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Correlation of the area including Kimberly, Metaline and Coeur d'Alene Cheriton, Camon Glenn 1949

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CORRELATION of the area INCLUDING KIMBERLEY, METALIHE AND COEUR D'ALENE by  Camon Glenn C h e r i t o n  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF. GEOLOGY AND GEOGR/PHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL  1949  SUMMARY Within the area under consideration there are two great series of s t r a t a .  The lower one i s known as  the Purcell-Belt Series and i s divided into two main groups.  A widespread unconformity separates the Purcell  Series from the younger and overlying Windermere Series. The Lower Purcell-Belt group consists of the Aldridge-Prichard, Creston-Ravalli, Kitchener-Wallace, and Siyeh-Striped Peak.  They were deposited under marine  conditions from the erosion of a western Precambrian Cascadia. The Upper Purcell-Belt group consists of the Dutch Creek, Mount Nelson and t h e i r equivalents i n Canada and the Missoula Group of Montana and possibly the Priest River group of Washington.  This group is separated from  the Lower Purcell by a period of diastrophism marked by the intrusion of Purcell s i l l s and the extrusion of Purcell lavas.  The Upper Purcell-Belt sediments were derived from  the positive areas as a result of the preceding crustad disturbance. The Purcell-Belt times were closed by large scale orogeny c a l l e d the "Purcell U p l i f t " .  The north-south  trending belt of Purcell mountains formed a landmass which greatly affected lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy.  This  positive area i s commonly referrdd to as the "Montana Island".  The Precambrian portion of the Windermere Series includes the Toby-Shedroof conglomerate, IreneI3.eola volcanics and the Horsethief Creek-Monk formations. The c l a s t i c formations were derived from the Purcell Mountains and deposited on their western flank.  Marine  conditions arose during Horsethief Creek times. The Cambrian portion of the Windermere Series was deposited i n a north-south trending geosynclinal trough which extended from the Metaline quadrangle to the F i e l d Golden area of the Rocky Mountains and probably beyond. It includes the lower q u a r t z l t i c Hamill Group and the overlying limy and argillaceous Lardeau group.  They  were deposited as the shoreline transgressed south and east over the "Montana Island" and reduced It from one of high r e l i e f to one of low r e l i e f .  Stages of emergence and  resumed sedimentation are indicated, by upper formations of the Lardeau group.  CONTENTS  Page  Introduction  1  Acknowledgment  3  Problems and Approach to the Correlation of the Purcell-Belt Series Aldridge-Prichard Oreston-Ravalli Kitchener-Wallace Siyeh-Striped Peak  4 6 12 20 25  General Summary and Theoretical Considerations of the Lower Purcell Belt Group Upper Purcell-Missoula Group  30 39  General Summary and Theoretical Considerations of the Upper Purcell Group Problems of Correlation of the Windermere Series Toby-Shedroof Conglomerate Irene-Leola Volcanics Horsethief-Monk Hamill Group Badshot Limestone Lardeau Group  44 49 51 53 54 56 60 61  General Summary and Theoretical Considerations of Winder^mere Series  65  Bibliography  81  Illustrations: Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4  37 A m 74 80  Appendix Compiled map of the Kimberley-Metaline/ Coeur d' Alene Area Correlation chart of the Windermere and Purcell-Belt Series  INTRODUCTION Cambrian and Precambrian s t r a t a , upwards of 80,000 feet i n thickness, are exposed i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t of south-eastern B r i t i s h Columbia.  They trend  south to underly large areas of Washington, Idaho, and Montana.  Considerable work has been done i n these areas  by officers of the Canadian and the United States geological surveys, by the Idaho Bure.au of Mines, and a number of independent investigators.  As a result of this  work a considerable body of information has been accumulated.  The following brief study i s an attempt to  l i n k the Canadian and American data and interpret without regard to geographical boundaries.  it  In connection  with the work a map on a scale of 1 inch to 4 miles has been compiled (see pocket). In a regional study of this nature many problems of sedimentation, stratigraphy,and correlation become apparent.  The writer has drawn attention to  several of these problems i n the general summary.  For  example, the rusty-red weathering nature of the AldridgePrichard formation requires a careful analysis of the facts for a satisfactory explanation.  However, time was  not available for a complete analysis of most of the problems, and as a result they are presented and dismissed with but hasty generalizations and a possible answer.  It  i s hoped that this may form a basis for future investigations.  2  The writer haa had the advantage of personal acquaintance with some of the problems involved during 2 seasons of f i e l d work i n the East and West Kootenay d i s t r i c t s of B.C. Recent palaeontological discoveries have shown that younger strata of the supposedly Precambrian rocks of the Kootenay d i s t r i c t are of Cambrian age.  Further-  more, these rocks can be correlated across the great physiographic feature, "the Rocky Mountain Trench," to l i n k with the Cambrian strata of the Rocky Mountains. This leads to the postulation of new concepts regarding the location and movement of the geosynclinal basins of deposition preceding and during early Cambrian times• On the Canadian side, the tremendous thickness of strata i s divided into two series by a great angular unconformity, at the base of the Toby-Shedroof conglomerate.  Formations below or older than the  unconformity are included i n the P u r c e l l - B e l t Series and those above, i n the Windemere Series. r  The f i r s t part of  thfia thesis deals with the P u r c e l l - B e l t Series and the second part considers the Windermere Series and i t s equivalent American formations.  3  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge the constructive c r i t i c i s m and biostratigraphical assistance received from Dr. V . J . Okulitch of the Department of Geology and Geography of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Dr. H.C. Gunning has also made many helpful  suggestions drawn from his own f i e l d experiences i n this area.  4  PROBLEMS OF CORRELATION OF THE PURCELL-BELT SERIES The greatest single handicap i n attempting the correlation of the Proterozoic strata i s the lack of f o s s i l s .  Other than a few a l g a l structures the  Purcell-Belt Series i s u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s . The formations of Lower Purcell show no sign of disconformity and tend to grade into one another so that precise boundaries do not e x i s t .  Even over short  distances some formations change l a t e r a l l y both i n thickness and l i t h o l o g i c a l character; therefore, one becomes rather dubious of a regional c o r r e l a t i o n . . Some d i s t r i c t s have been mapped accurately on a scale of one mile to the inch; other areas have been done only i n a sketchy reconnaissance fashion on a scale of 8 miles to the inch.  Furthermore, the  l i t h o l o g i c units - i n some areas have not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y differentiated. To simplify the treatment of formational names, each formation has been given a composite name i n which the most common Canadian and American names are linked with a hyphen. APPROACH TO PROBLEMS OF CORRELATION OF PURCELL-BELT SERIES Since f o s s i l s and unconformities are not present i n the Lower Purcell Group i t i s necessary to r e l y upon lithology and stratigraphy for c o r r e l a t i o n . Actual  continuity of a formation as traced by the geologist i n the f i e l d i s the i d e a l basis for a l i t h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l ation.  This i s impossible for a large area with inform-  ation from isolated d i s t r i c t s by different observers. So that i t i s necessary to consider the stratigraphic succession and the l i t h o l o g i c description of each formation of each map area, compare them, and correlate similar strata.  For a graphic presentation several  sections have been plotted on v e r t i c a l scale of 1 inch equal to 5000 feet to form a correlation chart which is included with this discussion (see pocket). Attention i s now turned to the plotted sections of the Purcell-Belt Series.  A horizontal l i n e has been  drawn through the Purcell lavas i n the Canadian section on top of the Siyeh-Striped Peak formation i n the western Belt Series, and on top of the calcareous Wallace or equivalent formations i n the eastern Belt section. is realized that this probably does not represent  It  strata  deposited at the same time but a better datum i s l a c k i n g . Those formations below this horizontal l i n e are referred to as the Lower Purcell Group and those above as the Upper Purcell Group. The Lower Purcell Group includes, from the bottom up, the Aldridge-Prichard, Creston-Ravalli, Kitchener-Wallace and Siyeh-Striped Peak formations. The f i r s t part of the section on the P u r c e l l Belt Series consists of a b r i e f description of the most  6  l i k e l y correlative formations based largely upon l i t h o l o g y . The description i s largely verbatim from the areal geological report by the geologist to whom reference i s made.  The sequence of map-areas under discussion i s based  upon the correlation chart which consists of type sections selected from areas f i r s t i n a north-south direction and then i n a West-east d i r e c t i o n , respectively along and across the trend of the Purcell-Belt Series.  From north  to south these sections are:.. Cranbrook Area, Nelson Area East, Boundary County, Clark Fork D i s t r i c t , Trout Creek Quadrangle, and the Coeur D'Alene d i s t r i c t .  From west to  east the sections include Kootenai County, Coeur D'Alene d i s t r i c t , Mission Range, Missoula D i s t r i c t , Phil)fipsburg Quadrangle, and the B e l t Mountains. Aldridge-Prichard Cranbrook Area Except i n one small part of the region the Aldridge formation is the lowest stratigraphic  subdivision  of the Purcell Series; however, i n the Cranbrook Area north of Fort Steele i n the Rocky Mountains, 7000 feet of rock are exposed and have been placed by Rice (1937,page 4) below the Aldridge and named the Fort Steele Formation. The lowest member of the Fort Steele consists of hard massive quartzite and argillaceous quartzite having well developed crossbedding and ripple marks and a thickness i n excess of 1000 feet.  These rocks grade upward into 2000  7  to 3000 feet of banded dark grey a r g i l l i t e and white to grey quartzite.  Above these rocks l i e 2000 to 3000 feet  of massive black calcareous or dolomitic a r g i l l i t e , i n turn overlain by 300 to 500 feet of very massive, greygreen, dolomitic a r g i l l i t e , which i n one place i s topped with a bluish limestone. The Aldrj^ge formation conformably overlies the Fort Steele and appears to Rice to be at least 16000 feet thick.  He describes i t .y.1nri i HT] if as "grey, rusty weather-  ing a r g i l l i t e and argillaceous quartzite, the l a t t e r occurring i n beds up to 6 feet thick separated by narrow a r g i l l i t e partings."  The Aldrfge i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  devoid of limestone and limy rocks.  Some conglomerate  beds of limited extent occur within the formation and appear to be of an intraformational type.  Sedimentary  structures include well preserved crossbedding, mudcracks, and ripple marks.  Usually the top of the form-  ation i s almost everywhere argillaceous, with narrow bands of green argillaceous quartzite alternating with grey a r g i l l i t e .  Except toward the top of the formation,  argillaceous quartzites predominate i n the P u r c e l l Range and a r g i l l i t e i n the Rocky Mountains. (Nelson Area East) In this area Rice (1941, page 8,) notes that the Aldri'ge is similar to that around Cranbrook.  It is  universally rusty weathering and consists of a r g i l l i t e  8  and argillaceous quartzite, the l a t t e r i n beds generally about 1 foot t h i c k , but i n some places as much as 10 feet thick.  Also i n the lower part of the formation argillaceous  quartzite and quartzite predominates and grades upward into more argillaceous sediments u n t i l the top i s l a r g e l y a r g i l l i t e with slates occurring l o c a l l y . Boundary County Kirkham and E l l i s (1926, page 15), describes'the Aldri'ge-Prichard formation as being made up of pure quartz i t e s , argillaceous quartzites, and a r g i l l i t e s .  The  quartzites are generally massive, occurring i n beds as thick as eight feet.  The a r g i l l i t e s are thin-bedded, and  the argillaceous quartzites have a lesser thickness than the pure quartzites.  Here, again the general weathered  appearance of the formation is a reddish, rusty brown. Pew evidences of shallow-water deposition were noted by Kirkham and E l l i s ; this fact may be due to the Boundary County section being somewhat deeper i n the Aldrige as a result of the Moj^ie-Lenia fault which passes along the eastern boundary of the county. Clark Fork D i s t r i c t Based upon a prevailing eastward dip of 28° for 12 miles Anderson (1930, page 14) has estimated the thickness of the Prichard i n this area at more than 20,000 feet.  He  describes the formation as composed l a r g e l y of argillaceous sandstone with some shale and is more arenaceous than the  9  corresponding formation i n the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t . Here again, reference i s made to the upper 1500 feet which are conspicuously shaly and bear resemblance to the t y p i c a l Prichard slate of the Coeur d'Alene. Minor lenses of intraformational conglomerate may be found near the middle of the section i n some of the quartzite and sandstone. As with the Aldrige i n the north this formation may be readily distinguished from the overlying Burke by i t s rusty weathering character, p a r t i c u l a r l y along fractures.  Where  metamorphism has not been severe, sun cracks and ripple marks are preserved i n many horizons throughout the formation, but these features are not as abundant as i n the upper members of the Belt Series. Trout Creek Quadrangle Gibson^Jenks^and Campbell (1941, page 367) estimate the thickness of the Prichard i n the Libby quadrangle, which i s immediately north of the Trout Creek Quadrangle, to be at least 9700 feet with the bottom not exposed. Dark-gray a r g i l l i t e , which weathers to a rusty brown, makes up most of the Prichard; interbedded l i g h t - c o l o r e d sandstone, and quartzite are quantitatively less important.  