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Prince Rupert, B.C., the study of a port and its hinterland Crerar, Alistair Donald 1951

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PRINCE RUPERT, B.C. -THE STUDY OF A PORT AMD ITS HINTERLAND by ALISTAIR DONALD CRERAR A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ..MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f Geology and Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d from c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e degree o f MASTER OF ARTS Members o f the Department of Geology and Geography THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1 9 5 1 ABSTRACT P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. -The Study of a P o r t and i t s H i n t e r l a n d . P r i n c e Rupert i s s i t u a t e d on K a i e n I s l a n d , where s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l l a n d i s found t o a l l o w t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c i t y . Rugged m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y makes b u i l d i n g d i f f i c u l t and has a f f e c t e d the p a t t e r n o f l a n d use. Topography a l s o imposes c o n t r o l s upon t h e amount of l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s c l i m a t e though m i l d i s wet and un-p l e a s a n t , d i s c o u r a g i n g s e t t l e m e n t u n l e s s some ent i c e m e n t i s o f f e r e d i n terms o f h i g h e r wages, l a r g e r p r o f i t s o r f a v o u r -a b l e employment. The B u l k l e y V a l l e y , the l a r g e s t s i n g l e a r e a t o p o -g r a p h i c a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the mainland s e c t i o n of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d i s m a r g i n a l c l i m a t i c a l l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The s o i l s of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s i n t e r i o r h i n t e r l a n d do not seem l i k e l y t o support more than 2000 farms. Graham I s l a n d seems t o o f f e r t h e b e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i -c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n the f u t u r e . The P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t D i s t r i c t has a t o t a l of 23,5$3 m i l l i o n fbm o f t i m b e r on p r o d u c t i v e a r e a s o f wh i c h 19,780 m i l l i o n fbm i s found w i t h i n the c o a s t a l s e c t i o n . The e s t i m a t e d s u s t a i n e d a n n u a l y i e l d on the c o a s t i s 280 m i l l i o n 0 fbm o f w h i c h 195 m i l l i o n fbm i s b e i n g cut a t p r e s e n t t o be p r o c e s s e d l a r g e l y i n Vancouver m i l l s . I t i s suggested t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s a w m i l l s near P r i n c e Rupert would p r o b a b l y be s u c c e s s f u l . The f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e h a l i b u t f i s h e r y , has p r o v i d e d t h e m a i n s t a y f o r P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s econo-my s i n c e t h e c i t y ' s i n c e p t i o n . The major f i s h e r i e s are ex-t r e m e l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d and an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r i mportance seems u n l i k e l y . Of the 1 , 9 5 4 , 4 3 0 h.p. o f hydro power a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n 1 6 0 m i l e s o f P r i n c e Rupert o n l y 2 . 5 % i s d e v e l o p e d , due i n l a r g e p a r t t o the l a c k o f development o f t h e o t h e r r e s o u r c e s o f the d i s t r i c t . The Aluminum Company of Canada's K i t i m a t p r o j e c t w i l l mark the f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e use of t h i s r e s o u r c e . P r i n c e Rupert was founded t o s e r v e as t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t t e r m i n a l of t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . I t was planned from i t s i n c e p t i o n . The s t r e e t p l a n was l a i d out so t h a t the g r e a t e s t advantage c o u l d be t a k e n o f f a v o u r a b l e t o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s . The p l a n was u n s u c c e s s f u l because th e c i t y n e ver grew s u f f i c i e n t l y t o f i t the s c a l e o f t h e p l a n . From 1 9 0 9 t o 1 9 2 5 c o n s t r u c t i o n of v a r i o u s p i e c e s of l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t equipment went on. These were t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e t r a d e w i t h t h e O r i e n t which P r i n c e Rupert was expected t o c a p t u r e s i n c e i t was 5 0 0 m i l e s c l o s e r t o t h e O r i e n t t h a n any o t h e r N o r t h American p o r t . The t r a d e never m a t e r i a l i z e d because of t h e p o v e r t y of t h e O r i e n t , the l a c k o f s e t t l e m e n t a l o n g the l i n e o f t h e G.T.P.R.' and t h e n a t u r e of the r e s o u r c e s t a p p e d by t h e r a i l w a y . Over e x p a n s i o n of t h e c i t y and the c o s t o f c o n s t r u c -t i o n on d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n f o r c e d t h e c i t y i n t o b a n k r u p t c y i n 1933. T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a d i s a s t r o u s r e a d j u s t m e n t of t h e c i t y t o the r e a l i t i e s of i t s environment. The o u t l o o k a t p r e s e n t i s much b r i g h t e r . The r e -so u r c e s o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d a re i n much g r e a t e r demand and t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n i s b e g i n n i n g . The development o f the r e s o u r c e s w i l l g i v e a f i r m base t o t h e c i t y ' s growth and t h e c y c l e of "boom and b u s t " i s u n l i k e l y t o oc c u r a g a i n . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I P h y s i o g r a p h y and Geology 2 L o c a l P h y s i o g r a p h y 2 R e g i o n a l P h y s i o g r a p h y . . . . 1 9 Economic Geology 25 I I C l i m a t e 32 C l i m a t i c C o n t r o l s 32 C l i m a t e D u r i n g W i n t e r H a l f - Y e a r 3 3 . C l i m a t e D u r i n g Summer H a l f - Y e a r 37 Summary 50 I I I S o i l s 6 2 L o c a l S o i l s 62 R e g i o n a l S o i l s 66 Summary 72 IV F o r e s t r y 7 7 F o r e s t r y on t h e Coast 7 7 F o r e s t r y i n the I n t e r i o r 79 F o r e s t r y O p e r a t i o n s o f t h e Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company 81 V F i s h e r i e s 9 1 The H a l i b u t F i s h e r y 9 2 F i s h e r i e s and t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Movement 9 9 The Salmon F i s h e r y 1 0 2 Summary 1 0 6 VI Hydrography I l l Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s I l l Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s and F u t u r e Development .... 1 1 2 V I I Founding o f P r i n c e Rupert 117 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y 1 17 E a r l y Development o f P r i n c e Rupert 1 2 0 V I I I Planned Development o f P r i n c e Rupert 1 2 4 B a s i s of t h e C i t y P l a n 1 2 4 C r i t i c i s m o f t h e C i t y P l a n 1 2 7 Page IX E a r l y E x p a n s i o n of P r i n c e Rupert 1 3 1 S i t u a t i o n i n 1915 1 3 1 X The C i t y i n 1 9 4 9 1 4 7 Changes S i n c e 1 9 1 5 1 4 7 The Reasons f o r t h e Changes 1 4 7 Adjustment t o t h e A c t u a l i t i e s o f t h e Environment. 1 5 7 I n f l u e n c e o f World War I I on t h e C i t y 165 S i t u a t i o n a t . P r e s e n t 1 7 8 XI The F u t u r e o f P r i n c e Rupert 1 8 1 P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f P r e s e n t Development 181 P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f Development o f Immediate H i n t e r l a n d 1 8 2 P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f Development o f O r i e n t a l Trade 1 8 7 X I I C o n c l u s i o n 1 9 1 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 9 8 T a b l e o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s L i s t of Photographs 1 . V e r t i c a l A e r i a l Photograph o f P r i n c e Rupert 3 2 . A e r i a l Photograph of K a i e n I s l a n d from the E a s t ....... 7 3 . F i s h Docks and C o l d Storage 8 4 . Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y S t a t i o n and Docks 1 0 5 . A e r i a l Photograph o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s Commercial Core from t h e Northwest 11 6 . A l l e y Near t h e B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t 13 7 . F i l l N e c e s s a r y t o B r i n g F i r s t Avenue t o Grade 1 4 8 . T h i r d Avenue J u s t B e f o r e t h e Commercial S e c t i o n i s Reached 1 4 9. Looking West Along 7th, 8th and 9th Avenues, i n 1910. 15 10. I n t e r i o r Depression and Mountain Core 16 11. Kaien I s l a n d from the North 16 12. A e r i a l Photograph of Lakelse Lake from the North .... 21 13. A e r i a l Photograph Looking East, Upstream of the Skeena River .- 23 14. Cleaning H a l i b u t Preparatory-to Freezing ...^ *.. 95 1 5 . Looking North Across Harbour-at Mt. Morse 104 16. A e r i a l Photograph Looking West Along Gardner Canal... 113 17. A e r i a l Photograph of the .Head of K i t i m a t Arm and the -K i t i m a t R i v e r from the South 114 18. Looking Northwest Toward Harbour from 3 r d Avenue i n 1910 • 133 19. Looking Northeast at the Railway Yards and Large-Scale Port F a c i l i t i e s ' 135 20. Looking West from the Coastal Ridge at the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c "Wharf 136 21. Coastal Ridge and R a i l y a r d 138 22. Drydock and Shipyard from the East 139 23. Prince Rupert from the West < 14-0 24. Looking Northwest Along 2nd Avenue 14-1 2 5 . B u i l d i n g s on Second Avenue 142 2 6 . Looking Southwest Along Fraser Street 143 2 7 . View of Inland Ridge from the West 143 28. Looking across the Skeena River from the Northern Bank Near Tyee 152 2 9 . Skeena R i v e r from Tyee, Looking Toward -the Mouth .... 153 30. Looking North from Cow Bay toward Tuck I n l e t i n 1919. 160 31. Looking Northeast from Cow Bay 160 3 2 . T h i r d Avenue Looking Northeast 162 33:. Wartime Houses 166 34. Second Class and Wartime Houses 168 35. Overhead Ramp 170 36. Railway Yards and Ocean Dock from the Coastal Ridge . 171 37. A e r i a l Photograph of Watson Island from the West .... 172 38. F i r s t Class House" .............. '. 176 39. The Grain Elevator from the Coastal Ridge 176 40. Third Class Houses '. 178 41. F i l l Necessary to Bring Second Avenue to Grade 179 L i s t of Tables 1 . Climate Table A - Mean Monthly Temperatures i n . . ,. . Degree F 52 2 . Climate Table B - Mean Monthly.Precipitation,in.Inches 53 3 . Climate Table B 1- Monthly Annual,Averages of Snowfall 54 4 . Climate Table C - Monthly Average Daily Maximum.and Minimum Temperatures i n Degrees F . 55 5 . Climate Table D - Monthly and Annual Averages of Extreme Highest and Extreme Lowest. Temperature 56 6 . Climate Table B - Average Monthly and Annual Number of Days with Measurable Rain, .Snow and P r e c i p i t a t i o n of Any Sort 57 7 . Climate Table F - Average Monthly and Annual Hours of Bright Sunshine 5 8 8 . Climate Table G - Average Wind Speed i n Miles per Hour and Percentage Frequency by. . Direction f o r Prince Rupert, B.C. . 59 9 . Climate Table H - Frost-Free Period 6 0 i , .......... t . t - . 1 0 . Climate Table I - Date When Mean Maximum Exceeds and F a l l s Below 4 3 ° . F 6 1 11. Climate Table J , - Average Date ..when.Mean D a i l y Minimum Temperature Crosses 3 2 ° F . 61 1 2 . F r e i g h t Rates to Selected S t a t i o n s from Prince Rupert, B.C 74 13. Inventory of S o i l Surveyed Areas i n North C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia 75 14. F o r e s t r y Table 1 - Area of Prince Rupert Fo r e s t r y . D i s t r i c t 87 15. F o r e s t r y Table 2 - Merchantible Timber Volume on ••• Productive Area i n M i l l i o n s of fbm 87 16. F o r e s t r y Table 3 - Annual Logged Area 5 Year Average 1943-47 - 87 17. F o r e s t r y Table 4 - Cut i n M i l l i o n s of fbm 88 I80 F o r e s t r y Table 5 - Merchantible Timber by Drainage Basins 89 19. F o r e s t r y Table 6 - Saw and Shingle M i l l s 90 20. F i s h e r i e s Table I •--Declared Landings by •Regulatory Areas 108 21. F i s h e r i e s Table I I - Landings by Ports from Area 2 and 3 by U.S. and Canadian Vessels Combined 108 22. F i s h e r i e s Table I I I - Size of United States and Canadian F l e e t s 108 23. F i s h e r i e s Table IV - Length of H a l i b u t F i s h i n g Season i n Areas 2 and-3 109 L i s t of Maps 1. Place Names and Topography of Area Adjacent to Princ e Rupert 1 2. Physiographic D i v i s i o n s of Prin c e Rupert , 6 3. P r i n c e Rupert Place Names • <• 9 4. Regional Topography 17 5 . Areas Topographically S u i t a b l e f o r A g r i c u l t u r e 26 6. R e g i o n a l Geology 28 7. R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and P l a c e Names ,... .31 8. R e g i o n a l S o i l s ., ....67 9. R e g i o n a l F o r e s t Types 76 10. H a l i b u t F i s h i n g Areas 93 11. Water Power Resources ...110 12. S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n , A p r i l 13, 1909 121 13. P r i n c e Rupert Topography 125 14. Land Use May, 1915 132 15. Land Use, 1949 > . 146 16. Z o n i n g D i s t r i c t s ^ . . . . 149 17. F u t u r e Developments 180 L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. C l i m o g r a p h s f o r S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s 37A 2. S o i l M o i s t u r e Regime 46A 3. F o r m a t i o n of Muskeg 63A Pocket Maps ( I n s i d e Back Cover) I . One M i l e t o One I n c h Topographic Sheet I I . E i g h t M i l e s t o One I n c h Topographic Sheet I I I . Map of C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, 15.78 M i l e s t o One I n c h PREFACE Pr i n c e Rupert was chosen as a study because of the author's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c i t y and i t s problems. An a r t i c l e prepared on t h i s s u b j e c t met with s u f f i c i e n t a p p r o v a l at the 1949 meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n of P a c i f i c Coast Geographers t o be s e l e c t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the I95O e d i t i o n of the Yearbook of the A s s o c i a t i o n of P a c i f i c Coast Geographers. The u n d e r l y i n g problem which the study seeks to s o l v e i s the l a c k of development i n P r i n c e Rupert. When the c i t y was founded i n 1909 i t was expected t h a t i t would become a gr e a t world p o r t , a t r a d e centre t o r i v a l Vancou-ver, S e a t t l e and P o r t l a n d . Instead i t became a small f i s h -i n g v i l l a g e . Why d i d t h i s happen? People i n P r i n c e Rupert b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was because the founder and manager of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway, C h a r l e s M. Hay's d i e d ' t r a g i c a l l y i n the s i n k i n g of the T i t a n i c b e f o r e h i s plans f o r P r i n c e Rupert were completed. Mr. Hays proved h i s s t a t u r e as a f i n a n c i e r and railroadman by the r e j u v e n a t i o n o f the moribund Grand Trunk Railway, but i t i s d o u b t f u l whether even h i s energy and s k i l l would have been s u f f i c i e n t t o make the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c a s u c c e s s f u l u n d e r t a k i n g . I t was hoped t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n of geographic t e c h n i q u e s would p r o v i d e an answer to the problem of non-development. Since the growth of a c i t y i s dependant upon the f u n c t i o n s t h a t i t performs f o r a t r i b u t a r y area a study of P r i n c e Rupert's t r i b u t a r y area or h i n t e r l a n d was necessary. The f o c u s of the study was centred upon P r i n c e Rupert. The h i n t e r l a n d was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n so f a r as i t has a f f e c t e d the growth of P r i n c e Rupert, by a s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l c o n s i d e r e d p e r t i n e n t . No attempt has been made t o study the i n f l u e n c e s i n the r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n , the i n f l u e n c e s of the c i t y upon the h i n t e r l a n d . Though these are extremely important i t was f e l t t h a t t h e i r study l a y o u t s i d e the f i e l d o f the t h e s i s . The study c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of two p a r t s , one a s e r i e s of systematic s t u d i e s c e n t r e d upon P r i n c e Rupert and extending outwards as f a r as was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . The o t h e r s e c t i o n i s a study of P r i n c e Rupert i t s e l f , draw-i n g t o g e t h e r the f i n d i n g s o f the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n and a s s e s s -i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the geography of the h i n t e r l a n d upon the development of the c i t y . Three weeks of the summer of 1949 were spent i n f i e l d work. During t h i s time a f u n c t i o n a l map of the c i t y was prepared and i n t e r v i e w s conducted with pioneer r e s i d e n t s and o t h e r s . S p e c i a l thanks are due to W.J. Raymond, W. B e l l , H. Steen, A. McRae and A r t h u r Brooksbank f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the e a r l y days of t h e c i t y . R.D. Thain, C i t y C l e r k and P. L a k i e , D i s t r i c t F r e i g h t Agent, Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l -way, were a l s o of great a s s i s t a n c e . The author was p r i v i -l e g e d t o correspond with George D. H a l l of Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a , f o r m e r l y of B r e t t and H a l l , the f i r m of l a n d -scape a r c h i t e c t s that prepared the o r i g i n a l plans f o r the development of P r i n c e Rupert. He s u p p l i e d much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n which.would have been otherwise u n o b t a i n a b l e . The author has drawn l i b e r a l l y on John Q. Adams/ pio n e e r work on P r i n c e Rupert i n Economic Geography of A p r i l 1938. Mr. Adams' g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the non-development of P r i n c e Rupert was due to a l a c k o f develop-ment i n the h i n t e r l a n d was the b a s i s f o r t h e author's more exte n s i v e study. Dr. J.L. Robinson gave v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m and guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s . Dr. J.R. Mackay f a c i l i t a t e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of the maps. The a s s i s t a n c e of my w i f e has been i n v a l u a b l e i n a l l phases of t h i s work, and without her help the p r e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s would have been a much more d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Map 1 Place Names and Topography of Areas Adjacent to Prince Rupert Source: One mile to one inch, National Topographic Series Map, Prince Rupert East Sheet. PRINCE RUPERT, B.C. -THE STUDY OF A PORT AND ITS HINTERLAND Chapter I PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY L o c a l P h y s i o g r a p h y K a i e n I s l a n d , upon which P r i n c e R u p e r t i s l o c a t e d , i s one o f a s e r i e s o f i s l a n d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e we s t e r n margin o f t h e Coast Range Mountains which a r e s e p a r a t e d from t h e m a i n l a n d by s e a - i n v a d e d v a l l e y s . I n t h e case o f K a i e n I s l a n d t h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s o f a minor n a t u r e and i n f o u r p l a c e s t h e i s l a n d approaches w i t h i n o n e - q u a r t e r o f a m i l e o f the m a i n l a n d t o form the t i d a l r a p i d s , o f Z a n a r d i , G a l l o w a y , B u t z e and Sh a w a t l a n s . K a i e n I s l a n d and the m a j o r i t y o f Tsimpsean P e n i n -s u l a a r e u n d e r l a i n by se d i m e n t a r y r o c k s of the P r i n c e Rupert F o r m a t i o n , which form a pendant o f s e d i m e n t a r i e s on t h e w e s t e r n margin o f the a r c u a t e i n t r u s i o n of t h e Coast Range Batholith. The rocks of the Prince Rupert Formation are T r i a s s i c i n age and composed l a r g e l y of quartzites and argillaceous quartzites, partly converted to quartz mica s c h i s t s . They probably formed the country rock into which the Coast Range Batholith intruded i n Jurassic times. The contact between these two formations i s found at Sockeye, on the Skeena River, and thence across Tsimpsean Peninsula i n a northeasterly d i r e c t i o n . The main control of physiography i n t h i s area has been the continental g l a c i a t i o n of Pleistocene times, and the alpine g l a c i e r s which persisted after the withdrawal of the continental ice sheet. There are two main trends to the physiographic forms i n the Prince Rupert area. One follows the st r i k e of the rocks i n a northwest to southeast d i r e c t i o n , as i s seen i n Work Channel, Tuck Inlet and the entrance to Prince Rupert Harbour. The other has a north-east, southwest trend as noted i n the North Arm of Work Channel and Prince Rupert Harbour. The r e l a t i v e r e l i e f of the area, though moderate i n comparison with the Coast Range as a whole, i s neverthe-les s considerable. The highest point on Kaien Island i s Mount Hays which r i s e s to a height of 2,320 f e e t . The mountain backbone of Kaien Island has a general northeast, southwest trend and i s flanked to the northwest and south-east by lowland areas. Lowlands also fringe the northeastern end of the island i n the v i c i n i t y of Shawatlan Rpaids. On the southwestern end of the Island, bordering the entrance 5 . to Prince Rupert Harbour, the slopes are extremely abrupt, the land r i s i n g from sea l e v e l to 1600 feet i n one t h i r d of a mile. The northwestern lowland area from Shawatlan Rapids to P i l l s b u r y Point i s approximately one mile wide. From P i l l s b u r y Point to Fairview Point i s narrows r a p i d l y as the mountains crowd i n upon the shore. It i s upon the seaward fringes of t h i s lowland that the c i t y of Prince Rupert has been b u i l t , and f o r t h i s reason the northwestern lowland w i l l henceforth be c a l l e d the Prince Rupert lowland. Though i n general t h i s area can t r u l y be termed a lowland the micro-topography i s extremely rugged. The Prince Rupert lowland may be divided into three sections, the coastal ridge, the inland ridge and the inland depression. (See Map 2) The coastal ridge i s the steep b l u f f which p a r a l l e l s the coast l i n e throughout the lowland area. I t i s broken only where creeks have cut back into the i n t e r i o r depression. These small valleys also provide a convenient d i v i s i o n of the coastal ridge into three further subdivisions. The f i r s t section, to the east of Hays Creek, i s characterized by the most precipitous r i s e from the waters edge. The land r i s e s from sea-level to 200 feet i n a h o r i -zontal distance of only 400 to 5 0 0 feet. Once t h i s height i s reached, however, the land becomes f a i r l y f l a t with a r e l a t i v e l y gentle dip toward the i n t e r i o r of the i s l a n d . •°* MOUNTAINS PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS LOOU *W1> Map 2 Physiographic Divisions of Prince Rupert Source: F i e l d Work. PHOTOGRAPH 2 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF KAIEN ISLAND FROM THE EAST Prince Rupert i s v i s i b l e on the western side of the i s l a n d . The lowlands flanking the is l a n d are c l e a r l y shown. High-way 1 6 , l i n k i n g Prince Rupert with the mainland i s i n the l e f t foreground. The second s u b d i v i s i o n l i e s between Hays Creek and Morse Creek and here t h e main p o r t i o n o f the c i t y i s s i t u a t e d . The l a n d r i s e s s t e e p l y from t h e s e a , though not as p r e c i p i -t o u s l y o r c o n t i n u o u s l y as i n t h e f i r s t s u b d i v i s i o n . Hays Creek, Cow Bay Creek and Morse Creek have c u t s t e e p s i d e d v a l l e y s i n t o the r i d g e f a c e , which a r e used t o p r o v i d e e n t r y i n t o the c i t y . ( F o r P l a c e Names see Map 3 , page 9 . ) The g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e i n the s e c t i o n between Hays and Morse Creek i s o n l y 100 f e e t , but s i n c e t h i s e l e v a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d w i t h i n 500 f e e t o f t h e shore a r a t h e r f o r m i d a b l e r i s e i s p r e s e n t e d . O r i g i n a l l y t h e o n l y f l a t - l y i n g a r e a s a l o n g the shore l i n e were s i t u a t e d a t the Map 3 PRINCE RUPERT PLACE NAMES Source: F i e l d Work mouths o f t h e c r e e k s . These l e v e l a r e a s were formed i n p a r t by e r o s i o n o f the o r i g i n a l r i d g e and p a r t l y t h r o u g h f l u v i a l d e p o s i t i o n . They tended, t h e r e f o r e , t o be t r i a n g u l a r i n shape, w i t h s t e e p s i d e s and r e l a t i v e l y f l a t bottoms. The main a r e a s were a t the mouths of Hays and Morse C r e e k s , w h i l e o t h e r minor a r e a s were found a t t h e mouths o f s m a l l , nameless c r e e k s . These c r e e k s debouched i n t o Cow Bay and the a r e a now co v e r e d by t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n and roundhouse. When the r a i l w a y was c o n s t r u c t e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r l e v e l l a n d f o r s w i t c h i n g y a r d s and s i d i n g s f o r c e d t h e b u i l d e r s t o b l a s t l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e . The b l a s t i n g was most e x t e n s i v e i n t h e a r e a b e h i n d t h e r a i l w a y roundhouse and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government wharf. PHOTOGRAPH 4 Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y S t a t i o n and Dock Note t h e overhead f o o t b r i d g e needed t o connect t h e s t a t i o n w i t h the c o a s t a l r i d g e . I n the a r e a s where e x t e n s i v e b l a s t i n g o c c u r r e d t h e r i d g e r i s e s almost v e r t i c a l l y above t h e t r a c k s and e n t r y t o t h e c i t y can o n l y be a c h i e v e d by means o f e l e v a t e d ramps o r s t e p s . (See Photographs 3 and 4) PHOTOGRAPH 5 Copy o f Photograph by J.R. W r a t h a l l P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s commercial c o r e from the n o r t h . The l a r g e b u i l d i n g i n the c e n t r e o f t h e s e m i - c i r c u l a r d r i v e w a y i s the P r o v i n c i a l Government B u i l d i n g . The p r i n c i p a l s t r e e t s from r i g h t t o l e f t a r e F i r s t , Second and T h i r d Avenues. The s c a r p o f the c o a s t a l r i d g e can be seen t o t h e r i g h t of F i r s t Avenue and t h e s c a r p of the i n l a n d r i d g e t o the l e f t o f T h i r d Avenue. I n t h e s e c t i o n between Hays Creek and Cow Bay the c o a s t a l r i d g e r e a c h e s a h e i g h t of 120 f e e t a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 900 f e e t from t h e s h o r e . From here t h e r i d g e d i p s 1 2 . g e n t l y southward d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . I n t h e r e s t o f t h e s u b d i v i s i o n , t h a t i s from Cow Bay t o Morse Creek, t h e r i d g e r e a c h e s a h e i g h t o f 80 t o 1 2 0 f e e t w i t h i n 1 0 0 t o 5 0 0 f e e t f r om t h e s h o r e . I t t h e n l e v e l s o f f u n t i l i t r e a c h e s the f o o t o f t h e i n l a n d r i d g e . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l a r e a has a w i d t h o f from 1 0 0 0 t o 1 2 0 0 f e e t and has been l a r g e l y o c c u p i e d by t h e c i t y ' s commercial c o r e . (See Photograph 5 ) . The t h i r d s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e , f r om Morse Creek southwestward, has the appearance o f a l a r g e r o c he moutonnee w i t h i t s l o n g a x i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e s h o r e . From a h e i g h t of 2 3 2 f e e t d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e P i l l s b u r y P o i n t t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e drops a b r u p t l y t o the n o r t h , west and south toward th e shore and t h e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . To t h e n o r t h -e a s t a l o n g the a x i s o f t h e r i d g e the s l o p e i s more g r a d u a l w i t h pronounced c o n v e x i t y . The i n t e r i o r r i d g e i s o n l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e a r e a between Morse and Hays Creek. I t r i s e s p r e c i p i t o u s l y from t h e r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l i n l a n d e x t e n s i o n o f the c o a s t a l r i d g e and r e a c h e s an e l e v a t i o n o f from 2 0 0 t o 2 5 0 f e e t . From t h i s h e i g h t i t d i p s g e n t l y i n t o t h e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . There i s l i t t l e concordance t o t h i s r i d g e t o p . I t s g r e a t e s t e l e v a -t i o n i s A c r o p o l i s H i l l which i s 2 9 9 f e e t h i g h and s t a n d s a t l e a s t 5 0 f e e t above t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l of t h e r i d g e . The i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n has a g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n of 50 t o 1 0 0 f e e t and has a g e n t l y r o l l i n g t e r r a i n . T h i s a r e a l i e s i m m e d i a t e l y back o f the c o a s t a l and i n l a n d r i d g e s . These r i d g e s g e n e r a l l y d i p i m p e r c e p t i b l y i n t o t h e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . The e x t r e m e l y rugged m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e P r i n c e Rupert t o w n s i t e makes road c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t . Photograph 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o untered w i t h r o c k . PHOTOGRAPH 6 A l l e y Near the B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . B l a s t i n g was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t t h e roadway. Photographs 7 and 3 show t h e amount of c o n s t r u c t i o n work n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g r o a d s t o f e a s i b l e g r a d e s a c r o s s s h a r p l y u n d u l a t i n g t e r r a i n . The o r i g i n a l p l a n k roadways shown i n photograph 9 have s i n c e been r e p l a c e d by b l a c k t o p r o a d -ways. The wooden roadways were l e f t as the f o u n d a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t r o a d s , t h e f i l l b e i n g p l a c e d on t o p o f them. As the t i m b e r s o f t h e o r i g i n a l wooden roadway r o t t h e f i l l PHOTOGRAPH 7 F i l l N e c essary t o B r i n g F i r s t Avenue t o Grade. The f i l l has begun t o crumble away. PHOTOGRAPH 8 T h i r d Avenue j u s t B e f o r e t h e Commercial S e c t i o n i s re a c h e d . The f i l l n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g t h e ro a d t o grade can be seen. s e t t l e s into the muskeg underneath, r e s u l t i n g f i n a l l y i n an extremely bumpy roadway. PHOTOGRAPH 9 (Copy of Postcard - Date Unknown - Possibly 1910) Looking west along 7th, 8th and 9th Avenues. Interior depression mountains to the l e f t , crest of the inland ridge to the r i g h t . Comment on the reverse of the o r i g i n a l postcard, author unknown. "This gives an idea of the back part of Rupert and i n t h i s you can see some of the smaller one room shacks and also the plank roadways. Notice the stumps everywhere and just fancy what a job they had to clear nearly L square miles of such thick fo r e s t . It was a l l l i k e the wooded back-ground four years ago and each tree had to be cut down and removed. No wonder i t i s s t i l l p r i m i t i v e . " PHOTOGRAPH 10 INTERIOR DEPRESSION AND MOUNTAIN CORE OF KAIEN ISLAND FROM ACROPOLIS HILL PHOTOGRAPH 11 COPY OF POSTCARD BY W.W. WRATHAL Kaien Island from the north. Prince Rupert in foreground* Map 4 Regional Topography-Map of Central B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 15.76 miles to one inch. The m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y o f the s o u t h e a s t e r n l o w l a n d o f K a i e n I s l a n d i s much l e s s d i v e r s e t h a n t h a t of t h e P r i n c e R upert l o w l a n d . I t i s g e n t l y r o l l i n g c o u n t r y w i t h an e l e v a -t i o n o f 1 0 0 t o 2 0 0 f e e t , muskeg cove r e d and p o o r l y d r a i n e d . Watson, R i d l y and L e l u I s l a n d s and P o r t Edward t o w n s i t e a r e a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the s o u t h e a s t e r n l o w l a n d and have t h e same e l e v a t i o n . They a r e s m a l l e r i n a r e a ; t h e r e -f o r e t h e w a t e r c o u r s e s have s t e e p e r g r a d i e n t s and the l a n d i s b e t t e r d r a i n e d . D igby I s l a n d , may be r e g a r d e d as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e P r i n c e Rupert l o w l a n d w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y rugged m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y . The g r e a t e s t e l e v a t i o n on t h e i s l a n d i s 3 2 5 f e e t which i s found i n t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n s e c t i o n . The w e s t e r n c o a s t o f P r i n c e Rupert Harbour i s formed by a l o b e - l i k e southward p r o j e c t i o n o f Tsimpsean P e n i n s u l a , which may be c a l l e d M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from th e main Tsimpsean P e n i n s u l a . The t r e n d o f the t o p o g r a p h i c forms i n the M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a i s n o r t h w e s t , s o u t h e a s t , p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t r i k e of the r o c k s and t h e g e n e r a l a l i g n m e n t of the mountainous Tsimpsean P e n i n -s u l a . The w e s t e r n s i d e o f the M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a c o n t a i n s t h e most e x t e n s i v e l o w l a n d s c o n t i g u o u s t o P r i n c e R u p e r t . The m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y r e s e m b l e s t h a t of the s o u t h e a s t l o w l a n d o f K a i e n I s l a n d but d r a i n a g e i s somewhat b e t t e r developed and the a r e a s of muskeg ar e not as e x t e n s i v e . The e a s t e r n h a l f of the M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a i s v e r y rugged, the most c o n s p i c u o u s f e a t u r e of t h e r e l i e f b e i n g Mt. Morse which r i s e s t o a h e i g h t o f 2,990 f e e t and has the w e l l rounded summit t y p i c a l ' o f t h e mountains a d j a c e n t t o P r i n c e R u p e r t . Mt. Morse and i t s n o r t h w e s t e r n e x t e n s i o n s f orm t h e w e s t e r n m argin o f t h e upper h a r b o u r and Tuck I n l e t . R e g i o n a l P h y s i o g r a p h y Work Channel, a t h i r t y - m i l e l o n g f i o r d , forms t h e e a s t e r n boundary o f t h e Tsimpsean P e n i n s u l a . I t i s a l s o t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e between s e d i m e n t a r i e s and i n t r u -s i v e s , w i t h t h e P r i n c e Rupert f o r m a t i o n t o t h e west and t h e Coast Range B a t h o l i t h t o the e a s t . The r o c k s o f t h e Coast Range B a t h o l i t h extend f rom Sockeye t o Amsbury. The mountains developed i n t h e s e r o c k s a r e h i g h e r and more rugged t h a n any d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . The g r e a t e s t e l e v a -t i o n s a r e t o be found t o the n o r t h of the Skeena R i v e r where t h e mountains r i s e t o 6000 f e e t . South o f t h e Skeena t o Douglas Channel t h e g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n i s o n l y about 4000 f e e t . The a r e a south o f the Skeena i s , i n f a c t , t h e l o w e s t p a r t of the Coast Range and forms a s a d d l e between l o f t i e r mountains t o the n o r t h and s o u t h . T e r r a c e s t a n d s a t the j u n c t i o n o f a g r e a t n o r t h -s o u t h v a l l e y and t h e v a l l e y of t h e Skeena. The c r o s s n o r t h s o u t h v a l l e y b e g i n s a t the head of the K i t i m a t Arm o f Douglas Channel and c o n t i n u e s n o r t h t o A i y a n s h on the Nass R i v e r . At t h e Nass R i v e r the v a l l e y i s c o n t i n u e d n o r t h w a r d by t h e upper Nass as f a r as White Creek. T h i s c r o s s v a l l e y w h ich may be c a l l e d the K i t s u m g a l l u m - L a k e l s e V a l l e y , i s c o v e r e d t o a depth o f a t l e a s t 250 f e e t by g r a v e l , b o u l d e r c l a y s and o t h e r u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l . The v a l l e y v a r i e s i n w i d t h from one t o s i x m i l e s , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t w i d t h a t T e r r a c e . I t i s f l a n k e d on e i t h e r s i d e by mountains which have a g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n o f 4000 f e e t . The d i v i d e between t h e Tseax and K i t s u m g a l l u m r i v e r s i s 300 f e e t h i g h e r t h a n t h e Skeena R i v e r a t T e r r a c e and t h e d i v i d e between t h e L a k e l s e and K i t i m a t R i v e r s i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i t i s a v a l l e y o f e r o s i o n , c ut when t h e combined w a t e r s of t h e Nass and Skeena f l o w e d southward t o empty i n t o K i t i m a t Arm. Hanson suggested t h a t "the Skeena R i v e r may have a n t e -d a t e d t h e K i t s u m g a l l u m - L a k e l s e system, which may have been robbed by t h e l a t t e r system perhaps i n C r e t a c e o u s time and perhaps l a t e r s t i l l , i n T e r t i a r y or P l e i s t o c e n e t i m e , the low e r Skeena may have r e c a p t u r e d i t s f o r m e r w a t e r s " . ^ The v a l l e y o f the Skeena below T e r r a c e resembles a f i o r d . I t i s f a i r l y s t r a i g h t and t h e mountains r i s e s t e e p l y on b o t h s i d e s . I t s w i d t h remains r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h -out t h i s s e c t i o n , b e i n g i f m i l e s wide a t the mouth o f t h e L a k e l s e R i v e r and o n l y two m i l e s wide a t P o r t E s s i n g t o n a t t h e mouth of t h e Skeena. Above T e r r a c e the Skeena has a normal stream c o u r s e , n a r r o w i n g i n r e s i s t a n t beds and widen-i n g i n l e s s r e s i s t a n t s t r a t a . The Skeena below T e r r a c e has been s t r o n g l y g l a c i a t e d but e i t h e r has not been deepened a p p r e c i a b l y o r e l s e has been f i l l e d by r e c e n t a l l u v i u m ; Hanson, G., P r i n c e Rupert t o Burns Lake, G e o l . Surv. Canada, Sum. Rept., 1924, p t . A. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1925, p. 39 PHOTOGRAPH 1 2 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF ' „ LAKELSE LAKE FROM THE NORTH. •a K i t i m a t Arm and t h e meandering K i t i m a t R i v e r a re v i s i b l e i n the l e f t background. L a k e l s e Lake i s connected t o T e r r a c e by r o a d . The ease w i t h which the road c o u l d be extended t o K i t i m a t can be seen. p r o b a b l y the l a t t e r . T i d a l a c t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e as f a r up t h e r i v e r as Shames, a d i s t a n c e o f s i x t y m i l e s , and by s l o w i n g t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e r i v e r has a s s i s t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f numerous s m a l l i s l a n d s and sand b a r s which f i l l t h e l o w e r r i v e r . The p h y s i o g r a p h y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d i s the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e c o n t r o l o f s e t t l e m e n t . From the mouth of the Skeena t o H a z e l t o n t h e p o t e n t i a l s e t t l e -ment s i t e s c o n s i s t of s m a l l s c a t t e r e d p o c k e t s o f r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l l a n d c a r v e d i n the s t e e p v a l l e y - s i d e s by t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Skeena. The K i t s u m g a l l u m - L a k e l s e V a l l e y a l s o f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n s i z e and o r i g i n f r om t h e o t h e r s . The Skeena R i v e r below H a z e l t o n appears t o be i n t h e stage of y o u t h f u l e r o s i o n . The s i d e s of t h e r i v e r a r e e i t h e r s t e e p l y V-shaped or a r e p r a c t i c a l l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r , , as i n t h e K i t s e l a s Canyon. Below T e r r a c e t h e Skeena ex-p e r i e n c e s i t s g r e a t e s t d e c r e a s e i n v e l o c i t y , and d e p o s i t i o n becomes i m p o r t a n t , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f numerous s m a l l i s l a n d s i n t h e r i v e r . The Skeena below T e r r a c e i s a d e l t a o f the embayed t y p e and t h e r i v e r w i l l be f o r c e d t o f i l l t h e c h a n n e l f r o m t h i s p o i n t t o t h e mouth b e f o r e any seaward b u i l d i n g o f t h e d e l t a w i l l be p o s s i b l e . A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s l i m i t e d t o s m a l l a l l u v i a l f a n s and a few p o s t g l a c i a l t e r r a c e s which a r e q u i c k l y b e i n g eroded by the Skeena. I n the Skeena system t h e main a r e a t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t i s found i n t h e B u l k l e y V a l l e y . From PHOTOGRAPH 13 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LOOKING EAST, UPSTREAM, OF -THE SKEENA RIVER The E c s t a l l River enters from the south, to the rig h t i n the photograph. The C.N.R. mainline can be seen following the north bank of the Skeena. Highway 16 joins the railway from.the north, at Tyee opposite the Ecstall.. The extremely rugged character of Prince Rupert's immediate hinterland and the paucity of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s well i l l u s t r a t e d , , as i s the f i o r d - l i k e character of the r i v e r and the r e s u l t i n g d i f f i c u l t y of r a i l and road construction. the mouth of the B u l k l e y R i v e r , at Hazelton, f o r a d i s t a n c e of twelve m i l e s upstream the v a l l e y i s about f o u r m i l e s wide, wit h c o n s i d e r a b l e areas of bench lands l y i n g at an e l e v a t i o n of s e v e r a l hundred f e e t above the r i v e r . The v a l l e y g r a d u a l l y opens out u n t i l i n the v i c i n i t y of Moricetown, 26 m i l e s from the mouth, i t a t t a i n s a width of between e i g h t and ten m i l e s . T h i r t y m i l e s f a r t h e r up i t widens t o about 20 m i l e s . Above Telkwa the v a l l e y continues to be wide and r o l l i n g and i s almost p r a i r i e - l i k e i n appearance. In t h i s v a l l e y , f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t of i t s l e n g t h , the B u l k l e y o c c u p i e s a deeply e n c i s e d channel. On the mainland, w i t h i n a reasonable d i s t a n c e of P r i n c e Rupert, the o n l y other l a r g e area which may be topo-g r a p h i c a l l y s u i t e d f o r settlement i s found i n the middle v a l l e y of the Nass from the v i c i n i t y of Aiyansh n o r t h to the Cranberry R i v e r . L i t t l e i s known of t h i s area, however, and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s necessary b e f o r e more can be s a i d , other than t h a t lowland areas are known to e x i s t . To the west of P r i n c e Rupert a l a r g e lowland area on Graham I s l a n d o f f e r s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r settlement. The west c o a s t of the i s l a n d c o n s i s t s of a former p l a i n of marine d e p o s i t i o n of T e r t i a r y age which has been u p l i f t e d w ith l i t t l e deformation. Large areas of g e n t l y r o l l i n g and almost f l a t l a n d e x i s t , estimated to number some 300,000 a c r e s . 