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Upper Devonian corals of the Canadian Cordilleran region Thomlinson, Arnold Gordon 1954

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UPPER DEVONIAN CORALS OP THE CANADIAN CORDILLERAN REGION  by ARNOLD GORDON THOMLINSON  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  i n the Department of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d  from c a n d i d a t e s f o r the  degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE  Members o f the Department o f  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1954  CORALS IN SLAB OF DEVONIAN LIMESTONE  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish to thank Dr. V.J. Okulitch, Chairman, D i v i s i o n of Geology, f o r advice on numerous paleontological problems encountered i n the preparation of t h i s thesis.  To  him I am also indebted f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and assistance i n the reproduction of i l l u s t r a t i o n s from the l i t e r a t u r e , and i n i l l u s t r a t i o n of specimens. I am especially grateful to my wife, Joan D e l i a Thomlinson, who has typed and patiently proof-read my manuscript. To Mrs. J.A. Donnan I also extend my thanks f o r the co-operative s p i r i t with which she has undertaken typing of the thesis. Mr. J.A. Donnan, geological technician, has furthered by work by i n s t r u c t i n g me i n the preparation of t h i n sections, and i n preparing for me those which I found most d i f f i c u l t . My friend and fellow-student, Mr. F.A. Frebold has presented me with the beautiful specimen i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f r o n t i s p i e c e .  Both he and Mr. J.A.C. Fortescue, i n  discussing with me problems common to our various studies, have aided me i n the development of my thesis.  i  ABSTRACT  Preliminary to the descriptions of genera and species i s a very b r i e f discussion of c o r a l and  terminology  classification. The thesis embodies descriptions and  illus-  trations of 29 genera and 42 species of f o s s i l c o r a l s , reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e to occur i n Upper Devonian rocks of western Canada.  Although most of these are reported  from the Rocky Mountain area, several species from the Mackenzie River-Mackenzie Mountains area are also included. In addition, species reported from the Upper Devonian Outcrops east of the Rocky Mountains have been dealt with. Numerous taxonomic problems encountered i n the study are discussed i n remarks on the genera and species involved. F o s s i l corals collected from the region drained by the headwaters of the North Saskatchewan River are described, i d e n t i f i e d and i l l u s t r a t e d .  Nine genera and  14 species are recognized i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  Of these, .1  genus and 4 species do not appear to have been previously reported to occur i n the Upper Devonian beds of the Rocky Mountains i n Canada. possibly a new  The species of Coenites described i s  one but i t cannot be regarded  as such u n t i l  a study i s made of l i t e r a t u r e which, at present, i s not available.  ii  From this study of Upper Devonian c o r a l s , the writer concludes that the DISPHYLLIDAE are i n need of d i v i s i o n into new subfamilies, and he suggests two characteri s t i c s whose phylogenetic significance requires investigation.  However, i t i s considered that existing paleon-  tologlc data Is neither comprehensive enough nor precise enough to permit such an undertaking.  Reasons are given  for the present inadequacies of knowledge of Upper Devonian corals and recommendations are made for improvement of the situation.  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I .  CHAPTER I I .  i i i TAXONOMY OF FOSSIL CORALS  1  Terminology  1  Classification  4  DESCRIPTIONS OF GENERA AND SPECIES Subclass TETRACORALLA F a m i l y HADROPHYLLIDAE Microcyclus  . . .  8  8  Family METRIOPHYLLIDAE Metriophyllum  10  F a m i l y ZAPHRENTIDAE Zaphrentls  12  Family BETHANYPHYLLIDAE Subfamily BET HANYP HYLLINAE Ceratophyllum  14  F a m i l y ACANTHOPHYLLIDAE Acanthophyllum Cyathophyllum Heliophyllum  15 V$ 19  F a m i l y LEPT0INOPHYLLIDAE Subfamily LEPTOINOPHYLLINAE Brevipnyllum Charactophyllum Diversophyllum Mictophyllum  22 23 2b 28  Subfamily GRYPOPHYLLINAE Tabulophyllum  30  F a m i l y C0LUMNARIIDAE Subfamily S P ON GOP HYLLINAE Spongophyllum  36  TABLE OF CONTENTS CONCLUDED PAGE Family DTSPHYLLIDAE Subfamily DISPHYLLINAE Aeervularia Disphyllum Hexagonaria Macgeea P h i l l i p s a s traea  38 . . 39 55 60 64  Subfamily ERIDOPHYLLINAE Eridophyllum  79  Family CYSTIPHYLLOIDAE Subfamily CYSTIPHYLLOINAE Cystiphylloldes . ..  80  Family C HON OP HYLLIDAE Subfamily CHONOPHYLLINAE Chonophyllum Ptychophyllum  84 86  Subclass TABULATA Family FAVOSITEDAE Alveolites Coenites Favosites Striatopora Thamnopora  88 94 99 103 104  Family SYRINGOPORIDAE Syringopora  113  Family AULOPORIDAE Aulopora . . Cladochonus Romingeria  . . 115 . 119 119  CONCLUSIONS  122  BIBLIOGRAPHY  124  APPENDIX A  132  APPENDIX B EXPLANATION OF PLATES  148  iii  UPPER DEVONIAN CORALS OF THE CANADIAN CORDILLERAN REGION  INTRODUCTION  This work i s intended to constitute an assemblage of descriptions and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of a l l f o s s i l corals which have been reported to occur i n the Upper Devonian rocks of the C o r d i l l e r a n region of Canada. Possibly a more desirable goal would be the inclusion of a l l species reported from the C o r d i l l e r a n region of North America.  Unfortunately, time does not permit such a vast  undertaking.  The f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l has therefore been  a r b i t r a r i l y made the southern l i m i t of t h i s work.  Although  no d e f i n i t e northern l i m i t has been set, the greatest emphasis has been on the Rocky Mountain area and the exposed Devonian rocks to the east.  Either the Liard River  or the f i f t i e t h p a r a l l e l could well serve as a northern l i m i t for the major part of the t h e s i s .  However, a few  coral species from the Mackenzie River-Mackenzie Mountains area not already covered by Smith (194-5) are included here. Because available f o s s i l coral specimens are representative of only a small portion of the area dealt with, t h i s work i s of necessity l a r g e l y a compilation from numerous published works.  The l i t e r a t u r e has been searched  exhaustively for f o s s i l coral assemblages and for generic  iv  and s p e c i f i c descriptions and i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  Although work  of this nature may lack the appeal of o r i g i n a l study of f o s s i l specimens, i t permits, Indeed requires, the worker to become acquainted with paleontological problems and to decide upon a working solution for them.  Numerous taxonomic  problems involving genera and species have been encountered. Solutions I propose for such problems are, i n the main, not o r i g i n a l but are rather a r e s u l t of my assessment of contributions of various authors. Discussion of the i n d i v i d u a l taxonomic d i f f i c u l t i e s follows the descriptions of involved genera and species. Supplemental to the l i t e r a t u r e research phase of the t h e s i s , f o s s i l specimens from Upper Devonian s t r a t a of the Rocky Mountains of Canada are described, i d e n t i f i e d and illustrated.  Most of the f o s s i l corals studied were  collected during the summers of 1950 and 1951 by Dr. V.J. Okulitch from the area drained by the headwaters of the North Saskatchewan River.  These specimens now constitute  part of the paleontological research material housed at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, D i v i s i o n of Geology. With no intention of dealing with stratigraphy I have appended, for the sake of convenience, a chart showing the major Upper Devonian s t r a t i g r a p h i c units i n which the described f o s s i l corals are reported to occur. Also appended i s a table including the genera and species reported, their l o c a l i t i e s and horizons, and an  V  abbreviated reference, indicating  the reporter.  The  generic and s p e c i f i c names l i s t e d are those which I hold to be v a l i d .  Where my opinion i s at variance with that  of the writer who has reported a species, the generic and/ or s p e c i f i c name assigned to i t by that writer i s given i n brackets.  In each of these cases the reasons for my  opinion are given i n the remarks upon the genus and/or species which I recognize.  1  CHAPTER I  TAXONOMY OF FOSSIL CORALS  Terminology A necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e to f o s s i l d e s c r i p t i o n s i s a s e t o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f o n t o g e n e t i c and m o r p h o l o g i c a l terms used i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s .  Indeed, many c o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , l a c k i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s o f nomenclature, a r e meaningless, or a t best ambiguous.  The c o n d i t i o n was aggravated by l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y I n  use o f terms by contemporary workers, and by l a c k o f c o n s i s tency by i n d i v i d u a l workers i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f terms.  A trend  toward s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t e r m i n o l o g y o f t e t r a c o r a l s has been i n i t i a t e d by H i l l  (1935)» and c a r r i e d on by S a n f o r d (1939),  E a s t o n (1944) and Smith (1945).  These workers a r e I n a c c o r d  as t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f most terms, and have a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d these terms, many o f which a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l t o t h e tabulate corals.  More d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s o f t a b u l a t e  nomenclature have been g i v e n by Swann (1947) and Ross In  t h i s work t h e t e r m i n o l o g y employed  i n describing  specimens has- been drawn from the works c i t e d above, u l a r l y from H i l l  coral  (1953).  fossil partic-  (1935) and S m i t h (1945).  An exhaustive c o m p i l a t i o n here o f d e f i n i t i o n s from the  works r e f e r r e d t o above would be an unnecessary  2  duplication.  However, many o f t h e g e n e r i c and s p e c i f i c  d e s c r i p t i o n s t o f o l l o w , taken from the l i t e r a t u r e , c o n t a i n terms which have become- ambiguous through misuse, or have f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e , or w e l l i l l - f o u n d e d .  I t i s therefore  deemed n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i o n s o f some o f t h e more obscure  terms met w i t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the o l d e r works.  Furthermore, a few terms i n c u r r e n t use, but which a r e not s e l f explanatory^, a r e i n c l u d e d i n the hope t h a t they  will  f a c i l i t a t e comprehension o f the c o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s .  G l o s s a r y o f Terms a s t r e i f o r m ( a l s o astraeform) - having c o r a l l i t e s i n cross s e c t i o n .  polygonal  b r e p h i c ( a l s o n e p i o n l c ) - f i r s t o n t o g e n e t i c s t a g e i n which s i x p r o t o s e p t a a r e developed. c a l y c i n a l gemmation - mode o f i n c r e a s e by which o f f s e t s from c a l i c e o f parent.  arise  c e r l o i d - p r i s m a t i c c o r a l l i t e s separated- by t h e c a . coenenchyma - common c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e between c o r a l l i t e s o f some massive c o r a l l a . cystimorph - a c o r a l i n which s e p t a a r e e n t i r e l y or n e a r l y o b s o l e t e and i n which the t r a n s v e r s e t i s s u e cons i s t s of tabulae. dendroid - c o r a l l i t e s s p r e a d i n g t o s u b p a r a l l e l . d e n t i c u l a t e s e p t a - s e p t a w i t h s e r r a t e a x i a l edges. diaphragms - o b s o l e t e term synonomous w i t h term ' t a b u l a e ' . ephebic  - mature o n t o g e n e t i c s t a g e , i . e . wherein s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a t t a i n e d .  3 e x s e r t s e p t a - s e p t a p r o t r u d i n g above top o f c a l i c e . f a s c i c u l a t e - n e i g h b o u r i n g e o r a l l l t e s not i n c o n t a c t , fossa, fossette - fossula. g e n i c u l a t e - having abrupt change i n d i r e c t i o n of growth. genomorph - i n d i v i d u a l of a genus which d i f f e r s from t h e genotype i n e x p r e s s i n g some common o r t h o g e n e t i c trend. gerontic - s e n i l e ontogenetic stage, r a r e l y recognizable. i n f u n d i b u l l f o r m - cone" - or  funnel-shaped  i n t e r c o s t a l l o c u l i - (= i n t e r c o s t a l spaces?) space between two adjacent s e p t a I n t e r c o s t a l spaces  - («-Intercostal l o c u l i ? )  i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i - space between two adjacent  septa.  l a t e r a l gemmation - o b s o l e t e term i n d i c a t i n g o r i g i n o f o f f s e t s from s i d e of parent c o r a l l i t e . l o n s e d a l o i d s e p t a - septa which have r e t r e a t e d from the e p i t h e c a and do not completely i n t e r s e c t the d i s s epimentarium. lumen - i n t e r i o r o f a c o r a l l i t e mural c i r c l e s - s t e r e o t h e c a formed by coaleseenee dilated periaxially.  of septa  mural investment - o b s o l e t e term v a r i o u s l y used t o i n d i c a t e t h e c a , s c l e r o t h e c a , s t e r e o t h e c a . (?) neanlc - adolescent ontogenetic  stage.  p a l l - short v e r t i c a l p l a t e s located a x i a l l y . peduncle  - b a s a l , u s u a l l y c e n t r a l , cone-shaped p o i n t o f attachment.  phaeeloid - f a s c i c u l a t e w i t h p a r a l l e l  eorallltes.  p l o c o i d - e o r a l l l t e s of massive c o r a l l u m are u n i t e d by and/or d i s s e p i m e n t s .  septa  4  p o l y p stems - o b s o l e t e term synonomous w i t h term pyriform  'corallites'  r a d i c i f o r m processes - r o o t - l i k e anchoring s t r u c t u r e s i n simple c o r a l s . Term sometimes a p p l i e d t o p r o cesses connecting a d j a c e n t c o r a l l i t e s i n a f a s c i c u l a t e corallum. r a d i i - o b s o l e t e term supplanted by  'septa'.  reptant - prone or c r e e p i n g s c l e r o t h e c a - i n n e r w a l l formed by d e n s e l y packed r i n g o f dissepiments. s e p t a l f o s s e t t e - o b s o l e t e term supplanted s e p t a l fovea - o b s o l e t e term, synonym o f  by  'fossula'.  s e p t a l r a d i i - o b s o l e t e term, supplanted by s e p t a l rays - o b s o l e t e term supplanted by  'fossula'.  'septa'.  'septa'.  squamae (squamulae ?) - l i n g u i f o r m or petal-shaped p l a t e s o f s e p t a l o r i g i n p r o j e c t i n g l i k e s h e l v e s from the c o r a l l i t e w a l l i n t o the lumen and ending i n a f r e e edge. stereoplasm  - c a l c a r e o u s secondary structures.  d e p o s i t upon s k e l e t a l  t r a b e c u l a e - the bundle of c a l c a r e o u s f i b e r s which b u i l d coral tissue. umbellate  up  - r a d i a t i n g from a common p o i n t , as p e t a l s o f a flower.  v i s c e r a l chamber - i n c o r r e c t term, f o r the i n t e r i o r of a c o r a l l i t e i . e . the lumen. Classification The  s o - c a l l e d ' n a t u r a l ' or p h y l o g e n e t i c type of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w h i l e undoubtedly d e s i r a b l e , i s u n a t t a i n a b l e . As Henbest (1952, pp. 305-308) p o i n t s out, o n l y about  ohe-  ~ f i f t h o f the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s a c c e s s i b l e f o r the study  of  5  pre-Pleistocene geological h i s t o r y , and within that area there are numerous gaps i n the s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence.  Obviously  the record of b i o l o g i c h i s t o r y i s s i m i l a r l y incomplete, both geographically, and temporally.  I t follows that the develop-  ment of a wholly phylogenetic f o s s i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s forever Impossible.  This does not mean that the concept of phylogene-  s i s cannot be employed i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Indeed, genetic  relationships within r e s t r i c t e d f o s s i l groups have already been indicated, and more w i l l undoubtedly appear i n the future. However, as i s expressed by Weller 'natural  1  (1949, pp. 682-684), a  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ought not to be held paramount, and  s t r i v e n f o r at the expense of p r a c t i c a b i l i t y .  It seems,  rather, that the foremost purpose of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be to organize paleont©logical data into recognizable units which may be r e a d i l y used i n i d e n t i f y i n g f o s s i l specimens. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should invoke a l l determinable morphologic and ontogenetic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , emphasizing those features which  indicate evolutionary trends. Of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Devonian tetracorals yet proposed, that of Stumm (1949) most nearly f u l f i l l s the requirements just mentioned.. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y , a convenient means of 'pigeon-holing', founded i n part upon c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s held by Stumm to be phylogenetically s i g n i f i c a n t .  Most of the  families and subfamilies set f o r t h by Stumm have been found p r a c t i c a l for t h i s work.  6 His s u b f a m i l y PACHYPHYLLINAE and i t s genera Pachyphyllum. Phacelophyllum and Synaptophyllum. however, do not appear t o be w e l l - f o u n d e d .  Lang and Smith (1935, p. 566)  show that a l l forms p o s s e s s i n g horse-shoe d i s s e p i m e n t s cannot be considered t o be a d i s t i n c t l i n e a g e .  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the  weakness o f Stumm s s u b f a m i l y PACHYPHYLLINAE. 1  Furthermore,  Lang and Smith (1935» P. 555) have observed Pachyphyllum devoniense-type e o r a l l l t e s and t y p i c a l P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a e o r a l l l t e s t o g e t h e r i n the same c o r a l l u m .  These authors  p o i n t out t h a t most workers have i n t e r p r e t e d Pachyphyllum on P. devoniens e-type s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r t h a n on t h e genotype P. bouehardi.  Even the genotype Pachyphyllum b o u c h a r d l i s  c o n s i d e r e d by Lang and S m i t h t o be a s p e c i e s o f P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a . On the b a s i s o f the above e v i d e n c e , I f o l l o w Lang and S m i t h i n merging Pachyphyllum i n Phillipsastraea« and P h a c e l l o p h y l l u m i n D i s p h y l l u m .  and Synaptophyllum  In considering  Pachyphyllum t o be synonomous w i t h P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a . I automa t i c a l l y suppress Stumm's s u b f a m i l y PACHYPHYLLINAE.  T h i s move  n e c e s s i t a t e s r e d e f i n i n g h i s s u b f a m i l y DISPHYLLINAE.  Then s u b f a m i l y DISPHYLLINAE i s here c o n s i d e r e d t o encompass p h a c e l o i d , c e r i o i d , a s t r a e o l d , and a p h r o i d  forms  which may or may not possess horse-shoe-shaped d i s s e p i m e n t s . In none o f these forms I s an a u l o s developed. Genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t a b u l a t e c o r a l  families  are even l e s s apparent than a r e a f f i n i t i e s between t e t r a c o r a l  7 families.  I n f a c t , they a r e almost  certainly-unrelated  groups which have a t t a i n e d common m o r p h o l o g i c a l aspects by v a r i o u s paths.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they may be r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d  as unique taxonomic u n i t s .  S p e c i e s encountered  I n t h i s work  a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the f a m i l i e s FAVOSITIDAE, SYRINGOPORIDAE, and AULOPORIDAE.  W i t h r e s p e c t t o the l a t t e r f a m i l y , I do n o t  f e e l c o n f i d e n t that a l l i t s members have proven affinities.  As Fenton and Fenton  coralline  (1937, pp. 109-115) have  shown, the type genus A u l o p o r a . probably encompasses gent forms o f bryozoans  and c o r a l s .  conver-  I r e f e r some o f my  specimens t o the f a m i l y AULOPORIDAE, w i t h the r e s e r v a t i o n that they may be e i t h e r c o r a l s or bryozoans.  CHAPTER I I  DESCRIPTIONS OF GENERA AND  Phylum  SPECIES  COELENTERATA  Class  . ANTHOZOA  Subclass  TETRACOlALLA..  Family  HADROPHYLLIDAE  Stumm  Genus M i c r o c y c l u s Meek and Wort hen M i c r o c y c l u s Meek and Worthen, 1868, Genotype:  1868, p. 420.  p.  Microcyclus discus  420 Meek and Worthen  O r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n : "Corallum f r e e , or w i t h a minute c e n t r a l p o i n t of attachment, d l s c o i d a l , without c o l u m e l l a ; c a l i c e very s h a l l o w or n e a r l y o b s o l e t e , and provided w i t h a simple s m a l l f o s s e t t e ; s e p t a s h o r t , n e a r l y r e g u l a r l y r a d i a t i n g , or w i t h a few o f those nearest the f o s s e t t e converging a l i t t l e towards i t s s i d e s ; e p i t h e c a w e l l developed. T h i s l i t t l e c o r a l seems to be r e l a t e d to Combophyllum and Baryphyllum. Edwards and Haime, but d i f f e r s from the f i r s t In having a well-developed e p i t h e c a , and from the l a t t e r , not o n l y i n t h a t c h a r a c t e r , but i n having i t s f o s s e t t e simple, and i t s costae n e a r l y r e g u l a r l y r a d i a ting. I t a l s o presents s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s from Hadrophyllum. of Edwards and Haime. As we have sought i n v a i n amongst the e s t a b l i s h e d groups f o r a genus that w i l l r e c e i v e i t , we have been compelled to propose a new genus f o r i t s r e c e p t i o n . " Remarks:  Whereas i n t h e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  genus the f o s s u l a i s s a i d t o be "simple", the genus Is o  conceived  t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f o s s u l a  c a r d i n a l septum.  now  c o n t a i n i n g the  T h i s c o n c e p t i o n i s apparent i n B a s s l e r ' s  (1937) d e s c r i p t i o n In Stumm (1949, p. 6), which r e a d s :  "Thin, d i s c o i d a l , almost f l a t free c o r a l l a with a small central irregular basal scar of attachment and a shallow calyx provided with smooth septa arranged i n four groups separated by fossulae of which the cardinal one, with a conspicuous cardinal septum, i s best developed. Major septa merging into a smooth central area; minor septa short and often attached to the major. The smooth septa and conspicuous cardinal fossula with i t s cardinal septum are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Microcyclus. which represents the stage of development i n the family at which a l l the fossulae but the cardinal one are inconspicuous."  Microcyclus mnltiradiatum (Meek) tPlate 1 , Figures 1-2) Combophyllum multiradlaturn Meek, 1867» p. 84, p i . XI, f i g . 4 Original description: "Corallum depressed, d i s c o i d , c i r c u l a r , f l a t below; upper side with a broad, very shallow c a l i c e , which i s flattened w i t h i n ; septal fossette narrow, but w e l l defined, extending from the middle to the margin of the c a l i c e . Lateral margins rounded, and as i t were duplicated by a d i s t i n c t furrow, extending e n t i r e l y around. Radial septa numbering 48 to ?0 i n the primary series, which a l t e r nate with a shorter intermediate s e r i e s , only extending into the inner margin of the very shallow c a l i c e . Height, 0.13 inch; breadth, 0.6? inch." Remarks: Neither Meek's description nor his I l l u s t r a t i o n indicates the presence of the cardinal septum within the fossula, a condition held by Bassler (1937) to be diagnostic of Microcyclus.  I t i s with some doubt, there-  fore, that I include this species i n Microcyclus.  Family  METRIOPHYLLIDAE  Hill  Genus Metriophyllum Edwards and Haime M e t r i o p h y l l u m Edwards and Haime 1850,  p.  lxix  Genotype: M e t r i o p h y l l u m bouchardi Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x i x , 1851» p i 318, p i . 7, f i g u r e s l - 2 b . Upper Devonian, F r a s n i a n ( B e a u l i e u shales and Fergues l i m e s t o n e ) ; near Bologne, France. O r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n : "Corallum s i m p l e , t u r b i n a t e Septa w e l l developed, s l i g h t l y t w i s t e d , and extending t o the c e n t e r o f the v i s c e r a l chamber, through w e l l - d e v e l o p e d tabulae." Remarks:  The above d e s c r i p t i o n does not  fully  d e s c r i b e the genus and i s , t h e r e f o r e , supplemented by Smith (194-5, p. 28) d i a g n o s i s which reads: " S m a l l , t r o c h o i d rugose c o r a l s which t y p i c a l l y are o n l y s l i g h t l y curved, have long major s e p t a which r e a c h the a x i s , but o n l y very s h o r t minor s e p t a . The a x i a l edges of the major s e p t a are welded by sclerenchyme i n t o a s o l i d s t y l l f o r r a s t r u c t u r e , w h i l e the p e r i p h e r a l edges expand and form by l a t e r a l c o n t i g u i t y a narrow s t e r e o z o n e . The s i d e s of the s e p t a c a r r y s t o u t , h o r i z o n t a l or n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l c a r i n a e which extend from the w a l l of the c o r a l l u m t o i t s axial pillar. The t a b u l a e which s l o p e downward toward the p e r i p h e r y are t h i n and d i s t a n t . There a r e no d i s s e p i m e n t s .  M e t r i o p h y l l u m rectum  (Hall) 3-4)  ( P l a t e 1 ,, f i g u r e s Strombodes ? r e c t u s H a l l , 1843, Cyathophyllum  p. 210,  fig.5  rectum Edwards and Haime, 1851,  S t r e p t e l a s m a r e c t a H a l l , 1876,  p. 199,  372  1-13.  p i . xix, figs.  S t r e p t e l a s m a rectum Whiteaves. 1891, F i g s . 1,  p.  p i . XXVII,  l a , 2.  Streptelasma rectum H a l l , Lambe, 1901, F i g s . 5.  p. 117,  M e t r i o p h y l l u m rectum ( H a l l ) , Smith, 1945, 10, p i . 34, f i g s . 2, 3.  p i . VII,  p i . 1,  figs.  9,  11 Description: (Lambe's d e s c r i p t i o n o f specimens from the Mackenzie R i v e r , 10 m i l e s below Bear R i v e r ) "Corallum s i m p l e , c o n i c a l , s t r a i g h t , or o n l y s l i g h t l y curved, p o i n t e d at the base, r e a c h i n g a l e n g t h o f 38 mm. w i t h a maximum b r e a d t h o f 15 mm. Outer s u r f a c e r a t h e r smooth w i t h i n d i s t i n c t t r a n s v e r s e a c c r e t i o n r i d g e s and minor l i n e s o f growth, and p i n n a t e l y arranged l o n g i t u d i n a l s e p t a l furrows; e p i t h e c a complete. C a l y x exceeding i n depth one h a l f the height o f the c o r a l l u m , i t s e n c l o s i n g w a l l t h i n and s t e e p , the f l o o r c o n s i s t i n g o f an exsert mass formed o f dissepiments and primary s e p t a l ends. S e p t a s t o u t , a l t e r n a t e l y l o n g and s h o r t , the p r i m a r i e s genera l l y u n i t i n g i n twos or t h r e e s near the c e n t e r , s e c o n d a r i e s almost o b s o l e t e ; numbering a l t o g e t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t s i z e d s p e c i mens from about seventy t o one hundred and t e n . In t h e c a l y x the p r i m a r i e s extend over the f l o o r t o the c e n t e r , but on the s i d e s they a r e much reduced i n s i z e and p r o j e c t o n l y about 1.5 mm. inward from the w a l l ; f r e e edges o f the s e p t a s t r o n g l y toothed, the d e n t i c u l a t i o n s being r e p r e s e n t e d on the s i d e s o f the s e p t a as s l i g h t l i n e a r t h i c k e n i n g s o f the s e p t a d i r e c t e d outward toward the w a l l . Dissepiments i r r e g u l a r , s m a l l , occupying the narrow i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i , i n c l i n e d o b l i q u e l y and convexly inward toward the c e n t e r . Remarks:  Smith (194-5, p. 29) s t a t e s t h a t t h i s  s p e c i e s d i f f e r s from M. bouchardi Edwards and Haime o n l y i n s i z e and "unimportant  details".  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e two  s p e c i e s do i n d i c a t e a v e r y s i m i l a r morphology.  Probably the  c h i e f reason f o r c o n s i d e r i n g them d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s is. t h e i r wide g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n .  The genotype' M. bouchardi  Edwards and Haime occurs i n the upper Devonian near Boulogne, F r a n c e , w h i l e M. rectum i s a N o r t h American s p e c i e s . study may w e l l prove the s p e c i e s t o be synonomous.  Future  12  F a m i l y ZAPHRENTIDAE  Edwards and Haime  Genus Z a p h r e n t i s Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d Zaphrentis  (as Z a p h r e n t h i s ) Rafinesque 1820, p. 234  and C l i f f o r d ,  Zaphrentis  (Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d ) .  Stumm, 1949, p. 12  Genotype: By subsequent d e s i g n a t i o n o f M i l l e r , 1889, Z a p h r e n t i s p h r y q i a Rafinesque and C l i f f o r d , 1820, p. 235. H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y o f the Genotype: Middle Devonian, J e f f e r s o n l i m e s t o n e : F a l l s o f t h e Ohio, U.S.A. Generic D e s c r i p t i o n : (Stumm, 1949) "Simple, s m a l l , c e r a t o i d t o t r o c h o i d c o r a l s w i t h e x t e r n a l appearance s i m i l a r t o H e t e r o p h r e n t l s . C a l y x e r e c t or g r a d u a l l y expanding, sometimes w i t h a s l i g h t l y f l a r i n g margin. C a r d i n a l f o s s u l a prominent and l o c a t e d on convex s i d e o f c o r a l l u m . S e p t a o f two o r d e r s , major and minor, o f which former extends almost t o a x i s and l a t t e r a r e v e r y s h o r t . S e p t a a r e d e n t i c u l a t e on t h e i r d i s t a l edges and a r e provided w i t h c r o s s b a r c a r i n a e i n t h e i r p e r i p h e r a l p o r t i o n s . Tabulae a r e arranged e x a c t l y as i n H e t e r o p h r e n t l s . having an a x i a l h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n , a p e r i a x i a l d i s t a l l y i n c l i n e d p o s i t i o n , and a pronounced downwarping a t p e r i p h e r y . No dissepiments p r e s e n t . "  Zaphrentis r e c t a (Plate  1  ,  Meek  figure  Z a p h r e n t i s r e c t a Meek, 1867, p. 82, p i . X I , f i g . 1. Original description: "Corallum o b c o n i c a l , s t r a i g h t , or probably sometimes a l i t t l e curved, r a t h e r a t t e n u a t e a t the lower e x t r e m i t y . E p i t h e c a t h i c k , s t r o n g l y w r i n k l e d , o r , at i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , even c o n s t r i c t e d by t h e marks o f growth, almost e n t i r e l y c o n c e a l i n g the s e p t a . C a l i c e c i r c u l a r , c o n i c a l , and r a t h e r shallow; s e p t a l f o s s e t t e l a t e r a l , v e r y shallow. S e p t a t h i n and numbering i n the primary s e r i e s about f o r t y , which a l t e r n a t e w i t h as many i m p e r f e c t l y d e v e l oped secondary ones; on g r i n d i n g away the e p i t h e c a , about seven o f these two s e t s may be counted i n the space o f 0.20 i n c h . Tabulae forming i r r e g u l a r v e s i c u l a r c a v i t i e s , a p p a r e n t l y not v e r y d i s t i n c t from those formed by the d i s s e p i m e n t s ,  t  13 e x c e p t i n g t h a t they are l a r g e r and more t r a n s v e r s e . V e s i c l e s o f the outer zone r a t h e r s m a l l and r a n g i n g o b l i q u e l y outward and upward. Length, 1.70 c a l i c e , 0.33 i n c h . " Remarks:  i n c h e s ; breadth,  Meek t e l l s  0.95  i n c h ; depth o f  us t h a t the s e p t a l f o s s e t t e  ( f o s s u l a ) i s so f a i n t , as t o be e a s i l y overlooked,  thus  causing  t h i s c o r a l t o be r e f e r r e d t o Cyathophyllum.  Z a p h r e n t i s m c f a r l a n e i Meek (Plate  1 , f i g u r e s 7-9 )  Z a p h r e n t i s m c f a r l a n e i Meek. 1867,  p. 83,  p i . X I , f i g . 2.  O r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n : "Corallum about medium s i z e , ©r r a t h e r l e s s , c o n i c a l , and d i s t i n c t l y arched, s u r f a c e w i t h s t r o n g I r r e g u l a r r i d g e s o f growth, and e s p e c i a l l y where the e p i t h e c a i s a l i t t l e worn, showing the s e p t a ; c a l i c e c i r c u l a r , o b l i q u e , and a p p a r e n t l y of moderate depth; s e p t a l f o s s e t t e s m a l l , but deep and w e l l d e f i n e d , p l a c e d about h a l f way between the middle and the s i d e , i n a l a t e r a l p o s i t i o n w i t h r e l a t i o n to the curve. S e p t a about f o r t y , every a l t e r nate one being s t o u t e r and more prominent than the o t h e r s , and extending t o the middle of the c a l i c e , where they a r e considerably contorted. Tabulae a p p a r e n t l y n e a r l y w a n t i n g , or only d i v i d i n g some p o r t i o n s of the c e n t r o - l a t e r a l r e g i o n i n t o i r r e g u l a r v e s i c u l a r c a v i t i e s ; outer i n t e r s e p t a l a r e a occupied by numerous s m a l l v e s i c l e s . 1.20  Length, about 2.30 inches."  inches; greatest  breadth,  14 F a m i l y BETHANYPBYLLIDAE  Stumm  Subfamily BETHANYPHYLLINAE  Genus Ceratophyllum (Plate 1 , Ceratophyllum  G u r i c h 1896,  Ceratophyllum  Gurich.  figures  p.  Stumm  Gurich  10-13)  163  Stumm, 1949, p. 18, p i . 8, f i g s .  15-18  "Genotype: By o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n , C. typus G u r i c h , 1896, p. 163, n. name f o r Cyathophyllum""ceratites F r e e h , 1886, p. 178, p i . 17, f i g s . 4-8, 12, 14-16, p o s s i b l y equal t o Cyathophyllum c e r a t i t e s Goldfuss 1826, p. 57, p i . 17, f i g s . 2a-k. H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y o f Genotype: M i d d l e Devonian, S t i n k k a l k e n i Szydlowek, Poland; and Middle Devonian, v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s i n the E l f e l d i s t r i c t , Germany. -Generic D e s c r i p t i o n : Simple, s m a l l , c e r a t i o d c o r a l s having a b e l l - s h a p e d c a l y x w i t h a f l a r i n g margin. An obscure c a r d i n a l f o s s u l a a p p a r e n t l y present on convex s i d e o f . c o r a l l u m . I n neanlc s t a g e , s e p t a a r e d i l a t e d and f o s s u l a i s d i s t i n c t , and i n ephebic s t a g e s e p t a become a t t e n u a t e and f o s s u l a obscure. Septa may r e t a i n a x i a l d i l a t i o n a t m a t u r i t y . Major s e p t a a r e l o n g , approaching a x i s and minor s e p t a a r e from o n e - t h i r d t o o n e - h a l f as l o n g . Tabularlum i s wide and composed o f t a b u l a e that a r e u s u a l l y h o r i z o n t a l and complete. Narrow p e r i p h e r a l disseplmentarium i s composed o f s e v e r a l rows o f i n c l i n e d d i s s e p i m e n t s . "  15 Family:  ACANTHOPHYLLIDAE  Hill  Genus Acanthophyllum Dybowski (Plate  2 ,  f i g u r e 1-3 )  Acanthophyllum Dybowski, 1873a, p. 339 (83); 1874, p. 493 (79); Lang, Smith and Thomas, 1940, p. 13. Acanthophyllum Dybowski. Smith, 1945, p. 10, p i . 6, f i g s . 1, 2, 2a. "Genolectotype: Edwards and Haime.  Cyathophyllum heterophyllum  Diagnosis: (Smith 1945). Simple rugose c o r a l s w i t h long major s e p t a whose a x i a l ends o f t e n r e a c h the a x i s and t w i s t t o form a v o r t e x , but are sometimes s t r a i g h t , minor s e p t a a p p r e c i a b l y t h i n n e r than the major, s m a l l arched t a b e l l a e arranged i n concave f l o o r s , which a r e sometimes s h a l l o w , sometimes deep and funnel-shaped, and f i n e d i s sepiments which form a wide dissepimentarium. The major s e p t a are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s p i n d l e - s h a p e d and g e n e r a l l y more o r l e s s m o d i f i e d . They are u s u a l l y much d i l a t e d , sometimes c a r i n a t e ( w i t h i n the t a b u l a r i u m ) , and o f t e n appear to form a l o o s e - p l a i t e d s t r a n d which breaks up p e r i p h e r a l l y . Remarks: The genotype o f Acanthophyllum ( P I . 6, f i g s . 1, 2, 2a) and i t s a l l i e s c o n s t i t u t e an important group o f M i d d l e Devonian c o r a l s p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the E i f e l r e g i o n . B e f o r e the genotype can be d e s c r i b e d a c c u r a t e l y a l e c t o t y p e must be chosen, and d e t a i l s o f i t s internal structure ascertained."  Genus Cyathophyllum G o l d f u s s Cyathophyllum G o l d f u s s , 1826, p. 54, t a b . xx, f i g . 2. Cyathophyllum G o l d f u s s . Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x v i i i . Cyathophyllum G o l d f u s s . Stumm, 1949, p. 22, p i . 10, f i g s . 9-13. Genotype: By subsequent d e s i g n a t i o n o f Dana, 1846, p. 183, C. dlanthus G o l d f u s s 1826, p. 54, p i . 15, f i g . 13; p i . 16, T i g s . l a - e . M i d d l e Devonian, E i f e l Germany.  16  Description: (Stumm 1949) "Simple t o aggregate c o r a l s , composed of s u b c y l l n d r i c a l t o t r o c h o i d e o r a l l l t e s w i t h c a l y x e s having an a x i a l p i t and a h o r i z o n t a l or r e f l e x e d p e r i p h e r a l p l a t f o r m . Most forms bud p r o f u s e l y through e i t h e r a x i a l or p e r i p h e r a l p o r t i o n s o f calyx.. Septa a r e n o n c a r i n a t e , r a d i a l l y arranged, and o f two o r d e r s , major and minor. Major septa approach a x i s , w h i l e minor t e r m i n a t e a t border of t a b u l a r i u m . Tabularlum Is composed of complete or incomp l e t e t a b u l a e , and dissepimentarium of many rows of i n c l i n e d dissepiments." Remarks:  Goldfuss  a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r .  