Towards  the top, the beds become sandier and l i g h t e r i n colour, but there i s no well defined contact zone of the Prichard and the R a v a l l i .  The boundary is i n the middle of a zone from  200 to 700 feet thick i n which gray sandstone becomes increasingly abundant upward.  '  ;  It is also pointed out that  10  certain minor differences exist between the Prichard of this area and the type l o c a l i t y of the Coeur d'Alene district.  F i r s t slaty cleavage i s less conspicuous i n the  Libby and Trout Creek Quadrangles, and secondly; the Prichard i n this area is somewhat calcareous, whereas no lime carbonate is reported i n the Prichard of the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t . Coeur d'Alene Ransome and Calkins (1908, page 29) estimate the thickness of the Prichard to be more than 8000 feet; however, exposures are poor and the base is not exposed so that they believe the actual thickness is considerably i n excess of this figure. The bulk of the formation consists of dark argillaceous material with some t h i n arenaceous layers, but well down i n the formation there are thick beds of sandstone.  Within a few hundred feet of the top of the  formation indurated sandstones, sandy shales, and quartzites increase i n abundance, and i n the uppermost part appears a greenish-gray shale l i k e that so abundant i n the Burke formation.  Accompanying this change i n lithology are  abundant shallow water features of deposition as ripple marks and mud cracks.  The most predominant argillaceous  rock i n the Prichard is a variety of dark bluish a r g i l l i t e , which has a d i s t i n c t shaly parting and i t s bedding is also marked by a very regular banding i n darker and l i g h t e r  11  shades of blue-gray; upon weathering, this rock is stained along bedding planes and joints with reddish-brown iron oxide.  The Prichard-Burke contact is drawn where the blue-  gray a r g i l l i t e ceases to e x i s t . Under the microscope Calkins found a majority of o r i g i n a l angular to subangular grains of quartz with some feldspar and muscovite with i n t e r s t i t i a l fine grained s e r i c i t e and quartz.  Regarding the minor constituents,  waterworn zircon is common, some isolated r u t i l e and cloudy whitish particles are present.  Certain other minor minerals,  occurring i n small clusters, are possibly of metasomatic origin.  These include idiomorphic crystals', abundant  tourmaline, some s i d e r i t e , and magnetite, b i o t i t e , chlorite and c a l c i t e . Kootenai County Anderson (1940 page 10) considers that the thickness of the Prichard exceeds 5000 feet.  He describes the  formation as composed largely of b l u i s h shale and a r g i l l aceous sandstone, with subordinate beds of grayish sandstone, and white quartzite.  The shale, i n the v i c i n i t y of  large f a u l t s , generally has a prominent slaty cleavage. Near the top of the formation there appears a 500 foot white or gray quartzite member, and beds above and below consist of laminated, t h i n bedded shale with only minor sandstone.  Toward the lower part, the Prichard becomes  more quartzite and contains less of the shaly beds.  "1  12  Anderson credits the dark, rusty appearance to the oxidation of f a i r l y abundant pyrite i n the shaly beds. Philipsburg In the Philipsburg quadrangle Calkins (1913 page 36) found at least 1000 feet of the Neihart quartzites which conformably underlie the t y p i c a l reddish-brown weathering P r i t c h a r d - l i k e rocks.  The base of the Neihart  i s not exposed and the lowest beds consist of. very pure white or pale drab quartzites.  Farther up the section,  the prevailing rock i s grayish quartzite, with faint but d i s t i n c t bands about half or inch thick and very thin micaceous partings from 6 inches to 3 inches apart.  Near  the top there are numerous interbedded layers of dark mica schist a few inches or feet i n thickness. The rusty weathering Prichard has i n the Philipsburg quadrangle been subjected to intense metamorphism.  Prior to metamorphism the formation was  largely shales with occasional beds of sandstone.  These  rocks are now represented by various schists and gneisses containing mica, garnet, andalusite, s i l l i m a n i t e , and cordierite.  The quartzites are mostly near the top and  the bottom of the formation which has been estimated to be about 5000 feet t h i c k . Creston-Ravalli Cranbrook Area Rice (1937 page 8) found the Creston i n this area  13 to consist of 6300 feet of argillaceous quartzite and quartzite, both occurring i n beds from 1 to 4 feet thick with narrow partings of a r g i l l i t e .  The commonest type i s  massive, watery green, medium-to fine grained argillaceous quartzite.  Purple and white varieties are p l e n t i f u l and  grade into one another along the s t r i k e .  Some of the l i g h t -  coloured quartzite is traversed by a network of fine purple lines.  The formation i s not limy but buff-weathering c a l -  careous beds are not uncommon, especially near the top. Ripple marks and mud cracks are abundant throughout the formation and some r a i n prints were observed by Rice. Green and purple are the dominant colours of the Creston. Nelson-East Area Rice (1941 page 9) found the Creston of this area comparable to that i n the Cranbrook area both i n thickness and l i t h o l o g y . Argillaceous quartzite form^!$l the bulk and i s a fine-grained, l i g h t watery green or purple rock i n 0  beds 2 or 3 feet t h i c k .  Rice believes the purple colour  i s due to f i n e l y divided hematite.  The a r g i l l i t e present  i s commonly platy and l i k e the quartzite is green-and purple. Towards the top of the formation narrow beds, pods, and"" lenses of calcareous rocks appear.  Where they are" very  abundant the strata is considered to belong to the overlying conformable Kitchener.  Cross bedding and ripple marks are  common and well preserved.  Rice considers the formation  somewhat coarser grained and more massive than the Underlying Aldrige.  Except where the Creston has been l o c a l l y  14  mineralized i t altogether lacks the rusty weathering so t y p i c a l of the A l d r i g e . Boundary County: Kirkham and E l l i s (1926 page 16) found that the l i t h o l o g i c a l changes from the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t to Boundary County i n the Creston formation are not as great as i n the Aldrige-Prichard.  In Boundary County the lower  section of the R a v a l l i consists of t h i n members of siliceous shales, gray rusty-weathering argillaceous quartz i t e s , and pure gray quartzites which appear to correspond to the Burke member.  The middle section i s c h i e f l y pure  white massive quartzite and s e r i c i t i c quartzite corresponding to the Revett.  The top section i s largely sandstone  with some shale having brown, purple, and green colours which seems to resemble the S t . Regis of the Coeur d'A-lene section. Kirkham and E l l i s found l i t t l e evidence of shallow water deposition.  They found two s i l l s i n the lower section  and one i n the upper.  The section of Eastport, exclusive  of d i o r i t e s i l l s , was found to measure approximately 5000 feet t h i c k . Clarke Fork D i s t r i c t Anderson (1930 page 15) was able to distinguish the Burke which he thinks might include some of the Revett and also he defined the St. Regis.  The former assemblage  15 i s 3500 feet thick and the l a t t e r formation measured more than 7500 f eet *m Iruckness . The Burke i s composed of fine grained sandstone i n massive beds or as thin  2>eds  with a r g i l l i t e s .  The  formation differs from the Prichard i n being somewhat more siliceous and the sandstones are p r e v a i l i n g l y gray with a greenish cast.  The f i r s t appearance of the pinkish markings  was taken to indicate the Burke-St. Regis Boundary. The St. Regis i s readily i d e n t i f i e d by the reddish or reddish-purple  colour of many of i t s members.  The lower part of the formation is composed of q u a r t z i t i c sandstones, distinguishable from the Burke due to the faint pinkish colour of some of i t s beds or by thin partings of red shale.  The lower beds are softer and thinner, but the  rocks near the centre of the formation are more massive and more resistant to erosion.  Higher i n the series are  some beds of massive quartzites with greenish t i n t s passing into beds with delicate purple bands.  The upper St. Regis  beds are alternating red and green shales and a r g i l l i t e s with the red predominating.  Both the Burke and St. Regis  contain mud cracks and ripple marks throughout and are p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant i n top of the St. Regis. Trout Greek Quadrangle Gibson^Jenks^and Campbell (1941 page 368) observed that the Burke formation near Coeur d'Alene i s composed of gray quartzite and sandstone, and of a r g i l l i t e  16  similar to the Prichard.  North of the Trout Creek Quadrangle  the beds are less arenaceous and more argillaceous.  North-  ward, the Burke formation increases i n thickness u n t i l i n the Trout Creek area i t is 2800 feet thick; however, s t i l l farther north i t cannot he separated from the overlying Revett. The Revett i s dominantly massive, hard, evengrained, white, l o c a l l y crossbedded quartzite having individual beds commonly 1 to 3 feet t h i c k .  Wherever iron  i s present the beds exhibit reddish or purplish t i n t s or weathered surfaces.  In the northern part of the Quadrangle  the Interbedded argillaceous sandstone increases i n amount. The St. Regis formation of the R a v a l l i i s composed mainly of shale which i n places i s highly coloured i n shades of green and red and elsewhere i s d u l l gray.  Farther north  and north east the red and green shades become less prpnounced and north of the Clark Fork the shale i s gray and becomes arenaceous, calcareous, and s e r i c i t i c .  In the Northern part  of the area the top of the R a v a l l i is taken at the thin beds of bluish-gray sandy a r g i l l i t e which overlie the shales. Coeur d'Alene D i s t r i c t Calkins (1908 page 82) describes the lower Ravalli or Burke formation as composed of rocks that show a l l gradations from nearly pure quartzite to siliceous shale.  The quartzite beds are r e l a t i v e l y more abundant i n  the upper part of the formation; the lower part is more  17 shaly.  In the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t , the Burke grades  down into Prichard and up into the quartzites of the Revett formation or middle R a v a l l i , thus exemplifying the characteristic nature of the Belt Series.  The proportion  of quartzite i n the upper part of the Burke increases eastward, and to the north and east as had been pointed out, the Burke-Revett junction i s indistinguishable l i t h o l o g i c a l l y . The t y p i c a l siliceous mudstones are mostly pale greenish gray, though part of them are of a rather dark t i n t .  Less  common i s a l i g h t - p u r p l i s h hue, and there is i n some beds anc alternation of purple and green layers.  Sun cracks and  ripple marks occur throughout the Burke formation. L i t h o l o g i c a l l y the Burke resembles the overlying St. Regis and Striped Peak, however, both of the l a t t e r are characterized by brighter t i n t s of purple and green than that found i n the Burke. Calkins states that the Revett formation is l i t h o l o g i c a l l y the simplest and most homogeneous of the Coeur d' Alene sediments.  It consists of hard, pure, rather  thick-bedded quartzite, but there is also a minor proportion of rocks less purely s i l i c e o u s .  In general the Revett  formation being about a 1000 feet t h i c k , comprises a central portion of the R a v a l l i composed largely of pure quartzite, passing into less purely siliceous beds above and below, which are t r a n s i t i o n a l to the overlying and underlying formations.  18  Ripple marks do not occur i n the t h i c k , massive quartzites, however, they are abundant i n the more argillaceous, t h i n bedded rocks of the bottom and top portion of the formation.  Calkins from a microscopic  study reports the presence of subangular, c l a s t i c grains of quartz, a l i t t l e feldspar and s e r i c i t e ; minor constituents include zircon, magnetite, r u t i l e , tourmaline,and s i d e r i t e . Calkins has placed the thickness of the S t . Regis at almost 1000 feet and describes i t as consisting mainly of t h i n alternating layers of argillaceous and arenaceous material.  The prevailing colours are rather bright t i n t s  of green and purple, the l a t t e r colours somewhat predominating.  The characteristic feature of the formation  i s the general presence of shallow-water structures.  Some  it-iTV-a-fov-ma"Tioir>al c o rig\©imev-a  conglomerates which are interpreted as extra formationo appear l o c a l l y within the St. Regis.  Calkins attributes  them to l o c a l erosion of mud f l a t s by wave action.. Microscopic study by Calkins has indicated that the characteristic colours of the S t . Regis are due to hematite dust and chlorite for the red and green, respectively.  The hematite seems to be i n large part the  speculaMte variety; the c h l o r i t e may be f i n e l y divided and evenly d i s t r i b u t e d , i n nests of larger c r y s t a l s , or -E  i n t e r s i t i a l i n place of s e r i c i t e . Kootenai County The Burke, Revett and S t . Regis were not ;  19  differentiated i n the map hy Anderson (1940 page 11) however, he recognized the subdivisions of the R a v a l l i which are so well defined i n the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t . The Burke varies from 1000 to 3000 feet thick and may be classed as a r g i l l i t e with t h i n beds of fine grained massive sandstone and s e r i c i t i c flaggy quartzite. Having less pyrite than the Prichard, the rock weathers a l i g h t clear gray although some of i t has a pale greenish cast.  Ripple marks and mud cracks are abundant. The Revett quartzite approaches 3000 feet i n  thickness and i s d i f f i c u l t to separate from the Burke. The Revett quartzite i s more massive and is composed largely of white and gray s e r i c i t i c quartzite with only minor amounts of interbedded a r g i l l i t e . - t W i t V i e Revett  The St. Regis i s more d i s t i n c t i v e a n d i n the A  eastern part is 1000 to 2000 feet t h i c k , but increases markedly westward to become at least twice as t h i c k . Abundant reddish beds throughout may be confused only with the younger Striped Peak formation.  