2 Canada's New Northwest. North P a c i f i c P l anning P r o j e c t , k i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947, p. 15. An examination of Map 5 (Page 26) shows t h a t P r i n c e Rupert's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o these areas i s l i k e t h a t of a hub to a wheel. Areas even remotely s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i -c u l t u r e are at l e a s t 90 m i l e s away. At no time i n the f u t u r e can P r i n c e Rupert hope f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p roducts at c o s t s comparable with other c i t i e s t h a t do not have t h i s d i s t a n c e f a c t o r t o overcome. Economic Geology Although P r i n c e Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d c o n t a i n s r i c h and v a r i e d m i n e r a l wealth, the mining i n d u s t r y has been o f minor importance t o the c i t y ' s development. The c o a s t a l mines, such as those near Stewart and the Surf I n l e t Mines on P r i n c e s s Royal I s l a n d are t r i b u t a r y to Vancouver r a t h e r than P r i n c e Rupert. Equipment, food s u p p l i e s and workers are only i n c i d e n t a l . The mines of the i n t e r i o r are g e n e r a l l y of s m a l l s c a l e and t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n i s shipped eastward over the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways "(C.N.R.) The g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y of the area i s extremely complex, and succeeding d e p o s i t i o n , u p l i f t and i n t r u s i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a d i v e r s i t y o f m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s . I t i s probable that d e p o s i t i o n was continuous i n t h i s area from Late P a l e o z o i c w e l l i n t o Mesozoic time. The rocks o f the P r i n c e Rupert pendant are T r i a s s i c w h i le those of the Hazelton Mountains and the B u l k l e y and Babine Range are mainly J u r a s s i c or u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Lower Cretaceous and are composed of both sedimentary and v o l c a n i c r o c k s . I n t r u s i v e s are extremely w e l l represented i n the area by M a p 5 Areas Topographically S u i t a b l e f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Source: V.G. Brink and L. Fa r s t a d , The Physiography of the  A g r i c u l t u r a l Areas of B.C., S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , v. 2 9 , June, 1 9 4 9 , p. 2 8 3 . t the Coast Range B a t h o l i t h and the Cassiar-Omineca B a t h o l i t h and t h e i r s a t e l l i t e i n t r u s i o n s to the east and west. These rocks were intruded during J u r a s s i c and p o s s i b l y i n t o Lower Cretaceous times. I t i s at the contact between the i n t r u -s i v e s and sedimentaries t h a t most of the main m e t a l l i f e r o u s deposits are found at present and i t i s probable that f u t u r e d i s c o v e r i e s w i l l occur i n these areas, e s p e c i a l l y along the margins of the Cassiar-Omineca b a t h o l i t h . At present, however, the minerals which have been most important i n the economy of P r i n c e Rupert have been the sedimentary minerals, notably c o a l . Coal i s mined on a very small scale at only one p o i n t , Telkwa, but the whole of the production of 10,000 to 12,000 tons per year, i s used i n the area, mostly at Prince Rupert. Production can be expected to increase when the Columbia C e l l u l o s e p l a n t on Watson I s l a n d begins operation because they intend to use Telkwa c o a l i n t h e i r power p l a n t . The c o a l of the Telkwa Basin i s Lower Cretaceous i n age and ranges from bituminous to semi-anthracite depend-i n g on the p r o x i m i t y of i n t r u s i o n s . • Unfortunately the highest grades of coal are found i n the areas where the g r e a t e s t disturbance has taken p l a c e , and are consequently d i f f i c u l t to mine. The Telkwa bas i n has an area of about seven square mi l e s u n d e r l a i n by coal-bearing rocks having a t h i c k n e s s of from 350 t o 500 f e e t . These rocks c o n t a i n f i v e seams, three of which are more than three f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s . Most of the c o a l measures are concealed by a heavy l a y e r of a l l u v i u m and GEOLOGY T N T K U S I V C ttOCKS JurASSIC MM Mesojoic acidic • • Upper Jurassic 6* PTTTTT^  MeSO^ OiC baMC 8. Ultra-rrwro or Lower Cretaceous b a s i c ™ 8 Crctaceoub t— StDlMCNUtiY 8 . V 0 U A N U KQCK .S Ter t iary 2. i 1 Upper Triassic HH ueavv Drift 28. Map 6 Regional Geology/ Source: Geological Map of B r i t i s h Columbia, 20 miles to one; inch, (West Sheet), Geological Survey, 1948. g l a c i a l d r i f t , and o u t c r o p s a r e c o n f i n e d l a r g e l y t o t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f Telkwa R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r y , Goat Creek, which have cut back the c o v e r and r e v e a l e d the c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a . M i n e a b l e r e s e r v e s are e s t i m a t e d a t 56,000,000 t o n s of w h i c h ' o n l y 28,000,000 t o n s a r e con-s i d e r e d r e c o v e r a b l e . ^ The c o a l i s e x t r e m e l y h a r d and s u i t a b l e f o r s h i p p i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the m a j o r i t y o f i t i s not of c o k i n g q u a l i t y . The o n l y o t h e r c o a l f i e l d o f i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e Groundhog c o a l a r e a . I t l i e s i n t h e headwaters o f t h e Skeena R i v e r 150 m i l e s n o r t h o f H a z e I t o r i . Four main seams have been l o c a t e d , one w i t h a t h i c k n e s s of t w e l v e f e e t , two f o u r f e e t and one t h r e e f e e t t h i c k . They a r e d i s t r i -b u t e d t h r o u g h a s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l o f 1,240 f e e t . The c o a l i s of v e r y h i g h grade b e i n g l a r g e l y low v o l a t i l e b i t u m i n o u s and a n t h r a c i t e . A c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f the mineable r e s e r v e s o f the Groundhog a r e a g i v e s a t o t a l of n e a r l y 900,000,000 t o n s o f p r o b a b l e and p o s s i b l e c o a l . ^ " N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the h i g h q u a l i t y and l a r g e r e s e r v e s of t h e c o a l f i e l d the p r o b a b i l i t y o f f u t u r e m i n i n g i s s l i g h t , due t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . At p r e s e n t t h e c o a l r e -s e r v e s a r e not o f s u f f i c i e n t economic i n t e r e s t t o w a r r a n t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a i l l i n e i n t o the a r e a . I f , however, the d e s i r e f o r r a i l communication t o A l a s k a were s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o w a r r a n t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a i l w a y t h r o u g h 3 Mackay, B.R., C o a l R e s e r v e s of Canada, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947, p. 51. 4 L o c . c i t . B r i t i s h Columbia i t would be wise t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e c o a l r e s e r v e s b e f o r e d e c i d i n g upon the r o u t e . Proposed r o u t e "A" o f the A l a s k a Highway p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t o f the c o a l f i e l d , but highway c o n s t r u c t i o n cannot s o l v e t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . M e n t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be made of t h e l i m o n i t e d e p o s i t s , 30 m i l e s e a s t o f T e r r a c e , on L i m o n i t e Creek, a t r i b u t a r y of the Zymoetz R i v e r . The ore i s a s u r f a c e d e p o s i t c o v e r e d by a t h i n l a y e r o f moss, two t o t h r e e f e e t t h i c k . At l e a s t 500,000 t o n s o f e a s i l y mined, n e a r l y pure l i m o n i t e i s p r e s e n t and i t i s not i m p r o b a b l e t h a t the t o t a l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n e x c e s s o f 1,000,000 tons.-* A g a i n th e problem i s one o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The f o r e g o i n g s e d i m e n t a r y m i n e r a l s have been d i s -cussed because t h e i r development i s d i r e c t l y dependent upon the development o f P r i n c e Rupert and i t s h i n t e r l a n d . I n monetary terms m e t a l l i f e r o u s d e p o s i t s w i l l p r o b a b l y be t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n the near f u t u r e . The development o f the m e t a l l i f e r o u s d e p o s i t s , however, w i l l be dependent upon the c o n d i t i o n of o u t s i d e m a r k e t s . T h e i r development w i l l b e n e f i t o u t s i d e c a p i t a l and secondary i n d u s t r i e s w i t h o u t h a v i n g much i n f l u e n c e upon P r i n c e R u p e r t . Young,'G.A., and Uglow, W.L., I r o n Ores of Canada, V o l . 1, 1926, Canada, Dept. of M i n e s , p. 20. TRANSPORTATION AND PLACE. N A M t S A £ ROPL AN f. ROUTE. RAILWAY ROUTE WATER ROIJTC .HIGHWAYS MORESBY ISLAND 31. Map 7 Regional Transportation and Place Names Source: Map of Central B.C., Department of Lands and Forests, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 15.76 miles to one inch. Chapter I I CLIMATE C l i m a t i c C o n t r o l s The main c o n t r o l o f t h e c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e Rupert i s t he c o n s t a n t p r o g r e s s i o n o f e a s t e r l y - m o v i n g d e p r e s s i o n s t h a t pass o v e r the n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . These d e p r e s s i o n s a re formed a l o n g the p o l a r f r o n t , the m e e t i n g p l a c e o f T r o p i c a l M arine and P o l a r P a c i f i c A i r . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months t h e p o l a r f r o n t moves w e l l t o t h e south and numerous storms a r e formed which move s l o w l y eastward t o -ward t h e n o r t h e r n P a c i f i c c o a s t . Depending on t h e i r c i r c u i t t h e s e storms a r e m o d i f i e d t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t by marine i n f l u e n c e s . I n most cases t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o a con-s i d e r a b l e m a r i t i m e i n f l u e n c e and a r r i v e a t P r i n c e Rupert '-as r e l a t i v e l y warm, m o i s t u n s t a b l e a i r masses. I f the t r a -j e c t o r y o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n has been s h o r t - i . e . i f i t o r i g i -n a t e s i n t h e B e r i n g Sea o r t h e G u l f o f A l a s k a and moves d i r e c t l y e a s t and s o u t h , i t i s l i k e l y t o be r e l a t i v e l y c o l d and o n l y s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d i n i t s l o w e r l a y e r s . Under such c o n d i t i o n s i t i s l i k e l y t o un d e r - c u t the l e s s dense c o a s t a l a i r , l i f t i n g i t and t h e r e b y c a u s i n g v e r y i n t e n s e p r e c i p i t a -t i o n . The o t h e r case when t h e d e p r e s s i o n has t r a v e l l e d a l o n g t r a j e c t o r y . , : r e s u l t s i n t h e d e p r e s s i o n e i t h e r o v e r r i d i n g 33 t h e c o a s t a l a i r o r g r a d u a l l y a s s i m i l a t i n g i t as p a r t of i t s own warm s e c t o r . I n e i t h e r case i t r e s u l t s i n a l o n g , r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t r a i n f a l l , accompanied by low, t h i c k c l o u d c o v e r . To the e f f e c t o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n s must be added t h e i n f l u e n c e of w a t e r c u r r e n t s and o r o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s . The s t r o n g p o s i t i v e anomaly p r e s e n t e d by P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s J a n u a r y t e m p e r a t u r e (35° F a t 54° N L a t i t u d e ) compared w i t h P e t r o p a v -l o v s k , U.S.S.R., (12.7° F a t 53° N L a t i t u d e ) , i s due i n p a r t t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y warm Japanese C u r r e n t . I n g e n e r a l i t s i n -f l u e n c e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c D r i f t on t h e west c o a s t o f Europe, though i t i s not as w e l l marked. C l i m a t e D u r i n g the W i n t e r H a l f - Y e a r The t emperature regime a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e con-d i t i o n s i s t y p i c a l l y m a r i n e . From September t o March t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n mean monthly t e m p e r a t u r e between P r i n c e Rupert and Vancouver i s a t no time g r e a t e r t h a n 4° 'F and d u r i n g November t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t e m p e r a t u r e i s o n l y 1° F. ( C l i m a t e T a b l e A.) At Masset on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s w i t h a more marine l o c a t i o n t h a n P r i n c e R u p e r t , t h e s i m i l a r i t y of w i n t e r h a l f - y e a r t e m p e r a t u r e s between t h e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h -e r n c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s even more r e m a r k a b l e . I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a t i t u d e i s not the main c o n t r o l o f tempera-t u r e i n t h i s a r e a and t h a t the same c o n t r o l s a r e o p e r a t i v e i n b o t h the n o r t h e r l y and s o u t h e r l y s e c t i o n s of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . F u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h i s v i e w i s a f f o r d e d by e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r c l i m a t i c t a b l e s f o r the September t o March p e r i o d . 1 The o n l y t a b l e i n which P r i n c e Rupert and Vancouver a r e not comparable d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s t h a t f o r monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n i n c h e s ( C l i m a t e Table B ) . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s a measure of the i n -f l u e n c e of o r o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s upon t h e c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t . I n t h i s r e g a r d t h e w i n t e r h a l f - y e a r p r e c i p i t a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r Masset s h o u l d be n o t e d . Masset i s a t a p p r o x i -m a t e l y t h e same l a t i t u d e as P r i n c e Rupert but t n e l o w l y i n g n a t u r e of the n o r t h e r n c o a s t of Graham I s l a n d does not p r e s e n t any t o p o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r and p r e c i p i t a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the w i n t e r a re comparable w i t h Vancouver. Two p o i n t s i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y v dth l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a n P r i n c e Rupert s h o u l d be n o t e d : Woodworth Lake and F a l l s R i v e r , t h e source o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s water and power s u p p l y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Lower t e m p e r a t u r e s here a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the s u p p l y of t h e s e two n e c e s s i t i e s . The r e l a t i o n o f water consumption t o t e m p e r a t u r e i n P r i n c e Rupert s h o u l d be n o t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 the consumption of water between November 21 and December 20 xvas 3 , 3 2 9 , 3 7 5 g a l l o n s , . C l i m a t e Table D. M o n t h l y Averages o f Extreme H i g h e s t and Extreme Lowest Temperature. C l i m a t e Table C. M o n t h l y Average D a i l y Maximum and Minimum Temperature. C l i m a t e T a b l e E. Average Monthly Number of Days w i t h Measurable R a i n , Snow and P r e c i p i t a t i o n o f Any S o r t . between December 20 and J a n u a r y 21 t h e consumption was 19,226,000 g a l l o n s . 2 The s i x - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n water con-sumption was due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l i m a t i c and p h y s i o -g r a p h i c f a c t o r s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d November 21 t o December 20 t h e tem p e r a t u r e was g e n e r a l l y w e l l above f r e e z i n g , but d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d December 20 t o Ja n u a r y 21 i t was e x t r e m e l y c o l d w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e s w e l l below f r e e z i n g . S i n c e the c l i m a t e i s g e n e r a l l y m i l d i n P r i n c e Rupert (January a v e r -age 35° F) and because o f t h e amounts o f r o c k p r e s e n t many householders.. n e g l e c t t o bury t h e i r water p i p e s or e l s e d i g o n l y s h a l l o w t r e n c h e s . D u r i n g c o l d weather h o u s e h o l d e r s w i t h exposed w a t e r p i p e s are f o r c e d t o l e a v e t h e i r t a p s r u n n i n g c o n s t a n t l y i f t h e y w i s h t o p r e v e n t the p i p e s from f r e e z i n g . The i n c r e a s e d consumption of water p l a c e s a g r e a t s t r a i n on t h e waterworks a t the t i m e when t h e y are l e a s t a b l e t o meet demands. The watermains a r e a l s o i n exposed p o s i t i o n s , due a g a i n t o the amount o f r o c k e n c o u n t e r -ed, and d u r i n g t h e December 20 t o January 21 p e r i o d a t l e a s t s i x b r eaks appeared i n the mains due t o f r e e z i n g . These major breaks d r a i n e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g r e s e r v o i r and stopped the f l o w of water t o many s e c t i o n s o f the c i t y . The r e s u l t was t h e f r e e z i n g o f a t l e a s t 400 o f the c i t y ' s 2,400 water c o n n e c t i o n s and t h e g e n e r a l j e o p a r d y o f t h e c i t y ' s water s u p p l y . The main h y d r o - s t a t i o n f o r P r i n c e Rupert i s l o c a t e d P r i n c e Rupert D a i l y News, J a n . 24, 1950. 3 6 . a t F a l l s R i v e r , a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e E c s t a l R i v e r . The c a t c h -ment b a s i n f o r hydro g e n e r a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i s dependent on r e g u l a r and abundant p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r r e p l e n -i s h m e nt. D u r i n g the p e r i o d p r e v i o u s l y mentioned t h e f r e e z -i n g c o n d i t i o n s p r e v e n t e d a s t e a d y s u p p l y o f water t o t h e dam and the p l a n t was f o r c e d t o shut down almost e n t i r e l y . An a u x i l l i a r y p l a n t a t Woodworth Lake was u n a b l e t o o p e r a t e a t c a p a c i t y because of the p e r i l t o the c i t y ' s water s u p p l y , w h i c h i s a l s o o b t a i n e d from t h i s s o u r c e . I n c o m b i n a t i o n t h e s e f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n an almost complete p a r a l y s i s o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l s u p p l y . Though i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s w i l l o c c u r a g a i n , i t i s not i m p o s s i b l e . P r e c i p i t a t i o n and t e m p e r a t u r e r e c o r d s a t Woodworth Lake and F a l l s R i v e r , when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r u n o f f and a v a i l a b l e w a t e r , would g i v e t h e e n g i n e e r s i n charge some i d e a of what t o expect and p r e p a r a t i o n s c o u l d be made a c c o r d i n g l y . I f , a t any time i n t h e f u t u r e t h e temperature f a l l s below f r e e z i n g t h e c i t y can expect the consumption o f water t o i n c r e a s e a t l e a s t s i x -f o l d and p o s s i b l y more i f water i s a v a i l a b l e . I n response t o t h e demand p l a c e d upon e x i s t i n g l i n e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r of 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 a survey of the c i t y ' s w ater system was conducted t o see i f any enlargement was p o s s i b l e . Enlargement o f t h e e x i s t i n g mains w i l l n o t , however, s o l v e t h e problem o f over consumption o f water d u r i n g f r e e z i n g p e r i o d s . A more p r a c t i c a l e x p e n d i t u r e would be t o g r a n t s u b s i d i e s t o h o u s e h o l d e r s whose homes a r e on r o c k f o u n d a t i o n s t o enable them t o p r o t e c t t h e i r w a t e r -p i p e s by b u r i a l o r p a c k i n g . T h i s would e l i m i n a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a c o n s t a n t r u n n i n g o f water t a p s d u r i n g f r e e z i n g weather and would cut w a t e r consumption con-s i d e r a b l y . I n l a n d f rom P r i n c e Rupert fche m a r i t i m e i n f l u e n c e d i s a p p e a r s r a p i d l y . T e r r a c e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y m i l e s e a s t of P r i n c e Rupert i s t h e l a s t p o i n t where any d i s t i n c t m a r i t i m e i n f l u e n c e i s f e l t . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n here has a pronounced w i n t e r maximum, a l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l i s l e s s t h a n on the c o a s t . W i n t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y c o l d e r and b o t h January and F e b r u a r y have t e m p e r a t u r e s below f r e e z i n g . From T e r r a c e t o H a z e l t o n t h e t r a n s i t i o n between marine and c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s i s completed. The whole of t h e B u l k l e y V a l l e y f a l l s i n t o the c o n t i n e n t a l v a r i e t y w i t h e x t r e m e l y c o l d w i n t e r s , f i v e months below f r e e z i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s , and s l i g h t r a i n f a l l . (A more d e t a i l e d s u r v ey of t h e c l i m a t e o f t h i s a r e a i n r e l a t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c l i m a t e of t h e summer h a l f y e a r . ) C l i m a t e D u r i n g Summer H a l f - Y e a r An attempt has been made p r e v i o u s l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d from September t o March the c l i m a t e OfJILE A N O SQUARE OF COMFORT A F T E R T A Y L O R exED. STATIONS P a t N C t RUPERT VANCOUVER BERG EN, NORWAY T I'SL I N C H E S OF R A I N F A L L PER MONTH Figure 1 CLIMAGRAPHS OF SELECTED STATIONS AND SQUARE OF COMFORT 3B. o f P r i n c e Rupert and Vancouver i s v e r y s i m i l a r . T h i s s i m i -l a r i t y i s due t o i d e n t i c a l c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l s . D u r i n g the summer h a l f - y e a r when the c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l s o f each s t a t i o n i s w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t a d i s p a r i t y i n c l i m a t e would be e x p e c t e d . D u r i n g t h e summer- the f o r m e r l y e x t e n s i v e A l e u t i a n low s h r i n k s t o i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s and t h e d e p r e s s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s low are d e c r e a s e d i n f r e q u e n c y and s t r e n g t h . There i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e a t t h i s time i n t h e s i z e and s t a b i l i t y of the C a l i f o r n i a h i g h . I n s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e C a l i f o r n i a h i g h becomes the dominant c o n t r o l b r i n g i n g c l e a r warm weather w i t h few c l o u d s and l i t t l e r a i n . N o r t h of Vancouver I s l a n d the c o n t r o l of t h e C a l i f o r n i a h i g h becomes l e s s marked. U n f o r t u n a t e l y d e p r e s s i o n s remain the major c o n t r o l o f the c l i m a t e of the no r t h w e s t c o a s t . At P r i n c e Rupert t h e r e i s a marked d e c r e a s e i n the amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e -c e i v e d , 4^77 i n c h e s i n J u l y as compared w i t h 9.54 i n c h e s i n Janu a r y . The d e c r e a s e i n the- number of r a i n y days, however, i s not as w e l l marked, 19 days w i t h measurable r a i n i n January as compared w i t h 16 days i n J u l y . I t would seem t h a t t h e de-c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y of d e p r e s s i o n s has been o b v i a t e d , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , by t h e i r slow movement, which keeps t h e number of r a i n y days a t a h i g h l e v e l . These r a i n y days are not a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h c o l d f r o n t p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r sudden showers and r a p i d l y c l e a r i n g s k y s , but w i t h warm f r o n t p r e c i p i t a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o n g c o n t i n u e d d r i z z l e . T h i s p o i n t i s em-p h a s i z e d by t h e hours of sunshine f i g u r e s f o r P r i n c e Rupert ( C l i m a t e Table F ) . D u r i n g t h e summer h a l f - y e a r P r i n c e Rupert never e x p e r i e n c e s more t h a n o n e - h a l f the number o f hours of sunshine r e c e i v e d by Vancouver, and i n J u l y P r i n c e Rupert r e c e i v e s o n l y t w o - f i f t h s as much sun s h i n e as Vancouver, though P r i n c e Rupert i s 6° f u r t h e r n o r t h and c o n s e q u e n t l y has a l o n g e r p e r i o d of d a y l i g h t a t t h i s t i m e . Indeed P r i n c e Rupert has t h e l o w e s t t o t a l hours o f sun-s h i n e r e c o r d e d i n Canada, a l t h o u g h i f r e c o r d i n g s were t a k e n a t o t h e r p o i n t s on t h e n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t P r i n c e Rupert might l o s e t h i s dubious d i s t i n c t i o n . Mean monthly t e m p e r a t u r e s r e a c h a maximum i n August w i t h a h i g h o f 57° F. T h i s i s low compared w i t h t h e r e s t o f s e t t l e d Canada, and i n d e e d i s t h e l o w e s t f o r a c i t y o f i t s s i z e i n Canada. I t i s due t o the h i g h amount o f c l o u d c o v e r and t h e m o d e r a t i n g e f f e c t o f marine i n -f l u e n c e s . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s the r o l e o f c l i m a t e as an i n f l u e n c e on the development o f P r i n c e Rupert c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e due t o the n a t u r e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a t t e m p t e d . These c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e l a r g e l y aimed a t r e l a t -i n g c l i m a t e t o human r e s p o n s e s . Most peop l e would c o n s i d e r t h e c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e Rupert d i s t i n c t l y u n p l e a s a n t (see Cl i m a g r a p h s ) l a r g e l y because of the almost c o n s t a n t r a i n y weather. At b e s t , i n June, a r e s i d e n t o f P r i n c e Rupert has t o a c c e p t the f a c t t h a t e v e r y second day, on t h e average, i s g o i n g t o be r a i n y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , t o o r g a n i z e outdoor e n t e r t a i n m e n t , whether i t be p r o f e s s i o n a l sports or a f a m i l y p i c n i c . F a c i l i t i e s f o r indoor enter-tainment are d i f f i c u l t to provide due to the expense i n -volved, and they can never o f f e r the same v a r i e t y as out-door sports. The c h i e f s o l u t i o n of the entertainment problem has been i n the form of d r i n k i n g . In the year from A p r i l 1, 1948 t o March 31, 1949, $1,410,000 worth of l i q u o r was s o l d , i n a town with a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n not grea t e r than 10,000. This amounts to a per c a p i t a con-sumption of #141 of l i q u o r per year compared with the p r o v i n c i a l average of #39 per year.-* Part of t h i s i s due, no doubt, to heavy purchases by fishermen t e m p o r a r i l y l o c a t e d i n Prince Rupert during the f i s h i n g season, but purchases almost f o u r times the p r o v i n c i a l average can only be explained i n terms of the boredom and depression induced i n part by a dreary c l i m a t e . The d i s p i r i t i n g e f f e c t of the dank and gloomy climate induces i n many people the d e s i r e to leave the c i t y as soon as p o s s i b l e . Few people look forward t o making Prince Rupert t h e i r permanent home; t h e i r d e s i r e i s to stay only long enough to enable them to l i v e com-f o r t a b l y somewhere e l s e . There are many f a c t o r s which i n -d i c a t e t h i s . In the 1949 census Prince Rupert had the lowest percentage of owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s of any c i t y i n the province, 43«7/o» Prince Rupert a l s o had the lowest percentage of homes with running water, f l u s h t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c l i g h t s , r e f r i g e r a t i o n , r a d i o s , e l e c t r i c vacuum cl e a n e r s , autos and furnace heating of any c i t y i n the * B.C. Liquor C o n t r o l Board, 28th Annual Report, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1949. 41. p r o v i n c e . The l a s t two are due to d e f i n i t e l y t r a c e a b l e p h y s i c a l problems, the low number of autos to the l a c k of road communications, i n 1941, with other p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e , and the l a c k of f u r n a c e s owing to the nature of the t e r r a i n which o f t e n p r e c l u d e s basements. The l a c k of the other a p p l i a n c e s , however, was due e i t h e r t o poverty or t o a b e l i e f t h a t r e s i d e n c e was o n l y temporary and that t h e r e was no need to buy a home or to equip i t comfortably. The p o s s i b i l i t y of poverty can be r u l e d out s i n c e r e t a i l s a l e s i n 1941 amounted t o *598 per c a p i t a i n P r i n c e Rupert as compared to $3$7 f ° r "the p r o v i n c e as a whole.^ Since many people have no i n t e n t i o n of making a permanent r e s i d e n c e i n P r i n c e Rupert they have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . They tend to form an i n e r t mass t h a t i n c r e a s e s the d i f f i c u l t y of those who are r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n making P r i n c e Rupert a p l e a s a n t p l a c e to l i v e , to achieve c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n or a m e l i o r a t i o n of those c o n d i t i o n s which h e l p t o make the c i t y unpleasant. I t i s perhaps p o s s i b l e to assess the unpleasantness of P r i n c e Rupert's c l i m a t e i n monetary terms. In 1941 the cen-sus of merchandising and s e r v i c e e stablishments showed t h a t the average r e c e i p t s per establishment i n Vancouver were $7,570 per year while i n P r i n c e Rupert they were $9,630 per year. The d i f f e r e n c e of $2,000 per year i s a measure of the amount necessary to persuade a merchant t h a t i t i s worthwhile t o e s t a b l i s h i n P r i n c e Rupert. The wage earner i n Prince 4. B.C. Department of Trade and Industry, Regional I n d u s t r i a l  Index of B.C. . King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1948, p. 178. Rupert receives approximately $2 per week more than does the wage earner i n Vancouver, but t h i s i s not the true measure of the bonus which must be paid. Many of the workmen i n Prince Rupert are those who have been un-successful i n the more competitive labour market i n the south. The employer, therefore, i s forced to pay f o r more than he i s a c t u a l l y receiving, i n terms of a b i l i t y and amount of work performed. This i n turn presents a large cost d i f f e r e n t i a l which makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t for a Prince Rupert manufacturer to compete on a world market. This was well i l l u s t r a t e d by the experience of the wartime shipbuilding industry i n Prince Rupert, where costs were among the highest i n Canada and productivity per man 5 among the lowest. In summation i t may be said that the climate of Prince Rupert i s such that most people would not choose i t as a place of residence without some added incentive i n terms of increased monetary gain or a b i l i t y to obtain employment. As a result the number of r e t i r e d people i n Prince Rupert i s among the lowest i n the province. From the previous discussion i t would seem that the entire population would be imbued with a desire to leave Prince Rupert. Since we are dealing with human l i k e s and d i s l i k e s t h i s i s by no means true. Many s k i l l e d workmen Bri e f submitted to the Board of Transport Commissioners by Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , Mimeographed, p. 23. and p e o p l e o f means f i n d t h e c i t y and i t s c l i m a t e e x t r e m e l y c o n g e n i a l and a r e p e r f e c t l y c o n t e n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e . A l a r g e number o f them a r e p e o p l e who a r e . u s e d t o the c l i m a t e e i t h e r from b e i n g b r o u g h t up i n the c i t y o r h a v i n g emmigrated from E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s w i t h s i m i l a r c l i m a t e s . The l a r g e number o f Norwegians i n t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d . (See t h e homoclime o f Bergen i n F i g u r e 1) In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , the i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f o c c u p a t i o n t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Almost a l l t h e Norwegians a r e engaged i n some phase o f the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , u t i l i z -i n g s k i l l s w h i c h t h e y a c q u i r e d i n t h e Norwegian f i s h e r i e s . Because t h e y come from c l i m a t e s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t t h e y f i n d i t easy t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r new e n -v i r o n m e n t . R e c e n t l y , however, t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y f o r Norwegian f i s h e r m e n t o move t h e i r permanent r e s i d e n c e s t o s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t o l o c a t e i n P r i n c e Rupert o n l y d u r i n g the f i s h i n g s e a s o n . L a r g e numbers s t i l l r e m a i n a l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d , i f t h e y d e s i r e d , l o c a t e i n o t h e r c e n t r e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e summer h a l f - y e a r c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d r e v e a l s a t r e n d toward c o n t i n e n t -a l i t y v e r y s i m i l a r to t h a t found d u r i n g the w i n t e r h a l f -y e a r . T e r r a c e i n A p r i l has a mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l w i t h P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s , but d u r i n g J u n e , J u l y and August the t e m p e r a t u r e r i s e s some 5° h i g h e r i n T e r r a c e , r e a c h i n g a maximum i n August w i t h a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 62°. The l a t e summer maximum i s i n d i c a t i v e o f marine i n f l u e n c e , and i t i s l a r g e l y due t o marine i n f l u e n c e , t h a t T e r r a c e ex-p e r i e n c e s t h e warmest summer t e m p e r a t u r e s i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . New H a z e l t o n and the whole of the B u l k l e y V a l l e y e x p e r i e n c e mean monthly summer t e m p e r a t u r e s not much above P r i n c e R u p e r t . ( C l i m a t e Table A.) The low summer t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e B u l k l e y V a l l e y a r e due not t o l o w e r daytime t e m p e r a t u r e s ( C l i m a t e T a b l e C) whi c h are o n l y 1 o r 2 degrees below t h a t of T e r r a c e , but r a t h e r t o t h e low n i g h t - t i m e (minimum) t e m p e r a t u r e s which are from 4 t o 5 degrees below T e r r a c e . T e r r a c e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n -f l u e n c e d by marine c o n d i t i o n s t o have moderate n i g h t -t i m e t e m p e r a t u r e s , y e t s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r i n l a n d t o have day-t i m e t e m p e r a t u r e s some 5 t o 1 0 degrees above P r i n c e R u p e r t . Combined w i t h adequate and w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d p r e c i p i t a t i o n and a l o n g f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h summer te m p e r a t u r e s make T e r r a c e t h e be s t a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d from a c l i m a t i c s t a n d p o i n t . A l l temperate c r o p s can be grown here w i t h l i t t l e or no danger o f k i l l i n g f r o s t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i s not t r u e of the o t h e r a r e a s i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . The B u l k l e y V a l l e y and the V a n d e r h o o f - P r i n c e George a r e a a re m a r g i n a l c l i m a t i c a l l y f o r many c r o p s . A c c o r d i n g t o C l i m a t e and Man " E x t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i o n of s m a l l g r a i n s i n g e n e r a l i s l i m i t e d t o a r e a s w i t h a f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d o f 1 0 0'days o r more. Where t h i s p e r i o d i s l e s s than 9 0 days, p r o d u c t i o n i s p r e c a r i o u s and i s p o s s i b l e o n l y by prompt s e e d i n g and use o f e a r l i e s t m a t u r i n g v a r i e t i e s . " 0 An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f r o s t - f r e e r e c o r d s o f the B u l k l e y V a l l e y r e v e a l s t h a t nowhere i n t h e V a l l e y does the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d approach the 9 0-day f r o s t - f r e e f i g u r e . ( C l i m a t e T a b l e H.) The f r o s t - f r e e f i g u r e s h o u l d n o t , hoxvever, be c o n s i d e r e d by i t s e l f . I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t s m a l l g r a i n growing i s e x t r e m e l y p r e c a r i o u s but does n ot r u l e out c o m p l e t e l y the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l growth. More s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e the d a t e s when t h e mean maximum exceeds and f a l l s below 4 3 ° F and the average date when mean d a i l y minimum tempera-t u r e s c r o s s 3 2 ° F. ( C l i m a t e T a b l e s I and J.) S t . A l b u r g , Saskatchewan has been i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e c h a r t s as a compari-son s i n c e i t i s c l o s e t o the n o r t h e r n l i m i t s o f g r a i n grow-i n g i n the p r a i r i e s , and even here s u c c e s s f u l r i p e n i n g can not be e x p e c t e d i n eve r y y e a r . ^ I t i s p o s s i b l e t o grow s m a l l g r a i n s t h r o u g h o u t the r a i l w a y b e l t but i t i s h a z a r d -ous i n a l l s e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Vanderhoof a r e a . Adjustment by the f a r m e r s t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s seen i n the pe r c e n t a g e o f crop l a n d devoted t o hay p r o d u c t i o n , and i t s i n c r e a s i n g importance,- 39% of t h e c r o p l a n d i n hay i n 1 9 3 1 and 57% i n hay i n 1 9 4 1 . S t r a n g e l y i t i s i n the a r e a w i t h t h e most p r e c a r i o u s c l i m a t e , t h e Vanderhoof d i s t r i c t , t h a t 6 . U.S. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1 9 4 1 , U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington D.C, 1 9 4 1 , p. 3 2 3 . 7 . Canada's Mew Northwest , N o r t h P a c i f i c P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 4 $ , p. - 1 5 1 . 8. R e f e r s t o t h a t a r e a of C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia s e r v e d by t h e n o r t h e r n l i n e o f t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y (C.N.R.), a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 t o 3 0 m i l e s on e i t h e r s i d e of t h e l i n e . t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e s c f l a n d a r e devoted t o grain c r o p s , over 42% compared to 15-25% i n the rest of the region. It has always been considered that the main obstacles to a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n Prince Rupert's hinterland, from the climatic standpoint, were the hazards of temperature and the f r o s t - f r e e period. To t h i s must be added another p e r i l , that of drought. The application of Thornthwaite's new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to stations i n the Bulkley Valley bears out t h i s statement^. At only one station, Wistaria, i s the moisture index well above the div i d i n g l i n e between the humid and dry climates, and even here the moisture index equals only 6 . 3 . At the other three stations, New Hazelton, Smithers and Telkwa the moisture index equals 0 . 8 , 1 .5 , and -3«5 respectively. This places these stations either within or extremely close to the boundary of the dry climates. In i t s e l f , the low moisture index does not mean that drought i s a constant hazard, but i t does mean that drought i s a d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y . Examination of the diagrams constructed f o r these stations of po t e n t i a l evapotranspiration and the s o i l moisture regime i n comparison with the f r o s t - f r e e period and period with mean da i l y minimums above 32° F i s also i n -st r u c t i v e (Figure 2 ) . It can be seen that by the time the average f r o s t - f r e e period i s reached every station has ex-hausted available s o i l moisture and i s dependent upon rather Thornthwaite, C.W., An Approach Toward a Rational C l a s s i - f i c a t i o n of Climate, Geog. Review, Vol. 36% No. 1, 19L&, PP. 55-94, nnn^qit __su WATER OtFicitrwY I L MO I S T U R E U F J - I Z A T I O H SOIL MO I S T U R E R E C M A R G E Ay_E.RAAE_F-RO.ST_.riR E.E_PER\<0D. P E R I O D O F MEAN DAILX A B O V E P O T E N T A L E V A P O T ^ A N S P * R A T I O N P R E C i P \ T A T I Oft . MINIMUMS 3 2. ° R ! Figure 2 SOIL MOISTURE REGIME FOR STATIONS IN THE BULKLEY VALLEY 47. s c a n t y p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r whatever m o i s t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e t o the p l a n t s . ' E x a m i n a t i o n o f the p e r i o d w i t h average mean d a i l y minimums above 32° F g i v e s a somewhat b r i g h t e r p i c -t u r e w i t h the f i r s t t h r e e t o f o u r weeks o f t h i s p e r i o d c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e t i m e when m o i s t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e and p o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n and growth can proceed as q u i c k l y as t e m p e r a t u r e s w i l l a l l o w . I t must be remembered t h a t t h i s p e r i o d , though more f a v o u r a b l e f o r growth t h a n any o t h e r t ime of the y e a r , i s more s u b j e c t t o k i l l i n g f r o s t s t h a n any o t h e r p e r i o d o f the y e a r . The f a r m e r i s t h e r e f o r e f o r c e d t o d e l a y h i s p l a n t i n g u n t i l the time when m o i s t u r e i s d e f i n i t e l y d e f i c i e n t . The d e f i c i e n c y i s r e n d e r e d more hazardous by t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e summer h a l f - y e a r . At New H a z e l t o n , the o n l y s t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y , c o n d i t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o , i f not b e t t e r t h a n the r e s t of the B u l k l e y V a l l e y . Here, d u r i n g a 2 7-year p e r i o d , p r e c i p i -t a t i o n was average o r above i n 10 y e a r s , w h i l e i t was below average i n 17 y e a r s . ^ we have seen t h a t t h e s t a t i o n s i n t he v a l l e y , u n l i k e many o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s , a r e a l s o t o t a l l y dependent upon summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e . Any summer w i t h below average p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t d i r e c t l y t h e r a t e of crop growth, p o s s i b l y d e l a y i n g m a t u r i t y * Canada's New Northwest, p. 156. 