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Upper Devonian corals of the Canadian Cordilleran region Thomlinson, Arnold Gordon 1954

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UPPER DEVONIAN CORALS OP THE CANADIAN CORDILLERAN REGION by ARNOLD GORDON THOMLINSON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Members of the Department of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1954 CORALS IN SLAB OF DEVONIAN LIMESTONE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank Dr. V.J. Okulitch, Chairman, Division of Geology, for advice on numerous paleontological problems encountered in the preparation of this thesis. To him I am also indebted for instruction and assistance in the reproduction of illustrations from the literature, and in ill u s t r a t i o n of specimens. I am especially grateful to my wife, Joan Delia Thomlinson, who has typed and patiently proof-read my manuscript. To Mrs. J.A. Donnan I also extend my thanks for the co-operative s p i r i t with which she has undertaken typing of the thesis. Mr. J.A. Donnan, geological technician, has furthered by work by instructing me in the preparation of thin sections, and in preparing for me those which I found most d i f f i c u l t . My friend and fellow-student, Mr. F.A. Frebold has presented me with the beautiful specimen illustrated in the frontispiece. Both he and Mr. J.A.C. Fortescue, in discussing with me problems common to our various studies, have aided me in the development of my thesis. i ABSTRACT Preliminary to the descriptions of genera and species is a very brief discussion of coral terminology and classification. The thesis embodies descriptions and i l l u s -trations of 29 genera and 42 species of f o s s i l corals, reported in the literature to occur in Upper Devonian rocks of western Canada. Although most of these are reported from the Rocky Mountain area, several species from the Mackenzie River-Mackenzie Mountains area are also included. In addition, species reported from the Upper Devonian Outcrops east of the Rocky Mountains have been dealt with. Numerous taxonomic problems encountered in the study are discussed in remarks on the genera and species involved. Fossil corals collected from the region drained by the headwaters of the North Saskatchewan River are described, identified and illustrated. Nine genera and 14 species are recognized in the collection. Of these, .1 genus and 4 species do not appear to have been previously reported to occur in the Upper Devonian beds of the Rocky Mountains in Canada. The species of Coenites described is possibly a new one but i t cannot be regarded as such until a study is made of literature which, at present, is not available. i i From this study of Upper Devonian corals, the writer concludes that the DISPHYLLIDAE are in need of division into new subfamilies, and he suggests two character-i s t i c s whose phylogenetic significance requires invest-igation. However, i t is considered that existing paleon-tologlc data Is neither comprehensive enough nor precise enough to permit such an undertaking. Reasons are given for the present inadequacies of knowledge of Upper Devonian corals and recommendations are made for improvement of the situation. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i INTRODUCTION i i i CHAPTER I. TAXONOMY OF FOSSIL CORALS 1 Terminology 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 4 CHAPTER I I . DESCRIPTIONS OF GENERA AND SPECIES . . . 8 Subclass TETRACORALLA Family HADROPHYLLIDAE Microcyclus 8 Family METRIOPHYLLIDAE Metriophyllum 10 Family ZAPHRENTIDAE Zaphrentls 12 Family BETHANYPHYLLIDAE Subfamily BET HANYP HYLLINAE Ceratophyllum 14 Family ACANTHOPHYLLIDAE Acanthophyllum 15 Cyathophyllum V$ Heliophyllum 19 Family LEPT0INOPHYLLIDAE Subfamily LEPTOINOPHYLLINAE Brevipnyllum 22 Charactophyllum 23 Diversophyllum 2b Mictophyllum 28 Subfamily GRYPOPHYLLINAE Tabulophyllum 30 Family C0LUMNARIIDAE Subfamily S P ON GOP HYLLINAE Spongophyllum 36 TABLE OF CONTENTS CONCLUDED PAGE Family DTSPHYLLIDAE Subfamily DISPHYLLINAE Aeervularia 38 Disphyllum . . 39 Hexagonaria 55 Macgeea 60 Phillipsas traea 64 Subfamily ERIDOPHYLLINAE Eridophyllum 79 Family CYSTIPHYLLOIDAE Subfamily CYSTIPHYLLOINAE Cystiphylloldes . .. 80 Family C HON OP HYLLIDAE Subfamily CHONOPHYLLINAE Chonophyllum 84 Ptychophyllum 86 Subclass TABULATA Family FAVOSITEDAE Alveolites 88 Coenites 94 Favosites 99 Striatopora 103 Thamnopora 104 Family SYRINGOPORIDAE Syringopora 113 Family AULOPORIDAE Aulopora . . . . 115 Cladochonus . 119 Romingeria 119 CONCLUSIONS 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY 124 APPENDIX A 132 APPENDIX B EXPLANATION OF PLATES 148 i i i UPPER DEVONIAN CORALS OF THE CANADIAN CORDILLERAN REGION INTRODUCTION This work is intended to constitute an assem-blage of descriptions and illustrations of a l l f o s s i l corals which have been reported to occur in the Upper Devonian rocks of the Cordilleran region of Canada. Possibly a more desirable goal would be the inclusion of a l l species reported from the Cordilleran region of North America. Unfortunately, time does not permit such a vast undertaking. The forty-ninth parallel has therefore been arb i t r a r i l y made the southern limit of this work. Although no definite northern limit has been set, the greatest emphasis has been on the Rocky Mountain area and the exposed Devonian rocks to the east. Either the Liard River or the f i f t i e t h parallel could well serve as a northern limit for the major part of the thesis. However, a few coral species from the Mackenzie River-Mackenzie Mountains area not already covered by Smith (194-5) are included here. Because available f o s s i l coral specimens are representative of only a small portion of the area dealt with, this work is of necessity largely a compilation from numerous published works. The literature has been searched exhaustively for f o s s i l coral assemblages and for generic iv and specific descriptions and illustrations. Although work of this nature may lack the appeal of original study of f o s s i l specimens, i t permits, Indeed requires, the worker to become acquainted with paleontological problems and to decide upon a working solution for them. Numerous taxonomic problems involving genera and species have been encountered. Solutions I propose for such problems are, in the main, not original but are rather a result of my assessment of con-tributions of various authors. Discussion of the individual taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s follows the descriptions of involved genera and species. Supplemental to the literature research phase of the thesis, f o s s i l specimens from Upper Devonian strata of the Rocky Mountains of Canada are described, identified and illustrated. Most of the f o s s i l corals studied were collected during the summers of 1950 and 1951 by Dr. V.J. Okulitch from the area drained by the headwaters of the North Saskatchewan River. These specimens now constitute part of the paleontological research material housed at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Division of Geology. With no intention of dealing with stratigraphy I have appended, for the sake of convenience, a chart showing the major Upper Devonian stratigraphic units in which the described f o s s i l corals are reported to occur. Also appended is a table including the genera and species reported, their l o c a l i t i e s and horizons, and an V abbreviated reference, indicating the reporter. The generic and specific names listed are those which I hold to be valid. Where my opinion is at variance with that of the writer who has reported a species, the generic and/ or specific name assigned to i t by that writer is given in brackets. In each of these cases the reasons for my opinion are given in the remarks upon the genus and/or species which I recognize. 1 CHAPTER I TAXONOMY OF FOSSIL CORALS Terminology A necessary prerequisite to f o s s i l descriptions i s a set of d e f i n i t i o n s of ontogenetic and morphological terms used i n the descriptions. Indeed, many c o r a l descriptions, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the nineteenth century, lacking explan-ations of nomenclature, are meaningless, or at best ambig-uous. The condition was aggravated by lack of uniformity In use of terms by contemporary workers, and by lack of consis-tency by i n d i v i d u a l workers i n t h e i r choice of terms. A trend toward standardization of terminology of tetra c o r a l s has been i n i t i a t e d by H i l l (1935)» and carried on by Sanford (1939), Easton (1944) and Smith (1945). These workers are In accord as to the d e f i n i t i o n of most terms, and have adequately defined these terms, many of which apply equally well to the tabulate c o r a l s . More detailed discussions of tabulate c o r a l nomenclature have been given by Swann (1947) and Ross (1953). In t h i s work the terminology employed i n describing f o s s i l specimens has- been drawn from the works c i t e d above, p a r t i c -u l a r l y from H i l l (1935) and Smith (1945). An exhaustive compilation here of d e f i n i t i o n s from the works referred to above would be an unnecessary 2 duplic a t i o n . However, many of the generic and s p e c i f i c descriptions to follow, taken from the l i t e r a t u r e , contain terms which have become- ambiguous through misuse, or have f a l l e n into disuse, or well i l l - f o u n d e d . It i s therefore deemed necessary to provide d e f i n i t i o n s o f some of the more obscure terms met with, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the older works. Furthermore, a few terms i n current use, but which are not s e l f explanatory^, are included i n the hope that they w i l l f a c i l i t a t e comprehension of the cor a l descriptions. Glossary of Terms astreiform (also astraeform) - having c o r a l l i t e s polygonal i n cross section. brephic (also nepionlc) - f i r s t ontogenetic stage i n which s i x protosepta are developed. c a l y c i n a l gemmation - mode of increase by which off s e t s a r i s e from c a l i c e of parent. c e r l o i d - prismatic c o r a l l i t e s separated- by theca. coenenchyma - common connective tiss u e between c o r a l l i t e s of some massive c o r a l l a . cystimorph - a c o r a l i n which septa are e n t i r e l y or nearly obsolete and i n which the transverse tissue con-s i s t s of tabulae. dendroid - c o r a l l i t e s spreading to s u b p a r a l l e l . denticulate septa - septa with serrate a x i a l edges. diaphragms - obsolete term synonomous with term 'tabulae'. ephebic - mature ontogenetic stage, i . e . wherein s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are attained. 3 exsert septa - septa protruding above top of c a l i c e . f a s c i c u l a t e - n e i g h b o u r i n g e o r a l l l t e s not i n contact, fossa, fossette - fossula. geniculate - having abrupt change i n d i r e c t i o n of growth. genomorph - i n d i v i d u a l of a genus which d i f f e r s from the genotype i n expressing some common orthogenetic trend. gerontic - s e n i l e ontogenetic stage, r a r e l y recognizable. infundibullform - cone" - or funnel-shaped i n t e r c o s t a l l o c u l i - (= i n t e r c o s t a l spaces?) space between two adjacent septa Intercostal spaces - («-Intercostal l o c u l i ? ) i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i - space between two adjacent septa. l a t e r a l gemmation - obsolete term i n d i c a t i n g o r i g i n of off s e t s from side of parent c o r a l l i t e . lonsedaloid septa - septa which have retreated from the epitheca and do not completely intersect the d i s s epimentarium. lumen - i n t e r i o r of a c o r a l l i t e mural c i r c l e s - stereotheca formed by coaleseenee of septa d i l a t e d p e r i a x i a l l y . mural investment - obsolete term variously used to indicate theca, sclerotheca, stereotheca. (?) neanlc - adolescent ontogenetic stage. p a l l - short v e r t i c a l plates located a x i a l l y . peduncle - basal, usually c e n t r a l , cone-shaped point of attachment. phaeeloid - f a s c i c u l a t e with p a r a l l e l e o r a l l l t e s . plocoid - e o r a l l l t e s of massive corallum are united by septa and/or dissepiments. 4 polyp stems - obsolete term synonomous with term ' c o r a l l i t e s ' pyriform radiciform processes - r o o t - l i k e anchoring structures i n simple co r a l s . Term sometimes applied to pro-cesses connecting adjacent c o r a l l i t e s i n a f a s c i c u l a t e corallum. r a d i i - obsolete term supplanted by 'septa'. reptant - prone or creeping sclerotheca - inner wall formed by densely packed r i n g of dissepiments. septal fossette - obsolete term supplanted by 'fossula'. septal fovea - obsolete term, synonym of 'fossula'. septal r a d i i - obsolete term, supplanted by 'septa'. septal rays - obsolete term supplanted by 'septa'. squamae (squamulae ?) - linguiform or petal-shaped plates of septal o r i g i n projecting l i k e shelves from the c o r a l l i t e w a l l into the lumen and ending i n a free edge. stereoplasm - calcareous secondary deposit upon s k e l e t a l structures. trabeculae - the bundle of calcareous f i b e r s which b u i l d up c o r a l t i s s u e . umbellate - radiating from a common point, as petals of a flower. v i s c e r a l chamber - incorrect term, for the i n t e r i o r of a c o r a l l i t e i . e . the lumen. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The so-called 'natural' or phylogenetic type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , while undoubtedly desirable, i s unattainable. As Henbest (1952, pp. 305-308) points out, only about ohe-~ f i f t h of the earth's surface i s accessible for the study of 5 pre-Pleistocene geological history, and within that area there are numerous gaps in the stratigraphic sequence. Obviously the record of biologic history i s similarly incomplete, both geographically, and temporally. It follows that the develop-ment of a wholly phylogenetic f o s s i l classification is forever Impossible. This does not mean that the concept of phylogene-sis cannot be employed i n classification. Indeed, genetic relationships within restricted f o s s i l groups have already been indicated, and more w i l l undoubtedly appear in the future. However, as is expressed by Weller (1949, pp. 682-684), a 'natural 1 classification ought not to be held paramount, and striven for at the expense of practicability. It seems, rather, that the foremost purpose of classification should be to organize paleont©logical data into recognizable units which may be readily used in identifying f o s s i l specimens. The classification should invoke a l l determinable morphologic and ontogenetic characteristics, emphasizing those features which indicate evolutionary trends. Of classifications of Devonian tetracorals yet proposed, that of Stumm (1949) most nearly f u l f i l l s the require-ments just mentioned.. It is essentially, a convenient means of 'pigeon-holing', founded in part upon characteristics held by Stumm to be phylogenetically significant. Most of the families and subfamilies set forth by Stumm have been found practical for this work. 6 His subfamily PACHYPHYLLINAE and i t s genera Pachyphyllum. Phacelophyllum and Synaptophyllum. however, do not appear to be well-founded. Lang and Smith (1935, p. 566) show that a l l forms possessing horse-shoe dissepiments cannot be considered to be a d i s t i n c t lineage. This indicates the weakness of Stumm1s subfamily PACHYPHYLLINAE. Furthermore, Lang and Smith (1935» P. 555) have observed Pachyphyllum  devoniense-type e o r a l l l t e s and t y p i c a l P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a e o r a l l l t e s together i n the same corallum. These authors point out that most workers have interpreted Pachyphyllum on P. devoniens e-type structure rather than on the genotype P. bouehardi. Even the genotype Pachyphyllum bouchardl i s considered by Lang and Smith to be a species of P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a . On the basis of the above evidence, I follow Lang and Smith i n merging Pachyphyllum i n Phillipsastraea« and Synaptophyllum and Phacellophyllum i n Disphyllum. In considering Pachyphyllum to be synonomous with P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a . I autom-a t i c a l l y suppress Stumm's subfamily PACHYPHYLLINAE. This move necessitates redefining his subfamily DISPHYLLINAE. Then subfamily DISPHYLLINAE i s here considered to encompass phaceloid, c e r i o i d , astraeold, and aphroid forms which may or may not possess horse-shoe-shaped dissepiments. In none of these forms Is an aulos developed. Genetic relationships between tabulate coral families are even less apparent than are a f f i n i t i e s between t e t r a c o r a l 7 f a m i l i e s . In f a c t , they are almost certainly-unrelated groups which have attained common morphological aspects by various paths. Nevertheless, they may be r e a d i l y recognized as unique taxonomic units. Species encountered In t h i s work are representative of the families FAVOSITIDAE, SYRINGOPORIDAE, and AULOPORIDAE. With respect to the l a t t e r family, I do not f e e l confident that a l l i t s members have proven c o r a l l i n e a f f i n i t i e s . As Fenton and Fenton (1937, pp. 109-115) have shown, the type genus Aulopora. probably encompasses conver-gent forms of bryozoans and c o r a l s . I r e f e r some of my specimens to the family AULOPORIDAE, with the reservation that they may be either corals or bryozoans. CHAPTER II DESCRIPTIONS OF GENERA AND SPECIES Phylum COELENTERATA Class . ANTHOZOA Subclass TETRACOlALLA.. Family HADROPHYLLIDAE Stumm Genus Microcyclus Meek and Wort hen Microcyclus Meek and Worthen, 1868, p. 420 Genotype: Microcyclus discus Meek and Worthen 1868, p. 420. O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum f r e e , or with a minute central point of attachment, d l s c o i d a l , without columella; c a l i c e very shallow or nearly obsolete, and provided with a simple small fossette; septa short, nearly regularly r a d i a t i n g , or with a few of those nearest the fossette converging a l i t t l e towards i t s sides; epitheca well developed. This l i t t l e c o r a l seems to be related to Combophyllum and Baryphyllum. Edwards and Haime, but d i f f e r s from the f i r s t In having a well-developed epitheca, and from the l a t t e r , not only i n that character, but i n having i t s fossette simple, and i t s costae nearly regularly r a d i a -t i n g . It also presents s i m i l a r differences from Hadrophyllum. of Edwards and Haime. As we have sought i n vain amongst the established groups for a genus that w i l l receive i t , we have been compelled to propose a new genus fo r i t s reception." Remarks: Whereas i n the o r i g i n a l description of the genus the fossula i s sa i d to be "simple", the genus Is now o conceived to be characterized by a fossula containing the cardinal septum. This conception i s apparent i n Bassler's (1937) description In Stumm (1949, p. 6), which reads: "Thin, discoidal, almost f l a t free coralla with a small central irregular basal scar of attachment and a shallow calyx provided with smooth septa arranged i n four groups separated by fossulae of which the cardinal one, with a con-spicuous cardinal septum, is best developed. Major septa merging into a smooth central area; minor septa short and often attached to the major. The smooth septa and conspicuous cardinal fossula with i t s cardinal septum are characteristic of Microcyclus. which represents the stage of development i n the family at which a l l the fossulae but the cardinal one are inconspicuous." Microcyclus mnltiradiatum (Meek) tPlate 1 , Figures 1-2) Combophyllum multiradlaturn Meek, 1867» p. 84, p i . XI, f i g . 4 Original description: "Corallum depressed, discoid, circular, f l a t below; upper side with a broad, very shallow calice, which i s flattened within; septal fossette narrow, but well defined, extending from the middle to the margin of the calice. Lateral margins rounded, and as i t were duplic-ated by a distinct furrow, extending entirely around. Radial septa numbering 48 to ?0 i n the primary series, which a l t e r -nate with a shorter intermediate series, only extending into the inner margin of the very shallow calice. Height, 0.13 inch; breadth, 0.6? inch." Remarks: Neither Meek's description nor his Il l u s t r a t i o n indicates the presence of the cardinal septum within the fossula, a condition held by Bassler (1937) to be diagnostic of Microcyclus. It i s with some doubt, there-fore, that I include this species i n Microcyclus. Family METRIOPHYLLIDAE H i l l Genus Metriophyllum Edwards and Haime Metriophyllum Edwards and Haime 1850, p. l x i x Genotype: Metriophyllum bouchardi Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x i x , 1851» pi 318, p i . 7, figures l-2b. Upper Devonian, Frasnian (Beaulieu shales and Fergues lime-stone); near Bologne, France. Or i g i n a l description: "Corallum simple, turbinate Septa well developed, s l i g h t l y twisted, and extending to the center of the v i s c e r a l chamber, through well-developed tabulae." Remarks: The above desc r i p t i o n does not f u l l y describe the genus and i s , therefore, supplemented by Smith (194-5, p. 28) diagnosis which reads: "Small, trochoid rugose corals which t y p i c a l l y are only s l i g h t l y curved, have long major septa which reach the a x i s , but only very short minor septa. The a x i a l edges of the major septa are welded by sclerenchyme into a s o l i d styllforra structure, while the peripheral edges expand and form by l a t e r a l contiguity a narrow stereozone. The sides of the septa carry stout, horizontal or nearly horizontal carinae which extend from the w a l l of the corallum to i t s a x i a l p i l l a r . The tabulae which slope downward toward the periphery are th i n and distant. There are no dissepiments. Metriophyllum rectum (Hall) (Plate 1 ,, figures 3-4) Strombodes ? rectus H a l l , 1843, p. 210, f i g . 5 Cyathophyllum rectum Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 372 Streptelasma recta H a l l , 1876, p i . xix, f i g s . 1-13. Streptelasma rectum Whiteaves. 1891, p. 199, p i . XXVII, F i g s . 1, l a , 2. Streptelasma rectum H a l l , Lambe, 1901, p. 117, p i . VII, Figs. 5. Metriophyllum rectum ( H a l l ) , Smith, 1945, p i . 1, f i g s . 9, 10, p i . 34, f i g s . 2, 3. 11 Description: (Lambe's de s c r i p t i o n of specimens from the Mackenzie River, 10 miles below Bear River) "Corallum simple, c o n i c a l , s t r a i g h t , or only s l i g h t l y curved, pointed at the base, reaching a length of 38 mm. with a maximum breadth of 15 mm. Outer surface rather smooth with i n d i s t i n c t trans-verse accretion ridges and minor l i n e s of growth, and pinnately arranged l o n g i t u d i n a l septal furrows; epitheca complete. Calyx exceeding i n depth one half the height of the corallum, i t s enclosing wall th i n and steep, the f l o o r consisting of an exsert mass formed of dissepiments and primary septal ends. Septa stout, a l t e r n a t e l y long and short, the primaries gener-a l l y uniting i n twos or threes near the center, secondaries almost obsolete; numbering altogether i n d i f f e r e n t sized s p e c i -mens from about seventy to one hundred and ten. In the calyx the primaries extend over the f l o o r to the center, but on the sides they are much reduced i n s i z e and project only about 1.5 mm. inward from the w a l l ; free edges of the septa strongly toothed, the denticulations being represented on the sides of the septa as s l i g h t l i n e a r thickenings of the septa directed outward toward the w a l l . Dissepiments i r r e g u l a r , small, occupying the narrow i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i , i n c l i n e d obliquely and convexly inward toward the center. Remarks: Smith (194-5, p. 29) states that t h i s species d i f f e r s from M. bouchardi Edwards and Haime only i n si z e and "unimportant d e t a i l s " . I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the two species do indicate a very s i m i l a r morphology. Probably the chief reason for considering them d i s t i n c t species is. t h e i r wide geographical separation. The genotype' M. bouchardi Edwards and Haime occurs i n the upper Devonian near Boulogne, France, while M. rectum i s a North American species. Future study may well prove the species to be synonomous. 12 Family ZAPHRENTIDAE Edwards and Haime Genus Zaphrentis Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d Zaphrentis (as Zaphrenthis) Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d , 1820, p. 234 Zaphrentis (Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d ) . Stumm, 1949, p. 12 Genotype: By subsequent designation of M i l l e r , 1889, Zaphrentis phryqia Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d , 1820, p. 235. Horizon and L o c a l i t y of the Genotype: Middle Devonian, Jefferson limestone: F a l l s of the Ohio, U.S.A. Generic Description: (Stumm, 1949) "Simple, small, ceratoid to trochoid corals with external appearance s i m i l -ar to Heterophrentls. Calyx erect or gradually expanding, sometimes with a s l i g h t l y f l a r i n g margin. Cardinal fossula prominent and located on convex side of corallum. Septa of two orders, major and minor, of which former extends almost to axis and l a t t e r are very short. Septa are denticulate on t h e i r d i s t a l edges and are provided with crossbar carinae i n t h e i r peripheral portions. Tabulae are arranged exactly as i n Heterophrentls. having an a x i a l horizontal p o s i t i o n , a p e r i a x i a l d i s t a l l y i n c l i n e d p o s i t i o n , and a pronounced downwarping at periphery. No dissepiments present." Zaphrentis recta Meek (Plate 1 , figure Zaphrentis recta Meek, 1867, p. 82, p i . XI, f i g . 1. Or i g i n a l description: "Corallum obconical, s t r a i g h t , or probably sometimes a l i t t l e curved, rather attenuate at the lower extremity. Epitheca t h i c k , strongly wrinkled, or, at i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , even constricted by the marks of growth, almost e n t i r e l y concealing the septa. C a l i c e c i r -c u lar, c o n i c a l , and rather shallow; septal fossette l a t e r a l , very shallow. Septa t h i n and numbering i n the primary series about f o r t y , which alternate with as many imperfectly devel-oped secondary ones; on grinding away the epitheca, about seven of these two sets may be counted i n the space of 0.20 inch. Tabulae forming i r r e g u l a r vesicular c a v i t i e s , apparently not very d i s t i n c t from those formed by the dissepiments, t 13 excepting that they are larger and more transverse. Vesicles of the outer zone rather small and ranging obliquely outward and upward. Length, 1.70 inches; breadth, 0.95 inch; depth of c a l i c e , 0.33 inch." Remarks: Meek t e l l s us that the s e p t a l fossette (fossula) i s so f a i n t , as to be e a s i l y overlooked, thus causing t h i s coral to be referred to Cyathophyllum. Zaphrentis mcfarlanei Meek (Plate 1 , figures 7-9 ) Zaphrentis mcfarlanei Meek. 1867, p. 83, p i . XI, f i g . 2. O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum about medium s i z e , ©r rather l e s s , c o n i c a l , and d i s t i n c t l y arched, surface with strong Irregular ridges of growth, and e s p e c i a l l y where the epitheca i s a l i t t l e worn, showing the septa; c a l i c e c i r -c u lar, oblique, and apparently of moderate depth; septal fossette small, but deep and well defined, placed about h a l f way between the middle and the side, i n a l a t e r a l p o s i t i o n with r e l a t i o n to the curve. Septa about f o r t y , every a l t e r -nate one being stouter and more prominent than the others, and extending to the middle of the c a l i c e , where they are considerably contorted. Tabulae apparently nearly wanting, or only d i v i d i n g some portions of the c e n t r o - l a t e r a l region into i r r e g u l a r vesicular c a v i t i e s ; outer i n t e r s e p t a l area occupied by numerous small v e s i c l e s . Length, about 2.30 inches; greatest breadth, 1.20 inches." 14 Family BETHANYPBYLLIDAE Stumm Subfamily BETHANYPHYLLINAE Stumm Genus Ceratophyllum Gurich (Plate 1 , figures 10-13) Ceratophyllum Gurich 1896, p. 163 Ceratophyllum Gurich. Stumm, 1949, p. 18, p i . 8, f i g s . 15-18 "Genotype: By o r i g i n a l designation, C. typus Gurich, 1896, p. 163, n. name for Cyathophyllum""ceratites Freeh, 1886, p. 178, p i . 17, f i g s . 4-8, 12, 14-16, possibly equal to Cyathophyllum c e r a t i t e s Goldfuss 1826, p. 57, p i . 17, f i g s . 2a-k. Horizon and L o c a l i t y of Genotype: Middle Devonian, Stinkkalkeni Szydlowek, Poland; and Middle Devonian, various l o c a l i t i e s i n the E l f e l d i s t r i c t , Germany. -Generic Description: Simple, small, ceratiod corals having a bell-shaped calyx with a f l a r i n g margin. An obscure cardinal fossula apparently present on convex si d e of . corallum. In neanlc stage, septa are d i l a t e d and fossula i s d i s t i n c t , and i n ephebic stage septa become attenuate and fossula obscure. Septa may r e t a i n a x i a l d i l a t i o n at maturity. Major septa are long, approaching axis and minor septa are from one-third to one-half as long. Tabularlum i s wide and composed of tabulae that are usually horizontal and complete. Narrow peripheral disseplmentarium i s composed of several rows of i n c l i n e d dissepiments." 15 Family: ACANTHOPHYLLIDAE H i l l Genus Acanthophyllum Dybowski (Plate 2 , figure 1-3 ) Acanthophyllum Dybowski, 1873a, p. 339 (83); 1874, p. 493 (79); Lang, Smith and Thomas, 1940, p. 13. Acanthophyllum Dybowski. Smith, 1945, p. 10, p i . 6, f i g s . 1, 2, 2a. Diagnosis: (Smith 1945). Simple rugose corals with long major septa whose a x i a l ends often reach the axis and twist to form a vortex, but are sometimes s t r a i g h t , minor septa appreciably thinner than the major, small arched tabellae arranged i n concave f l o o r s , which are sometimes shallow, sometimes deep and funnel-shaped, and f i n e d i s -sepiments which form a wide dissepimentarium. The major septa are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y spindle-shaped and generally more or less modified. They are usually much d i l a t e d , sometimes carinate (within the tabularium), and often appear to form a loose-plaited strand which breaks up per i p h e r a l l y . Remarks: The genotype of Acanthophyllum (PI. 6, f i g s . 1, 2, 2a) and i t s a l l i e s constitute an important group of Middle Devonian corals p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the E i f e l region. Before the genotype can be described accurately a lectotype must be chosen, and d e t a i l s of i t s i n t e r n a l structure ascertained." Cyathophyllum Goldfuss, 1826, p. 54, tab. xx, f i g . 2. Cyathophyllum Goldfuss. Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x v i i i . Cyathophyllum Goldfuss. Stumm, 1949, p. 22, p i . 10, f i g s . 9-13. Genotype: By subsequent designation of Dana, 1846, p. 183, C. dlanthus Goldfuss 1826, p. 54, p i . 15, f i g . 13; p i . 16, T igs . l a - e . Middle Devonian, E i f e l Germany. Edwards and Haime. "Genolectotype: Cyathophyllum heterophyllum Genus Cyathophyllum Goldfuss 16 Description: (Stumm 1949) "Simple to aggregate c o r a l s , composed of s u b c y l l n d r i c a l to trochoid e o r a l l l t e s with calyxes having an a x i a l p i t and a horizontal or reflexed peripheral platform. Most forms bud profusely through either a x i a l or peripheral portions of calyx.. Septa are noncarinate, r a d i a l l y arranged, and of two orders, major and minor. Major septa approach axis, while minor terminate at border of tabularium. Tabularlum Is composed of complete or incom-plete tabulae, and dissepimentarium of many rows of i n c l i n e d dissepiments." Remarks: Goldfuss 1 o r i g i n a l descriptions are not available to the writer. Stumm's descr i p t i o n has been chosen because i t i s more comprehensive than that of Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x v i i i ) which i s given below for the sake of completeness. "Corallum simple or composite. No costae. Septa well devel-oped, extending to the centre of the c a l i c e , and twisted together so as to produce the appearance of a small columella. Tabulae occupying only the centre of the v i s c e r a l chamber, the outer portion of which i s f i l l e d up with numerous v e s i c -ular dissepiments. A sing l e w a l l , situated e x t e r i o r l y , and provided with a complete epitheca." Cyathophyllum athabascense Whiteaves (Plate 2 f. figures 4-6) Cyathophyllum athabascense Whiteaves, 1891, p. 202, p i . 32, f i g s . 1, l a , l b . O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum simple, elongate-turbinate and s l i g h t l y curved: epitheca well-developed, marked with rounded and not very prominent l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s , which are much broader than the grooves between them, and by transverse s t r i a e or wrinkles and an occasional c o n s t r i c t i o n caused by an arrest of growth. Calyx c i r c u l a r , rather deep, with steep sides: septa about 34 i n number, simple, not bearing arched carinae on t h e i r sides and apparently not denticulated at t h e i r summits. In t e r i o r structure as seen i n l o n g i t u d i n a l sections, consisting of an outer or p e r i -pheral zone of oblique ascending rows of rather large v e s i c l e s , and of a broad central area i n which the i n t e r -s t i c e s between the septa are crossed by large curved 17 dissepiments, whose size, shape and disposition are very irregular. Transverse sections made a l i t t l e below the base of the calyx shew that the 34 septa extend almost to the center, and that they are a l l equal i n length." Remarks: Whiteaves says this species is similar to Cyathophyllum ceratltes Goldfuss in shape and surface markings, but that species differs i n having from 60 to 120 subdentic-ulated septa. It i s to be noted that C. ceratites Goldfuss, 1826, may be conspecific with C. ceratites Freeh, 1886, which has been designated by Gurich 1896, as the genotype of Ceratophyllnm. (See Stumm, 194-9, p. 18). Apparently proof that these species are equivalent must depend upon the find-ing of a cardinal fossula i n Goldfuss 1 types, but u n t i l this has been accomplished, C. ceratites Goldfuss must remain i n Cyathophyllum. Cyathophyllum ceratites Goldfuss (Plate 2 f figure ?