The lower part i s  quartzitic with purple markings associated with scattered thin beds of reddish and purplish a r g i l l i t e , interbedded with greenish shale and a r g i l l i t e .  The upper part is  less q u a r t z i t i c and consists mostly of alternating red and green shales and a r g i l l i t e s , green a r g i l l i t e becoming abundant at and near the top. occur throughout.  Ripple marks and mud cracks  -20 Phil^ipsburg The R a v a l l i is about 2000 feet thick having the lower two-thirds composed of light-gray quartzite less pure than the Neihart quartzite; the upper t h i r d comprises darkbluish and greenish shale interbedded with q u a r t z i t i c sandstone.  At the top there is a gradation into the Newland  formation of calcareous rocks. Kitchener-Wallace Cranbrook Area Rice (1937, page 9) describes the Kitchener as not less than 6000 feet of variously coloured calcareous , and doiomitic a r g i l l i t e s , generally buff weathering, t h i n bedded, soft, and i n many pieces severely sheared and contorted.  Near the base of the formation the prevailing  colour of the a r g i l l i t e s is green; either a watery green similar to the Creston quartzites, or a l i g h t creamy green. Higher up i n the section dark grey and l i g h t creamy grey, doiomitic a r g i l l i t e s are more usual.  In addition, Rice  describes a peculiar type of rock, which is diagnostic of the Kitchener; i t consists of fragments of fine-grained c a l c i t e a few inches long set In a cement of coarser c a l c i t e or dolomite with small amounts of quartz and a few flakes of colourless mica.  On an exposed surface the c a l c i t e  fragments weather out to produce a "Molar Tooth" structure. Mud cracks are very common and ripple marks occur i n the more sandy members of the formation.  21  Nelson Area - East In mapping this area Rice (1941, page 10) did not differentiate the overlying Siyeh from the Kitchener. He.reports that the assemblage from the top of the Creston to the base of the Upper Purcell consists almost e n t i r e l y of rocks t y p i c a l of the Kitchener.  This unit he named the  Kitchener-Siyeh and i t is approximately 7500 feet t h i c k . The formation consists predominantly of impure magnesian limestone, a r g i l l i t e and calcareous quartzite. The limestone and calcareous rocks, which are cream-coloured also some green, gray and purple v a r i e t i e s , form the bulk of the formation.  A l l are buff weathering, magnesianjand  occur i n beds 1 to 5 feet t h i c k with partings of a r g i l l i t e . The Kitchener-Siyeh a r g i l l i t e i s green, dark gray, and purple, and most of i t is hard and platy or s l a t y .  These a r g i l l i t e s  are often banded and coloured i n a way that suggests the Siyeh.  They are however generally interbedded with the  limestone.  In many places mud cracks are well preserved.  Boundary County Kirkham and E l l i s (1926, page 17) believe that the Kitchener-Wallace formation thickens northward from Coeur d 'Alene, otherwise there is a great s i m i l a r i t y to of beds  the type l o c a l i t y .  They measured 4500 feet'; however, the  upper member may be cut off by the Moyie Lenia Fault.  The  rocks are fine-grained, thin bedded, and notably calcareous.  22  They are chiefly l i g h t gray argillaceous and calcareous quartzites, and calcareous Jbanded a r g i l l i t e s . Ripple marks and mud cracks are abundant. Clarke Fork D i s t r i c t Anderson (1930, page 17) states that the Wallace formation i s the most heterogeneous of the Belt Series and describes them as follows:  "It i s composed throughout of  fine grained, thin bedded rocks, which comprise green, more or less calcareous shales, blue and white banded a r g i l l i t e s i n part' calcareous, l i g h t gray and yellowish weathering calcareous quartzites, patches of pure lime carbonate, and pure quartzite."  The succession from bottom  to top i s f i r s t ; dense, f l i n t y green a r g i l l i t e then repeated thin beds of greenish a r g i l l i t e , massive quartzite and impure limestone, near the top greenish shales and t h i n bedded quartzite grade into impure limestone and a r g i l l i t e , f i n a l l y reddish sandstone, a bed of impure massive limestone and the Striped Peak formation.  More than 6000  feet of Wallace are exposed. Trout Creek Quadrangle Gibson, Jenks, and Campbell (1941, page 371) measured 10,500 feet of Heterogeneous rocks comprising the Wallace formation.  A r g i l l i t e and shale are dominant; ser-  i c i t i c sandstone and quartzite are much less common; dolomite and doiomitic limestone are present and are more abundant i n Trout Creek Quadrangle than to the north.  Calcium and Magnesium carbonates are not as widespread ; . i n Trout Creek as they are i n Coeur d'Alene, thus carbonates increase to the south. Attention i s again drawn to the presence of the peculiar molar-tooth" structures described by Rice a  and similar c e l l u l a r structures described by Anderson. Theae structures, which are one and the same thing, are diagnostic of the Wallace Formation.  Thin beds, which are  presumably a l g a l limestone or dolomite, are present i n -the Wallace at several horizons.  They are almost invariably  present i n the red shaly strata near the top of the Wallace. Coeur d'Alene D i s t r i c t Calkins (1908, page 39) believes the Wallace to be not less than 4000 feet t h i c k .  It i s an assemblage of  thin-bedded fine-grained rocks, including calcareous quartzites, impure limestones, and shales that are i n a great part calcareous, a l l marked by mud cracks and ripple marks.  On a l i t h o l o g i c basis a threefold subdivision may  be made as follows:  a lower d i v i s i o n mainly of green s l a t e ,  a middle d i v i s i o n of bluish and greenish a r g i l l i t e s , limestone and calcareous quartzite, and an upper one of bluish and greenish a r g i l l i t e s , more or less calcareous without white calcareous quartzite.  The top of the formation is  drawn where limy beds cease to e x i s t . Kootenai County Anderson (1940, page 12) found not less than 5000  24  feet of Wallace which i s characterized by the abundance of calcareous beds.  The lower part consists of greenish arg-  i l l i t e s but with scattered, thin beds containing calcium carbonate.  Toward the middle of the formation calcareous  material increases and beds of calcareous sandstone, quartzite, and impure limestone appear.  In the upper part of the  formation, the calcareous material decreases somewhat and the prevailing beds are dark gray and bluish gray shale and a r g i l l i t e .  C e l l u l a r structures are common p a r t i c u l a r l y  near the top of the formation. PhilXlpsburg The bulk of the Newland formation according to Calkins (1913, page 41) consists of thin-bedded calcareous rocks which may be called siliceous impure limestones or calcareous a r g i l l i t e s .  Calkins believes that the Newland  formation is more calcareous on the whole than i n the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t and further, i t appears that the proportion of carbonate continues to increase toward the east.  Shallow-water markings found throughout the formation  i n the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t were only noted i n the upper part of the Newland.  The upper drab to greenish-gray  calcareous shale may be the equivalent of the Greyson Shale.  25 Siyeh-Striped Peak Cranbrook Area Schofield (1915) limited the Siyeh formation to an argillaceous and calcareous formation above the Kitchener Rice (1937, page 10) has further r e s t r i c t e d the Siyeh to the upper part of Schofield's Siyeh which, west of the Kootenay r i v e r , consists almost e n t i r e l y of a r g i l l i t e and argillaceous quartzite.  Doiomitic beds frequently occur  i n the Rocky Mountains so that the boundary location is a matter of opinion.  The thickness of the formation i s  probably between 1000 and 2000 feet; however, a section i n the Rocky Mountains appeared to be only 700 feet t h i c k . The Siyeh consists of thin-bedded a r g i l l i t e and argillaceous quartzite; purple, red, mauve, olive-green, watery green, and dark grey i n colour.  Combinations of  purple or mauve and green rocks i n t h i n bands are common also "green striped" a r g i l l i t e s l i k e those i n the Creston and Kitchener, are l o c a l l y abundant.  Mud cracks and  ripple marks are very common. Nelson Area East As has been pointed out i n the discussion of the Kitchener-Wallace, i n the Nelson Area East, Rice (1941, page 10) did not differentiate between the Kitchener and Siyeh.  He did however, recognize the a r g i l l i t e s and-  argillaceous quartzites i n the northeastern part of the Nelson Area East.  Elsewhere i n the area i f a r g i l l i t e  23  suggestive of the Siyeh occurs, i t i s present i n i n s i g n i f icant amounts only and the rocks are mainly t y p i c a l of the Kitchener. Boundary County No rocks which may be correlated with the SiyehStriped Peak formation are exposed i n Boundary County. Clark Fork D i s t r i c t Anderson (1930, page 18) points out the s i m i l a r i t y between the Striped Peak and the St. Regis of the CrestonR a v a l l i formation.  Both formations have many reddish  members however only the l a t t e r has a marked tendency toward purplish t i n t s .  Toward the west the reddish colour -the  of the beds disappears and rock assumes an olive drab appearance.  Anderson also mentions that generally speaking  the formation i s very l i k e that i n Coeur d'Alene and Montana. More than 4000 feet of Striped Peak formation is exposed i n the Clark Fork d i s t r i c t .  The base of the  formation is composed of several hundred feet of p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i n bedded, nearly f i s s i l e shales, some of which are slaty and have a greenish and b l u i s h colour which conformably overlie a thick Wallace formation.  limestone member of the  Above is a great thickness of reddish  sandstone and shale beds, alternating with greenish shale and a r g i l l i t e beds.  The reddish beds disappear higher in"the  27  formation and extend only 3500 feet above the base.  Ripple  marks and mud cracks are abundant throughout the formation. Trout Creek Quadrangle Gibson, Jenks and Campbell (1941, page 374) divided the Striped Peak of the area to the north of Trout Creek into two members.  The lower member, 2000 feet thick  consists of dark red to purplish sandstone and quartzite i n the northern part, but southward the beds become more shaly and greenish strata appears.  The upper member of the Striped  Peak has no equivalent i n the Coeur d'Alene D i s t r i c t .  It  consists of a l i g h t to dark gray and greenish gray a r g i l l i t e usually somewhat sandy and to a less extent s e r i c i t i c and calcareous.  The beds are mainly 1 to 3 feet thick, and  some of the thinner beds weather rusty brown, and resemble the Prichard.  At several l o c a l i t i e s o o l i t i c , doiomitic  limestone is interbedded with concretionary algal beds. North of Trout Creek a t o t a l thickness of 8000 feet of Striped Peak was measured however i n the Coeur d'Alene D i s t r i c t only 1000 feet of the formation which may be only pa'rt of the lower member i s present. Coeur d Alene D i s t r i c t 1  Only 1000 feet of Striped Peak of limited areal extent occurs i n the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t .  Calkins,  (1908, page 44) describes i t as mainly t h i n bedded rocks, including shales and q u a r t z i t i c sandstones marked with  28  ripple marks and mud cracks, and mostly reddish purple and green i n colour.  It i s similar to the S t . Regis; however,  the Striped Peak i s less deeply coloured and the prevailing colour of the q u a r t z i t i c beds inclines rather to pink than to a more bluish purple. Kootenai County Anderson (1940, page 13) found more than 4000 feet of a very heterogeneous formation which i s correlated with the Striped Peak of the Coeur d'Alene D i s t r i c t . Along the eastern margin of the county i t i s very similar to the St. Regis, being largely made up of purplish and reddish coloured quartzites interspersed with reddish and greenish beds of a r g i l l i t e .  Westward and to the north the  reddish and purplish markings disappear and the formation is composed largely of sandstone or quartzite, having more or less an olive green colour. Missoula The basal formation of the Missoula Group as mapped by Clapp and Deiss (1930) i s called M i l l e r Peak and since i t overlies the Wallace would, on the basis of normal succession, be expected to correlate with the Striped Peak Formation.  Near Missoula the M i l l e r Peak  appears to l i e conformably on the equivalent of the Wallace formation; however, 12 miles to the west on the Lolo Fork area the M i l l e r Peak l i e s d i r e c t l y upon R a v a l l i Quartzite.  29  The M i l l e r Peak formation has a thickness approaching 2900 feet.  The lower 1100 feet i s composed  of deep redish purple sandy a r g i l l i t e with intercallated thin beds of f i s s i l e , gray, sandy, mud cracked a r g i l l i t e . Overlying this member i s 1500 feet of mixed purple and green-gray, sandy, mud cracked, and ripple marked a r g i l l i t e , interbedded with some massive beds of a r g i l l i t i c sandstone and an occasional thin bed of fine-grained purple gray a r g i l l i t e .  The upper 3000 feet of the M i l l e r Peak is  dominantly a massive to thin-bedded a r g i l l i t i c  sandstone,  which becomes increasingly sandy toward the top. Philipsburg Quadrangle The formation here overlying the eastern equivalent of the Wallace is known as the Spokane formation. The thickness probably is about 5000 feet consisting of shale and sandstone, p r e v a i l i n g l y red where unaltered and characterized as a whole by mud cracks and ripple marks. Calkins (1913 page 45) describes the Spokane formation as having a base of red shale overlying the buff-weathering rocks of the Newland. This t r a n s i t i o n a l basal phase i s succeeded by 2000 or 3000 feet of shale with subordinate sandstone.  Locally the lower part is chiefly arenaceous.  The upper part everywhere consists chiefly of sandstone with subordinate shale.  In places a t h i n conglomeratic  band appears on a few hundred feet from the top of the formation.  GENERAL SUMMARY AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS OP THE LOWER PURCELL-BELTIAN SEDIMENTS In Proterozoic times land vegetation was absent. Under such, conditions we can suppose that the mountainous terrains of Precambrian times were subject to a somewhat greater overall rate of erosion than our present day areas of high r e l i e f .  