48. s u f f i c i e n t l y t o cause crops t o be f r o s t k i l l e d . The a s s e s s -ment o f blame f o r c r o p damage i s d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , but a s s u r e d l y m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c y must be i n c l u d e d as a f u r t h e r o b s t a c l e t o s u c c e s s f u l u t i l i z a t i o n of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . G r a i n growing t h r o u g h o u t the a r e a i s , t h e r e f o r e , d i s t i n c t l y hazardous and the p r o d u c t i o n of hay c r o p s , w i t h r e l a t e d l i v e s t o c k and d a i r y p r o d u c t i o n , and the growing o f hardy v e g e t a b l e s such as p o t a t o e s , t u r n i p s , c a r r o t s and cabbage seem t o be t h e b e s t g e n e r a l c l i m a t i c a d a p t i o n . S p e c i a l i z e d seed p r o d u c t i o n has come i n t o prominence i n t h e a r e a r e c e n t l y , and c l i m a t i c a l l y the a r e a i s w e l l s u i t e d t o t h i s t y p e o f p r o d u c t i o n . With a s p e c i a l t y c rop of t h i s t y p e r e s t r i c t e d markets r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t e v e r be-coming i m p o r t a n t t o more t h a n a few f a r m e r s . The B u l k l e y V a l l e y has y e t a n o t h e r c l i m a t i c d i s -advantage o p e r a t i n g a g a i n s t i t , i n t h e l a t e n e s s o f c r o p m a t u r i t y . E a r l y v e g e t a b l e s , w i t h t h e i r premium p r i c e s , w i l l always be s h i p p e d t o P r i n c e Rupert from s o u t h e r n mar-k e t s . By the t i m e the f i r s t c r o p s are ready t o be t a k e n from C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, farm p r o d u c t i o n i s a t a peak i n the s o u t h and the n o r t h e r n f a r m e r must a c c e p t p r i c e s f a r below t h o s e r e c e i v e d by s o u t h e r n f a r m e r s f o r f i r s t c r o p s . There i s an o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a v/hich i s a p o t e n t i a l s u p p l i e r o f the P r i n c e Rupert market whose c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s must be l o o k e d i n t o . T h i s i s Graham I s l a n d , one of the Queen C h a r l o t t e group, 90 m i l e s t o t h e west o f P r i n c e Rupert. The climate here i s completely maritime and summer temperatures are only s l i g h t l y higher than at Pri n c e Rupert. The p r e c i p i t a t i o n p i c t u r e i s , however, much b r i g h t e r . T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n at Masset i s about.40 inches l e s s than at P r i n c e Rupert, and indeed i s some 3 inches l e s s than at Vancouver. There are no f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r hours of b r i g h t sunshine but observation of f o r e s t types leads to the b e l i e f that the number of cloudy days i s q u i t e h i g h . 1 1 Though i t i s u n l i k e l y that g r a i n c u l t i v a t i o n would be s u c c e s s f u l on the i s l a n d a l l other temperate crops could be grown without f e a r of f r o s t damage owing to the len g t h of the f r o s t free p e r i o d . The 169 day f r o s t - f r e e period at Masset seems t o be a more v a l i d general f i g u r e f o r the northern coast than does Prince Rupert's f i g u r e of 19$ days which i s presumably due to the s i t u a t i o n of the s t a t i o n . (Compare Masset, Port Simpson and Pri n c e Rupert i n Climate Table H.) C l i m a t i c a l l y Graham I s l a n d seems i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r d a i r y i n g and i t s a s s o c i a t e d occupations. A r a t h e r marked comparison may be drawn between eastern Graham Is l a n d and I r e l a n d w i t h s i m i l a r i t i e s to be found i n c l i m a t e , s o i l , physiography and p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the mainland, though i n the important s i m i l a r i t y of markets t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ship i s a n t i p o d a l . "an important f a c t o r i n determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s type (Western-Heralock-Sitka Spruce Type) i s the r e l a t i v e l a c k of s u n l i g h t due to the l a r g e amount of cloudy weather which p r e v a i l s , even i n l o c a l i t i e s where the pre-c i p i t a t i o n i s not high. The Queen Ch a r l o t t e I s l a n d s a f f o r d an instance of t h i s — " Forests of B.C.. H.N. Whitford and R.D. C r a i g , Commission of Conservation, Ottawa, 1918, p. 6 4 . 50. Summary During the winter-half-year Prince Rupert's climate i s characterized by an almost constant progression of depressions bringing long continued r a i n and heavy cloud cover. The number of depressions decrease during the summer half-year, but t h e i r slow movement compensates for the de-creased frequency and keeps the number of rainy days at a high l e v e l . Most people would consider Prince Rupert's climate very dreary and depressing. It would seem that some kind of bonus, i n the form of higher wages or p r o f i t s or a v a i l i b i l i t y of preferred employment i s necessary to induce most people to stay i n Prince Rupert. The most favourable climatic conditions f o r a g r i -culture i n Prince Rupert's hinterland are found at Terrace. Terrace i s s u f f i c i e n t l y close to the ocean to have the ad-vantages of a marine climate - long f r o s t - f r e e period and high night-time temperatures during the summer, yet i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r inland to experience r e l a t i v e l y high day-time temperatures during the summer. The f r o s t - f r e e period i n the Bulkley Valley i s highest at New Hazelton where 74 days are, on the average, f r o s t - f r e e . This i s 16 days lower than the minimum considered necessary f o r the successful c u l t i v a t i o n of small grain crops. The area i s also marginal i n moisture supply, with a possi-b i l i t y of drought in below-average years. Graham Island seems c l i m a t i c a l l y suited f o r dairy p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h a l o n g f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d and p l e n t i f u l , w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d r a i n f a l l . TABLE A MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURES IN DEGREE P. Year Jan* Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Prince Rupert 46 35 37 39 43 49 53 56 57 54 48 41 37 Stewart 42 .24 27 32 41 50 56 58 57 51 43 34 27 Ocean Palls 48 34 35 39 45 52 58 61 62 58 50 41 36 Terrace 44 25 29 36 44 51 58 61 62 55 45 36 28 New Hazelton .40 17 24 32 42 49 55 59 58 51 41 31 20 Telkwa 38 17 21 30 39 46 53 56 56 49 39 28 19 Smithers - 10 yrs. 39 19 21 31 40 49 53 57 56 50 41 28 20 Wistaria 37 16 20 27 39 46 52 56 57 49 39 28 19 Massett . 46 36 37 39 43 48 53 57 58 54 48 41 38 Vancouver 50 37 40 43 49 55 59 64 63 58 51 42 * 39 ro-TA§LE B MEAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION IN INCHES Jan* Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year Prince Rupert 9.54 7.31 8.57 6.85 5.21 4.08 4.77 5.35 8.50 12.39 12o29 11.00 95.86 Stewart 7.53 5.23 4.95 3.36 2.15 2.03 3.11 4.62 6.17 10.63 8.39 7.84 65.81 Ocean Falls 19.01 12.92 14.92 10.72 7.90 6*88 6.79 8.09 12.18 •21.59 22,65 22.27 165.92 Kitimat 10.01 5.89 6.03 5.46 3.45 3.72 2.99 4.06 6.52 14.62 14.19 12,04 88.98 Terrace 5.06 3.74 3.77 2.51 1.71 1.94 2.17 1.98 3.23 6.54 7.24 6.98 46.87 New Hazelton 1.68 0.99 0.85 0.74 1.06 1.96 2.16 1.54 2.00 2.22 2.04 1.72 18.96 Telkwa 1.43 1.04 0.85 0.72 0.95 1.71 1.99 1.08 1.24 1.52 1.42 1.79 15.74 Smithers 1.91 1.02 0.93 0.96 1.07 1.82 1.90 0.98 1.44 1.94 1.81 2.02 17.80 Wistaria 1.75 1.03 1.31 0.79 0.98 1.67 1.75 0.96 1.39 1.79 2.06 2.52 18.00 Massett 5.77 4.42 4.07 4.55 3.56 2.48 2.99 2.76 4.18 6.79 7.17 6.75 55.49 Vancouver 8.45 5.82 5.29 3.50 2.78 2.40 1.32 1.58 3.58 6.19 8.40 9.25 58.56 TABLE BI-MONTHLY AND ANNUAL AVERAGES OF SNOWFALL Jan. Feb. Man, Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year Prince Rupert 12.4 7.0 8.6 3.3 T 0.1 1.9 . 7.3 40.6 Terrace 17.9 13.0 4.7 0.5 1.2 4.8 13.9 56.0 New Hazelton 13.4 6.9 4.1 0.8 T 0.7 5.3 12.2 43.4 Vancouver 11.5 6.4 2.7 0.3 0.1 2.1 5.7 28.8 TABLE C MONTHLY AVERAGE DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES IN DEGREES F. Jan. Feb. Mar* Apr, May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year Prince Rupert Maximum 39 42 - 45 50 55 60 62 64 60 53 46 40 52 Minimum 30 31 33 37 41 46 49 51 47 42 37 32 40 Terrace Maximum 28 34 44 54 63 69 73 74 65 52 40 32 52 Minimum 20 23 29 34 40 46 50 50 44 39 32 24 36 New Hazelton Maximum 24' 31 42 54 63 69 72 72 63 50 37 25 50 Minimum 9 13 22 30 36 43 46 45 39 33 24 13 29 Masset Maximum 41 42 45 49 56 61 64 66 61 54 47 43 52 Minimum 30 31 32 36 40 45 50 51 46 40 35 33 39 Vancouver Maximum 40 44 50 57 63 69 74 72 66 56 48 42 57 Minimum 32 33 36 40 46 50 54 53 49 44 38 35 43 TABLE B MONTHLY AND ANNUAL AVERAGES OF EXTREME HIGHEST AND EXTREME LOWEST TEMPERATURE Jan. Feb, Mar# Apr, May June July Aug, Sept, Oct, Nov, Bee, _Year Prince Rupert, B,C, Highest 50 52 55 62 70 73 74 76 73 63 57 52 80 Lowest 14 18 23 29 34 40 44 44 39 32 27 17 11 Vancouver, B,C, Highest 50 52 59 68 75 81 84 83 76 67 57 52 86 Lowest 17 21 28 31 37 43 47 46 40 34 27 22 13 TABLE E AVERAGE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL NUMBER OF DAYS WITH MEASURABLE RAIN, SNOW AND PRECIPITATION OF ANY SORT Prince Rupert, B.C. Jan. Feb* Mar, Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. I: Nov. Dec. Year Rain 18 12 18 19 18 14 16 16 17 23 22 22 215 Snow 2 3 3 1 2 11 Precipitation 19 15 20 19 18 14 16 16 17 23 22 23 222 Vancouver, B,C, Rain 18 15 17 14 12 11 7 8 9 16 19 22 168 Snow 2 3 3 1 2 11 Precipitation 20 17 17 14 12 11 7 8 9 16 19 22 172 TABLE F AVERAGE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL HOURS OF BRIGHT SUNSHINE Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. • Oct. Nov. Dec. Year Prince Rupert 37 60 7 9 104 141 125 119 122 98 55 41 32 1013 Prince George 54 90 130 178 244 232 2 5 7 251 157 98 49 37 1777 Vancouver 48 82 123 168 227 223 285 262 176 111 54 38 1797 TABLE G AVERAGE WIND SPEED IN MILES PER HOUR AND PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY BY DIRECTION FOR PRINCE RUPERT, B. C. Percentage frequency by Direction. Prince Rupert January 1922, December 1S45 * Average Wind Speed in Miles Per Hour by direction* Jan., Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. North 2*9 2.8 3.0 3*2 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0 15 15 16 12 11 11 10 9 13 13 13 16 Northeast 4.2 5.3 4.0 4.2 3.5 2.2 2.2 2.9 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.1 8 6 5 4 2 2 2 2 3 4 6 8 East 9.1 6.7 10.2 6.9 5.8 2.7 3.5 3.9 6.1 10.2 11.7 9.5 * 8 7 5 4 4 2 2 3 3 6 10 8 Southeast 14.5 13.1 12.4 10.9 8.7 6.9 6.4 6.3 9.0 11.6 13.6 14.2 42 40 42 40 35 26 27 30 31 47 44 44 South 7.4 5.7 5.9 6.0 5.2 4.3 4.6 4.3 5.0 6*0 6«8 6.2 4 4 4 6 8 8 10 12 10 5 4 3 Southwest 5.0 5.9 5.7 5.2 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.7 4.2 6.2 6.7 # 3 4 5 5 7 10 8 7 4 2 4 3 West 3.1 3.0 4.4 4.2 3.6 4.0 3.7 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.8 4 4 4 6 7 10 10 7 4 2 2 2 Northwest 3.8 3.8 4.4 3.6 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 2.0 3.9 3.2 * 7 8 9 12 12 12 11 10 12 8 6 6 Calm 8.4 7.3 7.4 6.5 5.0 3.7 3.5 3.7 4.6 7.3 8.5 8.4 * 11 12 10 11 14 19 20 20 20 13 11 10 TABLE H FROST FREE PERIOD Last Frost in Spring First Frost in Autumn Average Ht.in No. of Date No. of Date F.F. Period Station Feet Years ' Average Earliest Latest Years Average Earliest Latest Days Prince Rupert 170 37 Apr. 18 Mar. 1 May 19 38 Nov. 2 Sept 17 Nov. 30 198 Terrace 225 33 May- 20 Apr. 6 June 14 34 Sept 28 Aug. 19 Nov. 11 132 New Hazelton 1150 31 June 18 May 18 July 10 31 Sept 1 July- 25 Sept 19 74 TeUcwa 2000 25 June 18 May 22 July 12 25 Aug. 20 July 20 Sept 12 64 Sraithers 1631 9 June 19 May/ 19 July 4 9 Aug. 13 July 30 Aug. 26 54 Wistaria 2900 21 June 25 May 30 July- 13 21 Aug. 23 July 30 Sept 18 59 Vanderhoof 2226 22 June 30 June 12 July 15 21 Aug. 9 July 19 Sept 9 40 Prince George 1870 32 June 17 May 14 July- 14 33 Aug. 24 July 24 Sept 27 68 Masset 10 48 May 4 Mar. 29 June 3 48 Oct. 20 Sept 10 Nov. 25 169 Port Simpson 26 15 May 2 Apr. 12 May 30 14 Oct. 18 Sept 26 Nov. 24 169 f. 6:i TABLE I DATE WHEN MEAN MAXIMUM EXCEEDS AND FALLS BELOW 43° F. Station Telkwa Terrace Wistoria Prince George St. Walburg, Sask. April 2 - October 22 March 20 - November 2 March 31 - October 23 March 24 - October 30 April 12 - October 20 203 days 227 days 206 days 220 days 191 days TABLE J AVERAGE DATE WHEN MEAN DAILY MINIMUM TEMPERATURE CROSSES 32 DEGREES F. Terrace April 6 - November 15 223 days New Hazelton April 27 - October 18 174 days Telkwa May 13 - October 5 145 days Wistoria May 13 - September 26 136 days Vanderhoof May 13 - September 20 130 days Prince George May 5 - October 7 155 days St. Walburg, Sask. May 7 - September 20 136 days Climate Tables A, B, C, F from B.C. Dept. of Agriculture, Climate of British Columbiaj Victoria, 1949. Tables E, G from Canada, Dept. of Transport, Climatic Summaries,, Vol. l-2f Toronto, 1949. Tables I,J from Canada's New Northwesty North Pacific Planning Project, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1948. Table H from Canada, Dept. of Transport, The Frost Free Season in B.C., A„J. Connor, Toronto, 1949. 62. Chapter I I I SOILS L o c a l S o i l s The s o i l s o f K a i e n I s l a n d have developed s i n c e t h e r e t r e a t o f the l a s t c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i a t i o n from the a r e a some 15,000 y e a r s ago. The l a n d re-exposed by t h e r e t r e a t o f the g l a c i e r s must have c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y of b a r e , w e l l -s c o u r e d r o c k i n t o w h i c h numerous s h a l l o w d e p r e s s i o n s had been gouged by t h e i c e . The p r e g l a c i a l d r a i n a g e system was e l i m i n a t e d and water from t h e abundant p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the mountain core c o l l e c t e d i n t h e d e p r e s s i o n p o c k e t s and l o w l a n d a r e a s . These f i l l e d m e r e l y t o s p i l l t h e i r w a t e r s i n t o t h e next d e p r e s s i o n . The m u l t i t u d e o f ponds and l a k e s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y m i l d e r t e m p e r a t u r e s p r o v i d e d an optimium h a b i t a t f o r a q u a t i c p l a n t s and organisms, and the p r o c e s s o f c o n v e r t i n g f r e s h - w a t e r b o d i e s i n t o s o i l , known as a h y d r o s e r e , p r o g r e s s e d w i t h g r e a t r a p i d i t y . The ponds were f i r s t i n h a b i t e d by r o o t l e s s a q u a t i c p l a n t s whose decayed remains f i n a l l y became s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w t h e e s -t a b l i s h m e n t o f r o o t e d p l a n t s around t h e margins o f t h e ponds. These i n t u r n p r o v i d e d a f o o t i n g f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f reed s and mosses. The spagnum mosses were a l s o a b l e t o work t h e i r way back f r o m t h e ponds r e l y i n g upon m o i s t u r e p r o v i d e d by f e e d i n g streams. They were a l s o able t o b u i l d upon them-s e l v e s s i n c e the spongy moss so lowered the v e l o c i t y of water courses, l a r g e and s m a l l , t h a t t h e i r marginal p o r t i o n s a cted as a m i n i a t u r e dam i n which the process could repeat i t s e l f . By t h i s process of moss growing upon s a t u r a t e d moss, slopes up to twenty degrees could be covered by a p p r e c i a b l e depths of moss cover. The l a s t elements of the v e g e t a t i v e . s u c c e s s i o n were the small shrubs and c o n i f e r s which grew upon the mosses and c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r undecayed twigs and r o o t l e t s t o the d e v e l o p i n g s o i l . The s o i l r e s u l t -i n g from t h i s p r ocess i s c a l l e d muskeg. I t has no d i s t i n c t l y developed p r o f i l e . Beneath a cover of moss and l i t t e r from 2 to 3 inches deep i t s c o l o u r v a r i e s from brown to dark brown depending on the stage of decomposition of i t s com-p o s i t e m a t e r i a l s , moss and c o a r s e r organic matter. The muskeg v a r i e s i n depth a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the underground t e r r a i n and may be anywhere from 3 t o over 70 f e e t deep. The f i g u r e of 70 f e e t was obtained from a con-s t r u c t i o n company who had d r i v e n p i l i n g s t o t h i s depth i n order t o o b t a i n a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l a r g e wartime b u i l d i n g . In one corner of t h i s b u i l d i n g they had been unable to a t t a i n f i r m f o o t i n g a f t e r 70 f e e t and abandoned the attempt. The reason f o r these great depths w i l l be c l e a r a f t e r a study of F i g u r e 3. Muskeg i s always water s a t u r a t e d and i t s con-s i s t e n c y resembles t h a t of a p l a s t i c s o l i d . Another d i s -advantageous p r o p e r t y of muskeg i s i t s tendancy to s h r i n k HYPOTHETICAL CROSS SECTION OF MUSKEG FORMATION too r-ui E l J i M U S K E G BEDROCK Figure 3 HYPOTHETICAL CROSS SECTION OF MUSKEG FORMATION and c r a c k when d r a i n e d . T h i s may o c c u r d u r i n g o c c a s i o n a l l o n g d r y s p e l l s when t h e s u r f a c e l e v e l o f the muskeg may drop a f o o t o r more. The s h r i n k a g e i s due t o t h e l o s s o f volume w h i c h o c c u r s when water i s removed. As an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l muskeg i s g e n e r a l l y v e r y poor. U n l e s s i t i s d r a i n e d the c o n s t a n t s a t u r a t i o n o f t h e s o i l has a tendency t o r o t seeds. I t a l s o s u f f e r s f r om v e r y marked m i n e r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s must be added i f s u c c e s s f u l growth i s t o t a k e p l a c e . F o r a s h o r t time one Chinese gardener m a i n t a i n e d a f a r m o f about two a c r e s i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the town. He r e l i e d f o r p l a n t n u t r i e n t s on the s u r p l u s manure from a d a i r y h e r d which was i n t u r n m a i n t a i n e d on i m p o r t e d f e e d . When t h e d a i r y went out o f b u s i n e s s t h e ga r d e n e r was f o r c e d t o do l i k e w i s e , t h u s ending t h e o n l y commercial attempt t o u t i l i z e t h e s o i l o f K a i e n I s l a n d . The s o i l i s , however, v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n i t s e f f e c t on c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s i s due t o muskeg's l a c k o f s t a b i l i t y w hich p r e s e n t s some v e r y d i f f i c u l t e n g i n e e r i n g problems. I n house c o n s t r u c t i o n a t P r i n c e Rupert an attempt i s g e n e r a l l y made t o r e s t the f o u n d a t i o n on t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k , e i t h e r by removing the muskeg e n t i r e l y , i f i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s h a l l o w , o r by d r i v i n g p i l e s i n t o t h e muskeg u n t i l b edrock i s r e a c h e d . Both t h e s e methods are e x p e n s i v e e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e muskeg i s o f g r e a t d e p t h . S i n c e the de p t h of muskeg can v a r y g r e a t l y w i t h i n a few f e e t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e " s o u n d i n g s " e v e r y two or t h r e e f e e t b e f o r e a house i s c o n s t r u c t e d t o be sure t h a t f o o t i n g can be ob-t a i n e d i n the a r e a t h e house i s t o occupy. I f the muskeg i s t o o deep f o r e i t h e r o f t h e s e methods t h e house i s o f t e n p l a c e d on p i l e s d r i v e n i n t o t h e muskeg or i s p l a c e d on "pads". Pads a r e wooden boards about t h r e e by f o u r f e e t w h i c h a r e p l a c e d under t h e p i l i n g s t o g i v e a g r e a t e r h o l d i n g a r e a . N e i t h e r of t h e s e methods a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l , t h e houses h a v i n g a tendency t o s e t t l e w i t h the passage o f t i m e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e b u i l d e r p r e f e r s t o l o c a t e h i s home e i t h e r on r o c k o r where the r o c k i s cover e d by a s h a l l o w c o v e r o f muskeg. T h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r home s i t e s on r o c k , and t h e m i l d c l i m a t e , r e s u l t s i n houses o f t e n l a c k i n g a basement of t h e u s u a l t y p e . The basement i n many homes i s t h e space between the s u r f a c e o f the ground and t h e l e v e l of the f i r s t f l o o r , w i t h o n l y a l a y e r o f wooden boards f o r p r o t e c t i o n from t h e o u t s i d e . (See f o r e g r o u n d photo-graph 39.) F o r t h i s r e a s o n f u r n a c e h e a t i n g i s l e s s common i n P r i n c e Rupert t h a n anywhere e l s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I f a house i s b u i l t on muskeg a f u r n a c e i s i m p o s s i b l e , because o f u n s t a b l e f o u n d a t i o n s . I f the house i s b u i l t on r o c k , e x c a v a t i o n i s p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e and i f a f u r n a c e i s d e s i r e d the basement must be b u i l t i n the manner d e s c r i b e d above. P e n e t r a t i o n o f c o l d t h r o u g h the wooden basement i s q u i t e easy and t h e advantages o f f u r n a c e h e a t i n g are e q u a l l e d by the d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s t y pe o f house c o n s t r u c t i o n . C o n c r e t e would perhaps be more s a t i s -f a c t o r y as a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t the c o l d and i t i s b e i n g used more and more i n new home c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t i s more e x p e n s i v e t h a n wood. The pe r c e n t a g e of houses w i t h r u n n i n g w a t e r and f l u s h to i ler s i s a l s o t h e l o w e s t i n the p r o v i n c e . T h i s i s due i n p a r t t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g sewers and water mains i n the c i t y . I n r o c k , b l a s t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o achieve' p r o p e r g r a d i e n t s , w h i l e i n muskeg a l a r g e amount of f i l l i s needed t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y o f the l i n e s . Both of t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s are e x p e n s i v e and t h e c i t y f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y l i n e s . I f t h e home owner i s not s e r v i c e d by sewer l i n e s , s e p t i c t a n k s make i t p o s s i b l e f o r him t o e n j o y t h e co n v e n i e n c e s o f t h e f l u s h t o i l e t . However, s i n c e many o f t h e houses a r e b u i l t on r o c k , even t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e becomes i m p o s s i b l e . R e g i o n a l S o i l s The l o w l a n d a r e a o f n o r t h e a s t e r n Graham I s l a n d i s a l s o c o v e r e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by muskeg. The muskeg i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s not as much o f a problem as on K a i e n I s l a n d . The muskeg on Graham I s l a n d i s nowhere v e r y deep, v a r y i n g from s i x t o e i g h t i n c h e s t o two o r t h r e e f e e t . I t p r e s e n t s no problem f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and few d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a g r i -c u l t u r e . M i n e r a l s o i l s i n most cases a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e t o enable them t o be mixed w i t h the muskeg or t o p r o v i d e a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r d r a i n s . These 67. Map 8 Regiona l S o i l s Source: T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Second Resources Conference, B.C.. Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 9 . s o i l s have been farmed s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r many years at se v e r a l places and good crops have been obtained. The problems of marketing, however, have been insuperable to date. Since physiography has l i m i t e d P rince Rupert's a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d to attenuated s t r i p s along r i v e r v a l l e y s , many s o i l types are encountered (See Table 13). The"Kitsumgallum-Lakelse V a l l e y , the most favourable a g r i -c u l t u r a l area i n terms of climate and distance from mar-ket , i s hampered by the l i m i t e d amount of arable s o i l . Of 57 ,500 acres surveyed i n t h i s area 19,300 acres or 33% were p r i v a t e l y owned of which only 2,700 acres or 4% of the t o t a l were developed. Of the remaining 38,200 acres of crown or reverted land, ( i . e . land which i s a v a i l a b l e f o r settlement) only 5,090 acres or 13% were considered a r a b l e , and 1,110 acres or 3% were considered l i m i t e d arable.^" On the arable land heavy stands of hemlock, spruce, red cedar and a m a b i l i s f i r occur and t o c l e a r the 40 t o 60 acres considered necessary to form an economical farm u n i t presents a formidable task f o r the p o t e n t i a l s e t t l e r . Other areas of s u i t a b l e s o i l s may be found i n the southern part of t h i s v a l l e y , between Lakelse Lake and Kitima t Arm. No surveys have been made of t h i s southern area. On the b a s i s of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , arable s o i l T. Information obtained from l e t t e r by D. Sutherland, D i r e c t o r , Land U t i l i z a t i o n Survey to J . Devison, May, 1950. 69. i s d i s t i n c t l y l i m i t e d i n the a r e a and P r i n c e Rupert must l o o k elsewhere f o r f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l s u p p l i e s . The g r e y wooded s o i l s b e g i n a t Woodcock on t h e Skeena. They form the l a r g e s t s i n g l e group of s o i l s i n n o r t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o lumbia, and, except f o r a few p o c k e t s o f degraded b l a c k s o i l s , occupy th e whole o f t h e a r e a . I n T a b l e 13, 77,300.'. a c r e s o f t h i s s o i l zone have been c l a s s e d as a r a b l e o r p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e , i n the a r e a from H a z e l t o n t o Vanderhoof. T h i s f i g u r e must be t r e a t e d w i t h some r e s e r v a t i o n s . The g r e y wooded s o i l s are s t r o n g l y l e a c h e d o f b a s e s , i r o n and p l a n t n u t r i e n t s and i n g e n e r a l have i n f e r i o r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and r a t h e r low n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y . To produce w e l l , even the b e t t e r t y p e s o f s o i l must be b u i l t up t h r o u g h th e use o f legumes, manure and f e r t i l i z e r . The minimum f a r m s i z e has been e s t i m a t e d a t 160 a c r e s , o f which a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n must be a r a b l e . ~ S i n c e t h i s s o i l t y p e i s g e n e r a l l y covered by f a i r l y dense c o n i f e r o u s c o v e r the p i o n e e r f a r m e r i s f a c e d by two grave d i s a d v a n t a g e s . He must make a l a r g e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e t o remove t h e o r i g i n a l f o r e s t c o v e r from an e x t e n s i v e a r e a and then must r e t u r n a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f h i s f a r m revenue t o t h e l a n d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n f e r t i l i t y . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a r g e i n i t i a l expense and h i g h c o s t of upkeep t e n d s t o keep t h i s l a n d d i s t i n c t l y m a r g i n a l . E x t e n s i v e T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the Second Resources C o n f e r e n c e , Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , 1949, p. 21. s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e s e s o i l s i s , t h e r e f o r e , u n l i k e l y u n l e s s t h e r e a r e generous s u b s i d i e s on t h e p a r t o f t h e government i n t h e form o f l a n d c l e a r i n g , e t c . The degraded b l a c k s o i l s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e s i n c e t h e y have h i g h e r n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y and s p a r s e r t r e e c o v e r . T h i s s o i l zone i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r k - l a n d type o f v e g e t a t i o n and has developed on g e n e r a l l y r o l l i n g t opography. I t i s found i n t h e " B u l k l e y V a l l e y from E v e l y n south t o Houston, i n t h e F r a n c o i s - O o t s a Lake a r e a and i n s m a l l p o c k e t s around Vanderhoof. The same c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p e r m i t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s s o i l p r e s e n t problems f o r i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e . Annual r a i n f a l l i s low and v a r i a b l e and f r o s t p r e s e n t s a d i s t i n c t h a z a r d . The r o l l i n g topography a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e s o i l s r e s t r i c t s t h e c h o i c e o f c r o p s t o be grown, most f a r m e r s i n t h e a r e a c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t i m o t h y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i f t i m o t h y i s f r o z e n w h i l e green i t s n u t r i t i v e q u a l i t i e s are a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f C l i m a t e Table H w i l l show t h a t summer f r o s t s a r e a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h i s a r e a . The importance of the f a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e and p h y s i o g r a p h y a r e , i n t h e case o f t h e B u l k l e y V a l l e y , s u f f i -c i e n t l y d e t r e m e n t a l t o more than o f f s e t t h e advantages o f s u p e r i o r s o i l s . Thus we f i n d t h a t i n P r i n c e George, on grey f o r e s t s o i l s , t h e m a r g i n a l farm c o n s i s t s o f 19 p r o d u c t i v e l i v e s t o c k u n i t s and 63 a c r e s o f c r o p l a n d w h i l e a t S m i t h e r s t h e f i g u r e s are 29 p r o d u c t i v e l i v e s t o c k u n i t s and 135 a c r e s 71. o f c r o p l a n d . The g r e y f o r e s t s o i l s i n the P r i n c e George a r e a , though b e t t e r t h a n s i m i l a r s o i l s i n the H a z e l t o n -Vanderhoof a r e a , a r e not n a t u r a l l y as f e r t i l e as t h e degraded b l a c k s o i l s . F a v o u r a b l e f a c t o r s o f topography and c l i m a t e , however, make them much more v a l u a b l e a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d . The F r a n c o i s - O o t s a Lake a r e a marks th e extreme l i m i t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . The l i m i t a t i o n i s based s o l e l y on an economic f a c t o r which i s s u b j e c t t o change, but which a t p r e s e n t i s e x t r e m e l y im-p o r t a n t , namely t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n of f r e i g h t r a t e s a t Endako. T h i s i s the p o i n t where t h e c o s t o f s h i p p i n g by boat from Vancouver t o P r i n c e Rupert and t h e n by r a i l from P r i n c e Rupert e q u a l s the c o s t o f s h i p p i n g d i r e c t l y by r a i l f rom Vancouver. Endako i s , t h e r e f o r e , the boundary o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e h i n t e r l a n d . I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t i t i s cheaper t o s h i p goods i n f r e i g h t c l a s s e s one t o s i x from Vancouver t o P r i n c e Rupert t h a n i t i s t o s h i p them from Endako t o P r i n c e R u p e r t . (See T a b l e 1 2 ) . By t a k i n g t h e a r a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e acreage o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d as l i s t e d i n Table 13 and a p p l y i n g the minimum farm s i z e s a r r i v e d a t p r e v i o u s l y 1 , some i d e a o f t h e a b s o l u t e maximum ' Canada, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A Study o f Land S e t t l e -ment i n the P r i n c e George-Smithers A r e a , B.C., W.J. Anderson, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947 , p. 4 . number o f farms i n t h i s s e c t i o n may be d e r i v e d . U s i n g t h e f i g u r e s o f 60 a c r e s on t h e brown p o d s o l i c ( T e r r a c e d i s t r i c t ) , 135 a c r e s on t h e degraded b l a c k , ( B u l k l e y V a l l e y ) and 160 a c r e s on t h e gr e y f o r e s t s o i l s , ( H a z e l t o n t o Endako) a grand t o t a l o f 2,048 minimum-sized farms i s o b t a i n e d . The f i g u r e o f about 2,000 farms i s f a r t o o generous, s i n c e i t i s im-p r o b a b l e t h a t a l l the farms would be m a r g i n a l , and a more r e a l i s t i c t o t a l would be somewhat c l o s e r t o 1500 farms. I t does, however, s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t he p a u c i t y o f a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d and g i v e s one of the c l u e s t o t h e problem of t h e non-develop-. ment of P r i n c e R u p e r t . S i n c e no more than 2,000 farms and about 10,000 people can be su p p o r t e d by a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h i s a r e a , P r i n c e Rupert must t u r n elsewhere i f i t wis h e s t o become s e l f s u f f i c i e n t i n f o o d . The be s t a l t e r n a t i v e i s o f f e r e d by Graham I s l a n d . Surveys o f the s o i l o f t h e i s l a n d a r e n e c e s s a r y as w e l l as an e x a m i n a t i o n of the problems o f d r a i n a g e and m a r k e t i n g , b e f o r e i t can be s a i d d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h i s a r e a can s u p p l y P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l needs. On t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , however, i t does seem p r o b a b l e . Summary P r i n c e Rupert must r e a l i z e t h a t i n e x p e c t i n g development a l o n g the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y ' s n o r t h e r n 7 3 . l i n e i t i s a w a i t i n g something which i s not l i k e l y t o o c c u r . F a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e , s o i l and p h y s i o g r a p h y make development p r e c a r i o u s and p l a c e a b s o l u t e l i m i t s on t h e amount o f d e v e l o p ment p o s s i b l e . The l a n d a v a i l a b l e i s perhaps adequate t o sup p o r t a c i t y o f 15 t o 20,000 p o p u l a t i o n but i n o r d e r t o s u p p l y A l a s k a and the p o t e n t i a l c i t y of K i t i m a t o t h e r a r e a s must be foun d . The g e n e r a l o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d has been due i n l a r g e p a r t t o the i n c l u s i o n of the V a n d e r h o o f - P r i n c e George a r e a i n the h i n t e r l a n d . E c o n o m i c a l l y , however, t h i s a r e a can not be i n c l u d e d , due l a r g e l y t o h i g h s h i p p i n g c o s t s . FREIGHT RATES TO SELECTED STATIONS FROM PRINCE RUPERT, B.C. CLASSES AS PER CANADIAN FREIGHT CLASSIFICATIONS 1 - 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0 (Rates i n cents per hundred pounds) VIA ALL RAIL* Vancouver, B.C. to Prince Rupert, B.C. 423 353 281 211 189 167 118 96 Prince Rupert to Burns Lake 162 135 108 80 72 59 45 36 Endako 176 147 116 88 79 66 49 41 Hazelton 118 100 79 59 55 42 34 29 Houston 150 125 100 74 66 55 42 34 McBride 253 211 168 126 114 96 67 58 Prince George 202 168 135 101 92 79 55 45 Smithers 133 113 88 66 59 49 38 29 Terrace 80 67 55 42? 38 34 26 21 Vanderhoof 180 150 318 92 80 67 51 41 VIA STEAMER; Vancouver, B.C. to Prince Rupert, B.C. General Merchandise - $12,65 per 2,000 lbs. or 40 cubic feet ships option, including terminal charges at both ends. (640 per 100 lbs.) TABLE 13 INVENTORY OF SOIL SURVEYED AREAS IN NORTH CENTRAL BRITISH COLOMBIA SOIL SOIL REGION ZONE Podsolio Forest C A T E N A AZONAL SOILS • • INDICATED USES Glaoial Laous— Shallow T i l l trine A 11 u v i a 1 Soils, SOIL LOCAL Rook Arable SUB AREA OF ACREAGE Loam Clays Loam Sandy Ontorop and ZONE SURVEY and and and Loam Recent Eroded Poten-Sandy Silty Silt Loamy Organic Allu- Land, tially Loam Clay Loam Sand Gravel SoilB r i a l Etc. Arable Grazing Mfc.Podsol Terrace 68,900 15,480 24,840 4,000 600 14,280 8,700 39,950 Hazelton 89,400 50,000 1,000 5,300 27,200 3,900 2,000 33,500 • Vander-hoof 678,460 276*970 273,850 26,800 57,390 Grey Central Ft.Fraser Wooded Bulkley Valley 445,490 303,600 7,090 48,350 Lakes Country 23,350 43,350 20,100 330,190 43,100 43,800 Other Chiefly Forestry Reore-ation Wild-28,950 55,900 348,270 401,690 Bulkley Grass- Degraded Central Valley 139,980 172,240 17,740 land Black Lakes Country 126,060 63,920 • Vanderhoof-Ft. Fraser is not within Prince Rupert's non-competitive hinterland. Inoludea for comparison. Souroe - B.C. Dept. of Land and Forests, Transaction* of the Second Resources Conference, Victoria, 1949, p. 10. 76. Map 9 Regional Forest Types; Sourcei W.E.D. Halliday, A Forest C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r  Canada. King's Printer-, Ottawa, 1937. 77. Chapter IV FORESTRY The f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s of P r i n c e Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d r e p r e s e n t one o f her g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l sources of wealth and one i n which much expansion can take p l a c e . Even the a d d i t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n s of a l a r g e new f o r e s t r y concern, the Columbia C e l l u l o s e C o r p o r a t i o n , w i l l not b r i n g the cut i n the coast d i s t r i c t up t o the estimated annual y i e l d , w hile the cut i n the i n t e r i o r i s s t i l l below the annual increment. F o r e s t r y on the Coast The composition of the f o r e s t s of t h e n o r t h e r n coast i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the south, due t o the more r i g o r o u s c l i m a t e of the summer h a l f - y e a r . The Douglas F i r disap p e a r s n o r t h of Gardner Channel and i s not present on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . The percentage of Red Cedar a l s o drops c o n s i d e r a b l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the wetter and c o l d e r areas. The Western Hemlock i s t o l e r a n t of shade and moisture and becomes the dominant t r e e i n the no r t h e r n c o a s t , w i t h the S i t k a Spruce a co-dominant i n wetter areas and the Amabalis F i r the co-dominant i n the c o l d e r a r e a s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y the absence of Douglas F i r i n t h e c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t has meant t h a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o l o g g i n g f o r lumber, e x c e p t i n g the s p e c i a l case o f S i t k a Spruce on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . The n o r t h e r n c o a s t i s so d i s t a n t from the main c e n t r e s o f m a r k e t i n g and p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . Vancouver, t h a t o n l y premium lumber such as t h e Douglas F i r o r S i t k a Spruce c o u l d stand t h e c o s t of shipment and s t i l l be a b l e to com-pete w i t h l o g s f rom f u r t h e r s o u t h . With the l o g g i n g - o f f of the more v a l u a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e t i m b e r i n t h e s o u t h , i n c r e a s e d c u t t i n g i n t h e n o r t h has become p o s s i b l e . L o g g i n g i n t h e P r i n c e Rupert d i s t r i c t w i l l r e m a i n dependent upon d e p l e t i o n i n the south u n l e s s a f u n damental r e o r i e n t a t i o n of l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s o c c u r s . At p r e s e n t , of a t o t a l c u t of 195 m i l l i o n fbm f o r t h e e n t i r e n o r t h c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t , 115 m i l l i o n fbm i s b e i n g cut i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e cut i s towed 400 m i l e s t o Vancouver f o r p r o c e s s i n g . About 1/3 o f t h e c u t i s t a k e n t o Ocean F a l l s where t h e b e s t grades a r e s e l e c t e d f o r lumber and a r e e i t h e r sawn t h e r e o r are sent t o Vancouver, w h i l e t h e remainder i s u t i l i z e d , i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f p u l p and paper at t h e Ocean F a l l s m i l l . The t i m b e r moves toward Vancouver because i t i s , or was, moving toward t h e market and because th e Vancouver m i l l s r e p r e s e n t l a r g e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s which can not be moved or shut down. The n o r t h e r n c o a s t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a m a r g i n a l lumber a r e a , t e n u o u s l y connected t o Vancouver by a 400-mile t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n network. The movement o f l o g s t o V a n c o u v e r was p r o c e e d -i n g t o w a r d t h e m arket when t h e l a r g e s t m arket f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l u m b e r was t h e U n i t e d Kingdom. The i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' d o m e s t i c market changed t h i s p i c t u r e and V a n c o u v e r i s no l o n g e r on t h e n a t u r a l r o u t e t o m a r k e t . R a i l r a t e s f r o m P r i n c e R u p e r t t o t h e l a r g e e a s t e r n m a r k e t s a r e t h e same a s f r o m V a n c o u v e r , and P r i n c e R u p e r t i s much c l o s e r t o t h e f o r e s t s o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t t h a n i s V a n c o u v e r . I f t h e C o l u m b i a C e l l u l o s e Company d e c i d e s t o o p e r a t e a s a w m i l l t o h a n d l e h i g h - g r a d e l o g s and s p e c i e s s u c h a s c e d a r w h i c h c a n n o t be made i n t o p u l p wood, a s t a r t w i l l be made w h i c h may u l t i m a t e l y change t h e p i c t u r e o f n o r t h c o a s t l o g g i n g . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g a m a r g i n a l t i m b e r r e s e r v e 400 m i l e s f r o m h e a d o f f i c e t h e a r e a may become a p r o d u c e r i n i t s own r i g h t . