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Prince Rupert, B.C., the study of a port and its hinterland Crerar, Alistair Donald 1951

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PRINCE RUPERT, B.C. THE STUDY OF A PORT AMD I T S HINTERLAND by A L I S T A I R DONALD CRERAR  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ..MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of G e o l o g y and G e o g r a p h y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e standard required from candidates f o r t h e d e g r e e o f MASTER OF ARTS  Members o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o l o g y and G e o g r a p h y THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October,  1951  ABSTRACT  Prince  R u p e r t , B.C. -  The S t u d y o f a P o r t  Prince sufficient  and  R u p e r t i s s i t u a t e d on K a i e n I s l a n d , where  l e v e l land  of a c i t y .  and i t s H i n t e r l a n d .  i s found t o a l l o w  the construction  Rugged m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y makes b u i l d i n g  has a f f e c t e d the p a t t e r n  of land  use.  i m p o s e s c o n t r o l s upon t h e amount o f l a n d  difficult  Topography  also  suitable f o r  a g r i c u l t u r e i n Prince Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d . Prince pleasant, offered  Rupert's climate  discouraging  though mild  settlement  i n terms o f higher  unless  i s wet and un-  some e n t i c e m e n t i s  wages, l a r g e r p r o f i t s  or  favour-  a b l e employment. The B u l k l e y graphically  V a l l e y , the l a r g e s t s i n g l e area topo-  s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the mainland  s e c t i o n of P r i n c e  Rupert's hinterland  for  production.  agricultural  The s o i l s o f P r i n c e not  i s marginal  climatically  Rupert's i n t e r i o r hinterland  seem l i k e l y t o s u p p o r t more t h a n 2000 f a r m s .  Graham  seems t o o f f e r t h e b e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e cultural  settlement The P r i n c e  agri-  Rupert Forest  D i s t r i c t has a t o t a l of areas of which  fbm i s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e c o a s t a l s e c t i o n .  estimated sustained  Island  i n the f u t u r e .  23,5$3 m i l l i o n fbm o f t i m b e r on p r o d u c t i v e 19,780 m i l l i o n  do  annual y i e l d  on t h e c o a s t i s 280  The  million  0  fbm  o f w h i c h 195  processed the  largely  establishment  probably  i s being  fishery,  i n Vancouver m i l l s .  to  I t i s suggested  be that  of sawmills near P r i n c e Rupert would  has  fishing  i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y the h a l i b u t  provided the mainstay f o r P r i n c e Rupert's  since the c i t y ' s i n c e p t i o n .  tremely  cut a t p r e s e n t  be s u c c e s s f u l . The  my  m i l l i o n fbm  w e l l developed  and  The  econo-  major f i s h e r i e s are  an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r  ex-  importance  seems u n l i k e l y . Of t h e 1 , 9 5 4 , 4 3 0 h.p. w i t h i n 160 due  o f h y d r o power a v a i l a b l e  m i l e s of P r i n c e Rupert only 2.5%  is  developed,  i n l a r g e p a r t to the l a c k of development o f the  resources  o f the d i s t r i c t .  The  other  A l u m i n u m Company o f  K i t i m a t p r o j e c t w i l l mark t h e f i r s t  l a r g e s c a l e use  Canada's of  this  resource. P r i n c e R u p e r t was  founded t o serve as the  c o a s t t e r m i n a l of t h e Grand T r u n k P a c i f i c planned  from i t s i n c e p t i o n .  The  s t r e e t p l a n was  t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e c o u l d be t a k e n topographic  features.  The  p l a n was  t o 1925  of  It  l a i d out  scale of the  any  other North  pieces  These were t o  500 m i l e s c l o s e r t o t h e O r i e n t  American p o r t .  because of the poverty  The  the  plan.  f o r t h e t r a d e w i t h t h e O r i e n t w h i c h P r i n c e R u p e r t was s i n c e i t was  so  favourable  c o n s t r u c t i o n of v a r i o u s  o f l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t e q u i p m e n t went on.  to capture  was  u n s u c c e s s f u l because  c i t y n e v e r g r e w s u f f i c i e n t l y t o f i t the From 1 9 0 9  Railway.  Pacific  provide expected than  trade never m a t e r i a l i z e d  of the O r i e n t , the l a c k of  settlement  along the l i n e tapped  o f t h e G.T.P.R.' a n d t h e n a t u r e  by t h e r a i l w a y . Over e x p a n s i o n  t i o n on d i f f i c u l t i n 1933.  of the c i t y  This represented  The  and t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c -  terrain forced the city  c i t y t o the r e a l i t i e s  sources  of the resources  bankruptcy  a d i s a s t r o u s readjustment  of the  of i t s environment.  outlook at present  of Prince Rupert's  i s much b r i g h t e r .  The r e -  h i n t e r l a n d a r e i n much g r e a t e r  demand a n d t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n of the resources w i l l  into  i s beginning.  The d e v e l o p m e n t  g i v e a f i r m base t o t h e c i t y ' s  and t h e c y c l e o f "boom a n d b u s t " i s u n l i k e l y t o o c c u r  growth again.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I  2  P h y s i o g r a p h y and G e o l o g y Local Physiography Regional Physiography  2 19  ....  25  Economic Geology II  III  Climate  32  Climatic Controls Climate During Winter Half-Year C l i m a t e D u r i n g Summer H a l f - Y e a r Summary Soils  32 33. 37 50 62 62 66 72  Local Soils Regional S o i l s Summary IV  77  Forestry  77 79  F o r e s t r y on t h e C o a s t Forestry i n the I n t e r i o r F o r e s t r y Operations o f t h e Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company V  81 91  Fisheries  92 99 102 106  The H a l i b u t F i s h e r y F i s h e r i e s and t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Movement The S a l m o n F i s h e r y Summary VI  Hydrography  I l l  Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s  I l l  Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s and F u t u r e Development VII  o f Grand Trunk P a c i f i c  E a r l y Development o f P r i n c e Rupert VIII  Planned Development o f P r i n c e Rupert Basis of the C i t y Plan C r i t i c i s m of the C i t y Plan  112 117  Founding o f P r i n c e Rupert Construction  ....  Railway  117 120 124 124 127  Page IX  131  E a r l y Expansion of Prince Rupert S i t u a t i o n i n 1915  X  131  The C i t y i n 1 9 4 9  147  Changes S i n c e 1 9 1 5 The R e a s o n s f o r t h e Changes Adjustment t o t h e A c t u a l i t i e s of the Environment. I n f l u e n c e o f W o r l d War I I on t h e C i t y Situation at.Present XI  181  The F u t u r e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f P r e s e n t D e v e l o p m e n t P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f D e v e l o p m e n t o f I m m e d i a t e Hinterland P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f D e v e l o p m e n t o f O r i e n t a l Trade  XII  147 147 157 165 178  181 182 187  Conclusion  191  Bibliography  198  Table of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  List  of Photographs  1.  V e r t i c a l A e r i a l Photograph of Prince Rupert  3  2.  Aerial  7  3.  F i s h Docks and C o l d S t o r a g e  4.  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y S t a t i o n and Docks  5.  Aerial  P h o t o g r a p h o f K a i e n I s l a n d f r o m t h e E a s t .......  8  Photograph of P r i n c e Rupert's Commercial  10 Core 11  from the Northwest 6.  A l l e y Near t h e B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t  13  7.  Fill  14  8.  T h i r d Avenue J u s t B e f o r e t h e C o m m e r c i a l i s Reached  Necessary to Bring F i r s t  Avenue t o G r a d e Section  14  9. L o o k i n g West Along 7 t h , 8th and 9 t h Avenues, i n 1910. 10. I n t e r i o r D e p r e s s i o n and Mountain  Core  15 16  11. K a i e n I s l a n d from t h e N o r t h  16  12. A e r i a l Photograph  of L a k e l s e Lake from the North ....  21  13. A e r i a l Photograph  L o o k i n g E a s t , Upstream of t h e  Skeena R i v e r  .-  14. C l e a n i n g H a l i b u t P r e p a r a t o r y - t o F r e e z i n g ...^ 15.  *..  L o o k i n g N o r t h A c r o s s Harbour-at Mt. Morse  16. A e r i a l Photograph  L o o k i n g West A l o n g Gardner C a n a l . . .  17. A e r i a l Photograph o f the .Head of K i t i m a t Arm and t h e K i t i m a t R i v e r from the South 18. L o o k i n g Northwest Toward Harbour from 3 r d Avenue i n 1910 • 19. L o o k i n g N o r t h e a s t a t the R a i l w a y Yards and L a r g e Scale Port F a c i l i t i e s '  23 95 104 113 114 133  135  20. L o o k i n g West from t h e C o a s t a l Ridge at t h e Grand 136  Trunk P a c i f i c "Wharf 21. C o a s t a l Ridge and R a i l y a r d  138  22. Drydock and S h i p y a r d from the E a s t  139  23. P r i n c e Rupert from the West 24. L o o k i n g Northwest  <  Along 2nd Avenue  14-0 14-1  25.  B u i l d i n g s on Second Avenue  142  26.  L o o k i n g Southwest Along F r a s e r S t r e e t  143  27.  View of I n l a n d Ridge from t h e West  143  28. L o o k i n g a c r o s s the Skeena R i v e r from t h e N o r t h e r n Bank Near Tyee 29.  152  Skeena R i v e r from Tyee, L o o k i n g Toward -the Mouth ....  153  30. L o o k i n g N o r t h from Cow Bay toward Tuck I n l e t i n 1919.  160  31. L o o k i n g N o r t h e a s t from Cow Bay  160  32.  162  T h i r d Avenue L o o k i n g N o r t h e a s t  33 . Wartime Houses  166  34. Second C l a s s and Wartime Houses  168  35. Overhead Ramp  170  36. Railway Yards and Ocean Dock from the C o a s t a l Ridge .  171  37. A e r i a l Photograph of Watson I s l a n d from the West ....  172  :  38. F i r s t  C l a s s House" ..............  '.  39. The G r a i n E l e v a t o r from the C o a s t a l Ridge  176  '.  40. T h i r d C l a s s Houses  178  41. F i l l Necessary t o B r i n g Second Avenue t o Grade  List  1.  176  179  of Tables  Climate Table A - Mean Monthly Temperatures i n  . . ,. . 