This may i n part account for the stupendous  thicknesses of c l a s t i c sediments of Precambrian age. Aldridge-Prichard Red Colour of Weathered Surface The finer-grained argillaceous members of the Aldridge-Prichard weather decidedly rusty-red.  Purer  quartzites are^often)gray and even white weathering; however, since the upper portion is p a r t i c u l a r l y dark grey, argillaceous i t i s the prominently rusty part.  This rusty  weathering nature of the Aldridge-Prichard i s mentioned i n a l l the areal geological reports and therefore may be taken as a universal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  In fact i t is often  the main d i s t i n c t i o n from the overlying Creston-Ravalli. Regarding the Prichard formation of Kootenai County Anderson (1940, page 10) states: "Weathered exposures of the formation a l l have a dark, rusty appearance, l a r g e l y because of the oxidation of f a i r l y abundant pyrite i n the shaly beds.  This feature, together with the bluish-gray  appearance of i t s t h i n l y laminated, unweathered shales, helps to distinguish the Pritchard from other formations."  31  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper' part of the Aldridge the rusty weathered character is a s t r i k i n g stratigraphic feature.  For example, i n the Moyie d i s t r i c t , d i s t i n c t i v e  rusty horizons toward the top can be followed completely around the long plunging a n t i c l i n a l structure for some tens of miles.  Since the rusty nature i s r e s t r i c t e d to certain  stratigraphic sections and is uniform over such great distances then i t i s obviously not connected with l o c a l mineralization.  It follows that the rust-producing  ingredients were syngenetic. Muddy beds are very apt to have deposited with them iron compounds of one form or another.  Twenhofel  (1939, page 303) i n speaking of black muds states: "Black muds of marine o r i g i n acquire t h e i r colour from black sulphides of iron and organic matter.  Blackness due to  black sulphides of iron may be expected to be l o s t as those sulphides change to marcasite or p y r i t e " .  Many iron  compounds are thought to form i n marine environments by purely inorganic processes. Sulphur of any decaying organic matter, even of very early organisms completely devoid of hard skeletons may have accumulated with the muds of the AldridgePrichard.  I f hydrogen sulphide accumulates i n oxygen -  deficient bottom waters then oxidation by b a c t e r i a l action may lead to the release of sulphur.  Trask and Wu (1930)  have shown that most marine muds contain free sulphur i n quantities ranging from 22 to 104 parts per 100,000.  32  We might also entertain an inorganic o r i g i n of sulphur bearing compounds i n the nature of sulphates or volcanic gases. The writer has observed small blebs of pyrrhotite v i s i b l e with the unaided eye i n parts of the Aldridge of the Moyie d i s t r i c t .  I t i s suggested that the rusty  weathering nature of the Aldridge i n this d i s t r i c t is due to the s u r f i c i a l oxidation of minute particles of pyrrhotite.  In Kootenai county i t may be due to the  oxidation of p y r i t e . The writer is of the opinion that iron and sulphur bearing minerals were deposited o r i g i n a l l y with the argillaceous sediments of the Aldridge-Prichard formation. With the continual accumulation of overlying sediments, dowsinking proceeded and pressures and temperatures increased.  At a certain depth, which was exceeded, the  iron-bearing compounds and sulphur-bearing compounds reacted with one another and stabalized i n the form of pyrrhotite.  Possibly pyrite developed i n the Prichard of  Kootenai County. The Aldridge-Prichard formation ranges from predominantly quartzite and argillaceous quartzite to mostly shale and s l a t e .  The l a t t e r condition exists  markedly i n the Coeur d'Alene section and the Aldridge of the Rocky Mountains.  Very ea.rly l o c a l limy conditions  i n Aldridge time may be indicated by the Port Steele  33  formation.  Towards the west the Aldrige-Prichard grades  into coarser-grained e l a s t i c s with the exception of the shaly top of the formation. On the correlation chart one notices a marked thinning of the Prichard from west to east and possibly from.north to south.  In the Belt Mountains apparently no  Prichard was deposited.  Possibly i t i s represented by the  700 feet of Neihart quartzite which rests unconformably on Archaen rocks. Mud cracks and ripple marks seem to be more prevalent i n the argillaceous top of the formation and become less frequent i n the thicker-bedded,argillaceous quartzites.  In part this may be due to textural conditions  of the sediment at the time of deposition and the rate of sedimentation.  More l i k e l y deeper water conditions  prevailed during early Aldridge-Prichard times.  This i s  also suggested by the limy Fort Steele immediately underlying the Aldridge i n the Fort Steele d i s t r i c t . Creston-Ravalli No important generalizations can be made concerning the Creston-Ravalli except that the predominant colours are purple and green and the rock i s largely quartzitic.  The colours often alternate with the beds;  green may be interpreted as iron i n the ferrous state and purple as f i n e l y divided hematite which is i n the f e r r i c state.  Thus, changes i n the degree of oxidation must be  34  postulated with the sedimentary c y c l e s .  The formation  grades upward from the shaly top of the Aldridge-Prichard through argillaceous flaggy siltstones and quartzites to pure massive quartzites and thence to argillaceous rocks and the red and green shales of the St. Regis.  Mud cracks  and ripple marks occur throughout the Creston-Ravalli. The formation shows a tendency to t h i n towards the east. Kitchener Wallace This formation consists of calcareous and d o l i m i t i c argillaceous rocks and often possesses the "molar tooth" structure. of green.  f  The colour i s usually some shade  Towards the east the limestone i s more abundant  and more pure.  In the Belt Mountains the Newland and  Helena limestones, equivalent to the Kitchener-Wallace are separated by the Greyson shale, Spokane a r g i l l i t e and Empire shale.  These l a t t e r formations thin westward u n t i l  they can no longer be recognised as mappable formations i n the area of the Coeur d'Alene mountains.  *  Again i n the  Kitchener-Wallace mudcracks and ripple marks are present. Siyeh-Striped Peak This formation consists of purple and red a r g i l l i t e s , i n some map areas rather arenaceous and everywhere containing abundant mud cracks and ripple marks.  In the  eastern section of the Belt Series greenish gray a r g i l l i t e s and sandy a r g i l l i t e s overljethe purple and red beds.  35  THE SOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE LOWER PURCELL-BELT SEDIMENTS This problem has been one of speculation since the Beltian sediments were f i r s t studied.  Walcott (1910)  considers that the Purcell basin of sedimentation was enclosed and i t s water was fresh or brackish.  His basis  of argument is the apparent lack of l i f e i n the Purcell and equivalent strata and Its sudden appearance i n the Cambrian; however, this fact can be readily explained by the tremendous time gap between the Purcell deposition and the Cambrian, during which the Windermere Series was deposited. Rice noted that nearly a l l the ripple marks are the symme t r i c a l or wave ripple type to which he adds that Kindle has pointed out that i n t i d a l waters current ripple-marks predominate and that symmetrical ripple-marks are evidence of lacustrine deposition.  Rice then states, "The Purcell  series appears, therefore, to have been l a i d down i n a shallow lake of great extent which was, for a part of the time at least, brackish.  The basin containing this  lake sank slowly and at a comparatively uniform rate during the accumulation i n i t of 37000 feet of sediments." However, i f one considers the presence of s a l t crystal casts i n the Upper P u r c e l l , and the widespread calcareous Kitchener-Wallace grading down through a r g i l l aceous and q u a r t z i t i c formations to a t o t a l thickness approaching 30,000 feet over such a widespread north-  36  south trending belt; then i t appears to the writer more l i k e a normal downsinking, geosynclinal, marine environment. The exact nature may have been more that of a series of deltas extending into the sea and having expansive plains at times of maximum sedimentation. the formation of mud cracks.  subaerial  This would permit  The subaqueous plains would  certainly develop symmetrical ripple marks which would be preserved by incoming sediments. The question of the direction and position of a source for the Purcell-Belt sediments is even more obscure. In 1906 Walcott stated "The most easterly section, that of the Belt Mountains, has more limestone i n proportion to arenaceous matter, and with the exception of the Neihart quartzite at the base, finer sediments; then conditions indicate that the sediments were derived from a somewhat distant source of supply."  Clapp and Deiss take exception  to this statement and reply, "The most cogent evidence i n opposition to Walcott's concept i s the actual Archaen mass upon which the Neihart quartzite l i e s , and the  conglomerate,  which Walcott himself figured at the base of the Greyson formation." Again, considering the regional  characteristics  of the Aldridge-Prichard namely, the tendency to thin towards the east, and i t s argillaceous character i n the Canadian Rockies and at Coeur d'Alene; one is led to believe a source lay to the west.  Also, considering the  37  Kitchener-Wallace, the limestone becomes more pure and thicker towards the east.  These facts have led the w r i t e r  to postulate a "Precambrian Cascadia" probably as near as the West Kootenay D i s t r i c t .  Indeed, some of the complex  gneisses west of Kootenay Lake may well be remnants of this Archaen land mass. I t is probable that the nature of the Lower Purcell-Belt Series reflects the physiographic cycle of Cascadia during erosion.  The Aldridge-Prichard p a r t i c u l a r i l y  toward the west and north consists of r e l a t i v e l y thick bedded q u a r t z i t i c rocks.  This may be taken to indicate a  terrain source of at least moderate r e l i e f consisting of granitic or older quartz r i c h sedimentary rocks.  The top  of the Aldridge-Prichard may mark a f i r s t stage of peneplanation and the Creston-Ravalli, stages of rejuvenation.  In a l l probability the Kitchener-Wallace  was derived from a low l y i n g area and deposited i n a marine environment.  By this time l i f e was present i n the sea as  evidenced by the algal remains of the Wallace and l a t e r formations. A palaeogeographic map (Plate li) has been prepared showing i n an approximate way the possible position of "Precambrian Cascadia" and the shaded flooded areas receiving sediments.  3T  Pa l e o g e o g r o pin \ a  Map  o-f  Lower  Purcell -  Pldte  BeVt  \  Times  A  38 PURCELL FLOWS AND SILLS The lava flows, which l i e within the Siyeh formation near Cranbrook, are called the Purcell Flows. They vary i n composition between andesite and basalt and are generally massive, green, fine-grained rocks, commonly amygdaloidal, and occur i n flows from 1 to 30 feet t h i c k . Booidoo tho flowo Sills occur throughout the Lower Purcell Group.  They are thickest • and most extensive  i n the Port Steele and Aldridge formations.  One of the  s i l l s has been reported to be up to 2000 feet t h i c k .  As  can be seen from observing the map included i n the appendix, these s i l l s have amazing continuity; i n d i v i d u a l s i l l s being traceable for tens of miles.  Dykes are seldom  over 50 feet thick and are most prevalent i n the Kitchener formation. Rice (1937, page 18) gives four reasons for believing that the Purcell flows are related to the Purcell sills.  He thinks that they have been intruded during, or  shortly before the Siyeh epoch. 1.  The reasons are as follows:  The lavas and fine-grained facies of the intrusives  are s i m i l a r . 2.  P u r c e l l s i l l s are the only known igneous rock i n  the d i s t r i c t which could be related to flows. 3.  No s i l l s or dykes belonging to P u r c e l l intrusives  have been found above the Siyeh. 4.  The s i l l s . a r e very large and coarse-grained i n the  Port Steele and Aldridge formations and become increasingly  39  smaller and finer grained i n the younger formations.  This  might indicate that the s i l l s were injected while the Fort Steele and Aldridge formations were mostly deeply buried. Work i n the Nelson area by Rice (1941, page 27) has caused him to question the conclusion that the Purcell intrusives and Purcell lavas are related.  He states the  following facts as having a bearing on this matter. 1.  S i l l s and dykes indistinguishable i n the f i e l d  or laboratory occur a l l through the Lower and Upper P u r c e l l . S i l l s and dykes closely resembling those i n the Purcell also occur through the Windermere. 2.  A careful search has f a i l e d to reveal any pebbles  of the Purcell intrusive i n either the Toby or Cranbrook conglomerates.  On the other hand, no Purcell intrusives  have been seen to intrude either of these formations. 3.  The s i l l s appear to have suffered a l l the  deformation to which the sediments have been subjected. UPPER PURCELL - MISSOULA GROUP Windermere Area Walker (1926, page 7) named the oldest formation exposed i n the Winderaere Area, the Dutch Creek and he believes i t to be the northern extension of the Roosville, P h i l l i p s , and the upper part of the Gateway formation. Sections i n excess of 3400 feet thick of Dutch Creek Formation were measured by Walker.  The Dutch Creek  formation is made up of a succession of strata varying i n  40  nature from slate and quartzite to magnesian limestone. The slates form the greater part of the exposed formation and are grey to almost black or green.  The quartzites are  thin bedded and fine grained, with a faint greenish colour. The limestones are c r y s t a l l i n e , magnesian, t h i n bedded, grey i n colour, and weather cream to buff.  The limestones  and quartzites grade from-west to east into slates and argillaceous quartzites. Resting conformably on the Dutch Creek formation, the Mount Nelson formation has an observed thickness of about 3,400 feet.  The Mount Nelson comprises a succession  of c r y s t a l l i n e magnesian limestones and slates and has at i t s base, and also near the upper erosional surface, massive white quartzites.  