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a t t r a c t i n g and k e e p i n g l a b o u r i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e c l i m a t e s e c t i o n , must be b o r n e i n m i n d . C o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be h i g h i n P r i n c e R u p e r t b u t a s l o n g a s t h e s e c o s t s r e m a i n below t h e t r a n s p o r t c h a r g e s t o V a n c o u v e r t h e i n d u s t r y c a n s u c c e e d . F o r e s t r y i n the I n t e r i o r L o g g i n g i n t h e i n t e r i o r s e c t i o n o f t h e P r i n c e R u p e r t F o r e s t D i s t r i c t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t on t h e c o a s t . The o p e r a t i o n s a r e s m a l l e r and more numerous, as may be seen i n F o r e s t r y Table 6. The i n t e r i o r has t w i c e t h e s a w m i l l c a p a c i t y o f t h e c o a s t , a l t h o u g h i t c u t s o n l y one h a l f as much as t h e c o a s t . Almost a l l of t h e i n t e r i o r c u t i s p r o c e s s e d l o c a l l y b e f o r e b e i n g s h i p p e d , and s i n c e p r o d u c t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r i s i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , i t would seem t o be p r o f i t a b l e . I f i n t e r i o r m i l l s can o p e r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y , s h i p p i n g v i a r a i l r o a d , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t s i m i l a r methods would succeed i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . Indeed i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e a s o n f o r the s t e a d y e x p a n s i o n of l u m b e r i n g i n t h e i n -t e r i o r compared w i t h the r e l a t i v e s t a g n a t i o n on t h e c o a s t (See F o r e s t r y T a b l e 4) can be t r a c e d t o the f a c t t h a t t h e i n t e r i o r s h i p s d i r e c t l y t o t h e market by r a i l r o a d w h i l e t h e c o a s t s h i p s t o t h e market v i a Vancouver. S e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g i s more i m p o r t a n t i n the i n t e r i o r due t o s m a l l e r o p e r a t i o n s and d i f f e r e n c e i n d imensions and s p e c i e s o f t r e e s . I n s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g o n l y one s p e c i f i c t r e e i s f e l l e d , g e n e r a l l y chosen t o conform t o some s i z e o r s p e c i e s r e q u i r e m e n t , and t h e n s k i d d e d out w i t h h o r s e s . I n t h i s way o n l y t h e l a r g e r t r e e s are removed w i t h l i t t l e o r no damage t o r e p r o d u c t i o n . C l e a r c u t t i n g i s o n l y p r a c t i s e d i n s t a n d s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e . The a r e a s e l e c t i v e l y c u t on the c o a s t i s due e n t i r e l y t o o p e r a t i o n s o f hand l o g g e r s who c u t s e l e c t i v e l y because t h e y do not have the machinery t o c l e a r c u t . T h e i r s e l e c t i o n i s governed more by a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h a n any o t h e r f a c t o r . A l a r g e number, perhaps th e m a j o r i t y , o f t h e i n - : t e r i o r loggers are also farmers either whole or part time. Since the growing season i n t h i s area i s short the farmer has a long period during which he can log, without serious-l y impairing his e f f i c i e n c y as a farmer. It provides a valuable supplementary source of income to the farmer. The Forestry Operations of the Columbia Cellulose Company The f o r e s t r y operations of the Columbia Cellulose Company are unique not only on the northern coast but i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. This company was the f i r s t to obtain a forestry management license, and to attempt the use of r i v e r d r i v i n g to bring logs from the f o r e s t . Since i t s plant i s located at Port Edward, 11 miles from Prince Rupert, i t w i l l be extremely important to Prince Rupert i n the future. By the terms of the f o r e s t r y management license the company agrees to practise s c i e n t i f i c forestry on the areas leased. Cutting w i l l proceed at a rate which w i l l enable the forest to regenerate and grow to optimum mer-chantible size before i t i s cut again. The areas under lease to the company are not concentrated i n one s o l i d block but are scattered throughout the area between the Skeena and Nass. (See Map 1 7 , p. 180) . In most cases the company has been granted areas that would be d i f f i c u l t for smaller com-panies to u t i l i z e . The productive area a l l o t t e d to the company amounts to approximately one quarter of the t o t a l productive area i n the coast d i s t r i c t ( 6 6 8 , 4 4 0 acres of a t o t a l of 2,700,000 acres) while the volume of mature t i m -ber on t h i s acreage amounts to o n l y one f i f t h o f the t o t a l mature volume on the c o a s t . (4,345 m i l l i o n fbm of a t o t a l of 19,780 m i l l i o n fbm.) In a d d i t i o n much o f t h e i r pro-d u c t i v e acreage i s i n areas which are now considered i n -a c c e s s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Upper Nass R i v e r V a l l e y . Many of the most p r o d u c t i v e and a c c e s s i b l e areas on the coast remain t o be e x p l o i t e d by s m a l l e r companies. On the f i r s t r o t a t i o n the company must cut 14.5 m i l l i o n cubic f e e t of timber per y e a r . 1 T h e i r l i c e n s e can be revoked i f i n any year they cut l e s s than one h a l f (7 m i l l i o n cubic f e e t ) or more than one and one h a l f (21 m i l l i o n cubic f e e t ) of t h i s amount. Moreover w i t h i n a 10-year p e r i o d the company must cut w i t h i n 10% of the amount s p e c i f i e d . The boundaries of the l e a s e d areas are not s t a t i c and with the approval of t h e government they may be changed. For example i f i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the area the company holds i n the middle Nass i s more s u i t a b l e f o r farming than f o r e s t r y t h i s land w i l l be removed from the l e a s e and the company w i l l be granted an equal area e l s e -where. The company must manufacture 80,000 tons of un-bleached pulp per year. The cedar l o g s on the company h o l d i n g s may be turned i n t o sawlogs, s i n c e they can not be used i n the manufacture of pulp but a l l other l o g s , r egard-_ From the c o n t r a c t between the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company known as F o r e s t Management L i c e n s e No. 1. l e s s o f t h e i r q u a l i t y , must be t u r n e d i n t o p u l p , u n l e s s p e r m i s s i o n i s r e c e i v e d f r o g i the government t o do o t h e r w i s e . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s c l a u s e i s t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l l o g s w i l l r e c e i v e the. g r e a t e s t amount o f p r o c e s s i n g p o s s i b l e , t h u s a d d i n g t o t h e i r u l t i m a t e v a l u e . C u t t i n g i s t o b e g i n i n t h e K i t s u m g a l l u m V a l l e y t o t h e n o r t h o f T e r r a c e and i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n of the company t o d r i v e t h e l o g s down t h e Skeena R i v e r t o t h e i r p l a n t a t P o r t Edward. T h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i me t h a t t h e common e a s t e r n t e c h n i q u e has been attempted" on a l a r g e s c a l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i t was chosen presumably because t h e f o r e s t e r s and o f f i c i a l s o f the company r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the e a s t . The s u c c e s s of t h e scheme i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as t h e Skeena R i v e r , i n common w i t h o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbia r i v e r s , has a v a r i a t i o n i n f l o w which i s not met w i t h i n the e a s t . The r a t i o of f l o w on t h e Skeena a t Usk i s 101 t o 1 as compared w i t h t h e r a t i o on most p e a s t e r n r i v e r s o f o n l y 10 t o 1. T h i s i s due t o the c o p i -ous p r e c i p i t a t i o n which i s h e l d as snow i n l o f t y peaks d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r and r e l e a s e d suddenly down p r e c i p i t o u s s l o p e s i n t h e s p r i n g . Owing t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l o w e r course o f t h e Skeena the s e c t i o n from T e r r a c e t o t h e mouth abounds w i t h sand banks and b a r s which r e p r e s e n t the f i l l i n g i n o f t h e embayed d e l t a . These b a r s , e s p e c i a l l y towards the mouth of t h e r i v e r a r e composed of e x t r e m e l y 2. B.C. Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e Second Resources C o n f e r e n c e , V i c t o r i a , 1949, p. 200. f i n e s i l t . W ith t h e l a r g e t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s o f t h e w a t e r s o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t , up t o 2 4 f e e t , and the w i d e l y v a r y i n g r a t e s o f f l o w i n t h e r i v e r t h e sand banks and b a r s have a tendency t o change w i t h b e w i l d e r i n g r a p i d i t y , and have been known t o make a f o r m e r l y s a f e c h a n n e l i m p a s s i b l e d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f a day. To t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s added a n o t h e r unique h a z a r d i n t h e s c o r e s o f g i l l n e t t e r s t h a t c l o g the mouth o f t h e Skeena d u r i n g t h e salmon f i s h i n g season. T h e i r n e t s r e p r e s e n t an e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e p i e c e of equipment, g e n e r a l l y w o r t h from $ 6 0 0 t o $ 1 2 0 0 . I f t h e s e n e t s were t o be damaged by s t r a y l o g s f r o m th e company's booms, o r by t h e booms t h e m s e l v e s , t h e f i s h e r m e n would be q u i c k t o demand r e i m b u r s e -ment from t h e company. S i n c e f i s h i n g i s c l o s e d on t h e r i v e r d u r i n g S a t u r d a y and Sunday as a c o n s e r v a t i o n measure the company would be a b l e t o d r i v e t h e i r l o g s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w i t h o u t r i s k . A c e r t a i n amount of equipment would be s t a n d -i n g i d l e d u r i n g a l a r g e p a r t of t h e week, a d d i n g t o t h e c o s t s o f the o p e r a t i o n . The f i s h i n g s eason, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e t i m e when the r i v e r i s most s u i t a b l e f o r l o g d r i v i n g . I n t h e company's f a v o u r i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l o g s o f the i n t e r i o r a r e o f s m a l l e r d i m e n s i o n s t h a n t h o s e on t h e c o a s t and t h a t t h e y a r e t o be brought down by e x p e r i e n c e d e a s t e r n r i v e r d r i v e r s . The company has a l s o gone t o con-s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e t o c l e a r c h a n n e l s i n t h e r i v e r t o f a c i l i -t a t e l o g d r i v i n g . I t i s t o be hoped t h a t d r e d g i n g and d r a g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s w i l l not have t o be r e p e a t e d t o o o f t e n . I f the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s a t t e m p t s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e may be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r r i v e r s along the coast. The question of how many men may be employed i n t h i s new o p e r a t i o n has been the subject of much s p e c u l a t i o n . Using the t a b l e of labour requirement per u n i t of production found i n the Transactions of.the Second Resources Conference 3 a f a i r l y v a l i d f i g u r e may be obtained. This method g i v e s a f i g u r e of 282 men i n the woods and 292 men i n the m i l l . This means approximately 575 new primary producers, who w i l l be r e c e i v i n g year-round wages, which w i l l do much to make a s t a b l e and prosperous c i t y . The outlook f o r f o r e s t r y i s very hopeful. The estimated sustained y i e l d f o r the coast i s 280 m i l l i o n fbm, and c u t t i n g i n 1948 amounted to 175 m i l l i o n fbm.4 The a d d i t i o n of the cut of the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company w i l l b r i n g t h i s t o t a l t o 255 m i l l i o n fbm. Production can be i n -creased by 25 m i l l i o n fbm and probably more without harm to the f o r e s t s since much of the timber stand i s mature, and thus r e c e i v e s l i t t l e annual growth increment. Vancouver F o r e s t r y D i s t r i c t , the only other c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t , during the same year, was c u t t i n g at 188% of the annual growth r a t e and u t i l i z i n g more hemlock and spruce than ever before. I t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i n the not too d i s t a n t f u t u r e Vancouver w i l l be forced to r e l y much more h e a v i l y on the 3 • B.C. Department of Lands, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1949,. p. 150. ^' Verbal i n f o r m a t i o n from the Prince Rupert D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r . f o r e s t s o f the n o r t h e r n c o a s t . At p r e s e n t o n l y the b e s t and most a c c e s s i b l e t i m b e r s i t e s on t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t can be u t i l i z e d t o s h i p t o Vancouver. As t h e s e a r c h f o r t i m b e r s i t e s proceeds f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r a f i e l d and c o s t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Vancouver i n c r e a s e , the p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s a w m i l l s i n P r i n c e Rupert i n c r e a s e s . Indeed t h e i n d u s t r y c o u l d be s u c c e s s -f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , w i t h i t s f u t u r e a s s u r e d by the e v e r i n c r e a s i n g d e p l e t i o n o f the f o r e s t s of the s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . TABLE 1 INFORMATION SUPPLIED BY DISTRICT FORESTER, PRINCE RUPERT Total Area Coast Interior Prince Rupert Forestry District Productive Area 1S.1 million acres 2004 million acres 39.5 million acres 2.7 million acres 7.5 million acres 10.2 million acres Merchantible timber accessible Coast - 66% of the total productive area Interior - 20% of the total productive area. TABLE 2 MERCHANTIBLE TIMBER VOLUME ON PRODUCTIVE AREA IN MILLIONS OF F.B.M. Coast Cedar Hemlock Spruce Balsam 4549 Interior 257 Total 4806 Lodgepole Pine 7094 5141 1770 614 1160 592 7708 6301 2362 1052 1052 Misc. 1226 128 1350 Total 19780 3808 23583 Coast Interior TABLE 3 . ANNUAL LOGGED AREA 5 YEAR AVERAGE 1943-17 Clear Cut Selectively Cut 4708 acres 2113 acres 6821 acres 5191 acres 4095 acres 9284 acres TABLE 4 CUT IK MILLIONS OF F.B.M. Year Coast Interior Total 1943 223 33 256 1944 -235 43 278 1945 191 54 245 1946 125 62 187 1947 187 71.4 272 1948 175 84 259 TABLE 5 MERCHANTABLE TIMBER BY DRAINAGE BASINS Information from Regional Industrial Index of British Columbia Department of Trade & Industry, Victoria, 1948 Western Lodge-Douglas Red Western Silver pole Yellow Cotton-Drainage-basin Fir Cedar Hemlock Spruce Fir Pine Cedar Wood Total Douglas Channel-Kitimat Arm 337,700 1240,600 368,400 893,700 — 25,600 6,300 2872,300 Gardner Canal-Kitlope River 8,500 97,500 264,600 133,200 153,600 20,700 683,100 Grenville Channel-Banks Island — 125,200 172,700 110,600 92,400 300 25,200 — 526,400 Lower Skeena River — 296,900 845,900 446,900 385,700 2,700 168,400 2146,500 Princess Royal-Hawkesbury 254,700 328,700 177,100 239,200 47,900 1047,600 Roderick Island-Graham Reach 295,700 354,500 213,700 229,200 21,200 — 1114,300 Work Channel-IQiutzeymateen — 37,800 201,600 183,400 147,200 13,000 583,000 Graham Island, Q.C.I. 1512,200 2037,000 1954,700 — 24,700 321,500 ?5850,100 Moresby Island, Q.C.I, —— 1199,500 2755,700 2201,100 — 114,300 6270,600 Lower Nass-Observatory Inlet 25,800 329,400 144,600 69,900 — 400 39,300 609,400 Upper Nass River 111,600 1893,000 1197,500 1202,800 58,300 -—- 15,300 4478,500 Bulkley River East 2,800 17,600 271,600 1351,700 693,600 1617,700 — 3955,000 Middle Skeena River 436,600 1196,100 424,600 505,300 60,800 31,170 2654,570 Upper Skeena River 1630,200 1145,100 1566,100 254,300 — — 4595,700 Francois Lake-Endako River 44,800 — 16,400 434,700 60,800 184,200 — 740,900 Stuart Lake 328,900 — 630,500 203,800 342,700 1505,900 Takla Lake — 395,400 170,300 290,200 855,900 Upper Nechako River 3,800 75,800 270,900 215,300 111,700 — 677,500 Bulkley River West 8.800 147.800 431,800 381,000 751,700 —— 1721,100 NOTE - in 1000»s of board feet. TABLE 6 SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS Coast Interior OPERATING No* Sawmills No* Estimated Cap. M.B.M. 25 608 * 1 212 1,064 Shingle Mills No, Estimated Cap, M.B.M. 5 5 7 NOT OPERATING Sawmills No. Estimated Cap. M.B.M. 36 32 1 1 Shingle Mills Estimated Cap. M.3.M.. 5 5 Totals 237 1,672 12 68 10 1947 205 1,288 52 1946 149 1,085 67 # Of the estimated capacity on the coast 350 M.B.M. is supplied by one sawmill at Ocean Falls. O' Chapter V FISHERIES U n l i k e t h e o t h e r r e s o u r c e s o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d t h e f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e i s almost completely-u t i l i z e d a t p r e s e n t , s i n c e t h e m a i n s t a y s of t h e i n d u s t r y , h a l i b u t and salmon, a re premium f i s h which command p r i c e s on the w o r l d market s u f f i c i e n t t o enable them t o overcome t h e h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s . Most of the o t h e r f i s h -e r i e s a r e i n c i d e n t a l t o h a l i b u t and salmon, and are en-gaged i n d u r i n g p e r i o d s when salmon and h a l i b u t cannot be caught. Thus, t h e o t h e r f i s h e r i e s make use of c a p i t a l equipment and s k i l l s which t h e y c o u l d not su p p o r t i n t h e m s e l v e s . The f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e h a l i b u t f i s h e r y , has p r o v i d e d t h e major share o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s income .since t h e c i t y ' s f o u n d i n g . No major growth i n t h e i n d u s t r y can be exp e c t e d nor f o r t u n a t e l y , a major d e c l i n e . S i n c e a f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e cannot be measured o r equated i n the u s u a l way t h e most s u i t a b l e t e c h n i q u e f o r i t s i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i s h i s t o r i c a l . The o b s e r v a t i o n o f changes and t r e n d s o f t h e p a s t w i l l t e l l us more about t h e f i s h e r y of the f u t u r e t h a n any o t h e r method s i n c e changes i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y w i l l be i n t e c h n i q u e s r a t h e r ' t h a n i n amounts caught. The H a l i b u t F i s h e r y The fundamental c o n t r o l of a f i s h e r y i s the h a b i -t a t and h a b i t s of the f i s h concerned. These f a c t o r s regu-l a t e the type of boats, the gear and the manner of f i s h i n g . The h a l i b u t begins l i f e as a p e l a g i c f i s h , f l o a t i n g i n the c u r r e n t s above the spawning banks, which are g e n e r a l l y q u i t e deep, from 150 t o 200 fathoms. They remain i n these banks u n t i l they are mature when they seem t o migrate t o shallower banks, from 40 t o 80 fathoms deep. When mature, h a l i b u t move about c o n t i n u a l l y ; stock which was tagged i n the Gulf of Alask a was recovered as f a r south as Washington. Since the h a l i b u t i s found p r i n c i p a l l y i n the more exposed areas of the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f , s t u r d y s h i p s o f f a i r s i z e are needed i f the fishermen i n t e n d to remain on the banks any l e n g t h o f time. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n Area 3 (see map) where the fishermen are exposed to the f u l l sweep of the North P a c i f i c . The h a l i b u t f i s h e r y began i n 1890 i n the waters o f f Cape F l a t t e r y , u s i n g the l o n g l i n e method f i s h i n g from d o r r i e s developed on the A t l a n t i c c o a s t . Improvements i n techniques came almost immediately and the venturesome west coast fishermen adopted them much sooner than t h e i r A t l a n t i c b r e t h r e n . The P a c i f i c fishermen were quick t o adopt power motors, which allowed the use o f power g u r d i e s . The gurdies when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the goose neck enabled f i s h i n g to be c a r r i e d out from the mother ship with a consequent i n -Map 10 H a l i b u t F i s h i n g A reas Source: Report o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, No. 1 4 , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1 9 4 9 . c r e a s e i n speed and e f f i c i e n c y o f f i s h i n g . By 1910 f i s h i n g had spread as f a r n o r t h a s Gape Spencer, A l a s k a . The opening of the r a i l w a y l i n e t o P r i n c e R upert i n 1914, by p r o v i d i n g q u i c k e r a c c e s s t o m a r k e t s , i n -c r e a s e d t h e number of b o a t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y and extended t h e i r r ange. By 1925 h a l i b u t was b e i n g f i s h e d from Unimak Pass i n t h e A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s t o n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . However, t h e h a l i b u t c a t c h had begun t o d e c l i n e i n s p i t e o f ever e x t e n d i n g o p e r a t i o n s . F i s h i n g was c a r r i e d on t h e y e a r round and i n a r e a s c l o s e t o t h e p o r t s t h e c a t c h e s had begun t o drop a l a r m i n g l y . I n 1923 a h a l i b u t t r e a t y was s i g n e d between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada a l l o w i n g the f o r m a t i o n o f an I n t e r -n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission and i n s t i t u t i n g a t h r e e months c l o s e d season d u r i n g the w i n t e r . T h i s t r e a t y , i n c i d e n t a l l y , was the f i r s t t o be n e g o t i a t e d by Canada on h e r own b e h a l f as a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . By 1930 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s showed t h a t u n l e s s prompt a c t i o n was t a k e n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y would be c o m p l e t e l y d e p l e t e d . The P a c i f i c c o a s t was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e a r e a s (Map 10, p. 93) w i t h s e p a r a t e c a t c h r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d f o r each. Area two i s the most i m p o r t a n t o f the t h r e e , and w i t h i n the a r e a the most i m p o r t a n t banks a r e found between the n o r t h end o f Vancouver I s l a n d and D i x on E n t r a n c e . A g u r d i e - a m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e c o n s i s t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y o f a r e v o l v i n g drum around which t h e l i n e i s drawn i n . A gooseneck - a s h e e t - m e t a l frame on the s t e r n o f a h a l i -but boat over which th e l i n e i s l e t o u t . 95. "On e i t h e r s i d e o f t h i s c e n t r a l a r e a the c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o d u c t i o n become l e s s f a v o u r a b l e and the abundance o f many s p e c i e s t a p e r o f f t o t h e south and t o the n o r t h . T h i s t a p e r i n g o f f i n h a l i b u t s t o c k s i s not so apparent a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , due t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t f i s h i n g has' had on t h e l e v e l l i n g o f f t h e s e o r i g i n a l peaks o f maximum abundance."2 P r i n c e Rupert i s t h e p o r t b e s t s i t u a t e d t o ser v e the f i s h e r y o f t h i s p r o d u c t i v e a r e a . Even p r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l of t h e r a i l w a y P r i n c e Rupert had q u i t e an e x t e n s i v e f i s h e r y , which t h e r a i l c o n n e c t i o n expanded. The i n d u s t r y i s l o c a t e d a t t h e p o i n t o f p r o d u c t i o n s i n c e h i g h q u a l i t y f i s h must be f r o z e n as soon a f t e r l a n d i n g as p o s s i b l e . PHOTOGRAPH 14 CLEANING HALIBUT PREPARATORY TO FREEZING Once t h e equipment f o r f r e e z i n g i s s e t up i t i s l e s s e x p e n s i v e U n p u b l i s h e d paper, F.H. B e l l , I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, S e a t t l e , Washington. t o add t h e c o l d s t o r a g e rooms a t the p o i n t of l a n d i n g t h a n t o e s t a b l i s h them a t t h e market. The f i s h i s h e l d i n P r i n c e R u p e r t u n t i l t h e r e i s a c a l l f o r i t , then i t i s s h i p p e d out i n c a r l o a d l o t s v i a e x p r e s s . The movement o f f i s h t o t h e market employs a few p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months. S i n c e 1 9 3 1 t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission has been the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c o n t r o l i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y . . T h e i r o b j e c t has been t o p r e v e n t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e h a l i -but banks by o v e r f i s h i n g . To t h i s end t h e y have imposed c a t c h r e s t r i c t i o n s s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w r e g e n e r a t i o n o f s t o c k s i n a l l a r e a s . With i n c r e a s i n g numbers of f i s h e r m e n e n t e r i n g t h e i n d u s t r y and i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e b o a t s the l e n g t h o f the f i s h i n g season has d e c r e a s e d . From 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 0 t h e t r e n d toward an i n c r e a s i n g l y s h o r t f i s h i n g season was p r e -v e n t e d by t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n o f the f i s h e r m e n i n a g r e e -i n g t o a l a y - o v e r o f 1 0 days between t r i p s and a g r e e i n g t h a t each s h i p would c a t c h no more t h a n 3 5 0 0 l b s . per man d u r i n g t h e t r i p . The l a y - o v e r p e r i o d and the r e s t r i c t e d c a t c h n a t u r a l l y p r e v e n t e d an o v e r s u p p l i e d market and gave the f i s h e r m e n a h i g h e r p r i c e d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s . W i t h t h e coming of t h e war t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s were c u r t a i l e d and t h e l e n g t h of t h e season began t o drop r a p i d l y . (See F i s h e r i e s T a b l e 1 ) . D u r i n g the war, the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e f i s h b o a t s a g a i n i n c r e a s e d , due t o the h i g h incomes t h e f i s h e r m e n were r e c e i v i n g c o u p l e d w i t h income t a x r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h a l l o w e d d e d u c t i o n s f o r improvements t o the b o a t s . As a r e s u l t most f i s h e r m e n purchased newer and more p o w e r f u l d i e s e l e n g i n e s , echo-sounding d e v i c e s and s h i p - t o - s h o r e r a d i o s . At the end o f t h e war c a t c h r e s t r i c t i o n s were not r e i m p o s e d , l a r g e l y because o f t h e h i g h p r i c e s f o r f i s h . Improved equipment soon r e s u l t e d i n a r e d u c t i o n o f the h a l i b u t season t o one month i n Area Two. The s h o r t e n i n g o f the h a l i b u t season has had t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f P r i n c e Rupert as a h a l i b u t p o r t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r Canadian f i s h i n g b o a t s , s i n c e t h e prime o b j e c t i s t o r e m a i n as l o n g on the f i s h i n g grounds a s i s p o s s i b l e and not waste time t r a v e l l i n g t o and from a d i s t a n t p o r t . S i n c e P r i n c e - Rupert i s the c l o s e s t p o r t almost a l l Canadian h a l i b u t i s l a n d e d t h e r e . The s h o r t n e s s of the season and t h e h i g h p r i c e o f f i s h has brought about o t h e r developments, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e g r o w i n g importance of camps. Camps a r e scows towed c l o s e t o t h e f i s h i n g grounds a t the s t a r t o f t h e season by t h e v a r i o u s f i s h b u y e r s . They a r e equipped w i t h temporary s t o r a g e space f o r f i s h and a r e a b l e t o s e l l g a s , o i l and a few o t h e r b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s . Camps en a b l e s m a l l b o a t s w i t h r e s t r i c t e d h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y t o s e l l t h e i r f i s h w i t h o u t t a k i n g t h e time-consuming t r i p i n t o P r i n c e Rupert o r some o t h e r p o r t . The camps are i n t o u c h w i t h head o f f i c e by r a d i o and f a s t f i s h p a c k e r s v i s i t them r e g u l a r l y t o drop o f f s u p p l i e s and t a k e the f i s h t h e y have purchased i n t o t h e main market. The camps acc o u n t e d f o r 4 m i l l i o n s pounds o f t h e 14 m i l l i o n pounds of h a l i b u t l a n d e d by Canadian f i s h e r m e n f r o m Area Two. The camps enable many t y p e s o f s m a l l b o a ts 9 $ . t o f i s h f o r h a l i b u t , p a r t i c u l a r l y salmon t r o l l e r s and g i l l n e t t e r s . These developments have tended t o make the t r a d i t i o n a l Area Two o r s m a l l h a l i b u t b o a t s o b s o l e t e . These b o a t s range from 5 t o 10 t o n s i n c a p a c i t y and c a r r y a crew o f from 3 t o 5 men. They f i s h o n l y i n Area Two w a t e r s s i n c e t h e y are t o o s m a l l t o extend t h e i r p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n s by f i s h i n g i n Area Three a f t e r the c l o s u r e o f Area Two. The Area Two h a l i b u t b o a t s a r e g e n e r a l l y t o o l a r g e t o engage i n salmon f i s h i n g , and a r e not s u i t e d t o t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . As an a l t e r n a t i v e t h e y a r e o f t e n used f o r b l a c k cod f i s h i n g , . which i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c r a t i v e . F o r t h e l a s t few y e a r s , however, good p r i c e s have p r e v a i l e d f o r b l a c k cod and t h e use o f h a l i b u t b o a t s has been g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . I n an attempt t o f i n d employment f o r t h e s e boats., the f i s h e r i e s department has been u s i n g scout s h i p s t o hunt f o r a b a l c o r e o r t u n a . I n t h r e e y e a r s of o p e r a t i o n t h e y have met w i t h r e a s o n a b l e s u c c e s s but so l i t t l e i s known about t h i s t y pe o f f i s h e r y t h a t p r e d i c t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e . S i n c e a boat t h a t can be used d u r i n g o n l y one month of t h e y e a r i s ex-, t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e t o o p e r a t e , the t r a d i t i o n a l s m a l l h a l i -but boat may soon be o b s o l e t e u n l e s s some way can be found t o l e n g t h e n t h e season. I t w i l l p r o b a b l y be r e p l a c e d by more a d a p t a b l e b o a t s of two t y p e s : the s m a l l e r ones c a p a b l e o f h a l i b u t f i s h i n g from the camps and then g i l l n e t t i n g or t r o l l i n g d u r i n g t h e salmon season. The l a r g e r b o a t s w i l l be adapted f o r purse s e i n i n g or p a c k i n g d u r i n g the salmon season and w i l l be c o n v e r t e d t o h a l i b u t f i s h i n g by removing the s e i n e t a b l e and a d d i n g the goose neck. B o a t s f i s h i n g f o r h a l i b u t e x c l u s i v e l y w i l l r e m a i n , but t h e y w i l l be l a r g e r t h a n a t p r e s e n t , a v e r a g i n g a c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f 35 t o 50 t o n s and w i l l be c a p a b l e o f f i s h i n g any p a r t o f the N o r t h P a c i f i c . T h i s tendency can be d i s c e r n e d a l r e a d y , but a complete p i c t u r e r e q u i r e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i n d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o o p e r a t i v e mo veme n t . F i s h e r i e s and the C o o p e r a t i v e Movement The c o o p e r a t i v e movement was a p r o d u c t of the d e p r e s s i o n . I n t h e e a r l y 1930's f i s h e r m e n , i n common w i t h o t h e r p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s , were f o r c e d t o a c c e p t e x t r e m e l y low p r i c e s f o r t h e i r f i s h . I n an e f f o r t t o i n c r e a s e , p r i c e s t h e f i s h e r m e n s e t up a c o o p e r a t i v e t o h a n d l e t h e m a r k e t i n g o f f i s h and t o buy t h e i r gear and p r o v i s i o n s . With t h e g r a d u a l r e t u r n o f p r o s p e r i t y a f t e r 1936 and t h e i n s a t i a b l e markets of t h e war y e a r s t h i s v e n t u r e succeeded and expanded. By t h e end of the war t h e c o o p e r a t i v e had two l a r g e s t o r e s i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , a c o l d s t o r a g e p l a n t , bakery and r e s t a u r -a n t . Almost a l l independent f i s h e r m e n were members of the c o o p e r a t i v e . A p e r s o n a l check c o v e r i n g $5% o f t h e b o a t s showed t h a t o f 90 h a l i b u t b o a t s o p e r a t i n g 1 out o f P r i n c e Rupert o n l y 10 d i d not b e l o n g t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . The f i s h e r m e n who a r e members o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e n a t u r a l l y w i s h t o s e l l t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n whenever p o s s i b l e , s e l l i n g t o p r i v a t e companies o n l y when t h e c o o p e r a t i v e can-not handle t h e i r c a t c h . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was r e s e n t e d by t h e p r i v a t e companies s i n c e i t p l a c e d t h e i r s u p p l y i n a p r e c a r i -ous p o s i t i o n . I n o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h e m s e l v e s of a s u p p l y the p r i v a t e companies began t o p l a c e more camps near the grounds and a l s o o f f e r e d t o b u i l d o r s u b s i d i z e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of b o a t s which would s e l l e x c l u s i v e l y t o them. When b u i l d i n g b o a t s t h e y chose t h e l a r g e t y p e o f boat s i n c e t h e y had s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o do t h i s and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e l a r g e r b o a t s would be more p r o f i t a b l e t o them. S i n c e t h e head o f f i c e s o f t h e f i s h i n g companies a r e l o c a t e d i n Vancouver t h e l a r g e b o a t s t e n d t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h a t c i t y . There a r e , o f c o u r s e , a number o f medium and l a r g e s i z e d b o a t s l o c a t e d i n Vancouver which a r e owned by i n d e p e n d e n t s , b u t a survey o f the two p r i n c i p a l Canadian f l e e t s showed t h e f o l l o w i n g -Vancouver T o t a l 9 0 b o a t s 1$ b o a t s w i t h a crew of 8 men or over (Large) 43 b o a t s w i t h a crew o f 6 o r 7 raen (Medium) 66% l a r g e o r medium b o a t s P r i n c e Rupert T o t a l 1 0 7 b o a t s 4 b o a t s w i t h a crew of 8 men or over (Large) 42 b o a t s w i t h a crew o f 6 or 7 men (Medium) 4 0 % l a r g e o r medium b o a t s The m a j o r i t y o f t h e Vancouver b o a t s a r e o f t h e l a r g e o r medium s i z e which a re c a p a b l e of f i s h i n g anywhere a l o n g t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t , w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f the P r i n c e Rupert f l e e t i s composed o f s m a l l s h i p s c a p a b l e o f f i s h i n g o n l y Area Two. Both t h e s e f l e e t s s e l l t h e i r c a t c h i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , and are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e i r w i n t e r i n g p l a c e . I n Vancouver o f 48 b o a t s checked o n l y 8 were members of the co-o p e r a t i v e . S i n c e almost a l l independent f i s h e r m e n on t h e c o a s t a r e members o f the c o o p e r a t i v e i t i s t o be presumed t h a t most of t h e Vancouver b o a t s a re company owned or sub-s i d i z e d . The s t r e n g t h of t h e . c o o p e r a t i v e i n P r i n c e Rupert may be a t t r i b u t e d t o two p r i m a r y causes. The f i r s t i s the e t h n i c homogeniety o f t h e P r i n c e Rupert f i s h e r m e n . Of the 9 0 b o a t s checked o n l y 7 were s k i p p e r e d by men w i t h B r i t i s h surnames, t h e r e s t were Norwegians. I n a s t r a n g e c o u n t r y i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t t i e s o f n a t i o n a l i t y and o c c u p a t i o n s h o u l d h e l p weld t h e f i s h e r m e n i n t o r a t h e r c l o s e l y - k n i t groups i n which t h e spread o f the i d e a of c o o p e r a t i o n would be r e l a t i v e l y easy. The s m a l l s i z e of t h e c i t y a l s o a s s i s t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n of the c o o p e r a t i v e . Fishermen i n P r i n c e R upert c o u l d not a v o i d coming i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r . Argument, d i s c u s s i o n and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e s u l t s were easy and i n e v i t a b l e . I n Vancouver, as i n any l a r g e c i t y , p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , t h e b a s i s of c o o p e r a t i o n , i s more d i f f i c u l t , because of t h e s i z e and anonymity of a c i t y . P r i n c e Rupert was, t h e r e f o r e , the d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e f o r m a t i o n and ex p a n s i o n o f the c o o p e r a t i v e movement i n the P a c i f i c Coast F i s h e r i e s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e members are owners 102 of the medium and small sized boats and i t i s i n their i n -terest to find some way of lengthening the season, i f only to prevent their equipment from becoming obsolete. Biologi-cal evidence seems to be in favour of lengthening the season - "short seasons are considered biological ly unsound by the Commission because they do not allow the taking of the maximum yields from the stocks."-^ If some form of lengthening the season is adopted i t w i l l have two effects, to preserve the usefulness of the Area Two or small halibut boat and to lower the amount of halibut landed in Prince Rupert. If a lay-over of 10 days i s decided upon the tendency w i l l be for a l l boats to return to their home ports to s e l l their catch, which w i l l mean that only Prince Rupert boats w i l l s e l l at that port, with a consequent reduction in amount landed. The Salmon Fishery Since the salmon has an entirely different habitat and l i f e cycle than the halibut, the fishery associated with i t is also different. The basis of the salmon industry i s the habit of the f i sh to return to i t s home stream to spawn after maturing in the open sea. The concentration of the salmon into a re lat ively small area, the width of the stream mouth, makes them easy to catch. Three principal methods are 3 # Report of the International Fisheries Commission, No. 14, Regulation and Investigation of the Pacific Halibut  Fishery in 1948, Seattle, Washington, 1948, p. 12. used, t r o l l i n g , g i l l n e t t i n g and purse s e i n i n g . T r o l l i n g i s used to catch high q u a l i t y f i s h oh t h e i r way to the mouth of the r i v e r , and accounts f o r only a small propor-t i o n of the catch. Most of the catch i n the Skeena and Nass R i v e r s i s accounted f o r by g i l l n e t t e r s , with only a small p o r t i o n being taken by purse seine. This has been the case since before the t u r n of the century when the f i s h e r y began. The s a i l b o a t was supreme i n the northern salmon f i s h e r y up u n t i l approxi-mately 192$. With d e c l i n i n g f i s h stocks i t became i n -c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to make good catches with a s a i l boat, and i n the p e r i o d from 1925-30 almost the whole of the f i s h e r y was converted t o gas engine.4 This conversion to power boats increased the f l e x i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y of the f l e e t s and l a i d the ground f o r many changes. The most im-portant was the decrease i n the numbers and the increase i n the s i z e and e f f i c i e n c y of the canneries. In the days of the s a i l b o a t 25 scattered canneries were necessary to p r o p e r l y s e r v i c e the f i s h e r i e s on the Skeena and Nass R i v e r s , how only s i x are needed. The number of boats on the two r i v e r s has been s t e a d i l y decreasing from a peak of 3,000 i n 1925. In 1948 there were approximately 1,100 boats on the Skeena and Nass Decreasing numbers have been accompanied by i n c r e a s i n g 4. Verbal i n f o r m a t i o n , D i s t r i c t Supervisor, Dominion Depart ment of F i s h e r i e s , Vancouver, B.C. . 5* I b i d . 