower Middle Cambrian a-e for that part of the formation. Schofield was tempted to plao© the coarse clastic lower member of the Burton formation in the lower Cambrian, although he lacked paleontologlcal evidence. However, i t would appear more probable that the basal Burton elastics represent the introduction of Middle Cambrian sedimentation and therefore are stratigraphieally related to the Flathead sandstone. Overlying the Burton foraation is the Elko formation. Schofield (1915, P.4?), who examined these sediments, stated that while the exact contact was aot exposed, there was no evidence of any structural unconformity between the two formations. He defined the Elko formation, which has a thickness of 1,000 (±) feet, in the following manners fhe lower 30 feet of the Elko formation Is composed of massive, grey, siliceous limestone, weathering grey, containing- indistinct cored-like forms, fhe limestone by gradual transition, passes into a cream coloured s i l i ceous dolomite in massive beds averaging about 6 feet in thickness. (lam Creek Section from an unpublished Schofield manuscript)  -53-  Lacking decisive fauaal evidence, Schofield (1915, p.49) quoted Mr, L.D, Burling as "believing, for various reasons, the age of the Ilk© formation to be Cambrian (post-Burton) aad not seme undetermined age in the pest-Upper Cambrian—pre-Upper Devonian interval, la the Flathead area, British Columbia, Crabb (1951, p.21) mentioned the presence of 50 to 100 feet of sandstones, quartaltes and shale which he assigned te a Cambrian age and correlated with th® Sheet liver formation. This correlation will be discussed ia the following chapter under the section concerning the Ghost Elver formation,  ffpper Cambrian The amo <at aad areal distributioa of Upper Cambrian sediments within the area is relatively small compared with th® widespread, thick, Middle Cambrian section. This lack of Upper Cambrian strata resulted partially from non-deposition and partially from erosion of the Upper Cambrian strata during stage four of the Sauk sequence which occupied some portion, or a l l of the post-Cambrian—pre-Middle or Upper Devonian interval. Our . present knowledge of the amount of distribution of Upper Cambrian sediments in the area is limited to meager paleontological data from a few scattered bore holes in southern Alberta.  Pi, ure 14. Croixan Seaways. (Heiss, 1941, p.1104)  The paleog-eography of Upper Canbrian tine (Deisc, 1941, pp. 1104-1110), which is depicted in Figure 14, saw a narrowing of the extensive geo6ynclinal seaway accompanied by more widespread floodin  of the western side of the craton in tlie central area of  North Anerica. The Idaho strait of Albertan tine was obliterated by pre-Croixan epeirogenic novenents wliicli elevated the old "Montania" area forcing tlie western shore of the sea, which lay near the 112° longitude at the 49° parallel, eastward during the Croixan epoch until by the end of the epoch the western shoreline lay nearly 100 nilec east of the 112° longitude. Withdrawal of tlie Croixan sea and the ensuing period of erosion ended the Saul: sequence.  -37-  Th© erosloaal period at tae close of  Crolsao.  time,  which left ft marked erosions! surface on the Devils Glen forraatloa of aorthwestera Montana, apparently removed a l l Upper Cambrian sediment l a the area (Lord, Hage and Stewart, 194?,  p.249),  However, immediately northeast of the area, McGehee (1949, p.612) reported the preseace of ^ee^opaft c f . £. eeeldeatalis Bell,  Imperial Provost l e . 2 (Lad. 1, fee. 33, 3?wp. 37, Bge. 3,  W.4)  which, according te W,C. Bell (University of Mlanesota), indi1  eafced an.early Upper eambrlaa age.  It seems probable, however,,  that while Upper Sambriaa strata may be present i a adjoiaiag areas, the statement made by MeSehee (1949, p.612) that "most of the Cambrian beds represented i a the plains are believed to be lower % p e r Cambrian i s age" does not apply t© the thesis area. Within the area, Middle Sambriaa sediments comprise the largest portion of the ©smbrlan eeetioa, with a large section of Lower Sambriaa sediments being present i a southeastern British Columbia and possibly minor Upper Cambrian remnants present in extreme eastern areas, Llthclc^r, .Thickness and Distribution of Cambrian foMmtii* fhe lithology, thickness and distribution of Cambrian sediments are illustrated by figure 15,  Additional data oa the  thickness and distribution of Cambrian sediments i n Canada are shown l a figure 16,  While these two authors do not agree on a  Fiju.re  15.  Isopach and l i t h o f a c i e s of Cambrian system.  (Sloss,  1950, p.^31)  Figure 16. Present distribution and isopachs of Cenbrian system. Snail circles are locations of control wells. (Webb, 1951, p.2295)  few minor points, in general, tlieir work concurs so that they tend to supplement and substantiate each other. The lithology of the Cambrian sediments, as shown in Figure 15, is based on non-clastic — clastic ratios for tlie entire Cambrian section. Tlie ratios used are shown in the  •59-  following table (Sloss, 1950, pp.424-426):  Greater than  16  Less than  16-4 ^ -1 1 -I/** i -1/16 l/l6  Sloes  (1950)  more than 94$ elastic to 80$ clastic 8C£ to 50$ clastle 50?6 to 20* clastic 20$ to clastic less than 6$ clastic  considered all detrital rocks, such as conglomerates,  sandstones, siltetones and shale, as elastics, while lie classified all chemical roeks, such as limestones, dolomites, cherts, and evaperitea, as non-elastics. On the maps of such units as the Devonian and Mississippian, where evaporites compose significant units, Sloss  (1950)  further segregated the evaporites from the  non-elastics. On the Cambrian map, it is interesting to note that both eastern and western borders of the trough contain coarse elastics, fhe degree of elasticity diminishes towards the center of the trough with the least clastic portion centered around the junction of the Central Montana trough and the geosyncline. Two major loci of non-deposition are postulated in Figure 15: on® near the IdahoMontana-British Columbia border and the other in central Idaho, The first of these loci is in the area of Moataniaj the second lies along the ancient archipelago of the Pre-Cambrian geosyncline.  -60Chapter ?  SIB SIPfSCAIOS SEQUENCE Sh© Tippecanoe sequence (Sloss, 1950, p.450) occupied the time interval following the ©rosien of the Upper Cambrian sediments aad preceding Upper Devonian sedlaentatioa. There is less data, and, therefore, more speculation,regarding the geological eveats of this sequence than for any other.  The result i s a  conflict of ideas among the principal authorities ©a israatern Canadian atratlgraphy regarding the sedimentation and tectonism which accompanied the Tippecanoe sequence. It i s the purpose of this chapter to define the formations which may possibly he assigned to this sequence; to indicate their position aad relatioashlp i a the stratigraphic section; and, i f possible, to show the effect of the teetoalc pattera upoa the distributloa aad lithology of the sediments.  Ordovician .1/  Io sediments of Ordovician age are known within the area.  Hewever, a thin seetloa of Ordovician' sediments occurs i a south^weatera Saskatchewan.  Other Ordovician sediments i a adjoining  areas are the thick shale sequence of the south-central locky Mountain trench area of British Columbia and a thick shale section i a Idaho. The distribution of these sediments is shown in Figures 17 and 18.  The zero isopaeh oa each map iadleates the margins of  the sediment after the fourth, orerosional, stage of the Tippecanoe  -t'l  Figure 13. Present distribution and isopachs of Ordovician systen. (Webb, 1951, p.2297) sequence. These two naps, however, indicate disagreement regarding the distribution of Ordovician sedinents in Saskatchewan. HcGehee (1949, p.611) offered paleontolo^ical proof of the existence of Ordovician sediments in the extrene southwestern portion of Saskatchewan. Tlie Verbata Gas and Oil Limited well, "Verbata #2", (Lsd. 7, Sec. 24, Twp, 41, Rge, 24, W.3) encountered and cored 94 feet (4,327* to 4,421*) of hi.hly fossiliferous limestone which, according to McGehee, contained the following fauna:  -62-  §»erb.Tella sp. Rafiaeequina sp. Campyjorthis, or ftronhomena Stroptolae.aa. type cup corals MeGehee quoted P.S. Warren (University of Alberta) as saylags . . . the fauna lias the aspect of the Ordovician of the northern sea, which, on the basis of outcrops in areas to the east and north, aay be considered Upper Ordovician or Richmond in age, . . . fhe above data must, therefore, lead to an adjustment i n the position of the lower erosional edge of the Ordovician as shown in figure 17, which, in this respect, brings figures 17 and 18 into agreement. fhe lithology of the Ordovician sediments is shown in figure 17. ^he geosynclinal area is shown to contain more elastic sediments than the cratonic area, fhe sediments oa the croton are more clastic ia the eastern than la the western portion of the cratonic area, fhere is meager evidence in this lithofacies map to indicate the nature of Moataaia during the deposition of these sediments. However, i t would appear that Montania was negative or only slightly positive during Ordovician time since there is no evidence of westward coarsening of th® sediments over the eentral cratonic area. fhe #oeynelln@, as illustrated In figure 1?, was a rather complex unit, fhe problem ©f the nature of the Ordovician geosyncline is considered beyond the scope of this thesis. However, the reasoning used by Sloss  (1950)  to postulate a thick Ordovician  -63-  seetioa ia south-central British Columbia. (gee Figure 1?) 1® discussed ia Chapter III.  iltedaa  Prt-Uroer Devonian iatwwajL. there is very little agreement between Sloss (1950.P.43?)  and Webb  (1951.  pp,2299-230l) as to the nature of pale olographic  events in western lorth America during the Silurian — pre-Opper Bsvonlan interval, figure 19 illustrates th© distribution of what floss  (195C)  regarded as Silurian sediments. However, Webb*® map  of the Silurian and Middle Devonian, presented as Figure 20, showed l i t t l e agreement with Figure 19. T&e disagreement is mainly the result of assigning the controversial tik Point and the Ghost liver formations to different periods. Sloss  (1950)  apparently considered  these formations to be Middle or Upper Devonian since he included them in Ms isopach-lithofacies map (Sloss, 1950. P.4-38) for the Devonian system.. However, Webb (1951. pJB98) considered the Elk Point formation as • chiefly Silurian with a possibility of Middle Devonian beds being included in the upper part," fhe Elk Point formation will be defined and the problem of its age discussed la the following section.,  fhe formation was first named and defined in 19^9 by Me§eh#e (19^9,  p.613). Be stated that he  believed that "the red  shale., salt, dolomite aad anhydrite section", which underlies the  - 6 4 -  Figure 20. Present distribution and isopachs of Middle DevordanSilurian. Plachured lines enclose belt of salt deposition. (Webb, 1951, p.2299)  Waterways formation (Upper Devonian) and overlies the Pre-Cambrian Cambrian, or Ordovician sediments in western Canada, was one fomational unit. lie designated this unit as the Elk Point formation. McGehee described the most distinctive features of the E l l : Point formation as beinc "two prominent red shall-  mariners near the  top  and a salt member tliat extends over a large part of Alberta." The areal distribution of thin salt member as compared with tlie extent  -65-  of the formation Is  •horn by figure 20.  KcOehee  (19^9, pp.609.  610) @av® a detailed description of tae Elk Point formation at i t s type locality of I l k Point, Alberta, in tae northeastern and central, portion of that province.  regard  Of greater significance in  to this study, however, are MeGehee»B remarks  (19^9, p.6o8)  regarding the nature of the I l k Point formation in southern Alberta. He described i t as consisting of , , .shaly mottled red and green dolomites, interbedded with anhydrite aad thin dease slightly s l l t y to argillaceous dolomites .and aahydritic limestones, the commonly conspicuous red shales marking the top of the Elk Point are here represented as reddish mottled dolomite and anhydrite lying below the thick Upper Devonian marine limestone. fhe Isopachs on figure 20 indicate the thickness and distribution of the Elk Point formation aad suggest a thickness variation of sero to a probable maximum of 25© feet within the area.  K.tiy fflk Eflfotf Porma^fffl Ths age of the I l k Point formation ha® always been a d i f f i c u l t problem. The following quotations fro© McGehee (1949) summarize the information available regarding the age of this formation at th© time he defined i t ; The age of the I l k Point formation i s hot definitely established. Silurian age i s suggested by the fact that massive Silurian dolomite at Portage au Pas on the Clearwater liver appears to dip beneath the Waterways beds at MeMurray. It also appears that the salt- springs found below Silurian gypsum near Fitzgerald occupy the same general position as the salt member of the Elk Point section  -.66-  at MoMoway,' Oa the other head, paleont©logical evidence from eored wells ie reported to suggest Middle Devoaiaa age for the Elk Point beds. Additional paleontological evidence l i needed to determine the mm of these strata with certainty, (p.613) the f o s s i l content of the Ilk Point formation i s slight, the section being composed mainly of dolomite, aahydritie limestones, anhydrites, and salt, aad as far as the writer i s aware, no dlagaostio types have been found. According to R.T.D. Wickeadea, a poor specimen of brachiopod was collected by him below the salt member i a T.G.6. Ho. 15 at 3.931 feet. A.S. Wilson considered the specimen a ptataawrid form aad, although uncertain ef Identification, she believed I t suggestive ©f a Silurian , type. Scattered fossil molds of braehiopods, ©ry©s©«afl» 9»A eriaoid stems, small oetracods, and email seed-like fossils resembling Troehillscue have been found in some of the studies, these grechillseuB forms are recorded below the'first massive salt aad are known from the Devoaiaa, aad i f proved to be of a diagnostic type, would date the age of the salt. Peek (4) states that Charo^hyta opKonia (SroeM^lacUfif) are widely distributed l a the Middle aad Upper Devonian of lorth America, She writer aaa considered that th© preponderance of evidence indicated a Silurian age for this sequence including the salt. However, P.S. Warren has reeeatly disclosed new evidence regarding the age of these beds. He reports having identified Middle Devoaiaa fossils from below the f i r s t salt from cores from a well, drilled since the writer left Alberta, in led. 11, Sec. 11, S. JO, 1. 17, W, of 4th Meridian. If the salt referred t© belongs i a the I l k Point formation, this would date at least the upper part of that formatioa as Middle Devoaiaa. (p,6l0) Later papers by Webb (1951. P»t298) andtodriehuje(1951.  PP.237J-  2376) regard the upper ens-third of the formation as Devonian— prohahly Middle Devoaiaa—ia age.  Webb  (1951. P.2293)* although  he lasted positive proof,, assigned the lower two-thirds of the  -67-  fottsation te tha... Silurian age. Andriehuk (1951,  pp#23?5-6),  however, preferred to assign this portion of -the formation to a Silariaa (f) age. Recently, Crickmay (1954, p.151) re-essaralned tae earlier paleontologies! evidence and eeaeluded the following: Boat of the palecatelegieal evidence has Become available since McGehee's work was done. The evidence available at that time was Interpreted in such a wpy as to suggest a Silurian age for the Ilk Point formation, for instance, strlagoeephalidB seem to hav* been regarded mistakenly as peatsmerids—<«a error that ia possible ia very poorly preserved fossil®. She positive evidence of the charephyte® was net understood m& disregarded, Heace, Mefiehee's eoaelualon was that the Ilk Point waa mainly of Silurian age. I t is new eeaeluded that I t i s entirely of Middle Devonian age. Crickmay (1954,pp. 154,157) claimed a Middle Devonian age for the Ilk Point fonaatioa because: (1) "the 233c Point is overlain diaeoaformably by limestones . . . jef Middle Devonian age], \and} Its upper limit is within the Middle Devonian." (Shis evidence would indicate that the Slk Point ia at least not younger than Middle Devonian. In itself, however, i t does not prove a Middle Devonian age for the Ilk Point.) (2) StriaaoeeuhaluB. Sphaeir^spoa^ij| and  which  are found ia the upper two-thirds of the formation, ar© definitely of Middle Devonian age. (3) Regarding the age of the baeal one-third of the formation, Griekmay reasoned that because of suggestive fossil evidence  -68-  l a Manitoba and Alberta, together with "the apparent continuity of the sections and lack of evidence of an internal hiatus, and finally the repeated recurrence of the same llthologie types throughout, i t seems well assured that the Elk Point represents one lifcho.genetic episode and hence time limits within one epoch, the Middle Devonian." fhe I l k Point may be regarded tentatively, therefore, as Middle Devonian in age, remembering that the age of the lower one-third of the formation has not been conclusively proven aad may in fact be somewhat older than Middle Devonian, although present information would indicate that this is not the ease*  In  1932,  Hume  (1932, p.7B)  observed  a  group of sediments  in the Waterton Lakes area which he regarded as probably Silurian in age.  These sediments are i a the basinal area of the Lewis  thrust-sheet east of the British Columbia-Alberta border and approximately seven miles north of the D.S.A.-Canada border.  Hume's statement regarding fee lithology, stratigraphic relationship aad possible age of these sediments is as follows: Above the Cambrian shales, in the area north of the Akamina Talley O i l Company's property, i s a series of hard aad gritty, massive limestones. In this area about 600 feet of these beds form a massive mountain In the centre of the Waterton Lakes-Flathead Basin structure and farther north i t seemed as i f a  mueh greater thickness occurred. The limestones contain many poor corals and although these are  difficult of definite determination they indicate a Silurian age. these Silurian ( f ) strata have not been described by any more reeent worker, although their presence is mentioned by frabb  (1951. P.22) and by Harfcer, Hutchinson and McLaren (1954,  P»33). In general, recent writers seem to have given little or no consideration to Hume's observation. It oust be remembered that the' strata mentioned by /  Hume are part of the gigantic Lewis overthrost sheet. As the exact horisontal displacement of this thrust-sheet is unknown, i t may be assumed that the present location of these sediments Is probably considerably east aad perhaps somewhat north of their locus of deposition.  