The lower quartzite or basal member i s  a massive, white granular rock having beds averaging 1 foot thick.  The magnesian limestones are grey, blue, white,  purple, and brick red on fresh fracture, and weather to grey, cream, buff,and purple.  They are fine grained and  c r y s t a l l i n e i n beds ranging from*2 inches to 2 feet. slates are grey to black, green and purple.  The  Salt casts and  mud cracks were observed within the Mount Nelson formation. The upper quartzite appears near the top of the formation and is more massive than the lower quartzite member. Cranbrook Area Dal^y measured 2025 feet of Gateway formation near the International boundary.  This formation has been  41 correlated with the lower part of the Dutch Greek.  In  the Cranbrook Area the Gateway consists of red, purple, olive green, pink, greenish grey, grey, creamy green, and white argillaceous quartizte, doiomitic quartzite, and dolomite.  The dolomite i s universally buff weathering and  is more common toward the base of the formation. marks^crossbedding and salt casts are present.  Ripple Many  *  of the doiomitic beds show concretionary structures, p i s o l i t e s , and o o l i t e s . The boundary between the Siyeh and Gateway has been drawn at the uppermost purcell lava flow.  This  i s satisfactory i n the Cranbrook Area where flows are always present; however, i n other areas i t is doubtful whether a satisfactory corresponding boundary can be drawn. Schofield (1915, page 36j describes the Gateway as resting conformably on the Purcell l a v a .  The base of  the formation consists of fine grained g r i t containing pebbles of the Purcell lava as well as a few pebbles of quartzite.  This is succeeded by alternating beds of  conglomerates and siliceous limestone.  The conglomerates  observed by Schofield never exceeded 15 feet In thickness. The limestone weathers buff and i s concretionary; dolomites are also present.  Interbanded with the dolomites are purple  shales and grey sandstones.  These are succeeded by greyish  brown weathering sandy a r g i l l i t e s i n beds 1 to 2 inches thick, containing abundant casts of salt c r y s t a l s .  Numerous  thick bedded buff weathering sandstone and quartzites are  42  interbedded with the sandy a r g i l l i t e s . Missoula A great thickness of sediments is exposed i n the Mission Range and extend south to at least Missoula.  They  l i e above the Wallece-Siyeh-Helena limestone and below the Cambrian Flat Haead quartzites.  These rocks have been named  the Missoula Group by Clapp and Deiss (1930, page 677) who have defined five formations within the Missoula Group. From bottom to top they are as follows:  M i l l e r Peak,  Hellgate, McNamara, Garnet, and Sheep Creek formations. The presence of red beds i n the M i l l e r Peak and i t s superposition over the Wallace formation was considered sufficient to j u s t i f y discussing i t i n connection with the Siyeh-Striped Peak formation. The Hellgate formation is 2200 feet t h i c k and has a basal member 100 feet thick consisting of massive redgray coarse grained quartzite with sandy quartzite beds up to 3 feet i n thickness.  Overlying the basal quartzite are  massive beds of fine grained siliceous gray quartzite, aggregating 300 feet with abundant ripple marks.  Above the  gray siliceous quartzite is 1200 feet of massive pink-gray q u a r t z i t i c sandstone.  The upper 600 feet of the Hellgate  consists of gray-red to d u l l gray, massive, fine to coarsegrained, f i n e l y banded and ripple marked quartzite.  For the  greater part the rocks of the Hellgate formation weather a d u l l red buff or drab-lavender colour.  *  43  The McNamara formation is 3000 feet thick and consists of three members.  The lower member is 400 feet  thick and is composed of green-gray to purple and marooncoloured micaceous and sandy a r g i l l i t e s .  ;  The middle member  consists of gray-green, coarse-grained, ripple-marked, cross-bedded, sandy quartzite.  It is overlain by 800 feet  of cross-bedded pinkish quartzite.  The upper member is a  series of bright green and red fine-grained, mud-cracked, and ripple-marked a r g i l l i t e . The Garnet Range formation is the thickest of the Missoula Group, and consists of 7600 feet of largely quartzites and sandy a r g i l l i t e s .  The lower part of the  formation i s predominantly of brown and greenish-gray micqceous sandstone and quartzite with members of sandy argillite.  A 300 foot stratum of massive, coarse-grained  pink, cross-bedded quartzite divides the formation into two parts.  The upper 3050 feet is composed of brownish  micaceous, thin-bedded and occasionally a r g i l l i t i c quartzite. The Sheep Mountain formation, which i s the uppermost subdivision of the Missoula group, is 2300 feet thick.  It consists of massive beds of red to pink-white,  coarse-grained cross-bedded, purple banded, pure quartzite. The upper and lower portions of the formation are characterized by the presence of clay g a l l s .  44  GENERAL SUMMARY AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE UPPER PURCELL-MISSOULA GROUP The Purcell flows do not occur i n the Western Purcell Series nor i n the Belt Series. Thus, the Upper Purcell Group i s roughly correlated with those formations overlying the Siyeh-Striped-Peak or i t s equivalent i n other map-areas. The Dutch C eek and Mount Nelson formations r  of Canada consist of about 6000 feet of slates, and magnesiari:,limestones. present.  quartzites,  Salt casts and mud cracks are  To the south i n the Missoula d i s t r i c t of Montana,  18000 feet of quartzites and sandy a r g i l l i t e s were deposited. Clapp and Deiss state: "The fact that the limestone forming the base of the M i l l e r Peak is traceable into the Lolo Fork area 12 miles to the west, where i t l i e s d i r e c t l y on R a v a l l i quartzite, makes i t s stratigraphic position certain, and at the same time places the Missoula group i n the uppermost part of the Belt t e r r a i n . "  This statement indicates  a possible unconformity between the Missoula Group and the Lower Belt Series. The appearance of clastic.sediments after the great thickness of Kitchener-Wallace limy rocks, and the presence of conglomerate i n the Gateway formation above the Purcell flows seem indicative of the nearby emergence of a land mass.  Further, the apparent unconformity on the  west side of the Missoula Group i s i n keeping with orogeny.  45  Also, the intrusion of s i l l s and the extrusion of lava flows suggests a period of diastrophism. states:  Rice (1941,page 27)  "The s i l l s appear to have suffered a l l the  deformation to which the sediments have been subjected." This fact would seem to support the early age of the s i l l s and t h e i r intrusion p r i o r to folding.  No lavas occur  *  within the Upper Purcell Group so that it appears that this stage of crustal disturbance was completed before the deposition of the Upper Purcell Group. I t now remains to attempt, from the meagre evidence a v a i l a b l e , to ascertain where the land mass was. It w i l l be noted that the Upper Purcell strata are absent beneath the Cambrian rocks immediately west of Cranbrook. It is possible that the Upper Purcell was deposited i n this area and l a t e r eroded; however one would expect some remnant from infolding or f a u l t i n g .  In general there i s  an absence of Upper Belt Strata from Kootenai County east to Missoula.  These facts lead the writer to postulate a  land mass between Coeur d'Alene and Missoula, extending north i n a triangle as far as Cranbrook. Considering the thickness of sediments and their areal extent some doubt may arise whether the size of the land mass is sufficient to provide them.  As an alternative  land mass or as a supplementary contributor, we may also consider an eastern source now evidenced by the exposures of Archaen rocks i n the Belt Mountains.  46  Limestone does not occur i n the Missoula group whereas i t is abundant i n the Upper Purcell group. Argillaceous sediments are prevalent i n the Upper P u r c e l l , whereas the Missoula group is mainly quartzite.  These  facts imply that the Missoula group was deposited closer to the source of sediments then the Upper Purcell group. Thus, there is some j u s t i f i c a t i o n for postulating a source of sediments i n the present position of the Belt Mountains. At the close of Lower P u r c e l l times portions of the Purcell-Belt strata were uplifted while other parts were s t i l l receiving sediments.  By the end of Upper  Purcell times complete emergence took place accompanied by the folding and the building of mountains.  These  mountains probably extended hundreds of miles north and south of the area under consideration.  This period of  orogeny may be referred to as the "Purcell U p l i f t " .  Pal  Upper  Puree 1  I — BeH~  Plate  2  Series  49  PROBLEMS OF CORRELATION OF THE WINDERMERE SERIES The lower formations of the Windermere Series are unfossiliferous and'so present the same problem as the Purcell Series. formations.  F o s s i l s are present i n the upper  In some d i s t r i c t s metamorphism and crustal  disturbance has destroyed the f o s s i l s or rendered them d i f f i c u l t to f i n d .  Thus, u n t i l recently, the upper part  of the Windermere Series was considered to be of Precambrian age because i t was thought to be completely unfossiliferous. Differences i n degree of metamorphism not only affect the apparent f o s s i l content but also the l i t h o l o g y of the rock.  Formations which are of the same age and  deposited under the same conditions may appear unlike due to a different intensity of superimposed metamorphism. The tremendous thickness of coarse c l a s t i c sediments at the base of the Windermere Series varies markedly i n thickness over short distances.  This fact  leads to d i f f i c u l t y when attempting a regional c o r r e l a t i o n . There i s considerable evidence that part of the coarse c l a s t i c portion of the Windermere Series was deposited by a transgressing sea.  I f such be the case.then  a formation is not everywhere of the. same age.  This serves  to complicate the problem of correlation and interpretation. The outcrop area of the Windermere Series has suffered greater crustal disturbance than the outcrop area of the Purcell Series.  This makes i t very d i f f i c u l t  to  50  trace formational boundaries and obtain accurate data on the thickness of each stratigraphic u n i t .  Consequently  some of the information used for the basis of correlation is  inaccurate. F i n a l l y , since the appearance of f o s s i l s marks  the beginning of the Palaeozoic era; the problem of the Palaeozoic-Precambrian boundary arises. relations complicate the s i t u a t i o n .  Transgressive  It appears that a  formation may be of Precambrian age i n one d i s t r i c t and of Cambrian age i n another.  51  WINDERMERE SERIES TOBY-SHEDROOF CONGLOMERATE Windermere Area The Toby conglomerate i s the basal member of the Windermere Series and was named by Walker (1926 page 13) for the excellent exposures along Toby Creek i n the Windermere Area.  Since then the Toby formation has been  traced south to l i n k with the Shedroof Conglomerate of the Metaline Quadrangle. Within the Windermere area the Toby conglomerate varies i n thickness from 50 to 2000 feet.  The percentage  of boulders to matrix is very variable, ranging from scattered fragments forming only 5 to 10 percent of the rock to a compact boulder mass.  In places the matrix is  largely slate through which are scattered fragments of slate and shale and occasional boulders of limestone and quartzite.  In other places quartzite and limestone boulders  are equally abundant and l i e i n a slaty matrix.  Within the  formation are a few l e n t i c u l a r beds of slate and quartzite. Walker states that the boulders can be i d e n t i f i e d with the underlying rocks of the Purcell series which i t overlies with an angular discordance.  He observed that  many of the boulders are rounded, but many also are subangular and angular, indicating rapid erosion and limited transportation.  52  Nelson Area East Walker observed, a definite angular discordance i n the Windermere Area however such an unconformity is not as obvious i n the Nelson Area.  Nevertheless, Rice (1941,  page 14) observed that the Toby l i e s on the Mount Nelson i n certain places and on the Dutch Creek i n others and therefore a considerable unconformity must be present. As i n the Windermere area the Toby formation varies markedly from place to place.  Near Rose Pass the  base of the Toby consists of greenish grey conglomerate with quartz pebbles i n a siliecous cement.  This conglomerate  i s interbedded with greenish, f o l i a t e d a r g i l l i t e , and scattered through i t are large, angular blocks of black argillite.  Above this member is 30 feet of greenish  schist followed by a thick bed of quartz pebbles and cobbles of magnesian limestone set i n a cement of sandy mangnesian limestone.  Further south the Toby Conglomerate i s a fine  grained arkosic conglomerate and i s not unlike many members of the overlying Horsethief Creek Series.  At Columbia  point i t has been metamorphosed and consists of 3 inch cobbles of quartz and quartzite i n a matrix of green hornblende gneiss. Metaline Quadrangle In the Metaline area Park and Cannon (1943,page 7) found over 5000 feet of a coarse, poorly sorted, dingy gray brown conglomerate resting on the Priest River group. Fragments of white to reddish-brown quartzite are almost  53  equally abundant with doldmite fragments of similar colour, many of which weather buff.  A few pieces of black  slate or p h y l l i t e and a single pebble of granite rock were seen i n the conglomerate.  The fragments, which generally  constitute 50 to 85 percent of the rock are embedded i n a matrix of gray sandy p h y l l i t e , which weathers to a brown pitted surface. IRENE-LBOLA VOLCANICS Nelson Area East The Irene volcanic formation occurs i n the southwest corner of the map-area where i t conformably overlies the Toby formation.  The volcanics are now fine-  grained, sheared greenstone or hornblende s c h i s t .  Near  the base of the formation the greenstone is interbedded with conglomerate.  Rice (1941, page 16) agrees with Daly  who o r i g i n a l l y interpreted the greenstones and volcanics. Salmo Area Walker (1934) f a i l e d to observe evidence as to the extrusive o r i g i n of the Irene Volcanics.  