52  Degree F 2.  Climate Table B - Mean M o n t h l y . P r e c i p i t a t i o n , i n . I n c h e s  53  3.  Climate Table B - Monthly Annual,Averages of Snowfall  54  4.  Climate Table C - Monthly Average D a i l y Maximum.and Minimum Temperatures i n Degrees F . Climate Table D - Monthly and Annual Averages of Extreme Highest and Extreme Lowest. Temperature  56  Climate Table B - Average Monthly and Annual Number of Days with Measurable Rain, .Snow and P r e c i p i t a t i o n of Any Sort  57  7.  Climate Table F - Average Monthly and Annual Hours of B r i g h t Sunshine  58  8.  Climate Table G - Average Wind Speed i n M i l e s per Hour and Percentage Frequency by. . D i r e c t i o n f o r P r i n c e Rupert, B.C. .  59  Climate Table H - F r o s t - F r e e P e r i o d  60  5.  6.  9.  1  1 0 . Climate Table I  i  , .......... . - . t  55  t  - Date When Mean Maximum Exceeds and F a l l s Below 4 3 ° . F  61  11. C l i m a t e Table J , - Average Date ..when.Mean D a i l y Minimum Temperature C r o s s e s 3 2 ° F .  61  1 2 . F r e i g h t Rates t o S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s from P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C  74  13. I n v e n t o r y o f S o i l Surveyed Areas i n N o r t h C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia  75  14. F o r e s t r y Table 1 - Area o f P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t r y .District  87  15. F o r e s t r y Table 2 - M e r c h a n t i b l e Timber Volume on ••• P r o d u c t i v e Area i n M i l l i o n s o f fbm  87  16. F o r e s t r y Table 3 - Annual Logged Area 5 Year 1943-47  87  Average -  17. F o r e s t r y T a b l e 4 - Cut i n M i l l i o n s o f fbm I80  88  F o r e s t r y T a b l e 5 - M e r c h a n t i b l e Timber by Drainage Basins  89  19. F o r e s t r y Table 6 - Saw and S h i n g l e M i l l s  90  20. F i s h e r i e s Table I •--Declared L a n d i n g s by •Regulatory Areas 21. F i s h e r i e s Table I I - L a n d i n g s by P o r t s from Area 2 and 3 by U.S. and Canadian V e s s e l s Combined  108 108  22. F i s h e r i e s Table I I I - S i z e o f U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canadian F l e e t s 23. F i s h e r i e s Table IV - Length o f H a l i b u t F i s h i n g i n Areas 2 and-3  108 Season 109  L i s t o f Maps  1. P l a c e Names and Topography o f Area A d j a c e n t t o P r i n c e Rupert 2. P h y s i o g r a p h i c D i v i s i o n s of P r i n c e Rupert 3. P r i n c e Rupert P l a c e Names 4. R e g i o n a l Topography 5.  Areas T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y S u i t a b l e f o r A g r i c u l t u r e  1 , • <•  6 9 17 26  6. R e g i o n a l G e o l o g y  28  7. R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and P l a c e Names 8. R e g i o n a l S o i l s  .,  ,... .31 ....67  9. R e g i o n a l F o r e s t T y p e s  76  10.  H a l i b u t F i s h i n g Areas  93  11.  W a t e r Power R e s o u r c e s  ...110  12.  Settlement Pattern, A p r i l  13.  P r i n c e Rupert Topography  125  14.  Land  132  15.  L a n d Use, 1949 >  16.  Zoning D i s t r i c t s ^ . . . .  149  17.  F u t u r e Developments  180  13, 1909  121  Use May, 1915  . 146  List  of Figures  1. C l i m o g r a p h s f o r S e l e c t e d  Stations  37A  2. S o i l M o i s t u r e Regime  46A  3. F o r m a t i o n o f M u s k e g  63A  P o c k e t Maps ( I n s i d e B a c k  I.  One M i l e t o One I n c h T o p o g r a p h i c  Cover)  Sheet  I I . E i g h t M i l e s t o One I n c h T o p o g r a p h i c S h e e t I I I . Map o f C e n t r a l B r i t i s h One I n c h  C o l u m b i a , 15.78 M i l e s t o  PREFACE  P r i n c e R u p e r t was the  author's f a m i l i a r i t y  chosen as a study because  w i t h t h e c i t y and  An a r t i c l e p r e p a r e d on t h i s a p p r o v a l a t t h e 1949 Coast  Geographers  I95O e d i t i o n Coast  the  Seattle village.  Grand  tragically for  t o be s e l e c t e d  founded  i n 1909  world port,  for publication  Pacific  i n the Pacific  Why  did this  i t was  Trunk  i t was  Instead happen?  because  Pacific  centre t o r i v a l  When i t would Vancou-  i t became a s m a l l People i n Prince  fishRupert  t h e f o u n d e r and manager o f  of the T i t a n i c  P r i n c e R u p e r t were c o m p l e t e d .  Grand  expected that  R a i l w a y , C h a r l e s M.  i n the sinking  the moribund  i n Prince Rupert.  a trade  and P o r t l a n d .  s t a t u r e as a f i n a n c i e r of  of  of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f  i s the l a c k o f development  believed that the  sufficient  u n d e r l y i n g problem which the study seeks t o  become a g r e a t  ing  with  Geographers.  c i t y was  ver,  i t s problems.  meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n  of the Yearbook  The solve  s u b j e c t met  of  Mr.  Hay's d i e d '  before h i s plans  Hays p r o v e d h i s  and r a i l r o a d m a n by t h e  rejuvenation  Trunk Railway, but i t i s d o u b t f u l  w h e t h e r e v e n h i s e n e r g y and to  make t h e  Grand T r u n k P a c i f i c  It techniques  skill  was  development.  Since the  application  an answer t o t h e growth o f a c i t y  of  geographic  problem of  P r i n c e Rupert's  necessary. Rupert. has  The  study the  important of  the  felt  series  study  extending  The  other  ing  t o g e t h e r the  ing  the  a selection  that t h e i r  of  b e e n made t o  reverse d i r e c t i o n ,  the i n f l u e n c e s  Though t h e s e  are  extremely  study l a y o u t s i d e the  o f two  field  study  considered  of P r i n c e Rupert  f i n d i n g s of the  previous  work.  During  itself,  drawassess-  h i n t e r l a n d upon  this  time  summer o f 1949  and  i n t e r v i e w s conducted  and  others.  S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e due  A. McRae and days of t h e  were s p e n t  a f u n c t i o n a l map  prepared  early  necessary.  the  city.  was  Steen,  one  Rupert  s e c t i o n and  i n f l u e n c e of the geography of the of the  parts,  s t u d i e s c e n t r e d upon P r i n c e  T h r e e weeks o f t h e  the  by  a t t e m p t has  o u t w a r d s a s f a r a s was  section i s a  development  H.  c e n t r e d upon P r i n c e  consists essentially  of systematic  and  field  was  thesis. The  a  No  upon t h e h i n t e r l a n d .  i t was  study  i n v e s t i g a t e d i n so f a r a s i t  pertinent.  i n f l u e n c e s i n the  city  s t u d y was  upon  area a  or h i n t e r l a n d  t h e growth of P r i n c e Rupert,  considered  the  area  f o c u s of the  h i n t e r l a n d was  affected  material  of  The  tributary  non-  i s dependant  the f u n c t i o n s that i t performs f o r a t r i b u t a r y of  sufficient  a successful undertaking.  hoped t h a t t h e  would p r o v i d e  w o u l d h a v e been  with  t o W.J.  of the  in city  pioneer residents Raymond, W.  A r t h u r Brooksbank f o r i n f o r m a t i o n city.  R.D.  Thain,  City Clerk  and  Bell, on  P.  Lakie,  way,  District  F r e i g h t Agent, Canadian N a t i o n a l  were a l s o o f g r e a t  leged  to  correspond  California,  with  formerly  scape a r c h i t e c t s t h a t  assistance. George D.  o f B r e t t and prepared  information  April  He  a u t h o r has  work on  1938.  the  f i r m of  original  s u p p l i e d much  on  the  due  the  valuable  unobtainable. J o h n Q.  to a l a c k of  basis f o r the  J.L.  R o b i n s o n gave v a l u a b l e  guidance i n the  preparation  o f the  thesis.  f a c i l i t a t e d the  preparation  of the  maps.  and  for  Adams/ of nondevelop-  author's  more  study. Dr.  o f my  plans  land-  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t was  extensive  Pasadena,  i n Economic Geography  Adams' g e n e r a l  h i n t e r l a n d was  privi-  of  drawn l i b e r a l l y  P r i n c e Rupert  Mr.  ment i n t h e  a u t h o r was  w h i c h . w o u l d have b e e n o t h e r w i s e  The pioneer  Hall Hall,  the  development of P r i n c e Rupert.  The  Rail-  wife  without  has her  criticism Dr. The  J.R.  the  preparation  h a v e b e e n a much more d i f f i c u l t  task.  of the  Mackay  assistance  been i n v a l u a b l e i n a l l phases of t h i s help  and  work,  t h e s i s would  Map  1  P l a c e Names and Topography of Areas Adjacent t o P r i n c e Rupert Source: One m i l e t o one i n c h , N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s P r i n c e Rupert East  Sheet.  Map,  PRINCE RUPERT, B.C. THE STUDY OF A PORT AND I T S HINTERLAND  Chapter I  PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY  Local Physiography  K a i e n I s l a n d , upon w h i c h P r i n c e R u p e r t i s l o c a t e d , is  one o f a s e r i e s o f i s l a n d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w e s t e r n  m a r g i n o f t h e C o a s t Range M o u n t a i n s w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e d from t h e m a i n l a n d by s e a - i n v a d e d v a l l e y s . Kaien Island t h i s  I n t h e case o f  s e p a r a t i o n i s o f a m i n o r n a t u r e and i n  f o u r p l a c e s t h e i s l a n d approaches w i t h i n one-quarter o f a m i l e o f t h e mainland t o form t h e t i d a l rapids, o f Z a n a r d i , G a l l o w a y , B u t z e and S h a w a t l a n s . Kaien Island  and t h e m a j o r i t y o f Tsimpsean P e n i n -  s u l a a r e u n d e r l a i n by sedimentary r o c k s of t h e P r i n c e  Rupert  F o r m a t i o n , w h i c h f o r m a pendant o f s e d i m e n t a r i e s on t h e w e s t e r n m a r g i n o f t h e a r c u a t e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e C o a s t Range  Batholith.  The rocks o f the P r i n c e Rupert  Formation are  T r i a s s i c i n age and composed l a r g e l y o f q u a r t z i t e s and a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , p a r t l y converted t o quartz mica schists.  They p r o b a b l y formed the country rock i n t o which  the Coast Range B a t h o l i t h i n t r u d e d i n J u r a s s i c t i m e s .  