TMB  formation is one of the most controversial forma-  tions occurring within the area. The formation's areal distribution is limited te the geosynelinal area of Alberta, where It outcrops at numerous localities along the front range  of the  Soeky Mountains. The Ghost liver formation has been described  by detfit and McLaren (1950, p.3) as follows: flfrftt  River formation (O.D. Walcott. 1923)  the age of the Ghost Siver formation 1B uncertain, Lltholog: slltstone, vari-coloured, dolomitic and shaly, and dolomite. The formation forms a conspicuous buff to ochre weathering band. Intrafornational  -70-  eongl©aerates, njud-craeks, casts of salt crystals, and ripple-marks occur locally.  .miekasftsi maadrauia, 250 feet, Ism Locality: Ghost River canyon aorta of the ©evils (Lake manewaaka). Representative sections ire exposed at Roche Mlette, Prospect Mountain, and near Exshaw above Loder lime- • kiln. fhe upper contact (fox, 1953, p. 191) of the Ghost liver formation with the overlying "faixholsw or Hume formation, depending on locality", is disconformable and even "nonconforaabl® in places, fhe lower contact (McLaren, 1953. p.®9) of the formation is unconformable anstrata of proven Middle and Upper Cambrian age. Io description of any occurrenee of the Qhost liver formation within the area could be found ia the available literature. However, deWit and. McLaren (1950, P.3) stated that "near Crowsnest Pass, the Ghost liver has not been described by name, but published and unpublished sections indicate that 1% is almost certainly represented" in that region.  AJS,,,and..fiqmtet^ of m.mw% Mnr fpm»mm As yet, ao conclusive proof has been found to date accurately the Ghost River formation. It has been tentatively assigned to a l ! the intervals from Middle Cambrian to basal fpper Devonian, fhis paper does not pretend to solve this problem, nor does the writer mean to infer by including a discussion of the formation la this section/ that the Ghost River formation  -Ti-  l t proven Lower or Middle Devonian in age.  In the following  table, an attempt has been made to illustrate the present tendency to regard the ghost liver as Devonians Age of MoConnell Walcott leach flees aad Laird deWit and McLaren V«bb Aadrichuk MeLarea ' McCoaaell  • 188?  1983  1943 19*7 195© 1951  p. 20D  Devonian Middle Cambrian (implied) Middle Cambrian Upper Devonian Age uakaowa Middle Devoaiaa and Silurian Middle Devonian »<i&le Bavoalaa  PP.4^3-4 p. 10 ».W P. 3 P.2I99  1951  p.23?6  1953  P»  (188?)  93  was the f i r s t worker to assign a Devonian  age to the Gheet River formation. He based this decision on his interpretation of the interpreted the same deeided that the Cambrian age.  stratigraphic  atratigraphic  evidence. Walcott  (1923)  evidence differently aad  Ghost River formation was  probably of Middle  Beach (1943)» working with a section approximately  thirty miles south  of low River, collected  some trilobites from  what he believed to be the Ghost River formation, fhese were identified as Bhmania  by  Dr. C.B. Resser of the  United States  latioaal Museum, thus placing the formation into the Middle Cambrian,  fhe fauna! evidence of-Beach  reported  (Worth, 1953, p.110)  (1943)  i s weakened  presence of Ehmania  from  by  the  immediately  ' below the Ghost River beds in the Eananaskis area, approximately twenty miles west of Beach's 25)  (1943)  area.  Clark (1949, PP,623-  maintained that the trilobites described by Beach were from  Cambrian strata underlying the true Ghost River formation. Sloss  -72-  saA Laird, who were working l a Montana, found oonodonts la their basal Devoaiaa fonaatioa, Unit C, which wer© of Seaecan (Upper Devoaiaa) age,  fhey correlated the Ghost Elver fonaatioa with  their Unit 0 —  a fonaatioa which possesses the same s t r a t l -  graphle relatloasMpe as th® Sheet liver formation (see Figure® 26 aad 27).  She Ghost Elver formation has also been correlated  with the I l k Point fonaatioa ©f the plains (Webb, 1951,  p.2299).  Evidence regarding this correlation will be preseated in the following section. It may be stated, however, that the Ghost l i v e r forraatioa la most probably related te some portion .of the Mk  Point formation in t i m e — i f not as an acta®! facies equivalent  of that portion. Andrichak (1951. PP.2388-2392) presented a llthofaciesiaepach study of what he termed the "basal Devoaiaa unit* (see Figure 21). fie included i a this units  the Ghost River forma-  tion, the I l k Point f©naatlon, Unit C ef Montana and the basal Devonian unit of Sloss aad laird and 27).  (194?,  p.1413) (see Figures  26  A l l these formations are the iBsult of the sediaeata-  tioa of reworked Sauk sediments plus varying quantities of noaeiaatle sediments aad, as a result, are similar i a many respects. However, the time relationship betweea these fotaatione is poorly ipderstood aa yet.  Sloss and Laird (194?, p.1413) believed that  th® basal Bivoaian itrat%raphio unit traasgreseed time and i t somewhat younger in Montana than in Canada,. Shis is probably true i f only the lower portion of the Elk Point formation ia  F i g u r e 21.  Isopaeh and l i t h o f a c i e s map o f b a s a l Devonian u n i t i n n o r t h e r n Rocky [fountain and Great P l a i n s a r e a s . (Andrichuk,  1951, P.2387)  73-  oorrelated with the basal BsvQniaa wilt (Sloss and laird, 19*7)« sine® the I l k Point seas apparently transgressed southward. Actually, the Montana seotion probably represents deposition at a tlae of near aaadoua inmadatioa, as does Unit C and the  Ofaost l i v e r  (see following seotion)and therefore is a time correla-  tive of some portion of the Upper Elk Point f o»t!oa~probably below the upper massive salt member. fhe lithofacies pattern shown in figure 2 1 indicates a non-clastic evaporite area generally east of the Sweetgrass arch, with more elastic deposition west aad south of the arch. Shore i s evidence of a source of sediment near the ancient Montania area.  However, th© suitability for lithofacies study of such a  group of strata as has been used for figure 2 1 is questionable, as the relatively thicker I l k Point sediments contain a much higher percentage of carbonates aad evaporites thaa the other formations comprising the basal Devonian unit, fhe elastic ratios for the reworked Sauk sediments have become disproportionate in their areal relationship.  If only the basal Slk Point strata  had been considered i n relation to the other formations, sa entirely different relationship Would be revealed, Shis proposed lithofacies study might clarify the stratigraphic relationship between the Ghost Elver, Slk Point, Unit 6,. and basal Devonian formations, as i t would illustrate the nature- of sedimentation but exclude the time factor.  -74-  faoftoaimJtelag  the TJTmecanoa  S i >  T  i  f  n  i  7  f  Several theories regarding teetonisra during the Tippecanoe sequence have been advanced by prominent authors,  These  author® agree that thick sections of Ordovician and Silurian (?) sediments were (feposited l a the geosyacline, w i t h the possible esseptlon of the Montania area where the picture becomes indistinct.  However, these authors show l i t t l e agreement regarding  the nature of sedimentation over th® cratonlc a r e a ,  f i g u r e s 1?  and 18, which indicate the distribution, l i t h o l o g y and thickness of Ordovician sediments, have the sere isopach located on the perimeter of Ordovician sediments as i t was located at the end of stage four, the erosional stage, of the Tippecanoe sequence. Sloss  (1950, pp.434-437)  theorised that since the  Ordovician sediments bordering the present eastern l i m i t of the Sweetgrass arch were non-elastle in nature—thereby iadieatimg ao shoreline f a c i e s — i t would be fair to deduce from this evidence that non-clastic Ordovician aad Silurian ( t ) sediments covered much, i f not a l l , of the Sweetgrass arch, O p l l f t and e r o s i o n , particularly of the Sweetgrass arch in pre-Middle Devonian time ( S l o s s , 1950, p.439) resulted i a the pre-Middl© Devonian p&leogeography as depicted In f i g u r e 19.  It i s important to remember  that Sloss (1950) considered the Ghost Hiver formation and the I l k Point formation as post-lower Devonian i n age. Webb  (I95I, pp.2296-2300) recognised, as d i d Sloss (1950),  that th® sero isopach of figures 17 and 18 do not represent the  -75-  shorellaa of th® Qrdevleiaa M M  at the time of aaxSwm sub-  mergence of the Sweeteeoss arch. However,, sine® ao Silurian sediments are recognised hy Webb in the eastern Reeky Mountains (Igaering Warn* 193*)* he (Webb, 1951, p.ftfS) considered i t probable that at least the western portion, of the Sweetgrass arch was not iiwadated. Awing Ordovlelaa time, 1298), farther disagreed with Sloss  (1950)  Webb (1951, p..  a  by postulating  broad uplift of the Sweetgrass arch during Upper Ordovician or Lower .Silurian  Qrocviciaa  tine, accofflpaaled  by erosion which removed the  sediments to their present position*  trosloaai surface, the Silurian I l k Point sea  Over this  transgressed. (Webb,  X951» W.2298-2300) depositing basal I l k Point sediments. This aaa persisted, resulting in the deposition of upper Ilk Point aad  Ohost River  time,  sediments during Lower (?) aad  Middle  Sevoalan  fhe distribution and thickness of these formations are  shown i a Figure 20*  Deposition of ©host River and H * Point  sedlaantB was followed by pre-Opper Devonian erosion.  This  eroslonal period coincides i a time with stag© four of the  Tippecanoe sequence,  (Sloss,  1950, p*A50)»  However, whereas  Sloss (1950) considered the deposition of the Ilk Point sediments as following the erosion of Silurian (t) and Ordovician strata, Webb (1951) considered the i l k Point sediments as being deposited during the Silurian - Middle Devonian Interval*  Sloss  made no reference to the erosional disconfornity which Webb described as being caused by a "relatively brief emergence and  -76-  prehably flighty eastward truncation" of tae Ilk Point aad Ghost liver formations. It would appear, therefore, that there la stronger evidence for placing the Elk Point and Ghost liver formations ia the Tippecanoe sequence than ia the following Kaskaakia sequence. Deiss (1941) took a very decisive stand regarding the tectonism of the post-Cambrian—-pre-Iate Devonian period. He Stated (Deiss, 1941,  p.1110):  After the Cambrian, Montaaia remained above sea level, at'least throughout its weatem part, until possibly late ia the Devoaiaa. Daring the Ordovician, marine waters in ceatral Moataaa never reached west beyond the 110th meridian. Therefore, Deiss sequence as  (1941) would have considered the Tippecanoe  defined by Sloss (195°)  being non-existent ia  northwestern Montana, with Sauk erosion continuing until the Kaskaskiaa  (Upper Devonian) seas inundated the area. The theories forwarded by Sloss (1950), Webb (1951)  and Deiss (1941) as outlined above are obviously not ia agreeaeat. The writer presents a theory in the following seetion which seems to conform to the data available aad yet draws the three preceding theories into partial harmony.  4 .Theory ea the M.mm&m of Tippecanoe, Jftmrti Certain basic assumptions must be accepted before this theory regarding the sequence of events during the Tippecanoe  -77-  sequence can be considered.  These assumptions are outlined below:  (1)  The I l k Point formation contains no hiatus.  (2)  The Ghost River le at least a partial correlative of the I l k Point formation in time.  (3)  The' strata i n Waterton Park mentioned by Borne ( 1 9 3 2 ) as Silurian (I) i s poBt-Combrlan—preUpper Devonian in age.  Accepting the above assumptions, i t i s possible to consider the event® of the Tippecanoe cycle as occurring In the following sequences: (1)  Inundation of the geosyncline during Ordovician time with deposition of  thick clastic  sections l a British Columbia  and Idaho. Montaaia and the Sweetgrass arch remained positive, while seas flooded th® eastern portion of the cratonic foreland. ( S t ) Regression of the sea i n the cratonic area, accompanied by erosloa of Ordovician sediments from the eastern limb of the Sweetgrass arch. (3) Advance of the I l k Point seas westward across th© cratonic area east of the Sweetgrass arch during- some undetermined period, possibly as late as early Middle Devoaiaa*  In the  ^ geosyncline, sedimentation continued froa Ordovician into Silurian (?) time in British Columbia and  Idaho.  -78-  (*) For torn® unknown period of time, Montania me inundated by Tippecanoe seas and. received tae sediments mentioned by Hume (1932), Montania was then re-elevated and apparently remained positive until post-Ghost, liver — pre-falrholme time, since Clow and Croekford (1951) made no mention of the Ghost liver formation in the Carbondali River area south ef the Crowsaest Pass. It i s , of course, possible that Tippeeanoe erosion is responsible for this lack of Ghost River sediments in southwestern Alberta. (5) Over the cratonlc area, the slow, westerly advancing Slk Point seas transgressed the eastern portion of the Sweetgrass arch. This advance was probably delayed by minor periods of regression resulting in the deposition of evaporltes. (6) At some unknown time, probably during- Middle Devonian or possibly very early Upper Devonian time in more southern parts of the area, a,period of maximua submergence occurred. Montania and possibly the crest of the Sweetgrass arch renaiuerf. positive. However, Webb Indicated by hie map (Webb, 1951.  p.2299)  (see Figure  20) that  he believed the emteale and  ^ geosyaellnal seas actually Joined, Inundating the crestal area of the Sweetgrass arch*  The sediments deposited ©a  the foreland along the western side of the Sweetgmss arch formed tae Ghost liver formation.  -79-  (7) Regression -ef the seas, after this period of maximum Inundation, Began the erosional stage of th© Tippecanoe aefuenee' in the » s t . Withdrawal of th® seas east of th® Sweetgrass arch was slow and accompanied by the deposition of the upper massive salt member and subsequent somewhat anhydrltlc sediments. As the Elk Point ' seas withdrew, the Tippecanoe erosional surface was extended eastward. It is>interesting to observe that (1) i f the above sequence of events is  correct in principle, and (a) if, the Qhoat  liver formation is a true correlative of Unit C, the lowest Upper Devonian formation of northwestern Montana, and (3) i f the tipper massive salt member of the Elk Point formation was deposited  during the regressive phase after the period of maximum submergence, then the upper massive salt and successive members of the Ilk Point formation (or correlatives) most be early Upper Devonian in age in the southern part of the area. This deduction does not agree with  the evidence supplied by Crickmay (1954, p.154) which indicates a Middle Devonian age for at least the upper part of the Elk Point formation. The two apparently contradictory ages given to the Tippecanoe erosional stage aay be reconciled i f the erosional Stage transgressed time, being Middle Devonian in age in central Alberta aad becoming progressively younger to the south until i t became early Upper Devonian in age in northern Montana.  -80-  Sha erosion  during  stag® four of the Tlppeeanoe sequence  was apparently quite active, hut of short duration. She Easkasklaa seas then inundated the area, cozaaeneiag the third Paleoaolc sediaentary cycle.  -81-  4  Chapter TI  KASKASKIA SBQJOMCI  fhe Kaskaskia sequence, which was the third sedimentary cycle of the Paleosoic era, waa defined by Sloss (1950, p.451) as including the interval from Middle or Tipper Devonian to late Middle Mlssissippian (Meramecian) time, Sloss included as the basal part of the Kaskaskia sequence, sediments comprising the Ghost River, Unit C and Elk Point formations. However, this thesis, for the reasons' set forth in Chapter 7, considers the Kaskaskia sequence as excluding the Ghost River, Unit C and Ilk Point formations, which have been assigned to the Tippecanoe sequence. It must be remembered that if the short-lived erosional stage of the Tippecanoe sequence transgressed th® Middle-Upper Devonian time boundary, the lower limit of Kaskaskia sedimentation also transgressed the same time boundary. The Bundle formation and its stratigraphic correlatives, which comprise the uppermost unit of th® Kaekaekia sequence occurring within th© area, has been truncated by the erosional stage of the Kaskaskia and Absaroka sequences. Although some sediments along the western edge of the area and a thick section of sediments south of the area represent sedimentation during the Absaroka sequence, the Kaskaskia sequence was the last Paleosoic cycle from which major thicknesses of sediments still remain over the greater part of the area.  -82-  Xh* stratigraphy of th® laskaskla sequence within the area, accompanied hy son® lithofacies  intsrpre tat ions  of its  various units, is presented in the following sections of this ehapter. Correlations of the type section of the area with other type  sections beyond the  area Is indicated, finally, an  attempt is made to show the influence of th® various tectonic malts oa the nature of Sedimentation during the K&skaskia sequence.  ll»ftls»fte, MJk>- • JhafcMEJm, Mmmm i  Shis chapter wUl concern itself mainly with the Devonian and Mlssissipplan sections la the following three areass Crowsnest Pass, Albertaj the southern Alberta plains} aad north-  western Montana,  fhe correlation of these sections with each  ether and with sections beyond the area is shown in Figure 22, Figure 23 gives the preferred nomenclature of Xaskasklaa formations within the thesis area, fhe Crowsnest Pass section is arbitrarily designated as the type section for the area and a l l other sections will be considered with reference to i t . History .of.,t,t?«  mmUmMmw^W® lp  Sanada,  la 188?, McConnell made the first formational subdivision of the Upper Paleozoic section ia the Canadian Becky Mountains. Most of this work was done in the Bow Elver region which has remained the type section of "formations recognized over extensive areas ia the eastern Bookies" (Beach,  P.lO). Beach (1943,  Crowsnest Pass ALBERTA  (Southern Plains ALBERTA  Rocky Mountain Fm.  Upper Members of Big Snowy Group  o fe  Formation  c5  Formation  m or  Banff  Banff  Formation  Formation  Ixshaw Fm. o Costigan U -H Member w W w  r-l H  «H  o  O  Morro Member  Exshaw  Fm.  • Potlatch G-roup  flMt. o  0 -P  O  p  h o r i EN  Eawk  Perdrix  Canyon Formation a fe «© poodhurst -t o 8 O - H Member  PS  P-l-P  #8  Paine Member o o 1-1 ^ Sappington Mem Three Forks Formation Dolomite Member  Alaxo Formation  5  o  Bundle  Bundle  m  MOKTAHA  Unit B equivalent  Flume  Livingstone Member Basal Devonian Unit Figure 23. Kaskaskian Formations of the Area.  -83-  p p . 10-11, 18, 23) summarised the history of the development of the Kaskaskian nomenclature for the Itocky Mountain region, figures 2k and 29 show this development graphically, as i t was outlined by Beach.  Pevofllfin, Stratigraphy  the Area,  The Devonian stratigraphy will be described as It occurs in the general  Crovenest Pass  area of southwestern Alberta.  However, i t i s necessary, when describing the area! extent and correlations of the various formations, to introduce nomenclature  need in  Montana.  While  the Devonian  format lonal names used in  Montana are not defined and discussed, the nomenclature, lithology, development and distribution are indicated in figures 26 and 2 ? , which follow the discussion of th© Palliser formation.  yalrho lme, fprmati9h l  l  This formation,, named by Beach (19' 3), has Its type locality in the Bow Elver area l a the front range of the Hoeky Mountains, Subsequent work by  deWit aad MeLarea (1950)  divided  the Fairholme formation, a® defined by Beach (19^3) (see figure 24), into two formation©.  The name "fairholme" was applied to  the lower formation, while the upper one was called the "Alexo" formation. deWit and McLaren then subdivided the redefined fairholme formation into upper and lower members, which were described by them i n th© following manner:  Shimer  McConnell 1887  1926  Lower Banff ?  Warren  1937  Exshaw Fn.  Beach  1943  IdeWlt & McLaren! 1950  Exshaw Pin.  Upper  Upper  PALLISER  Part  Part  FM.  Exshaw Fm. S 2 5 o Costigan t-i Member  g  ?  Limestone o  (-4  3  Morro Member  ALEXO PM.  !Z3  O >  Intermediate  R M  Limestone  Lower  Lower  FAIRHOIME o  m  M  Part SB  Part  sz  FM.  li 3  Basal Quartzite Memos r  Upper Member Lower Member  GHOST RIVER FM. Walcott (1923) age unknown  Figure 2k. Historical Development of Upper Devonian nomenclature in Western Canada.  -84-  Lawer .Members  (deWit and McLaren, 1950, p.3)  LltholoCT; dolomite, massively bedded, light grey to black, mostly coarsely crystalline} characterised by reefs f a l l of stromatoporoids, corals, braehiopods, and other fossils; scattered ailty layers, especially in the lower part of the section. Thickness: maximum, 1,000 feet. Type localityt The contact conformable probably, in which has a  The Devils Gap, Lake Kinnewanka.  with the underlying roeks is apparently at e l l places examined. The member i s part correlative with the flume formation, similar facies.  Upper Member;  (deWit and McLaren, 1950, PP.3-4)  LithQioiy: much like the lower member, but in general more thinly bedded, l)lsphyljLum-t.\T>e corals are common. Thickness: maximum, 850 feet. Type locality;  The Devils Gap. Lake Minnewaaka.  The upper member can possibly be correlated with the Mount Hawk formation of Jasper Park and with the upper part of the dolomite and dark limestone series of Crowsnest Pass,  the lower member of th® fairholme formation Is believed to be (deWit and McLaren, 1950, p.4) a southern equivalent of the Flume formation of the Jasper area (see Figure 22) which possesses similar lithology and fauna  #  The upper member of th® Fairholme  formation holds the same stratigraphic position .as the combined Perdrix and Mount Hawk formations of the Jasper section (deWit  •85-  and McLaren, 1950, p.5) and may be equivalent te them, Recently, deWit  (1953.  P. 10?) subdivided the fairholme formation of the  Crows nest Pass section into Mount Hawk, Perdriat and Plume equivalents as shown by Section 5 of Figure 22,  Afle of the faiyhplme Formation Beach  (1943,  p.15) could not find sufficient paleonto-  logies! data to date the Fairholme formation accurately* He assigned the formation to aa Upper and/or Middle Devonian age. Warren  (1949,  p.566) considered the Fairholme formation as the  basal member of the Upper Devonian, However, i f the suggested correlation (Sloss aad Laird, 1947, p.1427) of the Ghost liver formation with Devonian Unit C (as discussed in Chapter 7) is correct, then where the Ghost Hiver, Ilk Point or Unit C formations do occur la the southera part of the area, they may possibly be the lowest Upper Devoaiaa strata preseat. In any case, i t is improbable, for reasons presented in Chapter V, that the lower boundary of the lower member of the Fairholme formatioa and equivalent members is coincident with the Upper-Middle Devonian tine boundary.  Brits  formation was named by deWit and Mcl«aren (1950,  p.6), who defined i t as follows:  —86 —  Litholo,qr; limestone, bedded and brecciated; sone fins sandstone, dolomite; a l l containing or interbedded with, s i l t . . . . Limestone breccias, which are present at several place© in th© Alexo, may •have been caused by collapse following th© solution of evaporltes. Thickness: 100 to 620 feet,  ImAWiUt^  The Cap (Braseau Stage)  Faeies changes in this formation are common (deWlt and McLaren, 1950, p.6), The Alexo formation as i t occurs in the Crowsnest Pass is a silty dolomite which becomes more clastic ia the southwestern areas where it has been observed by the writer near Elko, British Columbia, displaying a quartaitie texture. In the central Alberta plains section, the Alexo equivalent occurs as a sone of dolomitic silt to which Layer (19^9, PP,591-2) applied the name "Barling s i l t , "  This name was not used by deWlt and McLaren  because i t had been occupied prior to Layer's paper (1949) (deWit and McLaren, 1950, p.6) by another unrelated stratigraphic unit.  Aa, and, Cofre-tetla^.fif. Ijajjftgfr* aad Alsm SfflCpHflOTft There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the correlation of the Fairholme and Alexo formations, as they occur la the front ranges of the southern Alberta Bocky Mountains, with their counterparts northward and in the plains. Fox (1953. p.192) correlated the Fairholme formation "with the 'Waterways» and Jefferson groups of the southern Alberta Plains and the basal Devonian and Jefferson formation of Montana." However, this correlation is not in agreement with the stratigraphic and paleontologies!  -87-  studies of Sloss aad Laird (1947), who correlated the Limestone member of the Jefferson formation of the plain® and Unit B of northwestern Montana (Figure g2, Sec. 7,8 and 9) with the combined Fairholme and Alexo formations. • The evidence for this correlation of  &  "by Sloss  and Laird (1947, p.1427) was the presence  Sairifer .iasnerensls sone faunal assemblage in the correlated  formations (see f o s s i l tones, of the Utoer Devonian following). The strata of the southern Alberta plairs correlated with Unit B by Sloss and Laird (1947, p.1426) is referred to by them as the "Waterways" formation. Fox (1953) assigned the name "Waterways" to the basal part of tlie section, applying the name "Jefferson" to the upper portion. The correlation of the Fairholme formation with the Mount Hawk, Perdrix and Flume formations w i l l be discussed later in the chapter under the heading Reef and, Offrfc*X Alexo  afld jfeiifrftljBa  Fpmatioaft*  The Alexo formation, which Fox (1953« p.194) regarded "as deserving only member status", was correlated by him with the Calmer s i l t of central Alberta aad "with the lower part of the Potlateh group of the southern Alberta plains and perhaps with the basal part of the Three Forks of Montana." Thie i s not in agreement with the paleont ©logical evidence of Warren and Stock, (1950, pp.66-68) which indicated that the entire Winterburn formation is the Alex© equivalent in central Alberta.  In Montana, Unit Ag  of northwestern Montana and the dolomite member of the Jefferson  -08-  formatlon i n th© Montana plains area contain a coral assemblage (Sloss and Laird, 194-7, pp. 1427-1428) which is correlated with the coral son® of the Palliser formation. Since this coral sons Is post-Alexo, the Potlatoh group, of which Unit Ag is the basal member, and the  Three  Pork formation, which overlies the  Dolomite member of the Jefferson formation carrying this coral sons, cannot be considered true correlatives of the Alex© formation. It would appear that th© correlations made by fox  (1953,  p.194) between the mountain section and the plains of southern Alberta and Montana are incorrect with reference to time.  If  a correlative unit for the Alexo formation, with the proper time relationship, exists in the plains area, it must be found in the upper portion of the Limestone member of the Jefferson formation. It must be remembered that even in the front rang®, the Alexo formation exhibits a strong tendency to change facies. It is not, therefore, a unit which is likely to maintain its identity over an extensive area, furthermore, If a unit shows this tendency to change facies in a trend subparallel to the major controlling tectonic units. It is more liable to increase this tend*ency in a direction across the controlling framework.  glee, of the Alexo and,, Pa,lrhe.lme, Formations Much has been written regarding the "reef" and "offreef* facies of the Fairholme formation. The problem will not be discussed in this thesis; however, a graphic summation of th©  Figure 25. REEF AND OFF-REEF FACIES OF THE 'ALEXO AND FAIRHOLME FORMATIONS (McLaren, 1953, p.91)  Palliser  Reef Sequence  Off-Reef Sequence  ("Carbonate")  ("Clastic")  600'-1000' Alexo  150'-250'  Massive and bedded' limestones  Thin-bedded, silty dolomites, and fine grained, laminated dolomites  Upper "White reefs," rare "black reefs," coral 1000'-1700' beds, and bedded dolomites  Fairholme  Alexo  Variable silty limestones and dolomites and shales  Mt. Hawk  More or less argillaceous bedded limestones with coral beds common at top  2001-600«  200'-500'  Perdrix  300'-500'  Lower "Black reefs," stromatoporoid and Amnhipora beds, and bedded dolomites  Calcareous shales becoming noncalcareous at. base!  Flume Upper Argillaceous limestones 150 •-400'  Lower Stromatoporoid and Amphipora beds, and bedded dolomites  -89-  relationships Involved,, as presented "by McLaren (1953, p. 91) has been reproduced. In Figure 25. A point of interest discussed by McLaren (1953, PP.9192) was the usage of the terra "Blackface Mountain shale."  Accord-  ing to him, the term as originally defined by Kelly (1936) has been misused l a the literature several times, resulting in confusion as to the exact meaning, therefore, McLaren (1953* P.92) regarded i t advisable that this term, the "Blackface Mountain shale", "be discarded."  PfjO,Ms*r yefflfMfloa, This formation was named by Beach (194-3) ('see Figure 24) who described i t in some detail (Beach, 1943, pp.15-17).  Ia 1950,  deWit and McLaren subdivided the formation into a lower member, the Morro, aad an upper member, the Cost lean, which they described as follows (deWit and McLaren, 1950, pp.6-?)i Mo^o, Member Lithologyi limestone, finely crystalline to dense, dark grey or brownish grey, massive; in part vaguely bedded aad in places altered to dolomite; cliff-forming; commonly characterised by dolomite tracery on weathered surfaces. The lower contact is generally transitional with the Alexo formation. At Sulphur Mountain, th© Morro member is in part b re eclated, and is completely dolomitiaed. Thickness;  maximum, 950 feet.  Type Area; front ranges of the Rocky Mountains near Bow River. Representative sections are exposed near Crowsnest Pas® and Roche Miette.  -90-  <WVffia  Member  LitholOfpr; limestone, bedded, fossiliferouet in places underlain by a variable thickness of t h i n to mediumbedded dolomite and layers of limestone breccia. The lower part of the Costigan member contains c y c l i c a l units of t h i n l y bedded, platy dolomite, over-  lain by brecciated or crenulated limestone. These  units, although they contain less s i l t , are strongly reminiscent of those -in tlie Alexo formation and, i n p a r t , even of those in the Ghost R i v e r . They have an aggregate thickness of 75 feet at Grotto Mountain and at Mount Costigan (Tlie Devils Gap)? about 200 feet at The Gap (Brazeau Range), and nearly 350 feet at Lime-  stone Mountain,  fhe lower part of the Costigan member i s not f o s s i l i f e r o u s . The upper part consists of 50 to 100 feet of bedded limestone, and carries a d i s t i n c t i v e fauna.  The  Palllser is in part brecciated (deVlt, 1953, p.10?)  s i m i l a r to tlie Pot latch formation of the plains area.  Correlation  of the P a l l i j s j ,  fhe P a l l l s e r formation of the mountain front area i s correlated (see Figures 22 and 23) with the Potlateh formation of northwestern Montana and the southern Alberta p l a i n s , with the  Vabasmn formation  of the central Alberta p l a i n s , with tlie  Dolomite member of th© Jefferson formation,, and with the Three Forks formation of Montana. The correlation of the diagnostic coral and C y r t o s p i r l f e r zones of the P a l l l s e r formation i s carried into the plains area of Alberta and Montana, and into northwestern Montana (Sloss and Laird,, 194?, p. 1428).  In the Three Forks area  •vl-  of Montana, a sandy facies called the Sappington member has developed in the upper part of the Three Fork formation. Where this facies has developed, the Cyrtqsplrifer fauna, typical of the upper part of the non-clastic P a l l i s e r formation, 1ms been replaced b;. a S.yrl;i> .otixyris fauna.(Sloss and Laird, 194?, p. 1428).  ffaaha*  Formation, The Exshaw formation, as i t occurs in the front mage  of the Rocky Mountains, lias recently been described by Fox (1953, p.196) ia the following manner: Type Locality: Jura Creek, one rails east of Exshaw and two miles north of the Calgary-Banff highway. derivation of Same: From the village of Exshaw. Charactert She Exshaw formation i s composed of black, fissile, noncalcareous to slightly calcareous shale, containing small amounts of pyrite which, on weathering, may produce a rusty, blotchy stain on the outcrop. The contact with the overlying Banff shales may be sharp or gradatioaal. In one place, where the upper contact is sharp, the writer found, e few pea-sized, rounded, black chert nodules in the top of the Exshaw. Thickness; Type section 33 feet, average about 20 feet. Upper Contact: Usually conformable and often gradational. There may he a slight discoaformity In some places, Overlain by; Banff formation. Lower Contact; Discoaf omoble. (Fox, 1953, p.194) Underlain by; Palliser formation. (Fox, 1953. P.194) Fauna: Very small, containing Spirifer loulBlanensle, iliaJdes, etc.  Figure 2 6 . Generalized struti^rai^iiic colunns illustrati;^', Devonian correlations in central and northwestern Hontana. (Sloss and Laird, 1947, p.1^14)  Pig-ore  27.  Devonian strata In central and. northwestern Hontana. (Sloss and Laird, 1^7,^.1403)  -92-  %9ml^\m* • B» Exshaw is recognised throughout southern Alberta, except where it lias been removed by post-JPalaeosoic erosion. fiWP^i Sxslmw shale was o r i g i n a l l y with the Banff formation.  included  ACT, and Correlation of the Exshaw Formation  Warren  (1937, PP.454-457)  separated the "black shales" a t  the base of tha Banff formation from the overlying "argillaceous  limestone unit."  He gave formational status to the black shale  unit, naming It' the Exshaw formation l a r g e l y on the basis of  mega-fossils, which he believed indicated an Upper Devonian age for the black shale u n i t (see discussion under Fossil Zones of |he Upper Devonian). However, the formation continues t o be  generally accepted as representing the introduction of the Misslasippian cycle of sedimentation.  Throughout the plains area of southern Alberta and Montana, a black shale p e r s i s t s in the same s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n  as the Exshaw shale of the mountain front. In Montana, this black shale forms the basal unit of the Paine member of the Lodgepole  formation (Sloss aad Hamblin, 1942, p.317). She diseonfonaity whlch exists between the Exshaw and P a l l i s e r formations l a the front range does not exist in the p l a i n s , where Sloss and Bamblia  (1942, p.309) and Sloss (1950, p.439) considered the contact between the Exshaw equivalent and the Three Forks formation  (Palliser equivalent) to be conformable. Therefore, while the discoaformity found i n the front range indicates tectonic movements  -93-  in the geosynelinal area in late Devonian or very early Mississippiaa tine, there is no indication of a major emergence of the entire area at that time, fhe Kaskaskia sequence continued and the Misstssippiaa cycle of sedimentation was initiated. Warren (1949) also mentioned tlie presence of conodonta la the Sxshaw shale (see discussion under Fossil Zones of the Upper Devonian)« However, no identification of these conodents was published. Other workers have also collected conodonts from the Exshaw and equivalent shales, among whom were Oooper and Sloss (19^3, p.168), who summarised their work in tlie following statements Fifty-four species of conodonts are recognized in a black shale member (Sxshaw equivalent) which occurs at the base of the Lower Mississippian Madison group over a wide area extending from Alberta and western North Dakota to southwestern Montana. On the basis of the conodont evidence this horisoa is correlated within the Ktaderhook of the Mississippi Talley and adjacent areas. They (Cooper aad Sloss, 1943, p.1^9) believed that "the mega-fauna ©f the Ixshaw is a relic of the Upper Devonian preserved through isolation in the black shale environment which excluded the immigration of new forms." The age of the Ixshaw formation seems, therefore, to remain ia doubt. Our knowledge of the subject may be summarized in the following three points:  -94-  1) The nega-fauna Indicates an Upper Devonian age. 2) The micro-fauna Indicates a Miselasippian age. 3) The stratigraphic relationships imply the commencement of a new cycle of sedimentation. Meanwhile, for the purposes of lithogenetlc and cartogenetic study (Sloss and Laird, 194?, p.1420), the Exshaw formation and efulvalent unit® must he considered as the basal member of the Mlssisslpplan sequence as evidenced by the stratigraphic relationships of the formation.  W t ^  Qf thf J j J S t i W f  It Is difficult to envision the environmental conditions which would result in the deposition of such a widespread, relatively thin, organic shale as the Exshaw, without postulating accentuated tectonic Influence. However, there is no evidence of such tectonic activity during the deposition of this formation. Sless and Bamblln (1942,  p.324) offered a possible solution by  hypothesizing a widespread shallow sea segregated into many "more or less isolated basins." Periodic flooding of this multi-hasinal province by elastic-laden seas from the west, plus erosion of the weakly positive inter-basinal areas, provided the clastic material for the Exshaw shale. This hypothetical environment offers on® possible explanation for the sometimes conformable—sometimes disconforsable--eontact between the Exshaw and the underlying strata.  •95-  TjBMlL.&flPML .Of ..th*  Ifoosr Davnninn  Ths Upper Devonian section of western Canada was divided into five fossil sons® hy Warren (1949) and Into fourteen fossil sones hy Warren aad Stelek (1950). While the latter l i a more detailed publication and a valuable reference, it is easier to grasp an understanding of the fossil sones of the Upper Devonian from the earlier paper. Therefore, this thesis will make use of the first paper (Warren, 1949) in which the five fossil sones, as shown in Tigure 22, are related (Warren, 1949, p.566) to seetions 1 and 7 of Figure 22. The Toraoesras zone, the uppermost of th© five fossil sones, is "restricted to the Exshaw shale" (Warren, 1949, p.560) and to its stratigraphic equivalents. This zone is characterised by "a considerable abundance of Tomoceras cf. T.. ualangulare (Conrad) and some poorly preserved pelecypods." Warren (1949), p.568)  noted the presence of conodonts in this sone, However,  he stated no age determination for these conodonts. As American geologists have identified the eoaodoat fauna in the Bxshaw equivalent as Mississippian la age, and as the Exshaw shale is generally conceded to belong to the Mississippian cycle of sedimentation, i t would appear imperative that an accurate age be determined for th® conodont fauna of th® Ixshaw shale. It apparently remains for the age identification of these conodonts to decide whether the Tornoceras fauna, as identified by Warren (1949),  is as diagnostic of aa Upper Devonian age for the Ixshaw  shale, as has hitherto been assumed.  ***  fc»lMPMfM  aone underlies the Torooceras aone and  generally includes "the upper 6C0-800 feet" (Warren, 1949, p.568) of the Palliser formation. The Cyrtosalrlfer sons is characterised by the following fauna; Produetella ooloradoensls Kindle Caffl&rotoechla horsferdl Hall Oamftrotoeehia nor&e^fii Kindle |#lorhynohua. several species g tQsp a,rlfeir of. 0. whltneyl g  ii  Athfrls W ^ f f a m  Warren (1949. p.568) noted that the CyrtoBPirlfar zone may contain two sub-sones as indicated below: Caaarotoechia nordeggi Upper sub-sone  Athyris angelica  miasmi r i f e r Zone • lower sub-sone  |  I»lernyachidja.  Doloaitiaation destroyed many of the fossils in the Oyrtos-pirifer zone. A coral zone, which has often been badly damaged by dolomitisation, underlies the  Cyrtoaa,irilfer zone. Although corals are  not abundant, "Piphyphylum" cplfma^ai Warren, .qiadopor^.sp., and Phi11iusaatrea characterise the coral zone. The coral aone is noted (Warren, 1949,  p.5^9) as probably overlapping the underlying  fnlrifer laamrenala zone and the overlying Cyrtoflnlrifer sone.  -97'  SMrifer J&j  tlf. Warren i s the marker for the  Spjrifay JtBger^nf|,s sons. This zone, which occupies most of the ¥pper Devonian strata "below the coral sone, contains an abundance of the following fauna: Cladopora sp. "Pipkyphyllum" colemaase Warren Idagula gpafeulata Tanuxem Chonetes deflecta Ball Productella hallana Walcott Schlaonhorla strlatula Schlotheim IfiM^m^m ^thahaskenae Kindle LelorhynohuB aXbertenss Warren ' ?*faax »P» Splrlfer raymondl Baynes Martlnla nevadensls Walcott Atrypa. many species Cyrtina rockymontana Warren Bactritea acleulum Ball Scnlatltes of the Maatlcocerag type Buehlola retroatrlata von Buch Eatqmls serratostrlata Sandberger The gplrlfer las-perenals sone In the "Blackface Mountain shale" and equivalent strata may he divided into two sub-sone® as indicated Isetor:  Sclilzophorla Upper suh-aone -  c t e l l a hellana Splrlfer rsOTondi. B&ynes cf. S. aucronatus Conrad  Splrlferfesperenslssone Lower sub-zone  -98-  fhs lower part of the Splrlfer jasperenala as on® below the "Blackface  Mountain shale* is dominated by the following faunas  •MFMm  jwwrynsit,  Produetella hallana  Martinis, many speeies Martlaia nsvadeasls Walcott Bntomls sarratoatrlata Atrypa (present but not abundant) ®M> Sfl War, .fesperensls zone, therefore, occupies the greatest thickness and most fossiliferous part o f the Upper Devonian sediaenta of any of the described fossil zones. fhe lowest fossil sone of the Upper Devonian strata is the Stromatoporoid sone which occurs .in th© flume and equivalent  formations, fhe Stromatoporoids occur "la thick beds or reef"  (Warren, 1949, p.570)  usually dolomltized so that s p e c i f i c fienti-  ficatioa is difficult,.  The five Upper Devonian fossil sones described above are chiefly useful a® guides or aids in other phases of stratigraphic  work rather than as markers of specific limited horlsons.. Tor more detailed paleontologies! studies, Warren and Stelck's  (1950)  more  limited faoaal sone® say be of greater value.  Two additional papers have been published very recently discussing stratigraphic paleoat©logical relationships in the Upper Devonian strata of western Canada. These papers are not dealt with l a this thesis other than to state briefly new information particularly affecting the thesis area. . One paper, by fox (1954), is  -99-  chlefly concerned with the clarification of the Upper Devonian nomenclature north of Crowsnest Pass. Paleontologleal evidence is presented which indicates that the go.rnqqeras gone aad at least part of the QyrtosMrtfer sons (Warren, 1 9 4 9 ) may he of Mississippian age, fox  (1954,  p.130) suggests that th® Devoaian-  Mlssissipplan boundary may .he within the Palllser formation "possibly as far down as the "base of the Costigan member." The other paper, by McLaren  (1954),  is chiefly concerned  with the sanation of the Upper Devonian sediments by means of rhyachonellids. The relationship of the stratigraphic units to the rhynchonellld2ones and the principal fossils of each sone is presented ia Figure 28, McLaren (1954, pp.l67-l68) also considers the problem of the age of the Exehaw formation and concludes that while th© original faunal assemblage of the Tomoceras sone as presented by Warren (1937) indicated an Upper Devonian age, this faunal evidence was insufficient to make this age determination conclusive, McLaren  (1954,  p.168) does not offer an alternative  age for the Ixshaw formation,  tfiBSlsstotea ,8.ta»t.jg«B»hy of, .the. Area The Mississippian. sediments seem to represent a major sedimentary cycle within the Zaskaskia sequence. This cycle commenced with the deposition of the Ixshaw shale and continued until the close of the sequence when, throughout the area, the Mississippian strata suffered erosion. In addition to this, the  FORMATIONS RHYNCHONELLID ZONES  IMPORTANT FOSSILS  PALI.ISER  EXSHAW  Productella  Costigan Member  Nudirostra  Morro Member  Nudiiostia  utahensis vontricosa  cf plicata,  Cyrtosptrifer  cf Itindlei,  Strophopleura  gibbcsa  seversont  P'oductella lata, Camarotoechia C  nordeggi, Cyrtospmfer  Tenticospinfer  ALEXO  Nudirostra  gibbosa walcotti  Cyrtospirifer Athyns  MOUNT HAWK  Nudtroitra  albertensis  notabilis,  banffensts,  cf anlmasenns,  c f conoideus, Cyrtiopsis sp  sp (wijth low angle epsacline interarea),  c f angel'Coides, Leptodesma sp  r-typothyt.dina cf emmonsi,  Pugnoides  Grunewaldtia, Cyrtospirifer  cf whitneyi  calvmi,  Spinfet sttigosus, Tenticospmfer c f cyrtintformis Thomaiana  PERDRIX  Nudirostra  msculpta  Caivtnatia f inelegant, Martmiopiis  Atrypa Nudirestta athabascensis  cf nevadensis  mtisounensn  Kindle 1909 (non Miller),  Eleuthero'o-omma c f fiamiltoni, E c f leducensn, Ambothyns  JME  Upper Member  todymontana  Athyns  cf sublmeata, Spirifer /asperensis,  patvula, Bactrites spp  j Li-  Lower Member  Atrypa c f albertensis, A cf Pugnoides  kakwaensu  Spinier c f engelmann^ Athyns  mdopendensis  Cyrtmo billmgsi  small sp  Ghost River, Ordovician or Cambrian GSC  Firore 23. Rliynciionelli^ so:ree o>* Upper : cvo:ii;~: in tiic Canadian Rocl^ Mountains. (McLaren, 195^, p.l60)  -ICQ-  ©rosional sta, ,e ©f ths Absaroka sequence, which entirely removed Absarokan sediment from a l l but the extreme western and. southern parts of the area, further eroded tlie Saskaskla sediments. Hi® result of the second period of erosion was a major unconformity between Kaskaakian and Absarokan sediment® and the overlying Jurassic. fhe Mississippian formations of the Easkaskia sequence have been described as they occur In southwestern Alberta. The correlation of those formations in southwestern Alberta with their correlatives in Montana is shown in Figure 30 (see under Correlation of the Banff and Bundle, formtlaas. following).  The Banff formation as it occurs in the Crowsnest Pass area has been described (Beales, 1950, Table 1) as follows: 1,200+ feet Black shale and argillaceous limestone, with chert. The upper 1,0001 feet consist of calcareous shale and cherty argillaceous limestone. The lower 150 to 200 feet are thin-bedded black shales. Eowever, this description includes the Sxshaw formation which occupies the lower Uk feet (deWit, 1953, P.106) of the basal shale member. A more complete description of the Banff formation was presented by Douglas (1953, p.78) in which he described the formation as i t occurs in the Mount Head area of ths upper Highwood  -101-  liver valley, a few mile® north of the area along the front range of the Boeky Mountains. •« MM . . Banff formation  Thickness  Upper part Coarsely crystalline limestone with argillaceous matrix, interbedded with finely crystalline argillaceous limestone and 30 feet of arenaceous granular dolomite in middle  150  Middle part finely Crystalline, argillaceous limestone and dolomitic limestone, sparsely cherty, with rare, thin, medium-crystalline limestone . 600  lower part Finely laminated shale with fine-grained, arenaceous, granular dolomites at top and base . . . . 180 Underlying beds—Exshaw formation fhe Banff formation is essentially a "transitional" formation (Fox, 1953» p.197) — from Ixshaw elastics to lower Banff elastics and carbonates — to upper Banff carbonates and minor clastic© — to Bundle non-elastic sediments. The Bxshaw-Banff contact is "usually conformable and often gradational" with a slight disconformity in some areas, while the Banff-Bundle contact is usually conformable but with slight disconformity observed In the Moose Mountain area (Fox, 1953, p.196). Since the Banff-Bundle contact is gradational, it was necessary to define the contact arbitrarily. This was done  -102-  by Warren (192?, p*2?) who placed I t at "the bottom of th© lowest bed" of coarse-grained limestone," This basal Bundle strata was described by Douglas (1950, p.13) as "coarsely crystalline, light grey weathering limestone."  A brief description of this formation as i t occurs in the Crowsnest Pass is given in the following excerpt by Bet-les (1950, Chart 1): 1,600 to 5*300 feet Grey limestone with chert, fossiliferous in placesj uniform sequence of thick, massive beds of light grey, coarse-grained limestone, with minor fine-grained dark grey beds j the uppermost 300* feet consist of thin-bedded, buff weathering, fine-grained beds. The formation thins to the east. There is ao apparent break with the underlying Banff formation. lorth of the Crowsnest Pass in the Gap area of the Livingstone tango, Bouglas (1950, pp.12-1?) subdivided th® Bundle formation into four members on the basis of i t s lithology, These members he described as follows (Bouglas, 1950, p.13): Overlying beds—Rocky Mountain formation! Contact dieconformable? Bundle formation Member D: fine-grained, blocky, grey limestones; finegrained, buff dolomite; chert and limestone brecciasi crossbedded, arenaceous dolomitej thin, porous limestone} green shale . . . . . (Member D now included in Rocky Mountain formation)  Thickness r f eet  250  -103-  ttMihfT  C:  •  Massive  to thin-bedded, fine-grained, black limestone, very hard, dease, aad brittle,  breaking with a coachoidal fracture 5 some thin, black, calcareous shale and buff, coarsely crystalline lias stone 200 (Member 0 now uppermost member of Bundle formation) Shin-bedded to platy, fine-grained, argillaceous dolomite, weathering buff to dark brown; massive, fine-grained, cherty, grey limestone aad dolomite  480  Massively bedded, grey dolomite, grey weathering, with chert in stringers aad blebs; massively bedded, buff, coarsely crystalline, grey limestone, light grey weathering} with basal bed 80 feet thick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  790  Total thickness of Bundle formation  1,720  Contact eonfow&ble Inferlylng bods—Banff formation  leceatly, Douglas (1953, P.68) teatatlvely divided the Bundle into two formations raising the Bundle formation to "group status" (see Figure 29). The lower formation he named the Idviagstoae formation, which is equivalent to Member JL of the Gap section. The upper formation he named the Mount Head formation, which Is equivalent to Members B and G of the Gap section. Member D of the Gap section is now considered to be the basal member of the Becky Mountain formation. Douglas (1953, p.68) has further divided the Bundle &roup of the Mount Head area so that the Livingston© formation has been subdivided into two members,, while the Mount lead formation has been subdivided into six members.  McConnell 1887 Upper Banff  Kindle 1924 Rocky Mtn. Fm. Bowling 1907 Upper Banff  Shiraer 1926  Rundle  Bouglas 1953 (proposed)  Warren 1937  Rundle  B 0  Mt. Head Fa.  Pa  Limestone  Lower Banff Shale  Limestone  Banff Shales  Limestone  Limestone  Banff  Banff Formation  Formation  1  Banff Formation  Exshaw Fin.  Lower Banff Limestone  Figure]29»  Livingstone, Pm.  Historical Development of Mississippian Nomenclature in Western Canada.  -104-  In 1948, Laudon (1943) published a paper stating his paleoatolegical and stratigraphic evidence for aa eroslonal break within the Bundle and equivalent formations which could he correlated from the central Canadian Rocky Mountains to the upper Mississippi valley and Hew Mexico (Laudon, 1948, p.288), lie described this unconformity as i t occurs in the Banff area in the following excerpt (Laudon, 1948, p.296): fhe Meramec portion of the Rundle formation rests with marked unconformity on limestones of late Kinderhook age in the Banff area, fhe contaot is everywhere overlain by basal shaly sone that often carries phosphatie conereatioas and fish teeth, fhe change in lithology is abrupt, although both are limestones. Typical St. Louis lithology appears immediately above this contact. Sufficient work was not completed in the area to determine the amount of relief of the Einderhook surface. Canadian geologists have neither refuted nor substantiated this work done by Laudon. However, when Bouglas (1953. p.68) subdivided his Rundle group, he placed the contact between the Mount Head and Livingstone formations below the arenaceous, often shaly, dolomitic or limy Wlleman Member of the Mount Head formation, and above the upper coarsely crystalline limestone turner Valley member of the Livingstone formation. Therefore, Laudon (1948) aad Bouglas (1953) seem to agree that a two-fold formations! division should be placed at tha base of th® intermediate shale in the Bundle formation. Douglas (1953), however, made no mention of the presence of an unconformity at this horison nor at any horizon within his Bundle group.  -105-  Gei3relatioaof  t h e B a n f f and Band^e  Formations  the combined Banff a a d Bundle formations h o l d the  a t r a t i g m p h l c position as the Madison group of th® southern Alberta p l a i a s aad Montana, aa illustrated i n f i g u r e 2 3 and F i g u r e 30. s t r a t i g r a p h i c aad l i t h o l o g i e a l evidence  ( S l o s s aad.Haoblla,  Oa  1942),  the Bundle f o r m a t i o n has been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the Mission Gaayoa  formation, and the B a n f f f o r m a t i o n has been correlated w i t h th® Lodgepole  f o r m a t i o n , minus the b a s a l s h a l e which is e q u i v a l e n t to  the Exshaw f o r a a t l o a .  However, Brown  (1952,  pp.75-80}  showed  t h a t c e r t a i n f a u n a l groups found i a the Bundle formation of  the  Canadian Hooky Mountains a l s o o c c u r i n the Upper part of the B i g Snowy group o f e a s t e r n Montana which belongs t o the Absaroka sequence.  He has not a s c e r t a i n e d whether these f a u n a l assemblages a r e accurate index faunas. However, he p r e p a r e d a c h a r t ( F i g u r e 3 1 )  showing  possible correlation o f the Banff and Bundle, based on these faunas,. I t appears, therefore, t h a t the Bundle f o n a a t i o a is an equivalent a t r a t i g r a p h i e u n i t t o the M i s s i o n Canyoa f o r m a t i o n but represents a prolonged i a t e r v a l of sedimeatatloa.  S h i s theory is substan-  tiated by the f a c t t h a t while the formatioas are l i t h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r , and indicate s i m i l a r environments,  the Bundle section of  the f r o n t range has an average t h i c k n e s s of  3.000  w i t h a probable average  Of approximately Eambiia,  1 9 4 2 ,  700  f e e t as compared  t h i c k n e s s l a the Mission Canyon formation  feet (pre Absarokan erosion) (Sloss and  pp.,319-324).. Sloss  (1950.  R.442)  "pronounced d i s c o a f o r m i t y " separated K&skaskiaa  observed that a and  Absarokan s e d i -  »®nts throughout the a r e a except to the g e o s y n c l i n e and near the  Figure 30. Itodison croup. Composite liagranmatic croos section. (Sloss and Hanblin, 1942, p.310)  MONTANA  BOW VALLEY  OUTER ATHABASCAl VALLEY  MOUNT GREENOCK AREA  BANFF  LAKE MINNEWANKA  MOOSE MOUNTAIN  (Warren. 1927)  (Shimer, 1926)  (Beach, 1943)  (PRESENT STUDY)  (Scott. 1935. N.W CROWSNEST Sloss, Hambtin WYOMING SCALE OF VALLEY 1942, REFERENCE! (Bran«>ri. (Warren, 1927.1933) Perry, Sloss, 1937) 1943 l ^ r d , 1947)  Quadrant Rocky Mountain formation  Mooschoni S. n. »p. A. faunult  faunule  Rocky Mountain formation  Greanoct Greenock formation formation  Rocky Mountain formation!  Amden Amsden Vormationl formation Big Snowy  S.cf.  Scf.  S.cf.  S.cf.  group  ptlkwsh Rundle formation  faunule  faunult formation! formation  formation  Rundle formation  Burlington like faunule  faunule 5.  S.nmfienus »M  llb*rt»niH faunuk  Banff S. casca^ensft formation faunule  group  faunult  formation  fOndcfnook fauna  Kiwterriook  Banff formation  Meramec  formation  Madison I'oup Banff formation!  Rlnalirhook  Chester  Osaft  Mission Canyon  Midttk BMff  formation  Penn?  Madison  Burtiflfton likej Banff faunule Upper  Banff Upper  SKIJIWI  Penman?  fiundte forma tttnf  &run<&nsfs  SrufKfort&s ZOM  Quadrant  Lodgepokt formation  ITjnrtaihnnfc  NnoerHOUK  {roup fofRiaUoA  GSC  figure  31.  