104. PHOTOGRAPH 15 LOOKING ACROSS HARBOR AT MT. MORSE FISHERMAN'S FLOAT I N THE FOREGROUND F l o a t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y empty s i n c e t h i s was t a k e n d u r i n g f i s h i n g s e a s o n . B o a t s i n f o r e g r o u n d w i t h t a l l p o l e s a r e s a l m o n t r a w l e r s . S m a l l b o a t s w i t h o u t p o l e s a r e g i l l n e t t e r s . The l a r g e b o a t t o t h e l e f t i s a s e i n e r . e f f i c i e n c y and t h e b o a t s a t p r e s e n t a r e more t h a n c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e f i s h . Nor has t h e amount o f f i s h l a n d e d d e c l i n e d a p p r e c i a b l y , v e r y s e r i o u s d e c l i n e s i n h i g h q u a l i t y s o c k e y e b e i n g made up by i n c r e a s e d l a n d i n g s o f cohoe and chum. P r i o r t o t h e war t h e n o r t h e r n sa lmon f i s h e r y was l a r g e l y i n t h e hands o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s , who r e p r e s e n t e d about 50% o f t h e f i s h e r m e n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . The r e s t o f t h e f i s h e r y was d i v i d e d about e q u a l l y between w h i t e and J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n . The J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n , removed f r o m t h e c o a s t d u r i n g t h e w a r , were r e p l a c e d i n p a r t by a d d i t i o n -a l w h i t e and I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n and i n p a r t by i n c r e a s i n g l y 6 * Ibid, 105. e f f i c i e n t gear and b o a t s . T h i s poses a p o t e n t i a l l y danger-ous s o c i o l o g i c a l problem f o r the post-war p e r i o d . Undoubted-l y some Japanese f i s h e r m e n w i l l want t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n s , but t h e y w i l l be r e t u r h i n g t o an i n d u s t r y which has expanded t o i t s p r o d u c t i v e l i m i t s . E v e r y Japanese f i s h e r m a n who r e t u r n s t h r e a t e n s the l i v e l i h o o d of someone a l r e a d y employed i n t h e f i s h e r i e s , p r o b a b l y t h e somewhat i n e f f i c i e n t I n d i a n f i s h e r m a n . The p r i c e t h a t t h e f i s h e r m a n r e c e i v e s f o r h i s c a t c h and the wage t h a t h i s w i f e and d a u g h t e r r e c e i v e s f o r work i n t h e cannery i s the o n l y r e t u r n t h a t P r i n c e Rupert r e c e i v e s from t h i s f i s h e r y . Cannery s u p p l i e s , machinery and a d d i t i o n a l l a b o u r are a l l s u p p l i e d f rom Vancouver. S i m i -l a r l y a l l the salmon canned i n the n o r t h i s s h i p p e d t o Van-7 couver f o r m a r k e t i n g . T h i s p r a c t i c e developed i n the p r e -war y e a r s when B r i t a i n formed t h e main market f o r canned salmon, and Vancouver was t h e most c o n v e n i e n t c e n t r e f rom w h i c h t o s h i p . As w i t h t i m b e r , t h i s i s no l o n g e r t h e case and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e canned salmon pack i s s o l d e i t h e r i n e a s t e r n Canada o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s . With t h i s new o r i e n t a t i o n o f m a r k e t s , cannery men would be w e l l a d v i s e d t o examine t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s h i p p i n g d i r e c t from P r i n c e R u p e r t . The l e n g t h o f the season i n the f i s h e r y i s d e c i d e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department of F i s h e r i e s . At p r e s e n t the 7 V e r b a l I n f o r m a t i o n , D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r , Dominion D e p a r t -ment o f F i s h e r i e s , Vancouver, B.C. 106. season embraces almost the whole duration of the various salmon runs; the problems of escapement and regeneration being met by a two-day closure of the f i s h e r y during every week of the season. Both of the major f i s h e r i e s impose a seasonal rhythm on the fishermen. Many attempts have been made to u t i l i z e i d l e equipment and s k i l l s by the development of new f i s h e r i e s . These have been successful i n par t , and t h r i v i n g black cod, f l a t f i s h , abalcore and herring f i s h -er ies do e x i s t . At present, however, they employ only a small number of boats and men, and i t i s u n l i k e l y that they can be expanded s u f f i c i e n t l y to engage a l l the ava i lab le men and equipment of the two major f i s h e r i e s . As yet t h i s problem has not become too pressing since the majori-ty of fishermen can make enough money during the few months of f i s h i n g to keep them comfortably throughout the rest of the year. The job seekers are those who have had a poor season and those who wish to work during the winter i n order to add to t h e i r c a p i t a l . The problem of jobs for men i n these two classes i s d i f f i c u l t but by no means i n s o l u b l e . I f f i s h pr ices were to drop and large numbers of men were to seek winter employment the s i t u a t i o n would become im-p o s s i b l e . Summary The f i s h e r i e s of Prince Rupert are e f f i c i e n t , w e l l -107. equipped and w e l l - d e v e l o p e d . I n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e more i m p o r t a n t f i s h e r i e s i s now u n l i k e l y , but a s l i g h t i n -c r e a s e i s p o s s i b l e i n many o f t h e minor f i s h e r i e s , s h o u l d market c o n d i t i o n s warrant development. The i n d u s t r y has shown i t s e l f t o be e x t r e m e l y a l e r t i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f modern t e c h n o l o g y t o f i s h i n g , p r e s e r v i n g and m a r k e t i n g . Improvements i n t h e f u t u r e w i l l be adopted as q u i c k l y as i n t h e p a s t . P r i n c e Rupert i s d e s t i n e d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h i s i n d u s t r y by v i r t u e o f h e r g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n . How i m p o r t a n t w i l l depend upon the u n f o r e s e e a b l e d e c i s i o n s of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission and t h e manage-ment o f the salmon c a n n e r i e s . 168. TABLE I DECLARED LANDINGS B7 REGULATORY AREAS A l l poundage is shorn in 1000's of pounds — i.e. 000 is omitted ( Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Areas 1,2,3 Year U.S. U.S. Can. Total U.S. Can. Total U.S. Can. Total 1931 923 14629 7018 21647 20887 765 21652 36439 7783 44222 1935 1489 13113 8955 22068 22533 ,1251 23784 37135 10206 47341 1940 779 14396 11102 25498 25396 1582 26978 40571 12684 53255 1945 529 . 13230 11750 24980 25605 3551 29156 39364 15301 54665 1948 282 13273 14203 27476 23276 4453 27729 36831 18656 55487 1949 437 12784 13531 26315 23492 5135 28627 36713 18666 55379 TABLE II LANDINGS BY PORTS FROM AREAS 2 AND 3 BY U.S. AND CANADIAN VESSELS COMBINED Canadian Ports United States Ports Year Vanor. New W. Prince Rupert Misc. Ports Total Seattle S.E. Alaska West Alaska Misc. Ports Total 1931 1066 16792 516 18374 15201 , 8240 1484 — 24925 1935 2242 12964 1921 17127 22067 6532 12 114 28725 1940 1996 18580 3314 23890 1B773 9305 182 326 28586 1945 1910 15272 2498 19680 11951 19060 2181 1264 34456 1948 1829 14984 4144 20957 9013 19226 4742 1267 34248 1949 1468 16798 3936 22202 9180 17766 4698 1097 32741 1949 Astoria Seattle Ketohikan Petersburg Juneau Wrangell Sitka Western Alaska Total 1949 Total 1948 TABLE m SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES FLEETS Area 2 No. of Boats 14 77 96 70 66 21 30 374 403 No. of Men 62 382 310 267 251 72 108 1452 1496 Area 3 No. of Boats 109 4 5 11 2 1 17 149 139 No. of Men 884 25 27 60 13 6 119 1134 1095 Total 1931 167 722 76 632 1-09. TABLE HI (Cont'd) SIZE OF CANADIAN FLEETS Area 2 Area 3 1949 No. of Boats No. of Men No. of Boats No. of Vancouver Is. 34 118 — . • —» Vanoouver 86 534 5 41 Prince Rupert 1G5 521 — — ' Total 1949 225 1153 5 41 Total 1948 249 1221 5 39 Total 1931 83 360 2 17 TABLE IV LENGTH CF HALIBUT FISHING SEASON IN AREAS 2 AND 3 Legal Closing Dates: Length of Fishing Season Opening Date Area 2 Area 3 All Areas Area 2 Area 3 Mas. Days Hos. Days 1929 Feb. 16 Nor. 15 Nor. 15 9 0 9 0 1930 Feb. 16 R O T . 15 Nov. 15 8 15 8 15 1931 Feb. 16 Cot, 31 Cot. 31 8 0 8 0 1932 Feb. 16 Cot. 22 Cot. 30 8 6 8 15 1933 Feb. 1 Ang. 25 Oct. 26 6 25 8 26 1934 Ifer. 1 Aug. 19 Oot. 27 5 19 7 27 1935 Mar. 1 Sept 6 Deo. 26 5 6 8 25 1936 Mir. 16 Aug. 10 Nov. 3 4 24 7 19 1937 Ibr. 16 July 28 Oot. 19 4 12 7* '4' 1938 Apr. 1 July 29 0ot.r29 3 29 6 29 1939 Apr. 1 July 29 Oct. 28 3 29 6 28 1940 Apr. 1 July 13 Sept 26 3 13 5 26 1941 Apr. 1 June 30 Sept 14 3 0 5 14 1942 Apr. 16 June 29 Sept 25 2 13 5 9 1943 Apr. 16 June 20 Sept 28 2 4 4 23 1944 Apr. 16 July 9 Nor. 30 1 18 6 10 1945 thy 1 June 15 Sept 24 1 15 4 24 1946 lh.y 1 June 11 Aug. 19 1 11 3 19 1947 May 1 June 8 Aug. 17 1 8 3 17 1948 Kay 1 June 1 July 11 1 1 2 U Tables I, II, HI from Statistical Memorandum, International Fisheries Conmission, 1949. Table IV from Report of the International Fisheries Commission, No. 14, Regulation  and Investigation of the Paoifio Halibut Fishery in 1948. Seattle, 1949, p. 12. Map 11 Water Power Resources Canada's Mew Northwest. The North P a c i f i c Planning Project, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1947, p. 90. Chapter VI HYDROGRAPHY Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s Hydrography i s o f concern only i n so f a r as one of i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l , i n f l u e n c e s the development of P r i n c e Rupert. The r e s u l t of the com-b i n a t i o n of rugged t e r r a i n and copious p r e c i p i t a t i o n can be seen i n the map of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l s . Within a r a d i u s of 1 6 0 m i l e s from P r i n c e Rupert, i . e . w i t h i n p r a c t i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n d i s t a n c e at present, there i s a p o t e n t i a l of 1 , 9 5 4 , 4 3 0 horse power at o r d i n a r y minimum flo w or 2 , 5 4 7,080 horse power at o r d i n a r y s i x months f l o w . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s 2 3 % of the hydro p o t e n t i a l of B r i t i s h Columbia. The area has o n l y 2 . 5 % of the developed water power i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The non-development of hydro-power i s t i e d i n with the non-development of other r e s o u r c e s , p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . There are, moreover, c e r t a i n s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of hydrology and t e r r a i n which i n themselves h i n d e r development. The most important i s the extreme v a r i a t i o n between maximum and minimum flow.''' The same rugged t e r r a i n which makes p o s s i b l e the h y d r o - p o t e n t i a l makes 1 * See Page 8 3 . u t i l i z a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . Power s i t e s t e n d t o be s i t u a t e d i n s m a l l p o c k e t s a t stream mouths which are i s o l a t e d by h i g h and rugged mountains. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s v a r i e s f rom d i f f i c u l t t o i m p o s s i b l e and i n many cases u t i l i -z a t i o n can o n l y t a k e p l a c e a t t h e source o f power. Only i n d u s t r i e s t o whom hydro-power r e p r e s e n t s t h e major raw m a t e r i a l c o u l d l o c a t e i n such an i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n . Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s and F u t u r e Development Of t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s t h e most i m p o r t a n t by f a r i s t h e aluminum i n d u s t r y . At p r e s e n t i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y s o f t h e Tweedsrauir Park a r e a a r e b e i n g conducted w i t h a view t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an aluminum i n d u s t r y on t h e n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . The d e t a i l s of the scheme can be r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e accompanying map (Map 1 7 ) . The power p l a n t s are t o be b u i l t near t h e head o f a s m a l l a l l u v i a l f a n c a r v e d out o f t h e sheer s i d e s o f Douglas Channel by t h e Kemano R i v e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s s i t e i s not l a r g e enough t o a l l o w the development o f a town-s i t e and aluminum p l a n t . These are t o be b u i l t a t the mouth o f the L a k e l s e - K i t s u m g a l l u m V a l l e y i n the v i c i n i t y o f K i t i m a t , where e x t e n s i v e a r e a s of l e v e l l a n d a r e a v a i l a b l e and where r a i l and ro a d l i n k s w i t h t h e r e s t of the w o r l d can.be e a s i l y b u i l t . I f p l a n s are c a r r i e d out a c i t y o f about 5 0 , 0 0 0 people i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d t o u t i l i z e the 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 horse PHOTOGRAPH 16 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LOOKING WEST ALONG GARDENER CANAL Kemano R i v e r i m m e d i a t e l y t o the r i g h t below t h e p i c t u r e . Power s t a t i o n f o r the aluminum com-•pany's p r o j e c t w i l l be l o c a t e d here w i t h t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s l e a d i n g t o K i t i m a t , 40 m i l e s t o the n o r t h . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n t h i s mountainous t e r r a i n i s e a s i l y seen. PHOTOGRAPH 17 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF THE HEAD OF KITIMAT ARM AND THE KITIMAT RIVER FROM THE SOUTH The r i v e r f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l K i t -sumgallum-Lakelse c r o s s v a l l e y . T h i s i s the p r o -j e c t e d s i t e of the aluminum r e f i n e r i e s ; u t i l i z i n g power developed from t h e l a k e s I n Tweedsmuir Park. Note the t i d a l f l a t s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e K i t i m a t R i v e r and the l i m i t e d . a m o u n t o f water f r o n t a g e a v a i l a b l e . power t h a t w i l l be d e v e l o p e d . The aluminum company has s t a t e d t h a t i t w i l l t r y t o a t t r a c t o t h e r u s e r s o f cheap e l e c t r i c i t y , such as f e r t i l i z e r p l a n t s and p u l p m i l l s , s i n c e t h e y do not contemplate the use o f a l l t h e power t h e m s e l v e s . C e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l a t t e n d t h e d e v e l o p -ment of K i t i m a t , e s p e c i a l l y an attempt t o make i t a l a r g e deep-sea p o r t . E x t e n s i v e mud f l a t s extend out from the mouth of the K i t i m a t R i v e r f o r a d i s t a n c e of about g t o | o f a m i l e . T h i s s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t s the amount o f water-f r o n t a g e a v a i l a b l e u n l e s s e x t e n s i v e d r e d g i n g i s u n d e r t a k e n . A n o t h e r impediment i s t h e s t r o n g winds r e p o r t e d f o r t h i s a r e a . The n o r t h - s o u t h a l i g n m e n t o f the mountains and the g r e a t e x t e n t o f t h e t h r o u g h v a l l e y , from D e v a s t a t i o n Channel t o t h e Nass R i v e r , a c t s as a n a t u r a l f u n n e l f o r t h e winds. I t i s t o be s u s p e c t e d t h a t the major d i r e c t i o n s of t h e winds at K i t i m a t are n o r t h and south and they a r e r e p u t e d t o be e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e w i n t e r . I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t i s necessary', but known f a c t o r s of c l i m a t e and p h y s i o g r a p h y i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s p r o b a b l e . The importance o f t h i s new i n d u s t r y w i l l be ex-t r e m e l y f a r r e a c h i n g , and w i l l open up a new e r a i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. A l r e a d y a n t i c i p a t i o n o f i t s e s t a b l i s h -ment has had an i n f l u e n c e . When the r e c e n t growth o f P r i n c e Rupert made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia Power Company t o expand t h e i r g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y t h e y d e c i d e d t o do so by means o f d i e s e l u n i t s r a t h e r than expand-2* See page 183. i n g e x i s t i n g hydro f a c i l i t i e s a t F a l l s R i v e r . The Columbia C e l l u l o s e C o r p o r a t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d a g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t a t P o r t Edward which w i l l be powered by c o a l from Telkwa and waste wood. I n b o t h t h e s e c a s e s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e d e c i s i o n was the p r o b a b i l i t y o f l a r g e s u r p l u s e s o f cheap power which w i l l be a v a i l a b l e a t K i t i m a t some few y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e . I f t h i s o c c u r s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new hydro f a c i l i t i e s would be unsound s i n c e t h e y must be m a i n t a i n e d o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d t o r e p a y the o r i g i n a l i n v e s t m e n t , whereas steam and d i e s e l p l a n t s have l o w e r c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s and c o u l d be scrapped i f cheaper power becomes a v a i l r -a b l e . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new c i t y i n t h i s a r e a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under f u t u r e development s i n c e i t w i l l have a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on a l l a s p e c t s of the r e g i o n . Chapter V I I FOUNDING OF PRINCE RUPERT C o n s t r u c t i o n of Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y (G.T.P.R.) I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d t he r e a s o n f o r t h e f o u n d i n g of P r i n c e R u p e r t . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e P a c i f i c Terminus o f t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The q u e s t i o n r e s o l v e s i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e , i n t o t h e more c o m p l i -c a t e d one o f "Why was t h e r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t e d , and why was t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e chosen?" An e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r development l e a d s t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t such r e s o u r c e s as a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a tapped by t h e r a i l -r o a d a r e what might be termed secondary r e s o u r c e s , t h a t i s r e s o u r c e s which, by re a s o n o f low q u a l i t y o r h i g h d e v e l o p -ment c o s t s are d e s t i n e d t o remain untapped u n t i l o t h e r more e a s i l y u t i l i z e d s o u r c e s a r e exhausted. T h i s was n o t , how-ev e r , t h e view o f the f o u n d e r s o f the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . To quote from one o f t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s , " P r i n c e Rupert i s surrounded by a c o u n t y whose n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s are more r i c h and v a r i e d t h a n t h o s e of any o t h e r c o u n t r y known t o the p r e s e n t generation","'" T h i s i s no i s o l a t e d o p i n i o n o f a r a i l w a y p u b l i c i s t , I t s t e n o r i s echoed by 1 * P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Co., M o n t r e a l , 1911, p. 17. 118 almost a l l who passed through the r e g i o n , and i t must have been b e l i e v e d by the r a i l w a y ' s founders or they would not have spent the money they d i d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the l i n e . Moreover the whole s p i r i t of the country favoured expansion and e x t e n s i o n . L a u r i e r had c a l l e d the 2 0 t h century, Canada's century, and w e l l he might. The p e r i o d from 1 9 0 1 t o 1 9 1 1 was one of i n c r e d i b l e expansion as an examination of the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows -1 9 0 1 1 9 1 1 Area of occupied farms i n a c r e s 6 3 , 4 2 2 , 3 3 $ 1 0 8 , 9 6 8 , 7 1 5 P r o d u c t i o n o f wheat i n bushels 5 5 , 5 7 2 , 3 6 5 1 3 2 , 0 7 7 , 5 4 7 Value of l i v e s t o c k $268,6 5 1 , 0 2 6 # 6 1 5 , 4 5 7 , 8 3 3 Exports of wood and wood products $ 3 3 , 0 9 9 , 9 1 5 I 5 6 , 3 3 4 , 6 9 5 M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n $ 6 5 , 7 9 7 , 9 1 1 $ 1 0 3 , 2 2 0 , 9 9 4 Gross value of manufactured products $431 , 0 5 3 , 3 7 5 $ 1 , 1 6 5 , 9 7 5 , 6 3 9 ? In a d d i t i o n the incumbent L i b e r a l p a r t y , l e d by S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r , was p e r p e t u a l l y embarrassed by the success of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, a' r a i l r o a d whose c o n s t r u c t i o n had been hindered by the p r e v i o u s L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and whose f o r t u n e s were a l i g n e d under the banner of Conservatism. L a u r i e r and the L i b e r a l s wished to be a s s o c i a t e d with progress 2. T a l b o t , F.A., The Making of a Great Canadian R a i l r o a d , Musson, Toronto, 1912. "The i n t e r i o r (of c e n t r a l B.C.) i s n o t h i n g but one huge garden,, where an equable c l i m a t e p r e v a i l s and where nature has bestowed e v e r y t h i n g f o r the p r a c t i c e of a g r i c u l t u r e upon the most s u c c e s s f u l s c a l e with l a v i s h p r o f u s i o n . " , p. 229. 3 • Glazebrook, G.P., A H i s t o r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Canada, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1938, p. 260. and e x p a n s i o n , which a t t h a t time meant a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a p i o n e e r i n g r a i l w a y . There are a maze o f p o l i t i c a l and economic p r e s s u r e s s u r r o u n d i n g the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y which do not c o n c e r n t h i s paper. S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t a r a i l w a y was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o t h e west. To r e a c h t h e P a c i f i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Only two c o n v e n i e n t passageways e x i s t , one f o l l o w i n g t h e F r a s e r t o t h e extreme s o u t h e r n c o a s t , the o t h e r f o l l o w i n g t h e Skeena t o the extreme n o r t h e r n c o a s t . At two o t h e r p o i n t s , B e l l a C o o l a and Squaraish, an*'opening can. be f o u n d , but i n b o t h t h e s e c ases g r a d i e n t s are p r o h i b i t i v e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f i r s t c l a s s r a i l r o a d . From the b e g i n n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e o f C h a r l e s M . Hays, g e n e r a l manager and l a t e r p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Grand Trunk and Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d , was a f i r s t c l a s s r a i l r o a d , w i t h low g r a d i e n t s and few c u r v e s . T h e i r r i v a l , t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , a l r e a d y c o n t r o l l e d e n t r y t o , and l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f , the F r a s e r V a l l e y and Vancouver, so i t was d e c i d e d t o s t r i k e t o the P a c i f i c by way o f t h e Skeena. On t h e l o w e r Skeena o n l y t h r e e p l a c e s a f f o r d s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l l a n d i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h good h a r b o u r s t o be p o t e n t i a l s i t e s f o r the t e r m i n a l o f a g r e a t r a i l w a y . These are P o r t Simpson, K i t i m a t and K a i e n I s l a n d . P o r t Simpson was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a pproach. A l o n g and e x p e n s i v e d i v e r s i o n n o r t h from the Skeena was n e c e s s a r y In o r d e r to. r e a c h i t . K i t i m a t was easy t o approach by r a i l w a y but i n a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g a somewhat 120. r e s t r i c t e d ' h a r b o u r , was f a r o f f the route to the O r i e n t . Ships would have had to steam an e x t r a '165 m i l e s i n c o n f i n e d waters t o reach t h i s p o r t . Kaien I s l a n d was c l o s e t o the mouth o f the Skeena, possessed l e v e l l a n d , and seemed to have an exte n s i v e n a t u r a l harbour, except f o r one unfortunate r e s t r i c t i o n . A l l the e x i s t i n g a d m i r a l t y c h a r t s showed a rock i n the centre of the entrance t o the harbour which e f f e c t i v e l y blocked entry t o l a r g e s h i p s . A re-survey of the entrance showed t h a t the c h a r t s were i n e r r o r and Kaien I s l a n d was immediately chosen as the terminus of the r a i l w a y . T h i s d e c i s i o n was agreed t o .by the P r o v i n c i a l Government on May 4, 1904. The d e c i s i o n was to remain s e c r e t f o r a con-s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d s i n c e the company d i d not want -their p o s i -t i o n complicated by sq u a t t e r s and other u n d e s i r a b l e s . E a r l y Development of P r i n c e Rupert On November 23, 1906 a Post O f f i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d on Kaien I s l a n d and s h o r t l y a f t e r the town was named. The name was chosen i n a competition conducted by the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway; the winner, a Winnipeg g i r l , r e c e i v i n g $200 f o r the name P r i n c e Rupert. C o n s t r u c t i o n on the r a i l r o a d d i d not begin u n t i l May 7> 1908, though c l e a r i n g of the town-s i t e had commenced before t h i s time. The Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway wished to make P r i n c e Rupert an e f f i c i e n t , w e l l f u n c t i o n i n g c i t y which would be a c r e d i t t o them i n the f u t u r e . They wished t o avoid SETTLEMENT PATTERN A P R I L i s iqoq IQOO W O O I O O O 2 0 0 0 s o o o 4 0 0 0 B o o o I I I 1 I I I I I F E L T Map 12 Settlement Pattern, A p r i l 13, 1909. Source: F i e l d Work. s t r a g g l i n g u n c o o r d i n a t e d development which would d e t r a c t from th e b e a t y and u t i l i t y of t h e c i t y . T h i s d e s i r e sprang i n p a r t from h i g h minded i d e a l s and i n p a r t f r o m a sound sense o f economic v a l u e s , s i n c e a p l a n n e d c i t y would u l t i m a t e l y be more v a l u a b l e t o t h e company. Whatever t h e m o t i v e s , t h e d e c i s i o n was unique on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . P r i n c e Rupert was t o be t h e t e r m i n u s o f a g r e a t r a i l w a y , a w o r l d p o r t t o r i v a l Vancouver, S e a t t l e and P o r t l a n d and i t was t o be p l a n n e d i n a l l i t s phases. U n t i l t h e c i t y l o t s went on s a l e on May 29, 1909 an attempt was made t o f o r e s t a l l s e t t l e m e n t w h i l e ex-t e n s i v e s u r v e y s were conducted. T h i s was s u c c e s s f u l f o r a t i m e s i n c e the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y c o n t r o l l e d a l l t h e l a n d and docks. John Houston, f o u n d e r of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s f i r s t newspaper was a b l e t o t h w a r t the company's d e s i r e s by s t a k i n g a m i n e r a l c l a i m , on which he e s t a b l i s h e d a t e n t and p r i n t i n g p r e s s . A f t e r t h i s , o v e r t o p p o s i t i o n t o s e t t l e m e n t ceased and a s t r a g g l y community was a l l o w e d t o grow up. A b l u e p r i n t , d a t e d A p r i l 13, 1909 was found by t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g t h e course of f i e l d work i n a r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . I t was s i g n e d by J.H. Bacon, Harbour E n g i n e e r a t P r i n c e Rupert and r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e t t l e -ment p a t t e r n j u s t p r i o r t o the o f f i c i a l s a l e of l o t s . I t i s e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g s i n c e i t shows the form t h a t development of the c i t y would have taken i f i t had been l e f t t o i t s own d e v i c e s (Map 12). E x a m i n a t i o n shows t h a t growth was c e n t r e d a t the meeting p o i n t o f r a i l and water about t h e Grand Trunk docks and extended i n l a n d i n a t y p i c a l " r i b b o n " development a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e s h o r e . Con-s u l t a t i o n w i t h p i o n e e r r e s i d e n t s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e houses a l o n g the main s t r e e t , C e n t e r S t r e e t , were t h e t y p i c a l u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f homes, r e t a i l s t o r e s and i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n f a n t i l e s e t t l e m e n t . ^ " An i n t e r e s t i n g development was t h e l o c a t i o n o f b e t t e r c l a s s homes upon t h e i n l a n d r i d g e , a tendency which was t o remain a permanent f e a t u r e of t h e town. ' I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by W.J. Raymond, a t t h a t time r e p o r t e r on and l a t e r e d i t o r of the "Evening Empire". 124. Chapter V I I I PLANNED DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCE RUPERT The town, i f l e f t to i t s e l f , would most l i k e l y have developed an in t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the w a t e r f r o n t , with the main s t r e e t s d i r e c t e d towards i t wherever topogra-phy permitted. Growth would have taken place from the waterfront i n l a n d on se v e r a l f l a n k s with roads p a r a l l e l to the water remaining of secondary importance. What a c t u a l l y happened was almost completely d i f f e r e n t . During 1908 and 1909 the n a t i v e vegetation was removed from the projected townsite. Gangs of men under the d i r e c t i o n of Foley, Welch and Stewart completely c l e a r e d the dense t r e e cover of the northwestern s e c t i o n of the i s l a n d . A l l the t r e e s were burned immediately a f t e r f e l l i n g and a c o n t i n u a l p a l l of smoke covered the c i t y . Strangely enough none of the tree cover seems to have been u t i l i z e d f o r lumber, though q u a n t i t i e s were imported from Vancouver, f o r dock c o n s t r u c t i o n , roadways, t i e s and numerous other uses. By e a r l y 1909 the whole of the townsite was cleared and the scene was set f o r the f i n a l layout of the c i t y . B a s i s . o f the C i t y Plan The a c t u a l c i t y plan was devised by B r e t t and H a l l , a - f i r m of landscape a r c h i t e c t s from Boston, Massachusetts. 125. Map 13 P r i n c e Rupert Topography Source: B l u e p r i n t 200 f e e t t o one i n c h , from the C i t y E n g i n e e r ' s O f f i c e , P r i n c e R u p e r t . 126. T h e i r o b j e c t was t o -" p l a n f o r a model c i t y , capable of l a r g e expansion -f r e e from the dangers of congestion t o t r a f f i c , p r e -s e r v i n g f o r the f u t u r e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r wise m u n i c i p a l improvements - i n d i c a t i n g s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r churches, s c h o o l s , parks and cemetary - and l o c a t i n g r a i l w a y yards and wharves so as best t o serve the c i t y . " l The planners soon r e a l i z e d t h a t any p l a n f o r the c i t y would be c o n d i t i o n e d by topographic c o n t r o l s . " I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the trend of s e v e r a l planes, (the c o a s t a l and i n l a n d r i d g e s of the phy s i o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n ) c o n s t i t u t i n g what i s t o become the b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n , were a l l e i t h e r n o r t h e a s t or southwest, i n other words, t h a t the lo n g axes of these separate planes were approximately p a r a l l e l i n d i r e c t i o n . . T h i s d i s c o v e r y was of f a r r e a c h i n g importance, f o r i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the main s t r e e t s of the s e v e r a l planes should be p a r a l l e l , and subsequent' study convinced the d e s i g n e r s t h a t not only would the business s e c t i o n be best served by a r e c t a n g u l a r system of b l o c k s -with c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n , but t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of s t r a i g h t avenues would be l e s s c o s t l y than c u r v i n g avenues."2 The d e c i s i o n was made, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the n a t u r a l growth, proceeding i n l a n d from the w a t e r f r o n t was to be r e -pl a c e d by planned growth which would proceed p a r a l l e l to the water, and a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e i n l a n d , t a k i n g advantage of the more f a v o u r a b l e topography. Every o p p o r t u n i t y was taken t o accentuate the importance of the a x i a l s t r e e t s p a r a l l e l t o the co a s t . The a x i a l s t r e e t s were made wide and lon g while c r o s s s t r e e t s were made short and narrow so t h a t few businesses would f a c e the c r o s s s t r e e t s . I t was found Wall, George D., "The Future P r i n c e Rupert as Conceived by  Landscape A r c h i t e c t s " f The A r c h i t e c t u a l Record, V o l . 26, No. 2, August 1909, New York, p. 101. 2 * I b i d , p. 81. 127. i m p o s s i b l e t o connect t h e c o a s t a l w i t h the i n l a n d r i d g e i n more t h a n t h r e e p l a c e s and t h e a u t h o r s of the p l a n suggest the i n s t i t u t i o n o f an e l e c t r i c l i f t between t h e two s e c t i o n s , s h o u l d the demand a r i s e . C r i t i c i s m o f t h e C i t y P l a n I t i s d o u b t f u l whether any o t h e r p l a n c o u l d have been more s u c c e s s f u l i n a d j u s t i n g c i t y l a y o u t t o topography. S t r e e t s were plan n e d so t h a t advantage was taken o f eve r y f a v o u r a b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the l a n d s c a p e . A st u d y o f the ro a d p a t t e r n upon a t o p o g r a p h i c map r e v e a l s t h i s v e r y c l e a r l y . I n c e r t a i n a r e a s c o n s i d e r a b l e f i l l was n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g t h e . s t r e e t s up t o a r e a s o n a b l e grade, i n o t h e r s l a r g e amounts o f b l a s t i n g . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e s e problems would have been much worse i f any o t h e r p l a n had been a t t e m p t e d . The p l a n has been almost a complete f a i l u r e and has brought more d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a n advantages t o t h e c i t y . Why? Because t h e s c a l e o f >the p l a n was wrong. The c l i e n t f o r whom th e p l a n was p r e p a r e d was t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l -way. I t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o c o n c e i v e of a town w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of l e s s t h a n 50,000 p e o p l e . They would never have b u i l t t h e i r r a i l w a y t o t h i s p o i n t i f t h e y had b e l i e v e d o t h e r w i s e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r was t h e l a c k o f a p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e s o u r c e s of the r a i l w a y ' s , h i n t e r l a n d , a f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e geo-g r a p h i c c o n t r o l o f a c i t y ' s growth. A c i t y i s s e t up t o p e r f o r m some f u n c t i o n i n i t s r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g . I n i t s e l f i t i s s t e r i l e and i s dependent f o r i t s w e a l t h and l i v e l i -hood upon t h e t a s k s which the r e g i o n c a l l s upon i t t o p e r -f o rm. I n a r i c h and w e l l d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n t h e s e t a s k s a r e many - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , manufacture - a l l t h e f u n c t i o n s which a modern c i t y p e r f orms are w e l l d e v e l o p e d and g i v e employment t o the c i t y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s . I n a p o o r l y endowed and underdeveloped r e g i o n t h e r e i s l i t t l e c a l l f o r th e s e r v i c e s of a c i t y , and the s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s t h a t i t performs t e n d t o be r u d i m e n t a r y and s k e l e t a l . Thus the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g i o n and c i t y i s i n t i m a t e and f u n d a -m e n t a l . I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e i v e of P r i n c e Rupert as a c i t y o f 50-100,000 p e o p l e when the r e s o u r c e s o f h e r h i n t e r l a n d were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r s p a t i a l and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h e m s e l v e s t h e y a re c o n s i d e r a b l e but when th e y a r e seen i n t h e t o t a l n a t i o n a l and w o r l d wide p i c t u r e o f r e s o u r c e s and markets, t h e i r d i s t a n c e , compared w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r r e s o u r c e s , from c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n , i s s u f f i c i e n t t o c l a s s them as m a r g i n a l . The s c a l e o f p l a n n i n g c o u l d have been more c l o s e l y a pproximated i f geo-g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s had been employed. Indeed i f t h e d i r e c t o r s o f t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y had a p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the geography of the c o u n t r y t h e i r l i n e was t o t r a v e r s e t h e y never would have b u i l t t h e r a i l r o a d . Wherein and t o what e x t e n t was t h e p l a n wrong? On t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a map pr e p a r e d f o r t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y by B r e t t and H a l l t h e a r e a which t o d a y c o n t a i n s t h e whole o f the c i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t was s e t a s i d e as a b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , 1 5 0 0 a c r e s i n e x t e n t , by modern s t a n d a r d s a b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s u f f i c i e n t f o r a 3 c i t y o f 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . On t h e e a s t e r n s i d e of the i s l a n d t h e whole o f s o u t h e a s t e r n l o w l a n d was proposed a s a r e s i -d e n t i a l a r e a , w h i l e the s e c t i o n n o r t h o f Watson I s l a n d was i n t e n d e d t o be an i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n . The w e s t e r n h a l f o f Digby I s l a n d was a l s o i n t e n d e d t o be r e s i d e n t i a l . B r e t t and H a l l had recommended t h a t "the l o t s i n the b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n and w h o l e s a l e s e c t i o n be l o t s of 2 5 ' f r o n t a g e ( w i t h e v e r y e f f o r t b e i n g made t o s e l l them i n p a i r s o r m u l t i p l e s o f 2 5 ' f r o n t a g e ) and t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y be o f 5 0 ' ( o r p r e f e r a b l y 6 0 ' ) f r o n t a g e . " F u r t h e r "the 1 0 0 f o o t depth of l o t s f o r the b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t was, i n our o p i n i o n , t h e most d e s i r a b l e d e p t h f o r b u s i n e s s i n t e r r a i n where t h e s l o p e s were s t e e p , but i n t h e r e s i -d e n t i a l s e c t i o n at l e a s t 1 5 0 - f o o t depth was d e s i r a b l e . " ^ I n May, 1 9 0 9 when t h e c i t y l o t s went on s a l e t h e y were a l l i n t h e " b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . " Presumably the d i r e c t o r s of t h e company b e l i e v e d t h a t s i n c e t h i s was t h e b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , 2 5-foot, l o t s would be q u i t e adequate, though i t 3 A p p l y i n g t h e f i g u r e of 1 0 a c r e s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m "Standards Developed f o r t h e P l a n n i n g o f  Tacoma", Mimeographed sheet from Department o f A r c h i -t e c t u r e , U.B.C. ^' L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r from George D. H a l l , J u l y 8 , 1 9 4 9 . i s t o be wondered where the company ex p e c t e d th e p u r c h a s e r s t o l i v e . P e r s i s t e n t rumors have i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e 25-foot l o t was chosen t o a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r number of l a n d p a r c e l s , so t h a t the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e p r o f i t c o u l d be d e r i v e d from t h e i r s a l e . Be t h a t as i t may t h e i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t was t h a t t h e e n t i r e t o w n s i t e was s o l d as 25-foot l o t s . .Housing on 25-foot l o t s has r e s u l t e d i n d e p r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n s and slumbs i n most N o r t h American c i t i e s . The l o t s are t o o narrow t o p e r m i t garden development, s p a c i o u s and a i r y h o u s i n g , o r p r i v a c y . I n many cases houses a r e b u i l t on d o u b l e l o t s i n P r i n c e Rupert t o a l l o w t h e s e a m e n i t i e s . Many houses a r e , however, b u i l t on s i n g l e l o t s , cheek and j o w l w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , w h i l e l a r g e t r a c t s o f empty l a n d e x i s t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t y p i c a l of t h i r d c l a s s h o u s i n g i n t h e c i t y . Chapter IX EARLY EXPANSION OF PRINCE RUPERT Almost a l l plans and phases o f the e a r l y develop-ment o f P r i n c e Rupert were c o n d i t i o n e d by the f e e l i n g t h a t expansion was i n e v i t a b l e . A phrase from a r e p o r t on harbour development perhaps t y p i f i e s the atmosphere i n the c i t y c i r c a 1913. " I t has t o be kept i n view t h a t the waterfront and r a i l w a y t e r m i n a l are intended to provide f o r one of the most ext e n s i v e r a i l w a y systems of the world, which, i n a comparatively s h o r t time must take care of a vast overseas t r a f f i c i n a d d i t i o n t o an evergrowing coastwise commerce...."! T h i s atmosphere p r e v a i l e d from 1909 to 1915, r e a c h i n g a h e i g h t probably i n 1913. Much c o n s t r u c t i o n was c a r r i e d on i n t h i s p e r i o d , but more o f t e n l o t s were a c q u i r e d f o r s p e c u l a t i o n r a t h e r than b u i l d i n g . S i t u a t i o n i n 1915 The r e s u l t o f the boom and c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d was the shaping of the map marked May 1915. The map i s of • Bogue, V i r g i l G., C o n s u l t i n g Ehgineer, "The Development  of t h e Waterfront and Railway Terminals, P r i n c e Rupert,  B.C.". G.T.P.R.. March 8. 1913, P. 6 c f . T a l b o t , "...the port i s d e s t i n e d from i t s s t r a -t e g i c a l l y powerful commercial s i t u a t i o n to,assume a prominent p o s i t i o n on the P a c i f i c coast, and moreover, w i l l develop i n t o a t h r i v i n g i n d u s t r i a l and r a i l w a y c e n t r e . . . " p. 320. LAND USE MAY 1915 Large, scole. pork facilities IHi Small boob facilities HUB Industrial I H Retail and commerce - dense 1 I Retail and commerce scabbered Moderate density residential few shacks Moderate density residetitia many shacks Scattered housing High density residential Segregated area H i Institutions : hospital % church* school • ^overnmeafci Map 1 4 Land Use, P r i n c e Rupert, May 1 9 1 5 . Source-: F i e l d Work. PHOTOGRAPH 18 Copy of postcard - date unknown - possibly 1 9 1 0 . Looking northwest toward harbour from }rd Avenue. Comment on reverse of o r i g i n a l , author unknown -"This photo shows one of our l o t s . I t i s right i n the heart of the best business quarter and i f you care to buy i t , I think I can obtain i t f o r you f o r v 5 0 , 0 0 0 - the owner very kindly does not charge extra for the rock on i t , which w i l l cost about ^6 ,000 to blast o f f - This sort of thing i s taken as a matter of course i n Prince Rupert, but i t s t r i k e s a new-comer as ' f i e r c e ' . " value i n tnat i t allows us to compare the functional pattern of the town at that date with a similar map pre pared for the present.^ • A note should be made of the source, which could be of value i n p l o t t i n g the morphology of other urban areas. It i s taken from insurance maps, which presumably are kept for a l l urban centres. These maps are inteded to ass i s t i n evaluating f i r e insurance premiums and to that end l i s t s the size of house, i t s construction, the pur-pose f o r which i t i s used as well as i t s location with respect to f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment. It i s unfortunately impossible to give a precise quality rating to r e s i d e n t i a l units, though shacks can be separated from ordinary housing u n i t s . A rough generalization of r e s i d e n t i a l areas can be made by noting the incidence of shacks as compared to ordinary r e s i d e n t i a l units. 