A thin  section showed a groundmass of pale greenish amphibole, andesine-labradorite, c h l o r i t e , and secondary quartz. Metaline Park and Cannon (1943, page 10) describe the Leold Volcanics as t y p i c a l homogeneous greenstone, such as occurs commonly i n series of altered basalt and andesite. Original porphyritic, diabasic, and amygdaloidal textures  54  can be recognized and even sheared pillow structures appear to be present. HORSBTHIEF CREEK MONK The Horsethief formation was named by Walker (1926, page 14) after Horsethief creek i n the v i c i n i t y of which the strata and their relations to the overlying and underlying beds are well displayed.  However, Walker  (1934, page 6) when mapping the Salmo area c a l l e d similar rock the Horsethief Creek Series. Windermere Walker (1926, page 14) describes the Horsethief Creek formation as "largely grey, green, and purplish slate with several l e n t i c u l a r beds of coarse quartzite and pebble conglomerate and numerous t h i n interbeds of blue-grey, c r y s t a l l i n e , and mostly non-magnesian limestone, which occur at different horizons but form a r e l a t i v e l y small part of the whole formation". The formation conformably overlies the Toby Conglomerate and i s almost 4000 feet t h i c k . Nelson Area East Northeast of Kootenay Lake the Horsethief 'Creek conforms closely to Walkers description of the Horsethief of Windermere map-area. Rice (1941, page 18) gives detailed section measured west from Rose Pass. dark grey to black.  The a r g i l l i t e is mostly  Beds and lenses of blue-grey,  55  c r y s t a l l i n e , essentially non-magnesian limestones are conspicuous.  Beds of conglomerate, very much l i k e parts  of the Toby, occur a l l through the formation. Salmo • Walker (1934, page 7) described the Horsethief Creek Series as "a heterogeneous assemblage of sheared and schistose, argillaceous rocks with  some beds of limestone  and g r i t , with at the base a well defined bed of boulder conglomerate, and bounded at the top by the massive g r i t s of the overlying Three Sisters formation." Metaline Park and Cannon (1943, page 11) estimate the thickness of the Monk Formation to be 3800 feet.  The  base of the Monk formation has been drawn a r b i t r a r i l y at the base of a conglomerate layer or, when the  conglomerate  i s absent; at the top of the Leola volcanics.  This is the  same conglomerate horizon which occurs at the base of the Horsethief Creek formation i n the Salmo map-area.  The top  contact i s placed so that dominantly q u a r t z i t i c sediments are put i n the Gypsy quartzite, whereas sediments that contain mostly beds of p h y l l i t e s are referred to the Monk formation. The fine-grained p h y l l i t e s that predominate i n the Monk formation contain numerous intercalations of carbonate rocks, quartzite, and g r i t .  In the extreme  northern part of the Metaline map-area the lower half of the Monk formation contains numerous beds of carbonate rocls,  56  very few beds of quartzite, and none of g r i t .  In the  upper part quartzites and g r i t s increase i n abundance toward the top but r e l a t i v e l y few beds of carbonate rocks are present. HAMILL GROUP Nelson Area East Rice (1941, page 20) measured 10,600:. feet of mainly s i l i c e o u s quartzite overlain by a succession of p h y l l i t e s , schists, and quartzites a l l of which he assigned to the Hamhjill Series.  These rocks conformably overly the  Horsethief Creek formation.  The boundary between the two  formations is placed between the grey, rather g r i t t y , arkosic quartzite and pebble conglomerate, which i s characteristic of the Horsethief, and the very s i l i c e o u s , r e l a t i v e l y fine-grained, light-coloured quartzite. Quartzite i s the most s t r i k i n g and t y p i c a l component of the Hamill formation.  The f i r s t 5000 feet  are largely composed of this rock.  Most of the quartzite  is s i l i c e o u s , fine-grained, white to rose red and grey and green i n colour.  In the basal members i t is usually  i n thick, massive beds with narrow partings of a r g i l l i t e . In the upper members of the Ham^ill group schist and p h y l l i t e are common. These rocks are similar to parts of the overlying Lardeau group and i n some map-areas the boundary between these two groups is d i f f i c u l t to define. However, i n the Nelson map-area an excellent horizon of  57  of limestone known as the Badshot formation marks the upper "boundary of the Hamill group. Salroo In the Salmo map-area Walker made three subdivisions of the great.succession of g r i t s , quartzites, and p h y l l i t e s .  They are from bottom to top; Three S i s t e r s ,  Quartzite Range,and Reno formations. Walker (1934, page 7) found the Three Sisters formation to be about 5400 feet t h i c k .  The lower 2000 feet  i s composed of massive, greenish grey g r i t , or fine conglomerate.  These are succeeded by 450 feet of alternating  beds of g r i t and white quartzite overlain by 1700 feet of g y » g r i t t y quartzites. re  A greenish grey boulder  conglomerate, averaging 100 feet i n thickness succeeds the g r i t t y quartzites and forms a d i s t i n t i v e member.  About  1150 feet of g r i t t y quartzites overlie the conglomerate and form the uppermost member of the formation. Rice (1941 page 19) states: "As the Three Sisters beds are traced northeasterly from the Salmo area they lose those features that distinguish them from the Horsethief Creek beds, and i n fact seem to merge along the s t r i k e into normal Horsethief Creek strata."  For this reason the  Three Sisters formation is included i n the Horsethief formation In the Nelson map area. The Quartzite Range formation i s 4400 feet thick as measured by Walker (1934, page 8 ) .  The lower 1600  58  feet Is essentially massive, white quartzite i n beds up to 4 feet i n thickness. beds.  Ripple marks are present i n these  A well-defined horizon of argillaceous to s l a t y rocks  up to 200 feet i n thickness succeeds the massive quartzites. About ]100 feet of white, crumbly quartzites and white-massJs/ e hard quartzite overlie the argillaceous member and they are in-turn overlain by about 1500 feet of white, f a i n t l y tinged green or grey quartzite with a few interbeds of s l a t e . Walker (1934, page 9) measured nearly 3500 feet of beds which he assigned to the Reno formation. A condensed statement of the section is included i n his report. The lower part consists of about 1100 feet of a r g i l l i t e s , phyllites and quartzites.  The lower part grades upwards  to' about 500 feet of calcareous s c h i s t , grey limestone and argillaceous s c h i s t .  The Upper part of the Reno formation  i s e s s e n t i a l l y , quartzite resembling the Quartzite Range formation. Metaline Park and Cannon (1943, page 13) measured 8500 feet of Gypsy Quartzite beds on a ridge on the east side of the Pend Oreille River.  On the west side of the r i v e r  the thickness i s only 5300 feet.  This thinning is due to  the fact that the 4525 feet of g r i t s and conglomerate present at the base of the formation east of the Pend Oreille River are represented by only 1260 feet west of the river.  The quartzites above the basal g r i t s and conglomerates  are surprisingly similar i n the two sections.  59  The lower member of the Gypsy formation consists of 4525 feet of conglomerate, quartzite, and alternating beds of g r i t s .  Park and Cannon recognized the same  conglomerate horizon as Walker (1934, page 8) reported i n his description of the Three Sisters formation.  The  conglomerate thins southward and probably averages less than 100 feet thick i n the Metaline Quadrangle. A band of dark green schist 20 to 195 feet thick overlies the lower membe.r of g r i t s and conglomerate. Walker (1934, page 8) reported a well-defined horizon of argillaceous rock up to 200 feet thick when he was describing the Quartzite Range formation.  They are  probably the same horizon. The schist is overlain by 800 to 1625 feet of massive white to pinkish cliff-forming quartzite. bedding occurs i n this rock.  Cross-  The massive quartzite is  succeeded by 2200 to 3000 feet of t h i n platy quartzite, i n places with shaly layers and a few intercalated limy beds.  Near the top p h y l l i t e layers are more numerous  and are s i m i l a r to those i n the overlying Maitlen p h y l l i t e . The upper contact of the Gypsy formation is' placed at the top of a band, 50 to 300 feet t h i c k , of alternating beds of quartzite and. p h y l l i t e i n nearly equal parts.  These beds are characterized by fucoidal  cylinders called "burrows" which are of organic o r i g i n . The "burrows" are approximately c i r c u l a r i n cross section,  60  about a half an inch i n inches long.  diameter, and generally 2 to 3  The cylinders are commonly oriented normal  to the bedding and gently tapered. usually i n the more shaly layers.  The "burrows" occur In the Metaline quadrangle  these "burrows" are found throughout the t r a n s i t i o n zone between the Gypsy Quartzite and the Maitlen p h y l l i t e . BADSHOT LIMESTONE Nelson A^ea East I t has been pointed out that the Badshot limestone is a very useful horizon marker i n the Nelson map-area.  This formation divides the Lardeau and Hamill  groups and is defined by Walker, Bancroft, and Gunning, (1929) i n the Lardeau area as the lowest, s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y , of three prominent beds of limestone occurring at the base of the Lardeau group. The formation is very conspicuous on the east side of Kootenay lake where i t maintains a width of 100 to several hundred feet throughout i t s length.  However  on the west side of the lake i t is not nearly so conspicuous. In some places i t may even be missing and other places i t is only 50 to 100 feet t h i c k . The Badshot consists of grey to cream-coloured, i n places s i l i c e o u s , or magnesian limestone, which weathers a l i g h t buff colour.  The numerous limestone beds i n the  Lardeau group may be confused with the Badshot formation.  61  Salmo Walker (1934, page 9) made no attempt to correlate the limy rocks of the Reno formation with the Badshot limestone.  In connection with this Rice (1941,  page 20) states: "As no limestone has been seen i n the Hamill, the l i m i t of that series is tentatively set at the f i r s t bed of limestone i n the Reno formation, and this limestone is considered equivalent to the Badshot.  The  Hamill i s thus correlated with the Quartzite Range and that part of the Reno l y i n g below the f i r s t bed of limestone." LARDEAU GROUP Nelson Area East The Lardeau group conformably overlies the Badshot formation.  The thickness of the Lardeau has been  variously estimated at 10,000 to 15,000 feet t h i c k .  In  the Nelson area Rice (1941, page 21) believes the thickness is probably near the smaller figure; however, the Lardeau has been subjected to severe metamorphism, shearing and folding so that an accurate measurement is impossible. The Lardeau groups consists of s l a t e , s c h i s t , gneiss, quartzite, and several prominent bands of ; magnesian limestone.  A dark grey to black slate  a large part of the formation.  constitutes  A muscovite-biotite schist  much of which contains garnet, andalusite, and sullimanite, forms £he^ part of the Lardeau group.  Where the  metamorphism i s more intense the rocks become gneissic.  62  Quartzite occurs i n beds from 1 to over 100 feet t h i c k . Calcareous quartzite i s most common near the base of the formation.  Conspicuous belts of creamy white to l i g h t grey  buff weathering, i n places magnesian, limestone occur a l l through the Lardeau group.  They constitute a r e l a t i v e l y  small proportion of the group and some of the members have even been given formational rank.  They are similar to the  Badshot limestone which i s r e a l l y the lowest, stratigraphi c a l l y , of these limestone b e l t s . Salmo Area The Pend O r e i l l e group conformably overlies the Reno formation i n the Salmo area.  Walker (1934, page 9)  believed i t to occupy the same position i n the Windermere succession as the Lardeau group.  However,  i f the correlation  of the Badshot limestone with the calcareous member of the Reno is correct then the Upper part of the Reno also belongs with the Lardeau group. The Pend Oreille group is composed chiefly of dark, grey to black p h y l l i t e s .  In the lower part the  phyllites grade into bed's of dark grey, almost black, quartzites, and four well-defined horizons of limestone are present. carbonaceous.  The p h y l l i t e s are i n places highly Walker (1941, page 10) gives an account of  the section which indicates the heterogenous character of the group.  63  Metaline Park and Gannon (1943, page 15) define three formations which overlie the Gypsy quartzite.  These  formations are equivalent to at least the lower part of the Pend O r i e l l e group of the Salmo area. are from bottom to  The formations  top: Maitlen p h y l l i t e , Metaline  limestone,and the Ledbetter s l a t e ; The Maitlen p h y l l i t e is about 5500 feet t h i c k . The base of the p h y l l i t e i s placed at the top of a bed of Gypsy quartzite which contains abundant "burrows".  This  horizon l i e s about a 100 feet below a gray white limestone band 200 feet t h i c k .  At the top of the Maitlen p h y l l i t e  the beds become limy and grade into the Metaline limestone. The upper contact i s placed where the p h y l l i t e predominates over limestone. The most common rock type i s a gray greenish, fine-grained, and conspicuously banded p h y l l i t e .  Quartzite  beds are present near the base of the formation.  Limestone  layers are common i n  addition to the 200 foot bed near the  base. The Metaline limestone appears to be about 3000 feet thick and four members have been distinguished (Park and Ca>nnon (1943, page 18).  The lower member of interbedded  limestones and limy shales is 1200 feet t h i c k .  The next  member i s also 1200 feet t h i c k and consists of fine-grained cream-coloured dolomite.  This member i s overlain by 450  feet of mottled dense gray limestone with many cherty nodules.  64  The top member i s also a mottled ,dense gray limestone but contains only a few chert nodules and measures 150 feet thick. On paieototolGgical evidence the Metaline limestone i s middle Cambrian and the Ledbetter slate is Ordovician j therefore, a disconformity must exist between the two formations.  The thickness of the Ledbetter slate appears  to be about 2500 feet.  It is a black, fine-grained,  generally homogeneous-appearing rock.  In the upper part the  slate becomes limy and bedding is more conspicuous.  65  GENERAL SUMMARY AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE WINDERMERE SERIES At the close of Purcell times the strata were deformed into broad open fold mountains.  