The  contact between these two f o r m a t i o n s i s found a t Sockeye, on the Skeena R i v e r , and thence a c r o s s Tsimpsean P e n i n s u l a in a northeasterly direction. The main c o n t r o l o f physiography i n t h i s area has been the c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i a t i o n o f P l e i s t o c e n e times, and the a l p i n e g l a c i e r s which p e r s i s t e d a f t e r the withdrawal of the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheet.  There a r e two main t r e n d s  t o the p h y s i o g r a p h i c forms i n the P r i n c e Rupert a r e a . f o l l o w s the s t r i k e o f the r o c k s i n a northwest  One  t o southeast  d i r e c t i o n , as i s seen i n Work Channel, Tuck I n l e t and the entrance t o P r i n c e Rupert Harbour. e a s t , southwest Channel  The other has a n o r t h -  t r e n d as noted i n the North Arm o f Work  and P r i n c e Rupert  Harbour.  The r e l a t i v e r e l i e f of the area, though moderate i n comparison  w i t h the Coast Range as a whole, i s neverthe-  less considerable.  The h i g h e s t p o i n t on Kaien I s l a n d i s  Mount Hays which r i s e s t o a h e i g h t o f  2,320 f e e t .  The  mountain backbone o f Kaien I s l a n d has a g e n e r a l n o r t h e a s t , southwest  t r e n d and i s f l a n k e d to the northwest  east by lowland a r e a s . end of t h e i s l a n d the southwestern  and south-  Lowlands a l s o f r i n g e the n o r t h e a s t e r n  i n the v i c i n i t y o f Shawatlan Rpaids.  On  end o f the I s l a n d , b o r d e r i n g the entrance  5.  to P r i n c e Rupert Harbour, the slopes a r e extremely  abrupt,  the l a n d r i s i n g from sea l e v e l t o 1600  third  f e e t i n one  of a m i l e . The  northwestern  lowland  area from Shawatlan  Rapids t o P i l l s b u r y P o i n t i s approximately  one m i l e wide.  From P i l l s b u r y P o i n t t o F a i r v i e w Point i s narrows r a p i d l y as the mountains crowd i n upon the shore. seaward f r i n g e s of t h i s lowland  I t i s upon the  t h a t the c i t y of P r i n c e  Rupert has been b u i l t , and f o r t h i s reason the lowland  northwestern  w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be c a l l e d the P r i n c e Rupert  lowland.  Though i n g e n e r a l t h i s area can t r u l y be termed a lowland the micro-topography i s extremely P r i n c e Rupert lowland may  rugged.  The  be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s ,  the c o a s t a l r i d g e , the i n l a n d r i d g e and the i n l a n d depression.  (See Map  2)  The  c o a s t a l r i d g e i s the  b l u f f which p a r a l l e l s the coast l i n e throughout the area.  steep lowland  I t i s broken only where creeks have cut back i n t o  the i n t e r i o r d e p r e s s i o n . a convenient  These small v a l l e y s a l s o p r o v i d e  d i v i s i o n of the c o a s t a l r i d g e i n t o t h r e e  further subdivisions. The f i r s t  s e c t i o n , to the east of Hays Creek, i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the most p r e c i p i t o u s r i s e from the waters edge.  The  l a n d r i s e s from s e a - l e v e l to 200  z o n t a l d i s t a n c e o f only 400 i s reached,  to 5 0 0 f e e t .  feet i n a hori-  Once t h i s height  however, the land becomes f a i r l y f l a t  r e l a t i v e l y g e n t l e d i p toward the i n t e r i o r of the  with a island.  PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS •°*  MOUNTAINS  LOOU  *W1>  Map  2  P h y s i o g r a p h i c D i v i s i o n s o f P r i n c e Rupert Source: F i e l d Work.  PHOTOGRAPH 2 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF KAIEN ISLAND FROM THE EAST P r i n c e Rupert i s v i s i b l e on t h e western s i d e of the i s l a n d . The lowlands f l a n k i n g  the i s l a n d a r e c l e a r l y shown.  High-  way 1 6 , l i n k i n g P r i n c e Rupert w i t h the mainland i s i n the l e f t foreground.  The s e c o n d s u b d i v i s i o n  l i e s b e t w e e n Hays C r e e k a n d  M o r s e C r e e k and h e r e t h e m a i n p o r t i o n  of the c i t y i s s i t u a t e d .  The l a n d r i s e s s t e e p l y  from t h e sea, though not as p r e c i p i -  tously  as i n the f i r s t  or continuously  subdivision.  C r e e k , Cow B a y C r e e k and M o r s e C r e e k have c u t v a l l e y s i n t o the ridge i n t o the c i t y .  face,  The g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n  3,  page  i s achieved within  formidable r i s e i s presented.  entry  9.)  of the coastal ridge  s e c t i o n b e t w e e n Hays a n d M o r s e C r e e k i s o n l y  a rather  steepsided  which are used t o p r o v i d e  ( F o r P l a c e Names see Map  since t h i s elevation  Hays  i n the  100 f e e t , but  500 f e e t o f t h e s h o r e O r i g i n a l l y the  only  f l a t - l y i n g a r e a s a l o n g t h e s h o r e l i n e were s i t u a t e d a t t h e  Map  3  PRINCE RUPERT PLACE NAMES Source: F i e l d Work  mouths o f t h e c r e e k s . p a r t by e r o s i o n fluvial  These l e v e l a r e a s were formed i n  o f t h e o r i g i n a l r i d g e and p a r t l y t h r o u g h  deposition.  They t e n d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o be  t r i a n g u l a r i n shape, w i t h bottoms.  s t e e p s i d e s and r e l a t i v e l y  flat  The m a i n a r e a s were a t t h e mouths o f Hays a n d  Morse Creeks, w h i l e  other  m i n o r a r e a s were f o u n d a t t h e  mouths o f s m a l l , n a m e l e s s c r e e k s .  These c r e e k s debouched  i n t o Cow B a y a n d t h e a r e a now c o v e r e d b y t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n and roundhouse. When t h e r a i l w a y was c o n s t r u c t e d for  l e v e l land f o r switching  builders t o blast large The  the necessity  y a r d s and s i d i n g s f o r c e d t h e  sections of the coastal  b l a s t i n g was most e x t e n s i v e  ridge.  i n t h e area behind t h e  r a i l w a y r o u n d h o u s e a n d t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government w h a r f . PHOTOGRAPH 4 C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y S t a t i o n and Dock Note t h e overhead f o o t b r i d g e w i t h the c o a s t a l  ridge.  needed t o connect t h e s t a t i o n  I n t h e a r e a s where e x t e n s i v e r i s e s almost v e r t i c a l l y  b l a s t i n g occurred  a b o v e t h e t r a c k s and e n t r y t o t h e  c i t y c a n o n l y be a c h i e v e d b y means o f e l e v a t e d steps.  the ridge  ramps o r  (See P h o t o g r a p h s 3 and 4) PHOTOGRAPH 5 Copy o f P h o t o g r a p h b y J.R.  Wrathall  Prince Rupert's commercial core from the north. The l a r g e b u i l d i n g i n t h e c e n t r e  of the semi-circular  d r i v e w a y i s t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government B u i l d i n g . principal  s t r e e t s from r i g h t t o l e f t are F i r s t ,  T h i r d Avenues.  The s c a r p  to the r i g h t of F i r s t  of the c o a s t a l ridge  Avenue and t h e s c a r p  The Second and c a n be s e e n  of the i n l a n d  r i d g e t o t h e l e f t o f T h i r d Avenue.  I n t h e s e c t i o n b e t w e e n Hays C r e e k and Cow the  c o a s t a l ridge reaches a height  m a t e l y 900 f e e t f r o m t h e s h o r e .  o f 120 f e e t  Bay  approxi-  From h e r e t h e r i d g e  dips  12.  gently  southward d i r e c t l y In the  Bay  off until relatively and  r e s t of the  t o Morse Creek, the 100  feet within  has  (See  i n t o the  t o 500  subdivision,  ridge  foot  third  subdivision  the  From a h e i g h t of 232  feet directly  coastal ridge  the  and  r e a c h e s an  inland  elevation  height i t dips gently  i s Acropolis  t o the  north,  the  from  large shore. Point  w e s t and  To  the  south  north-  s l o p e i s more g r a d u a l  Hill  of from 200  has  t o 250  top.  which i s 299  a gently  i m m e d i a t e l y back of the  coastal feet.  of the  ridge  From  eleva-  stands  at  ridge.  a general elevation  rolling terrain.  c o a s t a l and  this  There i s  I t s greatest  f e e t h i g h and  general l e v e l  area  p r e c i p i t o u s l y from  inland depression.  i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n has  f e e t and  developed i n the  e x t e n s i o n of the  i n t o the  50 f e e t a b o v e t h e  50 t o 1 0 0  core.  opposite P i l l s b u r y  It rises  concordance t o t h i s r i d g e  The  feet  commercial  appearance of a  i s only  Hays Creek.  relatively level  lies  ridge  interior ridge  the  least  t o 1200  convexity.  b e t w e e n M o r s e and  tion  120  This  coastal ridge,  inland depression.  a x i s of the  pronounced  little  ridge.  a x i s p a r a l l e l to the  drops a b r u p t l y  s h o r e and  The  city's  of the  i t s long  with  inland  the  r o c h e moutonnee w i t h  east a l o n g the  Cow  5).  Photograph  toward the  i s from  I t then l e v e l s  a w i d t h o f f r o m 1000  a r e a has  Morse Creek southwestward, has  the  that  shore.  of the  b e e n l a r g e l y o c c u p i e d by  The  depression.  r e a c h e s a h e i g h t o f 80 t o  feet from the  i t r e a c h e s the level  inland  inland  This ridges.  of area  These r i d g e s g e n e r a l l y d i p i m p e r c e p t i b l y i n t o t h e i n l a n d depression. The e x t r e m e l y r u g g e d m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y P r i n c e Rupert Photograph  of the  t o w n s i t e makes r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t .  6 i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s  encountered  with  rock. PHOTOGRAPH 6 A l l e y Near t h e B u s i n e s s  District.  B l a s t i n g was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t t h e r o a d w a y .  P h o t o g r a p h s 7 a n d 3 show t h e amount o f c o n s t r u c t i o n work necessary t o b r i n g roads t o f e a s i b l e grades undulating t e r r a i n . photograph ways.  across sharply  The o r i g i n a l p l a n k r o a d w a y s shown i n  9 have s i n c e b e e n r e p l a c e d by b l a c k t o p r o a d -  The wooden r o a d w a y s were l e f t  present roads, the f i l l  as the f o u n d a t i o n f o r  b e i n g p l a c e d on t o p o f them.  t h e t i m b e r s o f t h e o r i g i n a l wooden r o a d w a y r o t t h e  As  fill  PHOTOGRAPH 7 Fill  Necessary t o B r i n g  First  Avenue t o G r a d e . The f i l l  h a s begun t o c r u m b l e  away.  