o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are not  1  Stumm's d e s c r i p t i o n has been chosen  because i t i s more comprehensive than that of Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x v i i i ) which i s g i v e n below f o r the sake of completeness. "Corallum simple or composite. No c o s t a e . S e p t a w e l l d e v e l oped, extending t o the c e n t r e of the c a l i c e , and t w i s t e d t o g e t h e r so as t o produce the appearance of a s m a l l c o l u m e l l a . Tabulae occupying o n l y the c e n t r e of the v i s c e r a l chamber, the outer p o r t i o n o f which i s f i l l e d up w i t h numerous v e s i c u l a r d i s s e p i m e n t s . A s i n g l e w a l l , s i t u a t e d e x t e r i o r l y , and p r o v i d e d w i t h a complete e p i t h e c a . "  Cyathophyllum  athabascense  (Plate 2 Cyathophyllum  f  . figures  Whiteaves 4-6)  athabascense Whiteaves, 1891, f i g s . 1, l a , l b .  p. 202, p i . 32,  Original description: "Corallum s i m p l e , e l o n g a t e t u r b i n a t e and s l i g h t l y curved: epitheca well-developed, marked w i t h rounded and not v e r y prominent l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s , which are much broader than the grooves between them, and by t r a n s v e r s e s t r i a e or w r i n k l e s and an o c c a s i o n a l c o n s t r i c t i o n caused by an a r r e s t of growth. C a l y x c i r c u l a r , r a t h e r deep, w i t h steep s i d e s : septa about 34 i n number, s i m p l e , not b e a r i n g arched c a r i n a e on t h e i r s i d e s and a p p a r e n t l y not d e n t i c u l a t e d at t h e i r summits. I n t e r i o r s t r u c t u r e as seen i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s , c o n s i s t i n g o f an outer or p e r i p h e r a l zone of o b l i q u e ascending rows of r a t h e r l a r g e v e s i c l e s , and of a broad c e n t r a l a r e a i n which the i n t e r s t i c e s between the s e p t a a r e c r o s s e d by l a r g e curved  17  dissepiments, whose s i z e , shape and disposition are very i r r e g u l a r . Transverse sections made a l i t t l e below the base of the calyx shew that the 34 septa extend almost to the center, and that they are a l l equal i n length." Remarks: Whiteaves says this species i s similar to Cyathophyllum ceratltes Goldfuss i n shape and surface markings, but that species d i f f e r s i n having from 60 to 120 subdenticulated septa. I t i s to be noted that C. ceratites Goldfuss, 1826, may be conspecific with C. ceratites Freeh, 1886, which has been designated by Gurich 1896, as the genotype of Ceratophyllnm. (See Stumm, 194-9, p. 18). Apparently proof that these species are equivalent must depend upon the f i n d ing of a cardinal fossula i n Goldfuss types, but u n t i l t h i s 1  has been accomplished, C. ceratites Goldfuss must remain i n Cyathophyllum.  Cyathophyllum ceratites (Plate 2  Goldfuss  figure ?- ) 8  f  Cyathophyllum c e r a t i t e s . Goldfuss, 1826, p. 57, p i . XVII. f i g s . 2a-h. Cyathophyllum ceratites. McCoy. 1855, p. 7© Not Cyathophyllum ceratites Freeh, 1886, p. 64. Cyathophyllum Caespitosum. Whiteaves, 1891, p. 200, p i . XXVII f i g s . 7 and 8. Cyathophyllum dianthus, Whiteaves, 1892, p. 264. Cyathophyllum ceratites Goldfuss. Lambe, 1901, p. 146. Ceratophyllum ceratites Goldfuss, Bassler, 1950, p. 167.  Description: (From Lamba, 1901, p. 146). "Corallum s i m p l e , c o n i c a l when young, l a t e r becoming c y l i n d r i c a l above, g e n e r a l l y curved, s h a r p l y p o i n t e d below, marked by a n n u l a r , more or l e s s d e c i d e d , r i d g e s and c o n s t r i c t i o n s . E p i t h e c a smooth, w i t h f a i n t t r a n s v e r s e l i n e s o f growth, but w i t h s c a r c e l y any I n d i c a t i o n o f s e p t a l grooves. The l a r g e s t o f the c o n i c a l specimens has a diameter o f about 2 cent, and a l e n g t h o f 4 c e n t , measured a l o n g the convex c u r v e , the more c y l i n d r i c a l ones have a maximum diameter o f l e s s than 2 cent, w i t h a l e n g t h v a r y i n g between 6 and 8 c e n t . C a l y x sometimes as deep as wide, more o f t e n s h a l l o w e r , narrowing s l i g h t l y toward the bottom where I t i s f l a t or e v e n l y concave. Septa from about f i f t y t o seventy i n number, a l t e r n a t e l y l o n g and s h o r t , the l o n g ones almost r e a c h i n g the c e n t r e , t h i c k near t h e i r o u t e r ends, the s h o r t ones, s t o u t , seldom more than 2 mm. i n l e n g t h ; t h e i r o u t e r ends, when the e p i t h e c a i s wanting, a p p e a r i n g a t the s u r f a c e as s t r o n g costal ribs. Septa d e l i c a t e l y d e n t i c u l a t e d at t h e i r f r e e edges and c a r i n a t e d on the s i d e s , prominent and sometimes appearing t o pass over the somewhat rounded margin of the c a l y x . Tabulae numerous, c l o s e s e t , equal i n b r e a d t h to about h a l f the diameter o f the c o r a l l i t e , g e n e r a l l y concave. V e s i c l e s o f the p e r i p h e r a l a r e a , e n c l o s i n g the t a b u l a e , r a t h e r l a r g e , unequal i n s i z e ; numerous, much s m a l l e r v e s i c l e s occur between the c o s t a l ends of the s e p t a . " Remarks: was  Cyathophyllum c e r a t l t e s of F r e e h  renamed C. typus when s e l e c t e d as the genotype  Ceratophyllum by G u r i c h , 1896. ing  1886 of  The c h i e f f e a t u r e d i s t i n g u i s h -  t h i s genus from Cyathophyllum i s the presence of a c a r -  d i n a l f o s s u l a which i s obscure i n the ephebic s t a g e . Ceratophyllum c e r a t l t e s of Goldfuss 1826, to  be proven t o possess such a f o s s u l a .  however, has y e t A l t h o u g h Wedekind  (1924, p. 76-77) i s s a i d t o c l a i m that no f o s s u l a i s p r e s e n t , his  i l l u s t r a t i o n s reproduced by Stumm (1949, p i . 8,  15-16) i n d i c a t e what appears  figs.  to be a p o o r l y developed  fossula.  A study of Goldfuss* type m a t e r i a l , i f i t i s a v a i l a b l e , i s necessary t o a s c e r t a i n the exact taxonomic species.  position of t h i s  U n t i l t h i s has been done, Cyathophyllum  ceratltes  19  Goldfuss must remain i n Cyathophyllum and ought not t o be r e f e r r e d t o Ceratophyllum  (1950. p.  as has been done by B a s s l e r  167).  Genus H e l i o p h y l l u m H e l i o p h y l l u m H a l l 1846,  p.  Hall  396.  H e l i o p h y l l u m H a l l . Edwards and Haime, 1850, H e l i o p h y l l u m H a l l . Stumm, 1949,  p. 21,  p.  p i . 9,  lxlx. figs.  8-12.  "Genotype: By monotypy, Strombodes h e l i a n t h o i d e s H a l l (not P h i l l i p s ) , 1843, p. .209, t e x t f i g . 87, p. 209, and no. 48, f i g . 3, p. 44 of t a b l e s ; renamed H e l i o p h y l l u m h a l l l by Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x i x . H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y o f Genotype: Upper Middle Devonian, Hamilton group, Moscow, York, and Seneca Lake, New York, U.S.A. Generic D e s c r i p t i o n : (Stumm 1949). Simple or weakly aggregate, s u b c y l i n d r i c a l t o t r o c h o i d c o r a l s w i t h c a l y x s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Acanthophyllum. having a p e r i p h e r a l p l a t form and an a x i a l p i t . No d i s t i n c t f o s s u l a p r e s e n t , but c a r d i n a l septum may be amplexoid, or depressed i n c a l y x . In b r e p h i c s t a g e , s e p t a are g r e a t l y d i l a t e d and i n l a t e r a l contact. In neanic s t a g e , s e p t a attenuate from p e r i p h e r y inward and a t t e n u a t e p o r t i o n s a r e h e a v i l y c a r i n a t e w i t h c r o s s b a r c a r i n a e . As seen i n t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n of ephebic s t a g e , s e p t a are of two o r d e r s , o f which major extend n e a r l y or a l l the way t o a x i s , and may develop ah a x i a l w h o r l . Minor are about h a l f as l o n g . A l l septa are attenuate and c r o s s b a r c a r i n a e are prominent. Tabularium u s u a l l y wide, and composed o f r e l a t i v e l y h o r i z o n t a l or concave, incomplete t a b u l a e . Dissepimentarlum composed o f many rows of s m a l l , u s u a l l y steeply i n c l i n e d dissepiments." Remarks: d e s c r i p t i o n , and  I have not had access t o H a l l ' s  original  the g e n e r i c d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by Edwards  and Haime i s inadequate.  Stumm's e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n  t h e r e f o r e been s e l e c t e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n here.  has  20  H e l l o p h y l l u m h a l l l Edwards and Haime (Plate  3  , f i g u r e 1.2  )  Strombodes h e l i a n t h o i d e s P h i l l i p s , 1841, p. 10, p l . V, f i g . 13a. Cyathophyllum h e l i a n t h o i d e s H a l l , 1843, no. 48, p. 209, f i g . 3. Cyathophyllum turbinatum  H a l l , 1843, no. 49, f i g . 1.  Cyathophyllum turbinatum  C a s t l e n a u , 1843, p l . x v i , f i g . 5>.  H e l l o p h y l l u m h a l l l Edwards and Haime, 1850,  p; . l x i x .  H e l l o p h y l l u m h a l l l Edwards and Haime, 1851, f i g . 6.  P. 408, p l . v i i ,  H e l l o p h y l l u m h a l l i Edwards and Haime, 1853, P. 235, f i g . 3. ... .. H e l l o p h y l l u m h a l l i Edwards and Haime, Smith, 1945, p l . 33, f i g . 3.  tab. L I , p. 26,  Description: "Corallum simple, t u r b i n a t e , or c y l i n d r o - c o n i c a l , u s u a l l y e l o n g a t e , and s l i g h t l y curved a t i t s base, p r o v i d e d w i t h an e p i t h e c a , and p r e s e n t i n g s l i g h t c i r c u l a r s w e l l i n g s . C a l i c e c i r c u l a r , r a t h e r deep, w i t h a s m a l l s e p t a l f o s s u l a . S e p t a (80 or even more) v e r y t h i n , c l o s e l y s e t , r a t h e r broad at t h e i r upper end, where they a r e arched and d e n t i c u l a t e , a l t e r n a t e l y l a r g e r and s m a l l e r , s l i g h t l y t w i s t e d near the c e n t r e o f the v i s c e r a l chamber. A v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n shows t h a t the l a t e r a l processes of the s e p t a a r e arched and ascendant; those s i t u a t e d towards the upper end o f the c o r a l l u m terminate a t the edge o f the s e p t a ; those s i t u a t e d lower down u n i t e near the c e n t r e o f the v i s c e r a l chamber, so as t o c o n s t i t u t e i r r e g u l a r t a b u l a e . The i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i are f i l l e d up w i t h these l a m e l l a t e p r o c e s s e s , which a r e s i t u a t e d a t about h a l f a l i n e a p a r t , and u n i t e d by c l o s e l y s e t simple dissepiments t h a t form r i g h t angles w i t h them. Diameter of the c a l i c e from 1 t o 2 i n c h e s . "  H e l l o p h y l l u m parvulum Whiteaves (Plate 3  , figures 3-5)  H e l l o p h y l l u m parvulum Whlteaves, 1891, f i g s . 9, 9a, 10.  p. 203, p l . 27,  21 Original description: "Corallum s m a l l , s i m p l e , e i t h e r n e a r l y s t r a i g h t , s u b c o n i c a l and not much l o n g e r than broad, as i n the specimen r e p r e s e n t e d by f i g . 9» or somewhat bent, i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t o r t e d i n growth and p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r a t h e r narrower, as i n the o r i g i n a l of f i g . 10, but a p p a r e n t l y never e i t h e r s l e n d e r or narrowly elongated. C a l y x c i r c u l a r i n o u t l i n e , moderately deep: s e p t a t h i r t y - s i x of each k i n d , at l e a s t i n the broader of the two specimens f i g u r e d , t h e i r edges, as seen i n the cup, p r e s e n t i n g a toothed appearance, which i s due to the p a s s i n g over them o f arched c a r i n a e : primary s e p t a r e a c h i n g n e a r l y t o the c e n t r e at the bottom o f the cup: secondary s e p t a v e r y s h o r t and f e e b l y developed: s e p t a l f o s s e t t e l a t e r a l , shallow. E p i t h e c a t h i n , t r a n s v e r s e l y s t r i a t e d and w r i n k l e d , w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l r a t h e r deep c o n s t r i c t i o n , and marked a l s o w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l , r i b l i k e markings which correspond t o the s e p t a within. I n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e , as seen i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n through the c e n t r e of each specimen, c o n s i s t i n g of a narrow c e n t r a l t a b u l a t e a r e a , surrounded by a broad, e x t e r n a l zone of v e s i c u l a r t i s s u e . The t a b u l a t e a r e a occupies about onef i f t h of the e n t i r e diameter, and the t a b u l a e a r e s t r a i g h t , r e g u l a r and c l o s e l y arranged. In the outer v e s i c u l a r zone the v e s i c u l e s are s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r and more r e g u l a r l y d i s posed towards the o u t s i d e than near the c e n t r e , t h e i r g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n b e i n g i n rows which curve o b l i q u e l y upward and outward. The g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of the arched c a r i n a e which c r o s s the s i d e s of the s e p t a throughout t h e i r e n t i r e l e n g t h , on the other hand, i s u n i f o r m l y upward and inward."  22  Family  LEPTOINOPHYLLIDAE (Wedekind)  Subfamily LEPTOINOPHYLLINAE  Genus B r e v i p h y l l u m B r e v i p h y l l u m Stumm, 194-9, p. 25, pl.  53,  (Stumm)  Stumm  p l . 12,  1-7  figs.  "Genotype? Amplexus l o n e n s i s Stumm, 1937, f i g . 4; p l . 54, f i g s . 4a-b.  p.  428  H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y o f Genotype: Lower K i d d l e Devonian, b a s a l 500 f e e t of the Nevada l i m e s t o n e , Lone Mountain, 18 m i l e s northwest of Eureka, Nevada. Generic D e s c r i p t i o n : (Stumm 1949), S u b c y l i n d r i c a l t o b r o a d l y c e r a t o i d c o r a l s w i t h a b e l l - s h a p e d c a l y x having s t e e p l y s l o p i n g t o v e r t i c a l w a l l s . Septa u s u a l l y v e r y t h i n , n o n c a r i n a t e , o f two o r d e r s , major and minor. Both orders are v e r y amplexoid, major r e a c h i n g from o n e - t h i r d t o one-half the d i s t a n c e t o the a x i s , w h i l e minor may be v e r y s h o r t or almost as l o n g as major. No f o s s u l a e or other m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e produced by p r o t o s e p t a . In some forms, s e p t a may be d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y , and i n others they may have s l i g h t l y r h o p a l o i d a x i a l ends. Tabularium i s v e r y wide and i s composed of t a b u l a e that a r e u s u a l l y h o r i z o n t a l , complete, and r a t h e r w i d e l y spaced. O c c a s i o n a l incomplete t a b u l a e a r e found. Narrow p e r i p h e r a l dissepimentarium i s composed of a few rows of i n c l i n e d dissepiments." Remarks: proposed  In e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s genus Stumm has  t h a t i t should i n c l u d e Devonian forms p r e v i o u s l y  " r e f e r r e d to Campophyllum. He mentions t h a t Schindewolf H i l l i n Lang, Smith, and Thomas (1940, p. 30)  and  have shown  t h a t Campophyllum i s a C a r b o n i f e r o u s genus w i t h a t a b u l a r f o s s u l a and i s a l l i e d e i t h e r to c a n l n i a or P a l a e o s m l l l a . I have not had access t o the above mentioned work and t h e r e f o r e , judge i t s accuracy.  cannot,  In t h e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n  of Campophyllum which f o l l o w s , Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x v i i ) do not, however, mention the presence  of a f o s s u l a .  "Corallum s i m p l e , very t a l l , and p r o t e c t e d by an e p i t h e c a . S e p t a w e l l developed. Tabulae v e r y l a r g e , and smooth t o wards the c e n t e r . I n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i f i l l e d w i t h s m a l l vesiculae." T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o b v i o u s l y does not a f u l l coverage o f the genus.  constitute  I t seems q u i t e probable t h a t  a f o s s u l a d i d e x i s t i n the type m a t e r i a l , but was by the a u t h o r s .  overlooked  I t i s expedient then, t o r e c o g n i z e Stumm*s  genus B r e v i p h y l l u m as a r e c i p i e n t f o r Devonian s p e c i e s f o r m e r l y r e f e r r e d t o Campophyllum.  Genus Charactophyllum Simpson (Plate  3  f  f i g u r e s 6-13  Charactophyllum Simpson. 1900,  p. 209,  )  f i g s . 28,  29.  Charactophyllum Simpson. Smith; 194-5, p. 17, p i . 1, f i g s . 7, 8a, 8b; p i . 31, f i g s . l a - i . Genotpye: (by o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n ) : Campophyllum namnm H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , 1872, p. 14; (1872) 1873, p. 232. Upper Devonian, Hackberry s e r i e s . "In the marly beds", Rockford, Iowa. (Recorded by Simpson as Camptophyllum nanum H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , 1873, p. 232. Lower C a r b o n i c , Rockford, Ind.) " D i a g n o s i s : (Smith, 1945), Simple t r o c h o i d rugose c o r a l s which have t y p i c a l l y l o n g , amplexoid, a x i a l l y d i l a t e d c a r i n a t e d s e p t a , complete or n e a r l y complete, i r r e g u l a r l y spaced, convex t a b u l a e , and s m a l l , somewhat e l o n g a t e d , s t e e p l y ascending d i s s e p i m e n t s . The major s e p t a extend almost, t o the a x i s and d i s p l a y a n o t a b l y p i n n a t e symmetry i n the ephebic s t a g e . " Remarks:  I have c o n s u l t e d Simpson's o r i g i n a l  " p r e l i m i n a r y " d e s c r i p t i o n o f the genus and I concur w i t h Smith (1945, p. 17)  i n c o n s i d e r i n g i t inadequate.  Smith's  d e s c r i p t i o n of topotype m a t e r i a l i s t h e r e f o r e g i v e n here verbatum:  24  "The l a r g e s t of some topotypes f u r n i s h e d me i s 4 cm. l o n g and 1.4 cm. i n diameter; some of the other specimens, a l t h o u g h not so l o n g , a r e s l i g h t l y wider. The c o r a l l u m i s t r o c h o i d , sometimes almost c e r a t o l d , and i s s t r o n g l y curved. The s i d e s o f the c o r a l d i s p l a y marked r u g o s i t y but a r e o n l y l i g h t l y s t r i a t e d . There a r e about 68 s e p t a i n the d i s t a l p a r t of the c o r a l . The major s e p t a r e a c h almost t o the a x i s yet l e a v e a space of some 3 or 4 mm. f r e e . The minor s e p t a may be h a l f as long as the major, but they are v e r y i r r e g u l a r l y developed. Some o f them abut a g a i n s t the major septa. In t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n the s e p t a appear to be t w i s t e d and uneven, and t h e i r a x i a l p a r t s are o f t e n much d i l a t e d and i n l a t e r a l c o n t a c t . In the ephebic s t a g e the s e p t a d i s p l a y v e r y c l e a r l y t h e i r pinnate arrangement. T h i s i s l e s s n o t i c e a b l e i n the n e a n i c stages i n which the s e p t a appear more r a d i a l and more evenly t h i c k e n e d , and i n which, more p a r t i c u l a r l y perhaps i n the l a t e r phases, they a r e l a t e r a l l y contiguous through t h e i r whole l e n g t h and almost completely f i l l the lumen. The convex t a b u l a e o f t e n sag a t the a x i s and a r e sometimes w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d . The dissepiments form o n l y a narrow dissepimentarium which i s not everywhere v e r y c l e a r l y marked o f f from the t a b u l a r i u m . " I t would appear t h a t Simpson was  i n error with  regards the age and l o c a l i t y of the genotype (see  above).  I can o n l y assume that Smith has made the needed c o r r e c t i o n s .  Charactophyllum (Plate Two  4  ,  figure  sp. 1-3)  s o l i t a r y c o r a l l a of s i m i l a r s i z e and shape were  s e c t i o n e d f o r study. Description: t r o c h o i d c o r a l l u m was d i s t a l end was  E x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s - One 25 mm.  missing.  the d i s t a l p o r t i o n of the  curved,  long b e f o r e being c u t , but  the  Theca i s s t r i a t e d and w r i n k l e d . second c o r a l l a i s p r e s e n t .  T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n - Septa t o t a l 80 i n a s e c t i o n  Only  25  below the c a l i c e , and 82 i n a s e c t i o n through the c a l i c e . Minor s e p t a a r e d i s c o n t i n u o u s , appearing as c r e s t s on the a x i a l s i d e of d i s s e p i m e n t s . arranged.  Except  Major s e p t a a r e somewhat p i n n a t e l y  f o r the a b o r t e d c a r d i n a l septum i n the  f o s s u l a , a l l major septa extend about 2/3 the a x i s .  o f the d i s t a n c e t o  A x i a l l y they become g r e a t l y a t t e n u a t e d , s l i g h t l y  s i n u o u s , and  i n the neanic stage a t l e a s t a r e d i s c o n t i n u o u s .  The dissepimentarium  c o n s i s t s of a few l a r g e i r r e g u l a r  d i s s e p i m e n t s , numerous c o n c e n t r i c d i s s e p i m e n t s , and o c c a s i o n a l herringbone d i s s e p i m e n t s .  The c a l i c e i s e c c e n t r i c , having a  much t h i c k e r w a l l on t h e c a r d i n a l s i d e than on the c o u n t e r side.  C a r d i n a l and counter f o s s u l a e a r e apparent  i n the  neanic s t a g e , w h i l e the a l a r f o s s u l a are b e t t e r developed i n the epheblc  stage.  L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n - The t a b u l a r i u m has 12 t o t a b u l a e i n 5 mm.  of c o r a l l i t e l e n g t h .  The t a b u l a e a r e  approximately h o r i z o n t a l , complete and incomplete, and the t i p s of amplexold epiments comprise  septa.  Large, h i g h l y I r r e g u l a r  a dissepimentarium  15  bear diss-  occupying a t l e a s t  h a l f of the lumen. Remarks:  On the b a s i s of s i z e , shape, s e p t a t i o n ,  type of dissepimentarium t o be almost  and t a b u l a r i u m , I c o n s i d e r t h i s  c e r t a i n l y r e f e r a b l e t o the genus  Charactophyllum.  In t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of t h a t genus Fenton and Fenton p. 25)  s t a t e t h a t the s e p t a appear t o  form  (1924,  be s t r o n g l y c a r i n a t e  when viewed i n the c a l i c e , but do not show t h i s f e a t u r e w e l l  i n transverse sections.  Smith (194-5, p. 17, 18) i n describing  Charactophyllum makes no mention of carinae.  His i l l u s -  trations ( P l . 1, f i g s . 6, 7, 8; P l . 31, f i g s , l a - i ) i n d i c a t e only occasional s e p t a l swellings which may be carinae. Neither of the two sections at hand reveal any carinae. I t seems probable that  carinae are not a diagnostic feature of  the genus, and that they are a c t u a l l y a weathering phenomenon seen only i n calices which have been exposed. The form I have studied d i f f e r s from the genotype C. nanum i n having more septa.  I t more c l o s e l y resembles  Charactophyllum sp. Smith (194-5, p. 18) ( p l . 1, f i g . 6 ) . This Hay River form i s larger than mine, but the two are s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r and have nearly the same number of septa. I consider the specimens at hand t o be conspecific with Smith's unnamed species. Occurrence of hypotypes:  C5077, B l u e f l y Creek,  south (reef) side; Green shale d r i f t ; C5083, B l u e f l y Creek, north side, black shale, green shale d r i f t .  Genus Dlversophyllum Diversophyllum  Sloss  S l o s s , 1939, p. 65  Genotype:  Dlversophyllum  traversense  (Winchell)  O r i g i n a l Description: (p. 6 6 ) . " C y l i n d r i c a l or ceratoid simple rugose corals with long, unornamented septa, and v e r t i c a l l y elongate concentric dissepiments; tabulae f l a t or domed, often Incomplete but not commonly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d septa c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y exhibiting gerontic lonsdaleoid retreat.  27  Genus d i f f e r s from Tabulophyllum Fenton and Fenton p. 30) i n e x h i b i t i n g d e f i n i t e and p e r s i s t e n t minor s e p t a , from Diphyphyllum Lonsdale (194-5, p. 622) and D i p h y s t r o t i o n Smith and Lang (1930, pp. 177-199) i n s o l i t a r y habit.  (1923,  Remarks:  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n S l o s s says the genus  c o n s i s t s o f a v a r i a t i o n a l s e r i e s ranging from c e r a t o i d c o r a l s with f l a t  t a b u l a e and numerous i n c l i n e d  to c y l i n d r i c a l forms w i t h h i g h l y arched dissepiments.  He s t a t e s t h a t ephebic  d i s s e p l m e n t a l rows t a b u l a e and reduced  portions of l a r g e  c o r a l l i t e s e x h i b i t the former c o n d i t i o n w h i l e neanic of the same c o r a l l i t e s  show the l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n , which he  c o n s i d e r s t o be o f p h y l o g e n e t i c  Diversophyllum (Plate  portions  4  significance.  traversense ,  (Winchell)  figures 5-7  )  Z a p h r e n t i s t r a v e r s e n s i s W i n c h e l l , 1866. Cyathophyllum boughtonl Rominger, 1876. p t . 2, p. 104, Not H a l l , 1876, I I I . Tabulophyllum  noughtonl Fenton and Fenton, 1923, v o l . 1, p.31.  Diversophyllum  t r a v e r s e n s e W i n c h e l l . S l o s s , 1939, p. 66, p i . 11, f i g s . 13-23; p i . 12, f i g . 22, t e x t , f i g . 7. r e v i s e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s p e c i e s given by  The  S l o s s i s as f o l l o w s : " E x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r s : Corallum simple, c y l i n d r i c a l to c e r a t o i d , one specimen e x h i b i t i n g i n c r e a s e by l a t e r a l gemmation. Average c e r a t o i d specimen measures 30 mm. i n g r e a t e s t diameter, 75 mm. i n h e i g h t ; average c y l i n d r i c a l specimen 15 mm. by 75 mm. Largest specimen d i s c o v e r e d measures 33 mm. by 150 mm. Epitheca thick, lacks septal  grooves, bears deep growth c o n s t r i c t i o n s . P e r i o d i c r e j u v e n a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , l e a v e s edges of abandoned c a l i c e s p r o t r u d i n g around c o r a l l u m as s e r i e s of sharp, upturned, f r i l l l i k e r i d g e s . C a l y x depth about e q u a l t o r a d i u s , w a l l s s t e e p l y d i p p i n g t o domed, f l a t , or s l i g h t l y concave f l o o r , which may e x h i b i t a low a x i a l boss or s h a l l o w a x i a l p i t . S e v e r a l major s e p t a extend t o a x i s , meet without t o r s i o n or f o r m a t i o n o f a x i a l complex. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n : T h i r t y - t w o t o 34- major s e p t a extend from p e r i p h e r a l stereozone of v a r i a b l e w i d t h , e i t h e r anastomose s u b a x i a l l y or extend t o a x i s . Minor s e p t a extend at l e a s t o n e - h a l f d i s t a n c e to a x i s i n ephebic s e c t i o n s of c e r a t o i d c o r a l l a , r e s t r i c t e d or l a c k i n g i n n e a n i c s e c t i o n s of c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a . G e r o n t i c s e c t i o n s ©f l a r g e c o r a l l a e x h i b i t l o n s d a l e o i d withdrawal o f s e p t a from p e r i p h e r y and replacement by l a r g e d i s s e p i m e n t s . Dissepiments c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y few, seldom arranged i n more than t h r e e c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s . P e r i p h e r a l stereozone o f t e n repeated w i t h i n lumen by r e j u v e n a t i o n . L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n : T h i n c y l i n d r i c a l specimens l a c k dissepimentarium i n neanic s t a g e , never develop more than two s t e e p l y i n c l i n e d rows of l a r g e elongate d i s s e p i m e n t s . C e r a t o i d specimens develop s e v e r a l a x l a l l y i n c l i n e d rows of d i s s e p i m e n t s , which may occupy over h a l f of the lumen. P e r i p h e r a l stereozone o f t e n i n v o l v e d w i t h d i s s e p i m e n t a r y rows as r e s u l t of r e j u v e n a t i o n . Tabulae h i g h l y domed i n t h i n c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a , l e s s domed i n s u b c y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a f l a t or s l i g h t l y concave In c e r a t o i d specimens. Large subc y l i n d r i c a l c o r a l l a e x h i b i t domed neanic t a b u l a e , f l a t epheb i c t a b u l a e . Tabulae commonly incomplete, r a r e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Some s e p t a t h a t do not extend t o a x i s along whole of t h e i r d i s t a l ends have a x i a l r i d g e l i k e processes on top of t a b u l a e ( l i k e amplexoid s e p t a ) , appear i n median s e c t i o n as spines or t a b u l a e . Localities:  S l o s s has r e c o g n i z e d t h i s s p e c i e s  from the limestones of Hay R i v e r , Northwest T e r r i t o r y , Canada.  Genus Mictophyllum Lang and Mlctophyllum Lang and Smith, 1939,  p. 155,  Smith p l . i v , figs l a l b .  29  Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n ) M l c t o p h y l l u m n o b i l e Lang and Smith 1939, p i . i v , f i g s , l a , l b , Upper Devonian, bed S, Gorge o f Redknife R i v e r , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Canada. " D i a g n o s i s : (Lang and S m i t h 1939) Simple t r o c h o i d , rugose c o r a l s o f l a r g e , or medium, s i z e , i n which the t y p i c a l l y t h i n and unmodified s e p t a r e a c h , or n e a r l y r e a c h , the a x i s , but do not form an a x i a l complex; and i n which the t a b u l a r t i s s u e i s m a i n l y r e p r e s e n t e d by s m a l l , arched t a b e l l a e arranged i n concave f l o o r s , and not v e r y c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the t y p i c a l l y r a t h e r l a r g e , somewhat elongated d i s s epiments; but at some l e v e l s complete, or almost complete, n e a r l y f l a t or sagging t a b u l a e are developed." Remarks:  The authors s t a t e that the h o l o t y p e o f  n o b i l e i s n e a r l y s t r a i g h t , o r i g i n a l l y about 12 cm. and 4.5  cm. wide d i s t a l l y .  long  Approximately 40 major s e p t a ,  some extend t o the a x i s , o t h e r s s h o r t e r , abutt a g a i n s t t h e l o n g e r ones.  Minor s e p t a extremely s h o r t .  The commonest s p e c i e s i s s a i d t o be about 5 cm. l o n g w i t h s e p t a which may  be p e r i p h e r a l l y d i l a t e d .  form has s e p t a p e r i p h e r a l l y t h i n , but a x i a l l y  A  third  dilated.  MictophyMum r i c h a r d s o n i (Meek) (Plate 4  ,  figures  8-11 )  Aulophyllum r i c h a r d s o n i Meek. 1867, p. 81, p i . XI,  fig.  Cyathophyllum r i c h a r d s o n i (Meek), Whiteaves, 1891, p. p i . x x v i i , f i g s . 3, 4.  3.  200.  Cyathophyllum r i c h a r d s o n i (Meek), Lambe, 1901, p. 141, p a r t i m at l e a s t . Mietophyllum r i c h a r d s o n i (Meek), Smith, 194-5, p. 34, p i . 5, f i g s . 10-12b.  30 "Diagnosis* (Smith, 194-5) S l e n d e r c y l i n d r i c a l Mictophyllum w i t h l o n g , r a t h e r t w i s t e d major s e p t a , w e l l developed minor s e p t a , s t r o n g l y globose d i s s e p i m e n t s , and a wide dissepimentarium." D e s c r i p t i o n : (Smith's d e s c r i p t i o n amended) C o r a l l i t e s v a r y from about 7.5 cm. l o n g and 2 cm. i n diameter to 4 cm. l o n g and 2.5 cm. i n diameter, a r e s l i g h t l y curved. C a l i c e v a r i a b l e from deep, w i t h t h i n v e r t i c a l w a l l s and f l a t f l o o r t o s h a l l o w , w i t h t h i c k w a l l s and concave f l o o r . S e p t a (about 72) may be t h i n throughout e n t i r e l e n g t h or may be d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y . Major s e p t a r e a c h n e a r l y t o a x i s , minor extend inward 1/3 t o 1/2 the r a d i u s . Tabulae f l a t or curved, approximately h o r i z o n t a l , surrounded by s m a l l e r , s t r o n g l y arched t a b e l l a e , convex toward the a x i s . T r a n s v e r s e t i s s u e i n t e r s e c t e d and broken by t h e s e p t a . Dissepiments s m a l l e r and more globose than the p e r i a x i a l t a b e l l a e , but o c c a s i o n a l ones are l a r g e r and f l a t t e r than most. Dissepimentarium may form n e a r l y h a l f the r a d i u s o f the c o r a l l i t e . Remarks:  In the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s p e c i e s  Aulophyllum ? r i c h a r d s o n i . Meek s t a t e s that the minor s e p t a terminate a t a "kind o f a rudimentary w a l l " .  This "wall"  e v i d e n t l y occurs a t the p e r i p h e r y o f t h e r a b u l a r i u m as a r e s u l t o f crowding o f d i s s e p i m e n t s .  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the  s p e c i e s do n o t , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i s s e p i m e n t s a r e concentrated so as t o c o n s t i t u t e a d i s t i n c t  Subfamily GRYPOPRYLLINAE  sclerotheca.  Stumm  Genus Tabulophyllum Fenton and Fenton Tabulophyllum Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 30.  Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n ) Tabulophyllnm rectum. S p i r i f e r and Idiostroma zones of Owen substage i n the Hackberry. Original description: "Coral small to large, s o l i t a r y , i r r e g u l a r l y t u r b i n a t e , s u b t u r b i n a t e , or s u b c y l i n drical. Growth, i n a l l s p e c i e s , c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of a l t e r n a t i n g p e r i o d s of a c t i v i t y and r e s t . In some of the more symmetrical s p e c i e s these a l t e r n a t i o n s are not pronounced; i n others they are so abrupt as to g i v e an appearance o f repeated c a l y p i n a l gemmation. The e p i t h e c a i s e i t h e r complete or more or l e s s broken, the l a t t e r being the more t y p i c a l condition. I n most s p e c i e s i t i s t h i n , and i s more or l e s s l a c k i n g i n weathered specimens. Costae show p l a i n l y through the e p i t h e c a . C a l y x shallow to deep, t y p i c a l l y f l a t t e n e d or s l i g h t l y e l e v a t e d at the bottom, w i t h s i d e s t h a t ascend at v a r i o u s a n g l e s , depending on the s p e c i e s . F o s s u l a v e r y weak or l a c k i n g ; s e p t a heavy, s t r o n g , a l t e r n a t i n g , noncar i n a t e . P r i m a r i e s extend e n t i r e l y or almost t o the c e n t e r ; i n s e v e r a l s p e c i e s t h e i r i n n e r margins u n i t e t o form an i r r e g u l a r , v e r t i c a l tube occupying the c e n t r a l r e g i o n . In other forms the s e p t a are more or l e s s t w i s t e d and c o i l e d , even forming a broad, low pseudo-columella. Commonly t h e r e are secondary, i r r e g u l a r c a l c a r e o u s d e p o s i t s about t h e s e p t a i n the c e n t r a l r e g i o n . The t a b u l a e are incomplete, the degree v a r y i n g w i t h the s p e c i e s . In s e v e r a l forms they are i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h dissepiments. V e s i c u l a r a r e a commonly w e l l d e f i n e d ; dissepiments s m a l l t o l a r g e , commonly extending i n t o and even a c r o s s the t a b u l a r r e g i o n . They tend to form broad expansions beyond the main body of the c o r a l . The s e p t a are e i t h e r f r e e from the t a b u l a e or show upon them, always being l e s s promi n e n t i n the zones of crowding, which correspond t o t h e periods of r e s t . " Remarks:  Fenton and Fenton s t a t e t h a t  Tabulophyllum  d i f f e r s from Cyathophyllum i n having more i m p e r f e c t t a b u l a e and  i n t e r m i n g l e d d i s s e p i m e n t s , s t r o n g l y annular type of growth  w i t h attendant bunching o f t a b u l a e , u n i f o r m l y weak e p i t h e c a , and s t r o n g d i s s e p i m e n t s . from C y s t i p h y l l u m .  The s e p t a and t a b u l a e separate i t  From Campophyllum i t d i f f e r s i n manner o f  growth, s t r e n g t h of dissepiments r e a c h i n g c e n t e r and even c o i l i n g .  and  i n having s e p t a commonly '"'  32 Tabulophyllum m c c o n n e l l l (Plate  5  ,  figure  (Whiteaves) 1-2  )  Embedded i n dark brown, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e stone are s e v e r a l c o r a l l a of two are l a r g e ones, r a n g i n g  8  contrasting sizes.  i n diameter from 20 t o 30  i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a few  There mm.,  having a diameter of 7 or  mm. Descriptions  a r e s u b c y l i n d r i c a l and i s c y l i n d r i c a l and  E x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s - The geniculate.  One  ones cannot be  corallum,  adjacent  7 mm.  t o one  Surface  extend about 2/3  One It  The major are s t r a i g h t , a t t e n u a t e ,  and  phery of the c o r a l l u m .  Of great  to the a x i s .  The  minor  A l l s e p t a are d i l a t e d near the Some of the major s e p t a are  continuous i n t h i s r e g i o n .  polished  i n t e r e s t i s the second s m a l l  o b l i q u e l y through the c a l i c e .  r e a l l y done so cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d  section.  peri-  dis-  From 2 t o 3 s e t s of dissepiments corallum,  I t appears  t o have a r i s e n from the s i d e of the l a r g e c o r a l l u m . i t has  mm.  coralla  transversely.  s e p t a are v e r y s h o r t .  or not  of 7  of the l a r g e c o r a l l a .  of the d i s t a n c e  which i s s e c t i o n e d  coralla  ornamentation  of the s m a l l  i n diameter, i s s e c t i o n e d  about 50 s e p t a .  are exposed.  of the s m a l l e r  seen.  On a p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e two are r e v e a l e d  coralla  superimposed upon l a r g e r con-  s t r i c t i o n s ornament the l a r g e c o r a l l a . of the s m a l l e r  large  s t r a i g h t f o r the r e v e a l e d d i s t a n c e  F i n e , sharp growth w r i n k l e s  has  lime-  Whether from  the  33 T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n - (Of the neanic stage o f a l a r g e corallum) S e p t a t o t a l 80 i n a c i r c u l a r s e c t i o n having a diameter of 20 mm. the p e r i p h e r y .  A l l s e p t a have r e t r e a t e d about  2 mm.  from  T h i s p e r i p h e r a l p o r t i o n of the cup i s occupied  by l a r g e dissepiments which p e r s i s t a x i a l l y another 2 t o 3 mm.  Through the innermost  2 t o 3 mm.  o f the dissepimentarium  the s e p t a a r e markedly l o n s d a l o i d and s l i g h t l y d i l a t e d . s e p t a extend about 1 mm. dissepimentarium  Minor  beyond the a x i a l boundary o f t h e  ( i . e . 5 t o 6 mm.  from the p e r i p h e r y ) . Some  major s e p t a terminate s h o r t o f the a x i s .  