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Ecology of American palaeozoic sponges Nelson, Samuel James 1950

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ECOLOGY OJ? AMERICAN.PALAEOZOIC SPONGES by Samuel James fi'elson -o-A Thesis Submitted In P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Applied Soience i n the Department of Geology and Geography -o-THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1950 A p r i l 13 , 1950' Dr. H. F. Angus, Dean of the Faculty of Graduate Studies, The University of I B r i t i s h Columbia. Dear S i r : I t gives me great pleasure to submit the following t h e s i s , Ecology of Amer.icaniPalaeozo&c Sponges, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements of the course leading to the Degree of Master-of Applied Scienee i n Geology, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. lours t r u l y , Samuel J . Nelson i ABSTRACT Svidence concerning the ecology of American Palaeozoic sponges, excluding hexactineHids and incertae sedis, i s d i s -cussed and evaluated. In add i t ion, -> detailed summaries of nearly a l l the papers describing American Palaeozoic sponges are i n -cluded. This t h e s i s , f o r the most part i s a compilation of a v a i l -able information, and i s intended as such to be a guide f o r further investigations (especially f i e l d studies) of sponge ec-ology. 'i'he environment i n which the Palaeozoic sponges l i v e d was very important i n deciding whether they would, be preserved as f o s s i l s or be destroyed. Muddy waters seem to have been the best f o r preserving sponges, while only the mqreasolidly b u i l t .foaams such as l i t h i s t i d s and oaloisponges are usually preserved on firm bottoms i n clear waters. Sponges, because of t h e i r p h ysiological make-up, are subject to rapid decay and hence usually leave l i t t l e trace of t h e i r former presence i n the sediments. J h i s q i s e s p e c i a l l y true of the loosely b u i l t manactinellids and t e t r a c t i n e l l i d s , but l e s s so of the more s o l i d l y constructed l i t h i s t i d s and caloisponges. It can be seen, therefore, that, at times theaancient seas probably contained large sponge faunas, but that l i t t l e record of t h e i r presence was l e f t behind. The-eoology of the sponges, i n t h i s thesis, i s dealt with by epochs, andexception being that of the Carboniferous period. In the Cambrian, sponges are present i n the Wauoobian and Albertan s e r i e s . Besides the hexac tine H i d s , pleosponges and incertae sedis, the monactinellids are the only sponges found. i i These are nearly a l l found i n shaly sediments. A muddy water environment i s suggested, but i t i s possible that the muds might have been the only sediments capable of preserving the moa-a c t i n e l l i d s . The Grdovician contains the largest sponge fauna, i n number of genera and speoies, of any Palaeozoic system. They are found i n a l l stages. T e t r a o t i n e l l i d s , l i t h i s t i d s , and calcisponges, as well as monactinellids are present but l i t t l e information was found on t h e i r ecology. A muddy water environment i s suggested for the monaotinellids and a clear water one for the l i t h i s t i d s and calcisponges. The seas, at a l l times, appear to have been shallow, ^ i n the Gincinnatian epoch the sponges,in the area around Ohio and Kentucky,are believed to have l i v e d i n clear, limestone depositing waters and to have been p e r i o d i c a l l y k i l l e d by influxes of mud. The S i l u r i a n sponges are found only i n the Iiagaran s e r i e s . The fauna consists c h i e f l y of l i t h i s t i d s and seems to have l i v e d i n r e l a t i v e l y deep, quiet,muddy waters.. It i s suggested that the s a l i n i t y of the succeeding Cayugan seas may have contributed to t h e i r extinction. After Silmrian times, l i t h i s t i d s were never very numerous i n the P a l a e o z o i c Although r i c h i n the remains of h e x a c t i n e l l i d s , the Devonian system contains very few genera and species of the other sponge groups. The Ulsterian series contains only Hindia f i b r o s a . This sponge seems to have preferred muddy waters. The Senecan series contains numerous markings attributed to the work of boring sponges. L i t t l e i s known of the ecology of Carboniferous sponges. i i i H e n o e t h e M i s s i s s i p p i a n a n d P e n n a y l v a n i a n s y s t e m s a r e d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r . T h e P e r m i a n s y s t e m c o n t a i n s a r a t h e r l a r g e o a l c i s p o n g e a n d l i t h i s t i d £ a u n a i n w h i c h t h e c a l o i s p o n g e s d o m i n a t e . T h e . P e r m i a n s p o n g e s a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e e f d e p o s i t s . I n L e o n a f e d i a n t i m e s , c a l o i s p o n g e s u s u a l l y l i v e d o n t h e f o r e - r e e f a n d t h e l i t h i s t i d s i n t h e n e a r - f o r e - r e e f , o p e n s e a f a c i e s . I n G u a d -a l u p i a n t i m e s , t h e c a l o i s p o n g e s l i v e d o n b o t h t h e r e e f a n d n e a r -f o r e - r e e f f a c i e s . h i t h i s t i d s w e r e n o t n u m e r o u s , b u t a r e - f o u n d m o s t l y o n t h e f o r e - r e e f . T h e G u a d a l u p i a n s p o n g e s m a f i e i m p o r t a n t c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o r e e f b u i l d i n g . X A C KHOWLEDGMEHTS This thesis was begun i n the f a l l of 1948, and work has continued p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r a period of two years. During the la s t year, the writer was enabled to continue his researches with the help of the Dr. F.J. Nicholson Scholarship f o r Geology. The writer would therefore l i k e to express his gratitude to Mrs. F.J. Nicholson. Special thanks are due Dr. V.J. Okulitch, who supervised this thesis, f o r his generous co-operation and h e l p f u l suggestions given during a l l phases of i t s preparation. In addition the writer would l i k e to express his g r a t i -tude to his fellow students- who suggested numerous improvements which could be made i n this paper. The most important of these contributors were; Messrs. G.L. B e l l , K.H. Harris, R.A.Barker, and H. Gabrielse. Mr. F.K. North also helped with the preparation of the section on Devonian ecology. Mr. Ralph H. King, of the Roy H. King O i l Corporation, Texas, very kindly wrote to the writer answering his queries about Permian sponge ecology. The writer would also l i k e to thank the Department of Geology and Geography f o r f i n a n c i a l help enabling him to procure publications through the i n t e r - l i b r a r y loan. TABLE Off CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.. . i INTRODUCTION i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. .... i x ECOLOGY Off PALAEOZOIC SPONGES ECOLOGY OF CAMBRIAN SPONGES.• 1 Introduction. • ..... 1 I. Eoology of Waucobian Sponges....... 4 II. Ecology of Aibertan Sponges....... 4 Discussion. 8 ECOLOGY Off ORDOVICIAN SPONGES.. 10 Introduction. 10 I. Ecology of Canadian (lower Ordovician)Sponges... 11 II . Eoolqgy of Monawkian Sponges. 16 A . Eoology of Chazyan Sponges.. . 16 B. Ecology of Black River Sponges. 34 C. Eoolggy of Trenton Sponges 41 I I I . Eoology of Cincinnatian Sponges....... 47 IV. Eoology of G amachian Sponges 62 Discussion 64 ECOLOGY Off SILURIAN SPONGES... 66 Introduction 66 Ecolggy of Niagaran Sponges • 66 Discussion. 90 ECOLOGY Off DEVONIAN SPONGES. i . . . 92 Introduction. 9 2 Page Ii Eoology of U l s t e r i a n Sponges..... 93 II . Ecology, of Erian Sponges i . . . . . . . . . m III* Ecology of S Qneoan Sponges......... 112 Discussion. 115 ECOLOGY OF CARBONIFEROUS SPONGES 116 Introduction* .- 116 I. Eoology of Mississippian Sponges...i 116 II . Ecology of Pennsylvanian Sponges......... *.. 118 Discussion. . V . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 ECOLOGY OF ^PERMIAN SPONGES..../........,. 126 Introduction*..i. 126 I. Ecology of Leonardian S p o n g e s . 129 I I . Eoology of Guadalupiah Sponges.............i. 140 Disoussion. 149 BIBLIOGRAPHY , * 152 SUMMARY OF PAPERS DESCRIBING NORTH AMERICAN PALAEOZOIC SPONGES Bassler, R. S. (1927.), 161 Bassler, E. S. (1941). 164 Beede, J. W. (1©00) 165 B i l l i n g s , E. (1865). 167 Branson, 0. L. (1937)* 173 Buoher, W. S. (1929)....... 174 Buoher, W. S. (19E9-)..... k 175 Chadwick, G. H. (1944)..... 176 Clarke, J. M. (1897J. 178 Clarke, J . 11.(1908).. 1?£ Clarke, J• M. (1919) 3.SI Cossman, M. (1909) 182 Dawson, W. J. ( 1 8 8 8 1 . . ^ 183 Dawson, W. J. (1889)....... i . . . 185 Dawson, W. J. (1889) 18£ Dawson, W, J. (1896)... 187 Duncan, P. M. (1879).......... 189 Duncan, P. M. (1887)........... *> 190 Fenton, 0. L. and Fenton, M. A. (1924).. 191 Fenton, C. L. and Fenton, M. A. (1932) ( i 193 Foerste, A. F. (1903) 196 Foerste, A. F. (1910) 198 Girty, G. H. (1895) .... ....... i i . . . . * . . . 201 Girty, G . H . (1908a) { 203 Girty, G. H. (1908b). 212 Gir t y i G. H. (1911)..., 215 Girty, G. H. (1915) 216 Gpldringj W. and Cook, J. H. (1936) 218 Hall* J. (1863)... 220 Hinde, G. J. (1887 ).. . . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . . ; 221 Hinde* G. J. (1888) 2 g 2 Hinde, 6. J. (1889) 2 2 3 Hinde, G. J. (1889) 2 2 4 Hinde* G. J. (1889 j . . ^ 227 Hinde j G. J. (18g8) , .... 2 2 Q Howell, B. F. (1936) t 2 g 9 Howell, B. F. (1937) [ m H o w e l l , B . F . ( 1 9 4 0 ) . . . . . . . 2 3 1 H o w e l l , B . F . ( 1 9 4 1 ) 2 3 4 H o w e l l , B . F . ( 1 9 4 2 ) 2 3 5 H o w e l l , B . F . a n d L a n d e s , P. W. ( 1 9 3 6 ) * 2 3 6 J a m e s , J . F . ( 1 8 9 2 ) . . . . . . . . 2 3 8 Z i n g , P . B . ( 1 9 3 7 ) . 2 4 2 K i n g , P . B . ( 1 9 4 2 ) 2 4 5 K i n g , R . B.', D u n b a r , G, 0 . , C ^ o u d , P . E . , \ f 2 4 6 V~ a n d M i l l e r , A . E . ( 1 9 4 4 ) . 2 4 7 K i n g , R. H. ( 1 9 3 2 ) . . . . 2 4 8 K i n g , R . H . ( 1 9 3 8 ) 2 5 4 K i n g , H . H . ( 1 9 4 3 ) 2 5 8 L a i r d , H . C . ( 1 9 3 5 ) 2 6 5 L o w e n s t a m , H . % , ( 1 9 4 8 ) 2 6 6 M i l l e r , S . A . ( 1 8 8 9 ) 2 7 9 N e e d h a m , Q . E . ( 1 9 3 3 ) 2 8 1 N o r t h r o p , S . A . ( 1 9 3 9 ) . . . 2 8 2 P a r k s , W. A . ( 1 9 3 5 ) 2 8 4 P a t e , W. F . a n d B a s s l e r , ti* S . ( 1 9 0 8 ) . 2 8 6 P r i d d y , R . R. ( 1 9 3 9 ) 2 8 8 R a u f f , H. ( 1 8 8 6 ) . . 4 2 8 9 R a y m o n d , P . E . ( 1 9 0 5 ) 2 9 0 R a y m o n d , P. E . ( 1 9 0 6 ) . . . . . 2 9 1 R a y m o n d , P. E . a n d O k u l i t c h , V . J . ( 1 9 4 0 ) . . . 2 9 4 R u e d e m a n n , B. ( 1 9 1 9 ) . . . . . . 3 0 1 R u e d e m a n n , R . ( 1 9 2 5 ) g G 2 S e h u c h e r t , 0 . a n d T w e n h o f e l , W. H , ( 1 9 1 0 ) 3 0 4 S h i d e l e r , W. H . ( 1 9 3 4 ) . . g Q 5 Stauffer, C. R. (1915) 306 Thomas, A. 0. (1911) .. 308 Twenhofel, w . H. (19£7) 309 Twenhofel, V/. H. (1938). 312 Udden, J. A. (1917) 317 Ul r i o h , E. 0. (1889) 320 Ul r i o h , B. 0. (1890)....... 323 U l r i c h , E. 0. (1890) 326 U l r i c h , Hi• 0. and Everett, 0. (1890). 329 Van Ingen, G. 'and Clarke, P. E. (1902).. 335 Waloott, C. D. (1920) 336 Weller, S. (1903) 341 , Weller, J. M. (1930) 343 Wilson, A. E. (1920i)l 347 Wilson, A. E. (1948) 348 Woodruff, E. G. (1906).,... 351 FIGURES AMD ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1} Columnar seotion of Lower Devonian rocks at Rondout, lew York 98 Figure 2: Columnar section of Lower Devonian rocks at Sohoharie Valley, New York....... 100 figure 3: Columnar section of Lower Devonian rocks of the Berne quadrangle, New York 101 Figure 4: Columnar section of Lower Devonian rocks of the C a t s k i l l and K a t e r s k i l l quadrangles, New York..' 104 Figure 5: SketfcdsiMap of Trans-Pecos area, Glass Moun-tains, Texas, showing po s i t i o n of type sponge species 132 i v INTRODUCTION The aim of t h i s thesis i s threefold: (1) To investigate the ecology of American Palaeozoic sponges, excluding h e x a c t i n e l l i d s , pleosponges and incertae sedis. (2) To describe or l i s t a l l the American sponge lo c -a l i t i e s known to the writer. (3) To bring together, f o r the f i r s t time, detailed summaries of nearly a l l the papers dealing with North American Palaeozoic sponges. This thesis o r i g i n a l l y started as an outgrowth of work done f o r the United States National Research Council. The council requested Dr. V.J. Okulitch, of this University, to prepare an annotated bibliography of a l l papers describing Palaeozoic spongeecology (excluding those dealing with hexact i n e l l i d s and incertae s e d i s ) . A summary of only those papers which s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned some aspect of sponge ecology was wanted. Those which contained only systematic descriptions were not to be included. Dr. Okulitch suggested to the writer that the "Ecology of American Palaeozoic Sponges" would make a rather i n t e r e s t i n g thesis topic and that he and the writer collaborate i n the preparation of the bibliography. The junior author i n the course of investigating a l l possible ecological papers had many occasions to come across such important systematic works as those of Girty (1908a, b), Bassler (1927), B i l l i n g s (1865), King (1932, 1938, 1943), Raymond and Okulitch (1940). U l r i c h (1899), U l r i c h (1890) and U l r i c a end Everett (1890), etc. es well as many others of l e s s e r importance. Although most of these made no mention of ecology, numerous l o c a l i t i e s , formations and rock types i n which sponges occur, were given. The writer has used this information as a s t a r t i n g point i n dealing with, sponge ecology i n this t h e s i s . Detailed summaries of nearly a l l the papers were made. The writer has included them es pert of his thesis and i t i s hoped that they w i l l be useful to other investigators of sponge ecology. In A l l , something l i k e 70 papers hove been summarized. About h a l f of these consist of systematic descriptions. The other he I f WAS included c h i e f l y because they made some mention about sponges or because sponge species were l i s t e d among a fauna of a c e r t s i n formation. It t WRS the writer's o r i g i n a l aim to summarize a l l pspera which made some mention, however.trivial, of Palaeozoic sponges. P r a c t i c a l considerations, however, forced him to somewhat modify th i s aim. The writer believes, however, thet he has summarized the great majority of these papers. Some very important papers such as those of Rauff tl894, 1895) end Roemer (1860) were not included because of the p r o h i b i t i v e amount of time required i n trans-l a t i n g them. The usual procedure i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g eoology was to use the U.S.G.S. Bibliography of North American. Geology i n f i n d i n g references to formations i n which sponges were found. An example of the method used w i l l be discussed i n the following examples. Girty (1908a) described systematically Permian sponges of the Cenitan formation of Texas. The writer accordingly investigated a l l papers l i s t e d i n the "Bibliography" which described the Gaudalupian v i series of Texas. As a general rule, only about one out of twenty papers was of any use. Most of them were eithe r not present i n the University L i b r a r y or else they contained no ecological information, such as depth of water, s a l i n i t y , t u r b i d i t y , etc. Of about the t h i r t y references pertaining to the Cincinnatian series of Ohio, only about seven yielded any information and only three of these seven described environmental conditions at the time of deposition. The other four were useful c h i e f l y because they described rock types. A s i m i l a r sort of thing was found i n the Tennessee S i l u r i a n . Of the 25 references obtained only two of these were of any use, and even these did not described environments. In such a case as the Tennessee S i l u r i a n , the writer was forced to speculate on the possible kind of environment. The reader should r e a l i z e that such spec-ulation Is dangerous and. can e a s i l y lead to erroneous conclusions. On the whole, the results of this research have not been especially productive. In a few instances, as i n the Niagaran, Ulsterian, Leondardlan, and Gusdalupian sponges, rather d e f i n i t e and i n t e r e s t i n g results have been obtained, but with most of the other sponges, no d e f i n i t e e c o l o g i c a l information or trends were found. The writer, however, has been able to suggest possible lines of investigation f o r further research, e s p e c i a l l y f o r f i e l d work. The conclusions reached are l a r g e l y speculative. They have to be since no f i e l d work was done. The writer i n re-constructing environments,- has been forced to depend on the opinions of other geologists. The human fa c t o r has therefore entered, and f a u l t y observations made by one geologist w i l l lead to f a u l t y or incorrect v i i conclusions by this writer. In a few cases i n the thesis the writer has been able to point out f a l l a c i e s i n the lo g i c of some geologists such as Ruedemann (1925) and Bucher (1929) (see 62 and 117 of thi s t h e s i s ) . E c o l o g i c a l information was so li m i t e d f o r some epochs, as, for example, that of the Mohawkian and Ul s t e r i a n , as well as that of the Pennsylvanian period, that the writer was forced to t r y to interpret environmental conditions from the rock type i n which the sponges were found; an exceedingly uncertain pro-cedure. Usually l i t t l e information was obtained, but i n the case of the Ulsterian sponges, extremely i n t e r e s t i n g results were produced. The aim of the writer, i n preparing this thesis was not only to investigate sponge ecology, but to prepare a background which l a t e r workers could, i f they wished, use as a guide to further investigations. For example, the problem of the Gincinnatian sponges was touched on above. It is believed that they occur i n limestone but i t is possible that they are found i n shale, i n which case the writers conclusions are untenable. It i s suggested that l a t e r workers could investigate this problem i n the f i e l d . Many other such p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been presented and suggested. In order to give, as much as possible, a systematic discussior. of ecology, the writer has described the sponges by epochs, begin-ning with the e a r l i e s t (Waucobian) and ending with the l a t e s t (Guadalupian). Those series which do not contain sponges, are not discussed, e.g., Croixan, Alexandrian, Gayugan, Ochoan, etc. In some cases, however, this arrangement has led to an unfortunate ix separation of genetically related series, i . e . , the Cincinnatian and Gamachian of A n t i c o s t i Island. As much as possible the comparison of the environments of modern sponges to those of t h e i r Palaeozoic counterparts has been avoided. The writer did t h i s to avoid prejudice i n describing Palaeozoic environments. It has been assumed by some writers, (e. g., Moore, 1929, p. 468, B. H. King, 1943, p. £7) that because many modern sponges l i v e d i n cle a r , shallow-waters, f o s s i l sponges did likewise. The writer has found that t h i s i s ; not always the case. For instance, the Uambrian, Miagaran, and Ulsterian sponges a l l l i v e d i n muddy waters, if/here clear waters prevailed, they were numerically reduced or absent. ECOLOGY OF AMERICAN PALAEOZOIC SPONGES E C O L O G Y Off CAMBRIAN SPONGES 1 ECOLOGY OF CAMBRIAN  SPONGES" i Introduction In consequence of the large fauna of the Burgess shale, North America contains most of the Cambrian sponge fauna of the world} In addition to the Burgess, however, there are numerous othergCambrian sponge l o c a l i t i e s i n America. Matthew (1890) desoribed a number of genera from the Cambrian rocks of New Brunswick. Unfortunately his descriptions, i l l u s t r a t i o n s and material were very poor and there i s consequently some doubt as to whether the forms noted were r e a l l y sponges. A mon-a o t i n e l l i d described by Walcott (1886) as Leptomitus z i t t e l i i s known from the lower Cambrian Parker formation of Vermont and the Kinzers shale of Pennsylvania. Besides the fauna of the Burgess shale, sponges are known i n the C o r d i l l e r a n region of B r i t i s h Columbia from the Lower Cambrian Mt. Whyte formation and the Middle Cambrian Stephen formation. In Utah, both the Middle Cambrian ^heeler and Marjum formations have each yielded a single species. A possible sponge described as Hagua sphaerica by Walcott (1899) from the Upper Cambrian represents the l a s t of the known Cambrian sponges i n America. This form, however, appears to have a f f i n i t i e s with the Pleospongia (Walcott, 19£0, •V"; p. 264). The numerous l o c a l i t i e s f o r j^leosponges i n I-Jorth Amerioa w i l l not be discussed as t h i s ancient group of organisms x~—•—~—• -~~—•— : - ——— -— 'Fox abdiscussion of the known Cambrian sponges, see Walcott (1920, pp. 263-264). does not come within the scope of this t h e s i s . In the discussion at the end of the section on Cambrian ecology, however, a few pertinent remarks w i l l be made on t h e i r ecology. The Metis shales of Quebec contain a large sponge fauna consisting c h i e f l y of hexact i n e l l i d s and monactinellids. Although Walcott (1920, pp. 267-268) believed that the sponge beds were Cambrian, recent work by Howell has shown that they are more probably of Canadian age. Excluding the pleosponges, hexact i n e l l i d s and incertae sedis, the monactinellids are the only group of sponges found i n Cambrian rocks. T e t r a c t i n e l l i d s , l i t h i s t i d s and calcisponges have not yet been found or else a f f i n i t i e s to these groups have not been recognized by workers among the known Cambrian sponges. A greater number of sponge genera and species are present i n the Cambrian rocks of North America than i n any single one of the Devonian, Mississippian or Fennsylvanian systems. This numerical difference, however, does not necessarily mean that sponges were more abundant i n the Cambrian seas than i n the seas of these l a t e r periods, but rather i t serves to emphasize the importance of factors of preservation when considering f o s s i l sponges. Of the 21 Cambrian monactinellid sponge species known to the writer, 16 occur i n the Burgess shale; these are preserved because of the very special and almost unique circumstances under which the sponges (and other animal groups) died i n the Burgess muds. Most sponges, because of the nature of t h e i r s k e l e t a l con-struction, are not l i k e l y to be preserved as f o s s i l s . This i s e s p e c i a l l y true f o r such a group as the monactinellids where the 3 spicules are usually loosely woven together and vulnerable to rapid decay brought about by the decomposition of soft parts The nature of the bottom muds and waters of the Burgess sea prevented extensive decomposition of the dead sponges. Further, the absence of scavengers allowed the skeletons to remain almost i n t a c t . If the Burgess fauna had not been found, very few sponges would have been known and i t probably would have been thought that the animals were rare i n the Cambrian seas. Thus a very large sponge fauna that we know to have been present could have l e f t behind very l i t t l e record i n the sediments. In the succeeding geological systems l i t h i s t i d s and calc-isponges, although not commonly found, are usually the dom-inant sponge group occurring i n the rocks. This should not, however, be taken to indicate that they were necessarily the most abundant sponge group present i n seas following the Cambrian. Monactinellids could have l i v e d i n these seas and l e f t very l i t t l e record of t h e i r presence. It w i l l probably never be known whether or not the monactinellids and t e t r a c t i n e l l i d s , at times, ever outnumbered the i r more s o l i d l y constructed r e l a t i v e s . In the following description of sponge l o c a l i t i e s and discussion of ecology, the writer has paid special attention to the rock type i n which the sponges were found. This was necessary because of the lack of de f i n i t e information on such environmental factors as depth, temperature, s a l i n i t y , turb-i d i t y , etc. of the waters i n which the sponge bearing sediments were l a i d down. 4 1. Ecology of Waucobian Sponges The Lower Cambrian (Waucobian) sponges are a l l found i n shaly sediments and are referred to the single genus Leptomitus Walcott. Leptomitus b e l l i l i n e a t a Walcott was c o l l e c t e d from grey s i l i c e o u s shales of the Mount Whyte formation on Mount Stephen. Underlying this shale i s a grey limestone and over-l y i n g i t i s a sandstone, neither, apparently, containing any sponge remains. Whether this absence means that the sponges preferred a muday environment to one in which limestone and sand-stone was being deposited, or whether the muds were more capable of preserving the sponges i s not known. The barker formation of Vermont and the Kinzers formation of Pennsylvania also con-t a i n sponges referred to Leptomitus z i t t e l i . Like the Mount Whyte sponges, these also occur i n shales. Very few specimens were found i n any of the American Lower Cambrian formations. I I . Ecology of Albertan Sponges A l l North American Middle Cambrian sponges, as f a r as the writer knows, are found i n the C o r d i l l e r a n region only. The Middle Cambrian monactinellids are l i s t e d below with t h e i r cor-responding formations and l o c a l i t i e s . Halichondrites Dawson H. e l i s s a Walcott Burgess shale of the Stephen formation, F i e l d , B.C. Leptomitus (Tuponia) Walcott L. Lineatus Walcott Burgess shale of the Stephen formation, F i e l d , B.C. L. b e l l i l i n e a t a Walcott Mount Whyte formation, Mount Stephen, B.C. L. f l e x i l i s Walcott L. f l e x i l i s var. intermedia Walcott Takakkawfea Walcott I. l i n e a t a Walcott Wapkia Walcott W. grandis Eazelia l a l o o t t H. palmata Walcott E. conferta Walcdtt H. d e l i c a t u l a Waloott H. (?) grandis Walcott H. nodulifera Wglcott H. obsoura Walcott E. mamillata Walcott Burgess shale of the Stephea formation, F i e l d , £. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. G. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation,. F i e l d , B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation* F i e l d , B. G. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. G. Ogygopsis zone of Stephen formation, Mt. Stephen, B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation. F i e l d , B. C. Qorralia Walcott C. undulata Walcott Sentinelia Walcott S. draco Waloott Choia W aloott C. -oarteri W alcott 0. r i d l e y i Walcott C. utahensis W alcott Hamptonia Walcott H. =bowerbanki Waloott Burgess shale of Stephen formation, F i e l d , B. C. Stephen formation, Mount Eisenhower, Alberta. Wheeler formation, House Hange, Utah? surgess shale of S£fphen formation, f i e l d , B. C. Ogygopsis zone of Stephen foanmationj Mount Stephen, B. C. Burgess shale of Stephen formation-, F i e l d , B• C. Marjum formation, House Hange, Utah. Burgess shale of Stephen formation, .MieM, B. C. Ogygopsis. zone of Stephen formation, Mount Stephen, B.C. Stephen formation, Mount F i e l d , B. C. As oan be seen above,British Columbia i s the most important area i n the C o r d i l l e r a for sponges. 'Ihe fauna i s oonfined to the Stephen formation, with the sponges occurring i n either the 7 uppermost members,which are the Burgess shale and i t s probable st r a t i g r a p h i c .equivalent^, the Ogygopsis zonejOr less commonly i n the lower parts of the formation. Only two sponges occur i n the lower part of the dtephen formation. On&, Sentinelia draoa. i s represented by a single fragment i n the dark limestones on Mount Eisenhower. The otl© r, Pirania muricata. i s found i n calcareous shales on Mount J?ieM • L i t t l e can be said about the ecology of the sponge fauna of the Burgess shales, because they are not believed to have been found i n place. Since the sponges were soattered i n the shale and dfid not appear to be forms that normally would have flnorished i n muddy waters, walcott thought that they had been oarried into the fcVapta pool by currents(Walcott, 192G, p. 219). Upon entering, the pooh, the sponges, i f they were not already dead, were k i l l e d by the poisonous waters, i'he very f i n e c l a s t i c nature of the .burgess muds as well as the absence of scavengers allowed almost perfeot preservation, ffalcott stated that the fauna probably had o r i g i n a l l y dwelt i n quiet* r e l a t i v e l y shallow waters, whioh swarmed with l i f e and were"readily acces-s i b l e to the waters.' of the open sea". i'he Burgess sponges are generally vase-, cylin d e r - or bladder-shaped. Most of the sponges were attached by root spicules or had t h e i r base buried i n mud before they had broken loose and d r i f t e d into the Wapta pool. 'Two of the genera, Ohoia and Hamptonia, however, were unattached. Eamptonia was somewhat sim i l a r i n shape to the attached sponges, but Ghoia had a rather unique shape consisting of a central disc from which long monactinellid spicules radiated. Walcott stated that the spi6-& ules probably extended outward i n a broad belt so as to elevate the sponge above the muddy bottom. The central disc, apparently carried on the vegetative functions of the sponge. The Ogygopsis zone of the Stephen formation on Mount Stephen consists of arenaceous and calcareous grey shales, occurring as a l e n t i l thinning out to the north-east. Besides the sponges Hazelia (?) grandis, Choia c a r t e r i and Pirania muricata, immense numbers of t r i l o b i t e s , ^ s p e c i a l l y Ogygopsis, Neolenus and Zacanthoides are found. The fauna, apparently, occurs i n place. In the House Range of Utah, monactinellid sponges have been found i n the Wheeler and Msrjum formations. Each of these formations have yielded but a single specimen. One of these, a sponge referred to Sentinelia draca was co l l e c t e d from the shaly limestone and calcareous shales of the Wheeler formation and the other, Choia utahensis was from the shaly limestone of the Marjum. Discussion Nearly a l l Cambrian monactinellids are found in shales or shaly limestone, a tendency also exhibited by monactinellids of l a t e r periods. If the Burgess fauna i s excluded from the discussion, Cambrian monactinellids are known from at least eight North American l o c a l i t i e s . At only one of these are the rocks i n which the sponge occurs apparently without shaly impurities. These rocks are the limestones of the Stephen formation on Mount Eisenhower, where a single fragment of Sentinelia draca was found. Although Walcott did not state that the rock was shaly i t is possible that the dark colour of the limestone could have been caused by argillaceous impurities. In any case, i t i s a fact that the enclosing sediments of nearly a l l the Cambrian monaotinellids contain argillaceous mat-ter to a greater or lesser degree. Two possible explanations are suggested by the writer to explain t h i s . The f i r s t i s that the monactinellids preferred muddy seas, or at lea s t seas i n which the bottoms were muddy. The seoond i s that the sponges l i v e d i n other kinds of environment besides the muddy one, but that the muds for some reason were able to preserve the delicate skeleton, while i n the other environments i t was destroyed. As a r e s u l t sponges are only found i n shaly sediments. The reader i s referred.to the section on the ecology, of the lower Devonian sponges where the same type of problem is ' met i n dealing with Hindia fibrosa. The Pleosponges were the most important sponge group during Cambrian times. In Siber i a , as well as i n Au s t r a l i a * they b u i l t huge reefs. The Siberian forms l i v e d from Early to Medial Cambrian times and t h e i r exctinction was believed to have been caused^ by algae,which smothered themiVologdin, 1937, p. 498). In Worth America, large reefs are also present, although not on such a large scale as those ibn Siberia and A u s t r a l i a . t Gkulitch (1935) noted that among the young KLeosponges of Nevada, there was a high mortality rate and attributed t h i s to the clogging of t h e i r small pores by mud. Only those i n d i v i d u a l s which were able to r i s e above the muddy bottoms and grow larger pores could survive. EOOLOGY OF ORDOVICIAN SPONGES ECOLOGY Off ORDOVICIAN  SPONGES Introduction The Ordovician contains the largest number of sponge genera and species of any of the Palaeozoic systems. A l l of the groups-monactineilids, t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s , h e x a c t i n e l l i d s , caloisponges and incertae sedis- are present. The f i r s t two of these, are usually rare or absent i n the succeeding Palaeozoic rocks. #hB?s: does not necessarily mean, as was explained i n the .introduction to the Cambrian section, that they were rare i n the Palaeozoic seas, but rather that the paucity was probably oaused by the d i f f i c u l t y i n preserving skeletons of their nature. Of the t h i r t y two sponge genera (excluding hexactinellids and incertae sedis) known to the writer, four are represented by the monactinellids j s i x by the t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s , nineteen -by the l i t h i s t i d s and three (?) by the caloisponges. Tjhe monac-' t i n e l l i c l s , t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s and l i t h i s t i d s are present i n the early Ordovician rocks. The caloisponges, however, make t h e i r f i r s t appearance i n the Black River group. The three Black River calcisponge genera - Strotospongia, Dystactospongia and Camarooladia - should be regarded as belonging to t h i s olass with some reservation. U l r i c h and JiYerett (1890) , when they desoribed these three, placed them i n the Calcispongia. The writer noted, however, that Bassler (1915, pp. 1407-1408) had shifted the f i r s t two to the l i t h i s t i d a and placed the t h i r d under the heading "Position Uncertain". II i . Eoology of the Canadian (Lower Ordovioian) Sponges Lower Ordovioian sponges are known from four l o c a l i t i e s . These are i n Newfoundland, thejfMinfgn Islands, the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and i n Wisconsin. The wr i t e r was able to "obtain very l i t t l e information about the sponge ecology at any of these l o c a l i t i e s . In Newfoundland, species of the l i t h i s t i d s Calalhium B i l l i n g s and Trachyum B i l l i n g s are found i n the St. George series at Cape Norman and P i s t o l e t Bay. At C ape Norman, Calathjum a f f i n e B i l l i n g s , C. formosum B i l l i n g s , Traohyum oyathiforme B i l l i n g s and T. rugosum B i l l i n g s occur i n the f o s s i l l f e r o u s grey magnesian limestones of Logan's d i v i s i o n G of the St. George se r i e s . Sehuchert and Dunbar (1934, p. 53) stated that the strata of d i v i s i o n G were apparently shallow water deposits. D i v i s i o n H of the St. George se r i e s , which contains Calathium anstedi B i l l i n g s , at P i s t o l e t Bay.oonsists of t h i n - and thick-bedded grey to dark dolomite The above constitutes a l l the information that the writer was able to f i n d regarding the Newfoundland sponges. The only oonolusion that i t seems safe to draw i s that Calathium and Trachyum l i v e d i n clear shallow seas i n the Newfoundland area. ' In the un f o s s i l i f e r o u s dark dolomites of the leekmantown Romaine fommation on Romaine (Big Moutange) Island of the Mingan IZ Islands, only one sponge speeies-the t e t r a o t i n e l l i d Arohaeo-soyphia minganensis (Billings)-has been found. There does not appear to be any information^on the environmental conditions under which the Koaaine sediments were l a i d down. Hear L i t t l e Metis, outcropping on the southern shore of the St. Lawrenoe River, i s a black shale bed that i s famous for the number of sponges i t contains. The shale is peculiar i n that sponges are developed almost to the complete exclusion of other animal groups. Two species of algae, worm t r & i l s and burrows/ a possible cystoid and a sing&e species of the braohiopod Aorotreta are the only f o s s i l s , besides the sponges, that have been found i n the shales. The Metis sponge fauna contains the following-genera: Choia; Halichondrites; Protospongia. .Piagohella. Kiwetinokla. Cyatho-phvous. Aoanthodiotva. Paiaeosaccus and L a s i o t h r i x . The f i r s t two genera are monaotinellids and are represented by the species Choia hindei (Dawson) and Halichondrites oonfusus Dawson. The remainder of the sponge fauna are either h e x a c t i n e l l i d s or inoertae sedis. The Metis sponges must have been very numerous, l i v i n g on the ooze of the muddy sea bottom (Dawson, 1889). Dawson (1896) believed that the sponges had d r i f t e d from t h e i r anchorage. The sponges could hot have d r i f t e d f a r , however, as Dawson stated that they l i v e d i n the Metis seas. They are not, therefore, to be oompared with the Middle Cambrian Burgess shale fauna. Dawson, following the geological ideas of his time, thought that the Metis shale had been deposited i n cold and f a i r l y , deep waters. The conglomerates, that l i e above and below the Metis shale, on the other hand, were believed to have been deposited i n f a i r l y shallow water. '|he Metis succession, i n other words, was thought to have been deposited i n waters i n which the sea le g e l was o s c i l l a t i n g . /Under the present day conceptions, however, i t appears more probable that the sponges l i v e d in'muddy, shallow, near shore waters. ' The reason for the rpeouliar absence of graptolites from these^shales has not yet been explained but environmental conditions probably were responsible. The age of the Metis shales has long been a subject of considerable disoussion. Dawson (1896, p. 121), who o r i g i n a l l y desoribed the sponge beds, was uncertain of t h e i r age but suggested that the most probable age was Lower Ordovioian or Upper Cam-brian, walcott (1920, pp. £67-268), aft e r a study of the Metis sponges and brachiopods, placed the beds i n the Middle or Upper Cambrian, He based his conclusions on the facts that the brachiopod Aorotreta had been wrongly i d e n t i f i e d by Dawson as Obolella and that f i v e of the Metis sponge genera - Halichondrites. Choia. Brotospongia. Diagonella and Dlwetinokia - were also present i n the Middle Cambrian Burgess shale of B r i t i s h Columbia. Howell (1944), however, afte r a study and comparison of the Metis sponges and brachiopods with other faunas, oame to the oonclusion that the sponge beds were more probably Canadian than Cambrian. If the Metis shales are Ordovioian, then the synonomy of Stenhanella Hinde and Choia Walcott should be investigated; These two genera are s i m i l a r i n that they consist of monac-r }1 t i n e l l i d spicules radiating from a centre. The spicules of Stephanella were, however, believed to be the detached basal portion of a d i s t i n c t sponge (Hinde, 1891).while those °f ^hoia were thought to represent a complete sponge (Waloott, 1920, p. 292). ,. Walcott., (1920) , while i n v e s t i g a t i n g the burgess shale fauna, found a group of sponges with a s;picular^arrangement s i m i l a r to that of Stephanella. Since Walcott believed that these sponges were the remains of complete skeletons and not a detached; basal portion l i k e Stephanella. he erected a new genus Chela to include.themleoWalbottahad aMoecoMeated at L i t t l e Metis and came to the conclusion that the Metis Stephanella h i n d i i Dawson was also a complete sponge. Ee ac^ cordingly transferred S. h i n d i i to Choia. The writer wishes to point out that three faots suggest that Stephanella and Shoia might be congeneric. The f i r s t is that Qhoia h i n d i i and Stephanella sanota are Ordovician: i n age. Choia h i n d i i i s Canadian and Stephanella sanota i s utic a . The second fact i s that Choia h i n d i i i s more clos e l y related geographically to Stephanella sanota than to the surgess Choia. The-third fact i s that when Hinde stated that Stephanella was probably the basal portion of a d i s t i n c t sponge, he was merely expressing an opinion and not making a statement of f a c t , i f he had said that Stephanella was a oomplete sponge, Walcott undoubtedly would have placed the Burgess forms i n the genus Stephanella; The remaining lower Ordovician l o c a l i t y to be discussed i s that i n Wisconsin. Detached monactinellid spicules from the IS Oneota %oarom.ite were described from here i a 1936 by Howell and Landis. The spicules were referred to the genera aalichondrites Dawson and Petrosites Howell and Landis and the speoies were B a l i chondrites (?) actiniformis Howell and Landis, S, (?) robustus Howell and Landis, Petrosites hum&lis Howell and Landis and P. v a r i a b i l i s Howell and Landis. She st r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of the Oneota i s uncertain. It i s known, however, to be part of the P r a i r i e dii Shi en group of Upper Ozarkian or Lower Beekmantown age. The seas i n which the Wisconsin monactinellids l i v e d were warm, shallow, and free f 20 m mud. The waters were probably well aerated and circulating^and }at times/the bottoms were s t i r r e d by waves. The general absence of f o s s i l s i n the dolomites i s probably i n d i c a t i v e that scavengers were active (Twenhofel, 1931, pp. 116-117). I I . E o o l o g y o f t h e M o h a w k i a n S p o n g e s A . E c o l o g y o f t h e C h a z y a n S p o n g e s C h a z y a n s p o n g e s a r e k n o w n f r o m a t l e a s t e i g h t a r e a s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f w h i c h a r e i n t h e M i n g a n I s l a n d s , N e w Y o r k , T e n n e s s e e a n d N e v a d a , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n d e r a r e i n N e w f o u n d l a n d , V e r m o n t , V i r g i n i a a n d O k l a h o m a . A s f a r a s t h e w r i t e r h a s b e e n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e , a l l o f t h e C h a z y a n s p o n g e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a b e l o n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a . - . A r c h a e o s c y p h i a ( . H i n d e ) , ^ 'Alttele 1 1 a U l r i c h a n d E v e r e t t , H u d s o n o s p o n g i a ' , R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) , E x o c h o p o r a ; R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ; , A l l o s a c c u s i R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h , R h o p a l o c o e l i a ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h , f s a r o d i c t y u m R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h , A n t h a s p i d e l l e U l r i c h a n d E v e r e t t , S t r e p t o s e l e n U l r i c h a n d E v e r e t t , N e v a d o c o e l i a B a s s l e r , L i s s o c o e l i a B a s s l e r , C a l y c o e l i a B a s s l e r , P a t e l l i s p o n g i a B a s s l e r , a n d H e s p e r o c o e l i a B a s s l e r . O n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a p e r s o n C h a z y a n S p o n g e s i s R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ' s " S o m e C h a z y a n S p o n g e s " ( 1 9 4 0 ) . T h i s w o r k c o n t a i n s b o t h n e w a n d r e v i s e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f C h a z y a n s p o n g e s , b u t o m i t s r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e o f N e w f o u n d l a n d a n d N e v a d a . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e t h e s e w r i t e r s g a v e a c c u r a t e l o c a l i t y a n d s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n f o r e a c h s p e c i e s . W i t h s o m e o f t h e s p e c i m e n s , h o w e v e r , t h e e x a c t f o r m a t i o n o r l o c a l i t y w a s n o t k n o w n . F o r i n s t a n c e , m u c h o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a ' s M i n g a n I s l a n d s s p o n g e c o l l e c t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d i n t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . S o m e o f t h e s e s p e c i m e n s w e r e l a b e l l e d r a t h e r v a g u a l l y , a s , f o r e x a m p l e " G h a z y , M i n g a n I s l a n d s , Q u e b e c 1 1 . R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h w e r e t h u s f o r c e d t o g i v e o n l y a n a p p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n f o r t h i s t y p e o f s p e c i m e n . T h e N e w f o u n d l a n d s p o n g e s w e r e f o u n d i n t h e L o w e r T a b l e H e a d s e r i e s . T h e s o l e r e f e r e n c e t h a t w a s f o u n d t o a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e s p o n g e s w a s S c h u c h e r t a n d T w e n h o f e l ' s " S t r a t i g r a p h y o f W e s t e r n N e w f o u n d l a n d " ( 1 9 3 4 ) . I n t h i s w o r k t h r e e C h a z y a n s p o n g e s w e r e d e s c r i b e d . T h e s e w e r e E o s p o n g i a A r c h a e o s c y p h i a ' m i n g a n e n s i s a n d C a l a t h i u m f i t t o n i . N o s p e c i e s n a m e w a s g i v e n f o r E o s p o n g i a a n d u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t ( 1 9 4 0 ) r e v i s i o n o f t h i s g e n u s b y R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t m i g h t b e l o n g t o H u d s o n o s p o n g i a o r Z i t b e l e l l a . T h e t h r e e s p o n g e s o c c u r i n t h e L o w e r T a b l e H e a d s e r i e s n e a r P o i n t R i c h e . T h i s g r o u p o f r o c k s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o L o g a n ' s D i v i s i o n K t o L . o f t h e Q u e b e c g r o u p . C a l a t h i u m f i t t o n i a n d A r c h a e o s c y p h i a m i n g a n e n s i s w e r e l i s t e d ( S c h u c h e t t a n d T w e n h o f e l , 1 9 3 4 , p . 6 8 ) a m o n g a f a u n a o c c u r i n g 3 0 t o 1 0 0 f e e t , a b o v e t h e b a s e o f t h e L o w e r T a b l e H e a d s e r i e s i n D i v i s i o n K . T h e y a r e f o u n d , a p p a r e n t l y , i n b e d 3 o f t h e s e r i e s ( s e e S c h u c h e t t a n d T w e n h o f e l 1 9 3 4 , p 6 4 ) . B e d 3 c o n s i s t s o f m a s s i v e b l u e - g r a y l i m e s t o n e s t h a t a r e " r e p l e t e w i t h V a g i n o c e r a s P i s c a t o r , H o r m o t o m a a u g u s t i n a , D a w s o n o c e r a s . . . a n d o t h e r f o r m s . " O v e r l y i n g D i v i s i o n K w a s D i v i s i o n L . A s f a r a s t h e w r i t e r i s a b l e t o e s t i m a t e , D i v i s i o n L i n c l u d e s m o s t o f b e d 8 ( s e e S c h u c h e t t a n d T w e n h o f e l , 1 9 3 4 , p . 6 8 ) . T h e l o w e r t h i r d o f D i v i s i o n L i s c o m p o s e d o f m u d d y o r i m p u r e l i m e s t o n e s r e p l e t e w i t h L e p e r d i t i a . A r c h a e o s c y p h i a m i n g a n e n s i s h a d a p p a r e n t l y a d o p t e d a c o l o n i a l h a b i t b y t h i a t i m e b e c a u s e " n e s t s " o f t h e s p o n g e m e a s u r i n g u p t o 1 8 i n c h e s i n l e n g t h o c c u r e d l o c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l o w e r t h i r d . I n t h e u p p e r 1 0 f e e t o f D i v i s i o n L ( t h e u p p e r 1 0 f e e t o f b e d 8 ) o f t h e L o w e r T a b l e H e a d s e r i e s , s p o n g e s , i t s e e m s , w e r e s o n u m e r o u s , a s t o d e s i g n a t e b e d 8 a s a ' ^ s p o n g e b e d . " T h e r o c k w a s a d a r k t o b l u e - g r e y £K<\U'I es.$-n s.) I'm- ^ston-^:s ^ O n e s p o n g e , E o s p o n g i a w a s d e s c r i b e d f r o m t h i s b e d . I t i s n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r o r n o t E o s p o n g i a w a s t h e s p o n g e m a k i n g u p t h i s s p o n g e b e d a l t h o u g h i t s e e m s a r e a s o n a b l y a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t w a s . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h E o s p o n g i a i n t h e b e d a r e l a r g e n a u t i l i , C y r t o c e r a s , V a g i n o c e r a s p i s c a t o r , D a w s o n o c e r a s p r i a m u s , ' B o l b o p o r i t e s a n d s m a l l c o l o n i e s o f m a s s i v e b r y o z o a . E o s p o n g i a a n d i t s a s s o c i a t e d f a u n a a p p a r e n t l y a p p e a r e d r a t h e r s u d d e n l y a n d l i v e d f o r o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e a s t h e i r r e m a i n s , a r e f o u n d t h r o u g h o n l y 1 0 f e e t o f s t r a t a . F o r o v e r a 1 0 0 f e e t b e l o w t h e s p o n g e b e d t h e r o c k s a r e u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s . T h e o v e r l y i n g l i m e s t o n e o f t h e M i d d l e T a b l e H e a d s e r i e s a r e m o r e i m p u r e t h a n t h e L o w e r T a b l e h e a d l i m e s t o n e s a n d t h e f a u n a m o r e r e s t r i c t e d . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i m p u r i t i e s o f t h e M i d d l e T a b l e H e a d t e r m i n a t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f E o s p o n g i a i s n o t k n o w n . I t d o e s n o t s e e m s a f e t o s p e c u l a t e o n i t . T h e s t a t e m e n t m a d e a b o v e t h a t E o s p o n g i a a n d i t s a s s o c -i a t e d f a u n a l i v e d f o r o n l y a s h o r t t i m e w a s m a d e o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r o c k s b e l o w t h e s p o n g e b e d w e r e t r u l y u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s . H e r e w e h a v e t h e s a m e p r o b l e m t h a t g r e e t s a n y -o n e t r y i n g t o w o r k o u t t h e p a l a e o e c o l o g y t h r o u g h w r i t t e n I 9 p u b l i c a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h f i e l d w o r k . T h e r o c k s b e l o w t h e s p o n g e b e d m i g h t b e u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s b e c a u s e t h e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e e i t h e r u n s u i t a b l e ' f o r l i f e o r b e c a u s e t h e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e d e a d a n i m a l s . I n t h i s l a s t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t l i f e c o u l d h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y -a b u n d a n t a n d s t i l l n o t l e a v e a n y t r a c e . I t i s t h i s t y p e o f p r o b l e m t h a t c a n n o t b e s o l v e d b y l a b o r a t o r y w o r k , i n d e e d i t m i g h t n o t b e s o l v e d b y f i e l d w o r k e i t h e r . I t m i g h t b e p o s s i b l e t o t e l l w h e t h e r l i f e w a s a b u n d a n t i n t h e s e b e d s b e l o w t h e s p o n g e b e d b y l o o k i n g v e r y c l o s e l y f o r s h e l l f r a g m e n t s a n d o t h e r t r a c e s o f l i f e , i f t h e y e x i s t . E v e n t h e n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d b e u n r e l i a b l e b e c a u s e t h e s h e l l f r a g m e n t s c o u l d h a v e b e e n s w e p t i n t o t h e s e b e d s f r o m e l s e w h e r e i f c u r r e n t a c t i o n w a s s t r o n g . T h e t y p e o f s e a i n w h i c h t h e N e w f o u n d l a n d C h a z y a n s p o n g e s l i v e d i s n o t k n o w n . A s w a s s t a t e d b e f o r e , t h e o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s p o n g e s w a s t h a t o f S c h u c h e t t a n d T w e n h o f e l ^ a n d a l l c o n c l u s i o n s m u s t o f n e c e s s i t y b e b a s e d o n t h i s p a p e r . T h e s p o n g e s , i f w e f o l l o w S c h u c h e r t a n d T w e n h o f e l ' s h i s t o r i c a l g e o l o g y p r o b a b l y l i v e d c l o s e t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e S t . L a w r e n c e g e o s y n c l i n e . , T h e w r i t e r s , h o w e v e r , a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e g e o s y n c l i n e w e r e v e r y a p p r o x i m a t e a n d w e r e s h i f t i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t t h e s p o n g e s c o u l d h a v e -l i v e d c l o s e t o s h o r e . A n o t h e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r I n m a k i n g c o n c l u s i o n s i s t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e i s s o m e d o u b t a s t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e e x i s t a n c e o f t h e s e p a r a t e S t . L a w r e n c e a n d A c a d i a n g e o s y n c l i n e s . 2.0 In the Mingan I s l a n d s , f o u r genera of l i t h i s t i d sp-onges have been d e s c r i b e d . These are Eospongia, Z i t t e l e l l a ,  Hidsonespongia and Exochopora. A l l of these genera o r i g i n a l l y were i n c l u d e d i n e i t h e r Eospongia or Calathium. The Mingan I s l a n d sponge s p e c i e s and t h e i r f o r m a t i o n and" l o c a l i t i e s are gi v e n below; Eospongia B i l l i n g s E. roemeri B i l l i n g s Lower 50-60 f e e t of the Mingan f o r m a t i o n (Twenhofel, 1938) Z i t t e l e l l a U l r i c h and E v e r e t t -Z. v a r i a n s Lower 50-60 f e e t of the Mingan f o r m a t i o n (Twenhofel 1938) Huds onos pongia Raymond and O k u l i t c h H. minganensis Upper Chazy, Mingan I s l a n d s Ammonite P o i n t , Mingan I s l a n d s . H. i r r e g u l a r i s Upper Chazy, Mingan Is l a n d s H. d u p l i c a t a Upper Chazy, Mingan Islands Exochopora Raymond and O k u l i t c h E. canadensis Chazy, Mingan I s l a n d s . Z i t t e l e l l a v a r i a n s was o r i g i n a l l y Eospongia v a r i a n s u n t i l B a s s l e r (1915) t r a n s f e r r e d i t to the former genus. Hudsonospongia minganensis and H. i r r e g u l a r i s were o r i g i n a l l y • among B i l l i n g ' s types of Eospongia v a r i a n s u n t i l l a t e r Zl t r a n s f e r r e d t o H u d s o n o s p o n g i a b y R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h . H u d s o n o s p o n g i a d u p l i c a t a w a s o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d a s a E o s p o n g i a r o e m e r i a n d E x o c h o p o r a c a n a d e n s i s w a s o r i g i n a l l y C a l a t h i u m c a n a d e n s i s . I t w i l l b e s e e n , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e C h a z y a n s p o n g e s o f M i n g a n I s l a n d s a r e a l l B o s p o n g i a - o r C a l a t h i u m - l i k e o r g a n i s m s . T w e n h o f e l ( 1 9 3 8 ) d e s c r i b e d E o s p o n g i a r o e m e r i a n d E o s p o n g i a ( Z i t e l l e l l a ) v a r i a n s f r o m t h e l o w e r 5 0 - 6 0 f e e t o f t h e M i n g a n f o r m a t i o n . S i n c e m o s t o f t h e a b o v e g e n e r a b e l o n g e d a t o n e t i m e t o o n e o r o t h e r o f t h e s e s p e c i e s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e M i n g a n s p o n g e s o c c u r i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e M i n g a n f o r m a t i o n . T h e b e s t l o c a l i t i e s f o r t h e s p o n g e s a r e o n Q u a r r y a n d S e a C o w I s l a n d s a n d a t C l e a r w a t e r a n d A m m o n i t e P o i n t s o n M i n g a n I s l a n d . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r o c k t y p e s o f t h e . s p o n g e b e a r i n g p o r t i o n s o f t h e M i n g a n f o r m a t i o n t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t h e r e a d e r t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s p o n g e g e n e r a a n d s p e c i e s o c c u r i n g a t a d e s c r i b e d l o c a l i t y n o t a l w a y s k n o w n . T h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e t h o s e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ; n a m e l y t h a t t h e l o c a l i t y o r e x a c t s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n w e r e n o t a l w a y s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e e a r l i e r g e o l o g i s t s . T h e s p o n g e b e a r i n g r o c k s - o n Q u a r r y I s l a n d ( T w e n h o f e l , 1 9 3 8 , p p . 2 0 ; ) a r e c o m p o s e d o f a f i n e - g r a i n e d ^ s e m i - l i t h o g r a p h i c l i m e s t o n e c o n t a i n i n g p o s s i b l e l i m e s t o n e s a n d s . " M a n y s p o n g e s o f m u s h r o o m s h a p e " o c c u V ^ ' : i i n t h e r o c k . T w e n h o f e l ( 1 9 3 8 ) " ' d e s c r i b e d E o s p o n g i a r o e m e r i a n d E o s p o n g i a ( Z i t t e l e l l a ) v a r i a n s 22. f r o m Q u a r r y I s l a n d . S i n c e Z i t t e l e l l a v a r i a n s h a s h e e n s p l i t u p b y ^ R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h , i t i s n o t k n o w w h e t h e r Z i t t e l e l l a  v a r i a n s ( s e n s o s t r i c t o ) o r H u d s o n o s p o n g i a m i h g a n e s s i s o r H . i r r -e g u l a r i s o r a l l o f t h e m a r e p r e s e n t o n t h e i s l a n d . T h i s s a m e p r o b l e m a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . T h e s p o n g e b e a r i n g r o c k s ( z o n e 7) o n S e a C o w I s l a n d a r e b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n l i m e s t o n e s a n d s a t t h e t i m e o f d e p o s i t i o n . ( T w e n h o f e l , 1938, p . 21). S o m e o f t h e l a y e r s o f t h e z o n e a r e " l o c a l l y f u l l o f s p o n g e s " a n d t h e l i m e s t o n e s c. a r e l o c a l l y c r o s s - l a m i n a t e d . T h e s p o n g e f a u n a o c c u r i n g o n S e a C o w I s l a n d i s n o t k n o w n b u t i t i s p r o b a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o n Q u a r r y I s l a n d . T h e s p o n g e s , i t s e e m s , m u s t h a v e l i v e d h e r e i n w a t e r s i n w h i c h c o n s i d e r a b l e c u r r e n t a c t i o n w a s p r e s e n t , a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e l i m e s t o n e s a n d s a n d c r o s s l a m i n a t i o n s . A t C l e a r w a t e r a n d A m m o n i t e P o i n t s o n M i n g a n I s l a n d s t h e s p o n g e b e a r i n g r o c k ( z o n e 14) i s a f i n e - g r a i n e d , a l m o s t l i t h o g r a p h i c l i m e s t o n e c o n t a i n i n g b e d s o f " o r g a n i c m a t t e r " w h i c h a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n " g r o u n d u p " ( T w e n h o f e l , 1938, p . 22). E o s p o n g i a , M a c l u r i t e s , R h a p h i s t o m a , T h a l e o p s c o n i f r o n s ,  B u m a s t u s g l o b o s u s a n d H e s p e r o r t h i s a r e f a i r l y c o m m o n i n t h i s z o n e . T h e s e d i m e n t s o f t h e M i n g a n f o r m a t i o n w e r e b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n d e p o s i t e d n e a r s h o r e a n d w e r e f o r m e d i n a n i n v a d i n g s e a . . ( S c h u c h e r t a n d T w e n h o f e l , 1910, p . 