PHOTOGRAPH 8 T h i r d Avenue j u s t B e f o r e t h e Commercial The f i l l  Section i s reached.  necessary t o bring the  road t o grade  c a n be s e e n .  s e t t l e s i n t o t h e muskeg underneath, r e s u l t i n g f i n a l l y i n an extremely  bumpy roadway. PHOTOGRAPH 9  (Copy of Postcard - Date Unknown - P o s s i b l y 1910) Looking west along 7th, 8th and 9 t h Avenues. I n t e r i o r d e p r e s s i o n mountains t o the l e f t , i n l a n d r i d g e to the r i g h t .  c r e s t of the  Comment on t h e reverse of the  o r i g i n a l p o s t c a r d , author unknown. " T h i s g i v e s an i d e a o f the back p a r t o f Rupert and i n t h i s you can see some of the s m a l l e r one room shacks and a l s o the plank roadways.  Notice the stumps everywhere and j u s t  fancy what a job they had t o c l e a r n e a r l y L square of  such t h i c k f o r e s t .  miles  I t was a l l l i k e t h e wooded back-  ground f o u r years ago and each t r e e had t o be c u t down and removed.  No wonder i t i s s t i l l  primitive."  PHOTOGRAPH 10 INTERIOR DEPRESSION AND MOUNTAIN CORE OF KAIEN ISLAND FROM ACROPOLIS HILL  PHOTOGRAPH 11 COPY OF POSTCARD BY W.W. WRATHAL Kaien Island from the north. Prince Rupert i n foreground*  Map  4  R e g i o n a l TopographyMap  of C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of  Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , to one i n c h .  B.C.,  15.76  miles  The of Kaien  micro-topography of the  southeastern  I s l a n d i s much l e s s d i v e r s e t h a n t h a t o f t h e  Rupert lowland.  I t i s gently r o l l i n g  country  t i o n o f 1 0 0 t o 2 0 0 f e e t , muskeg c o v e r e d a n d W a t s o n , R i d l y and  poorly  L e l u I s l a n d s and  southeastern  have the  same e l e v a t i o n .  smaller  f o r e the  w a t e r c o u r s e s have s t e e p e r  is better  drained.  lowland  i n area;  g r a d i e n t s and  P r i n c e Rupert lowland  micro-topography.  there-  the  land  The  be  regarded as a  continuation  with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  greatest  e l e v a t i o n on  rugged  the i s l a n d  western coast  f o r m e d by a l o b e - l i k e P e n i n s u l a , w h i c h may  of P r i n c e Rupert Harbour i s  southward p r o j e c t i o n of be  Tsimpsean  called Metlakatla Peninsula  to  d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from the main Tsimpsean P e n i n s u l a .  The  of the  is  topographic  forms i n the M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a  northwest, southeast, the  sula.  general The  strike  the  of the  western s i d e of the M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a lowlands contiguous to Prince  m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y r e s e m b l e s t h a t of the  of Kaien and  p a r a l l e l to the  I s l a n d but  a r e a s o f muskeg a r e n o t  h a l f of the M e t l a k a t l a P e n i n s u l a  as e x t e n s i v e . i s very  conspicuous f e a t u r e of the r e l i e f being  contains  lowland  developed The  rugged, the Mt.  Penin-  Rupert.  southeast  d r a i n a g e i s somewhat b e t t e r  trend  rocks  alignment of the mountainous Tsimpsean  t h e most e x t e n s i v e The  is  f e e t which i s found i n the northwestern s e c t i o n . The  and  and  drained. D i g b y I s l a n d , may  325  eleva-  P o r t Edward  are a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the They a r e  Prince  w i t h an  townsite  of the  lowland  eastern most  Morse which  rises  t o a h e i g h t o f 2 , 9 9 0 f e e t and  has  t h e w e l l r o u n d e d summit  t y p i c a l ' o f the mountains adjacent to P r i n c e Rupert. M o r s e and  i t s northwestern  extensions form the  margin of the upper harbour Regional Work C h a n n e l ,  and T u c k  Mt.  western  Inlet.  Physiography  a thirty-mile long f i o r d ,  forms  the e a s t e r n boundary of the Tsimpsean P e n i n s u l a .  It is  a l s o t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e b e t w e e n s e d i m e n t a r i e s and  intru-  s i v e s , w i t h t h e P r i n c e R u p e r t f o r m a t i o n t o t h e west t h e C o a s t Range B a t h o l i t h t o t h e e a s t . C o a s t Range B a t h o l i t h e x t e n d The  mountains developed  r u g g e d t h a n any  rocks of  the  f r o m Sockeye t o Amsbury.  i n t h e s e r o c k s a r e h i g h e r and  discussed previously.  t i o n s a r e t o be f o u n d  The  and  The  t o the n o r t h of the  w h e r e t h e m o u n t a i n s r i s e t o 6000 f e e t .  more  greatest elevaSkeena R i v e r  South of  the  Skeena t o D o u g l a s Channel t h e g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n i s o n l y a b o u t 4000 f e e t .  The  area south of the  Skeena i s , i n  f a c t , t h e l o w e s t p a r t o f t h e C o a s t Range and  forms a  s a d d l e b e t w e e n l o f t i e r m o u n t a i n s t o t h e n o r t h and Terrace south  v a l l e y and  stands at the  j u n c t i o n of a great  the v a l l e y of the Skeena.  The  River.  continues north to Aiyansh  w h i c h may  be  of  on t h e  At t h e Nass R i v e r the v a l l e y i s c o n t i n u e d  by t h e u p p e r N a s s a s f a r a s W h i t e C r e e k .  north-  cross north  s o u t h v a l l e y b e g i n s a t t h e h e a d o f t h e K i t i m a t Arm D o u g l a s C h a n n e l and  south.  northward  This cross  c a l l e d the Kitsumgallum-Lakelse  Nass  valley  Valley, i s  covered t o a depth  o f a t l e a s t 250 f e e t b y g r a v e l ,  c l a y s and o t h e r u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l . i n width from at Terrace.  boulder  The v a l l e y  varies  one t o s i x m i l e s , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t w i d t h I t i s f l a n k e d on e i t h e r  s i d e by m o u n t a i n s  h a v e a g e n e r a l e l e v a t i o n o f 4000 f e e t .  The d i v i d e  r i v e r s i s 300  t h e Tseax and K i t s u m g a l l u m  which  between  feet higher  than  the Skeena R i v e r a t T e r r a c e and t h e d i v i d e between t h e L a k e l s e and it  Kitimat Rivers i s slightly higher.  I t i s probable  that  i s a v a l l e y o f e r o s i o n , c u t when t h e c o m b i n e d w a t e r s o f  t h e Nass and Skeena f l o w e d southward t o empty i n t o K i t i m a t Arm.  Hanson s u g g e s t e d  t h a t " t h e S k e e n a R i v e r may h a v e  dated the Kitsumgallum-Lakelse robbed  by t h e l a t t e r  perhaps l a t e r s t i l l ,  system  system,  which  valley  fiord.  It i sfairly  on b o t h  sides.  out t h i s  t i m e and  or P l e i s t o c e n e time, the  l o w e r S k e e n a may h a v e r e c a p t u r e d i t s f o r m e r The  may h a v e b e e n  perhaps i n Cretaceous  i n Tertiary  ante-  waters".^  o f the Skeena below T e r r a c e resembles straight  a  and t h e mountains r i s e s t e e p l y  I t swidth remains r e l a t i v e l y constant  through-  s e c t i o n , b e i n g i f m i l e s w i d e a t t h e mouth o f t h e  L a k e l s e R i v e r and o n l y t w o m i l e s w i d e a t P o r t E s s i n g t o n a t t h e mouth o f t h e Skeena. normal stream  Above T e r r a c e t h e S k e e n a h a s a  course, narrowing  ing i n less resistant  strata.  i n r e s i s t a n t beds and widenThe S k e e n a b e l o w T e r r a c e h a s  been s t r o n g l y g l a c i a t e d b u t e i t h e r h a s n o t been deepened a p p r e c i a b l y o r e l s e has been f i l l e d by r e c e n t a l l u v i u m ; H a n s o n , G., P r i n c e R u p e r t Sum. R e p t . , 1924, p t . A.  t o Burns Lake, G e o l . Surv. Canada, King's P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1925, p. 39  PHOTOGRAPH 1  2  B.C. GOVERNMENT A E R I A L PHOTOGRAPH OF ' „ L A K E L S E LAKE FROM THE NORTH. •a K i t i m a t Arm a n d t h e m e a n d e r i n g visible  i n t h e l e f t background.  connected t o Terrace by road.  Kitimat River are L a k e l s e Lake i s The e a s e w i t h  which  t h e r o a d c o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o K i t i m a t c a n be s e e n .  p r o b a b l y the the  latter.  T i d a l a c t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e as f a r  r i v e r a s Shames, a d i s t a n c e  slowing  the  v e l o c i t y of the  o f s i x t y m i l e s , and  r i v e r has  formation  o f numerous s m a l l i s l a n d s and  the  river.  lower  The  assisted i n  by the  sand b a r s which  t h e mouth of the  Skeena t o H a z e l t o n the  ment s i t e s c o n s i s t o f s m a l l l a n d carved i n the  of the  Skeena.  into this the  The  potential  scattered pockets of  s t e e p v a l l e y - s i d e s by  From settle-  relatively  tributaries  Kitsumgallum-Lakelse V a l l e y also  category,  differing  o n l y i n s i z e and  falls  origin  from  others. The  the  S k e e n a R i v e r b e l o w H a z e l t o n a p p e a r s t o be  stage of y o u t h f u l e r o s i o n .  either as  fill  physiography of Prince Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e c o n t r o l o f s e t t l e m e n t .  level  up  s t e e p l y V-shaped or are  i n the  periences  K i t s e l a s Canyon. i t s greatest  becomes i m p o r t a n t ,  f i l l  the  s i d e s of the  practically  Skeena  d e c r e a s e i n v e l o c i t y , and  river.  embayed t y p e and  The  river  formation  of  numerous  Skeena below T e r r a c e i s a  the  r i v e r w i l l be  d e l t a w i l l be  forced  possible.  l a n d i s l i m i t e d t o s m a l l a l l u v i a l f a n s and t e r r a c e s which are I n the  q u i c k l y being  main a r e a  to any  Agricultural  a few  e r o d e d by t h e  Skeena system the  suitable f o r settlement  ex-  deposition  c h a n n e l f r o m t h i s p o i n t t o t h e mouth b e f o r e  seaward b u i l d i n g of t h e  are  perpendicular,,  Below T e r r a c e the  r e s u l t i n g i n the  small i s l a n d s i n the d e l t a of the  The  in  post  glacial  Skeena.  