Others  continue  i n and become d e f l e c t e d , thus forming a l o o s e a x i a l w h o r l . A f e e b l y developed, c l o s e d f o s s u l a i s developed. L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n - (Of the neanic stage o f another c o r a l l u m ) .  T o t a l c o r a l l i t e diameter  Tabularium i s 11 mm. wide. complete,  f l a t t o concave,  i s 25 mm.  In g e n e r a l , c l o s e l y packed, i n a x i a l t a b u l a e w i t h down-turned  edges a r e seen t o i n o s c u l a t e w i t h a p e r i a x i a l s e r i e s o f tabellae.  These t a b e l l a e t y p i c a l l y s l o p e downward and a x i a l l y  from the boundary o f the dissepimentarium t o form a p e r i a x i a l trough, and then proceed upward and a x i a l l y t o a g a i n s t the a x i a l t a b u l a e .  come t o r e s t  Many departures from the ' t y p i c a l ' 0  n a t u r e o f the t a b u l a r i u m were observed.  These a r e so d i v e r s e  and complex as t o beg d e s c r i p t i o n . The broad dissepimentarium c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f l a r g e , c r e s c e n t i c , d i s t a l l y convex dissepiments whieh a r e directed!  downward and a x i a l l y .  Occasionally small  dissepiments occur among the l a r g e ones.  34 Remarks:  Although the description i s based upon  neanic portions of two c o r a l l a , comparison with polished sections of more mature stages indicates that most ephebic characteristics are attained.  Smith ( 1 9 4 5 . p. 60) found t h i s  to be also true "of his Hay River forms.  It does seem probable,  however, that septa are fewer i n the neanic stage.  A polished  i n diameter reveals at least 88  section of a corallum 30 mm. septa.  Except i n possibly having fewer septa, the specimens at hand correspond very c l o s e l y to those described by Smith ( 1 9 4 5 , pp. 5 9 - 6 1 ) .  I therefore refer my specimens to  Tabulophyllum -mcconnelli. Occurrence of hypotype: C 5 0 6 8 , Cripple Creek area, black (Perdrix) shale.  Tabulophyllum rectum Fenton and Fenton (Plate  5  ,  figures 3-7 )  Tabulophyllum rectum Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 31, p l . v i , f i g s . 8-12. Original description: "Coral small, i r r e g u l a r l y subturbinate, l a t e r a l l y compressed, and distorted. Surface with continuous but thin epitheca which generally i s p a r t l y eroded, giving that portion of the coral a w e s i c u l o s e appearance. Transverse sections show that throughout l i f e the growth i s compressed; the average proportions show the lesser diameter to be about two-thirds of the greater. Growth somewhat l i k e that of T. e h l e r s i but with the early creeping less pronounced, and the twisting generally lacking. Calyx deep, flattened at bottom, with steeply ascending sides. Septa sharp and alternating, 60 to 70 i n number, of which about half reach the center. They are thin and weak,  and much d i s t o r t e d , and t h e i r i n n e r edges u n i t e t o form a r i n g which surrounds the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the body. T h i s r i n g i s much d i s t o r t e d and more or l e s s p i e r c e d by s e p t a , but no septa reach the exact c e n t e r , or come i n t o s e p t a from o p p o s i t e p a r t s o f the c o r a l . The t a b u l a e a r e f l a t t e n e d and n e a r l y complete, and c l o s e l y spaced, the holotype showing as many as 11 i n the space of 2 mm. They e x h i b i t bunching somewhat as do those o f T. r e g u l a r e and the e r r a t i c T. e h l e r s i , but the bunches are~"never w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d . The v e s i c u l a r zone i s broad and the dissepiments l a r g e and coarse; commonly they extend c o n s i d e r a b l y beyond the main body o f the c o r a l , forming epitheca-covered f r i l l s b e a r i n g weak s e p t a . One of these i s shown i n the t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n of the h o l o t y p e . Remarks:  T h i s s p e c i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  c l o s e l y and r e g u l a r l y spaced two-thirds o f the diameter  t a b u l a e , which extend  over about  of the c o r a l , the s h a r p l y marked  c e n t r a l - r i n g which i s without  c a l c a r e o u s d e p o s i t on i t s i n n e r  s i d e , and the f r i l l i n g o f the d i s s e p i m e n t s . "  36 Family  COLUMNARIIDAE  Rominger  Subfamily SPONGOPHYLLINAE  Dybowski  Genus Spangophyilum Edwards and Haime Spongophyllum Edwards and Haime, 1851, SpongophyllumEdwards  p. 4-25  and Haime, Smith 194-5, p. 54-.  "Genotype (by monotypy): Spongophyllum sedgwicki Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 425; 1853, p. 242, p l . l v i , f i g s . 2, 2a-e. Devonian; Torquay, England." Diagnosis? (Smith, 1945) Cerioid and phaceloid rugose corals with thin septa which are often separated from t h e i r bases by dissepiments, t y p i c a l l y complete horizontal tabulae f l a t or only s l i g h t l y bowed, and large elongated dissepiments, t y p i c a l l y u n i s e r i a l and i n some species not always everywhere present. The major septa may'reach the axis but seldom i f ever form an a x i a l structure; they may, on the other hand, be very short. The minor septa are always feebly developed." Remarks: "The dissepiments i n a l l species of ?Spongophyllum are large and elongated. In the phaceloid forms, they are generally u n i s e r i a l , often impersistent, and are v e r t i c a l or very steeply i n c l i n e d but i n the c e r i o i d forms the dissepiments slope at gentler angles and even tend to become horizontal as i n S. near semiseptatum. The septa tend to retreat from both the"~axis and the periphery and to become obsolete. semiseptatum i n i t s incomplete cycle of very short septa""exemplifies this trend also. The species of Spongophyllum approach nearest i n character those of Columnaria and are probably derived from this older and simpler group. They seem to lead on to Lonsdaleia (distinguished from Spongophyllum by i t s a x i a l columella), which occupies an important place i n the Carboniferous and Permian coral fauna especially of the Tethys. The remarkable coral Strombodes s t e l l a r i s i s probably an early specialized form belonging to the same lineage as Columnaria and Spongophyllum."  Spongophyllum pax Smith (Plate 5  , Figures eilO)  Diphyphyllum — ? compare D. arundinaceum and D. stramineum B i l l i n g s , Whiteaves, 1877, p.~102  37  Diphyphyllum arundinaceum B i l l i n g s , Lambe, 1901, p. 162. partim, "a loose specimen from Peace River B.C. between F o s s i l Point and the Canon of the Mountain of Rocks, collected by Professor John Macoun i n 1875" but excluding everything else. Spongophyllum pax Smith, 194-5, p. 56, p i . 11,  f i g s . 6a-6c.  "Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) The specimen (3588) described on the l a b e l as having been found on the Peace River near Old Fort St. John by J . Maeoun i n 1875, i s a small piece of black limestone embedding the c o r a l . The coral i s white. It i s s i l i c i f i e d and stands out some millimeters above the surface of the stone and i s evidently part of a large phaceloid colony. The c o r a l l i t e s are long, s t r a i g h t , and about 7 mm. i n diameter, and p a r a l l e l , and are usually 2 mm. to 5 mm. apart. There are no c a l i c e s , and the sides of the c o r a l l i t e s are corroded by mineral changes and are weathered. It i s c l e a r , however, that the epitheca was smooth and very l i t t l e wrinkled. The septa, of which there are about 44, are very short, the major septa being 1 mm. to 1.5 mm. long and the minor 0.25 mm. to 0.5 mm. The tabulae, of which many are complete, are usually convex although nearly f l a t and are very close together, the i n t e r v a l between them being on an average about 0.5 mm. The dissepiments while having the form and habit c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the genus, being elongated and u n i s e r i a l , are small and impersistent (as i n S. imperfectum). Remarks:  Smith's o r i g i n a l diagnosis of the species  given above i s followed by remarks to the effect that S.  pax  i s distinguished from S. imperfectum by the i n f e r i o r s i z e of Its c o r a l l i t e s , shorter septa, more c l o s e l y packed tabulae, and smaller dissepiments.  38 F a m i l y DISPHYLLIDAE H i l l Subfamily DISPHYLLINAE H i l l  Genus A c e r v u l a r l a Schweigger (Plate  6  ,  A c e r v u l a r l a Schweigger. 1819 Thomas, 1940, 1  figures  t a b l e v i ; Lang, Smith, and p. 13.  A c e r v u l a r l a Schweigger. Smith, 194?,  4a,  1-2)  p. 10,  p i . 30,  figs.  4b.  "Genotype: (by monotypy): A c e r v u l a r l a b a l t i c a Schweigger, 1819, • Madrepora ananas L i n a e u s , 1758, p. 797 Madrepora composita centraconcava Linnaeus, 1745, p. 21, f i g . i x , n. 2. S i l u r i a n , Salopian; Gotland. B  D i a g n o s i s : " P h a c e l o i d and c e r i o i d rugose c o r a l s i n which a d i s t i n c t w a l l d i v i d e s the t a b u l a r i u m from the d i s s e p imentarium; at t h i s w a l l the s e p t a d i l a t e and are o f t e n contiguous. The major s e p t a t y p i c a l l y r e a c h the a x i s , the t a b u l a e are t y p i c a l l y s m a l l , basin-shaped, and form s u c c e s s i v e concave f l o o r s , and the dissepiments are of two k i n d s , the i n n e r s e r i e s i n v a r i a b l y f l a t and h o r i z o n t a l , the outer globose. Increase i s t y p i c a l l y a x i a l , p a r r i c i d a l , and q u a d r i p a r t i t e . T h i s d i a g n o s i s d i f f e r s from that g i v e n by Lang and Smith (1927, p. 451; 1931, p. 85) i n statements concerning the c h a r a c t e r and p o s i t i o n o f the inner w a l l . Previously i t was c o n s i d e r e d to l i e w i t h i n the t a b u l a r i u m and to be e n t i r e l y formed by the d i l a t i o n of the s e p t a . Remarks: The above d i a g n o s i s i s based s t r i c t l y upon the genotype. There a r e , however, s p e c i e s of A c e r v u l a r l a which d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from A. ananas i n s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s . A. b r e v i s e p t a t a Welssermel (1894, p. 41; 1894, p. 608, p i . x l i x , f i g s . 4, 5; Smith and Lang, 1931, p i . i i , f i g s . 15-17; p i . i i i , f i g . 4) has short major s e p t a , which w i t h the minor terminate at the i n n e r w a l l , complete h o r i z o n t a l t a b u l a e , and only the inner s e r i e s o f f l a t d i s s e p i m e n t s . In A.exlgua Smith and Lang (1931, p. 89, p i . i l l , f i g s . 6-8) the~septa do not t h i c k e n at the i n n e r w a l l , yet b o t h these s p e c i e s are l i n k e d to A. ananas by i n t e r m e d i a t e v a r i e t i e s . Acervularla i s sometimes c a r i n a t e and o f t e n has t e r t i a r y s e p t a . The name A c e r v u l a r l a has been e x t e n s i v e l y though q u i t e wrongly used f o r s p e c i e s o f Prlsmatophyllum and f o r forms of P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a i n which t h e r e are t r a c e s of e p i t h e c a between the c o r a l l i t e s . Edwards and Haime (1850, p. l x x ) , f o l l o w i n g  V e r n e u i l (1850, p. 162), c i t e d the type of A c e r v u l a r i a as A c e r v a l a r i a roemeri Haime and Edwards • A s t r e a h e n n a h l i Lonsdale? Roemer (1843, p. 5, p l . i i , f i g . 13), not A s t r e a h e n n a h l i L o n s d a l e , the genotype o f P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a . but a c l o s e l y ~ r e l a t e d form w i t h l e s s degenerate e p i t h e c a . F l o s e u l a r l a E i c h w a l d , D i p l o p h y l l u m H a l l , and Rhabdophyllum Wedekind are synonyms o f A c e r v u l a r i a . "  Genus D i s p h y l l u m Be Fromentel (ris^e D i s p h y l l u m De Fromentel  , figure  )  1861, p. 302.  D i s p h y l l u m De Fromentel, Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 544. D i s p h y l l u m De Fromentel, Smith 1945, p. 20. "Genosyntypes: Twelve s p e c i e s of p h a c e l o i d rugose c o r a l s i n c l u d i n g Cyathophyllum caespitosum Goldfuss and the genotypes o f the genera X y l o d e s . C y s t l p h y l l u m . Kodonophyllum. and Tryplasma. Genolectotype: Cyathophyllum caespitosum G o l d f u s s , 1826, p. 60, p l . x i x , f i g s . 2a-d - C l a d d c o r a g o I d f u s s i G e i n i t z , 1845, p. 569* M i d d l e Devonian: E i f e l and Bensberg, Germany. See Lang and Smith (1934, p. 80) who r e s t r i c t the s p e c i e s t o 2b and p o s s i b l y 2a and 2c but exclude 2d and s e l e c t 2b as l e c t o t y p e . D i a g n o s i s : (Smith, 1945) P h a c e l o i d rugose c o r a l s w i t h t y p i c a l l y t h i n , u s u a l l y l o n g s e p t a , t a b u l a e sometimes complete though g e n e r a l l y incomplete and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o a t r a n s v e r s e a x i a l and an i n c l i n e d p e r i a x i a l s e r i e s , and dissepiments t y p i c a l l y o f one k i n d — s m a l l , s t r o n g l y arched but f r e q u e n t l y of two kinds — an i n n e r s i n g l e s e r i e s o f globose d i s t a l l y d i r e c t e d (horse-shoe) dissepiments and an outer s e r i e s which may be f l a t o r arched." Remarks:  The magnitude o f the genus D i s p h y l l u m  has been a s u b j e c t of v a r y i n g o p i n i o n s among c o r a l  specialist  Lang and S m i t h (1935) have merged i n D i s p h y l l u m s e v e r a l other genera, n o t a b l y : Synaptophyllum  Simpson (1900, p. 212),  C y l i n d r o p h y l l u m Simpson (1900, p. 217), and G u r i c h (1922a, p. 5).  Phacellophyllum  I n so d i s p o s i n g of these genera,  Lang  40 and Smith p o i n t out the p h y l o g e n e t i c i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of c e r t a i n structures.  In d i s c u s s i n g E r i d o p h y l l u m (1935» p. 5*7)  t n e  7  deprecate l a t e r a l outgrowths between c o r a l l i t e s by s a y i n g : "The development of c o n n e c t i n g processes i s a v e r y common t r e n d i n rugose c o r a l s , met w i t h i n many S i l u r i a n , Devonian, and C a r b o n i f e r o u s c o r a l l i n e a g e s and i s not found i n every s p e c i e s of E r i d o p h y l l u m . " And w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Synaptophyllum (1935, P. 561)  say that even i f i t  Simpson, Lang and  Smith  i s t o be r e t a i n e d as a  genus, the d i a g n o s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not the presence  of  r a d i c i f o r m processes u n i t i n g the c o r a l l i t e s , but r a t h e r the s t r o n g development of d e n t i c u l a t e s e p t a . These authors a l s o devaluate the importance shoe dissepiments as a c r i t e r i o n of phylogeny.  On p.  of h o r s e 566  they remark: " I t has a l r e a d y been mentioned that many forms i n c l u d e d by us i n D i s p h y l l u m have what were d e s c r i b e d as horse-shoe d i s s e p iments. I f i t were p o s s i b l e t o show that a l l those p o s s e s s i n g horse-shoe dissepiments belonged t o a s i n g l e , a l b e i t complex, l i n e a g e , we should be j u s t i f i e d i n s e p a r a t i n g them as a g e n e r i c o f f s h o o t of D i s p h y l l u m , and they would f a l l under G u r l c h s genus P h a c e l l o p h y l l u m . But i t i s probable that horse-shoe dissepiments have a r i s e n more than once i n d i f f erent l i n e a g e s o f D i s p h y l l u m and t h a t w i t h i n the genus t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s merely a t r e n d . (Phacellophyllum) then' can o n l y be used as a genomorph of D i s p h y l l u m . 1  h  Stumm, however, (1949, p. 32) of  horse-shoe  invokes the  presence  dissepiments as a f e a t u r e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g h i s sub-  f a m i l y P a c h y p h l l l l n a e from s u b f a m i l y D i s p h y l l l n a e .  In so doing  he would r e s u r r e c t P h a c e l l o p h y l l u m and Synaptophyllum  to  full  g e n e r i c s t a n d i n g , thereby removing from D i s p h y l l u m a l l forms b e a r i n g horse-shoe  dissepiments.  I p r e f e r t o f o l l o w the  p r a c t i c e o f Lang and Smith i n r e t a i n i n g these genera i n  D i s p h y l l u m . a t l e a s t u n t i l a thorough p h y l o g e n e t i c study  has  been made o f the group o f c o r a l s i n v o l v e d .  Disphyllum arundinaneeum B i l l i n g s (Plate 6  ,  figure  3-5  Disphyllum arundinaeeum B i l l i n g s , I859j p. Diphyphyllum  ) 134.  arundinaeeum B i l l i n g s , Lambe, 1901, p. p l . x l v , f i g s . 1, l a , l b , (partim)  162,  O r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n : "Corallum forming l a r g e masses of l o n g , c y l i n d r i c a l , s t r a i g h t or flexuous stems, from t h r e e to f o u r l i n e s i n diameter, sometimes i n c o n t a c t but u s u a l l y d i s t a n t from one to t h r e e l i n e s from each o t h e r ; r a d i a t i n g s e p t a t h i n , between f o r t y and f i f t y i n number, r a r e l y r e a c h i n g the c e n t r e ; t r a n s v e r s e diaphragms t u r n i n g downward on approaching the margin; two to f o u r i n one l i n e . In some of the e o r a l l l t e s the w a l l s are so t h i n and c l o s e l y u n i t e d that no s e p a r a t i o n can be observed, but i n o t h e r s of the same c l u s t e r an outer area i s d i s t i n c t l y v i s i b l e . There i s u s u a l l y a c i r c u l a r space i n the c e n t r e of the e o r a l l l t e s , h a l f a l i n e or a l i t t l e more wide, i n t o which the r a d i a t i n g s e p t a do not p e n e t r a t e , o f t e n , however, they r e a c h the c e n t r e . The young e o r a l l l t e s sometimes s p r i n g from the s i d e of the parent w i t h a s l e n d e r base, and c u r v i n g upwards immediately become p a r a l l e l w i t h those of the whole group. In l a r g e c o l o n i e s f r e q u e n t Instances may be seen where i n s t e a d of t h i s l a t e r a l budding a b i f u r c a t i o n takes p l a c e , both branches being o f the same size. In l a r g e groups, owing to the numerous a d d i t i o n s of young, the e o r a l l l t e s d i v e r g e s l i g h t l y , as i f r a d i a t i n g from a p o i n t . The c o l o n i e s are from s i x inches to s e v e r a l f e e t i n diameter, and l a r g e blocks of stone are of f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e , which are penetrated a t r i g h t angles t o t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n by the c l o s e l y crowded stems."  Disphyllum  e f . D.  (Plate 6  ,  arundinaeeum  f i g u r e s 6-8  )  In much of the m a t e r i a l the e o r a l l l t e s a r e ured and d i s p l a c e d , but a few  c o r a l l a are preserved  F i v e t h i n s e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g 4 c o r a l l a . were  fractintact.  prepared.  Descriptions  External features - C o r a l l a are  dendroid t o p h a c e l o i d .  C o r a l l i t e s are i r r e g u l a r l y  seldom f a r t h e r than 8 mm. but may be contiguous.  spaced,  a p a r t , u s u a l l y about 3mm. a p a r t ,  Increase i s l a t e r a l , the o f f s e t s  a t t a i n i n g mature diameter w i t h i n 5 mm.  o f growth.  Corallites  are f e e b l y s t r i a t e d , and bear o c c a s i o n a l pronounced t r a n s v e r s e constrictions.  Diameter o f e o r a l l l t e s ranges  but i s u s u a l l y about 7 mm.  from 5 t o 9 mm.  C a l i c e s a r e about 3 mm.  t h i n v e r t i c a l w a l l s and f l a t  deep, have  floors.  Transverse s e c t i o n - T o t a l number o f s e p t a 36 t o 44.  Major s e p t a almost r e a c h the a x i s .  Minor s e p t a a r e about  h a l f the l e n g t h o f the major, extending b a r e l y beyond the dissepimentarium. imentarium  A l l s e p t a a r e d i l a t e d through the d i s s e p -  but major become suddenly attenuated s h o r t l y  e n t e r i n g the t a b u l a r l u m . of  after  In some s e c t i o n s the d i l a t e d p o r t i o n  the s e p t a appear t o be f e e b l y c a r i n a t e . L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n - Tabularlum  2/3 o f the diameter.  Tabulae  occupies about  f l a t , concave or convex, From  6 t o 9 a x i a l l y f l a t , concave, or convex t a b u l a e occur i n 5 mm. to  of c o r a l l i t e length. the dissepimentarium.  cave d i s t a l l y .  P e r i a x i a l l y they s l o p e down s h a r p l y The i n c l i n e d p o r t i o n i s o f t e n con-  Most t a b u l a e a r e complete and may be s u p p l e -  mented i n t h e i r a x i a l p o r t i o n by f l a t  domed t a b e l l a e .  In  specimen 5145 one c o r a l l i t e e x h i b i t s t h i s type of t a b u l a r l u m w h i l e an adjacent c o r a l l i t e has incomplete  domed a x i a l t a b u l a e  i n o s c u l a t i n g w i t h d i s t a l l y concave, o f t e n b i f u r c a t i n g which s l o p e down to the dissepimentarium.  tabellae  In some p o r t i o n s o f  43 the s e c t i o n s the t a b u l a e appear t o be n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l , but I t h i n k t h i s i s o n l y a r e s u l t of s e c t i o n i n g through t h e i r downwarped p e r i p h e r y . There i s t y p i c a l l y a s i n g l e row o f d i s s e p i m e n t s which range i n shape from n e a r l y f l a t , t o d i s t a l l y to almost horse-shoe-shaped.  convex,  The i n n e r edge o f the d i s s e p -  imentarium i s much thickened except where the s i n g l e row of dissepiments gives way Remarks: to D. arundinaceum  t o 2 or 3 rows o f globose d i s s e p i m e n t s .  T h i s s p e c i e s bears a s t r o n g  resemblance  d e s c r i b e d by S m i t h from the Hay R i v e r ,  d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n having horse-shoe dissepiments not as w e l l developed as i n Smith's specimens.  Septa a r e fewer t h a n i n  D. arundanaceum B i l l i n g s , but otherwise these specimens t o be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to B i l l i n g ' s Occurrence o f hypotypes: Creek - Ram  material. C 5046 from Hummingbird  Creek j u n c t i o n i n D3 r e e f ; C5074, south of C r i p p l e  Creek, Devonian 'green s h a l e ; 1  not l i s t e d ;  appear  5145,  5143,  T a r p e l a n Rock, h o r i z o n  pass from Upper C o r a l Creek t o B i g h o r n  Creek, uppermost Mount Hawk f o r m a t i o n .  Disphyllum caespitosum (Goldfuss) (Plate 6  ,  f i g u r e s 9-10)  Llthodendron caespitosum G o l d f u s s , 1826,  p. 44, p i . x i i i ,  B i s p h y l l u m ( P h a c e l l o p h y l l u m ) caespitosum ( G o l d f u s s ) Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 573, p i . xxxv, 1, 2, t e x t f i g s . 28, 29.  o  fig.4.  figs.  The and  synonomy g i v e n above i n c l u d e s only the  l a t e s t r e f e r e n c e s known t o me.  i s given i n Lang and Smith, 1935,  A fuller list p.  earliest  of synonomy  573.  Lectotypes (By d e s i g n a t i o n of Lang and Smith, 1935, p. 574-) Lithodendron caespitosum G o l d f u s s . 1826, p. 44, p l . x i i i , f i g . 4. M i d d l e Devonian ( G i v e t i a n ) ; Bensberg, near Cologne. D e s c r i p t i o n : (Lang and S m i t h 1935) "The f i g u r e d specimen i s a group of s l e n d e r , r a t h e r t w i s t e d c o r a l l i t e s o f sub-phaceloid growth-habit, measuring approximately 10 cm. by 2.5 cm. The c o r a l l i t e s have an average diameter o f 6 cm. The c a l i c e s appear t o be r a t h e r shallow, but t o have the steep w a l l s and f l a t t i s h f l o o r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the group o f c o r a l s t o which they belong. Very few c a l i c e s , however, a r e preserved e i t h e r i n the l e c t o t y p e i t s e l f or i n the paratype. Increase i s l a t e r a l and n o n - p a r r i c i d a l , but the l a r g e o f f s e t s v e r y o f t e n appear i n groups of two, or even t h r e e , and the young c o r a l l i t e s branch at a r a t h e r wide angle. The e p i t h e c a i s smooth, s i n c e both s t r i a t i o n and a n n u l a t i o n are subdued. The specimen i s very much weathered and corroded, so t h a t i n many p l a c e s the edges of the s e p t a are exposed. Transverse s e c t i o n . There are u s u a l l y from 32 t o 36 t h i n s e p t a , of which the major a r e o f t e n sinuous and n e a r l y r e a c h the a x i s , but l e a v e a f r e e a x i a l space of a m i l l i m e t e r or l e s s i n diameter. The minor s e p t a a t t a i n o n l y about h a l f the l e n g t h o f the major. The e p i t h e c a i s very t h i n . Inters e c t i o n s o f the i n n e r dissepiments w i t h the t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n appear as one, or o f t e n two, annular w a l l s . L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . The f l a t or s l i g h t l y arched, u s u a l l y complete, a x i a l t a b u l a e a r e supplemented at the border of the t a b u l a r l u m by o t h e r s which are s m a l l , arched and axially" i n c l i n e d , and i n o s c u l a t e w i t h them. The two kinds of d i s s e p iments each form a s i n g l e s e r i e s . The outer dissepiments are t r a n s v e r s e , f l a t , or only g e n t l y arched; the i n n e r s e r i e s are s m a l l and of the horse-shoe type. The paratype i s a much l a r g e r specimen than the l e c t o t y p e , having c o r a l l i t e s o f the same s i z e and s t r u c t u r e as t h i s , and i n general the same type of i n c r e a s e . But i n one i n s t a n c e we observed ,that the daughter c o r a l l i t e s at a p o i n t of f u r c a t i o n were u n i t e d by d i s s e p i m e n t a l t i s s u e , as i n Disphyllum (Phacellophyllum) trigemme. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s important i n that i t shows that the p l o c o i d s t r u c t u r e at the p o i n t s of i n c r e a s e i n Thamnophyllum cannot be regarded by i t s e l f as a d i a g n o s t i c g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r . " ;  4£ Remarks:  In the above d e s c r i p t i o n the statement  t h a t the average c o r a l l i t e diameter a m i s p r i n t , s i n c e the diameter  i s 6 cm. i s o b v i o u s l y  o f t e x t f i g u r e 28 i s o n l y 3 . 3  cm. at a m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f about 5 .  T h e r e f o r e , " 6 mm."  should  stand i n p l a c e o f " 6 cm.".  Disphyllum  c a m s e l l i Smith  (Plate 7 ,  f i g u r e s 3-10)  D i s p h y l l u m c a m s e l l i S m i t h . 194-5, p. 2 3 , p i . 12, f i g s . 4a-h Smith's o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : " D i a g n o s i s : Large Disphyllum w i t h s h o r t , t h i n s e p t a and w i d e l y separated complete t a b u l a e . D e s c r i p t i o n : The c o r a l l i t e s a r e t a l l and c y l i n d r i c a l but f l e x u o u s ; some are i n l a t e r a l c o n t a c t , w h i l e others a r e w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d . The l a r g e s t a r e about 9 mm. i n diameter and have about 50 s e p t a . The major s e p t a a r e u s u a l l y v e r y l i t t l e l o n g e r than the minor, which are.about 1 mm. i n l e n g t h , but sometimes the former a r e as much as t h r e e times the l e n g t h of" the l a t t e r . I n one c o r a l l i t e (PI. 12, f i g . 4h) the major s e p t a r e a c h the a x i s , but t h i s i s an e x c e p t i o n . The s e p t a are g e n e r a l l y v e r y t h i n , though they may be s l i g h t l y t h i c k e n e d at the p e r i p h e r y o f the c o r a l l i t e s where some sclerenchyme i s o f t e n p r e s e n t . Most o f the t a b u l a e a r e complete or n e a r l y so, but they a r e i n d i f f e r e n t l y convex, concave, or f l a t and are very o f t e n f l e x e d . They are u s u a l l y between 1 mm. t o 2 mm. a p a r t . One, two, or l o c a l l y t h r e e rows o f dissepiments form a narrow dissepimentarium r a r e l y more than 1 mm. wide. The outer s e r i e s which c l e a r l y represent t h e horse-shoe d i s s e p iments, although they a r e not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y developed, are v e r y much l a r g e r and more p e r s i s t e n t than the v e r y s m a l l ones which i n many p l a c e s form the w a l l o f t h e t a b u l a r i u m . " Remarks: "D. c a m s e l l i i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o D. c f . arnndlnaceum and D. densurn which i t resembles i n s i z e but from which i t d i f f e r s i n i t s much s h o r t e r major s e p t a , more w i d e l y spaced tabulae and f i n e r t i s s u e s . "  >  46 Disphyllum c a m s e l l i ? S m i t h (Plate  7  ,  f i g u r e s 1-S)  Disphyllum c a m s e l l i Smith, 1945, p. 23, p l . 12, f i g s . 4a-h. o  The specimen i s p r e s e r v e d i n b u f f - g r e y f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone.  One t h i n s e c t i o n r e v e a l s the s t r u c t u r e s  very w e l l . Description:  E x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s - Corallum p h a c e l o i d ,  c o r a l l i t e s may be contiguous, but u s u a l l y a r e about 1/2 a diameter  apart.  Increase i s l a t e r a l and n o n - p a r r i c i d a l .  C o r a l l i t e e x t e r i o r i s d e l i c a t e l y s t r i a t e d and bears transverse wrinkles. i s 7 mm.  The average  The o n l y c a l i c e observed  diameter  fine  o f the c o r a l l i t e s  i s 3*5 mm.  deep and has a  d i s t a l l y convex f l o o r . Transverse s e c t i o n :  C o r a l l i t e s s e c t i o n e d through  the c a l i c e and below the c a l i c e bear 40 s e p t a , a l l o f which are s l i g h t l y d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y .  The s t r a i g h t , a t t e n u a t e ,  major s e p t a seldom extend more than h a l f t h e way toward the a x i s , and i n some c o r a l l i t e s a r e much s h o r t e r . are approximately dissepimentarium.  .5 mm.  Minor s e p t a  l o n g , b a r e l y extending beyond the  Dissepiments  appear as a continuous  c o n c e n t r i c to the theca and a l i t t l e  l e s s than .5 mm.  ring inside  of i t . L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n - Many complete, concave, and convex t a b u l a e , w i t h comprise 5 mm.  the wide t a b u l a r l u m .  of c o r a l l i t e length.  variably  some incomplete  flat,  tabulae,  There a r e 8 or 9 t a b u l a e i n  The dissepimentarium consists mainly of a single series of large globose dissepiments superposed one upon another.  In places they almost approach horse-shoe shape.  An inner series of very small dissepiments i s sporadically developed. Remarks:  The only apparent discrepancy between t h i s  form and Smith's species D. camselli i s the smaller number of septa.  The specimen at hand has only 40 septa, whereas  camselli has a maximum of 50 septa.  Therefore i t i s with  some doubt that I refer my specimen to D. camselli. Occurrence of hypotype:  C5028, Coral Creek, Devonian.  Disphyllum colemanense (Warren) (Plate 7  ,  figure- 11  )  Diphyphyllum colemanense Warren. 1928,p. 116,  p i . I, f i g .  18.  O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum composed of subp a r a l l e l , c y l i n d r i c a l , flexuous c o r a l l i t e s from 5 to 9 mm. i n diameter. C o r a l l i t e s separated from one another by distance of from one-half to twice their diameter. Septa numerous, from 40 to 50 i n number, the primaries reaching nearly to the center, the secondaries reaching a l i t t l e beyond the dissepiment zone. Tabulae apparently t h i n , numerous, about 6 i n 3 mm. Dissepiments i n one s e r i e s , curved, arching against the outer w a l l , t h e i r inner edges forming a w a l l about threequarters of a mm. from the outer w a l l . Epithecae strongly fluted with septal ridges." Remarks:  Warren mentions that t h i s species d i f f e r s  from D. caespitosum i n being more strongly fluted externally, having larger c o r a l l i t e s , and more septa. i t has delicate tabulae. (p. 117)  Like D. caespitosum  This form according to Warren,  may be conspecific with D. caespitosum of the Jefferson  limestone i n the L i t t l e Belt Mountains  of Montana.  Disphyllum g e i n i t z l ? Lang and Smith (Plate  7  ,  figures 12-13) p. 60,  Cyathophyllum caespitosum partim Goldfuss, 1826, p l . xix, f i g . 2d. Disphyllum g e i n i t z l Lang and Smith, 1935» p. 570, 25,26; p l . xxxvi, f i g s .  text figures  1-3.  Large c o r a l l i t e s forming a phaceloid corallum  em-  bedded i n black, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone are mostly recrystallized.  Many c o r a l l i t e s are fractured and dislocated.  In t h i n sections i n t e r n a l structures are barely v i s i b l e by transmitted l i g h t but are made quite d i s t i n c t by r e f l e c t e d light. Description:  External features - The  corallites  are c l o s e l y crowded, often i n contact throughout much of t h e i r length.  Ornamentation i s ; poorly revealed as f i n e s t r i a t i o n s  and feeble growth wrinkles. from 8 to 13 mm.,  Diameter of c o r a l l i t e s ranges  but is-commonly about 10.5  mm.  Transverse section - T o t a l number of septa i s 46 to 52.  The major septa extend about 1/2  the distance toward  The minor are only about .5 mm.  the axis.  are markedly d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y . attenuated  The  upon entering the tabularlum.  long.  A l l septa  major become In some sections  the a x i a l ends of the major septa appear to bifurcate and become d i f f u s e l y associated with the tabulae to form an apparent inner w a l l .  Near the periphery the thickened  dissep-  iments form an annular w a l l . Longitudinal section - Increase i s l a t e r a l and parricidal.  One offset was  non-  seen to a r i s e from the side of a  c o r a l l i t e and develop t o a diameter growth.  The c a l i c e i s 5 mm.  Tabularium  of 7 mm.  w i t h i n 13 mm  deep and has a f l a t  floor.  bears complete t a b u l a e which are f l a t a x i a l l y  d i r e c t e d downwards p e r i p h e r a l l y . an equal number of incomplete  of  These are supplemented  and by  t a b u l a e of the same shape r e s t i n g  upon the complete ones, and by o c c a s i o n a l p e r i p h e r a l t a b e l l a e i n c l i n e d upward toward the dissepimentarium.  The  dissepimen-  tarium t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t s of a s i n g l e s e r i e s of s t e e p l y i n c l i n e d , small dissepiments. two  L o c a l l y t h e r e may  be i n s t e a d ,  or three s e r i e s of even s m a l l e r globose d i s s e p i m e n t s .  A  s e c t i o n g r a z i n g the a x i a l ends of the s e p t a r e v e a l s t h e i r amplexoid  nature.  The  s e p t a appear as s h o r t v e r t i c a l  spines  u s u a l l y a r i s i n g from the t a b u l a e . Remarks:  In t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s the down-turned  edges of the t a b u l a e i n t e r s e c t i n g w i t h the s e p t a c r e a t e the 'appearance of an a u l o s .  In l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s , however,  no aulos i s seen to e x i s t . In s i z e , s e p t a t i o n , and arium my  specimen corresponds  i n the type o f  t o D.  g;einitzi.  dissepiment-  I t d i f f e r s from  that s p e c i e s only i n p o s s e s s i n g numerous incomplete supplemental  to the complete ones.  the specimen being c l o s e l y a l l i e d  Evidence to D.  tabulae  i n favour of  % e i n i t z i i s over-  whelming. To my  knowledge t h i s i s the f i r s t r e p o r t e d  occurrence  of t h i s s p e c i e s from the Canadian Rocky Mountain a r e a . Occurrence  of hypotype:  Saskatchewan r i v e r , M i l e 109,  C5034,  North branch  Devonian C o r a l r e e f .  of  50 Disphyllum g o l d f u s s ! ( G e i n i t z ) (Plate 8 Cyathophyllum  caespitosum  >  figures  1.4  )  Goldfuss 1826, p. 60, p l . x i x ,  f i g . 2b o n l y (Middle) Devonian; E i f e l , Germany. C l a d o c o r a g o l d f u s s l G e i n i t z , 1846, p. 569 Disphyllum g o l d f u s s l ( G e i n i t z ) .  Lang and Smith, 1935» p. 569  p l . xxxv, f i g s . 4-8, t e x t f i g s . 23, 24. The above l i s t o f synonomy i s merely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the complex l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y of t h i s s p e c i e s .  Lang and  Smith (1935» pp. 568, 569) d i s c u s s the synonomy o f the s p e c i e s at  length. L e c t o t y p e : (By d e s i g n a t i o n of Lang and Smith, 1935>  p. 569)  G o l d f u s s s Cyathophyllum caespitosum p l . x i x , f i g . 2b. Description: (That o f Lang and Smith 1935» p. 569i, 570) i s quoted i n part.) "The specimen c o n s i s t s o f a c o r a l l i t e , which.gives r i s e t o s e v e r a l others by p a r r i c i d a l i n c r e a s e ; of these, f i v e only i n any way approach completeness — The parent c o r a l l i t e , o f which o n l y the d i s t a l p a r t i s p r e s e n t , measures 15 mm. i n diameter; and t h e daughter c o r a l l i t e s , measuring about 5*5 cm. i n l e n g t h , are 8 mm. or 9 mm. i n diameter a t t h e i r proximal ends, i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a l l y t o 10 mm. or 11 mm. The c a l i c e s a r e deep, and have s t e e p w a l l s ; but they a r e v e r y p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d . The s i d e s o f the c o r a l l i t e s are d i s t i n c t l y s t r i a t e d , but only v e r y f a i n t l y annulated. Transverse s e c t i o n (11 mm. d i a m e t e r ) . There a r e 50 s e p t a o f somewhat v a r y i n g l e n g t h , t h i n a x i a l l y , but r a t h e r suddenly widening p e r i p h e r a l l y , o f which the major do not q u i t e r e a c h the a x i s , but leave a f r e e space o f about 1.5 mm., w h i l e the minor, v a r y i n g i n l e n g t h more than the major, a r e n e a r l y h a l f as l o n g as t h e s e . The i n t e r s e p t a l spaces a r e occupied by the t r a n s v e r s e t i s s u e , i n which the dissepiments and t a b u l a e are not e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one another. 1  0  L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . The d i s s e p i m e n t s , which form a zone about 2 mm. wide, a r e globose, and convex towards the a x i s . They v a r y , however, i n c o n v e x i t y , and v e r y much i n s i z e . The t a b u l a e are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o an a x i a l s e r i e s of t r a n s v e r s e , approximately f l a t p l a t e s , and a p e r i a x i a l s e r i e s o f s t r o n g l y convex, s t e e p l y i n c l i n e d p l a t e s , which  5* somewhat resemble l a r g e d i s s e p i m e n t s , and i n o s c u l a t e w i t h the a x i a l tabulae." Remarks: the  The r e f e r e n c e s t o i l l u s t r a t i o n s  given i n  above d e s c r i p t i o n are amended to f i t the sequence  of  f i g u r e s i n the t h e s i s .  