692). T h e s p o n g e b e a r i n g l o y x e r p o r t i o n o f t h e M i n g a n f o r m a t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n f o r m e d i n v e r y s h a l l o w s e a s a s p a r t s o f i t c o n t a i n m u d c r a c k s . I n t h e g e n e r a l s y n t h e t i c s e c t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d s , Twenhofel (1938, pp. 22-25) d e s c r i b e d zone 14, which corresponds to the lower 50-60 f e e t of the. Mingan f o r m a t i o n , in* the f o l l o w i n g words: . 1 1.... i t i s obvious t h a t a t times d u r i n g the d e p o s i t i o n of the m a t e r i a l ...; the s u r f a c e of the d e p o s i t was above sea l e v e l and was sub j e c t to d r y i n g . " The animal groups w h o l l y or l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to the Mingan f o r m a t i o n are c o r a l s , bryozoa, brachiopods, pelecypods, echinoderms, ostracods and t r i l o b i t e s . Gastropods and cephalopoda are e q u a l l y c o n f i n e d between.the Mingan and the u n d e r l y i n g Beckingantom Romaine f o r m a t i o n . In New York and Vermont, three l i t h i s t i d sponges genera have been d e s c r i b e d from the Chazyan l i m e s t o n e s . These sponges are found i n the Middle and Upper Chazy. The-species belong to the genera Husdonsdspongia, R h o p a l o c l e l i a and Psarod-ictyum. ' -The s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i n the Chazy and the l o c a l i t i e s o f•the sponges are g i v e n below. These were taken from Raymond and O k u l i t c h (1940). Hudsonospongia (Raymond and O k u l i t c h ) H. porosa (Raymond and O k u l i t c h Middle and Upper Chazy of Champlain V a l l e y at South Hero and on I s l e La Motte, Vermont, A l s o at Chazy and V a l c o u r Islands,New York. 2-7 H . f i s t u l o s a - ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) H . o v o l d e a ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) R h o p a l o c o e l i a ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) 1 R . c l a r k i i ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) P s a r o d i c t y u m R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h P . . m a g n i f i c u m - R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h M i d d l e a n d b a s e o f U p p e r C h a z y a t C h a z y , . N e w Y o r k a n d o n ' I s l e L a M o t t e , V e r m o n t . M i d d l e C h a z y , 1 . 5 m i l e s w e s t o f C h a a y N e w Y o r k . L o w e r p a r t o f U p p e r C h a z y a t T i g e r P o i n t a n d i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f M i d d l e C h a z y e a s t o f P e b b l e B e a c h b o t h , o n V a l c o u r I s l a n d , N e w Y o r k , m i d d l e C h a z y , W e s t o f C h a z y , N e w Y o r k a n d I s l e L a M o t t e , V e r m o n t . B a s e o f U p p e r C h a z y a t L i t t l e M o n t y B a y , e a s t o f C h a z y , N e w Y o r k . N e a r b a s e o f U p p e r C h a z y a t T i g e r Z5 P o i n t o n V a l c o u r I s l a n d , N e w Y o r k . A l s o a t s a m e h o r i z o n o n t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f t h e i s l a n d . H u d s o n o s p o n g i a w a s p r o b a b l y t h e s p o n g e t h a t R a y m o n d (1905, p . 359 a n d 1906, p p . 514, 534, 542) h a d p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o a s n E o s p o n g i a v a r i a n s . " H u d s o n o s p o n g i a w a s t a k e n f r o m B i l l i n g s (1865) t y p e E o s p o n g i a v a r i a n s . T h e M i d d l e C h a z y u s u a l l y . c o n s i s t s o f h e a v y b e d d e d , d a r k - b l u e a n d g r e y , f a i r l y p u r e l i m e s t o n e s w i t h a n o c c a s i o n a l l a y e r o f g r e y d o l o m i t e o r c o a r s e g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e ( R a y m o n d , 1906, p 565). T h e M i d d l e C h a z y i s k n o w n a s t h e " M a c l u r i t e s  m a g n u s d i v i s i o n " b e c a u s e o f t h e a b u n d a n c e o f t h i s g a s t r o p o d a t t h i s h o r i z o n . O t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o s s i l s ' ' a r e R a f i n e s q u i i a a c h a m p j s a t i n e B s i s , P l a e s e o m y s p l a t y s , C a m e r e l l a  v a r i a n s , L e p e r d i t i a l i m a t u l a a n d S t r e p h o c h e t u s b r a i n e r d i . T h e m i d d l e d i v i s i o n i s m a r k e d b y a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t n u m b e r o f s p e c i e s o f p e l e c y p o d s a n d g a s t r o p o d s a n d t r i l i b i t e s a n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t i t c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e L o w e r C h a z y } s i n c e t h e l o w e r d i v i s i o n , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n s n o s p o n g e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y g r e a t n u m b e r s o f b r a c h i o p o d s a n d f e w m o l l u s c s . T h e U p p e r C h a z y i s k n o w n a s t h e " C a m a r o t o e c h i a p l e n a d i v i s i o n . " T h e r o c k c o n s i s t s o f t h i n - b e d d e d , l i g h t g r e y , c o a r s e g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e a b o u n d i n g i n f o s s i l s . N e a r t h e b a s e t h e r e i s a l w a y s b u f f c o l o u r e d , p u r e , f i n e - g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e s . 2 C I n t h i s u p p e r d i v i s i o n t h e r e i s a d e c i d e d f a l l i n g o f f i n t h e n u m b e r s o f g a s t r o p o d s a n d p e l e c y p o d s . B r a c h i o p o d s a r e m o s t a b u n d a n t . T h e s e a s i n w h i c h t h e N e w Y o r k a n d V e r m o n t s p o n g e s l i v e d w e r e c l e a r a n d s h a l l o w a n d t h e C h a z y a n s e d i m e n t s . . w e r e \i&\-An d o w n i n a n a r m o f t h e s e a w h i c h o c c u p i e d t h e p r e s e n t l i n e o f t h e C h a m p l a i n V a l l e y . T o t h e n o r t h i n C a n a d a t h e l i m e s t o n e s g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e i n t o s a n d s a n d m u d s , i n d i c a t i n g n e a r s h o r e c o n d i t i o n s . ( C u s h i n g , 1 9 0 5 , p p . 2 8 2 , 3 6 5 , 3 6 7 ) . T h e a r e a i n w h i c h t h e s p o n g e s l i v e d m u s t h a v e b e e n t h e o n e i n w h i c h t h e C h a z y s e a p e r s i s t e d l o n g e s t b e c a u s e t h e f u l l e s t d e v e l o p m e n t o f l i m e s t o n e s a r e f o u n d h e r e . T h e s e a w a s i n v a d i n g s o u t h a n d w e s t o v e r a s l o w l y s i n k i n g l a n d a n d w a s p r o b a b l y o p e n t o t h e e a s t o r n o r t h - e a s t ( R a y m o n d , 1 9 0 5 , p 3 6 3 a n d 1 9 0 6 , p 5 6 8 ) . T h e C h a z y a n s p o n g e s o f N e w Y o r k a n d V e r m o n t t h e r e f o r e , a p p a r e n t l y l i v e d o f f s h o r e ' i n . c l e a r a n d s h a l l o w w a t e r s f r e e f r o m m u d . I n T e n n e s s e e , o n e o f t h e l a r g e s t s p o n g e f a u n a s , i n n u m b e r o f g e n e r a , o f t h e C h a z y i s f o u n d . F i v e g e n e r a h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h , f r o m h e r e . T h e s e a r e Z i t t e l e l l a , H u d s o n o s p o n g i a , A l l o s a c c u s , R h o p a l o c o e l i a a n d P s a r o d l c t y u m . U n f o r t u n a t e l y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d a s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e C h a z y . O n e o f t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w a s t h e l a c k o f p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e T e n n e s s e e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y i n t h e l i b r a r y . T h e T e n n e s s e e , s p o n g e s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w w i t h t h e i r 27 c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o r m a t i o n s a n d l o c a l i t i e s . Z i t t e l e l l a U l r i c h a n d E v e r e t t Z . p a n n o s a R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h P r o m t h e O t t o s e e f o r m a t i o n , a b o u t 100 f e e t b e l o w t h e L o w v i l l e f o r m a t i o n , b e t w e e n L u t t r e l l a n d C h e s n e y , T e n n e s s e e . A l s o t h e s a m e f o r m a t i o n a t D i c k e n s o n ' s M i l l , n o r t h o f M e n d o t a , V i r g i n i a . P r o m t h e S e v i e r f o r m a t i o n n e a r N e u b e r t , e a s t o f K n o x v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e . H u d s o n o s p o n g i a ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) • H . c y c l o s t o m a ( R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h ) L e n o i r f o r m a t i o n , 6 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f K n o x v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e . A l l o s a c c u s R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h A . p r o l o x u s R a y m o n d a n d O k u l i t c h L o w e r p a r t o f t h e O t t o s e e f o r m a t i o n a t D i c k e n s o n ' s M i l l , n o r -ths o f M e n d o t a V i r -g i n i a . Z<8 •From L e n o i r f o r m a t i o n i n east K n o x v i l l e and other l o c a l i t i e s east and south of K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee. R h o p a l o c o e l i a Raymond and O k u l i t c h R. r e g u l a r i s Raymond and O k u l i t c h S e v i e r f o r m a t i o n , near Neubert, east of Knox-v i l l e , Tennessee. Psarodictyum Raymond and O k u l i t c h P. planum Raymond and O k u l i t c h Top of S e v i e r f o r m a t i o n 5 miles northwest of R o v e r s v i l l e , Tennessee D y stactospongia M i l l e r D. minor . C a r t e r ' s Creek form-a t i o n , Tennessee. Nearly a l l the Chazyan sponges of Tennessee appear to have l i v e d i n muddy, near shore seas. In the near shore f a c i e s , however, s h a l y limestone or interbedded s h a l e s and limestones were d e p o s i t e d . F u r t h e r westward the seas became c l e a r e r and r e l a t i v e l y pure limestone was being d e p o s i t e d . Dystactospongia  minor i s the o n l y sponge, a p p a r e n t l y , that l i v e d i n r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r waters. • About the o n l y r e f e r e n c e t h a t was found d e a l i n g w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s of the Tennessee Chazy were Z9 o b t a i n e d f r o m p a r t s o f a n u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t w r i t t e n b y R a y m o n d ( 1 9 2 5 ) , w h i c h w e r e q u o t e d b y S c h u c h e r t ( 1 9 4 3 , p p . 3 1 4 -3 1 5 ) . A f e w o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s m a d e b y R a y m o n d i n r e g a r d . t o t h e T e n n e s s e e C h a z y a r e q u o t e d b e l o w . : 1 1 . . . N e x t e a s t t o t h e c o n s t a n t l y c l e a r w a t e r z o n e w a s o n e w h i c h o c c a s i o n a l l y , t h o u g h r a r e l y , r e c e i v e d a n i n f l u x o f m u d , a n d i n i t a n i m a l s t h r o v e m i g h t i l y . T h i s w a s t h e H o l s t o n . S t i l l l a n d w a r d f r o m t h i s w a s a r e g i o n t o w h i c h m u d w a s s o c o n t i n u o u s l y s u p p l i e d t h a t i t n o t o n l y f o r m e d t h e p a r t -i n g p l a n e s b e t w e e n t h e s t r a t a , b u t w a s d e p o s i t e d w i t h t h e c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e t o f o r m a n a r g i l l a c e o u s l i m e s t o n e . ( T h i s w a s t h e r e g i o n o f L e n o i r d e p o s i t i o n . . . ) • . . . B e t w e e n t h e w e s t w a r d m o v e m e n t o f t h e m u d , a n d . t h e e a s t w a r d m i g r a t i o n o f t h e r a v o n o u s i n v a d i n g a n i m a l s o f t h e H o l s t o n , t h e L e n o i r f a u n a w a s p r e t t y w e l l e x t i n g u i s h e d , a n d t h a t o f t h e H o l s t o n , m o d i f i e d a s t i m e w e n t o n , d o m i n a t e d t h e s e a s o f t h e S e v i e r . . . . W i t h t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e g o l i t h f r o m t h e . o l d l a n d , b l a c k s h a l e a c c u m u l a t i o n c e a s e d , a n d t h e c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s , s h a l y a n d s a n d y l i m e s t o n e s o f t h e S e v i e r a n d T e l l i c o w e r e d e p o s i t e d a b o v e t h e H o l s t o n a n d A t h e n s . " I n N e v a d a , s p o n g e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e C h a z y a n T a n k H i l l l i m e s t o n e a n d i n t h e P o g o n i p l i m e s t o n e . ' N o M a i n g i s k n o w n o f t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e T a n k H i l l l i m e s t o n e s p o n g e s . O n l y o n e s p o n g e Z i t t e l e l l a c l a r a e H o w e l l 3p h a s b e e n f o u n d i n i t . I t w a s d e s c r i b e d b y H o w e l l i n 1 9 4 1 . H e r e m a r k e d t h a t i t a p p e a r e d t o h a v e b e e n b u r i e d i n a n . u p r i g h t l i v i n g p o s i t i o n . A s r e g a r d s t h e c o n t a i n e d n u m b e r o f s p o n g e g e n e r a , t h e P o g o n i p l i m e s t o n e i s o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t C h a z y a n s p o n g e l o c a l i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . S e v e n g e n e r a h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d f r o m h e r e a n d t h e y h a v e a l l b e e n c o l l e c t e d a t o n e l o c a l i t y . T h e l o c a l i t y i s i n t h e T o q u i m a R a n g e i n . t h e R o b e r t s M o u n t a i n q u a d r a n g l e , t h e s p o n g e s b e i n g f o u n d h a l f a m i l e s o u t h o f I k e s C a n y o n a n d f o u r m i l e s w e s t o f D i a n a s P u n c h B o w l . T w o p a p e r s ( 1 9 2 7 a n d 1 9 4 1 ) h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n b y B a s s l e r d e s c r i b i n g t h e s p o n g e s o f t h e P o g o n i p l i m e s t o n e o f N e v a d a . B o t h t h e s e p a p e r s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l b u t t h e l a s t ( 1 9 4 1 ) p a p e r i s m o r e c o m p l e t e a n d c o n t a i n s i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e s p o n g e s . F i v e o f t h e g e n e r a w e r e n e w a n d b e l o n g e d t o t h e k 1 : e . t r a c t i n e l l i d f a m i l y A r c h a e o s c y p h i d a e . T h e s e w e r e N e v a d o c o e l i a , . L i s s o c o e l i a , C a l y o c o e l i a , P a t e l l i s p o n g i a a n d H e s p e r o c o e l i a . B a s s l e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e g e n e r a w e r e t h e f i r s t m e m b e r s o f t h e A r c h a e o s c y p h i d a e t o b e d i s c o v e r e d i n w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e o t h e r t w o g e n e r a - A n t h a s p i d e l l a a n d S t r e p t o s o l e n - w e r e a n t h a s p i d e l l i d s p p n g e . s . T h e s p o n g e s p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d f r o m t h e ' P o g o n i p a r e l i s t e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e : 31 Hevadocoelia Bassler N. wistae Bassler N. t r a l n i Bassler N. grandls Bassler N. pulchra Bassler Lis s o c o e l i a Bassler L. ramosa Bassler Galcocoelia Bassler G. t y p i o a l i s Bassler Pate H i s pongia Bassler P. oculata Bassler P. c l i n t o n i Bassler P. minutipora Bassler Hesperocoelia Bassler H . t y p i c a l i s Bassler ' H . undulata Bassler Anthaspidella U l r i c h and Everett A. c l i n t o n i Bassler A, t r a i n i Bassler Streptosolen U l r i c h and Everett S. occidentalis Bassler. The sponges occur i n the lower few hundred feet of the Pogonip. The sponge bearing limestone is.thin-bedded, dense and clayey and is composed l a r g e l y of organic remains. Associated with the sponges i s the t r i l o b i t e Pliiomarops, undescribed fauna of ostracods, stony bryozoa, 3Z c r i n o i d and c y s t i d remains, t r i l o b i t e s , cephalopods and brachiopods. This part of the Pogonip was believed by Bassler to be represented elsewhere i n North America by the Table Head formation of Newfoundland and the O i l Greek formation of Oklahoma. References to the Pogonip limestone seem to be extremely rare. The only paper which the writer could f i n d which was any use i n determining the environmental conditions was that by Merriam'and Anderson (1942). Unfortunately t h i s dealt with the Roberts Mountains, some 30 miles east of the , Toquima Range. -Merriam and Anderson (1942) p. 1699) pointed out that Kirk (1933, p.. 29) had stated that the Middle Ordovicion rocks to the west of the 117th meridian were represented l a r g e l y by graptolite shales and minor amounts of sandstones, limestones and calcareous shaly beds. The 117th meridian i s the western boundary of the Roberts Mountain quadrangle. Merriam and Anderson (1942, p. 1699) stated: " A l l available data indicate that east of this variable belt (approximately the 1.17th)1 the deposits of Canadian (Beekmantown) and Chazyan age are predominately marine lime-stones or dolomites with subordinate argillaceous f a c i e s . Westward the known Lower and Middle Ordovioian includes a high percentage of argillaceous and arenaceous strata with a notable amount of g r a p t o l i t i c shale and chert." •-1. Brackets and enclosure are mind - S.J.N. 33 O n p a g e 1 7 0 0 , M e r r i a m a n d A n d e r s o n ( 1 9 4 2 ) s t a t e d : " W e s t o f P o t t s i n t h e p o o r l y k n o w n n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e T o q u i m a R a n g e t r u e g r a p t o l i t e s h a l e s o f O r d o v i o i a n a g e h a v e n o t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d , t h o u g h g r a p t o l i t e s o c c u r s p a r i n g l y h e r e i n t h e P o g o n i p l i m e s t o n e . . . I n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h i s R a n g e , h o w e v e r , t h e O r d o v i o i a n s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s m u c h a r g i l l a c e o u s a n d a r e n a c e o u s s e d i m e n t , s u g g e s t i n g p a r t i a l r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e P o g o n i p l i m e s t o n e s b y t h e s e c l a s t i c f a c i e s . " I t a p p e a r s f r o m t h e s e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t t h e P o g o n i p s p o n g e s w e r e f o u n d v e r y c l o s e t o t h e t r a n s i t i o n z o n e b e t w e e n t h e g r a p t o l i t e a n d t h e l i m e s t o n e f a c i e s s i n c e t h e T o q u i m a r a n g e a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r m s t h e a x i s o f t h e f a c i e s c h a n g e . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e s p o n g e s b c c u r e d i n d e n s e t h i n - b e d d e d , c l a y e y • l i m e s t o n e i s i n d i c a t i v e t h a t t h e y o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n a l m o s t i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e s h a l e s t o t h e w e s t a n d t h e p u r e r l i m e s t o n e s t o t h e e a s t . I t i s s u g g e s t i v e t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t e d t r i l o b i t e P l i o m e r o p s w a s f o u n d c l o s e t o g r a p t o l i t e s h a l e s i n t h e l o w e r V i n n i f o r m a t i o n i n t h e R o b e r t s M o u n t a i n s 3 0 m i l e s t o t h e e a s t o f T o q u i m a R a n g e . T h i s t r i l o b i t e a n d s m a l l o r t h o i d b r a c h i o p o d s o c c u r e d i n s a n d y l a y e r s a b o v e t h e s h a l e s . T h i s s e e m s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y w e r e c l e a r w a t e r l o v e r s . I f t h i s i s t r u e i t i s a l s o s u g g e s t i v e t h a t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s a m e t r i l o b i t e i n t h e P o g o n i p s p o n g e b e d s m i g h t i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r w a t e r , n o n g r a p t o l i t i c f a c i e s f o r t h e s p o n g e s . I t i s h o w e v e r , c e r t a i n l y n o t c o n c l u s i v e . 34 B . E c o l o g y o f t h e B l a c k R i v e r S p o n g e s B l a c k H i v e r s p o n g e s a r e f o u n d i n K e n t u c k y , ~ I l l i n o i s , / • V* M i n n e s o t a , M a n i t o b a a n d O n t a r i o . O f t h e s e a r e a s , I l l i n o i s i s b y f a r t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t . E x c l u d i n g t h e h e x a c t i n e l l i d s a n d i n c e r t a e s e d i s - , t h e B l a c k R i v e r s p o n g e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y 1 2 g e n e r a a n d 2 4 s p e c i e s . N i n e o f t h e s e g e n e r a o c c u r i n t h e P l a t t e v i l l e o f I l l i n o i s . A r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g , a l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t , i s t h a t f o u r o f t h e B l a c k R i v e r s p o n g e l o c a l i t i e s , K e n t u c k y , I l l i n o i s , M i n n e s o t a a n d M a n i t o b a - a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n l i n e a n d a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o f t h e A p p a l -a c h i a n g e o s y n c l i n e . T h e f i r s t o n e o r t w o o f t h e s e s t a t e s a r e p r o b a b l y n e a r t h e c e n t r e o f t h e g e o s y n c l i n e w h i l e t h e o t h e r a r e a s a r e i n o r c l o s e t o t h e r e g i o n s o f e p i c o n t i n e n t a l s e a s . T h e a g e o f t h e M a n i t o b a s p o n g e l o c a l i t y , h o w e v e r , i s s o m e w h a t i n d o u b t , a s i t m i g h t b e R i c h m o n d . I t w i l l n o t b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . A s w a s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , I l l i n o i s i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t l o c a l i t y f o r B l a c k R i v e r s p o n g e s , t h e s p o n g e s o c c u r i n t h e P l a t t e v i l l e l i m e s t o n e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e w r i t e r h a s b e e n a b l e t o f i n d v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e s e s p o n g e s . U l r i c h a n d E v e r e t t ( 1 8 9 0 ) h a v e d e s c r i b e d a l l o f t h e P l a t t e v i l l e . s p o n g e s p. ^.<M/jg a n d t h e w r i t e r k n o w s o f n o o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e . s u b j e c t . S e v e n o f t h e P l a t t e -v i l l e s p o n g e g e n e r a b e l o n g t o t h e l i t h i s t i d s , t w o t o t h e 35 calcisponges and one to the h e x a c t i n e l l i d s . The genera, species and v a r i e t i e s occuring i n the P l a t e v i l l e are l i s t e d be-low: Order L i t h i s t l d a Anthaspidella U l r i c h and Everett A. mammulata U l r i c h and Everett A. f l o r i f e r a U l r i c h and Everett A. p a r v i s t e l l a t a U l r i c h and Everett A. scutula U l r i c h and Everett A. grandis U l r i c h and Everett A. firma U l r i c h and Everett A. fenestrata U l r i c h and Everett A. obliqua U l r i c h and Everett A. (?) magnifica U l r i c h and Everett Z i t t e l e l l a U l r i c h and Everett Z. t y p i c a l i s U l r i c h and Everett var. p i s t i l l i f o r m i s U l r i c h and Everett var. turbinata U l r i c h and Everett var. subrotunda U l r i c h and Everett Z. lobata U l r i c h and Everett' Z. inosculata U l r i c h and Everett Edriospongia U l r i c h and Everett E. basalis U l r i c h and Everett Streptosolen U l r i c h and Everett S. obconicus U l r i c h and Everett 3£ Calathlum B i l l i n g s C. (? Z i t t e l e l l a ) i n f e l i x U l r i c h and Everett Hindia Duncan H. inequalis U l r i c h and Everett Order Galcispongia Strotospongia . U l r i c h and Everett S. maculosa U l r i c h and Everett Camarocladia U l r i c h and Everett C. dichotoma U l r i c h and Everett Dystactosp'ongia M i l l e r and Dyer D. minor U l r i c h and Everett D. rudis U l r i c h and Everett A l l of the sponges were found at one l o c a l i t y near Dixon, I l l i n o i s . U l r i c h and Everett described the age of the rock as "Trenton" but the beds are now referred to the Black River group. In the region near Dixon, the conditions f o r the grow-th, and development of the p r o l i f i c numbers of sponges, must have been favourable f o r only a short period of time as a l l of the sponges, and a very large associated fauna, are'found i n a shaly bed one to fine inches thick. The bed i s made up l a r g e l y of organic remains p a r t i c u l a r l y of Palaeophycus and Buthotrephis and l i e s between heavy layers of sub-crystalline limestone. According to U l r i c h and Everett, the layer i s about 25 feet above the top of the St. Peter sandstone. The sponges were either scattered throughout the bed 37 or abundant i n "certain spots", the l a t t e r suggesting that some of them might have been colony dwellers. Near Dixon, the Glenwood shale which, i n other parts of the state, usually l i e s between the St. Peter and the P l a t t e v i l l e formations i s absent. Knappen (1926) p.60) stated: 1 "... there i s no evidence i n this quadrangle of erosion following St. Peter deposition, but the Glenwood shale and the Buff member of t h e ' P l a t t e v i l l e are t h i n or e n t i r e l y absent on the top of the La Salle a n t i c l i n e .... It seems that conditions on the a n t i c l i n e were unfavorable f o r deposition * u n t i l the Blue limestone was formed." The seas were clear i n P l a t t e v i l l e times (Knappen, 1926, pp. 87-88). Conditions favourable f o r preservation and probably an environment>stimulating animal growth produced the Blue limestone. It would appear from Knappen's quotation above that the sponges are probably found i n the Blue limestone. In reference to the Blue limestone, Knappen (1926, pp. 87-88) stated: "Here i n a gigantic funeral mound are heaped the remains of the myriad animals that thronged the P l a t t e v i l l e ocean. Clear water alternated with muddy for layers of s h e l l limestone or compacted coquina an inch or two thick are separated by i r r e g u l a r , shaly laminae which are r a r e l y half an inch i n thickness." 1. Dixon quadrangle, I l l i n o i s 38 "The f o s s i l s of the P l a t t e v i l l e were buried in" the mud of a quiet ocean, unmarred by r o l l i n g . . Sponges were abundant at times i n this ocean." From Knappen's description above, i t seems that the P l a t t e v i l l e sponges are not necessarily confined to the layer -described by.Ulrich and Everett but also occur elsewhere i n the P l a t t e v i l l e . There appears to be some doubt that the sponge layer described by U l r i c h and Everett i s shaly. They stated that the name "mud layer" was given to i t by l o c a l quarrymen but that " i t was l a r g e l y made up of organic remains". - The remaining Black River l o c a l i t i e s to be. discussed are i n Kentucky, Minnesota and Ontario. . . * • In Kentucky, only two sponges, Cylindrocoelia  endoceroidea U l r i c h and Gamarocladia rugosa U l r i c h , occur i n the Black River beds. The f i r s t i s found i n the Lowville formation of Mercer County. Bassler (1915, p. 965) l i s t e d Dystactosponffia minor from the "Black River" Carters formation i n Kentucky. The Carters v i s now considered Upper Chazy (see Schuchert 1943, p. 476). The Lowville i n Kentucky i s now c a l l e d the Tyrone or "Birdseye" limestone. The rock i s mostly a dense, f i n e -grained, blue-gray, limestone with l i t t l e shale. The Tyrone was deposited slowly with frequent interruptions. These interruptions allowed each underlying bed to become s u f f i c i e n t l y s o l i d so as not to cohere with succeeding sediments. The sediments were deposited i n extremely shallow waters, probably i n a protected lagoon r a t h e r than where the seas were q u i e t and t i d e l e s s , r a t h e r than i n an open sea. The broken s h e l l s were most l i k e l y caused by scavengers r a t h e r than by wave a c t i o n (Twenhofel, 1931, pp. 123-24). L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was found about the environmental c o n d i t i o n s of the Decorah formation of Kentucky. I t was probably l a i d down i n muddy seas as i t i s made up c h i e f l y of shale (see B a s s l e r , 1915, p. 1514). The Black R i v e r sponges of Minnesota are represented by three species, Hindia parva U l r i c h , Camarocladia rugosa U l r i c h - and C y l i n d r o c o e l i a minnesotensis U l r i c h . These three sponges were l i s t e d by Bas s l e r from the Decorah formation which i s now considered t he upper part of the P l a t t e v i l l e limestone. S t a u f f e r and T h i e l (1941, pp. 238 and 241) l i s t e d H i ndia i n a e q u a l i s from the McGregor member of the P l a t t e v i l l e and C y l i n d r o c o e l i a minnesotensis and Hindia i n a e q u a l i s from the Sprechs Ferry member of the P l a t t e v i l l e . Some 'confusion apparently e x i s t s as to j u s t which species of Hi n d i a i s present i n the P l a t t e v i l l e of Minnesota. B a s s l e r (1915) l i s t e d Camarocladia rugosa from the Decorah, but S t a u f f e r and T h i e l d i d not give i t mention i n t h e i r l i s t s . The McGregor limestone member c o n s i s t s of t h i n bedded limestone with r a t h e r common shaly p a r t i n g s ( S t a u f f e r and T h i e l , 1941, p. 78). The Sprechts Ferry member c o n s i s t s of a l t e r n a t i n g blue limestones and blue t o green shales, and should be considered as a shal y f a c i e s of the upper McGregor. Towards 40 the west of the Upper McGregor grades into the shaly beds of the Sprechs Perry. In the Sprechs, bryozoans are very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and i n places almost c o n s i t i t e r e e f s . Nothing could be found on the ecology of the Minnesota P l a t t e v i l l e sponges. The abundance of shale beds i n the Decorah suggests 1 that the sponges might have l i v e d i n muddy seas, or else that the i n f l u x of mud might have k i l l e d them. In Ontario, only one sponge species Hindia parva has been found i n the Black River beds. It occurs rather commonly in the fine-grained grey limestone of the Leray fauna 1 beds of the Ottawa formation (see Wilson, 1921 and 1948). 41 C. Ecology of Trenton Sponges I n the Trenton rocks of North America, sponges are found i n Kentucky, O n t a r i o , Minnesota, Vermont, New J e r s e y and Wisconsin. The f i r s t three of these l o c a l i t i e s are the most important as regards the number of sponge s p e c i e s c o n t a i n e d . The most e a s t e r l y occurence of T r e n t o n sponges i n North America i s at Vermont near I s l e La Motte. Ruedemann (1919) d e s c r i b e d Dystactospongia r a d i o o s a Ruedemann here from the Gana.joharie shale of probable Trenton age. As we s h a l l see l a t e r t here i s o n l y one other Trenton sponge known to the w r i t e r which occurs i n the g r a p t o l i t e shale f a c i e s . T h i s i s the U t i c a s p e c i e s of S t e p h a n e l l a Hinde found a t Ottawa. In New J e r s e y , H i n d i a parva U l r i c h i s , as f a r as the w r i t e r knows, the o n l y Trenton sponge o c c u r i n g t h e r e . I t was d e s c r i b e d by W e l l e r (1903, pp. 21, 24, 29, 30, 31) from the dark f o s s i l i f e r o u s limestone of the ijacksonburg s e c t i o n . In O n t a r i o the main l o c a l i t y f o r Trenton sponges i s near Ottawa, and the most important sponge h o r i z o n i s the upper p a r t of the Ottawa f o r m a t i o n . The o n l y other sponge b e a r i n g f o r m a t i o n known t o the v W r i t e r , i s the U t i c a s h a l e s . The U t i c a i s c o n s i d e r e d by many g e o l o g i s t s to r e p r e s e n t a d i s t i n c t stage. The w r i t e r , however, has f o l l o w e d Moore's (1949, p. 118) terminology i n i n c l u d i n g i t w i t h the Trenton. The lower p a r t of the Ottawa f o r m a t i o n i s Black R i v e r and the upper p a r t i s Trenton. The Trenton sponges occur 4Z i n the Rockland, H u l l , Sherman F a l l and Cobourg faunal beds of the formation. The Rockland and Hull beds contain the single species Hindia parva U l r i c h . The Sherman F a l l beds contain both Caryomanon editum punctatum Wilson and Hindia parva. The Cobourg beds contain the largest fauna. The sponges are Astylospongia (?) perplexa Wilson, Caryomanon parvulum ( B i l l -ings). Hindia parva U l r i c h , S t e l i e l l a b i l l i n g s 1 Hinde, S. crassa Hinde and S. ottawaensis Wilson. (see Wilson, 1948, f o r description and horizons of Ottawa sponges). The Rockland and Hull beds consist of thick bedded c r y s t a l l i n e limestone. The combined Sherman F a l l and Cobuurg beds contain small amounts of shale and rather t h i n impure limestone layers near the base Which gradually give place upward to t h i c k beds of limestone. Some of these thick beds are pure, while others are rather impure and contain shaly partings (Wilson, 1946, pp. 21-26). The Sherman F a l l and Cobourg beds contain the largest sponge fauna. Whether t h i s can be correlated with the increased amount of shale as compared with the lower beds i s not known. However, the amount of shale i s not large and i t i s probable that the Trenton seas were f a i r l y c l e a r . The sponges, i t seems, l i v e d near the centre of the basin as Wilson (1946, p. 25) stated that further northwest the Trenton beds suggested slow and marginal deposition. The overlying Utica shales contain only one sponge species - the rather curious Stephanella sancta Hinde. Stephanella i s found i n the Collingwood formation of the Utica -43 ( B a s s l e r , 1915). Under present terminology the f o r m a t i o n i s probably the Eastview f o r m a t i o n (Wilson, 1946, pp. 26-27).. As was mentioned before Dystactospongia r a d i c o a a from the Ganajoharie s h a l e s i s the o n l y o t h e r Trenton sponge found i n the g r a p t o l i t e shale f a c i e s . S t e p h a n e l l a a p p a r e n t l y p r e f e r r e d a muddy water environment. The species S t e p h a n e l l a h i n d i i Dawson, form-the Metis f o r m a t i o n , was a l s o found i n s h a l e s . T h i s l a t t e r s p e c i e s has, however, been a s s i g n e d to the genus Choia by Walcott. The r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d to the s e c t i o n on the geology of Canadian sponges f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o s s i b l e synonomy of S t e p h a n e l l a Hinde and Choia Walcott. Choia and S t e p h a n e l l a have been found o n l y i n s h a l y beds. S t e p h a n e l l a i s found i n t h e ' U t i c a shales of Ontario.' Chioa i s found i n the Metis shales of Quebec, the Burgess shales and the Ogygopsis shales of the Stephen f o r m a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia; and i n the s h a l y limestone of the Marjum f o r m a t i o n of Utah. Walcott (^1920 p. 265) however, s t a t e d that the fauna of the Burgess shales d i d not normally i n h a b i t muddy water. Whether S t e p h a n e l l a i s a b a s a l p o r t i o n of a d i s t i n c t sponge or a complete sponge l i k e Chioa, the f a c t remains t h a t the s p i c u l e s were admirably s u i t e d to r a i s e the main body of the sponge above the muddy bottom. Hinde (1896) s t a t e d : "There seems f a i r ground f o r supposing t h a t these patches of r a d i a t i n g s p i c u l e s l i k e w i s e served as b a s a l supports to s u s t a i n the sponges, which l i v e d i n dense colonies> on the surface of the ooze." In c e n t r a l K e n t u c k y } f o u r sponge s p e c i e s - C y l i n d r -o c o e l i a minor U l r i c h , Saceospongia d a n v i l l e n s i s U l r i c h , S. r u d i s U l r i c h and H i n d i a parva U l r i c h - are present i n the Trenton beds. These sponges were o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d from t h i s l o c a l i t y by U l r i c h i n 1889. They were l i s t e d by F o e r s t e 1 (1913, pp. 368-371) as be i n g present i n the Wilmore (Jessamine), Woodburn, P e r r y v i l l e and Cynthiana f o r m a t i o n s . H i n d i a parva i s the only sponge present i n the W i l -more f o r m a t i o n . T h i s h o r i z o n c o n s i s t s of thin-bedded l i m e -stones c o n t a i n i n g l i t t l e shale ( M i l l e r , 1913, p. 322). Ac c o r d i n g to Twenhofel (1931, p. 127) f o s s i l s are not uncommon on the limestone s u r f a c e s and i n the shale l a y e r s . The lime-stone i s l a r g e l y composed of mic r o s c o p i c s h e l l m a t e r i a l . In the woodburn f o r m a t i o n ; t h e genus Saccospongia i s repr e s e n t e d by the two sp e c i e s S. d a n v i l l e n s i s and S. r u d i s . In the Georgetown quadrangle, which covers most of the counties i n which these sponges are found, the f o r m a t i o n i s a thin-bedded g r a n u l a r phosphatic l i m e s t o n e . The phosphorus i s b e l i e v e d to have o r i g i n a t e d from the phosphatic s h e l l m a t e r i a l ( M i l l e r , 1913, pp. 327). The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t a t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r was made on page 368 of F o e r s t e ' s l i s t . The s p e c i e s " C y l i n d r o c o e l i a  d a n v i l l e n s i s " from the Wilmore f o r m a t i o n , should r e a l l y read C. minorT The w r i t e r does not know of any sponge by the name of "C. d a n v i l l e n s i s . " 45 The F a u l c o n e r . d i v i s i o n of the P e r r y v i l l e f o r m a t i o n contains the two sponges C y l i n d r o c o e l i a minor and Saccospongia  d a n v i l l e n s i s . T h i s d i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of s h e l l limestone ( M i l l e r , 1919, p. 29). Many of the P e r r y v i l l e limestone beds are composed of m i c r o s c o p i c s h a l l fragments. Since the i n d i c a t i o n s were t h a t wave and c u r r e n t a c t i o n was not s t r o n g enough to break the s h e l l s , the f r a g m e n t a t i o n was a t t r i b u t e d to scavenger organisms, (Twenhofel, 1931, p. 130). The Cynthiana f o r m a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y p l a c e d i n the Lower C i n c i n n a t i a n by the Ohio and Kentucky g e o l o g i c a l surveys but present u s a g e y ( S c h u c h e r t , 1943, p. 511 and Moore, 1949, p. 118) places i t i n the uppermost Trenton. A c c o r d i n g -to B a s s l e r , (1915) Saccospongia r u d i s i s the o n l y sponge present i n the Cynthiana. The rocks of the Cynthiana are limestones which are more s h a l y than the proceeding beds. The seas i n which the Kentucky Trenton sponges l i v e d were shallow and i t appears that the sediments were d e p o s i t e d near l a n d which was low and warm. In many of the beds f o s s i l s have been p r e s e r v e d i n a manner s i m i l a r to t h a t of the over-l y i n g C i n c i n n a t i a n beds. In the Trenton, numerous t h i n shale beds occur i n t e r b e d d e d throughout the limestone s e r i e s . These shale beds are not n e a r l y so numerous, however, as i n the C i n c i n n a t i a n . The Trenton seas i n Kentucky, t h e r e f o r e , remained c l e a r e r f o r l o n g e r periods than those of the C i n c i n n a t i a n . In the seas i n which the animals l i v e d d e p o s i t i o n of limestone was slow and scavengers a c c o r d i n g l y were able to reduce many of the s h e l l s to fragments. Numerous 4C r a p i d i n f l u x e s o f m u d ( r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e s h a l e b e d s ) k i l l e d t h e a n i m a l s a n d p r e s e r v e d t h e m . I n M i n n e s o t a , T r e n t o n s p o n g e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e g e n e r a H i n d i a , C a m a r o c l a d i a , a n d C y l i n d r o c o e l i a h a v e b e e n f o u n d . T h e s e w e r e l i s t e d b y S t a u f f e r a n d T h i e l , ( 1 9 4 1 , p p . 2 3 1 - 2 5 4 ) a s o c c u r i n g i n t h e G a l e n a f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e D e c o r a h S h a l e m e m b e r o f t h e G a l e n a f o r m a t i o n C a m a r o c l a d i a r u g o s a U l r i c h , C a m a r o c l a d i a s p . , C y l i n d r o c o e l i a m i n n e s o t e n s i s U l r i c h a n d H i n d i a p a f v a U l r i c h a r e f o u n d . T h e D e c o r a h c o n s i s t s o f a r g i l l a c e o u s b l u e a n d g r e e n s h a l e s w i t h i n t e r b e d d e d l i m e s t o n e ( S t a u f f e r a n d T h i e l , 1 9 4 1 , p p . 8 3 a n d 2 3 4 ) . I t i s n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r t h e s p o n g e s , a r e f o u n d i n t h e s h a l e s , t h e l i m e s t o h e s j o r b o t h . T h e J P r o s s e r m e m b e r o f t h e G a l e n a f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n s o n l y o n e s p o n g e , H i n d i a p a r v a . T h e P r o s s e r i s a r a t h e r p u r e l i m e s t o n e . I n p a r t s , h o w e v e r , i t i s s h a l y ( S t a u f f e r a n d T h i e l , 1 9 4 1 , p p . 8 6 , 2 3 1 ) . A s i n t h e D e c o r a h , t h e c o r r e s p o n d -i n g r o c k t y p e i n w h i c h t h e s p o n g e i s f o u n d i s n o t k n o w n . T h e w r i t e r h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o o b t a i n a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e G a l e n a o f M i n n e s o t a w a s d e p o s i t e d . O n e r e c o m m e n d e d l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e s p o n g e s t o t h e s h a l e b e d s , i . e . , w e r e t h e s p o n g e s k i l l e d b y m u d i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r t h a t t h e C i n c i n n a t i a n s p o n g e s w e r e t h o u g h t t o b e ? 47 I I I . Ecology of the Cincinnatian Sponges Cincinnatian sponges occur, so f a r as the writer knows, in-Jjwo p r i n c i p a l areas. Ono of these-the most important-i s i n Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. The other,characterized by a single sponge species Hindia f i b r o s a , i s i n the Richmond of A n t i c o s t i .Island. The Cincinnatian rocks i n the area around Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana have been one of the most p r o l i f i c sponge bearing horizons of the Ordovician. Among the sponge genera oocuring i n these rocks (excluding the very numerous hex a c t i n e l l i d s and incertae sedis) are Hindia, Cylindroooelia. Dystactospongia and Heterospongia. Because many of the species of the above genera were des-oribed i n the l a s t century before the detailed stratigraphy of the Cincinnatian rocks was known, th e i r s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n was usually desoribed i n anly a very general way, as,for instance, "Upper Cincinnatian" or "Lower Cincinnatian", ete. The writer has used Bassler's (1915) Bibliographic Index of American Oroddivician and S i l u r i a n F o s s i l s to obtain, i n most cases, a more exact stratigraphic p o s i t i o n . Hence most of the following l o c a l i t i e s and formations for Cincinnatian sponges are taken from Bassler. Hind i a Dunoan H. gregaria ( M i l l e r and Dyer) Maysville group: Cin-c i n n a t i , Ohio and v i c i n i t y , Hamilton County. 4 2 H. subrotundus (James) Cylindrocoelia U l r i c h C. coyingtonensis U l r i c h Bystactospongia M i l l e r D. insolens M i l l e r D. madisonensis Foerste D. minima U l r i c h "Dy s t ac t o sp o ngi a " Heterospongia D l r i c h H. knotti U l r i o h H. aspera U l r i c h Richmond group: Clinton County, Ohio. Maysyille group; F a i r -mount formation: Covington, Kentucky. Maysville group, F a i r -mount formation: Cin-c i n n a t i , Ohio and vic-^ i n i t y . Richmond group, White-w,ater-Saluda formation: Madison, Osgood and Ver-s a i l l e s , Indiana. Richmond group, Waynes-v i l l e formation: Hanover, Butler County, Ohio. Arnheim formation ( c o r a l zone), Elkhorn formation, Tennessee. Richmond group, Arnheim formation: near Lebanon, Kentucky. Richmond group, Arnheim forma t i o n : Marian and Lincoln Counties, Kentuckyl H. subramosa U l r i c h . Richmond group, Arnheim formation: near Lebanon, Kentucky. Streptospongia U l r i c h S. labyrinfthica U l r i c h Richmond group,- Arnheim f o r m a t i o n : near Lebanon, Kentucky. Bassler apparently did not -'SpEjow^ t-he formation i n which Hindi a was found. The Dystactospongia from the coral zone of the Arnheim and from the Elkhorn formations was described i n 1934 by Shideler. Unfortunately he did not give a species name for i t . One of the mosttimportant references describing the environmenta: conditions-under which the Cincinnatian sediments were - l a i d down is "The Building of Kentucky" by Twefanofel (1931).. Although i t i s primarily a description of the rocks of Kentucky, Twenhofel made many references to the rocks i n the adjoining state of Ohio. Most of the conclusions regarding the environmental cond-i t i o n s of the Cincinnatian rocks of Kentucky were also applicable to theBe of Ohio. The other useful publications that were found i n the l i b r a r y were those of Orton (1873.) , Perry (1889), l i c k l e s (1905), Foerste (1910), Fenneman (1916) and Stout (1941). Before describing the in d i v i d u a l groups and formations, the general aspects of Cincinnatian sedimentation w i l l f i r s t - be discussed. The Cincinnatian i s the most shaly series of -the Ordoviaian i n Kentucky, and Ohio. The sediments .were probably deposited close to land, since a not too distant land area was required to supply the shales (Twenhofel, 1931, p. 136). l i c k l e s (1905, pp. 129^.3) 50 however, believed that the mud was brought by currents from the south of south-east. He suggested this source because the Cincinnati faunas were more luxuriant i n the Cincinnati region, and because there were more limestones i n the Cincinnatian formations than further south. The series is extremely f o s s i l i f e r o u s . This great abundance of f o s s i l s was attributed to the rapid smothering of organisms by mud rather than to a r e l a t i v e l y greater abundance of l i f e . This mud, as well as the absence of much scavenger a c t i v i t y , allowed f o r very good preservation. Much of the Cincinnati series is composed of thin-bedded, alternating limestones and shales. During the period of the deposition of the limestones, the organisms had time to e s t a b l i s h themselves i n the clear waters. Since deposition was slow there was time f o r great numbers of them to develop. Then, rather suddenly, mud was i n t r o -duced into the seas, and the organisms were k i l l e d . A f t e r a while the waters would cle a r and limestone would again be depositee The organisms would again e s t a b l i s h themselves only to be k i l l e d l a t e r by the i n f l u x of more mud (Twenhofel, 1931, p. 136). Not a l l of the shales are u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s , some are highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s . Some cf these muddy bottoms, therefore, must have been suitable f o r l i f e . Orton (1873, p. 381) believed that the currents swept the mud (shale) i n one d i r e c t i o n f o r considerable period, burying and destroying l i f e while i n c l o s e l y contiguous areas limestone was being deposited i n clear seas . It appears that the seas must have been turbid throughout much of the Cincinnatian period, e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l i e r h a l f . SI Orton (1873, p. 381) stated that the underlying Trenton and Leb-anon beds were less heavily charged with shale than the Cincinnation. This, he believed, indicated turbid seas i n Cincinnatian time.a..-"a L i f e was less abundant, due to t h i s t u r b i d i t y , than i n the e a r l i e r s e r i e s . As an example of how... the t u r b i t i d y affected l i f e , he pointed out that the -Sden shales were r e l a t i v e l y barren of f o s s i l s while the succeeding Maysville and Richmond rocks contained more limestones and were hence r e l a t i v e l y much more f o s s i l f f e r o u s . Perry (1889, pp. 334-335) t r i e d to explain the formation of the interbedded limestone and shale by the following hypothesis: n " I f we assume a condition of shallow water extending through-out the Cincinnati epoch, and the bed of that shallow sea to have been inhabited by a dense animal l i f e as we known i t to have been, and also to assume a luxuriant f l o r a at the same time we have a l l the conditions on whioh to base an explanation of these alternating s t r a t a of shale and limestone. The animal l i f e ob-tained i t s lime from the water i n which i t l i v e d and the plant l i f e obtained i t s mineral matter from the same source. The dead sh e l l s through constant a t t r i t i o n and grinding were p a r t l y reduced to the f i n e s t powder and held i n suspension by the agitated water, u n t i l , through transportation to quieter parts, they were allowed to s^ettle. The mineral constituents of the decayed plants had a somewhat sim i l a r history* through being i n an almost impalp-able, form would remain i n suspension longer. I f this were true and a l l thavt^opourred,'rwe should find the lower portion of each " stratum of stone nearly pure carbonate of lime and magnesia, but gradually merging into a nearly pure shale: at the top. xsut we have assumed a shallow sea, whose bottom was soarsely ever free from the juggling action of the surface waves. This action would gradually sort the constituents of the l a s t deposited straum ... This stratum would eventually be sharply divided into two ... the bottom layer being composed of mechanically t r i t u r a t e d fragments of s h e l l s . " "We may suppose that the purer limestone, separated out as above, may have formed stratum unacted upon by the gentler movements of the water, while the overlying shale was s t i l l being kept in motion. In t h i s way limestone stratum might continue to increase i n thickness f o r long periods of time." His ideas are not generally accepted at the present time. Most of the workers on the Cincinnatian series believe that the seas i n which the rocks were formed were very shallow. The presence of raindrops and mud cracks i n some beds indicated that at times the sea f l o o r was above sea l e v e l . At most times the bottom was probably within the reach of large surface waves. Perry (1899, pp. 334-335) stated that portions of the sea may have been at least as deep as Lake E r i e . The Ordovioian rocks of Kentucky (and presumably of Ohio) were believed to have been deposited i n inland, nearly tideless seas. The. waters "never seem to have been very deep" and the sediments were deposited i n n e r i t i c and l i t t o r a l environments (Twenhofel, 1931, pp 141-143). The Cincinnatian rocks are divided into three groups. These are, i n ascending order, the Eden, Maysville and Richmond. Ko sponges are found i n the Eden group, which consists c h i e f l y of shales. Three sponge species, Cylindrocoelia covingtonessis, Dystacto-spongia insolens and Hindia gregaria are found i n the Maysville. S3 The f i r s t two occur i n the Fairmount limestone of the F a i r v i e w formation, but the exact s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of H i n d i a  g r e g a r i a t u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i s not known. The M a y s v i l l e group i s more calcareous than the u n d e r l y i n g Eden. At the close of the Eden and w i t h the advent of M a y s v i l l e time, there was a r e t u r n to c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to those i n the Trenton. Considerable limestone was deposited and a l a r g e fauna was present ( N i c k l e s , 1905, pp. 12-13). The lime-stone i s s t i l l , however, subordinate i n q u a n t i t y t o the shale. The r o c k s of the M a y s v i l l e are b e l i e v e d e i t h e r to have been l a i d down f u r t h e r away from land than those of the Eden or e l s e the land was low. The limestones are nodular, s h e l l y , t h i n and i r r e g u l a r (Twenhofel, 1931, pp. 138-141). The rocks of the M a y s v i l l e were deposited under c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g the i n f l u x of much mud. The bottoms of the limestone d e p o s i t i n g seas teemed with l i f e . The muds that k i l l e d the c l e a r water faunas hampered the a c t i v i t y of scavengers and hence rather" p e r f e c t preserva-t i o n of the skeletons of the organisms were allowed. Shallow waters were i n d i c a t e d i n M a y s v i l l e time by l a r g e r i p p l e marks and the limestones were probably i n the form of sands (Perry, 1889, pp. 329-330 and Twenhofel, 1931, pp. 138-141). The absence of chert was taken by Twenhofel to i n d i c a t e that no l a r g e r i v e r s flowed i n t o the M a y s v i l l e sea. The M a y s v i l l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two formations; the lower F a i r v i e w and the upper McMillan (Fenneman, 1916, pp. 6 5 - 6 6 ) . The F a i r v i e w formation i s about 120 f e e t t h i c k ( i n Ohio) and c o n s i s t s of the lower Mount Hope shale member and the upper sponge bearing Fairmount limestone member. The t h i c k n e s s of the two members i s approximately equal. The Fairmount (Twenhofel, 1931, pp. 138-141) c o n s i s t s of more or l e s s r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n s of f a i r l y smooth-bedded l i m e -stones i n 2- to 6-inch beds, and b l u i s h - g r e y shales i n u n i t s twice the t h i c k n e s s of the limestone beds. The upper surfaces of the limestone i n many places are covered with f o s s i l s . I t i s not known whether the sponges C y l i n d r o c o e l i a c o v i n g i e n e n s i s and Dystactospongia i n s o l e n s occur i n limestone or shale beds. Presumably they occur i n the limestone l i k e most of the other f o s s i l s . The i n d i c a t i o n s were that the d e p o s i t i o n was slower i n Fairmount than i n Mount Hope time. The succeeding M c M i l l a n formation, that apparently does not contain any sponges, c o n s i s t s i n the lower part of s h e l l limestone without shale, f o l l o w e d i n the upper part by a l t e r n a -t i n g limestone and shale. The M c M i l l a n , according to Fenneman (1916, p. 68") was deposited i n shallow, c l e a r and warm seas. The l i t h o l o g y of the McMillan i s somewhat s i m i l a r to that of the Fairmount. The absence of sponges, t h e r e f o r e , cannot be explained on l i t h o l o g i c a l grounds alone. The rocks of the o v e r l y i n g Richmond group are evenly bedded with clean cut a l t e r n a t i o n s of limestone and shale with lime-stone forming l e s s than h a l f the rock. The i n d i v i d u a l beds are u s u a l l y l e s s than 6 inches t h i c k . The limestones of the Richmond i n B u t l e r County, Ohio show evidence of shallow water d e p o s i t i o n (Stout, 1941, p. 116). The movement of the muddy sediments from the south which began at the close of Lexington time or e a r l i e r , continued on throug the Eden and M a y s v i l l e and became more pronounced i n Richmond times 55 (Hicklea, 1905, pp. 12-13). Sevehispong© species are found i n the Richmond group. Of these* Heterospongia aspera, H. knottisy. H. subramosa, and Streptospongia l a b y r i n t h i c a occur i n the Arnheim formation. .Of the remaining three, Pystaotospongia minima is' found i n the Waynesville formation,while Lystaotospongia madisonensis ~ occurs i n the Whitewater-Saluda formations of Ohio. The exact formation of Hindia subrotunda i s unknown. The Richmond consists, i n ascending order, of the Arnheim, Waynesville, Liberty and Saluda formations. The Saluda loses i t s i d e n t i t y northward i n Indiana and seems to merge into the Whitewater and i&khom formations (Twenhofel, 1931, p. 143). The Arnheim formation consists of t h i n grey limestones and blue shales with the shales dominating. . The limestone makes up about one f i f t h of the t o t a l thickness. The Richmond i s about 80 feet thick. As regards the number of sponge species, the Arnheim: i s the most important sponge horizon of the Cincinnatian. Four speoies, belonging to the genera Heterospongia and Strepto- snongia. are found i n the Arnhemm. The limestone beds of the Arnheim range up to 6 inches i n thickness and some of them are ri p p l e marked. These were believed to have been sands at the time of depositiontTwehhofel, 1931, pp. 141-143). As i n the Fairmount, f o s s i l s are common on the upper surfaces of the limestones. The sponges, presumably, were also found i n the limestone. The overlying Waynesville formation has only produced one sponge species, Dystaotospongia minima. The formation consists of interbedded blue to grey shales and thin limestones with shales dominating. The formation i s about 45 feet thick. As i n the Fairmount and Arnheim formations the surfaces of the thin limestones are covered with f o s s i l s (Twenhofelk 1931, p. 142). Above the Waynesvill® i n Kentucky and Ohio.no more spogges are found. The Liberty formation, which overlies the Waynes-v i l l e , i s composed of shales containing thin rubbly and nodular limestones. Some of the limestones are composed almost e n t i r e l y of f o s s i l s . The highest_formation of the Richmond, the Saluda, contains only one species, Dystactospongia madisonensis. This species oocurs i n the"Whitewater-Saluda" formations ( B a s s l e r , 1915, p. 465) i n Indiana. Another unnamed species of lys.taotospongia was described by Shideler (1934, pp. 341-342) as OGGnxxm^ ln:'r the Jiilkhorn formation of Tennessee. The Saluda formation i n Kentucky and Ohio ranges from a sandy magnesian limestone to a s i l i t ! tan© or sandstone. North-ward i n Indiana the Saluda loses Its i d e n t i t y and seems to merge .into the Whitewater aud'-Slkhorn formations. The Whitewater jccnsistsgbf dnterbeddedrl.imeBtionesIande.Jshale.Sj.j Hinds.!, aboutone gm. f e B t l t h i c k t i s The Slkhorn formaiin i s also composed of IhibeiFbedded lime-stone and shale. Before discussing the general aspects of the eoology of the abovd Cincinnatian sponges, a few facts w i l l be pointed out. The sponges occur i n formations consisting of thi n interbedded limestone and shale. These horizons are the Fairmount limestone member and the Arnheim, Waynesville, Jialuda, and Whitewater 5C shales dominating. The formation is about 45 feet thick. As in the Fairmount and Arnheim formations the surfaces of the thin limestones are covered with f o s s i l s (Twenhofel, 1931,p.142). Above the Waynesville i n Kentucky and Ohio, no more sponges are found. The Liberty Formation, which overlies the Waynes-v i l l e , i s composed of shales containing th i n rubbly and nodular limestones. Some of the limestones are composed almost e n t i r e l y of f o s s i l s . The highest formation of the Richmond, the Saluda, contains only one species. Dystactospongia madisonensis. This species occurs i n the"Whitewater-Saluda" formations (Bassler, 1915, p. 465) in Indiana. Another unnamed species of Pystactospongia was described by Shideler (1934, pp. 341-342) as occurring i n the Elkhorn formation of Tennessee. The Saluda formation i n Kentucky and Ohio ranges from a sandy magnesian limestone to a s i l t s t o n e or sandstone. North-ward i n Indiana the Saluda loses i t s i d e n t i t y and seems to merge into the Whitewater and Elkhorn formations. The Whitewater consists of interbedded limestones and shales. It i s about 80 feet thick. The Elkhorn formation i s also composed of interbedded lime-stone and shale. Before discussing the general aspects of the ecology of the above Cincinnatian sponges, a few facts w i l l be pointed out. The sponges occur i n formations consisting of t h i n interbedded limestone and shale. These horizons are the Fairmount limestone member and the Arnheim, Waynesville, Saluda, and 'Whitewater S 7 and Elkhorn formations. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the shales making up the Eden group and the Mount Hope member of the Maysville group do not contain any sponges. Two explanations are possible to explain the absence of sponges i n these shale beds. One would be that the absence of sponges are caused by poor preservation. In other words, the sponges l i v e d i n the muddy water, but, by some accident of preservation, were not preserved. The other explanation i s simpler and more l o g i c a l . I t is that the sponges did not l i k e muddy waters and hence were not found in the shale beds. Supposing that the sponges had preferred muddy water. It is possible that the chances of preservation might have been such as to leave no traces of the sponges over a r e l a t i v e l y small thickness of beds such as the Mount Hope shale. On the other hand, i t should be expected that a thick series of shales such as the Eden would contain some traces of sponges i f they had l i v e d i n these muddy seas. In other words i t would he too much to use the explanation of chance preservation to explain the absence of sponges i n the Eden. It i s f o r t h i s reason that the writer has assumed that the sponges l i v e d i n clear, water and hence were found i n the limestone beds. Another factor, pointing to the correctness of this assumption, is that most of the Cincinnatian f o s s i l s are found in the limestones. Dystactospongia i s a common sponge i n the Cincinnatian beds. Ruedemann (1914) described Dystactospongia radicosa as occurring i n the Trenton (?) Canahoharie shale. These Trenton species apparently l i v e d and died i n muddy waters. One might speculate that i f the sponge had l i v e d i n muddy waters, why shouldn't S8 C i n c i n n a t i a n s p o n g e s o f t h e s a m e g e n u s b u t o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s a l s o l i v e i n t h e s a m e e n v i r o n m e n t , i . e . , t h e s h a l y b e d s o f t h e C i n c i n n a t i a n s e r i e s . T o p u t i t m o r e s i m p l y : i s a s p o n g e g e n u s r e s t r i c t e d t o a c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t ? W i t h D y s t a c t o s p o n g i a t h e r e d o e s n o t s e e m t o b e a n y p r e f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r c l e a r o r m u d d y w a t e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e F o e r s t e (1910) d e s c r i b e d D . m a d i s - o n e n s i s a s o c c u r i n g i n t h e s h a l y b e d s o f t h e S a l u d a f o r m a t i o n i n I n d i a n a , b u t S h i d e l e r d e s c r i b e d t h e s a m e g e n u s ( t h e s p e c i e s w a s n o t i n d i c a t e d ) f r o m t h e c o r a l z o n e o f t h e A r n h e i m . N o d a t a c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d a b o u t t h e c o r a l z o n e . I t s e e m s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i f i t w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a n a b u n d a n c e o f c o r a l s , t h a t t h e w a t e r s p r o b a b l y w e r e o r i g i n a l l y c l e a r . T h e s a m e g e n u s i s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e c l e a r w a t e r s e d i m e n t s o f t h e P l a t t e v i l l e i n I l l i n o i s . T h e w r i t e r h a s m e n t i o n e d t h e a b o v e p r o b l e m o f D y s t a c t o s p o n g i a f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i n d i c a t i n g t h e u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e l i t h o l o g y o f t h e b e d s i n w h i c h t h e s p o n g e s a r e f o u n d . T h e C i n c i n n a t i a n s p o n g e s ( i f t h e y a r e f o u n d i n l i m e s t o n e b e d s ) l i v e d i n c l e a r , w a r m , l i t t o r a l o r n e r i t i c s e a s . A m o n g t h e c o m m o n f a u n a l i v i n g w i t h t h e s e s p o n g e s w e r e b r a c h i o p o d s a n d b r y o -z o a . T h e s e a f l o o r o n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d w a s o f t e n w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f s u r f a c e w a v e s a n d m a n y o f t h e l i m e s t o n e b e d s a r e b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n s a n d s a t t h e t i m e o f d e p o s i t i o n . M o s t c e r t a i n l y t h e s e a w a s a l w a y s s h a l l o w a n d t h e w a t e r w a s p r o b a b l y a g i t a t e d , t h u s i n s u r i n g g o o d c i r c u l a t i o n . T h e s e a s w e r e p r o b a b l y n e v e r d e e p e r t h a n s e v e r a l h u n d r e d f e e t a n d a t m o s t t i m e s m u c h l e s s t h a n t h i s . O n e r e a s o n f o r t h e a b u n d a n c e o f l i f e i n t h e s e s e a s m i g h t b e t h e s u g g e s t e d a b s e n c e o f t i d e s . T h i s w o u l d t e n d t o r e d u c e t h e fluctuations i n environmental conditions leaving the sponges only the muddy seas to cope withl The sponges of Oinoinnatian times l i v e d under rather unstable „ conditions. Periodic inflows of mud k i l l e d or seriously reduced the l i f e of the previously c l e a r seas. This mud, i t seems, must have been rather d i s t a s t e f u l to mud-eating organisms. Scavenger a c t i v i t y was thus at a minimum and the f o s s i l s were rather per f e c t l y preserved. In a few oases, apparently, these muds were favourable for l i f e and as a r e s u l t some of the shales are highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s . It i s not known-whether'any of the sponges l i v e d i n these muddy waters. The mud came from the weathering of the Appalachian highlands which, were being raised at thi s time by the Taconio disturbance. In the Appalachian iregion, ,the Cinoinnatian epoch was represented by the Martinsburg shale and the Juniata red beds. Further west, in the lew York region, dominant marine conditions were shown by the Lorraine and Queenstone shales. Further west again, i n the Ohio V a l l e y , the f a m i l i a r sponge-bearing interbedded marine shales and limestones were present. O s c i l l a t i n g conditions of clear and muddy waters are thus indicated. The Cincinnatian sponges, i t would appear, l i v e d i n the t r a n s i t i o n zone between the off-shore clear water limestone fa c i e s and the near shore muddy Bhale f a c i e s . The spknges, i t i s presumed, l i v e d i n clear water. Bssldes the rather unimportant sponge (?) borings i n New York state, whioh w i l l be desoribed l a t e r , A n t i c e s t i -Island i s the only other area known to the writer where Cincinnatian sponges occur. These f o s s i l s , referred to Hindia c f . f i b r o s a are found -Co i n the English Head and Vauriel formations of EichmoM age. This species continues through the Richmond into the overlying Gamaohian sediments. The l a t t e r w i l l te discussed i n the next s^-section. The A n t i c o s t i sequence of rocks (Middle Ordovician to Middle Silurian) exhibits marked changes i n f a c i e s , whichti are attributed to deposition at d i f f e r e n t distances from the old shore l i n e . The sediments of the north shore, which are pre-dominantly e l a s t i c s , were deposited closer to land than those of the south shore,which are c h i e f l y chemical sediments. The waters i n which these sediments were^warm and shallow with depths never exceeding £00 or 300 feet. At most timss the bottoms were within the reach of waves. These waves had suf-f i c i e n t force to break brachiopod s h e l l s (Twenhofel, 19£7, pp. 19, £1, ££). The English Head formation was deposited i n waters of. such shallowness that the waves were able to tear up the previously consolidated sediments on the sea bottom (Twenhofel, 19£7, p. 20). The English Head, unlike most of the other formations, does not exhibit much l a t e r i a l v a r i a t i o n i n l i t h o l o g y . Zone 4,in which Hindia occurs, consists of grey, argillaceous limestone, i n t e r -bedded with grey and blue shaleiTwenhofel, 19£9, p. £9). The succeeding Vauriel formation shows more l a t e r a l v a r i a t i o n than the English Head. On the north shore, where Hindia occurs, shale and sandstone are common. The sponge occured i n zone 5, which consists of grey limestone interbedded with grey shale and conglomerate (Twenhofel, 19£7, p. 43). Ruedemann (1925) described markings on the i n t e r i o r of cephaloped she l l s that he attributed to the work of boring sponges or algae. The markings, which consisted of straight-l i n e borings, were assigned to a new species Glionolithes  quarens Ruedemann. They occurred i n the 'Whetstone Gulf formation of New York. The Whetstone, apparently, occurs i n the lower part of the Cincinnatian section (see Moore, 1933, p. 147). Ruedemann believed that the boring organism was either a sponge or an alga, "most l i k e l y the l a t t e r " . The animal followed the s h e l l c l o s e l y along i t s inner surface u n t i l i t reached a septum. When i t passed through the septum, i t often branched out into three or more borings. Ruedemann assumed that the borer attacked the " a i r chambers11 of the l i v i n g cephalopod as they were abandoned by..: the- animal and that i t l i v e d on the organic matter s t i l l present i n the "newly gained a i r chamber". The' writer finds i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to v i s u a l i z e a sponge, or even an algae l i v i n g i n a gaseous cephalopod chamber, i f indeed, i t was gaseous. He knows of no sponge that can l i v e i n such an atmosphere. Sponges, as f a r as the writer knows, are, and always have been marine, fresh, or brackish water dwellers. az. IV. Eoology of the Gamachian Sponges In the Gamachian of A n t i o o s t i Island only sne sponge, a form referred to Hindia of. f i b r o s a (Roemer),has been found. It was described by Twenhofel (1927) from the E l l i s Bay form-ation at E l l i s Bay. The Gamachian has reoieved much study c h i e f l y because i t i s the highest known horizon of the Ordovician. Schuchett and Twenhofel (1910)- and Twenhofel (1921, 1927) have con-tributed most of the information about this, s e r i e s . The E l l i s Bay formation i s the only formation i n the Gamachiaa.o £ An CC.J{<; . R The A n t i o o s t i sequence, ranging from Middle Ordovician to Middle S i l u r i a n , i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of pronounced l a t e r a l variations i n l i t h o l o g y . The sediments of the north shore of the islan d are predominantly e l a s t i c s while those of the south shore are c h i e f l y chemical sediments. These differences i n l i t h o l o g y were caused by the differences i n distance from the old land surface which lay to the north of A n t i o o s t i Island (Twenhofel, 1921, p. 4). Hindia of. f i b r o s a i s found on the south shore at E l l i s Bay i n zones 14, 6, 7 and 8 of the E l l i s Bay formation. Zone 4 consists of interbedded limestones and shales and zone 6 of limestone. These two zones are represented on the 1Twenhofel (1987, p, 103) l i s t e d Hindia from zones 4, 6, 7 and 9 of the JSllls Bay formation. On the chart on page 83 of the same, paper, however, the sponge was l i s t e d from zones 4, 6, 7 and 8. The zoning given by the chart w i l l be a r b i t r a r i l y followed i n this thesis. C3 north shore by sandstones. Zone 7 i s composed of shale with -lenses of limestone and zone 8 consists of limestone, The rock type of znne 7 on the north shore was not given by Twen-hofel. Zone 8 i s represented on the north shore by impure limestone. The evidence seems to indicate that i n Gamachian times Hindia l i v e d i n cl e a r offshore waters where limestone was being deposited. A subject for fufchher i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be to determine i f Hindia i s r e a l l y found i n the shaly layers of the south shore rather than i n the limestone, as the present studies indicate. The reader i s requested to remember that the information about Hindia was taken from the l i t e r a t u r e . Since the sponge was treated as a minor member of the Gamachian fauna, the rook i n whioh i t occurs i s not known. It is possible, therefore, that* i t could have been found i n the shaly layers of the south shore. An examination of i'wehhofel's Geological Survey of Canada notebooks might supply the necessary information. F a i l i n g t h i s , f i e l d work would be the only a l t e r n a t i v e . If i t should happen that Hindia i s r e a l l y found i n the shaly layers, the sponge would belong more l o g i c a l l y to the nearer shore c l a s t i c f a c i e s . As w i l l be?latBrlseen i n the disc:asslon • of the ecology of the Lower Devonian sponges, Hindia fibposa i s most frequently found i n the shaly limestone beds rather than i n the purer limestones. The seas i n which the Gamachian Hindia l i v e d were warm and shallow. The depths of water were probably never deeper that 20G to 30G feet (Twenhofel, 1927, pp. 21, 22)<u4the bottoms at many times must have been w i t h i n the range o f l a r g e waves. Twe n l o f e l (1927, p. 21) deduced t h i s from the numerous broken b r a c h -iopod s h e l l s i n the E l l i s Bay formation and the other u r d o v i c i a n f o r m a t i o n s . •Discussion o n The ires u l 1B of the study of O r d o v i c i a n sponge ecology have been d i s a p p o i n t i n g . It was hoped that w i t h the l a r g e numbers and d i v e r s i t y o f sponges that some d e f i n i t e e c o l o g i c a l t rend such as t h a t found f o r t h e Cambrian m o n a c t i n e l l i d s , or f o r the S i l u r i a n l i t h i s t i d s , would be apparent. As w i l l be seen below i n the exam-i n a t i o n of each of the sponge groups, v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e i r ecology i s known. M o n a c t i n e l l i d s are pr e s e n t i n the Canadian and i n the Trenton (Utica ) r o c k s . The Canadian sponges, which are represented by. . three genera, occur i n the Me t i s s h a l e s of Quebec and i n the Oneota dolomite o f W i s c o n s i n . The s i n g l e Trenton genus i s found i n the U t i c a shale at Ottawa. Although the sponges occur i n shales at two out o f the qbhree l o c a l i t i e s , i t i s s t i l l not enough evidence to s t a t e that the O r d o v i c i a n m o n a c t i n e l l i d s p r e f e r r e d muddy waters. The O r d o v i c i a n t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s a re a l l members of the f a m i l y Archaeoscyphi&ae. The only occurence i n Lower O r d o v i c i a n rocks i s i n the dark dolomites o f the Romaine f o r m a t i o n on the Mingan Is l a n d s One genus i s present i n the Lower O r d o v i c i a n . In the Middle O r d o v i c i a n , only the Chazy oontains t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s . S i x genera are p r e s e n t . The sponges occur i n the limestones and the muddy limestones o f the Lower Table Head s e r i e s of Newfoundland and i n the muddy limestones of the Pogonip fo r m a t i o n o f Nevada. - ^. C 5 As with the Ordovioian monactinellids, not enough t e t r a c t i n e l l i d l o c a l i t i e s are yet known to give an idea whether or not they preferred muddy waters. In the seas'" in' which D i v i s i o n L of the lower TSble Head series was deposited, Archaeoscyphia  minganensis apparently l i v e d i n colonies or "nests". The l i t h i s t i d s are the most abundant sponge group of the Ordovioian, being p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n the Mohawkian seas. Two genera are present i n the Canadian, nine i n the Chazyan, seven (excluding the Manitoba l i t h i s t i d s ) i n the Black Riverian, s i x i n the Trenton, four i n the Cincinnatian and one i n the Gamachian rocks. Most of them are found i n c l e a r water sediments, some Bxceptions being these of the Tennessee Chazy, Nevada Pogonip and the A n t i c o s t i Gamachian. L i t t l e can be said about the calcisponges. Although they are usually found i n clear water sediments, there i s r e a l l y not enough of them present to make andefinite statement. Besides i t i s doubtful whether some of them r e a l l y are calsioponges. The genus Dystaoabospongia. which was discussed i n some detsi.1 i n the sub-seetion on Cincinnatian ecology seemed to be found i n both clear and muddy water sediments. ECOLOGY OF SILURIAN SPONGES ECOLOGY OF SILURIAN  SPONGES -Introduction In the S i l u r i a n of North America, sponges, excluding hexactinellids and incertae sfedis, oocur i n four p r i n c i p a l areas. These are Quebec, Ontario, I l l i n o i s and Tennessee. Other l o c -a l i t i e s of l e s s e r importance are i n Indiana and Kentucky. . Fif t e e n S i l u r i a n sponge genera are known. Nearly a l l of them are l i t h i s t i d s and belong to the following genera: Cary-osnongia. Gaspespongia. hindia. Astylospongia. Anomoclonella. Chiastoolonella. Pendroolonella. Cyat ho s po ng i a. Palaeomanon, Caryomanon. Carpomanon. Climacospongia. Carpospongia. Aulocopina and Byonogegma. $ithou& exception, these sponges occur i n the Niagaran s e r i e s . In addiition, some unide n t i f i e d t e t r a c t i n e l l i d s have been reported by Lowenstam (1948) from the Waukesha formation of I l l i n o i s . Ecology of Niagaran Sponges On the north side of Chaleur Bay i n Quebeo, three sponge genera are present. These are Hindia. Caryospongia and Gaspespongs. The so-called sponge Girvanella Nicholson and .atheridge, desoribed from here, i s now considered to be a calcareous alga. The species desoribed from Chaleur Bay are l i s t e d below. Parks (1933) and Northrop (1939) are the c h i e f references. Caryospongia Rauff C. of. juglans Quenstedt La V i e i l l e formation; Port Daniel, Quebec. G a s p e s p o n g i a P a r k s G . b a s a l i s P a r k s L a V i e i l l e f o r m a t i o n ; B l a c k C a p e , Q u e b e c . H i n d i a D u n c a n H . f i b r o s a ( R o e m e r ) I n d i a n P o i n t f o r m a t i o n , I n d i a n P o i n t , Q u e b e c . T h e L a V i e i l l e f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f m u d d y o r i m p u r e l i m e s t o n e s , b u t t h e u p p e r p a r t a t P o r t D a n i e l c o n s i s t s o f r e e f l i m e s t o n e s . T h e e x a c t s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f C a r y o s p o n g i a . j u g l a n s i n t h e L a V i e i l l e i s n o t k n o w n . G a s p e - s p o n g i a i s f o u n d i n t h e S t r i c k l a n d i a b e d s ( l o c a l i t y 1 9 0 ) . T h e s e b e d s a r e a l s o i m p u r e l i m e s t o n e s . T h e I n d i a n P o i n t f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f l i m e s t o n e . I n t e r b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s a n d m u d d y l i m e s t o n e s m a k e u p t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . M o s t o f t h e f o s s i l s c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s f o r m a t i o n w e r e f o u n d i n t h e s e m u d d y l i m e s t o n e s . S c h u c h e r t a n d D a r t ( 1 9 2 6 , p . 23) m e n t i o n e d t h a t c o r a l s a n d b r y o z o a n s h a d b e e n o v e r t u r n e d b y s t o r m w a v e s i n t h e s e a s i n w h i c h t h e s e m u d d y l i m e s t o n e s w e r e d e p o s i t e d . T h e a b o v e c o n s t i t u t e s a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e w r i t e r h a s b e e n a b l e t o f i n d r e l a t i n g t o t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e S i l u r i a n C h a l e u r B a y s p o n g e s . I t s e e m s b e s t t o w a i t u n t i l t h e d i s -c u s s i o n a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e c t i o n o n S i l u r i a n s p o n g e s b e f o r e e v a l u a t i n g i t s p o s s i b l e e c o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n O n t a r i o , a t t h e N i a g a r a n e s c a r p m e n t n e a r H a m i l t o n , a t l e a s t t h r e e l i t h i s t i d s p o n g e g e n e r a a r e f o u n d . T h e s e a r e A s t y l o s p o n g i a R o e m e r , A u l o c o p i n a R a u f f a n d C a r y o m a n o n R a u f f . C f The following species were l i s t e d from here by Laird (1935, p. 257): Astylospongia praemorsa GoIdfuss, Aulooopina granti B i l l i n g s , Garyomanon ino isolobatum Roemer and 0. roemeri Hirfl e. The sponges are found i n the Lockport dolomite. They are apparently absent i n the other formations such as tba Onondaga. The Lockport i s correlated with the Waukesha formation of Wis-consin and I l l i n o i s d a i r d , 1925, p. 238). The Waukesha of I l l i n o i s , which w i l l be discussed l a t e r , i s also an important sponge horizon. The lockport, i n Ontario, consists c h i e f l y of dolomite. Some shale and numerous chert beds are present.how-ever. The l i t h i s t i d s are a l l associated with the cherts. Jj'or i!abs>truoftthe:rtimh^thatwaters of the Lockport were r e l a t i v e l y clear, lime secreting and highly charged with s i l i c a . They were, however, s u f f i c i e n t l y muddy and deep to dis oou rage the development of coral reefs but at the same time to encourage the growth of s i l i c e o u s sponges (Laird, 1935, pp 236). Laird did not believe that the association of the sponges with the chert bed© meant that the s i l i c a of the chert was derived from the decomposition products of sponges. Rather, i t was taken to indicate that since the sponge colonies"demand waters r i c h i n s i l i c a " , they were found i n the beds richest i n s i l i c a . Tie soft oozy bottoms on which the sponges l i v e d consisted of finely divided c o l l o i d a l s i l i c a mixed with caloareous material, clay p a r t i c l e s , the remains of s i l i c e o u s sponges and other f o s s i l debris. Laird mentioned; that although corals-fluorished i n the warm clear seas of the Onondaga, the conditions i n these waters apparently did not favour the development of sponges, even though C9 there was an abundance of s i l i c a i n the water ( l a i r d , 1935 * p. 286). He took this absence of sponges as indi c a t i n g that they preferred r e l a t i v e l y deep muddy waters to those which were shallow and clear. Sinoe the l i t h i s t i d s underwent a very great reduction at the end of-the Niagaran epoch (from which they never f u l l y recovered i n the Palaeozoic), t h e i r absence i n the Onondaga might be explained by assuming that there was not s u f f i c i e n t numbers of them present to be preserved as f o s s i l s . I f t h i s i s the case, then i t i s not necessarily true that <fthey Add not prefer clear warm waters. It w i l l be seen, however, i n the Illinois-Niagaran, that sponges d e f i n i t e l y d i d prefer r e l -a t i v e l y deep muddy waters. Perhaps the absence i n the Ondndaga i s a combination of the above factors, i . e . , there was not enough sponges, and they did not l i k e c l e a r waters. The most important paper dealing with S i l u r i a n sponge ecology was that written by Lowenstam (1948) i n which a study was made of the stratigraphy, palaeontology and palaeoecology of the Niagaran i n t e r - r e e f fomamtions of north-eastern I l l i n o i s . Although only dealing with a problem of limited s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l and geographical extent, the paper i s , from the standpoint of techniques and methods of interpretation^of ecology, one of the most important ever written on f o s s i l sponge ecology. Such a statement can be made because there are very few papers deal-ing with the palaeoeoology of any animal groups, l e t along that of sponges. The Niagaran formations studied by Lowenstam are, i n 70 asoending order, the J o l i e t , Waukesha and Racine-Port Byron. Sponges "belonging to the following genera were desoribed from one or more of the above formations: Astraeospongia , Pyritonema. Hindia. Astylospongia. Carpomanon. Caryospongia.. Carpospongia and Garyomanon. 'The; Waukesha and Racine-Port Byron formations are the mos t important sponge horizons. The l i t h i s t i d s dominate i n the Waukesha)whi 1 eyAstfaeospongia .moldssfirst .place among the sponges i n the Racine-Port Byron. In the J o l i e t formation, Hindia f i b r o s a . Astylospongidae div. sp., Palaeomanon.cratera (?) and Astraeospongia are the only sponges found. In the Waukesha, Astylospongia-praemorsa. Palaeomanon  verruoosum. P." cratera. Carpomanon inoisolobatum. C. s t e l l a t i m -suloatim. Caryospongia juglans^ -Carpospongia oastanae. Astraeospongia meniscus as well as a number of specimens re^ ferred to Astylospongia div. sp., Astylospongia indet. and Astylospongidae gen. et.. sp. indet. are present. In the Racine-Port Byron formations, Hindia fib rosa, Astylospongidae indet., Astraeospongia and Pyritonema are found. Astraeospongia. as was mentioned before, is by ^kr most important sponge i n the Racine-Port Byron^where i t forms numerous colonies. Lowenstam went into e onsiderable d e t a i l describing the l i v i n g habits of t h i s sponge. In f a c t , a large portion of the space devoted to d esc r i b i n g the f o s s i l s of the Kacine-Port Byron formations was given to Astraeo-spongia. Unfortunately Astraeospongia i s an incertae sedis with a f f i n i t i e s close to the hexac t i n e l l i d s and as such is beyond the scope of this t h e s i s . Hindia f i b r o s a and the A s t y l ^ ospongidae are found i n the Kaoine-Port Byron formations at on e. o n l y A l a c a l i t y ; n e a r Thornton. A l i s t of the I l l i n o i s Niagaran sponges described by Lowenstam i s given below, the l o c a l i t y and formation bei ng / cited for each species, i n some oases Lowenstam was unable to s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y a sponge or group of spoig es and i n suoh instances he indicated t h e i r probable genus or family. The hexactinellids and incertae sedis are not included i n the l i s t . Hindia Duncan H. fi b r o s a (Roemer) Middle d o l i e t formation. Lower Waukesha formation:quarry of the National atone Company near J o l i e t . Waukesha formation: quarry of the islmhurst-Ohicago Stone Company. Waukesha formation: H i l l s i d e Quarry near -oellwood. Upper Waukesha ih rmation; Dolese and Shepard quarry. Racine-Port Byron formations: quarry of the Moulding-Brow&elL Company at Thornton. the Jslmhurst-Chicago Stone Astylospongia Roemer A. praemorsa (Goldfuss) Waukesha formation: quarry of 7 - 2 Astylospongia div. sp. Mid;dles;Joli.et formation. Lower Waukesha formation: guarrry of the National Stone Company near J o l i e t . Astylospongia dindet. Lower Waukesha formation: Ludwigs Quarry, Les Plaines Valley. Astylospongidae gen. et. sp. indet. vi/Iauiesha formation: HilJs ide quarry near Bellwood. Upper Waukesha formation: quarry of the Mouiding-rsrownell Com-pany south of tfrookfield. upper Waukesha formation: ;Con-sumers quarry, west of MoCook. Racine-Port Byron formations: quarry of Moulding Birownell Gom-any at Thornton. Carpomanon Rauff C. incisolobatum Roemer Waukesha formation: quarry of the Elmhurst-Chicago Stone Company. C. stellatlmsul.catim:i (Roomer) Waukesha formation: quarry of the Moulding-Browne11 Company, south of Jirookfield. C. juglans Lower Waukesha formation: Ludwigs quarry, Les Plaines Valley. 73 Waukesha formation: quarry of the Blmhurst-Ghicago Stone Com-pany. Upper Waukesha formation: quarry of the Moulding-Browne 11 Company, south of Brookfield, Carpospongia C. oastanae Lower Waukesha formation: Ludwi gs quarry, Pes Plaines Valley. Waukesha formation: quarry of the ElmhurstrChicago-Stone Company, Astylospongia praemorsa, Palaeomanon verrucosum, P, cratera and Caryomanon ihotsolbbatum were known previously from the Brownsport group of Tennessee, According to Lowenstam their occurence i n the Waukesha i s of great i n t e r e s t but i t not of; stratigraphic signifigance. Caryospongia castane. from the Waukesha, had not been found i n America before. It was knovaa i n .Europe ;from the S i l u r i a n d r i f t material i n Germany^ thought to have been derived from Scandanavia. Before dealing with d e t a i l s of the ecology of the spoiges i n the in d i v i d u a l formations, several generalizations w i l l be made about the environmental conditions under which t he I l l i n o i s Niagaran sponges l i v e d . The I l l i n o i s Niagaran sponges, excluding Astraeospongia and Pyritonema are nearly a l l l i t h i s t i d s belonging to the f a n i l y Astylospongidae. The only exceptions are Hindia f i b r o s a and soms unidentified t e t r a c t i n e l l i d sponges. The t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s are found i n the Waukesha formation at Bellwool-quarry and a t 74 Consumers quarry. It i s thought that a l l the sponges l i v e d i n s t i l l muddy waters because they ooeur i n oherty argillaceous dcoiomites. In J o l i e t time, reefs had not yet developed and the sponges l i v e d i n a "normal marine environement" with conditions similar to those at the time of deposition of the higher formations. In Waukesha time, small scale reef development had begun m d i t was then that the l i t h i s t i d s had t h e i r greatest development both i n numbers and i n species. In the reef bearing Waukesha and Racine-Port Byron formations the sponges occur, wi thai t exception,in the s t i l l , muddy water faci e s of the inter -reef realm. In no instance are they found i n reef or ree;f flank beds.. In Racine-Port Byron times the reefs reached the i r peak of development and the l i t h i s t i d s apparent!, y weras reduced i n numbers. Whether t h i s reduction i n numbers can be correlated with the times of greatest reef building a c t i v t t y is not known. On the 0ther hand the numbers of Agtraeospongia greatly increased i n the Racine-Port Byron. Although based on incomplete.evidence, i t i s believed tlat the NIagaran sponges l i v e d below wave base. Lowenstam implied (p* 135) that the Racine-Port Byron s t i l l water, i n t e r - r e e f fauna l i v e d below the wave base when he stated that the s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f populations '(.including the sponges) sometimBS had "encroached on the reef flank probably a s far as the wava base." .Sinoe the s t i l l water facies of a l l ' t h e formations, including the reefless J o l i e t are similar,, the writer las interpreted these facies of the J o l i e t and Waukesha as also being deposited below wave base. It would .seem that the very 7 5 name " s t i l l water" would imply t h i s . The f i r s t formation to be discussed i s the J o l i e t form-ation. Besides the sponges, the other f o s s i l s of t h i s formation include crinoids, brachiopods, bryozoans, cephalopods and t r i l o b i t e s . The rocks consist of s i l t y and argillaceous dol-omites and cherts. Although rare i n the dolomites, the sponges are the most prominant animal group i n the chert. The l i t h o l o g y of the J o l i e t i s sim i l a r to that of the overlying s t i l l water, int e r - r e e f formations, the only difference being i n the absence of r e e f s . The upper d i v i s i o n of the J o l i e t was believed to have been formed under rough water conditions. Since no sponges were observed, this i s the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n that the I l l i n o i s sponges did not prefer agitated waters. In the rough water strata of the succeeding formations sponges are s i m i l a r i l y absent. Poor preservation, however, might be responsible f o r the absence rather than ecological explanations. The overlying Waukesha formations contain a large l i t h i s t i d sponge fauna belonging predominately to the family Astylospongidae. In these times the reefs which were l a t e r to become so common, were only sporadically developed. The sponges formed a "Conspicuous faunal element" of the int e r - r e e f beds. Waukeshan sponges were coll e c t e d by Lowenstam from the quarry of the National Stone Company near J o l i e t , Great Lakes Quarry northeast of Lement, Ludwigs Quarry i n Des Plaines Valley, quarry of the Elmhurst-Chicago Stone Company at Elmhurst, H i l l -side Quarry near Bellwood, quarry of the Moulding-Brownell Company south of Brookfield and from the Consumers Quarry west 7 6 of MoCooki The f i r s t four of these quarries have yielded information on sponge eoology upon which most of the following discussion i s based. The reef and reef flank beds were deposited under conditions of r e l a t i v e l y clear and agitated waters. In these times the r e l a t i v e l y pure d e t r i t a l dolomites of the reef and reef flanks were carried out over the more argillaceous s t i l l water, i n t e r - r e e f beds, and consequently the i n t e r - r e e f fauna was either k i l l e d o f f or seriously reduced. With a retutrn: jjp st£%--. water conditions malcareous muds from the reef and argillaceous muds from the sea were again deposited, eventually becoming a oherty argillaceous dolomite. During these periods of s t i l l water, the in t e r - r e e f populations, including the sponges f l u o r -ished. The rate of sedimentation was slow enough so that the animals were not seriously hampered by mud. The sponges formed extensive colonies i n the s t i l l muddy waters of the Waukeshan i n t e r - r e e f realm. It is probable that the Astylospongidae were the colony ctaellers since Astraeospongia^ the great oolony former i n the Kacine-Port Byron, i s represented only by scattered spicules i n the «Vauk-esha. An extremely i n t e r e s t i n g association was that of the t r i l -obite Enorinurus with the sponge oolonies. The t r i l o b i t e was very small and i t s s i z e was believed e i t h e r to have been oaused by the in t e r - r e e f environement or by the adaption to an "inter-sponge n i e h e - l i f e " . The l a t t e r was believed to be the most probable explanation. 77 The fauna of the stillj^water, i n t e r - r e e f realm was predom-inat e l y small, f r a g i l e and dwarf ed, contrasting with the: large robust forms of the reef and reef flank. The b u r i a l resid u? of the s t i l l water, i n t e r - r e e f realm i s composed of sponges, corals, brachiopods j bryozoa, gastropods and t r i l o b i t e s . Cystoids, pelecypods and oephalopods are conspicuously absent. Th? colema t corals are mostly minute and consist of a few o or al 1 it es adid the orinoid ^populations belong predominately to the PisocrLn idae, Most of t h i s above information about the b u r i a l residue was obtained from the quarry of the E l m h u r s t r C n i [ D a g 0 Stone Compare at Elmhurst. In Ludwigs Quarry, Lowenstam noted t h a t the orinoids form the common faunal element of a l l zones i n which the sponges are scarae. In the sponge beds they are about equal or next i n abundance to the sponges. The basal beds of the Waukesha formation oontain no resfs and the faunal element d i f f e r s conspicuously from that of the overlying teef bearing Waukesha s t r a t a . The common rook type i n these lower beds i s a s i l t y argillaceous dolomite oontaining a fauna predominately composed of t r i l o b i t e s . These t r L l o b i t e s occur "commonly crowded i n l o c a l i z e d concentrations". The le s s oommon, more argillaceous oherty strata of the Ion er beds ccfcntain a orinoid-sponge dominated fauna from which t r i l o b i t e s are usually absent. The Zophocrinidae and Pisocrinus gemmifor mis a re oommon to both assemblage types. Lowen^made the following comments on the faunal segregation of the basal Waukesha s t r a t a (pp. 64-65): "...These sediment-linked faunal changes indicate the be-ginning of habitat controlled differentations on a subordinate 7 ^ scale i n the early Waukesha sea that was not reef created. The rather .uniform. litho^Qgic character of the very basal ID eds r e f l e c t s normal comparatively stable sedimentation conditions that lacked the segregation into narrowly defined, sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e d habitats t y p i c a l of the reef controlled i n t e r -reef deposits of the higher Waukesha beds. The development of reefs was s t i l l l o c a l i z e d and those i n existame as in the case noted were quite small. On the other hand the conspicuous thickness v a r i a t i o n of these basal l i t h o l o g i e s indicate that reef controlled facies s h i f t s started to become e f f e c t i v e already on a large scale i n the l a t e r part of t h i s early deposit!onal phase, ushered i n by subordinate facies d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s e a r l i e r that created l o c a l l y habitat conditions related to the succeeding s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f biotope i n the crinoid-spon? e dominated assemblages." Lowenstam made a rather i n t e r e s t i n g comparison of the preservation of Astraeospongia with that of the Astylospongidae i n the Slmhurst-Chicago Stone Company quarry. The skeletons of A s t y l o s p o n g i a are r e l a t i v e l y well preserved while the; skel^ e t a l remains of Astraeospongia are always represented by s p i c r -ules. he believed, therefore, that the time f o r dismembering of A§traeospongJa. must have been shorter than that f o r the Astylospongidae and that the rate of disassociation of the Astylospongidae mas slower than the rate of sedimentation*white t h a t of Astraeospongia was f a s t e r . Since the trilobit.es ar e usually found dismembered, he stated that the rate of . d i s -association ef Astylospongia was slower than that of the t r i l o b i t e s . 79 In the overlying Racine-Port Byron formations l i t h i s t i d sponge specimens are scares. Astraeospongia.•, however, i s extremely abundant as a ooiony builder i n these beds. Reefs reached t h e i r peak of development aiiS these times. Cr;r- -1 x spon Only s i x l i t h i s t i d sponge specimens were found i n the Racine^Port Byron beds. Three of them belonged to- Hindia  f i b r o s a and the othefc three to the Astylosnongia ird et. As with the sponges of the lower formations, they are ftrand i n argillaceous s i l t y dolomites of the s t i l l water, i n t e r -reef realm. In the i n t e r - r e e f beds of the Racine^Port Byrfon at Thornton, two main rookrtypes are present. One is the more t y p i c a l s t i l l water $argillaceous s i l t y dolomite, and the other i s a r e l a t i v e l y pure or s l i g h t l y argillaceous dolomite. The purer dolomites are characterized by a coral-bryozoan fauna and the argillaoeous s i l t y dolomites -by a orinoid assemblage, The ooral-bryozoan dolomites are sharply interbedded with the more t y p i c a l s t i l l water argillaceous dolomites. These more argillaceous s t r a t a were ra p i d l y deposited, k i l l i n g the oorals and bryozoans, With regard to these sharp alter nations of coral-bryozoan dolomite and c r i n o i d a l argillaceous do&omit es, Lowenstam (pp. 1346135) stated: "The range of v a r i a t i o n noted i n the rate off sedimentation and the v a r i a t i o n of the sedimentary composition ind ia ate con-siderable fluctuations i n the physical environement of the int er-reef adjacent to the reef...Depending upon the structure of the main reef front and the l o c a t i o n of temporary ibre-reef development, reef-derived detritus was spread over the adjacent S O i n t e r - r e e f tract i n variable quantities. .During periods when reef detritus was swept into the bordering i n t e r - r e e f t r a c t , the water was-.sufficiently agitated to prevent the continuous large scale s e t t l i n g of the argillaceous s i l t y mu3 yoaarleid i n suspension. The bottom at such times would be r e l a t i v e l y deal and s u f f i c i e n t l y favourable for the population of the i n t e r -reef t r a c t by larvae of reef building forms. The coral-bry-ozoan assemblages i n the s l i g h t l y argillaceous beds are thus best explained. They represent the pioneer populations i n tbe formation of fore-reefs, wherever favorable, environmental conditions prevailed l o c a l l y long enough to f a c i l i t a t e reef growth. The occurrence of a large reef gastropod i n the s l i g h t l y argillaceous beds i s notewarthy. It indicates that during the reef controlled periods of sedimentation, skeletons of reef dweller's occasionally d r i f t e d into the i n t e r - r e s f realm wheie; they form an allochthonous taanatocoenotic element. Gn the other hand, during the periods of s t i l l water conditions or in the lee of l o c a l l y developed fore-reefs,ii the mtri c a r r i e d i n suspension oould s e t t l e slowly at v a r i a b l e rates. The oarbonate f r a c t i o n of the argillaceous deposits was undoubtedly i n part at least the f i n e s t d e t r i t a l derivate of the res>f. The argillaceous i n t e r c a l a t i o n s on the reef flank demonstrate that during short i n t e r v a l s of p r e v a i l i n g s t i l l water conditions the i n t e r reef realm transgressed over the reef flank. Twing these periods the s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f populations enoroachafl on the reef flank probably as fa r as the wave base." It seesis most probable that the sponges were found in the SI more argillaceous strata of the Eacine-Port Byron becais e they oooured i n t h i s type of rock i n the loweaLi&rm&'tions • If they had been found i n a differs-At rock type, Lowenstam would probably have noted i t . A question s t i l l to be answered i s why there Is such a reduotion of l i t h i s t i d sponges i n the fiacine-Port Byron oom-pared with the marked increase of Astraeospongia, The l i t h i s t i d s were the most abundant sponges i n the lower form-ations, Did the J.arge scale development of reef s , i n soma way, antagonize them or diminish t h e i r numbers? As was mentioned before,somewhat s i m i l a r conditions are found i n * t h e * Ontario where l i t h i s t i d s are abundant i n the Lockport beds but absent i n the overlying reef-bearing Onondaga beds. Lowenstam correlated the Waukesha with the .Laurel form-ation of Indiana (p. 69). Overlying the Laurel i n Western Tennessee i s the Waldron shale, Lego limestone, Dixon Slay and Brownsport group. Is i t poss^lle^that the Ja.rge scale development of reefs might have caused a migration eIsewhere of the I l l i n o i s sponges and that t h e i r appearance in th e stratigraphic higher Waldron and Brownsport i n Ten® ss ee i s a r e s u l t of thi s migration? Ijfe should be mentioned, however, that Astylospongia praemorsa. Palaeomanon verrucosum. P. cratera, and Oaryomanon incisolobatum are the only I l l i n o i s Niagaran sponges common to the Brownsport of Tennessee* Lowenstam stated that he had found f l e s h and t u f t s piculsB adjacent to one of the skeletons of Hindia f i b r o s a and described the ways i n which these delicate spicules mould have been pres-sz erved. One of the ways he mentioned was that caused "by pushing of the t u f t spicules further into the mud by the weight of the dead sponge. I f these t u f t spicules r e a l l y belong to Hind la fi b r o s a then i t i s the f i r s t description known to the writer of anchoring spicules on Hindia. '|he o r i g i n a l gener i c definition "•of Hindia (Dunoan, 1879) stated that i t was a "free sponge". It was presumed by subsequent authors to have been r o l l e d ;abaiut by currents and the impression has persisted u n t i l the present time. B i l l i n g s (1865, pp. 18-19) ereoted a new genus Eospongia that was very s i m i l a r to Ast.ylospongia Roemef. His j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r erecting this genus was that i t was attaohed, whereas Roomer's d e f i n i t i o n of Astylospongia was that i t was f r e e . There would seem to be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , on the same grounds as thatoof B i l l i n g s , for erecting a new genus on these Kiagaran specimens of Hind ia . Since the chances of t u f t spicules being preserved are very small, Lowenstam's discovery represents perhaps the f i r s t instance known of d e f i n i t e evidence of attachement. If Hindia i s attached then our conceptions of the l i v i n g habits of t h i s sponge must be revised. By f a r the most important American l o c a l i t y fi> r S i l u r i a n sponges i s i n western Tennessee. The w r i t e r knows of at l e a s t £4 speoies belonging to 1£ genera that are found here. The sponges are found i n the Waldron formation and Brownsport group. The Brownsport i s the most important horiaon as regards the contained number of ^ genera and species. The genera, speoies and v a r i e t i e s of sponges found i n these formations i n Tennessee^ are l i s t e d below with t h e i r formations and l o c a l i t i e s . Mart of this information was taken from Bassler (1915). 8 3 Astylospongia Roemer A. imbricato-articulata (Roeme A. praemorsa (Goldfuss) A. praemorsa p u s i l l a Rauff Caryospongia Rauff C. juglans nuxmosohata (Hall) Caryomanon Rauff Q. incisolobatum Roemer C.patei Foerste 0. ro emeri Rauff Carpomanon Rauff C. glandulosum Rauff C. stellatimsulcatum (Roemer) C. verrucosum Howell Olimacospongia Hinde C. radiata Hinde ) Brownsport group: var-ious l o c a l i t i e s i n Decatur and Perry Counties. Niagarian s e r i e s : western Tennessee. Waldron formation: Newson, Tennessee. Waldron formation: Tenn-essee. Brownsport group: ;Perry-v i l l e , etc., Brownsport group:near Martin's M i l l s . Brownsport group: western Tennessee. Brownsport group: Decatur County. Brownsport group: Perry-v i l l e , etc. Brownsport group; Tenn-essee. Brownsport group: Perry County. 8 4 Anomoclonella Hauff A. z l t t e l l i f B a n f f ) Chiastoclonella Bauff C. head! Banff Dendroclonella Bauff D. rugosa Bauff Cyathospongia Hall C. excresens H a l l Palaeomanon Boemer P. oratera (Boemer) V .P."elongatum .^Howell • - .P:/'pleurle-xoa^atum /{Bauff) I.yPX- v.errucoaum iBauSf) t A. v •£ -P« vermoosum fruflife'ra - lRau#f) ? P;; i hoi-sum'Howell Brownsport group: Decatur County. Brownsport group: Decatur County. Brownsport group: Perry County. laagaran s e r i e s : Perry County. Brownsport group: numerous l o c a l i t i e s i n Perry, Deo-atur and other counties, western Tennessee. Brownsport group: D ecatur County. Brownsport group: Decatur and Hardin Counties. Brownsport group: Decatur and Hardin Counties. Brownsport group: Decatur and Hardin Counties. Brownsport group: Tenn-essee. 8 5 . H%ndia Duncan H. fi b r o s a (Roemer) Brownsport group: western Tennessee. H; o y l i n d r i c a Howell Niagaran s e r i e s : near C l i f t o n , Wayne County. Bycnopegma Rauff P. callosum Rauff Brownsport group; Decatur County. P. pileum Rauff Brownsport group: Decarur County. P. stromatoporoides Sauff Brownsport group: Decatur County. In dealing with fennessee S i l u r i a n sponge ecology, much the same problem i s met as i n the other systems: most, of the geneuaaand species were described before the s t r a t i g r a p h i c suc-cession was standardized and subdivided* A l l of the genera, and most of the species were described i n the l a s t contrary, Roemer (1860) and Rauff (1894) being the chief contributors to the sponge l i t e r a t u r e . In most cases the exact horizon where the sponges were found i s consequently not known. The almost, useful references, available i n the l i b r a r y , ••for:' the fiagaran^stratigraphy o f^enne s se.e,. are the papers of Foerste (1903) and Pate and Bassler (1908). Unfortunately, very l i t t l e useful information, other than the l i t h o l o g y of the fornix ations, could be found r e l a t i n g to ecology i n these papers. The Brownsport group i s now subdivided into the Beech River, Bob,OBobelville and Decatur formations. The i M t e r has not been 8C able to find d e f i n i t e l y which of the Brownsport formations are the chief sponge producers. Pate and Bassler (1908, p. 424) desoribed the Bob and Beeoh Biver formations as the "brachiopod and sponge beds" respectively. It would appear then, that the Beech Biver i s the most important sponge horizon. The waiter, however, knows' of one l o c a l i t y i n the Bob where sponges are found (see Pate and Bassler, pp. 42G,T;421). It also seems thd;. the Decatur limestone contains sponges at at least one l o c a l i t y as Foerste (1903, p. 571) described Astraeospongia and Cary-omanon from the "upper Brownsport"vat P e r r y v i l l e . The lowest sponge bearing S i l u r i a n formation i n Tenn-essee i s the shaly clays of the Waldron. Astylospongia praemorsa p u s i l l a and Caryospongia .juglans nuxmosohata are found i n the Waldron here. Further north the Waldron becames: more calcareous and i n central Indiana i s replaced by limestone. Astylospongia  •praemorsa p u s i l l a . Caryospongia fluglans nuxmosohata and Palaeo- manon bursa oocur i n the Indiana Waldron In Shelby County. Since Shelby County i s i n the south-central part of the state, the sponges are probably found i n the shaly f a c i e s . The Waldron sponges, therefore, probably l i v e d i n muddy seas or at l e a s t l i v e d hn muddy bottoms. Between the Waldron and Brownsport are the Lego limestoro and the Dixon r§d clay. The overlying Brownsport consists of limestones and shales. The Beech Biver formation, the lowest beds of the Brownsport, consists of shales and shaly limestones. It i s not known whether the sponges occur i n the shales or i n the shaly limestones bftt i t would appaaa: from an examination of Pate and Basslers' Si paper (1908, pp. 418-410) that they occur i n both. These authors described the Beeoh Myer near P e r r y v i l l e as consisting of a lower bed of shaly limestone, a middle bedsof shales and shaly limestones^and an upper bed of shale. Astylomanon cratera.  Oaryomanon incisolobatum and Q. s t e l l a t i m sulcatum, as w e l l as some, brachiopods and bryozoans, were stated to be abundant, and to range through the three beds.. Since ifcheTennessee sponges are l i t h i s t i d s and thus are closely, related, i t i s prob-able that the Beech Elver sponges at other l o c a l i t i e s range s i m i l a r l y . In any event, whether they occur in.shales, or shaly .limestone or both, they probably l i v e d i n seas i n which mud was fai r l y - abundant;.. In the formations overlying the Beeoh tfiver, the sponges, i f one i s to judge from the_.meagre descriptions that were given of t h e i r occurrence, tend to occur i n limestone.. Only two l o c a l i t i e s , however, are known to the wr i t e r . One of these i s i n the limestones of the Bob formation (Pate and Bassler, 1908, pp. 420-421) and the other i s probably i n the Decatur limestone (Foerste,, 1903, p. 571). The equivalent of the Brownsport i n Kentucky i s the Louis-v i l l e limestone. Only one sponge, Aat.vlospongia imbrioato  a r t i c u l a t a . i s known by the writer to occur here. According to 'Twenhofel (1930, pp. 151-155) the L o u i s v i l l e d i f f e r s from the lower formations (Laurel, Waldron, et. al.) i n being only s l i g h t l y magnesian and i n containing much broken s h e l l matter. The limestone i s f i n e grained and the bedding surfaces are more or l e s s uneven. The low magnesian content was believed to have been caused by a rate of deposition rapid enough to prevent 88 replacement. No shale was present because the lauds were low. The presenoe of a great number of f o s s i l s as well as corals of the reef building type was taken to indioatethat the waters were warm and congenial to l i f e . The was evidence i n d i c a t i n g rather frequent storms i n L o u i s v i l l e time. Soavenger organisms were abundant and only the strong and large s h e l l s wer© able to escape t h e i r a c t i v i t y . It was suggested that the presence of some chert i n the L o u i s v i l l e indicated deposition near r i v e r mouths. The S i l u r i a n sediments of Kentucky were deposited i n a n e r i t i c environment near the base l e v e l of deposition. In Tennessee > the -^ ego limestone and the JJixon clay l i e between the Waldron and the Brownsport while i n Kentucky and Indian there was an i n t e r v a l of non-deposition between these two formations. As a r e s u l t the L o u i s v i l l e (Brownsport) l i e s d i r e c t l y on the Waldron. The break i n deposition was assumed to have been caused by the waters reaching the base l e v e l of deposition i n Kentucky. In Tennessee, however, the bottoms were below base l e v e l and accumulation continued. Pr.iddy (1939, pp. 5017&52) came to the conclusion that the Niagaran sediments of southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana were deposited i n depths of water between 1 5 0 and 5 0 0 feet. Tie purer limestones were believed to have been deposited i n deeper waters and the shaly limestones i n shallower waters. I t does not seemr unreasonable, to apply Priddy's conclusions to Tenn-essee. In th i s case, since the sponge bearing sediments of Tenn-essee are predominately shaly, It appears that they were deposited i n shallow water. 8 9 The Waldron and the Brownsport formations are both pre-dominantly shaly i n Tennessee and Indiana. The sponges, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y l i v i d i n , and preferred, muddy waters, where there i s evidence that the sediments were deposited i n r e l a t i v e l y d e a r waters,the sponges are reduced i n numbers or absent. An instance o£ t h i s i s where the Waldron shales grade northward into limestones. The change of fac i e s takes place i n central Indiana. Sponges are present i n the muddy water facies i n Tennessee and Indiana but are apparently absent i n the more northerly clear water limestone f a c i e s . In the Brown-sport an even more s t r i k i n g example of t h i s preference i s seen. The Brownsport of Tennessee i s characterized by shales and contains a large number o£. sponge specimens. Rauff (1894, p. 31G) .stated.uthatrhg had 3QS speoimens from the Niagaran of Tennessee. Most of these were probably from the Brownsport. Northward i n Kentucky the Brownsport i s represented by the .Louisville limestone. A olear water environement i s indicated by these limestones and there i s a corresponding reduction i n sponge species. Only one species i s present. It i s possible that sponges were abundant i n the L o u i s v i l l e seas but that the scavengers, which Twenhofel believed were present, destroyed and l e f t nottraces of them. I f the l a t t e r i s the case, then the suggestion that the Niagaran sponges preferred muddy waters i s not correct, i t seems more probable, however, that they JTdd prefer a muddy water environment. so Disoussion The S i l u r i a n of lew York has been reduced to i t s simplest terms by Clarke (1915, p. 117), who described i t as a limestone (Niagaran) supplemented below by heavy l o c a l sands (Medinan) and above by l o c a l developments due to the peculiar geography whioh made and unmade the Salina sea. This comparison of the Hew York S i l u r i a n can also be applied to many other places i n eastern North Americ a. The c l a s t i c dominated seas of the Medinan were probably not suitable for the development of sponges and i t was only i n Niagaran times, when the seas spread widely and chemical sediments were deposited, that conditions were again suitable for sponge l i f e . It shuuld be pointed out, however, that i n places l i k e the Ohio and Mississippi&Valley, limestones were Hieing dep-osited, i n the Medinan epoch, and that sponges are apparently absent here also. In Cayugan times the development of saline seas probably terminated the development of the Niagaran sponges. The Niagaran seas, i n places, saw a p r o l i f i o development of l i t h i s t i d sponges. Most of the sponges are found i n shaly or impure sediments. In Ontario and I l l i n o i s - t h e only areas where extensive ecological studies have been made-the l i t h i s t i d s l i v e d i n s t i l l , r e l a t i v e l y deep, muddy waters. The evidence i n other areas, such as Tennessee and southern Indiana, also suggests that t^s same environmental conditions were present. The rocks type i n which the sponges of Chaleur Hay were found is not d e f i n i t e l y known, but i t seems most probable, however, that i t i s a muddy limestone,in whioh ease a deposit of muddy seas i s indicated. Wherever the seas were c l e a r , the sponges 9/ were e i t h e r reduced, i n numbers or absent. Some examples of these formesly c l e a r seas are now represented i n the Waldron o f n o r t h e r n Indiana and the L o u i s v i l l e of Kentucky. One p r o j e c t f o r f u r t h e r study might be to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s as to why l i g h i s t i d s are reduoed i n the r e e f b e a r i n g Hacine-Port Byron s t r a t a . L a i r d (1935, p. E86 ) compared the Lookport dolomite, w i t h the r e e f b e a r i n g Onondaga i n O n t a r i o . < He came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the r e l a t i v e l y deep,-muddy waters of the Lockport were s u i t a b l e f o r sponge growth, but that the shallow, c l e a r seas o f the ;:©ndndaga were not . A q u e s t i o n that oomes t o mind i s : are^the sponges absent i n the Ondndsiga beoause o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f the waters or because r e e f s are p r e s e n t ? I t must be remembered, however, t h a t a l o n g p e r i o d of time o f represented between the f i n a l d e p o s i t i o n o f the Lockport and the b e g i n n i n g of Ondngaga se d i m e n t a t i o n . Perhaps the sponges d i d not appear i n the Ondadaga because most of them had died out at the end o f the Nia.garan epoch. L i t h i s t i d s were never r e a l l y common, i n numbers o f s p e c i e s a t l e a s t , i n the P a l a e o z o i c seas a f t e r S i l u r i a n time. ECOLOGY O F DEVONIAN SPONGES ECOLOGY OF DEVONIAN SPONGES  Intfcoduotion Exoept for the hexactinellids that formed the great gaass sponge colonies, sponges are not numerous i n the Devonian. The. l i t h i s t i d s , which were so nommon i n the S i l u r i a n , were represented by only two genera. One of these, tiindia. had l i v e d i n the preceeding S i l u r i a n , but the other, Syringophyllum was new. The genus Hindia was represented by a single species, H. f i b r o s a . It was f a i r l y common i n Lower Devonian, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n New York 'state. In America i t seems to have died out at the end of the Early Devonian as no more specimens have been found i n the succeeding rocks. Specimens, however, referred to Hindia. have been reported from the Permian rocks of S i c i l y , Bitauni, Basleo, Timor (Gerth, 1929, P^yona,^ I 93 3^ The Middle Devonian rocks, as far as the writer knows, oontain only one l i t h i s t i d sponge species, 5yrfcngophy11urn  wortheni. The Upper Devonian contains, i n some l o c a l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Ohio, numerous markings on s h e l l s that have been referred to the work of boring sponges. The Upper Devonian contains more genera and species of these borers than any other series of the I'alaeozoic. Whether this means that boring sponges were very numerous i n l a t e Devonian times or whether i t i s a re s u l t of the vagaries of preservation i s not known. 