134. The h e a r t of P r i n c e Rupert i s i t s w a t e r f r o n t a r e a . I t i s composed o f f o u r s e p a r a t e u n i t s . One i s c e n t r e d on the o r i g i n a l docks, and c o n t a i n s t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . A n other i s found below Market P l a c e and c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government c o a s t w i s e dock. The t h i r d c o m p r i s e s the a r e a , undeveloped i n 1915, between Cow Bay and Hays Creek and the l a s t t he S e a l Cove a r e a w i t h the c o l d s t o r a g e p l a n t as i t s f o c a l p o i n t . The S e a l Cove and Hays Creek s e c t i o n s of the w a t e r -f r o n t a r e s e p a r a t e d by a p h y s i c a l o b s t a c l e , t h e p r e c i p i t o u s c o a s t a l r i d g e . The P r o v i n c i a l Government dock and t h e G.T.P.R. dock are l i k e w i s e s e p a r a t e d by steep c l i f f s . I n both t h e s e cases r a i l c o n n e c t i o n has been a c h i e v e d , but n o t h i n g e l s e , s i n c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o b l a s t the r o a d bed from t h e s i d e s o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e . Three o f t h e s e u n i t s , t h e r e f o r e , r e -q u i r e s e p a r a t e e n t r i e s t o t h e town. I n two ca s e s use i s made o f t h e s m a l l v a l l e y s o f f o r m e r water c o u r s e s , which have d i s a p p e a r e d s i n c e t h e development o f t h e town. The e n t r a n c e t o the G.T.P.R. docks i s by means o f an overhead b r i d g e w h i c h r u n s from the dock t o the c o a s t a l r i d g e as an i n c l i n e d p l a n e p a r a l l e l w i t h the water. I n 1915 t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e l a c k o f s m a l l boat f a c i l i t i e s , e x c ept f o r t h e c o l d s t o r a g e p l a n t . The p a t t e r n was one o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n on l a r g e s c a l e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s w i t h l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r s m a l l b o a t s . T h i s was t h e r e s u l t o f d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y on t h e p a r t of t h e r a i l w a y company. The PHOTOGRAPH 19 L o o k i n g n o r t h - e a s t a t t h e r a i l w a y y a r d s and l a r g e s c a l e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . The c o s t a l r i d g e t o t h e r i g h t - l a r g e dock on t h e l e f t i s t h e o c e a n dock w i t h o v e r h e a d ramp c o n n e c t i n g i t t o warehouse c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e A m e r i c a n s d u r i n g t h e war. PHOTOGRAPH 20 Copy of postcard - date unknown - p o s s i b l y 1910 -lo o k i n g west from the c o a s t a l r i d g e at the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c wharf. The overhead ramp le a d i n g from the dock to the c o a s t a l ridge i s s t i l l i n existence p r o v i d i n g the only road l i n k between the c i t y and the docks i n t h i s s e c t i o n . waterfront development plans f o r 1913 envisage c o n s t r u c t i o n of seven p i e r s and 18 quays f o r a t o t a l waterfrentage of 35,471 f e e t . The only s e c t i o n reserved f o r small boats was the Cow Bay area. I t was planned to place seven p i e r s i n the F a i r -view area where bottom c o n d i t i o n s made i t p o s s i b l e to b u i l d the normal type of dockage, at r i g h t angles to the shore. The r e s t of the area from Morse t o Hays Creek was to be a continuous l i n e of quays except where the p r e c i p i t o u s c o a s t a l ridge made approach impossible. Quay c o n s t r u c t i o n was the only dock type that could be used between Hays and 1 3 7 . Morse Creek s i n c e the sea bottom drops away a b r u p t l y a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from t h e s h o r e . W i t h i n 3 0 - 4 0 f e e t of t h e s h o r e , depths o f 5 0 f e e t are r e c o r d e d , w h i l e i n almost e v e r y case depths o f 35 f e e t a r e a c h i e v e d w i t h i n t h i s d i s t a n c e . S i n c e the t i d a l range i s v e r y h i g h , 2 4 f e e t a t the maximum, v e r y l o n g and e x p e n s i v e p i l i n g s would be n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y t h e docks outwards at r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e shore. I n t h e a r e a o c c u p i e d by t h e G.T.P.R. wharf the p i l e s were d r i v e n down i n t o f i l l o b t a i n e d by b l a s t i n g . F i l l i n g s e r v e d a t w o - f o l d purpose i n e x t e n d i n g the r a i l w a y y a r d s i n l a n d and b u i l d i n g t h e docks somewhat f a r t h e r o u t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , p i l e s up t o 1 1 0 f e e t l o n g had t o be employed on t h e seaward s i d e s o f t h e wharf.^ L i t t l e a c c u r a t e knowledge of t h e amount of b l a s t i n g n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d t h e docks i n P r i n c e Rupert can be o b t a i n e d . •The P r i n c e Rupert paper i n 1 9 0 9 mentions t h a t 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 c u b i c y a r d s o f r o c k had t o be removed a t the s i t e of t h e round-house,^ (below 7 t h S t . ) . P i o n e e r r e s i d e n t s r e p o r t t h a t i t t o o k t h r e e steamshovels w o r k i n g 2L h o u r s p e r day, two y e a r s t o c l e a r away the r o c k from one b l a s t . ^ The b l a s t i n g was u n d e r t a k e n i n some cases m e r e l y t o c u t a l e d g e s u f f i c i e n t l y wide t o a l l o w the r a i l w a y t o connect the s c a t t e r e d p o c k e t s of l e v e l l a n d , i n o t h e r cases t o expand the c o a s t a l l e d g e 3 T a l b o t , F.A., The Making of a Great Canadian R a i l w a y . . Musson Book Co., T o r o n t o , 1 9 1 2 , p. 3 2 3 . "The Empire", J u l y 6 , 1 9 0 9 . I n f o r m a t i o n . s u p p l i e d by A l e x McRae, p i o n e e r p r i n t e r . 1 3 8 . f o r r a i l w a y y a r d s o r d o c k s . The major w a t e r f r o n t a c t i v i t i e s c a n be r e a d i l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a r e a s o f l e v e l l a n d . The r o u n d h o u s e and G.T.P.R. wharves were b u i l t a t t h e mouths o f s m a l l w a t e r c o u r s e s , where l i m i t e d a r e a s o f l a n d were a v a i l -a b l e , t h o u g h b l a s t i n g was n e c e s s a r y t o expand them t o t h e d e s i r e d s i z e . The d r y d o c k was b u i l t on one o f t h e l a r g e s t a r e a s o f l e v e l l a n d c l o s e t o t i d e w a t e r . However , i t was n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e a n t i c i p a t e d n e e d . I n t h i s c a s e e x t e n s i v e f i l l was n e c e s s a r y on t h e t i d a l e s t u a r y o f Hays C r e e k . The f i l l i n t h e Hays C r e e k s e c t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e b l a s t i n g rau'ruiittArn c± C o a s t a l r i d g e t o t h e l e f t , r a i l y a r d s and l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s t o the r i g h t . 139. which t o o k p l a c e on e i t h e r s i d e t o p r o v i d e l a r g e r r a i l w a y y a r d s o r space f o r docks . PHOTOGRAPH 22 Drydock and s h i p y a r d from t h e n o r t h . F i l l on which i t i s b u i l t v i s i b l e i n l e f t f o r e g r o u n d . A f t e r 1915 e x p a n s i o n t o o k p l a c e p r i m a r i l y i n t h e r e m a i n i n g a r e a s o f l e v e l l a n d , a t Cow Bay and Morse Creek. The town p l a n i s t o be c r i t i c i z e d i n t h e a l l o c a -t i o n of l e v e l l a n d c l o s e t o sea l e v e l . I t sh o u l d have been o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s type o f l a n d was e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e i n P r i n c e Rupert and eve r y e f f o r t s h o u l d have been made t o con-s e r v e i t f o r f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n . A f a i r l y s i z e a b l e s e c t i o n r o u g h l y e q u a l t o s i x c i t y b l o c k s i n a r e a , t o t h e n o r t h e a s t o f Morse Creek, was permanently a s s i g n e d t o h o u s i n g . T h i s s e c t i o n seems t o be the remnant of an o l d r i v e r t e r r a c e , f l a t , f a i r l y wide and not v e r y d i f f i c u l t of approach from t h e s e a . I t seems d i s t i n c l y unwise t o have a l l o t t e d t h i s a r e a t o h o u s i n g b o t h because o f the s c a r c i t y of l e v e l l a n d 140. PHOTOGRAPH 23 P r i n c e R upert from t h e west. R a i l w a y y a r d i n l e f t f o r e g r o u n d . L e v e l a r e a ( i n c e n t r e ) w i t h s c a t t e r e d houses i s former t e r r a c e of Morse Creek. B e h i n d and t o t h e l e f t o f the t e r r a c e i s t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e w i t h s e v e r a l apartment houses. Beyond i s the i n l a n d r i d g e w i t h f i r s t c l a s s houses. The backdrop i s p r o v i d e d by the rugged mountains of Tsimpsean p e n i n s u l a . 141. close to sea l e v e l and because of the pro x i m i t y of the housing to the r a i l w a y yards w i t h the attendant disadvantages of no i s e , smoke and hazard t o c h i l d r e n . On the r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l area between the crest of the c o a s t a l ridge and the foo t of the inland r i d g e the commer-c i a l core developed. I t i s centred on Th i r d Avenue because the projected main s t r e e t , Second Avenue, passed l a r g e l y i n t o the hands of speculators. They demanded such outrageous p r i c e s f o r t h i s choice property that honest merchants who r e a l l y wished to b u i l d were f o r c e d t o take l o t s on T h i r d Avenue, where the shopping centre sprang up. PHOTOGRAPH 24 Looking northwest along 2nd Avenue, the 9 4-foot wide s t r e e t that was intended to be the main s t r e e t of Prince Rupert. Note the many vacant l o t s , the r e s u l t of s p e c u l a t i o n during c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c i t y . P r i c e s were so high f o r these l o t s t h a t merchants who wished to b u i l d l o c a t e d on 3rd Avenue. In 1915 the commercial core was concentrated i n the area between F u l t o n and Eighth S t r e e t with a l i n e a r extension PHOTOGRAPH 25 B u i l d i n g s on Second Avenue, the p r o j e c t e d main s t r e e t . B o th were b u i l t i n 1910 d u r i n g the f i r s t e x p a n s i o n o f P r i n c e R u p e r t . T h e i r s i t e s were o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i c a l . The b u i l d i n g t o the l e f t , t he Canadian Bank o f Commerce was c o n s t r u c t e d by a concern t o whom convenience was a g r e a t a s s e t and who c o u l d a f f o r d t o purchase a s i t e on the main s t r e e t and b l a s t down t o s t r e e t l e v e l . The b u i l d i n g t o the r i g h t was a c l u b house, which d e s i r e d convenience s u f f i c i e n t l y t o purchase a l o t on the main s t r e e t . The a d v e r t i s i n g v a l u e o f the prominent p o s i t i o n p l u s the c o s t of b r i n g i n g the s i t e down t o s t r e e t l e v e l was s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r them from t h i s p r o j e c t . Today both t h e s e b u i l d i n g s l i e s l i g h t l y o f f the main c e n t r e o f the town and people must go out o f t h e i r way i f t h e y wish t o v i s i t them. The b u i l d i n g t o the r i g h t i n t h e p i c t u r e i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d i n c o v e r i n g water p i p e s l e a d i n g t o homes. a l o n g T h i r d Avenue toward McBride S t r e e t . T h i s d i s p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s the importance of F u l t o n S t r e e t as an e n t r y t o th e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , w i t h the commercial cor e c e n t r e d about t h i s t r a f f i c a r t e r y . The s c a r p of the i n l a n d r i d g e r i s e s i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d the commercial c o r e . The p h y s i o g r a p h i c break i s 143. accompanied by a s i m i l a r break i n the f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n . Land use changes a b r u p t l y f r om commercial t o r e s i d e n t i a l . No i n f o r m a t i o n on the q u a l i t y o f h o u s i n g i s a v a i l a b l e f o r PHOTOGRAPH 26 L o o k i n g southwest a l o n g F r a s e r S t r e e t , t h e Scarp o f i n l a n d r i d g e t o t h e l e f t w i t h f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s and a p u b l i c s c h o o l v i s i b l e . Commercial s e c t i o n t o r i g h t . J PHOTOGRAPH 27 View o f i n l a n d r i d g e from t h e west. McBride S t r e e t and lawns c f P r o v i n c i a l Government b u i l d i n g i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . F i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s on c r e s t o f c o a s t a l r i d g e i n l e f t and r i g h t background. 1915 but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t shacks do not appear i n any numbers u n t i l S i x t h Avenue i s r e a c h e d . P r o b a b l y t h e w e l l -d r a i n e d , w e l l - l i g h t e d a r e a s a t the h e i g h t of t h e i n l a n d r i d g e were o c c u p i e d by r e s i d e n c e s o f t h e b e t t e r t y p e w h i l e : t h e s l o p e toward th e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n c o n t a i n s somewhat p o o r e r h o u s i n g . Beyond M c B r i d e S t r e e t t h e amount of b u i l t - u p l a n d d r ops c o n s i d e r a b l y , w i t h an even g r e a t e r drop beyond the Hays Creek B r i d g e . These a r e a s were somewhat removed from t h e main f o c u s o f the town, F u l t o n S t r e e t and T h i r d Avenue, and r e p r e s e n t e d suburban a r e a s which were expected t o f i l l up s h o r t l y w i t h t h e i n e v i t a b l e growth of t h e town. Many t y p i c a l symptoms o f p i o n e e r growth can be seen i n the 1915 map - t h e l a r g e number of shacks and semi-perman-ent d w e l l i n g s , the s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n o f h o u s i n g and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f l a r g e open t r a c t s of l a n d c l o s e t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e . I n t h e case of P r i n c e R u p e r t , however, much of t h i s i s o b s c u r e d by the i n t r i c a t e s t r e e t p a t t e r n . Another i n d i c a t i o n o f a p i o n e e r c i t y was t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f a b r o t h e l d i s t r i c t o r s e g r e g a t e d a r e a . I t s open o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e low m o r a l tone of t h e town, a s i t u a -t i o n t y p i c a l o f p i o n e e r c i t i e s . The h i g h e s t h o u s i n g d e n s i t y i n the c i t y was found i n t h e s e g r e g a t e d a r e a where e x p a n s i o n was l i m i t e d by law. The s e g r e g a t e d d i s t r i c t s u r v i v e d i n P r i n c e R u p e r t u n t i l the Second World War when i t was c l o s e d a t the i n s i s t e n c e o f the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s . The combina-t i o n o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s l o n g , i f not h o n o u r a b l e , l i f e span a r e r a t h e r i n t e r -e s t i n g . The a r e a was s i t u a t e d a t the f o o t of t h e A c r o p o l i s • H i l l , whose st e e p s l o p e s s e p a r a t e d i t e f f e c t i v e l y from t h e main p o r t i o n o f t h e c i t y . Below i t s t r e t c h e d t h e muskeg o f t h e i n t e r i o r d e p r e s s i o n which had been s e t a s i d e as a park r e s e r v e i n t h e c i t y p l a n . The o n l y s t r e e t by which e n t r y c o u l d be made t o t h e s e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h an e x t e n s i o n o f F u l t o n S t r e e t , a p r i n c i p a l t h r o u g h s t r e e t , was p l a n n e d on t h e c o n t o u r so t h a t the a r e a was h i d d e n t o t h e eye w i t h i n a space of a h a l f - b l o c k . T h i s meant t h a t the a r e a was almost c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e main p a r t of the town. I n t h i s p o s i t i o n i t s e x i s t e n c e c o u l d be e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n by r e s p e c t a b l e elements i n the town, and i t s s u r v i v a l was t h e r e b y f a c i l i t a t e d . A n other r e a s o n f o r i t s l o n g e x i s t e n c e was the f a c t t h a t the town never r e a l l y grew out of t h e p i o n e e r s t a g e , and i t i s o n l y s i n c e t h e end o f the l a s t w o r l d war t h a t P r i n c e Rupert has r e c e i v e d a l a r g e , s t a b l e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n t h a t c o n t a i n s a h i g h p e r -centage of f a m i l i e s who would o b j e c t s t r e n u o u s l y t o i t s e x i s t e n c e . M a p 15 L a n d U s e , P r i n c e R u p e r t , Summer, 1949. S o u r c e : F i e l d W o r k . Chapter X THE CITY IN 1949 Changes S i n c e 1915 The e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n a l map of t h e c i t y i n 1949 on page 146 r e v e a l s some r a t h e r i m p o r t a n t changes. The map was p r e p a r e d i n J u l y , 1949 and, t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e s many changes which may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the war. By i g n o r -i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n c l a s s i f i e d as wartime, a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of t h e pre-war s i t u a t i o n may be o b t a i n e d . Three d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e 1915 map may be noted i m m e d i a t e l y , (1) the e x t e n s i o n o f h o u s i n g beyond Morse Creek, (2) t h e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e l a r g e - s c a l e dock f a c i l i t i e s i n the f o r m o f the g r a i n e l e v a t o r and l a r g e quays and, (3) the e x t e n s i o n o f s m a l l boat f a c i l i t i e s on b o t h s i d e s o f the dr y d o c k . They ar e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l t r e n d s , which w i l l be c o n s i d e r -ed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The Reasons f o r the Changes I n 1915 t h e c i t y had reached the end o f i t s f i r s t e x p a n s i o n based on r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n and s p e c u l a t i o n . S i n c e World War I was c o n f i n e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y t o Europe, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n c o u l d be p a i d t o p l a c e s as d i s t a n t from t h e f r o n t l i n e s as t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. There was, t h e r e f o r e , a v e r y severe r e c e s s i o n i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . The m a j o r i t y o f the s e t t l e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t once | the w o r l d had r i g h t e d i t s e l f and a t t e n t i o n c o u l d a g a i n be p a i d t o t h e P a c i f i c C oast, P r i n c e Rupert would come i n t o i t s own and t h a t post-war e x p a n s i o n was i n e v i t a b l e . Mean-w h i l e t h e r a i l w a } ' company which had been t h e f o u n d e r o f P r i n c e Rupert f o u n d i t s e l f i n v e r y s e r i o u s f i n a n c i a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s . A l o n g w i t h t h e Canadian N o r t h e r n and s e v e r a l o t h e r overexpanded l i n e s i t was u n i t e d t o form t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s , under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the F e d e r a l Govern-ment. The b a n k r u p t c y o f t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y was symptomatic o f c o n d i t i o n s which would e v e n t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e P r i n c e R u p e r t . F o r s e v e r a l years, a f t e r t h e war r e a l p r o s p e r i t y seemed t o come t o t h e c i t y . To meet t h e post-war s h o r t a g e / of s h i p p i n g t h e drydock and s h i p y a r d commenced b u i l d i n g / f r e i g h t e r s . They c o n s t r u c t e d about e i g h t 1 0 , 0 0 0 - t o n v e s s e l s i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 1 9 t o 1 9 2 5 . C o n s t r u c t i o n was a l s o begun on a 1 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 - b u s h e l g r a i n e l e v a t o r as w e l l as a d d i t i o n a l docks f o r o c ean-going s h i p s . Both o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s were u n d e r t a k e n w i t h the assumption t h a t P r i n c e Rupert was s h o r t l y t o become a w o r l d p o r t , t h e North American e n t r e p o t f o r t h e A s i a t i c m arket, Needless t o say t h i s d i d not come about. There a r e , as u s u a l , a number of r e a s o n s f o r t h e n o n - m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s dream, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o Minimum density residential district I . J Medium density residential district L__ l Moximum density residential aistnctL_] Minimum density commercial ond industrial district Medium density commerial and industrial district Moximum density commercial and industrial dis tr ict lytto tte o ipoe 1000 tape Map 16 Zoning D i s t r i c t s Zoning By-Law, City of Prince Rupert. 150. weigh the importance of each f a c t o r , since they are c lose ly i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t has been stated that the reason that Prince Rupert never developed along projected l i n e s was because the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway went into bankruptcy. But one of the reasons '.why the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railitfay went bankrupt was the b u i l d i n g of i t s P a c i f i c terminal at / Prince Rupert. The r a i l r o a d was intended o r i g i n a l l y as a pioneer l i n e , to tap areas unserved by e x i s t i n g l i n e s , i p r i m a r i l y i n northern and c e n t r a l Alberta and Saskatchewan. At f i r s t i t was intended that the r a i l r o a d would break through the Rockies by way of the Pine Pass route, tapping the Peace River D i s t r i c t . Line connections to Dawson, Y .T . were also projected, s t a r t i n g from Hazelton. Much of the l i n e that was b u i l t went through untapped and undeveloped ^ areas i n Central B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . During and af ter World War I the f lood of immigration c h a r a c t e r i s t i c / of the pre-war decade dwindled to a t r i c k l e . This i n turn meant that rapid development of pioneer areas was impossible; / the tendency was rather to consolidate settlement that had taken place p r e v i o u s l y . The ha l t of immigration was not too serious f o r rai lways with l i n e s that ran through already s e t t l e d areas, but for the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway i t was a serious blow. The Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway a lso had a very d i f f i c u l t debt structure to handle, due i n part to p o l i c i e s of construct ion and i n part to the d i f f i c u l t y of the t e r r a i n . / 151. C h a r l e s M. Hays, g e n e r a l manager and l a t e r p r e s i d e n t of the company, i n s i s t e d t h a t h i s whole main l i n e be c o n s t r u c t e d t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the l i n e between Montreal and Toronto. I t was t o have a maximum grade o f one qua r t e r o f one per c e n t , a maximum curvature of f o u r degrees and was to be c o n s t r u c t e d of 89-lb. r a i l s . U s u a l l y p i o n e e r l i n e s are b u i l t with g r a d i e n t s up t o f o u r percent, c u r v a t u r e s o f 12 to 15 degrees and 60-lb. r a i l s , the t h e o r y being t h a t these can be r e p l a c e d a f t e r the l i n e has begun t o pay f o r i t s e l f . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s u p e r i o r l i n e was intended t o cut down c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n . For example, "a f r e i g h t t r a i n on the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway could c a r r y f o u r times as heavy a load as i t could on the Great Northern, Northern P a c i f i c or Union P a c i f i c , f i v e times as much as on the Santa Fe and seven times as much as on the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway". However,' c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s were i n c r e a s e d tremendously, e s p e c i a l l y i n the s e c t i o n from Hazelton t o P r i n c e Rupert. In order t o g a i n the most favo u r a b l e grades f o r the 186 m i l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n over 12,000 m i l e s of t r i a l l i n e s and surveys were run. Between T e r r a c e and P r i n c e Rupert the movement of e i g h t m i l l i o n tons o f rock at a cost o f f80,000 per m i l e was necessary t o achieve grade.^ High c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s would not have been too s e r i o u s i f the r a i l w a y had been able 1. Lower, J.A., The G.T.P.R. and B.C., M.A. T h e s i s , Department of H i s t o r y , U.B.C, 1939, p. 123. 2. I b i d , p. 74-3. T a l b o t , p. 136. 1 5 2 . PHOTOGRAPH 28 LOOKING ACROSS THE SKEENA RIVER FROM THE NORTHERN BANK NEAR TYEE The f i o r d - l i k e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r i v e r c a n be s e e n . t o o b t a i n t h e f r e i g h t s h i p m e n t s i t had a n t i c i p a t e d , f o r w i t h o u t pay l o a d s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o e f f e c t t h e s a v i n g s i n h a u l a g e c o s t s w i t h w h i c h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s c o u l d be p a i d . One o f t h e r e a s o n s why t h e l o a d s d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i z e was t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e O r i e n t . S u p e r f i c i a l l y t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g t h e c l o s e s t p o r t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t o "one f i f t h o f t h e w o r l d and one h a l f o f i t s p e o p l e " a p p e a r s v e r y g r e a t i n -d e e d . 4 But an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t r a d e f i g u r e s p r o v e s o t h e r w i s e . I n 1938 t h e t r a d e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and F r a n c e a l o n e e o u a l e d A m e r i c a n t r a d e w i t h t h e whole o f A s i a . ' ' 4. C r e s s e y , G., " A s i a ' s Land a n d P e o p l e s " , M c G r a w - H i l l , New Y o r k , 1947. 5 . L . E . K l i n r n , O t i s P. S t a r k e y , Norman F. H a l l , " I n t r o d u c t o r y  Economic Geography". H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, New Y o r k , 1940, p. 479-81, ( S t a t i s t i c a l A p p e n d i x ) . 1 5 3 . . _ _ • PHOTOGRAPH 29 SKEENA RIVER FROM T Y E E , LOOKING TOWARD THE MOUTH F o r t h i s A s i a t i c t r a d e f i v e p o r t s were c o m p e t i n g , where one o r two w o u l d have been s u f f i c i e n t . The P a c i f i c c o a s t p o r t s , e s p e c i a l l y P o r t l a n d , S e a t t l e and V a n c o u v e r , have been dependent f o r t h e m a i n p a r t o f t h e i r t r a d e on t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c by way o f t h e Panama C a n a l . O n l y i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c community do we f i n d n a t i o n s w i t h s u f f i -c i e n t s u r p l u s p r o d u c t i o n t o f o r m a s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s f o r t r a d e . I n A s i a t h e m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e who s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a g r e a t m a r k e t do not p r o d u c e enough o v e r and above t h e s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l w i t h w h i c h t o buy t h e p r o d u c t s t h a t N o r t h A m e r i c a c a n o f f e r . What had P r i n c e R u p e r t t o o f f e r t o t h e p r o s p e c t i v e s h i p p e r ? S e l e c t i o n o f c a r g o e s i s u l t i m a t e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p o r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , w h e a t , w h i c h c a n be l a n d e d a t P r i n c e R u p e r t f o r t h e same r a t e a s a t V a n c o u v e r . I n t h i s case P r i n c e R u p e r t must compete w i t h V a n c o u v e r f o r t h e p r o d u c t . For shipment t o t h e O r i e n t i t would seem t h a t P r i n c e Rupert would have an advantage, s i n c e i t i s 540 m i l e s c l o s e r t o A s i a t i c p o r t s , but t h i s i s not the case. I n so c a l l e d "normal" t i m e s , i n t h i s case d u r i n g the be-tween war y e a r s , t r a d e i s i n the hands o f p r i v a t e merchants. These merchants o n l y r a r e l y have s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o c h a r t e r s h i p s p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose of c a r r y i n g a c a p a c i -t y cargo of a s i n g l e shipment, such as g r a i n . They a r e more l i k e l y t o l e a s e a p o r t i o n o f the space on a s h i p which i s a l r e a d y p a r t l y l o a d e d w i t h c a r g o . S h i p p i n g companies p r e f e r t o put i n t o a p o r t where t h e y have a good p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o a d i n g a v a r i e t y o f c a r g o . F o r example, s h i p s . c a l l i n g i n t o Vancouver have the o p p o r t u n i t y o f p r o c u r i n g cargoes o f t i m b e r p r o d u c t s , f r u i t s , m e t a l s , f e r t i l i z e r s and canned goods, t o mention o n l y a few. Moreover t h e r e a r e a number o f p o r t s i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y which o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a cargo i f n o t h i n g i s a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver. There i s a l s o t h e inducement o f s m a l l inbound c a r g o e s f o r t h e l a r g e p o p u l a -t i o n c e n t r e s o f the s o u t h e r n m a i n l a n d . I n P r i n c e Rupert t h i s i s not the case. There i s no l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e c l o s e r t h a n Edmonton, which can be s e r v e d e q u a l l y w e l l from Van-co u v e r . There i s , moreover, no v a r i e t y o f produce a v a i l a b l e ^  f r o m P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . I n the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i t was found t h a t the m i n e r a l s of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d were t r i b u t a r y t o T r a i l , and t h u s i n -6 . I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by A. Brooksbank, S h i p p i n g Agent, P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. 1 5 5 . d i r e c t l y t o Vancouver. F i s h e r } ' p r o d u c t s were t r i b u t a r y t o Vancouver i n the case o f canned salmon or d i s t r i b u t e d i n s m a l l p e r i o d i c shipments i n t h e case of h a l i b u t . A g r i c u l -t u r a l s u r p l u s e s were n o n - e x i s t e n t i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s non-c o m p e t i t i v e h i n t e r l a n d , o n l y e x i s t i n g i n the c o m p e t i t i v e h i n t e r l a n d . F o r e s t r y e x p o r t s were a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s but s i n c e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d , on t h e whole, i n f e r i o r s p e c i e s t o t h o s e a v a i l a b l e w i t h e q u a l ease from th e s o u t h e r n c o a s t , t h e y remained u n u t i l i z e d . Thus P r i n c e R u p e r t l a c k e d a v a r i e t y o f p r o d u c t s t o i nduce the s h i p p e r t o s c h e d u l e s h i p p i n g t o the p o r t . / A n o t h e r f a c t o r which h i n d e r e d s h i p p i n g from P r i n c e ' R u p e r t , based on supposed g e o g r a p h i c f a c t s , was the e s t a b -l i s h m e n t of L a t i t u d e 51 degrees as the l i m i t f o r y e a r - r o u n d summer l o a d l i n e . The l o a d l i n e , o r P l i m s o l mark, i s d e s i g n e d as a s a f e t y f a c t o r f o r merchant s h i p p i n g , and i s a s e r i e s o f marks on a s h i p ' s s i d e r e g u l a t i n g the d e pth i n the w a t e r t o which a s h i p may be l o a d e d . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o v a r y from s e a ; t o se a , and i s supposedly r e g u l a t e d by s t o r m i n e s s ; i n a calm or r e l a t i v e l y calm sea a s h i p may be more d e e p l y l a d e n w i t h o u t h a z a r d t h a n i n a- stormy sea. The seas n o r t h o f 51 degrees N o r t h l a t i t u d e i n t h e P a c i f i c , i n c l u d i n g of c o u r s e , t h e p o r t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y stormy / t o r e q u i r e t h a t s h i p s c a r r y a l i g h t e r l o a d d u r i n g w i n t e r . The r e s u l t i s t h a t "a v e s s e l l o a d i n g an £,0 . 0 0-ton cargo i s a b l e t o t a k e 3 0 0 t o n s more a t Vancouver than a t t h i s p o r t ( P r i n c e Rupert)..' In other words a g r a i n s h i p , l o a d i n g here, would have to get 210 a ton more t o handle cargo from P r i n c e Rupert than i f loaded at Vancouver".''7 The s e l e c t i o n of l a t i t u d e 5 1 ° North as the boundary between calm and stormy seas i s unwarranted. In the s e c t i o n on climate i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t d u r i n g the wint e r h a l f - y e a r P r i n c e Rupert and Vancouver have an almost i d e n t i c a l c l i m a t e . L a t i t u d e 51 degrees North i s an a r b i t r a r y boundary which has no b a s i s i n c l i m a t i c f a c t , though c l i m a t i c data i s supposed-l y i t s c r i t e r i a . Probably t h i s d e c i s i o n was based on the f a c t t h a t the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s , which are d e c i d e d l y hazard-ous to n a v i g a t e , extend t o 52 degrees North. However on the P a c i f i c coast of North America the l i n e would have more meaning i f p l a c e d between 58 and 60 degrees North l a t i t u d e . I t i s l i t t l e wonder then t h a t P r i n c e Rupert f a i l e d as an entrepot f o r world t r a d e . In 1 9 2 6 the g r a i n e l e v a t o r at P r i n c e Rupert opened. During the next two years 13 m i l l i o n b ushels of g r a i n were shipped and a f t e r t h a t shipment' p r a c t i c a l l y ceased. A f t e r 1 9 2 9 the c h i e f use of the e l e v a t o r was f o r the storage of s u r p l u s g r a i n the F e d e r a l Government was f o r c e d to buy from the P r a i r i e farmers d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s . The r e c o r d seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t shipping, l i n e s used the port once or twice, found t h a t i t was u n p r o f i t a b l e and r e t u r n e d no more. 7 . Memorandum, Submitted by Pr i n c e Rupert I n d u s t r i a l Develop-ment Committee t o the F e d e r a l Government, March, 1 9 4 6 , p. 4 . 157. Adjustment t o t h e A c t u a l i t i e s of t h e Environment The c o l l a p s e of t h e s m a l l o v e r s e a ' s t r a d e meant t h a t t h e r e a l i t i e s of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d had f i n a l l y -b rought t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o . b e a r upon the c i t y . P r i n c e Rupert was d e v e l o p e d t o serve a r e g i o n whose p o t e n t i a l had no b a s i s i n t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h a t p e r i o d . The adjustment t o r e a l i t y was t o be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . I t was c o m p l i -c a t e d by the a r r i v a l o f the g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1930's which made the p r o c e s s o f adjustment even more d i f f i c u l t . D u r i n g t h e s h o r t p o s t - W o r l d War I boom t h e r e s i -d e n t i a l a r e a o f . t h e c i t y was extended beyond Morse Creek by means of a b r i d g e . Two l o n g i t u d i n a l roads were d r i v e n a l o n g t h e c e n t r a l and seaward s e c t i o n of t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e -i n t h i s a r e a . The development beyond Morse Creek was i n -t e n d e d t o l i n k the g r a i n e l e v a t o r t o t h e c i t y and t o p r o -v i d e a d d i t i o n a l room f o r r e s i d e n c e s . A few s c a t t e r e d houses were l o c a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n and the c i t y was f a c e d w i t h t h e problem o f s u p p l y i n g s e r v i c e s t o them. Whatever h o u s i n g space P r i n c e Rupert r e q u i r e d c o u l d have e a s i l y been found i n the a r e a between the two c r e e k s . The e x p a n s i o n o f h o u s i n g beyond t h e s e l i m i t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a s p r a w l i n g , s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n based on the b e l i e f t h a t vacant spaces would be f i l l e d as development proceeded, i n t e n s i f i e d a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g problems. As was mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the con-s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s on P r i n c e 158. R u p e r t ' s p e c u l i a r t e r r a i n i s e x p e n s i v e and onerous. When c o s t s of development had t o be borne by s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s the t a s k became i m p o s s i b l e . The c o m b i n a t i o n of o v e r e x t e n d e d s e r v i c e s and low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s proved t o o g r e a t a burden f o r the c i t y and i t went i n t o b a n k r u p t c y . On May 15, 1933 t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government assumed payment o f t h e c i t y ' s bonded debt and t o p r o t e c t i t s i n t e r e s t s p l a c e d the d i r e c t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s i n t o the hands of a p r o v i n c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d c i t y manager. The s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t on Digby I s l a n d , a t Dodge Cove, d a t e s from t h i s p e r i o d . I t r e p r e s e n t s the p r o t e s t o f a number o f f o r m e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s , l a r g e l y f i s h e r m e n , who moved a c r o s s the h a r b o u r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r homes o u t s i d e t h e c i t y l i m i t s . They d i d t h i s i n o r d e r t o escape what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d u n j u s t i f i a b l y h i g h t a x a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e C i t y of P r i n c e R u p e r t , t h u s th e name o f the s e t t l e m e n t , Dodge Cove. U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t must be r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s s e t t l e m e n t has grown s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o impose t a x e s i n i t s own r i g h t and t h o s e who moved t h e r e t o escape t a x a t i o n have been f o r c e d t o t a x t h e m s e l v e s . Meanwhile o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s i n t h e c i t y p a t t e r n went on. On t h e map o f 1915 t h e o n l y s e c t i o n o f the c i t y d e v o t e d to t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y was a t the extreme n o r t h w e s t e r n t i p o f t h e i s l a n d near S e a l Cove. The f i s h i n g company was f o r c e d t o b u i l d i n t h i s i s o l a t e d p o s i -t i o n because t h e r a i l w a y d i r e c t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the more c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d dock a r e a s were t o o v a l u a b l e t o l e a s e t o the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . A f t e r 1 9 1 5 "the r a i l w a y d i r e c t o r s came t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e c e n t r a l dock a r e a s were not g o i n g t o be u t i l i z e d by ocean and c o a s t w i s e commerce and t h e y opened the way f o r the use.of t h e s e s e c t i o n s by t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . G r a d u a l l y s m a l l boat f a c i l i t i e s d e v e l o p e d i n the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s , f i l l i n g Cow Bay and e x t e n d i n g t o the l i m i t s p r o v i d e d on one s i d e by t h e s c a r p o f the c o a s t a l r i d g e and on the o t h e r by the drydock a r e a . T h i s s e c t i o n became d e n s e l y packed w i t h s m a l l boat f l o a t s , f i s h - p a c k i n g and s t o r a g e houses, s h i p c h a n d l e r i e s and o i l docks. S h o r t l y b e f o r e the outbreak o f t h e Second World War i t expanded beyond the drydock a r e a t o a p o i n t where e x p a n s i o n was l i m i t e d by a n o t h e r s t e e p s c a r p of the c o a s t a l r i d g e . The a r e a , bounded on e i t h e r s i d e by p h y s i o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s , was i n t e n s e l y u t i l -i z e d . (See P h o t o s ) . T h i s a r e a s e r v e d t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y u n t i l the end of World War I I when the d e c i s i o n of the co-o p e r a t i v e t o b u i l d a c o l d s t o r a g e p l a n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s brought about a n o t h e r e x p a n s i o n . The c o o p e r a t i v e b u i l t t h e i r s t o r a g e p l a n t between P i l l s b u r y P o i n t and F a i r v i e w P o i n t , b e i n g the f i r s t i n d u s t r y t o e s t a b l i s h i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f the w a t e r f r o n t . At t h i s p o i n t the c o a s t l e a d s d i r e c t l y i n t o the i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r o a d -way t o connect the docks w i t h the r e s t of the c i t y was not t o o d i f f i c u l t . S i n c e the water s h o a l s g r a d u a l l y i n t h i s 160. PHOTOGRAPH 30 COPY OF PHOTO CIRCA 1919 LOOKING NORTH PROM COW BAY TOWARD TUCK INLET Drydock and s h i p y a r d i n r i g h t background. Note l a r g e f r e i g h t -e r b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . PHOTOGRAPH 31 COPY OF PHOTOGRAPH BY J.R. WRATHALL -LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM COW BAY F l o a t i n g ' p o n t o o n s of drydock v i s i b l e i n background. Compare the i n t e n s i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s a r e a by s m a l l b o a t s w i t h Photograph 30. 161. s e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n of docks i s e a s i e r than i n other p a r t s of the P r i n c e Rupert w a t e r f r o n t . The main reason f o r develop-ment of the storage p l a n t i n t h i s s e c t i o n was the growing s c a r c i t y of waterfrontage i n the a l r e a d y b u i l t up p a r t s of the c i t y . The changing p a t t e r n of land use was a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . Though the importance of P r i n c e Rupert as a l a n d i n g port f o r h a l i b u t has remained unchanged, 1 6 , 7 9 2 , 0 0 0 l b s . landed i n 1 9 3 1 and 1 6 , 7 9 8 , 0 0 0 l b s . i n 1 9 4 9 , the c h a r a c t e r of t h e f l e e t s s e l l i n g these t o t a l s has changed. In 1 9 3 1 the Canadian f l e e t landed 7 , 7 8 3 , 0 0 0 l b s . of a t o t a l c a t c h of 4 4 , 2 2 2 , 0 0 0 l b s . or approximately 17%. In 1 9 4 9 the Canadian f l e e t landed 1 8 , 6 6 6 , 0 0 0 l b s . of a t o t a l of 5 5 , 3 7 9 , 0 0 0 l b s . or approximately 3 2 % . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the Canadian f l e e t accounts f o r almost a l l the i n c r e a s e that has taken plac e i n l a n d i n g s s i n c e con-s e r v a t i o n s t a r t e d . The i n c r e a s e has taken plac e s t e a d i l y ' ; s i n c e 1 9 3 1 , and presumably one of the reasons f o r the i n c r e a s e i n the Canadian l a n d i n g s were the advantages obtained by u s i n g P r i n c e Rupert as a base p o r t . Larger numbers of Canadian s h i p s o p e r a t i n g out of the p o r t has meant i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r dock space and s u p p l i e s s i n c e Canadian ships procure a l l t h e i r needs i n a Canadian p o r t . The i n c r e a s e d number of power operated boats i n the Skeena and Nass salmon f i s h e r i e s a f t e r 1 9 2 9 meant g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y and made easy the use of P r i n c e Rupert as a base of supply, r a t h e r than the c a n n e r i e s . 162. While P r i n c e Rupert was becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y -i m p o r t a n t f i s h i n g p o r t the f u n c t i o n f o r which i t was d e s i g n e d became a t r o p h i e d . The g r a i n e l e v a t o r became a s t o r a g e b i n f o r s u r p l u s g r a i n bought by the F e d e r a l Government. The ocean docks s t o o d empty except f o r o c c a s i o n a l shipments o f f i s h p r o d u c t s i n bond from A l a s k a . The drydock, d e s i g n e d t o b u i l d and r e p a i r ocean l i n e r s was u t i l i z e d t o r e p a i r f i s h -i n g b o a t s and the c o a s t a l s t e amships of the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s . The commercial s e c t i o n of t h e c i t y grew o n l y s l i g h t l y n o r t h - e a s t w a r d a l o n g T h i r d Avenue toward t h e grow-i n g s m a l l boat c e n t r e of Cow Bay. PHOTOGRAPH 32 Copy of photo by J.R. W r a t h a l . T h i r d Avenue l o o k i n g n o r t h e a s t . T h i s i s the h e a r t of the commercial c o r e . Note the wide s t r e e t s . The p e r i o d between the two wars was a time of change and adjustment f o r P r i n c e R u p e r t , not a p e r i o d o f growth. The 163. p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y i n 1915 w a s . s l i g h t l y over 7,000, i n 1941 i t was 6,714. The c h a r a c t e r of the p o p u l a t i o n changed c o n s i d e r -a b l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i n response t o the changing f u n c t i o n of the c i t y . The Scandinavian element, mainly Norwegians, came to form an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . They became the mainstay of the h a l i b u t f i s h i n g f l e e t , apply-i n g t e c h n i q u e s l e a r n e d i n the Norwegian f i s h e r i e s to the f i s h e r i e s of t h e i r new homeland. They represented the only new immigrants t o the c i t y . They r e p l a c e d those of B r i t i s h stock who moved elsewhere a f t e r the boom c o l l a p s e d . Those of B r i t i s h stock who remained s t i l l formed the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n but th e r e was no i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r numbers.? They were employed i n the other f u n c t i o n s t h a t remained t o the c i t y , as F e d e r a l or P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r the North C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia area which has i t s headquarters i n P r i n c e Rupert, i n the roundhouse and other t e r m i n a l f a c i l -i t i e s o f the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway and i n the 'merchandiz-i n g and s e r v i c i n g t r a d e s . Most of the n a t i v e - b o r n p o p u l a t i o n moved elsewhere once they came of age, f o r unl e s s they wished t o become fishermen t h e r e was l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advance-ment. The age composition of the c i t y g r a d u a l l y changed. In 1915 P r i n c e Rupert was -made up almost e n t i r e l y of y o u t h f u l , v i g o r o u s c i t i z e n s , as i s t y p i c a l o f a pion e e r c i t y . Twenty-f i v e years l a t e r the c i t y was composed mainly of people of middle age, the remnant of those who had a r r i v e d during the 7. Census - 1921: E n g l i s h , 2,128; S c o t t i s h , 1,572; Scandi-navians, 5 8 8 . Census - 1931: E n g l i s h , 1,682; S c o t t i s h , 1,402; Scandi-navians, 1,046. boom p e r i o d . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e r a c i a l element i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s immediate h i n t e r l a n d i s the n a t i v e I n d i a n . They f o r m an im-p o r t a n t and unique element i n t h e c i t y though t h e y a re not l i s t e d as permanent r e s i d e n t s . F o r one b l o c k on T h i r d Avenue t o the west o f S i x t h S t r e e t , a t y p e of g h e t t o has developed f o r t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n . E a r l y i n the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y p a r t o f t h i s b l o c k was s e t t l e d by C h i n e s e . O c c u p a t i o n by Chinese d e p r e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s as w h i t e merchants g e n e r a l l y t r i e d t o a v o i d s e t t i n g up s t o r e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e b l o c k has become a s e c t i o n o f cheap h o t e l s and beer p a r -l o u r s , poor c a f e s and rundown shops. At almost any hour o f th e day or n i g h t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d f a m i l i e s o f I n d i a n s l e a n i n g a g a i n s t s t o r e windows, l a u g h i n g , j o k i n g o r s o l e m n l y w a t c h i n g p a s s e r s b y . They s t a n d about on t h e s t r e e t s because t h e y do not w i s h t o r e t u r n t o t h e cramped, f i l t h y room i n a h o t e l o r rooming house t h a t t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o c a l l t h e i r home w h i l e i n t h e c i t y . The I n d i a n , even i f he does p o s s e s s t h e money can not g e t a room i n a w e l l a p p o i n t e d h o t e l be-cause o f r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . He i s not supposed t o come i n t o t h e town. He cannot buy p r o p e r t y o r r e n t a home s i n c e he would l o s e h i s r e s e r v a t i o n r i g h t s . The l u r e o f the c i t y i s s t r o n g , however, and i n r e t u r n f o r a chance t o l o o k a t b r i g h t l i g h t s and s t o r e windows he i s w i l l i n g t o put up w i t h whatever h o v e l he can g e t . The government cannot t a k e a r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e by p u t t i n g up d e c e n t , l i v a b l e d o r m a t o r i e s f o r t h e I n d i a n s s i n c e i t i s t h e i r p o l i c y t h a t t h e y s t a y upon 165. t h e r e s e r v a t i o n s . But t h e I n d i a n comes anyway, r i s k i n g t u b e r c u l o s i s and o t h e r d i s e a s e s i n r e t u r n f o r the j o y s o f t h e c i t y . I n f l u e n c e o f World War I I on t h e C i t y One o t h e r s e t o f i n f l u e n c e s has o p e r a t e d t o produce the l a n d use p a t t e r n shown i n t h e 1949 map; the second w o r l d c o n f l i c t , t h e 1939-45 war. The f i r s t i n d u s t r y t o be a f f e c t e d ^' was t h e drydock and s h i p y a r d , which began the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f r e i g h t e r s s h o r t l y a f t e r the o u t b r e a k of the war. D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h e war the s h i p y a r d c o n s t r u c t e d f o u r t e e n 10,000-ton f r e i g h t e r s , f o u r mine sweepers and one c o a s t a l ^ f r e i g h t e r . B e f o r e t h e war t h e r e had been a s m a l l s k e l e t o n crew of some 100 workers who had been engaged i n r e p a i r o f f i s h b o a t s and t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y c o a s t a l steamers. With f u l l o p e r a t i o n s i n the s h i p y a r d s the w o r k i ng f o r c e grew u n t i l i t employed c l o s e t o 2,000 w o r k e r s . S i n c e almost a l l / t h e s e p e o p l e had t o be brought i n from o u t s i d e t h e h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n q u i c k l y became a c u t e . The F e d e r a l Government con-s t r u c t e d bunk houses f o r the s i n g l e men and s e r i e s o f s i n g l e h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s . The bunk houses were / t o r n down a f t e r t h e end of t h e war but the s i n g l e h o u s i n g u n i t s , known as "wartime houses" were a l l o w e d t o remain. These form a r a t h e r prominent f e a t u r e of t h e c u l t u r a l l a n d -scape o f P r i n c e Rupert and some e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i s n e c e s s a r y . I n the s i t i n g o f t h e s e houses s e v e r a l 1 J PHOTOGRAPH 3 3 1 Wartime houses on vacant l o t s i n the b u i l t up p a r t of c i t y . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were o p e r a t i v e . The}'- were i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e drydock workers and, t h e r e f o r e , were t o be p l a c e d w i t h i n easy r e a c h of the p l a n t . They had t o be c o n s t r u c t e d c h e a p l y and ^ q u i c k l y which meant, i d e a l l y , t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be l o c a t e d i n / one s u b d i v i s i o n where the p r e f a b r i c a t e d p a r t s c o u l d be h andled w i t h "assembly l i n e " t e c h n i q u e s . The i d e a l s i t e f r o m t h e b u i l d e r s ' s t a n d p o i n t was t o be found i n t h e unoccu-p i e d s e c t i o n o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e , e a s t of Hays Creek. The c i t y , however, o b j e c t e d . They p o i n t e d o u t , q u i t e r i g h t l y , t h a t w i t h i n the more b u i l t up a r e a s o f t h e c i t y t h e r e were numerous vacant l o t s w i t h e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s a l r e a d y s u p p l i e d ; s t r e e t s , water mains, e l e c t r i c l i g h t s , e t c . The c i t y f e l t t h a t i t would be cheaper both f o r t h e m s e l v e s and the con-t r a c t o r s i f the vacant l o t s were f i l l e d . As u s u a l i n such cases t h e f i n a l r e s u l t was a compromise. The b u l k of the wartime h o u s i n g was l o c a t e d on a s e c t i o n o f the c o a s t a l r i d g e 1 6 7 . . e a s t o f Hays Creek known as Rushbrook H e i g h t s . But s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e a s t e r n p a r t of the c i t y were numerous h o u s i n g u n i t s . D u r i n g t h e cou r s e of t h e war 522 o f t h e s e houses were c o n s t r u c t e d , which i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e were o n l y 1 , 5 9 2 b u i l d i n g s i n P r i n c e Rupert i n 1 9 4 1 . A f t e r the war t h e s h i p y a r d s c l o s e d down and i t appeared t h a t the c i t y was about t o r e t u r n t o i t s pre-war s t a g n a t i o n . F o r a t i m e i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the houses would be demolished f o r whatever s c r a p t h e c o n t r a c t o r s c o u l d s a l v a g e from them. The c i t y was a b l e t o persuade the F e d e r a l Government t h a t i t would be b e t t e r t o s e l l t he houses p r i v a t e l y f o r t h e p r i c e s t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t o r s were w i l l i n g t o g i v e f o r them as s c r a p . The houses were s o l d f o r as low as $ $ 2 5 t o bo t h v e t e r a n s and c i v i l i a n s . At p r e s e n t t h e s e houses are a l l o c c u p i e d and are r e t a i l i n g f o r $ 3 , 0 0 0 t o $ 4 , 0 0 0 . The q u a l i t y -o f t h e houses i s , on t h e whole, poor. They s u f f e r f r o m t h e e v i l s o f h a s t e , p r e f a b r i c a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . They a r e -crowded c l o s e t o g e t h e r on 2 5 - f o o t l o t s , a p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e e v i l v i s i t e d upon t h e c i t y a g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e , and they, a r e o f t e n s i t e d upon muskeg. When t h e y were b u i l t on muskeg t h e y were support e d on "mud s i l l s " , t h r e e - f o o t by f o u r - f o o t wooden pads which were i n t e n d e d t o " f l o a t " upon the muskeg. S i n c e t h e y were b u i l t e x t r e m e l y l i g h t l y t h e r e has been l i t t l e t endency f o r them t o s i n k o r warp, but t h e y are i n c l i n e d t o r o c k i n a h i g h wind. The l o c a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f the wartime houses t o the e a s t o f Hays Creek has brought about an i m p o r t a n t / 16$. PHOTOGRAPH 34 Second c l a s s h o u s i n g t o t h e l e f t , w a r t i m e h o u s e s t o t h e r i g h t . Note how c l o s e l y t h e h o u s e s a r e s p a c e d , due t o t h e 2 5 - f o o t l o t s . change o f p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e . I t has n o t a f f e c t e d t h e l o c a - /' t i o n o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o r e s i n c e g e o g r a p h i c i n e r t i a was t o o s t r o n g t o a l l o w i t t o move. I n s t e a d P r i n c e R u p e r t has had t o i n s t i t u t e a bus l i n e w h i c h r u n s between t h e c i t y c e n t r e and S e a l Cove and s e r v e s t o l i n k t h e new p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a l o n g Hays Cove and S i x t h Avenue w i t h o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y . A new p u b l i c s c h o o l h a s a l s o been J l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a t o accommodate t h e i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n . These new h o u s e s w i l l have a n o t h e r , a s y e t i n c a l c u l a b l e e f f e c t on t h e c i t y . I n the P r i n c e R u p e r t o f 1 9 4 1 o n l y 7 9 2 h o u s e s o f a t o t a l o f 1 , 5 9 2 were owned by t h e o c c u p a n t . The 5 2 2 new h o u s e s added t o t h e c i t y a r e e x c l u s i v e l y owner-o c c u p i e d . These new owners w i l l p r o b a b l y t a k e a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n c i v i c a f f a i r s and b e t t e r m e n t s i n c e t h e y have a v e r y r e a l i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e f u t u r e o f t h e c i t y . 1 6 9 ; The p r e c e d i n g changes may be t r a c e d t o a wartime use o f a p i e c e of l a r g e - s c a l e dock equipment which had been c o n s t r u c t e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . D u r i n g t h e course o f t h e war P r i n c e Rupert was t o assume t h e r o l e t h a t i t s f o u n d e r s had dreamed o f , t h a t of a g r e a t w o r l d p o r t . The a t t a c k by Japan upon t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n December of 1 9 4 1 and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n o f K i s k a and A t t u i n the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s i n 1 9 4 2 made the r a p i d e x p a n sion of A l a s k a n d e f e n s e s i m p e r a t i v e , v The e s t a b l i s h e d means of s u p p l y i n g A l a s k a was by way of t h e f n e a r e s t p o r t i n the c o n t i n e n t a l U.S.A., S e a t t l e . However, 5 0 0 m i l e s t o t h e n o r t h , 5 0 0 m i l e s c l o s e r t o A l a s k a l a y P r i n c e R u p e r t , w i t h a f i r s t - c l a s s r a i l w a y l i n k i n g i t t o the h e a r t o f i n d u s t r i a l A m e rica. At a time when s h i p p i n g was a t a premium t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f 1 0 0 0 m i l e s from t h e round t r i p voyage o f a cargo s h i p became e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . An added advantage was the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g barges out o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , v i a t h e I n s i d e Passage as f a r as Skagway, t h u s f u r t h e r c o n s e r v i n g s c a r c e s h i p p i n g . P r i n c e Rupert was a c t i v a t e d as a s u b - p o r t o f t h e S e a t t l e P o r t of E m b a r k a t i o n on t h e 2 0 o f F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 2 . From t h a t time t o the end o f the war 1 , 6 1 2 , 7 8 3 t o n s of f r e i g h t were s h i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e p o r t as w e l l as an e s t i m a t e d 7 3 , 0 0 0 / $ c i v i l i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n workers and m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l . Im-provement of e x i s t i n g p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and new c o n s t r u c t i o n 8 . U n i t e d S t a t e s Army S e r v i c e F o r c e s , P r i n c e Rupert Sub P o r t  o f E m b a r k a t i o n , 1 9 4 5 , p. 12 (Pamphlet p r i n t e d by Dibb P r i n t e r s , P r i n c e R u p e r t ) . PHOTOGRAPH 35 Overhead ramp c o n n e c t i n g docks ( t o t h e l e f t ) w i t h l a r g e warehouse c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e American A.rmy d u r i n g the war (out o f p i c t u r e t o the r i g h t ) . brought the p o r t c a p a c i t y up t o 5 0 , 0 0 0 c u b i c t o n s of f r e i g h t p e r month. A l a r g e f o u r - s t o r y warehouse w i t h a f l o o r space of 3 6 7 , 2 4 4 s q . f t . was c o n s t r u c t e d . The ocean dock was ex-tended 4 0 0 f t . t o 1 2 4 0 f e e t g i v i n g a f l o o r c a p a c i t y of 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 sq. f t . and a movable crane was added t o t h i s dock w i t h a l i f t i n g c a p a c i t y o f 75 t o n s . On t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d the warehouse an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d w i t h 5 3 , 7 7 6 sq. f t . o f f l o o r space. On t h e c r e s t of the A c r o p o l i s H i l l a m i n i a t u r e c i t y , known 171. PHOTOGRAPH 36 Railway yards and ocean dock from the c o a s t a l r i d g e . B u i l d i n g i n foreground with smoke stacks i s the Canadian National Railway roundhouse. t o the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s as " L i t t l e America", was erected to house the 3,500 o f f i c e r s and men necessary to maintain the po r t . On Watson I s l a n d , about 11 miles by road from Prince Rupert the Americans carved a staging area and amunition dump out of the wilderness of the i s l a n d . I t included a s e m i - c i r c u l a r wharf about 3,600 f e e t i n l e n g t h , 1000 f e e t of which was constructed with a concrete deck, 60 f e e t wide with a double t r a c k r a i l r o a d spur l i n e . The remainder of the wharf was of timber c r i b c o n s t r u c t i o n with a s i n g l e t r a c k r a i l w a y spur l i n e . During the war ships up to 10,000 tons berthed and loaded here. In a l l the Americans spent PHOTOGRAPH 37 Copy o f p o s t c a r d by J.R. W r a t h a l . A e r i a l photograph of Watson I s l a n d from t h e west, p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company p l a n t . S e m i - c i r c u l a r wharf c o n s t r u c t e d by American Army i n f o r e g r o u n d . K a i e n I s l a n d t o l e f t w i t h s o u t h - e a s t e r n l o w l a n d o f the i s l a n d i n the background. twenty-two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ; i n r e t u r n t h e y had a p o r t which s u p p l i e d the many needs of A l a s k a n d e f e n c e , s h i p p e d con-s i d e r a b l e amounts of s u p p l i e s t o o t h e r P a c i f i c war t h e a t r e s , and saved v i t a l s h i p p i n g as w e l l . With t h i s i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y P r i n c e Rupert became an i m p o r t a n t l i n k i n N o r t h American defence and u n i t s o f t h e Canadian s e r v i c e s e s t a b -l i s h e d bases t h e r e . These i n c l u d e d t h e a i r f o r c e s t a t i o n j a t S e a l Cove, the n a v a l b a r r a c k s on t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e near the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y docks and the s i g n a l s b a r r a c k s on t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e west o f Morse Creek. I n 1945, a t the h e i g h t of the war, 20,000 r a t i o n books were i s s u e d i n P r i n c e 173. R u p e r t . ^ To t h i s number must be added t h e members o f t h e f o r c e s s t a t i o h e d i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . I n t o t a l t h e r e must have been 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t a t t h i s t i m e , and p o s s i b l y the f i g u r e was as h i g h as 3 0 , 0 0 0 . At the end o f t h e war the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p e o p l e moved o u t , and P r i n c e Rupert was thrown back upon her own y r e s o u r c e s . P e o p l e f e l t t h a t P r i n c e Rupert would r e t u r n t o i t s o l d way o f l i f e , t h a t i t would a g a i n become a s m a l l f i s h -i n g p o r t . I t was f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t the wartime houses ^ s o l d f o r so l i t t l e , s i n c e few b e l i e v e d t h a t post-war d e v e l o p -ment would t a k e p l a c e . D u r i n g the war a f u n damental change had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e n a t i o n - w i d e r e s o u r c e p i c t u r e t h a t was t o have r e p e r -c u s s i o n s i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . I t was t h e enormous wartime ex-p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , which made ex p a n s i o n i n t o more remote a r e a s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s b a s i c r e a d j u s t m e n t as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t much of the p r e l i m i n a r y work had a l r e a d y been done by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army s e r v e d t o a t t r a c t t h e Celanese C o r p o r a t i o n o f America t o P o r t Edward. They took over t h e i s l a n d and t h e s e m i - c i r c u l a r dock and began c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t w e n t y - f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r h i g h a l p h a p u l p p l a n t . T h e i r o p e r a t i o n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d under f o r e s t r y , and w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d , a l o n g w i t h the p r o j e c t o f t h e Aluminum Company o f Canada i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "The F u t u r e " . The o t h e r wartime i n s t a l l a t i o n s have been put t o 9 . V e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n from H.D. T h a i n , C i t y C l e r k . v a r i o u s u s e s . The s e a p l a n e base at S e a l Cove has been con-v e r t e d t o c i v i l i a n use, s e r v i c i n g the Canadian P a c i f i c A i r -l i n e s ' d a i l y f l i g h t s t o S a n d s p i t as w e l l as a number o f p r i v a t e l i n e s . I n 1950 i t was s u g g ested t h a t P r i n c e Rupert be p r o v i d e d w i t h an a i r f i e l d by c o n v e r t i n g T u g w e l l I s l a n d i n t o an a i r s t r i p . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a i r s t r i p s p r o v i d e s few p h y s i c a l problems. However, t h e i s l a n d i s e i g h t m i l e s by w ater from P r i n c e R u p e r t , making f o r v e r y complex t r a n -shipment problems. Of t h e o t h e r wartime i n s t a l l a t i o n s t h e n a v a l b a r r a c k s has been c o n v e r t e d i n t o a Canadian L e g i o n c l u b h o u s e , t h e p o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s i n t o apartment b l o c k s . A l a r g e Y.M.C.A. b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g t h e war f o r s e r v i c e m e n t has been t a k e n o v e r as a C i v i c C e n t r e , s e r v i n g as a v a l u a b l e c e n t r e f o r i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e c i t y . The dock and warehouse space remains l a r g e l y unused. I n t h e course of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the development o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 4 9 was l e f t untouched u n t i l note c o u l d be made o f t h e s e v e r a l f o r c e s t h a t have u n i t e d t o produce t h e end r e s u l t . The i n c i d e n c e o f shacks on t h e l o w e r i n l a n d s l o p e of the c o a s t a l and i n l a n d r i d g e has a l r e a d y been n o t e d i n the 1 9 1 5 map. T h i s tendency i s emphasized i n t h e 1 9 4 9 map. The houses have been broken i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , f i r s t , second and t h i r d c l a s s houses, and wartime houses. The f i r s t - c l a s s houses i n P r i n c e Rupert c o r r e s p o n d t o s e c o n d - c l a s s houses i n most l a r g e urban a r e a s . Only seven or e i g h t houses i n P r i n c e Rupert c o u l d be compared v/ith f i r s t - c l a s s houses i n 175. e x c l u s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n o t h e r c i t i e s . I t i s another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t people w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s are i n c l i n e d t o go e l s e w h e r e or save t h e i r money t o b u i l d a f i r s t - c l a s . s home e l s e w h e r e . With t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s were found. The f i r s t -c l a s s h o u s i n g was c o n c e n t r a t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e c r e s t .or seaward. s l o p e s o f t h e i n l a n d o r c o a s t a l r i d g e , i n some cases i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d t h e commercial c o r e . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f i r s t - c l a s s h o u s i n g on the r i d g e t o p s i s due t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . These s i t e s a re u s u a l l y s o l i d r o c k , o r have o n l y a s h a l l o w l a y e r of muskeg and a r e t h u s s u p e r i o r b u i l d i n g s i t e s . They command a f i n e v i e w o f the h a r b o u r and tend, t o r e c e i v e more l i g h t t h a n the houses on the i n l a n d s l o p e , a v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a p l a c e as gloomy as P r i n c e R u p e r t . I n the s e c t i o n s where the f i r s t -c l a s s houses r i s e i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d the commercial c o r e they are s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r above i t not t o be d i s t u r b e d . b y n o i s e and t r a f f i c . Moreover i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s no d i r e c t ' communication e x i s t s between the commercial c o r e and the f i r s t - c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , and t r a f f i c i s . e f f e c t i v e l y by-passed. On the downslope toward the i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . t h e b u l k o f t h e houses f a l l i n t o the s e c o n d - c l a s s , w i t h i n -c r e a s i n g , numbers of t h i r d - c l a s s houses toward the i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . These s i t e s a r e l e s s d e s i r a b l e s i n c e t h e y are o f t e n on muskeg and t h e y do not have a f i n e v iew o r as much l i g h t . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n does not a p p l y ' e a s t o f 176. PHOTOGRAPH 3 3 F i r s t - c l a s s house on double l o t . PHOTOGRAPH 39 The g r a i n e l e v a t o r from the c o a s t a l r i d g e . The f l a t l a y i n g land i n the foreground i s probably a former t e r r a c e of Morse Creek. Second-class residences occupy the area. 177. Hays Creek s i n c e growth i n t h i s s e c t i o n was not n a t u r a l but was the r e s u l t of mass wartime b u i l d i n g . The o n l y p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t P r i n c e Rupert has a t p r e s e n t t a k e s note o f t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n . The map o f z o n i n g f o l l o w s v e r y c l o s e l y t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n of l a n d use. Many of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s c o nnected w i t h u r b an c e n t r e s such as c o n f l i c t i n g l a n d use on t h e r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e and r i b b o n development a l o n g a r t e r i a l highways has not o c c u r r e d as y e t i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . There w i l l , o f c o u r s e , never be a problem o f r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e i n P r i n c e Rupert because o f the l a c k o f s u i t a b l e f a r m . l a n d . The c i t y i n the f u t u r e w i l l have t o be r e a d y t o combat r i b b o n development. T h i s may o c c u r , s i n c e the town has been l i n k e d by r o a d w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t and more p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e p u l p p l a n t on Watson I s l a n d . The i n t e n t i o n o f the company i s t h a t t h e workers a t t h e p l a n t s h o u l d f i n d r e s i d e n c e s i n P r i n c e Rupert and commute t o t h e p l a n t , e l e v e n m i l e s away. There may be a tendency f o r many o f t h e wo r k e r s t o l o c a t e a l o n g t h e h i g h -way l e a d i n g t o t h e p l a n t i n s t e a d o f i n the many vac a n t spaces w i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f . The c i t } ' s h o u l d t a k e e v e r y means w i t h i n i t s power t o b r i n g about a r e - s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a n d . The twenty-f i v e f o o t l o t s s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d c o m p l e t e l y , a l t h o u g h t h i s w i l l be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t i n s e t t l e d a r e a s . I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s t o p t h e s a l e c f s i n g l e l o t s i n the f u t u r e . A t h o r o u g h r e v i s i o n o f t h e town p l a n i s n e c e s s a r y , i n l i g h t 178. cf the changed f u n c t i o n s that the town has assumed. Note should be taken of the ease with which the c i t y may be broken i n t o neighbourhood u n i t s , separated by the major streams. S i t u a t i o n at Present V'Jhat i s the s i t u a t i o n today? I t can only be des-c r i b e d as deplorable. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of the s i t e , the over expansion and bankruptcy of the t h i r t i e s , the s t r a i n on f a c i l -i t i e s during the war have combined to b r i n g the c i t y to a r e g r e t t a b l e s t a t e : "with water system inadequate, sewers c o l l a p s i n g , s t r e e t s d i l a p i d a t e d and f a l l i n g to p i e c e s , s i d e -walks broken down and dangerous or non-existent - to mention only some of the e s s e n t i a l s " - ^ t c quote the l o c a l paper. Add to t h i s the a t t i t u d e of many of the r e s i d e n t s that they are there only t e m p o r a r i l y and i t presents a very d i f f i c u l t problem indeed. PHOTOGRAPH LO T h i r d - c l a s s houses i n foreground - second-class Rouses behind. Note outdoor p r i v y on the r i g h t . 1 0 . E d i t o r i a l , P rince Rupert D a i l y Hews, June 19, 1950. 179. The p i c t u r e i s not, however, completely black. The c i t y has a f i r m e r and more d i v e r s i f i e d foundation than before the war. There i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of a d i s a s t r o u s setback since whatever expansion i s t a k i n g place at present i s due e n t i r e l y t o the demands of e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s , not to the expectations of the spec u l a t o r . People coming to Prince Rupert i n the fu t u r e w i l l be coming there with the i n t e n t i o n of s e t t l i n g permanently. Many of the e a r l y r e s i d e n t s of the c i t y came merely because i t was a boom town where they could get r i c h q u i c k l y . The m a j o r i t y of them never d i d get r i c h and so became very b i t t e r with the c i t y and lacked confidence i n i t s f u t u r e . PHOTOGRAPH 41 F i l l necessary t o b r i n g Second Avenue to grade. The small stream i n the foreground has the appearance and smell of an open sewer, probably due to f a u l t y s e p t i c tanks. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS V//J AREAS MUO YOK I"ORI".ST MANACILMLNT bY COLUMBIA LLUULOSC CO. TRANSMISSION L I N L BOUNDARY'OK UKr. CKLATV.D RY DAMMING m t NECHAKO RIVLR BOUNDARY 0 1 PKINCI KUPIRT FOREST DISTRICT 60UNUAUY MTWH'N COAST ANO INTI'.RIOR fORfyr DISTRICTS 180, Map 17 F u t u r e Developments Source: F o r e s t Management Areas from t h e B.C. Department o f Lands'and F o r e s t s , F o r e s t Management L i c e n c e No. 1. * Chapter XI THE FUTURE OF PRINCE RUPERT S i n c e t h i s t h e s i s has a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e pa s t development of P r i n c e Rupert as i t has been i n f l u e n c e d by i t s r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g i t i s o n l y f i t t i n g t h a t some p r e -d i c t i o n s h o u l d be made on a s i m i l a r b a s i s . P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f P r e s e n t Development There i s a base p o p u l a t i o n below which P r i n c e Ru-p e r t i s not l i k e l y t o s i n k , somewhere around 6 , 5 0 0 . T h i s i s t h e number t h a t can be s u p p o r t e d by f i s h i n g , a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the r a i l w a y . To t h i s f i g u r e may be added the 6 0 0 workers t o be employed by the Celanese C o r p o r a t i o n i n t h e i r p u l p o p e r a t i o n s . S i n c e t h i s r e p r e s e n t s o n l y p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s , t h e f i g u r e s h o u l d be m u l t i p l i e d by t h r e e t o account f o r w i v e s , c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s s u p p o r t e d by s e r v i c e t o t h e s e w o r k e r s , g i v i n g a minimum p o p u l a t i o n i n the f u t u r e o f 8 , 3 0 0 t o 8 , 5 0 0 . At p r e s e n t the p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d a t 9 - , 2 0 0 but the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p u l p p l a n t r e q u i r e s many more workers t h a n i t s e v e n t u a l o p e r a t i o n . 182. P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f Development of Immediate H i n t e r l a n d Beyond t h i s p o i n t a l l p r e d i c t i o n s a r e p u r e l y specu-l a t i v e , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e based on an e v a l u a t i o n of known r e s o u r c e s . Of the 2 SO m i l l i o n fbm which t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n o f the P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t D i s t r i c t can produce on a sus-t a i n e d , y i e l d b a s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 3 0 m i l l i o n fbm w i l l . b e used i n t h e p u l p m i l l s a t Watson I s l a n d and Ocean F a l l s . The r e m a i n i n g 1 5 0 m i l l i o n fbm c o u l d , as p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d , be u t i l i z e d e c o n o m i c a l l y i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . I f the cut were p r o c e s s e d as rough lumber, i t would p r o v i d e employment f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 0 men. Should t h i s o c c u r , the c i t y c o u l d e x pect a p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e o r d e r of 1 0 , 0 0 0 . At p r e s e n t s u r v e y s are b e i n g conducted' i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia by t h e Aluminum Company o f Canada t o judge the f e a s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an aluminum p l a n t a t K i t i m a t . The scheme i n v o l v e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a dam on t h e Nechako R i v e r which w i l l r a i s e the l e v e l o f t h e s e r i e s o f l a k e s i n Tweedsmuir Pa r k between 2 0 0 and 3 0 0 f e e t . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l o w e s t o f t h e l a k e s , M a t a l k u z Lake, the s o u r c e of t h e Nechako, and t h e h i g h e s t , E u t s a k Lake i s o n l y 173 f e e t . The water w i l l be tapped by way o f T a h t s a Lake and would r e q u i r e a l O g - m i l e t u n n e l and a p e n s t o c k of s l i g h t l y over one m i l e t o b r i n g t h e water t o the t u r b i n e s . T h i s would g i v e a head of 2 , 5 6 0 f e e t on t h e Kemano R i v e r n i n e m i l e s from t i d e w a t e r a t G a r d i n e r C a n a l . There i s s u f f i c i e n t l a n d here f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of power p l a n t s , but not s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an aluminum r e f i n e r y . The company's p l a n i s t o l o c a t e t h e i r r e f i n e r y a t t h e head o f K i t i m a t Arm where t h e r e i s an abundance o f l e v e l l a n d and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f easy r a i l and road c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the o u t s i d e . C o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y a t T e r r a c e c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 4 0 m i l e s o f r a i l , over easy g r a d i e n t s . One o f the company's g r a v e s t problems w i l l be t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e power l i n e from the Kemano R i v e r t o K i t i m a t s i n c e ' i t i n v o l v e s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s o v e r ex-t r e m e l y rugged t e r r a i n . Newspaper r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e company c o n t e m p l a t e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c i t y o f 5 0 , 0 0 0 people a t Kitimat.-*- T h i s seems a somewhat h i g h f i g u r e s i n c e A r v i d a , where s i m i l a r amounts o f power are i n v o l v e d , numbers o n l y 1 5 , 0 0 0 . The company has announced t h a t i t w i l l encourage complementary power-using i n d u s t r i e s t o use t h e s u r p l u s power. T h i s w i l l p r o b a b l y g i v e a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n t h a n u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l l t h e 1 , 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 hp. f o r aluminum r e f i n i n g . A more v a l i d f i g u r e f o r the p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e K i t i m a t would p r o b a b l y be 2 0 , 0 0 0 . What w i l l t h i s mean t o P r i n c e R u p e r t ? Some p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g many r e s i d e n t s o f P r i n c e Rupert f e e l t h a t the growth o f K i t i m a t w i l l p r e v e n t the growth of P r i n c e R u p e r t . T h i s does n ot seem p r o b a b l e . The two c i t i e s a r e not con-* f l i c t i n g but complementary. The development of K i t i m a t and 1 . Vancouver Sun, J u l y 5 t h , 1 9 4 9 , A p r i l 8 t h , 1 9 5 0 . i t s f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d b r i n g a c o r r e s -p onding development of a g r i c u l t u r e t o s u p p l y t h i s p o p u l a -t i o n w i t h produce. I t was p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d why Graham I s l a n d was c o n s i d e r e d the most p r o m i s i n g s e c t i o n f o r a g r i -c u l t u r a l development. I f t h i s i s t h e case i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t P r i n c e Rupert w i l l be the l a n d i n g p o i n t f o r t h e p r o -duce, s i n c e road t r a n s p o r t i s q u i c k e r than sea t r a n s p o r t and P r i n c e Rupert i t s e l f would s u p p l y a c o n s i d e r a b l e market. I f the goods were t a k e n t o K i t i m a t i t would i n v o l v e a sea j o u r n e y o f an e x t r a $5 m i l e s and t h e n t r a n s h i p m e n t of p a r t o f them back t o P r i n c e R u p e r t . P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s i n t h e development of t r a d e w i t h A l a s k a and i n t h i s development K i t i m a t c o u l d not p o s s i b l y compete. I n s t e a d the growth o f K i t i m a t would put P r i n c e Rupert i n a p o s i t i o n t o compete w i t h S e a t t l e f o r t h i s t r a d e , due to' t h e growth of the a r e a as a market c e n t r e i n i t s own r i g h t . At p r e s e n t C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia p u r c h a s e s a l m o s t a l l o f : i t s . - s u p p l i e s from Vancouver, s i n c e i t forms such a s m a l l market t h a t i t i s not w o r t h w h i l e t o e s t a b l i s h e x p e n s i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n - c e n t r e s i n the N o r t h . I f K i t i m a t grows i t w i l l become f e a s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e i n t h e N o r t h and s u p p l i e s w i l l be brought i n d i r e c t l y from E a s t e r n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . R a i l r a t e s from midwestern and e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s p o i n t s a r e t h e same v i a Canadian r a i l l i n e s t o P r i n c e Rupert as t h e y a r e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s P a c i f i c Coast p o r t s . 185. S i n c e P r i n c e Rupert i s 64O m i l e s c l o s e r t o A l a s k a t h a n t h e n e a r e s t U n i t e d S t a t e s p o r t c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g s i n t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n charges c o u l d be made i f P r i n c e Rupert were used t o s h i p goods from t h e i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s of the e a s t and mid-west. The same c i r c u m s t a n c e s a p p l y i n the r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n . ~ T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , have, i n t h e p a s t , been t h e g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e t o development of A l a s k a . The o n l y i t e m s which c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d p r o f i t a b l y were salmon, h a l i -b u t , g o l d and f u r s ; h i g h c o s t i t e m s which c o u l d stand the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s . Many known r e s o u r c e s , such as t h e f o r e s t s of s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a , were l e f t untouched because of h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . At p r e s e n t t r a n s - s h i p m e n t of goods from P r i n c e Rupert t o A l a s k a i n Canadian v e s s e l s i s p r o h i b i t e d by the "Jones A c t " , a l t h o u g h Canadian s h i p s make r e g u l a r c a l l s a t A l a s k a n p o r t s c a r r y i n g p a ssengers and m a i l . I f A l a s k a were t o a c h i e v e s t a t e h o o d t h e Jones Act would become i n o p e r a t i v e . I n the referendum v o t i n g f o r s t a t e h o o d on October 8, 1946, an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d . The c i t i e s on the s e a c o a s t , i n c l u d i n g almost a l l o f the panhandle o f A l a s k a , a l r e a d y s e r v e d by Canadian steamship l i n e s and, t h e r e f o r e , i n a p o s i t i o n t o b e n e f i t most r e a d i ! } ' by the a b o l i t i o n o f t h e Jones A c t , v o t e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n f a v o u r of s t a t e h o o d . K e t c h i k a n , o n l y 94 m i l e s n o r t h of P r i n c e R u p e r t , showed t h e l a r g e s t m a j o r i t y f o r s t a t e h o o d i n t h e t e r r i t o r y , o v e r 3 t o 1. 