-8) Cyathophyllum ceratites. Goldfuss, 1826, p. 57, p i . XVII. fi g s . 2a-h. Cyathophyllum ceratites. McCoy. 1855, p. 7© Not Cyathophyllum ceratites Freeh, 1886, p. 64. Cyathophyllum Caespitosum. Whiteaves, 1891, p. 200, p i . XXVII fig s . 7 and 8. Cyathophyllum dianthus, Whiteaves, 1892, p. 264. Cyathophyllum ceratites Goldfuss. Lambe, 1901, p. 146. Ceratophyllum ceratites Goldfuss, Bassler, 1950, p. 167. Description: (From Lamba, 1901, p. 146). "Corallum simple, conical when young, l a t e r becoming c y l i n d r i c a l above, generally curved, sharply pointed below, marked by annular, more or less decided, ridges and c o n s t r i c t i o n s . Epitheca smooth, with f a i n t transverse l i n e s of growth, but with scarcely any Indication of septal grooves. The largest of the conical specimens has a diameter of about 2 cent, and a length of 4 cent, measured along the convex curve, the more c y l i n d r i c a l ones have a maximum diameter of less than 2 cent, with a length varying between 6 and 8 cent. Calyx sometimes as deep as wide, more often shallower, narrowing s l i g h t l y toward the bottom where It i s f l a t or evenly con-cave. Septa from about f i f t y to seventy i n number, a l t e r -nately long and short, the long ones almost reaching the centre, thick near t h e i r outer ends, the short ones, stout, seldom more than 2 mm. i n length; t h e i r outer ends, when the epitheca i s wanting, appearing at the surface as strong c o s t a l r i b s . Septa d e l i c a t e l y denticulated at t h e i r free edges and carinated on the sides, prominent and sometimes appearing to pass over the somewhat rounded margin of the calyx. Tabulae numerous, close s e t , equal i n breadth to about half the diameter of the c o r a l l i t e , generally concave. Vesicles of the peripheral area, enclosing the tabulae, rather large, unequal i n s i z e ; numerous, much smaller v e s i c l e s occur between the c o s t a l ends of the septa." Remarks: Cyathophyllum cera t l t e s of Freeh 1886 was renamed C. typus when selected as the genotype of Ceratophyllum by Gurich, 1896. The c h i e f feature d i s t i n g u i s h -ing t h i s genus from Cyathophyllum i s the presence of a car-d i n a l fossula which i s obscure i n the ephebic stage. Ceratophyllum ceratltes of Goldfuss 1826, however, has yet to be proven to possess such a fossula. Although Wedekind (1924, p. 76-77) i s said to claim that no fossula i s present, his i l l u s t r a t i o n s reproduced by Stumm (1949, p i . 8, f i g s . 15-16) indicate what appears to be a poorly developed fossula. A study of Goldfuss* type material, i f i t i s a v a i l a b l e , i s necessary to ascertain the exact taxonomic p o s i t i o n of t h i s species. U n t i l this has been done, Cyathophyllum c e r a t l t e s 19 Goldfuss must remain i n Cyathophyllum and ought not to be referred to Ceratophyllum as has been done by Bassler (1950. p. 167). Genus Heliophyllum H a l l Heliophyllum H a l l 1846, p. 396. Heliophyllum H a l l . Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x l x . Heliophyllum H a l l . Stumm, 1949, p. 21, p i . 9, f i g s . 8-12. "Genotype: By monotypy, Strombodes helianthoides H a l l (not P h i l l i p s ) , 1843, p. .209, text f i g . 87, p. 209, and no. 48, f i g . 3, p. 44 of tables; renamed Heliophyllum h a l l l by Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x i x . Horizon and L o c a l i t y of Genotype: Upper Middle Devonian, Hamilton group, Moscow, York, and Seneca Lake, New York, U.S.A. Generic Description: (Stumm 1949). Simple or weakly aggregate, s u b c y l i n d r i c a l to trochoid corals with calyx s i m i l a r to that of Acanthophyllum. having a peripheral p l a t -form and an a x i a l p i t . No d i s t i n c t fossula present, but cardinal septum may be amplexoid, or depressed i n calyx. In brephic stage, septa are greatly d i l a t e d and i n l a t e r a l contact. In neanic stage, septa attenuate from periphery inward and attenuate portions are heavily carinate with crossbar carinae. As seen i n transverse s e c t i o n of ephebic stage, septa are of two orders, of which major extend nearly or a l l the way to a x i s , and may develop ah a x i a l whorl. Minor are about half as long. A l l septa are attenuate and crossbar carinae are prominent. Tabularium usually wide, and composed of r e l a t i v e l y horizontal or concave, incomplete tabulae. Dissepimentarlum composed of many rows of small, usually steeply i n c l i n e d dissepiments." Remarks: I have not had access to Hall's o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and the generic description given by Edwards and Haime i s inadequate. Stumm's excellent description has therefore been selected for presentation here. 20 Hellophyllum h a l l l Edwards and Haime (Plate 3 , figure 1.2 ) Strombodes helianthoides P h i l l i p s , 1841, p. 10, p l . V, f i g . 13a. Cyathophyllum helianthoides H a l l , 1843, no. 48, p. 209, f i g . 3. Cyathophyllum turbinatum H a l l , 1843, no. 49, f i g . 1. Cyathophyllum turbinatum Castlenau, 1843, p l . x v i , f i g . 5>. Hellophyllum h a l l l Edwards and Haime, 1850, p; . l x i x . Hellophyllum h a l l l Edwards and Haime, 1851, P. 408, p l . v i i , f i g . 6. Hellophyllum h a l l i Edwards and Haime, 1853, P. 235, tab. L I , ... .. f i g . 3. Hellophyllum h a l l i Edwards and Haime, Smith, 1945, p. 26, p l . 33, f i g . 3. Description: "Corallum simple, turbinate, or cy l i n d r o - c o n i c a l , usually elongate, and s l i g h t l y curved at i t s base, provided with an epitheca, and presenting s l i g h t c i r c u l a r swellings. C a l i c e c i r c u l a r , rather deep, with a small septal fossula. Septa (80 or even more) very t h i n , c l o s e l y set, rather broad at t h e i r upper end, where they are arched and denticulate, a l t e r n a t e l y larger and smaller, s l i g h t l y twisted near the centre of the v i s c e r a l chamber. A v e r t i c a l section shows that the l a t e r a l processes of the septa are arched and ascendant; those situated towards the upper end of the corallum terminate at the edge of the septa; those situated lower down unite near the centre of the v i s c e r a l chamber, so as to constitute i r r e g u l a r tabulae. The in t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i are f i l l e d up with these lamellate pro-cesses, which are situated at about half a l i n e apart, and united by c l o s e l y set simple dissepiments that form r i g h t angles with them. Diameter of the c a l i c e from 1 to 2 inches." Hellophyllum parvulum Whiteaves (Plate 3 , figures 3-5) Hellophyllum parvulum Whlteaves, 1891, p. 203, p l . 27, f i g s . 9, 9a, 10. 21 O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum small, simple, either nearly s t r a i g h t , subconical and not much longer than broad, as i n the specimen represented by f i g . 9» or some-what bent, i r r e g u l a r l y d istorted i n growth and proportion-a t e l y rather narrower, as i n the o r i g i n a l of f i g . 10, but apparently never either slender or narrowly elongated. Calyx c i r c u l a r i n outline, moderately deep: septa t h i r t y - s i x of each kind, at least i n the broader of the two specimens figured, t h e i r edges, as seen i n the cup, presenting a toothed appearance, which i s due to the passing over them of arched carinae: primary septa reaching nearly to the centre at the bottom of the cup: secondary septa very short and feebly developed: septal fossette l a t e r a l , shallow. Epitheca t h i n , transversely s t r i a t e d and wrinkled, with an occasional rather deep c o n s t r i c t i o n , and marked also with l o n g i t u d i n a l , r i b l i k e markings which correspond to the septa within. Internal structure, as seen i n a lo n g i t u d i n a l section through the centre of each specimen, consisting of a narrow central tabulate area, surrounded by a broad, external zone of vesicu l a r t i s s u e . The tabulate area occupies about one-f i f t h of the entire diameter, and the tabulae are s t r a i g h t , regular and c l o s e l y arranged. In the outer vesicular zone the vesicules are s l i g h t l y smaller and more regularly d i s -posed towards the outside than near the centre, t h e i r general d i r e c t i o n being i n rows which curve obliquely upward and out-ward. The general d i r e c t i o n of the arched carinae which cross the sides of the septa throughout t h e i r e n t i r e length, on the other hand, i s uniformly upward and inward." 22 Family LEPTOINOPHYLLIDAE (Wedekind) Subfamily LEPTOINOPHYLLINAE (Stumm) Genus Breviphyllum Stumm Breviphyllum Stumm, 194-9, p. 25, p l . 12, f i g s . 1-7 "Genotype? Amplexus lonensis Stumm, 1937, p. 428 p l . 53, f i g . 4; p l . 54, f i g s . 4a-b. Horizon and L o c a l i t y of Genotype: Lower Kiddle Devonian, basal 500 feet of the Nevada limestone, Lone Mountain, 18 miles northwest of Eureka, Nevada. Generic Description: (Stumm 1949), S u b c y l i n d r i c a l to broadly ceratoid corals with a bell-shaped calyx having steeply sloping to v e r t i c a l walls. Septa usually very t h i n , noncarinate, of two orders, major and minor. Both orders are very amplexoid, major reaching from one-third to one-half the distance to the axis, while minor may be very short or almost as long as major. No fossulae or other modifications are produced by protosepta. In some forms, septa may be d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y , and i n others they may have s l i g h t l y rhopaloid a x i a l ends. Tabularium i s very wide and i s com-posed of tabulae that are usually h o r i z o n t a l , complete, and rather widely spaced. Occasional incomplete tabulae are found. Narrow peripheral dissepimentarium i s composed of a few rows of i n c l i n e d dissepiments." Remarks: In establishing t h i s genus Stumm has proposed that i t should include Devonian forms previously "referred to Campophyllum. He mentions that Schindewolf and H i l l i n Lang, Smith, and Thomas (1940, p. 30) have shown that Campophyllum i s a Carboniferous genus with a tabular fossula and i s a l l i e d either to canlnia or Palaeosmllla. I have not had access to the above mentioned work and cannot, therefore, judge i t s accuracy. In the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Campophyllum which follows, Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x v i i ) do not, however, mention the presence of a fossula. "Corallum simple, very t a l l , and protected by an epitheca. Septa well developed. Tabulae very large, and smooth t o -wards the center. Interseptal l o c u l i f i l l e d with small vesiculae." This description obviously does not constitute a f u l l coverage of the genus. It seems quite probable that a fossula did exist i n the type material, but was overlooked by the authors. It i s expedient then, to recognize Stumm*s genus Breviphyllum as a re c i p i e n t for Devonian species formerly referred to Campophyllum. Genus Charactophyllum Simpson (Plate 3 f figures 6-13 ) Charactophyllum Simpson. 1900, p. 209, f i g s . 28, 29. Charactophyllum Simpson. Smith; 194-5, p. 17, p i . 1, f i g s . 7, 8a, 8b; p i . 31, f i g s . l a - i . Genotpye: (by o r i g i n a l designation): Campophyllum namnm H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , 1872, p. 14; (1872) 1873, p. 232. Upper Devonian, Hackberry s e r i e s . "In the marly beds", Rockford, Iowa. (Recorded by Simpson as Camptophyllum nanum H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , 1873, p. 232. Lower Carbonic, Rockford, Ind.) "Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945), Simple trochoid rugose corals which have t y p i c a l l y long, amplexoid, a x i a l l y d i l a t e d carinated septa, complete or nearly complete, i r r e g u l a r l y spaced, convex tabulae, and small, somewhat elongated, steeply ascending dissepiments. The major septa extend almost, to the axis and display a notably pinnate symmetry i n the ephebic stage." Remarks: I have consulted Simpson's o r i g i n a l "preliminary" description of the genus and I concur with Smith (1945, p. 17) i n considering i t inadequate. Smith's description of topotype material i s therefore given here verbatum: 24 "The largest of some topotypes furnished me i s 4 cm. long and 1.4 cm. i n diameter; some of the other specimens, although not so long, are s l i g h t l y wider. The corallum i s trochoid, sometimes almost ceratold, and i s strongly curved. The sides of the c o r a l display marked rugosity but are only l i g h t l y s t r i a t e d . There are about 68 septa i n the d i s t a l part of the c o r a l . The major septa reach almost to the axis yet leave a space of some 3 or 4 mm. f r e e . The minor septa may be hal f as long as the major, but they are very i r r e g u l a r l y developed. Some of them abut against the major septa. In transverse section the septa appear to be twisted and uneven, and t h e i r a x i a l parts are often much di l a t e d and i n l a t e r a l contact. In the ephebic stage the septa display very c l e a r l y t h e i r pinnate arrangement. This i s less noticeable i n the neanic stages i n which the septa appear more r a d i a l and more evenly thickened, and i n which, more p a r t i c u l a r l y perhaps i n the l a t e r phases, they are l a t e r -a l l y contiguous through t h e i r whole length and almost completely f i l l the lumen. The convex tabulae often sag at the axis and are sometimes widely separated. The dissepiments form only a narrow dissepimentarium which i s not everywhere very c l e a r l y marked o f f from the tabularium." It would appear that Simpson was i n error with regards the age and l o c a l i t y of the genotype (see above). I can only assume that Smith has made the needed corrections. Charactophyllum sp. (Plate 4 , figure 1-3) Two s o l i t a r y c o r a l l a of s i m i l a r s i z e and shape were sectioned for study. Description: External features - One curved, trochoid corallum was 25 mm. long before being cut, but the d i s t a l end was missing. Theca i s s t r i a t e d and wrinkled. Only the d i s t a l portion of the second c o r a l l a i s present. Transverse section - Septa t o t a l 80 i n a section 25 below the c a l i c e , and 82 i n a section through the c a l i c e . Minor septa are discontinuous, appearing as crests on the a x i a l side of dissepiments. Major septa are somewhat pinnately arranged. Except for the aborted cardinal septum i n the fossula, a l l major septa extend about 2/3 of the distance to the axis. A x i a l l y they become greatly attenuated, s l i g h t l y sinuous, and i n the neanic stage at l e a s t are discontinuous. The dissepimentarium consists of a few large i r r e g u l a r dissepiments, numerous concentric dissepiments, and occasional herringbone dissepiments. The c a l i c e i s eccentric, having a much thicker w a l l on the c a r d i n a l side than on the counter side. Cardinal and counter fossulae are apparent i n the neanic stage, while the a l a r fossula are better developed i n the epheblc stage. Longitudinal section - The tabularium has 12 to 15 tabulae i n 5 mm. of c o r a l l i t e length. The tabulae are approximately horizontal, complete and incomplete, and bear the tip s of amplexold septa. Large, highly Irregular d i s s -epiments comprise a dissepimentarium occupying at l e a s t h a l f of the lumen. Remarks: On the basis of s i z e , shape, septation, type of dissepimentarium and tabularium, I consider this form to be almost c e r t a i n l y referable to the genus Charactophyllum. In t h e i r description of that genus Fenton and Fenton (1924, p. 25) state that the septa appear to be strongly carinate when viewed i n the c a l i c e , but do not show this feature w e l l in transverse sections. Smith (194-5, p. 17, 18) in describing Charactophyllum makes no mention of carinae. His i l l u s -trations (Pl. 1, figs. 6, 7, 8; P l . 31, figs, l a - i ) indicate only occasional septal swellings which may be carinae. Neither of the two sections at hand reveal any carinae. It seems probable that carinae are not a diagnostic feature of the genus, and that they are actually a weathering phenomenon seen only in calices which have been exposed. The form I have studied differs from the genotype C. nanum in having more septa. It more closely resembles Charactophyllum sp. Smith (194-5, p. 18) (pl. 1, f i g . 6 ) . This Hay River form is larger than mine, but the two are structurally similar and have nearly the same number of septa. I consider the specimens at hand to be conspecific with Smith's unnamed species. Occurrence of hypotypes: C5077, Bluefly Creek, south (reef) side; Green shale d r i f t ; C5083, Bluefly Creek, north side, black shale, green shale d r i f t . Genus Dlversophyllum Sloss Diversophyllum Sloss, 1939, p. 65 Genotype: Dlversophyllum traversense (Winchell) Original Description: (p. 66) . "Cylindrical or ceratoid simple rugose corals with long, unornamented septa, and v e r t i c a l l y elongate concentric dissepiments; tabulae f l a t or domed, often Incomplete but not commonly differentiated septa characteristically exhibiting gerontic lonsdaleoid retreat. 27 Genus d i f f e r s from Tabulophyllum Fenton and Fenton (1923, p. 30) i n exhibiting d e f i n i t e and persistent minor septa, from Diphyphyllum Lonsdale (194-5, p. 622) and Diphystrotion Smith and Lang (1930, pp. 177-199) i n s o l i t a r y habit. Remarks: In his discussion Sloss says the genus consists of a v a r i a t i o n a l series ranging from ceratoid corals with f l a t tabulae and numerous i n c l i n e d disseplmental rows to c y l i n d r i c a l forms with highly arched tabulae and reduced dissepiments. He states that ephebic portions of large c o r a l l i t e s exhibit the former condition while neanic portions of the same c o r a l l i t e s show the l a t t e r condition, which he considers to be of phylogenetic s i g n i f i c a n c e . Diversophyllum traversense (Winchell) (Plate 4 , figures 5-7 ) Zaphrentis traversensis Winchell, 1866. Cyathophyllum boughtonl Rominger, 1876. pt. 2, p. 104, Not H a l l , 1876, I I I . Tabulophyllum noughtonl Fenton and Fenton, 1923, v o l . 1, p.31. Diversophyllum traversense Winchell. Sloss, 1939, p. 66, p i . 11, f i g s . 13-23; p i . 12, f i g . 22, text, f i g . 7. The revised description of the species given by Sloss i s as follows: "External characters: Corallum simple, c y l i n d r i c a l to ceratoid, one specimen ex h i b i t i n g increase by l a t e r a l gemmation. Average ceratoid specimen measures 30 mm. i n greatest diameter, 75 mm. i n height; average c y l i n d r i c a l specimen 15 mm. by 75 mm. Largest specimen discovered measures 33 mm. by 150 mm. Epitheca thick, lacks septal grooves, bears deep growth c o n s t r i c t i o n s . Periodic rejuven-ation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , leaves edges of abandoned c a l i c e s pro-truding around corallum as series of sharp, upturned, f r i l l -l i k e ridges. Calyx depth about equal to radius, walls steeply dipping to domed, f l a t , or s l i g h t l y concave f l o o r , which may exhibit a low a x i a l boss or shallow a x i a l p i t . Several major septa extend to a x i s , meet without t o r s i o n or formation of a x i a l complex. Transverse section: Thirty-two to 34- major septa extend from peripheral stereozone of variable width, either anastomose subaxially or extend to axis. Minor septa extend at least one-half distance to axis i n ephebic sections of ceratoid c o r a l l a , r e s t r i c t e d or lacking i n neanic sections of c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a . Gerontic sections ©f large c o r a l l a exhibit lonsdaleoid withdrawal of septa from periphery and replacement by large dissepiments. Dissepiments character-i s t i c a l l y few, seldom arranged i n more than three concentric rings. Peripheral stereozone often repeated within lumen by rejuvenation. Longitudinal section: Thin c y l i n d r i c a l specimens lack dissepimentarium i n neanic stage, never develop more than two steeply i n c l i n e d rows of large elongate dissepiments. Ceratoid specimens develop several a x l a l l y i n c l i n e d rows of dissepiments, which may occupy over half of the lumen. Peripheral stereozone often involved with dissepimentary rows as res u l t of rejuvenation. Tabulae highly domed i n t h i n c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a , less domed i n s u b c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a f l a t or s l i g h t l y concave In ceratoid specimens. Large sub-c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a exhibit domed neanic tabulae, f l a t ephe-bic tabulae. Tabulae commonly incomplete, r a r e l y d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d . Some septa that do not extend to axis along whole of t h e i r d i s t a l ends have a x i a l r i d g e l i k e processes on top of tabulae ( l i k e amplexoid septa), appear i n median section as spines or tabulae. L o c a l i t i e s : Sloss has recognized t h i s species from the limestones of Hay River, Northwest T e r r i t o r y , Canada. Genus Mictophyllum Lang and Smith Mlctophyllum Lang and Smith, 1939, p. 155, p l . i v , f i g s l a l b . 29 Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l designation) Mlctophyllum nobile Lang and Smith 1939, p i . i v , f i g s , l a , l b , Upper Devonian, bed S, Gorge of Redknife River, Northwest Terr-i t o r i e s , Canada. "Diagnosis: (Lang and Smith 1939) Simple trochoid, rugose corals of large, or medium, s i z e , i n which the t y p i c a l l y t h i n and unmodified septa reach, or nearly reach, the a x i s , but do not form an a x i a l complex; and i n which the tabular tissue i s mainly represented by small, arched tabellae arranged i n concave f l o o r s , and not very c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the t y p i c a l l y rather large, somewhat elongated d i s s -epiments; but at some l e v e l s complete, or almost complete, nearly f l a t or sagging tabulae are developed." Remarks: The authors state that the holotype of nobile i s nearly s t r a i g h t , o r i g i n a l l y about 12 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wide d i s t a l l y . Approximately 40 major septa, some extend to the axis, others shorter, abutt against the longer ones. Minor septa extremely short. The commonest species i s sai d to be about 5 cm. long with septa which may be pe r i p h e r a l l y d i l a t e d . A t h i r d form has septa peripherally t h i n , but a x i a l l y d i l a t e d . MictophyMum richardsoni (Meek) (Plate 4 , figures 8-11 ) Aulophyllum richardsoni Meek. 1867, p. 81, p i . XI, f i g . 3. Cyathophyllum richardsoni (Meek), Whiteaves, 1891, p. 200. p i . x x v i i , f i g s . 3, 4. Cyathophyllum richardsoni (Meek), Lambe, 1901, p. 141, partim at l e a s t . Mietophyllum richardsoni (Meek), Smith, 194-5, p. 34, p i . 5, f i g s . 10-12b. 30 "Diagnosis* (Smith, 194-5) Slender c y l i n d r i c a l Mictophyllum with long, rather twisted major septa, w e l l -developed minor septa, strongly globose dissepiments, and a wide dissepimentarium." Description: (Smith's description amended) C o r a l l i t e s vary from about 7.5 cm. long and 2 cm. i n diameter to 4 cm. long and 2.5 cm. i n diameter, are s l i g h t l y curved. Cal i c e variable from deep, with t h i n v e r t i c a l walls and f l a t f l o o r to shallow, with thick walls and concave f l o o r . Septa (about 72) may be t h i n throughout entire length or may be d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y . Major septa reach nearly to axis, minor extend inward 1/3 to 1/2 the radius. Tabulae f l a t or curved, approximately h o r i z o n t a l , surrounded by smaller, strongly arched t a b e l l a e , convex toward the axis. Transverse tissue intersected and broken by the septa. Dissepiments smaller and more globose than the p e r i a x i a l tabellae, but occasional ones are larger and f l a t t e r than most. Dissepimentarium may form nearly h a l f the radius of the c o r a l l i t e . Remarks: In the o r i g i n a l description of the species Aulophyllum ? richardsoni. Meek states that the minor septa terminate at a "kind of a rudimentary w a l l " . This "wall" evidently occurs at the periphery of the rabularium as a resul t of crowding of dissepiments. I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the species do not, however, indicate that the dissepiments are concentrated so as to constitute a d i s t i n c t sclerotheca. Subfamily GRYPOPRYLLINAE Stumm Genus Tabulophyllum Fenton and Fenton Tabulophyllum Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 30. Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l designation) Tabulophyllnm rectum. S p i r i f e r and Idiostroma zones of Owen substage i n the Hackberry. O r i g i n a l description: "Coral small to large, s o l i t a r y , i r r e g u l a r l y turbinate, subturbinate, or subcylin-d r i c a l . Growth, i n a l l species, consists of a series of alternating periods of a c t i v i t y and r e s t . In some of the more symmetrical species these alternations are not pronounced; i n others they are so abrupt as to give an appearance of repeated c a l y p i n a l gemmation. The epitheca i s either complete or more or less broken, the l a t t e r being the more t y p i c a l condition. In most species i t i s t h i n , and i s more or le s s lacking i n weathered specimens. Costae show p l a i n l y through the epitheca. Calyx shallow to deep, t y p i c a l l y f lattened or s l i g h t l y elevated at the bottom, with sides that ascend at various angles, depending on the species. Fossula very weak or lacking; septa heavy, strong, a l t e r n a t i n g , non-car inate. Primaries extend e n t i r e l y or almost to the center; i n several species t h e i r inner margins unite to form an i r r e g u l a r , v e r t i c a l tube occupying the c e n t r a l region. In other forms the septa are more or less twisted and c o i l e d , even forming a broad, low pseudo-columella. Commonly there are secondary, i r r e g u l a r calcareous deposits about the septa i n the central region. The tabulae are incomplete, the degree varying with the species. In several forms they are intermingled with dissepiments. Vesicular area commonly well defined; dissepiments small to large, commonly extending into and even across the tabular region. They tend to form broad expansions beyond the main body of the c o r a l . The septa are either free from the tabulae or show upon them, always being less prom-inent i n the zones of crowding, which correspond to the periods of res t . " Remarks: Fenton and Fenton state that Tabulophyllum d i f f e r s from Cyathophyllum i n having more imperfect tabulae and intermingled dissepiments, strongly annular type of growth with attendant bunching of tabulae, uniformly weak epitheca, and strong dissepiments. The septa and tabulae separate i t from Cystiphyllum. From Campophyllum i t d i f f e r s i n manner of growth, strength of dissepiments and i n having septa commonly reaching center and even c o i l i n g . '"' 32 Tabulophyllum mcconnelll (Whiteaves) (Plate 5 , figure 1-2 ) Embedded i n dark brown, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e lime-stone are several c o r a l l a of two contrasting s i z e s . There are large ones, ranging i n diameter from 20 to 30 mm., intimately associated with a few having a diameter of 7 or 8 mm. Descriptions External features - The large c o r a l l a are s u b c y l i n d r i c a l and geniculate. One of the smaller c o r a l l a i s c y l i n d r i c a l and straight for the revealed distance of 7 mm. Fine, sharp growth wrinkles superimposed upon larger con-s t r i c t i o n s ornament the large c o r a l l a . Surface ornamentation of the smaller ones cannot be seen. On a polished surface two of the small c o r a l l a are revealed adjacent to one of the large c o r a l l a . One corallum, 7 mm. i n diameter, i s sectioned transversely. It has about 50 septa. The major are s t r a i g h t , attenuate, and extend about 2/3 of the distance to the a x i s . The minor septa are very short. A l l septa are d i l a t e d near the p e r i -phery of the corallum. Some of the major septa are d i s -continuous i n this region. From 2 to 3 sets of dissepiments are exposed. Of great i n t e r e s t i s the second small corallum, which i s sectioned obliquely through the c a l i c e . It appears to have arisen from the side of the large corallum. Whether or not i t has r e a l l y done so cannot be ascertained from the polished section. 33 Transverse section - (Of the neanic stage of a large corallum) Septa t o t a l 80 i n a c i r c u l a r s e c t i o n having a diameter of 20 mm. A l l septa have retreated about 2 mm. from the periphery. This peripheral portion of the cup i s occupied by large dissepiments which p e r s i s t a x i a l l y another 2 to 3 mm. Through the innermost 2 to 3 mm. of the dissepimentarium the septa are markedly lonsdaloid and s l i g h t l y d i l a t e d . Minor septa extend about 1 mm. beyond the a x i a l boundary of the dissepimentarium ( i . e . 5 to 6 mm. from the periphery). Some major septa terminate short of the axis. Others continue i n and become deflected, thus forming a loose a x i a l whorl. A feebly developed, closed fossula i s developed. Longitudinal section - (Of the neanic stage of another corallum). Total c o r a l l i t e diameter i s 25 mm. Tabularium i s 11 mm. wide. In general, c l o s e l y packed, i n -complete, f l a t to concave, a x i a l tabulae with down-turned edges are seen to inosculate with a p e r i a x i a l series of tabellae. These tabellae t y p i c a l l y slope downward and a x i a l l y from the boundary of the dissepimentarium to form a p e r i a x i a l trough, and then proceed upward and a x i a l l y to come to rest against the a x i a l tabulae. Many departures from the ' t y p i c a l ' 0 nature of the tabularium were observed. These are so diverse and complex as to beg descr i p t i o n . The broad dissepimentarium consists c h i e f l y of large, crescentic, d i s t a l l y convex dissepiments whieh are dir e c t e d ! downward and a x i a l l y . Occasionally small dissepiments occur among the large ones. 34 Remarks: Although the description is based upon neanic portions of two coralla, comparison with polished sections of more mature stages indicates that most ephebic characteristics are attained. Smith ( 1 9 4 5 . p. 60) found this to be also true "of his Hay River forms. It does seem probable, however, that septa are fewer in the neanic stage. A polished section of a corallum 30 mm. in diameter reveals at least 88 septa. Except in possibly having fewer septa, the specimens at hand correspond very closely to those described by Smith ( 1 9 4 5 , pp. 5 9 - 6 1 ) . I therefore refer my specimens to Tabulophyllum -mcconnelli. Occurrence of hypotype: C 5 0 6 8 , Cripple Creek area, black (Perdrix) shale. Tabulophyllum rectum Fenton and Fenton (Plate 5 , figures 3-7 ) Tabulophyllum rectum Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 31, p l . v i , figs. 8-12. Original description: "Coral small, irregularly subturbinate, laterally compressed, and distorted. Surface with continuous but thin epitheca which generally is partly eroded, giving that portion of the coral a wesiculose appearance. Transverse sections show that throughout l i f e the growth is compressed; the average proportions show the lesser diameter to be about two-thirds of the greater. Growth somewhat like that of T. ehlersi but with the early creeping less pronounced, and the twisting generally lacking. Calyx deep, flattened at bottom, with steeply ascend-ing sides. Septa sharp and alternating, 60 to 70 in number, of which about half reach the center. They are thin and weak, and much dis t o r t e d , and the i r inner edges unite to form a ring which surrounds the central part of the body. This ring i s much distorted and more or less pierced by septa, but no septa reach the exact center, or come into septa from opposite parts of the c o r a l . The tabulae are flattened and nearly complete, and clos e l y spaced, the holotype showing as many as 11 i n the space of 2 mm. They exhibit bunching somewhat as do those of T. regulare and the e r r a t i c T. e h l e r s i , but the bunches are~"never widely separated. The vesicular zone i s broad and the dissepiments large and coarse; commonly they extend considerably beyond the main body of the c o r a l , forming epitheca-covered f r i l l s bearing weak septa. One of these i s shown i n the transverse section of the holotype. Remarks: This species i s characterized by the clo s e l y and regularly spaced tabulae, which extend over about two-thirds of the diameter of the c o r a l , the sharply marked centr a l - r i n g which i s without calcareous deposit on i t s inner side, and the f r i l l i n g of the dissepiments." 