93 I. Eoology of,the Ulsterian Sponges The Lower Devonian of New York and adjacent areas, although p r o l i f i c i n the remains of nearly a l l the animal phyla, has yielded very few spa cies of sponges. Hindia f i b r o s a (Hoemer), and i t s synonyms H. sphaeroidalis Duncan and EX inornata ( H a l l ) , i s by f a r the most important member of the sponge phylum i n these rocks* Although only a s i n g l e species i t constitutes an quantitat-i v e l l y important representative of the Lower Devonian faun&s. The only other Lower Devonian sponges known to the writer, are the systematically uncertain Heceptaculites, and Aulocopina (?). The Devonian of New York state i s probably the best known geological system i n North America. Consequently the volume of l i t e r a t u r e i s probably larger thafc that for any other s i n g l e North American system. In view of this f a c t ; the writer believed it'worth while to spend much more time on the ecology of Hindia than he o r d i n a r i l y would have spent.in dealing with a single sponge species. Since Hindia seems to be most abundant i n New York state (this might appear to be because much f i e l d work has been done here), the writer has made a thV-SPugh search through the New York -StatamMuseu B u l l e t i n s f o r l o c a l i t i e s of t h i s sponge. Because Hindia was not usually l i s t e d i n the subject index of the b u l l e t i n s , the writer was forced to thumb, page by page, through a l l the b u l l e t i n s (1889-1947). Of a l l these b u l l e t i n s i n the Library, the writer was able to find only s i x papers dealing with Hindia. These were by Hall (1863), Girty (1895), Grabau (1906), Goldring and Cook (1SS5/, Van Ingen and Clarke (19G&), and Chadwick (1944). The l a s t f our -papers are the most important from the standpoint of ecology. One other paper was found dealing with the Devonian of Gaspe. This w i l l be discussedvlater. J I Three jtherspapers .were found i n the l i t e r a t u r e , that d i s -oussed Hindia i n the areas adjacent to Mew York st a t e . These were by W ellerq(1903), Stauffer (1915) and Howell (1936/). f Most of the above papers, unfortunately, do not discuss Hindia or i t s relationship to the associated fauna and enclosing-sediments but merely l i s t i t . with the other fauna of the form-ations. Consequently very l i t t l e information was found concerning either the ecology or the envibronement^ and because of this,the writer has had to pay special attention to the li t h o l o g y of the enclosing sediments, i'rom th i s examination of the li t h o l o g y there seems to be a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n , with numerous exceptions, however, that Hindia preferred an environment of f a i r l y muddy water to one of r e l a t i v e l y clear water. This w i l l be more f u l l y discussed l a t e r . The s i x New York State Musewm B u l l e t i n s that discuss or describe Hindia f i b r o s a w i l l be discussed below. The f i r s t mention of nindia from the Lower Devonian rocks of New York State was made unwittingly by i i a l l i n 1863 when he desoribed what he thought was a new-species of As tylospongia v ^ naming i t A . inornata. Later i t was found'that i t r e a l l y was Hindia and was accordingly designated H. inornata ( H a l l ) . H. inornata i s synonomous with H. fibrosa (Roemer.) and H. sphaepoidalis Duncan. Hindia fibrosa has p r i o r i t y j but the name H. inornata i s apparently s t i l l used^as exemplified ay Uhadwick's paper (1944). 95 H a l l stated that Hindia inornata occurs c h i e f l y i n the shaly, calcareous layers of the Helderhe-rgg: series but that i t i s sometimes found i n limestone. Girty's (1895) paper dealt more with the systematic p o s i t i o n of Hindia than with l o c a l i t i e s . He mentioned that H. f i b r o s a i s found i n the Lower Pentameruus and Shaly limestones of the Helderberg at c i a r k e s v i l l e , Indian Ladder and "at other l o c a l i t i e s i n New York", and remarked that the Lower Helderberg fauna was remarkable.in many ways. He stated: "In oertain geological horizons, probably owing to contrasting physical conditions, the d i f f e r e n t zoological groups were markedly l o c a l i z e d . With the Lowef Helderberg Group i t i s d i f f e r e n t . The "ep'nditions seem to have been congenial for the growth and pres-Qfvation of nearly a l l kinds of marine; l i f e at d i f f e r e n t periods during the deposition of these s t r a t a . . . " In 1902 Van Ingen and Clarke l i s t e d Hindia f i b r o s a among the fauna of the Coeymans limestone^,New Scotland limestone, Port Ewen limestone and the Oriskany beds that i s found i n the v i c i n i t y of Rondout. In the Coeymans limestone Hindia occurs i n beds 22 to 24. The c r i n o i d a l limestones of bed 22 are underlain by the dark grey limestone of bed 21. The upper part of bed 22 contains a great abundance of black chert. Hindia and Atrypa r e t i c u l a r i s are "common i n this bed". Bed 23 consists of dark limestone while the limestone of bed 24 are more shaly than those of the proceeding beds. Hindia was listed- as "abundant"in the Middle Coeymans and "common" i n the upper Coeymans. 9C In the.New S c o t l a n d , Hind i a i s "common" i n the lower t e d s . The New S c o t l a n d c o n s i s t s o f dark grey limestone a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h grey and s e m i - c r y s t a l l i n g l i m e s t o n e . The lower p o r t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Van Ingen and C l a r k e , has c o n s i d e r a b l e c h e r t which i s of t e n a s s o c i a t e d , as i n the u n d e r l y i n g Coeymans, w i t h an abundance of sponges. The New Sc o t l a n d i s o v e r l a i n by the B e c r a f t which c o n s i s t s of massive beds of s h e l l l i m e s t o n e of "high p u r i t y " . H i n d i a a p p a r e n t l y does n o t occur i n the -oecraft. In the lower Por t Ewen beds H i n d i a was d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g "common", i n deter m i n i n g the probable h o r i z o n of H i n d i a i n these lower beds, some d i s c r e p a n c y was found. van Ingen and Clarke d e s c r i b e d the Port Ewen as c o n s i s t i n g a f massive impure " s i i i o e o - a r g i l l a c e o u s limestone s i m i l a r to the New Scotland beds and s t a t e d : "With e x c e p t i o n of the lowermost p o r t i o n of the formation, which, through a t h i c k n e s s of 10 or 12 f e e t j u s t above the B e c r a f t , c o n s i s t s o f l i g h t e r c o l o r e d , more f o s s i l i f e r o u s , purer limestone, the g e n e r a l mass of the Port Ewen beds i s not p r o l i f i c of organic remains." But l a t e r , they again stated:",^ "The P o r t Ewen beds-.', .commence w i t h an impure l i m e s t o n e w i t h -out c h e r t , l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from the upper p a r t of the B e c r a f t , which, by i n c r e a s e i n frequency and t h i c k n e s s of the u n d u l a t i n g seams of y e l l o w i s h sandy m a t e r i a l , and corresponding l o s s or' d i m i n u a t i o n of the lime seams, assumes w i t h i n 20 f e e t above the top o f the B e c r a f t the t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the Port Ewen beds." 97 In the overlying Oriskany beds at t i l e n e r i e ^ Hindia fibrosa i s "rare", T'w.o d i s t i n c t f a c i e s of the Oriskany are present here. 'The lower facies consists of coarse e l a s t i c s and the upper one, i n which d-india occurs, consists of interbedded layers of cherty limestone and sandy limestone. Both layers are very f o s s i l i f e r o u s and contain a large percentage of mew Scotland ( species, van Ingen and Clarke believed that the G-lenerie fauna and the beds containing represented a recurrence of the same conditions of sedimentation and fauna as during Oriskany times. A very diagrammatic section of the Lower Devonian rocks at Rondout i s i l l u s t r a t e d on figure 1, Grabau (1906) next described Hindia f i b r o s a from the Lower Devonain rocks of the Schoharie Valley. Hindia occurs here i n the Coeymans limestone: and the New Scotland and Port Ewen formation. In the Coeymans limestone.Hindia occurs i n beds 22, 23 and 24, Hindia is"abundant" i n the oherty limestones of beds 22 and 23 and oommon i n the shaly limestones of bed 24. Bed 22 i s underlain by the hard limestone of bed 21 and bed 24 i s overlain by the shaly limestone of bed 25. : In the overlying dank grey shaly limestone* mudrock and sandstones of the. New Soot land formation, Hind i a occurs i n the. lower part which contains much chert. Overlying the New Scotland i s the lime sandrock of the Tle.oratft formation. Hindia was not described as occuring i n tMs formation. 56 t C h e r t y l i m e s t o n e a n d s a n d y l i m e s t o n e H i n d i a f i b r o s a " r a r e " . C o a r s e e l a s t i c s i n i a s s i v e s i l i c e o - a r g i l l a c e o u s l i m e s t o n e . H i n d i a f i b r o s a " c o m m o n " i n l o w e r p a r t . i / I a s s i v e s h e l l l i m e s t o n e o f h i g h p n r i t y . D a r k g r e y l i m e s t o n e , a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h g r e y a n d s e m i -c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e . D o w e r p a r t h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e c h e r t " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n a b u n d a n c e o f s p o n g e s " . H i n d i a f i b r o s a " c o m m o n " i n l o w e r p a r t . B e d 2 5 - s h a l y , l i m e s t o n e B e d 2 4 - s h a l y l i m e s t o n e . H i n d i a f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . B e d 2 3 - d a r k l i m e s t o n e , c h e r t i n l o w e r p a r t . H i n d i a - f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . B e d 2 2 - h e a v y l i m e s t o n e , o r i n o i d a l , u p p e r p a r t w i t h m u c h b l a c k o h e r t H i n d i a f i b r o s a o o m m o n . F i g . 1 d i a g r a m m a t i c c o l u m n a r s e c t i o n o f t h e L o w e r d e v o n i a n r o c k s a t H o n d o u t , i J e w j f o r k . T h i c k n e s s e s o f f o r m a t i o n s a r e n o t p r o p o r t i o n a l , ( A f t e r V a n I n g e n a n d u l a r k e , 1 9 0 2 ) 9 9 The sueiceeding Port Ewen beds consist of s i l i o e o - a r g i l l a c e o u s lime sandrocks and lime mudrocks which i n turn are overlain by the s i l i c e o u s limestone and quartzites of the Oriskany. Hindia f i b r o s a occurred i n the Port Ewen beds but was absent i n the Oriskany. ";: Grabau (pp. 170-171) discussed the sequence of events during JsarlyeBevonian time. At the end of the S i l u r i a n , he believed, a geneaal elevation of the land took place. This l e f t a long narrow ^ e a , the Cumberland basin, i n which the Helderbergian strata-were deposited. .Asraoresult'. ol^the-noontinuing Helderberg deposition, the shore l i n e gradually^migrated westwards. How f a r westward i n the lew York the Helderberg invasion extended was not known; no actual shore deposits had been looated these, either i n the east dr the west. Grabau,therefore,-argued that the former shores of the Cumberland basin were at a considerable distance east and west from the present extend; of the Helderberg s t r a t a . A diagrammatic section of the Lower Devonian rocks of Schoharie Valley i s given i n figure 2 . Goldring and Cook (1935) i d e n t i f i e d Hindia f i b r o s a from the Kalkberg and Hew Scotland limestones of the Bernegquadrangle. In the Kalkberg, Hindia i s found i n the upper beds, which are more shaly than those below. The Kalkberg, as a whole, is more impure and f o s s i l i f e r o u s than the .underlying Coeymans limestone and i s characterized by an abundance of bryozoans. The New ..Sootland beds consist of thin-bedded, very impyvte, shaly limestones and calcareous shales. loo HpBBI Siliceous limestones and quartzites. S i l i c e o - a r g i l l a c e o u s lime sandrocks and lime mudrooks. Hindia fibrosa present. Lime sandrook. Alternating dark grey shaly limestone, mudrock and sandstone, jiuch chert i n lower part. H i n d i a fibrosa present i n lower p a r t . B e d 24-shaly limestone. Hindia fibrosa " c o m m o n " . Bed 23-cherty limestone. Hindia fi b r o s a "abundant" Bed 22-cherty limestone. Hindia f i b r o s a " a b u n d a n t i 1 B e d 21-hard limestone F i g . 2 Diagrammatic columnar seotion of the Dower Devonian of the Scho-harie Valley, %m York. Thicknesses of formations are not pro-portional. (After Grabau, 1906) /Ol Thin-bedued, very impure, s h a l y limestone and calcareous "shales. H i n d i a f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . Limestone, upper p a r t s h a l y and impure. H i n d i a f i b r o s a present i n upper p a r t . Limestone. F i g . 3 Diagrammatic columnar s e c t i o n of the Lqwer Devonian rocks the Berne Quadrangle, i^ew York. Thicknesses of formations not p r o p o r t i o n a l . ( A f t e r G o l d r i n g and uook, 1935) /oz On page 208 of Goldring and Cooks' paper, the environmental conditions of the Kalkberfe and New Scotland limestones were disoussed. Beginning with the i n f l u x of mud, at the onset of Kalkberg time, and continuing through Hew Scotland times, a r i c h e r fauna flourished i n the seas-. This comprises sponges, oorals, bryozoa,- brachiopods, pelecypods, gastropods and t r i l o b i t e s . As Ruedemann^(1930, -p, 173) put i t , this i s "a fauna of the l i t t o r a l region, but not of the tid e f l a t s , the predominant bryozoans i n d i c a t i n g deeper and quieter waters." A diagrammatic section of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Berne quadrangle i s given i n figure 3. So f a r as the writer knows, Chadwick (1944) was the l a s t to describe Hindia f i b r o s a i n New York State. He l i s t e d i t from the Kalkberg, Hew Sootland and Alsen limestones and' from the Port Ewen formation of the C a t s k i l l and K a t e r s k i l l quadrangles. The Kalkberg here oonsists of a series of t h i n , highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s limestones extensively interbedded with shales. It i s underlain by the granular limestone of:the Coeymans formation. In the overlying New Scotland limestone, Hindia occurs i n the C a t s k i l l member, which i s a shaly limestone l i k e those i n t e r -bedded with the Kalkberg. The C a t s k i l l ms'in turn overlain by the Becraft formation, consisting of. rather pure limestone. No sponges were l i s t e d by Chadwick from this horizon. Of the Alsen limestone, Chadwick stated: ;; "The Alsen succeeds the J^ecraft much i n the same way that /03 the Kalkherg follows the Coasymans, with the incoming of black ohert seams and i n a general reduction of purity and size of grain." The shaly limestones of the succeeding Port Ewen form-ation are srery s i m i l a r i n l i t h o l o g y to those of the New Scot-land beds. Figure 4 i l l u s t r a t e s a very diagrammatic section of the Lower Devonian rocks described by Chadwick. In the areas adjacent to New York, Hindia has been described from New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ontario. The writer thinks i t very probable that Hindia has also been described from other states, but he can fin d ho further references. Weller (1903) l i s t e d Hindia fibrosa from three l o c a l i t i e s i n New Jersey, The sponge, occurs i n oherty limestone of New Scotland age i n the Nearpass seotion and near H a i n e s v i l l e . The t h i r d l o c a l i t y i s i n the shaly beds near Peter's Valley. Stauffer's paper (1915) described Hindia fibrosa from the Onondaga of southwestern Ontario. T h i s ' i s the highest horizon from which Hindia has ever reported. At two l o c a l i t i e s , the rock types were respectively; a dark b l u i s h limestone with much black chert, and a cherty argillaceous limestone. In the other two l o c a l i t i e s mentioned by Stauffer, Hindia was s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned as occurring i n shaly layers. The rocks at the f i r s t of these l o c a l i t i e s consists of a l t e r n a t i n g grey limestone and calcareous b;lue Lshale, the l a t t e r containing Hindia f i b r o s a . / 04 c i i <£. C < 4» « i CO c I 3 S&aly l i m e s t o n e . H i n d i a f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . Impure limestone; blafek c h e r t seams present, H i n d i a f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . Pure l i m e s t o n e . Shaly l i m e s t o n e . H i n d i a f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . T h i n , h i g h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s l i m e s t o n e , interbedded w i t h s h a l e s , .black c h e r t p r e s e n t . General r e d u c t i o n of p u r i t y i n t h i s f o r m a t i o n . H i n d i a f i b r o s a p r e s e n t . Granular l i m e s t o n e . F i g . 4 Diagrammatic columnar s e c t i o n of the Lower Devonian rocks o f the C a t s k i l l and X a t e r s k i l l Quadrangles, i^ew York. T h i c k -nesses o f formations are not p r o p o r t i o n a l . ( A f t e r Chadwick, 1944) /OS • • • The remainder of this discussion of Ulsterian ecology w i l l he devoted to an analyses of the above papers. In i t ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Hindia to the enclosing sediments and i t s possible bearing on ecology w i l l be discussed. The writer has previously stated that there seems to be a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n that Hindia f i b r o s a preferred a muddy water environment. He made t h i s statement because E. f i b r o s a i s found most often i n shaly, argillaceous, or impure limestones. Therel, ares however, numerous exceptions to the above generalization. Before discussing the evidende r e l a t i n g to the environtefint of H. f i b r o s a , the writer wishes to state that there are at least three possilbe explanations why H. f i b r o s a should be found most often i n shaly sediments. These are: (l) Hindia fibrosa preferred a muddy water (shaly limestone) environment to one of r e l a t i v e l y clear water. (-2) Hindia fibrosa preferred a c l e a r water ( r e l a t i v e l y pure limestone) environment,and whenever i t d r i f t e d into adjacent muddy waters, i t was k i l l e d . The shaly sediments, for some unknown reason, allowed a complete or more perfect preservation . of the sponge than the purer limestone sediments. (3) Hindia f i b r o s a l i v e d equally well i n muddy and i n clear waters. The shaly sediments, however, allowed a more perfect preservation of the sponge than the limestones. The f i r s t two explanations seem more probable than the t h i r d . It should also be pointed out that because a seiiment i s shaly does-not necessarily mean that i t was deposited i n muddy waters. It da&y means that the bottoms were muddy. In a l l probalfe$S&y, however, the waters were muddy,especially towards the bottom. The f i r s t explanation l i s t e d above i s r e l a t i v e l y simple. If Hindia preferred a muddy environernent, i t would naturally bra found i n the shaly, impure and argillaceous limestones...... •' As a general r u l e this i s found to be true. After shaly sed-iments, Hindia i s most often found i n cherty limestone, but rarely i s i t found i n a rather pure limestone. Some writers,such as Hinde (1887) and Lowenstam (1948) have suggested that many of the chert beds i n the geological column . have been formed from the s i l i o a i n s i l i c e o u s sponges. In the -..four diagrammatic sections of the Mew York l o c a l i t i e s for Hindia (figures 1 to 4 ) , i t w i l l bee seen that wherever there are chert beds, Hindia i s present. Lid Hindia f i b r o s a , there-fore, prefer an. eaasironmient i n which chert was being deposited, or did Hindia. a s i l i c e o u s sponge, supply the s i l i c a to make the ohert? At the present time this question cannot be answered. The second p o s s i b i l i t y , however, seems more probable. The second explanation, l i s t e d above, i s even harder to answer. I t i s possible that Hindia fibrosa odrifted from the environment of r e l a t i v e l y clear water, which i t preferred, into one of a muddy nature. I f Hindia i s a free sponge, as the generic d e f i n i t i o n states, i t i s easy to imagine i t being moved along the sea f l o o r by currents. Evidence, however, has been found that suggests that i t was attached by root spicules !(see Lowenstam, 1948, pp. 131, 133). It i s conceivable that i t could have been moved into muddy water after i t had died and the root spicules had d i s i n t i g r a t e d . Once i t entered a muddy environment i t might been k i l l e d by mud clogging i t s pores or by poisoning. IQ 7 There are several objections to this second hypothesis. The f i r s t and most important objection i s that the shaly sediments are very f o s s l l i f erous. If the shaly sediments were capable of supporting the tremendous amount of l i f e , indicated by the f o s s i l content, there i s no';- reason to believe that i t could not have supported Hindia. Another objection to Hindia being a clear water dweller is i t s r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y i n the purer limestones. It i s d i f f i c u l t to understand just why i t should not have^preserved i n these limestones if, i t had preferred t h e i r environment of deposition. There seans.to be a good i n d i c a t i o n that whenever H . f i b r o s a l i v e d i n f a i r l y d e a r waters, i t s decomposition products formed chert. Supporting•this statement i s the fact that wherever Hindia i s fpua& i n r e l a t i v e l y pure limestone, i t is associated with ohert beds. If i t had l i v e d i n clear water, i t might reasonably be expected to find chert a l l the way through the limestone instead of i n a few l o c a l i z e d horizons. On the other hand there does not seem to be any good reason for the afesence of chert i n the shaly limestones, i t should be expected,-that - since Hindia probably preferred a shaly environment, there would be chert beds present. There are, however, not very many of these beds i n the impure limestones. The t h i r d explanation has been touched upon i n the above discussion. It is d i f f i c u l t to say whether a shaly environment could preserve a s i l i c e o u s sponge easier than a non-shaly envir-onment. The evidence supporting the statement that Hindia f i b r o s a seemed to prefer a muddy water environment w i l l now be discussed. ./OQ The writer has prepared i n figures 1 to 4 a series of diagrammatic sections o f the Hew York Lower Devonian where Hindia occurs* The wrier f i r s t became.aware of the p o s s i b i l i t y that Hindia pre-ferred a muddy environment when he examined Ohadwick's (1944) report. . He found th a t , i n a l l cases, Hindia occured i n the shaly sediments and was absent i n the non-shaly beds. A very diagrammatic section of the ilelderbergian rocks of tshe C a t s k i l l and K a t e r s k i l l quadrangles i s shown i n figure 4. This i s taken from Ghadwiok (1944). Four fjhaly or impure lime-stone formations are present. These are the Kalkberg, lew Soot-land ( C a t s k i l l member), Alsen and Port Ewen limestones. In each of these shaly or impure formations Hindia f i b r o s a i s present! In the r e l a t i v e l y pure limestones of the coeymans and Becraft formations, however, Hindia i s absent. It w i l l be noticed that ohert seams are present i n the impure Kalkberg and Alsen lime-stone. A s i m i l a r section of the Helderbergian roofeks of the Berne quadrangle i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 3. . Three formations are present, the Coeymans, Ealkberg and. New Sootland limestones. The Coeymans and the lower part .of the Kalkberg are r e l a t i v e l y pure and Hindia 4s absent i n these pure beds. JQntthe upper part of the iialkberg, however,-, the beds become shaly and impure and grade upward into the shaly New Scotland limestone. V an Ingen and Clarke stated that Hindia ocoured i n the upper part of the Ealkberg and i n the J)iew Scotland formations. It would seem, there-fore, that the occurence of Hindia i n the Kalkberg probably i s coincident with the appearance of the shaly sediments. The d i f -/O 9 f i c u l t y i n evaluating, this l a s t statement i s causes by the writer's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Van Ingen and Clarkes 1 report. JIhey stated i n one place i n the report that the upper part of the Kalkberg was shaly. In another plaoe i t was indioated that Hindia ocoured i n the upper Kalkberg. The writer has i n t e r -preted this as meaning that Hindia makes i t s f i r s t appearance i n the: shaly sediments. Whether or not this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is s~ correct could only be proved; by, an examination of the rocks at the l o c a l i t y ^ d e s c r i b e d . It would seem, therefore, that we have a s i m i l a r condition to that exhibited i n the C a t s k i l l and K a t e r s k i l l quadrangles. Hindia i s absent i n the purer lime-stones hut l-is present i n the shaly and impure beds. The diagrammatic seotion of the Lower Devonian of the Schoharie V a l l e y i s shown i n figure 2. The generalization made before that Hindia i s found most often i n shaly sediments s t i l l holds true but i n this section these are a few exceptions to t h i s r u l e . The exceptions are in.beds 22 and 23 of the Coeymans. In the limestone of bed 21, Hindia, as we might expect, i s absent. Intthe overlying, presumably non-shaly, cherty lime-stones of beds 22 and 23, however, Hindia i s "abundant". Here werhave an example of i t being present i n non-shaly beds. In the shaly limestone of bed 24 Hindia, instead of increasing, has apparently deoreased i n numbers and i s no?; only "common". In the formations overlying the Coeymans, Hindia appears i n the more normal manner, i . e . , i t occurs i n shaly sediments and i s absent from non-shaly Beds. The shaly sediments above the Coeymans are the New Scotland and Port |3wen formations and the. / ro n o n - s h a l y t e d s are the B e o r a f t and O r i s k a n y . In two h o r i z o n s i n the s e c t i o n c h e r t i s present . , These are beds 22 and 23 o f the Coeymans and the lower New S c o t l a n d b e d s . A t . b o t h these p l a c e s H i n d i a i s p r e s e n t . The l a s t New York, s e c t i o n to be d i s c u s s e d i s t h a t of t h e Lower Devonian r o c k s i f l the v i c i n i t y o f Rondout . T h i s s e c t i o n , d i a g r a m m a t i h a l l y y ^ by f i g u r e 1, i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f f i g u r e 2. In the Hondout s e c t i o n H i n d i a appears to occur w i t h about the same frequency i n b o t h the s h a l y sediments and i n - . • the n o n - s h a l y sediments* The s h a l y %,etfk:s are bed 24 o f t h e Coeymans and the l o w e r , P o r t Ewen and t h e n o n - s h a l y sediments a r e beds22 and23 of the Coeymans, the lower New S c o t l a n d and t h e O r i s k a n y . The appearance o f c h e r t i n t h e s e c t i o n corresponds i n every case to t h e presence o f H i n d i a . The pagers r e m a i n i n g f o r d i s c u s s i o n are those d e a l i n g w i t h t h e areas a d j a c e n t t o New York-New J e r s e y and O n t a r i o . Not enough i s , known- . i :^bpithe?:wri i fee-rr-«about the Lower Devonian o f P e n s s y l v a n i a t o d i s c u s s i t . In the t h r e e New J e r s e y l o c a l i t i e s known- for H i n d i a , t h e r o c k type a t two o f them i s c h e r t y l i m e s t o n e and a t the t h i r d i t i s a s h a l y l i m e s t o n e . H i n d i a , t h e r e f o r e , o c c u r s more commonly , i n c h e r t y l i m e s t o n e h e r e . Three l o c a l i t i e s , however, are not e n o u g h £ ; u p o n which to dlraw g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . ^ In * ' O n t a ± i o , the rocks at t h r e e of the f o u r known l o c a l i t i e s are s h a l y .oA l t h o u g h these do seem to r e p r e s e n t a t r e n d , c o n c l u s i o n s n a t u r a l l y cannot be drawn jfrom s u c h a s m a l l number of o c c u r e n c e s . I t shou ld be noted .however, t h a t S t a u f f e r (19.1&, p p . 74, 92) t w i c e made s p e c i f i c ment ion o f t h e f a c t t h a t H i n d i a occurs i n some / / / of the shaly layers. The Onondaga i n Ontario i s the highest known horizon f o r Hindia f i b r o s a whereas i n Hew York, Hindia made i t s l a s t appearance i n the Oriskany. After t h i s time -it apparently slowly migrated to Ontario where i t made i t s appearance i n the Onondaga. Stauffer believed that i t migrated from Hew York to Ontario by way of Gaspe. The writer haa made only a b r i e f study of the Lower Devonian rocks of Gaspe. Clarke (1909, p. 11) gave a section of the Dalhousie formation, which measured near Dalhousie. The t a c t i o n consisted of interbedded traps, salacareous shales and limestones. Hindia occured i n beds 1, 8, and 9 of the formation. These beds were mostly calcarous shales. It would seem, therefore, that the Gaspe sponges also prefersed muddy waters but l i v e d under more diastrophic conditions than i t r e l a t i v e s i n New York. II. Eoology of Brian Sponges As f a r as the writer knows there i s only one sponge occuring-'"in the Middle Devonian. This i s the l i t h i s t i d Syringophyllum wortheni U l r i c h . It wasidesCrihedlibysHlrich. (1889) as occurring i n the shales of the Hamilton group at Thunder Bay Island, Michigan. Because t h i s single species i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant, being found, as f a r as the writer knows-, only at this one l o c a l i t y , i t s ecology w i l l not be discussed other than noting that i t associated with numerous co;rals and bryozoans. I I I . Ecology of the Senecan Sponges In the Devonian of Iowa, numerous markings on stroraatoporoids, bfachiopods and molluscs have "been attributed to the w ork of bofing sponges. The generic names Cli o n o l i t h e s Clarke, c l i o n -oides Penton and ii'enton and Topsentia Clarke have been given to the borings made by these presumable* moaactinellid sponges. The w r i t e r has been unable, i n some instances, to f i n e the exact l o c a l i t y or formation of some of the sponge species. In most cases this confusion has arisen from Clarke's (1908, 1919) work. Clarke did not always state whether he was describing a new species, nor did he always give the " l o c a l i t y ST formation of the sponge species. The Devonian'boring sponge genera and species^, known to the wrieer, are l i s t e d below with t h e i r corresponding^ l o c a l i t y and formation. Some of the sponges, such as Clionolithes radicans and 0. rept ens are p'anohfibly found i n New York state. C l i o n o l i t h e s Clarke G.radicans Clarke Looality and formation unknown to writer 0. hackberryensis (Thomas) S p i r i f e r zone of Hackberry stage and possibly lower beds as well, Iowa. i G. i r r e g u l a r i s Fenton and Fenton Dower and midiile beds of the Cedar valley state, especially i n the so-called Acervularia and Haymond quarry beds of Blackhawk County and qquivaihent s t r a t a near Iowa City, Iowa. //3 C. fossiger Fenton and Fenton S p i r i f e r zonsr of Ha;ckberry stage, north-central Iowa. Probably also i n the Owen sftb-stage 0. l i z a r d e n s i s Lwe and Thomas Shales of Portage group, New 0. reptens Olionoides Fenton and Fenton 0. thomasi if'enton and Fenton Y o r k , L o c a l i t y and formation unknown to writer. Cedar Valley/ beds at Brandon, Waterloo, L i t t l e t o n and other l o c a l i t i e s i n north-central I o w a . Topsentia Clarke 'TV devonioa Clarke S t r o m a t o p o r o i d beds of the upper CeSarrValley stage i n Floyd: and other counties of north-eentral Iowa. Also i n Shell Hock stage. Three types of sponge borings have been recognized i n the Devonian of North America, ©ne consists e s s e n t i a l l y of radiating tubules o n the surface of brachiopod and mollusc s h e l l s . The name Clio n o l i t h e s has been given l y Clarke (1908) to t h i s f i r s t type i n a l l u s i o n to i t s s i m i l a r i t y to the borings of the modern sponge Gliona. The second kind of boring is somewhat sim i l a r to the f i r s t except that the tubules are not radiating, but straight or branching. This kind of marking has received the name Clinnoides. The t h i r d type, Topsentia, consists of a hollow, central, club-shaped cavity from which tubules radiate. Glionolithes and Glionoides are always found, as f a r as i s known, on the surfaces of shells of brachiopods and molluscs. Topsentia i f found, i n America at least, only on the under surface of stromatoporoid colonies. Just how v a l i d the generic and s p e c i f i c names of these boring sponges are, i s unknown. Ridley (1887, p. 227), however, stated that f a r too much stress had been placed on the character of the boring habit i n class-i f y i n g modern boring sponges. His remarks might apply equally well to f o s s i l boring sponges. The borings made by Topsentia devonica are i n t e r e s t i n g i n that the excavations are i n general confined to the underwides of stromatoporoid colonies. Fenton and Fenton (1932) believed that this pponge began i t s excavations hear the edge of the colony and that the colony gradually grew over i t and buried i t . In some cases the sponge apparently l i v e d p artly or nearly completely buried i n the mud below the colony. There seems to be a tendency f o r the f o s s i l s containing sponge borings to occur i n rather shaly beds. This is e s p e c i a l l y true f o r C l i o n o l i t h e s . The S p i r i f e r zone, and the Portage group are a l l shales or shaly limestone. The Owen and Cedar Valley are, however, limestone, but even i n these formations there are shaly beds (Stainbrook, 1944). Whether //5 or not sponge borings are found i n tbese shaly beds i s not known. It i s suggested, t e n t a t i v e l y , that the boring sponges might have preferred muddy, shallow seas. The msagre remains of boring sponges:, i n the otheE Palaeozoio systems point to the correctness of t h i s assumption. The very doubtful sponge Glionolithes quarens. described by Ruedemann (1929), was found in Grdovician black shale. Sponge markings were also found i n the shales of the Pennsylvanian Wewoka formation (Girty, 1915). In the Mississippian Sacajewa formation, however, the borings, as f a r as the writer can acertain, are fou&d i n limestones. Discussion In the Devonian, sponges are represented by three unrelated occurences. Hindia f i b r o s a occurs i n the Dower, Syr$ngophyllum worthent i n the Middle, and boring sponge remains i n the Upper" Devonian. Hindia f i b r o s a , apparently, i s the sole survivor of the l i t h i s t i d s that were so common, i n places, i n the American S i l u r i a n . The saline conditions of the Gayugan epoch probably played an important part i n causing the near extinction of the l i t h i s t i d s from the North American continent. Because H. fibrosa has not been found i n Gayugan sediments, i t probably means that t h i s sponge migrated to some unknown place during t h i s epoch where the conditions were more suit a b l e f o r sponge l i f e . With renewal of more normal marine conditions i n Ulsterian times the sponge again made i t s appearance. It stllleshbw-ed the same preference for muddy waters that i t s S i l u r i a n ancestors•did. ECOLOGY Off CARBONIFEROUS SPONGES ECOLOGY OF CARBONIFBROUS  SPONGES introduction Very l i t t l e e c o l o g i c a l information was found on Carboniferous sponges. For t h i s reason, i t was thought best,to group the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian systems together, rather than to discussteeach under a separate section. Sponges, apparently, are very rare i n the Mississippian, but are more abundant i n the Pennsylvanian. Much of the following discussion w i l l be devoted to describing sponge l o c a l i t i e s and to speculating on the possible environments under which the sponges might have l i v e d . I. Eoology of the Mississippian Sponges Mississippian sponges have been.found i n the Sunbury Shale of OMo, the Saoajawea formation of Wyoming, the Burlington--of limestone of Iowa and I l l i n o i s , and i n the Keokuk group of Iowa, I l l i n o i s and Kentucky. _ She "Sunbury shales,of Lower Mississippian age,contain t e t r a c t i n e l l i d spicules described by Bucher (1929) as occur'ing^ north of Mineral Springs i n Adams County, Ohio. He did not apply any generic or s p e c i f i c names to them. The Sunbury consists of black bituminous shales i n which marine invertebrates and fishes occur sparingly. The spicules occur i n the shale i n small, more or less c i r c u l a r groups, about an inch i n diameter. Most of them are monaxons but a few are tetraxons. In, a l l but one case they were associated with con-1/7 odont teeth and plates. Buoher suggested that the spicules and oonodont teeth might been the excretement of some nectonic animal. The writer does not f e e l f i t to comment on Bucher's idea, other taan to suggest that sponges are, as Storer ^1943) stated, "seldom attacked or eaten by other animals, probably because of t h e i r skeletons and unpleasant secretions and odors that they produce." Beoause of the paucity of f o s s i l s i n the Sunbury, TwenSofel (193'/, p. 168) concluded that the shales were deposited adjacent to marine conditions. The aotual s i t e s of deposition of the shale were, i n any case, "not normally marine". If the spicules were the exctetement of some animal, such as a f i s h , i t i s conceivable then that the sponges did not necessarily l i v e i n t h i s blaok shale environment. They could, for example, have l i v e d i n very clear limestone depositing seas, but ase now found i n shales because the nectonic animal discharged i s s excretement over the shale bottom. Buoher stated that the. occurence of the spicules i n the Sunbury was i n t e r e s t i n g i n con-nection with the sedimentation of t h i s and the e a r l i e r Ohio shales, since a l l known t e t r a c t i n e l i i d s are marine and inhabit r e l a t i v e l y shallow water. I f the spicules are excretement, as Bucher sug-gested e a r l i e r i n his ppper, then i t i s rather unsound to use them as environmental indic a t o r s . Possible remains of the work of boring sponges are found i n the brachioppds of the Sacajawea formation i n Wyoming. Branson (1937) assigned these markings to a new species Clione-//<9 litb.es p r i c e i Branson. This sponge apparently bored through the bases of broken spines. Branson stated that the shells "lay on the sea bottom and were broken by wave action before b u r i a l . The sponges bored into shells of Diaphragmus a f t e r the spines were broken o f f . " The remaining Mississippian sponge fauna known to the writer, consists of two monactinellid sponges, Belemnospongia and Lasio-c l a d i a , described by U l r i c h (1889). Unfortunately the writer was able to f i n d very l i t t l e information on the ecology of these sponges. Belemnospongia, which contains the single species B. f a s i c -u l a r i s U l r i c h , is found i n cherty layers of the Burlington lime-stone at Burlington, Iowa and at Pike County, I l l i n o i s . It was believed to have been a free sponge. Las i o c l a d i a , and i t s single species L. hindei, U l r i c h , occurs i n the shales of the Keokuk group at Nauvoo, I l l i n o i s ; Keokuk, Iowa and at the Kings Mountain Tunnel in Lincoln County, Kentucky. Twenhofel (1931, p. 178) mentioned that the K e okuk i n Ken-tucky was interpreted as the deposit of a de l t a i c and adjacent marine environment. It i s not know which one of these i s environments Las i o c l a d i a was found i n I I . Ecology of Pennsylvanian Sponges Unlike the Mississippian, the Pennsylvanian system contains a r e l a t i v e l y large sponge fauna. This fauna, consisting of monactinellids, l i t h i s t i d s and calcisponges, has been found i n // 9 Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, I l l i n o i s and Indiana. The largest number of Pennsylvanian sponges are found i n Texas and Kansas. Because of t h e i r numerical importance,the writer made a rather extensive study of these sponges. Unfortun-ately, very l i t t l e e c o l o g i c a l information was available i n the l i t e r a t u r e , so that only a few features of th e i r ecology can be pointed out. In Texas, sponges have an extensive stratigraphic d i s -t r i b u t i o n and "have been found in some member of every form-ation of the Strawn and Canyon group except the Garner and elso i n the Graham formation of the Cisco group" (King, 1938,p. 498) In Kansas they have been found i n the Plattsburg (Allen) lime-stone, Lane shales and "Upper Coal Measures, Thayer, Topeka" (Beede, 1900, p. 15). R.H.King (1932, 1938, 1943) and G.H.Girty (1908) have been the most important contributors to the Texas and Kansas sponge l i t e r a t u r e . Between them, they have described a l i t h i s t i d and calcisponge fauna consisting of 8 genera and 15 species. These are: Amblysiphonella prosseri Clarke, Girtyocoelia beeni ( G i r t y ) , G. spaerica (King), G i r t y c o e l i a typica King, Maeand-rost i a kansasensis Girty, Fissispongia tortacoaca (King), F.Jacksboroensis King, F. spinosa King, Heliospongia ramosa Girty, H. excavata King, H. p a r a l i e l a Girty, Coelocladia spinOsa Girty, Wewokella solida Girty, W. contorta King and Cystauletes  mammilosus King The reader i s referred to King (1938) f o r a chart showing the st r a t i g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Texas sponges and to / zo another paper Py the same author (1932) giving most of the Pennsylvanian sponge l o c a l i t i e s that were known up to 1932. The writer wishes to point out a few discrepancies i n the' above papers. G-irtycoelia typica was indicated i n 1932 as occurring where the "Devils Den limestone piches out". In 1938, however, the sponge was not indicated at this horizon. Maeandrostia kansas-ensis was also l i s t e d at the Devils Den horizon i n 1932, but was absent from the same horizon on the chart i n 1938. About a l l that can be said about the environmental condi-tions of the Pennsylvanian sponges i s that they inhabited shallow seas. The depths were usually not more than 300 feet and not less than 10 feet. At no time were they more than 600 feet (Moore, 1929, p. 473). Moore (1929, p. 468), came to the conclusion that the sponge bearing Plattsburg limestone was deposited i n warm, clear and shallow waters. He based his conclusions on the f a c t that modern sponges are inhabitants of this kind of water. He also stated that Pennsylvanian sponges occur c h i e f l y i n limestone. The writer i s somewhat doubtful about the accuracy of this l a s t statement, and would l i k e to point out that some of the shaly sediments i n which sponges occur are; Lane Shale tKansas); Lazy Bend member (Millsap Lake formation, Texas); East Mountain shale member, S a l e s v i l l e shale member and Keechi Creek member (Mineral Wells formation, Texas); Hog. C r e e k member (Caddo Creek formation, Texas). These constitute approximately half of the Pennsylvanian sponge bearing members of Texas and Kansas. It is possible, however, that sponges could occur i n limestone beds within the members, because such members as the East Mountain and Lake Bridgeport do contain a considerable proportion of limestone. Moore's conclusion that the f l a t t e s v i l l e was deposited i n shallow seas, because i t contained sponges, i s based on rather doubtful evidence. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the waters were shallow, but to base th i s conclusion on the presence of sponges i s s t r e t c h -ing a point, since some animals have been known to change t h e i r environment with geological lime. Within the spongeophylum, a good example of t h i s i s the h e x a c t i n e l l i d s . Today,, the great majority of them l i v e i n deep waters. I f we were to follow the" same l i n e of reasoning as that followed by Moore, we could say that the many formations of the geological tfolumn i n which hex-a c t i n e l l i d s were found, were deposited i n deep water. On the other hand, s t r u c t u r a l evidenoe, such as r i p p l e ©arks, etc., indicate shallow waters. In the Marathon region of Texas, sponge remains have been found i n the Lower Pennsylvanian Tesnus formation. The remains are i n the form of black, shiny, monaetinellid sponge spicules. They occur i n calcareous sandstones on the north slope of West Bourland Mountain \below a land plant horizon. These spioules are i n t e r e s t i n g i n two ways. The f i r s t i s that they might, as was suggested by Girty (kjLng, 1937, p. 61), be phosphatic rather than- s i l i c e o u s , and the second i s that they might be spicules' belonging to f'Eesh water sponges. If the second i s t r i e then i s i s the f i r s t oociarence known to:, the-^writer of fresh water sponge remains i n the American Palaeozoic column.' The fact that they were found i n ealcareous—saiadstone suggests a marine dnvironment,al though cal carebus beds are quite comaon / 2.2 i n lake deposits. King (1937, pp. 87-88) stated that the Tesous was deposited i n shallow water, but was not certain whether the formation was of marine or freaa wa*er o r i g i n . He suggested that the land plant fragments may have been l a i d down i n a shallow sea. White (Is&ng, 1930,, p. 35) came to the conclusion that the landspifeats were badly wave worn and that they may have been washed up on a beach. He did not state Whether this beach was marine or fresh water. 'Presumably i t was the former. King (1930, p. 51) interpreted the Tesnus as being of d e l t a i c o r i g i n and suggested a marine environment. In Oklahoma, sponges referred to ^ewokella Girty and Virgula (?) Girty, as well as possible sponge borings, hatre been described by Girty (1915) from the Wewoka formation. The one species of w§wokella. W. s o l i d a Girty, was found i h the Ooalgate quadrangle, while the Y-irgula (?) sp. and the spongebborings were found i n the wewoka quadrangle. The sponge borings oceured i n c r i n o i d stems. Girty stated of the sponge that i t s "apparently slow progress of the derangement and i t s colony-like nature suggest not the work of single dep-redations seeking food or shelter,but a gradually expanding parasite whose growth was compensated by development i n the organism attacked." i'he wewoka sponges were found i n f o s s i l i f e r o u s blue shales (another instance of Pennsylvanian sponges being i n shales). Amblysiphonella prosseri was described by Clarke (1897) from the middle d i v i s i o n of the upper Oaarboniferous at fehe v i l l a g e s a of Hewhawka and Weeping Water. Nothing i s known of i t s ecolggy. / Z3 Scattefed sponge spicules have been described from the Lower Pennsylvanian of I l l i n o i s and Indiana by U l r i c h (1890) and Weller (1930). U l r i c h (1890) described two new generaJ;±Hystriospongia and Batospongia, as occuring near the base of the coal-measures at S e v i l l e , I l l i n o i s . Aocording to Weller (1930, p.-234), Ulrica's horizon i s the limestone cap rock of the Hock Island (Ho. 1) coal at S e v i l l e , Pulton County, I l l i n o i s . Hystrlospongia i s a t e t r a c -t i n e l l i d while Batospongia i s a calcisponge. Weller (1930) desoribed three genera of sponges (excluding hexactinellids) from the Lower Pennsylvanian of I l l i n o i s and Indiana. The genera,which were based on scattered sponge spicules i n limestone, are Reniera (Schmidt), Geodites (Carter), and Peronella ( Z i t t e l ) . They belonged to the monactinellids, t e t r a c -t i n e l i i d s and caloisponges respectively;;. The spicules were obtained from the limestone cap-rock of the Rock Island (No. 1)) coal, Rock Island County, I l l i n o i s and from a limestone"ocouring CC. lo\y i n the Pennsylvanian section" along Redwoot Creek, Warden County, Indiana. The cap-rock of the Rook Island ooal i s now known as the S e v i l l e limestone. The I l l i n o i s gponges are: Reniera s i l i q u a Weller, R. phaseola Weller, andGeodites'boarb6nari.usy(Ulrich) . G. oarbonarius was o r i g i n a l l y desoribed by U l r i c h (1890) as Hystriospongia  oarbonarius. Weller, however, thought that the fragmentary remains belonging to "Hystriospongia" could be more Jsa*fely referred to the "more generalized, doubtless unnatural group inoluded InjGeodites". / -2.4 The Indiana sponges are Reniera area Weller, Geodites  pateus Weller, G. (?) deflecterns Weller, G. (?) bifurcatus Weller, and Beronella (?) dubia W e l l e r . The sponge spicules were stated to be i n t e r e s t i n g on account of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y large s i z e and robust form-? which was exceeded by few other Carboniferous spicules i n the world. The limestones i n which the spicules occur are dark c o l -oured and impure. The nature of the sponge bearing deposits as well as t h e i r associated fauna, led Weller to conclude that the sponges "formerly inhabited very shallow seas." The S e v i l l e limestone, according to Weller e t . a l . (1942, p.11), represents the culmination of the c y c l i c marine submergence. Its fauna was t y p i c a l l y molluscoidean exoept i n the a l g a l facies were molluscs were usually more common. Discussion Pennsylvanian sponges might be expected to give a rather i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d ecologjcal study. Because facies are rather sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the Pennsylvanian, f i e l d work might y i e l d some trends among the sponges to occur i n cert a i n f a c i e s . The writer was prevented from determining these trends, i f they exi s t , because of the fact that R. H. Zing usually gave only a broad s t r a t r i g r a p h i c description of species occurence, such, for example, as the formation. To accurately determine the f a c i e s , at l e a s t the member of the formation and the rock type i n which the sponge occurs should be known* It w i l l be remembered that Cambrian monactinellids nearly / 2 5 § 1 1 occured i n shaly or impure sediments. Among the Carboniferous monaotineliids there i s a s l i g h t suggestion that the same trend might ex i s t . Iiasiooladia hindei U l r i c h was found i n the shales of the Keokuk group, while the numerous mpnaetinellid. spicules i n the Lower Pennsylvanian of I l l i n o i s and Indiana were found i n dark ooloured or impure limestone. Belemnospongia f a s i c u l a r i s U l r i c h , however, occured i n the cherty layers of the Burlington limestone. The spicules i n the calcareous sandstones of the Tesnus formation should not be included as evidence. I f the formation i s marine, they probably were washed into, t h e i r present p o s i t i o n from somewhere else. Ih i s quite possible, however, that the same sort of thing might have happened to the spicules i n I l l i n o i s and Indiana. \ ECOLOGY OF PERMIAN SPONGES ECOLOGY Off PERMIAN  SPONGES Introduction The Permian system i s divided into four stages. These are i n ascending order: Wolfcampian, Leonardian, Guadalupian and Oohoan. Sponges are known from the f i r s t three of these. The most important l o c a l i t i e s for the sponges are i n the Glass Mountains and i n the Guadalupe Mountains of Mexico. In the Wolfcampian of the Glass Mountains, only two sponges, Heliospongia vokesi King and Stylopegma oonioa King, are known. The writer was not able to find any information on the ecology of these sponges. Consequently the Wolfcampian sponges w i l l not behdispnssediin: t h i s paper. The succeeding Leonardian and Guadalupian sponges are very numerous at oertain l o c a l i t i e s . They are usually associated with reef deposits. P. P>. King and R. H.'King have been the chief contributors to the eoology of the Leonardian. P. B. King (193£) f i r s t showed the existence of the reefs i n the Leonard o f the Glass Mountains and described several sponge l o c a l i t i e s on the reef, unfortunately, he M d not l i s t any sponge genera. It remained for R. H. King (1943) to describe systematically <fehe Leonardian sponges. G. H. Girty nesoribed systematically the Guadalupian sponges. He (1908) desoribed a large fauna from the v i c i n i t y of Guadalupe Point at the southern end of the Guadalupe Mountains. The "Guadalupian fauna" contained a large number of caloisponges and l i t h i s t i d s . /Z7 - •: -> ; 1'b.g Guadalupian fauna was collected from four rock units referred to i n his monograph as the:"basal black limestone", Delaware Mountain formation, "dark limestone", and the Capitan limestone. The f i r s t three units were a l l considered part of the Delaware Mountain formation^ but for convenience :Girty d i s -cussed them as separate units i n his monograph. The "basal black limestone" i s now known to be separated from the overlying Delaware Mountain formation by an unconformity and i s referred to as the Bone Spring limestone. It i s Leon*-ardian i n age, |he Delaware Mountain formation, inclu d i n g the "dask limestone", has been^raised to the status of a group and has been divided into three formations. In ascending order these are the -Bushy Canyon formation, the Cherry Canyon formation and the B e l l Canyon formation. The Delaware Mountain group consists of a series of sandstone and shale members with th i n beds of limestone. The "dark limestone" i s one of these beds. It oocurs i n the lower part of the B e l l Canyon and i s now known as the Pinery limestone member. The Capitan limestone s t i l l retains i t s o r i g i n a l meaning. Before proceeding to a discussion of the ecology, a general discussion of the main features of Permian deposition i n Texas and Mew Mexiceowill be given. The Permian sediments were deposited i n a basin c a l l e d the Guadalupe basin. This basin was occupied much of the time by a sea-way which entered through Mexico and towards which the drainage converged from the Eastern Interior. Within this basin were three subsiduary and rapidl y sinking basins, the /ZQ Delaware "basin i n i'rans-Pecos and southeeastern New Mexico, .the _Ife£fa>/b-asin further south-west and the Midland basin of ce n t r a l -western Texas. Sponges are known,.tfnly from the Delaware basin. Later i n the Permian the mid-continent region emerged into a rekiand and the climate became increasingly a r i d . Local cond-i t i o n s i n the Guadalupe basin gave r i s e to exceptional deposition. Evaporation was matched by a steady flow of marine water from tbs basin to i t s bordering shallow fringe. This caused the deposition of limestone along the margins of the basins where the water was warmed. The res u l t was the growth of reef-^like banks between the deeper basins, and the vast marginal lagoons. Pi. B. King (I94%;;,pp 544) has referred to the places of great-est subsidence as the "basin areas", and to the rocks l a i d down i n them as the"oasin f a c i e s " . The provinces had w e l l defined edges where abrupt change of facies usually took place. These were termed "marginal areas". Dnring some of Permian time the marginal areas were oentres of accumulation of reef deposits and were termed "reefOzones". The shelf behind the reef zone was balled the "back-reef". Beyond the basins were regions of less subsidence or even actual u p l i f t . These provinces were referred to as the "shelf £Eeas" and the rocks as the "shelf f a c i e s " . Between some of the basins were shelves. These were referred to as "platforms". When he described his Guadalupian fauna, Girty was not aware of the s i g n i f i g a n t facies change i n Me rooks. Subsequent work has shown that the "basal.black limestone" i s overlain unoonform-ably by the Gapitan and Delaware Mountain formations. /25? The Capitan limestone is now considered to be a huge f o s s i l reef, seoond only i n size to the Jurassio Tyrol reefs of Europe. The upper part of the Delaware Mountain group, the B e l l Canyon formation, i s considered to be the basin facies of the Capitan and was deposited i n the deep waters of the Delaware JJasin. I. Eoology of the Leonardian Sponges Deonardian sponges are found at only two l o c a l i t i e s , both i n Texas. The most important one i s i n the Glass Mountains, the other i s i n the Guadalupe Mountains near Guadalupe Point. The Glass Mountains sponges were described systematic:aiii|y by R» H. King (1943). They occur i n the central part of the mountains. These sponges are l i s t e d below with t h e i r corresponding formation and the exact l o c a l i t y of the type of each species. The type l o c a l i t y was l i s t e d because there i s some doubt as to which facies the sponges are found i n . The p o s i t i o n of the l o c a l i t y of the type speoies gives a good indioation as to whether the sponge i s from the lagoonal, reef or open-sea f a c i e s . Order L i t h i s t i d a Sub-order Tetracladina Heliospongia H.- yoke s i King Hess facies of Leonardian s e r i e s . Type l o c a l i t y : west side of h i l l , back of Hess Ranch, Hess C anyon, Glass Mountains * /30 Laubenfelsia King L. reSo l a r i s King Monarohopemmatites de M. akinneri (King) Sefordia King " D. defunota King Stylopegma King S. dulce King Leonardian se-rlea, Glass Mountains. Type l o c a l i t y : east of Clay Slide, 2 miles west of Iron Mountain* Laubenfels Leonardian s e r i e s , Glass Mountiaris. Type l o o a l i t y : saddle north, of Leonard Moun-t a i n , Hess Ranch. Leonardian s e r i e s , Glass Moun-tain s . Type l o c a l i t y : h i l l back of Hess Ranch house, Hess Canyon side. Leonardian series, Glass Moun-tai n s . Type l o c a l i t y : R. E. King's beds 5-6, Leonardian se r i e s , Baylor Mountain sec-tio n * Class Calcispongia Family Guadalupiidae Guadalupia Girty  G. wi l l i a m s i King Upper Leonardian s e r i e s , Glass Mountains. " Type l o c a l i t y : Clay S l i d e , 2 miles west of Iron Mountain. / 3 / Bolyphmaspongia &ing P. explanata King Leonardian s e r i e s , Glass Mountains. 