Disphyllum stramineum (Plate  8  ,  (Billings)  figure .  Diphyphyllum stramineum. B i l l i n g s ,  5  2 0  1859,  ) p.  135.  Diphyphyllum stramineum. B i l l i n g s , N i c h o l s o n , 1874-, p. p l . v, f i g . 6.  33,  Probably Diphyphyllum g r a c i l e M'Coy, N i c h o l s o n , 18?4, p. 33, p l . v, f i g . ~ 5 (Not Diphyphyllum g r a c i l e M'Coy 1851a, p. 168; 1851b, p. 88, f i g s , d, e and f on the same page.) Amplexus or Diphyphyllum. Whiteaves, 1892, f i g s . 2, Synaptophyllum stramineum  p. 270,  p l . 35,  2a. ( B i l l i n g s ) , Simpson, 1900,  p.  212.  Synaptophyllum simcoense ( B i l l i n g s ) , Simpson, 1900, p. 212, f i g s . 33, 34 on p. 213. Diphyphyllum simcoense ( B i l l i n g s ) , Lambe, 1901, p. 161, p a r t i m . (Not p l . x i i i , f i g s . 6, 6a-b, i f Diphyphyllum simcoense and D. stramineum are considered t o be d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s ) Disphyllum stramineum figs.  (Billings). 1-12.  Smith, 194-5, p. 23,  pl.13,  " D i a g n o s i s : (Smith 1945) S m a l l D i s p h y l l u m which forms p h a c e l o i d or dendroid c o l o n i e s and has characteristically complete t a b u l a e and horse-shoe dissepiments u s u a l l y s u p p l e mented by an outer s e r i e s of g e n t l y arched or n e a r l y f l a t dissepiments. D e s c r i p t i o n s The c o r a l l i t e s which are only 3 mm. to 4 mm. i n diameter may be p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t and form compact p h a c e l o i d bundles, or they may be extremely flexuous and  52 g i v e r i s e t o dendroid c o l o n i e s w i t h w i d e l y separated branches. There are u s u a l l y between 30 and 40 s e p t a . The minor s e p t a are about 0.5 mm. l o n g ; the major may be v e r y l i t t l e l o n g e r or may be three times as l o n g and t h e r e f o r e n e a r l y reach the a x i s . The s e p t a are u s u a l l y d i l a t e d and a r e o f t e n u n i t e d by sclerrenehyme a t the p e r i p h e r y of the c o r a l l i t e . The t a b u l a e a r e t y p i c a l l y complete, convex, f l a t , o r , l e s s o f t e n , concave. In some specimens, however, the t a b u l a e are incomplete and a r e more or l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o an a x i a l and a p e r i a x i a l s e r i e s . The c h a r a c t e r of the dissepimentarium, which i s about 0.5 mm. wide, d i f f e r s i n d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . It consists t y p i c a l l y of an i n n e r s e r i e s of horse-shoe dissepiments s u r r ounded by an outer s e r i e s of n e a r l y f l a t or o n l y f e e b l y arched ones, and i s about 0.5 mm. wide, but sometimes o n l y the h o r s e shoe type are p r e s e n t . O c c a s i o n a l l y these d i s t i n c t i v e forms of dissepiments are not c l e a r l y developed, and i n s t e a d we have two or three s e r i e s of the more o r d i n a r y type, i n which case the dissepimentarium i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y wider. Much sclerenchyme i s o f t e n present i n the p e r i p h e r a l p a r t s o f the c o r a l l i t e s , and t h i s o f t e n masks the d i s s e p i m e n t s . These v a r i a t i o n s i n d e t a i l s of s t r u c t u r e are a l l i l l u s t r a t e d on Plate 13." Remarks:  Disphyllum  (Phacellophyllum)  caespitosum  has f l a t dissepiments e x t e r i o r to horse-shoe  dissepiments,  while Disphyllum  horse-shoe  dissepiments  (Phacellophyllum) minum has  only.  D i s p h y l l u m stramlneum and  from these i n the more pronounced amplexoid, itely  its allies  differ  and more d e f i n -  c a r i n a t e , c h a r a c t e r s o f the s e p t a . "  D i s p h y l l u m c f . D. (Plate  g  ,  stramlneum  f i g u r e s 1-2  )  Three p a r t i a l c o r a l l a were cut and p o l i s h e d , and t h i n s e c t i o n was  prepared.  mainly of white c a l c i t e . corals are s i l i c i f i e d .  The  one  coralline material consists  I n specimen C5077» however, the The  e n c l o s i n g rock i s b l a c k and brown,  i n part a r g i l l a c e o u s , f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e  limestone.  Descriptions  External features - C o r a l l i t e s may  be  contiguous or several diameters apart, and are i r r e g u l a r l y disposed.  In two specimens (C5036 and 5128)  they are greatly  broken and with fragments of Thamnopora and A l v e o l i t e s , appear to l i e along the bedding plane.  A few c o r a l l i t e s have arisen  by non-parricidal l a t e r a l increase.  Exterior of many of the  c o r a l l i t e s bears promiment costae adjacent to the septa and grooves corresponding to the interseptal areas. ornamentation  Transverse  i s totally lacking.  C o r a l l i t e diameters range from 2 to 4- mm., commonly about 3 mm.  No c a l i c e s  but are  were observed.  Transverse section - That the costae seen on the exterior of the c o r a l l i t e s resulted from s o l u t i o n of the coral skeleton within the theca i s apparent i n several transverse sections.  In some cases the theca appears as a smooth dark  band bounding the c o r a l l i t e s .  In other c o r a l l i t e s the theca  i s lacking and the peripheral ends of the septa stand out as costae.  S t i l l other c o r a l l i t e s exhibit both conditions just  mentioned, or the smooth theca i s present but separated from the serrated periphery of the i n t e r n a l s k e l e t a l structures. Septa number 24 to 28, most commonly 28. r a r e l y longer than half the radius.  Major septa are  The minor are about 2/3  as long as the major and terminate at the inner edge of the dissepimentarium.  D i l a t i o n of a l l septa within the dissepim-  entarium i s common, but not always pronounced.  Longitudinal section - Tabularium occupies 2/3 to .3/4 of the diameter.  Most tabulae are complete and f l a t ,  although some are d i s t a l l y concave or convex. incomplete and curved.  A few are  From 6 to 8 tabulae occur i n 5  mm.  of c o r a l l i t e length. The narrow dissepimentarium t y p i c a l l y consists of a single row of dissepiments, which i n places are only gently convex d i s t a l l y and i n other places are so strongly convex d i s t a l l y that they may be c a l l e d horse-shoe dissepiments.  The  inner side of the dissepimentarium i s consistently about twice as thick as the dissepiments. Remarks:  A f f i n i t i e s with D. stramlneum ( B i l l i n g s )  and D. minus (Roemer) are apparent i n this species.  In the  small size of the c o r a l l i t e s i t resembles both D. stramlneum and D. minus. The presence of horse-shoe shaped dissepiments alone i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l a t t e r species than of the former.  On the other hand, the predominantly f l a t ,  complete  tabulae indicate closer a f f i n i t y to D. stramlneum. My material however, has only 28 septa per c o r a l l i t e as opposed to 30 or more septa i n each c o r a l l i t e of t y p i c a l D. minus or D. stramlneum. On the whole this species appears to be most c l o s e l y related to D. stramlneum but cannot be unequivocally referred to that species. Occurrence of Hypotypes: Upper Devonian 'Green shales'; 5128, Hawk Formation.  C5077, B l u e f l y Creek, Roche Miette, Upper Mount  55 Genus Hexagonaria G u r i c h Polyphyllum de Fromentel, 1861, (non B l a n c h a r d , 1850) Hexagonaria  G u r i c h , 1896, p. 1?1  Prlsmatophyllum Simpson, 1900, p. 218 Hexagoniaphyllum  G u r i c h , 1909, p. 102.  Hexagonaria G u r i c h , Stumm, 194-8, p. f i g s . 13-18.  18: 1949, p. 33, p l . 1 5 ,  "Genotype: By subsequent d e s i g n a t i o n o f Lang, Smith, and Thomas, 1940, p. 69, Cyathophyllum hexagonum G o l d f u s s , 1826, p. 61, p l . 19, f i g s . 5e-f: p l . 20, f i g s . l a - b . H o r i z o n and L o c a l i t y o f Genotype: i a n , E i f e l d i s t r i c t and Bensberg, Germany.  Middle Devon-  Generic D e s c r i p t i o n : (Stumm 1949) " C e r i o i d c o r a l s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l l i t e s s e p a r a t e d by p o l y g o n a l w a l l s . Calyxes u s u a l l y w i t h an a x i a l p i t and a p e r i p h e r a l p l a t f o r m . Septa r a d i a l l y arranged, o f two o r d e r s , major extended i n t o t a b u l a r l u m w h i l e minor a r e c o n f i n e d t o dissepimentarium. They a r e l i g h t l y or h e a v i l y c a r i n a t e , r a r e l y d i l a t e d . No modification of protesepta i s v i s i b l e . Dissepimentarium i s wide and composed o f many rows o f h o r i z o n t a l or i n c l i n e d d i s s e p i m e n t s . Tabularlum i s r e l a t i v e l y narrow and composed of c l o s e l y s e t , complete or incomplete t a b u l a e , that are h o r i z o n t a l l y disposed." Remarks:  The o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s  of Prlsmatophyllum Simpson  (1900, p. 218, f i g s . 43-45) have  been compared w i t h those o f Stumm f o r Hexagonaria G u r i c h , 1896. I can d e t e c t n o t h i n g which supports the r e t e n t i o n o f Prlsmatophyllum and  I f o l l o w Stumm (1948, p. 10; 1949, p. 33)  i n c o n s i d e r i n g i t a j u n i o r synonym o f Hexagonaria. Lang and Smith  (1935, p. 550) have p r e v i o u s l y shown that  Hexagonio-  phyllum G u r i c h , 1909, i s a synonym o f Prlsmatophyllum.  Hence  Stumm i s c o r r e c t i n l i s t i n g i t a l s o as a synonym o f Hexagonaria. S e v e r a l s p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d by Smith  (1945) under Prlsmatophyllum  56 now mast be i n c l u d e d 168)  i n Hexagonaria.  Bassler  has a n t i c i p a t e d me i n so d i s p o s i n g  (1950, pp. 167,  o f Smith's  species,  but has done so without comment.  Hexagonaria percarlnatum (Plate  9 ,  f i g u r e s 3-7  (Sloss) )  Prismatophyllum percarlnatum S l o s s . 1939, p. 69, p i . 10, f i g s . 6 - 9 , t e x t f i g . 8A-B. Original Description: "External characters: C e r i o i d c o r a l s t y p i c a l l y forming broad, f l a t , or d o r a a l l y convex c o l o n i e s a r i s i n g from a c e n t r a l p o i n t o f attachment. Under s i d e bears a t h i n a n n u l a r l y w r i n k l e d h o l o t h e c a w i t h f i n e s e p t a l grooves. C o l o n i e s may a t t a i n 30 cm. i n diameter, are commonly 12 t o 16 cm. I n d i v i d u a l a d u l t c o r a l l i t e s p o l y g o n a l , average 10 mm. i n mean diameter. Immature i n d i v i d u a l s commonly c i r c u l a r In o u t l i n e . Some c o l o n i e s bear i n d i v i d u a l s p r o t r u d i n g above g e n e r a l s u r f a c e or p r o j e c t i n g from edge, i n which case these i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c i r c u l a r i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n and p h a c e l l o i d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o neighbouring c o r a l l i t e s . C a l i c e s extremely v a r i a b l e , b e i n g d i f f e r e n t i n form between c o l o n i e s or between i n d i v i d u a l s o f the same c o l o n y . Most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g c a l y x type bears h o r i z o n t a l p e r i p h e r a l p l a t f o r m occupying one h a l f the r a d i u s , a deep c a l l c u l a r p i t a t the a x i s . A l l degrees occur between t h i s c e n t r a l type and forms i n which the c a l i c u l a r w a l l descends a b r u p t l y fipom p e r i p h e r y as i n P. profundum ( H a l l and W h i t f i e l d ) . Ephebic e a l i c e s bear edges o f 3b t o 40 d e n t i c u l a t e , h i g h l y c a r i n a t e septa. Majors and minors not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d near p e r i p h e r y ; septa taper a x i a l l y , majors extending c l o s e t o a x i s . T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n : Dissepimentarium occupies oneh a l f the r a d i u s , bounded a x i a l l y by l a r g e c a r i n a e , o c c a s i o n a l l y by d i l a t e d i s s e p i m e n t s , t o form a d i s c o n t i n u o u s w a l l s i m i l a r t o , but not homologous w i t h , aulos o f A c e r v u l a r l a Schweigger (Smith and Lang, 1931, p. 85). Major s e p t a approach but do not a t t a i n a x i s , minor s e p t a extend but s l i g h t l y beyond dissepimentarium. A l l septa d i l a t e , c a r i n a t e w i t h i n dissepimentarium; f i n e , unornamented w i t h i n t a b u l a r i u m . C h a r a c t e r o f c a r i n a e v a r i a b l e ; t h r e e types may occur i n one i n d i v i d u a l — l a r g e diamond-shaped a r e a s , s i m p l e yard-arms ( H i l l , 1935, P. 501), o r p r o l o n g a t i o n s o f angles o f " z i g - z a g s e p t a " ( H i l l and B u t l e r , 1936,. p. 523). Dissepiments concent r i c , numerous, f i n e . Boundary between i n d i v i d u a l s f i n e but distinct.  57 L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n : Numerous s m a l l globose dissepiments arranged i n rows, which v a r y i n same manner as c a l i c u l a r p l a t f o r m . Rows may be h o r i z o n t a l a t p e r i p h e r y , descend a b r u p t l y at margin of dissepimentarium or descend d i r e c t l y from p e r i p h e r y . Dissepimentarium r e s t r i c t e d i n neanie s t a g e , q u i c k l y widens t o occupy one-half the lumen i n ephebic s t a g e . Tabulae numerous h o r i z o n t a l , complete or incomplete, not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Arched c a r i n a e , spaced approximately 0.3 mm. a p a r t , prominent wherever plane of s e c t i o n t r a n s e c t s plane of septum, and extending but s l i g h t l y i n t a b u l a r i u m . "  Hexagonaria  quadrigeminum a r c t i c u m (Meek)  (Plate Cyathophyllum  figures  a r c t i c u m . Meek, 1867, 8, Sa-b,  Cyathophyllum  10 ,  1-3  p. 79,  ) pi- x i , figs.  partim at l e a s t .  a r c t i c u m . Meek, Whiteaves, 1891,  p.  199,  quadrigeminum G o l d f u s s , Lambe, 1901, p. ~:1'53, p i . x i i , f T g s . 6, 7, 7a-b. Not Cyathophyllum quadrigeminum v a r . a r e t l c a d LoBwe, 1913, p. 9, p i . i i , f i g s . 3a-c. P r i s m a t i p h y l l u m quadrigeminum a r c t i c u m (Meek). Smith, 194-5, p. 47, p i . 14, f i g s . 4a-c; P I . 18, f i g . 1. Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) "Cyathophyllum quadrigeminum w i t h major s e p t a which a r e s t r o n g l y d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y and which c u r v e , though o n l y s l i g h t l y , i n a v o r t i c a l manner; very s h o r t minor s e p t a and s m a l l more arched a x i a l tabulae. Cyathophyllum  D e s c r i p t i o n : The l e c t o t y p e of Cyathophyllum a r c t i c u m Meek (1867, p i . x i , f i g . 8) i s a s m a l l group of c d r a l l i t e s 3.5 cm. i n diameter. The c a l i c e s a r e deeply concave have steep s i d e s , and no p e r i p h e r a l p l a t f o r m or o n l y a v e r y narrow one. The l a r g e s t c o r a l l i t e s are about 10 mm. i n diameter and have about 44 s e p t a . The major s e p t a are l o n g though i t i s only r a r e l y t h a t they q u i t e r e a c h the a x i s . They are s t r o n g l y d i l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y but t a p e r away gradu a l l y to a very t h i n a x i a l edge. In most c o r a l l i t e s the a x i a l ends of the septa t w i s t v e r t i c a l l y though only t o a v e r y s l i g h t degree. The v e r y s h o r t minor s e p t a are r a r e l y more than .5 mm. i n l e n g t h and are d i l a t e d throughout. The t a b u l a e are s m a l l , most of them s t r o n g l y convex, and form a s u c c e s s i o n of concave f l o o r s . The dissepimentarium which i s only about 2 mm. wide i s b u i l t up of three or f o u r s e r i e s of s m a l l , f a i r l y globose d i s s e p i m e n t s .  58 Remarks:  Smith's d e s c r i p t i o n i s based on paratypes  from the Porcupine R i v e r .  He and Lambe (1901, p. 153) reduce  Meek's Cyathophyllum a r c t i c u m t o s u b s p e c i f i c rank under Prismatophyllum quadrigeminum and Cyathophyllum quadrlgeminum respectively.  F o r reasons g i v e n i n remarks on the genus i  Hexagonaria. I c o n s i d e r Smith's s p e c i e s o f Prlsmatophyllum t o be r e f e r a b l e t o Hexagonaria. Hexagonaria c f . H. stewartae Stumm (Plate MIO i  f i g u r e s 4-5  )  Prismatophyllum w h i t e f i e l d i Stewart, 1938, p. 52, p l . 10, f i g s . 3-4, (non A c e r v u l a r i a w h i t f i e l d i Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 57, p l . 14, f i g s . 1-3) homonym. Hexagonaria stewartae Stumm. 1948. p. 16, p l . V I , f i g s . 6-7. o  Description:  External features - Half of a d i s c o i d a l  c o r a l l u m 13 cm. i n diameter and 3.5 cm. i n h e i g h t , p l u s  several  fragments p r e v i o u s l y cut from t h i s c o r a l l u m c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i s o f the d e s c r i p t i o n .  The c o r a l l u m i s eroded so that  t r a c e s o f the b a s a l h o l o t h e c a a r e p r e s e n t .  only  The c o r a l l i t e s  have an i n w a r d - s l o p i n g p e r i p h e r a l p l a t f o r m about 2 mm. wide s u r r o u n d i n g the a x i a l . p i t which i s 4 t o 5 mm.  i n diameter.  C o r a l l i t e s a r e o f f a i r l y uniform s i z e , having an average diameter o f 7*5 One  mm.  t r a n s v e r s e and one l o n g i t u d i n a l t h i n s e c t i o n  were prepared f o r t h i s s t u d y . T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n - The c o r a l l i t e s have from 4 t o 7 t h i c k w a l l s which a r e u s u a l l y s t r a i g h t hut sometimes c u r v e d .  59  Septa numbering 30 to 34- extend i n dilated form for a l i t t l e more than half the radius, at which point the minor terminate while the major continue greatly attenuated almost to the axis. The dilated portion of each septum bears occasional feeble carinae. are  Between each pair of septa i n the peripheral zone  from 5 to 7 concentric dissepiments. Longitudinal section - The tabularlum i s 3 mm. i n  diameter and appears to have both complete and incomplete tabulae which are f l a t a x i a l l y and slope upward a l i t t l e periaxially. are  Small, broad, a x i a l l y inclined dissepiments  arranged In alternating v e r t i c a l series peripheral to the  tabularlum. Remarks:  In possessing peripherally d i l a t e d ,  a x i a l l y attenuated major septa of greater length than the minor, this specimen clearly belongs to the Hexagonaria hexagona lineage of Stumm (1948, p. 12).  Structural s i m i l a r i t i e s to  H. quadringeminum are apparent but that species has larger c o r a l l i t e s and about 10 more septa per c o r a l l i t e than has my specimen.  There seems to be closer a f f i n i t y to H. stewartae.  which has an average diameter of 9 num. and bears 30 to 34 septa.  H. stewartae appears to d i f f e r from my specimen only  i n having s l i g h t l y larger c o r a l l i t e s and a greater concent r a t i o n of dissepiments adjacent to the tabularlum. Occurrence of hypotype: Devonian.  C5Q28, Coral Creek,  60 Genus Macgeea Webster Macgeea Webster  1889,  p.  710  Macgeea Webster.  Fenton and Fenton, 1924,  p.  Macgeea Webster.  Lang and Smith, 1935> P. 556,  53. text  figs.  10, 11. Macgeea Webster.  p. 27  Smith, 1945,  Genotype: (By subsequent d e s i g n a t i o n of Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 54) Pachyphyllum s o l l t a r i u m H a l l and W h i t f i e l d . 1872, p. 232, p i . 9, f i g s . 6, 7; Upper Devonian, Hackberry Group, Iowa. Original description: " C o r a l s growing i n s o l i t a r y , c y l i n d r i c a l , sometimes compressed, cup-shaped c e l l s ; u s u a l l y from f i v e mm. t o f o r t y - s e v e n mm. i n l e n g t h j n a n d c a l y x from one and a h a l f mm. t o e i g h t e e n mm. i n diameter; s l i g h t l y curved, e x t e r n a l l y i r r e g u l a r , u s u a l l y showing evidence of , attachment. C a l y x g e n e r a l l y as deep as wide, but v e r y r a r e l y being only o n e - s i x t h as deep as wide; outer w a l l t h i n , rays numerous, from t h i r t y - t w o t o s i x t y seven i n number, a l t e r n a t i n g i n s i z e w i t h i n the cup. Costae ( o f t e n v e r y s t r o n g , and u s u a l l y a l t e r n a t i n g i n s i z e ) continuous w i t h t h e r a y s over the edge of the cup and f o r some d i s t a n c e below the margin; lower down g e n e r a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d , or covered w i t h a more or l e s s e p i t h e c a l coat (the e p i t h e c a l coat i s , however, sometimes e n t i r e l y w a n t i n g ) , showing t r a c e s of numerous t r a n s v e r s e p a r t i t i o n s . Bottom of the cup l a r g e , occupied by a s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n ; rays sometimes v e r y s l i g h t l y t w i s t e d i n the bottom of the cup. The r a y s , and c o s t a e f o r some d i s t a n c e below the margin of the cup, more or l e s s d i s t i n c t l y d e n t i c u l a t e on the edge." Remarks:  Webster's  d e s c r i p t i o n deals mainly w i t h  e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f the genus.  Stumm (1949, p. 35) has  g i v e n a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n which i s quoted: "Simple or weakly aggregate, s h o r t c e r a t o i d t o t r o c h o i d c o r a l s w i t h pronounced s e p t a l r i d g e s on e x t e r i o r . Calyx" b e l l shaped w i t h a rounded margin. S e p t a of two o r d e r s , major and minor, p e r i p h e r a l l y d i l a t e d and l i g h t l y c a r i n a t e . They extend over rounded c a l y x margin and form v e r t i c a l grooves on exterior of c o r a l l i t e . As seen i n t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s they  are greatly d i l a t e d i n t h e i r peripheral portions. Minor are very short, while major extend from one-half to two-thirds the distance to a x i s , becoming attenuate at t h e i r a x i a l ends. Dissepimentarium i s narrow, with a series of horizontal dissepiments at periphery followed by a row of v e r t i c a l l y superposed, strongly d i s t a l l y convex, horse-shoe dissepiments. Tabularlum i s wide, occupying about three-fourths the diameter of corallum and i s composed of an a x i a l series of i n c l i n e d tabulae." That Macgeea may be a simple derivative of P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a rather than a simple ancestor of that genus is mentioned by Lang and Smith (1935, p. 553) and Smith (194-5, p. 27).  I am not i n a p o s i t i o n to elaborate on this possible  r e l a t i o n s h i p , but I am of the opinion that i t may be proved only by a phylogenetic study of Phillipsastraea-Maegeea assemblages.  Stainbrook (1946, p. 420) l i s t s as evidence  against such a relationship between P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a and Macgeea. the fact that Macgeea possesses tetrameral symmetry and a fossula.  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be d i f f i c u l t to acquire  i n descent from P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a .  Stainbrook suggests that  perhaps P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a and Macgeea are p a r a l l e l descendents from a common ancestor.  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a (Hall and Whitfield) .(Plater'•±0';*  f i g u r e s 6wg}-$flate 11,  figures  1-3)  Pachyphyllum solitarium H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , 1873, p. 232. p l . 9, f i g s .  6-7.  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a Webster, 1889, p. 711 Macgeea s o l i t a r i a Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 54, p l . IX, f i g s . 7-10.  About thin sections.  50 specimens were s t u d i e d i n p o l i s h e d  and  Much o f the m a t e r i a l has been a l t e r e d so t h a t  i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s are d i f f i c u l t calcite i n f i l l i n g .  t o d i s t i n g u i s h from white  Some specimens have been p a r t l y  Description:  pyritized.  External features - S o l i t a r y ,  trochoid  to t u r b i n a t e c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y o v a l t o c i r c u l a r i n t r a n s v e r s e section.  None possess o f f s e t s .  Theca t h i n , l o c a l l y  thick,  w r i n k l e d , absent near top o f cup i n some specimens, and worn o f f i n p l a c e s so that  s e p t a and d i s s e p i m e n t s a r e r e v e a l e d  as a d e l i c a t e r e t i c u l a t e p a t t e r n . T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n - F o r 23 specimens, diameter ranges from 10 t o 20 mm.  averages 16 mm.  s e p t a ranges from 52 t o 76, f i g u r e f o r 5 specimens. the c a l i c e , and may  T o t a l number o f 1  and averages 64, which i s the  Major s e p t a extend 1/4  be g e n t l y s i n u o u s .  of radius i n  In n e a n i c s t a g e t h e i r  a x i a l ends are sometimes s l i g h t l y r h o p a l o i d and e x h i b i t a f e e b l e p i n n a t e arrangement  i n the counter quadrants.-  obscure c a r d i n a l (?) f o s s u l a i s sometimes, developed i n the n e a n i c s t a g e .  but not always,  In t h i s stage major s e p t a a r e  sometimes d e f l e c t e d t o form an i n f i r m , hollow v o r t e x . s e p t a a r e s h o r t throughout the cup. s p i n d l e shaped i n n e a n i c s t a g e ,  Minor  S e p t a a r e sometimes  and are o f t e n p e r i p h e r a l l y  d i l a t e d i n ephebie p o r t i o n , though sometimes s p i n d l e t h e r e too.  An  shaped  Major s e p t a are much more d i l a t e d than a r e the  minor. In the n e a n i c s t a g e the d i l a t e d s e p t a a r e l i n k e d by t h i c k e n e d dissepiments t o form a s t e r e o t h e c a c l o s e t o the  63 theca.  The d i s t i n c t s t e r o t h e e a may  persist  i n t o the  ephebic  s t a g e , but more o f t e n i t l i e s next t o the theca as a p e r i p h e r a l stereozone, or the dissepiments may  lack sclerenchymial  t h i c k e n i n g and appear as f i v e or s i x c o n c e n t r i c curved bands between adjacent s e p t a . Longitudinal section: whose depth equals 1/3  t o 1/2  Axial sections reveal a calice  the t o t a l c o r a l l u m l e n g t h .  Walls  have v e r t i c a l s i d e s , and a broad, f l a t , t a b u l a t e f l o o r , or a f l a t a x i a l p l a t f o r m r i s i n g 1-2 mm.  above a p e r i p h e r a l t r o u g h .  Tabulae a r e v a r i a b l y f l a t , o f t e n concave p e r i p h e r a l l y .  concave or convex a x i a l l y ,  They are u s u a l l y incomplete  and  supplemented p e r i p h e r a l l y by t a b e l l a e i n c l i n e d toward the axis. of  T a b u l a r i a are o c c a s i o n a l l y bounded by a narrow zone  t h i c k e n e d , s m a l l horse-shoe  which may  dissepiments, p e r i p h e r a l to  be 0 t o 3 rows of s m a l l i n c l i n e d d i s s e p i m e n t s ,  an outer row  of n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l d i s s e p i m e n t s .  dissepiments were observed  Horse-shoe  i n o n l y a few specimens.  Of  l o n g i t u d i n a l t h i n - s e c t i o n s prepared, o n l y one e x h i b i t s shoe d i s s e p i m e n t s . border the  and  In the others s t e e p l y i n c l i n e d  five horse-  dissepiments  tabularia. Remarks:  T h i s s p e c i e s resembles  M.  solitaria  d e s c r i b e d by the Fentohs (1924, p. 54-, p l . IX, f i g s .  7-10),  a l t h o u g h there seems t o be a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the specimens at hand.  There i s a c l o s e r resemblance t o  H\- s o l i t a r i a d e s c r i b e d i n great d e t a i l by S t a i n b r o o k pp. 419-421).  From S t a i n b r o o k s 1  (1946,  specimens, mine d i f f e r  mainly  64 i n having a much more obscure f o s s u l a , and a l e s s  persistent  stereotheca. There appears t o be disagreement among authors as t o the  r o l e o f horse-shoe dissepiments i n t h i s s p e c i e s .  Stumm (1949, p. 35)  Whereas  i m p l i e s t h a t they l i e next -to the t a b u l -  arium, S t a i n b r o o k (1946, p. 420) s t a t e s that a x i a l t o the horse-shoe dissepiments there i s an i n n e r s e r i e s o f d i s s e p i m e n t s convex upward and a x i a l l y .  From a study of specimens and o f  i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the s p e c i e s i t appears l i k e l y t h a t horse-shoe dissepiments have been o v e r - r a t e d as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Macgeea. Of some 50 specimens, which i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s appear c o n s p e c i f i c , only 4 d i s t i n c t l y e x h i b i t horse-shoe dissepiments. Occurrence of hypotypesr •Green s h a l e  1  •Green s h a l e  1  C5040, C r i p p l e Creek,  i n d r i f t ; C5042, and C5062, C r i p p l e Creek, samples; C5©70, C r i p p l e Creek A r e a , Fairholme  formation; C5074, South o f C r i p p l e Creek, Devonian  'Green  s h a l e ' ; C 5 0 7 7 , B l u e f l y Creek, s o u t h ( r e e f ) s i d e , 'Green s h a l e drift.  C 5 0 8 2 , B l u e f l y Creek, Flume formation; < 5161,  Job  Creek, Mount Hawk f o r m a t i o n , s c r e e ; 5185? Isaac Creek.  Genus P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a  D'Orbigny  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a D'Orbigny, 1848, p. 12. Pachyphyllum Edwards and Haime, 1850, P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a D Orbigny. 1  697,  p.  Smith, 1945,  lxviii. p. 36.  Genolectotype: A s t r e a h e n n a h l i Lonsdale (1840, p. p l . l v i i i , f i g s . 3, 3a, b ) .  1  65 Diagnosis: (Smith 1945) P l o c o i d or s u b c e r i o i d rugose c o r a l s , i n which the c o r a l l i t e s are u n i t e d by t h e i r d i s s e p i m e n t a l t i s s u e or are separated o n l y by t h i n degenerate epitheca. In the p l o c o i d forms the s e p t a may e i t h e r be conf l u e n t or a b u t t i n g or may not r e a c h the s e p t a of the n e i g h b o r ing c o r a l l i t e s . T y p i c a l l y , the s e p t a are d i l a t e d at the margin of the t a b u l a r l u m , and t h e r e the minor s e p t a t e r m i n a t e , though the major s e p t a may extend t o the a x i s . They are u s u a l l y c a r i n a t e , sometimes very s t r o n g l y so. There i s no c o l u m e l l a , and the tabulae are t r a n s v e r s e but may or may not be complete. D i s s e p i m e n t a l t i s s u e i s s t r o n g l y developed, and the d i s s e p iments forming the w a l l of the t a b u l a r l u m are o f t e n s m a l l e r and more globose than the r e s t , corresponding t o the h o r s e shoe dissepiments of Disphyllum ( P h a c e l l o p h y l l u m ) , Macgeea. and other a l l i e d genera." Description: In common w i t h most p l o c o i d c o r a l s the c o r a l l u m u s u a l l y spreads outward without a t t a i n i n g much h e i g h t and assumes a d i s c o i d a l or an i r r e g u l a r f l a t t e n e d form. The more r e g u l a r c o l o n i e s are c i r c u l a r or o v a l i n o u t l i n e , have a f l a t or convex d i s t a l s u r f a c e , and an o b t u s e l y c o n i c a l , f l a t , or even r e f l e x e d base. The cone of attachment i s more or l e s s c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d , and i n w e l l - p r e s e r v e d specimens the e n t i r e under s u r f a c e i s covered by a t h i n c o n c e n t r i c a l l y w r i n k l ed e p i t h e c a . The e p i t h e c a i s almost absent; t r a c e s are t o he seen between some of the c o r a l l i t e s . Throughout most of the c o r a l , the s e p t a of the contiguous c o r a l l i t e s are c o n f l u e n t , a b u t t i n g , or do not meet; i n t h i s r e s p e c t the type specimen e x h i b i t s a l l the c o n d i t i o n s mentioned i n the d i a g n o s i s . There are 2 6 s e p t a i n most of the c o r a l l i t e s , and these are v e r y s t r o n g l y d i l a t e d f o r about 1 mm. The major s e p t a extend i n t o the t a b u l a r i a ' n e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e i r r a d i u s . P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a e x h i b i t s v a r i o u s forms of s e p t a l d e g e n e r a t i o n . The s e p t a may, f o r i n s t a n c e , s p l i t up i n t o d i s s o c i a t e d segments and u l t i m a t e l y disappear from the d i s s e p i m e n t a l t i s s u e , as f o r example i n P. exigua, or they may break down i n t o t r a b e c u l a t e c o n d i t i o n as i n " H a p l o t h e c l a " f l l a t a ( S c h l o t h e i m ) . Carinae are u s u a l l y p r e s e n t . P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a appears to grade Into the c e r i o i d Prismatophyllum on the one hand and i n t o simple Macgeea on the o t h e r . In the type specimen of A s t r e a hennahi Lonsdale the dissepiments are s m a l l , numerous, and f a i r l y uniform. Those which form the w a l l s of the t a b u l a r i a appear t o be s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the r e s t as horse-shoe d i s s e p iments but, owing t o r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , the s t r u c t u r e i s not c l e a r . Horse-shoe dissepiments are very w e l l developed i n many s p e c i e s but are not found i n a l l .  66 The t a b u l a r i a are approximately 3 mm. i n diameter, and the d i s t a n c e between, a l t h o u g h v a r y i n g , averages about 6 mm. The t a b u l a e are c l o s e l y s e t , m o s t l y complete, and e i t h e r f l a t or concave. Remarks:  The above d e s c r i p t i o n  remarks o f Smith (194-5, pp. 37, description,  38).  i s taken from the  I have not added t o the  but have re-arranged and a b b r e v i a t e d i t w i t h the  aim o f making i t more c o n c i s e . In p l a c e o f S m i t h s term e p i t h e c a ' a t the end o f 1  the 1935,  1  f i r s t paragraph, I would p r e f e r p. 4-97;  'holotheca' ( a f t e r H i l l ,  Easton, 1944, p. 18; and Smith, 1945,  p. 6)  Lang and Smith (1935, p. 555) -consider Pachyphyllum to be a synonym o f P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a because they have observed 'Pachyphyllum' devonlense type c o r a l l i t e s i n a c o r a l l u m a l o n g w i t h P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a c o r a l l i t e s , and because most authors have interpreted  Pachyphyllum on P. devoniense-type c o r a l s  than on Pachyphyllum bouchardi - l i k e c o r a l s . Pachyphyllum ought t o be c o n s i d e r e d  rather  That  a j u n i o r synonjan o f  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a appears p a r t i c u l a r l y reasonable when i t i s noted that  the only d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  Stumm (1949, p. 37)  i s that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c given by  'Pachyphyllum' u s u a l l y  has mueh  l a r g e r t a b u l a r i a than has P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a . Furthermore the original description  of the genus Pachyphyllum of Edwards  and Haime (1850, p. l x v i i i ) p r o v i d e s no c r i t e r i o n f o r s e t t i n g that  genus apart from P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a as d e s c r i b e d by them  (1850, p. l x x i ) .  »  ,  Philllpsastraea breviseptatum Stumm (Plate 1 1 , figures 4-7 ) P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a breviseptatum Stumm. 1940, p. 65» p l . 8, f i g s . 16a-b. A portion of a very irregular corallum enclosed i n buff-grey limestone was revealed only on cut surfaces and i n thin section. There are no naturally exposed surfaces to indicate the external characteristics of the specimen. Description:  Transverse section - Corallum exhibits  a strong aphroid tendency but occasional septa of adjacent c o r a l l i t e s are abutting and i n a few places there are vestiges of theca between the c o r a l l i t e s .  The distance between c o r a l -  l i t e axes ranges from 4.5 to 8 mm. but i s most often about 6 mm.  There are from 28 to 30 septa, a l l of which  dilated through a zone larlum.  are greatly  about 1 mm. wide surrounding the tabu-  Peripherally a l l the septa extend i n attenuated form  for 2 or 3 mm. before losing their identity i n the i n t e r c o r a l l i t e dissepimental tissue, where they appear occasionally as septal crests.  Minor septa terminate a x i a l l y at the edge  of the tabularlum while the major septa extend i n attenuated sinuous form to within about .5 mm. of the axis.  None of the  septa are carinate. The septa, i n t h e i r peripheral'portion, are linked by concentric, a x i a l l y convex dissepiments occurring about .3 mm apart.  Peripheral to the zone of recognizable  septa i s a zone of variable width comprised of irregular cystosepiments.  Within this zone there are sometimes traces  of degenerate theca.  68 L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n : - The t a b u l a r i u m , v a r y i n g i n w i d t h from 3.5 t o 5 mm.,  bears complete n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l ,  f l a t t a b u l a e w i t h as many incomplete downwards and a x i a l l y . of  flat  ones which t y p i c a l l y s l o p e  I n some p l a c e s t h e r e i s an a x i a l zone  t a b u l a e upon each o f which r e s t s a p e r i a x i a l  i n c l i n e d downwards and a x i a l l y .  tabella  B o r d e r i n g the t a b u l a r i u m i s a  s e r i e s o f s m a l l , d i s t i n c t horse-shoe  dissepiments, p e r i p h e r a l  to which i s a zone o f v a r i o u s l y shaped d i s s e p i m e n t s . Remarks:  The specimen I have s t u d i e d conforms i n  most r e s p e c t s t o Stumm's d e s c r i p t i o n o f P. breviseptatum.  It  d i f f e r s from h i s s p e c i e s o n l y i n being s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r and i n having 2 fewer s e p t a .  My specimen, t h e r e f o r e i s almost  cer-  t a i n l y r e f e r a b l e t o P. breviseptatum. My specimen i s remarkable  s i m i l a r t o Smith's  paratype  of P. maeouni (No. 6330, §.S.C.) (1945j p i . 21, f i g s , l a , l b ) . However n e i t h e r my m a t e r i a l nor Smith's p a r a t y p e ; . i l l u s t r a t i o n conform t o e i t h e r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of P. maeouni or t o h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the holotype o f that s p e c i e s .  