fable showing tentative correlation of Carboniferous strata in the northern Boeiy Mountains, based oa faunal studies, (Brown, 1952, p.76)  •106-  axis of th© Wlllieton basin* Since the Villieton basin was a locus  of deposition  of Big Snowy sediments, i t is conceivable that sone  faunas present in the Mission Canyon sediments persisted through the period of clastic deposition of the Klbbey formation aad on into late Hississippiaa time. Therefore, i t is possible for the post-Charles sediments of the Big Snowy group, which belong to the Ahsaroto sequence of sedimentation, to carry certain fauna found in the Bundle sediments of the Kaskaskia sequence. It must be remembered that geologists working in Montana /  consider the basal shale of the Paine member of the Lodgepole formation as Mississipplan in age. While recognizing that the equivalent strata, the Exshaw formation, probably belongs to the Hississippian cycle of sedimentation, Canadian geologists have generally regarded the Exshaw as Devonian for reasons previously presented ia the discussion of the Sxshaw formation. Ia the plains area of southern Alberta and Montana, the Hississippian strata belonging to the Kaskaskia sequence are assigaed to the Madison group (figure 23)* The present distribution aad thickness of this group are illustrated in Figure 32. The area has suffered two major periods of tectonic unrest sine® Easkaskiaa sedimentation*  late Kaefcaskian and Late Absarokan;  and three periods of erosion: Kaskaskian, Absarokan and current, since the deposition of the Madison sediments. Therefore, while the isopachs ia Figure 32 generally delineate the tectonic elements  Pigui'e 32. 'Ihickneea of Madison tiroup subsequent to late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic erosion. (SIOSG and Hanblin, 1942, p.30^)  -10?-  ©f the area as outlined in Chapter III, tale nap la Itself does not indicate that these elements wer© differentiated during Madison deposition, hut merely that they were differentiated during and/or since Madison deposition.  XatteMk  formation, ^ffltana Willis (1902, pp.316, 324) applied the name  "Takinifcak"  to a limestone formation outcropping in the MacDonald Bange west of th© north fork of the flathead liver in the vicinity of the 49° parallel. Willis observed that the Takinifcak foroation rests conformably on a quartzite formation. Slose (1945, p.309) and Crabb (1951, pp.31-32) believed that the Yakinikak formation actually represented part of the upper Bundle formation, the formation of which the MacDonald Bange is largely composed (Crabb, 1951, P»31) which, with the Rocky Mountain ("quartzite") formation, was overturned and thrusted from the west over Beltian sediments* The term "Yakinikak formation" is now unneeessaxy and should be regarded as obsolete.  g&skaskian Sediments in the Rocky Mountain Trench In the Cranbrook, British Columbia, area, Schofleld (1915, pp.53-56) described two formational units to which he assigned Devonian-Carboniferous ages* The lower unit consists of 150 (+) . feet of "massive to thin-bedded siliceous limestones" with a  -108-  "breeciated and  receraented sandy limestone" basal member. fhls  formatlonal unit was assigned to a Devonian Jefferson (?) a,o and was referred to as the Jefferson (?) formation on the basis of the following fauna, which were collected from it and identified by  Dr.  Kindle (Schofield, 1915,  P.54):  Atrypa reticularis Splrifer piononansis 1 Stropheodoata sp. undet. Orthothetes chemangensls var. arctostriatus The basal contact of the Jefferson (?) is obscured, but is apparently disconformable on the Purcell series. fhe upper formations! unit consists of approximately 1,000 feet of "grey, crystalline limestone* containing the following fauna identified by Dr. P.l. Raymond (Schofield, 1915, p.56), as indicating a "Mississippian age (Lower Carboniferous)": Oamaroyhoria explaaata (McOhesney) Camarotoeehia cf. C. metallica (White) Coaposita nadisoneasis (Girty) Cleiothyrdlna crassicardlnalls (White) Splrifer cf. S. centronatus (Winchell) Products11a coopereasls (Swallow) Schofield (1915* P»55) named this upper unit the "Wardaer" formation, fhe contact between the Jefferson (?) formation and the Wardner formation is obscured, but Schofield  (1915,  P.55) believed  this contact to be conformable, fhe upper .surface of the Wardner formation is eroded and covered by Pleistocene glacial deposits.  -109-  r  She restricted distribution of the Jefferson (?) and  Wardaer formations  makes It  difficult to f i t these  sediments into  the lithofacies ant isopaeh studies illustrated in this chapter. If the present thickness of these sediments approaches the uneroded thickness of EJaskaskiaa sediments in  this area,  i t would imply  a  tremeadoua thinning in the area generally believed to b© within the geosyaellaal  unit.  Detailed studies of these Devonian-  Carboniferous strata l a the Rocky Mountains, mad® in the light of recent detailed studies of Kiaskaskian sediments in the Rocky Mountains and plains area, may provide considerable evidenee regarding  the tectonic  events of the Kaskaskia  sequence,  gharri ?<?r»tioa Ddrlng stage three of the Kaskaskia sequence, the Willlston haein exhibited a strong negative tendency, thus forming a locus of accumulation for the Charles  fonaatioa,  2h©  areal  distribution  of the Charles formation, which was limited to th© Willlston basin, and i t s stratigraphic relationship to overlying and under-  lying  strata is depleted in Figure  30 aad  Figure  33.  The Charles  formation is the basal member of the Big Snowy group, the reminder of which w i l l be discussed in the following chapter. She Charles formatioa i s chiefly an evaporitlc unit (ferry aad Sleaa,-19*3. PP.1299*1301) "characterised by light* colored earthy limestones and dolomites . . .interbedded with evaporitee (chiefly aanydrite) in beds approaching 100 feet in  Figure 3 3 .  Eastward Development of the Bi^; Snowy Croup (Perry and Sloss, 19^3, P.1294)  -110-  tMckaess." Salt' aad vari-coloured shales are common while the top few bed® are oftea sandy, ffiie Charles formation is Inferred (Parry and Sloss, 1943,  p.1301)  to be in conformable, probably  gradatlonai contact with the underlying Mission Canyon formation, fhe contact of the Charles formation and. the overlying Kibbey formation has been considered gradational (Perry aad Sloss, 1943, p,130l).  Sloss  (1950,  p.444), however, stated that a discoa-  formity exists between these formations except in the axial area of the Willlston basin, Sh® Charles formation was assigned to th® Big Snowy group by Seager (1942, p.864), who named and defined the unit. However, i f the regional Interpretation as presented in this thesis is correct, and the Elbbey sandstone represents the commencement of sedimentation of a new regie-al tectonic and sedimentary sequence, then th© Big Snowy group contains sediments belonging partially to the laskasfcia sequence and partially to the Absaroka sequence* She advisability of retaining such a group classification would appear to be questionable. Perhaps, once the regional data is fully established and proven, i t would be more desirable to remove the Charles formation from the Big Snowy group in order to satisfy the regional conditions., than to continue to regard the formation as a member of the group on the basis of local evidence.  jgeeto^ton and ,f*g Effect, Upon Sedimentation Baring ,the KaSkaBkia. Se^uence  fhe Kaskaskia sequence exhibited the four stages (Sloss.  -111-  1950, pp.439, 451) which' typify the Paleozoic sequences. It varied from the other sequences, however, in the interrelationship of the various stages. Stage one, in which the various tectonic members are undifferentiated, existed until late Upper Devonian time. Stage two, the differentiation of the various tectonic elements, was a gradual stage continuing until late Mission Canyon deposition. Stage three, the culmination of the differentiated tectonic elements, was relatively more sudden, resulting la the cessation' of deposition in the Sweetgrass areh area, and continued deposition in the geosyncllne aad the Williston basin: the upper part of the Rundle formation being deposited in the geosyncline, and the Charles formation being deposited in the Williston basin. Stage four, the eroslonal stage, resulted in erosion throughout the area •except in the geosyncline and along the axis of the Williston basin.8  (Sloss,  1950, p.444). Thie late lasksskiaa surface  was then covered with clastic sediment by the onlapping Absarokan sea. fhe Devonian sediments of the Easkaskia sequence have  been analysed by Andriehuk (1951), vho made a detailed lithofacies study of these sediments. His lithofacies and isopach interpretation of Upper Devonian sediments is presented in 'figure 34.  this study contains those Devonian sediments assigned  to the askaskla sequence in Figure 23, Including th© basal Devonian unit (Sloss and Laird, 194?)  of Montana, and excluding  the Exshaw formation, fhe study also excludes such formations  Figure 34. Isopach and lithofacies nap of total Upper Devonian in northern.Rocky Mountain and Great Plains areas. (Andrich.uk, 1951, p.2383)  -112-  m the Ilk Point, Ghost River and Unit C of Montana, which have been previously assigned to the i'ippecanoe sequence, figure 34 indicates a widespread, highly non-clastic, carbonate-rich environment of sedimentation. The lithofacies pattern does not, apparently, reflect any control over the nature of the sedimentation by the various tectonic elements, fhe isopachs, however, show rapid thickening westward in the geosyncllnal area, but do not indicate any differentiation of the tectonic elements of the  oraton.  An exception to this statement is the Wyoming shelf  south of the area, which persisted as a low positive element •upon which the seas onlapped throughout Upper Devonian time. fhe Upper Devonian sediments represented in Figure 34 have been subdivided by Andriehuk  (1951)  into three units, for  which isopach-lithofacies studies were prepared. The lower unit has been named the lower limestone unit (Andriehuk,  2378)  1951, pp.2376-  and includes "all but the uppermost beds of the Fairholme  formation" and equivalent strata in the plains area, She lithofacies aad isopaeh interpretation of the lower limestone unit is presented ia Figure 35-  It is again apparent that the only  tectonic elements affecting sedimeatation are th© geosyncline aad the Wyoming shelf. She elastic area ia th© northwest Is interpreted (Andriehuk, 1951, P.2394) as indicating a source of sediments to the northwest beyond the limits of this work. fhe next unit studied by Andriehuk  (1951,  pp.2380-2382)  was named the dolonite-evaporlte unit, illustrated in Figure 36.  Figure 35  Isopaeh and. lithofacies nap of lower linestone unit in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains areas. (Andriehuk, 1951, P.239D  Figure 36.  Isopach and lithofacies nap of dolonite-evaporite unit in northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains areas. (Andrichuk, 1951, P.2397)  -113-  Sals aait includes tae uppermost beds o f tlie fairholme formation, tae Alexo formation, aad a l l but the uppermost beds o f the Palllser formation. These formations and their equivalents are Illustrated ia figure 23. As shown in figures  and 35, with the exception  of the ¥yoaiag shelf, th© tectonic elements o f the craton do not influence the isopach pattern to any marked degree, although the western trend la the northern areas graduates towards the northwest, While a a evaporitic area developed in east-central Alberta, a somewhat elastic area persisted in the northwest, todriehuk /  (1951, p.2399)  believed the evaporite development was controlled  by the development of a reef-complex between it and the clastic area. He considered this reef-complex, which restricted the southward circulation of the waters from the northwest, combined with a decrease in th© rate o f subsidence in the Sweetgrass arch area, to be responsible for the increased evaporitic ratio in this area. The final stage o f Devonian sedimentation was the deposition of those sediments assigned by Aadriehuk  (1951, p.2382)  to  his post-evaporite unit. This unit is composed of th© upper few beds of the Palllser formation and equivalent strata, but i t excludes the Ixshaw formation which Andrichuk regarded as belonging to the Mississippian cycle of sedimentation. The deposition of the post-evaporite unit marked the development of stage two of the Kaskaskia sequence, figure 37 illustrates the deposition&l areas of this clastic unit with occasional areas of non-deposition  Figure 37. Isopaeh and lithofacies map of post-evaporite unit in northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains areas. (Andriehuk, 1951, p.2402)  -114-  over the Sweetgrass arch. In th© southeast, the Wyoming shelf hecaae strongly positive, supplying the clastic material for the Sappington member of the Three forks formation (see F l ure 23). The black shales introduced the MiBsissippian cycle of sedimentation* Thme shales were deposited on the post-evaporite unit throughout th© area. Over most of the area these shales and the underlying strata are in conformable contact. Along the geosyncline and in the area of the Wyoming shelf, however, this contact becomes increasingly dlsconfonaable, adding further /  evidence of activity of the tectonic elements towards the close of the Devonian period. The Mississippian sediments of the Kaskaskia sequence have been aaalyze& by Sloss (1950, pp,441-444), who presented a lithofaeles-isopach map of this group of sediments, shown in Figure 38. Unfortunately, there is no published lithofacies study of portions of these sediments similar to the work done by Andriehuk  (1951)  on the Upper Devonian. However, Figure 38  indicates the effect on »dimentation of the various tectonic elements. The isopaeh pattern makes the tectonic framework easily dlacernable. fhe evaporitic Charles formation, deposited late in the Kaskaskia sequence, resulted in an evaporitic faeles which outlines the Willlston basin and indicates the position of th© Central Montana trough, So th© west, the geosyncline,. shows greater thlcknes.es of sediments than the craton; while to the southwest, in Idaho,,, the geosyncline contains "siliceous  Figure 38. Isopach and lithofacies of Lower Mississippian (i.inderhookian, Osagian, and :Ieranecian series). Evaporite area is intended to include points at which ratio of evaporites to other non-elastics exceeds 1:10. (Sloss, 1950, p.440)  115-  argillites and  grej^acteB"  (Sloss,  1950,  p.Wf2), indicating  eugeoeyncllnal conditions. 23a© presence of coarse"conglomerates in Idaho "suggests aa orogonic source area on the west" (Sloss, 1950, p.W).  The Sweetgrass arch exhibits thinning of sediments  and, In general, coarser sediments than adjoining areas. These sediments become increasingly clastic to the northeast. However the Hississippian Kaskaskian sediments are predominantly carbonaterich and in this respect they are similar to th© Upper Devonian Kaskaskian sediments.  Cycles of Sedi^e,atation within the Ka-skaakla .Sequence Within the Kaskaskia sequence, there were three eeparate sedimentary cycles, which apparently existed throughout most or a l l of the areas two ia the Upper Devonian, and one in the Mississlppian. She first cycle corresponds to the lower limestone unit of Andriehuk (1951), the seeond cycle includes the dolonite-evaporite unit and the post-evaporite unit of Andriehuk (195}5, while the third aad final cycle commenced with the deposition of the Ixshaw shale and equivalent strata, and was terminated by Kaskaskian erosion. Within these three cycles, many authors have noted various types of sedimentary—sometines interformational, and sometimes intraf0mational. Authors who have written or remarked on this subject includes Andriehuk (I953), Deales  (1950), and deWit and McLaren (1950). The  -116-  cycles within  the  further i n this  whether  o f large  tectonic  Kaskaskia  sequence w i l l not "be d i s c u s s e d  t h e s i s except to mention or small  magnitude, they  control—the smaller  indicating  the  probability  reflect  intraformational  a " p u l s a t i o n " movement  in  some s o r t o f  cycles  the t e c t o n i c  that,  possibly  framework.  MrmmM,Mmx&%m Westward ffalimlafi of Kaakaskian Sedl.men.tg Data presented by Grabb  (1951,  p.28) regarding the  thickness of the Kaskaskian strata i n the Slko, B r i t i s h Columbia, area, i f correct, strongly alters the isopach interpretation of these sediments aa presented i n various illustrations throughout the chapter. Crabb gave tlie thickness of the Rundle and Banff formations as  4,985  feet aad  1,070 feet respectively in the  Crowsnest Pass, while the same formations have respective thicknesses of  2,555  and  580  feet at Elko, approximately 24 miles  southwest of tlie Crowsnest Pass. The base of the Devonian is obscured at both localities but Crabb intimated a similar thinning of the Devonian sediments between theBe localities. If this data i s correct, i t may indicate one of two tectonic features in this area during the Kaskaskia sequence: 1)  It may indicate the western limit to the geosynclinal unit, which might also be indicated by the Jefferson (?) and Wardner formations to the northwest.  -117-  2) It nay Indicate a persistence of a submerged but dominantly positive "Hontania" area within the geoeynclinal unit* further data supporting the theory of shallow submergence and perhaps neighboring emergence of this area during th® Kaskaskia sequence is found in the Alexo formation, which, as previously described, becomes more predominantly clastic in the Elko area than In the Crowsnest Pass*  -113-  Chapter VII  ABSAHOKA smimim  The last Paleosolc sedimentary sequence, the Absaroka, Is net so well substantiated by actual data as are the previous three sequences. As defined by Sloss (1950, p.451), the Absaroka sequence commenced during Upper Mississippian tie© and continued u n t i l "post-Triassic, pre-Middle Jurassic tine" when i t was closed by a major period of u p l i f t and erosion. Ihls period of erosion removed the Absarokan sediments, where such were deposited, from most of the area. However, strata which may be assigned to the Absaroka sequence are present in the front. range of the Rocky Mountains, south of the central portion of the area, and adjoinin,-; the southeastern comer of the area.  Ca»d,jan g > r a t f e « t e of the Absaroka Sedlnentft r  Two formations which outcrop i n the front ranee of the Rocky Mountains are assigned to the Absaroka sequence.. These are: 1) the Rocky Mountain formation which is the uppermost Paleozoic formation in that area; 2) the Spray River (?) formation which probably represents lower and Middle (?) f r i a s s i c sedimentation in the area. fheee two formations are described and discussed in the sections following.  •119.  