'Type, l o o a l i t y : 1 mile north-east of the old word Ranch house. Family Sphaerosiphonidae Girt.yocoelia King G. dunbari King Leonardian s e r i e s , Glass Moun-ta i n s . Type l o c a l i t y : f i r s t limestone member, west end of Dugout Mountain, In 1932, P. B. King discussed the limestone reefs of the Leonard and Hess formations i n the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. This region i s approximately i n the central part of the Glass Mountains. The map of the area, as given by King,.is shown the approximate a e r i a l extent of the lagoonal-reef-open sea facies .were added by the writer. P. B. King stated that up to 1932 the Bess formation had been oonsidered to underlie the Leonard formation. King, however, interpreted the succession as a lagoonal-reef-open sea f a c i e s . The easterly Hess formation was considered to represent the lagoon deposits. The lagoon deposits of the Hess i n t e r f i n g e r with the reef facies of the Hess along a north-easterly trending l i n e running through Iron Mountain, Leonard Mountain, Hess and Ward Ranch. The reef facies of the Ress i n t e r f i n g e r s further west with the open sea facies of the Leonard formation. i n f i g u r e d . Both the l o c a l i t i e s of the type sponge species and /3Z. k E ^ '"3 '.5 , 1 E t > / 0 T v \ U I 11 11 / / L I 0 s i ; i 3 o to a. 2 -il r o F t m a. i i « -J C X I 8 2 I 9 xx 1 ' " " f i r 11M11 M c • V a1 t a. O l i 1 i it l i t / / < V / / y E S - * M I 1 /3 3 T h e l a g o o n a l f a c i e s i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y d a r k g r e y t h i n l y b e d d e d , d o l o m i t i c l i m e s t o n e . T h e r e e f f a c i e s o f t h e H e s s c o n -s i s t s o f a l m o s t s o l i d l i m e s t o n e n e a r t h e c e n t r e o f t h e r e e f . T h e o p e n s e a L e o n a r d f o r m a t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y s h a l y , c o n s i s t -i n g o f s i l i c e o u s s h a l e s a n d t h i n l a y e r s o f d a r k , r i c h l y f o s s i l i -f e r o u s ( a t l e a s t n e a r t h e r e e f f r o n t ) , g r a n u l a r l i m e s t o n e . T h e f o l l o w i n g s p o n g e s w e r e f o u n d b y R , H . K i n g i n t h e L e o n -a r d i a n s e r i e s : G i r t y o c o e l i a d u n b a r i , L a u b e n f e l s i a r e g u l a r i s , M o n a r c h o p e m m a t i t e s s k i n n e r i , D e f o r d i a d e f u n c t a , S t y l o p e g m a  d u l c e , G u a d a l u p i a w i l l i a m s i a n d P o l y p h y m a s p o n g i a e x p l a n a t a . O n l y o n e , H e l i o s p o n g i a v o k e s i , w a s s t a t e d t o o c c u r i n t h e H e s s f a c i e s o f t h e L e o n a r d i a n s e r i e s . T h e l o c a l i t y o f t h e t y p e o f H . v o k e s i i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t w a s p r o b a b l y a r e e f d w e l l e r . S i n c e t h e a b o v e s p o n g e s , e x c e p t i n g H . v o k e s i , a r e f o u n d i n t h e L e o n a r d i a n s e r i e s , i t i s m o s t p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y l i v e d o n t h e o p e n s e a s i d e o f t h e r e e f . I f t h e y h a d l i v e d o n t h e r e e f , i t s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t h a t K i n g w o u l d h a v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e y o c c u r r e d i n t h e H e s s f a c i e s a s h e d i d f o r H . v o k e s i . O n t h e m a p o f t h e T r a n s - P e c o s a r e a , t h e w r i t e r h a s d r a w n i n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a g o o n a l - r e e f - o p e n s e a d e p o s i t s . I t m u s t b e r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e o u t l i n e s a r e n o t a c c u r -a t e s i n c e t h e r e i s m u c h i n t e r f i n g e r i n g o f o n e f a c i e s w i t h a n o t h e r . I t i s n o t k n o w n a t h o w m a n y p l a c e s o t h e r t h a n t h e t y p e l o c a l i t i e s t h a t o t h e r s p e c i m e n s o f t h e s a m e s p e c i e s o c c u r r e d . R . H . K i n g , " ' " h o w e v e r , a s s u r e d t h e w r i t e r t h a t t h e s p o n g e s w e r e a l l f o u n d w i t h i n a n a r e a o f a f e w s q u a r e m i l e s . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1950. /31 P. B. King (1932) used Leonard fountain as an example to show the gradation between the lagoonal-reef-open sea f a c i e s . The central part of the mountain oonsists of l e n t i c u l a r layers of grey limestpnescomprising the reef deposits. These layers i n t e r f i n g e r towards the western part of the mountain with the shaly open sea Leonard f a c i e s . This shale was stated to be' of a s i m i l a r facies to the rocks of the Leonard formation i n the western part of^the Glass Mouhtains.- 'The type of fauna! assemblage of the shaly layers was given by King (1932, p. 34p.)3 as follows: "Radiolaria ( i n the sil i c e o u s shales) Fusulinids {not common) Cfinoids (with small columns) Ramose and foliaoeous bryozoa (such as ffenestella) ©mall spinose produotids Other brachiopods, mostly thin-shelled Gastropods andv ammo no ids (rare) I ? It i s int e r e s t i n g to note that no sponges were mentioned as present i n these near reef, open sea shaly deposits* Interfingerlng ledges of granular limestone representing reef deposits oc_cur at v e r t i c a l intervals of about 25 to 50 feet i n the western part of" Leonard Mountain. These limestonearare f u l l of pebbles, angular blocks of dense limestone, and a l g a l lumps. Muoh of i t i s made up of crin o i d fiqlwmhsv^-In places, t M n l y bedded reef lenses are also f u l l of abraded f o s s i l s . P. B. King stated that the b i o t a of these reef ledges was unlike those of the open sea shaly beds and indicated a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n to another environment... The following assemblage was given / 35 (P.B.King, 1932, p. 341) as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these fore-reef beds: "Massive calcareous algae Massive sponges (some as large as one' head) Colonial corals Cup corals Crinoids (with massive columns as much as an inch i n diameter Massive bryozoans Geyerella ( Cemented brachiopods Scacchinella ( with prorichthofenia ( high cardinal areas Leptodus Large, t h i c k - s h e l i e d productids" To the east, i n the central part of Leonard Mountain, the shaly beds of the open sea facies lens out and s o l i d reef lime-stone comprises most of the rock. Most of the f o s s i l s are broken up, r e c r y s t a l l i z e d or a l t e r e d . Further to the east, the reef facies gradually lenses out and the lagoonal facies predominates. King did not give the genera or the species of the " i v iassive sponges" that were found on the fore reef. R.H.King (1943) did not give t h i s l o c a l i t y i n his paper, neither did he mention two other l o c a l i t i e s that were ci t e d by P.B.King. In each of these other two l o c a l i t i e s the sponges were again found i n an i n t e r f i n g e r i n g reef f a c i e s . As before the genera and species were not given. The f i r s t of these l o c a l i t i e s was about 2 miles north-east of Hess Ranch. P.B.King (1943, p. 348) described i t as belonging to bed 4 of the section and as consisting of interbedded "lime-/3C stone and dolomite, With sponges and Soadohinella at "base". JLhini the diagrammatic representation of section G on page 347, i t w i l l he seen that the sponge's ocoured i n an easterly lens< of the reef-i n t e r f i n g e r i n g with lagooaal deposits. '|he second l o c a l i t y given by P. B. King was two miles east of h i l l 5726, north-west of Wolfcamp and near the head of Hess Canyon. There i s some uncertainly i n the mind o$ the writer > as to the p o s i t i o n of t h i s l o o a l i t y . The i f a c t t t h a t t i t i s two miles east of h i l l 5726 and north-west of Wolfcamp would probably put^in the l i t t l e v a l l e y immediately to the ^west of Wolfcamp H i l l s . Hess Canyon, however, i s far removed from here and i s west of the Hess |paneh Horst. I f the sponges occur hear Wolfcamp H i l l s , then they are probably found i n the lagoonal or back reef f a c i e s . The sponges oocured i n bed 5 of section D. The rock consisted of a grey, oherty, abundantly f o s s i l i f e r o u s limestone. \ \ It was orowded with brachiopods i n plaoes. Bed 5 was the Perinites  oompressus horizon. v On the one hand P. B. King has given three sponge l o c a l i t i e s . A l l of them are probably, on the reef or very close to i t . On the other hand R. H. King has given only one sponge l o c a l i t y on the reef while most of his others, appear from his description, to be i n the near-fore-reef facies of the open sea. This discrepancy between S. H. King and P. B. King prompted the writer to inquire of R. H. King whether most of the sponges were reef or open sea dwellers. King r e p l i e d : nAs best i r e o a l l , the specimens from the Glass Mountains were oollected from deposits representing a reef (Hess facies) and near-back-reef (Leonard facie s,),rather than open sea. The / ?7'-oalcisponges, i . e . , Gaadaloupia .PMyphymaspongia., and Girtyoooelia are oomraon i n the massive, l e s s s i l i c e o u s limestones and limy s i l t s t o n e s , except that Laubenfelsia and Anthracosycon were f o u M almost weathered out of limy matrix i n a shale area, so cannot be ^definitely placed e c o l o g i c a l l y . A l l were found within an area of only a few square miles, however." King, i t seems j has madeiiammis take i n the use of his term "near-back-reef". The writer believe^ that he should have said "near-fore-reef". By d e f i n i t i o n the fore-reef i s understood to maan that part of the r e e f facing the open sea, while the back-reef i s on the lagonnal side. P, B. Zing used th i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n 1932. The term "Leonard f a c i e s " fused above by fi. H. King) was defined by P. B. King (1932) tomrepresent the open sea deposits that were equivalent i n age to the Leonard reef and lagoonal deposits. Tie reef and lagoonal deposits were kn©\$a as the"Hess f a c i e s " . The writer wrote King another l e t t e r asking whether a mistakeehad been made when he said that the sponges were "near-back-reef" dwellers. Unfortunately the writer received no reply. Most of the Leonardian sponges seem to have l i v e d on the fore-reef or very close to i t . An examination of the type l o c a l i t i e s plotted on the map of the Trans-Pecos d i s t r i c t w i l l show that most of the types are aligned along an axis approx-imately p a r a l l e l to that of the t r a n s i t i o n zone between the reef and open sea f a c i e s . The near-fore-reef sponges, apparently, were not normal inhabitants of the more open sea bottoms further west from the reef. P. B. King (1930, p. 64), however, has reported sponge spioules from the westernf facies of the Leonard /3S formation. The spicules are probably monactinellids. The calcisponges appear to have been the most abundant sponges dwelling on the reef, while the l i t h i s t i d s seem to have dominated the nearr-fere-reef seas. H. H. King's statement that the calcisponges are found i n the "massive, less s i l i c e o u s limestones?beds" suggests that they l i v e d on the fore-reef. It w i l l be seen l a t e r that the c a l c -isponges were also the most common sponges on the reefs of the suoaeed^^r, Guadalupian times. The Leonardian reefs were r a t t e r -low compared with the Guadalupian C&pitan reefs, i'hey rosetto a height of about 100 feet above the sea bottom to the west, The waters were probably r e l a t i v e l y clear* They were probably also l e s s agitated than those higher up on the reef. In places, however, on the fore-reef of Leonard Mountain, the lenses were f u l l of abraded f o s s i l s , This suggests rather turbulent waters. ^ In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y neither the fore-reef nor the near-fore-ree%sponges l i v e d i n -very deep waters. P. B. King (1932, p. 69) stated that, radiolarians of the open sea Leonard facies were of shallow water o r i g i n l Thus the fore-reef deposits would also have to be shallow. The l i t h i s t i d s (demosponges of B . H. King) were stated to have been found in"thin-bedded, s i l i c e o u s limestone and limy s i l t s t o n e s " . From th i s descrptionqof the rock type i t seems that the l i t h i s t i d s preferred a near^fore-reef environment•. There was probably not much difference i n the environ^igiMfcs of the calcisponges and the l i t h i s t i d s except i n the nature of the sea fl o o r on which they l i v e d . In the. Guadalupe Mountains, near Guadalupe Point tqGirty (1908) / 3* d e s c r i b e d o n e l i t h i s t i d g e n u s , A n t h r a c o s y c o n , a s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e L e o n a r d i a n B o n e S p r i n g l i m e s t o n e . T h e g e n u s c o n t a i n s t h e f o r m s d e s c r i b e d b y G i r t y a s A n t h r a c o s y c o n f i c u s a n d A n t h r a c o s y c o n ( ? ) s p . T h e B o n e S p r i n g l i m e s t o n e g r a d e s w e s t w a r d i n t o t h e V i c t o r i a P e a k g r e y l i m e s t o n e m e m b e r . A l t h o u g h s o m e w o r k e r s c o n s i d e r t h e V i c t o r i a P e a k t o b e a r e e f l i m e s t o n e ( e . g . , W.B. L a n d , 1942, p . 391) t h e g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n t o d a y i s t h a t i t i s a s h e l f d e p o s i t l a i d d o w n i n t h e a g i t a t e d a n d a e r a t e d w a t e r o f t h e D i a b l o p l a t f o r m ( P . B . K i n g , 1942, p . 6 2 0 ) . I t w a s t e r m e d a " l i m e s t o n e b a n k " b y P . B . K i n g (1942, p . 7 4 3 ) . T h i s s h a l l o w w a t e r V i c t o r i a P e a k m e m b e r g r a d e s o u t w a r d a l o n g t h e m a r g i n a l a r e a o f t h e D e l a w a r e b a s i n i n t o t h e d e e p e r w a t e r B o n e S p r i n g l i m e s t o n e f a c i e s . T h e B o n e S p r i n g i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n d e p o s i t e d i n q u i e t a n d d e e p w a t e r . T h i s i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e g o o d b e d d i n g , t h e b l a c k o r g a n i c s t a i n i n g a n d b y t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f r a g i l e a m m o n i t e s ( P . B . K i n g , 1942, p p . 568-569, 620, 6 3 2 ) . T h e b l a c k c o l o u r w a s c a u s e d b y d e c a y d u e t o p o o r c i r c u l a t i o n . T h e s p o n g e f a u n a o f t h e B o n e S p r i n g l i m e s t o n e , t h e r e f o r e , p r o b a b l y l i v e d a l o n g t h e m a r g i n a l a r e a i n q u i e t a n d d e e p w a t e r s . G i r t y s t a t e d t h a t t h e f a u n a f r o m t h i s l i m e s t o n e s e e m e d t o b e u n u s u a l l y w e l l b a l a n c e d , c o n t a i n i n g b r a c h i o p o d s , p e l e c y p o d s , g a s t r o p o d s , a n d c e p h a l o p o d s i n n e a r l y e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s . I t w a s , h o w e v e r , n o t h i g h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s . II, aoology of the Guadalupian Sponges Most of the Guadalupian sponges are found i n the Gapitan formation near Guadalupe Point i n Texas. They.were described from here by Girty (1908) as a part of the Guadalupian fauna. Girty was not aware of the compitioated facies changes brought about by a lagoonal-reef-open sea t r a n s i t i o n when he coll e c t e d the fauna,and consequently some of t h i s Guadalupian fauna belongs to the underlying Leonardian s e r i e s . However, only one sponge genus, A n t h r a c o s y c o n i s known from the Leonardian Bone Spring formation near Guadalupe Point, so that the great majority of the sponges do belong to the Gapitan. The following sponge fauna i s found i n the-Middle and Upper Gapitan formation. Order L i t h i s t i d s Sub-order Tetracladina Anthracosycon Girty A. fious var. capitanensis Girty Virgula Girty Y. neptunia Girty V. r i g i d a Jfirty Peeudovirgula Girty P. tenuis Girty Glass Galoispongia Order Sycones Family Guadalupiidae Guadalupia Girty G. z i t t e l i a n a Girty G. o y l i n d r i c a Girty G. c y l l n d r i c a var. concreta Girty 6. dvl'lBdrieatyar. robusta Girty G. favosa Girty G. d i g i t a t a Girty Family Gystothalamiidae Cystothalamia Girty 0. nodulifera Girty Family SphaerocoeIiidae S o l l a s i a Steinmann S o l l a s i a f ?) sp. Steinmannia Eaagen and W entzel • S. amerioana Girty Family Sphaerosiphoniidae Amblysip"h&nella Steinmann A. guadalnpensis Girty Except for Steinmannia. which occurs only i n the Middle Capitan, and Amblysiphonella. which occurs only i n the Upper Capitan, the above genera are common to both, the middle and upper d i v i s i o n s . As can be seen above, the calcisponges are the dominant sponge element. In the Guadalupian rocks near Guadalupe Point three facies have been recognized: the lagoonal facies represented by the Carlsbad limestone, the reef facies by the C a p i t a n limestone and the open sea facies by the Delaware Mountain group. i'he lagoonal facies outcrops to the west and north-west of the Capitan reef. No sponges have been found i n the Carlsbad, but Dandy (1937, p. 870), however, i l l u s t r a t e d a slab 'cSst^k. /4 7L bearing markings which he interpreted as a net-work of ice c r y s t a l s . The writer would l i k e to suggest that these markings also resemble impressions of monactinellid spicules. Pusulinius constitute almost the only fauna of the lagoonal f a c i e s . The Carlsbad graded south-easterly into the Gapitan form-ation, which is a massive reef dolomite and dolomitic limestone, about 1800 feet thick. At Guadalupe Point this formation is the c l i f f forming member. The reef extends along the circumfer-ence of the Delaware basin f o r most of i t s length. For much of the distance i t i s covered by younger rocks and has only been located by bore holes. The reef i s about 5 miles wide -and extends.about 25 miles north-east of Guadalupe Point before being covered. The Gapitan reef i s extremely f o s s i l i f e r o u s on the basin side and i t i s from here that the sponges were obtained. In the centre of the reef, however, dolomitization has destroyed or obscured most of the f o s s i l s . The main reef building organisms, according to P.B. King (1942, p. 605), were algae and sponges. Since the reef i s predominately calcareous and not s i l i c e o u s , i t is probable that the caloisponges rather than the s i l i c sponges made the most important sponge contribution to the building up of the reef. According to P.B. King (1942, p. 641), the shallow areas of the sea f l o o r sloping up from such deeper l y i n g areas as the Delaware basin would be favourable f o r growth of limestone reefs. In such cases of warm, s u n l i t , agitated water, calcium carbonate would become saturated and lime secreting organisms would t h r i v e . The Capitan was believed to have developed i n such an environment. /43 Some authors (e.g., BiLanchard and Davis, 192<5, p. 975) have suggested that the reef was encouraged "by a s t r u c t u r a l feature, the Bone Spring arch, along the margin of the basin. This arch was believed to have acted as a b a r r i e r between desiccating seas on the north-west and normal seas on the south-east. Along t h i s arch the Capitan reef grew. Several writers have commented on the giant south-eastward plunging "pseudobedding" exhibited on the c l i f f face i n the v i c i n i t y of Guadalupe Point. Dips of these beds are i n places as great as 40° south east but decrease basinward i n a gentle arc to r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t dips. At the base of the c l i f f the reef grades into the B e l l Canyon formation. These steeply i n c l i n e d planes were the off-shore side of the reef front or flank, where material had broken o f f from the upper part "of the reef and r o l l e d down the steep slopes to become cemented by caloareous algae. Most of these "flows" (Blanchard and Davis, 19"2S?, p. 975) are of lutaceous or arenaceous texture(Russel, 1926, p. 647). In the quiet and deep waters at the foot of the reef, coarser limestone tended to accumulate (P. B. King, 1942, pp. 638-639). The thickness of the reef was attributed both to subsidence and to building up of deposits on the gently sloping sea f l o o r . During d e p o s i t i o n the surface of the r e e f rose steeply above the f l o o r of the Delaware basin and the top i s believed by some geologists to have stood at a great height above i t . The d e t r i t a l layers are arranged l i k e shingles with each succ-essive layer a l i t t l e further forward towards the basin (P. B. King, 1942, p. 639). /44 Some geologists have postulated a depth of wafer i n the Delaware basin of about 1000 fo 2000 feet, basing this on the difference i n height between the top of t-he. reef and the Equivalent top of the Delaware Mountain group. Contradictory evidence, however, at the base of the reef, such as current channelling, and r i p p l e marks point more to shallow water. P. B. King (1942, p. 605) showed that'the C apitan consisted of two or more d i s t i n c t f a c i e s . One,characterized by sponges and algae made up the greatest bulk of the mass of the reef. The organisms were considered to be the true reef builders. The facies was found mostly i n thinner lenses and included mostly brachiopods, pelecypods and gastropods. Johnspn (1942);, who studied the^ algae of the -Gapitanpe •,formation, believed that they were the c h i e f reef b u i l d e r s . The crest of the reef, hesstated, was made up almost e n t i r e l y of algae and was subjected to violent wave action during formation. On the reef flanks: the algae were s t i l l the chief builders, although to a lesser' extent than on the crest. The other organisms present on the front, according to r;j Johnson, were bryozoa, some corals (mainly simple horn types) , some sponges, hydrozoa, small gastropods and a few small burrowing pelecypods. It i s probable that the sponges dwelled on the reef flanS near the crest since Girty collected them from the top of the Guadalupe escarped/it. Dloyd (1926, p. 647) also believes that the Guadalupian fauna was c o l l e c t e d from the fore-reef, m fiussel (1926, p. 654).basing his observations on recent /4-S conditions,assumed a minimum temperature of 68 I' and an average o of 70 or more, with agitated and c i r c u l a t i n g waters as essential for Capitan reef b u i l d i n g . Just how v a l i d his deductions are, i s a matter of personal opinion since some organisms, such as h e x a c t i n e l l i d s , are known to have ohanged t h e i r env4ronm:eDts; with geological time. Very few sponges have been found i n the open sea basin f a c i e s . A l l of them are calcisponges. i n the v i c i n i t y of Guadalupe Point, Polysiphori m i r a b i l i s and Steinmannia americana are founds i n the Pinery limestone member of the B e l l Canyon" .  formation at Pine Spring. "Guadalupia (?) sp. var." was reported from the Delaware Mountain group i n the southern Delaware Mountains but i t s exact formation i s unknown to the writer. The Pinery limestone represents a period of non-deposition of the c l a s t i c sediments that make up most of the ±$ell Canyon formation. The sponges, since they are found at Pine Spring, probably l i v e d near the foot of the Capitan reef. The depth of water, as was mentioned before, i s not known. It might • have been very deep as the differences i n height between the top of the reef and the base indicates or i t could have been shallow as s t r u c t u r a l features l i k e r i p p l e marks at the base show. Lang (1937, pp. 882-883) suggested that the waters were quiet and below wave base. Towards the basin the Pinery limestone became less f o s s i l i f e r o u s and darker. Brachiopods were the most abundant fauna i n the Pinery. Towards the close of Guadalupian times the seas became i n -creasingly saline, slowing and probably terminating the growth S4C of the Capitan reef. This s a l i n i t y was probably caused by a r e s t r i c t i o n of the entrance of normal seas into the basin. It i s not known whether these conditions were responsible f o r the extinction of the sponges. Lang (1937, p. 892) suggested that the rate of sinking i n the basin may have slackened i n the f i n a l period of reef growth permitting an encroachement of the back-reef sediments upon the reef area and choking further reef growth. The only other area where Guadalupian sponges are known i s at south-western Coahuila i n Mexico. K. ID. King f i r s t described the existance of sponge bearing limestone from here i n 1934 followed by a mope detailed paper (B. 3. King, et. al.) i n 1944. The sponge feeds ocour i n the middle limestone of the Bifuncta and Malaschachos sections which were believed to be Middle Capitan i n age. No generic or s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the sponges was given i n the above papers, fi. H. King (1943), however, described a tetracladine l i t h i s t i d , Stylopegma duloe King, as occurring i n the "Permian rocks of the. Las L e l i e i a s area, Mexico". The writer believed that there were probably more genera yet to be desoribed i n the sponge limestones other than the single species describedi-by King. It seemed reasonable to assume that there should have been calcisponges present i n the sponge beds because sponges were stated by P. B'. King to have contributed an important part i n the femilding up of some of the limestones. The writer accordingly wrote H. H. King about the matter. King r e p l i e d : S47 "I r e g r e t t h a t . I c a n n o t c l a r i f y t h e L a s D e l i c i a s s i t u a t i o n , a s I h a v e n o t v i s i t e d t h e a r e a . I h a d o n l y a f e w s p e c i i n e n s . t o e x a m i n e , i n c l u d i n g s t y l o p e g m a d u l c e . I c a n a s s u r e y o u t h a t t h e G u a d a l o u p i a - l i k e c a l o i s p o n g e s a r e p r e s e n t , a s t h e r e w e r e s p e c i m e n s i n a l m o s t e v e r y c h # n k o f r o c k t h a t l s a w . M o r e t h a n t h a t i c a n n o t s a y . " T h e s p o n g e l i m e s t o n e s a r e " b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n r e e f s b u i l t u p a b o v e t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f t h e s e a f l o o r b y s p o n g e s a n d ; a l g a e . I t s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t h a t c a l o i s p o n g e s r a t h e r t h a n s i l i e i s p o n g e s s h o u l d b e t h e c h i e f r e e f b u i l d e r s a n d E . H . K i n g ' s l e t t e r s e e m s t o b e a r t h i s a s s u m p t i o n o u t . C a l c i s p o n g e s a l s o m a d e u p t h e l a r g e s p r o p o r t i o n o f t t h e s p o n g e f a u n a o n t h e G a p i t a n r e e f a t G u a d a l u p e P o i n t i n T e x a s . S o m e v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e r e © f s p o n g e l i m e s t o n e s t o t h e a d j a c e n t a n d s u p e r j a c e n t b e d s WB-re s e e n i n t h i s a r e a . T h e s p o n g e l i m e s t o n e s g r a d e i n p l a c e s i n t o n o d u l a r l i m e s t o n e c e m e n t e d b y d e t r i t a l s a n d . S o m e o f . t h e n o d u l e s a r e v e r y l a r g e a n d w e r e b e l i e v e d t o h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e b r e a k u p o f t h e m a r g i n o f t h e r e e f s b y w a v e s a n d s u b m a r i n e l a v a f l o w s . i * h i s n o d u l a r l i m e s t o n e g r a d u a l l y t h i n s a n d r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n t o s e v e r a l t h i n l a y e r s o f s a n d y l i m e s t o n e m a d e u p a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f b r o k e n s h e l l f r a g m e n t s c o n t a i n i n g a b u n d a n t C h o n e t e s d e l i c -i a s e n s i s . T h i s i n t u r n m a y g i v e w a y t o a n o t h e r . n b d u l a r l i m e -s t o n e a n d t h e n i n t u r n t o , m a s s i v e s p o n g e l i m e s t o n e . A r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s p o n g e l i m e s t o n e a n d t h e o v e r l y i n g b e d s e a n . b e s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . T h e s e s e c t i o n s a r e v e r y m u c h s i m p l i f i e d . Section on Malaschachas Flank Thickness Bed 3 Lava and minor amounts of limestone 1480 Top Bed 4 Blue-grey limestone with sponges 15 Beds 11 . .o f f ' % f, to 5 Shale, limestone and lava 850 Be.d 12 Blue-grey cherty limestone HO containing sponges 20 • Bed 13 Bark shale 95 Bed 14 Blue-grey sponge limestone 5 Bottom Section on Bifuncta Flank Bed 9 Blaok shale 230 Top Bed 10 Lava flows, greywacke and ZOfo shale. Two 1-3' lenses of sponge limestone 715 Beds 12 to 11 Chiefly dark shale, greywaok, lava and minor limestone 320 Bed 13 Blue-grey limestone with sponges 45 Bed 14 Shale and greywacke 128 Bed 15 Blue sponge limestone 12 Bottom As w i l l be seen, each of the sponge lay.ers i s overlain by sediments that probably would ;have2rbeehedetrimsntaleto re&fugrowth ahdahenoe to the sponge fauna. Lava most ce r t a i n l y would te r -minate reef development, and i t seems l i k e l y that shale and greywacke would also choke or inhihifc the development of reef b u i l d i n g sponges. The writer suggests t e n t a t i v e l y i n the absence of f i e l d examination, t h a t the sponge reefs were probably k i l l e d with each periodic inflow of these Sediments., and that reef building again started after the conditions became stable again. That the reef sponges l i v e d i n more diastrophic surroundings than the Gapitan reef dwellers i s seen by the large amount of submarine lava and derived sediments that make up the Permian ^sediments i n this area. #he ; sponges l i v e d -&ndeiietitemeame conditions of shallow •'ahd'eiwarm water as t h e i r r e l a t i v e s did on the Gapitan reef further north. Disoussion Most of the Permian sponges l i v e d on reefs or very close to them. I t maysbe. said,thatias:.a7-geaeral rule the sponges preferred the open sea side of the reef. P r o b a b l y this was because there was better aeration and o i r o u l a t i o n of the water. That conditions were not suitable for l i f e on the lagoon a i d e i s indicated by the paucity of f o s s i l s here. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the Carlsbad limestone where f u s u l i n i d s constitute p r a o t i o a l l y the only known fauna of this lagoon f a c i e s . As R. H.. King has pointed out to the writer, the leonardian ealcisponges tend to be the reef dwellers and the l i t h i s t i d s to be the open sea, near-fore-reef dwellers. There are exceptions, however, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the succeeding Guadalupian beds. In the Leonardian, f o r example, the i i t h i s t i d Heliospongia vokesi i s a reef dweller while i n the Guadalupian, none of the l i t h i s t i d s are knwwn i n the open sea f a c i e s but are a l l found i n the fore-reef f a c i e s . The Guadalupian exceptions may be more apparent than re a l because the caloisponges were the dominant sponge group i n those timers. In Guadalupian times, caloisponges wese, apparently the only, sponges to l i v e i n the open sea province. Thism however, might only appear to be because, of poor c o l l e c t i n g . Only a few specimens referred to the genera Guadalupia. Gystothalamia, Polysiphon and Steinmannia were coll e c t e d . The margins .of the Delaware basin, along which these.caloisponges l i v e d , netfer seems to have been very deep, although, as was stated before, some geologists have postulated depths of over 1000 feet for i t . It may be said then that the Leonardian and Guadalupian sponges nearly always l i v e d i n shallow water. About the only i * exception known to the writer, i s that of the l i t h i s t i d Anthracosycon of the hone Spring limestone where the water conditions were believed deeper than was usual. R. H. King (1943, p. 2f;) has stated that caloisponges are always found i n shallow^ He placed the family Wewokellidae, that was formerly thought to belong to the L i t h i s t i d a , i n the C a l c i -spong&a because of the fact that i t was always/Id?ound.tin shallow water deposits. Although the genera of the family are not among those that have been discussed i t i s Signifigant that King stated: "Furthermore both fewokella and Talpaspongia are found i n t y p i c a l shallow water deposits, and the fact that the habitat of caloisponges i s r e s t r i c t e d to shallow water i s my chief reason f o r c l a s s i f y i n g these genera i n the c a l c i s p o n g i a . " In Guadalupian times, the sponges made important contributions t% reef building. On the Gapitan reef, Sag sponges were believed / Sf to have been the most important contributors next to the algae. In Mexico sponges and algae again b u i l t reefs but these reefs were not of large s i z e . 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Siliceous Sponge Spicules of Pennsylvanian Age from I l l i n o i s and Indiana; Jour. P a l . , Vol. 4, No. 3, pp 233-251, Sept 1930. Stratigraphy of the Fusoline-Bearing Beds of I l l i n o i s ; I l l i n o i s Geol. Surv. B u l l , 67, pp. 9-34, A p r i l 1, 1943 The Range of Certain Lower Ordovician Faunas of the Ottawa Valley with Descriptions of Some New Species: Geol. Surv. Canada, .B u l l . No. 33, Geol. Series, No. 40, pp. 19-57, Sept, 1921 Geology of "the Ottawa and Quebec'; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 241, Pub. 2474, pp. 1-65, 1946 Miscellaneous Classes of F o s s i l s , Ottawa, Formation, Ottawa-St.-Lawrence Valley; Geol. Surv. Canada B u l l . No. 11, pp. 1-116, 1948. /CO Stauffer, G.R. Stauffer, G.R. and T h i e l , G.A. Storer, T . I . Stout, W.E. Twenhofel, W.H. u u it U l r i c h , E.O. « U l r i c h , E.O. and and Everett, 0. The Devonian of Southwestern Ontario^ Geol. Surv. Can. Mem. 34, Geol. Series, No. 63, pp. 1-341, 1915 The Paleozoic and Related Rocks of Southeastern Minnesota; Univ. of Minn. Geol. Surv. B u l l . 29, pp. 1-261, 1941 General Zoology; McGraw H i l l Book Company, pp. 1-798, 1943. Dolomites and limestones of Western Ohio; Ohio Geol. Surv. Fourth Series, B u l l . 42, pp. 1-468, 1941 Fatfnal and sediment Variations i n the A n t i c o s t i Sequences; Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . No. 33, pp. 1-14, Sept, 14, 1921. Geology of A n t i c o s t i * Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 154, Geol. Series, No. 135, pp. 1-481, 1927 The Building of Kentucky; Kentucky Geol. Surv. Series-VI, Vol. 37, pp. 1-230, 1931. Geology and Paleontology of the Mingan Islands, Quebec; Geol. Soc. Amer. Sp. pp. No. 71, pp 1-132, June, 1938. Preliminary Description of New S i l u r i a n Sponges; Amer. Geol. Vol III pp. 223-248, Jan-June 1889 American Palaeozoic Sponges; I l l -inois Geol. Surv. Part I I , Palaeontology of I l l i n o i s , Vol 8 Section I I I , pp. 209-241, 1890 ' Sponges of the Devonian and Carboniferous Systems; I l l i n o i s Geol. Surv. Part I I , Palaeontology of I l l i n o i s , Section.IV, pp. 245-251, 1890. Descriptions of Lower S i l u r i a n Sponges; I l l i n o i s Geol. Surv. Part II, Palaeontology of I l l i n o i s , Section V, pp. 225-282. APPENDIX T0 BIBLIOGRAPHY Gerth, H . Okulitch, V. J. Parona, G;. F. Vologdin, A. G. Die Spongien aus dem Perm von Timor; Palaeontology von Timor, Vol. 16, Part 2£, 1929. Gyathospongia—a New Class of Porifera to Include the Archaeocyathinaej;Royal Soc. Canada, Tr., 3rd Series., Sec. 4, Vol. XXIX, pp. 75-106, 1935. Le Spugne Delia Fauna Permiana d i Palazzo Adr iano (Bacino del Sosio); Societa Geologica Italian©, Memorie, Vol. 1, 1-5S, 1933. Archaeocyatha and the Results of Their Study i n U;. S. S. R.j Problems of Paleontology, Vols. 2-3, Lab. Moscow Univ.., f 4 5 3 - J " J 1937. SUMMARY OF PAPERS DESCRIBING NORTH AMERICAN PALAEOZOIC.SPONGES Bassler, H. S. A Jew Ear l y Ordovioian Sponge Fauna; Jour. Wash. Aoad. : Sqiences, Vol. 17, Ho. 15, pp. 390-594, 1927. 4 In t h i s preliminary paper, Bassler described f i v e new genera of t e t r a e t i n e l l i d sponges, These sponges belonged to the family Archaeoscyphidae (Rauff). The genera were Nevadocoelia. L i s s o c o e l i a . Oalyooelia. Batellispongia and Hesperocoelia. Bassler believed these f i v e genera to be the f i r s t discovery of members of the family Arohaeoscyphidae i n western North America. Two genera of the family Anthaspldellidae (Ulrich and Everett) were also described. These were Anthaspidella •'Ulrich and Everett and Streptosolen >.(Q"lrich and Everett). V' • • . No figures or i l l u s t r a t i o n s were given of any of'the sponges. The sponges were from limestone of Chazyan age at MoMonigan Canyon, Nevaffa. There was some uncertainly, however, as to the exact l o c a l i t y . The sponges occured i n the lower few hundred feet of the limestone s e r i e s . The sponges were from rather shaly limestone, often attached to t h i n f o s s i l i f e r o u s layers containing brachiopods, t r i l o b i t e s and other Chazyan forms. One t r i l o b i t e form was mentioned as being extremely s i m i l a r to Bliomerops barrandei t B l l l i n g s i . The sponges described were: Sil i o i s p o n g i a e Order T e t r a c t i n e l l i d a / Family Archaeoscyphidae (Rauff! Nevadoooelia '-Bassler) U« wistae (Bassler-E. t r a i n i > Bassler' H. grandis {Bassler\\ fl. pulchra (Bassler; Lias oo o e l l a g a s s i e r -L. ramosa Bassler. Oalyoocoelia j Basslef •« 0. t y p i c a l i s ^Bassler) Pate l l i s p o n g i a ^Bassler;. P. ooulata (Bassler-) , . v.; P» c l i n t o n i >Bassler>) P. minutipora iBassler) Hesperocoelia -(Bassler:)-H. t y p i c a l i s Bassler H. undulata .s Bassler;': Family Anthaspidellidae Vfflrich and Everett; / Anthaspidella • U l r i c h and Everett;' A: o l i n t o n i (Bassler), A. t r a i n i -? Bass 1 er»; Strentosolen ( U l r i c h and Everett';; S. ocoidentalis (Bassler) ffevadocoelia was a simple, erect chconical pedunculate sponge with a wide cloaca. The outer surface of the sponge was marked by transverse ridges or rows of nodes. / C3 L i s s o c o e l i a was a branching sponge consisting of hollow, smooth c y l i n d r i c a l stems. A narrow cloaca was present. Cal.veoooelia was a cup-shaped, smooth sponge. The cloaca increased i n width upward. Patelli s p o n g i a was believed to be a broad saucer-shaped expanding sponge attached by a short stem. Besperocoelia was s i m i l a r i n structure to -Patellispongiaa« except that i t was a f l a t undulating two-leaved frond pierced along the upper end by a row of openings constituting the cloaca. Bassler, R. S. The Nevada Early Ordovioian (Pogonip) Sponge Fauna: Proc. IT. S. National Museum, Vol. 91, No. S126, pp. 91-102, 3 plates, 1941. Bassler redescribed the same genera and species as i n 1937, only i n more d e t a i l and with i l l u s t r a t i o n s . , The exact l o c a l i t y was described as h a l f a mile south of Ikes Canyon, • i' 4 miles west of Dianas Punch Bowl, i n the Roberts Mountain quadrangle, Nevada i n the Toquima Range. Associated with the sponges was the t r i l o b i t e Bliomerops. an undescribed fauna of ostracods, stony Bryozoa, c r i n o i d and oystid remains, t r i l o b i t e s , cephalopods, gastropods and brach-iopods. The following species of braohiopods were, stated by Bassler to have been described as new by O l r i c h and Cooper i n 1936: Aporthophyla typa. Toquimia k i r k i . Goniotrema per-plexa. Rhysostrophia nevadensis and R. ocoidentalis . Bassler stated that t h i s part of the Pogonip limestone seemed to be represented elsewhere i n North America by the Table Head formation of Newfoundland and the O i l Greek form-ation of Oklahoma. The sponge-bearing limestone was described as thin-bedded, dense, and qlayey. It was composed l a r g e l y of organic remains. x Beede, J . ff. Carboniferous Invertebrates; Kansas Univ. Geol. tfSurv., Vol. VI, Paleontology, Part I I , pp. 11-16, plates I and I I , 1900. Two species of pharetrone sponges were described. The speoies were Sompnospongia multiformis jfBeede) and Ambly-siphonella prosseri (Clarkei/,. The formation and l o c a l i t y of the sponges are given below: Sompnospongia :yBeede,.; S. multiformis ;l'Beedev Confined to a single narrow horizon i n the Burlingame / shales. Pound i n abundance i n the northwest part of 'Atchison County, western Doniphan County and eastern Bfown County. Ambl.vs i phonel l a '.Stej-Mni- a nr? A. prosseri ^Clarkei- Upper Coal Measures; Thayer, Topeka. When disoussing Sompnospongia multiformis, Beede mentioned that there did not appear to be any sign of attachement i n angt of the specimens and that the young ones seem to have r o l l e d about u n t i l they had gained some considerable size as the pores are about equally developed a l l over the surface. Where they ©BreaafctiMaht,as was generally the oase, they were i n contact and formAa s o l i d mass. It was not uncommon to find ^ t h i s species making up a layer of limestone s i x inches thick. S. multiformis appeared most olesely related to Corynella and S t e l l i s p o n g i a . B i l l i n g s , E. Balaeozolo fossils: Can* Geol, Surv*, Vol. I, pp. 1-426, 1865. She book contained descriptions and re-desoripplons of new species of fossils from the "Lowwr and Middle Silurian" rooks* It was stated in_ the prefaoe that Volume I was "pre-pared from time, according as the new forms were discovered, • or as more perfect speoimens of those already known were pro-cured. The only systematic arrangement, therefore, that oould be followed, was to group the descriptions together in a series of a r t i c l e s . The f i r s t portion, consisting of twen-ty-four pages, was issued i a Hovember, 1861,—the second, pages 25 to 56, i n January, 1862—the third, pages 67 to 168, i n June, 1862,—the fourth, pages 169 to 344, i n February, 1866, while the remainder, completing the volume, w i l l bear date herewith. The f i r s t twenty-four pages, and also 67 to 72, nave been reprinted with some alternations..." Sponges were desoribed i n artioles 1, 2, 6,.7, 8 and 10. The substance of eaoh of te.ese articles is given below: 1. On Soma Hew or Little-Known Sneoies of lower Silurian Fossils  from the ^o^sdatt^firMfte t»rfmordial Zone), pp. 1-18, text. f i g s . 1-5. The new genus Aroheoovathus was desoribed as a coral-like f o s s i l with the "poriferous organization of sponges." JThere:aj)peareditoIbe-twb'oolosely a l l i e d genera group together under Archano.va&hus. B i l l i n g s , however, "for the peasant" grouped a l l the species into the one genus. Ardhaooyathus minganensis. which was desoribed later on page 354, was referred. Beoause Billings had found spicules in this species, he believed that Arohaooyathus was a sponge. The two new species described in this f i r s t a r t i c l e , Aroheooyathua profundus and A. atlanticus. were from "Ansa au Loup, on the north shore of the Straits of Belle Isle; limestone of the Potsdam group." 2. On Some Hew Species of Fossils from the Caloiferous. Chazy. Black Biver. and Trenton Formations, pp. 18-56. Billings described a new genus Eospongia and a new species of Astylospongia HRoemer!. The two species belonging to Eospongia-B. roemeri and E. varians-were from the Chazy lime-stone of the Mingan Islands. The new species belonging to Astvlospongia-A. parvula-was from the Trenton limestone in the oity of Ottawa. Eospongia was a sub-globularr, pyriform, or sub-hemispherical attached sponge. It had an internal arrangement of pores radiating irregularly from a central axis. The oup was of variable depth. Eospongia was similar to Astylospongia. Roemer1s definition of Astylospongia was that i t was free. Since Eospongia was attached, Billings thought that this was ample reason for erecting the new genus. Eospongia had a well developed pedicle. Those whioh did not have one, attached themselves to some cylindrical body and grew about i t . Some specimens had a orinoid stalk passing through the sponge. 6. Hew Species of Fossils from the Qyebec Group i n the Northern Part of Hewfoundland. pp. 207-338, text. figs. 192-196. Billings described two new sponge genera-Calathium and Steaohyum. The speoies desoribed are liste d below with thier corresponding formations: - - t\ • . Calathium ^Billings | C. for mo sum .(Billings? " C. affine ^Billings) • - i V C anstedl Billings. C. f i t t o n i i.Billings^ Traoamun ^Billings I T.' cvathiforme i a i l l i n g s ) G, Cape Norman, Newfoundland; Quebec Group. G, Cape Norman, Newfoundland; Quebec Group. H, Pistolet Bay on Schooner Island, Newfoundland; Quebec Group. E, Point Bioh,. Newfoundland; Quebec Group. g. rugosum X'Billings' G, Cape Noxman, Newfoundland; Quebec Group. G, Cape Eorman, Newfoundland; Quebec Group. Calathium was a eylindro-turbinate sponge. It was per-forated by small tubular oanals arranged in longitudinal and transverse rows. These gave i t a reticulated appearanoe. Tra-ebyupi had only one f a i r l y complete fragment on which to base the generic characters• .:. Hhis fragment belonged to the species T. oy at hi forme. It was close textured with large oanals. The species had the shape of ai&iep cup. The walls of the cup appeared to be composed of thin parallel fibres running upwardd from the base. / 70 7. New Species of goasils from the Quebec Group, l a Eastern  Panada, with some others Previously Desoribed. ana Some from  Other-Formations, pp. 301-338, text. f i g s . 324, 225. Two speoies from the Quebec group were described. One of these-C. p anno sum- was new. The formations of the two are given below: Calathium f B i l l l a g s 1 1 m C. (?) pannosum Point Levis; i n the upper part ;of limestone No. 2, Quebec Group. C. anatedi (?) Dir. H, Pistolet Bay, New-foundland, Schooner Island. Bil l i n g s stated that Calathi'am. anstedi (?) was found in Div. H along with 0. anstedi (Art. 6, p. 210)• It was also stated that i f C. anstediCf?) should out to be a distinot species, _.it SBnameswould be Gal at hi urn eras sum. 8. New Speoies of Fossils from the Ofiloiferons gormation. with Ramarks on Some Others Previously Described, pp. 339-361, text f i g s . 342-347. Bill i n g s described two new sponge genera-Triohospongia and Jbhabdaria. He also gave additional details on the genus"arch-eoo.yatb.ua. One new species of Calathium and two, new speoies of"He~e.e;ptaonlites were also desoribed. The sponge species described ase given below with ta&tr corresponding formations: Trichospongia <>#illings| T. serioea % Billings; Mingan Islands. C aloiferous formation. / 7/ Z&abAaarla 'wBillisg®,:; ( B. f r a g i l i s Billings . Sagnesian limestone, Mingan Islands* Calathium f; Billings^ 1  C. (?) paradox!onm Mingan Islands, Caloiferous format ion. B^oeptaonlites DeFranoe B. aaloidferons Billings.: Mingan Islands, Calo iferous form tion. B* (?) eleaantulus Billings Mingan Islands, Calo iferous formation. Triohospongla oooared i n rudely hemispheric masses from one t o five inches aoross* The skelelton was minutely fibrous and f u l l of elongate cylindrical or aoerate spicules* In some specimens, irregularly branching canals, from one to six lines in diameter, were seen* Bhabdaria was a name given to small cylindrical bodies found in the insoluble residue from the Magnesian limestone of the Mingan Islands* They had a rough surface and small perforations along the centre* Ho illustrations were given. 10* Fossil 8 from Various Formations i n the Silurian and Devonian  Systems, pp. 877-415, test figs* 351-567. A new speeiae- Calathnum aanadense- from the Chasy lime-stone of the Mingan Islands was described* She similarity between G. oanadensa and Astylospongia praemorsa Roemer. was discussed. The structural details of Raoeptaoul&tes BeFranoeiV'Was / 7 7L disouaaed. A new speoies-Reoeptaculies 3onesi- was desoribed. A general disoussion of Pasoeolua i i l l l n g s was also given. / 73 Branson, C. G. Stratigraphy and Fanna of the Saoa.jawea formation. Mlssissippian of Wyoming; Jour, Pal., Vol. 1 1 , Ho. 8 , pp. 650*660, Deo., 1 9 3 7 . Branson desoribed sponge borings made by a new speoies of Clionolithes. This new speoies he named C. prioei. Many speoies of brachiopods were pieroed by the sponge. Some of the borings oame baok to the surface again. The bor-ings were most abundant i n Dlaphragmus p h i l l i p s l in which they entered through the bases of broken spines. Borings were also noted i n Composite trinuolea and Cllothyridlna hirsnta. in these two the borings were irregular and gregarious. Branson stated:that the shells "lay on the sea bottom and were broken by wave action before burial'. The sponges bored into shells of Dlaphragmus after the spines were broken off.* Many of the Saeajawea specimens showed evidence of cont-emporaneous crushing. Clionolithes prioei was not unlike C. lizardensis < Lee and Thomas from the Ste. Genevieve limestone of Iowa. It was also similar to c T fmrmn Prioe of the Pottsvilie of West Virginia. / 74 Buoher, fc. 8. Tetraotlnellid Sponge In the Sunbury Shale of 0hlo: Banl» Soo. Amer. Bull., Vol. 40, p. 222, 1929. Spioules of a tetraotlnellid sponge were found in the Sunbury shale (loraer Mississippian) north of Mineral Springs, in the northern part of Adams County, Ohio. The spioules occured in small, more ori&ess circular groups, about an ino$i i n diameter. Most were monaxons, but a few were tetraxons with an anohqr-shaped end. The lengtht of the ipnges^sspaeuieowashabfuftnaalf an inoh. The spioules iayddidordered. In a l l but one oase, they were associated with oonodont teeth and plates. Buoher suggest that the spioules and oonodont teeth may have been the sxoretement of some nectonic animal. Since a l l known tetraotinelllds sponges were marine and inhabited relatively shallow water, Buoher stated that th&er ooourenoe in the Sunbury was interesting i n connection with the sedimentation of this and the earlier Ohio shales. / 73 Buoher, tf« H. Tetraotiaellid Sponge i n Suabury Shales: Pan. Amer. Geol., Vol. 51, tfo. 3, p. 230, Ap r i l , 1929. This was a similar abstract to the one given before the Geologioal Sooiety of America in 1929. / 7C Chadwick, G. H. Geology of tha Catskill and Kaaterskill Quadrangles: How York State Mas. Bftll. No 336, Part II, pp. 1-213, June, 1944. Paae 64-The Coeymans limestone oonsisted of granular limestone. Pajcsa 67-71-Hlndia inornata was l i s t e d among other, fauna as oocuring i a the Kalkberg limestone. The Kalkberg limestone, overlying the Coeymans limestone, oonsisted of a aeries of thin, highly fossiliferous lime-stones extensivelly interbedded with shales. The shales were like those of the overlying shaly limestone (Catskill member). She Coeymans, Kalkberg and Catskill members constituted the New Scotland limestone. Pages 71-75-Hlndla Inornata. Baoentaoulites isfundibiformis. and Anloeopina (?) spp were l i s t e d among other fauna as oo-©uring i n the Catskill member of the Hew Scotland limestone. The Catskill.member oonsisted of shaly limestone. Pages 75-79-Overlving the Catskill was the Becraft limestone* The Beoraft limestone oonsisted of rather pure limestone. Ho sponges were l i s t e d . Pages 79-81-Hindia Inornata was l i s t e d among other fauna as oocuring i n the Alsen limestone. nThe Alsen succeeds the Becraft muoh i n the' same way that the Kalkberg follows the Coeymans, with the incoming of blaok chert seams and in a general reduction of purity and size of grain. a / 77 Paaas 81-85-Sindia laornata was listed; among other fauna, as occuring i n the Port Ewen bads. The Port Ewen overlay the Alsen limestone. The Port Ewen consisted of shaly limestone. The Port Ewen was very similar i n lithology to the Hew Scotland beds. It was retained i n the Helderbergian. The Port Ewen was overaain unconformable by the Glenerie limestone and onert. Paaes 164-112-tThe boring sponge Clionolithes radioans was l i s t e d from the Mount Marian beds (Maroellus). / 7V Clarke, J . M. A Sphinotoaoan Calcisponge from the Upper Carboniferous of  Eastern Nebraska: Amer. Geol., Vol. X X , pp. 3 8 7 - 3 9 2 , plate X X I I I , 1 8 9 7 . Clarke desoribed a new speoies of c a l ois^>onge?Ambly-siphonella p r o s s e r i . This was the f i r s t mention of the genus Amhlvsiphonella i n American f o s s i l faunas. The genus was said to be found at various places i n the upper Carboniferous and Mesozoio formations of Europe and Asia. A. prosseri was an annulated and chambered oalolsponge. iUaoh of the septa were believed to represent an instance of pe r i o d i c a l i n t e n s i t y of growing force. A. prosseri was from the middle d i v i s i o n of the upper Carboniferous at the v i l l a g e s of Hehawka and Keeping Water, Nebraska. Clarke ssated that the sponge was ass i o i a t e d with Semlnula s u b t i l i t a . Derb.va orassa. l l h t e l e t e s hemiplieata. Chonetes gran u l i f e r a . Prodmotus longiapinus. Eustedia mormon!. Spirirffer oameratus. S . lineatus "and others". / 7 3 * Clarke. J. M. The Beginnings of Dependant L i f e : Hew York State Mas. B a l l . Ho. 121, pp. 146-169, August 1, 1908. On pages 167*169 Clarke desoribed sponge borings. It was stated that the work of boring sponges on aaoient organisms had been a very effeot iv a cause of destruction of dead shells. Clark mentioned that MoCoy (Brit. Paleoz. foss., 1885, p. 260, p i . IB, f i g . 1, la) had f i r s t illustrated sponge borings. These were of the sponge Yloa nrisoa i n the peleoy-pdd Pterinea demissa (Conrad). They oooured i n the Upper Silurian. o . Clark believed that i t was safer not to designate these ancient sponge borings with the name of a l i v i n g sponge as Mo Coy.had done* Ha accordingly proposed the name Clionolithes for the ancient borings. Yloa tirlaoa was then ohanged to Clionolithes prlsous (BoCoy). The borings of this sponge were f a i r l y simple and straight. It was believed that the sponge nestled at the • club-shaped extremity of the hole, drawing the water currents into i t s e l f . It was not neoessary that the braehiopoa or peleo-ypod be dead before the borings began. Some borings appar-ently stafcted during the growth stages of the s h e l l . Clark stated: "There is a ourious simnltaneousness i n the attaekssof these pseudoparasites—all started in at olio© and frsauently one suoh attack is not followed by other. Thiif form C. prisons was quite common in the late Silurio and very abundant through-out the Devonio." The name Clionolithes radioans was given to a different kand of boring. The tubes in this oase were radiating. Clarke stated that the sponge "particularly infested the liv i n g and dead shells of the braohlopods, finding entrance less often at the margin than through the pores on the surface of the she l l . " It was not unusual to find both C. prisons and 0. radioans infesting the same shell* 0* radioans was restricted to the Devonian. The name Clionolithes nalmatus was given to broad spar-sely branched palmate hollow fronds found only i n peaeoypods and gastropods of the Upper Devonian Portage group. A pnsRible sponge boring found i n the braohlopods of the Coblentzian sandstone was named CaulostrapsIs taeniola. fhe borers began at the e<4^ @ of the shell. Casts of thier borings are long, narrow tape-like tongues. Claake stated that he hesitated to assign this form to the sponges. It was thought possible that they might be worm oasts. Clarke, J. M* Organio Pependanoe and Disease uTheir Origin and Significance: Hew York State Mas. B a l l . Ho. £21, 222, pp. 1-113. May-June, 1919. On pages 85-88, Clarke desoribed and discussed sponge borings. Clionolithes radioans. C. palmatua. and C. reptans were discussed. C . palmatus was stated to be from the soft shale of the Portage group. Borings of a much greater size and different type than were seen before were observed on iiiddie Devonian stromatoporoids in Iowa. . On the stromatoporoids there was a large spherical central body from which cylindrical arms radiated. The borings were either on the surface or completely burled-in the stromat-oporoid. Clarke gave the name Topsentia devonica to the borings made by this parasitic sponge. Cos smarm, M R e c t i f i c a t i o n de Nomenclature; Rev. C r i t . Paleozool., Vol., 13, p. 67, 1909. Cossmannobbserved that the sponge genus Heteroooelia ^Grirtyv- was preoocupied and offered Girtvoooelia Co ' ssmaVi as a substitute. /* 3 Dawson, W. J . Preliminary Mote on New Spsoies of Sponges from the Quebeo Group  at L i t t l e Metis: The Canadian Record of Science, Vol. I l l , No. 2,. pp. 49-58, f i g . 1, A p r i l , 1888. Dawson desoribed new species of sponged from the L i t t l e Metis shale of the Quebeo group. The shale was believed younger than Middle Cambrian i n age, The sponges occured i n black and dark grey shales con-ta i n i n g a few oaloareous bands. TheSblaek shales held the sponges and the sponge spicules along with fucoids (Butho- trephis) and valves of a small Obolella. Some of the sponges seemed to have t h e i r root spioules attached. The? f o s s i l s were usually p y r i t i z e d . Dawson gave only a preliminary description of the sponges. The appended paper by G. J . Hinde on pages 59-68 was meant to give a more detailed cdesoription. The sponges described were; (1) Protospongia tetranema tDawsoh;; (2) A probably Hyalonema metisaica IDawson) (3) A possible Cyathophyoos qjaebeoensis (Dawson) (4) Small ovoid masses of stout biaoerate spicules diver-ging from a centre and sometimes i n fan-shaped t u f t s . They were believed to indicate a speoies of the genus Lasiocladia (Hinde). (5) Oval masses of small simple spicules believed to indioate the presence of a halichondroid sponge. In a note on pages 58-59 Dawson mentioned that a sponge from the Utica shale at Ottawa had recently been d&soovered. It consisted of r a d i a t i n g groups of long slender simple p y r i t i z e d s p i c u l e s . It was.suggested that they maght have root spicules of a hexactinellidl. /95 Dawson, W . J . On Some Hew Speoies of F o s s i l Sponges from the Siluro-Cambrian  at L i t t l e Metis on the Lower St* Lawrence: Trans. Koy. Soo. Can,, V o l . V I I , S e e IV, pp.. 31^55, 1889. A p r e l i m i n a r y d e s c r i p t i o n of some new f o s s i l sponges was made. Notes on the specimens were by G.J. Hinde. The sponges were from the Quebec Group at L i t t l e M e t i s , Quebec The sponges were found through 40 f e e t of dark s h a l e . They were o h i e f l y found i n s e v e r a l t h i n bands of s h a l e about 2 inches t h i c k . The sponges were b e l i e v e d to have l i v e d on the muddy sea bottoms on the s o f t ooze. Only one m o n a c t i n e l l i d sponge was d e s c r i b e d . T h i s was H a l i c h o n d r i t e s confusus * (• Dawsoni. Two s p e c i e s o f L a s i o t h r i x were d e s o r i b e d - L . -cjif-vicostata [liin 'Hinde, and L. f l a h e l l a t a (Dawson]-were d e s o r i b e d . Dawson was u n c e r t a i n as to whether they were m o n a o t i n e l l i d s or h e x a c t i n e l l i d s . He favoured the l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The a s s o c i a t i o n of O b o l e l l a ( L i n n a r s s o n i a ) p r e t i o s a  \ 3 i l l i n g s ' . .and a s l e n d e r branching f u c o i d B u t h r o t r e p h i s  p e r g r a c i l i s DawsonV w i t h the sponges was mentioned. Dawson, W. On F o s s i l Sponges from Beds of the Quebeo Group of S i r William Logan, at L i t t l e Metis: The Canadian Record of Soienoe, Vol. I l l , No. 7, pp. 429-430, July, 1889. This was an abstract of the paper read before the Royal Society of Canada i n May, 1889. /V7 Dawson, W. J. Additional Motes on F o s s i l Sponges and other Organic Remains from the Qnebeo Group at L i t t l e Metis, on the Lower St. St. Lawrence; Trans. Roy. Soc. Can, 2nd Ser., Vol. II, Sec. IV, pp. 91-121, 1896. This paper was a continuation andt enlargement of his previous paper of 1889. 