36 Family COLUMNARIIDAE Rominger Subfamily SPONGOPHYLLINAE Dybowski Genus Spangophyilum Edwards and Haime Spongophyllum Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 4-25 SpongophyllumEdwards and Haime, Smith 194-5, p. 54-. "Genotype (by monotypy): Spongophyllum sedgwicki Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 425; 1853, p. 242, p l . l v i , f igs. 2, 2a-e. Devonian; Torquay, England." Diagnosis? (Smith, 1945) Cerioid and phaceloid rugose corals with thin septa which are often separated from their bases by dissepiments, typically complete horizontal tabulae f l a t or only slightly bowed, and large elongated dissepiments, typically uniserial and in some species not always everywhere present. The major septa may'reach the axis but seldom i f ever form an axial structure; they may, on the other hand, be very short. The minor septa are always feebly developed." Remarks: "The dissepiments in a l l species of ?Spongophyllum are large and elongated. In the phaceloid forms, they are generally uniserial, often impersistent, and are vertical or very steeply inclined but in the cerioid forms the dissepiments slope at gentler angles and even tend to become horizontal as in S. near semiseptatum. The septa tend to retreat from both the"~axis and the periphery and to become obsolete. semiseptatum in i t s incomplete cycle of very short septa""exemplifies this trend also. The species of Spongophyllum approach nearest in character those of Columnaria and are probably derived from this older and simpler group. They seem to lead on to Lonsdaleia (distinguished from Spongophyllum by i t s axial columella), which occupies an important place in the Carboniferous and Permian coral fauna especially of the Tethys. The remarkable coral Strombodes  st e l l a r i s is probably an early specialized form belonging to the same lineage as Columnaria and Spongophyllum." Spongophyllum pax Smith (Plate 5 , Figures eilO) Diphyphyllum — ? compare D. arundinaceum and D. stramineum Bi l l i n g s , Whiteaves, 1877, p.~102 37 Diphyphyllum arundinaceum B i l l i n g s , Lambe, 1901, p. 162. partim, "a loose specimen from Peace River B.C. between Fossil Point and the Canon of the Mountain of Rocks, collected by Professor John Macoun in 1875" but excluding everything else. Spongophyllum pax Smith, 194-5, p. 56, p i . 11, figs. 6a-6c. "Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) The specimen (3588) described on the label as having been found on the Peace River near Old Fort St. John by J. Maeoun in 1875, is a small piece of black limestone embedding the coral. The coral is white. It is s i l i c i f i e d and stands out some millimeters above the surface of the stone and is evidently part of a large phaceloid colony. The corallites are long, straight, and about 7 mm. in diameter, and parallel, and are usually 2 mm. to 5 mm. apart. There are no calices, and the sides of the corallites are corroded by mineral changes and are weathered. It is clear, however, that the epitheca was smooth and very l i t t l e wrinkled. The septa, of which there are about 44, are very short, the major septa being 1 mm. to 1.5 mm. long and the minor 0.25 mm. to 0.5 mm. The tabulae, of which many are complete, are usually convex although nearly f l a t and are very close together, the interval between them being on an average about 0.5 mm. The dissepiments while having the form and habit characteristic of the genus, being elongated and uniserial, are small and impersistent (as in S. imperfectum). Remarks: Smith's original diagnosis of the species given above is followed by remarks to the effect that S. pax is distinguished from S. imperfectum by the inferior size of Its corallites, shorter septa, more closely packed tabulae, and smaller dissepiments. 38 Family DISPHYLLIDAE H i l l Subfamily DISPHYLLINAE H i l l Genus Acervularla Schweigger (Plate 6 , figures 1-2) Acervularla Schweigger. 1819 1 table v i ; Lang, Smith, and Thomas, 1940, p. 13. Acervularla Schweigger. Smith, 194?, p. 10, p i . 30, f i g s . 4a, 4b. "Genotype: (by monotypy): Acervularla b a l t i c a Schweigger, 1819, • Madrepora ananas Linaeus, 1758, p. 797 B Madrepora composita centraconcava Linnaeus, 1745, p. 21, f i g . i x , n. 2. S i l u r i a n , Salopian; Gotland. Diagnosis: "Phaceloid and c e r i o i d rugose corals i n which a d i s t i n c t w a l l divides the tabularium from the dissep-imentarium; at t h i s w a l l the septa d i l a t e and are often con-tiguous. The major septa t y p i c a l l y reach the a x i s , the tabulae are t y p i c a l l y small, basin-shaped, and form successive concave f l o o r s , and the dissepiments are of two kinds, the inner series i n v a r i a b l y f l a t and h o r i z o n t a l , the outer globose. Increase i s t y p i c a l l y a x i a l , p a r r i c i d a l , and quadripartite. This diagnosis d i f f e r s from that given by Lang and Smith (1927, p. 451; 1931, p. 85) i n statements concerning the character and p o s i t i o n of the inner w a l l . Previously i t was considered to l i e within the tabularium and to be e n t i r e l y formed by the d i l a t i o n of the septa. Remarks: The above diagnosis i s based s t r i c t l y upon the genotype. There are, however, species of Acervularla which d i f f e r considerably from A. ananas i n s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s . A. breviseptata Welssermel (1894, p. 41; 1894, p. 608, p i . x l i x , f i g s . 4, 5; Smith and Lang, 1931, p i . i i , f i g s . 15-17; p i . i i i , f i g . 4) has short major septa, which with the minor terminate at the inner w a l l , complete horizontal tabulae, and only the inner series of f l a t dissepiments. In A.exlgua Smith and Lang (1931, p. 89, p i . i l l , f i g s . 6-8) the~septa do not thicken at the inner w a l l , yet both these species are linked to A. ananas by intermediate v a r i e t i e s . Acervularla i s sometimes carinate and often has t e r t i a r y septa. The name Acervularla has been extensively though quite wrongly used f o r species of Prlsmatophyllum and for forms of P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a i n which there are traces of epitheca between the c o r a l l i t e s . Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x x ) , following Verneuil (1850, p. 162), c i t e d the type of Acervularia as Acervalaria roemeri Haime and Edwards • Astrea hennahli Lonsdale? Roemer (1843, p. 5, p l . i i , f i g . 13), not Astrea  hennahli Lonsdale, the genotype of P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a . but a clos e l y ~ r e l a t e d form with less degenerate epitheca. F l o s e u l a r l a Eichwald, Diplophyllum H a l l , and Rhabdophyllum Wedekind are synonyms of Acervularia." Genus Disphyllum Be Fromentel ( r i s ^ e , figure ) Disphyllum De Fromentel 1861, p. 302. Disphyllum De Fromentel, Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 544. Disphyllum De Fromentel, Smith 1945, p. 20. "Genosyntypes: Twelve species of phaceloid rugose corals including Cyathophyllum caespitosum Goldfuss and the genotypes of the genera Xylodes. Cystlphyllum. Kodonophyllum. and Tryplasma. Genolectotype: Cyathophyllum caespitosum Goldfuss, 1826, p. 60, p l . xix, f i g s . 2a-d - Claddcora goIdfussi Geinitz, 1845, p. 569* Middle Devonian: E i f e l and Bensberg, Germany. See Lang and Smith (1934, p. 80) who r e s t r i c t the species to 2b and possibly 2a and 2c but exclude 2d and select 2b as lectotype. Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) Phaceloid rugose corals with t y p i c a l l y t h i n , usually long septa, tabulae sometimes complete though generally incomplete and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into a transverse a x i a l and an in c l i n e d p e r i a x i a l s e r i e s , and dissepiments t y p i c a l l y of one kind — small, strongly arched but frequently of two kinds — an inner single series of globose d i s t a l l y directed (horse-shoe) dissepiments and an outer series which may be f l a t or arched." Remarks: The magnitude of the genus Disphyllum has been a subject of varying opinions among cor a l s p e c i a l i s t Lang and Smith (1935) have merged i n Disphyllum several other genera, notably: Synaptophyllum Simpson (1900, p. 212), Cylindrophyllum Simpson (1900, p. 217), and Phacellophyllum Gurich (1922a, p. 5). In so disposing of these genera, Lang 40 and Smith point out the phylogenetic i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of c e r t a i n structures. In discussing Eridophyllum (1935» p. 5*7) t n e 7 deprecate l a t e r a l outgrowths between c o r a l l i t e s by saying: "The development of connecting processes i s a very common trend i n rugose cora l s , met with i n many S i l u r i a n , Devonian, and Carboniferous coral lineages and i s not found i n every species of Eridophyllum." And with reference to Synaptophyllum Simpson, Lang and Smith (1935, P. 561) say that even i f i t i s to be retained as a genus, the diagnostic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not the presence of radiciform processes uniting the c o r a l l i t e s , but rather the strong development of denticulate septa. These authors also devaluate the importance of horse-shoe dissepiments as a c r i t e r i o n of phylogeny. On p. 566 they remark: "I t has already been mentioned that many forms included by us i n Disphyllum have what were described as horse-shoe dissep-iments. I f i t were possible to show that a l l those possessing horse-shoe dissepiments belonged to a s i n g l e , a l b e i t complex, lineage, we should be j u s t i f i e d i n separating them as a generic offshoot of Disphyllum, and they would f a l l under Gurlch 1 s genus Phacellophyllum. But i t i s probable that horse-shoe dissepiments have arisen more than once i n d i f f -erent lineages of Disphyllum and that within the genus th i s character i s merely a trend. (Phacellophyllum) then' can only be used as a genomorph of Disphyllum. h Stumm, however, (1949, p. 32) invokes the presence of horse-shoe dissepiments as a feature distinguishing his sub-family Pachyphllllnae from subfamily Disphylllnae. In so doing he would resurrect Phacellophyllum and Synaptophyllum to f u l l generic standing, thereby removing from Disphyllum a l l forms bearing horse-shoe dissepiments. I prefer to follow the practice of Lang and Smith i n retaining these genera i n Disphyllum. at least u n t i l a thorough phylogenetic study has been made of the group of corals involved. Disphyllum arundinaneeum B i l l i n g s (Plate 6 , figure 3-5 ) Disphyllum arundinaeeum B i l l i n g s , I859j p. 134. Diphyphyllum arundinaeeum B i l l i n g s , Lambe, 1901, p. 162, p l . x l v , f i g s . 1, l a , l b , (partim) O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum forming large masses of long, c y l i n d r i c a l , s t r a i g h t or flexuous stems, from three to four l i n e s i n diameter, sometimes i n contact but usually distant from one to three l i n e s from each other; radiating septa t h i n , between forty and f i f t y i n number, rar e l y reaching the centre; transverse diaphragms turning downward on approach-ing the margin; two to four i n one l i n e . In some of the e o r a l l l t e s the walls are so t h i n and c l o s e l y united that no separation can be observed, but i n others of the same c l u s t e r an outer area i s d i s t i n c t l y v i s i b l e . There i s usually a c i r -cular space i n the centre of the e o r a l l l t e s , h a l f a l i n e or a l i t t l e more wide, into which the r a d i a t i n g septa do not penetrate, often, however, they reach the centre. The young e o r a l l l t e s sometimes spring from the side of the parent with a slender base, and curving upwards immediately become p a r a l l e l with those of the whole group. In large colonies frequent Instances may be seen where instead of this l a t e r a l budding a b i f u r c a t i o n takes place, both branches being of the same s i z e . In large groups, owing to the numerous additions of young, the e o r a l l l t e s diverge s l i g h t l y , as i f r a d i a t i n g from a point. The colonies are from s i x inches to several feet i n diameter, and large blocks of stone are of frequent occurrence, which are penetrated at right angles to the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n by the c l o s e l y crowded stems." Disphyllum ef. D. arundinaeeum (Plate 6 , figures 6-8 ) In much of the material the e o r a l l l t e s are f r a c t -ured and displaced, but a few c o r a l l a are preserved i n t a c t . Five t h i n sections representing 4 c o r a l l a . were prepared. Descriptions External features - C o r a l l a are dendroid to phaceloid. C o r a l l i t e s are i r r e g u l a r l y spaced, seldom farther than 8 mm. apart, usually about 3mm. apart, but may be contiguous. Increase i s l a t e r a l , the offs e t s a t t a i n i n g mature diameter within 5 mm. of growth. C o r a l l i t e s are feebly s t r i a t e d , and bear occasional pronounced transverse c o n s t r i c t i o n s . Diameter of e o r a l l l t e s ranges from 5 to 9 mm. but i s usually about 7 mm. Calices are about 3 mm. deep, have th i n v e r t i c a l walls and f l a t f l o o r s . Transverse section - Total number of septa 36 to 44. Major septa almost reach the axis . Minor septa are about ha l f the length of the major, extending barely beyond the dissepimentarium. A l l septa are di l a t e d through the dissep-imentarium but major become suddenly attenuated shortly a f t e r entering the tabularlum. In some sections the d i l a t e d portion of the septa appear to be feebly carinate. Longitudinal section - Tabularlum occupies about 2/3 of the diameter. Tabulae f l a t , concave or convex, From 6 to 9 a x i a l l y f l a t , concave, or convex tabulae occur i n 5 mm. of c o r a l l i t e length. P e r i a x i a l l y they slope down sharply to the dissepimentarium. The i n c l i n e d portion i s often con-cave d i s t a l l y . Most tabulae are complete and may be supple-mented i n t h e i r a x i a l portion by f l a t domed tabellae. In specimen 5145 one c o r a l l i t e exhibits this type of tabularlum while an adjacent c o r a l l i t e has incomplete domed a x i a l tabulae inosculating with d i s t a l l y concave, often b i f u r c a t i n g tabellae which slope down to the dissepimentarium. In some portions of 43 the sections the tabulae appear to be nearly h o r i z o n t a l , but I think t h i s i s only a r e s u l t of sectioning through t h e i r downwarped periphery. There i s t y p i c a l l y a s i n g l e row of dissepiments which range i n shape from nearly f l a t , to d i s t a l l y convex, to almost horse-shoe-shaped. The inner edge of the dissep-imentarium i s much thickened except where the s i n g l e row of dissepiments gives way to 2 or 3 rows of globose dissepiments. Remarks: This species bears a strong resemblance to D. arundinaceum described by Smith from the Hay River, d i f f e r i n g only i n having horse-shoe dissepiments not as w e l l developed as i n Smith's specimens. Septa are fewer thanin D. arundanaceum B i l l i n g s , but otherwise these specimens appear to be c l o s e l y related to B i l l i n g ' s material. Occurrence of hypotypes: C 5046 from Hummingbird Creek - Ram Creek junction i n D3 reef; C5074, south of Cripple Creek, Devonian 'green s h a l e 1 ; 5143, Tarpelan Rock, horizon not l i s t e d ; 5145, pass from Upper Coral Creek to Bighorn Creek, uppermost Mount Hawk formation. Disphyllum caespitosum (Goldfuss) (Plate 6 , figures 9-10) Llthodendron caespitosum Goldfuss, 1826, p. 44, p i . x i i i , f i g . 4 . Bisphyllum (Phacellophyllum) caespitosum (Goldfuss) Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 573, p i . xxxv, f i g s . 1, 2, text f i g s . 28, 29. o The synonomy given above includes only the e a r l i e s t and l a t e s t references known to me. A f u l l e r l i s t of synonomy i s given i n Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 573. Lectotypes (By designation of Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 574-) Lithodendron caespitosum Goldfuss. 1826, p. 44, p l . x i i i , f i g . 4. Middle Devonian (Givetian); Bensberg, near Cologne. Description: (Lang and Smith 1935) "The figured specimen i s a group of slender, rather twisted c o r a l l i t e s of sub-phaceloid growth-habit, measuring approximately 10 cm. by 2.5 cm. The c o r a l l i t e s have an average diameter of 6 cm. The c a l i c e s appear to be rather shallow, but to have the steep walls and f l a t t i s h floors c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the group of corals to which they belong. Very few c a l i c e s , however, are preserved either i n the lectotype i t s e l f or i n the paratype. Increase i s l a t e r a l and n o n - p a r r i c i d a l , but the large offsets very often appear i n groups of two, or even three, and the young c o r a l l i t e s branch at a rather wide angle. The epitheca i s smooth, since both s t r i a t i o n and annulation are subdued. The specimen i s very much weathered and corroded, so that i n many places the edges of the septa are exposed. Transverse section. There are usually from 32 to 36 t h i n septa, of which the major are often sinuous and nearly reach the a x i s , but leave a free a x i a l space of a millimeter or less i n diameter. The minor septa a t t a i n only about half the length of the major. The epitheca i s very t h i n . Inter-sections of the inner dissepiments with the transverse section appear as one, or often two, annular walls. Longitudinal section. The f l a t or s l i g h t l y arched, usually complete, a x i a l tabulae are supplemented at the border of the tabularlum by others which are small, arched and axially" i n c l i n e d , and inosculate with them. The two kinds of dissep-iments each form a single s e r i e s . The outer dissepiments are transverse, f l a t , or only gently arched; the inner series are small and of the horse-shoe type. The paratype i s a much larger specimen than the lectotype, having c o r a l l i t e s of the same siz e and structure as t h i s , and i n general the same type of increase. But i n one instance we observed ,that the daughter c o r a l l i t e s at a point of furcation were united by dissepimental t i s s u e , as i n ;  Disphyllum (Phacellophyllum) trigemme. This observation i s important i n that i t shows that the plocoid structure at the points of increase i n Thamnophyllum cannot be regarded by i t s e l f as a diagnostic generic character." 4£ Remarks: In the above desc r i p t i o n the statement that the average c o r a l l i t e diameter i s 6 cm. i s obviously a misprint, since the diameter of text figure 28 i s only 3 . 3 cm. at a magnification of about 5 . Therefore, " 6 mm." should stand i n place of " 6 cm.". Disphyllum camselli Smith (Plate 7 , figures 3-10) Disphyllum camselli Smith. 194-5, p. 2 3 , p i . 12, f i g s . 4a-h Smith's o r i g i n a l description i s as follows: "Diagnosis: Large Disphyllum with short, t h i n septa and widely separated complete tabulae. Description: The c o r a l l i t e s are t a l l and c y l i n d r i c a l but flexuous; some are i n l a t e r a l contact, while others are widely separated. The largest are about 9 mm. i n diameter and have about 50 septa. The major septa are usually very l i t t l e longer than the minor, which are.about 1 mm. i n length, but sometimes the former are as much as three times the length of" the l a t t e r . In one c o r a l l i t e (PI. 12, f i g . 4h) the major septa reach the ax i s , but t h i s i s an exception. The septa are generally very t h i n , though they may be s l i g h t l y thickened at the periphery of the c o r a l l i t e s where some sclerenchyme i s often present. Most of the tabulae are complete or nearly so, but they are i n d i f f e r e n t l y convex, concave, or f l a t and are very often flexed. They are usually between 1 mm. to 2 mm. apart. One, two, or l o c a l l y three rows of dissepiments form a narrow dissepimentarium r a r e l y more than 1 mm. wide. The outer series which c l e a r l y represent the horse-shoe dissep-iments, although they are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y developed, are very much larger and more persistent than the very small ones which i n many places form the w a l l of the tabularium." Remarks: "D. camselli i s cl o s e l y related to D. c f . arnndlnaceum and D. densurn which i t resembles i n siz e but from which i t d i f f e r s i n i t s much shorter major septa, more widely spaced tabulae and f i n e r t i s s u e s . " > 46 Disphyllum camselli ? Smith (Plate 7 , figures 1-S) Disphyllum camselli Smith, 1945, p. 23, p l . 12, f i g s . 4a-h. o The specimen i s preserved i n buff-grey f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone. One thin section reveals the structures very w e l l . Description: External features - Corallum phaceloid, c o r a l l i t e s may be contiguous, but usually are about 1/2 a diameter apart. Increase i s l a t e r a l and non-parricidal. C o r a l l i t e exterior i s d e l i c a t e l y s t r i a t e d and bears f i n e transverse wrinkles. The average diameter of the c o r a l l i t e s i s 7 mm. The only c a l i c e observed i s 3*5 mm. deep and has a d i s t a l l y convex f l o o r . Transverse section: C o r a l l i t e s sectioned through the c a l i c e and below the c a l i c e bear 40 septa, a l l of which are s l i g h t l y d i l a t e d peripherally. The s t r a i g h t , attenuate, major septa seldom extend more than h a l f the way toward the axis, and i n some c o r a l l i t e s are much shorter. Minor septa are approximately .5 mm. long, barely extending beyond the dissepimentarium. Dissepiments appear as a continuous r i n g concentric to the theca and a l i t t l e less than .5 mm. inside of i t . Longitudinal section - Many complete, v a r i a b l y f l a t , concave, and convex tabulae, with some incomplete tabulae, comprise the wide tabularlum. There are 8 or 9 tabulae i n 5 mm. of c o r a l l i t e length. The dissepimentarium consists mainly of a single series of large globose dissepiments superposed one upon another. In places they almost approach horse-shoe shape. An inner series of very small dissepiments is sporadically developed. Remarks: The only apparent discrepancy between this form and Smith's species D. camselli is the smaller number of septa. The specimen at hand has only 40 septa, whereas camselli has a maximum of 50 septa. Therefore i t is with some doubt that I refer my specimen to D. camselli. Occurrence of hypotype: C5028, Coral Creek, Devonian. Disphyllum colemanense (Warren) (Plate 7 , figure- 11 ) Diphyphyllum colemanense Warren. 1928,p. 116, p i . I, f i g . 18. Original description: "Corallum composed of sub-paralle l , cylindrical, flexuous corallites from 5 to 9 mm. in diameter. Corallites separated from one another by distance of from one-half to twice their diameter. Septa numerous, from 40 to 50 in number, the primaries reaching nearly to the center, the secondaries reaching a l i t t l e beyond the dissep-iment zone. Tabulae apparently thin, numerous, about 6 in 3 mm. Dissepiments in one series, curved, arching against the outer wall, their inner edges forming a wall about three-quarters of a mm. from the outer wall. Epithecae strongly fluted with septal ridges." Remarks: Warren mentions that this species differs from D. caespitosum in being more strongly fluted externally, having larger corallites, and more septa. Like D. caespitosum i t has delicate tabulae. This form according to Warren, (p. 117) may be conspecific with D. caespitosum of the Jefferson limestone in the L i t t l e Belt Mountains of Montana. Disphyllum geinitzl ? Lang and Smith (Plate 7 , figures 12-13) Cyathophyllum caespitosum partim Goldfuss, 1826, p. 60, p l . xix, f i g . 2d. Disphyllum geinitzl Lang and Smith, 1935» p. 570, text figures 25,26; p l . xxxvi, figs. 1-3. Large corallites forming a phaceloid corallum em-bedded in black, finely crystalline limestone are mostly recrystallized. Many corallites are fractured and dislocated. In thin sections internal structures are barely visible by transmitted light but are made quite distinct by reflected light. Description: External features - The corallites are closely crowded, often in contact throughout much of their length. Ornamentation is; poorly revealed as fine striations and feeble growth wrinkles. Diameter of corallites ranges from 8 to 13 mm., but is-commonly about 10.5 mm. Transverse section - Total number of septa is 46 to 52. The major septa extend about 1/2 the distance toward the axis. The minor are only about .5 mm. long. A l l septa are markedly dilated peripherally. The major become attenuated upon entering the tabularlum. In some sections the axial ends of the major septa appear to bifurcate and become diffusely associated with the tabulae to form an appar-ent inner wall. Near the periphery the thickened dissep-iments form an annular wall. Longitudinal section - Increase is lateral and non-parricidal. One offset was seen to arise from the side of a c o r a l l i t e and develop to a diameter of 7 mm. within 13 mm of growth. The c a l i c e i s 5 mm. deep and has a f l a t f l o o r . Tabularium bears complete tabulae which are f l a t a x i a l l y and directed downwards peripherally. These are supplemented by an equal number of incomplete tabulae of the same shape r e s t i n g upon the complete ones, and by occasional peripheral tabellae i n c l i n e d upward toward the dissepimentarium. The dissepimen-tarium t y p i c a l l y consists of a single series of steeply i n -c l i n e d , small dissepiments. Locally there may be instead, two or three series of even smaller globose dissepiments. A section grazing the a x i a l ends of the septa reveals t h e i r amplexoid nature. The septa appear as short v e r t i c a l spines usually a r i s i n g from the tabulae. Remarks: In transverse sections the down-turned edges of the tabulae i n t e r s e c t i n g with the septa create the 'appearance of an aulos. In lo n g i t u d i n a l sections, however, no aulos i s seen to e x i s t . In s i z e , septation, and i n the type of dissepiment-arium my specimen corresponds to D. g;einitzi. It d i f f e r s from that species only i n possessing numerous incomplete tabulae supplemental to the complete ones. Evidence i n favour of the specimen being c l o s e l y a l l i e d to D. % e i n i t z i i s over-whelming. To my knowledge t h i s i s the f i r s t reported occurrence of this species from the Canadian Rocky Mountain area. Occurrence of hypotype: C5034, North branch of Saskatchewan r i v e r , Mile 109, Devonian Coral reef. 50 Disphyllum goldfuss! (Geinitz) (Plate 8 > figures 1.4 ) Cyathophyllum caespitosum Goldfuss 1826, p. 60, p l . x i x , f i g . 2b only (Middle) Devonian; E i f e l , Germany. Cladocora goldfussl Geinitz, 1846, p. 569 Disphyllum goldfussl ( G e i n i t z ) . Lang and Smith, 1935» p. 569 p l . xxxv, f i g s . 4-8, text f i g s . 23, 24. The above l i s t of synonomy i s merely representative of the complex l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y of this species. Lang and Smith (1935» pp. 568, 569) discuss the synonomy of the species at length. Lectotype: (By designation of Lang and Smith, 1935> p. 569) Goldfuss 1s Cyathophyllum caespitosum p l . xix, f i g . 2b. Description: (That of Lang and Smith 1935» p. 569i, 570) i s quoted i n part.) "The specimen consists of a c o r a l l i t e , which.gives r i s e to several others by p a r r i c i d a l increase; of these, f i v e only i n any way approach completeness — The parent c o r a l l i t e , of which only the d i s t a l part i s present, measures 15 mm. i n diameter; and the daughter c o r a l l i t e s , measuring about 5*5 cm. i n length, are 8 mm. or 9 mm. i n diameter at t h e i r proximal ends, increasing d i s t a l l y to 10 mm. or 11 mm. The c a l i c e s are deep, and have steep walls; but they are very poorly preserved. The sides of the c o r a l l i t e s are d i s t i n c t l y s t r i a t e d , but only very f a i n t l y annulated. Transverse section (11 mm. diameter). There are 50 septa of somewhat varying length, t h i n a x i a l l y , but rather suddenly widening peripherally, of which the major do not quite reach the a x i s , but leave a free space of about 1.5 mm., while the minor, varying i n length more than the major, are nearly half as long as these. 0 The i n t e r s e p t a l spaces are occupied by the transverse t i s s u e , i n which the dissepiments and tabulae are not e a s i l y distinguished from one another. Longitudinal section. The dissepiments, which form a zone about 2 mm. wide, are globose, and convex towards the axis . They vary, however, i n convexity, and very much i n s i z e . The tabulae are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into an a x i a l s e r i e s of transverse, approximately f l a t plates, and a p e r i a x i a l series of strongly convex, steeply i n c l i n e d plates, which 5* somewhat resemble large dissepiments, and inosculate with the a x i a l tabulae." Remarks: The references to i l l u s t r a t i o n s given i n the above description are amended to f i t the sequence of figures i n the t h e s i s . Disphyllum stramineum ( B i l l i n g s ) (Plate 8 , figure 5 . 2 0 ) Diphyphyllum stramineum. B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 135. Diphyphyllum stramineum. B i l l i n g s , Nicholson, 1874-, p. 33, p l . v, f i g . 6. Probably Diphyphyllum g r a c i l e M'Coy, Nicholson, 18?4, p. 33, p l . v, fig.~ 5 (Not Diphyphyllum g r a c i l e M'Coy 1851a, p. 168; 1851b, p. 88, f i g s , d, e and f on the same page.) Amplexus or Diphyphyllum. Whiteaves, 1892, p. 270, p l . 35, f i g s . 2, 2a. Synaptophyllum stramineum ( B i l l i n g s ) , Simpson, 1900, p. 212. Synaptophyllum simcoense ( B i l l i n g s ) , Simpson, 1900, p. 212, f i g s . 33, 34 on p. 213. Diphyphyllum simcoense ( B i l l i n g s ) , Lambe, 1901, p. 161, partim. (Not p l . x i i i , f i g s . 6, 6a-b, i f Diphyphyllum simcoense and D. stramineum are considered to be d i s t i n c t species) Disphyllum stramineum ( B i l l i n g s ) . Smith, 194-5, p. 23, pl . 1 3 , f i g s . 1-12. "Diagnosis: (Smith 1945) Small Disphyllum which forms phaceloid or dendroid colonies and has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y complete tabulae and horse-shoe dissepiments usually supple-mented by an outer series of gently arched or nearly f l a t dissepiments. Descriptions The c o r a l l i t e s which are only 3 mm. to 4 mm. i n diameter may be p e r f e c t l y straight and form com-pact phaceloid bundles, or they may be extremely flexuous and 52 give r i s e to dendroid colonies with widely separated branches. There are usually between 30 and 40 septa. The minor septa are about 0.5 mm. long; the major may be very l i t t l e longer or may be three times as long and therefore nearly reach the axis. The septa are usually d i l a t e d and are often united by sclerr-enehyme at the periphery of the c o r a l l i t e . The tabulae are t y p i c a l l y complete, convex, f l a t , or, less often, concave. In some specimens, however, the tabulae are incomplete and are more or less d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into an a x i a l and a p e r i a x i a l s e r i e s . The character of the dissepimentarium, which i s about 0.5 mm. wide, d i f f e r s i n d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . It consists t y p i c a l l y of an inner series of horse-shoe dissepiments surr-ounded by an outer series of nearly f l a t or only feebly arched ones, and i s about 0.5 mm. wide, but sometimes only the horse-shoe type are present. Occasionally these d i s t i n c t i v e forms of dissepiments are not c l e a r l y developed, and instead we have two or three series of the more ordinary type, i n which case the dissepimentarium i s correspondingly wider. Much sclerenchyme i s often present i n the peripheral parts of the c o r a l l i t e s , and this often masks the dissepiments. These variations i n d e t a i l s of structure are a l l i l l u s t r a t e d on Plate 13." Remarks: Disphyllum (Phacellophyllum) caespitosum has f l a t dissepiments exterior to horse-shoe dissepiments, while Disphyllum (Phacellophyllum) minum has horse-shoe dissepiments only. Disphyllum stramlneum and i t s a l l i e s d i f f e r from these i n the more pronounced amplexoid, and more d e f i n -i t e l y carinate, characters of the septa." Disphyllum c f . D. stramlneum (Plate g , figures 1-2 ) Three p a r t i a l c o r a l l a were cut and polished, and one t h i n section was prepared. The c o r a l l i n e material consists mainly of white c a l c i t e . In specimen C5077» however, the corals are s i l i c i f i e d . The enclosing rock i s black and brown, i n part argillaceous, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone. Descriptions External features - Corallites may be contiguous or several diameters apart, and are irregularly disposed. In two specimens (C5036 and 5128) they are greatly broken and with fragments of Thamnopora and Alveolites, appear to l i e along the bedding plane. A few corallites have arisen by non-parricidal lateral increase. Exterior of many of the corallites bears promiment costae adjacent to the septa and grooves corresponding to the interseptal areas. Transverse ornamentation is totally lacking. Corallite diameters range from 2 to 4- mm., but are commonly about 3 mm. No calices were observed. Transverse section - That the costae seen on the exterior of the corallites resulted from solution of the coral skeleton within the theca is apparent in several transverse sections. In some cases the theca appears as a smooth dark band bounding the corallites. In other corallites the theca is lacking and the peripheral ends of the septa stand out as costae. S t i l l other corallites exhibit both conditions just mentioned, or the smooth theca is present but separated from the serrated periphery of the internal skeletal structures. Septa number 24 to 28, most commonly 28. Major septa are rarely longer than half the radius. The minor are about 2/3 as long as the major and terminate at the inner edge of the dissepimentarium. Dilation of a l l septa within the dissepim-entarium is common, but not always pronounced. Longitudinal section - Tabularium occupies 2/3 to .3/4 of the diameter. Most tabulae are complete and f l a t , although some are dist a l l y concave or convex. A few are incomplete and curved. From 6 to 8 tabulae occur in 5 mm. of corallite length. The narrow dissepimentarium typically consists of a single row of dissepiments, which in places are only gently convex d i s t a l l y and in other places are so strongly convex dis t a l l y that they may be called horse-shoe dissepiments. The inner side of the dissepimentarium is consistently about twice as thick as the dissepiments. Remarks: A f f i n i t i e s with D. stramlneum (Billings) and D. minus (Roemer) are apparent in this species. In the small size of the corallites i t resembles both D. stramlneum and D. minus. The presence of horse-shoe shaped dissepiments alone is more characteristic of the latter species than of the former. On the other hand, the predominantly f l a t , complete tabulae indicate closer a f f i n i t y to D. stramlneum. My material however, has only 28 septa per corallite as opposed to 30 or more septa in each corallite of typical D. minus or D. stramlneum. On the whole this species appears to be most closely related to D. stramlneum but cannot be unequivocally referred to that species. Occurrence of Hypotypes: C5077, Bluefly Creek, Upper Devonian 'Green shales'; 5128, Roche Miette, Upper Mount Hawk Formation. 