Bocky  Mountain fprmatHfhe Hocky Mountain formation, as i t occurs in tae Crows-  nest Pass, has been briefly described as follows (Beales, 1 9 5 0 , Table  after Warren, 1 9 3 3 ) J  1,  350 to 800 feet Grey or buff dolomites, sandstones, or sandy dolomites, with chert nodules; a few quartaiteo, and a thin layer of nodular phosphate in the top beds. The formation thins to the east and thickens to the wests no break was apparent with the underlying Bundle formation. This formation as it occurs near Elko, British Columbia, southwest of the Crowsnest Pass,  is  described by Crabb  (1951,  pp.27,  28) as "a series of light-grey, fine-grained, huff and brown weathering, calcareous quartaites, chert, dolomites and. limestones, measuring 530 feet in thickness." Thin-section studies by Crabb  (1951)  showed the calcareous quartzite to be  composed  of approxi-  mately 20$ detrital quartz and chert—"the remainder being very fine dolomite and calcite." lorth of the Crowsnest Pass in the Mount Head area, Douglas  (1953, p.75)  subdivided the Hocky Mountain formation into  two units and described the formation in the following manner: Thickness  Peet  Overlying beds—Triaseic Spray Hiver formation in outcrop sections and Jurassic Pernie group in Plat Creek well, Mountain formation Upper part 'Arenaceous, granular dolomite; sandstone and massive chert  Becky  45  -120-  Etherington Member Upper part Arenaceous, granular dolomite, partly cherty; finely crystalline dolomite Middle part Arenaceous, granular limestone, partly cherty; medium-crystalline limestone; medium-crystalline porous dolomite Lower part Green shale and finely crystalline limestone and dolomite  130  60  100  In flat Creek well the Fernle group lies in contact with middle and lower parts in successive fault slices. The Rocky Mountain-Bundle contact has been described by Crabb (1951, pp.2?, 3D, Warren (192?, p.3*0, and Beales (1950, p.45) as conformable. Beales  (1950,  p.?l) referred to this contact as  "In places arbitrary", inferring gradation in lithology, while Douglas  (1950)  described the lower member of the Rocky Mountain  formation as Member D of the underlying Rundle formation. However, Webb  (1951. p.23C5)  and Fox  (1953, p.197) stated that  the Rocky  Mountain-Bundle contact was disco:: f omable, although they gave neither references nor evidence for their statement. The Rocky Mountain-Spray River (?) contact has been described as conformable in the Crowsnest Pass area by Warren  (1927, p.34) and nest Pass by Crabb  (1932, ?.16B), and south of the Crows(1951. P«33). Horth of the Crowsnest P a s s ,  MacKay  an unconformity, between the Rocky Mountain formation and the Spray River formation lias been described In the Livingston© range  -121-  by Douglas  (1950,  p.39).  p. 19), aad near Banff by Wan-en (1927,  It appear® that a dleconformity developed between the Paleoaoie and Mesozole sediments in the geosynclinal areas north of the Crowsnest Pass. A point of interest is an unconformity within the Rocky Mountain formation. .'Douglas (1950, p. 16) described the contact between his Member D of th® Bundle formation and. the overlying "Rocky Mountain formation" as an angular unconformity and provided a photograph as evidence. Later, however, Douglas (1953, p.68) considered his Member D to be the basal member of the Socky Mountain formation. Therefore, the unconformity trust now be considered as occurring within the Rocky Mountain formation*  Since  such an unconformity has aot been reported in adjolnin areas,it may be regarded at present a® of only local significance. The descriptions of Member D, basal Rocky Mountain formation, and the underlying Member C of the Rundle formation (Bouglas, 1950, p.16) would seen to indicate a gradational contact. This brings. Douglas1  (1950)  description of the Hocky Mountain-Rundle contact into agree-  ment with the authors previously quoted,. Perhaps the original report by Douglas (1950) of an unconformity between the Rundle and Rocky Mountain formations, now proven to be within th© Rocky Mountain formation, was the reason Webb  (1951)  and Pox  (1953)  referred to this contact as disconforraable. The Rocky Mountain format ion was assigned by various authors to a pennsylvaalan or Permian age (Wheeler, 1942,  p.1839).  -122-  Wheeler (1942, p«1839) identified & collection of selachian teeth from phoephatic horizons which occur ia the upper part of th© formation (Fox, 1953» p.196). as ltollcoorlca cf. H. ferrlerl (Bay). Oa the oasis of this identification, lie assigned the Hocky Mountain formation "to the Guadalupian series of the Permian system." However, Crabb (1951, p.2?) collected, specimens of Splyifer rcckyaontaua (?) Marcou indicative of a Peansylvaalan age from the basal strata of the formation. Warren (194?, p.1238) subdivided the Hocky Mountain formation into a lower and an upper member. The lower member, he -considered to be "probably of Peansylvaalan age" while the upper member lie considered to he probably Permian in age. These age determinations seem to satisfy the present paleontologieal evidence. Therefore, the locky Mountain formation is lierein considered to be of Permo-Pennsylvanian age.  Spray Elver (?) FQr^tion The Spray Elver (?) formation Is the name given to a group of somewhat elastic sediments overlying the Hocky Mountain formation aad underlying Jurassic sediments in the Rocky Mountains of southern Alberta*  The Spray liver .nam© is applied with reserva-  tion to the Triassic sediments of the southern Alberta mountains, since the ©met relationship of the southern occurrences with the Spray River type section near Banff has not-been determined.  -123-  The Sp*ay Elver (?) formation as It occurs i n the Crowsnest Pane was described by HacKay (1932, p.163) i n the following manner*  Overlying th© Hocky Mountain Quartzite i n tlie Crowsnest section i s a thickness of 350 feet of massive, brownish, sandy quartsitec and t h i n , shaly sandetones. These beds are devoid of fossils and their age i s doubtf u l , ?hey d i f f e r i n l i t h o l o g l c a l character from the underlying quartsltes, but l i e conformably upon then with no appearance of aa eroeional contact* Oa their l i t h o l o g l c a l resemblance to beds i n the Spray formation of Banff area and their similar stratigraphic position, they are for the present correlated with then. . . . Warren (1933* p.157) quoted Telfer as giving a probable thickness for the Spray Elver (?) formation i n the Lizard Range, west of Femie, B r i t i s h Columbia, of 1700 feet (see Telfer, 1933, P.5?2)-# this thickness i s questioned i n this thesis since the writer has observed nuaerous thrust faults within the Lisard Range and i s inclined, therefore, to regard Telfer's thickness of the formation as due to repetition by thrust faulting. The thickness i s also questioned since i t appears incongruous with the thicknesses of the formation near the Crowsnest Pass and near the 49° p a r a l l e l , given by f e l f e r (1933» pp.568, 572)  as 450  and 300 feet, respect-  ively. Hear the 49° parallel and west of the Flathead River,  Crabb 8  (1951, p.33) described the Spray River (?) formation as  roughly 400 feet of uafeaslliferoue, thin-bedded, reddish  weathering, shaly sandstones8 overlying the Reeky Mountain formation "with apparent conformable relationship,"  He mentioned  •124th® presence of "poorly preserved and unidentifiable ammoaites" ia the formation*  Fox (1953, P.199) mentioned the presence of  ammonites la the- Spray Elver formation which are regarded as Lower and perhaps Middle Triassic ia age. It would, seem, therefore, that th© somewhat clastic sediments overlying the Rocky Mountain formation in the area are tho southern equivalent of the Spray liver formation. She age of this Spray Elver (?) formation is probably Lower and Middle (?) Triassic. The Hock;.- Mountain-Spray liver contact has previously been described as conformable in Canadian areas south of the Crowsnest Pass, becoming dis conformable north of the Crowsnest Pass. The contact of the Spray River (?) formation with the overlying Jurassic Feral© formation has been termed disconformable by Webb MacKay  (1951. P.2300) and Fox (1953, p.199). However,  (1932,  p.l6B)  examined the Spray  River  (?)-Ferate (Jurassic)  contact in the Crowsnest Pass and described the Spray liver beds aa .merging "imperceptibly"  into  the basal phoaphatic beds of the  Feraie, If this observation la correct, then i t implies that Upper Triassic sediments are present ia this locality and that deposition was more or less continuous from Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic  Montana Stratigraphy of the Absaroka Sequence As has been previously stated, most of the sediments ia Montana which belong to the Absaroka sequence are to be found south and  southeast of the  area. However, since these sediments  •125-  must lb© considered l a interpret ing the events of the Absaroka sequence within the area, they are hers b r i e f l y described.  This group is conposed of four formations which are, chronologically: tho Charles, tlie Libbey, the Otter, and the Heath formations* The general lithology aad eoatward development of the Big Snowy group are illustrated in Figure 33 (see Chapter Tl), while the areal relationship' of tlie group to the area is shorn in the fence graph, Figure 30 (see Chapter Tl), The Charles formation woo discussed in Chapter ¥1 as it represents the uppermost Easltasltia sedimente* Srief descriptions o f th© other formations of the group are- presented below (abstracts from Perry and Sloss,  194-3,  pp. 1297-99h  Kffibey lloj^t.i^Qjtu In outcrop the Kibbey formation is dull, brick-red, dolomitic, shaly sandstone, devoid of fossils, and locally containing beds of gypsum.... fhe Kibbey rests discoaformably on ths Mission Canyon limestone (Madison), filling channels and solution cavities, some of which may be 300 feet beneath the top of the limestone.... Where the Charles formation is present the br.se of the Kibbey is not easily defined, because a gradational transition is present from the anhydritic limestone of the Charles into the sandy beds of tlie Kibbey. Otter, ypjrpatloa: la outcrop the Otter formation is characterised by v i v i d green shales, intercalated with gray shales and fosslllferous- oolitic limestones. In the subsurface th© green shales can not be traced far east of the Big Snowy Mountains, being replaced by variegated and red shales,.,.  -126-  geath Formation; la outcrop the leattt le characterized by aa abundance of black, fissile, conodont-bearlag shales, intercalated with gray shales, massive brownish sandstones containing plant fragmentc and commonly cross-bedded, and minor gray limestones. The age of the Big Snowy group is considered to be Late Mississlppiaa—in part, Pennsylvania!! (Brown, 1952, ;•>.?).  The  Klbbey formation is the basal member of th© Absaroka sequence in Montana.  Amsden Formatloft The usage of the term "Amsden formation" underwent several changes until Perry and Sloss (1943, p.1293) clarified the literature by using the name "Amsden" to apply specifically to the shaly, In part carbonate-rich strata, bearing Chesterian fauna, overlapping and resting with "angular unconformity" on the Big Snowy group, and conformably underlying the Perms: lvanian Quadrant formation. The stratigraphic position, relationship and lithology of the Amsden formation are illustrated in Figure 33 (see Chapter TI).  quadrant Formation The Quadrant formation (Perry, 1937. P.15) consists of a series of buff-to-cream colored, In part calcareous sandstones and quartz!tes. The formation is la general unfosciliferous; however, foraminifera (Fusllina). of Pennsylvenlan age, have been collected.from i t ,  Th© basal part of the formation contains  -12?.  cross-bedding which Perry tive of to  eolian  (1937, p.15)  considered to "be Indica-  origin*  Phyghoria, P o ^ t i p n fhe distribution of th© Phosphoria fonaatioa is Halted to southwestern aad southern Montana. The formation ie described by Clapp  (1932, p.21)  as "cherty phosphatic limestone, grey,  quartsite, and red shales" resting conformably on the c^ua&rant formation. The Phosphoria formation Is regarded as Permian ia age. The lithology and stratigraphic position of this formation show a marked similarity to the upper, often phosphatic, zone of the Hocky Mountain formation, as described by Teller  (1933, Pp.  5^9-572). phu^water .(Spearfjgh,), for^ti,oa The terms "Chugwater and "Spearfish" are used for the game strata in southern Montana and th© Black Hills, Horth Dakota, respectively. • The Chugwater (Spearfish) formation is described by Perry  (1937$  P. 15) ia the following manner:  The Chugwater (Spearfish) beds are conspicuous because of the bright to dark red sand;," ©hale and sandstone which contrast sharply with the brown and gray color of associated strata. The Chugwater (Spearfish) can be traced readily by its flaming Shade Of red. Pure granular gypsum occurs near the top of the formation in a bed 5 to 40 feet thick, aad gypsum seams and veinlets streak through the lower part of the formation. ,Green shales a few feet thick may be interbedded'with the normal red sediments near th© top or bottom.  -128-  fh© Fhosphoria-Clnigwate r (Spearfish) contact la referred, to "by Slog® (1950,. P-,448) as "apparently conformable,*  Car.re.AaUa". of A'toftMto M M t a Correlation of Absarokan sediments is difficult because of limited areal distribution and a generally low fossil content. However, correlation of the southwestern Alberfca section with the Montana section has been made on the basis of published information from which the writer has drown hi® own conclusions, fhe correlation of these two sections is illustrated in figure 39, with a discussion of this correlation presented in the following paragraphs. fhe Hocky Mountain formation occupies the sane stratigraphic interval as the combined Kibbey, Otter, Heath, Amsden, Quadrant and Phosphoria formations in Montana, shown in Figure 39. However, while the Hocky Mountain formation is of Permo-Pennsylvanian age, the Montana section is Chesterian (Upper Mississippian)—Per : 0 ~ Peansylvanian. In the previous discussion, i t was shown that the upper part of the Hocky Mountain formation carries a similar fauna to the Phosphoria formation, while the lower part of the Hocky Mountain formation carries a Pennsylvania^ fauna, as does the Quadrant formation. However, ther© is no zone reported at the base of th© Hocky Mountain formation which carries a Chesterian fauna similar to th© Amsden, Heath, Otter and Kibbey sections in Montana, although the Opper Handle ,of the Kaskaskia sequence carries some Chestexian corals (f.J. Okulitch - personal communication).  -129-  Th© possibility that certain. Mlsslsslppian organisms managed to survive the interval of c l a s t i c sedimentation (Kibbey formation) which accompanied stage four of the Kaskaskia sequence and, with the return of more stable water conditions, persisted through Amsden deposition., has been discussed previously i n Chapter TI. Perhaps a more obvious solution might simply he that stage one of the Absaroka sequence commenced later i n the west than i n the southeast. If this were the ease, however, the Kaskaskia deposition must have continued for a longer period i n the west than in the southeast, sine© th© Bundle-Rocky Mountain contact is conformable. Both p o s s i b i l i t i e s seem to satisfy the Rocky Mountain-Fhosphoria, Quadrant, Amsden, Heath, Otter, Xibooy stratigraphie correlation. The correlation and age representation of the Big Snowy, Amsden and Quadrant strata, as presented by Brown (1952, p.76) and shown in Figure 31 (Chapter TI), are here considered to be questionable. The definition of the Amsden formation as redefined by Perry and Sloss (I943, p.1293) required that use of this name be restricted to the strata bearing a Chesterton fauna, a l l Pennaylvanian strata being assigned to the Quadrant formation. This obviously necessitates placing the Big Snowy group completely within the MisKissippian. It i s also probable that the term "Quadrant" should be restricted more to the  -130-  Pennsylvanian strata, with th© Permian ag© "being reserved for the Phosphoria aad equivalent strata. The Spray liver (?) formation is correlated with the Chugwater (Spearfish) formation of Montana, Both occupy the same stratigraphic interval (see figure 39) and. "both are Triasslc in age. Although the exact, age range of either formation is not clear, the contact between them and the underlying Persian strata is conformable in southwestern Alberta and in Montana. Therefore, the age of the Spray River (?) and Chugwater (Spearfish) formations'raay be assumed to be in part Lower Triassic.  Distribution.. Thickness, .and lithofacies of the. Absaroka ..Sediments A series of isopaeh-lithofacies naps for the Paleozoic portion of the Absaroka sediments in Montana and adjoining areas  were presented by Sloss  (1950, pp.W4-450)#  These maps, in con-  junction with various other isopach maps of these sedineate, can be used to gain an understanding of the regional features of  Absarokan sedimentation. The lithofacies study of the Kibbey, Otter, Heath and  Amsden formations is presented i n Figure 40, It Illustrates a general condition of carbonate-rich, somewhat clastic sedimentation i n the geosyncline, Central Montana trough and Williston  basin, thereby indicating differentiation of the tectonic elements early in the Absaroka sequence• In central Idaho, a thick section  Figure  40.  iBopach and l i t h o f a c i e s of Upper M i s e i s s i p p i a n  (Chesteriaa)  (Sloss,  195<-.P«443)  -131,  of typical ©ugeosynclinal sediments was deposited (Sloss, 1950, p.4'4-5). Figure 41 indicates tae distribution and thicimece of the Big Snowy group, and also indicates the presence of Chestertan sediments near the Alberta-SaekatcJiewan-Montana "border, fhe presence of this outlier of Big Snowy strata implies that th© southern part of the Sweetgrass arch received sediments for at least a portion of the Absaroka sequence. fhe Peansylvaaian (presumably Quadrant) sediments are represented in Figure 42, while Permian (presumably Phosphoria) sediments are represented i n Figure 43. Both figures show the distribution of carbonate-rich elastics in the geosyncline, the Central Montana trough, and over the Wyoming shelf, fhe Sweetgrass arch, however, lacks these sediments. In central Idaho, eugeosyaclinal deposition continued after Upper Mieslaeippiaa time (Sloss, 1950, pp.447-448) and eventually the Permian eugeosyncline was partially closed by vuleaalsm. Ho lithofacies nape are available for the Permo-Penn-  sylvanian (Kocky Mountain formation) sediments of th© Canadian geosyncline*  However, Figure 44 shows the distribution aad  thickness of these sediments. fhe distribution aad thickness of the Triassic (Spray l i v e r formation) sediments are shown in Figure 45. Ho l i t h o facies map is available for the Triassic sediments of Montana, whose distribution i s limited and patchy.  