'The sponges were considered to belong to the S i l l e r y Series of the Quebec and hence possibly to the "highest member of the Cambrian Series? The sponges were considered to have d r i f t e d from.their anohorage, Dawson remarked upon the exuberance of sponge l i f e i n a li m i t e d area of the muddy sea bottom. These muddy deposits were believed to have been l a i d down atraa|dw temperature during intervaUs of conditions producing beds of sandstone and conglomerate. Considerable o s c i l l a t i o n o f the sea l e v e l was suggested and hence the sponges, i f they were " l i k e t h i e r modern a l l i e s " , might have been deep water inhabitants. The interbedded e l a s t i c s mould have been shallower water deposits. The monactinellid speoies Halichondrites oonfusus f • 'Dawson1' was again described. , A new species of the monactinellid genus Stephanella o.Hinde was desoribed. The species was S. hin d i i " Dawson; . Anchoring roots were stated to have been found i n some speoimens. Lasiothrix curvioostata CHinde, amid L. f l a b e l l a t a Dawson) were doubtfully placed i n the Monactinellida. / f $ Duncan, P. M. On Some Spheroidal L i t h i s t i d Spongida from the Upper S i l u r i a n - -? gpipmation of New Brunswick: Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., f p l . IV, pp. 84^91, 1879. Annew sponge genus Hindia and i t s one speoies H. sphaer-o i d a l i s was described. The sponge came f£om dakoareous shale of Lower Helderberg or "Upper Siluriam" age. Duncan believed that Hindia was a calcareous sponge. It was thought to be free and not attached. tr. / 90 Dunoan, M. F. A Reply to Dr* G. J. Hinde's Communication "On the Genua Hindia. Dune, and the Name of i t a 'Typical Species"; Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist, Vol. XIX, F i f t h Series, pp. 26 -264, 1887. Duncan contradicted Hinds's arguments regarding the species name of Hindia. Dunoan believed that Hindia sphaeroidalis (Dunoan) had p r i o r i t y over H. fibrosa (Roemer).and that H. sphaenoidalis should therefore be the type species of Hindia. Duncan upheld his o r i g i n a l contention that Hindia was oalcareous. / 9/ fenton C. L. and Fenton, II* A* The Stoat iJtT&t»hy ana Fanna of th# Baokoerry Stage of the Pnnar Devonian: Oont. Mas. Geol. of the Univ. Mi oh., Vol. I, pp. 1- £60, 1924. On pages 23-24 Fenton and Fenton described Cliona  haokhsrrensls Thomas' fron the gp i r i f e r zone of the Haok-berry stage. The borings oo oared throughout the zone, they nere especially abundant where Stroshonella hvbrida and were not rare on Strophonella reveraa and Sohizonhoria frowaensis. The borings whioh Thomas (1911) had described were ram-ifying burrows, par a l l e l , oblique, and v e r t i c a l to the shell surface* The borings were most numerous on the brachial valve. Fenton and Fenton could not fine! the "pin-shaped s i l i c -eous elements" used i n boring that were described i n the Zittel-Sastman Text Book of Paleontology. On pages 8-18 the Snirifer zone of the Cerro Gordo sub-stage was desoribed as being bluish oaloareous shales and shaly bands of indurated shale and shaly limestone. More than 200 species and varieties were known from this zoone. It was 20 feet thick. The S n l r i f e r zone was ftbssiliferous and within the limits of 20 feet there were marked changes of lithology and faunas. The differenoes between the uppermost Snirifer zone beds at Bird H i l l and those at Haokberry Grove were stated to /92. those that would be expected In deposits of a shallow-water, sear shore nature* The l i f e conditions in the Haokberry sea appeared to have been extraordinarily favourable for a numerous and varied fauna i n that they: (1) varied considerably within short distances. (2) varied greatly within short periods* (Z) afforded ample l i v i n g spaoe and food for shallow-water organisms* / P 3 Fenton, C. L* and Fenton, M. A. Boring Sponges i n the Devonian of Iowa; Amer. Mid. Hat., Vol. XIII, «o. 2, pp. 42-54, 1932. Fenton and Fenton desoribed three speoies of the boring sponge Clionolithes Clarke , two of whioh were new. They also desoribed a new boring sponge genus Cllonoldes and i t s one new speoies. Two speoies of Topsentia Clarke were desoribed. f hexthree speoies of Clionolithes were C. haokberryensis Shomatt, , C. irregularis ' fenton and Fenton' and C. fcsslger Jttnton and Fenton.. These last two were new speoies. C. haokberryensis oo cured through the Spirifer zone of the Haokberry stage and possibly also i n the lower beds. The borings were especially common on shells of Strophonella. Sohlzophoria and on the gastropod Floydla. 0. irregularis oooured i n the Lower and Middle portions of the Cedar Valley stage, especially i n the so-oalled Aoervularia and fiaymond Quarry beds of hlaokhawk County, Iowa and in apparently equivalent strata near Iowa City. It commonly buried in the brachial valves of l i v i n g braohlopods. C. fossiger was found only in hard calcareous oasts or Internal molds of pelecypods. It apparently excavated tubes rather than boring i n the shells. It seemed to have a preference for molluscs, particularly pelecypods. xt was found i n Earaeftolas validallnea. Srammysia (?) dubia and Paraoyolas sablna. The borings were found i n the calcareous muds of the / 94 s p l r i f e r zone of the naokberry stage i n north-oentral Iowa. It probably oocured i n the Owen substage as w e l l . A mm boring sponge genus Gllonoides was desoribed. It was mentioned that numerous thick shelled Atrypae from Cedar Valley strata of central Iowa carry tubes or borings of t h i s genus. The borings or tubes of the one speoies 0. themesi of Gllonoides were l a r g e r i n specimens of Atrypa waterlooensis and related forms from Waterloo, iowa. At other l o c a l i t i e s , the borings were smaller. The assooiated S p i r i f e r s , c o r a l s , and stromatoporolds were apparently unweloome as hosts. C. thomasi oocured i n the Cedar Valley beds at Brandon, Waterloo, L i t t l e t o n and other l o c a l i t i e s i n north-oentral Iowa. Font on and 4'enton believed that Clarke's Topsentia  devonioa was synonomous with Vioa prisoa McCoy. Vloa  nriaca was aooordingly plaoed i n the genus Topsentia Clarke;. They also oommented on the taxonomie confusion regarding C l i o n o l i t h e s . Topsentia. Vioa. and Paleosabella. The large excavations made by Topsentia devonioa generally occured on the underside of the stromatoporolds. Topsentia apparently began i t s excavations at ar near the edge of the colony. The continued enlargement of the colony burled the sponges. The incomplete cavity beneath some large stromatopor-olds was taken to mean that the sponges bored p a r t l y i n the substratum. Tubes without attendant c e n t r a l c a v i t i e s were taken to indicate that the major growth of the sponge was i n the substratum. / 95 l'« devonioa was oommon in the several stromatoporoids beds of the upper Cedar Valley stage in Floyd and other counties of north-central Iowa. It was also found on massive stromatoporoids in the tfhellrook stage. Its borings have not been notioed on eorals. Yioa prisca(McCoy which was referred to Topsentia (?)  nriaca Mo Coy was found i n the Upper Silurian of the Malverns i n England. 1 / 9C Foersts, A. F. Silurian and Devonian Limestones of Western Tennessee: Jour. Geol., Vol. XI, pp. 554-583, pp. 679-703, 1903. P/aae 566-Above the Dixon red clay is a seotion of white limestone:and olays, exoeeding 100 feet i n thickness. The sec-tion is richly fossiliferous and contains the fauna studied by Boemer during his v i s i t to Decatur County, Tennessee. The name "Brownsport" bed had been given to this seotion. Page 571-At Perryville the upper Brownsport consists of hard limestone and contains Astraeospongia meniscus associated with Caryomanaa atallatim-suloatum. Page 572-The Brownsport exposures near Linden at no point display the great wealth of braohlopods and sponges char-acteristic of the lower part of the Brownsport bed further southward. Along the road leading east from lew Bra, 60 feet of Brownsport limestone contain Astraeospongia meniscus. Asty-i p T f l ^ p q eratera and Car.vomanon ste Hat im-sulcatum. At Glenkirk and back of Clifton the lower 25 feet of the Brownsport i s oherty and f u l l of f o s s i l sponges. Paces 573-574-Boemer oolleoted within a radius of 5 miles of Dixon Spring, Decatur County. Dixon Spring i s 3 miles south of Perryville. White olays and soft limestone oomprise the Brownsport here. Page 575-At Bath Springs, soft layers of Brownsport rubbly limestone contain Ceryomanon. bryozoa and braohlopods. / 27 About 8 miles east of Savannah, Ast.ylomanon verruoosum was found associated with corals i n the Brownsport. Half a mile further west a braohiopod fauna was seen associated with Aatvlomanon verruoosum in whitish clay and soft limestone. Page 583-At the hill;above Martin's M i l l , the whitish elays and soft limestones beneath the @§nt limestone "contain the sponges, brachiopods, and orinoids characteristic of the glade exposures of the Brownsport bed.** In the limestone at the top of the section at Martin's M i l l , Astvlospongia praemorsa. Car.vmanon stellatim-suloatum were found. About a mile, below Martins M i l l Caryomanon inoiso-lobatnm was found within a foot of the Hardin sandstone. / 9? Foerste, A. F. Preliminary Motes on Cincinnation and Bexington F o s s i l s of  Ohio. Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee: B u l l . S c i . Lab. Denison Univ., (Reprint), pp. £0-21, June, 1910. Dystactospongia madisonensis Foerste^ was desoribed from the Saluda i n the following paragraph: " Along a branch of Laughery creek, a mile southwest of Ballstown, Indiana, the so-oalled shale bed, i n the lower part of the Saluda section i n underlaid by four and a h a l f feet of s o f t clayey material, and s i x feet of arg-i l l a c e o u s rfcok with an abundance of Tetradium minus at various l e v e l s . This lower layer contains also Rhy-nohotrema oopax. Streptelasma sagans. Endooeras pro-teiforme. the species of Byssonchia found at the same horizon two miles south of V e r s a i l l e s , and also Dys-tactospongia madisonensis. The l a t t e r was found about 2 feet from the top of this Tetradium section. Dystaoto-spongja madisonensis occurs also i n the upper part of the underlying section, a foot and a h a l f thick accomp-anied by Calapoecia c r i b r i f o r m i s ; Tetradium minus ooours occas i o n a l l y i n the lower part. The basal part of the section, nea nearly three feet thick, contains rather numerous large specimens of Columnaria alveolata. and Strophomena  planumbona. Dystaotospongia madisoneasis. associated with Calapoeoia c r i b r i f ormis. and Strophomena vetusta. occur :, just below the Tetradium ha-izon also at the bridge east of Ballstown. The horizon for Dystactospongia .therefore . Zoo appears to be at the base of the Saluda." Zof Sixty, G. H. A Revision of the Sponges and Coelenterates of the Lower  Helderberg Group of Hew York: 48th Ann, Bent. Hew York State Mus., Vol. II, pp. 261-309, 1895. In the disoussion of the Lower Helderberg fauna, Girty stated that i t was remarkable i n many ways. "In oertain geologioal horizons, probably owing to contrasting physical conditions, the different zoological groups were markedly looallzed. With the Lower Helderberg Group i t i s different. The conditions seem to have been congenial for the growth and preservation of nearly a l l kinds of marine l i f e at different periods during the deposition of;, these staata.. Girty reviewed the systematic position of Hindia Bnn-oan « In a disoussion of Hindia fibrosa (Boemer) he men-tioned that the f i r s t name the sponge reoieved was Calamopora  fibrosa 'iBoamer/a Although this name arose from an incorredt Identification of one of Gold fuss's speoies, Girty believed that this was not reason "for rejection the spoolfio name in favour of one of later date, especially as these two speoies belong to widely different genera. n v It was mentioned that Hinde (1887) had oonfirmed Banff 1s observations on Hindia- but that he disagreed as to the systematic position. Ulrioh had oonfirmed Hinde*s and Banff's observations and had followed Banff's action of placing i t in the Tetraoladlna. Girty stated that his own observations Zoz on Hindia had confirmed those of Banff i n every essential partioolar. The only exception was that the spicules i n the Lower Helderaerg specimens seemed a l i t t l e more slender and the whole spioular net-work seemed lighter and elegant i n consequence. Sixty was not able to seen t he prolongation of the fourth ray of the spicule of Hindia. Shaly limestones of the Helderberg group at Clarkevalle. Indian Ladder and other l o c a l i t i e s i n Haw fork. waa found i n the Lower Pentamerus and 2 03 Girty, G. H. The Guadalupian Fauna: U . S. G . S . Prof. Paper Ho. 58, pp. 1- 651, 1908A On pages 71-95 Girty described a large sponge fauna c h i e f l y from the southern end of the Guadalupe Mountains near Guadalupe Point i n Texas. Throe new genera of t e t r a -oladine l i t h i s t i d s and three new genera of syoone caloisponges were descfibed. The l i t h i s t i d s were Anthracosycon. Virgula and Pseud ovirgula. The caloisponges were Guadalupia. Polgsiphon and Cystothalamia. E§oh of these caloisponges were referred respectively^ to the new families Guadalupidae, Polysiphonidae and Cystothalamiidae. In addition three previously desoribed syoone caloisponges were reoognized. These were Amblysiphonella t-3teinmannf , Steinmannia (Waagen and Went z el) and Sol las l a ,Steinmann.. A new J i o t y o n i n hexaotinellid genus was erected. It was oalled Stromatidium. The fauna was represented i n four rook units referred to i n the monograph as the "basal black limestone", Delaware Moun-t a i n formation, "dark limestone" and the Gapitan limestone. The f i r s t three units were a l l considered part of the Del-aware Mountain formation, but were discussed as separate units i n the monograph. The "basal black limestone" consisted of very black limestone i n rather t h i n and even beds. It was about 200 feet thick. The Delaware Mountain formation consisted of oaloareous sandstone, dark shale and dark- and light-oibloured limestone. The conditions of deposition appeared to be fluouating, not only v e r t i c a l l y but l a t e r a l l y as w e l l . It was about 12(Jo feet thick. The "dark limestone" according to G i r t y deserved s p e c i a l mention because of the d i s t i n c t i v e fauna that i t containeda It was about 50 feet thick. The Capitan limestone consisted of massive limestone about 1800 feet thick. The sponge fauna described and th i e r corresponding formations are given below; Order L i t h i s t i d a Sub-order Tetraoladina Anthraaosvconn 'Girty} A. f i c u s var»oapitanense (Girty Middle Capitan formation, A. fious {Girty Basal black limestone, Guadalupe Point, Texas, (Station 2920). Capttann Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas,(Stati on 2926). Anthraoosyoon (?) sp. f Girty:" Basal black limestone, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, (Station 2920). •zos Virgula v'ffirty V, neptrmia t h i r t y . Y» r l a i d a (Girty; V . _ r i g i d a var.constrio&a Pseudovirgula "Girty P. tennis 'Girty^ Middle Capitan formation, Capitan Peak (Station 2926) and peak north of Pine Spring (Station 2902?), Guadalupe Mountain, Texas. TSpp of Capitan form-ation, Capitan Peak, (Station 2905?) ; Middle Capitan formation, Cap-i t a n Peak, (Station 2926) and peak north of Pine Spring (Station 2902?) f Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. 'Girty, Middle Capitan form tio n , Capitan Peak^.t&uaidaillupe Mountains, Texas (Sta-t i o n 2926). Middle Capitan form-ati o n , Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station 2926). Class Calcispongiae Order Syoones Family Guadalupiidae (Girty .• Guadalupia thirtyV G. z i t t e l i a n a Girty" G. z i t t e l i a n a var. MGirty. G. p y l i n d r i o a (Girty; G. o y l i n d r i o a var. oonorB&a Gi rty: Middle Capitan formation, Middle Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £926); Delaware Mountain formation, Comanche Canyon, Glass Mountains, Texas (Station 3763). Middle Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £9£6). Top of Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, (Stations 2905 and 2966); middle Capitan formation, Cap-i t a n Peak (st a t i o n 2926) and peak north of Pine Spring (Station 2902), Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. UMiddle Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £926). Zo7 G. o y l i n d r i c a var. robusta Girty • G. favosa . (Girty v G. d i g i t a t a \ Girty,-' Guadalupia sp. Guadalupia (?) sp. Guadalupia (?) sp. var. Family Polysiphonidae (Girty, Polys iphort rGirty. P. m i r a b i l i s *Girty. Top of Capitan formation, Gapitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £905). Middle Capitan formation, Gfigpitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, (Station £9£6). Middle Capitan formation, peak nmrth of Pine Spring, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £90£). Middle Capitan formation, peak north of Pine Spring, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £90£). Top of Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station £905). DelawaremMgnntain formation, southern Delaware Mountains, Texas (Station £964). "Dark limestone", Pine Spring, Guadalupe Moun-ta i n s , Texas (Station 2930. Family Cystothalamiidae ; Girty _ Qystothalamia ^ Gi rty * 0. nodulifera G i r t y k Top of Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Stations 2905? and 2966)\ Delaware Mountain formation, southern Delaware Moun-ta i n s , Texas (Station 2964); Delaware Mountain formation, Comanche Canyon, Glass Mountains, Texas, (Station 2763). Cystothalamia (?) sp. Middle Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas (Station 2926). Family Sphaerosiphoniidae ^Steinmann Amblysiphonella •' St einmann, A. guadalupensis (girty: Top of Capitan formation, Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas(Station 2966). 2o 9 Family Sphaerocoeliidae Steinmann'• StelLnmannia rWaagen ant Wentzei, -""A. americana f&irtyi Middle Capitan formation Capitan Peak, (Station £926); "dark limestone Pine Spring (Station Tl 2930?), Guadalupe Mountains,Texas. Solias&a Steinmann S o l l a s i a (?fc•sp. Top of Capitan formation (Station £966), Middle Capitan formation, (Station £926), Capitan Peak, Guadalupe Moun-tains , Texas. Anthraoosyoon was a turbinate or pyriform sponge. It was believed to be attached by a peduncle. The cloaoa was a s l i g h t depression on the upper surface. From i t descended 3 or 4 tubular openings. Ostia were small and numerous. Loos monaxial spicules seemed to be associated and might belong to the genus. A. ficus which was obtained from the basal black limestone was strongly oblique while A. f i c u s  var. oapitanease from the white limestone of the Capitan was erect. The Capitan example also smaller and with larger o s t i a and possible larger spicular structure. Virgula was generally sub-ramose. It was sometimes i n r e l a t i v e l y slender stalks with few branches and at othertimes Z/cr i n i r o e g u l a r l y and frequently branching bfanching s t a l k s . In some specimens a central tubular cloaca was seen extending f o r part of the way. Ostia were apparently absent! The spioular mesh was r i g i d l y consolidated. Pseudovirgula appeared s i m i l a r to Yirgula i n i t s c y l -i n d r i c a l stem-like growth and the character and arrangement of spicules. Pseudovirgula. however, had a large o s t i a what appeared to be a hollow zone between the spioular median portion and the dermal layer.. P. tenuiasseemed~to be abundantly divided o f f into s t r u c t u r a l elements. The d i s t i n c t i v e featurescvO'f the family Guadalupiidae were the lamellar expanding growth and the construction of the walls. The walls were composed of tubes normal to the surface. A cloaca seemed to be absent. The characters of this family were based on the single genus Guadalupia. Girty, there-fore, believed that some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might change with the a d d i t i o n of new gaaera. Guadalupia was f a i r l y common i n the white limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. The genus assumed a variety of shapes-massive, c y l i n d r i c a l , f r o n d i l i k e , etc. The s t r i k i n g feature of the genus was the series of p a r a l l e l c y l i n d r i c a l tubes perpendicular to the two walls which they connected. Some of the tubes seemed to be closed by diaphragms. In some respects the structure of this genus was said to be l i k e Reoeptaculites. The form referred to by Girty on page 85 as "Guadalupia (?) sp. n was thought to possibly be a caloareaas algae instedd of a sponge. The d i s t i n c t i v e features of the -iemily Polysiphonidae 2 / / w e r e t h e c o n i c a l o r c y l i n d r i c a l s h a p e , t h e t h i n , p o s s i b l y p o r o u s , o u t e r w a l l w i t h o s t i a a n d a n i n t e r n a l s t a r u e t u r e o f t u b u l a r c a n a l s , s o m e l e n g t h w i s e a n d s o m e r a d i a l . T h e c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s , h f n t h e s f a ^ w e r e b a s e d o n t h e s i n g l e g e n u s P o l y s i p h o n . T h e a p p e a r a n c e o f P o l y s i p h o n w a s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a Z a p h r e n t o i d o o r a l . T h e s p o n g e w a s s t a t e d t o r e s e m b l e a n e c h i n o i d i n s o m e r e s p e c t s . T h e s a m e d i f f i c u l t i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e i n s e t t i n g u p a n e w f a m i l y w i t h o n l y o n e g e n u s w e r e a l s o m e t w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y C y s t o t h a l a m i i d a e . T h e f a m & i y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s weretl^'' t h e c y l i n d r i c a l o r c o n i c a l f o r m , t h e u p p e r e n d w i t h a d e e p c l o a c a h o t e x t e n d i n g t o t h e b o t t o m , t h e e x t e r n a l w a l l t h i n a n d p e r f o r a t e d b y p o r e s o f t w o s i z e s a n d b y o s t i a a n d a n i n t e r n a l c a v i t y o c c u p i e d b y o y s t s n o t g r o u p e d i n t o s e p a r a t e r i n g s . T h e g e n u s C y s t o t h a l a m i a i n c l u d e d c y l i n d r i c a l b r a n c h i n g s t e m s . T h e i n t e r n a l v e s i c l e s b e c a m e m o r e r e g u l a r t o w a r d s t h e s u r f a c e . T h e e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e u s u a l l y h a d a m a m m i l l a t e a p p e a r a n c e . . G i r t y w a s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t o k e e p S t e i n m a n n i a a m e r i c a n a o r t o c h a n g e i t o v e r t o S o l l a s i a . H e d e o i d e d o n t h e f o r m e r c o u r s e . T h e s p e c i m e n s w h i c h G i r t y r e f e r r e d t o a s " S o l l a s i a ( ? ) s p . " w e r e p u t t h e r e w i t h e x t r e m e d o u b t . Girty, G. H. On Some Hew and Old Species of Carboniferous; f o s s i l s : iroo. U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXXIV, pp. £81-303, plates . . 7-XIVOTirr, 1908 4 Girty desoribed four new gponge genera. The genera were Eeteroooelia, Maeandrostia, Coelooladia and Hellospongia.  ffateroooelia and Maeondrostia were believed to be caloisponges. Coelooladia was believed to be a l i t h i s t i d while Hellospongia was referred to the hexactinellids. The sponges desoribed with their Corresponding formation are given below: Heteroooelia Girty, H. beedei (Girty- Allen limestone; out on Santa J?e railroad, 6 miles southwest of Chanute, Kansas. jjSteinmannia (Waagen and Wentzel; Santa Fe railroad, 6 miles southwest of Chanute, Kansas. Maeandrostia * Sirty. M. kansasensia Girty Allen limestone; out on S. benjamin! (Girty, Allen limestone; out on Santa Fe Sailroad, 6 miles southwest of Chanute, Kansas Coelooladia *Girty; C. spinosa (Girty.'- Allen limestone; out on Santa J?e Railroad, 6 miles southwest of Chanute, Kansas. 2 / 3 Heliospongia (Girty H. ramosa \Girty; Allen limestone, out on Santa fe Railroad, 5 miles southwest of Ghanute, Kansas. H. ramosa var. parallels Gi rty, Allen limestone, out on Santa Fe Railroad, 6 miles southwest of Ghanute, Kansas. Heteroooelia was moniliform, stemilike sponge consisting of a row of small, rather distinctly separated spherical c e l l s . The sponge sometimes branohea. Through eaoh stem was a central cloaca whioh was continuous from c e l l to c e l l and perforate. The c e l l walls were distinct and perforated by large spout-like ostia. Girty suggested that the sponge may have grown by f i r s t projecting the oylindrioal cloaca. Heteroooelia was stated to resemble Sollasia Steinmann , Sebargasia, Steinmannia Waagen and Wentzel* , and Amblysiphonella The sponge that Beede described as Amblysiphonella  prosseri i Slarke-' in 1900 was stated by Ulrich to belong to this new genua Heteroooelia and to the new speoies H. beedei Girty,. Maaandrositia was a sub-cylindrical, stem-like, occasionally branching sponge. A central tube-like oloaoa traversed the entire axial portion. The wall were thiok and structureless and were imperforate exoept £@$ vermiform chambers whioh opened to the surface or communicated s i t h eaoh other and the cloaca. Girty stated that Maaanflrostia closely resembled the Guad-alupian genus Gyatothalamia^ <: Z/4 Girty rather doubtfully referred his Steinmannia  ben.lamini to the Indian Salt Hange genus Steinmannia, He stated that the speoies also resembled Sollasia. Coelaoladia was a more or less arboresoent sponge. The branches were oylindrical with a large uninterrupted oloaoa. The walls were rather thick and piereed by numerous ostia whioh sometimes ramified towards the outer surface. The walls appeared to be composed consolidated tetraot spioules. Girty believed that i f this species was calcareous, then i t was a pharetrone. He believed, however, that i t was more probably a l i t h i s t i d silioisponge. It was compared to Doryderma and Oylindrophyma. Helioanongia was a large dendroid sponge having a persistant central oloaoa. Girty believed that i t had a hexadtinellid sploular unit. If was therefore referred to the Hexaotinellida. Girty, G. H. On Some Mew Genera and Spaoies of Pennsylvanian Fossils from  the Wewoka Formation of Oklahoma: Ann, M. Y. Aoad. Soi., Vol. XXI, pp. 119-156, Aug. 26, 1911. Desoribed a new sponge genus/Wewokella. It was desoribed in the following .words (p. 121): "The general shape of the present form i s that of a oylinder with a large tubular oloaoa. Mo dermal layer had been observed. The walls are rigid and made up of large spicules interlaced with one another. The typical spioular element appears to be the tetraxon, but many spicules do not show this shape and appeafc to be elongated, irregularly branched and more or less contorted. In general, however, the trend of the spicules is longitudinal." Mo illustrations were given. Wewokella was stated to be somewhat similar to Dorydarma. Wewokella was from the Wewoka formation. It ooourad rarely. Only two specimens were oolledted. The fauna of the formation occured in the two lower shales. A l l phyla were well represented. •A Girty, G. H. Fauna of the ffewoka Formation of Oklahoma: U, 3. G. S. Bul l . SOi 544, pp. 1-352, 1915. Girty desoribed ffewoka solida (Girty, 1911), a possible — Ylrgnla (Girty) and sponge borings. 'Ihe sponges oocured i n the ffewoka formation of Oklahoma. ffewoka solida was found at station 2004 i n the Coalgate quadrangle. Virgula (?) an. and the sponge borings, were found at station 2006 i n the ffewoka quadrangle. Girty thought that ff..solida might possibly be referred t to Sorvderma. Ia any event i t appeared to be related to i t . $he typical spioule of ff. solida appeared to be a tetraxon. Only a aUngle specimen of Virgula (?) sp. was found. In i t the spioules appeared to be four.rayed. Girty suggested that i t possibly beloaged to the sub-order Tetracladina of the Lithistida. Exoept for the Permian sponges of the Guadalupian fauna most of the Tetraaladines were Mesozoio. Girty stated that i t was "not unlikely that the form might be referred to . Virgula? Under inoertae sedis, possible sponge borings in. orinoid stems were described. The borings were closely set, oiroular tubes of irregular size. Although the tubes were thought to be the work of sponges, Girty mentioned that spongetlborings were usually more irregular and interlacing. Be stated that the "apparently slow progress of the derangement and i t s oolony-like natuse, suggest not the work of single depredators seeking food or shelter, but a gradually expanding parasite 2 / 7 whose growth was compensated by development i n the organism attacked* n The sponges of the Wewoka formation were from the middle shale horizon. The shale was s o f t and f o s s i l i f e r o u s . It was blue i n colour. It was remarkable for the abundant f o s s i l s h e l l s whioh i t contained. Crinoids, Gonularias and the rare Bryozoas and Mngulas seemed to be r e s t r i c t e d to the middle shale. Girty stated that i n the majority of the Pennsylvanian faunas the brachiopods predominate. Some formations contained l i t t l e eMe. In the Wewoka formation, however, most of the important zoological groups were represented with exceptional balance. In the Wewoka brachiopods did not predominate, i n fact they were not so weal represented as the peleoypods and gastropods. The fauna of the ffort Soott limestone was s i m i l a r to that of the Wewoka formation. Goldring, W. and Cook, J. H. Geology of the Berne Quadrangle: Sew York State Mas. Bull. No. 303, pp. 1-238, August, 1935. Pages 103^114-"Hindia sphaeroidalis (Inornata. fibrosa) ;Duncan] was liste d among other fauna from the uppermost.beds of the^Kajl^berg limestone of the "Hew Scotland beds". This limestone was characterized by an abundance of bryozoans. The Kalkberg limestone was characterized by oontaining numerous parallel seams of heavy-bedded chert. The Kalkberg limestone was grey and was more impure and fossiiiferous than the underlying Coeymans limestone. It was less shaly than the Hew Sootland limestone. The thickness varied from 20 to 40 feet• Wheretthe ohert beds were heavy, the. limestone was purer• The upper beds were more impure and graded upward into the shaly limestone of the New Scotland. Hindia sphaeroldalis ?Duncan? was desoribed on page 110 among other fauna from the Book Boad section of the New Soot-land limestone. The New Scotland limes tons, oonsisted of thin-bedded, very impure, shaly limestone and oaloareous shales. Page 208-1 statement by Bued emann (p. 173, 1930) was quoted. Part of i t is given below: "The Coeymans beds are again connected by transition beds «'1 with the overlying New Soot land beds, proving a gradual, change of conditions. The New Scotland sea lacked the westward extendion of the Coeymans and Manlius seas, but i t extended southward i n the Appalachian region and i t found a passage eastward across 2 / * the Taoonio region into a narrow area that extended to the St. Lawrence oountry and beyond the Newfoundland region to the Atlantic. The condition had changed i n the capital d i s t r i c t in that there was a muoh greater influx of mus, so that the Hew Scotland beds are impure shaly limestones and oaloareous shales. On the other hand a much rioner fauna than before flourished i n this sea, a fauna that consists of 184 speoies in the capital d i s t r i c t , comprising sponges, corals, bryozoans (71 speoies), braohlopods (62 species) klamellibranohs, gastropods and t r i l o b i t e s . It is a fauna of the l i t t o r a l region, but^not of the tide f l a t s , the preponderant bryozoans indicating deeper and quieter waters." The transition beds referred to constituted the Kalkberg. It was towards this time that the bryozoans, indicating deeper and quieter waters, beoame so abundant. 2 ZO H a l l , J. Note on the Occurrence of Astylospongia i n the Lower Held-erberg Rooks: Ann. Rept. Hew York State Gab. Hat. Hist., Contributions to Palaeontology, Part 5, pp. 69-70, 1863. Ha l l described a new species of•Astylospongia. The species was designated Astylospongia inornata. A. inornata was from the Lower Helderberg group. It occured c h i e f l y i n shalp, calcareous layers, but was sometimes found i n limestone. It was of common ocomrence at the Helderberg Mountains and at Schoharie. • H a l l mentioned that Astylospongia praemorsa -Roemeri occured i n Europe as well as i n America. In discussing t h i s species he stated: "Notwithstanding the common occurence of several of these species i n Tennessee, together with Garyoorinus and other f o s s i l s of the age of the Niagara group, I have not seen a speoimen of either species i n the rocks, nor i n any c o l l -ection from the Niagara group of New York, or of Iowa, Wis-consin or Northern I l l i n o i s . " A single species of A. praemorsa oocured i n c o l l e c t i o n from the Waldron of Indiana but i t was much smaller than those ffom Tennessee. ZZi Hinde, G. J. On the Genus Hindia.. and the Name of i t s Typical' Speoies: Amn. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIX, F i f t h Series, pp. 67-79, 1887. Hinde defended his renaming of the type species of Hindia from H. sphaeoidalis ;Dunoanr'to H.» f i b r o s a (Hoemer). The sponge that H a l l (1863) had described as Astylospongia inornata from the lower Helderberg rocks of New York was believed to be r e a l l y Hindia f i b r o s a . Hinde admitted that considerable differences of opinion had been raised as to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Hindia. He believed that i t was an anomoeladinan l i t h i s t i d . In general s k e l e t a l construction Hindia was stated to be s i m i l a r to Astylospongia and Cy11ndrophyma. 2 2 2 Hinde, G. J• Motes on Sponges from the Quebec Group at Metis, and from  the Utioa Shale: The Canadian Heoord of Soienoe, Vol. I l l , Ho. 2, pp. 59-68, A p r i l , 1888. Hinde desoribed ihemore d e t a i l the same sponges that Dawson had desoribed i n the preoeeding paper. The sponges were nearly a l l h e x a c t i n e l l i d s . He discussed the sponge remains that gawson had l i s t e d under numbers 4 and 5. Although the biacerate spioules of number four suggested a monactinellid, Hinde did not know of any monaotinellid sponge that contained anchoring spioules as this one seemed to do. He did not believe that she sponge belonged to the genus Laslooladia. Hinde stated that the -ppsaghl? haliohondroid sponge l i s t e d under number 5 had been given the name Halichondrites»by Dawson. 2 Z 3 H i n d e , G . J . O n a H e w G e n u s o f S i l i c e o u s S p o n g e s f r o m t h e T r e n t o n  F o r m a t i o n a t O t t a w a : T h e C a n a d i a n R e c o r d o f S c i e n c e , V o l . I l l , H o . 7, p p . 3 9 5 - 3 9 8 , P l a t e D , " J u l y , 1 8 8 9 . H i n d e d e s c r i b e d a n e w l i t h i s t i d g e n u s S t e l i e l l a j ' H i n d e ' a n d i t s t w o s p e c i e s S . b i l l i n g s ! a n d S. c r a s s a . B o t h w e r e ? f r o m t h e T r e n t o n f o r m a t i o n a t O t t a w a . S t e l i e l l a w a s a s i m p l e , s u b - c y l i n d r i c a l , c o m p r e s s e d , , c l u b - s h a p e d o r o c c a s i o n a l l y f u n n e l - s h a r p e d s p o n g e . " T h e w a l l s o f t h e g e n u s w e r e t h i c k : . T h e o u t e r w a 3 1 h a d o i r c u l a r c a n a l a p e r a t u r e s d i s p o s e d i n l o n g i t u d i n a l r o w s . T h e r e w e r e t w o s e r i e s o f c a n a l s . O n e s e r i e s t r a v e r s e d t h e w a l l s i n a g e n e r a l v e r t i c a l o r o b l i q u e d i r e c t i o n a n d t h e o t h e r s m a l l e r s e r i e s e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e s u r f a c e i n a n a r c h e d d i r e c t i o n t o t h e i n t e r i o r . T h e g e n u s w a s b e l i e v e d t o b e f r e e . H i n d e b e l i e v e d t h e s p i o u l a r s t r u o t u r e w a s n e a r e s t A s t y l o s p o n g i a . i e . t h e . A n o m o o l a d i n a t y p e . T h e g e n e r a l f e a t -u r e s w e r e s t a t e d t o r e s e m b l e C a l a t h i u m . b u t a t t h a t t i m e t h e s p i o u l a r s t r u c t u r e o f C a l a t h i u m w a s u n k n o w n . Z24 Hinde, G. J. On Arohaeooyathus ( B i l l i n g s ) , and on other Genera, a l l i e d to  or associated with i t . from the Cambrian Strata of Horth  America. Spain. Sardinia, and Scotland: Quart. Jour. Geol, Soo. London, Vol. 45, pp. 125-148, 1 plate, 1889. Hinde revised the three type species placed by B i l l i n g s (1865) i n the genus Arohaeooyathus. Eaoh of these three species Hinde made into a new genus, Hinde selected Arohaeooyathus profundus as the t y p i c a l species of the genus Arohaeooyathus. Arohaeooyathus atlanticus was made the type of the new genus Spirocyathus. Arohaeooyathus minganensis was shown to be a sllioeous.sponge and was i n -cluded i n the new genus Archaeosoyphia belonging to the l i t h i s t i d s . Archaeosoyphia Hinde was vase-like or c y l i n d r i c a l i n shpa-e, The outer surface had strongly marked annulations. The skeleton was b u i l t up of olosely arranged septum-like long-i t u d i n a l plates. Hp d e f i n i t e inner w a l l was present. The s k e l -eton was stated to consist of minute s i l i c e o u s spicules of the tetracladine type. The sponge was apparently free. Hinde mentioned that Arohaeosoyphia minganensis was f i r s t desoribed by B i l l i n g s i n 1859 as the coral Petraia and that i n 1861 B i l l i n g s included i t i n ArohaQocyathnfl. At t h i s time (1861) B i l l i n g s stated that Arohaeooyathus minganensis oocured i n the Calciferous formation of the Mingan Islands and i n the Potsdam limestone of Anse du Loup, Labradore. ZZ5 In 1865, however, B i l l i n g s regarded the Potsdam specimens as d i s t i n o t and the s p e c i f i c name Archaeooyathus minganensis was r e s t r i c t e d to specimens from the Mingan Islands. B i l l i n g s desoribed the Mingan specimens as sponges but s t i l l retained them i n the genus Arc ha e o oyat hu 3. Hinde stated stated that there was nothing i n oommon between Arohaeoscyphia mingan-ensis and Arohaeooyathus profundus. Hinde mentioned that i n the Durness Limestones of Sutherlandshire there were specimens comparible to Arohaeo-scyphia. : From these same limestones he desoribed Calathium • t, anstedi B i l l i n g s ; . Hinde proposed the genus H i p t e r e l l a to inolude the speoimen described by B i l l i n g s (p. 358 > 1865) as Calathium (?) paradoxionm. The sponges beLonging to t h i s genus were massive, The shape was sub-bylindriqal with a basal expansion. The summit was truncate with an open shallow, bas i n - l i k e depression. There were traces of canals extending from t h e surface to the i n t e r i o r . The spicules appeared to be the rhij5qmorvina type. The b u i l d was believed to be d i s t i n c t from that of Calathium. Triohospongia . B i l l i n g s was regarded as belonging to the Monactinellida, There was only one species known-rT.Iserioea ;;Billings}.. It was from the Calciferous formation of the Mingan Islands. Hinde stated that i n : the Mingan s t r a t a Ar0haeosoy phia and K i p t e r e l l a were the e a r l i e s t known l i t h i s t i d s , w h i l e Tridhop-spongia was the e a r l i e s t known manactinellid. Z2.C Hinde drew attention to the common association of nodules and patches of chert with s i l i o e o u s sponges. He stated that the same relat i o n s h i p of chert and sponges oooured i n the Cambrian as i n the Upper Carboniferous (Yoredale) beds of Ireland and those of l a t e r date. Z Z 7 Hinde, G. J. On Arohaeooyathus. B i l l i n g s and on other Genera a l l i e d thereto, or assooiated therewith from the Gambrian Strata of Horth America, Spain. Sardinia and Scotland: The. Canadian Hecord of Science, Vol. I H i Ho. 6, pp. 372-374, A p r i l , 1889 (Abstract). .This paper was an abstract of his paper given i n the Journal of: the Geological Societyyof London i n 1889. 2 2 ? Hinde, Q. J . , ' Hotes on a Hew F o s s i l Sponge from the U t i c a Shale Formation (Ordovician) a t Ottawa. Canada- Canadian Reo. S c i . , V o l . 3, pp. 59-68, 1888. , Hinde desoribed a new genus Stephanella-.-.Hinder and i t s s p e c i e s S t e p h a n e l l a sanota fHinde).. The sponge was found i n the U t i o a s h a l e near Ottawa and i n the a d j o i n i n g township of G l o u c e s t e r . The sponge c o n s i s t e d of very f i n e d e l i c a t e , n e e d le-l i k e s p i c u l e s r a d i a t i n g h o r i z o n t a l l y from a c e n t e r . These r a d i a t i n g s p i c u l e s formed very numerous patches, i n places , over the s u r f a c e of the s h a l e . S t e p h a n e l l a was compared w i t h the modern deep-water sponge R a d i e l l a (0. Schmidt)(Triohostemma ( S a r s ) ) . T h i s modern genus had a b a s a l l a y e r of s p i c u l e s which i f d e t -ached and compressed should appear s i m i l a r t o S t e p h a n e l l a . Hinde a c c o r d i n g l y thought t h a t these r a d i a t i n g s p i o u l e s of S t e p h a n e l l a were the detached b a s a l p o r t i o n of a d i s t i n c t sponge. Hinde s t a t e d : "There seems f a i r ground f o r supposing t h a t these patches of r a d i a t i n g s p i c u l e s l i k e w i s e served as b a s a l supports t o s u s t a i n the sponges, which l i v e d i n dense c o l -o n i e s , on the s u r f a c e of the ooze. Whether these sponges are h e x a c t i n e l l i d o r m o n a c t i n e l l i d must f o r the present remain an open q u e s t i o n . " - ZZ 9 i H o w e l l , B . F . N e w M i o r o s p o n g i a f r o m t h e D e v o n i a n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a : B u l l . W a g . F r e e I n s t . S c i e n c e , V o l . 2 1 , N o , 1 , p p . 1 - 2 , 1 p l a t e , F e b . , 1 9 3 6 . ;n A n e w v a r i e t y o f M i o r o s p o n g i a s p h a e r o i d a l i s w / a s d e s c r i b e d . I t s n a m e w a s M . s p h a e r o i d a l i s g r a n d i s . I t w a s g i v e n a v a r i e t a l n a m e b e c a u s e o f i t s l a r g e s i z e . T h e s p o n g e w a s f l r o m t h e L o w e r D e v o n i a n N e w S o o t l a n d f o r m a t i o n o n t h e t o p o f B e l l ' s H i l l a t D n c t d i s b u r g , P e r r y C o u n t y , P e n n s y l v a n i a , A n o t h e r s p e c i m e n w a s b e l i e v e d t o o o m e f r o m t h e N e w S o o t l a n d f o r m a t i o n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a . H o w e l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e s p o n g e M i o r o s p o n g i a s p h a e r -o i d a l i s j D u n o a n j i w a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e E a r l y D e v o n i a n N e w S o S t l a n d b e d s o f N e w Y o r k , N e w J e r s e y , P e n n s y l v a n i a , M a r y l a n d a n d o t h e r e a s t e r n s t a t e s . Z 3D x Howell, B. F, Two lew Sponges from the S i l u r i a n of Tennessee: B u l l . Wag. Free Inst. Science, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 51-34, 1 plate, Mov.,1937. Howell described two new spongesspeeies. They were Balaeomanon incisum and Garpomanon verrucosum. B. incisum did not show any signs of attachement at the ba base. It resembled Astylomahon cr&tera prototypum ^Rauff, 1894 which Bassler (1915) oalled Balaeomanon craters, jg. incisum was d i f f e r e n t from these (forms i n t t s s i z e and surface. Sinoe Balaeomanon cratera was also a Brownsport genus, Howell oonoededlit'hattBnaiihcisum might possibly be a -variety of i t . -0. Verrucosum was referred to the genus Garpomanon with some he s i t a t i o n . The i n t e r n a l struoture was compared tOiv;,Garpospongia ant to Garpomanon stellatim-suloatum. Of the l a t t e r Howell stated "our specimens...probably belong'in the same genus with that species"* In a general discussion of the Brwwnsport spongesj Howell mentioned that sponges exhibited v a r i a b i l i t y i n form, while the spicules remained constant i n shape. This was supposed to be e s p e c i a l l y true of the Middle S i l u r i a n rocks of the Brownsport formation of Perry county where a number of related species and v a r i e t i e s of Astylospongids l i v e d together. 2 3 / Howell, B. F. A New S i l u r i a n Sponge from Tennessee: Bull.; Wag. Free. Inst. Soienoe, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp.45-f$ , 1 plate , Nov. 1940. In a general discussion of Hindia. Howell mentioned that spherieal or subespherical f o s s i l sponges whioh were usually calle d Hindia f i b r o s a or H. sphaeroidalis were common i n a number of S i l u r i a n and Lower. Devonian'formations. Four other species were also referred to the genus Hindia. These were H. gregarja.. H. inequalis. H. parva and H. subrotunda. These four were also found (less abundantly) i n the lower Palaeozoio of N o r t h Americaland must have been common on the sea f l o o r . These f i v e species, according to Howell, were a l l . that was known up to thi s time i n North America. Howell described a new species o f "Hindia" with an i n t e r n a l structure s i m i l a r to Hindia but with a c y l i n d r i c a l rather than a spherioal shape/. The shape of thi s new species was l i k e a o y l ^ inder, tapering towards one end, presumably the lower end. The two specimens of this new species were co l l e c t e d from the Middle S i l u r i a n rooks near C l i f t o n , Wayne Coianty, Tennessee. Before naming the new species, Howell entered into the question of the p r i o r i t y of Miorospongia over Hindia. He stated that i n 1878 M i l l e r and Dyer had proposed the name Miorospongia f o r a sponge containing the single species M. gregaria. Mi gregaria was from the Upper Ordoviaian rocks near Ci n c i n n a t i , Ohio. In 1879 the name Hind i a was proposed by Dunoan fo r a sponge genus containing' ghe species H. sphaeroidalis. 2 3£ Howell stated: "At that time i t was not known that these two species were so s i m i l a r as to be probably referable to a single genus, and t h i s fact was apparently not pointed out i n p r i n t u u n t i l 1915, when Dr. R. S. Bassler c a l l e d attention to i t . Dr, Bassler, then, while s t a t i n g that the name Microspongia had been proposed before the name .Hindia and the two names both applied to a single genus, accepted Hindia and rejected Miorospongia. He was probably influenced to make t h i s choise beoause Hindia had for years been i n oommon use f o r the speoies sphaeroidalis, which, because of i t s abundance and wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , ba_d frequently been referred to in the l i t e r a t u r e , " Howell stated that although the poor i l l u s t r a t i o n s and b r i e f characterization of Miorospongia did not show i t , the type specimens of Miorospongia and gindia were congener i n ••' Bassler'§ decision to use Hindia over Miorospongia was claimed to be oontrary to the international'Rules of-Zool-ogical Nomenclature. In a personal communication withaBasaler, Howell stated that Basslerjhad reoognized Howell's olaim to the p r i o r i t y of Miorospongia over Hindia. Howell thereupon placed the genus Miorospongia i n his new family Miorospongidae. Howell's new species M. d y l i n d r i c a was from the Brownsport group, probably the Beech River form-ation. Howell mentioned that Rauff i n 1894 had proposed the family Hindiadae to inolude Hindia. rfhis family and genus he ^ 3 3 believed should no longer be used and the family Micro-spongia and genus M&oroapongia be used instead. The gene type would be Miorospongia gregaria ^ M i l l e r and D y c e r r . Howell knew of no other genus referable to the family. Z 3<9 Howell, Benjamin F. A Hew Sponge from the Ordovioian of levada: B u l l . Wagner Free Inst, of Sdienoe, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 1-3, Feb., 1941. Believed to be the f i r s t report of the genus Z i t t e l e l l a from the Ordfcvician s t r a t a of western North America. One new species was d e s o r i b e d - Z i t t e l e l l a clafae Howelli from the Upper Canadian or Chazyan Tank H i l l limestone of Nevada. The sponges appeared to have been buried i n an upright l i v i n g p o s i t i on. Z. ciarae appeared to have a deep body cavity. Sinoe t h i s was not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the genus,. Howell thought i t might be j u s t i f i a b l e to place the sponge i n a new genus upon further proof that the cavity was natural and not caused by the method . of preservation. The species was stated to resemble i n some respects Calathium t B i l l i n g s * . Z 3 5 Howell, B. F. Hew S i l u r i a n Astylospongid from Tennessee: B u l l . Wag. Free Inst. Science., Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 37r-38, 1 opiate -t Nov. 1942. Howell described a new species of Balaeomanon. i*he species was named^B. elongatum. P. elongatum was more.elongate than the related species P. orater.iHoemer/h Howell mentioned that no attachement could be seen i n P. elongatum. althoggh he believed that they had probably been attached i n l i f e . P., elongatum was from the upper Niagaran Middle S i l u r i a n Brownsport formation, about •£§ miles south of Perryv411e, Beoatur County, Tennessee. -2" 3 C Howell, B. F, and Landes, R. W. Hew Monaotinelllel Sponges from the Oirdovician of Wlsaonsim: Jour. Pal., Vol. 10, Ho. 1, pp. 53-59, Jan,, 1936. Desoribed two monaotinellid sponge genera from the Ordovioian of Wisconsin. One of the, genera Petrosites •iHowell and Landes^fwas new, while the other Halichondrites •-* Dawson; had previously been described by both Dawson and Waloott from Quebec and B r i t i s h Columbia r e s p e c t i v e l l y . Howell and Landes allotted the various speoies to the genera on the basis of the shape of the monaotinellid spicules. She genera and species described were as follows: Class S i l i c i s p o n g i a Order Monactinellida Sub order Halichondrites Haliohondrites (Dawsony-md H i n d e . H. (?) aetiniformis i Howell and Landes) I H. (?) robnstus 'Howell and Landes-' 1  Petrosites VHowell and Landes >, P. humilis {Howell and Landes f i" P. v a r i a b i l i s ^Howell and Landesj Inoertae sedis The speoimens- described were stated to be the f i r s t known monaotinellid sponges from the Orddvician of North America, The only previous description of Ordovioian monaotinellid sponges was from Bsthonia (H. Bekker, 1921) 2 37 and from Horth Wales i r o n ores (W. Pulfrey, 1933). Howell and Landes stated that no S i l u r i a n monactinellids were known and that only two genera from the Devonian and eight from the Carboniferous were known. The spicules were found i n the Oneota dolomite on the U. S. highway 12, 3 or 4 miles south of Springfiiald corners, Wisconsin. The Gneota formation here was medium to t h i c k -bedded dolomite with a few lenses and beds of chert. Spio-ules were obtained from a non-qherty bed. Apparently the dolomite was somewhat sandy• JJIO miorosleres were seen. The stratigraphic p o s i t i o n of the Oneota was uncertain. It was, however, known to be part of the "Lower Magnesian" or " P r a i r i e du Chien" group of possible upper Ozarkian (Ulrich) or lower Beekmantowns(More) age. Z ,3 ? t James, J. F. Manuel of the Paleontology of the Cincinnati Group: Jour. Cincinnati Soo. Kat. Hist., -Vol. XIV, Part I, pp. 45-72, 1892. The objeot of the Manuel was to present a series of papers dealing with the fossils known to exist in the "Lower Silurian" rooks of Ohio_and v i c i n i t y . This was the f i r s t paper. It dealt with "Plantae" and "Protozoa". JaffieV%eliev©d that Seely's (1885) "sponge" genus Strep-hoohetus was really a synonym for Glrvanellia. On page 52 James discussed the "Order Spongida" 5as -follows: ?JCey to Genera" a. Free; conioal, globular or cylindrical surface without plates. 1. Astylospongia—Bound, unattached, with minute external pores; spicules star-shaped. 2. Lentopoterion—Obconioal; surface annulated or ret-iculated. 3» Miorospongia—Compact; radiate in struoture and without large openings. 4« Hindia^-Sphaeroidal: a central space with spioulae; canals opening at the surface. 5. Cyllndroooelia—Cylindrloal: pointed or truncate, hollow. 6 . RhOmodictybn—Globular or discoid; rods crossing eaoh other nearly at right angles, thus forming rhombic spaces. Z 3 9 surfaoe with plates 7. PasoePlus--Plates polygonal and without special arrang-ement. -1^' 8. Reoeptaoulites--Plates arranged i n intersecting lines; imbricated or cyllndrical. b.Body cavity hollow, sponge cup-shaped or funnel form. 9. Cyathonhvous—Hollow. cylindrical, with a retidulated structure. 10. &hirospongia-f-Hollow. general form hand-like; structure vesicular. 11. Brachiosnongia—Body circular, oup-shaped, with spreading arms. c .Amorphous. 12. Pattersonla—Irregular in form, generally compressed, and appearing as i f a number were united. 13. Dystactospongia—Canals on exterior radiating from a com-mon center. d. Branohing. 14. Heterospongia—Outer surfaoe whowing oscula and mouths of oanals." James stated that two speoies of ^Astylospongia" had been described from the Cincinnati group. These were A. tumidus (James) and A. subrotundus (jJamesr}. Heither of these, he believed, belonged to the genus. The f i r s t was thought to be a speoies of Paaoeolus and the second to be possible congeneric with^Hindia or Microspongia. In & disoussion of Miorospongia. James thought that Miller and Dyers 1 definition of the genus was very unsat'iii"-2.40 factory. He believed i t possible that Hindia parva U l r i c h was a synonum fo r Miorospongia gregaria James. In a discussion of Miorospongia (?) subrotundus James i t was stated that U.P. James (The Paleontologist, Sept.14) 1878, p. 11) had o r i g i n a l l y referred this species to Chaetetes  subrotundus. Subsequently (The Paleontologist, June 10,1881 p. 34) the same author placed i t i n Astylospongia. J.P.James, however, referred i t to Miorospongia with doubt. The l o c a l i t i e s of M. (?) subrotundus were Ogden state, Clinton County, Ohio at L i t t l e Maquoketa River, Iowa. In a discussion of Hindia, James stated that the only Cincinnatian species knownwas Hindia parva U l r i c h . This was believed to be a synonum fo r Miorospongia gregaria. In a discussion of Cylindrocoelia U l r i c h , i t was stated that Cylindrocoelia covingtonensis U l r i c h was the only Cincinnatian species. Since the three other species were distinguished mainly on size, James believed them to be probably fragments of. the same species. In a discussion of Dystactospongia M i l l e r , James stated that U l r i c h 1 s description of D. minima was meagre ..and vague. Both D. insolens M i l l e r and D. minima U l r i c h were from the Cincinnatian rocks. In a discussion of Heterospongia, James questioned Ulrich's statement (Amer.Geol. A p r i l , 1889, p. 240) regarding Heterospongia. U l r i c h said: "This genus i s related to Dystactospongia S.A. M i l l e r , d i f f e r i n g from species of that genus c h i e f l y i n the erect and subramose habit of growth. The four or f i v e species of M i l l e r ' s 24 r known to me are a l l p a r a s i t i c or form amorphous masses." James pointed out that at the time u l r i c h made t h i s statement, only two species of Heterospongia had been desoribed. James believed that H. k n o t t i was a synonym for H. sub-ramosa. Besides disoussing the h e x a c t i n e l l i d s , James also went rather f u l l y into the systematic p o s i t i o n , a f f i n i t i e s and possible synonyms of Receptaoulites. Basoeolus. Anomaloides and Isohadites. Z 4 Z Zing, P. B. Geology of the Marathon Region Basin: U, S. G. S. Prof. Paper No. 187, pp. 1-148, 1937. Pages 26-27-Obsoure reef^like structures ocoured in the Monument Spring Sodomite of the Marathon formation.. These reef-like structures consisted of heads of Crypt02oon and "various oup-like sponges suoh as Calathium ". They were imbedded i n the limestone. On page 27, i n f i g . 