55 Genus Hexagonaria Gurich Polyphyllum de Fromentel, 1861, (non Blanchard, 1850) Hexagonaria Gurich, 1896, p. 1?1 Prlsmatophyllum Simpson, 1900, p. 218 Hexagoniaphyllum Gurich, 1909, p. 102. Hexagonaria Gurich, Stumm, 194-8, p. 18: 1949, p. 33, pl . 1 5 , f i g s . 13-18. "Genotype: By subsequent designation of Lang, Smith, and Thomas, 1940, p. 69, Cyathophyllum hexagonum Goldfuss, 1826, p. 61, p l . 19, f i g s . 5e-f: p l . 20, f i g s . la-b. Horizon and L o c a l i t y of Genotype: Middle Devon-ian, E i f e l d i s t r i c t and Bensberg, Germany. Generic Description: (Stumm 1949) "Cerioid corals with i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l l i t e s separated by polygonal walls. Calyxes usually with an a x i a l p i t and a peripheral platform. Septa r a d i a l l y arranged, of two orders, major extended in t o tabularlum while minor are confined to dissepimentarium. They are l i g h t l y or heavily carinate, r a r e l y d i l a t e d . No modification of protesepta i s v i s i b l e . Dissepimentarium i s wide and composed of many rows of horizontal or i n c l i n e d dissepiments. Tabularlum i s r e l a t i v e l y narrow and composed of c l o s e l y set, complete or incomplete tabulae, that are ho r i z o n t a l l y disposed." Remarks: The o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Prlsmatophyllum Simpson (1900, p. 218, f i g s . 43-45) have been compared with those of Stumm for Hexagonaria Gurich, 1896. I can detect nothing which supports the retention of Prlsmatophyllum and I follow Stumm (1948, p. 10; 1949, p. 33) i n considering i t a junior synonym of Hexagonaria. Lang and Smith (1935, p. 550) have previously shown that Hexagonio-phyllum Gurich, 1909, i s a synonym of Prlsmatophyllum. Hence Stumm i s correct i n l i s t i n g i t also as a synonym of Hexagonaria. Several species described by Smith (1945) under Prlsmatophyllum 56 now mast be included i n Hexagonaria. Bassler (1950, pp. 167, 168) has anticipated me i n so disposing of Smith's species, but has done so without comment. Hexagonaria percarlnatum (Sloss) (Plate 9 , figures 3-7 ) Prismatophyllum percarlnatum S l o s s . 1939, p. 69, p i . 10, f i g s . 6-9, text f i g . 8A-B. Or i g i n a l Description: "External characters: Cerioid corals t y p i c a l l y forming broad, f l a t , or doraally convex colonies a r i s i n g from a central point of attachment. Under side bears a thin annularly wrinkled holotheca with f i n e septal grooves. Colonies may a t t a i n 30 cm. i n diameter, are commonly 12 to 16 cm. Individual adult c o r a l l i t e s poly-gonal, average 10 mm. i n mean diameter. Immature ind i v i d u a l s commonly c i r c u l a r In outline. Some colonies bear in d i v i d u a l s protruding above general surface or projecting from edge, i n which case these individuals are c i r c u l a r i n cross-section and phacelloid i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to neighbouring c o r a l l i t e s . Calices extremely v a r i a b l e , being d i f f e r e n t i n form between colonies or between individuals of the same colony. Most frequently occurring calyx type bears horizontal p e r i -pheral platform occupying one h a l f the radius, a deep c a l l c u l a r p i t at the a x i s . A l l degrees occur between t h i s c e n t r a l type and forms i n which the c a l i c u l a r wall descends abruptly fipom periphery as i n P. profundum (Hall and W h i t f i e l d ) . Ephebic ealices bear edges of 3b to 40 denticulate, highly carinate septa. Majors and minors not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d near periphery; septa taper a x i a l l y , majors extending close to axis. Transverse section: Dissepimentarium occupies one-hal f the radius, bounded a x i a l l y by large carinae, occasion-a l l y by d i l a t e dissepiments, to form a discontinuous wall s i m i l a r to, but not homologous with, aulos of Acervularla Schweigger (Smith and Lang, 1931, p. 85). Major septa approach but do not a t t a i n a x i s , minor septa extend but s l i g h t l y be-yond dissepimentarium. A l l septa d i l a t e , carinate within dissepimentarium; f i n e , unornamented within tabularium. Character of carinae v a r i a b l e ; three types may occur i n one in d i v i d u a l — large diamond-shaped areas, simple yard-arms ( H i l l , 1935, P. 501), or prolongations of angles of "zig-zag septa" ( H i l l and Butler, 1936,. p. 523). Dissepiments concen-t r i c , numerous, f i n e . Boundary between individuals f i n e but d i s t i n c t . 57 Longitudinal section: Numerous small globose dissepiments arranged i n rows, which vary i n same manner as c a l i c u l a r platform. Rows may be horizontal at periphery, descend abruptly at margin of dissepimentarium or descend d i r e c t l y from periphery. Dissepimentarium r e s t r i c t e d i n neanie stage, quickly widens to occupy one-half the lumen i n ephebic stage. Tabulae numerous hor i z o n t a l , complete or incomplete, not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Arched carinae, spaced approximately 0.3 mm. apart, prominent wherever plane of section transects plane of septum, and extending but s l i g h t l y i n tabularium." Hexagonaria quadrigeminum arcticum (Meek) (Plate 10 , figures 1-3 ) Cyathophyllum arcticum. Meek, 1867, p. 79, p i - x i , f i g s . 8, Sa-b, partim at l e a s t . Cyathophyllum arcticum. Meek, Whiteaves, 1891, p. 199, Cyathophyllum quadrigeminum Goldfuss, Lambe, 1901, p. ~:1'53, p i . x i i , fTgs. 6, 7, 7a-b. Not Cyathophyllum quadrigeminum var. aretlcad LoBwe, 1913, p. 9, p i . i i , f i g s . 3a-c. Prismatiphyllum quadrigeminum arcticum (Meek). Smith, 194-5, p. 47, p i . 14, f i g s . 4a-c; PI. 18, f i g . 1. Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) "Cyathophyllum  quadrigeminum with major septa which are strongly d i l a t e d p eripherally and which curve, though only s l i g h t l y , i n a v o r t i c a l manner; very short minor septa and small more arched a x i a l tabulae. Description: The lectotype of Cyathophyllum  arcticum Meek (1867, p i . x i , f i g . 8) i s a small group of c d r a l l i t e s 3.5 cm. i n diameter. The c a l i c e s are deeply concave have steep sides, and no peripheral platform or only a very narrow one. The largest c o r a l l i t e s are about 10 mm. i n diameter and have about 44 septa. The major septa are long though i t i s only rarely that they quite reach the a x i s . They are strongly d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y but taper away grad-u a l l y to a very th i n a x i a l edge. In most c o r a l l i t e s the a x i a l ends of the septa twist v e r t i c a l l y though only to a very s l i g h t degree. The very short minor septa are r a r e l y more than .5 mm. i n length and are d i l a t e d throughout. The tabulae are small, most of them strongly convex, and form a succession of concave f l o o r s . The dissepimentarium which i s only about 2 mm. wide i s b u i l t up of three or four series of small, f a i r l y globose dissepiments. 58 Remarks: Smith's description i s based on paratypes from the Porcupine River. He and Lambe (1901, p. 153) reduce Meek's Cyathophyllum arcticum to subspecific rank under Prismatophyllum quadrigeminum and Cyathophyllum quadrlgeminum respectively. For reasons given i n remarks on the genus i Hexagonaria. I consider Smith's species of Prlsmatophyllum to be referable to Hexagonaria. Hexagonaria c f . H. stewartae Stumm (Plate M I O i figures 4-5 ) Prismatophyllum w h i t e f i e l d i Stewart, 1938, p. 52, p l . 10, f i g s . 3-4, (non Acervularia w h i t f i e l d i Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 57, p l . 14, f i g s . 1-3) homonym. Hexagonaria stewartae Stumm. 1948. p. 16, p l . VI, f i g s . 6-7. o Description: External features - Half of a d i s c o i d a l corallum 13 cm. i n diameter and 3.5 cm. i n height, plus several fragments previously cut from t h i s corallum constitute the basis of the description. The corallum i s eroded so that only traces of the basal holotheca are present. The c o r a l l i t e s have an inward-sloping peripheral platform about 2 mm. wide surrounding the a x i a l . p i t which i s 4 to 5 mm. i n diameter. C o r a l l i t e s are of f a i r l y uniform s i z e , having an average diameter of 7*5 mm. One transverse and one long i t u d i n a l t h i n section were prepared for this study. Transverse section - The c o r a l l i t e s have from 4 to 7 thick walls which are usually straight hut sometimes curved. 59 Septa numbering 30 to 34- extend i n dilated form for a l i t t l e more than half the radius, at which point the minor terminate while the major continue greatly attenuated almost to the axis. The dilated portion of each septum bears occasional feeble carinae. Between each pair of septa i n the peripheral zone are from 5 to 7 concentric dissepiments. Longitudinal section - The tabularlum i s 3 mm. in diameter and appears to have both complete and incomplete tabulae which are f l a t a x i a l l y and slope upward a l i t t l e periaxially. Small, broad, a x i a l l y inclined dissepiments are arranged In alternating v e r t i c a l series peripheral to the tabularlum. Remarks: In possessing peripherally dilated, a x i a l l y attenuated major septa of greater length than the minor, this specimen clearly belongs to the Hexagonaria hexagona lineage of Stumm (1948, p. 12). Structural s i m i l a r i t i e s to H. quadringeminum are apparent but that species has larger corallites and about 10 more septa per c o r a l l i t e than has my specimen. There seems to be closer a f f i n i t y to H. stewartae. which has an average diameter of 9 num. and bears 30 to 34 septa. H. stewartae appears to dif f e r from my specimen only in having s l i g h t l y larger corallites and a greater concen-tration of dissepiments adjacent to the tabularlum. Occurrence of hypotype: C5Q28, Coral Creek, Devonian. 60 Genus Macgeea Webster Macgeea Webster 1889, p. 710 Macgeea Webster. Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 53. Macgeea Webster. Lang and Smith, 1935> P. 556, text f i g s . 10, 11. Macgeea Webster. Smith, 1945, p. 27 Genotype: (By subsequent designation of Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 54) Pachyphyllum so l l t a r i u m H a l l and W h i t f i e l d . 1872, p. 232, p i . 9, f i g s . 6, 7; Upper Devonian, Hackberry Group, Iowa. Or i g i n a l description: "Corals growing i n s o l i t a r y , c y l i n d r i c a l , sometimes compressed, cup-shaped c e l l s ; usually from f i v e mm. to forty-seven mm. i n lengthjnand calyx from one and a half mm. to eighteen mm. i n diameter; s l i g h t l y curved, externally i r r e g u l a r , usually showing evidence of , attachment. Calyx generally as deep as wide, but very r a r e l y being only one-sixth as deep as wide; outer wall t h i n , rays numerous, from thirty-two to s i x t y seven i n number, a l t e r n a t -ing i n s i z e within the cup. Costae (often very strong, and usually a l t e r n a t i n g i n size) continuous with the rays over the edge of the cup and for some distance below the margin; lower down generally interrupted, or covered with a more or less epithecal coat (the epithecal coat i s , however, sometimes e n t i r e l y wanting), showing traces of numerous transverse p a r t i t i o n s . Bottom of the cup large, occupied by a s l i g h t depression; rays some-times very s l i g h t l y twisted i n the bottom of the cup. The rays, and costae for some distance below the margin of the cup, more or less d i s t i n c t l y denticulate on the edge." Remarks: Webster's description deals mainly with external features of the genus. Stumm (1949, p. 35) has given a more complete des c r i p t i o n which i s quoted: "Simple or weakly aggregate, short ceratoid to trochoid corals with pronounced septal ridges on exterior. Calyx" b e l l -shaped with a rounded margin. Septa of two orders, major and minor, peripherally d i l a t e d and l i g h t l y carinate. They extend over rounded calyx margin and form v e r t i c a l grooves on exterior of c o r a l l i t e . As seen i n transverse sections they are greatly dilated in their peripheral portions. Minor are very short, while major extend from one-half to two-thirds the distance to axis, becoming attenuate at their axial ends. Dissepimentarium is narrow, with a series of horizontal dissepiments at periphery followed by a row of vertically superposed, strongly d i s t a l l y convex, horse-shoe dissepiments. Tabularlum is wide, occupying about three-fourths the diameter of corallum and is composed of an axial series of inclined tabulae." That Macgeea may be a simple derivative of Philllpsastraea rather than a simple ancestor of that genus is mentioned by Lang and Smith (1935, p. 553) and Smith (194-5, p. 27). I am not in a position to elaborate on this possible relationship, but I am of the opinion that i t may be proved only by a phylogenetic study of Phillipsastraea-Maegeea assemblages. Stainbrook (1946, p. 420) l i s t s as evidence against such a relationship between Philllpsastraea and Macgeea. the fact that Macgeea possesses tetrameral symmetry and a fossula. These characteristics would be d i f f i c u l t to acquire in descent from Philllpsastraea. Stainbrook suggests that perhaps Philllpsastraea and Macgeea are parallel descendents from a common ancestor. Macgeea s o l i t a r i a (Hall and Whitfield) .(Plater'•±0';* figures 6wg}-$flate 11, figures 1-3) Pachyphyllum solitarium Hall and Whitfield, 1873, p. 232. p l . 9, f i g s . 6-7. Macgeea s o l i t a r i a Webster, 1889, p. 711 Macgeea s o l i t a r i a Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 54, p l . IX, figs. 7-10. About 50 specimens were studied i n polished and t h i n sections. Much of the material has been altered so that i n t e r n a l structures are d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from white c a l c i t e i n f i l l i n g . Some specimens have been p a r t l y p y r i t i z e d . Description: External features - S o l i t a r y , trochoid to turbinate c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y oval to c i r c u l a r i n transverse section. None possess o f f s e t s . Theca t h i n , l o c a l l y thick, wrinkled, absent near top of cup i n some specimens, and worn o f f i n places so that septa and dissepiments are revealed as a d e l i c a t e r e t i c u l a t e pattern. Transverse section - For 23 specimens, diameter ranges from 10 to 20 mm. averages 16 mm. T o t a l number1 of septa ranges from 52 to 76, and averages 64, which i s the figure for 5 specimens. Major septa extend 1/4 of radius i n the c a l i c e , and may be gently sinuous. In neanic stage t h e i r a x i a l ends are sometimes s l i g h t l y rhopaloid and exhibit a feeble pinnate arrangement i n the counter quadrants.- An obscure c a r d i n a l (?) fossula i s sometimes, but not always, developed i n the neanic stage. In this stage major septa are sometimes deflected to form an i n f i r m , hollow vortex. Minor septa are short throughout the cup. Septa are sometimes spindle shaped i n neanic stage, and are often p e r i p h e r a l l y d i l a t e d i n ephebie portion, though sometimes spindle shaped there too. Major septa are much more d i l a t e d than are the minor. In the neanic stage the d i l a t e d septa are linked by thickened dissepiments to form a stereotheca close to the 63 theca. The d i s t i n c t sterotheea may p e r s i s t into the ephebic stage, but more often i t l i e s next to the theca as a p e r i -pheral stereozone, or the dissepiments may lack sclerenchymial thickening and appear as f i v e or s i x concentric curved bands between adjacent septa. Longitudinal section: A x i a l sections reveal a c a l i c e whose depth equals 1/3 to 1/2 the t o t a l corallum length. Walls have v e r t i c a l sides, and a broad, f l a t , tabulate f l o o r , or a f l a t a x i a l platform r i s i n g 1-2 mm. above a peripheral trough. Tabulae are var i a b l y f l a t , concave or convex a x i a l l y , often concave peripherally. They are usually incomplete and supplemented peripherally by tabellae i n c l i n e d toward the axis. Tabularia are occasionally bounded by a narrow zone of thickened, small horse-shoe dissepiments, peripheral to which may be 0 to 3 rows of small i n c l i n e d dissepiments, and an outer row of nearly horizontal dissepiments. Horse-shoe dissepiments were observed i n only a few specimens. Of f i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l thin-sections prepared, only one exhibits horse-shoe dissepiments. In the others steeply i n c l i n e d dissepiments border the tabul a r i a . Remarks: This species resembles M. s o l i t a r i a described by the Fentohs (1924, p. 54-, p l . IX, f i g s . 7-10), although there seems to be a greater v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the specimens at hand. There i s a closer resemblance to H\- s o l i t a r i a described i n great d e t a i l by Stainbrook (1946, pp. 419-421). From Stainbrook 1s specimens, mine d i f f e r mainly 64 i n having a much more obscure fossula, and a less persistent stereotheca. There appears to be disagreement among authors as to the r ole of horse-shoe dissepiments i n this species. Whereas Stumm (1949, p. 35) implies that they l i e next -to the t a b u l -arium, Stainbrook (1946, p. 420) states that a x i a l to the horse-shoe dissepiments there i s an inner series of dissepiments convex upward and a x i a l l y . From a study of specimens and of i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the species i t appears l i k e l y that horse-shoe dissepiments have been over-rated as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Macgeea. Of some 50 specimens, which i n a l l other respects appear conspecific, only 4 d i s t i n c t l y exhibit horse-shoe dissepiments. Occurrence of hypotypesr C5040, Cripple Creek, •Green shale 1 i n d r i f t ; C5042, and C5062, Cripple Creek, •Green shale 1 samples; C5©70, Cripple Creek Area, Fairholme formation; C5074, South of Cripple Creek, Devonian 'Green shale'; C 5 0 7 7 , B l u e f l y Creek, south (reef) side, 'Green shale 1 d r i f t . C 5 0 8 2 , B l u e f l y Creek, Flume formation; < 5161, Job Creek, Mount Hawk formation, scree; 5185? Isaac Creek. Genus P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a D'Orbigny P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a D'Orbigny, 1848, p. 12. Pachyphyllum Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x v i i i . P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a D 1Orbigny. Smith, 1945, p. 36. Genolectotype: Astrea hennahli Lonsdale (1840, p. 697, p l . l v i i i , f i g s . 3, 3a, b). 65 Diagnosis: (Smith 1945) Plocoid or subcerioid rugose c o r a l s , i n which the c o r a l l i t e s are united by t h e i r dissepimental tissue or are separated only by t h i n degenerate epitheca. In the plocoid forms the septa may either be con-fluent or abutting or may not reach the septa of the neighbor-ing c o r a l l i t e s . T y p i c a l l y , the septa are d i l a t e d at the margin of the tabularlum, and there the minor septa terminate, though the major septa may extend to the a x i s . They are usually carinate, sometimes very strongly so. There i s no columella, and the tabulae are transverse but may or may not be complete. Dissepimental tissue i s strongly developed, and the dissep-iments forming the wall of the tabularlum are often smaller and more globose than the r e s t , corresponding to the horse-shoe dissepiments of Disphyllum (Phacellophyllum), Macgeea. and other a l l i e d genera." Description: In common with most plocoid corals the corallum usually spreads outward without attaining much height and assumes a d i s c o i d a l or an i r r e g u l a r flattened form. The more regular colonies are c i r c u l a r or oval i n o u t l i n e , have a f l a t or convex d i s t a l surface, and an obtusely c o n i c a l , f l a t , or even reflexed base. The cone of attachment i s more or less c e n t r a l l y placed, and i n well-preserved specimens the entire under surface i s covered by a t h i n c o n c e n t r i c a l l y w rinkl-ed epitheca. The epitheca i s almost absent; traces are to he seen between some of the c o r a l l i t e s . Throughout most of the c o r a l , the septa of the contiguous c o r a l l i t e s are confluent, abutting, or do not meet; i n t h i s respect the type specimen exhibits a l l the conditions mentioned i n the diagnosis. There are 26 septa i n most of the c o r a l l i t e s , and these are very strongly d i l a t e d for about 1 mm. The major septa extend into the tabularia'nearly three-quarters of t h e i r radius. P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a exhibits various forms of septal degeneration. The septa may, for instance, s p l i t up into dissociated seg-ments and ultimately disappear from the dissepimental t i s s u e , as for example i n P. exigua, or they may break down into trabeculate condition as i n "Haplothecla" f l l a t a (Schlotheim). Carinae are usually present. P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a appears to grade Into the c e r i o i d Prismatophyllum on the one hand and into simple Macgeea on the other. In the type specimen of Astrea hennahi Lonsdale the dissepiments are small, numerous, and f a i r l y uniform. Those which form the walls of the t a b u l a r i a appear to be s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the rest as horse-shoe dissep-iments but, owing to r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , the structure i s not c l e a r . Horse-shoe dissepiments are very w e l l developed i n many species but are not found i n a l l . 66 The tabularia are approximately 3 mm. i n diameter, and the distance between, although varying, averages about 6 mm. The tabulae are c l o s e l y set, mostly complete, and either f l a t or concave. Remarks: The above desc r i p t i o n i s taken from the remarks of Smith (194-5, pp. 37, 38). I have not added to the description, but have re-arranged and abbreviated i t with the aim of making i t more concise. In place of Smith 1s term 1epitheca' at the end of the f i r s t paragraph, I would prefer 'holotheca' (after H i l l , 1935, p. 4-97; Easton, 1944, p. 18; and Smith, 1945, p. 6) Lang and Smith (1935, p. 555) -consider Pachyphyllum to be a synonym of P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a because they have observed 'Pachyphyllum' devonlense type c o r a l l i t e s i n a corallum along with P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a c o r a l l i t e s , and because most authors have interpreted Pachyphyllum on P. devoniense-type corals rather , than on Pachyphyllum bouchardi - l i k e c o r a l s . That Pachyphyllum ought to be considered a junior synonjan of P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a appears p a r t i c u l a r l y reasonable when i t i s noted that the only distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c given by Stumm (1949, p. 37) i s that 'Pachyphyllum' usually has mueh larger t a b u l a r i a than has P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a . Furthermore the o r i g i n a l description of the genus Pachyphyllum of Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x v i i i ) provides no c r i t e r i o n for s e t t i n g that genus apart from P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a as described by them (1850, p. l x x i ) . » Philllpsastraea breviseptatum Stumm (Plate 11, figures 4-7 ) -Philllpsastraea breviseptatum Stumm. 1940, p. 65» p l . 8, fi g s . 16a-b. A portion of a very irregular corallum enclosed in buff-grey limestone was revealed only on cut surfaces and in thin section. There are no naturally exposed surfaces to indicate the external characteristics of the specimen. Description: Transverse section - Corallum exhibits a strong aphroid tendency but occasional septa of adjacent corallites are abutting and in a few places there are vestiges of theca between the c o r a l l i t e s . The distance between coral-l i t e axes ranges from 4.5 to 8 mm. but is most often about 6 mm. There are from 28 to 30 septa, a l l of which are greatly dilated through a zone about 1 mm. wide surrounding the tabu-larlum. Peripherally a l l the septa extend i n attenuated form for 2 or 3 mm. before losing their identity in the inter-c o r a l l i t e dissepimental tissue, where they appear occasionally as septal crests. Minor septa terminate ax i a l l y at the edge of the tabularlum while the major septa extend i n attenuated sinuous form to within about .5 mm. of the axis. None of the septa are carinate. The septa, i n their peripheral'portion, are linked by concentric, ax i a l l y convex dissepiments occurring about .3 mm apart. Peripheral to the zone of recognizable septa is a zone of variable width comprised of irregular cystosepiments. Within this zone there are sometimes traces of degenerate theca. 68 Longitudinal section: - The tabularium, varying i n width from 3.5 to 5 mm., bears complete nearly h o r i z o n t a l , f l a t tabulae with as many incomplete ones which t y p i c a l l y slope downwards and a x i a l l y . In some places there i s an a x i a l zone of f l a t tabulae upon each of which rests a p e r i a x i a l t a b e l l a i n c l i n e d downwards and a x i a l l y . Bordering the tabularium i s a series of small, d i s t i n c t horse-shoe dissepiments, peripheral to which i s a zone of va r i o u s l y shaped dissepiments. Remarks: The specimen I have studied conforms i n most respects to Stumm's description of P. breviseptatum. It d i f f e r s from his species only i n being s l i g h t l y smaller and i n having 2 fewer septa. My specimen, therefore i s almost cer-t a i n l y referable to P. breviseptatum. My specimen i s remarkable s i m i l a r to Smith's paratype of P. maeouni (No. 6330, §.S.C.) (1945j p i . 21, f i g s , l a , l b ) . However neither my material nor Smith's paratype;.illustration conform to either his description of P. maeouni or to his i l l u s t r a t i o n of the holotype of that species. P. maeouni has only 18 to 20 septa which are confluent or abutting whereas the specimen I have studied and Smith's paratype No. 6330 have 28 to 30 septa and are aphroid. It seems probable that Smith's paratype mentioned above may also be referred to P. breviseptatum. Stumm (1948) has shown P. maeouni Smith to be a synonym of P. nevadensls Stumm. It i s my suspicion, however, that the paratype of P. maeouni mentioned above i s conspecific not with P. nevadensls 69 but with P. breviseptatum. Confirmation of t h i s suspicion would necessitate a study of type specimens, an accomplish-ment beyond the scope of this work. Occurrence of hypotype: 5165, Job Creek, Mount Hawk formation. P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a devoniense (Edwards and Haime) (Plate 1 8 , figures 1-2 ) Pachyphyllum devoniense Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 397; 1853, p. 234, tab. LII. f i g s . 5, 5a. O r i g i n a l Descriptions "The c o r a l l i t e s are not circumscribed, but t h e i r r a d i i are not completely confluent. The exterior portion of each i n d i v i d u a l i s p r i n c i p a l l y formed by a vesicular ti s s u e , through which w e l l defined but very s l i g h t l y constituted costae extend. At some distance from the centre of each c o r a l l i t e , a well-marked subcircular or e l l i p t -i c a l zone i s formed by a s l i g h t enlargement of the septa, and appears to represent a rudimentary w a l l . Septa (44, or 48) very slender, unequally developed a l t e r n a t e l y , the larger ones very slender inwardly, where they become somewhat flexuous and appear to have a paliform lobe, and extending only to a short distance from the centre of the c a l i c e . Breadth of the c o r a l l i t e s about 8 l i n e s ; diameter of the mural zones about 4 l i n e s . " Remarkss Edwards and Haime t e l l us (p 234) that th i s species d i f f e r s from the genotype Pachyphyllum bouchardi by i t s septa being more numerous, more slender and unequal, and by the p r i n c i p a l ones bearing a small paliform lobe. P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a ef. P. devoniense (Edwards and Haime) (Plate 1 2 , figures 3 - 5 ) The specimen i s only a small part of a large corallum which probably was about 9 cm. i n diameter and 3 to 4 cm. high. L i t t l e s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l i s v i s i b l e on cut surfaces but t h i n sections show the structures very w e l l . 70 Description: External features - The exsert walls surrounding the calices are raised 2 to 3 mm. above the general surface. Galices are approximately 3 mm. deep, and are c i r -cular to oval transversely. Transverse section - The minimum diameter of the tabularia is 5 mm. The distance from axis to axis varies from 15 to 18 mm. There are from 44 to 50 septa. Many septa of adjac-ent corallites are confluent, or nearly so, while some are abutting. The septa are attenuated peripherally and typically follow a narrow zig-zag path which imparts to them a carinate appearance. True carinae, however, are rare and not of the yard-arm type. A l l septa become dilated for a distance of 2 mm. as they pass through the exsert wall surrounding the tabular-ium. Minor septa terminate at the boundary of the tabularium while the major continue in an irregularly sinuous, atten-uated form almost to the axis where they exhibit a tendency to twist. Between adjacent septa peripheral to the tabularium are numerous axially convex concentric septa mixed with many pseudo-herrinbone dissepiments. Longitudinal section - The tabularium bears fine, closely erowded essentially horizontal complete and incom-plete tabulae. They may be nearly f l a t axially but periax-i a l l y they tend to be d i s t a l l y concave. A series of poorly defined horse-shoe dissepiments surrounds the tabularium. They combine with the dilated septa to form the exsert wall 71 seen on the exposed surface of the corallum. In the inter-r tabulate areas there are numerous, small dissepiments of various shapes. Some of them have the same herring-bone shape observed in the transverse section of this part of the corallum. Remarks: Of the species known to the writer this specimen resembles only P. devoniense. The large number of septa make i t distinct from several species of comparable structures. The original description of P. devoniense, however, is not comprehensive enough to permit certain identification. Occurrence of hypotype: C5074, south of Cripple Creek, Devonian, mostly 'Green shale'. Phillipsastraea exlgua Lambe (Plate 13* , figures 1-7 ) Phillipsastraea v e r i l l i (Meek) Whiteaves, 1891, p. 205. Phillipsastraea v e r i l l i var. exiguum Lambe, 1901, p. 168. p l . xiv, f i g . 7. "var. exiguum" in explan-ation of p l . xiv. Phillipsastraea exigua Lambe. Smith, 1945, p. 41, p l . 21, figs. 3-6; p l . 23, f i g . 7. Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) "Small Phillipsastraea with septa which dilate at the borders of the tabularia but disintegrate peripherally into discontinuous segments, and with well-developed horse-shoe dissepiments. Description: The coralla are characteristically small and discoidal, sometimes built up of superposed laminae. The largest measure 15 cm. in diameter, and t a l l e s t , 5 cm. in height. More usually they are about 3 em. high. The convex or almost f l a t d i s t a l surface is indifferently even or hummocky. The calicular pits are surrounded by a raised border of exsert septa. The sharply defined rings, about 1 mm. in diameter, are separated by distances which, though varying very much, average about 2.5 mm. The septa, where they are less degenerate, stand out plainly above the 72 dissepimental surface but where they have broken up the dissepiments are exposed as closely packed minute blisters (as in P. vesiculosa but much smaller). There are 16 to 20 septa which are dilated for a fraction of a millimeter at the border of the tabularia. The major septa sometimes extend well into the tabularium but are more often very l i t t l e longer than the minor and terminate axially just within the border of the tabularia. The septa break up peripherally both in a vertical and a horizontal direction into dissociated parts which in transverse section appear as a row of dashes ending in a medley of dots. In longitudinal section they appear as vertical crests on dissepimental platforms. The septa of adjacent corallites may be confluent, but more usually they f a i l to meet. The tabulae are indifferently complete or incomplete, f l a t or strongly convex. The ordinary dissepiments are well arched, broader than high, and are arranged in s t r a t i f i e d layers. They are rather large but very considerably in size, and some, being very much larger than the rest, are developed sporadically among the finer tissue. The horse-shoe dissep-iments are very small but very regular and constant." 