Present day  structures consists of folds plunging both north and south with a x i a l planes i n general s t r i k i n g north-south.  The  o r i g i n a l mountains consisted of north-south trending cuestas.  Dips are somewhat steeper on the west side of  the Purcell series as presently exposed; therefore, o r i g i n a l l y the western escarpments were steeper than those on the eastern side of the former Purcell land mass.  They  were probably hogback ridges. Toby-Shedroof Conglomerate The obvious derivation of the boulders from the immediately underlying Purcell Series, and the size and shape of the boulders indicate the materials were not transported very f a r .  The surface upon which the  conglomerate rests i s irregular and a l l facts point to rapid erosion.  Walker (1926) states "The marked variation  in thickness of conglomerate from 50 - 2000 feet is strongly suggestive of fan structure and the rock may well be called a fanglomerate,  u  Walker reports an angular discordance of as much as 45° between the Toby and the underlying Purcell strata.  Rice (1941, page 14) observed no such discordance  i n the Nelson  area.  He states, "Nevertheless, i t is  66  evident from the fact that the Toby l i e s on the Mount Nelson i n certain places and on the Dutch Creek i n others that a considerable unconformity must be present". In the Metaline Quadrangle an unconformity has not been unequivocally demonstrated.  Wherever the base  of the Shedroof conglomerate has been examined the bedding i n the Priest River rocks i s apparently p a r a l l e l to the surface on which the conglomerate was deposited. The Priest River group i s probably the southern extension of the Upper Purcell group.  An unconformity at the base  of the Shedroof conglomerate i s indicated by pebbles withi n the l a t t e r derived from the Priest River group. The writer i s inclined to agree with Walkers interpretation of the o r i g i n of the Toby conglomerate. It is further suggested that the fanglomerates were located on the steep western flank of the newly formed Purcell Mountains.  The conglomerate i s somewhat thicker near the  international boundary than to the north.  It is possible  that the mountains adjacent to the thicker conglomerate were steeper and ^ss> higher.  As the mountains became worn  down the fanglomerate would extend landward or to the east i n this case.  Thus, the Toby-Shedroof conglomerate may  be interpreted as a continental deposit. Irene-Leola Volcanics Greenstone, up to 5000 feet i n thickness, i s exposed at the International boundary i n the south-east corner of the Salmo map-area.  This rock is called the  Irene formation.  It thins to the north and has not been  observed more than 20 miles north of the 49th p a r a l l e l . To the south as the Leola formation, i t extends well into the Metaline Quadrangle. F i e l d evidence points to the volcanic origin of most of the Irene-Leola formation.  The base i s marked  by a zone of t r a n s i t i o n , several hundred feet t h i c k where conglomerate and greenstone are interbedded.  Rice,  (1941,. page 15) mentions one prominent bed of conglomerate well up i n the formation. The Irene-Leola volcanics appear to have been extruded rather l o c a l l y following and during the rapid erosion which produced the Toby-Shedroof conglomerate. Rice .(1941, page 23) i n view of the marked thinning to the north suggests a possible source of volcanic rocks to the south of the International boundary.  He also states, "The  exceptional thickness of the underlying Toby conglomerate suggests that both i t and the volcanic rocks were deposited i n a basin i n the land surface of that time. Park and Cannon (1943, page 10) mention vestigual pillow structures.  I f these can be interpreted  as indicating a submarine environment then the sea must have extended efest as far as the Irene volcanics at this time. Horsethief Creek Monk Walker (1926, page 17) states: "The Horsethief formation was deposited i n standing water i n a subsiding  68  basin or valley bordering the area of high r e l i e f along the margin of which the Toby conglomerate was deposited." He further suggests that sedimentation took place i n the basin contemporaneously with the formation of the conglomerate and that the l a t t e r was reworked to some extent. Park and Cannon (1943, page 13) state, "The great d i v e r s i t y of sedimentary materials i n the Monk formation indicates extreme fluctuations and a wide range of conditions of sedimentation."  They suggest a source of  sedimentary debris to the north based upon the fact that the Monk formation is uniform from east to west but from north to south the amount of g r i t decreases and carbonate beds are proportionately more abundant. The writer believes that the Purcell mountains existed at this time and formed the source.of the Windermere sediments.  Park and Cannon (1943, page 13) noted  that the g r i t pebbles are quartzites rather than single quartz grains.  This would be i n accord with the Purcell  Series of rocks forming a source of sedimentary material. I t is further postulated that marine conditions existed on the western flank of the Purcell mountains. Fluctuations of sea l e v e l might account for the diverse nature of sediments.  Parts' of the Toby conglomerate was  reworked and finer material carried out to sea.  Erosion of  the Kitchener-Wallace formation of the Purcell Series where then exposed would y i e l d limy material and result i n  69  limestone beds i n the Horsethief Creek formation. Age of the Hamill and Lardeau Groups The main source of evidence for the age' of the Hamill group comes from i t s equivalent the Gypsy quartzite i n the Metaline Quadrangle.  The "Burrows" of the top  member of the Gypsy quartzite are interpreted as Scolithus and are thus believed to be of Lower Cambrian age.  Also a broken piece of quartzite believed to have  been derived from the Gypsy quartzite was found to contain several poorly preserved fragments of t r i l o b i t e s of Cambrian age. The Pend O r e i l l e group i n the area west of the Metaline Quadrangle was found to contain pleospongia and is of Lower Cambrian age.  The overlying Metaline lime-  stone i s quite fossiliferous and d e f i n i t e l y contains a fauna of middle Cambrian age.  Because the Maitlen  p h y l l i t e conformably underlies the Metaline limestone i t i s believed to be of late Lower Cambrian age.  The  conformable underlying Gypsy would then be early Lower Cambrian.  The writer thus believes that i n the Salmo-  Metaline area the Hamill group i s e s s e n t i a l l y of Early Waucobian age and the Lardeau group below the Metaline limestone, is late Waucobian i n age. Correlation of the Hamill Group The e a r l i e r Lower Cambrian strata of the Dogtooth Mountains described by C.S. Evans (1932, page 119) consists of two massive quartzite formations separated  70  by a formation that i s dominantly argillaceous. formations are from bottom to top: Louise, and St. Piran.  The  Port Mountain, Lake  They disconformably overlie the  Horsethief Creek formation.  On the basis of s i m i l a r  lithology and age the Port Mountain, Lake Louise, and St. Piran formations may be correlated with the Hamill group. In the Glacier Area Okulitch (1948) recognized the Hamill and Lardeau groups with the intervening Badshot limestone.  After a careful search for f o s s i l s i t was  concluded that the formations are here unfossiliferous. Since the same formations contain f o s s i l s i n the Dogtooth area i t was concluded that diachronous situation existed. If attention is turned to the correlation chart (see pocket) i t w i l l be observed that the formations become younger from Glacier to the Dogtooth Mountains.  This fact is  best interpreted as indicating deposition i n a transgressing sea which moved slowly from west to east. In the Cranbrook area the Eager formation i s known to be Upper Lower Cambrian i n age on the evidence of t r i l o b i t e s found by Schofield (1922) near S t . Eugene Mission.  The Cranbrook quartzite is about 800 feet thick  and underlies the Eager formation.  The following evidence  presented by Rice (1937, page 21) points to a lower Cambrian age: 1.  It overlies the Purcell series i n places with a  marked unconformity.  71  2.  It is different l i t h o l o g i c a l l y from any of the  Beltian formations. 3.  The annelid-like markings and the "punctate"  forms, p a r t i c u l a r l y the resemblance of the l a t t e r to those found i n the Lower Donald suggest that the Cranbrook formation i s Palaeozoic rather than Precambrian i n age. Similar structures are found i n the Nelson area (Rice 1941, page 29). 4.  Schofield has correlated the basal quartzites  of the Cranbrook formation with certain quartzites and conglomerates conformably underlying the lower Cambrian Burton formation at Ram creek and Elko. In the Nelson area Rice (1941, page 29) observed the Cranbrook formation to l i e upon Siyeh, Kitchener, and Creston rocks.  Clearly recognizable Creston cobbles  occur i n the basal conglomerate.  Thus, there i s l i t t l e  doubt of an important unconformity between the Purcell Series and the Cranbrook formation. Rice (1937, page 18) describes the Cranbrook formation as follows: "They are massive,  coarse-grained,  siliceous rocks, white, rose-red, green, and grey i n colour.  They occur i n beds up to 4 feet thick separated by  thin partings of a r g i l l i t e .  Small beds of conglomerate,  with quartz pebbles up to an inch across, occur l o c a l l y . The basal members i n places contain small fragments of the underlying rocks. locally."  Ripple-marks and cross-bedding occur  Beds of magnesite and conglomerate each up to  72  100 feet thick occur within the Cranbrook formation, The Cranbrook formation and the Hamill group both consist mainly of coarse c l a s t i c sediments.  Since  they are also of the same age the writer believes that the Cranbrook formation is the eastern equivalent of the Hamill group.  The lithology of the two formations i s  not markedly s i m i l a r ; however, this i n part may be due to a difference i n the degree of metamorphism. Rice (1941, page 30) presents a problem which exists i n the Nelson area.  On Goat River the Cambrian  Cranbrook formation i n places rests upon the Creston with no evidence of marked Precambrian f o l d i n g .  Only  13 miles to the west, the lower P u r c e l l group i s overlain by the Upper P u r c e l l , which i s , i n turn overlain by the Windermere Series.  It then appears that 35000 feet of  sediments are missing i n the Goat River section. i f the Hamill  However,  group i s the western equivalent of the  Cranbrook formation then this figure is greatly reduced and the problem dissolves i t s e l f .  After the "Purcell  U p l i f t " erosion proceeded rapidly on the western flank of the P u r c e l l mountains.  In places the Purcell Series was  eroded down to the Aldridge formation.  This sedimentary  debris went to form the Toby Conglomerate, Horsethief Creek, and part of the Hamill group.  Then the early  Waucobian sea spread east and deposited the lower Cambrian Cranbrook formation on the eroded P u r c e l l Group. the base of the Cranbrook quartzite marks a great  Thus,  73  unconformity which is the eastern extension of the base of the Toby Conglomerate. It has been pointed out that the Hamill group of the Glacier-Dogtooth area was probably deposited i n a sea which transgressed the Purcell land mass as i t moved slowly east.  The same situation apparently existed i n the  Cranbrook area.  Here, the main basin of deposition was  located i n the present position of Kootenay Lake.  As the  Purcell mountains were worn down to supply sediments to the main basin the shore l i n e extended east and a shallow sea covered the Cranbrook area.  The magnesite i n a l l  probability was derived from the erosion of the Kitchener formation under favourable conditions.  It was i n these  somewhat shallow marine to continental conditions with deltas and a fluctuating shore l i n e that the Cranbrook formation was deposited.  T h u s d u r i n g early Waucobian  times, the Cranbrook formation is believed to be a nearshore equivalent of the Hamill group. Plate 3 shows the writers conception of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of land and sea during early Waucobian times. It w i l l be noted that the geosynclinal basin trends northsouth from Metaline to the Field-Golden area. Location of the Olenellus Zone The Olenellus zone of lower Cambrian is believed to pass through the limy member of the Reno formation. To the south i n the Metaline Quadrangle the ©lenellus zone has not been recognized but probably l i e s within the Gypsy  P a I e o g e o g v-o p In i c  M a p  o-f  E airly  Waucobian  Plate  I1 1  T~\ m e  S  75  quartzite.  To the north of the Salmo area the limy horizon  of the Reno becomes the Badshot limestone.  In the Dogtooth  area Evans (1932, page 122A2) found the Qlenellus zone at the base of the Donald formation.  This formation consists  mainly of alternating impure limestone, sandstone and slate.  They are believed equivalent to the Badshot limestone  and the base of the Lardeau group.  In the Cranbrook area  a formation similar to the Badshot does not occur. Qlenellus occurs within the Eager formation.  The  On the  correlation chart (see pocket) i t has been placed at the base of the Eager formation. Precambrian-Palaeozoic Boundary By d e f i n i t i o n the Qlenellus zone should mark the Precambrian-Palaeozoic boundary.  In some areas the  Qlenellus zone l i e s within the Hamill quartzite. "Scolithua" of the Gypsy quartzites i s considered to be of Lower Cambrian age.  The sea that deposited the Hamill  formation has been shown to have moved slowly eastward. Since the Hamill i n the Glacier area i s Precambrian i n age and i s of Lower Cambrian age i n the Dogtooth mountains then c l e a r l y the Hamill group spans the Precambrian-Palaeozoic boundary.  On a formational basis the writer proposes that  the top of the Horsethief Creek be taken as the Precambrian Palaeozoic boundary.  The Horsethief Creek and a l l i t s  equivalents are considered to be d e f i n i t e l y of Proterozoic age.  76  Correlation of the Lardeau Group The three formations of the Metaline Quadrangle are represented i n the Salmo area by the Fend O r e i l l e group. The Lardeau i s equivalent to the Pend O r e i l l e plus the top of the Reno formation.  