11a, a drawing of a sponge bed near Alsate Creek was given. The beds above and below the Monument Spring:,Dolomite member were identioal and consisted ohiefly of flaggy lime-stone and muoh interbedded shale. Page-gQ-The fauna of the Monument Spring dolomite member was of a distinct facies. It contained plentiful masses of Cryptosoon. "at*least three species of sponges, iholuding Calathigm of. C. formoaum." undetermined orthoid braohlopods and various%Batr©pods. A single cystftid calyx was found. Stems of cystolds were more numerous. .The most characteristic fossils were Pilooeras and anciendooeratoid Oolypooeras. The fauna was supposedly identical with the lower half of the El Paso limestone. Page 34-flumerous hollow spioules "probably of sponges" were found in oherts of the Fort Pena formation in the Marathon anticlinorium. Most of the spioules were composed of oaloite. A Middle Ordovician age was suggested f o r the Port Pena form-ation. Z43 Pages 44-45-The faunal facies of the Marathon Ordovioian were desoribed. Argillaceous graptolite layers oocured from the base to the top of the Ordovioian section. Associated with the graptAlite layers, were a lesser number that contained oorals, sponges, bryozoans, orthoid brachiopods, oephalopods, and gastropods. Some of the members,suoh as the Monument Springs dolomite were thick and persistant and sharply set off above and below from the graptolite beds. The alternation between these two facies suggested considerable fluctuation in the character of the sea bottom and circulation of the water. This alternation was probably brought about by ohanges in the character of the sediments brought from nearby lands and by ohanges of ourrents rather than by an .oscillation in the depth of the sea". . a«;The Sipbradlo but wide' distributi^o^^of sponges in a l l parts of the Marathon f;orma.tibj^s|^ga8teu\J^mdrtheFaBtwaxd approach to a clear water environement. The character of the Ordovioian strata suggested that they were nearly a l l l a i d down in relatively shallow water above the level of the wave base with some parts exposed to intermittent sub-aerial exposure. Page 46-In the discussion of the chert beds of the Ordovioian, i t was mentioned that organisms with siliceous skeletons "suoh as sponges" must have found encouragement in this environement. King did not believe that they played an important role in ohert formation. Page 61-Possible monaotinellid spicules occured i n oalo-2 + 1 areous'sandstone of the Tesnus formation on the north slope of West Bourland Mountain below the plant horizon. The spic-ules were black, and shiny. It was suggested by G. H. Girty that they were phosphatio rather than silioeous. Pages 87-88-The Tesnus formation was. deposited i n shallow water. It w*s uncertain whether the enviTenement of deposition was marine or not;* It was suggested that the land plant fragments may have been laid down i n a shallow sea. It was also ^eonsi der ed possible that the formation was laid down in fresh water. Page JGO-Posslls of the massive limestone of the Permian Leonardian reefs were adapted to a reef environement. They inoluded massive sponges. In some of the layers large sized speoies of Heteroooelia were found. The interbedded; thin limestones and siliceous shales to the west of the massive limestones contained a different assemblage of f o s s i l s . Radiolaria and sponge spioules were found i n the silioeous shales. K i n g , P. B. Permian of.West Texas and Southeastern lew Mexico: B i l l . Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., V o l . 26, Ho. 4, pp. 535r765, A p r i l , 1942. Page 605-The fauna making up the Gapitan Reef i n Texas i s composed of two more or l e s s d i s t i n c t f a c i e s . One, which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sponges and algae, occupies the g r e a t e r p a r t of the mass of the formation and i s c o n s i d e r e d the true r e e f - b u i l d i n g assemblage. Sponges are not only abundant but belong to many types which i n c l u d e Anthracosycon, v i r g u l a , Guadalupia. Cystothalamia and A m b l y s i p h o n e l l a . tVith the sponges and a l g a e were numerous c r i n o i d columns and a few bryozoans and c o r a l s . The Remainder of the fauna,,, which i s found mostly i n t h i n n e r l e n s e s , i n c l u d e d o c c a s i o n a l f u s u l i n i d s , and a few ammonoids. The most abundantj however, are the braohlopods, peleoypods and gastropods. Z 6 King, B. E. The Permian of Southwestern C o a h u i l a . Mexioo; Amer. Jour. S c i e n c e , F i f t h S e r i e s , V o l . XXVII, pp. 98-112, 1934 K i n g d e s c r i b e d r e e f limestones i n which sponges played an important p a r t i n b u i l d i n g , The r e e f s occurred i n the Permian s e c t i o n i n the southwestern p a r t of CoahUila near the Hacienda Bas B e l i c i a s . , Mexico, about 200 m i l e s south o f the Glass Mountains s e c t i o n i n Texas. The limestones were b e l i e v e d to be Guadalupian i n age. The "sponge l i m e s t o n e s " occurred interbedded w i t h l a v a s and greywacke. In p l a c e s these r e e f s , graded l a t e r a l l y into nodular limestone which was cemented by igneous d e t r i t a l . The. nodules were b e l i e v e d to have been caused by the breakup of the r e e f s by l a v a s . The nodular limestone g e n e r a l l y thinned and r e s o l v e d i t s e l f i n t o s e v e r a l t h i n l a y e r s o f sandy limestone composed almost e n t i r e l y o f broken s h e l l fragments. '|he sponges, along w i t h algae, were b e l i e v e d to have b u i l d the r e e f s , which rose above the g e n e r a l l e v e l of the sea f l o o r . Zing, H. E., Dunbar, C. 0., Cloud, P. E., and M i l l e r , A. X. Geology and Paleontology of the Permian Area, Northwest of. Las D e l i c i a s . Southwestern Coahuila, Mexioo: Geol. Soo. Amer. Sp. Pp. No. 52, February 26, 1944. The "sponge limestones" described by H. E. King (1934) were described i n more d e t a i l than previously. . King, H. H. A Pennsylvanian Sponge Fauna from Wise County, Texas: Univ. Texas B u l l . Ho. 3201, Contributions to Geology, pp. 75-85, January, 1932. .(/'•"'. King described a Pennsylvanian sj»onge fauna including : a new genus Girtyooelia and i t s two species G. typica^YKlngi and G. benjamini (Girtyy. Girtyooelia benjamini was formerly Steinmannia benjamini ( G i r t y ) . In addition tbree new species belonging respectively to the genera Heteroooelia. Maeandrostia. and Heliospongia were described. The fauna was colleoted from MoCoy's Creek, 4 miles north-west of Bridgeport, Wise County, Texas. The s t r a t a from which the fauna was collected included a yellow, sandy limestone about 1 foot thick l y i n g between beds of yellow clays. The entire Section was about 20 feet thick. The exposure.lay i n the Brownwood shale from 35 to 55 feet below the Book H i l l limestone of.the Graford formation of the Canyon group of-l o r t h - c e n t r a l Texas. King l i s t e d 11 l o c a l i t i e s where Pennsylvanian sponges were known to have been c o l l e c t e d . These were: (1) Midway up slope on the l e f t bank of the west fork of McCoy's Creek about one-half mile above the junction of the forks, and about 4 miles northwest of Bridgeport, Wise. County, Texas. Graford formation. This the type l o c a l i t y f o r Heteroooelia snhaerioa. Girtyooelia t.ypica. Maeandrostia  tortacloaoa and Heliosnongia excavata. (2) Boss's l o c a l i t y on the west side of Martin's Lake, a mile south of Bridgeport and just south of the bend i n the road where the road turns south a f t e r running east, Wise Gounty, Texas. (3) Parr Ranoh, south of Ghico, Wise County, Texas. Graf-ord formation. (4) Near Martin's Ranch, Wise County, Texas. Graford formation. (5) At Gap Tank i n the Glass Mountains, Peoos County, Texas. (6) Below Wouldridge Tank, Hueco Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas. (7) About 2 miles southeast of Gap Tank, ;Pecos County, Texas. (8) Near milepost 132, on the-Santa i~e Railroad, 6 miles southwest of Chanute, Kansas. Cut i n the Piattsburg lime-stone. The Piattsburg was formerly Girty's (1908) A l l e n limestone. This was the type l o c a l i t y f o r Heteroooelia  beedei ( G i r t y ) , Girt.vooelia ben.lamini ( G i r t y ) . Maeandrostia  kansasensis M r i r t y j . Coelooladia suinosa (f-Girtyr, Helio-snongia ramosa ^Girtygf. and Heliospongia p a r a l l e l a i G i r t y ^ . (9) Small k n o l l , .5 miles south and .9 miles west of the west end of Main Street, Chanute, Kansas. (10) High on a bank on the west side of a road 3.2 miles north of Altoona Station, Kansas. Lane shale just below the Plattsburg limestone. zso (11) One-half mile north of the road, i n an escarpment one-half mile west of J o p l i n , Jack CountyTexas at a point where Devils Denxlimeatone pinches out of the Graford form-ation. The f o l l o w i n g table was given showing the occujrEeneetbf. the sponges at these 11 l o c a l i t i e s . Sponge fauna L o c a l i t y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Heteroooelia freedei (Girty) x x x x x x H. sphaerica (King) x y x x x Girtyooelia "benjamini (Girty) x x x G. typioa HSingV x x \j> • • _ ^ Maeandrostia kansasensis n S i r t v x x x x x x x x M. tortaoloaoa (King;K x ,x x x Coelooladia spinosa (rtv-ky x x x x Heliospongia ramosa j G i r t y r x x x x xx H. p a r a l l e l a SGirty>) x H. exoavata King;. - x The following l i s t gives the sponge fauna described from the Graford formation at McCoy's Creek. Heteroooelia $Girty) H.. beedei -Girty? H. sphaerica -{Xing} Girtyooelia j^King) G. typioa jfKing^V G. benjamini (Girty") z-s-/ Maeandrostia <f Girty f M. kansasensis (Girty7 M. tortacloaca .(Kingj Coelooladia ( G i r t y f 0, spinosa '.Girty/ Heliospongia i G i r t y '< H. ramosa ^Girty H. exo a vat a :f-King) Many of the above species were also oollected at other l o c a l i t i e s :aa shown i n the above table. King l i s t e d the associated fauna from MoCoy's Creek. It inoluded ohiefly^mQllnqcsi, eohinoid spines and plates",anl Srlnoid stems, spines and plates. The specimens of Heterocoelia beedei J'Girty) oollected agr McCoy's Creek consisted mostly of broken stems. Thiswwas taken as an i n d i c a t i o n that the spheres did not oveflap but were rather widely separated. Specimens from Gap Tank i n the Glass Mountains oontained specimens of an indeterminate species P. B. King,however, had reported specimens of Heterocoelia  beedei from the same l o c a l i t y . The specimens of Heterocoelia sphaerioa were s l i g h t l y larger than H. beedei. The difference between the two species was i n the size of c l o a c a l pores. In disoussing Girtyooelia, King mentioned that Girty (1908, pp. 286-287) when describing Steinmannia ben.jamini had pointed out several differences between the specimens he was describing and the genus to whioh he was assigning i t . At that time Girty did not deem i t advisable to e s t a b l i s h a new genus. Specimens:?from McCoy Creek showed the same d i f f -erences from the t y p i c a l Steinmannia that Girty had noted. Some of these differences were the absent central oseula, i n t e r n a l vesicuJe s l e s s prominent, perforations a l l of one s i z e , ahd the t h i n imperforate outer wall separated from the perforatedinner wall by a narrow space f i l l e d with matrix. Zing believed that these differences were of generic value and accordingly erected a new genus G i r t y c o e l i a to include these McCoy Creek specimens. Girty's species Steinmannia  ben.iamini was also placed under this genus. G i r t v c o e l l a 'consisted of loyferlspping spheres arranged i n oontorted, occasionally branching stems. Most of the spheres were elongate. The party wall was single and the outside of ene sphere formed the f l o o r of the next chamber. There were numerous small pores i n each segment and a few large o s t i a i n most segments. The chambers contained some vesi s u l a r material. King mentioned that i n Maeandrostia tortaoloaoa the oomplete absenoe of o s t i a and consequent smooth surface might cause some doubt as to i t s generic i d e n t i t y . He believed, however, that the differences were too f i n e and that i t bhould be retained i n the genus. Many of the McCoy Creek specimens of Heliospongia ramosa were nearly twioe as large as those from the Piattsburg limestone. King thoughtiit possible that H. n a r a l l e l a 'Girty * might also be present at McCoy Creek. Z 5 3 It was stated that Hellospongia exoavata might .helpnly ;aevarieityet)f H. ramosa •rJ&irty] as the difference was made on surface pores. z Z i n g , £• H. Pennsylvanian Sponges of N o r t h - C e n t r a l Texas: Jour. P a l . , V o l . 12, No. 5, pp. 498-5G4, f i g s . 1-14, 1938. Z i n g desoribed a new oaloisponge genus ffissispongia. I t i n c l u d e d two new spoolers P . jaoksboroensis and j 1 . s p i n o s a and a s p e c i e s p r e v i o u s l y d e s o r i b e d as Maeandrostia t o r t a o l o a o a Z i n g s . . In a d d i t i o n speoimens o f A m b l y s i p h o n e l l a p r o s s e r i .¥'1 t^Clarke-. were d e s o r i b e d and new i n f omtation on the s t r u c t u r e of Wewokella so l i d a i,Girty Vwas gi v e n . Z i n g mentioned that he had p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d sponges w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t they oould be u s e f u l i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n ^ He s t a t e d t h a t he had " g r e a t l y m o d i f i e d but not e n t i r e l y abandoned t h i s belieaf". Sponges were found to be not only more numerous than p r e v i o u s l y supposed but a l s o more w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d , both g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y They w/ere found i n every member of the Strawn and Canyon group except the Garner and a l s o i n the Graham for m a t i o n of the Cisoo group. Z i n g noted the s i m i l a r i t y between the two named G i r t y o o o e l l a Gdss-ttych as proposed, by Gossmann (1909) to r e p l a c e the preoccupied H e t e r o o o e l i a \< G i r t y ; as named by G i r t y i n 1908 and Zing's genus G i r t y o o e l i a 'Zing; which he e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1933 to i n c l u d e Steinmannia b e n j a m i n i "Girty'' and G i r t y o c o e l i a t y p i o a J Z i n g : . K i n g c o r r e c t e d one o f h i s l o c a l i t i e s mentioned i n h i s 1933 paper on P e n n s y l s a n i a n sponges. The l o c a l i t y was Z 5 b g i v e n o n p a g e 76 o f t h a t p a p e f c a s " l o c a l i t y 3 " . T h e o o r r e c t l o c a t i o n w a s t h e P a r r r a n c h , w e s t b y n o r t h o f G h i c o a n d t h e s p e c i m e n s w e r e c o l l e c t e d a b o v e t h e H a n g e r l i m e s t o n e i n t h e C a d d o C r e e k f o r m a t i o n . T h e s p o n g e s d i s c a s s e d w i t h t h i e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o r m a t i o n g a r e g i v e n b e l o w : ffissispongia i K i n g - f 1*. . i a c k s b o r o e n s i s ^ K i n g - V B r a d * C a d d o G r e e k a n d G r a h a m f o r m a t i o n s ; ff. s n i n o s a " f l C i n g } M i l l s a p L a k e f o r m a t i o n g . t t o r t a o l o a o a ( K i n g ) G r a f o r d f o r m a t i o n . A m b l y s i p h o n e l l a S i i ? « o r D f » i S r > A . p r o s s e r i i C l a r k e / G u n s i g h t l i m e s t o n e m e m b e r o f t h e G r a h a m f o r m a t i o n . ffissispongia w a s a l o n g c y l i n d r i c a l , b e n t o r b r a n c h i n g f o r m , w i t h a t h i n w a l l e d c e n t r a l c l o a c a w h i c h d i v i d e d l o n g b e f o r e t h e b r a n c h e s b e c a m e v i s i b l e e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s . T h e r e s u l t w a s t h a t t w o o r m o r e p a r a l l e l c l o a c a w e r e f o r m e d ^ I n t h e g e n u s M a e a n d r o s t i a t h e d e r m a l l a y e r w a s p e r i b r a t e d b y - , s c a t t e r e d o s t i a b u t n o t b e p o r e s , w h i l e i n ffissispongia i t w a s m i n u t e l y p i t t e d b y w h a t w a s b e l i e v e d t o b e p o r e s . T h e s p e c i e s w h i o h K i n g d o u b t f u l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s M a e a n d r o s t i a t o r t a c l o a c a ( K i n g ) o n p a g e s 8 2 - 8 3 o f h i s 1 9 8 3 p a p e r w a s n o w ; r e f e r r e d t o a s ffissispongia t o r t a o l o a o a ( K i n g ) . T h e s y n e t y p e s o f ff. . 1 a o k - s b o r o e n s i s w e r e f r o m t h e J a o k s b o r a l i m e s t o n e i n t h e R o c k I s l a n d R a i l r o a d c u t 3 , 7 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f J a s k s b o r a , T h e s y n e t y p e s o f ff. s P i n O s a w e r e f r o m t h e s h a l e b e l o w t h e K i o k a p o o ffalls l i m e -s t o n e m e m b e r o f t h e M i l l s a p L a k e f o r m a t i o n i n a o r e e k b a n k . 0.65 miles south and east of Kickapoo F a l l s , Hood County, Texas. The hypotypes of Amblysiphonella p r o s s e r i were from the Gunsight limestone member of the Graham formation i n a b l u f f 2 miles east of F i f e * MoCullooh County, Texas. King questionably referred Wewokella i Girty; to the sub-order Qotaotinellidia f-Hinde) of the Si l i o i s p o n g i a e . K|ng stated that there were several specimens from the upper Mineral Wells formation of north-oehtral Texas that were apparently conspecific with the genotype 1. s o l i d a (GJirty/ from the Wewoka formation of Oklahoma. The stra t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of the Texas specimens was apparently higher than the Oklahoma speoimens. This was indicated by the absence of the braohiopod Mesolobus which was abundant i n the Wewoka and middle Mineral Wells formation, A oloaea eould not be seen i n the specimens of Wewokella examined. The cLoaca apparently f i l l e d as the specimen grew. The lo n g i t u d i n a l r.idges, King believed, were tubes of baecanal system rather than spicules. In section they formed a system arranged a x i a l l y and r a d i a l l y . The tubes were fibrous. 'Jhis genus was referred to the S i l i o i s p o n g i a because of the complex form of the spicule. Its massive form and canal system, King believed, suggested a l i t h i s t i d . The spicules, however, did not carry t h i s suggestion .out. The fibrous walls of the tubes suggested the Caloispongiae of B l a i n v i l l e but the dermal and f l e s h spicules wece more complex. Because spiculfles were the basis of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , It was thought best to leave fewokella i n the Ootaotinellidae. Z $7 The genus Qotyliscus was erected to include a very prim-i t i v e species of calcisponge. Small s i z e , sub-conical shape, large upwardly expanding central oavity and thin walls, trans versely penetrated toy vermiform canals were the chief char-a c t e r i s t i c s . A s i m i l a r i t y i n canal structure was noted between Maeandrostia. ffissispongia and Qotyliscus was noted. It was suggested that they might belong to the same family. •Z S8> Zing, R. H. New Carboniferous and Permian Sponges: Zansas Univ. Geol. Surv. B u l l . No. 47, Report of Studies, Part I, pp.1 1-36, plates 1-3, text f i g s . l-£, 1943. Zing described four new genera of tetracladine l i t h i s t i d sponges and four genera of calcisponges. The l i t h i s t i d s were Laubenfelsia. PseudopemmatitesS Befordia and St.vlopegma. The calcisponges were Polvphymaspongia. Talpaspongia. Cvstauletes and Cotyliscus. The above genera contained the following speoies: Laubenf e l s i a regui'afes. Pseudopemmatites  skinneri. Lefordia defunota.kStylopegma duloe.aS. conica  Polyphymaspongia explanata. Talpasp ongi a clavat a. Cystauletes  mammilosus and gotylisous ewersi. In addition the following new species belonging to ;gr.eviously established genera were described^ Heliospongia vokesi. Guadalupia w i l l i a m s i , Wewokella oontorta; and Girtyocoella dunbari. The new family Wewokellidae was established and G i r t y 1 s description of the famiily Cystothalamiidae was ammended. Zing believed that Heliospongia :^Girty) was a tetracladine l i t h i s t i d rather than the hexactinellld-.that Girty (1908) had believed i t was. In addition Zing ammended Girty's des-c r i p t i o n of the genus Anthraoosycon. King mentioned that sponges of the lower Permian beds were more abundant and mare varied and better preserved than those of the Capitan limestone. Sponges of the Wolfcampian and Leonardian series were believed l i k e l y to be found i n other areas such as Kansas and Oklahoma, 2ss> The Permian sponges described were about equally-divided between caloisponges and tetraeladine l i t h i s t i d s . It was considered unusual i n that the l i t h i s t i d s were r e l -i t i v e l y abundant. The only known Permaan l i t h i s t i d s known at the time were from'Timor and possibly S i o i l y . King believed that most f o s s i l sponges can be referred to the classes Demospongia, Calcispongia and Hyalospongia. He used th i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n because i t had "speoial s i g -nifigance i n the study of palaoecology", In the sponges plaoed under the sub-order Tetracladinea, King followedvGirty 1s (1908, pp. 71-72) example of r e f r a i n i n g from c l a s s i f y i n g sponges into families "because of doubt as to what should constitute a family." The following new sponges were described. These are given below with t h e i r formation and l o c a l i t y : Class Demospongia iSol l a s -Order L i t h i s t i d a i3chmidt- ; Subsorder Tetracladina ' Z i t t e l : Hellospongia ,; Girty/ .H. vokesi !King|, Upper part of Wolfcampian f series and the Hess faoies of the Leonardian s e r i e s , Permian. Laubenfelftia >King' • v Li regularis . Kimg'i Leonardian s e r i e s , Permian. Pseudopemmatites vKingj P. ah;inneri \King 1 Leonardian s e r i e s , Permian. 2 to DefPraia iKing D. defunota King Stylonegma .King S. duieei?:X&ng S. oonioa >King Class Caloispongia Schmidt' Family Guadalupiidae Girty Guadalupia Girty G. williamsi \ King -Bolyphymaspongia -\ King P. explanata Family Wewokellidae King Wewokellmt. .Girty] Leonardian series, Permian. Glass Mountains, Texas. Possible specimen from the word(?) formation, Chinati Mountains, Texas. Leonardian series, Permian, Glass Mountains, Texas and Pesmman rocks of the Las Delioias area, Mexico, f/olfcampian series, Permian, Glass Mountains, Texas. Upper part of Leonardian series, Permian., Glass Mountains, Texas. Leonardian series, Permian, Glass Mountains, Texas. From shale in the "Jackboro" limestone, Caddo Creek group, Missouri an (Canyon) series, Pennsylvanian. 2 £ / Talpaspongia -,Kingv T. olavata Zing Paint Book and Talpa formations, Permian, Central Texas. Possible speoimen from the fiueoo formation, ."...->-Texas. family Cystothalamiidae Girty, emmend. King-Cyst auletes ;King4 G. mammllosus •King Upper member of Pawnee limestone, Marmaton group, Des MoinesIan series, Pennsylvanian, Oklahoma, family Sphaerosiphonidae >Steinmann Girtyoooelia Gossmann; G. dunbari (King) Leonardian series, Permian, Glass Mountains, Texas. family Relationship Uncertain Cotylisous < Kingj C. ewersi iKing) Shaly basal portion of Ghappel limestone, Osagian series, Mississippian Texas. King believed that he had seen tetracladine sploules£in Heliospongia and accordingly referred that genus to the l i t h -i s t i d s . H. vokesi ;Eing:'was larger than H. ramosa Girty,'. Laubenfelsia was a massive, sub-conical sponge with twtraoladine spioules arranged in horizontal layers. I t was 2 cz traversed l o n g i t u d i n a l l y by several r e l a t i v e l y large eanals. The uppef and l a t e r a l surfaces were gently convex to gently concave. T|)e openings of the l o n g i t u d i n a l canals p i t t e d the upper surface of the sponge. King thought that there was a passibj>M*ybth&t the form to which Girty i n 19G8 referred the name Stromatidium might be a Laubenfelsia. Pseudopemmatites was a sub-spherical sponge which may have been depressed or elongate. The t e t r a c l a d i n e spicule s were so oriented that the interspaces formed small eanals radiating from a small area of the periphery, presumably the base. The surface was p i t t e d with "pores". Defordia was a rough, robust sponge. The canal system extended outwards i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s from the base, and branched as i t approached the surface. The s p i c u l a r element was ' , believed to be tetracladine, although i t was not c l e a r l y observed. The surface of the sponge was rough because the ope;ningsww/eresseparate dbbyanasrowwhlghhinterspac es. . A short peduncle was present on the base off most specimens. Stylopegma was a c y l i n d r i c a l to sub-conical sponge. It was covered with a dermal layer and perforated by pores. The sponge was traversed throughout by a^hloaca. The structure 1 of the wall was unusual i n that i t consisted of successive layers of spioules supported by p i l l a r - l i k e rays. The s p i c -ular meshwork was very open. Externally Stylopegma resembled the the calcisponge Maeandrostia (Girty),but the wall was divided into obvious horizontal layers and d i s t i n c t spicules were present, iiesemblences to the caloisponges Amblysiphonella and Laubenfe&aia were noted. Z £ 3 King amended Girty' s description of the genus Anthra-r oosyoon.': - He mentioned that the depressilin on the upper surface was not a constant feature.and the number of tubular openings observed was extremely v a r i a b l e . Monactine spicules were found to be embedded i n the sponge among the t e t r a c t i n e spicules. The canal system consisted of a series of i r r e g u l a r tubules extending upward and outward from the base. These were augmented by r a d i a l tubules and horizontal concentric tubules. King believed that possibly a new species of Anthracosyoon should be erected to include some of the specimens of the sponge. Bolyphmaspongia was a large gently convex sub-discoidal form composed of two layers of.chambers. The c e l l s constituting the upper layer were r e l a t i v e l y large; and the "top" of one c e l l foimed part of the " f l o o r " ©f succeeding c e l l s , except that the d i r e c t i o n of growth was horizontal instead of v e r t i c a l . Gells of both layers as well as c e l l s of the same layer oommunicated by means of pores. The lower layer was thinner and smaller. The upper surface was aammillate. The sponge resembled somewhat Guadalupia, Oystothalamia and Poly-phymaspongia. i'he new family Wewokellidae included the Pennsylvanian aid iower Perm&ln Wewokella and the Lower Permain genus Talpaspongia . It included r e l a t i v e l y large, s t r a i g h t , bent or branching c y l -i n d r i c a l sponges that had a p e c u l i a r s p i c u l a r element. The s p i c -ules had a large central node or'sphere from which, radiated numerous thick tapering rays. Spicules this large were unknown among caleesponges, Taut the same was also true f o r silicispong®s. Both Hewokella and 'i'alpaspongla were found i n t y p i c a l shallow water, deposits. Since caloisponges. are shallow water dwellers th i s was his reason for r e f e r r i n g these forms to the Galcispongia. Although Demospongia can also inhabit shallow water, King believed that the evidence was s l i g h t l y i n favor for the two genera being ealcisponges. Talpaspongia was a large, straight bent or branching c y l i n d r i c a l sponge penetrated by a large c e n t r a l cloaca and small scattered r a d i a l canals. The surface was smooth and perforated by pores. ! King amended the family Gystothalamiidae Girty i . He mentioned that the Pennsylvanian genus Gystenletes included under i t seemed to be a forerunner or ancestor of Gystothalamia $Girty . Since Girty had only one genus on whioh to erect his family, the new genus Qystauletes changed the d e f i n i t i o n somewhat. The p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the family was the oystose composition. The evolutionary trend seemed to be i n a progressive recession of the cloaoa "towards the d i s t a l portion of the bedy and an increased i r r e g u l a r i t y of size and arrangement of pores. In King's estima&ion^unwarranted im-portance had been ascribed to the si z e of the small openings i n the sponge wall, i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o s s i l sponges. Cystauletes was a s t r a i g h t , bent or branching c y l i n d r i c a l sponge. It was traversed by a smooth central cloaca. The body was divided "into hollow cysts arranged i n more or less diagonal rows forming a sing l e layer of c e l l s surrounding the cloaca. The walls were single and p e r o r a t e . Laird, H. C. The Mature and Origin of Chert i n the Lockport and Onondaga  Formations of Ontario; Trans. Royal. Can. Inst.j Vol. XX, Part 2, pp. 231-304, 1935. Pages 256-257-,Astylospongia praemorsa Goldfuss, Aulooopina granti B i l l i n g s , Caryomanon incisolobatum Roemer and C. roemeri Hinde were described from the chert beds of the Lookport formation near Hamilton, Ontario. Page.:; 238- The Lookport was correlated with the Waukesha formation of Wisconsin and I l l i n o i s . Pages 285-286- The Lockport sea was moderately deep and heavily charged with s i l i c a , w i t h the r e s u l t that s i l i c e o u s sponges thrived i n great numbers. "Sponge colonies demand waters r i c h i n "silica".... The waters of the Ontario iioc.kpo.rt did not favour the growth of coral reefs which were char-a c t e r i s t i c of the formation i n the Miohagan basin. -«It would appear, however, that the only signifigance attached to t h i s observation i s the fact that the waters were S u f f i c i e n t l y muddy and deep to i n h i b i t the growth of corals, and at the same tine, to encourage the growth of s i l i c e o u s sponges." The bottoms i n which the sponges l i v e d were soft and oozy and consisted of f i n e l y divided c o l l o i d a l s i l i c a d i s t r i b u t e d and intimately mixed with calcareous material, clay p a r t i c l e s , remains of s i l i c e o u s sponges and other f o s s i l debris. In the Onondaga seas, although corals fluorished under the clear, warm shallow wonditions of the sea, the same cond-did not favour the development of sponge colonies, even though there was an abundance of s i l i c a . zee Lowenstam, H. A. Biostratigraphio Studies of the Niagaran Inter-Beef,formations  i n Northeastern I l l i n o i s : I l l i n o i s State Mus., S c i e n t i f i c Papers, Vol. IV, pp. 1-146, 7 plates, 1948. Lowenstam>studied the stratigraphy, palaeontology and palaebeoolpgy of the Niagaran i n t e r - r e e f formations of Northeastern I l l i n o i s . The formations studied were, i n ascending •order, the J o l i e t , vfaukesha, Bajricine and Port Byron. - -Sponges belonging to the following genera were described from one or more of the ahove formations: Astraeospongia. Hindia. Astylospongia. Carpomanon. Caryospongia. Carpospongia. Caryomanon and Pyritonema. Astraeospongia i s by f a r the most important sponge found i n the i n t e r - r e e f formations. Sinoe i t s a f f i n i t i e s are close to the Hexactinellida, i t w i l l not be discussed unless there are other sponges associated with i t . The same w i l l also be done for the hex a o t i n e l l i d Pyritonema. Hindia f i b r o s a and Astraeospongia were the only sponges found i n the J o l i e t formation, n Astylospongia praemorsa, Palaeomanon verruoosum, Palaeomanon  oratera, Carpomanon Inciso-lobatum, Carpomanon stellatim-snloatum, Caryospongia -juglans, ^ Carpospongia oagtanae, Astraeospongia  meniscus and Astraeospongia sp. nov. were present i n the Waukesha formation. In the overlying Racine-Port Byron formations Astraeospongia was the only abundant sponge. Lowenstam gave much data concerning the l i v i n g habits, associates, and b u r i a l mechanics of t h i s sponge. Hindia f i b r o s a and Astylospongidae indet. were present at only. «ne.%ldoal£*y^nearrTh©rjaton. Page 20-Hindia f i b r o s a . Astylospongia div. sp. and Astraeospongia sp. were present i n the middle d i v i s i o n of the J o l i e t formation, ihere was also a "suspioien" that Paiaeo- manon oratera was present. Otherefossils i n t h i s middle d i v i s i o n included crinoids, brachiopods, bryozoans, oephalopods and t r i l o b i t e s . The racks of the middle d i v i s i o n consisted of s i l t y and argillaoeous dolomite and chert beds. The sponges were rare i n the dolomite beds but became about the most prom-inent animal group i n the ohert. 'line middle d i v i s i o n was about 30 feet thick. 'Ihe l i t h o l o g y of this middle d i v i s i o n was sim-i l a r to the l i t h o l o g y of the overlying s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f formations. . ihe rocks were l a i d down i n a normal marine environment, ftp reefs were observed. The upper d i v i s i o n of dolomite and shale and chert beds was believed to have been formed under rough water conditions. No sponges were observed. Page 22-The Waukesha formation had sp o r a d i c a l l y developed reefs. Pages 25-26-rIn the quarry of the National stone Sompany near J o l i e t Astraeospongia nov. sp., Astylospongia div. sp,, . Hindia f i b r o s a . Aoanthocyclus sp. Pisoorinus b a c o u l i . Zophoorinus ^  pyriformus and Sphaeroxochus romingeri were found. .'|he f o s s i l s occured i n the oherty dolomite of the lower Waukesha formation, 'ihe thanatocoenatic assemblages oonsisted predominately of small, f r a g i l e , o r i n o i d a l remains and subordiMately of oomplete skeletons and dismembered spicules of s i l i c e o u s sponges, dismembered t r i l o b i t e remains, small s o l i t a r y corals, gastropods, bryozoa, and f r a g i l e brachiopods. C i r r i - b e a r i n g orinoid roots of the Euoalyptocrinitidae were f a i r l y common. Pages £6-£g-In the rocks of the Great .bakes Quarry of the Western Stone Company about £ miles northeast of Lemont a s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f biotopeewas represented. The rooks belonged to the lower Waukesha formation and oonsisted o h i e f l y of oherty argillaceous dolomite. JSxtensive sponge colonies were believed to have formerly inhabited the sea f l o o r here, i'he sponges were a l l dismembered indicating an extremely slow rate of sedimentation. The chert was believed to have come from the sponges. So sponge genera or species were given. ^ Pages 55-41-in a seotion of the lower ftaukesha formation i n iiudwi^gs^quarry i n Des Plaines ¥ alley, seven zones were measured. Zone 1 was the lowest bed and zone 7 was the highest bed. Astraeospongia nov. sp. oocured i n zones 1, 3 and 4. Astylospongia indet. oocured i n zones 1 to 6. Carpomanon oocured i n zones 4 and 5. Caryospongia oastanae occured i n zone 6 and Caryospongia .luglans occured i n zone 4. Zones 1 to 6 were composed of argillaceous .dolomite with ohert.* ; Zone 7 overlying zone 6 consisted of dolomite. •^M^sowas^tlrsr fIrstntim^athat-eCgryospongia castanae had been found i n America. It was known i n purope from the S i l u r i a n d r i f t material i n Germany where i t was considered to have been derived from the S i l u r i a n of Soandanavia. There were indications here of former extensive sponge colonies. o ' • • . 2 & 9 jihQ t r i l o b i t e Bnorinurus sp. nov. occurred exolusively in zones of p r o l i f i o sponge development, i t seemed to be an associate of colonial sponges, xhe erinoids form the oommon faunal element of a l l zones in whioh sponges are sparse. In the sponge beds they are numerically equal or next in abundance to the sponges. Bryozoans and brachiopods were less common follawflftgin decreasing numbers by the relatively rare trilobites and gastropods. The rocks at Bud wig's quarry belonged to the s t i l l water inter-reef facies. Pages 42-68- In the quarry of the Blmhurst-Chioago Stone Company both reef and inter-reef strata of the Waukesha form-ation were exposed and in contact. Thirteen zones were meas-ured, ihe total thickness was about 80 feet. Spicules of Astraeospongia were found i n .zones 2 and 3. Hindia fibrosa oocured in zones 1, 2, 3, 10 and i s . Astylo-gpoagia praemorsa was found in zones 2 (?) and 3. Palaeo- manon^werruoosum oooured in zone 3 and l^soratera in zone 10. Carpospongia castanae was found in zones 1 to 4. Qarvospongia  juglana oocured i n zones 1 to 3. Qarpomanon incisolobatum oocured in zones 1 to 8 and C. stellatim suloatim in zone 2. Zones 1 to 5 oonsisted of argillaceous dolomite with chert. Zones 6, 9. 11, 12 and 13 were composed of dolomite. Zones 7, 8 and 10 oonsisted of argillaceous dolomite* Two facies types were recognized. These were reef and inter-reef. 'Ihe inter-reef strata were for the most part composed of argillaceous dolomite and highly oherty dolomite. At the contact between the reef and inter-reef strata the rocks were 2 70 considerably less argillaceous. The reef flank deposits were heavy bedded, occasionally wedge shaped and consisted mainly of dolomites. These reef flank dolomites,whioh formed the border between the reef and inter-reef deposits, were mostly detrital in origin. At the time of their deposition the water must have been sufficiently agitated to prevent mud from settling with the dolomite. During s t i l l water periods oaloareous mud from the reef and mud from the sea water were deposited together. The inter-bedded dolomites and argillaceous dolomites respectively represent, therefore, semi-rough water and s t i l l water conditions* In the relative!/' pure dolomites of the semitrough, dear -----water facies there was a paucity of fossils and extremely poor preservation. The fossils of the reef dolomites were large and robust. Those of the interbedded argillaceous dolomites on the reef flank were small, fragile and dwarfed. Jo sponges were reported from either the dolomite or the argillaceous dolomite of the reef flank. The s t i l l water inter-reef assemblages were predominately eomposed of small, s fragile forms. The sponges formed a oon-spiouous faunal element of the s t i l l water inter-reef realm. Astraeospongia was represented by isolated spioules. Astv-tlQgpongia praemorsa. Palaeomanon verruoosum. P» oratera and Carpomanon inoiso-lobatum were previously known only from the Brownsport formation of Tennessee. Of these Brownsport genera Lowenstam stated that their "occurence i n the Waukesha i s consequently of gteat interest but has no stratigraphic sig-nifigance. SSuoalyptocrInltea was more common i n the s l i g h t l y arg-i l l a c e o u s i n t e r - r e e f deposits that were adjacent to the reef and i n which sponges were domparitively rares, Encrinurusrawashfahe c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r i l o b i t e associate of the sponge colonies. Pisocrinus gemmiformis and Pisocrinus baocula constituted the common or i n o i d a l elements of the s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f f a c i e s . Unidentified s o l i t a r y and c o l o n i a l corals, braohlopods, bryozoa and ostracods were also collected from the s t i l l water i n t e r -reef deposits. Lowenstam oonsideredethatathe time i n t e r v a l f o r the d i s -membering of the skeletons of Astraeospongia must have been shorter than that for the Astylospongidae. Astraeospongia was always represented by spicules while the skeletons of Astylospongidae were r e l a t i v e l y well preserved. Lowenstam also oompared the rate of d i s a r t i c u l a t i o n of the Astylospongidae to that of the t r i l o b i t e s . He stated that the rate of d i s -sociation of the Astylospongid skeleton was ^slower than the rate of sedimentation and also slower than the rate of d i s -a r t i c u l a t i o n of the t r i l o b i t e s . Lowenstam stated (p. 57): "The composition of the b u r i a l assemblages of the muddy s t i l i ^ w a t e r i n t e r - r e e f realm shows oertain features i n t e r -pretable i n terms of t h e i r former biocoenosis. In general, the b u r i a l residue i s composed of sponges, oorals, crinoids,. brachiopoas, bryozoa, gastropods an d t t ^ I l o b i t e s . Cystoids^ peleoypods, and cephalopods are conspicuously absent, the sponges and crinoids are the most numerous, followed In dec-reasing numerical order by braohlopods, bryozoans, s o l i t a r y Z 7Z corals and oolonial corals. T r i l o b i t e s and gastropods are rare. An exception was noted i n zone 10 i n which the orinoids and bryozoans form the dominant b u r i a l constituents. Sponge colonies are a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the Sti l l w a t e r i n t e r -reef realm. The sponge faunae consist predominantly of Astylospongidae. The c o l o n i a l corals are mostly minute and con-s i s t of a few o o r a l l i t e s . " The Pisocrinidae formed a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c faunal element of the S t i l l w a t e r i n t e r - r e e f biotope. Pages 58-59-In the H i l l s i d e quarry* near Bellwood, Astraeo-spongia sp., Hindia f i b r o s a , and Astylospongidae gen. et. sp. indet. were colleoted. In addition a species of an undesoribed t e t r a c t i n e l l i d sponge was found. The sponges and t h e i r associated oorals, orinoids and brachiopods were found i n the c b a r a c t e r i s t i c argillaceous cherty dolomite of the S t i l l w a t e r i n t e r - r e e f realm, Pages 59-60rrIn the quarry of the Moulding-Brownell Company south, of Brookfield, Pyritonema sp., Caryospongia .juglans. Palaeomanon verruoosum and_Astylospongidae gen, et. sp, indet. were co l l e c t e d . 2he sponges and t h e i r associated orinoids and braohiopods were collected from the uppermost Waukesha s t r a t a . The f o s s i l s oocured i n the t y p i c a l cherty argillaceous dolomites of the still-w^ater i n t e r - r e e f beds. Pages 61-64-In the Consumers quarry west of MoCook, Pyritonema sp. and Astylospongidae gen. et. sp. indet. were collected from the uppermost Waukesha s t r a t a . TetractinellSSd sponges were also present. 2.73 The sponges and t h e i r associated oosals, c r i n o i d s , brach-iopods and t r i l o b i t e s (Bnorinurns sp.) were from the s t i l l - w a t e r , i n t e r - r e e f oherty argillaceous dolomites. 3?ages 62-64-In the Dolese and Shepard quarry, southwest of the Consumers quas^f Pyritonema sp., Astraeospongia sp*. and Hindia f i b r o s a were oolleoted from the Upper wa&kesha st r a t a . The sponges and th e i r associated c o r a l s , c r i n o i d s , bryozoans, braohlopods, t r i l o b i t e s (Snorinurus sp.) and ostracods oocured i n t h e argillaoeous, oherty dolomites of the s t i l l - w a t e r , i n t e r -reef realm. Pages 64-74-The fauna1 composition of the basal Waukesha st r a t a was stated to d i f f e r conspicuously from the higher beds of the formation. The fauna of the s i l t y argillaoeous dolomites which represent the common l i t h o l o g y of the basal s t r a t a were predominantly oomposed of t r i l o b i t e s . These t r i l o b i t e s ocoured oommonly crowded i n looa l i z e d oonoentrations. The less common, more argillaceous oherty s t r a t a of the basal beds were character-ized by a orinoid-sponge dominated fauna. This orinoid—sponge fauna lacked the oharaoteristio t r i l o b i t e elements. i*he Zophoorinidae and Pisocrinus gemmiformis were common to both assemblage types1 In r e f e r r i n g to the fauna1 composition of the basal Waukesha s t r a t a , Lowenstam stated(pp. 64-65): "...These sediment-linked faunal changes indicate the beginning of habitat dontrolled d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s on a sub-ordinate soale i n the early Waukesha sea that was not reef created. The rather uniform l i t h o l o g i o character of the very basal beds r e f l e c t s normal comparatively stable sedimentation Z conditions that lacked the segration into narrowly defined sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e d habitats t y p i c a l of the reef controlled i n t e r - r e e f deposits' of the higher Waukesha beds. The develop-ment of reefs was s t i l l l o o a l i z e d and those i n e;xistance as i n the oase noted were quite small. On the other hand the conp spiouous thickness v a r i a t i o n of these basal l i t h o l o g i e s indicate that reef controlled facies s h i f t s statted to become effectiv-eaalready on a large scale i n the l a t e r part of this early depositional phase, ushered i n by subordinate facies d i f f e r e n t a t i o n s e a r l i e r that created l o c a l l y habitat conditions related to the succeeding s t i l l w a t e r inter-rreef birirfcopes i n the crinoid-sponge dominated assemblages." : The faunal elements of the overlying Waukesha s t r a t a are, with few exceptions, deribed from the s t i l l w a t e r i n t e r - r e e f f a o i e s . " On. page 65, Oarpospongia oastanae was l i s t e d among the speeies with a r e s t r i c t e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c range withlnhthe higher Waukesha s t r a t a . Lowens&am stated that he had found s i l i c e o u s sponges i n the l a u r e l beds at St. .raul, Indiana. These sponges were Astraeospongia sp. nov., Hindia f i b r o s a and an un i d e n t i f i e d branching member of the T e t r a o t i n e l l M a e . Spicules and a number of globular skeletons of t e t r a c t i n e l l i d sponges were also seen i n the main chert zone of the Middle iiaurel of Indiana, These globular Skeletons resembled the Astylospongidae. The Astylospongidae of the s t i l l w a t e r i n t e r - r e e f deposits of the Waukesha formation consisted l a r g e l y of brownsport species. Z7 5 The remainder included two European species, oaryospongia  juelans and Astylospongia praemorsa. These two species were each represented by a sub-species i n the waldron formation. -Most of the reef bearing waukesha s t r a t a was correlated with the Laurel of Indiana. , Pages.. 1^-135-Hihdia fibrosa and Astylospohgidae indet. :«f;csy' . ~v — — — — - _ were described along with other fauna from the fiaoine-Port Byron formation. She sponges were found i n a quarry operated by the Mould ings-Briownell Company at Thornton, Six sponge spec-imens were co l l e c t e d . Three belonged to Hindia and the other three to the Astylospongidae. 'I'hey were ifound i n the a r g i l l a c e o s s i l t y dolomites of the s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f s t r a t a . Two main l i t h o l o g i o types were present i n the i n t e r - r e e f s t r a t a . One was the t y p i c a l argillaceous s i l t y dolomite and the other was the r e l a t i v e l y pure dolomites. The sponge skeletons were small and e l l i p t i c a l due to post mortem sagging, i'les'h&and t u f t spicules occured i n rand-omly oriented aggregates adjaoent to one of the sketetons of Hindia f i b r o s a . Two d i s t i n c t types of preservation of s i l i c e o u s sponges were present. In the f i r s t the sketeton was sagged. In the second only dismembered spicules were present. The f i r s t type of preservation was oaused by sedimentation being slower than the rate of di s a s s o c i a t i o n of the sketeton. A sagged form resulted. The slow rate of sedtimentation, however, was aast enough to prevent complete d i s a r t i c u l a t i o n . In the seoond type of preservation the rate of sedimentation was slower than the rate of d i s a r t i c u l a t i o n of the sponge skeleton. Z 7<* .Lowenstam mentioned that the t u f t spioules seemed to be s e l e c t i v e l y preserved, he explained i t by s t a t i n g that the sponge was rooted by the t u f t i n the sediment. With the sagging of the sponge a f t e r death the weight oaused the t u f t spicules to be pushed further i n the mud and be thus preserved. An a l t e r -nate explanation that was offered was that the rate of eedimentatior was s u f f i c i e n t l y rapid to form a t h i n veneer of sediment over the t u f t spicules.and thus preserve them. This second explanation, .Lowenstam believed, would also explain the selective preservation of the f l e s h spioules whioh occured commonly with the t u f t spicules. £he fact that the f l e s h spicules would be among the f i r s t elements to be separated from the sponge would assure b u r i a l . In the quarry, reef f l a n k and i n t e r - r e e f beds overlapped. Small f r a g i l e c r i n o i d a l s k e l e t a l elements characterized the argillaoeous i n t e r - r e e f overlap. .Large robust f o s s i l s char-acterized the t y p i c a l reef flank beds. i h the i n t e r - r e e f beds two d i s t i n c t fauna! assemblages were noted. The assemblages consisted either predominately of c r i n -oids or else of corals and bryozoans. The corals and bryozoans were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the purer dolomites. The orinoids^pres-umably^ were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the more t y p i o a l i n t e r - r e e f arg-i l l a c e o u s dolomites. Lowenstam did not make any d e f i n i t e s t a t -ement about the orinoids. In the i n t e r - r e e f s t r a t a numerous abrupt terminations of the ooral-bryozoan assemblages with more argillaceous s t r a t a were seen. Rapid sedimentation was indicated f o r the b r i e f i n t e r v a l s of argillaoeous mud deposition i n these oases. The rate of 2 77 sedimentation apparently "became greater than the rate of removal of mud by the corals and bryozoans. Iiowenstam stated (p. 134-135): "The range of v a r i a t i o n noted i n the rate -ef^sedimentation and the v a r i a t i o n of the sedimentary composition indicate son-siderable fluctuations i n the physical environement of the i n t e r -reef adjacent to the reef.,.Depending upon the structure of the main reef front and the l o c a t i o n of temporary fore-reef dev-elopment, reef-derived detritus was spread over the adjacent i n t e r - r e e f t r a c t i n variable quantities. During periods when reef detritus was swept into the bordering i n t e r - r e e f t r a c t , the water was s u f f i c i e n t l y agitated to prevent the continuous large scale s e t t l i n g of the a r g i l l a o e o u s , s i l t y mud carried i n suspension. The bottom at such times would be r e l a t i v e l y clean and s u f f i c i e n t l y favorable for the population of the i n t e r - r e e f t r a c t by larvae of reef building forms. The c o r a l -bryozoan assemblages i n the s l i g h t l y argillaoeous beds.are thus best explained. They represent the pioneer populations i n the formation of fore-reefs, whereever favorable environmental conditions prevailed l o c a l l y long enough to f a c i l i t a t e reef growth. The oanurrenoe of a large reef gastropod i n the s l i g h t l y argillaceous beds i s notewarthy. It indicates that during the reef controlled periods of sedimentation, skeletons of reef dwellers oocasionallysflrifted into the i n t e r - r e e f realm where they form an allochthonous thanatocoenotic element, f^hrtthe other hand, during the periods of s t i l l water conditions or i n the l e a of l o c a l l y developed fore-reefs, the mud oarried i n suspension could s e t t l e slowly at v a r i a b l e rates. The carb-onate f r a c t i o n of the a r g i l l a c e o u s deposits was undoubtedly i n part at least the f i n e s t d e t r i t a l derivate of the reef. The argillaoeous i n t e r c a l a t i o n s on the reef flank demonstrate that during short i n t e r v a l i s of p r e v a i l i n g s t i l l water cond-i t i o n s the inter&reef realm transgressed over the reef flank. During these periods the s t i l l water i n t e r - r e e f populations encroaohed on the reef flan£ probably as f a r as the wave base." Since the sponges were i n t e r - r e e f dwellers, i t i s presumed that they were found i n the more argillaceous dolomites. Z 79 M i l l e r , S. A. North American Geology and Palaeontology for the Use of Amateurs. Students, and S c i e n t i s t s : Press of Western Methodist Book Concern, Cinncinnati, Ohio, 1889. M i l l e r attempted to define a l l f o s s i l genera known from the Palaeozoic rocks of North America. The name of the author of each genus was given, the date of the coining of the word:, and an abbreviated reference to the book and page where published, as well as the etymology of the word.and name of the type speoies. The names of a l l the species were arranged i n alphabetical order under the generalto which they belonged; and also the authors of them, the dates and places of publication, and very f r e q -uently references to two places of publi c a t i o n . On pages 152 to 166 the sponges were l i s t e d . Among them were also foraminifers and stromatoporoids. The Palaeozoic sponges were arranged into f a m i l i e s as follows: Family Anthaspidellidae-Anthaspidella, Climacospongia. Edriospongia. Streptosolen. Z i t t e l e l l a . Family Archaeooyathidae-Archaeocyathus. Ethmophyllum. Family Astraeospongidae-Astraeospongia. Family Astylopspnngidae-Astylspongia. Aulocoplna. Calathium, Conopterium. Gyathospongia. Eospongia. Balaeomanon. Palaeospongia. Trachyum. Trichospongia. Family Beatri oidae-Beatrieea. 2. Family BraoMospoagidae-Braohiospoagi a. Chiraspongia. Family Piotyospoagidae-Cleodiotya. Cyathophyous. Biotyopbyton. jSotenodiotya. Lyriodiotya. Bhragmodiotya. Pnysospoagia. Brotospoagia. B a a f f e l l a . Bhombodictyoa. iThamaodiotya. Uphaataea Upbaataenia. Family Dystactospoag'idae-Dystaotospoagia. Heterospoagia. Saooospongia, Family Leptoaitidae-Leptoaitus. Family Microspongidae-Hiadia. Microspongia. family Palaeaoidae-Palaeaois. Family Pasceolidae-Pasceolus. Family Pattersoaiidae-Battersoaia. Family Pharetroaes-Batospongia. Camarocladia. Cyliadroooelia. Streptospoagia. Family Reoeptaculitidae-Cerioaites. Beceptaculites. Family Stromatoporidae-Oaunopora. Coenostroma. Cryptozooa. Biotyostroma. Megastroma. Strephoohetas. Stromatooeriom. StromatoporaB Syriagostroma. Family A f f i a i t y Uaoertaia-Astroconia. Fuagispongia. Lep-i d o l i t e s . Leptomitus. Z 8/ Needham, G. E. ' -Sponge Spicules from the Lower Ordovician: Soience, New Series, Vol, L X X V I I , )Eo. 2002, pp. 450-451, Friday, May 12, 1933. Discussed the presence of sponge spicules in the Lower Ordovician Oneota dolomite on U. S. Highway 12, "3 or 4" miles south of Springfield Corners, Wisconsin. This is the only place where they were observed. Y The spicules occured in oherty dolomite. The specimens came from a non-cherty bed. The insoluble residue oonsited of a minute quantity of fine sand, s i l t and sponge spicules. . The specimens were believed to be monaotinellids. He believed that this was the f i r s t mention of monaotinellids in Ordovician rocks. Z 8Z N o r t h r o p , S . A. P a l e o n t o l o g y a n d S t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e S i l u r i a n B o o k s o f t h e P o r t D a n i e l - B l a o k B e g i o n , G a s p e : G e o l . - S o d . A m e r . S p . P p . I ' - Q , N o , 2 1 , p p . ; 1S3©2, N o v . 1 9 3 9 . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f a u n a o f t h e P o r t - D a n i e l -B l a c k C a p e r e g i o n , t h e s p o n g e s d e s c r i b e d b y P a r k s i n 1 9 3 3 w e r e l i s t e d a s w e l l a s a H i n d i a f i b r o s a ( B o e m e r ) . -T h e f o r m a t i o n a n d l o c a l i t y o f t h e s p o n g e f a u n a a r e g i v e n b e l o w : G i r v a n e l l a , N i o h o l s o n a n d E t h e r i d g e -G . ( ? ) s i l u r i a n a •;• P a r k s •• C a r y o s p o n g i a Vfiauf f-L a V i e i l l e f o r m a t i o n , . l o o a l i " l o c a l i t i e s 1 6 3 a n d 1 9 2 . C . c f . f u g l a n s , - Q u e n s t e d t r : ; L a V i e i l l e f o r m a t i o n , l o c a l i t y 3 9 . . H i n d i a \ D u n c a n - , H . f i b r o s a ( R o e m e r ) «-C:--- ;. -;t.;/:.:-/t ::. (Parks) G a § p e s p o n g i a ? g P a r k s ! ' G . b a s a l i s ( P a r k s / I n d i a n P o i n t f o r m a t i o n , l o c a l i t y 5 6 . S p o n g i a g e n . e t s p . i n d e t . L a V i e i l l e f o r m a t i o n , l o c a l i t y 1 9 G . L a u l i e 1 1 1 £ o £;Q*raa c f c h o n , l o c a l i t y 3 9 . B o u t l e a u x f o r m a t i o n , B l a c k C a p e . . P a g e 5 7 - G i r v a n e l l a ( ? ) . s i l u r i a n a o c c u r e d i n z o n e 5 o f t h e La V i e i l l e formation. The zone consisted of thin-bedded nodular limestone "with t h i n layers of Girvanella (?) s i l -uriana". The zone above zone 5 was rippled and mud-cracked. k Page lE8-Looality 163 was l i s t e d as the "Girvanella I? ) s i l u r i a n a zone" Page 78-The Indian Point fauna consisted of 52 species. Of these 25 came from below, 27 originated i n the formation and 27 were r e s t r i c t e d to the formation. The fauna consisted of 1 alga, 2 Problematica, 1 sponge, 1 stromatoporoid, 11 corals, 2 orinoids, 6 brachiopods, 15 pelecypods, 3 gastropods, 1 pteropod, and 9 cephalopods. Hindia f i b r o s a (Roemer), 12 species of pelecypods and 9 species of cephalopods were r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s formation. Parks, W. A. Hew Species of Stromatoporolds, Sponges and Corals from the  S i l u r i a n Strata of Baie Des Chaleurs: Univ. Toronto Studies, Geological Studies, l o . 33, pp. 1-40, plates VI and VII, 1933. Parks described sponges of doubtful a f f i n i t i e s . A new genus Gaspespongia was &a?ectea«d . Thehs pep linens described were Girvanella (?) s i l u r i a n a /Parks-',, Carvespongia cf. Ho photographs of the external appearance of these forms were given, but i l l u s t r a t i o n s of sections were shewn. The sponges described and their, l o c a l i t i e s are given below; Girvanella (Hie hoi son and Stheridgep G. (?) s i l u r i a n a H;Parks';' La V i e i l l e formation, juglans iQuenstedt'V and Gaspespongia b a s a l i s .(•'Parks"". member, 5, Black Cape, Quebec. Caryospongia Quens t e d t; C. cf. .juglans 'i.Quenstedttf? La V i e i l l e formation, railway cut, I?ort Daniel, Quebec. Gaspespongia '/ParksV G. basalis ";Parks|. La V i e i l l e formation, Black Cape, Quebed. Spongia gen. et sp. indet. La V i e i l l e formation, railway cut, Port Daniel, Quebec. 2 8S / Parks stated that Girvanella (?) s i l u r i a n a seemed to be related to Girvanella and possibly should be referred to the sponges. Plant a f f i n i t i e s were also suggested. Although no trace of spioular structure was seen, Parks regarded the genus Strephoohetus tSeely^, as a synonym. Speoimens prev-eously ascribed to Solenopora which were wrom the same l o c -a t i e as G. (?) s i l a r i a n a were probably the same forms. Caryospongia of. juglans was stated to resemble Hindia  sphaeroidalis ^Duncan,! i n some respects. The surface was too rough, the canals too tortuous and the s p i c u l e s too del i c a t e for i t to belong to the genus Hindia . It was remarked that there was a closer resemblanoe to the species Astylospongia praemorsa nuxmosohala (Hall^ 'from the Hiagaran s t r a t a of Waldron, Indiana. Rauff (liat&fcsdfia&hosed t h i s l a t t e r form as a vari e t y of Garyspongia .luglans ^Quenstedt^. ' '/ ... Saspespongia and i t s species G. b a s a l i s had a coarsely botryoidal surface. The spioular t i s s u e was obscure. Park stated that£8aspespongia was probably a calcareous sponge. The specimen referred to "Spongia gen. et sp. indet" was a large sub-hemispherioal epenge with a rough surface containing d i s t i n c t points, nodes and vermicuiate ridges. The spioules appeared to be hexaxons resembling those of the family Astylospongidae. This form, however, appeared to have a large central cavity. 2.9 C Pate, W. F. and Bassler, B. S. The Eata HJ&garan Strata of Wast Tennessee: Proo. TJ# S. Hat. Mas., Vol. ZXSIV, Ho. 1621, pp. 407-434, 1908. Pages 418-419-la a section two miles sonth of Perryville, Decatur County i n Tennessee, i t was stated that Astylomanon  aratara and varieties, Caryomanon inolao-lobatttm. C. stellatim-anloatum. S n i ^ i f e r eEEgoptyahas. Or this (?) f i s s l p l i o a t a . Balaanella aronaria. gJatnlitBora hemispherioa and ffenestella  aontioosa were abundant and ranges through the three zones of the Beeoh River formation. The section (summarized) measured of the Beeoh River formation at this l o c a l i t y is as follows: Bucalvntoorinua zone Feet fine bluish and yellowish fossiliferous shales....20 Troostocrlnna zone Yellowish, bluish and whitish shales and Shaly limestone................................... 