0 Remarks: Because Lambe's description of the species is considered inadequate, Smith's description, based on four plesiotypes has been quoted here. Phillipsastraea hennahii (Lonsdale) C» ::i/:e , f .V.:r"3 } Astrea hennahii Lonsdale (pars) 1840, p. 697, pi- l v i i i , fig.3 . Astrea hennahii P h i l l i p s , 1841, p. 12, p i . v i , f i g . io. Cyathophyllum hennahii. Brown, 1848, p. 368. Lithostrotion hennahii. Actinocyathus hennahii. and Phillipsastraea hennahii (pars) D1Orbigny 1850, pp. 106, 107. Smithia hennahii Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 421. Arachnophyllum hennahii M'Coy, 1851, p. 72. Smithia hennahii Edwards and Haime, 1853, p. 240, tabi LIV, f i g . 4-4d. / 73 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a hennahli Londsale, Smith, 1945, p l . 19, f i g . l a , b, Description: (Edwards and Haime, 1853) "A polished horizontal section of th i s compound astreiform corallum shows that the mural c i r c l e s , although slender, are we l l character-ised, and placed at a distance from each other, equal to 2,3, or even 4 times t h e i r diameter, but varying sometimes very much i n the same specimen. Costal r a d i i (24 or 26 i n a c o r a l l i t e ) slender, appearing to be s l i g h t l y granulated on th e i r sides, and i n general much more developed, more con-fluent and straighter i n one d i r e c t i o n than i n the other, where they become i r r e g u l a r , flexuous, angular or geniculate; h a l f of the r a d i i do not extend beyond the wall; the others become somewhat thicker at that part, and pass on towards the centre of the v i s c e r a l chamber, where some traces of small paliform lobes are seen. Diameter of the mural c i r c l e s about 1.5 l i n e . A v e r t i c a l section shows that the i n t e r c o s t a l l o c u l i are f i l l e d up with v e s i c l e s , which are very small and pretty regular. The dissepiments of the i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i are almost horizontal, and unite at the centre of the v i s c e r a l chamber so as to form a series of small and very c l o s e l y set tabulae." P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a nevadensIs Stumm (Plate i 3 , figures 8 ) Smithia hennahl Meek, 1877, (not Astraea hennahi Lonsdale) p. 32, p l . 2, f i g s . 6, 6a. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a hennahl Whiteaves. 1891, i n part, p. 204, (excluding specimens from the Middle Devonian of Ontario). P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r r i l l i Lambe,-1901, (not Smithia v e r r i l l i Meek) pp. 167-168, p l . 14, f i g s . 5, 5a-b, 6 (excluding specimens mentioned i n the text from the Middle Devonian of Ontario). P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a nevadensis Stumm. 1939, p. 66, p l . 7, f i g . 13; p l . 8, f i g s . 15a-b. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a sp. a Merriam, 1940, p l . 14, f i g . 1 P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a sp. f Merriam, 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 4. Not P. sp. b Merriam; 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 2 which i s P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a breviseptatum Stumm; P. sp. c Merriam, 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 2 which i s Pachyphyllum exiguum CSmith); or P. sp. e Merriah, 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 3 which i s P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r r i l l i (Meek). 74 Phillipsastraea maeouni Smith, 1945, p. 41, p i . 20, fig s . 4-8, p i . 21, f i g . 2; p i . 23, figs. 5-6. Pachyphyllum nevadense (Stumm) 1948, p. 45, p i . 10, f i g . 3, 5, p i . 13, f i g s . 1, 3, 11. Description: (Stumm, 1948) Astraeoid coralla that vary from hemispherical to subhemispherical to discoid in external form. The margins of the tabularia are strongly exsert and project from 2 mm. to 4 mm. above the d i s t a l surface. They average about 3 mm. in diameter. The peripheral portions of the septa are of variable length so the tabularia range from a minimum of 5 mm. to a maximum of over 10 mm. apart when meas-ured from their axes. The septa become quite irregular and wavy in their peripheral portions and may be confluent with those of a neighbouring corallite or may abut against them. The major septa enter the tabularia and may extend to the axes, forming a small oxial boss. In the transverse section the septa vary from 18 to 24 in number. They are strongly dilated across the margins of the tabularia and the minor terminate there while the major, becoming attenuate, extend to or almost to the axes. Outside the tabularia the septa are l i g h t l y carinate with small, spinose, offset carinae. The margins of the tabularia have a distinct double-walled appearance between the dilated septa. This is due to the interception of the strongly d i s t a l l y convex marginal row of horse-shoe dissep-iments. In the longitudinal section the tabularia are dist-inct and bounded by a single row of horse-shoe dissepiments that are small, very globose, and dist a l l y convex. The tab-ulae are complete or incomplete, relatively horizontal, and closely set. In some corallites they are elevated axially and depressed periaxially. In the intertabulate areas the dissepiments are horizontally disposed and elongate." Remarks: By a eareful comparison of the original description of Phillipsastraea nevadensls Stumm (1939, p. 66) with those of Phillipsastraea maeouni Smith (1945, p. 41) I can detect nothing which indicates these forms to be separate species. I therefore follow Stumm (1948, p. 45) in considering P. maeouni to be a junior synonym of P. nevadensls. In my remarks on the genus Phillipsastraea, I have already stated my reasons for considering Pachyphyllum to be invalid. On this point I am at variance with Stumm (1948, 75 p. 45; 1949, p. 32) I prefer to revert to Stumm's original designation of the species as Philllpsastraea nevadensis. "His 1948 description of the species has been selected because i t is more comprehensive than the original. Phillipsastraea v e r i l l i (Meek) (Plate 14 , figures 1-4 ) Smithia v e r i l l i Meek, 1867, p. 83, p l . x l , f i g . 7. Not Philllpsastraea v e r i l l i Meek, Whit'eaves, 1891, p. 205. Phillipsastraea v e r i l l i (Meek) Smith, 1945, p. 38, p l . 19, figs. 2a-c; p l . 23, f i g . 1. " "Diagnosis: (From Smith, 1945, p. 38). Phillipsastraea with confluent or abutting septa dilated most of their length, and major septa which reach the axis." Original description: •; (Meek's description of Smithia v e r i l l i ) "corallum depressed, moderately convex below, where i t seems to have been protected by a thin epi-theca, and attached by a small central peduncle; upper side nearly f l a t . Calices nearly as deep as wide, with vertical walls, and subangular; s l i g h t l y raised margins, showing about fifteen principal septal r a d i i , and as many short intermediate secondary ones; the former rather prominent on the walls, and continued in the bottom of the calices to the centre, while the latter assume the appearance of raised striae between. Mural cir c l e s , "as seen in sections, not very distinctly defined, being mainly indicated by the sudden thickening of the radii as they pass on; situated regularly at intervals of once to twice their own diameter apart. Radii thirty to thirty' five, rather thin, and minutely and very obscurely granulose, or striate on the sides; a few of them straighter and more confluent in one direction than the others, and*generally meeting those from the adjacent corallites at various angles, as seen in transverse sections; the twelve to fifteen prin-cipal ones continued to the center, while the others coalesce with them, or die out a short distance within the walls. Dissepiments very thin, and arching a l i t t l e downwards, in crossing the intercostal spaces, arranged closer together than the r a d i i themselves. Transverse diameter of the corallum 2.20 inches; height of do., 0.75 inch; breadth of mural circles and eal-ices, 0.13 inch; interspaces from 0.13 to (occasionally) 0.18 inch." 76 Remarks: Smith (194-5, p. 38) has written a more lucid description of the specie which is a necessary supplement to the original and is given here: "The original of Meek»s Figure 7 of Plate 11 is a small oval, discoidal corallum, measuring 5.5 cm. by 4.5 cm. by 2 cm. The distal surface is almost f l a t , while the proximal side i s convex and has a more or less centrally placed cone of"attach-ment. The deep calicular pits which have only sl i g h t l y elevated borders, nearly as deep as wide, and vertical sides, are about 4 mm. in diameter and approximately 3 mm. apart. There are about 32 septa which stand out very plainly above the distal surface and from the walls and floors of the c a l i -cular pits. The septa of contiguous corallites are confluent or abut or are separated by vestiges of epitheca. The major septa are long, and a few of them meet at the axis of the corallites, but on entering the tabularia they become very thin. Outside the tabularia they are strongly dilated through-out almost their whole length although they sometimes atten-uate a l i t t l e at the boundaries of the cor a l l i t e s . The diluted parts of the septa reveal a granular structure, the darker elements taking the form of bars crossing the septa at right angles and projecting slightly as feeble carinae. The tabulae are incomplete and d i s t a l l y arched, and the dissepiments are small and apparently a l l of.one kind. Phillipsastraea verneuili Edwards and Haime (Plate I 4 f f i g U r e 5 ) Phillipsastraea verneuili Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 4-47, p i . 10, f i g . 5. Phillipsastraea affinis B i l l i n g s , 1874, p. 11 Phillipsastraea verneuili Nicholson, 1875, p. 78 Phillipsastraea verneuili Rominger, 1876, p. 128, p i . XXXVIII, f i g . 2. Phillipsastraea verneuili Lambe, 1901, p. 166, p i . XIV, fig.4 . Description: (Lambe 1901) "Corallum forming large discoidal masses over 30 cent, broad and 8 cent, thick or high, upper surface f l a t , lower surface irregular, strongly marked by concentric foldings or wrinkles of growth and covered by an epitheca. Septa numbering from about thirty-to forty-six. Corallites varying in diameter from 10 to 16 mm. 77 Central pit of the calices from 3 to 5 mm. in diameter. In no particular does this species differ from P. B i l l i n g s i . except in the smaller size of i t s corallites~and in a dimin-ution in the number of the septa. In transverse sections and in weathered specimens i t is observed that a single row of pore-openings occurs between each pair of septa, the pores piercing the dissepiments where they rest on each other, the distance apart of the pores in a single row thus depend-ing on the size of the dissepiments. This pore structure, which appears not no have been noticed previously in species of this genus, and which is well shown in some specimens of P. Billi n g s 1 , in the collection, is apparently somewhat analagous to that which is seen in some species of the genus Arachnophyllum." Remarks: Rominger (1876, p. 128) says the number of septa varies from 36 to 40, which figure is at variance with Lambe's given above, which may well be a misprint. This appears probable since such a large range in number of septa is extraordinary within a species. Lambe's figure probably should read "thirty-six to forty", rather than "thirty to forty-six". Philllpsastraea woodmani (White) (Plate 14 , figures 6-8 ) Smithia woodmani White, 1870, p. 188. Pachyphyllum woodmani. Hall and Whitfield, 1873, p. 239, p l . 9 , f i g . 9. Pachyphyllum woodmani, Fenton and Fenton, 1924, pp. 46-47, p l . 7, f i g s . 1-3, p l . 8, f i g . 2; p l . 9, f i g s . 11-12; p l . 10, f i g . 3. Phillipsastraea woodmani (White) Stumm, 1940, p. 64, p l . 7, f i g . J.1; p l . 8, figs. 13a-b. Holotype: U.S. Nat. Mus. 98279 Descriptions (Stumm 194-0) "The holotype is a portion of a hemispherical corallum that is composed of astraeoid corallites with confluent septa. The individual corallites vary from 1 to 2 cm. in diameter. Dilation of the septa at the margin of the tabularia produces strong exsert rims that project as much as 4- mm. above the dissepimentaria and the central pits. These exsert rims surrounding the tabularia vary from 5 mm. to 1 cm. in diameter. The minor septa terminate at this wall, but the major continue and stop just short of the axis. In the transverse section there are from 36 to 42 radially arranged septa in the individual corallites. They are either confluent with those of neigh-bouring corallites or abut against them. A l l the septa be-come strongly dilated at the margin of the tabularlum, and minor septa stop here., The major septa, becoming very attenuated, continue to within 2 mm. of the axis. Transverse dissepiments are common between the peripheral ends of the septa and the margin of the tabularlum. In the longitudinal section the tabularia vary from 5 mm. to 1 cm. in width and are composed of a central series of horizontal tabellae bounded in either side by a series of inclined tabellae. Remarks: This species has usually been placed in the genus Pachyphyllum. but this genus, as shown by the genotype, P. bouchardi, differs from Phillipsastraea only in the larger""size of the individual cor a l l i t e s . Most authors do not consider Pachyphyllum to be worthy of generic d i s t -inction. Belanski (1928, p. 174) has interpreted Pachy-phyllum on the basis of P. devoniense Edwards and Haime (1851, p. 397) and his own species P. websteri (op. c i t . , pp. 171-174, text f i g . p. 172), in which peripheral retreat of the septa has caused the corallites to be separated by dissepimental tissue. Lang and Smith (1935, P. 555) show that this interpretation is untenable because peripheral septal retreat is not exhibited in the genotype of Pachyphyllum. £• bouchardi Edwards and Haime (1850, p. 68). In addition Lang and Smith claim that both septal confluence and peri-pheral septal retreat can be seen in the same colony of corallites at different stages of growth. Occurrence: Upper 500 feet of the Nevada lime-stone at Devil's Gate, 7 miles northwest of Eureka, Nevada. 79 Subfamily ERIDOPHYLLINAE Stumm Genus Eridophyllum Edwards and Haime (Plate 15 , figures 1-3 ) Eridophyllum Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x x i . Eridophyllum Edwards and Haime, Stumm, 1949, p. 37, p i . 18, figs. 1-14. Genotype: (By original designation) Eridophyllum seriale Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x x i , 1851, p. 424. Original description: "Corallum composite, and increasing by lateral gemmation. Corallites t a l l , c y l i n -droid, and provided with a thick epitheca, which gives rise to a vertical series of short and thick subradiciform productions that extend to the next individual and unite them together.. Tabulae well developed, and occupying the central area circumscribed by the inner wall. Septal apparatus occupying the annular area situated between the outer and inner mural investment! but not extending into the inner or central area." 80 Family CYSTIPHYLLOIDAE Wedekind and Vollbrecht Subfamily CYSTlPHYLLOINAE Genus Cystlphylloides Chapman Cyst l p h y l l o i d e s. Chapman, 1893, p. 46. C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s. Yoh, 1937, (123), pp. 50, 53, (as a n. genus) Cystlphylloides Chapman. Stumm, 1949, p. 39, p i . 19, f i g s . 1-7; p i . 20, f i g s . 14, 15. "Genotypes By monotypy, Cystiphyllum aggregatum B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 137, t e x t - f i g . 2B. Horizon and L o c a l i t y of Genotype? Middle Devonian, Onondaga limestone: near Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. Generic Description: (Stumm 1949), "Simple or weakly aggregate, long, s u b c y l i n d r i c a l to ceratoid corals with a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bell-shaped calyx and a heavy, h o r i z o n t a l l y wrinkled epitheca. Calyx f i l l e d with dissepiments that are crossed by radiating septal s t r i a e . Periodic rejuvenescence causes septal cones to be present at varying v e r t i c a l d i s t -ances apart. In transverse section these appear as concen-t r i c bands of short septal c r e s t s . Dissepimentarium i s wide and composed of many small i n c l i n e d dissepiments. Tabularium c e n t r a l l y located, narrow, composed of c l o s e l y set, usually d i s t a l l y convex tabellae. Remarks: Stumm, (1949, p. 38) points out that Devonian forms possess septal cones derived from c a l y c i n a l septal s t r i a e and are thus g e n e r i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from the S i l u r i a n genus Cystiphyllum which has septal crests, devel-oped from l a t e r a l acanthine septa. It i s presumably on t h i s basis that Stumm (1949, p. 39) bases his remark that North American species Cystiphyllum americanum and related species from Onondaga and Hamilton s t r a t a belong to the genus Cystlphylloides. 81 Cystiphylloides americanum (Edwards and Haime) (Plate 15, ("fig^es 4^5; ^lafce,216, figures 1-3) Cystiphyllum cylindricum Hall (not lonsdale) 1843, p. 209, figs. 1, 2. Cystiphyllum americanum Edwards and Haime 1851» p. 464, P l . 13, figs. 4-4a. Cystiphyllum americanum Nicholson 1874, p. 36, p l . 6, f i g . 8. (?) Cystiphyllum vesiculosum Nicholson, 1874, p. 37, f i g . 8. Cystiphyllum vesiculosum Lambe, 1901, p. 1$2. Cystiphyllum vesiculosum Stewart, 1938, p. 57, p l - 11, figs. 3-5. Cystiphyllum americanum Fenton and Fenton, 1938, p. 228, p l . XXII, fig s . 6, 7; p l . XXIII, figs. 2-8, p l . XXIV, f i g s . 1-3. Descriptions (Fenton and Fenton 1938) "Corallum cylindro-turbinate with moderate rate of expansion and varied yet rather regular curvature. Constrictions numerous, angular, and commonly of magnitude exceeding 0.3 of the diameter, Epitheca thin, complete or incomplete, commonly removed by corrosion or erosion before fossilization or after i t . Fossa shallow to deepl marginal zone concave to convex, undefined. Septal rays poorly developed in some specimens; in others they number 90 to 100 and cross the dissepiments to the axial region. Transverse sections show a marginal band of cysts 1 to 3 mm. In greatest diameter and oval to concentric i n shape; the dissepiments enclosing them are thin and generally lack septal rays. The size of dissepiments and cysts decreases centrally; thickness of the former increases; septal rays form priminent "teeth" on their inward faces, and cysts become irregularly oval or even round. At 5 to 12 mm. from the periphery (in sections 17 to 43 mm. in diameter) there is an irregular but commonly heavy sclerotheca formed partly by crowding together of small dissepiments and partly by depos-i t i o n of stereoplasm upon and within them (plate XXIII, figures 6 to 8). Inside this wall, cysts and dissepiments enlarge — or more properly, merge with incomplete, highly convex, cyst-forming tabulae 1.5 to 12 mm. in width, whose outermost members bear septal rays. Constriction is accom-plished primarily by reduction of the dissepimental zone; except in extreme cases the tabulae retain normal size and cover almost normal areas. 82 Longitudinal sections show the dissepiments arranged in broadly funnel-shaped series approximating the "cystosepimentsM of Grabau. The false inner wall is either cylindrical though broken (plate XXIV, figure 1) or is resolved into another series of funnels variably spaced and either distinct or connected; their individual deposits are as much as 2.6 mm. thick. Tabulae merge with dissepiments on levels between these funnels and (apparently) in them. Some tabulae are concave; others reach convexities of about 200 degrees, forming cysts that are circular in transverse section." Remarks: The reference of Devonian cystimorphs to Cystlphylloides rather than to Cystiphyllum has already been discussed in connection with the description of Cystlphylloides. Nicholson, Lambe and Stewart have referred this form to Cystiphyllum veslculosum Goldfuss. Fenton and Fenton (1938, p. 230) point out that this identification, although probably correct, has not been based on a comparison of sectioned type material of Goldfuss 1 species with North American specimens. They therefore uphold the retention of C. amerlcanum until such a comparison has been made. I have not discovered, during the course of this study, any further work on this problem and therefore feel obliged to follow Fenton and Fenton in referring North American forms to C. amerlcanum un t i l a f f i n i t i e s with the previously established European species C. veslculosum have been proven. Cystlphylloides amerlcanum. var. arcticum Meek (Plate 16, figures 4-6) Cystiphyllum amerlcanum Edwards and Haime, (185D, p. 4-64, pi . x i i i , f i g . 4, 4a. 83 Cysteophyllum amerlcanum* var. arcticum Meek, 1867» p. 80, p i . XI, f i g . 6. Original description: "Corallum conical, or possibly becoming cylindrical in large specimens, straight or somewhat curved. Surface with a thin epitheca, and distinct wrinkles, with stronger encircling ridges of growth. Calice circular, or a l i t t l e oval, conical, and of moderate depth; marked with radiating impressed lines, indicating the position of rudimentary septa, formed by the crowding together of the walls of the vesicles within. Interior, as seen in a long-itudinal section, entirely occupied by a dense vesicular tissue, the vesicles being largest and most irregular in the central region, and becoming very small, crowded, and arranged in oblique ascending series on each side; in a transverse section,'' showing thin radiating false septa, of which about one hundred may be counted in the entire series. -Near the middle, these false septa are distinct, but they become gradually more irregular and obscure as they approach the exterior. Length, 2.10 inches, or more; breadth, 1.25 inches." Remarks: Meek's illustrations are not clear enough to base decisions upon, but the writer entertains some doubt as to the necessity of establishing the variety arcticum. Indeed, C. amerlcanum arcticum apparently differs from the typical species only in having a more eystose central region. In a genus so notorious for possessing variable internal structures, this single characteristic probably does not warrant the erection of a separate variety. Family CHONOPHYLLIDAE Holmes Subfamily CHONOPHYLLINAE Holmes Genus Chonophyllum Edwards and Haime Genotype: (By original designation) "Typ. sp. Chonophyllum perfoliatum; Cyathophyllum perfoliatum, Goldfuss, tab. x v i i i , f i g . 5." Original description: "Corallum simple, and con-stituted principally by a series of infundibuliform tabulae, superposed and Invaginated, the surface of which presents numerous septal r a d i i equally developed, and extending from the centre to the circumference. No columella or walls." Remarks: The original description is not consid-ered to be adequate and is supplemented by Stumm*s descript-ion (1949, p. 48); "Simple, patelloid corals having a calyx with an axial pit and broad reflexed peripheral platform. Repeated rejuven-escence produces a marked foliated appearance to corallum. Septa are radially arranged and heavily dilated across wide dissepimentarium. Minor septa terminate at border of tabul-arlum, but major enter tabularlum in an attenuated form and may extend to axis, producing an axial whorl. Septa are true lamellar septa only in axial region. Across wide peripheral platform, they occur as series of horizontal plates recurring with each rejuvenescence. Interspaces between these horiz-ontal plates are f i l l e d with elongated, almost horizontal dissepiments. Plates appear radially continuous because septa are in lateral contact, but interseptal striae are always v i s i b l e . Central tabularlum is narrow and composed of closely set, complete or incomplete tabulae." The reader is referred to Smith 1945, p. 19, p l . 30, f i g . 3, for a discussion and an il l u s t r a t i o n of the genotype of Chonophyllum. and to Stumm 1949, p l . 23, f i g s . 3-7, for illustrations of the holotype of C. perfoliatum. Chonophyllum magnificum Billings (Plate 17 , figures 1 - 3 ) Chonophyllum magnificum. B i l l i n g s , i860, p. 264, p i . 1. Chonophyllum magnificum. Rominger, 1876, p. 115, p i . XLIII. upper row. Chonophyllum magnificum. Sherzer. 1892. p. 267, p i . 8, figs. 2 , 3 , 4 and 5, Chonophyllum magnificum B i l l i n g s . Lambe, 1901, p. 188 An abbreviated and amended form of Lambe* s lengthy description of the species is given here. Description: Corallum short, broadly expanding to cylindro-turbinate, obtusely pointed and sli g h t l y curved at the base. The type specimen is 16 to 17 cm. in diameter and about 8 cm. high. Calicular pit deep, from about 1/3 to nearly 1/2 the entire diameter i n width. Septa (in type specimen) 132 in marginal area, are lamellar on sides of calice, bifur-cating when about half way up and gradually change, on expanded margin, into low,- convex ridges from 3 to 5 mm. broad. Near periphery they consist of a series of thin, separate, super-imposed convex layers, of which there are from 18 to 30-40 in 5 mm., supported by numerous granules or short p i l l a r s . As septal layers converge, they become compressed later a l l y , t i l l they become thin, double, lamellar plates. Septa passing into the pit apparently do not extend into the center, but stop.at the bottom of the steep sides where they meet and alternate with an equal number of septa which reach the center and are there slightly twisted. ThesB septa do not appear,on the sides of the central p i t . Dissepiments small, convex, arching upward in the narrow interseptal spaces. 'Toward the center of the lumen they become larger and irregular in dis-position. Remarks: For further details of the internal structures of Chonophyllum the reader is referred to Sherzer, 1892, p. 267. 86 Genus Ptychophyllum Edwards and Haime Strombodes (pars), Lonsdale, 1839, p. 691 Ptychophyllum Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. lxix. Ptychophyllum Edwards and Haime, Smith, 1945, p. 51, p l . 35» figs. 2a , b. Genotype: (By original designation) Ptychophyllum stokesi. Original description: "Corallum simple, and organized as in the preceding genus, but having the septal r a d i i strongly twisted towards the center of the tabulae, so as to constitute a spurious columella." Remarks: The 'preceding genus' alluded to in the description is Chonophyllum. which Edwards and Haime describe thus: "Corallum simple, and constituted principally by a series of infundibuliform tabulae, superposed and invaginated, the surface of which presents numerous septal r a d i i equally developed, and extending from the center to the circumference. No columella nor walls." The original description, even when supplemented by that of Chonophyllum. is obviously inadequate. Ptychophyllum has been discussed by Smith (1945, p. 5D» whose diagnosis of the genus follows: "Diagnosis: Rugose corals which are typically simple, patellate, or turbinate in shape and in which the calice has typically a wide reflex peripheral platform and a moderately deep axial depression occupied by a prominent boss. The septa are long and typically thin but break up peripher-a l l y in such a way that in transverse section they appear to s p l i t into component strands. The major septa reach the axis where they form a strongly twisted axial Vortex. There is a narrow inconspicuous cardinal fossula which invades the vortex. The small arched tabellae form a series of convex floors, and the rather small but elongated dissepiments form a wide dissepimentarium." 87 Smith expresses some doubt in referring his species ' tt kindlei and vhittaker! to PtychophyllumT since the genotype is known only from the Middle Silurian and no other forms have so far been found to f i l l the Middle Silurian to Upper Devon-ian gap. He has tentatively placed the Upper Devonian species under Ptychophyllum. solely on the basis of similar morphology. •88 Subclass TABULATA Family FAVOSITIDAE Genus Alveolites Lamarck Alveolites Lamarck, 1801, p. 375. Alveolites Lamarck. Smith, 1 9 4 5 , p. 11. Smith (1945, p. 11) was unable to trace the types of Alveolites suborbicularis and considers them lost. His diagnosis of the genus, which follows, is based upon a neotype, which is the original of Calamopora spongites var. tuberosa Goldfuss, 1829, p. 80, p l . 28, f i g s . Id, l e . Middle Devonian. > "Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) Tabulate corals typically massive, in which the corallum is built up of superposed layers and the corallites grow horizontally or obliquely from one or more centres of growth, molding their lower side on the layer below. Typically the corallites are small, semil-unate, or sub-triangular in section, generally more or less compressed, and usually opening at the surface in oblique calices with a projecting lower l i p . The walls are i n d i f f -erently thick or thin, the septa, when present, are acanthine, the tabulae are complete, and the mural pores large and distant. Remarks: The above diagnosis is based chiefly upon the genotype, but allie d forms are also considered. While the typical forms are massive, there are others which are ramose in habit; in these the corallites grow mainly parallel to the axis of the branch. The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the corallum, although not by any means peculiar to Alveolites. is a very characteristic and consistent feature. The whole colony is typically built up of relatively thin sheets, and thin layers of sediment and foreign growth (often a stromatoporoid) may be found between the layers of coral. Nearly every previous writer has described the walls in Alveolites as thin, but this is by no means always the case. The lectotype of A. suborbicularis has rather thick walls, but the thickness even in this specimen varies in different parts of the corallum. 89 The corallites are very often much compressed, so much so that in some species of Alveolites — in A. lemniscus Smith (PI. 26, f i g . 7), for example, they almost; resemble ribbons. The species of Alveolites are like so many other "genera" of tabulate corals, a polyphyletic group having been derived from more than one species of Pavosites. The group ranges from Silurian to Devonian but is more partic-ularly characteristic of the latter." Alveolites multlperforatus Salee MS. in Lecompte Alveolites vallorum Meek, Whiteaves, 1891, p. 207; 1892, p. 274; Lambe, 1899, p. 25, partim, who include this species under Alveolites vallorum. Alveolites multlperforatus Salee Ms., in Lecompte, 1933, p. 39 p i . i i i , f i gs. 1, l a , and b. Alveolites multlperf oratus Salee. Smith, 194-5, p. 13, p i . 26 figs. 3-5. Smith's description of the species is chosen because i t is,based upon Canadian material. His diagnosis and descript-ion are as follows: "Diagnosis: (Smith, 194-5) Alveolites with corallites which are less obliquely inclined and less compressed than are usually found in Alveolites suborbicularis and with numerous mural pores, and occasionally numerous septal spines. Description: The coralla are generally built up of superposed laminae and often enclose intercalations of sediment. They form irregular but generally discoidal masses and also thin sheets. A basal epitheca with fine concentric growth lines is sometimes present. The d i s t a l surface is generally very uneven and often monticulate. The corallites are usually inclined at angles varying from 20 to 40 from the horizontal, but they may rise almost perpendicularly or l i e nearly horizontal. Their transverse sections vary considerably. The more upright corallites are usually subpolygonal to polygonal, but the oblique ones are invariably subtriangular or semilunate. The more or less polygonal corallites are usually about 0.3 to 0.4 mm. in diameter, the semilunate rather 9G more in their longer and less in their shorter diameters. The corallite walls vary very considerably in thickness even in the same corallum. In some coralla or in some parts of a corallum they are not much more than 0 . 1 mm. thick while i n other places they may attain a thickness of more than 0 . 5 mm. Septal spines have not, i t is true, been noticed in every section cut. This may be due in some cases to the spines being buried in the sclerenchyme of the wall or to some re-crystallization of the specimen. In most cases, however, spines are to be seen, at least in some corallites. In some of the solitary row of prominent stout spines, so character-i s t i c of Alveolites suborbicularis, is present; in others numerous minute spines are v i s i b l e . Most of the tabulae are complete, straight, or curved and usually one to two thirds of a millimeter apart. The large, closely set mural pores constitute the most diagnostic character of the species. These are about 0 . 2 mm. in diameter and at vertical intersals of about 0 . 7 mm. Their arrangement appears to follow no very definite rule; they may occur in opposite or in adjacent sides of a corallite and are not necessarily confined to the corners. 