figure -1.  Isopach of ; i . , Snowy . ro ip showin P a l e o z o i c and e a r l y Mesozoic e r o s i o n .  d i s t r i b u t i o n and thicl-aiess subsequent (Perry and S l o s s , 1943, p.12:59)  to  late  -132  Figure 44. Present distribution and isopachs of PemoPennBylvanian. (Webb, 1951, P.2306)  There is considerable evidence of southward thinning of the Rocky Mountain and Spray River (?) formations in the area north of ancient Hontania. Crabb  (1951* P.28)  gave the thickness  of the Rocky Mountain and Spray River (?) formations as  1,100  feet and 350 feet, respectively, at the Crowsnest Pass. Twenty-four miles to the southwest at Elko, British Columbia, the Rocky ?-!ountai:i formation is 532 feet thick (Crabb, 1951. P.28). The thickness of  -133'  Fi, ;uro 4 5 . Present distribution and isopachs of Triassic System. (Webb, 1951, P.2307)  tlie Spray River (?) formation in the Lizard Range, which is immediately north of Elko, British Columbia, lias already been discussed. To the southeast of Elko, in the Flathead valley, Crabb (1951, P»33) noted the _ rcsence of 4 0 feet of Spray River (?) strata which diminished to 300 feet at the 49° parallel (Telfer, 1933, P.572).  The thickness of Rocky Mountain strata  south of the Crowsnest Pass beco'iec increasingly less to the  south, until it is: only 100 feet thick (Crabb, 1951, p.32) near the Flathead Biver at the 49° parallel. This data may indicate an ancestoral Montonla s t i l l exerting positive tendencies through Perfflo-Peaasylvanlaa and Triassic time. However, there is at present insufficient evidence to reach a definite conclusion regarding this late Paleozoic—early Mesozoic "Montania."  Tectonic fir*a,t« of, tfre. Ahftarpka .Saa^enca As previously Indicated, evidence relating to the events of the Absaroka sequence has been partially destroyed by a strenuous period of erosion representing stage four of the sequence. However, where a complete stratigraphic section of post-Kasi^askian --pre-Jurassic sediments has been preserved, there Is no evidence of a major regional dlsconformity within these sediments. It would seem probable, therefore, that the definition of the Absaroka sequence by Sloss (1950, p.451) is correct and that one, and only one, major sedimentary sequence occurred in poet-Kasl:askian~preJurassic time. Boxing stage four of the Kaskaskia sequence, the seas had withdrawn to the geosyncline and the axial area of the Willis;to basin, with the remainder of the area suffering erosion. The commencement of the Absaroka sequence saw the transgression of the seas over part of the erosional surface. Figure 41 indicates that the overlapping Absarokan seas covered at least the southern portion of the Sweetgrass arch, It is probable, however, that the  Figure 46. Post-Paleozoic — pre-Iesozoic paleogeo,;,rapliy and structure. (Perry and S l o s s , 1943, pp.1290-91)  -135-  geosyncline aad  the W i l l l s t o n basin at least p a r t i a l l y retained  their negative tendency from Late ICaskaskiaa to Absarokan time, - while the Central Montana trough and the Sweetgrass a r c h became defined very early i n the Absaroka sequence.  I t appears, then,  that stage one, the transgression of the seas, and stage two, the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the tectonic elements, occurred almost simultaneously very early In th© Absaroka sequence.  During  stage three, th® culmination of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of th© tectonic elements, the Sweetgrass arch became the dominant feature and was strongly p o s i t i v e ; the geosyncline was a r e s t r i c t e d narrow, shallow basin, and the Central Montana trough remained shallow with the seas onlapping over the Wyoming shelf to the south.  Stage four, the erosional stage, resulted i n widespread,  deep erosion of the entire area. The resulting unconformity between Jurassic s t r a t a and Hississippian s t r a t a In southern A l b e r t a , and Upper Devonian s t r a t a In east-central Alberta i s a dominant sedimentary feature l a Alberta and Montana, 'figure 46 i l l u s t r a t e s diagrammatically the surface and subsurface geology of the area p r i o r to Mesosoic sedimentation.  Since the distri-  bution of Triassic sediment is very restricted. Figure 46 represents  e s s e n t i a l l y the. geology of the area at the end of  the Absaroka sequence,, prior to Jurassic sedimentation.  -136-  Chapter T i l l  smuxi This summary Indicates the main Geological events and  problems of the pre-Jurassic sedimentation, teetonism, and s t r a t i graphy of southern Alberta and adjoining areas of B r i t i s h Columbia aad Montana*  Conclusions to some of the problems and possible  solutions for. others which have been discussed i n the thesis are  stated*  Io attempt i s made to summarise the complete sequence of  pre-Jurassic geological events which occurred i n the area, The Belt series contains the oldest known strata to outcrop i n the area. The series i s subdivided regionally into six facies, the Glacier Park facies being defined for tlie purposes of this thesis as th© type section. The various s t r a t i graphic units of the facies are defined and their type localities stated. In addition, two basal formations of the Purcell facies, the Port Steele and the Aldridge, are described, as both formations are stratigraphically lower than any outcropping formation of the Glacier Park facie®. The lithologlcal changes within the Belt  series are gradational, both l a t e r a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y , indicating  that the Belt series i s a unified stratigraphic d i v i s i o n . Bolt ian and Llpalian paleogeography i s described. Three tectonic elements—the geosyncline, the ancestoral "Central  Montana trough"and Montania—are shown to have been functional  •137-  duriag Beltiaa sedimentation.  Tiie  cloee  of Beltiaa sedimentation  was caused by orogeny, which introduced the Lipalian i n t e r v a l .  As  tills orogeny built the Helena Mountains in the area and the aaeestoral Purcell Mountains west of the area, coarse elastics were deposited unconformably oa the Purcell series northwest of th© area. While  these  sediments (the Windermere series) ar© not  described i n detail, their stratigraphic and time relationship to sediments within the area are indicated. A resume» of the tectonic and sedimentary events of the Paleozoic era which occurred in the area is presented,  The tec-  tonic framework upon which Paleozoic sediments were r> ceiveC was principally Inherited from Beltlan time. The nature and interrelationship of the various members of this tectonic framework governed Paleozoic sedimentation i a the area. During the Paleosoic era, four' great sedimentary sequences—the Sauk, the Tippecanoe, the Kaskaskia and the Absaroka—developed, each sequence representing a four-stage dope*itions! cycle.  The  four sedimentary sequences are shown to be the result of a recurring sequence of tectonic events, Th©  Sauk sequence, the  f i r s t of the four Paleozoic  sedimentary sequences, commenced during tower Gaiabriaa and continued until  Lower Ordovician  time. The erosional stage of the sequence  removed most of the Upper Cambrian and some Middle Cambrian strata from the area. The distribution of Cambrian strata after Sauk erosion revealed that the tectonic elements which controlled  -130-  sedimentatlor. daring Beltlan deposition had indeed been inherited by th©  Paleozoic e r a . Montania was indicated as a dominant fea-  ture influencing Cambrian sedimentation in the area. Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia is defined as the t,,pe l o c a l i t y f o r the Lower Cambrian strata within the area.  A  correlation of the southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia section with the well-known Kicking Horse Pass section Is presented together  with a discussion of the age of the Olensllus-Bonnla zone. A very  late Lower Cambrian age was accepted f o r the zone, establish-  ing the  Eager formation of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia, which  contains the zone, as the uppermost Lower Cambrian formation of the area. The  Middle Cambrian type l o c a l i t y f o r the area i s  chosen ae northwestern Montana.  The stratigraphic units of this  section are defined and a faunal l i s t f o r th© various formations appended.  The controversial Burton formation and the overlying  Elko formation of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia are escribed. The basal member of the Burton formation, which had been assigned a lower Cambrian (?) age, i s assigned to the Middle Cambrian as a probable stratigraphic equivalent of the basal Middle Cambrian Flathead sandstone.  An accompanying correlation  chart indicates  the Middle Cambrian sections-within and beyond the area. Bpper Cambrian s t r a t a are believed to be missing i n the area, although  their presence i n adjoining areas 3ias been d e f i n i t e l y  -139-  establlshod. The lack of tiiese sediments Is attributed to Sauk erosion of the greater Sweetgrass arch area. The second Paleozoic sequence, the Tippecanoe (as defined by Sloss j 1950), occupied the post-Canbriaii--pre-3>evonian Interval. This thesis suggests that the upper limit of the Tippecanoe be placed at the late Middle to early Upper Devonian erosional surface. Sediments on the craton which may be assigned to this interval have, in general, not been assigned definite age limits. These sediments are introduced and described, /  The Ilk Point formation, which is limited to the northeastern portion of the area, is described and the' problem of its age discussed. The Ghost liver formation, which has a very limited distribution in the north-central part of the area, is also discussed. Prom regional studies, the Ghost River formation appears to be the stratigraphic and time equivalent of some portion of the upper part of the Elk Point,-probably some portion a short distance below the upper massive beds of the Elk Point, The correlation of the Ghost River formation with the lowermost Upper Devonian strata of northwestern Montana, Unit C, is established.' A discussion of the relationship of the basal Elk Point, • Ghost River, and Unit C to the basal Devonian unit of central and eastern Montana shows these units to be stratigraphically related; their relative stratigraphic positions transgressing time,-being, older in the north and west than in the southeast.-'  -140-  Saveral theories are presented regarding teetonism durir,'-; that portion of Paleozoic time assigned to tho Tippecanoe sequence. The major differences between these theories are indicated and a unifying theory of events presented which draws the preceding  theories into closer agreement* The Kaakaskia sequence, third of the Paleozoic sequences, occupied Upper Devonian and Mississippian tine in th© western part of the area but was apparently terminated in pre-Upper Mississippian time in the eastern part of the area.. More detailed information regarding stratigraphy and sedimentation is a v a i l a b l e for the Kaskaskla sequence than for any other Paleozoic sequence. The Kaskaskian stratigraphic section as I t occurs in southwestern Alberta is correlated with sections within and beyond tlie area* The Crowsnest Pass area i s designated aa the type locality for the Upper Devonian formations of the a r e a .  Historical  de elopnent of the Upper Devonian nomenclature is graphically illustrated and each stratigraphic unit defined and described. The Alexo formation i s discussed wi'h p a r t i c u l a r reference to  the proper correlation of this formation with its equivalent of th© plains. Special a t t e n t i o n is given to the problems of the age  and stratigraphic p o s i t i o n of the Kxsliaw formation. Stratlgraphically, the Eacshaw belongs to the Mississippian sedimentary c y c l e , w h i l e , paleont©logically, the Exshaw has been assigned to the Upper Devonian age,. More recent studies suggest a possible  Misslssippian age, though the formation continues to he regarded as Upper Devonian at present. A possible ezplanatioa is outlined for the origin of the black shalos of which the Exshaw is comprised, fhe unconformity at the base of the Exshaw is not considered to represent a regional break in sedimentation. Since the Exsiiaw ©hale does not introduce a new regional sedimentary sequence but morel.: the commencement of a cycle within the Kaskaskia sequence, the relative significance of the problems presented by the Exshaw have boen overemphasized in the past. She type section for the Mississipplan strata of the Kaskaskia sequence within th© area is defined as the area north of the Crowsnest Pass la the front range of the Hocky Mountains. She Hississippian stratigraphic units are described as they occur at this locality. The historical development of the nomenclature of these sediments is illustrated graphically, and a recent revision of the nomenclature of the Bundle formation (by Douglas, 1953) introduced, Sh© Charles formation, the uppermost member of the Kaskaskia sequence in the eastern portion of the area, is described. While this formation does not have & stratigraphic equivalent in the western portion of the area, it is shown to be equivalent i n time to part of the upper Bundle formation. The tectonic ©vents and the effeet of these events upon Kaskaskian sedimentation are outlined and discussed. Several lithofacies maps are introduced for portions of the Kaskaskian  section.  Two  explanations f o r the apparent age variation of the  &wkasklaa erosional surface are considered. Evidence i s presented suggesting the existence of a positive-tending area i n the v i c i n i t y of ancient Montania.  This evidence i s considered to  he i n d i c a t i v e , hut not conclusive. The Absaroka sequences, occupied tower Jurassic  sequence, the last of tlie Paleozoic  the i n t e r v a l from Upper Mississippian to pre-  t i n e . Within the area, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e d i -  ments belonging to this sequence i s limited to the northwest.  The  Absaroka section, a© i t occurs i n that part of the area, i s described, Absarokan sections south aad southeast of the area are also described, and are  correlated with the southern Alberta sec-  tion. It i s shown that no major regional  break occurred i n  th© sedimentation of the Absaroka sequence,. The end of tlie Paleozoic era was not, therefore, a major regional event i n the area. Disconf omit lea between various horizon© i n  the Kaskaskian sedi-  ments were of purely l o c a l significance. The erosional period which ended the Absaroka sequence was a major geological event i n western Canada. The erosion was very a c t i v e , stripping  o f f tlie Absaroka sediments and part of tlie  Upper Mississippian strata from much of the area.. The result was a major unconformity between sediments of the Paleozoic sequences  and the overlying Jurassic sedinente.  -143-  BISLIOGHaPHT  Andriehuk,  3.11, (1951): Regional Stratigraphic Analysis of Devonian System in Wyoming, Montana, Southern Saskatchewan and Albertaj Bull, Aner. Assoc. Patrol. Geol., vol. 35, no. 11 pp. 2368-2408,  Bauerraan, H. (1885): Report on the Geology of the Country near the Forty-ninth Parallel of Worth latitude West of the Rocky Mountains, froa Observations made in 1859-61; Geol. Surv., Canada, Rept. Prog. 1882-83-84, pt. B, pp. 1-41. Beach, H.H. (1943)t Moos® Mountain and Morlay Map-Areas, Alberta; G-eol. Surv., Canada, Mom. 236. Beales, F.W. (1950): late Paleozoic Formations of Southwestern Alberta; Geol. Surv., Canada, Paper 50-2?* /  Best, R.T. (1952): A Lower Cambrian Trilobite Fruna from near Cranbrook, British Columbia; MASc thesis, Univ. of British Columbia. Brown, R.A.C. (1952): Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Paleontology in the Mount Greenock Area, Alberta; G-eol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 264.  Chariton, C.G. (1949): Correlation of the Area including Eimberley, Metaline and Coeur d'Alene; MASc thesis, Univ. of British Columbia. Clapp, C.H. (1932): Geology of a portion of the Rocky Mountains of northwestern Montana; Montana Bar. Mines and Geology, Mem. 4. . and Beiss, C P . (1931): Correlation of Montana Algonkiaa Formations; B u l l . Geol. Soc. America, vol. 42, no. 3, pp.6?3-695«  Clark, L.M.. (1949): Geology of Rocky Mountain Front Ranges near Bow River, Alberta; Alberta Symposium, B u l l . Aaer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., v o l . 33, no. 4, pp. 614-633. Clow, W.H.A., and Crockford, M.I.B. (1951): Geology of Caxbondale River Area, Alberta; Research Council of Alberta, Sept. no. 59. Cooper, C.F., and Sloss, L.L. (1943): Conodont Fauna and Distribution of Lower Mississippian Black Shale in Montana and Alberta; Jour. Paleon., vol. 17, no. 2, pp.168-176.  A  -144-.  Crabb, J.J. (195D 5 •Stratigraphy and Structure of tlie Flathead Area of Southeastern Britioh Columbia} MA thesis, Univ* of British Columbia, . Crickmay, C . H , (1954): Paleoat©logical Correlation of ilk Point. and Equivalents; Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (A Symposium), Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Seol,, pp.143-158. Daly, R.A. (1912)t Geology of the lorth American Cordillera at the 49th Parallel; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 38, pt.2. Dawson, G,M. (1875): Report on th© Geology and Resources of the legion la the ficinlty of ths 49th Parallel from tha Lake, of the. Woods to the Hocky Mountains} Brit, lorth Amer. Boundary Comm.. Beiss, C. (I935)s Caabrian^Algonklan Unconformity in Western Montana} Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 46, no. 1, pp.95-124. ........  (1936)j Revision of type Cambrian Formation and Sections of Montana and Yellowstone National Park; B u l l . Geol.'Soc, America, vol. 47, no. 8, pp.1257-1342*  ........ .(1939)5 Cambrian Stratigraphy and frilobites of northwestern Montana; Geol. Soc, America, Spec, Paper 18.  (1940)i  Lower aad Middle Cambrian Stratigraphy of  Southwestern Alberta and Southeastern British Columbia; B u l l , Geol, Surv. America, vol, 51, no, 5. pp.731-794. (1941)t Cambrian Geography and Sedimentation in the Central Cordilleran Region; B u l l . Geol. Soc. America,  '  vol. 52» no. 7» pp.1005-1116.  deWit, R. (1953): Devonian Stratigraphy in the Reeky Mountains South of Bow River; Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 3rd arm. symposium, pp.105-107.  , aad McLaren, D.J. (1950)s Devonian Sections in th© Rocky Mountains Between Crowsnest Pass and Jasper, Alberta; Geol. Surv., Canada, Paper 50-23* Douglas, R.J.W. (1950)?  