25 Cooooerlnna zone Shaly limestone. .30 Pages 420-421-A section was measured of the Beech River and Bob formation on the h i l l s i d e northeast of Martin's M i l l , Tennessee. The underlying Beeoh River formation, consisting of whitish el ays and soft limestone, contained sponges, brachiopods and orinoids. La^sr C of the overlying Bob formation, oonsisting of limestone, Sontained Astylospongia praemorsa. Caryomanon Z 8 7 Btallatim-suloatum. Maristina maria-rosmeri and Wllsomla aaffo,rdi. Page 424-In discussing Foerste's (p. 678, 1903) seotion at Wabb or Rise H i l l near Lindon, Tennessee i t was stated: "exposures around Linden are peculiar i n not displaying the great wealth of braohlopods and sponges oharaoteristio of more southern exposures. If our studlesuare correct, these pec-u l i a r i t i e s are readily explained by the position of the strata above the brachiopod (Bob) and sponge (Beeoh Biver) beds." Page 429-In a composite section of the Ordoviclan-Dev-onian rooks of west Tennessee i t was mentioned that Hindia flphaeroldalis was "occasionally seen" i n the bluish gray, "•" H O C argillaoeous limestone and alternating blue shales of the Hermitage f " S a l t i l l o " ) formations. In this Ordovician form-ation, f o s s i l s were few. Z8& Priddy, R. B. A Petrographies Study of the fflagran Books of Southwestern  Ohio and Southeastern Indiana: Jour. Geol*; Vol, XL7IX, No. 6, pp. 489-602. 1939. Page 497-Three types of sponge spioules were observed in the Hiagaran rooks. The f i r s t type was dermal spioules; the seoond type was flesh spioules; and the third type was a five rayed dermal spicule whioh was termed a "sponge plate". The spioules oocured cons is tan tly i n zone 2) of the Osgood of Indiana; zones A, C and D of the Laurel of Indiana: the entire Laurel of Ohio and locally i n the Springfield and Cedarville dolomites. Page 494-Zona B of the Osgood formation of Indiana consisted of shaly limestone. Zones A and C of the Laurel of Indiana consisted of shaly limestone. Zone D of the Laurel of Indiana consisted of cherty limestone. The Laurel of Ohio consisted of shaly limestone* Pages 5Ql-502-The depth of water in which the Niagaran .sediments were deposited was between 150 and 500 feet. Tee purer xiwootuuas were deposited i n deeper water, while the shaly limestone and shale were deposited i n shallow water. These Niagaran sediments were either deposited far from shore or elso the shore was worn low* 2 #9 Rauff, H. On the Genus Hindia. iDuno..: Ann. and Mag. Hat. Hist.!?, F i f t h Series, No. 105, pp. 169-179, Sept., 1886. ;Banff believed that Dunoan (1879) was wrong when he said that Hindia was a oaloisponge with tetracladine spicules. The spioular detail of Hindia was discussed. It was believed that Hindia was a siliceous tetracladine sponge. 2 9<\ Baymond, P. 3* fhe Banna of the Ohaz.v Limestone: Amer. Jour. Sci., Vol. XX, pp. 363-382, Nov., 1906. Paee 369-Eospongia varians and an associated fauna oocured i n the fossiliferous dark blue. Impure nodular limestone of division 2 of the Chazy seotion at Hew York in the Lake Champlain region. Page 368-Slnae the f u l l e s t development of limestone deposits of Chazy age was i n the region of Chazy and Valoour Island, lew York, that must have been the looality i n whioh the Chazy sea persisted longest. It would seem that this sea was a shallow one Invading south and west over a slowly sinkkng land. The sea was probably open to the east. The basal sand-stone represented shore conditions. During the greater part of Chazy time, the transgression of the sea was southward. Later the shore began to more west-ward too. The Ottawa Valley was then invaded. Baymond, P. The Chazy Formation and Its Fauna: Ann. Carnegie Mus., Vol. I l l , pp. 498-598, 1905-1906. Seotion A. along the South End of Valcour Island, with Faunal Lists Page 513-Zone A 1 7 -"Bluish-gray, thin-bedded limestone whioh is more coarsely crystalline than proceeding. The weath-ered edges of the layers show many f o s s i l s , mostly sponges and bryozoa." Zone A^yiis IS feet thick. Page 514-Zone AgQ -"Heavy-bedded, f a i r l y pure blue-black limestone, withimuoh •shajky matter between layers." Zone Ag Q is 20 feet thick, Among the fauna was Eospongia varians (rare) .and bryozoa (common). Hebertella. Plaescomys;.Haf- frnesouina.iShaphist oma. Maolurites. etc. Page ;5.2?-Sivl8ion 2 of the Chazy, zones A^g.gg^as called (the "Maolurites magnus division. The division was marked by a great, number of gastropods. The characteristic f o s s i l s were Maolurites magnus. Baflnesouina ohamplaineBsis. Plaealomys  plafors. Camerella varians. Leperditla limatula and Strephoohetus  brainerdl. S . .jSeotions on Valcour island Page 534-Zqne t r | ^ 5 - " . ..heavy bedded, blue-black limestones, ..." Eospongia varians was rare. The common fos s i l s were Hebertella. Bafinesquina. Maolurites„ Buoania, Sphaerexochus,etc. H^gbelongs to divisoin 2, about the same horizon as Ag-^ . 2 > 2 Seotions at Chazy. Hew York ,  Page 542-Zone E^consists of massive, bluishyblaok, f a i r l y pure nodular limestone. Bespongia varians was oommon. Other oommon fossils were Stromatocerium. Monotrypella. Mao-luritea. Zygospira. etc. Gomparison of the Crown Point Seotion with those at Chazy and Vaioour Island  Page 552-Man.v foss i l s were .oommon to the-two. There were, however, some marked differences,^"particularly in the absence of sponges, oorals, oystids, and some of the common spedies of the seotions further north, notably Camarotoeohia  plena. Olaphuros Pustulatus and fcthers." Page 562-The Chazy fauna consisted of about 200 speoies divided among the animal groups as follows: Anthozoa (3), Crinoidea (7), Gystoidea (10), Blast©idea (?) (2), Vermes (2), Bryozoa (10), Brachiopoda (30), Peleoypoda (23) , Gastropoda (40), Cephalopoda (15), Ostroooda (12), Trilobita (38), incertae sedis (4). Page 563-"In the Beeftmantown, bryozoans, orinoids, oystids, and lamellibranohs are almost unknown." n Page 565-JDivision 2, the Maolurites magnus division, was marked by a great number ©f sp-eoies of pelecypods, gastropods, and t r i l o b i t e s . Page 568-The fullest development of the Chazy was on Chazy"and Vaioour Island. The sea was shallow, invading south and west in a slowly ^ sinking land. The sea was open from the east or north-east. The fauna developed from the Beekman-town of the Newfoundland region rather than from the underlying Beekmantown. Z 94 Raymond, E. E., and Okulitch, Y. J. Some Chazyan Sponges; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. at Harvard College, Yol LXXXVI, Ba. 5, pp. 197-214, 7 plates, January, 1940. Raymond and Okulitch gave brief descriptions of some of the more common sponges of the Qhazyan limestones in Tenn-essee, Virginia, Champlain Valley and Mingan Islands. In redescribing and alioting hew genera emphasis was places on the gross struoture such as outer form and canal position, etc. She sponges described appeared to contain tetracladine spicules of the Aulocopium "type and to belong to the family Aulocopidae (Rauff). Rauff (1893-1894, 1894-1895) believed that Anthaspidella £Jlrichi. did not d i f f e r from members of the European Aulooopidae Rauff)ianRaymond and Okulitch believed, therefore, that the families Aulooopidae and Anthaspidellidae Ulrioh were essentially the same. They suggested that the Aulocopidae should be l e f t as the valid family name since Aulocopium was a better type-genus than Anthaspidella. The genera described are given below with thier corresponding formations; Family Aulocopidae Rauff Eospongia Billingsj B. roemeri >Billings; Lower 50-60 feet of the Mingan formation, Mingan Islands. Z i t t e l e l l a Ulrich and Everett; Z. varians Ulrich and Everett Clear Water Point, Mingan Island. In zone A3 of the Mingan formation (Sehue-hert and Twenhofel, 1910). Lowef 50-60 feet of the Mingan formation (Twen-hofel ). 2. pannosa?Raymond and Okulitch. From the Ottosee, about 100 feet below the Low-v i l l e , between Luttrell and Chesney, Tennessee. Also the same formation at Dickenson's M i l l , north of Mendota, Va. Also i n Sevier near Neubert, east of Knoxville, Tennessee, Hudsonospongia ;Raymond and Okulitoh) H. oyslostoma -Raymond and Okulitch H. minganensis (Raymond and Okulitch) H. porosa {Raymond and Okulitch Lenoir, 6 miles southeast of Knoxville, Tennessee. Upper Chazy, Mingan Island, Ammonite Point, Mingan Island. Middle and Upper Chazy of Z9C H. f i s t u l o s a : Raymond and O k u l i t c l , H. i r r e g u l a r i s .Raymond and Okulitch; H. duplicata 'Raymond and Okulitch' H. ovoidea .Raymond and Okulitolr Exoohopora Raymond and Okulitch, E. canadensis ( B i l l i n g s ) B. i n f e l i x ( U l r i c h and Everett) Allosacous .Raymond and Okulitoh; y A. proloxus Raymond and Okulitch; of Champlain Valley at South Hero and on Is l e La Motte, Vermont. Also at Chazy and Vaioour Islands, Hew York. Middle and base of Upper Chazy at Chazy, Hew York and on I s l a Motte, Ver-mont. Upper Chazyan, Mingan Islands. Upper Chazyan, Mingan Islands. Middle Chazy, 1.5 miles west of Chazy, Hew York. Chazy 04 Mingan Islands. Black River near Dixon, I l l i n o i s . Lower part of Ottosee at Dickenson's M i l l , north of Mend ota, Va. 2 . S> 7 From Lenoir i n east Knoxville and other l o o a l i t i e s east and south of Knoxville, Tennessee. Khopalocoelia - Raymond and Okulitch R. o l a r k i i Raymond and Okulitch) R. r e g u l a r i s (Raymond and f Okulitoh/ Lower part of Upper Chazy at Tiger Point and i n the lower part of Middle Chazy east Pebble Beach, both on Valcour Island, New York. Middle Chazy wast of Chazy, New York, and Isl e La Motte, Vermont. Base of Upper Chazy at L i t t l e Monty Bay, east of Chazy, New York. Sevier near Neubert, east of Knoxville, Tennessee. Psarodiotyum 'Raymond and Okulitch. P. magnifioum /Raymond and Okulitoh.' Near base of Upper Chazy at Tiger Point on Vaioour TSland, New York. A l s o at same h o r i z o n on the northwest s i d e o f I s l a n d . P . planum 'Raymond and O k u l i t c h ' . Top o f S e v i e r , 5 m i l e s nor thwes t o f Rogersv fc l l e , Tennessee . M i d d l e H e l l i s h o f A r b u c k l e M o u n t a i n s , Oklahoma. P . t r e n t o n e n s i s (Worthen) B l a c k R i v e r n e a r D i x o n , I l l i n o i s . I t was mentioned t h a t B i l l i n g s , when he was d e s c r i b i n g the genus E o s p o n g i a , has b o t h E. r o e m e r i and E. v a r i a n s i n m i n d . B a s s l e r l a t e r made B. r o e m e r i t h e genotype and t r a n s -f e r r e d E. v a r i a n s to Z i t t e l e l l a . Raymond and O k u l i t c h b e l i e v e d t h a t the most i m p o r t a n t d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e i n Z i t t e l e l l a was the c o n s p i c i o u s v e r t i c a l r a d i a l s t r u c t u r e s . The sponges b e l o n g i n g to the genus Hudsonospongia were s t a t e d s t a t e d to be most common i n the Chazy o f the Champla in V a l l e y . They v a r i e d from forms whioh resembles Z i t t e l e l l a t o those w h i c h might be r e f e r r e d to S t r e p t o s o l e n ' U l r i c h and E v e r e t t , . Hudsonospongia was u s u a l l y p y r i f o r m o r o b o o n i c a l i n shape . I t was unbranohed . In a l l cases i t l a c k e d the r e g u l a r r a d i a l p a r t i t i o n s o f Z i t t e l e l l a . Suoh a r a d i a l arrangement a a was presen t was expressed i n oana l s r & a ± n g ; . u p w a r d and outward from the b a s e . The a x i a l c a n a l s were v e r t i c a l . The specimens o f Hudsonsspongia minganens i s were much s m a l l e r than the s i m i l a r H . p o r o s a o f the Champla in V a l l e y . Z 39 The four known specimens of H . minganensis were among B i l l i n g s ' type of Eospongia varians. Eudsonospongia f l s t u l o s a was much larger than H . minganensis. H. i r r e g u l a r i s was among B i l l i n g s ' type of Eospongia varians. H. i r r e g u l a r i s was believed to be the sponge that B i l l i n g s had mentioned as growing around the stem of a ori n o i d . Raymond and Okulitch, however, found the objeot a bryozoan whioh the sponge encountered i n i t s upward growth. The bryozoan s l i g h t l y modified the shape of the dorsal c a v i t y . Z i t t e l e l l a lobata 'Ulrich and Everett was mentioned as being si m i l a r to Hudsomospongia I r r e g u l a r i s . A speoimen of H. duplioatatwhloh was associated i n the Geological Survey of Canada o o l l e o t i o n with Eospongia roemeri. had on i t s upper surface two depressions which might either have been oaused by ooalescenoe o f two in d i v i d u a l s or by f i s s i o n . These twin forms were stated to be rather among sponges and were even found among the Archaeocyathids. Exoohopora was s i m i l a r to Eospongia. but i t had large rad-i a l oanals, one above the other. It had a deep and large i n t e r n a l oavity. The type of the genus was Calathium can- adensis B i l l i n g s ' . Bxoohopora was stated to be a l l i e d to Z i t t e l e l l a i n the arrangement of s k e l e t a l parts, to Eospongia i n form, and to Rhopolocoelia i n the depth of the a x i a l cav-i t y . Two species were referred to Jfch&s genus. One of them, Bxoohopora canadensis ( B i l l i n g s ) was o r i g i n a l l y Calathium  oanadensis B i l l i n g s i . The other , E. i n f e l i x 'Ulrioh and Everett; was originally"Calathium (??) ( Z i t t e l e l l a ) l n f e l i x " -Ulrioh and Everett . AHosacous was a conoav-convex, sub-hemispheric sponge which was.attached by the whole base and had a system of oanals radiating from a center on the upper side. Rhopaloeoelia was an elongate, c y l i n d r i c a l or club-shajbed sponge with an a x i a l cavity reaching almost to the base. Numerous large oanals branched from the inner to the outer w a l l . Galathium was mentioned as being s i m i l a r to Rhopaloeoelia. It was suggested that Aulocopium oylindraceum '.Roe mei< should possibly be removed from Auloc dpi urn and placed i n t h i s new genus Rhopocoelia. Rhopaloeoelia r e g u l a r i s was stated to greatly resemble the pleospongia. Psarodictyum was a large sponge of discoid form. The skeleton consisted of slender and r a d i a t i n g concentric elements. The genus appeared to be a l l i e d to Z i t t e l e a l a i n i t s regularity of r a d i a l p a r t i t i o n s and to resemble Hudsonospongia i n i t s spioular elements. 3o/ fined emann, H. Additions to the Snake H i l l and Oanajoharie Faunas: Hew Yoik State Mus. Bull . Hos. 227, 228, 16th Sept. Direotor, pp. 101 108, Hov.-Deo., 1919. Baedemann desoribed a new speoies of Bystaetosnongla Miller * The speoies was B. radioosa. Bystaeftospongla radieosa oocured i n the blaok calcareous shale at Rockwell's, Isle La Motte, Vermont. The shale was of Trenton age and was most probably referable to the C&no|aharie shale. 3 Ok Ruedemann, &. The Utica and Lorraine Formations of.Mew York; New York State Mus. B u l l . No. £ 6 2 , Bart I I , No. 1 , pp. 1 - 1 7 1 , June, 1 9 2 5 . On pages 38-40, Ruedemann described a new species of C l i o n o l i t h e s . The species was G. quarens. The borings were found i n the blaok shale of the lower fhetstone gulf formation i n the Wood Creek section (station 1 ) and at other places about Rome. The borings were found i n oasts of cephalopods. The borings were mud f i l l e d . The borings were straight and followed the l o n g i t u d i n a l d i r e c t i o n of the oonoh. Ruedemahii pointed out t.hat the growth l i n e s of the conch passed over the borings i n such a way as to prove that they were either within the s h e l l substance or on t n e inner 7 surface. Hherever the borings ""Struck a septum they ended abruptly and a side branch took up the old d i r e c t i o n . In.pne^Tsppcimen the borings disappeared e n t i r e l y at one septum and reappeared i n the next a i r chamber with three thinner borings. These thinner borings were a considerable, distance from the older one, Ruedemann believed that the boring organism followed the shel c l o s e l y along i t s inner surfaoe u n t i l i t reached a new a i r chamber. Then i t branched out i n the newly gained a i r cham-ber. i t was believed that the sponge l i v e d on the organic matter s t i l l present i n the air. ohamber. It was assumed that the sponge attaoked the a i r Chambers of the l i v i n g cephalopod as they were abandoned by the oephalopod. 3o 3 Wiedemann stated: "•••from the mode in which the stem of the boring i s able to break up into minute ohannels, i t would follow that the organism oould hardly have been a worm, but rather a boring sponge or alga, most l i k e l y the l a t t e r . n 304 Sohuohert, C .and Twenhofel, I". H. Ordovioio-Sllurio Seotion of the Mingan and A n t i c o s t i Islands. &u Gulf of Saint Lawrence: Geol. Sbol Amer. Bulliip Vol. 21, pp. 677-716, Leo. 23, 1910. Page 682-"The s t r a t a of A n t i o o s t i are deposits of a very shallow sea-that i s , within the zone of wave action, known to extend i n the present seas to a depth of about 150 f e e t . . . " Page 687-Arohaeosoyphia minganensis ( B i l l i n g s ) was obtained from the dark grey,qooarsely c r y s t a l l i n e dolomite i n the Bomaine-Islands. This was from the Beekmantown series * d i v i s i o n A-^  . The only other f o s s i l here was Troohonema trioarinatum {Billings}/. F o s s i l s were very scaroe. m Page 690-Eospongia roemeri. Z i t t e l e l l a varians and other f o s s i l s were obtained from the limestone of the lower 10 to 15 'feet of zone Ag of the Chazyan Mingan formation. Page 692-Zones to A3 were near shore sediments of the invading sea. Zones to A 3 were e.orrelat:ed®w-l.thi;the upper Chazy of New i'ork. , Page 702-Hindia sp. aphaeroidalis. Pasoeolus. corals, brachiopods.peleoypods and other f o s s i l s were obtained from zone Cg of the 4 i l l i s Bay formation, A n t i p p s t i Island. Page 703-Zonaa C , to C of the Gamaohian serie s were represented by thick sandstone along the north shore. This showed deposition by agitated waters. Shideler, I f . H . Sew Cinoinnatian Sponges (Abstract); Geol. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1933, pp. 341-342, June, 1934. Desoribed Dystaotospongia as ooouring in the coral zone of the Tennessee Arnheim. The sponge occured in sub-hemispherical masses up to six inches in diameter with a coarsely nodular surface and an unusually coarse internal structure. Another speoies of Dystaotospongia oocured i n the Elkhorn. A laynesville species of a new generic type was des-cribed, i t was a four inoh biscuit-shaped mass of i r -regularly anastomizlng strandsv^MeJtihad a fine structure similar to DystactospongiaI 3 0 •£ Stauff er, C. a. The Devonian of Southwestern Ontarioi Can* Geol. Surv. Mem. 34, Geol. Series l o . 62, pp. 1-341, 1916. gages 82-33-Hlnaia fibrosa (?) was l i s t e d among other -fauna as oocuring i n the Onondaga limestone. The Onondaga consisteti here of da rk~i bluish limestone with much blaak ohert. Page 74-Hlndla fibrosa was l i s t e d among other fauna as oacuring i n the Onondaga limestone. The Onondaga here eonsisted of dark bluish limestone. The upper part was somewhat shaly and contained Hindia fibrosa. Page 80-Hindia fibrosa was li s t e d among other fauna as oooring i n the Onondaga limestone. The Onondaga oonsisted of energy,argillaoeous limestone. Page 92-Hindia fibrosa was l i s t e d among other fauna as occuring i n the Qndaga limestone. The Onondaga limestone here oonsisted of alternating grey limestone and oaloareous blue shale. The limestone layers oontalned muoh orinoidal matter and numerous corals. The shaly layers contained Hindia fibrosa. Page 6-The Onondaga was deposited i n an advancing sea. Page 219-Hindia fibrosa was quite common i n the v i c i n i t y of Hagersville. It was primarily considered a Silurian speoies. It oocured throughout the Devonian of Gaspe and had been <— oollected from the Helderbergian of Hew York. It had not been reported from the Onondaga before. It was believed to represent an invasion probably from Gaspe by way of Hew York 3o 7 by a form ''whioh must have been approaching extinction." 2>0 8 Thomas, A. 0. A ffoasll Borrowing Sponge from the Iowa Devonian; Iowa Univ. Bull., Vol. 6, pp. 165-166, 1 plate, 1911. Thomas desoribed the borrowings of the sponge Cliona. It was found penetrating the shells of braohiopids, especially Orthls striatula (Sohloth.) and Stronhonella hybrida (H. & W«). She borings were oolleeted from the Upper Devonian Lime Creek shales at Haokberry Grove i n Iowa. The harrows extended parallel as well as obliquely te the surfaoe of the s h e l l . In the seotion of a single s h e l l , none of the burrows were seen to perforate the inner surfaoe. this was taken to indiaate that the sponge inhabiting the shell of the l i v i n g braohiopod "did not disturb the oooupant i n the least." Thamas mentioned that Parker and Haawell had stated that Cliona burrowed not for food hut for projection./ A disoussion followed on how Cliona burrowed. Hartog, Sollas, Hiokson, and Maobride had stalled-that aoid had not yet been found to.be the burrowing agent. Z i t t e l stated that "pin-shaped siliceous elements "in the sponge ware the agents. The borings of Cliona were known from the Tertiary, Cret-aceous, Juzasaio and Silurian. 3 0 5 Twenhofel, W. H. Geology of Antioosti island:Can. Cool. Mem. 154, Geol. Series No. 135, pp. 1-481, 1927. Page 18-The seonroe of the sediments was a northern one. Page 19-The Antioosti sediments were deposited in shallow seas. Only small parts, i f any, were deposited in depths beyond the reaoh of large waves. The wide distribution of dolomite and limestone pebbles, etc., i n the Siglish Eead, Yaurlel, J i l l s Say and Beosie formations was interpreted as indieating shallom waters for long times over extensive seas. Page 20-Intraformational conglomerates were observed in the English Head formation. Their presence indicated waters of such extreme shallowness that waters oould reaoh the bottom with sufficient power to tear up the previously deposited and partly consolidated sediments. Page 21-0noe broken and subsequently healed braohipod shell were common i n the English Head, Vamriel, S i l l s Bay and Gun Biver formations. These fraotures shells permitted the inference that their habitat wfis so olose to the surface that waves oould tear the shells from their hold and strike them on the rooks with sufficient force to break them. The dominant l i f e of the Antioosti seas were oorals and braohlopods. The waters of the Antleosti seas were probably at no time deeper than 200 to 300 feet. 3 ^ 0 Page 22-Both the water and the olimate was warm. Page 88-The ohart on page 83 indioated Hindia of fibrosa as oocuring in zone 4 of the English Head formation, zone 5 of the Vauriel formation and zones .4, 6, 7 and 8 of the E l l i s Bay formation* Page 59-Zone 4. English Head formation Grey argillaoeous limestone interbedded with grey and blue shale. Contained less limestone conglomerate than other zones. This was the of the most fossiliferous zones on the Island. Page 43-Zone g-g Yauriel Formation Grey limestone, interbedded with grey shale and oonglomerate. Fossils were f a i r l y abundant. Page 47-In the E l l i s Bay formation (Gamachian Series) the sections on the north and south shores were quite different i n the character of the sediments and oontained forms. Page 47-Zone 4. E l l i s Bay Formation On the south shore i t oonsisted of yellowish grey, and grey, limestone interbedded with grey and blue shale. On the north shore i t oonsisted of quartz sandstone. Fossils were extremely abundant. Zone 7. B i l l s Bay Formation Hodular greenish shale with lenses of nodular grey lime-stone. Similar lithology on the north ooast. Characterised by an abundanoe of Hormotoma gigantea and Beatrioea. Zone 8. E l l i s Bay Formation Bluish and yellowish-grey, fine grained limestone containing many Sohuohertella gamaohlana and Baflnesouina el l i s e n s i s . 3// On the north sheare i t oonsisted of bluish-grey impure ooarse grained limestone. Page 163-Blndia of. fibrosa tfasmlisted from the Biohmond English Head formation, zone 4, at Carletone Point. It was also liste d from the Vauriel formation, zone 5, at Battery Po|nt and from the B i l l s Bay formation, (zones 4, 6, 7, and 9, at E l l i s Bay, From the enolosed map, Carleton and Battery Po|nt were loeated on the north shore while E l l i s Bay was on the south shore. 3/Z Twenhofel, W. H. Geology and Paleontology of the Mingan Islands, Quebec: Geol. Soo. Amer. Spec. Paper No. 11, p p . 1-132, June 4, 1938. Twenhofel redescribed and discussed the sponges des-cribed by B i l l i n g s (1865) from the Mingan Islands. Twenhofel gac gave more exact st r a t i g r a p h i c positions the sponges where possible, i n accordance with the revised stratigraphic nomenclature. Some of B i l l i n g s ' specimens were lo s t and i n some oases i t was impossible to give an exact l o c a l i t y . One t e t r a o t l n e l l i d genus (Archaeosoyphia Hinde.), one l i t h i s t i d genus (Eospongia ,wBillings\), and three Incertae sedis genearaf Isohadites «• Lonsdale), H i p t e r e l l a '^Hindev-,' Reoeptaculites B l a i n v i l l e ; and Trichospongia ' B i l l i n g s ) , were desoribed. The t e t r a o t i n e l l i d and l i t h i s t i d genera are l i s t e d below with t h e i r corresponding formation: Order T e t r a o t i n e l l i d a Archaeosoyphia :Hinde\ A. minganensis ( B i l l i n g s ) Romaine formation on Moutange (Big Romaine) Island. Order L i t h i s t i d a Eospongia Billings-. JiB. -roemeri B i l l i n g s Lower 50-60 feet of the Mingan formation. Best l o c a l i t i e s on Quarry and 3 / 3 Sea Cow Islands and Clearwater Point. B. varians B i l l i n g s Lower 50-60 feet o f the Mingan formation. Best l o c a l i t i e s on Quarry and Sea Cow Islands and on Clearwater and Ammonite Point. Twenhofel discussed B i l l i n g s ' o r i g i n a l description of Petraia minganensis (1859). Twenhofel agree with Hinde (1889) i n that i t was not a ooral, as B i i l i n g s had thought, but a sponge. Hinde renamed Petraia minganensis Arohaeosoyphia  minganensis. Twenhofel believed that Eospongia , B i l l i n g s , and Z i t t e l e l l a U l r i c h and Everett were probably the same genus. He mentioned that Eospongia roemerlB\ B i l l i n g s ; and Z i t t e l e l L a  inosculata j J l r i c h and Everett\ seemed to be olosely related. Bospongia varians f B i l l i n g s >• and Z i t t e l e l l a t y p i c a l i s ^ U l r i c h and S^erett) were also said to be clo s e l y r e l a t e d . Twenhofel thought that Calathium (?) paradoxioum 5 B i l l i n g s f which was subsequently referred to H i p t e r e l l a paradoxioa Hinde'; by Hinde i n 1889, might possibly belong to the Cryptozoa. It was suggested that Reoeptaculites (?) elegantulus ' B i l l i n g s might r e a l l y be an Isohaditea. A l l of the speoimens of Triohospongia serioea ( B i l l i n g s ) ware l o s t . It was thought that the formation was the Romaine formation. Description of Formations The Mingan formation (Chazyan) uncon formably overlied the Romaine formation (Beekmantown). Romaine Formation The Romaine formation on Moutange Island was composed of dark dolomite, i n part shaly and i n part cherty (page 19). The de s c r i p t i o n of the Romaine formation on Mingan Island was not given. was not Mingan Formation Lower 50 to 60 Feet of the Mingan Formation: -On Quarry Island (Page 20J -Here the rock consisted of interbedded limestone, shale and sandstone. Zone 12 was desoribed as being fine-grained, semi-lithographic limestone with some possible limestone sands and oontaining "many sponges of mushroom shape". -On Sea Cow Islands (Page 21) The beds were s i m i l a r to those on Quarry Islands The limestone beds of zone 7 were l o c a l l y cross laminated. Otherwise they were h o r i z o n t a l l y laminated. A l l of the beds were believed to be sands at the time of deposition. Some layers of zone 7 wese " l o o a l l y f u l l of sponges". -On Clearwater and Ammonite Points (Page 22) The beds were s i m i l a r to those on Quarry and Sea Cow Islands. Zone 14 was composed of fine-grained, almost lithographic limestone with some beds of organic matter. The beds of organic matter consisted of 3/S "ground-up" matter. It was considered to have been limestone at the time of deposition. Eospongia, Mao- l u r i t e s . Ranhistomina. Thaleoios oonifrons. Bumastus t globosus. Hesperorthis i g n i c u l a and others were stated to be "not uncommon". In the general synthetic section of the Mingan Islands on pages 22-25, Twenhofel desoribed zone 14 (which should cor-respond) to the lower 50-60 feet of the Mingan formation) by sta t i n g that " i t i s obvious that at times during the deposition of the materials....the surface of the deposit was above sea l e v e l and was subjected to drying." In zone 2 of the Middle Mingan formation on Mingan Island (page 16), the rook consisted of coarse-grained limestone. Zone 2 contained many Shynohocamera varians. Camarotoechia  pristine.. Fie to her i a jlnoertae and Stylaraeparva. In zone 15 (page 133) of the Middle Mingan formation, the s t r a t a was thought to have been limestone sands at the time o f deposition. • ( < J. 15 should cor.r-.Bpcud.tD "the .-idule I'd agar. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Faunas  Bospongia was common i n the lower h a l f of the Mingan formation. Sponges, coral s , bryozoa, braohlopods, peleoypods, echinoderras, ostraoods and t r i l o b i t e s were wholly or la r g e l y confined to the Mingan formation. Gastropods and cephalopoda were equally confined between the two formations. In the Romaine formation, f o s s i l s were rare or poorly preserved. Seven speoies of the Mingan were i n d i c a t i v e of the P l a t t e -v i l l e of the Upper M i s s i s s i p p i Vallgg. These were Bospongia v a r i a n s . E « r o e m e r i . M a o l u r i t e s m a g n u s , I s o t e l u s s p . , Q h a s m o t o p o r a s u b l a x a . B r i d i t r y p a a e d i l i s a n d T h a l e o p o o n i f r o n s . Udden, J* A. Botes O B the Geology of the Glass Mountains: Texas Univ. B a l l . So. 1762. pp. 1-59, Sept. 20. 1917. Udden measured a series of seotions through parts of the Glass Mountains:^in Texas. In some beds of the seotions, sponges or sponge spicules vera measured. These bed s are noted below: Seotion 1 Pages 9-11-Seotion 1 was measured beginning about one and a half miles southeast of Altuda. Bed 17 of the Word formation oonsisted of thin-bedded, yellow, sandy limestone with some o e l i t i o material. Sponge spicules were present. Page 11-The total absence of argillaoeous material in the Word formation i n seotion 1 waa commented upon. More argillaceous material was present further east. Saotion2 Pages 11-18-Seotion 2 began 8 miles northeast of Lenox and extended H 20° W to the orest of the Glass Mountains. Bed 12 of the Leonard formation oonsisted chiefly of sandstone. Sponge spicules were present. Bed 81 of the Word formation oonsisted of a coarse organic limestone breccia. Sponge spioules were present. Saotian 8 Pages lS»i#-Seotlon 8 was measured from one mile south-west of Iron Mountain northwestate the summit of the Glass Mountains. 3 /a Bed 18 of the Leonard formation oonsisted of thiok-bedded limestone. Large sponge spioules were present. Bed 19 of the Leonard formation oonsisted of limestone, i n plaees sandy. Bemalns of sponges were present. Bed 23 of the Leonard formation oonsisted of shales with limestone beds. Sponge spioules were present i n the limestone. Seotion 4 Pages 19-22-Saotion 4 was measured i n Gilliam Canyon. Bed 14 of the Word formation oonsisted of yellowish grey marl. Dimeres of sponge spicules were present. Bed 17 of the Word formation oonsisted of thick-bedded limestone* Sponge spioules were present. Seotion 5 Paces 25-27-SAQtion 6 was measured from about three miles northeast of Leonard Mountain northward. Bed 11 of the Hess formation oonsisted of thiok-bedded grey limestone, somewhat o o l i t i c . Mmute sponge spioules were present. Bed 13 of the Hess formation oonsisted of grey limestone. Sponge spioules were present. Bed 15 of the Hess formation oonsisted of grey limestone* Sponge spioules were present. Bed 21 of the Hess formation oonsisted of organic fragmental limestone. Sponge spioules were present. Bed 30 of the Hess formation oonsisted of grey limestone. Sponge spioules were present. 3/9 Seotion 6 Pages 27-28-Seotion 6 was measured from one mile east-northeast of Hess Tank H 20° B. Bed 1 of the Word formation oonsisted of brownish, coarse dolomite. Gystothalamia (?) sp. was present. Seotion 7 Pages 28-54-Ssction 7. extended north-northwest from Wolfoamp. Bed 8 of the Gaptankrf®sanation oonsisted of somewhat oaloareous, s i l t y shale. Sponge spioules were present. Bed 30 of the Hess formation oonsisted of organic frag-mental limestone. Sponge spioules were present. Page 50-Guadalupla oyllndrioa (Girty) (?) was identified among other fauna from the Word formation. The fauna was found in sandy o o l i t i c limestone 500 feet above the base of the formation. The upper 600 feet of the Leonard formation oonsisted essentially of shale. After the deposition of this shale the conditions i n the ancient Permo-oarboniferous sea ohanged, abruptly at the beginning of the Word, permitting the accum-ulation of oaloareous deposits mostly free from argillaoeous material. Later there was a return to formes conditions. The geographical oondition indioated by the fine-textured and sandy oaloareous material is that of a shallow sea with drif t i n g bottom ourrents. 3 -2-0 Ulrich, JS« 0. Preliminary Description of New Silurian Sponges: Amer. Geol., Vol. I l l , pp. 223-248, figs. 1-10, Jan.-June, 1889. Six new sponge genera were desoribed. Two of the genera-Rauffella and Leptopterian-were believed to be hexaotinellids. The other four were believed to be oaloisponges. These four were Heterospongia. Saoeospongia. Streptospongia and Cylindroooella. In addition, two new speoies, belonging respeotivelly to Dystactospongia Miller; and Hindia (Duncan, were published. Ulrich stated that he had described Heterospongia and Streptospongia in 1880 i n his SCalologue of the Cinoinnat4 Group". Sinoe he had not given any illustrations of these genera in his oatologue, Ulrich gelieved that the date of description of the above two genera should be changed to 1889. The oaloisponge and l i t h i s t i d speoies described are listed below with thier corresponding formations: Heterosp ongla Ulrich H. sub ramosa (Ulrich; Upper and possible middle beds of the Cincinnati group. Marion and Lincoln counties, Kentucky. Cincinnati H i l l s and Spring Valley, Minnesota. H. knotti Ulrich Upper beds of Cincinnati group near Lebanon. H. aspera Ulrioh Upper beds of Cincinnati group in Marion and Linooln oounties, Kentucky. 3 2./ Saooospongia .Ulrich S. rudis Ul»loh-s. danvillensis ;Ulrioh Pystaoospongia Millar B. minima Ulrioh Streptospongia lUlrioh S«. labyrinthloa U l r i oh Cyllndroooelia Ulrioh 0 . endooeroldea (Ulrioh) C. oovingtonensis Ulrich C, minnesotensis .Ulrioh 0 . minor Ulrioh Siliceous beds at the top of the Trenton near Lexicon and Frankfort, Kentucky. Silioeous beds at the top of the Trenton at Boyke, Meroer, Frank-l i n and Fayette counties, Kentucky. Found at "locality for byyozoa near Hanover", Butler county, Ohio. Upper beds of Cincinnati group, near Lebanon, Kentucky. Birdseye Limestone at High-bridge, Kentucky. Middle beds of Cincinnati group at Covington, Kentucky. Trenton shales at Minneapolis, St. Paul and Fountain in Minnesota. Upper silioeous beds of the Trenton group at the U.S.B*B», south of Harrodsburg Junction. 3 2 Z Hindia -Duncan H. parva '(Ulrioh Upper Galena of the Trenton group in the "Western States" and at the same horizon in Tennessee, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Heterospongia was a sponge consisting of sub-lobate or irregularly divided, compressed branches. The entire surfaoe was covered with the mouths of more or less tortuous oanals. Saceospongia was a simple sponge of sub-oylindrical or oval form. The cloaoal cavity extended from the base to the summit of the sponge. The walls were porous. Dystactospongia minima was a parasitic sponge. It formed thin crusts or small irregular masses on Bryozoa and other foreign bodies. Ulrioh thought that Streptospongia  oonfusa • Oiriohi 1880, might be oonspeoific with Pystaoospongia  insolens H i l a r , 188 £ ., Only fragments were found of Streptospongia labyrinthica. CvlindrooDelia was a free sponge. The shape was nearly oylinorical with the lower end tapering to a point or truncate. A central cloaca was presen^, intateleastnthe sub-oylindrioal portion. 3 & 3 Ulrioh, J £ . O* American Palaeozoic Sponges: I l l i n o i s Geological Surrey, ^Palaeontology of I l l i n o i s , Vol, 8, pp. 209-241, 1890. ulrich gave a general disoussion of American Palaeozoic sponges, including their geological distribution, classification and preservation, he introduced a new family Anthaspldellidae of the Jbithldtida. In addition he reviewed and summarized the literature on the nomenclature of Hindi ia Duncan.. Ulrich stated that in the sponge material at hand from horizons below the Devonian there were ate least 54 genera-' present*a Of these, 22 had (to Ulrioh*s knowledgeIalready been described. On pages 233 to 241 a tabular l i s t and olassificatlon of American Palaeozoic sponge genera and speoies along with geological distribution was given. Among these sponges were the new genera and speoies soon to be desoribed by Ulrioh and Everett. Geological Distribution Taeonio System This system contained 6 sponge genera and 13 speoies. 4 Among these were Leptomitus Walcott , Protoapongla Salter , Arohaeoeyathus .Billings' and Bthmophyllnm tHeek. • Cambrian System Because of the intense collecting from this system, Ulrioh stated that their were more sponges known than in the other systems• Billing's had desoribed the genera Calathium(?). Jjthmo-3 phyllum. Mhabdaria and Trlohospongia from the Caloiferous group and Calathium and Traohyum from the Quebec group. In the Trenton period the l i t h i s t i d s inoluded Hindia. Astylospongia (?), Anthaspidella. Z l t t e l e l l a . adriospongia. Streptosolen and Anloolnm. Calcisponges from the Trenton rooks of I l l i n o i s and Kentucky included Strotospongia. Saooospongia. Dystagtpgponaia. Cylindrocoelia and Camarocladia. The caloisponges Dystactospongia and Heterospongia were obtained from the Cincinnati rooks of'Ohio and Kentuoky. Silurian System In Western Tennessee the Niagara group contained p r o l i f i c sponge l o c a l i t i e s . Ana>ngetheesponges collected from here were Astylospongia. balaeomanon. Astraeospongia. Hindia. Aulooopium and ClimaooSPongia. The strata below the Niagara had not yet furnished sponges. The itower Helderberg strata, above the Niagara, oontained Hindia sphaeroldalis Duncan (Astylospongia inornata i Hall }• Ulrioh mentioned that the Helderbergian Hindia appeared to be identioal with the common Niagara form. Devonian System Sponges generally were rare i n the Devonian. Besides the hexaotinelli ds, the only sponge genus known i n America was the new genus Syringosphvllum from the Hamilton strata of northern Michigan. Carboniferous System In the Carboniferous Salemnospongla occured i n the Burlington limestone of I l l i n o i s and Dasiooladia occured in the Keokuk group of I l l i n o i s and Kentucky. The tetrao-3 XS t i n e l l l d Hystriospongia oarbonaria and the probable oaloi-sponge Bfttospongla were found In the Goal measures of I l l i n o i s . A ^ - Q W: family of the Lithistids was desoribed. The family was named Anthaspldellidae Ulrioh. . The ohief characteristic of this family was the skeletal structure. The individual spioules were four rayed. They oonsisted of a rod-like central portion with rapidly diverging bifurcations at eaoh end. The resulting form was X shaped. The central portion was placed horizontally with the bifurcations directed parallel with eaoh other and nearly at right angles to the rod. The bifurcations united to form radial columns. A minutely tubular skeleton resulted. Ulrioh stated that the radial p i l l a r s of the stromatoporoid Actinostroma were very similar to those of the Anthaspldellidae and suggested homologlcal rather than accidental relationships. The genera plaoed under this new family were Anthaspidella. Z i t t e l l a . atrentosolen. adrlospongja. Aulocopium. ollmaoo-gnongla and Syringophyllum.. Several speoies referred to Calathium were also believed to belong here. On pages 226-237 Ulrioh reviewed the arguments over the nomenclature of the type speoies of Hindia , Juncan,. Ulrioh deoided that Blndia sphaeroidalis Dunoan. had priority over Hindia fibrosa (Boemer). Ulrioh also mentioned that the sponge named by Miller and Dyer (1878) as Miorospongia was really a Hindia. Although Miorospongia was desoribed f i r s t , Ulrioh believed that Miller and Dyers' descriptions and illustrations of the sponge were so poor and misleading that Hindia should really be given pri o r i t y . Ulrioh, E. 0. Sponges of the Devonian and Carboniferous Systems: Geol. Surv. 245-261, 3 plates, 1839. Ulrioh desoribed fonr new sponge genera. They were Belemnospongia. Hystriospongia. Syringosphyllum., and Batospongia. Eaoh of the new genera belonged respectivelly to the Monaotin-e l l i d a , Tetraotinellida, Lithistida and Galoispongia. In addition a new speoies of Laaiooladia was desoribed. The sponges desoribed with thier corresponding form-ations are given below: Order Monaotinellida Belemnospongia lUlrioh? B. fasoioularis Ulrich. Cherty layers of the I l l i n o i s , Palaeontology of I l l i n o i s , Par'#$r,Seotion 17, pp. Burlington limestone at Burlington, Iowa and Pike County, I l l i n o i s . L. hindei ^Ulrioh; Shales of the Keokuk Group at Hauvoo, I l l i n o i s ; Keokuk, Iowa and Kings Mountain Tunnel on the C.S.S.R., Linooln County Kentucky. Order Tetraotinellida Hystrioagongia Ulrioh H. carbonaria U t r i c h Hear base of the ooal measures at Seville, I l l i n o i s . Order Lithistida \-Syringophyllum I Ulrioh: S. wortheni .Ulrich) Shales of the Hamilton group at (Thunder Bay-Island, Miohigan. Glass Caloispongia Batospongia Ulrich; B. spioata Ulrioh Hear base of the ooal measures at Seville, I l l i n o i s . Belemnospongia was believed to be a free sponge. It was composed of elongate aoerate spioules whioh radiated upward and outward from a pointed base. Hinde had suggested to Ulrioh that they might be comparable with the monaotinellid Climaoospongia -Hinde>. Ulrioh, however, believed that Climaooaponeia was an anthaspidellid l i t h i s t i d . Lasiocladia hindei was composed of elongate slender straight aoerate spioules closely arranged i n sub-parallel series. Spioules of this speoies were frequently seen scat-tered over slabs between fronds of ffenestella and other bryozoa. Hystriospongia was a sub^glovular or ovoid form with 3 £ y with spioules arranged in a radiate manner from the base. The bulk of the skeleton was composed of small biaoerate spioules. Hystriospongia was stated to differ from Tethyopsis Z i t t e l , Paohastrella -Schmidt"* and Ophiorhaph-idites 'Carter mainly in the type and size of spioules. H. oarbonaria was found associated, on a slab of bituminous limestone, with the bryozoan genera Fenestella. Polypora and Prismopora. Syringophyllum was a frondescent sponge. Both sides were deeply channeled* The channels were parallel and in-creased in number by interpolation. Vertical oanals, arranged in linear series, passed through the expansion from side to. side opening into the bottom of the channels. Ulrich thought that several sponges referred to Calathium oanadense S B i l l i n g s and C. i n f e l i x JI Ulrioh and Everett; were olosely reaated to Syringopjayllhnu Syringpphyllum, however, was frondescent. S. wortheni was found assooiated with numerous coaals and bryozoa. Batospongia was a sub-hemispherical or sub-globose sponge. It oonsisted of small inosculating sub-oylindrical or flattened branches arising from a reticulated basal portion. It gave the sponge a bushy appearance. The spicules of this genus appeared similar to the family fihizomorina of the Lithistids, but Ulrich thought that their association with numerous aoerate spioules was more an indication of the tialoispongia. The specimens of B. spioata were found on a slab of bituminous limestone associated with Hystriospongia oarbonaria.athe j hexaotinellid Hyalostelia delioatula and numerous bryozoa. 3 Ulrioh, E. 0. and Everett, 0. Descriptions of Lower Silurian Sponges: IIlino is _ Ge o l . Surv. , Part II, Palaeontology of I l l i n o i s , Seotion V, pp. £55-282, • 3&C Seven new genera of sponges were described. Four of them-Anthaspidellaj Z i t t e l e l l a . Bdriospongia and Streptosolen-belonged to the LithistM a. Twa others-Strotospongia aid. Camarooladia-were referred to the Galoispongia. The remaining genus belonged to the Hexaotinellida. In addition one new speoies of Hindia and two new speoies of Pystaoospongia were desoribed. Some specimens were referred provisionally to Calathium. The specimens were collected in a quarry near Dixon, I l l i n o i s . They were found in a shaly layer of "Trenton limestone" from one to four or five inches thiok lying between heavy layers of sub-crystalline limestone. The layer «aaaabbntt£5^feetaabovetthettop of the St. Peter sandstone. The layer was largely made up" of organic remain?. It was crowded with the remains of Palaeophvons and Bjith.-otrephie. The sponged were either scattered through the layer or abundant i n oertain spots. Ulrioh and Everett listed an associated fauna of about 25 speoies. The genera and species of sponges desoribed are given below: Order Lithistida Family Anthaspidellidae Anthaspidella 'Ulrioh and Everett' A. mammulata iUlrich and Everett A. f l o r i f e r a \ Ulrioh and Everett, A. parvistellata Ulrioh and Everett A. soutula \ Ulrioh and Everett A. grand is; (Ulrioh and Everett, A. firma 'Ulrioh and Everett; A. fenestrata Ulrioh and Everett A. obliqua Ulrioh and Everett! A. (?) magnifioa 'Ulrioh and Everett Z i t t e l e l l a -Ulrich and Everett. Z. typioalia "ulrioh and Everett; var. p l s t i l l l f o r m i e • ulrioh and Everett,, var. tnrbinata 1Ulrioh and Everett var. subrotunda t Ulrioh and Everettr Z. lobata VUlrleh and Everett; Z. inagoulata .Ulrioh and Everett Bdriospongia 'Ulrioh and Everett-E. basal!s ;Ulrioh and Everett) Streptoselen iUlrioh and Everett\ 3. oboonlons iU|rloh and Everett; Calathium [Billings f C. (??) (?Zlttelella) i n f e l i x (Ulrioh and Everett; Family Tetracladina Hindia Duncan, H. inequaljs Ulrioh and Everett; Order Caloispongia Strotospongia iUlrioh and Everett^ S. maculosa 4Hlrioh and Everett, 3& / Oamarooladla Ulrioh and Everett. C. dichotoma Ulrioh and Jsverett Dystactospongia Miller; 3). minor Ulrioh and Everett} D. rudia - Ulrich and Everett) Anthaspidella was a compound, sauoer-or funnel-shaped sponge, attached to a short stem. The surface showed numerous inosculating channels. The canals were radiating and olosely arranged in vertical series. The upper surface had a number of osoula. Z i t t e l e l l a was a simple pedunoulate attached sponge. The shape varied from depressed oboonioal, burbinate or sub-spherical to sub-cylindrical. It was rarely lobate. The upper surfaoe had a shallow depression through which vertical tubes opened. The canal system oonsisted of radiating canals whi whioh ran from the surfaoe of the sponge to the vertical center tubes. Bdriospongia was a massive lobate sponge, attached by a broad base. The canal system was irregular and oonsisted of c olosely arranged radiating canals connected by vertical canals. One of the specimens of Edriospongla basalis was attached to i the lower surfaoe of a speoies of Anthaspidella. It was bel believed that Anthaspidella had grown upon the Edriospongia u n t i l i t had stopped the water circulation by closing the canal outlets. Strantosolen was a simple or compound, obconioal ped-unculate sponge. The center oscula had the mouths of 5 or 6 3#2L 6 tubes whioh extended through to the base. i'he osoula was surrounded by irregular radiating eanals. Two imperfect speoimens sere provisionally referred to Calathium (Billings). Ulrioh and Everett added the question marks because Calathium formosum (Billings) the type of the genus seemed to be generic all y distinct from these forms. It was suggested that they perhaps might have been Z i t t e l e l l a . Strotospongia was a compound funnel-shaped oalcisponge. It was composed of thin i n t r i o a l l y intertwined vertical leaves. The upper surfaoe had more than one osoulum. Strotospongia was stated to resemble the l i t h i s t i d Anthaspidella. The Internal structure, however, corresponded very olosely with Bvstactospongia. Camarooladia was a small sponge consisting of sub-cylindrical branching stems. The interior contained irregularly winding large, but short sub-oylindrical canals. This sponge was stated to tesemble the "fucoid" Bnthotrephis in general appearance. The genus Camaraoladia was plaoea i n the Caloispongia "in the neighborhood of Peronella and Vertlo&llltes." Ulrioh and Everett mentioned that there were probably 2 or 3 other speoies of Camarooladia i n the Trenton rooks of the "western states". 3 ? 3 Van Ingen, G. and Clarke, P. IS. Disturbed ffossiliferous Books In the Vicinity of Handout. H. Y.: Hew York State Mus. Bull. 69, Paleontology 9, Bept. State Peleentplogis*, pp. 1176-1287, I 90 "2-Page 1188-Hlnila fibrosa and a "Sponge gen. et sp.?" vera li s t e d among other fauna as ooouringiin bed 22 of the Coeymans limestone. Bed 22 was a Jssayy bed of limestone, 11 feet thiok, f u l l of large orinoid stems. The upper part contained muoh blaok chert. Atrvna retioularis and Hindia were oommon. The underlying bed 21 oonsisted of dark grey limestone. Page 1189-Hindla fibrosa was l i s t e d among ether fauna as ooeuring i n bed 23 of the Coeymans limestone. Bed 23, whioh overlay bed 22, oonsisted of dark lime-stone, 12 feet thiok. Chert oooured i n the lower part. Page 1189-Hindia fibrosa was l i s t e d among other fauna from bed 24 of the Coeymans. Bed 24 was more shaly than the proceeding. It formed a transition zone between the Coeymans and Hew Scotland• It was f u l l of ferpldnla and "other f o s s i l s . " Bed 25, overlaying bed 24, oonsisted of shaly, dark grey, argillaceous limestone. It was about 4 feet thick. Page 1190-The Hew Scotland beds oonsisted of dark grey ^ shaly limestone alternating with grey, semi-orystalline limestone. "The lower portion has considerable ohert, whioh is often associated, as tn the underlying Coeymans, with an abundanoe of sponges." The upper portion of the Hew Soot-33? land graduated by increased thickness of the limestone bands into the Beeraft limestone. Page 1191-Hindia fibrosa was listed among other fauna as oo curing i n the Lower Hew Scotland beds. It was not listed i n the middle or the upper beds of the Hew Scotland. Overlying the Hew Sootland was the Brecraft limestone. It oonsisted of massive beds of shell limestone of "high purity". Hindia was not present. Pages 119g-1197-Eindla fibrosa was l i s ted among other fauna from the lowermost Port Essen beds. It was "common". 2Fba "?ert Ewen limestone overlay the Beer aft. It con-sisted of massive beds of impure silioeo-argillaceous lime-stones similar to the Hew Sootland beds. The thickness was between 116 and 200 feet. "With the exception of the lower-most portion of the formation, which, through a thiokness of 10 or 12 feet just above the Beoraft, consists of lighter colored, mtere fossiliferous, purer limestone, the general mass of the Port Ewen beds i n not p r o l i f i c of organic remains." "Tixe Port Ewen beds.• .commence with an impure limestone without ohert, l i t t l e different from the upper part of the Beoraft, whioh by inorease i n frequency and thiokness of the undulating somas of yellowish sandy material, and corresponding loss or miminuation of the lime seams, assumes with 20 feet a above the top of the Beoraft the typical oharaoter of the Port Ewen beds." Page 12Qg-Hindia fibrosa was listed as a Hew Sootland speoies present In the fflenerie Oriskany fauna. It was "rare*. Pages 1198-120S-Overlying the Port Ewen was the Oriskany. fwe distinct faoies were present. The lower facies oonsisted of coarse olastie materials. The other, the overlying faoies, oonsisted of layers of sandy limestone interbedded with oherty limestone. Both layers werejreplete with f o s s i l s . The large percentage of New Sootland speoies in the Glenerie Oriskany was taken to indiaate a olose a f f i n i t y between the two. It was stated that the Geeaerie-fauna and the •••'r*-'• ^ beds containing them oould be considered essentially a reourrenoe of the oonditions of sedimentation and fauna of the New Sootland beds during Oriskany time. Page 1206-Hindia was l i s t e d among other fos s i l s oh a ehart showing the range of the Eelderbergian and Oriskanianspeoies. It was listed as present in the Middle Coeymans ("abundant"). Upper Coeymans ("oommon"), Lower New Sootland ("common"), Lower Port Swan ("common"), and i n the Oriskany at Glenerle ("rare"). -3 36 Walcott, C D. Middle Cambrian Snonglae: Smithsonian Miso. Coll., Vol. 67, ' ' , '•"•** *>? 1. ~ C. !, :.'•:•.<*, IT Ho. 6* pp. £61-3641 1 9 £ 0 . Waloott desoribed ten genera of monaotinellid and six genera of hexaotinellid sponges. Nine of the monaotinellid and four of the hexaotinellid genera were new. Maliohondrites Dawson was the only monaotinellid genus previously des-oribed. i'he following i s the l i s t of monaotinellid sponges desoribed with their corresponding stratigraphic position: Haliohondrites K K •. oonfusua •Dawsonj MttiesMetis shale H. e l l i s a Waloott; Burgess shale Tuponia bellllineata Walcott Mt. Whyte formation T. f l e x i l i s iWaloott) Burgess shale T. f l e x i l i s var intermedia " iWaloott; Burgess shale * r lineata Waloott • Burges ssshale W-.- W.- / : .-• C, 'I- « "! -Takakkawia lineata Waloott Burgess shale Wapkia grandis -Waloott Burgess shale Hazelia oonferta Walcott) Burgess shale H. delicatula (.Waloott/ Burgess shale H. (?) grandis W a l c o t t Ogygopsis shale H. mamillata .Waloott; Burgess shale H. nodulifera Waloott Burgess shale H. obsoura (Waloott Burgess shale H. palmata Waloott; Burgess shale Corralia undulata Waloott ^ Burgess shale 33 7 Sentinelia draoa (Waloott) Choia oarteri (Walcott) C. f l a h e l l a (Hioks) C. hindel (Dawson) C. r i d l e y i (Waloott) C. ntahensis (Waloott) Hamptonla bowerbanki (Waloott) Plrania murioata (Waloott) Waloott did not believe the fauna of the Burgess shale to be in plaoe ke«w5w&. they did not appear to be normal i n - < habitants of muddy water. He thought that they had been carried into the poisonous lapta pool by currents, henoe they were not normal inhabitants of the pool. Beoause of the supposedly poisonous nature of the pool, more or less perfect preservation was possible in the absenoe of scav-engers. The Burgess shale was supposed to have been laid down i n a small bay or lagoon in close connection with a shallow sea. The sponges, algae, annelids, orustaoeons, eto were believed to have lived i n relatively quiet shallow waters with abundant l i f e readily aocessible to the open sea. In his dusoussion of the Metis shale fauna Waloott be-lieved that Dawson had mis identified Obelella pretiosa tBillinggj), a braohiopod associate of the Metis sponge fauna. Stephen formation Wheeler formation Burgess shale Ogygopsis shale Menevian formation L i t t l e Metis shale Burgess shale Marjum limestone Burgess shale Ogygopsis shale Burgess shale 3#a Waloott thought that i t was actually Aorotreta s a g i l l a l i s Salts;), a probable Middle or lower Upper Cambrian species* This would give the Metis shale a Cambrian age. Because Dawson had desoribed only fragments of Halichondrites  oonfusus Dawson . Waloott made the much more completely preserved Burgess speoies.tHe ellssa Waloott/. the geno-type of the genus. The general shape of the sponge was elong-ate and tubular. Long slender rods formed of hair-like spioules oroesedgeaoh other in a right and l e f t , slightly oblique arrangement. They were held together by a mass of fine aoerate spioules crossing the hair-like spioules at a l l angles. The general form was similar to the hexaetinellid Cyathophyous. Hallohondrites was believed to have been anchored when l i v i n g . Tnponia was an elongate, cylindrical, thin-walled, flex-ible sponge. Its skeleton was formed of vertioal slender spicular rods with fine transverse spioules dividing the spaoe between the vertioal spioules into quadrilateral spaces. T. f l e x i l i s appeared to have anohoring spioules at the base, while T. lineata appeared to have i t s base buried in the bottom of the sea floor. Some speoies had a suggestion of an open-ing at the top. T, bell i l i n e a t a was found i n grey silioeous shales of the Mt. Whyte formation. Waloott/vthat the following statement by Dawson 4l§8BittP§ 274) suggest edntheop're'BS^ shales; "Groups of extremely simple straight spioulesllying olose together and parallel or more or less disturbed. They are narrow, and may have been cylindrical. One group has 3 # * four long anchoring rods arranged in two pairs. They show no indication of ouroiform spicules." Leptomitus and Tnponia were believed to possibly be oongenerio • Takakkawla was a slender cylindrical, r i g i d , thin-walled sponge with a skeleton formed of vertioal strands of delicate simple spioules embedded in spongin. Fine transverse spicules occured singly and in fine strands. Possible anchoring spic-ules oocured in one specimen. In other specimens, however, i t appeared as i f the sponge stood with i t s lower end embedded i n t he sediment. Hazella was an elongate, cylindrical, probably flexible, branching form. Some speoies did not appear to branoh. In some specimens the fronds appeared to have been hollow. The skeleton was composed of elongate vertical undulating strands of fine elongate thread-like spicules. The strands often bifurcated. The genus apparently grew upright. One species, H. nodullfera. was found attached to the braohiOpod Hlsusia  alberta. Corralia was an erect, gradually expanding undulating oone-shaped form with the apex at the base. The skeleton was formed of olosely arranged vertical strands o f simple elongate fine spioules. Sentinelia oonsisted of fragmentary remains. They were fronds with numerous round o r ovaTL tubercles scattered over tl3# gf&rfaoe i n w h i o h p o s s i b l e o p e n i n g s m i g h t have occured. Choia was a sponge with a thin circular diso from whioh 1>1TO spioules radiated to and beyond the margin of the d i s c . 'Ihe sponge was believed to .havirbeen free. The spicules probably extended outward i n a broad be l t so as to elevate the sponge above the m