1 1 Remarks: A. multiperforatus differs from A. suborbicularis and A. vallorum, in having less compressed corallites, thus being closer to Favosites. Alveolites cf. A. mult iperforatus (Plate 17 , figures 4.5 ) Some of the material studied by the writer conforms to Smith's description of the species. It consists chiefly of broken coralla embedded in black, finely crystalline lime-stone along with Thamnopora-type corals. The white calcite constituting the coral skeleton is partly recrystallized, rendering structures d i f f i c u l t to observe except in thin sections. 91 Coralla appear to have originally been irregularly undulating superposed laminae ranging from 1 mm. to 4 mm. in thickness. Many of them are fractured and separated from one another by a few millimeters of the engulfing limestone. This may well have resulted from wave or current action i f the corals lived in a shallow-water environment. Description: Corallites are irregularly disposed, but in general, they tend to l i e horizontal in the base of the corallum and to curve upwards to open at the surface of an angle of from 30 to 40 degrees. Occasional groups of corallites, however, are nearly normal to the surface. Calices are moderately depressed and vary in shape from polygonal to semi-lunate. Their maximum transverse dimension is about.7 mm. the minimum about.5 mm. Wall thickness varies from one-third to one-half the corallite diameter. Occasionally a single, weakly developed septal spine may be seen projecting a short distance into a cora l l i t e . A few mural pores, having a diameter of about one-third that of a co r a l l i t e , may be seen in thin sections. Tabulae are rare. Where observed they are very delicate, which may be the reason for their paucity. Remarks: The laminar nature of the coralla, the moderately depressed nature of the calices, and presence of large mural pores provides the basis for considering this material to be closely related to A. multlperforatus Salee. Occurrence of hypotype: The specimens are merely l i s t -ed as being from the Devonian of the Cripple Creek area. Specimen no. C5072, several fragments. Alveolites aff. A. multlperforatus (Plate 18 , Figures 1 X Description: A globose corallum 3 cm. in diameter was found to consist of a coralline encrustation from 1 to 4 mm. thick upon a low-spired gastropod shell. Part of the corallum has two distinct laminae separated by two closely spaced, concentric plates which are mutually supported by short p i l l a r s or plates. A similar pair of plates coats the gastropod shell beneath the basal portion of the coral. These distinct bi-plate structures are probably the basal holotheca of two Alveolites coralla, one ..superimposed upon the other. (See Plate , figure ). One layer preceded coral growth upon the gastropod and the other developed on the surface of the f i r s t Alveolites lamina, and was in turn engulfed in the second layer of coral. Corallites are polygonal to compressed polygonal in transverse section with maximum and minimum transverse dimensions of 0.7 and 0.4 mm. They are mostly inclined to the corallum surface at an angle of about 40 degrees. Wall thick-ness varies greatly. On weathered surface a few corallites bear a feeble indentation of the wall suggestive of septal spines. A thin section reveals no definite mural pores. Some corallites possess delicate tabulae which are f l a t or gently convex,orally and are spaced at intervals of about 5 mm. Remarks: The specimen bears general resemblance to A. multlperforatus but apparent lack of mural pores detracts somewhat from the comparison. It is therefore, considered re-lated to that species, but not identical with i t . 93 Occurrence of hypotype: 5163, Job Greek, Devonian. Alveolites multlperforatus ? Salee (Plate 18 , figure 2 ) A polished section and a thin section reveal an irregular corallum of Alveolites engulfing a branch of a Thamnopora-type coral. Description: The corallites are very irregularly disposed, but most of the calices exposed in thin section are oblique to the corallum surface. The few corallites sectioned transversely are compressed, but their c a l i c i n a l dimensions cannot be ascertained. Thickness of walls varies throughout the specimen. No mural pores or tabulae were observed. Remarks: The specimen provides very l i t t l e evidence of specific value, but i t is interesting in its encrusting habit, and in this respect is similar to A. suborbicularis and A. multiperforatus. Its moderately compressed corallites indicate closer a f f i n i t y to the latter species. Occurrence of hypotype: C5034, North branch of Saskatchewan River, Mile 109, Banff-Jasper Highway, Devonian coral reef. Alveolites rockfordensis Hall & Whitfield (Plate is > figures 3-6 ) Alveolites rockfordensis Hall and Whitfield, p. 229, 1873. Alveolites rockfordensis Hall and Whitfield, Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 61, p i . XIII, f i g . 1, p i . XII, figs. 3-6. 94 "Description: (Fenton and Fenton, 19241) Corallum forming broad, irregular, discoidal or oval expansions that range in size up to a maximum of more than a foot on the long-est diameter. The thickness is most commonly less than an inch, but in some specimens is as much as three. Corallites small, numbering from 9-12 in the space of 5mm. Septa very slightly developed; in most specimens indistinguishable. Apertures rhombic, highly oblique, with the middle of the upper l i p forming a sharp, subangular elevation, and that of the lower occupying the angle between two corallites in advance." Remarks: "Alveolites rockfordensis is a gregarious species, but does not form reefs. It grew among stromato-poroids, and many specimens show interlaminations of Stromatoporella and Syringostroma along with the coral. In such specimens, the Alveolites furnishes the base, the stroma-toporoids being of later growth." Alveolites vallorum Meek (Plate i s , figure 7 ) Alveolites vallorum Meek, 1867, p. 86, p i . XI, f i g . 9. Original description: "Corallum massive, large, wider than high, apparently lenticular in form, or sometimes concave below, and convex above; laminated structure not always distinct. Calices very small, or rarely more than 0.03 inch wide and half that in height, oblique, generally nearly twice as wide as high, and more or less rhombic in out-lin e . Walls between the calices apparently nearly as thick in worn or weathered specimens, as the diameters of the calices themselves. Entire size of corallum unknown, apparently some-times as much as four or five inches broad, and one arid a half inches thick or high. " Genus Coenites Eichwald Coenites Eichwald, 1829, p. 127. Limaria Steininger, 1831, p. 339. Coenites, Eichwald, Lambe, 1899, p. 26, 95 Genolectotype: (By subsequent designation of Bassler, 1915, p. 254) Coenites .iuniperlnus Eichvald 1829, p. 127. Description: (Lambe, 1899) "Corallum dendroid or forming thin expansions with a basal epitheca, composed of flattened or subpolygonal corallites that reach the surface by an abrupt bend and terminate in narrow s l i t - l i k e calyces almost at right angles to the surface; walls of the corallites thin except at the surface where they are suddenly thickened; mural pores irregularly dispersed; tabulae complete, trans-verse, rather distant; three longitudinal ridges are some-times present In the outer ends of the c o r a l l i t e s . Coenites appears to be most nearly related to Cladopora. from which i t is distinguished by the shape of the calyces and by the sudden, not gradual, thickening of the walls of the corallites at the surface. The corallites are at f i r s t prostrate, when the corallum has the form of a thin ex-pansion, but when i t is dendroid they are almost upright in the centre of the branch or stem. The calyces are trans-versely elongated and may be straight or curved." Remarks: Oakley (1936, p. 20) mentioned that Dr. Stanley Smith was studying the morphology of Coenites in 1936. H i l l (1936-1937, p. 56) makes reference to unpublished work of Lang and Smith on this group of corals. In a search of available literature, however, I have been unable to find a publication of either of the works just mentioned. For this reason I must tentatively refer to Lambe*s description of the genus. However, the genus as i t is conceived by Oakley (1936, pp. 20-26) and Weissermel (1939, pp. 70-72) is not restricted to forms possessing compressed calices. Indeed, the species assigned to Coenites by them have circular calices. Apparently the only distinguishing characteristic of Coenites is the sudden di s t a l sclerenchymal thickening of the co r a l l i t e walls. Coenites sp. (Plate 19, figures l-£) .if.1 •... •' y • The specimens consist of numerous broken branches lying along bedding planes of brown, finely crystalline lime-stone. Mixed with these corals are fragments of Disphyllum.  Macgeea? Thamnopora. Aulopora or Cladochonus. bryozoans, and brachiopods, and unidentifiable organic debris. Descriptionr External features - Cylindrical, dichotomously branching coralla with rounded calices opening nearly normal to the surface. Some specimens exhibit a pro-jecting l i p along the proximal side of each c o r a l l i t e . Corallites tend to be arranged alternately in longitudinal rows, and are spaced more closely longitudinally than trans-versely. The diameter of branches ranges from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. and averages 1.7 mm. Transverse sections - Mutual thin polygonal walls usually appear as thin dark lines. Light colored scleren-chymal thickening of these walls imparts a rounded appearance to the interior of the cora l l i t e s . From 3 to 5 corallites are revealed in cross section at any particular level. Of these only one or two have attained mature diameter. Opening to the surface at a given level are from 6 to 8 calices whose walls suddenly thicken d i s t a l l y . 97 Longitudinal section - Sections cut along the axes of the branches reveal one or two corallites paralleling the axis for 3 to 4 mm. before curving outward toward the surface of the branch. Young axial corallites appear to arise at the point of divergence of a previous axial c o r a l l i t e . Four or five corallites arise from the side of each axial c o r a l l i t e and immediately curve outward to the surface. The distal extremity of the thin mutual walls of the corallites are i n -clined to the surface at about 45 degrees, but their lower sides are excessively thickened by sclerenchyme which extends outward beyond the extremity of the mutual walls. By this means the calices are disposed at an angle of from 70 to 80 degrees to the surface of the branch. There are about 7 such calices per 5 nmi. of length. Mural pores have a diameter of about one third that of the corallites, and are irregularly distributed. They occur along the sides of the axial corallites, and between the short lateral corallites. No tabulae or septal spines were found. Remarks* Oakely (1936, p. 24-26) has pointed out that Coenites is distinguished from the Cyclostornate bryozoans in having large mural pores perforating secondary calcareous tissue, and in having occasional individuals arising by interpolation of a wall. He adds that the sclerenchymal thickening found in Coenites is simulated by the cryptostomate bryozoans only. This group of bryozoans is dissimilar to Coenites in a l l other respects. 98 The specimens described above have been shown to possess a l l the d i s t i n c t i v e attributes of Coenites and are therefore assigned to that genus. In s i z e of c o r a l l a and c o r a l l i t e s , pattern of c o r a l l i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n and shape of c a l i c e s , the specimens studied resemble C. seriatopora (Edwards and Haime) described and i l l u s t r a t e d by Oakley ( 1 9 3 6 , pp. 2 0 - 2 3 , p l . I l l , f i g s . 1-3*?• However, C. seriatopora has 1 0 to 1 2 r a d i a l l y elongated a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s , whereas my form has from 3 to 5 nearly equidimensional c o r a l l i t e s i n the a x i a l region. The general siz e and structure of C. d e c l i v i s Weissermel i s also s i m i l a r to that of the specimens at hand, but again the number of a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s i s greater than i n my specimens. In the possession of rounded c a l i c e s the specimens I have described d i f f e r notably from species of Coenites described by Lambe ( 1 8 9 9 , pp. 26-28). In f a c t , there i s here a divergence from t y p i c a l Coenites s i m i l a r to that i n C. d e c l i v i s and C. seriatopora. Although the species I have described may be a new one, I am reluctant to consider i t as such u n t i l a study can be made of l i t e r a t u r e which i s at present unavailable. Occurrence of hypotypess C5077, B l u e f l y Creek, south (reef) side, 'green shale 1 d r i f t ; C5080 B l u e f l y Creek, south (reef) side, 'green shale' sample; C 5 0 8 6 , Gap north of Ram River, 'green shale'. 99 Genus Favosltes Lamarck Favosites Lamarck, 1816, p. 204. Favosites Lamarck. Swann, 1947, p. 258. "Genolectotype: (see Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. IX). — Favosites gothlandica. Lamarck" Diagnosis: (Translated from the French of Lecompte, 1939, p. 81, in Swann 1947, p. 259) "Massive tab-ulate corals, composed of prismatic, contiguous, but not amalgamate corallites. Walls li g h t l y marked by a dark axis, generally thin, sometimes thickened. Septa absent or represented by spines arranged in vertical rows. Tabulae complete, horizontal or depressed (concave). Mural pores large." (Fenton and Fenton, 1936, p.22).(in Swann 1947, p. 258) -- "Corallum branched, expanded or massive. Cor-a l l i t e s contiguous and prismatic. Walls perforated by pores. Septa absent or represented by ridges or rows of spines, their condition varying greatly within individual coralla and corallites in some cases, but uniform for species in others. Tabulae dominantly complete and approximately horizontal." Favosites basaltica (Goldfuss) (Plate 19 , figures 3-4 ) Calamopora basaltica (pars), Goldfuss. 1829, p. 78, p l . XXVI f i g . 4a. Favosites Gothlandica B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 104, figs. 2,3,4. Favosites basaltica B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 106, f i g . 8. Calamopora epidermata Rominger, 1862, p. 396. Favosltes Gothlandica Nicholson, 1874, p. 45 Favosltes Forbesl Nicholson, 1874, p. 48, p l . VII, f i g . 8 and p l . VIII, f i g . 4. Favosites Forbes! var. tuberosa. Nicholson, 1879, p. 62, p l . III., figs. 2, 2a-e. Favosites epidermatus Rominger, I876, p. 28, p l . VIII f i g s . 1, 2, 3. 100 Favosites tuberosus Romlnger, I876, p. 30, p i . IX, figs. 1, 2, Favosites tuberosa Hall. 1 8 ? 6 , p i . VIII., figs. 1 - 7 , p i . VI. f i g . 6 and p i . XI, f i g . 1; var. p i . I., f i g . 1 p i . IV, f i g . 1, and p i . VII., f i g . 1. Favosites epidermata Hall. 1876, p i . VI, figs. 1-5 and p i . XII, figs. 6 , 9-13. Favosites tuberosa Whiteaves. 1889. p. 121. Favosites basaltlea (Goldfuss). Lambe, 1899, p. 8, p i . I, figs. 3, 3a. Description: (Lambe 1899) "Corallum forming irreg-ularly shaped, more or less spreading masses, often with f l a t or sublobate minor expansions proceeding from the upper sur-face, or the general form may be hemispherical, subspherieal, pyriform, lobate, clavate or even subramose; basal attachment small. Under surfaces and often the sides protected by a strong wrinkled epitheca; the wrinkles are generally rather irregularly disposed and overlap or run into each other, but in some specimens they are more nearly parallel and give to the epitheca a ribbed appearance. The basal portion of the corallum is frequently strongly plicated. The ends of the corallites, when directed upward or outward, except at the top of the corallum, are generally closed by opercula which show a certain amount of concentric structure. The corallites are generally prismatic and rather equal in size when the surface of the corallum is moderately f l a t but round and unequal in size in specimens or parts of specimens where the surface is rounded; varying in diameter in the same colony or in different individuals from 2 mm., or even less, to 4 or 5 ^am» Tabulae horizontal, complete, sometimes apparently formed by the union of several squamulae which are present in large numbers. Pores piercing the sides of the corallites in from one to three longitudinal rows, in some specimens large and placed close together, in others smaller and farther apart, generally surrounded by a raised rim which is frequently not preserved on much weathered surfaces. Inner surface of the corallites marked, with varying distinctness, by longitudinal impressed lines, one to each space, between the rows of pores. This coral is subject to much variation in outward form, in the size and number of the mural pores and in the size and shape of the corallites themselves, whilst i t s appearance is much affected by the state of preservation of the epitheca and of the tabulae and squamulae, especially the last, which are frequently not preserved, leaving the walls of the corallites on the inside quite smooth. 101 The squamulae occur one above another in longitudinal rows corresponding in a general way with the rows of pores, those of one row frequently interlocking with those of another. When the mural pores are numerous the squamulae are generally placed one above eaeh pore, but, when fewer in number and farther apart, two or three squamulae are found occupying the space between any two pores of a longitudinal row. Prom this i t would appear that the squamulae may be equally numerous when the pores are distant from each other or when they are placed close together. Most frequently the squamulae have their bases only preserved but under favourable circumstances they are seen to reach the center of the c o r a l l i t e in the form of thin tongue-shaped processes that are longer than broad and at times inclined s l i g h t l y upward. In different coralla the pores vary in diameter from about .33 to .50 mm., and in their distance from each other; in some specimens, especially in those in which the pores are large, they are about .50 mm. from each other, whilst in others they are as much as 2 mm. apart vertically. In most cases the absenee of the raised border of the pores is probably due to weathering, as examples occur in which the rim is present in certain portions of the corallum and absent in more exposed parts; in the case of the latter the pores appear larger than they really are. As in some species of the genus, small marginal depressions in the tabulae are not unfrequently developed. Broadly expanded examples sometimes measure nearly 9 inches across with a height of 3 or 4 inches; clavate specimens occur that are 10 or more inches high and few inches thick; some of the pyriform specimens are 6 or 7 inches in breadth. M Favosites digitatus Rominger Favosites digitatus Rominger, 1876, p. 39, p i . XV, f i g . 4. Original descriptions "Cespitose masses of sub-parallel anastomosing stems of the thickness of a finger, or single stems with more straddling branches. Tube walls stout, joining under polygonal outlines, lined by a cycle of vertical rows of horizontal squamae, usually fewer in number than the normal twelve. Diaphragms sometimes regular, frequently Incomplete, replaced by the lateral squamae. Pores large. Tubes in different specimens variable, from one to 102 one and a half millimeters in diameter. The polygonal form of the orifices and the generally well-developed squamae within the tube channels render this form at once recognizable from other branching forms of Favosites. which have their orifices always more rounded, nearly circular." Favosites limitaris Rominger (Plate 19 , figure 5-8 ) Favosltes limitaris Rominger 1876, p. 36, p l . XIII, figs 1-4 Original description: "Ramified and reticulated stems, from five, to fifteen millimeters in thickness, form-ing horizontally explanate expansions or erect fruticose ramifications. Tubes very thick-walled, opening nearly rectangularly to the surface, with circular orifices, the walls forming either a solid, undefined i n t e r s t i t i a l mass, or, in another state of preservation, the polygonal outlines of each tube are visible on the surface of the interstices as delicate engraved lines. Several varieties are observed, in regard to the mode of growth and the size of tubes. The tube orifices rarely exceed the diameter of one millimeter; often they are smaller, and in some forms they are a l l equal in a specimen; others have smaller and larger orifices inter-mingled. A part of the orifices on the side faces of the stems are often found closed by opercula, situated below the outer edge of the channels; in the interior parts of the tube channels diaphragms are not regularly developed, and are of rare occurrence. Pores large, distant, and irregularly dispersed. In older stems the tube channels not infrequently become considerably narrowed by excessive incrassation of the tube walls, while the pore channels gain in length and width, and appear on the surface as vermicular, transverse channels connecting the tube channels, which latter are, in their narrowed condition, hardly larger than the connecting pore channels. In certain specimens the orifices are at a slightly oblique angle to the surface, and surround at the lower external rim by a raised margin, which approximates this species to the forms of Favositoids comprehended under the name Cladopora. in indication of which similarity of structure I selected for i t the name li m i t a r i s . a 1 joining, transitory form.'" 103 Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell (Plate 20 , figures i ) Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell, 1866, p. 89. Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell. Rominger, 1876, p. 33, p l . XI, Fig. 4 (?) Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell. Lambe, 1899, p. 17, (?) Favosltes n i t e l i a Winchell. Stewart, 1938, p. 64, p l . 14, figs. 1-2. Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell. Ross, 1953, p. 68. P l . 20, figs. 8-9. Description: (Winchell 1 s original in Stewart, 1938, p. 64) "In small masses varying from globoid to elon-gate or scarcely branching. Cells sub-circular, sub-equal, with a few minute i n t e r s t i t i a l ones. Septa distinct, irregular, complete or incomplete; pores scattered, indented around the orifices. Distance of pores .76 mm; diameter of largest cells .76 mm." Discussion: (Stewart, 1938, p. 65) "Lambe considered this species a synonym of F. placenta Rominger. It seems, however, that the discoidal or mushroom shape of F. placenta is so distinctive that this feature alone would be" sufficient to separate i t from F. n i t e l i a . which is characterized by small, irregular, and sl i g h t l y branching colonies. Otherwise there is no difference of special note between the two species." Genus Striatopora Hall Striatopora Hall, 1851, p. 400; 1852, p. 156, p l . XLB, figs . la-e. Striatopora^ Hall. Nicholson, 1879, p. 97. Striatopora Hall. H i l l 1937, p. 56. Striatopora Hall. LeCompte, 1839, p. 132. Striatopora Hall. Wells, 1944, p. 259. Striatopora Hall. Stumm, 1949, p. 115. Striatopora Hall. Ross, 195^, p. 82. 104 Genotypes (By monotypy) Striatopora flexuosa Hall, 1851, p. 400 and 1852, p. 156, PI. xIB, f i g s . la-e. Silurian, Niagara shale, Loekport, New York. Description: (After Ross 1953) "Ramose, cerioid coralla, with cylindrical or sl i g h t l y compressed branches. Corallites uniform or variable in size, opening obliquely on small branches or perpendicularly on thick branches to surface. Corallites gently curving away from axial region, relatively uniform i n diameter axially, strongly dilated d i s t a l l y . Calices round, subpolygonal or polygonal. Apparently no intercorallite spaces. Peripheral stereozone thin or thick axially, usually very thick d i s t a l l y . Mural pores generally small, spaced at regular or irregular intervals. Squamulae (septal spines) developed, superficially expressed as pseudo-septal ridges. Tabulae present or absent; when present, complete and best developed axially." Genus Thamnopora Steininger Thamnopora Steininger 1831, p. 10; 1834, p. 338. Cladopora Hall 1852, p. 137. Pachypora Lindstrom 1874, p. 14. Thamnopora Steininger, H i l l , 1936-37, p. 56. Thamnopora Steininger. Smith, 1945, p. 61. Genotypes Thamnopora madreporacea Steininger, 1849, p. 12. Diagnosis: ( H i l l , 1936-37, p. 56) "Ramose tabulate corals in which the cylindrical branches may be flattened and coalesced; the corallites are typically polygonal, and diverge from the axis of the branch and usually open normally to the surface; the corallite walls are dilated throughout, and the dilation increases distally; typically the growth lamination in the sclerenchyme of the wall is obvious, while Its fibrous nature is not; septal spines are usually obsolete, and mural pores are large." Remarks: Hall's description of Cladopora discloses nothing which warrants i t being set apart from Thamnopora as described by H i l l (1936-1937, p. 56) and by Smith (1945, p.61) Therefore I concur with Smith in considering Cladopora to he a junior synonym of Thamnopora. With somewhat less certainty Pachypora is also taken to be synonymous with Thamnopora. H i l l ( 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 , p. 5 6 ) alludes to a manuscript of Lang and Smith in which this synonymy is established. I have not, however, succeeded in finding this work published, and must therefore rely upon H i l l ' s statement. To the above diagnosis i t may be added that the genus typically has thin complete tabulae which, because of their delicate nature, are very often partly or completely destroyed in specimens. Thamnopora cervicornis (De Blainville) (Plate 20, figures 2-5 ) Alveolites cervicornis De B l a i n v i l l e , 1 8 3 0 , Diet. S c i . Nat., t.~"5o, p. 369. Favosites cervicornis. Edward and Haime, 1851, p. 243; 1 8 5 3 . p. 216, p l . x l v i i i , f i g . 2, partim at least. Pachypora cervicornis. Nicholson, 1879, p. 82. Thamnopora cervicornis. Quenstedt, 1881, p. 35, p l . cxliv, figs. 19-22. Thamnopora cervicornis (De B l a i n v i l l e ) . Smith, 1945, p. 62, p l . 2 7 , figs. 1,.2. Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) "Thamnopora with stout corallum branches and slender tapering c o r a l l i t e s . The corallites curve outward from the axis of the branch, and their walls, though thickened throughout gradually, increase in thickness di s t a l l y . Description: Thamnopora eervicornis. which often forms extensive growths of coral in the Middle Devonian rocks of northwestern Europe, has cylindrical branches usually 106 10 mm. to 20 mm. In diameter which in places coalesce and in others swell out into irregular nodes. The lectotype con-sists of several branches of the Thamnopora embedded in a piece of ocherous limestone 11 mm. by 8 mm. by 5 mm. From the weathered surface some of the branches stand out almost free of the matrix. The branches are for the most part cylindrical and are approximately 10 mm. to 14 mm. in diameter, but in places they are oval in section and broader. They bifurcate at wide angles and terminate d i s t a l l y in rounded ends. The long, tapering corallites curve gradually outward from the axis of the branch and open normally at the surfaee. Where i t is well preserved the common wall between two corallites, which is usually about 0.1 mm. to 0;15 mm. thick but may be more, has a sharp edge. Within this common wall a distinct cleavage can be seen in sections defining the two individuals. In transverse section the laminae which form the wall are con-centric with the lumen; in longitudinal section these slope downward at a small angle from the suture toward the interior of the c o r a l l i t e . The tabulae are very thin, f l a t , or curved, and although irregularly distributed are in most cases 1.0 mm. to 1.5 mm. apart." Remarks: The synonymy listed above represents only a small part of.the long and complicated history of this species. A much more comprehensive history is given by Smith (1945, p. 62). Smith's description of the species is based on a lectotype and a paratype from the Middle Devonian Germany. Thamnopora cervicornis (De Blainville) ^ • (.Plate 21„ figure l l ,., . . Part of a large well preserved corallum embedded in medium grained, black, crystalline limestone was cut into five s e r i a l sections. Description: External features - Only a small portion of the coral exterior is exposed. The calices open nearly normal to the ;surface, are irregularly distributed and usually are .5 to A.8 mm. apart. Transverse section - Comparison of s e r i a l sections through the corallum reveal i t to consist of anastomosing 107 subcylindrical stems approximately 15 mm. in minimum diameter. Where the stems coalesce the total corallum thickness may exceed 1 5 mm. Individual corallites in the central part of the corallum have an inner diameter of about .5 mm. but i n -crease to 1 mm. as they curve outward to open perpendicul-arly to the corallum surface. Mutual walls are polygonal, appearing in different parts of the corallum variously as dark lines or light colored lines, invariably lined with sclerenchyme which thickens d i s t a l l y . Where the mutual walls are light colored a very thin, dark dividing line may often be seen. Mural pores . 2 to . 3 mm. in diameter are numerous. Only in a few corallites were tabulae observed. Those seen are f l a t or dis t a l l y convex and are extremely delicate. Remarks: In the size and shape of the corallum, in the distribution and attitude of the corallites, and in the structure of the mutual walls, the specimen under consideration very closely resembles the lectotype of T. cervicornis, described and illustrated by Smith ( 1 9 4 5 , p. 62, p l . 27, f i g s . 1 , 2 ) . My specimen apparently differs from Smith's only in possessing fewer tabulae. When the very delicate nature of the tabulae is taken into consideration, however, this dis-crepancy assumes l i t t l e significance. Occurrence of hypotype: C 5 0 1 2 , Brazeau Creek, Devonian. 108 Thamnopora lablosa (Billings) (Plate 21 , figures 2 ) Alveolites labiosa B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 114, figs. 14, 15. Alveolites labiosa B i l l i n g s . Nicholson, 1874, p. 53, f i g . 12b. Cladopora labiosa (Billings). Rominger, 1876, p. 52, p l . 21, f i g . 2. Cladopora labiosa (Billings), Lambe, 1889, p. 32. Cladopora labiosa (Billings), Stewart, 1938, p. 73, p l . 17. figs. 4-7. Description: (Stewart, 1938) "Corallum in the form of small,, slender, branching stems, sometimes forming ana-stomosing or reticulate colonies of considerable extent. Stems circular in cross section, about 3 to 8 mm. in diameter. Tubes arching out from axial portion of stem, enlarging out-ward, and opening obliquely on the surface of the corallum. Cell openings circular to transversely oval, becoming trian-gular when the lower l i p is worn away, about .50 to .75 mm. across; somewhat expanded and outlined by a faint raised rim which, in conjunction with the extended lower l i p , gives a decidedly rhomboidal or pentagonal outline to the calices. Mural pores small, distantly but quite regularly spaced on the specimens where their characteristics have been preserved. A very slight development of the tabulae has also been noted." Thamnopora polyforata (Sehlotheim) (Plate 22 , figures 1-7 ) Milleporites polyforatus Sehlotheim, 1820, p. 365, partim at at least, since the syntypes include more than one species. Alveolites dubia De B l a i n v i l l e , 1830, p. 370; 1834, p. 405. Pachypora cristata (Blumenbach), Roemer, 1883, p. 435, partim. Favosites dubius (De B l a i n v i l l e ) , Lecompte, 1936, p. 54, p l . X, fig s . 1, l a , lb. (figures of Goldfuss type) Thamnopora polyforata (De B l a i n v i l l e ) . Smith 1945, p. 63, p l . 28, fig s . 1, 2. 109 Diagnosis: (Smith, 194-5) "Ramose Thamnopora with rather slender branches and funnel-shaped corallites which bend sharply outward and open obliquely to the surface and in which the walls are d i s t a l l y very much thickened. Description: (of lectotype): The coral forms grace-f u l ramose colonies with branches typically about 7.5 mm. in diameter and is often found as broken and worn fragments. The corallites attain a length of about 10 mm. Proximally they are cylindrical, l i e almost parallel to the axis of the branch, and are less than 1 mm. i n diameter, but on reaching a length of several mm. they bend sharply outward, expand rapidly to a calicular diameter of 2mm., and open almost but not quite normal to the surface. The calices are slightly oblique and have a projecting lower l i p . The co r a l l i t e walls are about .2 mm. thick in their proximal (cylindrical) part; and about .4 mm. in their distal region. The lumen is thus reduced to a narrow cylindrical chamber. Under magnific-ation the walls show fibrous structure, the fibers running at right angles to the wall, and also, although much less distinctly, a laminar structure parallel to the walls. The mural pores are large (about .15 mm. in diameter) and distant, and the thin tabulae are unequally distributed." i Remarks: The history of this species has been greatly condensed here from Smith (194-5, p. 64). Thamnopora cf. T. polyforata (Plate 23 , figures 1-3 ) The specimens consist of numerous fractured, c y l i n -drical stems embedded in black, finely crystalline limestone, often mixed with fragments of other corals, most commonly Disphyllum. Most of the material is so poorly preserved as to render details of structure obscure even in thin section. Description: Transverse section of corallum -Average diameter of stems is 6 mm. From 18 to 20 corallites appear in transverse section while from 13 to 15 are exposed longitudinally as they curve out to the surface. The original walls of the corallites appear as a dark polygonal network. 