topographically  i s found i n the B u l k l e y V a l l e y .  From  PHOTOGRAPH 13 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LOOKING EAST, UPSTREAM, OF -THE SKEENA RIVER The E c s t a l l R i v e r e n t e r s from the south, t o t h e right  i n the photograph.  The C.N.R. mainline can  be seen f o l l o w i n g the north bank of the Skeena. Highway 16 j o i n s the r a i l w a y from.the n o r t h , a t Tyee opposite the E c s t a l l . .  The extremely rugged  c h a r a c t e r o f P r i n c e Rupert's immediate h i n t e r l a n d and the p a u c i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  land i s w e l l  i l l u s t r a t e d , , as i s t h e f i o r d - l i k e  c h a r a c t e r o f the  r i v e r and the r e s u l t i n g d i f f i c u l t y o f r a i l and road c o n s t r u c t i o n .  t h e mouth o f t h e of twelve with of  Bulkley R i v e r , at Hazelton,  m i l e s upstream the  considerable areas  i n the  t h e mouth, i t a t t a i n s  above t h e vicinity  a width  T h i r t y m i l e s f a r t h e r up Telkwa the v a l l e y almost  graphically  the  suited  of the  Cranberry  and  investigation  other than  valley gradually  t o be  wide and In t h i s  ten  20 m i l e s . rolling valley,  Bulkley occupies a  from miles.  Above  and  is  f o r the deeply  f o r settlement  River.  i n the  of Aiyansh  be  middle  north  i s known of t h i s a r e a ,  i s necessary areas  b e f o r e more c a n be a r e known t o  island  possibilities  to  however,  said,  exist.  deformation. flat  300,000 a c r e s .  f o r settlement.  c o n s i s t s of a former p l a i n  m a r i n e d e p o s i t i o n o f T e r t i a r y age Large  land exist,  w h i c h has  areas  estimated  of  topo-  t h e west o f P r i n c e R u p e r t a l a r g e l o w l a n d  west c o a s t o f t h e  almost  i s found  vicinity  Little  Graham I s l a n d o f f e r s  little  distance  o n l y o t h e r l a r g e a r e a w h i c h may  t h a t lowland To  and  The  o f M o r i c e t o w n , 26 m i l e s  i n appearance.  Nass f r o m t h e  the  with  a t an e l e v a t i o n  the mainland, w i t h i n a reasonable  P r i n c e Rupert,  on  wide,  channel. On  valley  four miles  o f between e i g h t and  g r e a t e r part of i t s l e n g t h , the encised  river.  i t widens t o about  continues  prairie-like  i s about  o f bench l a n d s l y i n g  s e v e r a l hundred f e e t  opens out u n t i l  valley  f o r a distance  been  of gently  area The  of  uplifted rolling  t o number some  2  C a n a d a ' s New N o r t h w e s t . N o r t h k i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947,  Pacific p. 15.  Planning Project,  An  examination  Prince Rupert's a hub  future  5 (Page 26)  Areas  are at l e a s t  even r e m o t e l y  90 m i l e s away.  can P r i n c e Rupert  suitable  A t no  factor to  Although  mines, on  of  such a s t h o s e n e a r  P r i n c e s s Royal Island  over the  Canadian The  Stewart  and  The  their  are t r i b u t a r y  s u p p l i e s and  mines o f t h e  interior  production i s shipped  geological  history  d e p o s i t i o n was  are  composed  generally  eastward  and  time.  intrusion It i s  The  t h e B u l k l e y and B a b i n e  sedimentary  from  r o c k s o f the  w h i l e those of the  or u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  of both  and  continuous i n t h i s area  pendant are T r i a s s i c  mainly Jurassic  workers  are  of mineral deposits.  Late P a l e o z o i c w e l l i n t o Mesozoic  Hazelton Mountains  rather  o f the a r e a i s e x t r e m e l y  in a diversity  P r i n c e Rupert  Mines  N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s "(C.N.R.)  has  that  coastal  to Vancouver  succeeding deposition, u p l i f t  probable  The  been o f  the Surf I n l e t  complex, and resulted  this  contains rich  i n d u s t r y has  development.  Equipment, food  only i n c i d e n t a l . s m a l l s c a l e and  i n the  do n o t have  hinterland  the mining  t o the c i t y ' s  than P r i n c e Rupert. are  time  agri-  Geology  Prince Rupert's  v a r i e d mineral wealth,  minor importance  for  of  overcome. Economic  and  that  hope f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s a t  c o s t s comparable w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s t h a t distance  shows t h a t  r e l a t i o n s h i p to these areas i s l i k e  t o a wheel.  culture  o f Map  and  Range  are  Lower C r e t a c e o u s volcanic  and  rocks.  I n t r u s i v e s are extremely w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the area  by  Map  Areas Topographically S o u r c e : V.G.  5  Suitable f o r Agriculture  B r i n k and L. F a r s t a d ,  A g r i c u l t u r a l Areas of B.C., v. 2 9 , June, 1 9 4 9 ,  t  p. 2 8 3 .  The P h y s i o g r a p h y o f t h e Scientific  Agriculture,  the Coast Range B a t h o l i t h and t h e C a s s i a r - O m i n e c a B a t h o l i t h and t h e i r s a t e l l i t e i n t r u s i o n s t o the e a s t and west.  These  r o c k s were i n t r u d e d d u r i n g J u r a s s i c and p o s s i b l y i n t o Lower Cretaceous  times.  s i v e s and  I t i s a t the c o n t a c t between the  intru-  s e d i m e n t a r i e s t h a t most of the main m e t a l l i f e r o u s  d e p o s i t s a r e found a t p r e s e n t and i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t f u t u r e d i s c o v e r i e s w i l l occur i n these areas, e s p e c i a l l y along the m a r g i n s o f the C a s s i a r - O m i n e c a b a t h o l i t h . At p r e s e n t , however, the m i n e r a l s which have been most i m p o r t a n t sedimentary  i n the economy of P r i n c e Rupert have been the  minerals, notably coal.  C o a l i s mined on a v e r y  s m a l l s c a l e a t o n l y one p o i n t , Telkwa, but the whole of the p r o d u c t i o n of 10,000 t o 12,000 t o n s per year, i s used i n the a r e a , m o s t l y a t P r i n c e Rupert.  P r o d u c t i o n can be  expected  t o i n c r e a s e when the Columbia C e l l u l o s e p l a n t on Watson I s l a n d b e g i n s o p e r a t i o n because they i n t e n d t o use Telkwa c o a l i n t h e i r power p l a n t . The  c o a l o f the Telkwa B a s i n i s Lower  i n age and ranges from b i t u m i n o u s  Cretaceous  t o s e m i - a n t h r a c i t e depend-  i n g on the p r o x i m i t y o f i n t r u s i o n s . • U n f o r t u n a t e l y the  highest  grades o f c o a l are found i n the areas where the g r e a t e s t d i s t u r b a n c e has taken p l a c e , and are c o n s e q u e n t l y t o mine.  The  difficult  Telkwa b a s i n has an a r e a of about seven square  m i l e s u n d e r l a i n by c o a l - b e a r i n g r o c k s h a v i n g a t h i c k n e s s o f from 350 t o 500 f e e t .  These r o c k s c o n t a i n f i v e seams, t h r e e  o f which a r e more t h a n t h r e e f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s .  Most of the  c o a l measures a r e concealed by a heavy l a y e r of a l l u v i u m and  GEOLOGY TNTKUSIVC  ttOCKS  JurASSIC  MM  Mesojoic acidic • • Upper Jurassic 6* PTTTTT^ MeSO^OiC baMC 8. Ultra-rrwro or Lower Cretaceous b a s i c ™ 8 Crctaceoub t— StDlMCNUtiY 8 . V 0 U A N U  KQCK.S  Tertiary  2.  Upper Triassic  HH ueavv Drift  i  1  28.  Map  6  R e g i o n a l Geology/ Source:  G e o l o g i c a l Map  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 20 m i l e s t o  one; i n c h , (West S h e e t ) , G e o l o g i c a l Survey,  1948.  glacial drift,  and  outcrops  immediate v i c i n i t y  are confined l a r g e l y to  o f T e l k w a R i v e r and  G o a t C r e e k , w h i c h have c u t b a c k t h e the at  coal-bearing strata. 56,000,000 t o n s  of which'only  sidered recoverable.^ suitable i s not  The  i n the headwaters of  one  three feet thick.  anthracite.  t h e h i g h q u a l i t y and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a i l  the  desire for r a i l  strong to warrant  Loc. c i t .  and  line  of  the of  p o s s i b l e coal.^"  l a r g e r e s e r v e s of  At p r e s e n t  i s slight,  the due  the coal r e -  i n t o the a r e a .  c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o A l a s k a were  the  The  volatile  of s u f f i c i e n t economic i n t e r e s t t o  the  4  feet.  Groundhog a r e a g i v e s a t o t a l  transportation difficulties.  3 M a c k a y , B.R., O t t a w a , 1947,  distri-  A conservative estimate  the p r o b a b i l i t y of f u t u r e mining  serves are not  feet,  They a r e  i n t e r v a l o f 1,240  n e a r l y 900,000,000 t o n s o f p r o b a b l e  to  the  F o u r m a i n seams  w i t h a t h i c k n e s s of twelve  mineable r e s e r v e s of the  coal f i e l d  and  of importance i s the  c o a l i s of very h i g h grade being l a r g e l y low  Notwithstanding  hard  con-  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the m a j o r i t y of i t  a stratigraphic  and  estimated  28,000,000 t o n s a r e  miles north of HazeItori.  f o u r f e e t and  bituminous  revealed  r e s e r v e s are  coal i s extremely  It lies  h a v e b e e n l o c a t e d , one  through  c o v e r and  only other c o a l f i e l d  S k e e n a R i v e r 150  buted  i t s tributary,  quality.  Groundhog c o a l a r e a .  two  The  for shipping.  of c o k i n g  Mineable  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a i l w a y  C o a l R e s e r v e s o f Canada, K i n g ' s p. 5 1 .  warrant  I f , however, sufficiently through  Printer,  British  C o l u m b i a i t w o u l d be w i s e t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e  reserves "A"  b e f o r e d e c i d i n g upon the r o u t e .  o f the  Proposed  A l a s k a Highway p a s s e s t h r o u g h the h e a r t  coal f i e l d , portation  but  coal route of  the  highway c o n s t r u c t i o n cannot s o l v e t r a n s -  difficulties. M e n t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be made o f t h e l i m o n i t e  d e p o s i t s , 30  m i l e s east of Terrace,  t r i b u t a r y of the deposit  covered  feet thick.  