Callus Creek, Langford Creek and Gap  :tap-Areas, Alberta; Geol. Surv., Canada., lea. ,  255.  (1953) j Carboniferous Stratigraphy in the Southern foothills of Alberta; Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 3*d aan. symposium, pp.68-88,  -145-  Fenton, C.L., and Fenton, M.A. (1937): Belt Series of the lortii; Stratigraphy, Sedimentation, Paleontology; Bull, Geol, Soc, America, vol, 48, no, 12, pp.1873-1969.  Fox, F.G-, (1953) : Glossary of Formation lames of Southwestern r  Albsrta; Alberta Soc. Petrol. Seal., 3 & can, symposium, pp.180*212. (1954): Devonian Stratigraphy of Boeky Mountains and Foothills Between Crowsnest Pass and Athahaeka liver, Alberta, C^aadaj Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (ASymposium), Amer. Assoc. Petrol, Geol., pp.109-130.  Barker, P., Hutchinson, B.B., and McLaren, B.M. (1954) 1 The SubBevoalan Unconformity in the Sastern loeky Mountains of Canada? Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (A Symposium), Amor. Assoc. Petrol. Geol,, pp.109-130. Hume, G.S. (1932): Watartoa Lakes-Flathead Area, Alberta and British Columbia} Geol. Surv., Canada, Sums, Rept. 1932, pt. B, pp.1-20,  Kay, M,  (1951):  Mem. 48.  North American Geosyncllnee; Geol, Soc, America,  Sally, W.A. (1936): Middle aad Upper Paleozoic Formations in the Canadian Rockies (Abst.)j Geol. Soc. America, Proc. (1936), p.200.  Laudoa, L.1, (1948)1 Oeage-Meraraec Contact; Jour. Geol., vol. 56, no. 4 , pp.288-302.  Layer, B.B., et al (1949): Leduc Oil Field, Alberta, A Devonian Coral-Seef Discovery; Bull. Imer. Assoc. Petrol. G-eol., vol. 3 3 . ao. 4, pp.572-602.  Lord, C.S., Bags, CO., and Stewart, J.S. (1947): The Cordilleran legion; Geol. Surv., Canada, Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada (3rd ed.), Economic Geology Series no.l, chap. VII, pp.520-310.  MacKay, 3,1. (1932): The • Moaoaoie^Paleosoie Contact and Associated Sediments, Crowsnest District, Alberta and British Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Suram. Rapt., 1931. pt.23, pp.1-25.  McConnell, R.G. (1887)5 Report on the Geological Structure of a Portion of the Rocky Mountains, Accompanied by a Section Measured near the 51st Parallel; Geol. Surv., Canada, Ann. Sept, 2, pt, D,  -146-  Me&ehee, J.R. ( 1 9 4 9 ) : Pre-Waterways Paleozoic Stratigraphy of Alberta. Plains; Bull. Aster. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 33, ao. 4, pp.603-613.  McLaren, D.J. (1953): Summary of Devonian Stratigraphy of the Alberta Hocky Mountainsj Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 3rd ami. symposium, pp.09-104. (1954): Upper Devonian Hhynchonellid Zones in the Canadian Rocky Mountains; Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (A Symposium), Aaer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., pp. 159-181.  Horth, F.K. (1953)! Cambrian aad Ordovician of Southwestern Alberta; Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 3 r d ana. symposium, pp.89-104. Okulitch, V.J. (1949): Geology of Part of the Selkirk Mountains in the Vicinity of the Main Line of the Canadian Pacific Eailway, British Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Bull. 14. Park, CP. Jr., and Cannon, U . S . Jr., (1943)s Geology and Ore Deposits of the Metaline Quadrangle, Washington; U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 202. Perry, 13.S, (1937): Natural Gas in Montana; Montana Bur. Mines and Geol., Mem. 3 . and Sloss, L.L. ( 1 9 4 3 ) : Sig Snowy Group, Lithology and Correlation in the Northern Great Plains; Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 27, pp.1287-1304. Hasetti, P. (1951): Middle Cambrian Stratigraphy and Faunas of the Canadian Rocky Mountains; Smithsonian Misc. Collections, vol. 116, no. 5.  Rice, H.M.A.  (1937): Cranbrook Map-Area, British Coluabia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 207.  (1941): Nelson Map-Area, Sast Half, British Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 228. Russell, L.S., and Landes, H.B. (1940); Geology of the Southern Alberta Plains; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 2 2 1 . Schofield, S.J. (1915): Geology of Cranbrook Map-Area, British Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 76, ........ Unpublished Manuscript (oa the stratigraply of British Coluabia), Dept. of Geology, Univ. of British Columbia.  -14?-  Seager, O.A. (1942) t Test on Cedar Creek Anticline, Southeastern Montanai Bull, Amor. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 26, no. 5, pp.861-864. Shiraer, H.W. (1926): Upper Paleozoic Faunas of the Lalce Minnewanka Section, near Banff, Alberta; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mus. Bull. 42, pp.1-34. Sloss, L.L. (1945): Corals from the Poat-Oange Mlaeissippian of Montana; Jour, Paleon., vol. 19, no, 3, pp.309-314. (1950): Paleoaoic Sedimentation in Montana Area; Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 34, no. 3, pp.423-451. and Harahlin, R.H. (1942)t Stratigraphy and Insoluble Residues of Madison Group of Montana; Bull, haer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol, 26, pp.205-335. and Laird, ¥,M. (1947); Devonian System in Central and Northwestern Montana; Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 31, no. 8 , pp.1404-1430. Telfer, L, (1933)'• Phosphate in the Canadian Rockies; Canadian Inst, Min. Metallurgy, Trans., vol. 36, pp.566-605. Valcott, CD. (1099): Pre-Csmbrian Fossiliferous Formations; Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 10, pp.199-244. (1906): Algonkian Formations of northwestern Montana; Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 17, pp.1-28. (1923)s Nomenclature of some Post-Cambrian and Cambrian Cordilleran Formations; Smithsonian Misc. Collections, vol. 67, no. 8 , pp.457-476. Walker, J.F. (1926): Geology and Mineral .Deposits of Windermere Map-Area, British Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.148. ........ (1934)5 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Salrao MapArea, Kamloops District, British Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 172. Warren, P.S, (1927): Banff Area, Alberta; Geol, Surv., Canada, Mem. 153. " (1933): Geological Section in Crowsnest Pass, Rocky Mountains, Canada; Roy. Can. last. Trans., vol. 19, pt. 2, no. 42, pp,145-160. ........ (I937): Age of the Exshaw Shale in the Canadian Rockies; Amer. Jour. Science, 5th-ser,, vol. 33. ao,198, pp.454457.  -148-  (194?): Age and. Subdivisions of the Hocky Mountain Formation at Banff, Alberta (Abet.); Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 53. no. 12, pt. 2 , p.1233. ........  (1949)J fossil Zones of Devonian of Albertaj Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 33, no. 4 , pp.564571.  and S t e l c k , C.S. ( 1 9 5 0 ) : Succession of Devonian Faunas in Western Canada; frane. Hoy. Soc. Canada, 3rd s e r . , vol. 44, sec. 4 , pp.6l-78. Webb, J.B. (1951): Geological History of Plains of Western Canada; Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol,, vol. 35, no. 11, pp.2291-2315. Wheeler, H.I..(1942): Age of the Hocky Mountain Quartaite in Southern Alberta (Abst.); Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 53. no. 12, pt. 2, p.1839. W i l l i s , B.  (1902): S t r a t i g r a p h y and S t r u c t u r e , Lewis and L i v i n g s t o n e Ranges; B u l l . G e o l . S o c . A m e r i c a , v o l . PP.305-352.  13,  -149i  Appendix fOSSIIS OF TUB HIDD1E 0AMBRIM  The following; faunal list accompanies the description .of Middle Cambrian formations of northwestsro Montana, as prossated In Chapter IT* These fauna are described by Deles (1939) as being; present in the Middle Cambrian formations at that locality.  GORDO!! SHALS  ,  Albertella helena Walcott  Gjlossopleura beles^s (Walcott)  Mstii&Btemxs.  lochina americana (Walcott)  (walcott)  Aaorla baton (Walcott)  Ptarmliy.ia go.rdpfiensis Resser  Clavas-oldella bela (Walcott)  Strotocephalus  Blrathla candace (Walcott)  faau^aella, epnt,raeta (Walcott)  E. arias (Walcott)  Zaeantholdes cnopus Walcott  .ftgrdonenals Sesser  DAMMATIOil IIMESTOKS Aloklstocare? scapffioatensls,  Kootenia erromena Deiss  Gloesopleura alta Deiss  JC. exilamta Deiss  G, fordeasis Deiss  £ . fragills Delss  £• Inornata Deiss  I. Msm Deiss  G. minima Dels®  I, latidorsata Deiss  S> mSMk ^ i s s  I . scapeftoatensis Deiss  G, thpasoni Deiss  Sjqisnopleurella pa^odensis Deiss  Gly^haspls l a v i g Deiss  -150-  DEABJGRlf LIMESTQBE • - no fauna listed  PAGODA LBCBSTOHS "Ajcnosfcos" iiastatus Deiss  Bfananla plaalorata Bales  AaeceulialuB dlffundatus Deiss  JU sftraanufeifra, B e l s s  MVSfflfflfcuaT ru/aoaua Deiss  s. trans versa Dels®  Bolaspls /'.lobulifera Doiss  Elrataina ereeta Deiss  2.. ^raadla Deiss  1* toby^da Deiss  !• minuta Dels®  JU llckeaals Deles  B. ? uniea Deiss  1- nodulosa Deiss  «!•  Olypfaaspia delleata Iteiso  Deiss  Bwmto IfrmM »eiss  £• Pfiueleulcata Deiss  1 » previa Deiss  0. robusta Deles  ?  S. grandia Deiss JU laeonstans Deiss  Kootenia ya.rja Deiss  PIMAG-OI SHALE "Ajgap-Eitus" brgjTisp^nus Deiss  Slratnleila nltlda Deiss  "JL? robua.tus Deiss  I. • Plana Deiss E. reeta Deiss E. sulcata Deiss  Clappaspis coaeaya, »eiss  E. tenuis Deiss  £• conveaft Deiss  jjU uslsuleatft Deiss E. yaL^as Deiss  C. lichensis Deiss  cp^vgxa Deiss  -151-  wsmom s>uuas (continued) air^.thina fssaafe Deies £ . obpcara Deies  £• ojmllaaata Deiss  £ . papulata Deiss  Koote^nla, parlatiaclrieepa Deiss  £• siaicularis  K. serr&ta. (Meek)  Doles  £• ^triala -Deiss  I. cf. M S S t e (Meek)  £ . fcroipa Delss  !• stfbaaaalls Delss  Ibmanla convexa Deles  Pareteanla areuata Iteisc  E.l el,o,%;ata Deiss  £. cf. areuft,ta Delss  s. fawn  £» POnqWft 3eis®  J2.? inserta Deiss  £• PJtoflRjR. Seies  S.'perfecta Delss  P.T qaadratft, Deiss  £• pulpata Deies  £. lifiH£i Deiss  £•* ualspla&ta Deiss  BoHia g&.tedjfle* Beisg  BlrsthleUa epnvesa  Deiss  1. a e l l c a t a 'Deiss  i . erasslpratft Delss  K. ^rannlatfi Deiss  £• manifest* Boies  B. Yttl^ata Delse  STEAMBOAT HI-JESTOTIS  deartornensis  Coalaspis prima Deiss  Koehaspis  Olossocorypaus ^llffensis. Deiss  1. resserl Leles  0. typus Delss  !• •roaiia  SlgP^pls . ^ P f f w y i f t -Beise  £• t P l i (Walcott)  SL* Indenta Deiss  Mcnairla i a o m a t a Deiss  £• simllis Deiss  S2S£sa§i2is sMsaa D»1GB  £• cf. sinilie Deiss  !• Itrlata, Dels*  SW'IfCHlACl SHALE - no faana listed DEVILS &LM DOLOMITE - ao fauna listed  Deiss  (Walcott)  Figure 39. Correlation of Absarokan Formations.  Figure 2 2 . C o r r e l a t i o n Chart of Upper Devonian Formations.  FOSSIL ZONES  ROCKY MOUNTAINS  EIMONTGN AREA  (Warren,19^9) (modified)  (Warren & S t e l c k . 1 9 5 0 )  (Warren, 19J^9) (Applied s p e c i f i c a l l y to Sections 1 and 7)  (deWit & McLaren,1950)  Exsliaw Formation;  Palllser  Wahamun  Formation  -  CROWSNEST PASS  SOUTHERN PLAINS, ALBERTA  (deWit & McLaren,1950)  (deWit & McLaren,1950)  (Sloss & Laird,19/1-7)  Formation  Exshaw Formation  Exshaw Formation Costigan I^ember  C y r t o s p i r i f e r Zone  8  BANFF AREA  o  Coral Zone  Morro Memher  Exshaw Formation  o M ClJ  "Blackface / Mountain" / shale /  Alexo Formation  Costigan Member  Costigan Member  to  •3  O  Morro Member  Alexo Formation  •rt  cd  03  O  6r  Formation !  Falrholme  -  Formation  Stromatoporoid Zone  Cooking Lake Meraher B e a v e r h i l l Lake Formation  7  Ghost R i v e r Formn.tion  7  Flume Fm.  Upper Member  I o  Member  o  I •H  (Fox,1953)  Dolomite Member  "Waterways Unit B  11  CENTRAL PLAINS, AIBERTA  I  (t)  923»  CROWSNEST PASS REGION  (Fox,1953) M l a s l s a i p p l a n Formations  (Fox,1953) Exshaw Formation) Costigan Morro  Wabamun  Dolomite Member  Alexo P o t l a t c h Group  o  Winterbum  Mount Hawk  and  ft  +3  o o m  Limestone  h  *M  « »-3  Member  o o  J e f f e r s o n Group Woodbend  CO  Perdrlx  t-, V  o  6?3'  Flume  12  Three Forks Formation  equivalent  equivalent Lower Member  (Sloss & L B i r d , 1 9 4 7 )  Limestone  Formation"  Perdrix Lower  Unit A i  Unit A2  165'  Perdrlx  U  Three Forks Formatlm  Member  <  Formation  (Sloss & l a i r d , 1 9 ^ 7 )  SOUTHERN PLAINS, ALBERTA  Sappington s s , " ^ Member  103»  Mount Hawk  Member  ?  Pa  CENTRAL MQNTAIU  Exshaw Formation  4>  "POTLATCH GROUP"  Morro Member!  Alexo Formation  Upper  Formation M  THREE PORKS AREA  7  Mount Hawk S p i r i f e r Jasperenais Zone  (SlosB & Laird,1947)  10  Exshaw Formation  833' \D  NORTHWESTERN MONTANA  (revised,deWit,1953)  Exahaw Formation  Tornoceras 2one  JASPER AR-EA  1o  J^o-sal  Devonian Waterways  B e a v e r h i l l Lake  Flume  yigaare 1 2 . C o r r e l a t i o n of Middle Csinl>rlaa 8  1  2  Mt, Bosworth B.C.  Ptarmigan Poak Alberta  ( D e l s s . 19^0)  (Deisa.ig/fO)  Upper Cambrian  Upper Cambrian  Eldon dolomite  Eldon dolomite  Northwestern Montana  Nixon Gulch Montazia  (DeiBs,19^0)  (Delas.1939)  (3)eisB,19J^)  Upppr Cambrian  Upper Devonian  Upper Cambrian  Mt. A s s i n i b o l n e B.C.  Eldon dolomite  Devils Glen  Southern A l b e r t a Plaina (Huflsell & Landed) (19^)  Upper Devonian 7  1230»  unmeasured  Park  Shal e  350*  167 •  108'  Stephen  Formation "C" 236'  Formation "B"  but  Meagher  Pentagon  629'  not  27^'  Stephen  Upper Devonian  Elko  Steamboat limestone  Stephen  (S<dxo field.1915)  260-300» ; Present  Switchback Shale  *•  (Beach,19^3)  Southeastern B r i t i s h Coluinhia.  Formation "D" 1 (Ghost R i v e r Fm.)|  dolomite 1110»  Moose Htn, and Morley Areas ,Alta.  Formation  limestone  shale 215'  Formation  Formation  Formation  differentiated Formation "A"  Pagoda limestone 305'  Dearborn limestone  510'  Wolsey  1570»+  1000'+  3X3' 315'  Cathedral  ^  Mt. Whyte Formation 2851  1551  shale  Gordon shale  dolomite 1000»  620'  Ptarmigan limestone  BTxrton Fm-SQi (7)  Cathedral  Cathedral dolomite  dolomite  unmeasured  Damnation limestone  221»  Flathead sandstone  Ptarmigan  Kaiset  limestone  Formation  Mt. Whyte Formation  Gog Formation  275*  35^'  160» 94»  1235'  Flathead Sandstone  Figure 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n Chart of the B e l t S e r i e s . 2  1 Coeur d'Alene Region Callcins (1908)  3  Cahinot Range Calkins, U S G S Bull.-394 (1909)  Missffula Clapp and Delas (19-31)  Nelson Area East Rice  Sheep Mt. Correlation after  Cranhrook Area Rice (1937)  Puree11 Range Schofield  MacDonald-Gait on Ranges I3aly (1912)  m37i  sandstones, e t c .  2200  Base hidder  M i l l e r Peak Ho8./j.,5 I6y5 Hos.2,3  Not exposed S t r i p e d Peak  RoTett  550  Wallace Helena  3000 Hamlll  Roosville Mofont Nelson 3200 Batch Creek 4300  Phillips Glateway (Daly) 2025 Puree11 Slyeh  1000-2000  Total  7800  KltchenerSijreh  Kitchener  7500  6000 Creston  Crest on  Gateway  8ooq  Base hidden. 8000  Argllllte 2000 Sandstone, shales Base hidden 10,000  1000  Zf5oo  550  B e l t Mountains Walcott  (1908)  Hellgate  2025 Puree 11  310  Siyeh a r g i l l i t e 1200 Is. dol.  2000  Aldridge Aldridge 16,000?  argillite  MaeDonald Hefty  8000  800 1200 2350 775  Altyn Basa hidden.  Port Steele  650 7000+  1700  R o o s v i l l e 600 Kintla  860  Shappard  Gatev/ay  Wigwam 5000  16,000  Phillips  600  1500 Purcell  Spokane 800 Siyeh Granite Pk. 900 C, frequena 156 Goathaunt  Creston Aldridge  Roosville  Kitchener  Prltchard  Prltchard  500  Siyah a r g i l . 1000 Slyeh Is. 1000 a r g i l l i t e ,6tc. 2000  6300  6300  1000  Puree 11  Burk© 2000  P r i c k l y Pear Cr, Clapp,and Deiss (1911)  (Top not seen)  Mt.Rowe 1500  Puree11  Siyeh. Base hidden.  Missoula  4800  Spokane  Newland  1000 1200  No. 1  675  2000  Wallace  St.Regia  Blackfoot Canyon Clapp and Delas (1931)  undivided  Hellgate  10,000  JWoo  Glacier National Park Clapp (1911)  Missoula 3000  Shales,  —  G l a c i e r National Park Willis (1902)  13  7600 McKamara  S t r i p e d Peak 1000  Livingston Range Daly (1912)  12  2300  Correlation  Callcins  Glae1e r-Wat e r t on Parke Penton & Fenton  11  Garnet Range  Calkins  after  10  8  3200  C, symmetrica 900 Grinne11 R i s , B u l l 1100 Red Gap  2800  R l s . Wolf 700 Appekunny Scenic P t . 700 Appletokl 2200 Singleshot ^ 0 Altyn 900 H e l l Roaring 1300 Cart hew  Waterton  280  Kintla  860  Sheppard Purcell  M i l l e r Peak  Kintla  Sheppard 260  800'  7600  700  Upper Siyeh 1500  Mag. I s , 2000 argillite,etc, 900,  3500 Waterton  200  Spokane  Grlnnell  3600 2900  600  3000  4500 Newland  2300  Grlnnell  2000  1500 2600  800  Spokane  2200 4^00  Appekunny  Lower  ^^^^^^  1500  Greyson Base hidden.  Lower Siyeh  1800  ^00  600  Empire  Greys on Grlnnell  Altyn Upper  Slinpire  Spokane  kooo  2600 Altyn  6100 3900  Appekunny  Helena -^000  Lov^rer Siyeh  1600  800  Helena  Siyeh  Grlnnell  Appekunny  1800  800  Siyeh a r g i l l i t e 1100 Siyeh 100  1^00  Marsh  Upper Siyeh  Spokane  Lava  M i l l e r Peak  3300  Neihart 700  Appekunny 2-^00  DEPARTMENT  NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  T H E VARIATION O F T H E COMPASS JANUARY,  SERIES  OF  S H E E T 82 S.E.  SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH  Copies may be obtained from, the Map Distribution, Office, DepartmrU of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa.  NEEDLE,  Boundary international " '•  provincial or state township  "  national park  —  . — . — •—  BRITISH  —  COLUMBIA-ALBERTA  m¥i'mv''fltfffli;«.'.?.':  single track  'J^ — — — — — ——  ALTITUDE TINTSi Above 8000  lOOD  -•—i—t—i—+-  Railway: steam, double track.. Abandoned railway grade  E  J3  REFERENCE  Scale 8 miles to 1 inch or 1: 506,880 Miles B  6  4  2  0  8  It  Compikd. drawn and printed at the office of the SURVEYOR GENERAL AND CHIEF. HYDROCRAPHIC SERVICE, Ottawa, 1938. Reprinted wUh corrections at the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Ottawa, 1950.  2000 Datum is mean ebh level.  24  32 Miles  Main highways with route numbers.... Secondary roads Marsh or swamp  Tji-^-  Nen'tiermanent lake Glacier Cities and large towns 7 he variahnn of the camfia^s needle at anv fllace alang a dotted line i.s the vartation given on that dotted line. At other places the variation IS Mmeen those given on the neighbouring dotted lines; thus at the place tnarked A. because it is hal/wav between the two dotted lines marked 21 E. and 22'E., the variation is 21'30'east of true north. The variation of the compass needle is decreasing3 minutes annually.  Towns and villages. Mine. Height in feet Lookout tower Ranger cabin  C]  NOTE: Grid sauares may be drawn on this map by joining the corresponding divisions shown along the outer border. The even number of the squares are given along tlie outer border.  0..0 « 3000 J w«'A telel>hone,„,T..t £ with telephone £ NOTE:  The areas accurately mapped and contoured shown thus Price 25 cents  On the above index the sheets published are shown tinted in colour.  SHEET 82  

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