110 The interior of the corallites, however, are lined with sclerenchyme which imparts a rounded shape to the co r a l l i t e interior.. The sclerenchyme gradually thickens dist a l l y so that thickness of the calice walls nearly equals the calice diameter. Longitudinal section: The diameter of the stems varies from 4 to 8 mm. but is most commonly approximately 6 mm. Dlchotomous branching of the stems occurs at an angle of about 80 degrees. At any given point along a stem one or two axial corallites occur. They may parallel the axis for about 10 mm. before noticeably diverging. Within this distance 8 or 9 lateral corallites diverge from the axial corallite and curve very regularly to open at the surfaee at an angle of 70 to 80 degrees. The diameter of the calices ranges from .5 to .7 mm. Where an axial c o r a l l i t e begins to diverge from the axis another arises. The origin of lateral corallites is not clearly revealed but in some cases they were observed to arise adjacent to a mural pore in the wall of the axial c o r a l l i t e . Mural pores are sporadically distributed and their diameter is approximately equal to one-third of the corallite diameter. No definite tabulae were observed. Remarks: Although the material is not well enough preserved to permit certain identification, there is some evidence of a f f i n i t i e s with T. polyforata. The disposition of the corallites within the stem, and the moderately oblique I l l calices are reminiscent of that species. Specimens under consideration, however, have smaller stems and smaller calices, than has T. polyforata. In size of the stems, and the diameter of the calices the specimens studied correspond to T. labiosa (Billings). That species, however, has greatly oblique calices in contrast to only slightly oblique calices in the specimens studied here. Occurrence of hypotypes: C5034, North branch of Saskatchewan River, Mile 109, Banff-Jasper Highway; C5071, Cripple Creek area, Devonian 'Coenites1 reef; 5143, section in pass from upper Coral Creek to Bighorn Creek; 5175, Job Creek, Mount Hawk formation. Thamnopora roemeri (Billings) (Plate 23 , figures 4 ) Alveolites roemeri B i l l i n g s , I860, p. 255. Alveolites roemeri B i l l i n g s , Nicholson, 1874, p. 54. Cladopora roemeri (Billings). Rominger, I876, p.51, pi.20, f i g . 3 Cladopora roemeri (Billings). Lambe, 1899, p. 36. Cladopora roemeri (Billings). Stewart, 1938, p. 75, p i . 18, figs. 1-3. Description: (Rominger 1876, p. 5D "Cylindrical or compressed branching stems of about five millimeters in diameter. Orifices comparatively large, oblique to the sur-face, and joining with their expanded margins in an undefined i n t e r s t i t i a l surface, or under subangular, obtusely crested outlines, enclosing shallow, obliquely funnel-shaped pit s , the outer margins of which project as arched l i p s ; the inner walls of the pits spread insensibly merging into the lips of 112 the adjoining pits. External diameter of orifices about one millimeter; interior tube channel one third of a millimeter. The orifices are frequently closed by opercula situated below the external margins. Diaphragms in most of the specimens sparingly developed. Pores large and irregularly dispersed." 1 1 3 Family SYRINGOPORIDAE Genus Syringopora Goldfuss Syringopora Goldfuss, 1826, pp. 75, 76. Harmodites Fisher, 1828, p. 1 9 . Syringopora Goldfuss. Rominger, 1876, p. 79. Genotpye: Syringopora ramulosa Description: (Rominger, 1 8 7 6 ) "Aggregated, sub-paralle l , tubular polyp stems, multifpying by lateral budding, and at irregular intervals connected with each other by short, transverse, tubular branchlets. The tubes are inter-sected by numerous irregularly funnel-shaped diaphragms, and radiated by twelve longitudinal rows of spinules, which are sometimes obsolete. The colonies of erect stems are at the base formed of horizontally prostrate and attached ends very much resembling the creeping expansions of Aulopora. from which the young colonies are often hard to be distinguished." Remarks: Although Rominger l i s t s Theeostegites Edwards and Haime as a synonym of Syringopora. in the descript-ion of Theeostegites the tabulae are said to be horizontal. Theeostegites cannot, therefore, be congeneric with Syringopora. which typically has funnel-shaped tabulae. Syringopora pereleganS Bill i n g s (Plate g 4 , figures 1 ) Syringopora elegans B i l l i n g s , 1858, p. 425. Original description: "Corallites, one line in diameter, sometimes a l i t t l e more or less, distant a l i t t l e less than one line; connecting tubes half a line in diameter, and distant from one line to one line and a half, usually projecting at right angles, but sometimes a l i t t l e oblique. Epitheca with numerous annulations, generally indistinct, but under certain circumstances of growth sharply defined and 114 deep, so much so as to give the corallites the appearance of a jointed stalk of a crinoid. The young individuals are produced by lateral budding, and in one specimen examined, the whole colony appears to be based upon a broad lameillar foot secre-tion like that which forms the base of a Favlosite. The distance of the corallites is usually about a line, but like a l l the other species, this one varies a good deal in this respect. When some cause has intervened to prevent their regular growth they are much flexed and consequent-ly at times more distant than when they have (not) been disturbed. The connecting tubes on the same side of the corallite are three or four lines distant, but generally on the other sides one or two others in the same space occur, making the average distance one line or one line and a half." Remarks: I have inserted the word (not) in the above paragraph, because the description does not make sense as i t stands in B i l l i n g s 1 work. Very l i k e l y the word was omitted through a typographical error. Family AULOPORIDAE 115 Genus Aulopora Goldfuss Aulopora Goldfuss, 1826, 1:82. Aulopora Goldfuss. Fenton and Fenton, 1937, p. 110. Genotype: Aulopora serpens Goldfuss. Description: (Fenton and Fenton, 1937) "Colony consisting of small tubes; adnate, prostrate, or prostrate basally with erect or more probably pendant compound branches. Reproduction by basal or lateral gemmation. Tubes calcareous or perhaps even chitinous, the former predominating; their walls non-cystose, smooth to wrinkled externally, smooth or pustulose internally. Tabulae (or diaphragms), when present, variably convex toward the apertures. Tubes not continuous-ly united, except in rare instances in which calcification is incomplete. M Remarks: The problem of the systematic position of Aulopora-type organisms has been discussed by Fenton and Fenton (1937, PP. 109-115). They point out the striking similarities between some small tabulate corals and large cyclostomate bryozoans such as Stomatopora and Hederella, and suggest that Aulopora, as described above, be considered a form-genus to include organisms which cannot be definitely assigned to either the bryozoa or the anthozoa. I welcome this suggestion particularly because the internal structures of most of the organisms at hand are so poorly preserved that i t cannot be ascertained whether they are corals, or bryozoans. The form-genus description of Feroton and Fenton is supplemented by Smith's (1945, p. 14) description of the coralline members of the group. 1 1 6 "Diagnosis: Tabulate corals in which the corallum consists typically of a repent, uniserial network of small, trumpet-shaped, dichotomously branching corallites, whose distal ends bend upward and terminate freely. The septa, when present, are represented by feeble spines or faint ridges, and the tabulae are typically concave." Aulopora sp. (sensu lato) - • " ' • " • * J i . , * • '"' •*» Specimens numbered C 5 0 7 1 , 514-3 are, with some doubt, referred to this genus. Descriptions: C 5 0 7 1 consists of fragmented, dichotomously branching, white calcareous tubes embedded in soft, brown limestone. The tubes have a diameter of approx-imately 1 mm., have walls about 1 / 6 mm. in thickness, and are apparently devoid of septa and tabulae. Specimens labelled 514-3 have numerous, irregularly branching, closely crowded tubes of white crystalline calcite in dense, black limestone along with Disphyllum sp. Preser-vation is so poor that internal structures are rendered obscure. Occurrence of hypotypes: C 5 0 7 1 , Coenites reef from Cripple Creek Area; 514-3, Tarpeian rock. 117 Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime (Plate 24 , figure 2 ) Milleporites repens. Knorr and Walch, 1775, p. 157, p l . v i , f i g . 1. Good figure. Tubiporites serpens Linnaeus, Sehlotheim, 1820, p. 367, partim, excluding synonymy. Not Tubipora serpens Linnaeus, 1758, p. a recent Mediterranean form only. Not Tubipora serpens Linnaeus, 1767, p. which includes the recent and f o s s i l (Silurian) form. Aulopora serpens Goldfuss, 1829, p. 82, p l . xxix, figs, l a and d varietas major and f i g . 1 b varietas minor, but not f i g . l c (also "varietas minor") which is Aulopora reticulum Steininger, 1049, p. 13 which may be a polyzoan, and excluding most of synonymy. Stomatopora serpens Bronn, 1829, p. 78, partim, at least. Stomatopora serpens Bronn (1834) 1835, p. 54, p l . v, f i g . 10 partim. Aulopora repens Knorr and Walch, Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 312, partim, since these authors include a l l Goldfuss' figures. Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime, Nicholson, 1879, p. 220 f i g . 31g. Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime, Smith, 1945, p. 15, p l . 28, f i g . 8. Diagnosis: Aulopora with rather small and almost cylindrical corallites. Description: (Smith 1945)"The main characters of Aulopora repens have already been summarized in the discussion of the genus, and i t is therefore necessary to add here only a few details from an E i f e l specimen in the Bri t i s h Museum, R 15194 (since types are not available). The coral (Pl. 28, f i g . 8) is fixed to the f l a t surface of a stromatoporoid. The corallites, most of which are 2-3 mm. long and about 1 mm. in diameter, are in some places widely divergent and form a loose irregular hexagonal mesh of about 5 mm. but in others are closely packed, more or less laterally contiguous, and nearly parallel. The distal part of the corallites which is very / 118 l i t t l e wider than the proximal part in slightly raised, and the calice is horizontal." Aulopora cf. A., repens (Plate 25 > figures 1 ) Three specimens preserved in impure, brown lime-stone exhibit dichotomous branching typical of this species. This feature i s best seen in the weathered surfaces of two specimens numbered C 5 0 8 3 . Unfortunately, however, the calices open into the rock and cannot be observed. Polished sections of specimen C 5 0 8 6 reveal several calices but do not show the branching of the corallites as well as the former specimens do. Descriptions Corallites branch at angles of 90 to 120 degrees and tend to produce a polygonal network. Their dia-meters increase but l i t t l e between the points of origin and the s lightly flared calices. Corallite diameters range from . 7 5 to 1 . 5 mm. Walls are thick, the inside tube diameter being only about half the total diameter. Length of c o r a l l -ites is about 2 . 5 mm. No septa or tabulae were observed. Remarks: Although specimens are comparable to A. repens in size and in their branching nature, lack of internal structures makes positive identification impossible. Occurrence of hypotypes: C5083 is catalogued, "Bluefly-Creek, North side — Black shale, green shale, d r i f t , " ; C5086, "Gap North of Ram — Green shale." 119 Genus Cladochonus McCoy (Plate 85, figure B-6) Cladochonus McCoy, 1847, p. 227. Monolipora Nicholson and Etherldge, 1879, p. 293; genotype, Jania crassa McCoy, 1844, p. 197. Cladochonus McCoy. H i l l (and Smyth] 1938, p. 126, p i . XXIII, figs. la-e. "Genosyntypes: Jania b a c i l l a r i a McCoy, 1844, p. 197, p i . xxiv, f i g . 11; Lower Carboniferous, Ireland. Jania  crassa McCoy, 1844, p. 197, p i . xxvii, f i g . 4; Lower Carbon-iferous, Ireland, Cladochonus tenuicollis McCoy. 1847, p. 227. p i . x i , f i g . 8; Lower Carboniferous, New South Wales. Genolectotype (chosen Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. lxxvi): Cladochonus tenuicollis McCoy. 1847, p. 227, p i . x i , f i g . 8; Carboniferous, New South Wales." Diagnosis: ( H i l l and Smyth 1938) "Corallum compound, with a reptant ring of corallites proximally, from which free branches arise; individual corallites trumpet - or pipe-shaped, and in contact only at the point of origin, each giving rise to another by lateral increase through the wall of the expanded calice; each has a thick peripheral stereozone of laminar, sometimes reticulated, sclerenchyme; neither tabulae nor septal spines are seen in the narrow lumen, but longitudinal (?septal) ridges may appear in the calices." Remarks: H i l l and Smyth present an exhaustive synonomy of which only a small part is given here. Their work, based on fossils from the Avonian shales of Co. Donegal, Ireland, conclusively shows the genera Monilopora and Cladochonous to be synonomous. Genus Romingerla Nicholson Quenstedtia Rominger, 1876, p. 70 , (non Quenstedtia Morris and Lycett, 1854) Romingeria Nicholson, 1879, p. 114. Romingeria Nicholson. Lambe, 1899, p. 46 . 120 Genotype: Anlopora umbellifera B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 119. Description: (original description as quoted in Lambe, 1899, p. 46) "Corallum lax, spreading, attached basally, and free throughout the greater part of i t s extent. Corall-ites cylindrical, annulated, multiplying by lateral gemmation, and typically producing new tubes in umbellate whorls or vert-i c i l s , which are placed at short intervals. Where their walls are in contact, their visceral chambers are placed in communication by means of mural pores. Tabulae complete, remote, apparently not distinctly infundibuliform. Septa represented by vertical rows of spinules." Remarks: Quenstedtia Rominger was based on the above-mentioned genotype, but the name Quenstedtia was pre-occupied. Nicholson therefore gave i t the new name Romingeria. Romingeria umbellifera (Billings) (Plate 25 , figure 7 ) Aulopora umbellifera B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 119, f i g . 21. Aulopora umbellifera Nicholson, 1874, p. 43, p i . VI, f i g . 4. Quenstedtia umbellifera Rominger, I876, p. 70, p i . XXXIII, f i g . 3. Aulopora umbellifera Whiteaves. 1877, p. 317. Romingeria umbellifera Nicholson, 1879, p. 116, f i g . 19. Original description: (Of Aulopora umbellifera Billings) "The mode of growth of this remarkable species is sufficient to distinguish i t at once from a l l other described forms of the genus. The parent stems are about 1 line in diameter, and remain single and straight for the distance of one fourth, or half an inch, when they give off branches in a l l directions, sometimes 10 or 12 at once. These are at f i r s t oblique or somewhat parallel with the main tube, and are connected laterally; they then radiate like the spokes of a wheel, at right angles to the parent corallites, each soon giving birth to a similar circlet of new tubes." Remarks: Billings says i t may be that this species should constitute a new genus, but as he could not determine 121 wherein i t s internal structures differ from those of Aulopora he provisionally kept i t in that genus. Further to the description of this species Lambe (1899, .p. 4-7) reports that: "Dr. Rominger points out that the parent stem after having given forth a ci r c l e of branchlets grows on in a straight line and again produces a similar cir c l e at a higher level; he also mentions that within the group of young corallites the main stem is generally inflated. In one of the type specimens in this museum a few small circular openings between contiguous branchlets, and between them and the parent stem are plainly seen; these appear to be structural, and are evidently the same as the pores mentioned by' Rominger in his description of the species. The tabulae are irregular in disposition, from 1 to several lines apart; they appear to be generally convex or obliquely transverse. The exterior or the tubes iH annulated by striae of equal strength, about eight occurring in a space of 1 line. No septal spines have been observed." 122 CONCLUSIONS A desirable sequel to the foregoing compilation of descriptions and occurrences of Upper Devonian coral genera and species would be a precise determination of their stratigraphic limits. The need of such work is obvious, particularly with respect to the disphyllid corals. Although Stumm1s subfamily PACHYPHYLLINAE has been shown to be untenable, suppression of that subfamily threatens to render the subfamily DISPHYLLINAE unweildy. A bed-by-bed study of the members of this group is necessary to determine characteristics which can be used to establish valid sub-families. An attempt should be made to prove whether or not horse-shoe dissepiments have genetic significance. From a study of Macgeea the writer has found reason to sus-pect that horse-shoe dissepiments are not diagnostic of even that genus. Hence, i t would appear that they probably are untrustworthy as a subfamily characteristic. This suspicion, however, remains to be upheld by a thorough study of the DISPHYLLIDAE and of Macgeea in particular. Also to be investigated is the possibility that solitary, fasciculate, cerioid and plocoid habits of the disphyllids are marks of evolutionary trends. Unfortunately, present paleontologic data is decidedly inadequate to serve as a basis for the much needed phylogenetic studies. The corals of large areas of exposed Upper Devonian rocks remain to be studied, or at least, to be described in the literature. Furthermore, the s t r a t i -graphic positions of those so far reported, have not been precisely recorded. Perhaps of more significance than the incompleteness of f i e l d work is the lack of laboratory work on f o s s i l corals. A l l too many reports merely l i s t corals by their generic name followed by 'sp.', usually with no description or il l u s t r a t i o n of the specimens. Although this practice may be condoned by some on the grounds that corals are not good horizon markers, i t is apparent that i f the study of corals is to progress, more precise f i e l d methods must be adopted, and more laboratory work must be done. 124 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Allan, J.A., ( 1 9 1 2 ) Rocky Mountain section between Banff Alberta and Golden B.C. along the line of the C.P.R;; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pp. 1 6 5 - 1 7 6 . ( 1 9 1 3 ) Rocky Mountains Bankhead to Golden; Geol. Surv. Canada, Guide Book no, 8 , pp. 167-201 Allan, J.A., Warren, P.S., and Rutherford, R.L., ( 1 9 3 2 ) A Preliminary study of the eastern ranges of the Rocky Mountains in Jasper Park, Alberta; Royal Soc. Canada, Trans., 3 r d ser., vol. 2 6 , sect. IV, pp. 225-248. Bassler, B.S., ( 1 9 3 7 ) The Paleozoic rugose coral family Palaeocyclldae; Jour. Paleont., vol. 1 1 , pt. 3 . ( 1 9 5 0 ) Faunal l i s t s and descriptions of Paleozoic corals; Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 44, pp. 163-168. Beach, H.H., (1943) Moose Mountain and Morley Map-areas, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 2 3 6 , 1 9 4 3 . B e l l , G.L., ( 1 9 5 1 ) Devonian stratigraphy and paleontology, of the Ram River Area, Alberta; Unpublished M.A. Thesis, The Univ. of B.C., 1 2 5 pp. Bil l i n g s , E., ( 1 8 5 8 ) New Genera and species of fossils from the Silurian and Devonian formations of Canada; Cab. Nat. Geol., vol. 3 , no. 6 , pp. 419-430. ( 1 8 5 9 ) On the f o s s i l corals of Canada West; Can. Jour., n.s., vol. 4 , pp. 97-104. Cameron, A.E., ( 1 9 2 1 ) Hay and Buffalo Rivers, Great Slave Lake, and adjacent country; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pt. B. pp. 1-44. Clark, L.M., (1949) Geology of the Rocky Mountain front ranges near the Bow River, Alberta; Bul l . Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 3 3 , p. 614 -633. Cummings, H.W., ( 1 9 5 3 ) Letter to the writer Daly, R.A., ( 1 9 1 2 ) Geology of the North American Cordilleran at the forty-ninth parallel; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. no. 3 8 . Dawson, G.M., ( 1 8 8 5 ) Preliminary report on the physical and geological features of that portion of the Rocky Mountains between latitudes 4 9 ° and 5 1 ° 3 0 ' ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept. pt. B. BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED deWit, R. and McLaren, D.J., (1950) Devonian sections of the Rocky Mountains between Crowsnest Pass and Jasper, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, pp. 50 - 23 Dowling, D.B., (1911) Geology of Roche Miette Map-Area, Jasper Park, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pp. 201-219. Easton, W.H., (194-4) Corals from the Chouteau and related formations of the Mississippi Valley region; Indiana State Geol. Surv., Rept. of investigat-ions no. 97. Edwards, H.M., and Haime, J., (1850-1874-) A monograph of the British f o s s i l corals; Palaeont. Soc. Mon., pp. 1-299, p i . 1-72. Ehlers, G.M., and Stumm, E.C., (194-9a) Corals of the Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan; pt. 1, Contr. MUs. Paleont. Univ. of Mich., vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 123-130, 3 pis. (1949b) Corals of the Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan, pt. 2, Contr. Mus. Paleont.; Univer. of Mich. vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 21-41, 8 pis Erdman, O.A., (1950) Alexo and Saunders Map-areas, Alberta Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 274. Fenton, C.L. and Fenton, M.A. (1924) The stratigraphy and fauna of the Hackberry Stage of the Upper Devonian; Contrib. Mus. Geol. Univ. Mich., vol.1 (1936) The "Tabulate" corals of Hall's " I l l u s t r -ations of Devonian Fossils"; Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 25, p. 17-58. (1937) Aulopora: A form-genus of tabulate corals and bryozoans; Amer. Midland Naturalist, vol. 18 no. 1, pp. 109-128. (1938) Heliophyllum and "Cystiphyllum", corals of Halls "Illustrations of Devonian Corals"; Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 27, p. 207-250. Hall, J., (1874) Descriptions of bryozoa and corals of the Lower Helderberg Group; 26th Ann. Rept. N.Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist. 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED H a l l , J . , (1876) I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Devonian f o s s i l s ; N.Y. State Geol. Surv. Paleont. H a l l , J . , and W h i t f i e l d , R.P., (1872) Description of new species of f o s s i l s from the Devonian rocks of Iowa; 2 3 r d Ann. Rept. N.Y. State Cab. Nat. His t . ( ) U.S. geological exploration of the f o u r t i e t h p a r a l l e ; (King), v o l . 4. Henbest, L.G., ( 1 9 5 2 ) Symposium on d i s t r i b u t i o n of evolutionary explosions i n geologic time; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 2 6 , no. 3 , pp. 297-394. H i l l , D., ( 1 9 3 5 ) B r i t i s h terminology for rugose corals; Geol. Mag., v o l . 7 2 , pp. 481 -519, f i g s . 1-21. H i l l , D., and Smyth Lb., (1938) On the i d e n t i t y of Monilopora Nicholson and Etheridge, 1879, with Cladochonus McCoy, 1847; Proc. Royal. 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Lambe, L.M. (1899-1901) Contributions to Canadian paleon-tology, Geol. Surv. Canada, v o l . 4, pts. 1 and 2. 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED Lang, W.D., (194-7) Brule-Entrance Map-area, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 244. Land, W.D., and Smith, S., (1934-) Ludwig's 'Corallen aus Palaolithischen formation' and the genotype of Disphyllum de Fromentel: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, vol. 13, pp. 7o-8l. (1935) Cyathophyllum caespitosum Goldfuss, and other Devonian corals considered in a revision of that species; Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 91, no. 18, pp. 538-590. (1939) Some new generic names for Paleozoic corals; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, vol. 3, pp. 152-156. Laudon, L.R., (1950) Imperial River section, Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T., Canada; Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 34-, no. 7, pp. 1565-1577. Laudon, L.R., et a l . (194-9a) Devonian and Mississippian stratigraphy, Wapiti Lake area; B.C. Bull, Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1502-1552. Laudon, L.R., and Chronic, B.J., (1949b) Paleozoic s t r a t i -graphy along the Alaska Highway in Northeastern B.C.; Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., vol. 33, p. 189-222. Lloyd, G.V., (195D Devonian stratigraphy at Jasper Park, Alberta; Unpublished B.A. Thesis, Univ. of B.C. 89 pp. MeConnell, R.G., (1886) Report on the geological features of a portion of the Rocky Mountains; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept. pp. 17-19D. (1888-1889) Report on an exploration in the Yukon and Mackenzie Basins; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept. pp. 1-144D. McCoy, F.. (1849) On some new genera and species of Palaeo-zoic corals and foraminifera; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, vol. 3, pp. 1-20; 119-136. McEvoy, J. (1900) Yellowhead Pass route; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept., vol. 11, pt. D., pp. 6-44 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED Meek, F.B., (1867) Remarks on the geology of the Mackenzie River with figures and descriptions of fossils from that region; Chicago Acad. Sci., Trans, vol. 1, pp. 61-114. Meek, F.B., and Worthen, A.H. (1868) Geology and Palaeon-tology; Geol. Surv. I l l i n o i s , vol. 3 , pt. II, pp. 289-565. Merriam, C.W., (1940) Devonian stratigraphy and paleontology of the Roberts Mountain Region; Nevada; Geol. Soc. Amer., spec. pap. 2 5 , pp. 1-114. Nicholson, H.A., (1847a) Description of new fossils from the Devonian formation of Canada West; Geol. Mag., dec. 11, vol. 1, pp. 54-60, p i . IV. Oakely, K.P. (1936) On the Wenlock coral Coenites seriatopora; Summ. of Progress of the Geol. Surv. for 1934, pt. 2, pp. 20-27. Rominger, C.F., (1876) Palaeontology, f o s s i l corals; Geol. Surv. Mich., vol. 3 , pt. 2, pp. 1-161. Raymond, P.E., (1907) On the occurrence, in the Rocky Mountains of an Upper Devonian fauna with Clymenia; Amer. Jour. Sci., (4), 2 3 , p. 116. (1909) The fauna of the Upper Devonian in Montana; Ann. Carnegie Mus., 5 , p. 1 5 3 . Ross, M.H., The favositidae of the Hamilton Group (Middle Devonian of New York; Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, Bu l l . , vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 3 7 - 8 9 . Sanford, W.G., (1939) A review of the families of tetracorals; Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 2 3 7 , pp. 2 9 5 - 3 2 3 , 401-423, figs. 1-16. Selwyn, A.R.C, (1877) Report on exploration in B r i t i s h Columbia. Appendix II, Some fossils collected during the expedition; Geol. Surv. Canada Rept. of Progress 1 8 7 5 - 1 8 7 6 , pp. 98-106. Severson, J.L., (1950) Devonian stratigraphy, Sunwapta Pass Area, Alberta, Canada; Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., vol. 34, no. 9 , PP. 1826-1849. BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED Shepard, F.P., (1912) Problems i n stratigraphy along the Rocky Mountain Trench; Jour. Geol., v o l . 30, pp. 361-376. Simpson, G.B., (1900) Preliminary descriptions of new genera of Paleozoic corals; B u l l . N.Y. State Mus., no. 39, v o l . 8, pp. 199-222. Sloss, L.L. (1939) Devonian rugose corals from the Traverse beds of Michigan; Jour. Paleont. v o l . 13, no. 1, pp. 52-73. 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(1940) Upper Devonian rugose corals of the Nevada limestone; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 14, no. 1, pp. 57-67, pis VII, V I I I . 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED (194-8) Lower Middle Devonian species of the t e t r a c o r a l genus Hexagonaria of east-central North America; Contr. Mus. Paleont. Univ. Michigan, v o l . 7 , no. 2 , pp. 7-4-9, 14- p i s . (1949) Revision of the families and genera of the Devonian t e t r a c o r a l s ; Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 40. Swann, D.H., (1947) The Favosites alpenensis lineage i n the Middle Devonian Traverse group of Michigan; Contr. Mus. Paleont., Univ. Michigan, no. 3 , PP. 2 3 5 - 3 1 7 . Walcott, C.D,,(L924) Cambrian geology and paleontology, Geological formations of Beaverfoot-Briseo-Stanford Range, B.C., Canada; Smith. Misc. C o l l e c t i o n s , v o l . 7 5 , no. 1 , pp. 1 -51 . Walker, J.F., (1926) Geology and mineral deposits of the Windermere Map area; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 148, Warren, P.S. (1927) Banff area, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, mem. 1 5 3 . (1928) The Palaeozoics of the Crowsnest Pass Alberta; Trans, of Royal Soc. Canada, ser. 3 , v o l . 2 2 , pt. 1 , sect. IV, pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 9 . (1949) F o s s i l zones of the Devonian of Alberta; Amer. Assoc.-Petrol. Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 3 3 , no. 4 , pp. 5 6 4 - 5 7 1 . Warren, P.S., and Stelek, C.R., ( 1950) Succession of Devonian faunas i n Western Canada; Royal Soc. Canada, Trans., 3 r d . ser., v o l . 4 4 , sect. IV, pp. 6 1 - 7 8 . Webster, C.L., (1889) Description of a new genus of c o r a l s , from the Devonian rocks of Iowa; Amer. N a t u r a l i s t , v o l . 3 3 , no. 2 7 2 , pp. 7 1 0 - 7 1 2 . Weissermel, W. Von, ( 1939) Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Geologie, Palaeontologie and Petrographie der Umgegend von Konstantinopel, 3 , Obersilurische und devonische Korallen, Stromatoporiden und Trepostome von der Prinzeninseln Antirovitna und aus Bithynien; Abh. Preuss. geol. Lande-sanstalt, new ser., v o l . 1 9 0 , pp. 1 -131 . 131 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONCLUDED Weller, J.M., (194-9) Paleontologic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 2 3 , no. 6 , pp. 6 8 0 - 6 9 0 . Wells, J.W., (194-4) New tabulate corals from the Pennsyl-vania of Texas; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 18, no. 3» pp. 259-262. Whiteaves, J.F., (1891) The f o s s i l s of the Devonian rocks of the Mackenzie River Basin; Geol. Surv. Canada, Contrib. to Can. Paleont. v o l . p l . pt. 3 , pp. 1 9 7 - 2 5 8 . Whittaker, E.J., (1921) Mackenzie River d i s t r i c t between Great Slave Lake and Simpson; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept. pt. B, pp. 4 5 - 5 5 . Williams, M.Y. and Bocock, J.B., (1932) Stratigraphy and palaeontology"of the Peace River Valley of B r i t i s h Columbia; Royal. S o c , Canada, 3 r d ser., v o l . 26, sect. IV, pp. 197-224. Williams, M.Y. (1922) Reconnaissance across Northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia, and the geology of the northern extension of Franklin Mountains, N.W.T.; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pt. B., pp. 6 5 - 8 7 . GENUS AND SPECIES  Acanthophyllum sp. Acervularia sp. Acervularia sp. Alveolites multl-perforatus Alveolites cf. A. multlperforatus A. aff. A. multlperforatus A. multlperforatus A. cf. rockfordensis  Alveolites sp. APPENDIX LOCALITY Wapiti Lake area Sulphur Mtri. Trout River Great Slave Lake area Cripple Creek, Alberta Job Creek, Alberta North Branch, Saskatchewan River Mile-109, Banff-Jasper Highway Great Slave Lake area ? Aulopora repens Cripple Creek Gap and North Ram Gap A HORIZON Palllser Member 2. Minnewanka lime-stone (lower part) Lowest bed of Upper Devonian Middle Upper Devonian Devonian Devonian REFERENCE Laudon et. a l . , Warren, 1927, p.17 Whittaker, 1921 P. 53B Personal commun-ication, H.W. Cummings. This work, p. 91 This work, p. 92 This work, p. 93 Middle Upper Devonian Mount Hawk formation Cheviot form-ation (Mount Hawk member) Personal commun-ication, H.W. Cummings. deWit and McLaren 1950, p. 13. B e l l , 1951, P. 53. ro APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  Aulopora cf. repens A. sp. A. Aulopora sp. Aulopora sp. Aulopora sp. Breviphyllum (Campophyllum) ellipticum Breviphyllum (Campophyllum) ellipticum Charactophyllum sp. LOCALITY Bluefly Creek, North side; Gap north of Ram River Eaglenest Pass at headwaters of Wildhay River Disaster Point, Jasper Park. Root River, . N.W.T. ? Hay River Athabasaa River, 30 miles below Red River Bluefly Creek CONTINUED HORIZON REFERENCE 1 Green shale This work, p. 118 Platyrachella  cyrtinlformis zone Upper Devonian Coral reef above Simpson shale equivalent Alexo formation and Upper Mount Hawk. Green and blue shales below limestone at the f a l l s . ? Warren and Stelck, 1950, p. 68 Allan et. a l . , 1932, p. 236. Hume, 1921, p. 71B. deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 11. McConnell, 1888-89, p. 16D. Whiteaves, 1891, p. 203. 1 green shale 1 d r i f t . This work, p. 24 APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  Chonophyllum magnificum Cladochonus sp. Coenites sp. Coenites sp. Coenites sp. Cyathophyllum athabaseense C. (Ceratophyllum) keratites Cyathophyllum-like coral LOCALITY Island in Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek. Wapiti Lake area Wapiti Lake area Sunwapta Pass area Bluefly Creek, north and south side; Gap north of Ram River. Mackenzie River basin, and Atha-basca River, 3 miles below the Calumet. Hay River Dizzy Creek, Alexo Map Area HORIZON REFERENCE High Middle Devonian Williams, 1932, p. 201 Palliser Member 2 and 3. Palliser member 3 Fairholme formation 750 feet above base ' Green shale 1 Laudon et. a l . , 1949, p. 1518. Laudon et. a l . 