In the Cranbrook area the Eager  formation is lower Cambrian; therefore, rock equivalent i n age to the Metaline limestone and Ledbetter slate i n the Cranbrook  area has been either eroded away or was never  deposited. In the Dogtooth area the Donald and Canyon Creek formations are of the same age as the Maitlen p h y l l i t e and Metaline limestone. In the Glacier area the Badshot and Lardeau were recognized a l l of which are apparently unfossiliferous. Conditions of Sedimentation of the Lardeau Group The rocks of the Lardeau group are limy and argillaceous i n contrast to the q u a r t z i t i c character of the Hamill group.  This change may i n part be ascribed to the  decreasing r e l i e f of the P u r c e l l mountains by the processes of erosion.  It i s believed that the shoreline of the  Waucobian sea moved slowly from west to east the Purcell land mass.  transgressing  This may be due to a r i s e i n sea  l e v e l i n addition to the tendency for base l e v e l i n g and crustal disturbance.  Deeper water conditions obtained i n  the basin -deposition- led to the deposition of limy and argillaceous  sediments.  77  The Montana Island No mention has yet been made of the important geographic element of the Cordilleran trough of Cambrian, Ordovician and S i l u r i a n periods known as the Montana Island. The moat northern l o c a l i t y i n south western United States from which Lower Cambrian f o s s i l s have been reported i s on the north side of Great Salt Lake.  The most southern  Waucobian f o s s i l l o c a l i t y on the north side of the Montana Island i s 6 miles northeast of Cranbrook.  To the west  Lower Cambrian f o s s i l s have been recognized at C o l v i l l e , Washington.  Deiss (1940, page 788) states: "Similar  lower Cambrian t r i l o b i t e s do occur i n the Canadian Rockies and i n Utah, and parts of the Qlenellus fauna reached as far south as north-eastern Washington, but a l l other f i e l d evidence suggests that two separate invasions occurred i n the Cordilleran geosyncline i n Waucobian time; one from the south through southern C a l i f o r n i a , and one from the north through Alaska." The writer believes this intervening positive area was the land mass produced by the Purcell U p l i f t and represents the Purcell Mountains which formed the source of the Windermere sediments.  Further i t is proposed that  this land mass, better known as the Montana Island, had a considerable extension north and east.  The regional  structures of the Purcell mountains trend north.  Along  the International boundary the Purcell Series outcrops as far east as Waterton Park.  It is probable that the Purcell  78  Series continue^ beneath the f o o t h i l l s of Alberta at least sa far as Calgary. A l l of this area would have constituted the Montana Island. Prom a study of the sections exposed on Mounts Bosworth and Assiniboine i n the Canadian Rockes near Banff, Deiss (1940, page 789) concludes: The transgression was u  halted on the north shore of the Montana Island where sands and gravels were being deposited during late Waucobian times while limestones and shales were being deposited i n the north."  The late Waucobian shore line can be extended  to Cranbrook and thence around the north west side of the Montana Island to C o l v i l l e , Washington.  The writer  considers the lower part of the Lardeau to be of late Waucobian age so that i t would also be deposited by t h i s sea.  A paleogeographic map of late Waucobian time (see  Plate 4) shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sea i n r e l a t i o n to the Montana Island. The Metaline limestone is of middle Cambrian age and probably indicate^deeper water conditions i n the Metaline Quadrangle during this time.  *  The geesynclinal  basin of Waucobian time s t i l l existed and i n the Dogtooth area the Canyon Creek slates and shales were l a i d down. They were presumably deposited nearer to shore than the Metaline limestone. Upper Cambrian strata are absent from the Metaline Quadrangle.  This indicates emergence or  subsequent erosion prior to the deposition of the Ledbetter  79  slate.  However, i n the Dogtooth area the O t t e r t a i l and  Goodsir formations of shales and limestones were deposited. During Ordovician times the Metaline area was again depressed and the Ledbetter slate deposited, thus completing the Lardeau group.  ^  80  P a W o o e  M a p Of  Late  W a u c o b va n  Plate  A-  T\rne  81 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, A . L . (1930) ' Geology and Ore Deposits of the Clark Fork D i s t r i c t , Idaho; Idaho Bur. Mines and Geol. B u l l 12. Anderson, A . L . (1940) Geology and Metalliferous Deposits of Kootenai County, Idaho; Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology, Pamphlet No. 53. Calkins, F . C .  (1913) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg Quadrangle, Montana; U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 78.  Clapp, C . H . , and Deiss C F . (1930) Correlation of Montana Algonkian Formations; B u l l , of Geol. Soc. of America, V o l . 42. Daly, R.A.  (1912)_ North American C o r d i l l o r a , Fortyninth P a r a l l e l ; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.38,  Deiss, C.  (1940) Lower and Middle Cambrian Stratigraphy of Southwestern Alberta and Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia; B u l l , of Geol. Soc. of America, V o l . 51.  Evans, C.S.  (1932) Brisco-Dogtooth Map-area, B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol... Sur. of Canada, Summary Report, Part A 2.  A  Gibson, R., Jenks, W.F., and Campbell I . (1941) Stratigraphy of the Belt Series i n Llbby and Trout Creek Quadrangles, Northwestern Montana and Northern Idaho; B u l l , of Geol. Soc. of America, V o l . 52 ? *o-*-p._«,A. Kindle, E.M.  (1917) Recent and F o s s i l Ripple Marks; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mus. B u l l . 25.  Kirkham, R . D . , and E l l i s , E.W. (1926) Geology and Ore Deposits of Boundary Co., Idaho, Idaho Bur. Mines and Geol., B u l l . 10. Park, C . F . , and Cannon, R.S. (1943) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Metaline Quadrangle, Washington; U.S. Geol. Sur. Prof. Paper 202 Ransome, P . L . and Calkins P . C . (1908) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Coeur d' Alene D i s t r i c t , Idaho, Prof. Paper 62, U.S.G.S. Rice, H.M.A.  (1937) Cranbrook Map-area, B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 207  82  Rice, H.M.A.  (1941) Nelson Map-area, East Half, B r i t i s h Columbia, Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem.228 Schofield, S . J . (1915) Geology of the Cranbrook Map-area B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Canada Memo. 76. Schofield, S . J . (1922) Relationships of the Precambrian (Beltian) Terrain to the Lower Cambrian Strata of Southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mus. B u l l . 35 Geol Sur.42 Trask, P.D. and Wu, C C . (1930) Free sulphur i n recent sediments; B u l l . Geol. Soc. Am. V o l . 41. Twenhofel, W.H. (1939) Principles of Sedimentation; McGraw-Hill Book Company. Walcott, C D . (1906) Algonkian Formations of Northwestern Montana; B u l l . Geol. Soc. Am. V o l . 17. Walcott, C D . Walker, J . F .  (1910)  Smith. Misc. C o l l ; V o l . 57  (1926) Geology and Mineral Deposits of Windermere Map-area, B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 148  Walker, J . F . , Bancroft M.F. and Gunning, H . C (1929) Lardeau Map-area, B r i t i s h Columbia, Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 161. Walker, J . F .  (1934) Geology and Mineral Deposits of Salmo Map-area, B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 172.  A M E R I C A N  5  M e t a l me  Park  6  and  7  Geol.  2  Salmo Surv. of  Canada;  Nelson  G e o l . S u r v . of  3  M a p - A r e a (\93l) • M a p J . F. W a l k e r ;  299A , M e m . Scale  A r e a - East (\938): M a p 6 0 3 A  C a n a d a , H. M . A . R > c e ; S c a l e  Cranbrook  M a p A r e a - n o r t h (l 9 3 5 )  l"-4  8  172,  9  ,Mem.228,  Map  Area-South  (\9I5)  O  M a p 3 9 6 A ,  •Map  147 A  M e m . 7 6 , G e o l . S u r v . of C a n o d a , S . J . S c b o f \ e \ d . S c a l e f = 4  H.I  miles  U.S. Dept  Clark  1 m c h = \.5  Fork  Ellis;  Scale  Bur. of  1 mch -2 m i l e s .  Gas  Inves-  of \nf., G e o l . S u r v . , S c a l e ! w l i * 8  miles.  Montana(l944)'-  O i l and  D l s t r i c t (I 9 2 9 ) '• B u i 1. 1 2 , I d a h o Scale  \ mch-2  11  Kootenai  Coeur  U.S.G.S  ,  B u r . of  miles.  C r e e k Q u a d r a n g l e (,^41). B u i I. cf Ge  Trout  County  Mines ; A . L . Anderson  3 0 N  U.S.G.S  miles.  C o u n t y ( l 9 2 6 V B u l l . 10, I d a h o  Kirkham and  t  Scale  37) : P r o f . Paper 2 0 2 ,  A m e r \ c a . V o l 5 2 . G i b s o n , J e n k s and Campbell, Scole  miles.  %%  Cranbrook  ;  M i n e s , A.L.Anderson ;  1 "= i m i l e .  M e m . 2 0 7 , G e o l . Surv. of C a n a d a ; H . M . A . R \ c e ; S c a l e \ * 1 m i l e  4-  Cannon  Geologic M a p o f  tigation  \  Quadrangle (\9  Boundary  Mines,  M A P - A R E A S  O^Alene  1"^ 3 m\ l e s .  (1940) : P a r n . M o . 53, I d a h o ;  Scole  \ i n c h - 2. m i l e s .  Di S t r i c t (1907):  F.C C a l k m s ,  Scale  Bur. of  Prof. P o p e r  1 m c h m'\ m i l e .  6 2 ,  SERIES  WINDERMERE Dogtooth  G l a c i e r OKul  C.S.Evans  i t c h  N e l s o n A r e a E.as"T  and W m d e v m e r e  H.M. A Rice  J.F. W o l K e v  JTVMalker  H.M.A. R i c e  \935  I 932  194-S  Me"Va l\ne  . a Irno  938  931  P a r K and  1937  (V J OHul.tcVi) M eTa \ m e 3ooo'  N O R T H  SOUTH  Creggan Creek 1500', v. Reeves Mc Donald 3Soo' \  'Ledbelfer  x  Pend  Beoverfoot 760' Driscuix XFx x >  S» I ur i o n  Wonoh  Gle.rioqle  SKolc  2l5o"  Ordov ician  F  slale,  Good  sha /t. and  Ottertail  Upper  urey  Z7ci-2ooo  Combnan  Middle  I m-,e  Q  o  n  Shofy  Lowe*- Donald  OlenelluS Z o n e I -  C a m b r \ a n  and  Lardeau  ar*.i  tirriC b^-tncj =>  grey //ilk.  2,000  MoiTleo  a m b r  PhvlliTe •v 5000  ofL  1  f^es-lo-''  a  CranbrooK 8 0 0 ^  tftsarTxttfi  Badshot loo" ^ —  s  /1 n-i e j i o n e  / tm es lone-  .  argtWfe  and pr>y H'fe-  PorceW  ^  pc-phsh  auarTz:/ / e £J/->c/  Se«c, tit  argi Ilaceorj-*  Series  \  \  N  Qr-Gy grc-er,  Harn.H  S  while,  Group  rlzife ciuorlzi/e  quarT  IOfc.00  y  Horselbief  bonds-  M»dd\<  3.000  River  TOOO  gneiss,  and  m yne>ian  Gvoup loooo  Fusty org 1  j Solmo  \an  Lower  3500  w-or  Qrgiilite  1  >-l  Eoger , feooo  x  Lake Louise ,/ /looo / Fov-i" Mountain /  dork  ne  pmh'ish  .2360  Several  Lav-deou  —'  sld/es  schist,  (juarl^i fe  I mpurcj  \ Si" Pi rain,'  J  s If  dar.-- grey  ^ Creek - ""2.000'  t  limetdonn.  rrtagnesjpn,  Me1b\ine LirnesTo'-ie  Group  e»po&ed _  Ord o v i c i a n  Skfte . 250b'  x  D' O r e i l l e  Top not  QuavtziTe  1ST-  of L o w e r  C a n n o n  QuarTziTe  maSSttrc  Ronge  f-n.nor-  and  arid  Gypsy Q uo rtzite 53oo-85oo|  qua rl JLi Ic. ot-y, I'I'1 'G-  1  I  4400  sihc'tovs z ite  "Three Sisters .  /  Creek  Cc.*3r-sc  ants  Mor>K  380O  5400  Pv-oterozoic  4000 /  /  "Toby Conql.  /  C.Onq lon-re r**7L  / So-2.0 OO  x v * *,y Puree 1 I  /  Badshot  green  Hor-seTh.ef  x  quartz.! te  \ G -Ge e W 5 0 0 0  Serves  /  lim&fTcne.  \  Prater ozoic  A  1  Tblc S^-hi^T  Creek  g*~ i arkase  Leolo  and  Vo\conics  l.m e sTo n e and  5000  sheared  COngJcxnC-raJe  Toby Conq\. ^  Irene  •aneJc^li''^  mas±ir£  'Sr-edroot  and  Sheared  VcJcanic- I-0C-  X  Corg\omef| 5000  jrr-enflhne  x  H©mi  +  pet  T r e r i e Vol -  / -  blue  (  'ath*fil}tTe  HorseTViief]  argil/aceous  Puv-cell Ser\es  Pr\esi" P»ver  I ver>e  Cong lorn era '<s  Group  A B C  Horsethve-f  PURCELL-BELT Cranbrook  Nelson Area Easi"  Area  RM.A.R\ce  K \ r h a m  H.M.A.R\ce 194-1  1937  Mount Nelson  NORTH  tnagnesian  Kvtckenev 6000'  weo  colodnsd^  I her my  and  Co/careauS  doJom.TL  a  T  K\TcViener-|  a fed  Org,  magn  esian  /i/r?&s7c"->e  C.0I0  Ki~fcb.er.er -  ured  magnes/ar-i and  7500  Wallace  limestone  Calcareous  and  t  Crestor*  massive  €>3oo  g^een  one!  Ot-g'i./life  CresTor.  r-Txife  cj  dry if/a c&o us 5o/r?a  6000  :  IhTes  Cfua r-Txi Te  and  and  greenish  vvilh shaly  A\dr.dge Pv-iclnovd  rru*SSi~e  ^  SiUeouS  > ^  shale  Aldridge Sever-a ThicK  I  cJiorifc  beddea  si/Is  ahyi Ilaccoas  ?  med,  Wallace  Re*<*tt  T  3ur-Ke  . -  ^t-em^h  6000  and  fhm  end  Calcareous Some  shalus  argillaceous  -  •  \  (  ua^rTzi  shaly  pinKish  weathering  But-Ke , 35oo s  te  Qnjy  N  at-gillite  P r o t e r o  Z.OIG  /  /  Pn chard / ©000'  Wollace IOS00  \  parTinyS-  greenish  darh  fimeslone and dotcrn'Te - / /-thin bedded bkiish  ngS f  r;a  Or as ttim  \  .  rna*-K  S^indstb  -fine  7r majsivu  beds  J,lc, h  *sdf> a>-y,ll'7&  / gray  argillite^'  greemsh  heds  argil>fifes  s  Sandy,  grained  gray  shales  /  7000  yu ,te  quarTziiTe  n  shales  sandstone,  an*  inT*ri*dd*°> e  Sanely y-us  Sha/c  »chard  PricViard  20000  ty  grey  brovan  dark  i/UTe argi  970o  e  do/ctm'i'Tic.  grey  1000  Reveii / • BurUe /  quar-fxiTe.  t  grey  purple  ~ind  \  pink  rH ' if fa and WilrT arg-l'-  dark  ^Vooo St Regis  shales  tfuarT~2.ilo  Z  TOOO  red, to  Sand ston& quard~z.i1e  green ,sl> <*nW quarT^ile.  massive purplish  7500  qUQrt~^.t1& and ^  green  quarT .1b  Fort Sfeele  dar\  ^  and  Wallace  2ooo  grayish  To n  /life  bedded  ^^'Sh y  cfuardz.ltb  and  J im e  and argi  /  St. Regis  I6000i  ouar-Tz'/es  Sandy  Ca/rarcous  P  QuarV^zite qr&y , rusty  and ~jree'r?is h  tjrey  shales  S"Tr v p ed PeoK  id  IO OOO  par-Tings  cjrey  reddish  and  4000  red orai I la ceo (us  and  Sandstbr>es  N  argd!'-&.  qUorTx'te.  at-gi  Striped Peak  bedded  ar^lU'te.  quar fx • t&,  T~r-a n s i~f~i'or-i platy  gr-a in<~d /hin  -  50OO  jjnsy  purple  and  Fine  Co/c«reouS  ~~~^5onds/one, and ~\ C bra~n , purple and \St ^9'$ ijreen shale  e  ond gr*y  Calkins  1908  8000  qua r-t z /-<S  Ravall 1 green  F.C.  C a m p b e l l  \94\  1928  4-500  arqr/l'te  qree n purple f  J e ' n k s ,  A l e n e  fe  GresTori  purple.  ,  0  SOUTH  lom/n  Van  S"\ y e r i  b>v£f  G i b s o n  A . L . A n d e r s o n  C o e u r  C r e e k  /'mestone  . red and g r-e <s n  Variously  T r o u t  D i s t r i c t  argil-'te  Quarry,  purple  ElliS  and  Fork  <faa^Tz:'i7h  OutcVi  Qf-glfftfe and dry- - d-eoos ocar-Tzi/te. and dolo*r>'1~tk  C l a r k  C o u n i y  1926  laminated  3£oo  Siyeh tocvo - 2.000  b o u n d a r y  SERIES  argilfrfe  argi/life  and  quarTziTe  rr>a3Sive  while  quar-Tz-ife  b a s e r\o"f  exposed  K o o t e n a i A .  L .  C o u n t y  A n d e r s o n 1940  C o e u r  0  F. C .  A l e n e  C a l k i n s  1908  M i s s i o n W i l s o n \924  R a n g e W a l c o t t \900  M i SSOula C l a p p  ond  1930  De\SS  P W i l i p s b u r g  B e l t  Mountains  C o l k v n S  W o l o o t t  \9\3  1898  WES  Apri\ \ 9 4 9 C. G .  C h e r i t o n  

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