Zymoetz R i v e r .  on L i m o n i t e  The  ore  is a  by a t h i n l a y e r o f moss, two  At l e a s t  500,000 t o n s  pure l i m o n i t e i s present  and  Creek, a surface  to  three  of e a s i l y mined, n e a r l y  i t i s not  improbable that  t o t a l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n e x c e s s o f 1,000,000 tons.-* t h e p r o b l e m i s one The  the  Again  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  foregoing  sedimentary minerals  have been  dis-  cussed because t h e i r development i s d i r e c t l y dependent upon the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t and  i t s hinterland.  monetary terms m e t a l l i f e r o u s d e p o s i t s w i l l most i m p o r t a n t  i n the near f u t u r e .  The  be  the  development o f  the  m e t a l l i f e r o u s d e p o s i t s , h o w e v e r , w i l l be c o n d i t i o n of o u t s i d e markets. b e n e f i t o u t s i d e c a p i t a l and having  probably  In  dependent upon  T h e i r development  the  will  secondary i n d u s t r i e s without  much i n f l u e n c e upon P r i n c e  Rupert.  Young,'G.A., and U g l o w , W.L., I r o n Ores of Canada, V o l . 1926, C a n a d a , D e p t . o f M i n e s , p. 20.  1,  TRANSPORTATION AND  PLACE. N A M t S A £ ROPL AN f. ROUTE. RAILWAY ROUTE WATER ROIJTC  .HIGHWAYS  MORESBY  ISLAND  31.  Map Regional  7  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Place Names  Source: Map of C e n t r a l B.C., V i c t o r i a , B.C.  Department of Lands and F o r e s t s ,  15.76 m i l e s t o one i n c h .  Chapter I I  CLIMATE  Climatic  The  Controls  main c o n t r o l o f t h e c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e Rupert  i s the constant progression of easterly-moving t h a t pass over the northern B r i t i s h  depressions  Columbia coast.  These  depressions are formed along the p o l a r f r o n t , the meeting p l a c e o f T r o p i c a l M a r i n e and P o l a r P a c i f i c A i r .  During the  w i n t e r months t h e p o l a r f r o n t moves w e l l t o t h e s o u t h and n u m e r o u s s t o r m s a r e f o r m e d w h i c h move s l o w l y e a s t w a r d t o ward t h e n o r t h e r n P a c i f i c these  coast.  D e p e n d i n g on t h e i r  storms a r e m o d i f i e d t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r extent by  marine i n f l u e n c e s . siderable maritime  I n most c a s e s t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o a  jectory  I f the t r a -  o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n has been s h o r t - i . e . i f i t o r i g i -  i n t h e B e r i n g S e a o r t h e G u l f o f A l a s k a a n d moves  directly and  e a s t and s o u t h , i t i s l i k e l y t o be r e l a t i v e l y  only s l i g h t l y modified i n i t s lower l a y e r s .  c o n d i t i o n s i ti s l i k e l y t o under-cut air, tion.  con-  i n f l u e n c e a n d a r r i v e a t P r i n c e R u p e r t '-as  r e l a t i v e l y warm, m o i s t u n s t a b l e a i r m a s s e s .  nates  circuit  lifting  i t and t h e r e b y  The o t h e r c a s e  Under  cold such  t h e l e s s dense c o a s t a l  causing very intense  precipita-  when t h e d e p r e s s i o n h a s t r a v e l l e d a  l o n g trajectory.,: r e s u l t s i n the depression e i t h e r o v e r r i d i n g  33  the  c o a s t a l a i r o r g r a d u a l l y a s s i m i l a t i n g i t a s p a r t o f i t s own  warm s e c t o r . light  I n e i t h e r case i t r e s u l t s i n a l o n g ,  rainfall, To  the  a c c o m p a n i e d by l o w ,  e f f e c t of the depressions  i n f l u e n c e o f w a t e r c u r r e n t s and  orographic  s t r o n g p o s i t i v e anomaly p r e s e n t e d temperature  (35°  F a t 54°  must be a d d e d barriers.  January Petropav-  N L a t i t u d e ) , i s due  i n part  In general  itsin-  A t l a n t i c D r i f t on t h e  west  o f Europe, though i t i s not as w e l l marked. Climate The  During  the  Winter  Half-Year  temperature regime a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these  d i t i o n s i s t y p i c a l l y marine.  con-  From S e p t e m b e r t o M a r c h  the  d i f f e r e n c e i n mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e b e t w e e n P r i n c e and  the  The  by P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s  r e l a t i v e l y warm J a p a n e s e C u r r e n t .  f l u e n c e i s s i m i l a r t o the North coast  cover.  N L a t i t u d e ) compared w i t h  l o v s k , U.S.S.R., (12.7° F a t 53° to the  t h i c k cloud  relatively  V a n c o u v e r i s a t no t i m e g r e a t e r t h a n 4° 'F a n d  during  November t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t e m p e r a t u r e i s o n l y 1° T a b l e A.)  F.  (Climate  A t M a s s e t on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s w i t h  more m a r i n e l o c a t i o n t h a n P r i n c e R u p e r t , t h e  similarity  w i n t e r h a l f - y e a r t e m p e r a t u r e s between the n o r t h e r n ern coast  Rupert  of B r i t i s h  and  C o l u m b i a i s e v e n more r e m a r k a b l e .  a of  southIt  i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a t i t u d e i s not  the main c o n t r o l of tempera-  t u r e i n t h i s a r e a and  same c o n t r o l s a r e  t h a t the  i n b o t h t h e n o r t h e r l y and Columbia coast.  operative  s o u t h e r l y s e c t i o n s of the  Further proof  British  of t h i s view i s afforded  by  e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r c l i m a t i c t a b l e s f o r t h e September t o March  period.  Vancouver  1  The o n l y t a b l e i n w h i c h P r i n c e R u p e r t and  a r e not comparable  f o r monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n It  during t h i s period i s that  i n inches (Climate Table B ) .  i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e amounts o f  precipitation i n this  i n s t a n c e i s a measure o f t h e i n -  f l u e n c e o f o r o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s upon t h e c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e Rupert.  In this regard the winter half-year  f i g u r e s f o r Masset  s h o u l d be n o t e d .  m a t e l y t h e same l a t i t u d e  Masset  precipitation i s at approxi-  as P r i n c e Rupert but t n e l o w  l y i n g n a t u r e o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t o f Graham I s l a n d d o e s n o t p r e s e n t any t o p o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r and p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the w i n t e r a r e comparable  with  figures  Vancouver.  Two p o i n t s i n t h e i m m e d i a t e  vicinity  vdth lower  t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a n P r i n c e R u p e r t s h o u l d be n o t e d : Woodworth Lake  and F a l l s R i v e r , t h e s o u r c e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s  a n d power s u p p l y , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  water  Lower t e m p e r a t u r e s here  a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u p p l y of t h e s e two  necessities.  The r e l a t i o n o f w a t e r c o n s u m p t i o n t o  temperature i n P r i n c e Rupert  s h o u l d be n o t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d .  During t h e w i n t e r o f 1949-50 the consumption  of water  b e t w e e n November 21 and December 20 xvas 3 , 3 2 9 , 3 7 5  gallons,  . C l i m a t e T a b l e D. M o n t h l y A v e r a g e s o f E x t r e m e H i g h e s t and E x t r e m e L o w e s t T e m p e r a t u r e . C l i m a t e T a b l e C. M o n t h l y A v e r a g e D a i l y Maximum a n d Minimum T e m p e r a t u r e . C l i m a t e T a b l e E . A v e r a g e M o n t h l y Number o f Days w i t h M e a s u r a b l e R a i n , Snow and P r e c i p i t a t i o n o f Any S o r t .  b e t w e e n December 20 a n d J a n u a r y 2 1 t h e c o n s u m p t i o n 19,226,000 g a l l o n s . 2  The s i x - f o l d  was  i n c r e a s e i n water  con-  s u m p t i o n was due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l i m a t i c and p h y s i o graphic f a c t o r s .  D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d November 21 t o December  20 t h e t e m p e r a t u r e was g e n e r a l l y w e l l a b o v e f r e e z i n g , b u t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d December 20 t o J a n u a r y 21 i t was e x t r e m e l y c o l d w i t h temperatures w e l l below f r e e z i n g . c l i m a t e i s g e n e r a l l y m i l d i n P r i n c e Rupert  Since the (January aver-  age 35° F ) a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e a m o u n t s o f r o c k p r e s e n t many householders.. n e g l e c t t o bury t h e i r water p i p e s o r e l s e d i g only shallow trenches. w i t h exposed  During c o l d weather  householders  waterpipes are forced to leave t h e i r  taps  running c o n s t a n t l y i f they wish t o prevent the pipes from freezing.  The i n c r e a s e d c o n s u m p t i o n  great s t r a i n  on t h e w a t e r w o r k s  l e a s t a b l e t o meet demands. exposed  of water p l a c e s a  a t t h e t i m e when t h e y a r e  The w a t e r m a i n s  are also i n  p o s i t i o n s , due a g a i n t o t h e amount o f r o c k e n c o u n t e r -  e d , and d u r i n g t h e December 20 t o J a n u a r y 21 p e r i o d a t l e a s t s i x breaks appeared  i n t h e m a i n s due t o f r e e z i n g .  These  m a j o r b r e a k s d r a i n e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g r e s e r v o i r and t h e f l o w o f w a t e r t o many s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y .  stopped  The  was t h e f r e e z i n g o f a t l e a s t 400 o f t h e c i t y ' s 2,400 c o n n e c t i o n s and t h e g e n e r a l j e o p a r d y o f t h e c i t y ' s  result water  water  supply. The m a i n h y d r o - s t a t i o n f o r P r i n c e R u p e r t i s l o c a t e d  P r i n c e R u p e r t D a i l y News, J a n . 24, 1 9 5 0 .  36.  