P. maeouni has  o n l y 18 t o 20 septa which a r e c o n f l u e n t or a b u t t i n g whereas the specimen I have s t u d i e d and Smith's paratype No. 6330 have 28 t o 30 s e p t a and a r e a p h r o i d . It  seems probable t h a t Smith's paratype mentioned  above may a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o P. breviseptatum.  Stumm (1948)  has shown P. maeouni S m i t h t o be a synonym o f P. nevadensls Stumm.  I t i s my s u s p i c i o n , however, that the paratype o f  P. maeouni mentioned above i s c o n s p e c i f i c not w i t h P. nevadensls  69 but w i t h P. breviseptatum.  Confirmation  of this suspicion  would n e c e s s i t a t e a study of type specimens, an  accomplish-  ment beyond the scope of t h i s work. Occurrence of hypotype:  5165,  Job Creek, Mount  Hawk f o r m a t i o n .  P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a devoniense (Edwards and Haime) (Plate  1  8  ,  f i g u r e s 1-2  )  Pachyphyllum devoniense Edwards and Haime, 1851, 1853,  p. 234,  tab. L I I . f i g s .  p.  5,  397;  5a.  Original Descriptions "The c o r a l l i t e s are not c i r c u m s c r i b e d , but t h e i r r a d i i are not completely c o n f l u e n t . The e x t e r i o r p o r t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l i s p r i n c i p a l l y formed by a v e s i c u l a r t i s s u e , through which w e l l d e f i n e d but v e r y s l i g h t l y c o n s t i t u t e d costae extend. At some d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r e o f each c o r a l l i t e , a well-marked s u b c i r c u l a r or e l l i p t i c a l zone i s formed by a s l i g h t enlargement of the s e p t a , and appears t o r e p r e s e n t a rudimentary w a l l . Septa (44, or 48) very s l e n d e r , unequally developed a l t e r n a t e l y , the l a r g e r ones very s l e n d e r inwardly, where they become somewhat flexuous and appear t o have a p a l i f o r m l o b e , and extending only t o a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r e of the c a l i c e . B r e a d t h of the c o r a l l i t e s about 8 l i n e s ; diameter of the mural zones about 4 l i n e s . " Remarkss  Edwards and Haime t e l l us  (p 234)  t h i s species d i f f e r s from the genotype Pachyphyllum by i t s s e p t a being more numerous, more s l e n d e r and and  that bouchardi  unequal,  by the p r i n c i p a l ones b e a r i n g a s m a l l p a l i f o r m l o b e .  P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a e f . P. devoniense (Edwards and Haime) (Plate 1 2 The  figures 3 - 5 )  specimen i s o n l y a s m a l l p a r t of a l a r g e c o r a l l u m  which probably was high.  ,  about 9 cm.  i n diameter and  3 to 4  cm.  L i t t l e s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l i s v i s i b l e on cut s u r f a c e s  t h i n s e c t i o n s show the s t r u c t u r e s v e r y w e l l .  but  70 Description:  External features - The exsert walls  surrounding the c a l i c e s are raised 2 to 3 mm. above the general surface.  Galices are approximately 3 mm. deep, and are c i r -  cular to oval transversely. Transverse section - The minimum diameter of the tabularia i s 5 mm.  The distance from axis to axis varies  from 15 to 18 mm. There are from 44 to 50 septa.  Many septa of adjac-  ent c o r a l l i t e s are confluent, or nearly so, while some are abutting.  The septa are attenuated peripherally and t y p i c a l l y  follow a narrow zig-zag path which imparts to them a carinate appearance.  True carinae, however, are rare and not of the  yard-arm type.  A l l septa become dilated for a distance of 2 mm.  as they pass through the exsert wall surrounding the tabularium.  Minor septa terminate at the boundary of the tabularium  while the major continue i n an i r r e g u l a r l y sinuous, attenuated form almost to the axis where they exhibit a tendency to t w i s t . Between adjacent septa peripheral to the tabularium are numerous a x i a l l y convex concentric septa mixed with many pseudo-herrinbone dissepiments. Longitudinal section - The tabularium bears f i n e , c l o s e l y erowded e s s e n t i a l l y horizontal complete and incomplete tabulae.  They may be nearly f l a t a x i a l l y but periax-  i a l l y they tend to be d i s t a l l y concave.  A series of poorly  defined horse-shoe dissepiments surrounds the tabularium. They combine with the d i l a t e d septa to form the exsert w a l l  71 seen on the exposed surface of the corallum.  In the i n t e r -  r  tabulate areas there are numerous, small dissepiments of various shapes.  Some of them have the same herring-bone shape  observed i n the transverse section of this part of the corallum. Remarks:  Of the species known to the writer this  specimen resembles only P. devoniense. The large number of septa make i t d i s t i n c t from several species of comparable structures.  The o r i g i n a l description of P. devoniense, however,  is not comprehensive enough to permit c e r t a i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Occurrence of hypotype:  C5074, south of Cripple  Creek, Devonian, mostly 'Green shale'. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a exlgua Lambe (Plate 13* ,  figures 1-7 )  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i (Meek) Whiteaves, 1891, p. 205. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i var. exiguum Lambe, 1901, p. 168. p l . x i v , f i g . 7. "var. exiguum" i n explanation of p l . x i v . P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a exigua Lambe. Smith, 1945, p. 41, p l . 21, f i g s . 3-6; p l . 23, f i g . 7. Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) "Small P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a with septa which d i l a t e at the borders of the t a b u l a r i a but disintegrate peripherally into discontinuous segments, and with well-developed horse-shoe dissepiments. Description: The c o r a l l a are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y small and d i s c o i d a l , sometimes b u i l t up of superposed laminae. The largest measure 15 cm. i n diameter, and t a l l e s t , 5 cm. i n height. More usually they are about 3 em. high. The convex or almost f l a t d i s t a l surface i s i n d i f f e r e n t l y even or hummocky. The c a l i c u l a r p i t s are surrounded by a raised border of exsert septa. The sharply defined rings, about 1 mm. i n diameter, are separated by distances which, though varying very much, average about 2.5 mm. The septa, where they are less degenerate, stand out p l a i n l y above the  72 dissepimental surface but where they have broken up the dissepiments are exposed as c l o s e l y packed minute b l i s t e r s (as i n P. vesiculosa but much smaller). There are 16 to 20 septa which are dilated for a f r a c t i o n of a millimeter at the border of the tabularia. The major septa sometimes extend well into the tabularium but are more often very l i t t l e longer than the minor and terminate a x i a l l y just within the border of the tabularia. The septa break up peripherally both i n a v e r t i c a l and a horizontal d i r e c t i o n into dissociated parts which i n transverse section appear as a row of dashes ending i n a medley of dots. In longitudinal section they appear as v e r t i c a l crests on dissepimental platforms. The septa of adjacent c o r a l l i t e s may be confluent, but more usually they f a i l to meet. The tabulae are i n d i f f e r e n t l y complete or incomplete, f l a t or strongly convex. The ordinary dissepiments are w e l l arched, broader than high, and are arranged i n s t r a t i f i e d layers. They are rather large but very considerably i n s i z e , and some, being very much larger than the r e s t , are developed sporadically among the f i n e r tissue. The horse-shoe dissepiments are very small but very regular and constant." 0  Remarks:  Because Lambe's description of the species  is considered inadequate, Smith's description, based on four plesiotypes has been quoted here. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a hennahii C» ::i/:e  ,  (Lonsdale)  f .V.:r"3  }  Astrea hennahii Lonsdale (pars) 1840, p. 697, p i - l v i i i , Astrea hennahii P h i l l i p s , 1841, p. 12,  fig.3.  pi. v i , f i g . io.  Cyathophyllum hennahii. Brown, 1848, p. 368. L i t h o s t r o t i o n hennahii. Actinocyathus hennahii. and P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a hennahii (pars) D Orbigny pp. 106, 107. 1  Smithia hennahii Edwards and Haime, 1851,  1850,  p. 421.  Arachnophyllum hennahii M'Coy, 1851, p. 72. Smithia hennahii Edwards and Haime, 1853, f i g . 4-4d.  p. 240, tabi LIV,  /  73 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a h e n n a h l i L o n d s a l e , Smith, 1945, p l . 19, f i g . l a , b, D e s c r i p t i o n : (Edwards and Haime, 1853) "A p o l i s h e d h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n of t h i s compound a s t r e i f o r m c o r a l l u m shows that the mural c i r c l e s , a l t h o u g h s l e n d e r , a r e w e l l c h a r a c t e r i s e d , and placed a t a d i s t a n c e from each o t h e r , equal t o 2,3, or even 4 times t h e i r diameter, but v a r y i n g sometimes v e r y much i n t h e same specimen. C o s t a l r a d i i (24 or 26 i n a c o r a l l i t e ) s l e n d e r , appearing t o be s l i g h t l y granulated on t h e i r s i d e s , and i n general much more developed, more conf l u e n t and s t r a i g h t e r i n one d i r e c t i o n than i n the o t h e r , where they become i r r e g u l a r , f l e x u o u s , angular or g e n i c u l a t e ; h a l f of the r a d i i do not extend beyond the w a l l ; the others become somewhat t h i c k e r at that p a r t , and pass on towards the c e n t r e of the v i s c e r a l chamber, where some t r a c e s o f s m a l l p a l i f o r m lobes are seen. Diameter o f the mural c i r c l e s about 1.5 l i n e . A v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n shows that the i n t e r c o s t a l l o c u l i are f i l l e d up w i t h v e s i c l e s , which a r e v e r y s m a l l and p r e t t y r e g u l a r . The dissepiments o f the i n t e r s e p t a l l o c u l i are almost h o r i z o n t a l , and u n i t e at the c e n t r e of the v i s c e r a l chamber so as t o form a s e r i e s o f s m a l l and v e r y c l o s e l y s e t tabulae."  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a nevadensIs Stumm (Plate  i  3  ,  figures 8  )  S m i t h i a hennahl Meek, 1877, (not A s t r a e a hennahi Lonsdale) p. 32, p l . 2, f i g s . 6, 6a. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a hennahl Whiteaves. 1891, i n p a r t , p. 204, ( e x c l u d i n g specimens from the M i d d l e Devonian of O n t a r i o ) . P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r r i l l i Lambe,-1901, (not S m i t h i a v e r r i l l i Meek) pp. 167-168, p l . 14, f i g s . 5, 5a-b, 6 ( e x c l u d i n g specimens mentioned i n the t e x t from the M i d d l e Devonian of O n t a r i o ) . P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a nevadensis Stumm. 1939, p. 66, p l . 7, f i g . p l . 8, f i g s . 15a-b.  13;  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a sp. a Merriam, 1940, p l . 14, f i g . 1 P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a sp. f Merriam, 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 4. Not P. sp. b Merriam; 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 2 which i s P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a b r e v i s e p t a t u m Stumm; P. s p . c Merriam, 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 2 which i s Pachyphyllum exiguum CSmith); or P. sp. e M e r r i a h , 1940, p l . 15, f i g . 3 which i s P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r r i l l i (Meek).  74 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a maeouni Smith, 1945, p. 41, p i . 20, f i g s . p i . 21, f i g . 2; p i . 23, f i g s . 5-6. Pachyphyllum  4-8,  nevadense (Stumm) 1948, p. 45, p i . 10, f i g . 3, 5, p i . 13, f i g s . 1, 3, 11.  Description: (Stumm, 1948) Astraeoid c o r a l l a that vary from hemispherical to subhemispherical to discoid i n external form. The margins of the t a b u l a r i a are strongly exsert and project from 2 mm. to 4 mm. above the d i s t a l surface. They average about 3 mm. i n diameter. The peripheral portions of the septa are of variable length so the t a b u l a r i a range from a minimum of 5 mm. to a maximum of over 10 mm. apart when measured from their axes. The septa become quite irregular and wavy i n their peripheral portions and may be confluent with those of a neighbouring c o r a l l i t e or may abut against them. The major septa enter the t a b u l a r i a and may extend to the axes, forming a small o x i a l boss. In the transverse section the septa vary from 18 to 24 i n number. They are strongly d i l a t e d across the margins of the t a b u l a r i a and the minor terminate there while the major, becoming attenuate, extend to or almost to the axes. Outside the t a b u l a r i a the septa are l i g h t l y carinate with small, spinose, offset carinae. The margins of the tabularia have a d i s t i n c t double-walled appearance between the dilated septa. This is due to the interception of the strongly d i s t a l l y convex marginal row of horse-shoe dissepiments. In the longitudinal section the t a b u l a r i a are d i s t inct and bounded by a single row of horse-shoe dissepiments that are small, very globose, and d i s t a l l y convex. The tabulae are complete or incomplete, r e l a t i v e l y horizontal, and c l o s e l y set. In some c o r a l l i t e s they are elevated a x i a l l y and depressed p e r i a x i a l l y . In the intertabulate areas the dissepiments are horizontally disposed and elongate." Remarks:  By a eareful comparison  of the o r i g i n a l  description of P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a nevadensls Stumm (1939, p. 66) with those of P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a maeouni Smith (1945, p. 41) I can detect nothing which indicates these forms to be separate species.  I therefore follow Stumm (1948, p. 45)  i n considering P. maeouni to be a junior synonym of P. nevadensls. In my remarks on the genus P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a , I have already stated my reasons f o r considering Pachyphyllum invalid.  to be  On this point I am at variance with Stumm (1948,  75 p. 45; 1949, p. 32)  I prefer to revert to Stumm's o r i g i n a l  designation of the species as P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a nevadensis. "His 1948 description of the species has been selected because i t i s more comprehensive than the o r i g i n a l .  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i (Meek) (Plate 14 , figures Smithia v e r i l l i Meek, 1867,  p. 83,  1-4 ) p l . x l , f i g . 7.  Not P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i Meek, Whit'eaves, 1891,  p. 205.  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i (Meek) Smith, 1945, p. 38, f i g s . 2a-c; p l . 23, f i g . 1.  p l . 19,  " "Diagnosis: (From Smith, 1945, p. 38). P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a with confluent or abutting septa d i l a t e d most of their length, and major septa which reach the a x i s . " O r i g i n a l description: ••; (Meek's description of Smithia v e r i l l i ) "corallum depressed, moderately convex below, where i t seems to have been protected by a t h i n e p i theca, and attached by a small central peduncle; upper side nearly f l a t . Calices nearly as deep as wide, with v e r t i c a l walls, and subangular; s l i g h t l y raised margins, showing about f i f t e e n p r i n c i p a l septal r a d i i , and as many short intermediate secondary ones; the former rather prominent on the w a l l s , and continued i n the bottom of the calices to the centre, while the l a t t e r assume the appearance of raised s t r i a e between. Mural c i r c l e s , "as seen i n sections, not very d i s t i n c t l y defined, being mainly indicated by the sudden thickening of the r a d i i as they pass on; situated regularly at intervals of once to twice their own diameter apart. Radii t h i r t y to thirty' f i v e , rather t h i n , and minutely and very obscurely granulose, or s t r i a t e on the sides; a few of them straighter and more confluent i n one d i r e c t i o n than the others, and*generally meeting those from the adjacent c o r a l l i t e s at various angles, as seen i n transverse sections; the twelve to f i f t e e n p r i n c i p a l ones continued to the center, while the others coalesce with them, or die out a short distance within the w a l l s . Dissepiments very t h i n , and arching a l i t t l e downwards, i n crossing the i n t e r c o s t a l spaces, arranged closer together than the r a d i i themselves. Transverse diameter of the corallum 2.20 inches; height of do., 0.75 inch; breadth of mural c i r c l e s and e a l i c e s , 0.13 inch; interspaces from 0.13 to (occasionally) 0.18 inch."  76  Remarks:  Smith (194-5, p. 38) has written a more  l u c i d description of the specie which i s a necessary supplement to the o r i g i n a l and i s given here: "The o r i g i n a l of Meek»s Figure 7 of Plate 11 i s a small oval, d i s c o i d a l corallum, measuring 5.5 cm. by 4.5 cm. by 2 cm. The d i s t a l surface i s almost f l a t , while the proximal side i s convex and has a more or less c e n t r a l l y placed cone of"attachment. The deep c a l i c u l a r p i t s which have only s l i g h t l y elevated borders, nearly as deep as wide, and v e r t i c a l sides, are about 4 mm. i n diameter and approximately 3 mm. apart. There are about 32 septa which stand out very p l a i n l y above the d i s t a l surface and from the walls and f l o o r s of the c a l i cular p i t s . The septa of contiguous c o r a l l i t e s are confluent or abut or are separated by vestiges of epitheca. The major septa are long, and a few of them meet at the axis of the c o r a l l i t e s , but on entering the t a b u l a r i a they become very t h i n . Outside the tabularia they are strongly dilated throughout almost t h e i r whole length although they sometimes attenuate a l i t t l e at the boundaries of the c o r a l l i t e s . The d i l u t e d parts of the septa reveal a granular structure, the darker elements taking the form of bars crossing the septa at right angles and projecting s l i g h t l y as feeble carinae. The tabulae are incomplete and d i s t a l l y arched, and the dissepiments are small and apparently a l l of.one kind.  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i Edwards and Haime (Plate I  4 f  fi  g U  re  5  )  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i Edwards and Haime, 1851, p i . 10,  p. 4-47,  f i g . 5.  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a a f f i n i s B i l l i n g s , 1874,  p.  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i Nicholson, 1875,  11 p. 78  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i Rominger, 1876, p. 128, p i . XXXVIII, f i g . 2. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i Lambe, 1901, p. 166, p i . XIV, f i g . 4 . Description: (Lambe 1901) "Corallum forming large d i s c o i d a l masses over 30 cent, broad and 8 cent, thick or high, upper surface f l a t , lower surface i r r e g u l a r , strongly marked by concentric foldings or wrinkles of growth and covered by an epitheca. Septa numbering from about t h i r t y to f o r t y - s i x . C o r a l l i t e s varying i n diameter from 10 to 16 mm.  77 Central p i t of the calices from 3 to 5 mm. i n diameter. In no p a r t i c u l a r does this species d i f f e r from P. B i l l i n g s i . except i n the smaller size of i t s c o r a l l i t e s ~ a n d i n a diminution i n the number of the septa. In transverse sections and i n weathered specimens i t i s observed that a single row of pore-openings occurs between each pair of septa, the pores piercing the dissepiments where they rest on each other, the distance apart of the pores i n a single row thus depending on the s i z e of the dissepiments. This pore structure, which appears not no have been noticed previously i n species of this genus, and which i s well shown i n some specimens of P. B i l l i n g s 1 , i n the c o l l e c t i o n , i s apparently somewhat analagous to that which i s seen i n some species of the genus Arachnophyllum." Remarks:  Rominger (1876, p. 128) says the number  of septa varies from 36 to 40, which figure i s at variance with Lambe's given above, which may well be a misprint. This appears probable since such a large range i n number of septa i s extraordinary within a  species.  Lambe's figure  probably should read " t h i r t y - s i x to f o r t y " , rather than " t h i r t y to f o r t y - s i x " .  P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a woodmani (White) (Plate  14 ,  figures 6-8 )  Smithia woodmani White, 1870, p. 188. Pachyphyllum woodmani. H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , 1873, p. 239, p l . 9 , f i g . 9. Pachyphyllum woodmani, Fenton and Fenton, 1924, pp. 46-47, p l . 7, f i g s . 1-3, p l . 8, f i g . 2; p l . 9, f i g s . 11-12; p l . 10, f i g . 3. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a woodmani (White) Stumm, 1940, p. 64, p l . 7, f i g . J.1; p l . 8, f i g s . 13a-b. Holotype:  U.S. Nat. Mus. 98279  Descriptions (Stumm 194-0) "The holotype i s a portion of a hemispherical corallum that i s composed of astraeoid c o r a l l i t e s with confluent septa. The i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l l i t e s vary from 1 to 2 cm. i n diameter. D i l a t i o n of the septa at the margin of the t a b u l a r i a produces strong exsert rims that project as much as 4- mm. above the dissepimentaria and the c e n t r a l p i t s . These exsert rims surrounding the tabularia vary from 5 mm. to 1 cm. i n diameter. The minor septa terminate at this w a l l , but the major continue and stop just short of the a x i s . In the transverse section there are from 36 to 42 r a d i a l l y arranged septa i n the i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l l i t e s . They are either confluent with those of neighbouring c o r a l l i t e s or abut against them. A l l the septa become strongly dilated at the margin of the tabularlum, and minor septa stop here., The major septa, becoming very attenuated, continue to within 2 mm. of the axis. Transverse dissepiments are common between the peripheral ends of the septa and the margin of the tabularlum. In the l o n g i t u d i n a l section the tabularia vary from 5 mm. to 1 cm. i n width and are composed of a central series of horizontal tabellae bounded i n either side by a series of inclined tabellae. Remarks: This species has usually been placed i n the genus Pachyphyllum. but t h i s genus, as shown by the genotype, P. bouchardi, d i f f e r s from P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a only i n the larger""size of the i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l l i t e s . Most authors do not consider Pachyphyllum to be worthy of generic d i s t i n c t i o n . Belanski (1928, p. 174) has interpreted Pachyphyllum on the basis of P. devoniense Edwards and Haime (1851, p. 397) and his own species P. websteri (op. c i t . , pp. 171-174, text f i g . p. 172), i n which peripheral retreat of the septa has caused the c o r a l l i t e s to be separated by dissepimental tissue. Lang and Smith (1935, P. 555) show that this interpretation i s untenable because peripheral s e p t a l retreat i s not exhibited i n the genotype of Pachyphyllum. £• bouchardi Edwards and Haime (1850, p. 68). In a d d i t i o n Lang and Smith claim that both septal confluence and p e r i pheral septal retreat can be seen i n the same colony of c o r a l l i t e s at d i f f e r e n t stages of growth. Occurrence: Upper 500 feet of the Nevada limestone at Devil's Gate, 7 miles northwest of Eureka, Nevada.  79  Subfamily ERIDOPHYLLINAE  Stumm  Genus Eridophyllum Edwards and Haime (Plate 15  , figures 1-3  )  Eridophyllum Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x x i . Eridophyllum Edwards and Haime, Stumm, 1949, p. 37, p i . 18, f i g s . 1-14. Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l designation) Eridophyllum s e r i a l e Edwards and Haime, 1 8 5 0 , p. l x x i , 1851, p. 424. O r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n : "Corallum composite, and increasing by l a t e r a l gemmation. C o r a l l i t e s t a l l , c y l i n droid, and provided with a thick epitheca, which gives r i s e to a v e r t i c a l series of short and thick subradiciform productions that extend to the next i n d i v i d u a l and unite them together.. Tabulae well developed, and occupying the central area circumscribed by the inner w a l l . Septal apparatus occupying the annular area situated between the outer and inner mural investment! but not extending into the inner or central area."  80 Family  CYSTIPHYLLOIDAE Wedekind and V o l l b r e c h t Subfamily  CYSTlPHYLLOINAE  Genus C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s Chapman C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s . Chapman, 1893, C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s . Yoh,  1937,  C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s Chapman.  p.  46.  (123), pp. Stumm, 1949,  f i g s . 1-7;  p i . 20,  50,  53,  p. 39,  f i g s . 14,  (as a n. genus) p i . 19, 15.  "Genotypes By monotypy, C y s t i p h y l l u m aggregatum B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 137, t e x t - f i g . 2B. Horizon and L o c a l i t y o f Genotype? Middle Devonian, Onondaga limestone: near Simcoe, O n t a r i o , Canada. Generic D e s c r i p t i o n : (Stumm 1949), "Simple or weakly aggregate, l o n g , s u b c y l i n d r i c a l t o c e r a t o i d c o r a l s w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e l l - s h a p e d c a l y x and a heavy, h o r i z o n t a l l y w r i n k l e d e p i t h e c a . Calyx f i l l e d w i t h dissepiments t h a t a r e crossed by r a d i a t i n g s e p t a l s t r i a e . P e r i o d i c rejuvenescence causes s e p t a l cones to be present at v a r y i n g v e r t i c a l d i s t ances a p a r t . In t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n these appear as concent r i c bands of s h o r t s e p t a l c r e s t s . Dissepimentarium i s wide and composed of many s m a l l i n c l i n e d d i s s e p i m e n t s . Tabularium c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , narrow, composed o f c l o s e l y s e t , u s u a l l y d i s t a l l y convex t a b e l l a e . Remarks:  Stumm, (1949, p. 38)  p o i n t s out  that  Devonian forms possess s e p t a l cones d e r i v e d from c a l y c i n a l s e p t a l s t r i a e and are thus g e n e r i c a l l y d i s t i n c t  from the  S i l u r i a n genus C y s t i p h y l l u m which has s e p t a l c r e s t s , d e v e l oped from l a t e r a l acanthine  septa.  b a s i s that Stumm (1949, p. 39)  I t i s presumably on  bases h i s remark t h a t N o r t h  American s p e c i e s C y s t i p h y l l u m americanum and from Onondaga and Hamilton s t r a t a belong Cystlphylloides.  this  r e l a t e d species  t o the genus  81 Cystiphylloides americanum (Edwards and Haime) (Plate 15, ("fig^es 4^5; ^lafce, 16, figures 2  1-3)  Cystiphyllum cylindricum H a l l (not lonsdale) 1843, p. 209, f i g s . 1, 2. Cystiphyllum americanum Edwards and Haime 1851» P l . 13, f i g s .  p. 464,  4-4a.  Cystiphyllum americanum Nicholson 1874, p. 36, p l . 6, f i g . 8. (?) Cystiphyllum vesiculosum Nicholson, 1874, p. 37,  f i g . 8.  Cystiphyllum vesiculosum Lambe, 1901, p. 1$2. Cystiphyllum vesiculosum Stewart, 1938, p. 57, p l - 11, f i g s . 3-5. Cystiphyllum americanum Fenton and Fenton, 1938, p. 228, p l . XXII, f i g s . 6, 7; p l . X X I I I , f i g s . 2-8, p l . XXIV, f i g s . 1-3. Descriptions (Fenton and Fenton 1938) "Corallum cylindro-turbinate with moderate rate of expansion and varied yet rather regular curvature. Constrictions numerous, angular, and commonly of magnitude exceeding 0.3 of the diameter, Epitheca t h i n , complete or incomplete, commonly removed by corrosion or erosion before f o s s i l i z a t i o n or after i t . Fossa shallow to deepl marginal zone concave to convex, undefined. Septal rays poorly developed i n some specimens; i n others they number 90 to 100 and cross the dissepiments to the a x i a l region. Transverse sections show a marginal band of cysts 1 to 3 mm. In greatest diameter and oval to concentric i n shape; the dissepiments enclosing them are t h i n and generally lack septal rays. The s i z e of dissepiments and cysts decreases c e n t r a l l y ; thickness of the former increases; septal rays form priminent "teeth" on their inward faces, and cysts become i r r e g u l a r l y oval or even round. At 5 to 12 mm. from the periphery ( i n sections 17 to 43 mm. i n diameter) there i s an i r r e g u l a r but commonly heavy sclerotheca formed p a r t l y by crowding together of small dissepiments and p a r t l y by deposi t i o n of stereoplasm upon and within them (plate XXIII, figures 6 to 8). Inside this w a l l , cysts and dissepiments enlarge — or more properly, merge with incomplete, highly convex, cyst-forming tabulae 1.5 to 12 mm. i n width, whose outermost members bear septal rays. Constriction i s accomplished primarily by reduction of the dissepimental zone; except i n extreme cases the tabulae r e t a i n normal size and cover almost normal areas.  82 Longitudinal sections show the dissepiments arranged i n broadly funnel-shaped series approximating the "cystosepiments of Grabau. The f a l s e inner w a l l i s either c y l i n d r i c a l though broken (plate XXIV, figure 1) or i s resolved into another series of funnels v a r i a b l y spaced and either d i s t i n c t or connected; their i n d i v i d u a l deposits are as much as 2.6 mm. thick. Tabulae merge with dissepiments on levels between these funnels and (apparently) i n them. Some tabulae are concave; others reach convexities of about 200 degrees, forming cysts that are c i r c u l a r i n transverse section." M  Remarks:  The reference of Devonian cystimorphs to  Cystlphylloides rather than to Cystiphyllum has already been discussed i n connection with the description of Cystlphylloides. Nicholson, Lambe and Stewart have referred this form to Cystiphyllum veslculosum Goldfuss.  Fenton and Fenton  (1938, p. 230) point out that this i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , although probably correct, has not been based on a comparison of sectioned type  material of Goldfuss  American specimens.  1  species with North  They therefore uphold the retention of  C. amerlcanum u n t i l such a comparison has been made.  I have  not discovered, during the course of t h i s study, any further work on this problem and therefore f e e l obliged to follow Fenton and Fenton i n r e f e r r i n g North American forms to C. amerlcanum u n t i l a f f i n i t i e s with the previously established European species C. veslculosum have been proven.  Cystlphylloides amerlcanum. var. arcticum (Plate  16,  Meek  f i g u r e s 4-6)  Cystiphyllum amerlcanum Edwards and Haime, (185D, p. 4-64, p i . x i i i , f i g . 4, 4a.  83 Cysteophyllum amerlcanum* var. arcticum Meek, 1867» p. p i . XI, f i g . 6.  80,  O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum c o n i c a l , or possibly becoming c y l i n d r i c a l i n large specimens, straight or somewhat curved. Surface with a thin epitheca, and d i s t i n c t wrinkles, with stronger e n c i r c l i n g ridges of growth. Calice c i r c u l a r , or a l i t t l e oval, c o n i c a l , and of moderate depth; marked with radiating impressed l i n e s , i n d i c a t i n g the p o s i t i o n of rudimentary septa, formed by the crowding together of the walls of the v e s i c l e s within. I n t e r i o r , as seen i n a longi t u d i n a l section, e n t i r e l y occupied by a dense vesicular t i s s u e , the vesicles being largest and most i r r e g u l a r i n the c e n t r a l region, and becoming very small, crowded, and arranged i n oblique ascending series on each side; i n a transverse section,'' showing t h i n radiating f a l s e septa, of which about one hundred may be counted i n the entire s e r i e s . -Near the middle, these f a l s e septa are d i s t i n c t , but they become gradually more i r r e g u l a r and obscure as they approach the exterior. Length, 2.10 Remarks:  inches, or more; breadth, 1.25  Meek's i l l u s t r a t i o n s are not c l e a r enough  to base decisions upon, but as to the necessity  inches."  the writer entertains  some doubt  of establishing the variety arcticum.  Indeed, C. amerlcanum arcticum apparently d i f f e r s from the t y p i c a l species only i n having a more eystose c e n t r a l  region.  In a genus so notorious for possessing variable i n t e r n a l structures, this single c h a r a c t e r i s t i c probably does not warrant the erection of a separate v a r i e t y .  Family CHONOPHYLLIDAE Holmes Subfamily CHONOPHYLLINAE Holmes  Genus Chonophyllum Edwards and Haime Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l designation) "Typ. sp. Chonophyllum perfoliatum; Cyathophyllum perfoliatum, Goldfuss, tab. x v i i i , f i g . 5." Original description: "Corallum simple, and cons t i t u t e d p r i n c i p a l l y by a series of infundibuliform tabulae, superposed and Invaginated, the surface of which presents numerous septal r a d i i equally developed, and extending from the centre to the circumference. No columella or walls." Remarks:  The o r i g i n a l description i s not consid-  ered to be adequate and i s supplemented by Stumm*s d e s c r i p t -  ion (1949, p. 48); "Simple, p a t e l l o i d corals having a calyx with an a x i a l p i t and broad reflexed peripheral platform. Repeated rejuvenescence produces a marked f o l i a t e d appearance to corallum. Septa are r a d i a l l y arranged and heavily dilated across wide dissepimentarium. Minor septa terminate at border of tabularlum, but major enter tabularlum i n an attenuated form and may extend to axis, producing an a x i a l whorl. Septa are true lamellar septa only i n a x i a l region. Across wide peripheral platform, they occur as series of horizontal plates recurring with each rejuvenescence. Interspaces between these h o r i z ontal plates are f i l l e d with elongated, almost horizontal dissepiments. Plates appear r a d i a l l y continuous because septa are i n l a t e r a l contact, but i n t e r s e p t a l s t r i a e are always v i s i b l e . Central tabularlum i s narrow and composed of closely set, complete or incomplete tabulae." The reader i s referred to Smith 1945, p. 19, p l . 30, f i g . 3, for  a discussion and an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the genotype of  Chonophyllum. and to Stumm 1949, p l . 23, f i g s . 3-7, f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the holotype of C. perfoliatum.  Chonophyllum magnificum B i l l i n g s (Plate 17 , figures  1  -  3  )  Chonophyllum magnificum. B i l l i n g s , i860, p. 264, p i . 1. Chonophyllum magnificum. Rominger, 1876, p. 115, upper row.  p i . XLIII.  Chonophyllum magnificum. Sherzer. 1892. p. 267, p i . 8, f i g s . 2,3,  4 and 5,  Chonophyllum magnificum B i l l i n g s . Lambe, 1901, p. 188 An abbreviated and amended form of Lambe* s lengthy description of the species i s given here. Description: Corallum short, broadly expanding to cylindro-turbinate, obtusely pointed and s l i g h t l y curved at the base. The type specimen i s 16 to 17 cm. i n diameter and about 8 cm. high. C a l i c u l a r p i t deep, from about 1/3 to nearly 1/2 the entire diameter i n width. Septa ( i n type specimen) 132 i n marginal area, are lamellar on sides of c a l i c e , b i f u r cating when about half way up and gradually change, on expanded margin, into low,- convex ridges from 3 to 5 mm. broad. Near periphery they consist of a series of t h i n , separate, superimposed convex layers, of which there are from 18 to 30-40 i n 5 mm., supported by numerous granules or short p i l l a r s . As septal layers converge, they become compressed l a t e r a l l y , t i l l they become thin, double, lamellar plates. Septa passing into the p i t apparently do not extend into the center, but stop.at the bottom of the steep sides where they meet and alternate with an equal number of septa which reach the center and are there s l i g h t l y twisted. ThesB septa do not appear,on the sides of the c e n t r a l p i t . Dissepiments small, convex, arching upward i n the narrow i n t e r s e p t a l spaces. 'Toward the center of the lumen they become larger and i r r e g u l a r i n d i s position. Remarks:  For further d e t a i l s of the i n t e r n a l  structures of Chonophyllum the reader i s referred to Sherzer,  1892, p. 267.  86 Genus Ptychophyllum  Edwards and Haime  Strombodes (pars), Lonsdale, 1839,  p. 691  Ptychophyllum  Edwards and Haime, 1850,  Ptychophyllum  Edwards and Haime, Smith, 1945, f i g s . 2 a , b.  p. l x i x . p. 51,  p l . 35»  Genotype: (By o r i g i n a l designation) Ptychophyllum stokesi. O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum simple, and organized as i n the preceding genus, but having the septal r a d i i strongly twisted towards the center of the tabulae, so as to constitute a spurious columella." Remarks:  The 'preceding genus' alluded to i n the  description i s Chonophyllum. which Edwards and Haime describe thus: "Corallum simple, and constituted p r i n c i p a l l y by a series of infundibuliform tabulae, superposed and invaginated, the surface of which presents numerous septal r a d i i equally developed, and extending from the center to the circumference. No columella nor walls." The o r i g i n a l description, even when supplemented by that of Chonophyllum. i s obviously inadequate.  Ptychophyllum  has been discussed by Smith (1945, p. 5D» whose diagnosis of the genus follows: "Diagnosis: Rugose corals which are t y p i c a l l y simple, p a t e l l a t e , or turbinate i n shape and i n which the c a l i c e has t y p i c a l l y a wide r e f l e x peripheral platform and a moderately deep a x i a l depression occupied by a prominent boss. The septa are long and t y p i c a l l y t h i n but break up periphera l l y i n such a way that i n transverse section they appear to s p l i t into component strands. The major septa reach the axis where they form a strongly twisted a x i a l Vortex. There i s a narrow inconspicuous cardinal fossula which invades the vortex. The small arched t a b e l l a e form a series of convex f l o o r s , and the rather small but elongated dissepiments form a wide dissepimentarium."  