2 . A d e t a i l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n may be found i n "Canada's  Mew North w e s t " , N o r t h P a c i f i c P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947, pp. 92-98. 186. The panhandle as a whole voted f o r statehood by a m a j o r i t y of 2 t o 1. The other d i s t r i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the i n t e r i o r of Alaska, where b e n e f i t s of statehood i n the form of lower t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s were not so obvious, d i d not vote so overwhelmingly f o r statehood. The f i n a l count f o r the t e r r i t o r y as a whole stood at 9,630 f o r and 6,822 a g a i n s t statehood, a r a t i o of approximately 3 t o 2, c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than the m a j o r i t i e s obtained i n the panhandle.-^ A b i l l passed the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n 1950 g r a n t i n g statehood to A l a s k a . O p p o s i t i o n of the Senators from Washington S t a t e , watchful of the i n t e r e s t s of S e a t t l e , w i l l make Senate passage d i f f i c u l t . Trade with A l a s k a under present c o n d i t i o n s i s im-p o s s i b l e , w i t h or without the Jones Act. S i x t y - f i v e percent of the goods e n t e r i n g Alaska c o n s i s t s of f o o d s t u f f s . " * At present P r i n c e Rupert imports the m a j o r i t y of her foods from Vancouver, and i s thus i n somewhat the same p o s i t i o n as A l a s k a . Since Alaska's 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d i n many small pockets throughout the t e r r i t o r y even.shipment o f manufactured a r t i c l e s from the east i s d i f f i c u l t . Shipment of manufactured goods can only be done s u c c e s s f u l l y i n c a r l o a d l o t s and there are no c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n i n Alaska to demand goods on t h i s s c a l e . P r i n c e Rupert at present i s too small t o have the s e l e c t i o n of merchandise on i n v e n t o r y to enable Alaskans to purchase . d i r e c t l y from the P r i n c e Rupert merchants. The 3. Ketchikan Alaska C h r o n i c l e , March 29th, 1947. 4. V e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n from Peter L a k i e , D i s t r i c t F r e i g h t Agent, C.N.R., Pri n c e Rupert, B.C. 187. d e a d l o c k can o n l y be broken i f l a r g e s c a l e development t a k e s p l a c e . I t m a t t e r s l i t t l e whether i t o c c u r s a t K i t i m a t or a t P r i n c e R u p e r t . I n e i t h e r case P r i n c e Rupert s t a n d s t o b e n e f i t . S t a b l e , w e l l - o r g a n i z e d p r o d u c t i o n f o r a l a r g e market i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l e n a b le P r i n c e Rupert t o o f f e r goods and s e r v i c e s i n s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y t o compete w i t h S e a t t l e . What would be the p o p u l a t i o n o f P r i n c e Rupert i f A l a s k a n t r a d e were t o d e v e l o p ? I t would p r o b a b l y be f r om 2 0 , 0 0 0 t o 2 5 , 0 0 0 i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s t o A l a s k a . Development of t h i s magnitude would p r o b a b l y use a l l a v a i l a b l e w a t e r f r o n t space i n the c i t y i t s e l f as w e l l as u t i l i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t p r e s e n t unused. There a r e , how-ev e r , l a r g e a r e a s o f f a i r l y low, f l a t c o a s t a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r y i n the v i c i n i t y o f Watson I s l a n d . R i d l e y I s l a n d , which i s s e p a r a t e d from K a i e n I s l a n d by a t i d a l c h a n n e l , i s o v e r t h r e e square m i l e s i n a r e a and i s nowhere h i g h e r t h a n 20.0 f e e t . The whole of i t s w e s t e r n c o a s t , over two m i l e s i n l e n g t h , i s s h e l t e r e d from t h e open sea and has s u f f i c i e n t d e p t h o f f - s h o r e t o accommodate any s i z e of s h i p . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f docks would not be as d i f f i c u l t a problem as i n P r i n c e Rupert i t s e l f . P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s of Development of O r i e n t a l Trade The f i n a l problem t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s f u t u r e r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o the c o u n t r i e s o f the P a c i f i c B a s i n . P r i n c e Rupert can become an e n t r e p o t f o r t h e O r i e n t i f C e n t r a l 18$. B r i t i s h Columbia can p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t d i v e r s i t y o f goods f o r e x p o r t and i f developments i n A s i a p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d p u r c h a s i n g power. P r i n c e Rupert c o u l d s u p p l y t i m b e r , p u l p and p o s s i b l y l o w grade bottom f i s h . G r a i n c o u l d be s h i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e p o r t w i t h e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . K i t i m a t would p r o v i d e r e f i n e d m e t a l , f e r t i l i z e r and p o s s i b l y o t h e r i t e m s , i f i t d e v e l o p s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , why c o u l d n ' t K i t i m a t assemble a l l t h e s e goods and s e r v e as t h e O r i e n t a l p o r t ? There a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which must be remembered i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . K i t i m a t i s a t the head of a f i o r d and has o n l y a l i m i t e d amount o f water f r o n t a g e a v a i l a b l e , between 4 and 5 m i l e s . Somewhat o v e r h a l f o f the water f r o n t a g e w i l l / r e q u i r e d r e d g i n g o r v e r y l o n g p i e r s , because of t h e v e r y e x t e n s i v e t i d a l f l a t s , i f ocean g o i n g s h i p s a r e t o be accommodated. The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Squamish. There i s ample, space t o p r o v i d e dockage f o r t h e p r o j e c t e d p l a n t and a c i t y o f 15 t o 20,000, but t h e r e h a r d l y seems enough t o p r o v i d e f o r e x t e n s i v e t r a n s - P a c i f i c t r a d e as w e l l . P r i n c e R u p e r t , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d have a lumber e x p o r t t r a d e and p r o b a b l y a g r a i n t r a d e , w i t h o u t f e a r o f c o m p e t i t i o n from K i t i m a t , i f c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e O r i e n t are f a v o u r a b l e . T h i s l a s t s e r i e s o f s p e c u l a t i o n s e n visonages growth o f P r i n c e Rupert by r e a s o n of t h e development o f her immediate h i n t e r l a n d , by: t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d e w i t h A l a s k a and the growth o f O r i e n t a l commerce. To each o f t h e s e developments a p r o b a b l e f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n has been a s s i g n e d , a p o p u l a t i o n o f 10,000 f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of the immediate h i n t e r l a n d , a 189. p o p u l a t i o n o f 20 - 2 5,000 f o r t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e immediate h i n t e r l a n d p l u s e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d e w i t h A l a s k a . I f t o t h e s e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t h i r d i s added, growth of commerce w i t h t h e O r i e n t , a f u r t h e r upward r e v i s i o n of c i t y s i z e i s needed, p r o b a b l y t o 50,000. At each of t h e s e s t a g e s P r i n c e Rupert may remain f o r a l o n g , t i m e , s i n c e each s t a g e i s e n v i s i o n e d : as the r e s u l t o f some development w i t h i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . I f an e x p e c t e d development does not o c c u r , such as e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an aluminum r e f i n e r y a t K i t i m a t , t h e r e s u l t w i l l be a s m a l l e r t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . A p o p u l a t i o n o f 50,000 people i s the number t h a t the f o u n d e r s o f t h e r a i l w a y assumed when t h e y b u i l t the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . i n t o P r i n c e R u p e r t . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s f i g u r e was f a r t o o h i g h , c o n s i d e r i n g the n a t u r e of t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e . a r e a tapped by the r a i l w a y . E x p l o i t a t i o n o f more f a v o u r a b l y s i t u a t e d r e s o u r c e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada has proceeded s t e a d i l y s i n c e t h e r a i l w a y was commenced i n 1910. To m a i n t a i n or i n -c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e Canada must move f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r a f i e l d . The r e s o u r c e s o f C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t were not s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l u a b l e and t o o d i s t a n t from th e market t o e x p l o i t i n t h e p e r i o d from 1910 t o 1940 have r e c e n t l y come i n t o demand on w o r l d m a r k e t s . They w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y i n demand as d e p l e t i o n o f more a c c e s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s c o n t i n u e s . P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s p a s t has been f i l l e d w i t h m i s f o r t u n e ; a t p r e s e n t i t s c o n d i t i o n i s d e p l o r a b l e , but i t s f u t u r e is,. 190. b r i g h t . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e p u l p p l a n t of the C e l a n e s e C o r p o r a t i o n o f America at Watson I s l a n d marks t h e f i r s t l a r g e -s c a l e l o c a l use o f the t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s of P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . I t i s p r o b a b l y th e f o r e r u n n e r o f s e v e r a l i n -d u s t r i e s which w i l l u t i l i z e t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . E s t a b l i s h -ment o f an aluminum p l a n t a t K i t i m a t would mark the f i r s t l a r g e - s c a l e use o f a n o t h e r p l e n t i f u l r e s o u r c e , h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l . I t would seem t h a t a new e r a has opened i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, one o f s u s t a i n e d development u t i l i z i n g r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the a r e a t h a t have o n l y come i n t o demand on w o r l d markets d u r i n g t h e l a s t decade. With s t e a d y growth i n t h e h i n t e r l a n d c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e can be e x p e c t e d i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , based t h i s time on a c t u a l i t i e s , not on s p e c u l a t i o n . 191. C h a p t e r X I I CONCLUSION P r i n c e Rupert i s s i t u a t e d on K a i e n I s l a n d , p a r t o f a s e d i m e n t a r y pendant on t h e w e s t e r n margin o f the Coast B a t h o l i t h . Here s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l l a n d i s f o u n d t o a l l o w t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c i t y . Rugged m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y makes b u i l d i n g d i f f i c u l t , however, and has a f f e c t e d the p a t t e r n o f l a n d use. Topography a l s o imposes c o n t r o l s upon the amount o f l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . F o r 90 m i l e s i n any d i r e c t i o n f rom P r i n c e R upert t h e l a n d i s u n s u i t a b l e f o r l a r g e s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s c l i m a t e , a l t h o u g h m i l d , would be c o n s i d e r e d d i s t i n c t l y u n p l e a s a n t by most p e o p l e . Throughout t h e y e a r o n l y one day i n 3 i s w i t h o u t p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f some k i n d and t h e hours o f b r i g h t s u n s h i n e a r e t h e l o w e s t r e c o r d e d by any weather s t a t i o n i n the s e t t l e d p a r t of Canada. The u n p l e a s a n t c l i m a t e d i s c o u r a g e s s e t t l e m e n t u n l e s s some en-t i c e m e n t i s o f f e r e d i n terms o f h i g h e r wages, l a r g e r p r o f i t s o r f a v o u r a b l e employment. T e r r a c e , 90 m i l e s i n l a n d on the Skeena R i v e r , i s the l a s t p l a c e where the m a r i t i m e I n f l u e n c e i s d i s t i n c t l y f e l t . At t h i s p o i n t the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i s s u f f i c i e n t l y 192. l o n g t o p e r m i t t h e growth o f a l l temperate c r o p s . The B u l k l e y V a l l e y , t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e a r e a t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the mainland s e c t i o n o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d , has a d i s t i n c t l y c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e . W i n t e r s a r e l o n g and c o l d , summers s h o r t and c o o l . The l o n g e s t f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i n t h e v a l l e y , a t New H a z e l t o n , i s 14 days s h o r t of t h e minimum of 90' con-s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n o f s m a l l g r a i n s . M o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c y a l s o p r e s e n t s a problem t h r o u g h o u t the v a l l e y , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e below average y e a r s . The s o i l on K a i e n I s l a n d c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y o f a sub-mature s o i l known as muskeg.. I t s l a c k of s t a b i l i t y p r e s e n t s s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f roads and homes and t h e tendency i s t o a v o i d b u i l d i n g on i t whenever p o s s i b l e . As an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l i t i s e x t r e m e l y poor s i n c e i t i s a lmost c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n p l a n t n u t r i e n t s . Muskeg i s a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n l o w l a n d s o f Graham I s l a n d but i t does not p r e s e n t as g r e a t a problem i n t h i s a r e a s i n c e i t i s q u i t e s h a l l o w . Three main s o i l t y p e s are r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e main-l a n d s e c t i o n o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d , brown p o d s o l i c , g r e y wooded, and degraded b l a c k s o i l s . In t o t a l t h e s e s o i l s do not seem l i k e l y to s u p p o r t more t h a n 2-,000 farms w i t h i n e c o n o m i c a l s h i p p i n g d i s t a n c e of P r i n c e R u p e r t . The l a c k o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d has been a h i n d r a n c e t o development a l o n g t h e C.N.R.'s n o r t h e r n l i n e and has i n t u r n p r e v e n t e d growth i n P r i n c e R u p e r t . Graham I s l a n d seems t o o f f e r t h e b e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e f u t u r e . The P r i n c e R u p e r t F o r e s t D i s t r i c t has a t o t a l o f 2 3 , 5 $ 3 m i l l i o n fbm o f t i m b e r on p r o d u c t i v e a r e a s of w h i c h 1 9 , 7 $ 0 m i l l i o n fbm i s found w i t h i n the c o a s t a l s e c t i o n . The e s t i m a t e d s u s t a i n e d a n n u a l y i e l d on t h e c o a s t i s 2 8 0 m i l l i o n fbm of which 1 9 5 m i l l i o n fbm i s b e i n g c u t a t p r e s e n t , l a r g e l y i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . The major-i t y o f t h e c u t moves t o Vancouver f o r p r o c e s s i n g over a tenuous 4 0 0 - m i l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s a w m i l l s near P r i n c e Rupert would p r o b a b l y be s u c c e s s f u l s i n c e h i g h p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s a t t h i s p o i n t would p r o b a b l y be b a l a n c e d by l o w e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . The o u t l o o k f o r i n c r e a s e d f o r e s t r y p r o d u c t i o n seems f a v o u r a b l e . The c o a s t a l s e c t i o n o f t h e P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t D i s t r i c t i s b e i n g u n d e r c u t by 3 0 $ o f the a n n u a l growth r a t e w h i l e the o n l y o t h e r c o a s t a l f o r e s t d i s t r i c t , t h e Vancouver D i s t r i c t , i s b e i n g o v e r c u t by 88%. The f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y , has p r o v i d e d t h e ma. i n s t a y f o r P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s econo-my s i n c e t h e c i t y ' s i n c e p t i o n . The major f i s h e r i e s a re ex-t r e m e l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d , a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l minor f i s h e r i e s p r o b a b l y c o u l d be expanded. P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s f a v o u r a b l e p o s i -t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i s h i n g grounds has p r o b a b l y a l l o w e d Canadian f i s h e r m e n t o t a k e over whatever i n c r e a s e has r e s u l t e d from th e c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h -e r i e s Commission. D e c i s i o n s o f t h e Commission w i t h r e g a r d t o the l e n g t h o f t h e season w i l l p r o b a b l y govern the p a r t F r i n c e Rupert i s t o p l a y i n the f u t u r e of the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y . The salmon f i s h e r i e s of t h e Skeena and Nass R i v e r s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d as the salmon f i s h e r m e n have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r m o b i l i t y . B e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f power b o a t s 25 c a n n e r i e s were r e q u i r e d t o s e r v i c e the f i s h i n g f l e e t s on t h e two r i v e r s , now o n l y s i x a r e needed. P r o b a b l y t h e number w i l l be s t i l l f u r t h e r reduced and the r e m a i n i n g c a n n e r i e s c e n t r a l i z e d a t o r near P r i n c e R u p e r t . Of the 1 , 9 5 4 , 4 3 0 h.p. o f hydro power a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n 1 6 0 m i l e s o f P r i n c e Rupert o n l y 2 . 5 $ i s d e v e l o p e d , due i n l a r g e p a r t t o t h e l a c k o f development of t h e o t h e r r e s o u r c e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t . The Aluminum Company of Canada, however, has announced t h a t i t i n t e n d s t o d e v e l o p 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 h.p. f o r an aluminum p l a n t t o be l o c a t e d a t K i t i m a t . I f t h e p l a n p r o c e e d s as announced i t means t h a t a new c i t y o f 1 5 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t . P r i n c e Rupert was founded t o s e r v e as t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t t e r m i n a l of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , a major t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l l i n e . The c i t y was t o be p l a n n e d i n a l l i t s phases and the r a i l w a y p r o c u r e d t h e s e r v i c e s of a f i r m o f l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s t o p r e p a r e p l a n s f o r a c i t y o f a minimum o f 5 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . The p l a n t h a t they p r e p a r e d r e c o g n i z e d t h e fundamental t o p o g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n s i n t h e town-195. s i t e and t h e s t r e e t p l a n was l a i d out so t h a t the g r e a t e s t advantage c o u l d be t a k e n o f f a v o u r a b l e t o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n has u n d o u b t e d l y succeeded i n r e d u c i n g c o s t s o f road c o n s t r u c t i o n i t has been more h a r m f u l than b e n e f i c i a l . The p l a n was p r e p a r e d f o r a g r e a t p o r t c i t y o f 50,000 p e o p l e . P r i n c e R u p e r t became a s m a l l f i s h i n g p o r t o f 5,000 p e o p l e . The whole of the c i t y was c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a r e a s e t a s i d e i n t h e p l a n as t h e b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . S i n c e the a r e a was i n t e n d e d t o be-a b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t the l o t s were o n l y 25 f e e t wide by 100 f e e t deep, a s i z e which i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e t h e a m e n i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . From 1909 t o 1925 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s p i e c e s o f l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t equipment went on. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a drydock c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g s h i p s up t o 20,000 t o n s , a g r a i n e l e v a t o r w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 1,250,000 b u s h e l s and s e v e r a l l a r g e docks were e r e c t e d . These were t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e t r a d e o f the O r i e n t which P r i n c e Rupert was expected t o c a p t u r e s i n c e i t was 500 m i l e s c l o s e r t o t h e O r i e n t t h a n any o t h e r N o r t h American p o r t . The t r a d e never m a t e r i a l i z e d because of t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e O r i e n t , the l a c k o f s e t t l e m e n t a l o n g t h e l i n e of t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and the n a t u r e of t h e r e s o u r c e s tapped by the r a i l w a y . These r e -s o u r c e s are s u b s t a n t i a l i n t h e m s e l v e s but t h e y were too d i s -t a n t f r o m markets t o compete w i t h more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . 1 9 6 . Over e x p a n s i o n o f the c i t y and the c o s t of con-s t r u c t i o n on d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n f o r c e d the c i t y i n t o bank-r u p t c y i n 1 9 3 3 . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a d i s a s t e r o u s r e a d j u s t -ment o f the c i t y t o the r e a l i t i e s o f i t s environment. Another more p e a c e f u l adjustment t o a c t u a l i t i e s was the ex-p a n s i o n o f s m a l l boat f a c i l i t i e s from t h e i r c e n t r e a t Cow Bay t o l i m i t s p r o v i d e d by t h e t o p o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e . From 1925 t o 1940 the o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y remained s t a g n a n t . The commercial cor e was c e n t r e d a t T h i r d Avenue and F u l t o n S t r e e t , f i r s t - c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s s t r e t c h e d a l o n g t h e c r e s t o f the c o a s t a l o r i n l a n d r i d g e w i t h second and t h i r d - c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s s i t u a t e d between t h e c r e s t o f t h e r i d g e and t h e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . World War I I brought many changes t o t h e c i t y . Be-cause P r i n c e Rupert i s c l o s e r t o A l a s k a . t h a n any o t h e r P a c i f i c c o a s t r a i l w a y t e r m i n u s i n t e n s i v e use was made o f the p o r t i n t r a n s p o r t i n g s u p p l i e s and men t o t h e t e r r i t o r y . Peace l e f t a t w o f o l d l e g a c y i n t h e form o f a d d i t i o n s and improvements t o t h e l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t P r i n c e Rupert i s the l o g i c a l p o i n t from which t o s e r v i c e A l a s k a . Goods can be brought from t h e i n -d u s t r i a l e a s t and mid-west t o P r i n c e Rupert f o r the same c o s t as t o S e a t t l e . S i n c e P r i n c e Rupert i s 640 m i l e s c l o s e r t o A l a s k a t h a n i s S e a t t l e s u b s t a n t i a l s a v i n g s i n t r a n s p o r t c o s t s would be a f f e c t e d by use o f t h e p o r t . There a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s h i n d e r i n g t h i s a t p r e s e n t , One i s t h e Jones A c t which 197 p r o h i b i t s the use of Canadian s h i p s i n f r e i g h t t r a de with A l a s k a . The ot h e r s are the l a c k of l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia to supply the fo o d -s t u f f s t h a t r e p r e s e n t the bulk of the shipment t o A l a s k a , and the l a c k of p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s which would permit the establishment of a l a r g e - s c a l e d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e , w i t h i t s attendant advantages of wider s e l e c t i o n s , c a r l o a d s h i p -ments and lower c o s t s . The i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n attendant upon the develop-ment of K i t i m a t may be s u f f i c i e n t t o break t h i s deadlock. I f t h i s does not occur P r i n c e Rupert w i l l probably remain a c i t y o f 8-10,000. I f , however, the growth of K i t i m a t b r i n g s about the establishment of a d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia and causes the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d on Graham I s l a n d t o be put i n t o p r o d u c t i o n P r i n c e Rupert w i l l probably grow t o a c i t y o f 25-30,000. The a d d i t i o n of O r i e n t a l t r a d e , dependent upon peace i n A s i a as w e l l as the ge n e r a l develop-ment of Alask a and C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia could b r i n g an even h i g h e r p o p u l a t i o n , p o s s i b l y 50,000 people, although t h i s i s f a r i n the f u t u r e . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 9 9 . Books F l e m i n g , S a n d f o r t h , • R e p o r t s and Documents i n R e f e r e n c e t o t h e L o c a t i o n of t h e L i n e and a Western T e r m i n a l Harbour, 1878, Ottawa, 1878. : G l a z e b r o o k , G.P., A H i s t o r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Canada, Ryerson P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1938. K i z e r , B.H., The U.S. Canadian Northwest, Ryerson P r e s s , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 1943. T a l b o t , F.A., The Making of a Great Canadian R a i l w a y , Musson, T o r o n t o , 1912. The N o r t h P a c i f i c P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t , Canada's New Northwest, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1948. U n i t e d S t a t e s Army S e r v i c e F o r c e s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Corps, P r i n c e Rupert Sub-Port o f E m b a r k a t i o n , S o u v e n i r B o o k l e t , D i b b P r i n t e r s , P r i n c e R u p e r t , 1945. W h i t f o r d , H.N., and C r a i g , R.D., F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1918. P e r i o d i c a l s Adams, J.Q., " P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C.", Economic Geography, V o l . 14, A p r i l , 1 9 3 8 , pp. 1 6 7 - 1 8 3 . H a l l , George D.,"The F u t u r e of P r i n c e Rupert as Conceived by Landscape A r c h i t e c t s " , The A r c h i t e c t u a l Reoord, V o l . 2 6 , No. 2 , New York, August, 1909, pp.. 9 7-106. Lower, J.A.,"The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the-Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia", B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 4, 1 9 4 0 , p p . 1 6 3 - 1 9 6 . P r i t c h a r d , A.L., "The Skeena R i v e r Salmon I n v e s t i g a t i o n " , Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . 3 9 , No. 2 , August, 1 9 4 9 , PP. 6 0 - 6 7 . T a y l o r , G., " B r i t i s h Columbia, A Study i n Topographic C o n t r o l " , G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 2 2 , No. 3 , 1 9 4 2 , pp. 3 7 2 - 4 0 2 . 2 0 0 . T h o r n t h w a i t e , C.W., "An Approach toward .a R a t i o n a l C l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f C l i m a t e " , The G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 3 8 , No. 1 , 1 9 4 8 , pp. 5 5 - 9 4 . Tower, W.S., "Western Canada and t h e P a c i f i c " , G e o g r a p h i c a l  Review, V o l . 9 , 1 9 1 7 , p. 2 8 4 - 9 6 . Government P u b l i c a t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau o f I n d u s t r i a l and T o u r i s t Develop-ment, B u l l e t i n No. 1 5 , Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , . K i n g T s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 3 8 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau o f P r o v i n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 2 4 , S m i t h e r s Land R e c o r d i n g D i v i s i o n , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 3 7 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , C l i m a t e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 4 $ , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 9 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f F i s h e r i e s , G.J. A l e x a n d e r , The Commercial Salmon F i s h e r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 7 . B r i t i s h C olumbia, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , F o r e s t  Management L i c e n s e s , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 $ . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , Report o f  the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Lands, 1 9 4 7 , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 8 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , T r a n s a c t i o n s  of the Second Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 9 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f Trade and. I n d u s t r y , R e g i o n a l  I n d u s t r i a l Index of B r i t i s h C o l u m b ia,.King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 8 . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Trade and I n d u s t r y , T r a v e l Bureau, B u l l e t i n No. 2 2 , P r i n c e Rupert Land R e c o r d i n g D i s t r i c t , . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 3 - : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board, 2 $ t h Annual R e p o r t ,  A p r i l 1 s t , 1 9 4 $ , t o March 3 1 s t , 1 9 4 9 , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 9 . Canada,•Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , A.V. White, Water Powers  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 1 9 . 201. Canada, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , W.J. Anderson, A Study of  Land S e t t l e m e n t i n the P r i n c e George-Smithers Ar e a , , B r i t i s h Columbia, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947. Canada, Department o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Economic Geology S e r i e s No. 3, V o l . 1, G.A. Young and W.L. Uglow, The I r o n Ores of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon, pp. 16-51. Canada, Department of M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary R e p o r t , 1912, R.G. M c C o n n e l l , " G e o l o g i c a l S e c t i o n A l o n g the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y f rom P r i n c e R upert t o Aldermere, B.C.", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1912, pp. 55-62. Canada, Department o f Mines, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary  Re p o r t , 1922, P a r t A, V. Dolmage,"Coast and I s l a n d s o f B r i t i s h Columbia Between Douglas Channel and t h e A l a s k a n Boundary", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, pp. 9-34. Canada, Department o f Mines, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary  R e p o r t , 1923 , P a r t A, G. Hanson, "Reconnaissance Between Skeena R i v e r and S t e w a r t , B.C.", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1924, pp. 38-43. Canada, Department of Mines, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary  R e p o r t , 1924, P a r t A, G. Hanson, " P r i n c e Rupert t o Burns Lake", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1925, pp. 39-43. Canada,. Department of Mines and Re s o u r c e s , G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary R e p o r t , 1936, P a r t A, F.A. K e r r , " M i n e r a l R esources Along t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y Between P r i n c e Rupert and P r i n c e George, B r i t i s h Columbia", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 193.7. Canada, Department o f Mines and R e s o u r c e s , Surveys and E n g i n e e r i n g B r a n c h , Water Resources Paper No. 90, S u r f a c e Water Supply of Canada, P a c i f i c D r a i n a g e , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1944. Canada, Department of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau-of S t a t i s t i c s , E i g h t h Census o f Canada, 1941, V o l . I I , P o p u l a t i o n by L o c a l S u b d i v i s i o n s , V o l . X, Census o f  M e r c h a n d i s i n g and S e r v i c e E s t a b l i h h m e n t s , K i n g ' s . P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Canada, Department o f Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s o f Canada, 1946, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1949. Canada, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , C l i m a t i c Summaries f o r S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s , V o l . 1 and 2, T o r o n t o , 1949. 202. Canada, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , A. J . Connor, The F r o s t - F r e e Season i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, T o r o n t o , 1949. R e p o r t o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, No. 14, R e g u l a t i o n and I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e P a c i f i c H a l i b u t  F i s h e r y i n 1949, S e a t t l e , Washington, 1949. U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Yearbook o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1949, C l i m a t e and Man, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1941. P u b l i c a t i o n s o f Lea r n e d S o c i e t i e s P r o c e e d i n g o f the 5th P a c i f i c S c i e n t i f i c C ongress, Canada, 1933, ' Peacock, M.A., "The F i o r d Lands of B r i t i s h C o l umbia", pp. 709-720, T r a n s a c t i o n s , R o y a l S o c i e t y , Canada, 4th S e r i e s , S e c t i o n IV, K e r r , F . A . , " G l a c i a t i o n i n Northern B r i t i s h Columbia", pp. 17-31. U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l B e l l , F.H., P r i n c e Rupert and the P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y , t y p e d m a n u s c r i p t , I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, U n i v e r s i t y o f 'Washington, S e a t t l e , u n dated. Bogue, V i r g i l , G., C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r , Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , P l a n s and R e p o r t , The Development o f t h e  W a t e r f r o n t and R a i l w a y T e r m i n a l , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C., March 8, 1913. B r i e f , S u b m i t t e d by Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , L i m i t e d , t o A i r T r a n s p o r t Board, mimeographed, 1946. C i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , Z o n i n g B y - l a w s , 1941. Copy o f r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d by B r e t t and H a l l on A p r i l 14, 190$ t o Frank W. Morse, V i c e P r e s i d e n t and G e n e r a l Manager, Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , M o n t r e a l . I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, S t a t i s t i c a l Memorandum, 1949. 2 0 3 . Lower, J.A., 'The Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and B r i t i s h  C olumbia, M.A. T h e s i s , Department o f H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 3 9 . L e t t e r t o a u t h o r f rom George D. H a l l , 1 1 9 0 South Pasadena Avenue, Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y 8, 1 9 4 9 . Memorandum, S u b m i t t e d t o t h e . F e d e r a l Government by P r i n c e R u p e r t I n d u s t r i a l Development Committee, March, 1 9 4 6 . P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C., The Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Com-pany, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 1 1 . P r i n c e R u p e r t F o r e s t D i s t r i c t Management R e p o r t , 1 9 4 8 , O f f i c e o f D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. P r o s p e c t u s o f Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company, L i m i t e d , i s s u e d by N e s b i t t , Thomson and Company, L t d . , M o n t r e a l , J u l y 6 , 1 9 4 8 . R e p o r t f o r the Development o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , B r i t i s h Columbia, B r e t t and H a l l , Landscape A r c h i t e c t s , B o s t o n , Mass., March 2 8 , 1 9 0 8 . Newspapers K e t c h i k a n A l a s k a C h r o n i c l e , A l a s k a S t a t e h o o d and I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Development E d i t i o n , K e t c h i k a n , A l a s k a , March 2 9 , 1 9 4 7 . P r i n c e Rupert D a i l y News, March 1 0 , 1 9 4 9 t o J u l y 3 0 , 1 9 5 0 , i n c l u s i v e . The E m p i r e , ( P r i n c e R u p e r t ) , J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 t o A p r i l 1 9 1 0 . I30°*>' South 130° 25' I 3 0 ° O O ' Trenham Pi 54°25 ' - j - 1 540 25' 5 4 ° 2 0 5 4 ° 2 0 ' 5 4 ° 0 5 ' 5 4 ° o o ' l I 3 0 ° 3 0 ' 130° 25' I 3 0 ° 2 0 ' 130° io' I 3 0 ° 0 5 ' 54°oo' 130° o o ' N A T I O N A L T O P O G R A P H I C S E R I E S (Cancel department flf jMines *itft Jlesourccs S U R V E Y S A N D E N G I N E E R I N G B R A N C H H Y D R O G R A P H I C A N D M A P S E R V I C E S H E E T 103 N . E 92 The declination of the compass needle at any place along a dotted line is the declination given on that dotted line. At other places the declina-tion is between those given on the neighbouring dotted lines; thus at the place marked A. the declination is Itetween N. 29° E. and N. 30* £, because the place A lies between the lines marked N.29" £ and N. 30° E. The declination of the compass needle is decreasing 3 minutes annually. Areas accurately mapped and contoured shown thus 1 J—f Town or village Q 0 Settlement wuh post office P. Lighthouse 0 Mine ^ Height in feet 1 4 5 NOTE: On the above index the sheets published are shown in colour. Price 25 cents 133* 132* 13r -.5 S3** 'TOc§ 331 123° 124° J iSbirl 2nd. Ca "X Br' -^Priest lx Lachballach \ ^ ^ a z ^ l L i : K Woodcoct 54° |*>Meric >t -V«£»har ^ J g f r Nelspr 3 selvesen Pt. ?njie\djr|Ifeced> I;iklc.ii latiine iH.BCe 3V V ST-sphPt. l-HTitado. £,. S.8«" akejlse .Cr. to 7' • / JK' o WISTITSTG Bearert Larsen I. Marians Pt^  Sonilla l.O South Rks. Halibut 3(° &r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ j j w t o R i . ^ ^ i e t j ; ^ r M f F 1 'aJtmr- Ii-LLet ' Johnston. ZJ. Giltioyee. A r m ///Mission 'Jesse ~-y / . • A /Simpson L. 'OvreL.\ jj. t/T>ioTl i Atna Pl?-90I4Q'' -Laj S h r u b ' Sd. Islands Macdonald 1. 1^  E IVJ TU> Cities (population 1931 census In red! 6167 Government Agent Offices Mining Recording Offices Sub-mining Recording Offices Post Offices Villages International Boundaries Interprovincial Boundaries Park Boundaries Game Reserves Customs Posts Hospitals • Hudsons Bay Coy. Posts Ferries Ferry Seaplane Port CD Seaplane Anchorage J-Iwith limited facil.tiesl t Airports >^ < with or without beacon I 0 Radio Stations IcommercialI 1-1 Power Sites ideAped and undeObpedl fr'Surei _MoraePower Trunk Highways Main Highways ~ — — — — Local Roads T ., /well defined vTWW ( i n d e f i n i , e Railways I I I I Telegraph Lines (other than along railways! —•— —•— — Steamship Routes distances in nautical miles: I nautical mile 6080 feet I statute mile 5280 feet Relief Contours Shewing land forms and elevations above sea level f j-i$$lO^X\ 1000 feet interval ) CJP 1^, Figures shew height in feet P^fl'S above sea level. Falls and Rapids -*+-^"~^  Precipitation shown in inches, annual average 10 yrs Preclp. 122' -Steep G i l Goocl»-c Cliff ^Agglomerate (y M u r c h J . c n ,. 0ro-W, Wells' (rood lid fbr. SOLE. SIZ.VK&. • >'I I If I e Inlet Rennison" I Parser Anderson Will-Ls " | Moore Is. ft I :Ulri Wright Pass. ••Hex SI. •A BarrettS 9 5 ^ 7 Kvy.1-Gi-al • A*VC|A d«po/ir' e.Mics Con^ lomerat °Mtn. 5 Ca ny^Jj^ c a n y o n 121 120° 119° 118° 117° Osoo r1> •r r-— J X. <3^  /darr irewst'eA k Mt. , Burden*; Ol Mi 77 3 Hii'-; H o l l a / ' •3 on. Cr-. •Watino 0 •Hud.tte Hd Friend > kMtn.' V\ 2 - VV|.Sw(i." 1 -Wusk-eg I BecWrlodgeJ Klocr^ JL. Irs PjrKrhl^ JoO hVM-terlLsh-Tl "Ifohfcsjrt^iit" CoXLdarL.^a' Clifford. B. iarVBy Is. JJ ialtennasn. Inlet '[GVeen. Inlet Anth GrifTlr >~l\Pass. 6V '* S^CubtT.CL \,CrdefXoi4B^  M U ^ ~*f-spooeeroot Z.. -TVS Eu| r „i r„ - '-WOO. .^1 R K CTa.hij.ntes'k.o L,. pn Cove ser Cornice FJb^f}i!'i?J "Mboto i . St. JanS" JamBs I QZZEj;\l Mil .Ii. \ .-\'FCE «^ C, S m y t h / B a r d s w e B V<,/" ;a.bo7j.c[h.eT,(? | C7T.OTL. o *Q Group • Sti-yker I.' Broken fc ' * 4^ Group o fi l\\ D e i x H a QUEENS Goose Ij/ / fit--I'-di/H. V ™ Duck 1.0 jjGosling <n S p i d e r 0 iV^  He C O N T I N E N T P O S I T I O N O F M A P A R E A HONOURABLE A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER F \ C . G R E E N , S U R V E Y O R G E N E R A L . B R I T I S H C O L - U M B I A S c a l e , 1: 1,000,000 15.78 m i l e s to 1 i n c h io » p K i l o m e t e r s io s o io so *o N-OH IH AMERICA, •on.i.0 Or. Firtl a: r - J * .^lt-Falls ntatt.' ,Gordon L. M&Jfijiret XCrT: 1» Cb£^r_^CV CroS4 '•tlheslatta L^%y v*<^' iAveril M 's«St?--^J>'Gable Mtn. \ , ' Saactori » V M I U J V IN ->4n.t N'7 6 VAX 'Eaglet L- I :o»i «4e < r p. X TaJ-LLlltZT-L-0. Vis 'Deerhorn Hill ~ v ±ata. 33 Pierre JVlTj.d.( rjVadbtZifeic? «1 Tabor Z-y— # ibtail Mtr i j ^) Necha kpri' I. (Mtns.OU'? Tit c IPun< L O I 8 Mtn o LGuQford 'oodpec . . ' « , S u 3 c h . Q i . M t Da v id son iV—Z-~*-~ ^„ TsachaMt. d5. 5603' S o u t h B e n t i n c k •Sky S c o t t hgie I s l ands 1st. May 1940 Compiled and drawn by Geographic Division. 131° 130° «Haycock f^"2'• d r",Co, I. 0 l29t.Haycock° \P Cape,. Scott Slings ox C orroivs The TueadJ of rutarXy all present rarouraiHM CC&JTA.CT. Mt.Baldface 6090 /I. 7> and hervches on ,. . . Fraser jfttvir lock: 'r-fbufar-U* ruv« i discovwry, W ' the important . •Trapping L.. of placer goitT^ partlcxdmrlgr bmtwwen Aoda. Crttk and JV«f»»i Otorgt -occasional piattwm^ n .Sti-atnTiav-eft f oj^e^.^^'ot -CkertatfJet^er'to Peak s 47':-w I itcLearyL. a l t e | ^ k o P ^ 7x r o Wdv S t o |r«, ^ r Mc Cltnely -Mons 1,714' rch Mtn —^ T—S —r ' - ' • r , l r f i y J v> ) ( 5 n^m^. Mt.ArcV soeo' ^ • t o —> CKcxntsIcir X,. fte L. » » t C M l ) ^ Mt Palme/ ser Jy. '<°/TV;''' / •**••' ? V>5< / / . 3 / V . . c \ V - ^ > / Punti\ a) dria; 3.? ^. / • ^Cu-i-ss ory J--j i l l Sc.0* lUd1 Kangdr-so^  Mil  i pn nv,e"J ' C T 4 » v-trtrtujy wairt rgiie Jaune \ 4 MVfcirMaC^  A WO 'A • - .U / /Ou % Abbot  n ^ ' ^ j ^ l W Mt. 5 / / Miltor / ^ ^ ^ / / / 7 t h y s i Frva*-*-3€1 r,5l \ W n ^ a ^ R e d s t o i Tt^ do-l-L 'take I JMcI-rttoan. \LcOt-es ^ 3 " t;; 5t. ^P1^ eg 'AOOO Mt.Waddington 13,260' MundayMtn ^Or,\ unday 1,00'Costell Pk. -1_ <y^hhash Pt. i Mt.trdas UJSlCiHT' INLXT Herrlesl /2» Canyon0 Mt-Quen He* Sprinj V IU.I Ii III' Wkeri. .ChATn.r r~rco&&l Rapids I Ha milton S L7 / 1 2 S LittteS <L-a.rtg=iJ: .Tlmoihy forest/ ! Mile Ho. > /Raft *i i^ Mtn QBOMtflegbie* ° ^ 4 > , „ ( Bi* Bar Mt"-) '••wO'l!*:;,l'<->,T,Y A»°3T (W JfurrxMro^s proptrt 12* TRY-.. 123 l6^S.'lll"°" t 1-0 i.5 " ) ' « j i ' s o M A P N O . l L 

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