1949, p. 1518. Severson, 1950, p. 1841. This work, p. 96 Devonian Whiteaves, 1891, p. 202. Upper Devonian Middle and Lower Upper Devonian Bassler, 1950, p. 167. Erdman, 1950, P. 74. GENUS AND SPECIES Cyathophyllum sp. Cyathophyllum sp. Cyathophyllum sp. Cystiphylloldes ( C y s t i -phyllum) americanum  arcticum C. americanum arcticum C. americanum (Cystlphy-Tlum vesiculosum) Disphyllum (Diphyphyllum) arundinaeeum D. arundinaeeum ? D. arundinaeeum APPENDIX A CONTINUED LOCALITY Pipestone Pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise on C.P.R. Root River, N.W.T. 58 miles upstream Disaster Point, Jasper Park. Ramparts, Mackenzie Rivera-Is land i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek. Root River, N.W.T. 58 miles upstream Peace River Cripple Creek Gap and North Ram Gap HORIZON Pipestone formation (Upper Devonian) Coral reef above the Simpson shale equivalent Upper Devonian ? High Middle Devonian Coral reef above Simpson shale equivalent. Upper Devonian Cheviot formation (Mount Hawk member) REFERENCE Walcott, 1924, P. 51 Hume, 1921, p. 71B A l l a n et. a l . 1932, p. 236. McConnell, 1888-89, p. 16D Bassler, 1950, P. 167 Williams, 1932, p. 201 Hume, 1921, p. 71B Bassler, 1950, p.167 B e l l 1951, P. 53 OnioniRiyer, l a t . Lower Upper 67° N. long. 1250 W. Devonian APPENDIX A CONTINUED GENUS AND SPECIES Disphyllum c f . D. arundinaceum ~ Disphyllum c f . D.. arundinaceum ~~ Disphyllum c f . D. arundinaceum ~ D. caespitosum ? D. camselli D. camselli D. camselli ? Disphyllum (Diphyphyllum) colemanense Disphyllum (Diphyphyllum) colemanense D. colemanense D. g e i n i t z l ? LOCALITY Hummingbird Creek Ram Creek Junction South of Cripple Creek Upper Coral Creek-Bighorn Creek Pass Peace River, near mouth of L i t t l e Red River. ? Cripple Creek Gap and North Ram Gap Coral Creek Crows Nest Pass Disaster Point Jasper Park Sunwapta Pass area. North braneh of North Saskatchewan Mile 109 on Banff-Jasper Highway HORIZON D3 reef Devonian green shale Uppermost Mount Hawk formation Upper Devonian Mount Hawk form-ation. Cheviot formation. (Mount Hawk member) Devonian Minnewanka lime-stone (lower part) Upper Devonian Fairholme formation (1100 feet above base) Devonian Coral reef REFERENCE This work, p. 91 This work, p. 91 This work, p. 91 B e l l , 1951, p.53 deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 13. B e l l , 1951, P. 53. This work p. 45 V/arren 1928, p. 112. All a n et. a l . , 1932, p. 236. Severson, 1950, p. 1842. This work, p.48 GENUS AND -SPECIES D. cf. goldfuss! D. stramlneum D. cf. D. stramlneum D. cf. D. stramlneum D. (Diphyphyllum) sp. D. (Diphyphyllum) sp. D. (Diphyphyllum) sp. D. (Diphyphyllum) sp. D. (Diphyphyllum) sp. D. (Diphyphyllum) sp. APPENDIX A C  LOCALITY ? ? Bluefly Creek Roche Miette Crows Nest Lakes Roche Miette Roche Miette area Sulphur Mountain Fairholme Mountain and Mount Romulus 'Sunwapta Pass area HORIZON REFERENCE Mount Hawk formation Mount Hawk formation Upper Devonian 1 green shale 1 Upper Mount Hawk formation ? 2,000 feet s t r a t i -graphically from top. Intermediate lime-stone Minnewanka form-ation (lower part) Fairholme formation Fairholme formation 750 feet above base deWit': and McLaren 1950, p. 13 deWit and McLaren 1950, p. 13 This work, p. 52 This work, p. 52 Dawson, 1885, p. 72B McEvoy, 1900. Dowling, 1911 Warren, 1927, P. 17 Beach, 194-3, pp. 13, 14. Severson, 1950, p. 1841. 1—1 -N3 APPENDIX A CONTINUED GENUS AND SPECIES D. (Synaptophyllum) sp. D. (Synaptophyllum) sp. D. (Synaptophyllum) sp. Divers ophyllum traversense  Eridophyllum sp. Favosites basaltica F. digitata LOCALITY Eaglenest Pass, headwaters of north fork Wildhay River, Flathead Area. Alexo Map area near Dizzy Creek Wapiti Lake area Hay River Canadian Rockies . Island in Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek. Hay River, 40 miles above mouth; Ram-parts on Mackenzie Vermilion F a l l s , Peace River HORIZON Platyrachella  cyrtiniformis zone. Upper Devonian Palliser member 2. Upper Devonian Banff limestone High Middle Devonian Devonian REFERENCE Warren and Stelck, 1950, p. 68 Erdman, 1950, P. 74. Laudon et. a l . , 1949, p. 1518. Bassler, 1950, p. 167. McConnell, 1886, P. 167. Williams, 1932, p. 201. Eambe, 1899, p. 20 F. digitata Roche Miette area Intermediate limestone Dowling, 1911, p. 207. ) APPENDIX A CONTINDED GENUS AND SPECIES F. limitaris LOCALITY HORIZON F. limitaris F. n i t e l i a Favosites sp. Hellophyllum h a l l i H. parvulum Hellophyllum sp. Hellophyllum sp. 7 miles west of Jefferson Flathead River, 2.5 limestone miles north of boundary. Sulphur Mountain Minnewanka limestone (lower part) Island in Peace High Middle River, 3 miles above Devonian Clearwater Creek. Alaska Highway in Stone Range Harrogate Canyon, B.C. Hay River and Peace River at Vermilion Chutes. Harrogate Canyon Pipestone Pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise, C.P.R. Immediately below Fort Creek Contact Late Middle or Early Upper Devonian Upper Devonian Upper Middle or Lower Upper Devonian (Bed equivalent of Pipestone formation.) Upper Devonian Pipestone formation REFERENCE Daly, 1912, p. 112 Warren, 1927, p. 17 Williams, 1932, p. 201 Laudon and Chronic, 1949, p. 219 Shepard, 1922, P. 367 Cameron, 1921, p. 15B. Walcott, 1924, P. 51. Walcott, 1924, P. 51 GENUS AND SPECIES Hexagonaria percarlnata H. percarlnata H. quadrigemlnum arcticum  TCyathophyllnm arcticum) H. quadrigeminum arcticum  TCyathophyllum arcticum) Hexagonaria cf. H. stewartae Hexagonaria biostrome Macgeea s o l i t a r i a Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  Macgeea sp. Metriophyllum rectum APPENDIX A CONTINUED LOCALITY Wapiti Lake area Alaska Highway, in Stone Range Porcupine River; Grand River; near old Fort Good Hope Ramparts, Mackenzie River Coral Creek Imperial River, N.W.T. Cripple Creek Gap and North Ram Gap. Cripple Creek Bluefly Creek Job Creek ? Mackenzie River 10 miles below Bear River. HORIZON Palliser member 2. Immediately below Fort Creek contact Devonian *> Devonian Imperial formation Cheviot formation (Mount Hawk member) Devonian 'green shale 1 Flume formation Mount Hawk formation Mount Hawk formation Upper Devonian REFERENCE Laudon et. a l . , 1949, p. 1518 Laudon and Chronic, 1949, p. 219. Meek, 1867, p. 79. McConnell, 1888-89 p. 16D. This work, p. 58 Laudon, 1950, P. 1565, B e l l , 1951, P. 53 This work, p. 62 This work, p. 62 This work, p. 62 deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 13. Bassler, 1950, p. 168 APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES M. (Streptelasma) rectum M. (Streptelasma) rectum Microcyclus multiradiatus  Mictophyllum richardsoni Phillipsastraea  breviseptatum Phillipsastraea (Pachy- phyllum) devoniense Phillipsastraea cf. P. devoniense P. exigua LOCALITY Rocky River, near Roche Miette Eastern foothills of Mackenzie Mountains Onion River Ramparts on Mack-enzie River; 40 miles above Fort Good Hope Job Creek Peace River, between Vermilion Falls and L i t t l e Red River South of Cripple Creek Peace River P. hennahii Hay River ITINUED HORIZON Rockspprobably of Devonian age Devonian limestone with shaly layers REFERENCE McEvoy, 1900. Keele, 1910, p. 39' Upper Devonian Upper Devonian Bassler, 1950, p. 168 Bassler, 1950, p.168. Mount Hawk formation This work, p. 67 Devonian Whiteaves, 1891, p. 205. Devonian, mostly green shale Upper Devonian Shales below limestone at f a l l s of Hay River (?) This work, p. 69 Smith, 1945, P.42 McConnell, 1888-89 p. 16D. APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES P. hennahii P. nevadensis  TPachyphyllum nevadense) P. ef. nevadensis Tcf. maeouni) P. (Pachyphyllum) woodmani P. v e r i l l i P. v e r n e u i l i P. v e r n e u i l i  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a sp. LOCALITY Hay River and Peace River at Vermilion Chutes Peace River Eaglenest Pass, headwaters of Wildhay River. Pipestone Pass Hay River Eastern f o o t h i l l s of Mackenzie Mountains. Root River, N.W.T 58 miles upstream Wapiti Lake area P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a sp. Alberta CONTINUED HORIZON Upper Devonian REFERENCE Cameron, 1921, p. 158 Upper Devonian Platy r a c h e l l a  cyrtiniformis Bassler, 1950, p. 168. Warren and Stelck, 1950, p. 68. Pipestone formation Shales below lime-stone at f a l l s of Hay River (?) Devonian limestones with shaly layers Walcott, 1924, P. 51 McConnell, 1888-89, p. 16D. Keele, 1910, p. 39 Coral reef above the Simpson shale equivalent P a l l i s e r formation (members 1 and 2) Equivalent of basal Hay River limestone bed. Hume, 1921, p. 71B. Laudon et. a l . , 1944, p. 1518. Warren, 1949, p. 568 APPENDIX A GENUS AND 'SPECIES LOCALITY Philllpsastraea 2 spp. Ptychophyllum 2 spp. Sunwapta Pass area Wapiti Lake area Romingeria umbellifera Spongophyllum pax Spongophyllum sp. Island in Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek. Near Old Fort St, John. Wapiti Lake Area Spongophyllum sp. Sunwapta Pass Area Striatopora sp. Syringopora cf. perelegans  Syringopora cf. perelegans Pipestone Pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise on C.P.R. Crows Nest Lakes Folding Mountain South of Prairie Creek. HORIZON REFERENCE Fairholme, 1100 Severson, 1950, feet above base p. 1842. Palliser formation Laudon et. a l . , (members 1 and 2) 1949, ,p. 1 5 1 8 High Middle Devonian Williams, 1932, p. 201. Upper Devonian Palliser formation (member 2) . Fairholme formation 750 feet and 1150 feet above base. Upper Devonian Pipestone formation Bassler, 1950, p. 168. Laudon et a l . 1949, p. 1518 Severson, 1950, p. 1841. Walcott, 1924, P. 51. Limestone probably Devonian Dawson, 1885, p.72B McEvoy, 1900. OJ APPENDIX A CONTINUED GENUS AND SPECIES  Syringopora sp. Syringopora sp. Syringopora sp. Syringopora sp. Tabulophyllum mcconnelli  Tabulophyllum Sp. Thamnopora c f . cervicornis Thamnopora (Pachypora) cervicornis T. (Pachypora) cervicornis LOCALITY Roche Miette area Island i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek. Fairholme Mountain; South Glasgow Creek. Wapiti Lake Area Cripple Creek area Eaglenest Pass, nor-th fork, Wildhay River. Eaglenest Pass, Headwaters of Wildhay River Hay River and Ramparts, Mack-enzie River Peace River between Vermilion F a l l s and mouth of L i t t l e Red l i v e r HORIZON Intermediate limestone High Middle Devonian Fairholme formation. P a l l i s e r formation. P a l l i s e r formation (members 1 and 2) Perdrix shale P l a t y r a c h e l l a  c y r t i n i f o r m i s zone. Pla t y r a c h e l l a  c y r t i n i f o r m i s zone. Green and blue' shales below limestone at f a l l s of Hay River (?) Upper Devonian REFERENCE Dowling, 1911i p. 207 Williams, 1932, p. 201 Beach 194-3, pp. 13, 14, 16. Laudon e t . a l . , 1949, p. 1518 This work, p. 32. Warren and Stelck 1950, p. 68 Warren and Stelck 1950, p. 68 McConnell, 1888 89, p. 16D. Whiteaves, 1891, p. 206 APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  Thamnopora cervicornis T. labiosa T. polyforata T. cf. T. polyforata T. c f . T. polyforata LOCALITY Brazeau Creek Cripple Creek Gap and North Bam Gap Eaglenest Pass headwaters of Wildhay Elver North branch Saskatchewan River Mile 1 0 9 , Banff, Jasper Highway, Cripple Creek area T. c f . T. polyforata T. (Cladopora) roemeri Thamnopora reefs Job Creek Peace River near Vermilion F a l l s Thamnopora sp. Wapiti Lake area Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. 7 miles west of Flathead River and 2 . 5 miles north of boundary. HORIZON REFERENCE Devonian Cheviot formation (Mount Hawk member) Plat y r a c h e l l a  cyrtiniformis zone Devonian coral reef This work, p . 1 0 6 B e l l , 1 9 5 1 , P.5 3 Warren and Stelck, 1 9 5 0 , p. 6 8 This work, p. 1 0 9 Devonian 'Coenites' reef. Mount Hawk formation Upper Devonian Flume formation (lower member) and upper Mount Hawk. P a l l i s e r formation (member 2 ) This work, p. 1 0 9 This work, p. 1 0 9 Bassler, 1 9 5 0 , p. 1 6 7 . deWit and McLaren, 1 9 5 0 , p. 1 0 . Laudon et. a l . , 1 9 4 9 , p. 1 5 1 8 Jefferson limestone Daly, 1 9 1 2 , p. 1 1 2 APPENDIX A CONTINUED GENUS AND SPECIES LOCALITY HORIZON REFERENCE Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Boot River, N.W.T. 58 miles upstream Above Simpson shale equivalent Hume, 1921, p. 71B Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Pipestone pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise on C.P.R. Upper Devonian (Pipestone form-ation) Walcott, 1924, P. 51. Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Windemere d i s t r i c t Upper Devonian (Starbird form-ation. Walker, 1926, pp. 34,35. Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Disaster Point, Jasper Park. Upper Devonian Allan et. a l . , 1932, p. 236. Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Fairholme mountains and Mount Romulus Fairholme formation throughout. Beach, 1943, p. 13, 14. Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Alaska Highway in Stone Range Immediately below Fort Creek contact. Laudon and Chronic, 1949, p. 219. Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Alberta Equivalent of basal Hay River limestone bed. Warren, 1949, p. 568. Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp. Sunwapta Pass area Fairholme formation. 1100 feet above base Severson, 1950, p. 1842. Thamnopora ( Cladopora) sp. Imperial River Ramparts formation Laudon, 1950, p. 1565. GENUS AND SPECIES  Zaphrentis mcfarlanei Z. recta Zaphrentis sp. Zaphrentis sp. APPENDIX A CONCLUDED LOCALITY Anderson's River, l a t . 67°N, long. 125°W. Anderson's River l a t . 67°N, long. 125°W. Crows Nest Lakes Banff-Golden HORIZON Upper Devonian (Bassler, 1950, p. 168) Upper Devonian (Bassler, 1950, p. 168) Upper Devonian REFERENCE Meek, 1867, p. 83 Meek, 1867, p. 82. Dawson, 1885, p . 7 2 B A l l a n , 1912, p. 172, 1913, P. 181. M •I* ^3 TABLE INOMENCLATURE OF UPPER DEVONIAN STRATA OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS BANFF Warren 1927 BANFF Beach 1°U3 CADOMIN Kelly 1925 JASPER Raymond 1930 EDMONTON Imperial Oil 191*8 & 1950 ROCKY MTS. Fox 1951 ROCKY MTS. DeWit & McLaren 1950 EXSHAW FM. UPPER MBINEWANKA FORMATION LOWER MINNEWANKA FORMATION EXSHAW FM. PALLISER FORMATION FAIRHOLME FORMATION BANFF FORMATION BLACKFACE MOUNTAIN FORMATION INTERMEDIATE FORMATION UPPER MEMBER KILN FM. ' Zone 7 FIDDLE FM, Zone 6 CORNACH FM. Zone 5 a Zone k Zone 3 PERDRIX FORMATION Zone.2 EXSHAW FM. EXSHAW FM. EXSHAW FM. WASAMUN FORMATION PALLISER FORMATION FLUME FORMATION Zone 3 GRAMINIA MEMBER CALMAR MEMBER MISKU (D2) IRETON MEMBER 8 DUVERNAY MEMBER COOKING LAKE MEMBER CHEVIOT FORMATION PERDRIX FORMATION FLUME FORMATION OOSTIGAN MEMBER MORRO MEMBER ALEXO FORMATION MOUNT HAWK FORMATION PERDRIX FORMATION UPPER MEMBER LOWER MEMBER After Bell 1951 148 P L A T E I M I C R O C Y C L U S , M E T R I O P H Y L L U M , Z A P H R E N T I S , AND C E R A T O P H Y L L U M F i g u r e s 1-2 M i c r o c y c l u s m u l t i r a d i a t u r n M e e k . ( P a g e 9) L a -t e ral~lFTe!(r~oTri>o^ o f c a l i c e . (XI). ( A f t e r M e e k 1867). F i g u r e s 3-4 M e t r i o p h y l l u m r e c t u m H a l l , ( P a g e 10) Two t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s . (X2) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1945). F i g u r e s 5-6 Z a p h r e n t i s r e c t a M e e k . ( P a g e 12) C o r a l l u m a n d c a l i c e . [XI). ( A f t e r M e e k 1867).-F i g u r e s 7-9 Z a p h r e n t i s m c f a r l a n e i M e e k . ( P a g e 13) 7, C o r a l l u m (XI) ; 8, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n t h r o u g h a x i s (XI); 9, C a l i c e (XI) ( A f t e r M e e k 1867). F i g u r e s 10-13 C e r a t o p h y l l u m G u r i c h . ( P a g e 14) 10, C . d o h m i ( W e d e k i n d ) . T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n , l a t e n e a n i c s t a g e . (XI.5); 11, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n e p h e b i c s t a g e . (XI.5); 12, C . c e r a t i t e s G o l d f u s s , v i e w o f l e c t o t y p e . (X2/3); 15, C. c e r a t i t e s . l o n g i t u d i -n a l s e c t i o n (X2/3). ( A f t e r S tumm 1949). PLATE I 1 4 9 P L A T E I I A C A N T H O P H Y L L U M , C Y A T H O P H Y L L U M , AND H E L I O P H Y L L U M F i g u r e s 1-3 A c a n t l i o p h y l l u m h e t e r o p h y l l u m E d w a r d s a n d Haime"] ( P a g e 15) I , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . S e p t a m e e t a t t h e a x i s b u t d o n o t t w i s t ; 2 , T r a n s -v e r s e s e c t i o n . S e p t a t w i s t v e r t i c a l l y a t t h e a x i s ; 3 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . ( X I ) ( A f t e r , S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . F i g u r e s 4 - 6 C y a t h o p h y l l u m a t h a b a s c e n s e W h i t e a v e s . ( P a g e 15 ) 4 , S i d e v i e w o f a v e r y l a r g e s p e c i -m e n ; L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s a m e ; T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e s a m e , b e l o w t h e b a s e o f t h e c u p . ( X I ) ( A f t e r W h i t e a v e s 1 8 9 1 ) . F i g u r e s 7 - 8 C y a t h o p h y l l u m c e r a t i t e s G o l d f u s s . ( P a g e 1 7 ) 7 , S i d e v i e w ; 8 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . ( X I ) . ( A f t e r W h i t e a v e s 1 8 9 1 ) . P L A T E II 150 PIATE III HELIOPHYLLUM Al® CHARACT O P E Y L L I M Figures 1-2 Heliophyllum h a l l i Edwards and Haime (Page 20) 1, Transverse section. (X1.5); 2, Longitu-dinal section. (22), (After Smith 1945). Figures 3-5 Hellophyllum parvulum Whiteaves (Page 20) 3, Side view; 4, Longitudinal section; 5, Side view. (XI). (After Whiteaves 1891). Figures 6-13 Charactophyllum nanum H a l l and Whitfield (Page 23] 6, Lateral view of corallum. (XI); 7-13, series of transverse section. (X2). (After . Smith 1945). P L A T E I I I 1 5 1 P L A T E I V C H A R A C T O P H Y L L U M , D I V E R S O P H Y L L U M , AMD M I C T O P H Y L L U M F i g u r e s 1-3 C h a r a c t o p h y l l u m s p . ( P a g e 2 4 ) 1 , T r a n s -v e r s e s e c t i o n t h r o u g h c a l i c e . ( X I ) ; 2 , same ( X 2 ) o f h y p o t y p e C 5 0 7 7 ; 3 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n b e l o w c a l i c e a n d 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f h y p o t y p e C 5 0 8 3 . ( X 2 ) . • F i g u r e s 5 - 7 D i v e r s o p h y l l u m t r a v e r s e n s e W i n c h e l l . ( P a g e 2 7 ) D i a g r a m a t i c s e c t i o n s ( X I 1 / 3 ) ( A f t e S l o s s 1 9 3 9 ) . F i g u r e s 8 - 1 1 M i c t o p h y l l u m r i c h a r d s o n i ( M e e k ) . ( P a g e 2 9 ) 8 , C o r a l l u m ( X I ) ; - 9 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . ( X I . 5 ) ; 1 0 - 1 1 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n ( h a l f ) l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X l . ~ 5 ) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . P I A T E I V 15S P L A T E V T A B U L O P H Y L L U M A l © SPONGOPHYLLUM F i g u r e s 1-2 T a b u l o p h y l l u m m c c o n n e l l i ( W h i t e a v e s ) ( P a g e 3 2 ) 1 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n ( X 2 ) ; 2 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X I ) . H y p o t y p e C 5 0 5 8 . F i g u r e s 3 - 7 T a b u l o p h y l l u m r e c t u m F e n t o n a n d F e n t o n ( P a g e . 3 4 ) 3 - 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l a n d t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s o f t h e h o l o t y p e ; 5 , L o n g i t u d i n a l v i e w o f a l l o t y p e ; 6 -7 , L a t e r a l v i e w a n d t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n o f a ' p a r a -t y p e . ( A l l X I ) ( A f t e r F e n t o n a n d F e n t o n 1 9 2 4 ) . F i g u r e s 8 - 1 0 S p o n g o p h y l l u m p a x S m i t h ( P a g e 3 6 ) 8 , 9 , 1 0 , T r a n s v e r s e a n d t w o l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f n o l o t y p e . ( X I . 5 ) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . PIATE 7 1 5 3 P L A T E V I A C E R V U L A R L A AND D I S P H Y L L U M F i g u r e s 1-2 A c e r v u l a r i a a n a n a s t r u n c a t a ( W a h l e n b e r g ) ( P a g e 3 8 ) T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s . ( 2 3 ) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . F i g u r e s 3 - 5 D i s p h y l l u m a r u n d i n a c e u m B i l l i n g s ( P a g e 4 1 ) 3 , L a t e r a l v i e w . ( X I ) ; 4 - 5 , L o n g i t u d i n a l a n d t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s . ( X 2 ) . ( A f t e r Lambe 1 9 0 1 ) . F i g u r e s 6 - 8 D i s p h y l l u m c f . D . a r u n d i n a c e u m ( P a g e 4 1 ) 6 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n o f s e v e r a l c o r a l l i t e s o f h y p o t y p e 5 1 4 3 ; 7 , 8 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f s e -v e r a l c o r a l l i t e s o f h y p o t y p e C 5 0 4 6 . ( A 1 1 ~ X 2 ) . " F i g u r e s 9 - 1 0 D i s p h y l l u m c a e s p i t o s u m G o l d f u s s ( P a g e 4 3 ) D i a g r a m a t i c t r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s . ( X 5 ) ( A f t e r L a n g a n d S m i t h 1 9 3 5 ) . PLATE VI 1 5 4 P L A T E V I I D I S P H Y L L U M F i g u r e s 1-2 D i s p h y l l u m c a m s e l l i ? S m i t h ( P a g e 4 6 ) T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f h y p o -t y p e C 5 0 2 8 . ( X 2 ) . F i g u r e s 3 - 1 0 D i s p h y l l u m c a m s e l l i S m i t h ( P a g e 4 5 ) 3, 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s , ( X 2 ) ; 5 - 6 , t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( 2 2 , X I j ; 7 - 8 , Two l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c -. t i o n s , (XI); 9 - 1 0 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s , o f t h e same s p e c i m e n , s h o w i n g u n u s u a l l y l o n g s e p t a i n s e c t i o n 1 0 . ( 2 2 j . ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . * F i g u r e . . ; 11 D i s p h y l l u m c o l e m a n e n s e ( W a r r e n ) ( P a g e 4 7 ) C r o s s s e c t i o n o f c o r a l l i t e , c o t y p e . (X2) . ( A f t e r W a r r e n " 1 9 2 8 ) . F i g u r e s 1 2 - 1 3 D i s p h y l l u m g e i n i t z i ? L a n g a n d S m i t h ( P a g e 4 8 ) T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s • o f r e c r y s t a l l i z e d s p e c i m e n , h o l o t y p e C 5 0 3 4 , ( X 2 ) . PLATE VII 1 5 5 P L A T E V I I I D I S P H Y L L U M F i g u r e s 1-4 D i s p h y l l u m g o l d f u s s i ( G e i n i t z ) ( P a g e 5 0 ) 1 , E x t e r i o r o f c o r a l l u m . ( X I ) ; 2 , 4 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 ) ; 3 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . ( X I . 5 ) ( A f t e r L a n g a n d S m i t h 1 9 3 5 ) . F i g u r e s 5 - 2 0 D i s p h y l l u m s t r a m l n e u m ( B i l l i n g s ) ( P a g e 5 1 ) 5 , 6 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( X I , X 2 ) ; 7 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X I . 5 ) ; 8 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c -t i o n ; , ( X I . 5 ) ; 9 , 1 0 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 , X 4 ) ; 1 1 , 1 2 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 ) ; 1 3 , 1 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s ( X 2 ) ; 1 5 , 1 6 , T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X 4 ) ; 1 7 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n d r a w i n g ( X 4 ) ; 1 8 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X 4 ) ; 1 9 - 2 0 , T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X 4 ) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . P L A T E V I I I 18 19 20 156 P L A T E I X D I S P H Y L L U M AMD H E X A G O N A R I A F i g u r e s 1-2 D i s p h y l l u m c f . D . s t r a m i n e u m ( P a g e 5 2 ) T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f h o l o -t y p e 5 1 2 8 . ( X 2 ) . F i g u r e s 3 - 7 H e x a g o n a r i a p e r c a r i n a t u m ( S l o s s ) P a g e 5 6 ) 3 , 4 , Diagrama11c t r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s ( X 2 ) ; 5 , P a r t o f s u r f a c e o f c o r a l l u m o f h o l o t y p e . ( X I ) ; 6 , 7 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s o f p a r a -t y p e s , ( X I ) ( A f t e r S l o s s 1 9 3 9 ) . PLATE IX 157 PLATE X HEXAGONARIA Figures 1-3 Hexagonaria quadrigeminum arcticum (Meek) (Page. 57) 1.2, Transverse and longitudinal sec-tions. (XI.5); 3, Drawing of the same. (X2) (After Smith 1945). Figures 4-5 Hexagonaria cf. H. stewartae Stumm (Page 58) Transverse and long i t u d i n a l sections of hypotype C 5028. (X2). Figures 6-8 Macgeea s o l i t a r i a ( H a l l and Whitfield) (Page 61) 6, Transverse section through c a l i c e of hypo-type 5158, (X2); 7,8, Transverse section through c a l i c e , and longitudinal section below c a l i c e showing horse-shoe dissepiments, hypotype C5082 (X2). PLATE X 1 5 8 P L A T E 2 1 MACGEEA A N D P H I L L I P S A S T R A E A F i g u r e s 1-3 M a c g e e a s o l i t a r i a ( H a l l a n d " W h i t f i e l d ) ( P a g e 6 1 ) ( c o n t i n u e d f r o m P l a t e 2 ) . 1 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c -t i o n s o f h y p o t y p e C 5 0 4 2 . ( 2 2 ) ; 2 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f 2 h y p o t y p e s C 5 0 7 4 . ( 2 2 ) ; 3 , S e r i a l s e c t i o n s o f n e a n i c s t a g e o f h y p o t y p e C 5 0 7 7 , ( 2 2 ) . F i g u r e s 4 - 7 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a b r e v i s e p t a t u m S t u m m . ( P a g e 6 7 ) T r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l t h i n s e c t i o n s o f h y p o t y p e 5 1 6 5 , ( 2 2 ) ; 6 , s a m e , ( 2 1 . 3 ) a n d 7 , p o l -i s h e d t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n o f h y p o t y p e 5 1 6 5 , ( 2 1 . 3 ) . PLATE XI 1 5 9 P L A T E X I I P H I L L I P S A S T R A E A F i g u r e s 1-2 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a d e v o n i e n s e ( E d w a r d s a n d H a i m e ) ( P a g e 6 9 ) 1 , A p o l i s h e d t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . {XI); 2 , P a r t o f t h e s a m e , m a g n i f i e d . ( A f t e r E d w a r d s a n d H a i m e 1 8 5 1 ) . F i g u r e s 3 - 5 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a c f . P. d e v o n i e n s e ( E d w a r d s a n d H a i m e ) ( P a g e 6 9 ) . 3 , V i e w e f p a r t o f c o r a l l u m , C 5 0 7 4 ; 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l a n d 5 , t r a n s v e r s e t h i n s e c -t i o n s o f s a m e . ( X 2 ) . PIATE XII 1 6 0 P L A T E X I I I PHILLIPSASTRAEA F i g u r e s 1-7 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a e x i g u a Lambe ( P a g e 7 1 ) 1 , 2 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( X 3 ) ; 3 , 4 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( X 3 , X l j ; 5 , 6 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s ( X 2 . 5 , X I ) ; 7 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . ( X 2 . 5 ) same s p e c i m e n . ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . F i g u r e 8 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a n e v a d e n s i s S t u m m ( P a g e 7 3 ) T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n ( X 2 ) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1 9 4 5 ) . . PLATE XIII 1 6 1 P L A T E X I V P H I L L I P S A S T R A E A F i g u r e s 1-4 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i ( M e e k ) ( P a g e 7 5 ) 1 , P a r t o f s u r f a c e o f s p e c i m e n ( X I ) ; 2 , 3 , T r a n s -v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 ) ; 4 , U p p e r s u r f a c e o f s m a l l e r s p e c i m e n ( X I ) ( A f t e r Lambe 1 9 0 1 ) F i g u r e 5 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i E d w a r d s a n d H a i m e ( P a g e 76) U p p e r s u r f a c e o f s p e c i m e n ( X I ) . ( A f t e r Lambe 1 9 0 1 ) . F i g u r e s 6 - 8 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a w o o d m a n i W h i t e ( P a g e 7 7 ) 6 , L a r g e p o l i s h e d s p e c i m e n ( X £ 5 ) ; 7 , P o r t i o n o f a l a r g e s p e c i m e n , a p p r o a c h i n g P . w o o d m a n i o r d i n a t u m i n c h a r a c t e r ( X I ) ; 8 , P o r t i o n o f a p o l i s h e d s e c -t i o n , s h o w i n g p s e u d o - c o l u m e l l a ( X I ) ( A f t e r F e n t o n a n d F e n t o n 1 9 2 4 ) . PLATE XIV 162 PLATE XV ERIDOPEYLLUM AND CYSTIPRYLLOIDES F i g u r e s - 1 - 3 E r i d o p h y l l u n i s e r i a l e Edwards and Haime (Page 79) 1,2, T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s (X3.3); 3, S i d e v i e w o f h o l o t y p e . (X.6) ( A f t e r Stumm. 1949). F i g u r e s 4-5 C y s t i p h y l l o i d e s americanum (Edwards and Haime) (Page 81) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c specimens a l l showing v e s i c u l a r t e x t u r e (XI) ( A f t e r S t e w a r t 1938). PLATE XV 1 6 3 PLATE X V I 0 CYSTIPHTLLOIDES Figures 1-3 Cystlphylloides americanum (Edwards and Haime) (Page 81 ) (Continued from Plate X V ) 1 , 2 , Longitu-d i n a l transverse sections of corallum. ( X 1 . 6 ) ; 3 , Longitudinal section showing marginal c a l i c u l a r gemmation i n a gerontic corallum. ( X I . 6 ) (After Fenton and Fenton 1 9 3 8 ) . Figures 4 - 6 Cystlphylloides americanum var. arcticum (Meek) (Page 8 2 ) 4~7 External view. ( X . 6 ) ; 5 , Longi-t u d i n a l and transverse sections. ( X . 6 ) (After Meek, 1 8 6 7 ) . PLATE X V I 164 PLATE XVII CHONOPHYLLUM AND ALVEOLITES Figures 1-3 Chonophyllum magnif icum B i l l i n g s (Page .85) 1, C a l i c u l a r view; 2, C a l i c u l a r view of part of large c o r a l l i t e , and 3, L a t e r a l view of eroded c o r a l l i t e . (After Rominger 1876). Figures 4-5 A l v e o l i t e s c f . A. multiperforatus (Page 90) Showing fragmented, laminar corals with fragments of Thamnopora, hypotype C5072, (X2). PLATE XVII 165 P L A T E X V I I I A L V E O L I T E S F i g u r e 1 A l v e o l i t e s c f , A . m u l t l p e r f o r a t u s ( P a g e 9 2 ) T h i n s e c t i o n t h r o u g h a x i s o f a g a s t r o p o d e n c r u s t e d • w i t h A l v e o l i t e s h y p o t y p e 5 1 6 5 (X2)# F i g u r e 2 A l v e o l i t e s m u l t i p e r f o r a t u s ? S a l e e ( P a g e 9 5 ) S h o w i n g A l v e o l i t e s e n c r u s t e d o n a s t e m o f T h a m -n o p o r a . F i g u r e s 3 - 6 A l v e o l i t e s r o c k f o r d e n s i s H a l l a n d W h i t f i e l d ( P a g e 9 3 ) 3 , u p p e r s u r f a c e ; 4 , l o w e r s u r f a c e ; 5 , 6 , p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s . ( A l l X I ) ( A f t e r F e n t o n a n d F e n t o n 1 9 2 4 ) . F i g u r e 7 A l v e o l i t e s v a l l o r u m M e e k ( P a g e 9 4 ) V i e w o f f r a g m e n t o f c o r a l l u m . ( X . 6 ) ( A f t e r M e e k 1 8 6 7 ) . PLATE XVIII 166 PLATE . XIX COENITES AND' FAVOSITES Figures 1-2 Goenites sp. (Page 96) 1, Thin section of hypotype C5077, showing Coenites and a small spe-cies of Thamnopora (X2); 2, Same of hypotype C5080. Figures 3-4 Favosites b a s a l t i c a Goldfuss (Page 99) Draw-ing showing arrangement of tabulae and squamulae. (X5)' (After Lambe 1899). Figures 5-8 Favosites l i m i t a r i s Rominger (Page 102) Views of several c o r a l l a , a l i t t l e less than natural size (After Rominger 1876)• PLATE XIX 1 6 7 PLATE X X FAVOSITES AND THAMNOPORA. Figure .1 Favosltes n i t e l i a Winchell (Page 1 0 3 ) Views of four c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y less than natural s i z e (After Rominger 1 8 7 8 ) . Figures 2 - 5 Thamnopora cervicornis (De B l a i n v i l l e ) (Page 1 0 5 ) 2 , Corallum branches. ( X I ) ; 3 , 4 , Transverse sections ( X 2 , X I ) ; 5 , Transverse section. ( X I ) . PLATE 168 PLATE.. XXI-THAMNOPORA Figure ,1 Thamnopora cervicornis (De B l a i n v i l l e ) (Page 108) Transverse section of large s u b c y l i n d r i e a l stem showing l a t e r a l outgrowths, hypotype C50L2 (X2). Figure 2 Thamnopora labiosa ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 108) Several branching c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y less than natural size (After Rominger 1876). 169 PIATE XXII THAMNOPOBA F i g u r e s 1-7 Thamnopora p o l y f o r a t a Sehlotheim (Page 108) 1, C o r a l l u m branch embedded In a s m a l l colony o f A l v e o l i t e s s u b o r b i c u l a r i a ; 2-4, L o n g i t u d i n a l sec-t i o n s (X2, XI, XI.5) o f the l e c t o t y p e ; 5, Trans-v e r s e s e c t i o n (X2) o f the same specimen: 6, Cor-a l l u m branch also.embedded i n a colony °r A l v e o l i t e s  s u b o r b i c u l a r i s . (Approximately n a t u r a l s i z e ) . ( A f t e r Smith 1945). PLATE XXXI 170 PLATE XXIII THAMNOPORA Figures 1-3. Thamnopora.cf. T. polyforata (Page 109) 1, Transverse and longitudinal t h i n section of broken stems. (X2); 2, Polished section of bro-ken stems of hypotype C5071. (X2); 3, Polished section of part of corallum of hypotype 5143. Figure 4. Thamnopora roemeri ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 111) Several p a r t i a l branching c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y l e s s than natural s i z e . PLATE m n 171 . PLATE XXIV SYRINGOPORA AND AULOPORA Figure 1 Syringopora perelegans B i l l i n g s (Page 113) . L a t e r a l view of part of a coral lum. (X.6) (After Rominger 1876). Figure 2 Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime (Page 117) View of part of an i r r e g u l a r l y developed cor-al lum. (XI) (After Smith 1945). P L A T E X X I ? 172 PLATE XXV AULOPOPA. CLADOCHONUS , AMD ROMINGERIA Figure 1 Aulopora cf. A. repens (Page 118) View of p a r t i a l c o r a l l a which exhibit tendency to form polygonal network. Figures 2-6" Cladochonus t e n u i c o l l i s McCoy (Page 119) 2, Lectotype (XI); 3, Syntype. V e r t i c a l section through c a l i c e and o f f s e t . (X2); 4, Syntype. Transverse section through c a l i c e (X2); 5,Syn-type. Transverse section through proximal por-t i o n (neck) of c o r a l l i t e (X2); 6, Syntype. V e r t i c a l section through c a l i c e . (X2) (After H i l l and Smyth, 1938). Figure 7 Romingeria umbellifera ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 120) Several broken c o r a l l a . (XI) (After Rominger 1876). P I A T E X X V 1 

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