87  Smith expresses some doubt i n r e f e r r i n g his species ' tt  k i n d l e i and v h i t t a k e r ! to Ptychophyllum  T  since the genotype  i s known only from the Middle S i l u r i a n and no other forms have so f a r been found to f i l l the Middle S i l u r i a n to Upper Devonian gap. He has tentatively placed the Upper Devonian species under Ptychophyllum. s o l e l y on the basis of s i m i l a r morphology.  •88 Subclass TABULATA Family FAVOSITIDAE  Genus A l v e o l i t e s Lamarck A l v e o l i t e s Lamarck, 1801,  p.  375.  A l v e o l i t e s Lamarck. Smith, 1 9 4 5 , Smith (1945, p. 11) was  p.  11.  unable to trace the types  of A l v e o l i t e s suborbicularis and considers diagnosis  them l o s t .  His  of the genus, which follows, i s based upon a  neotype, which i s the o r i g i n a l of Calamopora spongites var. tuberosa Goldfuss, 1829,  p. 80, p l . 28, f i g s . Id, l e . Middle  Devonian. >  "Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) Tabulate corals t y p i c a l l y massive, i n which the corallum i s b u i l t up of superposed layers and the c o r a l l i t e s grow h o r i z o n t a l l y or obliquely from one or more centres of growth, molding t h e i r lower side on the layer below. T y p i c a l l y the c o r a l l i t e s are small, semilunate, or sub-triangular i n section, generally more or less compressed, and usually opening at the surface i n oblique calices with a projecting lower l i p . The walls are i n d i f f erently thick or t h i n , the septa, when present, are acanthine, the tabulae are complete, and the mural pores large and distant. Remarks: The above diagnosis i s based c h i e f l y upon the genotype, but a l l i e d forms are also considered. While the t y p i c a l forms are massive, there are others which are ramose i n habit; i n these the c o r a l l i t e s grow mainly p a r a l l e l to the axis of the branch. The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the corallum, although not by any means peculiar to A l v e o l i t e s . i s a very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and consistent feature. The whole colony i s t y p i c a l l y b u i l t up of r e l a t i v e l y thin sheets, and thin layers of sediment and foreign growth (often a stromatoporoid) may be found between the layers of c o r a l . Nearly every previous writer has described the walls i n A l v e o l i t e s as t h i n , but this i s by no means always the case. The lectotype of A. suborbicularis has rather thick walls, but the thickness even i n this specimen varies i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the corallum.  89 The c o r a l l i t e s are very often much compressed, so much so that i n some species of A l v e o l i t e s — i n A. lemniscus Smith (PI. 26, f i g . 7), for example, they almost; resemble ribbons. The species of A l v e o l i t e s are l i k e so many other "genera" of tabulate c o r a l s , a polyphyletic group having been derived from more than one species of Pavosites. The group ranges from S i l u r i a n to Devonian but i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l a t t e r . "  A l v e o l i t e s multlperforatus Salee MS.  i n Lecompte  A l v e o l i t e s vallorum Meek, Whiteaves, 1891, p. 207; 1892, p. 274; Lambe, 1899, p. 25, partim, who include this species under A l v e o l i t e s vallorum. A l v e o l i t e s multlperforatus Salee Ms., i n Lecompte, 1933, p i . i i i , f i g s . 1, l a , and b. A l v e o l i t e s multlperf oratus Salee. f i g s . 3-5.  Smith, 194-5, p. 13,  p. 39  p i . 26  Smith's description of the species i s chosen because i t is,based upon Canadian material.  His diagnosis and d e s c r i p t -  ion are as follows: "Diagnosis: (Smith, 194-5) A l v e o l i t e s with c o r a l l i t e s which are less obliquely i n c l i n e d and less compressed than are usually found i n A l v e o l i t e s suborbicularis and with numerous mural pores, and occasionally numerous septal spines. Description: The c o r a l l a are generally b u i l t up of superposed laminae and often enclose i n t e r c a l a t i o n s of sediment. They form i r r e g u l a r but generally d i s c o i d a l masses and also thin sheets. A basal epitheca with f i n e concentric growth lines i s sometimes present. The d i s t a l surface i s generally very uneven and often monticulate. The c o r a l l i t e s are usually inclined at angles varying from 20 to 40 from the horizontal, but they may r i s e almost perpendicularly or l i e nearly h o r i z o n t a l . Their transverse sections vary considerably. The more upright c o r a l l i t e s are usually subpolygonal to polygonal, but the oblique ones are i n v a r i a b l y subtriangular or semilunate. The more or less polygonal c o r a l l i t e s are usually about 0.3 to 0.4 mm. i n diameter, the semilunate rather  9G  more i n t h e i r longer and less i n t h e i r shorter diameters. The c o r a l l i t e walls vary very considerably i n thickness even i n the same corallum. In some c o r a l l a or i n some parts of a corallum they are not much more than 0 . 1 mm. thick while i n other places they may a t t a i n a thickness of more than 0 . 5 mm. Septal spines have not, i t i s true, been noticed i n every section cut. This may be due i n some cases to the spines being buried i n the sclerenchyme of the w a l l or to some r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the specimen. In most cases, however, spines are to be seen, at least i n some c o r a l l i t e s . In some of the s o l i t a r y row of prominent stout spines, so characteri s t i c of A l v e o l i t e s s u b o r b i c u l a r i s , i s present; i n others numerous minute spines are v i s i b l e . Most of the tabulae are complete, s t r a i g h t , or curved and usually one to two thirds of a millimeter apart. The large, c l o s e l y set mural pores constitute the most diagnostic character of the species. These are about 0 . 2 mm. i n diameter and at v e r t i c a l i n t e r s a l s of about 0 . 7 mm. Their arrangement appears to follow no very d e f i n i t e rule; they may occur i n opposite or i n adjacent sides of a c o r a l l i t e and are not necessarily confined to the corners. 11  Remarks:  A. multiperforatus d i f f e r s from A.  suborbicularis and A. vallorum, i n having less compressed c o r a l l i t e s , thus being closer to Favosites.  A l v e o l i t e s c f . A. mult iperforatus (Plate  17 ,  figures 4.5  )  Some of the material studied by the writer conforms to Smith's description of the species.  It consists c h i e f l y  of broken c o r a l l a embedded i n black, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone along with Thamnopora-type c o r a l s .  The white c a l c i t e  constituting the c o r a l skeleton i s p a r t l y r e c r y s t a l l i z e d , rendering structures d i f f i c u l t to observe except i n thin sections.  91 C o r a l l a appear to have o r i g i n a l l y been i r r e g u l a r l y undulating superposed laminae ranging from 1 mm. to 4 mm. i n thickness.  Many of them are fractured and separated from one  another by a few millimeters of the engulfing limestone.  This  may well have resulted from wave or current action i f the corals l i v e d i n a shallow-water environment. Description:  C o r a l l i t e s are i r r e g u l a r l y disposed,  but i n general, they tend to  l i e horizontal i n the base of  the corallum and to curve upwards to open at the surface of an angle of from 30 to 40 degrees.  Occasional groups of  c o r a l l i t e s , however, are nearly normal to the surface.  Calices  are moderately depressed and vary i n shape from polygonal to semi-lunate.  Their maximum transverse dimension i s about.7  the minimum about.5 mm.  mm.  Wall thickness varies from one-third  to one-half the c o r a l l i t e diameter.  Occasionally a s i n g l e ,  weakly developed septal spine may be seen projecting a short distance into a c o r a l l i t e .  A few mural pores, having a  diameter of about one-third that of a c o r a l l i t e , may be seen i n thin sections.  Tabulae are rare.  Where observed they are  very d e l i c a t e , which may be the reason f o r t h e i r paucity. Remarks:  The laminar nature of the c o r a l l a , the  moderately depressed nature of the c a l i c e s , and presence of large mural pores provides the basis f o r considering this material to be c l o s e l y related to A. multlperforatus Salee. Occurrence of hypotype:  The specimens are merely l i s t -  ed as being from the Devonian of the Cripple Creek area. Specimen no. C5072, several fragments.  A l v e o l i t e s a f f . A. multlperforatus (Plate 18 , Figures 1 Description: was  X  A globose corallum 3 cm. i n diameter  found to consist of a c o r a l l i n e encrustation from 1 to  4 mm. thick upon a low-spired gastropod s h e l l .  Part of the  corallum has two d i s t i n c t laminae separated  by two c l o s e l y  spaced, concentric plates which are mutually  supported by  short p i l l a r s or plates.  A s i m i l a r pair of plates coats the  gastropod s h e l l beneath the basal portion of the c o r a l . d i s t i n c t b i - p l a t e structures are probably the basal  These  holotheca  of two A l v e o l i t e s c o r a l l a , one ..superimposed upon the other. (See Plate  , figure  ). One layer preceded c o r a l growth  upon the gastropod and the other developed on the surface of the f i r s t A l v e o l i t e s lamina, and was i n turn engulfed i n the second layer of coral. C o r a l l i t e s are polygonal to compressed polygonal i n transverse section with maximum and minimum transverse dimensions of 0.7 and 0.4 mm.  They are mostly inclined to the  corallum surface at an angle of about 40 degrees. ness varies greatly.  Wall t h i c k -  On weathered surface a few c o r a l l i t e s  bear a feeble indentation of the w a l l suggestive of septal spines.  A t h i n section reveals no d e f i n i t e mural pores.  Some  c o r a l l i t e s possess delicate tabulae which are f l a t or gently convex,orally and are spaced at i n t e r v a l s of about 5 mm. Remarks:  The specimen bears general resemblance to  A. multlperforatus but apparent lack of mural pores detracts somewhat from the comparison.  I t i s therefore, considered r e -  lated to that species, but not i d e n t i c a l with i t .  93 Occurrence of hypotype:  5163, Job Greek, Devonian.  A l v e o l i t e s multlperforatus ? Salee (Plate 18 ,  figure  2  )  A polished section and a t h i n section reveal an i r r e g u l a r corallum of A l v e o l i t e s engulfing a branch of a Thamnopora-type c o r a l . Description:  The c o r a l l i t e s are very i r r e g u l a r l y  disposed, but most of the calices exposed i n thin section are oblique to the corallum surface.  The few c o r a l l i t e s sectioned  transversely are compressed, but their c a l i c i n a l dimensions cannot be ascertained. the specimen.  Thickness  of walls varies throughout  No mural pores or tabulae were observed.  Remarks:  The specimen provides very l i t t l e  evidence  of s p e c i f i c value, but i t i s interesting i n i t s encrusting habit, and i n this respect i s s i m i l a r to A. suborbicularis and A. multiperforatus.  I t s moderately compressed c o r a l l i t e s  indicate closer a f f i n i t y to the l a t t e r species. Occurrence of hypotype:  C5034, North branch of  Saskatchewan River, Mile 109, Banff-Jasper Highway, Devonian c o r a l reef.  A l v e o l i t e s rockfordensis H a l l & W h i t f i e l d (Plate  is >  figures 3-6  )  A l v e o l i t e s rockfordensis H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , p. 229, 1873. A l v e o l i t e s rockfordensis H a l l and W h i t f i e l d , Fenton and Fenton, 1924, p. 61, p i . XIII, f i g . 1, p i . XII, f i g s . 3-6.  94 "Description: (Fenton and Fenton, 1924 ) Corallum forming broad, i r r e g u l a r , d i s c o i d a l or oval expansions that range i n size up to a maximum of more than a foot on the longest diameter. The thickness i s most commonly less than an inch, but i n some specimens i s as much as three. C o r a l l i t e s small, numbering from 9-12 i n the space of 5mm. Septa very s l i g h t l y developed; i n most specimens indistinguishable. Apertures rhombic, highly oblique, with the middle of the upper l i p forming a sharp, subangular elevation, and that of the lower occupying the angle between two c o r a l l i t e s i n advance." 1  Remarks: "Alveolites rockfordensis i s a gregarious species, but does not form reefs. It grew among stromatoporoids, and many specimens show interlaminations of Stromatoporella and Syringostroma along with the c o r a l . In such specimens, the A l v e o l i t e s furnishes the base, the stromatoporoids being of l a t e r growth."  A l v e o l i t e s vallorum Meek (Plate i s ,  figure  A l v e o l i t e s vallorum Meek, 1867,  7 )  p. 86, p i . XI, f i g . 9.  O r i g i n a l description: "Corallum massive, large, wider than high, apparently l e n t i c u l a r i n form, or sometimes concave below, and convex above; laminated structure not always d i s t i n c t . Calices very small, or r a r e l y more than 0.03 inch wide and half that i n height, oblique, generally nearly twice as wide as high, and more or less rhombic i n outl i n e . Walls between the c a l i c e s apparently nearly as thick i n worn or weathered specimens, as the diameters of the calices themselves. E n t i r e size of corallum unknown, apparently sometimes as much as four or f i v e inches broad, and one arid a h a l f inches thick or high. "  Genus Coenites Eichwald Coenites Eichwald, 1829, p. Limaria Steininger, 1831, Coenites, Eichwald,  127.  p. 339.  Lambe, 1899, p. 26,  95 Genolectotype: Bassler, 1915, p.  p. 254)  (By subsequent  designation of  Coenites .iuniperlnus Eichvald  1829,  127.  Description: (Lambe, 1899) "Corallum dendroid or forming t h i n expansions with a basal epitheca, composed of flattened or subpolygonal c o r a l l i t e s that reach the surface by an abrupt bend and terminate i n narrow s l i t - l i k e calyces almost at right angles to the surface; walls of the c o r a l l i t e s thin except at the surface where they are suddenly thickened; mural pores i r r e g u l a r l y dispersed; tabulae complete, transverse, rather distant; three longitudinal ridges are sometimes present In the outer ends of the c o r a l l i t e s . Coenites appears to be most nearly related to Cladopora. from which i t i s distinguished by the shape of the calyces and by the sudden, not gradual, thickening of the walls of the c o r a l l i t e s at the surface. The c o r a l l i t e s are at f i r s t prostrate, when the corallum has the form of a t h i n expansion, but when i t i s dendroid they are almost upright i n the centre of the branch or stem. The calyces are transversely elongated and may be straight or curved." Remarks:  Oakley (1936, p. 20) mentioned that Dr.  Stanley Smith was studying the morphology of Coenites i n 1936. H i l l (1936-1937, p. 56) makes reference to unpublished work of Lang and Smith on t h i s group of c o r a l s .  In a search of  available l i t e r a t u r e , however, I have been unable to f i n d a publication of either of the works just mentioned.  For  t h i s reason I must t e n t a t i v e l y refer to Lambe*s description of the genus. However, the genus as i t i s conceived by Oakley (1936, pp. 20-26) and Weissermel  (1939, pp. 70-72) i s not  r e s t r i c t e d to forms possessing compressed c a l i c e s .  Indeed, the  species assigned to Coenites by them have c i r c u l a r c a l i c e s .  Apparently the only distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Coenites i s the sudden d i s t a l sclerenchymal thickening of the c o r a l l i t e walls. Coenites sp. (Plate 19,  figures l-£) •' y •  .if. •... 1  The specimens consist of numerous broken  branches  l y i n g along bedding planes of brown, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone.  Mixed with these corals are fragments  of Disphyllum.  Macgeea? Thamnopora. Aulopora or Cladochonus. bryozoans, and brachiopods, and unidentifiable organic debris. Descriptionr  External features - C y l i n d r i c a l ,  dichotomously branching c o r a l l a with rounded c a l i c e s nearly normal to the surface.  opening  Some specimens exhibit a pro-  jecting l i p along the proximal side of each c o r a l l i t e . C o r a l l i t e s tend to be arranged a l t e r n a t e l y i n longitudinal rows, and are spaced more c l o s e l y l o n g i t u d i n a l l y than transversely.  The diameter of branches ranges from 1.5 - 2.5  and averages 1.7  mm.  mm.  Transverse sections - Mutual thin polygonal walls usually appear as thin dark l i n e s .  Light colored scleren-  chymal thickening of these walls imparts a rounded appearance to the i n t e r i o r of the c o r a l l i t e s .  From 3 to 5 c o r a l l i t e s  are revealed i n cross section at any p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l . these only one or two have attained mature diameter.  Of Opening  to the surface at a given l e v e l are from 6 to 8 calices whose walls suddenly thicken d i s t a l l y .  97 Longitudinal section - Sections cut along the axes of the branches reveal one or two c o r a l l i t e s p a r a l l e l i n g the axis for 3 to 4 mm. of the branch.  before curving outward toward the surface  Young a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s appear to arise at the  point of divergence of a previous a x i a l c o r a l l i t e .  Four or  f i v e c o r a l l i t e s a r i s e from the side of each a x i a l c o r a l l i t e and immediately curve outward to the surface.  The d i s t a l  extremity of the t h i n mutual walls of the c o r a l l i t e s are i n clined to the surface at about 45 degrees, but t h e i r lower sides are excessively thickened by sclerenchyme which extends outward beyond the extremity of the mutual walls.  By this  means the c a l i c e s are disposed at an angle of from 70 to 80 degrees to the surface of the branch.  There are about 7 such  c a l i c e s per 5 nmi. of length. Mural pores have a diameter of about one t h i r d that of the c o r a l l i t e s , and are i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d .  They  occur along the sides of the a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s , and between the short l a t e r a l c o r a l l i t e s .  No tabulae or septal spines were  found. Remarks*  Oakely (1936, p. 24-26) has pointed out  that Coenites i s distinguished from the Cyclostornate bryozoans i n having large mural pores perforating secondary calcareous tissue, and i n having occasional individuals a r i s i n g by i n t e r p o l a t i o n of a wall.  He adds that the sclerenchymal  thickening found i n Coenites i s simulated by the cryptostomate bryozoans only.  This group of bryozoans i s d i s s i m i l a r to  Coenites i n a l l other respects.  98 The  specimens d e s c r i b e d above have been shown t o  possess a l l the d i s t i n c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of C o e n i t e s therefore assigned  corallite distribution  and  c o r a l l i t e s , p a t t e r n of  shape of c a l i c e s ,  s t u d i e d resemble C. s e r i a t o p o r a (Edwards and i l l u s t r a t e d by Oakley ( 1 9 3 6 , pp.  1-3*?•  However, C. s e r i a t o p o r a has  a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s , whereas my equidimensional s i z e and  are  to that genus.  In s i z e of c o r a l l a and  and  and  20-23,  the  specimens  Haime) d e s c r i b e d pl. I l l ,figs.  1 0 to 1 2 r a d i a l l y  form has  elongated  from 3 to 5 n e a r l y  c o r a l l i t e s i n the a x i a l r e g i o n .  The  general  s t r u c t u r e of C. d e c l i v i s Weissermel i s a l s o  similar  to that of the specimens at hand, but a g a i n the number of a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s i s g r e a t e r t h a n i n my In the p o s s e s s i o n  of rounded c a l i c e s  I have d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r n o t a b l y d e s c r i b e d by Lambe ( 1 8 9 9 , pp.  from s p e c i e s  26-28).  a divergence  from t y p i c a l Coenites  d e c l i v i s and  C.  I am  Coenites  In f a c t , there i s here  similar  to that i n C.  I have d e s c r i b e d may  r e l u c t a n t to c o n s i d e r  be a  new  i t as such u n t i l a study  can  be made of l i t e r a t u r e which i s at present Occurrence of hypotypess ( r e e f ) s i d e , 'green s h a l e  south  ( r e e f ) s i d e , 'green s h a l e ' sample;  R i v e r , 'green s h a l e ' .  1  unavailable.  C5077, B l u e f l y  south  Ram  of  the specimens  seriatopora.  A l t h o u g h the s p e c i e s one,  specimens.  drift;  Creek,  C5080 B l u e f l y C5086,  Gap  Creek,  north  of  99  Genus Favosltes Lamarck Favosites Lamarck, 1816, p. 204. Favosites Lamarck.  Swann, 1947, p. 258.  "Genolectotype: p. IX). —  (see Edwards and Haime, 1850, Favosites gothlandica. Lamarck"  Diagnosis: (Translated from the French of Lecompte, 1939, p. 81, i n Swann 1947, p. 259) "Massive tabulate c o r a l s , composed of prismatic, contiguous, but not amalgamate c o r a l l i t e s . Walls l i g h t l y marked by a dark a x i s , generally t h i n , sometimes thickened. Septa absent or represented by spines arranged i n v e r t i c a l rows. Tabulae complete, horizontal or depressed (concave). Mural pores large." (Fenton and Fenton, 1936, p . 2 2 ) . ( i n Swann 1947, p. 258) -- "Corallum branched, expanded or massive. Cora l l i t e s contiguous and prismatic. Walls perforated by pores. Septa absent or represented by ridges or rows of spines, t h e i r condition varying greatly within i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l l a and c o r a l l i t e s i n some cases, but uniform f o r species i n others. Tabulae dominantly complete and approximately horizontal."  Favosites b a s a l t i c a (Goldfuss) (Plate 19 , figures 3-4  )  Calamopora b a s a l t i c a (pars), Goldfuss. 1829, p. 78, p l . XXVI f i g . 4a. Favosites Gothlandica B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 104, f i g s . 2,3,4. Favosites b a s a l t i c a B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 106, f i g . 8. Calamopora epidermata Rominger, 1862, p. 396. Favosltes Gothlandica Nicholson, 1874, p. 45 Favosltes Forbesl Nicholson, 1874, p. 48, p l . VII, f i g . 8 and p l . VIII, f i g . 4. Favosites Forbes! var. tuberosa. Nicholson, 1879, p. 62, p l . I I I . , f i g s . 2, 2a-e. Favosites epidermatus Rominger, I876, p. 28, p l . VIII f i g s . 1, 2, 3.  100 Favosites tuberosus Romlnger, I876, p. 30, p i . IX, f i g s . 1,  2,  Favosites tuberosa H a l l . 1 8 ? 6 , p i . VIII., f i g s . 1-7, p i . VI. f i g . 6 and p i . XI, f i g . 1; var. p i . I., f i g . 1 p i . IV, f i g . 1, and p i . VII., f i g . 1. Favosites epidermata H a l l . 1876, p i . VI, f i g s . 1-5 XII, f i g s . 6 , 9-13. Favosites tuberosa Whiteaves. 1889.  p.  and p i .  121.  Favosites b a s a l t l e a (Goldfuss). Lambe, 1899, f i g s . 3, 3a.  p. 8, p i . I,  Description: (Lambe 1899) "Corallum forming i r r e g u l a r l y shaped, more or less spreading masses, often with f l a t or sublobate minor expansions proceeding from the upper surface, or the general form may be hemispherical, subspherieal, pyriform, lobate, clavate or even subramose; basal attachment small. Under surfaces and often the sides protected by a strong wrinkled epitheca; the wrinkles are generally rather i r r e g u l a r l y disposed and overlap or run into each other, but i n some specimens they are more nearly p a r a l l e l and give to the epitheca a ribbed appearance. The basal portion of the corallum i s frequently strongly p l i c a t e d . The ends of the c o r a l l i t e s , when directed upward or outward, except at the top of the corallum, are generally closed by opercula which show a c e r t a i n amount of concentric structure. The c o r a l l i t e s are generally prismatic and rather equal i n size when the surface of the corallum i s moderately f l a t but round and unequal i n s i z e i n specimens or parts of specimens where the surface i s rounded; varying i n diameter i n the same colony or i n d i f f e r e n t individuals from 2 mm., or even l e s s , to 4 or 5 ^am» Tabulae horizontal, complete, sometimes apparently formed by the union of several squamulae which are present i n large numbers. Pores piercing the sides of the c o r a l l i t e s i n from one to three longitudinal rows, i n some specimens large and placed close together, i n others smaller and farther apart, generally surrounded by a raised rim which i s frequently not preserved on much weathered surfaces. Inner surface of the c o r a l l i t e s marked, with varying d i s t i n c t n e s s , by l o n g i t u d i n a l impressed l i n e s , one to each space, between the rows of pores. This coral i s subject to much v a r i a t i o n i n outward form, i n the size and number of the mural pores and i n the s i z e and shape of the c o r a l l i t e s themselves, whilst i t s appearance i s much affected by the state of preservation of the epitheca and of the tabulae and squamulae, e s p e c i a l l y the l a s t , which are frequently not preserved, leaving the walls of the c o r a l l i t e s on the inside quite smooth.  101 The squamulae occur one above another i n l o n g i t u d i n a l rows corresponding i n a general way with the rows of pores, those of one row frequently interlocking with those of another. When the mural pores are numerous the squamulae are generally placed one above eaeh pore, but, when fewer i n number and farther apart, two or three squamulae are found occupying the space between any two pores of a longitudinal row. Prom this i t would appear that the squamulae may be equally numerous when the pores are distant from each other or when they are placed close together. Most frequently the squamulae have their bases only preserved but under favourable circumstances they are seen to reach the center of the c o r a l l i t e i n the form of thin tongue-shaped processes that are longer than broad and at times inclined s l i g h t l y upward. In d i f f e r e n t c o r a l l a the pores vary i n diameter from about .33 to .50 mm., and i n t h e i r distance from each other; i n some specimens, especially i n those i n which the pores are large, they are about .50 mm. from each other, whilst i n others they are as much as 2 mm. apart v e r t i c a l l y . In most cases the absenee of the raised border of the pores i s probably due to weathering, as examples occur i n which the rim i s present i n certain portions of the corallum and absent i n more exposed parts; i n the case of the l a t t e r the pores appear larger than they r e a l l y are. As i n some species of the genus, small marginal depressions i n the tabulae are not unfrequently developed. Broadly expanded examples sometimes measure nearly 9 inches across with a height of 3 or 4 inches; clavate specimens occur that are 10 or more inches high and few inches thick; some of the pyriform specimens are 6 or 7 inches i n breadth. M  Favosites digitatus Rominger  Favosites digitatus Rominger, 1876,  p. 39, p i . XV, f i g . 4.  O r i g i n a l descriptions "Cespitose masses of subp a r a l l e l anastomosing stems of the thickness of a finger, or single stems with more straddling branches. Tube walls stout, joining under polygonal outlines, lined by a cycle of v e r t i c a l rows of horizontal squamae, usually fewer i n number than the normal twelve. Diaphragms sometimes regular, frequently Incomplete, replaced by the l a t e r a l squamae. Pores large. Tubes i n different specimens v a r i a b l e , from one to  102 one and a h a l f millimeters i n diameter. The polygonal form of the o r i f i c e s and the generally well-developed squamae within the tube channels render this form at once recognizable from other branching forms of Favosites. which have t h e i r o r i f i c e s always more rounded, nearly c i r c u l a r . "  Favosites l i m i t a r i s Rominger (Plate  19 ,  figure 5-8 )  Favosltes l i m i t a r i s Rominger 1876,  p. 36, p l . XIII, f i g s 1-4  O r i g i n a l description: "Ramified and r e t i c u l a t e d stems, from five, to f i f t e e n millimeters i n thickness, forming h o r i z o n t a l l y explanate expansions or erect f r u t i c o s e ramifications. Tubes very thick-walled, opening nearly rectangularly to the surface, with c i r c u l a r o r i f i c e s , the walls forming either a s o l i d , undefined i n t e r s t i t i a l mass, or, i n another state of preservation, the polygonal outlines of each tube are v i s i b l e on the surface of the i n t e r s t i c e s as delicate engraved l i n e s . Several v a r i e t i e s are observed, i n regard to the mode of growth and the s i z e of tubes. The tube o r i f i c e s r a r e l y exceed the diameter of one millimeter; often they are smaller, and i n some forms they are a l l equal i n a specimen; others have smaller and larger o r i f i c e s i n t e r mingled. A part of the o r i f i c e s on the side faces of the stems are often found closed by opercula, situated below the outer edge of the channels; i n the i n t e r i o r parts of the tube channels diaphragms are not regularly developed, and are of rare occurrence. Pores large, distant, and i r r e g u l a r l y dispersed. In older stems the tube channels not infrequently become considerably narrowed by excessive incrassation of the tube walls, while the pore channels gain i n length and width, and appear on the surface as vermicular, transverse channels connecting the tube channels, which l a t t e r are, i n t h e i r narrowed condition, hardly larger than the connecting pore channels. In c e r t a i n specimens the o r i f i c e s are at a s l i g h t l y oblique angle to the surface, and surround at the lower external rim by a raised margin, which approximates t h i s species to the forms of Favositoids comprehended under the name Cladopora. i n i n d i c a t i o n of which s i m i l a r i t y of structure I selected for i t the name l i m i t a r i s . a joining, t r a n s i t o r y form.'" 1  103 Favosites n i t e l i a  Winchell  (Plate 20 , figures i  )  Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell, 1866, p. 89. Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell. Rominger, 1876, p. 33, p l . XI, F i g . 4 (?) Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell. Lambe, 1899, p. 17, (?) Favosltes n i t e l i a Winchell. Stewart, 1938, p. 64, p l . 14, f i g s . 1-2. Favosites n i t e l i a Winchell. Ross, 1953, p. 68. P l . 20, f i g s . 8-9. Description: (Winchell s o r i g i n a l i n Stewart, 1938, p. 64) "In small masses varying from globoid to elongate or scarcely branching. C e l l s sub-circular, sub-equal, with a few minute i n t e r s t i t i a l ones. Septa d i s t i n c t , i r r e g u l a r , complete or incomplete; pores scattered, indented around the o r i f i c e s . Distance of pores .76 mm; diameter of largest c e l l s .76 mm." 1  Discussion: (Stewart, 1938, p. 65) "Lambe considered this species a synonym of F. placenta Rominger. It seems, however, that the d i s c o i d a l or mushroom shape of F. placenta i s so d i s t i n c t i v e that this feature alone would be" s u f f i c i e n t to separate i t from F. n i t e l i a . which i s characterized by small, i r r e g u l a r , and s l i g h t l y branching colonies. Otherwise there i s no difference of s p e c i a l note between the two species."  Genus Striatopora H a l l Striatopora H a l l , 1851, p. 400; 1852, p. 156, p l . XLB, f i g s . la-e. Striatopora^ H a l l . Nicholson,  1879, p. 97.  Striatopora H a l l . H i l l 1937, p. 56. Striatopora H a l l . LeCompte, 1839, p. 132. Striatopora H a l l . Wells, 1944, p. 259. Striatopora H a l l . Stumm, 1949, p. 115. Striatopora H a l l . Ross, 195^, p. 82.  104 Genotypes (By monotypy) Striatopora flexuosa H a l l , 1851, p. 400 and 1852, p. 156, PI. xIB, f i g s . l a - e . S i l u r i a n , Niagara shale, Loekport, New York. Description: (After Ross 1953) "Ramose, c e r i o i d c o r a l l a , with c y l i n d r i c a l or s l i g h t l y compressed branches. C o r a l l i t e s uniform or variable i n s i z e , opening obliquely on small branches or perpendicularly on thick branches to surface. C o r a l l i t e s gently curving away from a x i a l region, r e l a t i v e l y uniform i n diameter a x i a l l y , strongly d i l a t e d d i s t a l l y . Calices round, subpolygonal or polygonal. Apparently no i n t e r c o r a l l i t e spaces. Peripheral stereozone t h i n or thick a x i a l l y , usually very thick d i s t a l l y . Mural pores generally small, spaced at regular or i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . Squamulae (septal spines) developed, s u p e r f i c i a l l y expressed as pseudoseptal ridges. Tabulae present or absent; when present, complete and best developed a x i a l l y . "  Genus Thamnopora Steininger Thamnopora Steininger 1831, Cladopora H a l l 1852,  p.  Pachypora Lindstrom 1874,  p. 10;  1834,  p.  338.  137. p.  14.  Thamnopora Steininger, H i l l , 1936-37, p. Thamnopora Steininger. Smith, 1945,  p.  56.  61.  Genotypes Thamnopora madreporacea Steininger, p.  12.  1849,  Diagnosis: ( H i l l , 1936-37, p. 56) "Ramose tabulate corals i n which the c y l i n d r i c a l branches may be flattened and coalesced; the c o r a l l i t e s are t y p i c a l l y polygonal, and diverge from the axis of the branch and usually open normally to the surface; the c o r a l l i t e walls are d i l a t e d throughout, and the d i l a t i o n increases d i s t a l l y ; t y p i c a l l y the growth lamination i n the sclerenchyme of the wall i s obvious, while Its fibrous nature i s not; septal spines are usually obsolete, and mural pores are large." Remarks:  Hall's description of Cladopora discloses  nothing which warrants i t being set apart from Thamnopora as described by H i l l (1936-1937, p. 56)  and by Smith (1945,  p.61)  Therefore I concur with Smith i n considering Cladopora to he a junior synonym of Thamnopora. With somewhat less certainty Pachypora i s also taken to be synonymous with Thamnopora. H i l l ( 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 , p. 5 6 ) alludes to a manuscript of Lang and Smith i n which this synonymy i s established.  I have not,  however, succeeded i n finding t h i s work published, and must therefore r e l y upon H i l l ' s statement. To the above diagnosis i t may be added that the genus t y p i c a l l y has thin complete tabulae which, because of their delicate nature, are very often p a r t l y or completely destroyed i n specimens.  Thamnopora cervicornis (De B l a i n v i l l e ) (Plate  20,  figures 2-5  )  A l v e o l i t e s cervicornis De B l a i n v i l l e , 1 8 3 0 ,  Diet. S c i . Nat.,  t.~"5o, p. 369. Favosites c e r v i c o r n i s. Edward and Haime, 1851, p. 243; 1 8 5 3 . p. 216, p l . x l v i i i , f i g . 2, partim at l e a s t . Pachypora cervicornis. Nicholson, 1879, Thamnopora cervicornis. Quenstedt, 1881,  p. 82. p. 35,  p l . cxliv,  f i g s . 19-22. Thamnopora cervicornis (De B l a i n v i l l e ) . Smith, 1945, pl. 2 7 , figs. 1,.2.  p. 62,  Diagnosis: (Smith, 1945) "Thamnopora with stout corallum branches and slender tapering c o r a l l i t e s . The c o r a l l i t e s curve outward from the axis of the branch, and t h e i r walls, though thickened throughout gradually, increase i n thickness d i s t a l l y . Description: Thamnopora eervicornis. which often forms extensive growths of c o r a l i n the Middle Devonian rocks of northwestern Europe, has c y l i n d r i c a l branches usually  106 10 mm. to 20 mm. In diameter which i n places coalesce and i n others swell out into i r r e g u l a r nodes. The lectotype cons i s t s of several branches of the Thamnopora embedded i n a piece of ocherous limestone 11 mm. by 8 mm. by 5 mm. From the weathered surface some of the branches stand out almost free of the matrix. The branches are for the most part c y l i n d r i c a l and are approximately 10 mm. to 14 mm. i n diameter, but i n places they are oval i n section and broader. They bifurcate at wide angles and terminate d i s t a l l y i n rounded ends. The long, tapering c o r a l l i t e s curve gradually outward from the axis of the branch and open normally at the surfaee. Where i t i s w e l l preserved the common wall between two c o r a l l i t e s , which i s usually about 0.1 mm. to 0;15 mm. thick but may be more, has a sharp edge. Within this common wall a d i s t i n c t cleavage can be seen i n sections defining the two i n d i v i d u a l s . In transverse section the laminae which form the w a l l are concentric with the lumen; i n l o n g i t u d i n a l section these slope downward at a small angle from the suture toward the i n t e r i o r of the c o r a l l i t e . The tabulae are very t h i n , f l a t , or curved, and although i r r e g u l a r l y distributed are i n most cases 1.0 mm. to 1.5 mm. apart." Remarks: The synonymy l i s t e d above represents only a small part of.the long and complicated history of this species. A much more comprehensive history i s given by Smith (1945, p. 62). Smith's description of the species i s based on a lectotype and a paratype from the Middle Devonian Germany.  Thamnopora cervicornis (De B l a i n v i l l e ) ^ • (.Plate 21„ figure l l ,., . . Part of a large well preserved corallum embedded i n medium grained, black, c r y s t a l l i n e limestone was  cut  into f i v e s e r i a l sections. Description:  External features - Only a small  portion of the coral exterior i s exposed.  The c a l i c e s open  nearly normal to the surface, are i r r e g u l a r l y distributed and ;  usually are .5 to A.8 mm.  apart.  Transverse section - Comparison of s e r i a l sections through the corallum reveal i t to consist of anastomosing  107 s u b c y l i n d r i c a l stems approximately  15 mm. i n minimum diameter.  Where the stems coalesce the t o t a l corallum thickness may exceed 1 5 mm. Individual c o r a l l i t e s i n the c e n t r a l part of the corallum have an inner diameter of about .5 mm. but i n crease to 1 mm. as they curve outward to open perpendicula r l y to the corallum surface. appearing  Mutual walls are polygonal,  i n different parts of the corallum v a r i o u s l y as  dark lines or l i g h t colored l i n e s , i n v a r i a b l y lined with sclerenchyme which thickens d i s t a l l y .  Where the mutual walls  are l i g h t colored a very t h i n , dark d i v i d i n g l i n e may often be seen.  Mural pores . 2 to . 3 mm. i n diameter are numerous.  Only i n a few c o r a l l i t e s were tabulae observed.  Those seen  are f l a t or d i s t a l l y convex and are extremely d e l i c a t e . Remarks:  In the s i z e and shape of the corallum,  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and a t t i t u d e of the c o r a l l i t e s , and i n the structure of the mutual walls, the specimen under consideration very closely resembles the lectotype of T. c e r v i c o r n i s , described and i l l u s t r a t e d by Smith 1, 2 ) .  (1945,  p. 6 2 , p l . 27, f i g s .  My specimen apparently d i f f e r s from Smith's only i n  possessing fewer tabulae.  When the very d e l i c a t e nature of  the tabulae i s taken into consideration, however, this d i s crepancy assumes l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . Occurrence of hypotype: Devonian.  C5012,  Brazeau Creek,  108 Thamnopora lablosa ( B i l l i n g s ) (Plate 21  , figures  2  )  A l v e o l i t e s labiosa B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 114, f i g s . 14,  15.  Alveolites labiosa B i l l i n g s . Nicholson, 1874,  p. 53, f i g .  12b.  Cladopora labiosa ( B i l l i n g s ) . Rominger, 1876,  p. 52, p l . 21,  f i g . 2. Cladopora labiosa ( B i l l i n g s ) , Lambe, 1889, p. 32. Cladopora labiosa ( B i l l i n g s ) , Stewart, 1938, p. 73, p l . 17. f i g s . 4-7. Description: (Stewart, 1938) "Corallum i n the form of small,, slender, branching stems, sometimes forming anastomosing or r e t i c u l a t e colonies of considerable extent. Stems c i r c u l a r i n cross section, about 3 to 8 mm. i n diameter. Tubes arching out from a x i a l portion of stem, enlarging outward, and opening obliquely on the surface of the corallum. C e l l openings c i r c u l a r to transversely oval, becoming t r i a n gular when the lower l i p i s worn away, about .50 to .75 mm. across; somewhat expanded and outlined by a f a i n t raised rim which, i n conjunction with the extended lower l i p , gives a decidedly rhomboidal or pentagonal outline to the c a l i c e s . Mural pores small, d i s t a n t l y but quite regularly spaced on the specimens where their c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been preserved. A very s l i g h t development of the tabulae has also been noted."  Thamnopora polyforata (Sehlotheim) (Plate 22 ,  figures  1-7 )  M i l l e p o r i t e s polyforatus Sehlotheim, 1820, p. 365, partim at at l e a s t , since the syntypes include more than one species. A l v e o l i t e s dubia De B l a i n v i l l e , 1830, p. 370; 1834, p. 405. Pachypora c r i s t a t a (Blumenbach), Roemer, 1883, p. 435, partim. Favosites dubius (De B l a i n v i l l e ) , Lecompte, 1936, p. 54, p l . X, f i g s . 1, l a , l b . (figures of Goldfuss type) Thamnopora polyforata (De B l a i n v i l l e ) . p l . 28, f i g s . 1, 2.  Smith 1945, p. 63,  109  Diagnosis: (Smith, 194-5) "Ramose Thamnopora with rather slender branches and funnel-shaped c o r a l l i t e s which bend sharply outward and open obliquely to the surface and i n which the walls are d i s t a l l y very much thickened. Description: (of lectotype): The coral forms gracef u l ramose colonies with branches t y p i c a l l y about 7.5 mm. i n diameter and i s often found as broken and worn fragments. The c o r a l l i t e s a t t a i n a length of about 10 mm. Proximally they are c y l i n d r i c a l , l i e almost p a r a l l e l to the axis of the branch, and are less than 1 mm. i n diameter, but on reaching a length of several mm. they bend sharply outward, expand rapidly to a c a l i c u l a r diameter of 2mm., and open almost but not quite normal to the surface. The c a l i c e s are s l i g h t l y oblique and have a projecting lower l i p . The c o r a l l i t e walls are about .2 mm. thick i n t h e i r proximal ( c y l i n d r i c a l ) part; and about .4 mm. i n t h e i r d i s t a l region. The lumen i s thus reduced to a narrow c y l i n d r i c a l chamber. Under magnification the walls show fibrous structure, the f i b e r s running at right angles to the w a l l , and also, although much less d i s t i n c t l y , a laminar structure p a r a l l e l to the w a l l s . The mural pores are large (about .15 mm. i n diameter) and distant, and the t h i n tabulae are unequally d i s t r i b u t e d . " i  Remarks:  The history of t h i s species has been  greatly condensed here from Smith (194-5, p. 64).  Thamnopora c f . T. polyforata (Plate 23  ,  figures 1-3  )  The specimens consist of numerous fractured, c y l i n d r i c a l stems embedded i n black, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone, often mixed with fragments of other corals, most commonly Disphyllum. Most of the material i s so poorly preserved as to render d e t a i l s of structure obscure even i n thin section. Description:  Transverse section of corallum -  Average diameter of stems i s 6 mm.  From 18 to 20 c o r a l l i t e s  appear i n transverse section while from 13 to 15 are exposed l o n g i t u d i n a l l y as they curve out to the surface. The o r i g i n a l walls of the c o r a l l i t e s appear as a dark polygonal network.  110 The i n t e r i o r of the c o r a l l i t e s , however, are lined with sclerenchyme which imparts a rounded shape to the c o r a l l i t e i n t e r i o r . . The sclerenchyme gradually thickens d i s t a l l y so that thickness of the c a l i c e walls nearly equals the c a l i c e diameter. Longitudinal section:  The diameter of the stems  varies from 4 to 8 mm. but i s most commonly approximately 6 mm.  Dlchotomous branching of the stems occurs at an angle  of about 80 degrees.  At any given point along a stem one or  two a x i a l c o r a l l i t e s occur. about 10 mm.  They may p a r a l l e l the axis for  before noticeably diverging.  Within this  distance 8 or 9 l a t e r a l c o r a l l i t e s diverge from the a x i a l c o r a l l i t e and curve very regularly to open at the surfaee at an angle of 70 to 80 degrees. ranges from .5 to .7 mm.  The diameter of the c a l i c e s  Where an a x i a l c o r a l l i t e begins to  diverge from the axis another arises.  The o r i g i n of l a t e r a l  c o r a l l i t e s i s not c l e a r l y revealed but i n some cases they were observed to arise adjacent to a mural pore i n the w a l l of the a x i a l c o r a l l i t e . distributed  Mural pores are sporadically  and t h e i r diameter i s approximately equal to one-  t h i r d of the c o r a l l i t e diameter.  No d e f i n i t e tabulae were  observed. Remarks:  Although the material i s not well enough  preserved to permit certain i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  there i s some  evidence of a f f i n i t i e s with T. polyforata.  The disposition of  the c o r a l l i t e s within the stem, and the moderately oblique  Ill calices are reminiscent of that species. Specimens under consideration, however, have smaller stems and smaller c a l i c e s , than has T. polyforata.  In size of the stems, and the diameter  of the calices the specimens studied correspond to T. labiosa (Billings).  That species, however, has greatly oblique  calices i n contrast to only s l i g h t l y oblique calices i n the specimens studied here. Occurrence of hypotypes:  C5034, North branch of  Saskatchewan River, Mile 109, Banff-Jasper Highway; C5071, Cripple Creek area, Devonian  'Coenites  1  reef; 5143,  section  i n pass from upper Coral Creek to Bighorn Creek; 5175,  Job  Creek, Mount Hawk formation.  Thamnopora roemeri ( B i l l i n g s ) (Plate 23 ,  figures 4  )  A l v e o l i t e s roemeri B i l l i n g s , I860, p. 255. A l v e o l i t e s roemeri B i l l i n g s , Nicholson, 1874,  p. 54.  Cladopora roemeri ( B i l l i n g s ) . Rominger, I876, p.51, pi.20, f i g . 3 Cladopora roemeri ( B i l l i n g s ) . Lambe, 1899, Cladopora roemeri ( B i l l i n g s ) . Stewart, 1938, f i g s . 1-3.  p.  36. p. 75, p i . 18,  Description: (Rominger 1876, p. 5D " C y l i n d r i c a l or compressed branching stems of about f i v e millimeters i n diameter. O r i f i c e s comparatively large, oblique to the surface, and joining with t h e i r expanded margins i n an undefined i n t e r s t i t i a l surface, or under subangular, obtusely crested outlines, enclosing shallow, obliquely funnel-shaped p i t s , the outer margins of which project as arched l i p s ; the inner walls of the pits spread insensibly merging into the l i p s of  112  the adjoining p i t s . External diameter of o r i f i c e s about one millimeter; i n t e r i o r tube channel one t h i r d of a millimeter. The o r i f i c e s are frequently closed by opercula situated below the external margins. Diaphragms i n most of the specimens sparingly developed. Pores large and i r r e g u l a r l y dispersed."  113  Family SYRINGOPORIDAE  Genus Syringopora Goldfuss Syringopora Goldfuss, 1826, pp. 75, 76. Harmodites Fisher, 1828, p. 1 9 . Syringopora Goldfuss. Rominger, 1876, p. 79. Genotpye: Syringopora  ramulosa  Description: (Rominger, 1 8 7 6 ) "Aggregated, subp a r a l l e l , tubular polyp stems, multifpying by l a t e r a l budding, and at irregular intervals connected with each other by short, transverse, tubular branchlets. The tubes are i n t e r sected by numerous i r r e g u l a r l y funnel-shaped diaphragms, and radiated by twelve longitudinal rows of spinules, which are sometimes obsolete. The colonies of erect stems are at the base formed of horizontally prostrate and attached ends very much resembling the creeping expansions of Aulopora. from which the young colonies are often hard to be distinguished." Remarks:  Although Rominger l i s t s Theeostegites  Edwards and Haime as a synonym of Syringopora. i n the description  of Theeostegites the tabulae are said to be horizontal.  Theeostegites cannot, therefore, be congeneric with Syringopora. which t y p i c a l l y has funnel-shaped tabulae.  Syringopora pereleganS B i l l i n g s (Plate g  4  , figures  1  )  Syringopora elegans B i l l i n g s , 1858, p. 425. Original description: " C o r a l l i t e s , one l i n e i n diameter, sometimes a l i t t l e more or l e s s , distant a l i t t l e less than one l i n e ; connecting tubes half a l i n e i n diameter, and distant from one l i n e to one l i n e and a h a l f , usually projecting at right angles, but sometimes a l i t t l e oblique. Epitheca with numerous annulations, generally i n d i s t i n c t , but under certain circumstances of growth sharply defined and  114  deep, so much so as to give the c o r a l l i t e s the appearance of a jointed stalk of a c r i n o i d . The young individuals are produced by l a t e r a l budding, and i n one specimen examined, the whole colony appears to be based upon a broad lameillar foot secret i o n l i k e that which forms the base of a Favlosite. The distance of the c o r a l l i t e s i s usually about a l i n e , but l i k e a l l the other species, this one varies a good deal i n this respect. When some cause has intervened to prevent their regular growth they are much flexed and consequentl y at times more distant than when they have (not) been disturbed. The connecting tubes on the same side of the c o r a l l i t e are three or four l i n e s distant, but generally on the other sides one or two others i n the same space occur, making the average distance one l i n e or one l i n e and a h a l f . " Remarks:  I have inserted the word (not) i n the  above paragraph, because the description does not make sense as i t stands i n B i l l i n g s  1  work.  Very l i k e l y the word was  omitted through a typographical error.  115 Family AULOPORIDAE  Genus Aulopora Goldfuss Aulopora Goldfuss, 1826,  1:82.  Aulopora Goldfuss. Fenton and Fenton, 1937,  p. 110.  Genotype: Aulopora serpens Goldfuss. Description: (Fenton and Fenton, 1937) "Colony consisting of small tubes; adnate, prostrate, or prostrate basally with erect or more probably pendant compound branches. Reproduction by basal or l a t e r a l gemmation. Tubes calcareous or perhaps even chitinous, the former predominating; their walls non-cystose, smooth to wrinkled externally, smooth or pustulose i n t e r n a l l y . Tabulae (or diaphragms), when present, variably convex toward the apertures. Tubes not continuousl y united, except i n rare instances i n which c a l c i f i c a t i o n is incomplete. M  Remarks:  The problem of the systematic p o s i t i o n  of Aulopora-type organisms has been discussed by Fenton and Fenton (1937, PP. 109-115).  They point out the s t r i k i n g  s i m i l a r i t i e s between some small tabulate corals and large cyclostomate bryozoans such as Stomatopora and Hederella, and suggest that Aulopora, as described above, be considered a form-genus to include organisms which cannot be d e f i n i t e l y assigned to either the bryozoa or the anthozoa.  I welcome  this suggestion p a r t i c u l a r l y because the i n t e r n a l structures of most of the organisms at hand are so poorly preserved that i t cannot be ascertained whether they are c o r a l s , or bryozoans. The form-genus description of Feroton and Fenton i s supplemented  by Smith's (1945, p. 14) description of the  c o r a l l i n e members of the group.  116  "Diagnosis:  Tabulate corals i n which the corallum  consists t y p i c a l l y of a repent, u n i s e r i a l network of small, trumpet-shaped, dichotomously branching c o r a l l i t e s , whose d i s t a l ends bend upward and terminate f r e e l y .  The septa, when  present, are represented by feeble spines or f a i n t ridges, and the tabulae are t y p i c a l l y  concave."  Aulopora sp. (sensu lato) - • " ' • " • *  J  Specimens numbered C 5 0 7 1 ,  i.,  *  • '"'  •*»  514-3 are, with some doubt, referred  to this genus. Descriptions: C 5 0 7 1 consists of fragmented, dichotomously branching, white calcareous tubes embedded i n s o f t , brown limestone. imately 1 mm.,  The tubes have a diameter of approx-  have walls about 1 / 6 mm.  i n thickness, and are  apparently devoid of septa and tabulae. Specimens labelled 514-3 have numerous, i r r e g u l a r l y branching, closely crowded tubes of white c r y s t a l l i n e c a l c i t e i n dense, black limestone along with Disphyllum sp.  Preser-  vation i s so poor that i n t e r n a l structures are rendered obscure. Occurrence of hypotypes:  C 5 0 7 1 , Coenites reef  from Cripple Creek Area; 514-3, Tarpeian rock.  117 Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime (Plate 24  , figure  2  )  M i l l e p o r i t e s repens. Knorr and Walch, 1775, f i g . 1. Good f i g u r e .  p. 157,  pl. v i ,  Tubiporites serpens Linnaeus, Sehlotheim, 1820, p. 367, partim, excluding synonymy. Not Tubipora serpens Linnaeus, 1758, p. a recent Mediterranean form only. Not Tubipora serpens Linnaeus, 1767, p. which includes the recent and f o s s i l (Silurian) form. Aulopora serpens Goldfuss, 1829, p. 82, p l . xxix, f i g s , l a and d varietas major and f i g . 1 b varietas minor, but not f i g . l c (also "varietas minor") which i s Aulopora reticulum Steininger, 1049, p. 13 which may be a polyzoan, and excluding most of synonymy. Stomatopora serpens Bronn, 1829, p. 78, partim, at l e a s t . Stomatopora serpens Bronn (1834) 1835, p. 54, p l . v, f i g . 10 partim. Aulopora repens Knorr and Walch, Edwards and Haime, 1851, p. 312, partim, since these authors include a l l Goldfuss' figures. Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime, Nicholson, 1879, f i g . 31g. Aulopora repens Edwards and Haime, Smith, 1945, p l . 28, f i g . 8.  p. 220  p. 15,  Diagnosis: Aulopora with rather small and almost cylindrical corallites. Description: (Smith 1945)"The main characters of Aulopora repens have already been summarized i n the discussion of the genus, and i t i s therefore necessary to add here only a few details from an E i f e l specimen i n the B r i t i s h Museum, R 15194 (since types are not a v a i l a b l e ) . The coral ( P l . 28, f i g . 8) i s fixed to the f l a t surface of a stromatoporoid. The c o r a l l i t e s , most of which are 2-3 mm. long and about 1 mm. i n diameter, are i n some places widely divergent and form a loose i r r e g u l a r hexagonal mesh of about 5 mm. but i n others are c l o s e l y packed, more or less l a t e r a l l y contiguous, and nearly p a r a l l e l . The d i s t a l part of the c o r a l l i t e s which i s very /  118  l i t t l e wider than the proximal part i n s l i g h t l y raised, and the c a l i c e i s horizontal."  Aulopora c f . A., repens (Plate 25 > figures  1 )  Three specimens preserved i n impure, brown limestone exhibit dichotomous branching t y p i c a l of t h i s species. This feature i s best seen i n the weathered surfaces of two specimens numbered C 5 0 8 3 . open into the rock of  Unfortunately, however, the c a l i c e s  and cannot be observed.  Polished sections  specimen C 5 0 8 6 reveal several c a l i c e s but do not show the  branching of the c o r a l l i t e s as well as the former specimens do. Descriptions  C o r a l l i t e s branch at angles of 90 to 120  degrees and tend to produce a polygonal network.  Their d i a -  meters increase but l i t t l e between the points of o r i g i n and the  s l i g h t l y flared c a l i c e s .  . 7 5 to 1 . 5 mm.  C o r a l l i t e diameters range from  Walls are thick, the inside tube diameter  being only about half the t o t a l diameter. i t e s i s about 2 . 5 mm. Remarks:  Length of c o r a l l -  No septa or tabulae were observed.  Although specimens are comparable to  A. repens i n size and i n t h e i r branching nature, lack of i n t e r n a l structures makes p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n impossible. Occurrence of hypotypes: "Bluefly-Creek, North side — C5086, "Gap North of Ram —  C5083 i s catalogued,  Black shale, green shale, d r i f t , " ; Green shale."  119  Genus Cladochonus McCoy (Plate Cladochonus McCoy, 1847,  85, figure  B-6)  p. 227.  Monolipora Nicholson and Etherldge, 1879, Jania crassa McCoy, 1844,  p. 293; genotype, p. 197.  Cladochonus McCoy. H i l l (and Smyth] 1938, figs. la-e.  p. 126, p i . XXIII,  "Genosyntypes: Jania b a c i l l a r i a McCoy, 1844, p. 1 9 7 , p i . xxiv, f i g . 11; Lower Carboniferous, Ireland. Jania crassa McCoy, 1844, p. 197, p i . x x v i i , f i g . 4; Lower Carboniferous, Ireland, Cladochonus t e n u i c o l l i s McCoy. 1847, p. 227. p i . x i , f i g . 8; Lower Carboniferous, New South Wales. Genolectotype (chosen Edwards and Haime, 1850, p. l x x v i ) : Cladochonus t e n u i c o l l i s McCoy. 1847, p. 227, p i . x i , f i g . 8; Carboniferous, New South Wales." Diagnosis: ( H i l l and Smyth 1938) "Corallum compound, with a reptant ring of c o r a l l i t e s proximally, from which free branches a r i s e ; individual c o r a l l i t e s trumpet - or pipeshaped, and i n contact only at the point of o r i g i n , each giving r i s e to another by l a t e r a l increase through the w a l l of the expanded c a l i c e ; each has a thick peripheral stereozone of laminar, sometimes r e t i c u l a t e d , sclerenchyme; neither tabulae nor septal spines are seen i n the narrow lumen, but longitudinal (?septal) ridges may appear i n the c a l i c e s . " Remarks:  H i l l and Smyth present an exhaustive  synonomy of which only a small part i s given here.  Their work,  based on f o s s i l s from the Avonian shales of Co. Donegal, Ireland, conclusively shows the genera Monilopora and Cladochonous to be synonomous.  Genus Romingerla Nicholson Quenstedtia Rominger, 1876, Lycett,  p. 7 0 ,  (non Quenstedtia Morris and  1854)  Romingeria Nicholson, 1879,  p. 114.  Romingeria Nicholson. Lambe, 1899,  p. 4 6 .  120  Genotype: Anlopora umbellifera B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 119. Description: ( o r i g i n a l description as quoted i n Lambe, 1899, p. 46) "Corallum lax, spreading, attached basally, and free throughout the greater part of i t s extent. C o r a l l i t e s c y l i n d r i c a l , annulated, multiplying by l a t e r a l gemmation, and t y p i c a l l y producing new tubes i n umbellate whorls or v e r t i c i l s , which are placed at short i n t e r v a l s . Where t h e i r walls are i n contact, t h e i r v i s c e r a l chambers are placed i n communication by means of mural pores. Tabulae complete, remote, apparently not d i s t i n c t l y infundibuliform. Septa represented by v e r t i c a l rows of spinules." Remarks:  Quenstedtia Rominger was based on the  above-mentioned genotype, but the name Quenstedtia was preoccupied.  Nicholson therefore gave i t the new name Romingeria.  Romingeria umbellifera (Plate  (Billings)  25 , figure 7  )  Aulopora umbellifera B i l l i n g s , 1859, p. 119, f i g . 21. Aulopora umbellifera Nicholson,  1874, p. 43, p i . VI, f i g . 4.  Quenstedtia umbellifera Rominger, I876, p. 70, p i . XXXIII, f i g . 3. Aulopora umbellifera Whiteaves. 1877, p. 317. Romingeria umbellifera Nicholson,  1879, p. 116, f i g . 19.  Original description: (Of Aulopora umbellifera B i l l i n g s ) "The mode of growth of t h i s remarkable species i s s u f f i c i e n t to d i s t i n g u i s h i t at once from a l l other described forms of the genus. The parent stems are about 1 l i n e i n diameter, and remain single and straight for the distance of one fourth, or half an inch, when they give o f f branches i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , sometimes 10 or 12 at once. These are at f i r s t oblique or somewhat p a r a l l e l with the main tube, and are connected l a t e r a l l y ; they then radiate l i k e the spokes of a wheel, at right angles to the parent c o r a l l i t e s , each soon giving b i r t h to a s i m i l a r c i r c l e t of new tubes." Remarks:  B i l l i n g s says i t may be that this species  should constitute a new genus, but as he could not determine  121  wherein i t s i n t e r n a l structures d i f f e r from those of Aulopora he p r o v i s i o n a l l y kept i t i n that genus.  Further to the  description of this species Lambe (1899, .p. 4-7) reports that: "Dr. Rominger points out that the parent stem a f t e r having given f o r t h a c i r c l e of branchlets grows on i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e and again produces a s i m i l a r c i r c l e at a higher l e v e l ; he also mentions that within the group of young c o r a l l i t e s the main stem i s generally i n f l a t e d . In one of the type specimens i n t h i s museum a few small c i r c u l a r openings between contiguous branchlets, and between them and the parent stem are p l a i n l y seen; these appear to be s t r u c t u r a l , and are evidently the same as the pores mentioned by' Rominger i n his description of the species. The tabulae are i r r e g u l a r i n d i s p o s i t i o n , from 1 to several l i n e s apart; they appear to be generally convex or obliquely transverse. The exterior or the tubes i H annulated by s t r i a e of equal strength, about eight occurring i n a space of 1 l i n e . No septal spines have been observed."  122 CONCLUSIONS  A desirable sequel to the foregoing compilation of descriptions and occurrences of Upper Devonian c o r a l genera and species would be a precise determination of their s t r a t i g r a p h i c l i m i t s .  The need of such work i s  obvious, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to the d i s p h y l l i d corals. Although Stumm s subfamily PACHYPHYLLINAE has been shown to 1  be untenable, suppression of that subfamily threatens to render the subfamily DISPHYLLINAE unweildy.  A bed-by-bed  study of the members of this group i s necessary to determine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which can be used to e s t a b l i s h v a l i d subfamilies.  An attempt should be made to prove whether or  not horse-shoe dissepiments have genetic s i g n i f i c a n c e . From a study of Macgeea the writer has found reason to suspect that horse-shoe dissepiments are not diagnostic of even that genus.  Hence, i t would appear that they probably  are untrustworthy as a subfamily c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  This  suspicion, however, remains to be upheld by a thorough study of the DISPHYLLIDAE and of Macgeea i n p a r t i c u l a r . Also to be investigated i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that s o l i t a r y , f a s c i c u l a t e , c e r i o i d and plocoid habits of the d i s p h y l l i d s are marks of evolutionary trends. Unfortunately, present paleontologic data i s decidedly inadequate to serve as a basis for the much needed phylogenetic studies.  The corals of large areas of exposed  Upper Devonian rocks remain to be studied, or at l e a s t , to be described i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Furthermore, the s t r a t i -  graphic positions of those so f a r reported, have not been precisely recorded.  Perhaps of more significance than the  incompleteness of f i e l d work i s the lack of laboratory work on f o s s i l corals.  A l l too many reports merely l i s t corals  by their generic name followed by 'sp.', usually with no description or i l l u s t r a t i o n  of the specimens.  Although  t h i s practice may be condoned by some on the grounds that corals are not good horizon markers, i t i s apparent that i f the study of corals i s to progress, more precise f i e l d methods must be adopted, and more laboratory work must be done.  124  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l a n , J.A., ( 1 9 1 2 ) Rocky Mountain section between Banff Alberta and Golden B.C. along the l i n e of the C.P.R;; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pp.  165-176.  ( 1 9 1 3 ) Rocky Mountains Bankhead to Golden; Geol. Surv. Canada, Guide Book no, 8 , pp. 167-201 A l l a n , J.A., Warren, P.S., and Rutherford, R.L., ( 1 9 3 2 ) A Preliminary study of the eastern ranges of the Rocky Mountains i n Jasper Park, Alberta; Royal Soc. Canada, Trans., 3 r d ser., v o l . 2 6 , sect. IV, pp. 225-248. Bassler, B.S., ( 1 9 3 7 ) The Paleozoic rugose coral family Palaeocyclldae; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 1 1 , pt. 3 . ( 1 9 5 0 ) Faunal l i s t s and descriptions of Paleozoic corals; Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 44, pp. 163-168. Beach, H.H., (1943) Moose Mountain and Morley Map-areas, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 2 3 6 , 1 9 4 3 . B e l l , G.L., ( 1 9 5 1 ) Devonian stratigraphy and paleontology, of the Ram River Area, Alberta; Unpublished M.A. Thesis, The Univ. of B.C., 1 2 5 pp. B i l l i n g s , E., ( 1 8 5 8 ) New Genera and species of f o s s i l s from the S i l u r i a n and Devonian formations of Canada; Cab. Nat. Geol., v o l . 3 , no. 6 , pp. 419-430. ( 1 8 5 9 ) On the f o s s i l corals of Canada West; Can. Jour., n.s., v o l . 4 , pp. 97-104. Cameron, A.E., ( 1 9 2 1 ) Hay and Buffalo Rivers, Great Slave Lake, and adjacent country; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pt. B. pp. 1-44. Clark, L.M., (1949) Geology of the Rocky Mountain front ranges near the Bow River, Alberta; B u l l . Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 3 3 , p. 6 1 4 - 6 3 3 . Cummings, H.W., ( 1 9 5 3 ) Letter to the w r i t e r Daly, R.A., ( 1 9 1 2 ) Geology of the North American C o r d i l l e r a n at the forty-ninth p a r a l l e l ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. no. 3 8 . Dawson, G.M., ( 1 8 8 5 ) Preliminary report on the physical and geological features of that portion of the Rocky Mountains between latitudes 4 9 ° and 5 1 ° 3 0 ' ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept. pt. B.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  CONTINUED  deWit, R. and McLaren, D.J., (1950) Devonian sections of the Rocky Mountains between Crowsnest Pass and Jasper, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, pp. 50 - 23 Dowling, D.B., (1911) Geology of Roche Miette Map-Area, Jasper Park, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., pp. 201-219. Easton, W.H., (194-4) Corals from the Chouteau and related formations of the M i s s i s s i p p i Valley region; Indiana State Geol. Surv., Rept. of i n v e s t i g a t ions no. 97. Edwards, H.M., and Haime, J . , (1850-1874-) A monograph of the B r i t i s h f o s s i l corals; Palaeont. Soc. Mon., pp. 1-299, p i . 1-72. Ehlers, G.M., and Stumm, E.C., (194-9a) Corals of the Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan; pt. 1, Contr. MUs. Paleont. Univ. of Mich., v o l . 7, no. 8, pp. 123-130, 3 p i s . (1949b) Corals of the Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan, pt. 2, Contr. Mus. Paleont.; Univer. of Mich. v o l . 8, no. 3, pp. 21-41, 8 p i s Erdman, O.A., (1950) Alexo and Saunders Map-areas, Alberta Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 274. Fenton, C.L. and Fenton, M.A. (1924) The stratigraphy and fauna of the Hackberry Stage of the Upper Devonian; Contrib. Mus. Geol. Univ. Mich., vol.1 (1936) The "Tabulate" corals of Hall's " I l l u s t r ations of Devonian F o s s i l s " ; Ann. Carnegie Mus., v o l . 25, p. 17-58. (1937) Aulopora: A form-genus of tabulate corals and bryozoans; Amer. Midland N a t u r a l i s t , v o l . 18 no. 1, pp. 109-128. (1938) Heliophyllum and "Cystiphyllum", corals of Halls " I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Devonian Corals"; Ann. Carnegie Mus., v o l . 27, p. 207-250. H a l l , J . , (1874) Descriptions of bryozoa and corals of the Lower Helderberg Group; 26th Ann. Rept. N.Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist.  126 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED  (1876)  Hall, J.,  N.Y.  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Devonian S t a t e Geol. Surv. P a l e o n t .  fossils;  H a l l , J . , and W h i t f i e l d , R.P., (1872) D e s c r i p t i o n of new s p e c i e s of f o s s i l s from the Devonian rocks of Iowa; 2 3 r d Ann. Rept. N.Y. S t a t e Cab. Nat. H i s t . ( ) U.S. g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f the f o u r t i e t h p a r a l l e ; ( K i n g ) , v o l . 4. Henbest, L.G., ( 1 9 5 2 ) Symposium on d i s t r i b u t i o n of e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p l o s i o n s i n g e o l o g i c time; Jour. P a l e o n t . , v o l . 2 6 , no. 3 , pp. 297-394. H i l l , D.,  ( 1 9 3 5 ) B r i t i s h terminology f o r rugose c o r a l s ; Geol. Mag., v o l . 7 2 , pp. 4 8 1 - 5 1 9 , f i g s . 1-21.  H i l l , D.,  and Smyth Lb., (1938) On the i d e n t i t y of Monilopora N i c h o l s o n and E t h e r i d g e , 1879, w i t h Cladochonus McCoy, 1847; P r o c . R o y a l . I r i s h Academy, v o l . 45,  s e c t . B, no. 6, pp. 125-138.  Hume, G.S.,  (1921)  North Nahanni and Root R i v e r area; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., p t . B, pp.  67-78.  Jones, O.A., (1936) The c o n t r o l l i n g e f f e c t of environment upon the c o r a l l u m i n F a v o s i t e s ; w i t h a r e v i s i o n of some massive s p e c i e s on t h i s b a s i s ; Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . , s e r . 10, v o l . 1 7 , pp. 1-24, p i s . 1,-111. K e e l e , J . , (1910) A reconnaissance across the Mackenzie Mountains on the P e l l y , Ross, and G r a v e l r i v e r s . Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Rept. no. 1097, p. 39. Keen, A.M.,  and M u l l e r , S.W., (1948) Procedure i n taxonomy; S t a n f o r d Univ. P r e s s .  K i n d l e , E.M., (1908) The fauna and s t r a t i g r a p h y of the J e f f e r s o n limestone i n the northern Rocky Mountain r e g i o n ; B u l l . Amer. P a l e o n t . 4, no. 20, 39 pp.  (1928) The occurrence and c o r r e l a t i o n of a Devonian fauna from Peace R i v e r , A l b e r t a ; G e o l . Surv. Canada, B u l l , no. 49, pp. 14-18. Lambe, L.M.  (1899-1901) C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Canadian p a l e o n t o l o g y , Geol. Surv. Canada, v o l . 4, p t s . 1 and 2.  127  BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED Lang, W.D., (194-7) Brule-Entrance Map-area, Alberta; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 244. Land, W.D., and Smith, S., (1934-) Ludwig's 'Corallen aus Palaolithischen formation' and the genotype of Disphyllum de Fromentel: Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . , ser. 10, v o l . 13, pp. 7o-8l. (1935) Cyathophyllum caespitosum Goldfuss, and other Devonian corals considered i n a r e v i s i o n of that species; Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, v o l . 91, no. 18, pp. 538-590. (1939) Some new generic names for Paleozoic corals; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, v o l . 3, pp. 152-156. Laudon, L.R., (1950) Imperial River section, Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T., Canada; B u l l . Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 34-, no. 7, pp. 1565-1577. Laudon, L.R., et a l . (194-9a) Devonian and M i s s i s s i p p i a n stratigraphy, Wapiti Lake area; B.C. B u l l , Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 33, no. 9, pp. 1502-1552. Laudon, L.R., and Chronic, B.J., (1949b) Paleozoic s t r a t i graphy along the Alaska Highway i n Northeastern B.C.; B u l l . Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 33, p. 189-222. Lloyd, G.V., (195D Devonian stratigraphy at Jasper Park, Alberta; Unpublished B.A. Thesis, Univ. of B.C. 89 pp. MeConnell, R.G., (1886) Report on the geological features of a portion of the Rocky Mountains; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept. pp. 17-19D. (1888-1889) Report on an exploration i n the Yukon and Mackenzie Basins; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept. pp. 1-144D. McCoy, F.. (1849) On some new genera and species of Palaeozoic corals and foraminifera; Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . , ser. 2, v o l . 3, pp. 1-20; 119-136. McEvoy, J . (1900) Yellowhead Pass route; Geol. Surv. Canada, Ann. Rept., v o l . 11, p t . D., pp. 6-44  BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED Meek, F.B., ( 1 8 6 7 ) Remarks on the geology of the Mackenzie River with figures and descriptions of f o s s i l s from that region; Chicago Acad. S c i . , Trans, v o l . 1, pp. 61-114. Meek, F.B., and Worthen, A.H. (1868) Geology and Palaeontology; Geol. Surv. I l l i n o i s , v o l . 3 , pt. I I , pp. 289-565. Merriam, C.W., (1940) Devonian stratigraphy and paleontology of the Roberts Mountain Region; Nevada; Geol. Soc. Amer., spec. pap. 2 5 , pp. 1-114. Nicholson, H.A., (1847a) Description of new f o s s i l s from the Devonian formation of Canada West; Geol. Mag., dec. 11, v o l . 1, pp. 54-60, p i . IV. Oakely, K.P. ( 1 9 3 6 ) On the Wenlock c o r a l Coenites seriatopora; Summ. of Progress of the Geol. Surv. for 1934, pt. 2, pp. 20-27. Rominger, C.F., ( 1 8 7 6 ) Palaeontology, f o s s i l corals; Geol. Surv. Mich., v o l . 3 , pt. 2, pp. 1-161. Raymond, P.E., (1907) On the occurrence, i n the Rocky Mountains of an Upper Devonian fauna with Clymenia; Amer. Jour. S c i . , (4), 2 3 , p. 116. (1909) The fauna of the Upper Devonian i n Montana; Ann. Carnegie Mus., 5 , p. 1 5 3 . Ross, M.H.,  The favositidae of the Hamilton Group (Middle Devonian of New York; Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, B u l l . , v o l . 21, no. 2, pp. 3 7 - 8 9 .  Sanford, W.G., ( 1 9 3 9 ) A review of the families of tetracorals; Amer. Jour. S c i . , v o l . 2 3 7 , pp. 2 9 5 - 3 2 3 , 401-423, f i g s . 1-16. Selwyn, A.R.C, (1877) Report on exploration i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Appendix I I , Some f o s s i l s collected during the expedition; Geol. Surv. Canada Rept. of Progress 1 8 7 5 - 1 8 7 6 , pp. 98-106. Severson, J.L., ( 1 9 5 0 ) Devonian stratigraphy, Sunwapta Pass Area, Alberta, Canada; Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol. B u l l . , v o l . 34, no. 9 , PP. 1826-1849.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  CONTINUED  Shepard, F.P., (1912) Problems i n s t r a t i g r a p h y along the Rocky Mountain Trench; Jour. Geol., v o l . 30, pp. 361-376. Simpson, G.B., (1900) P r e l i m i n a r y d e s c r i p t i o n s of new genera of P a l e o z o i c c o r a l s ; B u l l . N.Y. S t a t e Mus., no. 39, v o l . 8, pp. 199-222. S l o s s , L.L. (1939) Devonian rugose c o r a l s from the Traverse beds of Michigan; Jour. Paleont. v o l . 13, no. 1, pp. 52-73. S l o s s , L.L., and L a i r d , W.M., (1947) Devonian system i n c e n t r a l and Northwestern Montana; Amer. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 31, no. 8, p. 1427. Smith, S., (1928) The Carboniferous c o r a l Nemistium edmondsi. gen. et sp. nov.; Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . s e r . 10, v o l . 2, p. 112. (1930) D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the type-specimens of some Carboniferous c o r a l s of the genera". "Diphyphyllum". "5tylastrea".Aulophyllum, and Chaetetes; Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . s e r . 10, v o l . 5, p. 178. (1945) Upper Devonian c o r a l s of the Mackenzie R i v e r region o f Canada; Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Pap., no. 59. Stainbrook, M.A., (1946) Corals of the Independence shale of Iowa; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 20, no. 5, PP. 401-427. Stewart, G.A., (1938) Middle Devonian c o r a l s of Ohio; Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Pap. no. 8, pp. 1-120. Stumm, E.C., (1937) The lower Devonian t e t r a c o r a l s of the Nevada limestone; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 11, no. 5 pp. 423-433, p i s . L I I I - LV. (1940) Upper Devonian rugose c o r a l s of the Nevada limestone; Jour. Paleont., v o l . 14, no. 1, pp. 57-67, p i s V I I , V I I I .  130 BIBLIOGRAPHY  CONTINUED  (194-8) Lower Middle Devonian s p e c i e s of the t e t r a c o r a l genus Hexagonaria of e a s t - c e n t r a l North America; Contr. Mus. P a l e o n t . Univ. Michigan, v o l . 7 , no. 2 , pp. 7-4-9, 14- p i s . ( 1 9 4 9 ) R e v i s i o n of the f a m i l i e s and genera of the Devonian t e t r a c o r a l s ; Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 40. Swann, D.H., ( 1 9 4 7 ) The F a v o s i t e s a l p e n e n s i s l i n e a g e i n the Middle Devonian T r a v e r s e group of Michigan; Contr. Mus. P a l e o n t . , Univ. Michigan, no. 3 , PP. 2 3 5 - 3 1 7 . W a l c o t t , C.D,,(L924) Cambrian geology and p a l e o n t o l o g y , G e o l o g i c a l formations of B e a v e r f o o t - B r i s e o S t a n f o r d Range, B.C., Canada; Smith. M i s c . C o l l e c t i o n s , v o l . 7 5 , no. 1, pp. 1-51. Walker, J.F., ( 1 9 2 6 ) Geology and m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s of the Windermere Map a r e a ; Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 148, Warren, P.S. ( 1 9 2 7 ) B a n f f area, A l b e r t a ; Geol. Canada, mem. 153.  Surv.  ( 1 9 2 8 ) The P a l a e o z o i c s of the Crowsnest Pass A l b e r t a ; Trans, of Royal Soc. Canada, s e r . 3 , v o l . 2 2 , p t . 1 , s e c t . IV, pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 9 . (1949) F o s s i l zones of the Devonian o f A l b e r t a ; Amer. A s s o c . - P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 3 3 , no. 4 , pp. 5 6 4 - 5 7 1 . Warren, P.S., and S t e l e k , C.R., ( 1 9 5 0 ) S u c c e s s i o n of Devonian faunas i n Western Canada; Royal Soc. Canada, Trans., 3 r d . s e r . , v o l . 