at F a l l s R i v e r , a t r i b u t a r y of the E c s t a l R i v e r . ment b a s i n f o r h y d r o g e n e r a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y  The  catch-  s m a l l and i s  d e p e n d e n t on r e g u l a r and a b u n d a n t p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r r e p l e n ishment.  D u r i n g the p e r i o d p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  the freez-  i n g c o n d i t i o n s prevented a steady supply of water t o the dam and t h e p l a n t was f o r c e d t o s h u t down a l m o s t  entirely.  An a u x i l l i a r y p l a n t a t Woodworth L a k e was u n a b l e t o o p e r a t e a t c a p a c i t y because  of the p e r i l t o the c i t y ' s water s u p p l y ,  which i s a l s o obtained from t h i s  source.  I n combination  t h e s e f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n an a l m o s t complete p a r a l y s i s o f the e l e c t r i c a l supply. Though i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f factors w i l l  occur again, i t i s not impossible.  Precipitation  and t e m p e r a t u r e r e c o r d s a t Woodworth Lake a n d F a l l s when c o r r e l a t e d  River,  w i t h r u n o f f and a v a i l a b l e w a t e r , w o u l d  give  t h e e n g i n e e r s i n c h a r g e some i d e a o f what t o e x p e c t and p r e p a r a t i o n s c o u l d be made a c c o r d i n g l y .  I f , a t any t i m e i n  the f u t u r e t h e temperature f a l l s below f r e e z i n g t h e c i t y can expect the consumption  of water t o increase at l e a s t  six-  f o l d a n d p o s s i b l y more i f w a t e r i s a v a i l a b l e . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e demand p l a c e d u p o n e x i s t i n g l i n e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r of 1949-50 a survey of t h e c i t y ' s w a t e r s y s t e m was c o n d u c t e d t o s e e i f a n y e n l a r g e m e n t possible.  Enlargement  was  o f t h e e x i s t i n g mains w i l l n o t ,  however, s o l v e t h e problem o f o v e r consumption o f water during freezing periods.  A more p r a c t i c a l  e x p e n d i t u r e would  be t o g r a n t s u b s i d i e s t o h o u s e h o l d e r s whose homes a r e r o c k f o u n d a t i o n s t o e n a b l e them t o p r o t e c t t h e i r p i p e s by b u r i a l o r p a c k i n g .  T h i s would  eliminate  on  waterthe  n e c e s s i t y f o r a constant running of water t a p s d u r i n g f r e e z i n g weather  and would  cut water consumption  con-  siderably. I n l a n d f r o m P r i n c e R u p e r t fche m a r i t i m e disappears rapidly.  Terrace, approximately ninety miles  east of P r i n c e Rupert  i s t h e l a s t p o i n t where a n y  maritime influence i s f e l t . a pronounced  The  p r e c i p i t a t i o n here  temperatures  freezing. From T e r r a c e t o H a z e l t o n t h e t r a n s i t i o n  marine  and  c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s i s completed.  the B u l k l e y V a l l e y f a l l s  t e m p e r a t u r e s , and  slight rainfall.  between The  i n t o the c o n t i n e n t a l  w i t h e x t r e m e l y c o l d w i n t e r s , f i v e months b e l o w  of  has  Winter temperatures are c o n s i d e r a b l y  c o l d e r and b o t h J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y h a v e  of  distinct  w i n t e r maximum, a l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l i s l e s s  t h a n on t h e c o a s t .  below  influence  whole  variety  freezing  (A more d e t a i l e d  survey  the c l i m a t e of t h i s area i n r e l a t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r e  will  be f o u n d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c l i m a t e o f t h e summer half  year.)  C l i m a t e D u r i n g Summer H a l f - Y e a r  An a t t e m p t  h a s b e e n made p r e v i o u s l y t o  establish  t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d from September t o March the c l i m a t e  OfJILE exED. STATIONS A N O  SQUARE OF COMFORT AFTER  TAYLOR  RUPERT VANCOUVER BERG E N , NORWAY P a t N C t  INCHES  T OF R A I N F A L L PER  I'SL  MONTH  Figure 1 CLIMAGRAPHS OF SELECTED STATIONS AND SQUARE OF COMFORT  3B. o f P r i n c e R u p e r t and V a n c o u v e r i s v e r y larity  i s due t o i d e n t i c a l  climatic  summer h a l f - y e a r when t h e c l i m a t i c i s widely divergent During low  a disparity  similar.  controls.  This  During the  c o n t r o l s o f each  i n c l i m a t e w o u l d be  t h e summer- t h e f o r m e r l y e x t e n s i v e  s h r i n k s t o i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s and t h e  the  There i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  s i z e and s t a b i l i t y  British  expected.  depressions and  i n c r e a s e a t t h i s time i n  of the C a l i f o r n i a high.  In  southern  C o l u m b i a t h e C a l i f o r n i a h i g h becomes t h e d o m i n a n t  c o n t r o l b r i n g i n g c l e a r warm w e a t h e r w i t h f e w c l o u d s rain.  station  Aleutian  associated with t h i s low are decreased i n frequency strength.  simi-  North  and  little  of Vancouver I s l a n d t h e c o n t r o l of t h e C a l i f o r n i a  h i g h becomes l e s s m a r k e d . Unfortunately  depressions  remain t h e major c o n t r o l  of the c l i m a t e of the northwest coast. there  i s a m a r k e d d e c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e -  c e i v e d , 4^77 January. not  At P r i n c e Rupert  inches  i n J u l y a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 9.54  The d e c r e a s e i n the- number o f r a i n y d a y s , h o w e v e r , i s  a s w e l l m a r k e d , 19 d a y s w i t h m e a s u r a b l e r a i n  as c o m p a r e d w i t h 16 d a y s i n J u l y . creased  frequency  e x t e n t , by t h e i r  of depressions  I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e d e has been o b v i a t e d , t o a l a r g e  These r a i n y days are n o t a s s o c i -  ated with cold f r o n t p r e c i p i t a t i o n with t h e i r r a p i d l y c l e a r i n g s k y s , b u t w i t h warm f r o n t  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o n g c o n t i n u e d phasized  i n January  s l o w movement, w h i c h k e e p s t h e number o f  r a i n y days a t a h i g h l e v e l .  and  inches i n  drizzle.  sudden showers precipitation,  T h i s p o i n t i s em-  by t h e hours of sunshine f i g u r e s f o r P r i n c e Rupert  (Climate Table F ) . Rupert hours  D u r i n g t h e summer h a l f - y e a r P r i n c e  n e v e r e x p e r i e n c e s more t h a n o n e - h a l f t h e number o f o f s u n s h i n e r e c e i v e d by Vancouver, and i n J u l y P r i n c e  Rupert  r e c e i v e s o n l y t w o - f i f t h s a s much s u n s h i n e a s  Vancouver, though P r i n c e Rupert  i s 6°  f u r t h e r n o r t h and  consequently has a longer p e r i o d of d a y l i g h t a t t h i s Indeed  P r i n c e Rupert  has t h e lowest t o t a l hours  time.  o f sun-  s h i n e r e c o r d e d i n C a n a d a , a l t h o u g h i f r e c o r d i n g s were t a k e n a t o t h e r p o i n t s on t h e n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h coast P r i n c e Rupert might l o s e t h i s dubious Mean m o n t h l y  temperatures  A u g u s t w i t h a h i g h o f 57°  F.  Columbia  distinction.  r e a c h a maximum i n  T h i s i s l o w compared w i t h t h e  r e s t o f s e t t l e d C a n a d a , and i n d e e d i s t h e l o w e s t f o r a city  o f i t s s i z e i n Canada.  I t i s due t o t h e h i g h amount  o f c l o u d c o v e r and t h e m o d e r a t i n g  e f f e c t o f marine i n -  fluences. In attempting t o assess the r o l e  of climate as  an i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t  certain  d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s attempted.  These c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e l a r g e l y aimed a t r e l a t -  i n g c l i m a t e t o human r e s p o n s e s . the c l i m a t e o f P r i n c e Rupert Climagraphs) weather.  Most people  would c o n s i d e r  d i s t i n c t l y unpleasant (see  l a r g e l y because of t h e almost constant  At b e s t , i n June,  a r e s i d e n t o f P r i n c e Rupert has  t o accept t h e f a c t t h a t every second i s g o i n g t o be r a i n y . organize outdoor  rainy  d a y , on t h e a v e r a g e ,  It i sdifficult,  therefore,to  e n t e r t a i n m e n t , w h e t h e r i t be p r o f e s s i o n a l  s p o r t s or a f a m i l y p i c n i c .  F a c i l i t i e s f o r indoor enter-  t a i n m e n t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e due t o t h e expense i n v o l v e d , and they can never o f f e r t h e same v a r i e t y as outdoor s p o r t s .  The c h i e f s o l u t i o n of t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t  problem has been i n t h e form o f d r i n k i n g .  I n t h e y e a r from  A p r i l 1, 1948 t o March 31, 1949, $1,410,000 worth o f l i q u o r was s o l d , i n a town w i t h a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n n o t g r e a t e r t h a n 10,000.  T h i s amounts t o a p e r c a p i t a con-  sumption o f #141 o f l i q u o r p e r y e a r compared w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l average o f #39 p e r year.-*  P a r t of t h i s i s due,  no doubt, t o heavy purchases by f i s h e r m e n t e m p o r a r i l y l o c a t e d i n P r i n c e Rupert d u r i n g t h e f i s h i n g season, b u t p u r c h a s e s almost f o u r t i m e s the p r o v i n c i a l average can o n l y be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h e boredom and d e p r e s s i o n i n d u c e d i n p a r t by a d r e a r y c l i m a t e . The d i s p i r i t i n g  e f f e c t of the dank and gloomy  c l i m a t e i n d u c e s i n many people the d e s i r e t o l e a v e t h e c i t y as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Few people l o o k f o r w a r d t o  making P r i n c e Rupert t h e i r permanent home; t h e i r  desire  i s t o s t a y o n l y l o n g enough t o e n a b l e them t o l i v e comf o r t a b l y somewhere e l s e . dicate t h i s .  