4 4 , s e c t . IV, pp. 6 1 - 7 8 . Webster, C.L., ( 1 8 8 9 ) D e s c r i p t i o n of a new genus of c o r a l s , from the Devonian rocks of Iowa; Amer. N a t u r a l i s t , v o l . 3 3 , no. 2 7 2 , pp. 7 1 0 - 7 1 2 . Weissermel, W. Von, ( 1 9 3 9 ) Neue B e i t r a g e zur Kenntnis der Geologie, P a l a e o n t o l o g i e and P e t r o g r a p h i e der Umgegend von K o n s t a n t i n o p e l , 3 , O b e r s i l u r i s c h e und devonische K o r a l l e n , Stromatoporiden und Trepostome von der P r i n z e n i n s e l n A n t i r o v i t n a und aus B i t h y n i e n ; Abh. Preuss. g e o l . Landes a n s t a l t , new s e r . , v o l . 1 9 0 , pp. 1 - 1 3 1 .  131  BIBLIOGRAPHY  CONCLUDED  W e l l e r , J.M., (194-9) P a l e o n t o l o g i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; P a l e o n t . , v o l . 2 3 , no. 6 , pp. 6 8 0 - 6 9 0 .  Jour.  W e l l s , J.W., (194-4) New t a b u l a t e c o r a l s from the P e n n s y l v a n i a o f Texas; J o u r . P a l e o n t . , v o l . 18, no. 3» pp. 259-262. Whiteaves, J.F., ( 1 8 9 1 ) The f o s s i l s o f the Devonian r o c k s of the Mackenzie R i v e r B a s i n ; Geol. Surv. Canada, C o n t r i b . t o Can. P a l e o n t . v o l . p l . p t . 3 , pp. 1 9 7 - 2 5 8 . Whittaker,  E.J., (1921) Mackenzie R i v e r d i s t r i c t between Great S l a v e Lake and Simpson; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept. p t . B, pp. 4 5 - 5 5 .  W i l l i a m s , M.Y. and Bocock, J.B., ( 1 9 3 2 ) S t r a t i g r a p h y and p a l a e o n t o l o g y " o f the Peace R i v e r V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; R o y a l . S o c , Canada, 3 r d s e r . , v o l . 26, s e c t . IV, pp. 197-224. W i l l i a m s , M.Y. ( 1 9 2 2 ) Reconnaissance across N o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the geology of the n o r t h e r n extension o f F r a n k l i n Mountains, N.W.T.; Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept., p t . B., pp. 6 5 - 8 7 .  APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Acanthophyllum sp.  Wapiti Lake area  P a l l l s e r Member 2.  Laudon et. a l . ,  Acervularia sp.  Sulphur Mtri.  Minnewanka limestone (lower part)  Warren, 1927, p.17  Acervularia sp.  Trout River  Lowest bed of Upper Devonian  Whittaker, 1921 P. 53B  Alveolites m u l t l perforatus  Great Slave Lake area  Middle Upper Devonian  Personal communi c a t i o n , H.W. Cummings.  Alveolites c f . A. multlperforatus  Cripple Creek, Alberta  Devonian  This work, p. 91  A. a f f . A. multlperforatus  Job Creek, Alberta  Devonian  This work, p. 92  A. multlperforatus  North Branch, Saskatchewan River Mile-109, BanffJasper Highway  A. c f . rockfordensis  Great Slave Lake area  Middle Upper Devonian  Personal communi c a t i o n , H.W. Cummings.  A l v e o l i t e s sp.  ?  Mount Hawk formation  deWit and McLaren 1950, p. 13.  Aulopora repens  Cripple Creek Gap and North Ram Gap  Cheviot formation (Mount Hawk member)  B e l l , 1951, P. 53.  This work, p. 93  ro  APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  Aulopora c f . repens  B l u e f l y Creek, North side; Gap north of Ram River  A. sp. A.  CONTINUED HORIZON  REFERENCE  Green shale  This work, p. 118  Eaglenest Pass at headwaters of Wildhay River  Platyrachella cyrtinlformis zone  Warren and S t e l c k , 1950, p. 68  Aulopora sp.  Disaster Point, Jasper Park.  Upper Devonian  A l l a n et. a l . , 1932, p. 236.  Aulopora sp.  Root River, . N.W.T.  Coral reef above Simpson shale equivalent  Hume, 1921, p. 7 1 B .  Aulopora sp.  ?  Alexo formation and Upper Mount Hawk.  deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 11.  1  Breviphyllum ellipticum  (Campophyllum)  Hay River  Green and blue shales below limestone at the falls.  McConnell, 1888-89, p. 16D.  Breviphyllum ellipticum  (Campophyllum)  Athabasaa River, 30 miles below Red River  ?  Whiteaves, 1891, p. 203.  B l u e f l y Creek  green shale drift.  Charactophyllum sp.  1  1  This work, p. 24  APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Chonophyllum magnificum  Island i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek.  High Middle Devonian  Williams, 1932, p. 201  Cladochonus sp.  Wapiti Lake area  P a l l i s e r Member 2 and 3.  Laudon et. a l . , 1949, p. 1518.  Coenites sp.  Wapiti Lake area  P a l l i s e r member 3  Laudon et. a l . 1949, p. 1518.  Coenites sp.  Sunwapta Pass area  Fairholme formation 750 feet above base  Severson, 1950, p. 1841.  Coenites sp.  B l u e f l y Creek, north and south side; Gap north of Ram River.  ' Green shale  This work, p. 96  Cyathophyllum athabaseense  Mackenzie River basin, and Athabasca River, 3 miles below the Calumet.  Devonian  Whiteaves, 1891, p. 202.  C. (Ceratophyllum) keratites  Hay River  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1950, p. 167.  Cyathophyllum-like c o r a l  Dizzy Creek, Alexo Map Area  Middle and Lower Upper Devonian  Erdman, 1950, P. 74.  1  APPENDIX A  CONTINUED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Cyathophyllum sp.  Pipestone Pass, 9 miles north of Lake L o u i s e on C.P.R.  Pipestone f o r m a t i o n (Upper Devonian)  W a l c o t t , 1924, P. 51  Cyathophyllum sp.  Root R i v e r , N.W.T. 58 m i l e s upstream  C o r a l r e e f above the Simpson shale e q u i v a l e n t  Hume, 1921, p. 71B  Cyathophyllum sp.  Disaster Point, Jasper Park.  Upper Devonian  Allan et. a l . 1932, p. 236.  Cystiphylloldes (Cystiphyllum) americanum arcticum  Ramparts, Mackenzie Rivera-  ?  McConnell, 188889, p. 16D  C. americanum a r c t i c u m  OnioniRiyer, l a t . Lower Upper 67° N. l o n g . 1250 W. Devonian  B a s s l e r , 1950, P. 167  C. americanum ( C y s t l p h y vesiculosum)  Is land i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek.  High M i d d l e Devonian  W i l l i a m s , 1932, p. 201  Disphyllum (Diphyphyllum) arundinaeeum  Root R i v e r , N.W.T. 58 m i l e s upstream  C o r a l r e e f above Simpson s h a l e equivalent.  Hume, 1921, p. 71B  D. arundinaeeum  Peace R i v e r  Upper Devonian  B a s s l e r , 1950, p.167  C r i p p l e Creek Gap and N o r t h Ram Gap  Cheviot f o r m a t i o n (Mount Hawk member)  B e l l 1951, P. 53  Tlum  D.  arundinaeeum  ?  APPENDIX A  CONTINUED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Disphyllum c f . D. arundinaceum ~  Hummingbird Creek Ram Creek J u n c t i o n  D3 r e e f  T h i s work, p. 91  Disphyllum c f . D.. arundinaceum ~~  South o f C r i p p l e Creek  Devonian green s h a l e  T h i s work, p. 91  Disphyllum c f . D. arundinaceum ~  Upper C o r a l CreekB i g h o r n Creek Pass  Uppermost Mount Hawk f o r m a t i o n  T h i s work, p. 91  D. caespitosum ?  Peace R i v e r , near mouth of L i t t l e Red R i v e r .  Upper Devonian  B e l l , 1951, p.53  D. c a m s e l l i  ?  Mount Hawk formation.  deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 13.  D. c a m s e l l i  C r i p p l e Creek Gap and N o r t h Ram Gap  Cheviot f o r m a t i o n . (Mount Hawk member)  B e l l , 1951, P. 53.  D. c a m s e l l i ?  C o r a l Creek  Devonian  T h i s work p. 45  Disphyllum (Diphyphyllum) colemanense  Crows Nest Pass  Minnewanka l i m e stone (lower p a r t )  V/arren 1928, p. 112.  Disphyllum (Diphyphyllum) colemanense  Disaster Point Jasper Park  Upper Devonian  Allan et. a l . , 1932, p. 236.  Sunwapta Pass a r e a .  Fairholme f o r m a t i o n (1100 f e e t above base)  Severson, 1950, p. 1842.  North braneh o f N o r t h Saskatchewan M i l e 109 on B a n f f Jasper Highway  Devonian C o r a l reef  T h i s work, p.48  D. colemanense  D. g e i n i t z l ?  APPENDIX A C GENUS AND -SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  D. c f . goldfuss!  ?  Mount Hawk formation  deWit': and McLaren 1950, p. 13  D. stramlneum  ?  Mount Hawk formation  deWit and McLaren 1950, p. 13  D. c f . D. stramlneum  B l u e f l y Creek  Upper Devonian green shale  This work, p. 52  1  1  D. c f . D. stramlneum  Roche Miette  Upper Mount Hawk formation  This work, p. 52  D. (Diphyphyllum) sp.  Crows Nest Lakes  ?  Dawson, 1885, p. 72B  D. (Diphyphyllum) sp.  Roche Miette  2,000 feet s t r a t i graphically from top.  McEvoy, 1900.  D. (Diphyphyllum) sp.  Roche Miette area  Intermediate limestone  Dowling, 1911  D. (Diphyphyllum) sp.  Sulphur Mountain  Minnewanka formation (lower part)  Warren, 1927, P. 17  D. (Diphyphyllum) sp.  Fairholme Mountain and Mount Romulus  Fairholme formation  Beach, 194-3, pp. 13, 14.  D. (Diphyphyllum) sp.  'Sunwapta Pass area  Fairholme formation 750 feet above base  Severson, 1950, p. 1841.  1—  1  -N3  APPENDIX A  CONTINUED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  D. (Synaptophyllum) sp.  Eaglenest Pass, headwaters of north fork Wildhay River, Flathead Area.  Platyrachella cyrtiniformis zone.  Warren and S t e l c k , 1950, p. 68  D. (Synaptophyllum) sp.  Alexo Map area near Dizzy Creek  Upper Devonian  Erdman, 1950, P. 74.  D. (Synaptophyllum) sp.  Wapiti Lake area  P a l l i s e r member 2.  Laudon et. a l . , 1949, p. 1518.  Divers ophyllum  Hay River  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1950, p. 167.  Eridophyllum sp.  Canadian Rockies .  Banff limestone  McConnell, P. 167.  Favosites b a s a l t i c a  Island i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek.  High Middle Devonian  Williams, 1932, p. 201.  F. d i g i t a t a  Hay River, 40 miles above mouth; Ramparts on Mackenzie Vermilion F a l l s , Peace River  Devonian  Eambe, 1899,  F. d i g i t a t a  Roche Miette area  Intermediate limestone  Dowling, 1911, p. 207.  traversense  1886,  p. 20  )  APPENDIX A  CONTINDED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  F. l i m i t a r i s  7 miles west of Flathead River, 2.5 miles north of boundary.  Jefferson limestone  Daly, 1912, p. 112  F. l i m i t a r i s  Sulphur Mountain  Minnewanka limestone (lower part)  Warren, 1927, p. 17  F. n i t e l i a  Island i n Peace High Middle River, 3 miles above Devonian Clearwater Creek.  Williams, 1932, p. 201  Favosites sp.  Alaska Highway i n Stone Range  Immediately below Fort Creek Contact  Laudon and Chronic, 1949, p. 219  Hellophyllum h a l l i  Harrogate Canyon, B.C.  Late Middle or Early Upper Devonian  Shepard, 1922, P. 367  H. parvulum  Hay River and Peace River at Vermilion Chutes.  Upper Devonian  Cameron, 1921, p. 15B.  Hellophyllum sp.  Harrogate Canyon  Upper Middle or Lower Upper Devonian (Bed equivalent of Pipestone formation.)  Walcott, 1924, P. 5 1.  Hellophyllum sp.  Pipestone Pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise, C.P.R.  Upper Devonian Pipestone formation  Walcott, 1924, P. 5 1  APPENDIX A CONTINUED GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Hexagonaria percarlnata  Wapiti Lake area  P a l l i s e r member 2.  Laudon et. a l . , 1949, p. 1518  H. percarlnata  Alaska Highway, i n Stone Range  Immediately below Fort Creek contact  Laudon and Chronic, 1949, p. 219.  H. quadrigemlnum arcticum TCyathophyllnm arcticum)  Porcupine River; Grand River; near old Fort Good Hope  Devonian  H. quadrigeminum arcticum TCyathophyllum arcticum)  Ramparts, Mackenzie River  *>  McConnell, 1888-89 p. 16D.  Hexagonaria c f . H. stewartae  Coral Creek  Devonian  This work, p. 58  Hexagonaria biostrome  Imperial River, N.W.T.  Imperial formation  Laudon, 1950, P. 1565,  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  Cripple Creek Gap and North Ram Gap.  Cheviot formation (Mount Hawk member)  B e l l , 1951, P. 53  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  Cripple Creek  Devonian 'green shale  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  B l u e f l y Creek  Flume formation  This work, p. 62  Macgeea s o l i t a r i a  Job Creek  Mount Hawk formation  This work, p. 62  Macgeea sp.  ?  Mount Hawk formation  deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 13.  Metriophyllum rectum  Mackenzie River 10 miles below Bear River.  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1950, p. 168  Meek, 1867, p. 79.  1  This work, p. 62  APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  ITINUED  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Rocky River, near Roche Miette  Rockspprobably of Devonian age  McEvoy, 1900.  Eastern f o o t h i l l s of Mackenzie Mountains  Devonian limestone with shaly layers  Keele, 1910, p. 39'  Microcyclus multiradiatus  Onion River  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1950, p. 168  Mictophyllum richardsoni  Ramparts on Mackenzie River; 40 miles above Fort Good Hope  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1950, p.168.  Phillipsastraea breviseptatum  Job Creek  Mount Hawk formation  This work, p. 67  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a (Pachyphyllum) devoniense  Peace River, between Vermilion F a l l s and L i t t l e Red River  Devonian  Whiteaves, 1891, p. 205.  Phillipsastraea cf. P. devoniense  South of Cripple Creek  Devonian, mostly green s h a l e  This work, p. 69  P. exigua  Peace River  Upper Devonian  Smith, 1945, P.42  P. hennahii  Hay River  Shales below limestone a t f a l l s of Hay R i v e r (?)  McConnell, 1888-89 p. 16D.  M. (Streptelasma) M. (Streptelasma)  rectum rectum  APPENDIX A  CONTINUED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  P. hennahii  Hay R i v e r and Peace R i v e r a t V e r m i l i o n Chutes  Upper Devonian  Cameron, 1921, p. 158  Peace R i v e r  Upper Devonian  B a s s l e r , 1950, p. 168.  P. e f . nevadensis T c f . maeouni)  Eaglenest Pass, headwaters o f Wildhay R i v e r .  Platyrachella cyrtiniformis  Warren and S t e l c k , 1950, p. 68.  P. (Pachyphyllum) woodmani  Pipestone  Pipestone  Walcott, 1924, P. 51  P. nevadensis TPachyphyllum  nevadense)  Pass  Hay R i v e r  Shales below l i m e stone at f a l l s o f Hay R i v e r (?)  McConnell, 188889, p. 16D.  Eastern f o o t h i l l s of Mackenzie Mountains.  Devonian limestones with shaly layers  K e e l e , 1910, p. 39  Root R i v e r , N.W.T 58 miles upstream  C o r a l r e e f above the Simpson s h a l e equivalent  Hume, 1921, p. 71B.  W a p i t i Lake  P a l l i s e r formation (members 1 and 2)  Laudon e t . a l . , 1944, p. 1518.  E q u i v a l e n t of b a s a l Hay R i v e r limestone bed.  Warren, 1949, p. 568  P. v e r i l l i  P. v e r n e u i l i  P. v e r n e u i l i  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a sp. P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a sp.  formation  Alberta  area  APPENDIX A GENUS AND 'SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  P h i l l l p s a s t r a e a 2 spp.  Sunwapta Pass area  Fairholme, 1100 feet above base  Severson, 1950, p. 1842.  Wapiti Lake area  P a l l i s e r formation (members 1 and 2)  Laudon et. a l . , 1949, ,p. 1 5 1 8  Romingeria umbellifera  Island i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek.  High Middle Devonian  Williams, 1932, p. 201.  Spongophyllum pax  Near Old Fort St, John.  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1950, p. 168.  Spongophyllum sp.  Wapiti Lake Area  P a l l i s e r formation (member 2) .  Laudon et a l . 1949, p. 1518  Spongophyllum sp.  Sunwapta Pass Area  Fairholme formation 750 feet and 1150 feet above base.  Severson, 1950, p. 1841.  Striatopora sp.  Pipestone Pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise on C.P.R.  Upper Devonian Pipestone formation  Walcott, 1924, P. 51.  Syringopora c f . perelegans  Crows Nest Lakes  Syringopora c f . perelegans  Folding Mountain South of P r a i r i e Creek.  Ptychophyllum  2 spp.  Dawson, 1885, p.72B Limestone probably Devonian  McEvoy, 1900.  OJ  APPENDIX A  CONTINUED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Syringopora sp.  Roche M i e t t e area  Intermediate limestone  Dowling, 1911i p. 207  Syringopora sp.  I s l a n d i n Peace River, 3 miles above Clearwater Creek.  High Middle Devonian  W i l l i a m s , 1932, p. 201  S y r i n g o p o r a sp.  Fairholme Mountain; South Glasgow Creek.  Fairholme formation. P a l l i s e r formation.  Beach 194-3, pp. 13, 14, 16.  Syringopora sp.  W a p i t i Lake Area  P a l l i s e r formation (members 1 and 2)  Laudon e t . a l . ,  Tabulophyllum  C r i p p l e Creek a r e a  Perdrix shale  mcconnelli  1949,  p. 1518  T h i s work, p. 32.  Tabulophyllum Sp.  Eaglenest Pass, nor- P l a t y r a c h e l l a cyrtiniformis t h f o r k , Wildhay zone. River.  Thamnopora c f . c e r v i c o r n i s  Eaglenest Pass, Headwaters o f Wildhay R i v e r  Platyrachella cyrtiniformis zone.  Warren and S t e l c k 1950, p. 68  Thamnopora (Pachypora) cervicornis  Hay R i v e r and Ramparts, Mackenzie R i v e r  Green and blue' shales below limestone at f a l l s of Hay R i v e r (?)  McConnell, 1888 89, p. 16D.  T.  Peace R i v e r between V e r m i l i o n F a l l s and mouth o f L i t t l e Red liver  Upper Devonian  Whiteaves, 1891, p. 206  (Pachypora) c e r v i c o r n i s  Warren and S t e l c k 1950, p. 68  APPENDIX A GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Thamnopora c e r v i c o r n i s  Brazeau Creek  Devonian  T h i s work, p . 1 0 6  T.  C r i p p l e Creek Gap and North Bam Gap  Cheviot formation (Mount Hawk member)  B e l l , 1 9 5 1 , P.53  T. p o l y f o r a t a  Eaglenest Pass headwaters o f Wildhay E l v e r  Platyrachella cyrtiniformis zone  Warren and S t e l c k , 1950, p. 6 8  T. c f . T. p o l y f o r a t a  N o r t h branch Saskatchewan R i v e r Mile 1 0 9 , Banff, Jasper Highway,  Devonian c o r a l reef  T h i s work, p. 1 0 9  T. c f . T. p o l y f o r a t a  C r i p p l e Creek a r e a  Devonian 'Coenites' reef.  T h i s work, p. 1 0 9  T. c f . T. p o l y f o r a t a  Job Creek  Mount Hawk formation  T h i s work, p. 1 0 9  T.  Peace R i v e r near Vermilion F a l l s  Upper Devonian  Bassler, 1 9 5 0 , p. 1 6 7 .  Flume formation (lower member) and upper Mount Hawk.  deWit and McLaren, 1950, p. 1 0 .  W a p i t i Lake a r e a  P a l l i s e r formation (member 2 )  Laudon e t . a l . , 1949, p. 1 5 1 8  7 m i l e s west o f F l a t h e a d R i v e r and 2 . 5 miles north of boundary.  J e f f e r s o n limestone  Daly, 1 9 1 2 , p. 1 1 2  labiosa  (Cladopora)  roemeri  Thamnopora r e e f s  Thamnopora s p . Thamnopora (Cladopora)  sp.  APPENDIX A  CONTINUED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Boot River, N.W.T. 58 miles upstream  Above Simpson shale equivalent  Hume, 1921, p. 71B  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Pipestone pass, 9 miles north of Lake Louise on C.P.R.  Upper Devonian (Pipestone formation)  Walcott, 1924, P. 51.  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Windemere d i s t r i c t  Upper Devonian (Starbird formation.  Walker, 1926, pp. 34,35.  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Disaster Point, Jasper Park.  Upper Devonian  Allan et. a l . , 1932, p. 236.  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Fairholme mountains and Mount Romulus  Fairholme formation throughout.  Beach, 1943, p. 13, 14.  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Alaska Highway i n Stone Range  Immediately below Fort Creek contact.  Laudon and Chronic, 1949, p. 219.  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Alberta  Equivalent of basal Hay River limestone bed.  Warren, 1949, p. 568.  Thamnopora (Cladopora) sp.  Sunwapta Pass area  Fairholme formation. 1100 feet above base  Severson, 1950, p. 1842.  Thamnopora ( Cladopora) sp.  Imperial River  Ramparts formation  Laudon, 1950, p. 1565.  APPENDIX A  CONCLUDED  GENUS AND SPECIES  LOCALITY  HORIZON  REFERENCE  Zaphrentis mcfarlanei  Anderson's R i v e r , l a t . 67°N, l o n g . 125°W.  Upper Devonian ( B a s s l e r , 1950, p. 168)  Meek, 1867, p. 83  Z. r e c t a  Anderson's R i v e r l a t . 67°N, l o n g . 125°W.  Upper Devonian ( B a s s l e r , 1950, p. 168)  Meek, 1867, p. 82.  Zaphrentis sp.  Crows Nest Lakes  Zaphrentis sp.  Banff-Golden  Dawson, 1885, p . 7 2 B Upper Devonian  A l l a n , 1912, p.  172, 1913, P. 181.  M  •I*  ^3  TABLE INOMENCLATURE OF UPPER DEVONIAN STRATA OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS CADOMIN Kelly  JASPER Raymond  BANFF Warren  BANFF Beach  EXSHAW FM.  EXSHAW FM.  KILN FM. ' Zone 7  PALLISER  FIDDLE FM, Zone 6  1927  UPPER MBINEWANKA  1°U3  FORMATION  1925  1930  BANFF  ROCKY MTS. Fox  ROCKY MTS. DeWit & McLaren  EXSHAW FM.  EXSHAW FM.  EXSHAW FM. OOSTIGAN MEMBER  WASAMUN  PALLISER  FORMATION  FORMATION  1951  Zone k  LOWER FAIRHOLME  a FORMATION  BLACKFACE MOUNTAIN FORMATION  INTERMEDIATE FORMATION UPPER MEMBER  MORRO  Zone 5  FORMATION  MINNEWANKA  1950  MEMBER  CORNACH FM.  FORMATION  FORMATION  EDMONTON Imperial Oil 191*8 & 1950  Zone 3  GRAMINIA MEMBER  PERDRIX  FLUME FORMATION Zone 3  FORMATION  MISKU (D2) IRETON MEMBER  FORMATION Zone.2  CHEVIOT  CALMAR MEMBER  MEMBER  MOUNT HAWK FORMATION  8 PERDRIX  PERDRIX  FORMATION  FORMATION  DUVERNAY MEMBER COOKING LAKE  ALEXO FORMATION  FLUME FORMATION  UPPER MEMBER LOWER MEMBER  After Bell 1951  148 PLATE  MICROCYCLUS , METRIOPHYLLUM,  I  Z A P H R E N T I S , AND C E R A T O P H Y L L U M  Figures  1-2 Microcyclus multiradiaturn t e ral~lFTe!(r~oTri>o^ ( A f t e r M e e k 1867).  Meek. ( P a g e 9) L a of c a l i c e . (XI).  Figures  3-4 M e t r i o p h y l l u m r e c t u m H a l l , ( P a g e 10) Two t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s . (X2) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1945).  Figures  5-6 and  Figures  7-9 Z a p h r e n t i s m c f a r l a n e i Meek. ( P a g e 13) 7, C o r a l l u m (XI) ; 8, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n through a x i s ( X I ) ; 9, C a l i c e (XI) ( A f t e r M e e k 1867).  Figures  10-13 Ceratophyllum Gurich. ( P a g e 14) 10, C . dohmi (Wedekind). Transverse section, late neanic stage. (XI.5); 11, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n ephebic stage. ( X I . 5 ) ; 12, C . c e r a t i t e s G o l d f u s s , v i e w o f lectotype. (X2/3); 15, C. c e r a t i t e s . longitudin a l s e c t i o n (X2/3). ( A f t e r S t u m m 1949).  Z a p h r e n t i s r e c t a Meek. ( P a g e 12) calice. [ X I ) . ( A f t e r M e e k 1867).-  Corallum  PLATE  I  149  PLATE ACANTHOPHYLLUM,  II  CYATHOPHYLLUM,  AND H E L I O P H Y L L U M  Figures  1-3 A c a n t l i o p h y l l u m h e t e r o p h y l l u m Edwards and Haime"] ( P a g e 1 5 ) I, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . Septa meet a t t h e a x i s b u t do n o t t w i s t ; 2 , T r a n s verse section. Septa t w i s t v e r t i c a l l y at the a x i s ; 3, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . (XI) (After , Smith 1945).  Figures  4-6 Cyathophyllum athabascense Whiteaves. ( P a g e 15) 4, S i d e view of a very large s p e c i men; L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n t h r o u g h the c e n t e r o f t h e same; Transverse section through the same, below the base o f the cup. (XI) (After Whiteaves 1891).  Figures  7-8 Cyathophyllum ceratites Goldfuss. (Page 17) 7, S i d e v i e w ; 8, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . (XI). (After Whiteaves 1891).  P L A T E  II  150 PIATE  III  HELIOPHYLLUM Al® CHARACT O P E Y L L I M Figures 1-2 Heliophyllum h a l l i Edwards and Haime (Page 20) 1, Transverse section. (X1.5); 2, Longitud i n a l section. (22), (After Smith 1945). Figures 3-5 Hellophyllum parvulum Whiteaves (Page 20) 3, Side view; 4, Longitudinal section; 5, Side view. (XI). (After Whiteaves 1891). Figures 6-13 Charactophyllum nanum H a l l and Whitfield (Page 23] 6, L a t e r a l view of corallum. (XI); 713, series of transverse section. (X2). (After . Smith 1945).  PLATE  III  151  PLATE  CHARACTOPHYLLUM,  IV  DIVERSOPHYLLUM,  AMD M I C T O P H Y L L U M  Figures  1-3 Charactophyllum sp. (Page 24) 1, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n t h r o u g h c a l i c e . ( X I ) ; 2 , same (X2) o f h y p o t y p e C 5 0 7 7 ; 3 , T r a n s v e r s e section b e l o w c a l i c e and 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f hypotype C5083. ( X 2 ) . •  Figures  5-7 Diversophyllum traversense (Page 27) Diagramatic sections Sloss 1939).  Figures  8-11 M i c t o p h y l l u m r i c h a r d s o n i (Meek). (Page 29) 8, C o r a l l u m ( X I ) ; - 9 , T r a n s v e r s e section. ( X I . 5 ) ; 10-11, Transverse section (half) longi t u d i n a l s e c t i o n (Xl.~5) (After Smith 1945).  Winchell. ( X I 1/3) (Afte  P I A T E  IV  15S PLATE  V  TABULOPHYLLUM Al© SPONGOPHYLLUM  Figures  1-2 Tabulophyllum m c c o n n e l l i (Whiteaves) (Page 32) 1, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n ( X 2 ) ; 2 , L o n g i t u d i n a l section (XI). Hypotype C5058.  Figures  3-7 T a b u l o p h y l l u m r e c t u m F e n t o n and F e n t o n (Page . 34) 3 - 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l and t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s o f the h o l o t y p e ; 5, L o n g i t u d i n a l v i e w o f a l l o t y p e ; 67, L a t e r a l v i e w and t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n o f a ' p a r a type. ( A l l XI) ( A f t e r F e n t o n and F e n t o n 1 9 2 4 ) .  Figures  8-10 S p o n g o p h y l l u m pax S m i t h (Page 36) T r a n s v e r s e and two l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s type. (XI.5) (After Smith 1945).  8,9,10, of nolo  PIATE 7  153  PLATE  VI  A C E R V U L A R L A AND D I S P H Y L L U M  Figures  1-2 A c e r v u l a r i a ananas t r u n c a t a (Wahlenberg) (Page 38) T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s . (23) (After Smith 1945).  Figures  3-5 Disphyllum arundinaceum B i l l i n g s (Page 41) 3, L a t e r a l v i e w . ( X I ) ; 4 - 5 , L o n g i t u d i n a l and transverse sections. (X2). ( A f t e r Lambe 1 9 0 1 ) .  Figures  6-8 Disphyllum cf. D. arundinaceum (Page 41) 6, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n o f s e v e r a l c o r a l l i t e s o f hypotype 5143; 7,8, L o n g i t u d i n a l sections o f sev e r a l c o r a l l i t e s o f hypotype C5046. (A11~X2)."  Figures  9-10 Disphyllum caespitosum Goldfuss (Page 43) D i a g r a m a t i c t r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s . (X5) ( A f t e r L a n g and S m i t h 1 9 3 5 ) .  PLATE VI  154 PLATE  VII  DISPHYLLUM  Figures  1-2 Disphyllum camselli ? Smith (Page 46) T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f h y p o type C5028. (X2).  Figures  3-10 Disphyllum camselli Smith ( P a g e 4 5 ) 3, 4, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s , (X2); 5-6, transverse s e c t i o n s ( 2 2 , X I j ; 7 - 8 , Two l o n g i t u d i n a l sec. tions, (XI); 9 - 1 0 , T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s , o f t h e same s p e c i m e n , showing unusually long septa i n s e c t i o n 10. ( 2 2 j . (After S m i t h 1945).*  Figure..;  11 D i s p h y l l u m colemanense (Warren) Cross section of c o r a l l i t e , cotype. Warren"1928).  (Page 47) (X2). ( A f t e r  Figures  12-13 D i s p h y l l u m g e i n i t z i ? Lang and S m i t h (Page 48) T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s • of r e c r y s t a l l i z e d specimen, holotype C5034,(X2).  PLATE VII  155  PLATE  VIII  DISPHYLLUM  Figures  1-4 Disphyllum goldfussi ( G e i n i t z ) (Page 50) 1, E x t e r i o r o f c o r a l l u m . ( X I ) ; 2 , 4 , Transverse s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 ) ; 3, L o n g i t u d i n a l section. (XI.5) ( A f t e r L a n g and S m i t h 1 9 3 5 ) .  Figures  5-20 D i s p h y l l u m stramlneum ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 51) 5,6, Transverse s e c t i o n s ( X I , X 2 ) ; 7, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X I . 5 ) ; 8, T r a n s v e r s e s e c tion;, ( X I . 5 ) ; 9,10, L o n g i t u d i n a l sections (XI.5, X 4 ) ; 11, 12, Transverse s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 ) ; 13,14, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s ( X 2 ) ; 15, 16, T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n ( X 4 ) ; 17, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n drawing ( X 4 ) ; 18, L o n g i t u d i n a l section ( X 4 ) ; 1 9 - 2 0 , T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l section (X4) (After Smith 1945).  PLATE  18  19  V I I I  20  156  PLATE I X D I S P H Y L L U M AMD H E X A G O N A R I A  Figures  1-2 Disphyllum c f . D . stramineum (Page 52) T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f h o l o type 5128. ( X 2 ) .  Figures  3-7 Hexagonaria percarinatum (Sloss) Page 56) 3 , 4 , Diagrama11c t r a n s v e r s e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l sections ( X 2 ) ; 5, Part o f surface o f corallum o f holotype. ( X I ) ; 6,7, Transverse sections of paratypes, (XI) (After Sloss 1939).  PLATE IX  157 PLATE X HEXAGONARIA F i g u r e s 1-3 Hexagonaria quadrigeminum a r c t i c u m (Meek) (Page. 57) 1.2, T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l sect i o n s . (XI.5); 3, Drawing o f the same. (X2) ( A f t e r Smith 1945). F i g u r e s 4-5 Hexagonaria c f . H. stewartae Stumm (Page 58) T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f hypotype C 5028. (X2). F i g u r e s 6-8 Macgeea s o l i t a r i a ( H a l l and W h i t f i e l d ) (Page 61) 6, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n through c a l i c e o f hypot y p e 5158, (X2); 7,8, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n through c a l i c e , and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n below c a l i c e showing horse-shoe d i s s e p i m e n t s , hypotype C5082 (X2).  PLATE X  158  PLATE  21  MACGEEA A N D P H I L L I P S A S T R A E A  Figures  1-3 Macgeea s o l i t a r i a ( H a l l and " W h i t f i e l d ) (Page 6 1 ) ( c o n t i n u e d f r o m P l a t e 2 ) . 1, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s of hypotype C5042. (22); 2, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s o f 2 hypotypes C5074. (22); 3, S e r i a l s e c t i o n s o f neanic stage of hypotype C5077, (22).  Figures  4-7 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a b r e v i s e p t a t u m Stumm. (Page 67) T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l t h i n s e c t i o n s o f h y p o t y p e 5 1 6 5 , ( 2 2 ) ; 6, same, ( 2 1 . 3 ) and 7, p o l ished transverse s e c t i o n o f hypotype 5165, ( 2 1 . 3 ) .  PLATE XI  159 PLATE X I I  PHILLIPSASTRAEA  Figures  1-2 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a devoniense (Edwards and Haime) (Page 69) 1, A p o l i s h e d t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n . {XI); 2 , P a r t o f t h e same, m a g n i f i e d . ( A f t e r Edwards and Haime 1851).  Figures  3-5 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a c f . P. d e v o n i e n s e (Edwards and Haime) (Page 6 9 ) . 3, View ef part of corallum, C5074; 4 , L o n g i t u d i n a l and 5, t r a n s v e r s e t h i n s e c t i o n s o f same. ( X 2 ) .  PIATE XII  160 PLATE  XIII  PHILLIPSASTRAEA Figures  Figure  1-7 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a e x i g u a Lambe (Page 71) 1,2, Transverse sections (X3); 3,4, Transverse sections (X3, X l j ; 5,6, Transverse sections ( X 2 . 5 , X I ) ; 7, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . (X2.5) same s p e c i m e n . (After Smith 1945). 8  P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a n e v a d e n s i s Stumm (Page 73) T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n (X2) ( A f t e r S m i t h 1945). .  PLATE XIII  161 PLATE X I V  PHILLIPSASTRAEA  Figures  1-4 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r i l l i (Meek) (Page 75) 1, P a r t o f s u r f a c e o f s p e c i m e n ( X I ) ; 2 , 3 , T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s ( X I . 5 ) ; 4 , U p p e r surface o f smaller specimen (XI) ( A f t e r Lambe 1 9 0 1 )  Figure  5 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a v e r n e u i l i Edwards ( P a g e 76) Upper surface of specimen ( A f t e r Lambe 1 9 0 1 ) .  Figures  6-8 P h i l l i p s a s t r a e a woodmani W h i t e (Page 77) 6, Large p o l i s h e d specimen ( X £ 5 ) ; 7, P o r t i o n o f a l a r g e specimen, a p p r o a c h i n g P . woodmani o r d i n a t u m i n c h a r a c t e r ( X I ) ; 8, P o r t i o n o f a p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n , showing pseudo-columella (XI) (After Fenton and F e n t o n 1 9 2 4 ) .  and Haime (XI).  PLATE XIV  162 PLATE XV ERIDOPEYLLUM AND  CYSTIPRYLLOIDES  Figures-1-3 79)  E r i d o p h y l l u n i s e r i a l e E d w a r d s and Haime ( P a g e 1,2, T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s (X3.3); 3, S i d e v i e w o f h o l o t y p e . (X.6) ( A f t e r  Stumm. 1949).  F i g u r e s 4-5 C y s t i p h y l l o i d e s americanum (Edwards and Haime) ( P a g e 81) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i m e n s a l l s h o w i n g v e s i c u l a r t e x t u r e (XI) ( A f t e r S t e w a r t 1938).  PLATE XV  163  PLATE X V I 0  CYSTIPHTLLOIDES Figures  1-3 C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s americanum (Edwards and Haime) (Page 8 1 ) (Continued from P l a t e X V ) 1 , 2 , Longitud i n a l t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s of corallum. ( X 1 . 6 ) ; 3 , L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n showing m a r g i n a l c a l i c u l a r gemmation i n a g e r o n t i c corallum. (XI.6) (After Fenton and F e n t o n 1 9 3 8 ) .  Figures 4 - 6 C y s t l p h y l l o i d e s americanum v a r . a r c t i c u m (Meek) (Page 8 2 ) 4~7 E x t e r n a l view. ( X . 6 ) ; 5 , L o n g i t u d i n a l and t r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n s . ( X . 6 ) (After Meek, 1 8 6 7 ) .  PLATE X V I  164  PLATE XVII CHONOPHYLLUM AND ALVEOLITES F i g u r e s 1-3 Chonophyllum magnif icum B i l l i n g s (Page .85) 1, C a l i c u l a r view; 2, C a l i c u l a r view o f part o f l a r g e c o r a l l i t e , and 3, L a t e r a l view o f eroded corallite. ( A f t e r Rominger 1876). F i g u r e s 4-5 A l v e o l i t e s c f . A. m u l t i p e r f o r a t u s (Page 90) Showing fragmented, l a m i n a r c o r a l s w i t h fragments o f Thamnopora, hypotype C5072, (X2).  PLATE XVII  165  PLATE  XVIII  ALVEOLITES  Figure  1 Alveolites cf, A . m u l t l p e r f o r a t u s (Page 92) Thin section through axis of a gastropod encrusted • w i t h A l v e o l i t e s h y p o t y p e 5165 (X2)#  Figure  2 Alveolites multiperforatus ? Salee (Page 95) Showing A l v e o l i t e s e n c r u s t e d on a stem o f Thamnopora.  Figures  3-6 A l v e o l i t e s r o c k f o r d e n s i s H a l l and W h i t f i e l d (Page 93) 3, upper surface; 4, lower surface; 5, 6, p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s . ( A l l XI) ( A f t e r F e n t o n and Fenton 1924).  Figure  7 A l v e o l i t e s v a l l o r u m Meek (Page 94) View of fragment o f c o r a l l u m . ( X . 6 ) ( A f t e r Meek 1 8 6 7 ) .  PLATE XVIII  166 PLATE . XIX COENITES AND' FAVOSITES F i g u r e s 1-2 Goenites sp. (Page 96) 1, T h i n s e c t i o n of hypotype C5077, showing C o e n i t e s and a s m a l l spec i e s of Thamnopora (X2); 2, Same of hypotype C5080. F i g u r e s 3-4 Favosites basaltica Goldfuss (Page 99) Drawi n g showing arrangement of t a b u l a e and squamulae. (X5)' ( A f t e r Lambe 1899). F i g u r e s 5-8 F a v o s i t e s l i m i t a r i s Rominger (Page 102) Views o f s e v e r a l c o r a l l a , a l i t t l e l e s s than n a t u r a l s i z e ( A f t e r Rominger 1876)•  PLATE XIX  167  PLATE X X FAVOSITES AND  THAMNOPORA.  F i g u r e .1 F a v o s l t e s n i t e l i a W i n c h e l l (Page 1 0 3 ) Views o f f o u r c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y l e s s than n a t u r a l s i z e ( A f t e r Rominger 1 8 7 8 ) . F i g u r e s 2 - 5 Thamnopora c e r v i c o r n i s (De B l a i n v i l l e ) (Page 105) 2 , Corallum branches. ( X I ) ; 3 , 4 , Transverse s e c t i o n s ( X 2 , X I ) ; 5 , Transverse s e c t i o n . ( X I ) .  PLATE  168 PLATE.. XXITHAMNOPORA F i g u r e ,1  Thamnopora c e r v i c o r n i s (De B l a i n v i l l e ) (Page 108) Transverse s e c t i o n o f l a r g e s u b c y l i n d r i e a l stem showing l a t e r a l outgrowths, hypotype C50L2 (X2).  Figure 2  Thamnopora l a b i o s a ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 108) S e v e r a l b r a n c h i n g c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y l e s s than n a t u r a l s i z e ( A f t e r Rominger 1876).  169 PIATE XXII  THAMNOPOBA Figures  1-7 Thamnopora p o l y f o r a t a S e h l o t h e i m (Page 108) 1, C o r a l l u m b r a n c h embedded I n a s m a l l c o l o n y o f A l v e o l i t e s s u b o r b i c u l a r i a ; 2-4, L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s (X2, X I , X I . 5 ) o f t h e l e c t o t y p e ; 5, T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n (X2) o f t h e same s p e c i m e n : 6, C o r a l l u m b r a n c h a l s o . e m b e d d e d i n a c o l o n y °r A l v e o l i t e s suborbicularis . (Approximately natural s i z e ) . ( A f t e r S m i t h 1945).  PLATE XXXI  170 PLATE  XXIII  THAMNOPORA Figures  1-3. Thamnopora.cf. T. p o l y f o r a t a (Page 109) 1, T r a n s v e r s e and l o n g i t u d i n a l t h i n s e c t i o n of broken stems. (X2); 2, P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n o f broken stems of hypotype C5071. (X2); 3, P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n o f p a r t o f c o r a l l u m o f hypotype 5143.  Figure  4. Thamnopora roemeri ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 111) S e v e r a l p a r t i a l branching c o r a l l a , s l i g h t l y l e s s than n a t u r a l s i z e .  PLATE m n  171 . PLATE XXIV SYRINGOPORA AND AULOPORA Figure 1  Figure 2  S y r i n g o p o r a perelegans B i l l i n g s (Page 113) . L a t e r a l view of p a r t of a c o r a l l u m . (X.6) ( A f t e r Rominger 1876). A u l o p o r a repens Edwards and Haime (Page 117) View o f p a r t o f an i r r e g u l a r l y developed cora l l u m . ( X I ) ( A f t e r Smith 1945).  P L A T E  X X I ?  172  PLATE  XXV  AULOPOPA. CLADOCHONUS , AMD ROMINGERIA Figure  1 A u l o p o r a c f . A. repens (Page 118) View o f p a r t i a l c o r a l l a which e x h i b i t tendency t o form p o l y g o n a l network.  Figures 2-6" Cladochonus t e n u i c o l l i s McCoy (Page 119) 2, Lectotype ( X I ) ; 3, Syntype. V e r t i c a l s e c t i o n through c a l i c e and o f f s e t . (X2); 4, Syntype. Transverse s e c t i o n through c a l i c e (X2); 5,Syntype. T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n through p r o x i m a l port i o n (neck) o f c o r a l l i t e (X2); 6, Syntype. V e r t i c a l s e c t i o n through c a l i c e . (X2) ( A f t e r H i l l and Smyth, 1938). Figure  7 Romingeria u m b e l l i f e r a ( B i l l i n g s ) (Page 120) S e v e r a l broken c o r a l l a . (XI) ( A f t e r Rominger 1876).  P I A T E  XXV  1  

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