There a r e many f a c t o r s which i n -  I n t h e 1949 census P r i n c e Rupert had the  l o w e s t percentage o f owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s o f any c i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e , 43«7/o»  P r i n c e Rupert a l s o had t h e l o w e s t  p e r c e n t a g e o f homes w i t h r u n n i n g w a t e r , f l u s h electric  lights,  toilets,  refrigeration, radios, electric  vacuum  c l e a n e r s , a u t o s and f u r n a c e h e a t i n g o f any c i t y i n t h e  * B.C. L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board, 28th Annual R e p o r t , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1949.  41. province. physical road  The  last  two  problems, the  communications,  p r o v i n c e , and  the  which  a r e due low  to d e f i n i t e l y traceable  number o f a u t o s  i n 1941,  with  terrain  the  o t h e r a p p l i a n c e s , however, was  t h e r e was The  no  need t o buy  possibility  sales  o f t e n p r e c l u d e s basements.  t h a t r e s i d e n c e was  i n 1941  due  r  can be  ruled  out  have no  as a  poverty that  i t comfortably. since  retail Rupert  whole.^  intention  o f making a  permanent r e s i d e n c e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t  they  interest  They t e n d t o f o r m  inert really  in civic  responsibilities.  mass t h a t i n c r e a s e s t h e interested  difficulty  have  a pleasant  place  to achieve  of those  c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h h e l p t o make the  c l i m a t e i n monetary terms.  sus o f m e r c h a n d i s i n g the  or a m e l i o r a t i o n city  unpleasant.  i s perhaps p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s the u n p l e a s a n t n e s s  Prince Rupert's  average  and  r e c e i p t s per  service  year while  i n P r i n c e Rupert  year.  difference  o f $2,000 p e r y e a r  amount n e c e s s a r y  The  the  cen-  showed t h a t  t h e y were $9,630 p e r i s a measure of  t o persuade a merchant t h a t i t i s  i n Prince Rupert.  of  i n V a n c o u v e r were  $7,570 p e r The  I n 1941  establishments  establishment  an are  to l i v e ,  It  beautification  little  o f t h o s e who  i n making P r i n c e R u p e r t civic  of  lack of  capita i n Prince  "the p r o v i n c e  S i n c e many p e o p l e  The  o n l y t e m p o r a r y and  amounted t o *598 p e r  a s compared t o $3$7 f °  the  nature  either to  a home o r t o e q u i p  of poverty  lack of  other parts of  l a c k o f f u r n a c e s owing t o t h e  the  or t o a b e l i e f  t o the  wage e a r n e r  the  worthwhile  to  establish  i n Prince  4.  B.C. D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e and I n d u s t r y , R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l I n d e x o f B.C. . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1948, p. 178.  Rupert r e c e i v e s approximately $2 the wage earner  per week more than does  i n Vancouver, but t h i s i s not the  measure o f the bonus which must be p a i d . workmen i n Prince Rupert are those who s u c c e s s f u l i n the more competitive south.  The  true  Many of the  have been  un-  labour market i n the  employer, t h e r e f o r e , i s f o r c e d to pay  f o r more  than he i s a c t u a l l y r e c e i v i n g , i n terms of a b i l i t y amount of work performed.  T h i s i n t u r n presents  and  a large  cost d i f f e r e n t i a l which makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r a P r i n c e Rupert manufacturer to compete on a world market. T h i s was  w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the experience  of the wartime  s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i n P r i n c e Rupert, where c o s t s were among the highest  i n Canada and p r o d u c t i v i t y per  man  5 among the  lowest. In summation i t may  be  s a i d t h a t the  c l i m a t e of  P r i n c e Rupert i s such t h a t most people would not it  choose  as a p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e without some added i n c e n t i v e  i n terms of i n c r e a s e d monetary g a i n or a b i l i t y t o employment.  As a r e s u l t the number of r e t i r e d people i n  P r i n c e Rupert i s among the lowest i n the From the previous the  obtain  province.  d i s c u s s i o n i t would seem t h a t  e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n would be imbued with a d e s i r e to  P r i n c e Rupert.  Since we  are d e a l i n g with human l i k e s  d i s l i k e s t h i s i s by no means t r u e .  leave and  Many s k i l l e d workmen  B r i e f submitted to the Board of Transport Commissioners by Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , Mimeographed, p. 23.  and p e o p l e congenial large  of  means f i n d  and a r e  number o f  either  perfectly  from b e i n g  brought  number o f N o r w e g i a n s this  regard.  In t h i s of  to  i n the  ing  skills  vironment. tendency  Recently,  for  residences  to  P r i n c e Rupert still in  ality  of  very  easy to  is  emmigrated large  significant  o n l y d u r i n g the they  important  industry,  there  h a s b e e n an  C o l u m b i a and t o fishing  could,  if  season.  utiliz-  that  their  move t h e i r  factor  fisheries.  s i m i l a r to to  1)  Norwegians  Norwegian  adjust  of the  of  new  en-  increasing  permanent locate Large  they d e s i r e d ,  summer h a l f - y e a r  Rupert's hinterland reveals  identical  s i m i l a r to  that  in numbers  locate  the  has  rises  summer maximum i s  but  winter  some 5° with  indicative  d u r i n g June, higher  in  a temperature  of  continenthalf-  a mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e  with Prince Rupert's, temperature  climate  a t r e n d toward  found d u r i n g the  r e a c h i n g a maximum i n A u g u s t late  climate  The  a l l the  fishing  i n the  southern B r i t i s h  the  Almost  the  however,  Terrace i n A p r i l  August  the  A  centres.  very  year.  there.  homoclime o f B e r g e n i n F i g u r e  it  An e x a m i n a t i o n Prince  extremely  or having  population  Norwegian f i s h e r m e n to  remain although  other  city's  come f r o m c l i m a t e s  P r i n c e Rupert they f i n d  city  to  similar climates.  which they a c q u i r e d  they  who a r e . u s e d  considered.  engaged i n some p h a s e  climate  establish  i s , of course,  are  Because  to  up i n t h e  (See t h e  be  and i t s  content  with  connection there  occupation  city  them a r e p e o p l e  from European c o u n t r i e s  in  the  almost  J u l y and  Terrace, o f 62°.  o f marine i n f l u e n c e ,  The and  it  i s l a r g e l y due t o m a r i n e  influence, t h a t Terrace ex-  p e r i e n c e s t h e warmest summer t e m p e r a t u r e s Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d .  i n Prince  New H a z e l t o n a n d t h e w h o l e o f t h e  B u l k l e y V a l l e y e x p e r i e n c e mean m o n t h l y n o t much a b o v e P r i n c e R u p e r t .  summer  temperatures  ( C l i m a t e T a b l e A.)  The  l o w summer t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e B u l k l e y V a l l e y a r e due n o t t o lower daytime  temperatures  ( C l i m a t e T a b l e C) w h i c h a r e  o n l y 1 o r 2 degrees below t h a t o f T e r r a c e , but r a t h e r t o t h e l o w n i g h t - t i m e (minimum) t e m p e r a t u r e s w h i c h 4 t o 5 degrees  below T e r r a c e .  f l u e n c e d by marine  are from  Terrace i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n -  c o n d i t i o n s t o have moderate n i g h t -  time temperatures, y e t s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r inland t i m e t e m p e r a t u r e s some 5 t o 1 0 d e g r e e s Combined w i t h a d e q u a t e  t o have day-  above P r i n c e  and w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d  Rupert.  precipitation  and a l o n g f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h summer t e m p e r a t u r e s make T e r r a c e t h e b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a i n P r i n c e Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d from a c l i m a t i c s t a n d p o i n t . A l l temperate danger  c r o p s c a n be g r o w n h e r e w i t h l i t t l e  of k i l l i n g  o r no  frosts.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i s not t r u e of the other areas i n Prince Rupert's a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d .  The B u l k l e y  V a l l e y and t h e V a n d e r h o o f - P r i n c e George a r e a a r e m a r g i n a l c l i m a t i c a l l y f o r many c r o p s .  A c c o r d i n g t o C l i m a t e and Man  "Extensive p r o d u c t i o n of small g r a i n s i n g e n e r a l i s l i m i t e d t o areas w i t h a f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d o f 100'days o r more.  Where t h i s p e r i o d i s l e s s t h a n 9 0 d a y s , p r o d u c t i o n  i s p r e c a r i o u s and i s p o s s i b l e  o n l y b y p r o m p t s e e d i n g and  use  of e a r l i e s t maturing v a r i e t i e s . "  the  f r o s t - f r e e records  0  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f  of the Bulkley V a l l e y reveals  nowhere i n t h e V a l l e y d o e s t h e f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d the  90-day f r o s t - f r e e f i g u r e . (Climate  f r o s t - f r e e f i g u r e should itself.  I t indicates that  precarious of t h e i r  not,  T a b l e H.)  approach The  hoxvever, be c o n s i d e r e d  the p o s s i b i l i t y  More s i g n i f i c a n t  i n this  a r e t h e d a t e s when t h e mean maximum e x c e e d s a n d f a l l s 43°  c r o s s 3 2 ° F. ( C l i m a t e  T a b l e s I and J.)  Saskatchewan has been i n c l u d e d  limits  S t . Alburg,  o f g r a i n grow-  and even here s u c c e s s f u l r i p e n i n g c a n  be e x p e c t e d i n e v e r y y e a r . ^  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o grow  small grains throughout the railway b e l t ous  below  i n these charts as a compari-  since i t i s close to the northern  ing i n the p r a i r i e s , not  regard  F a n d t h e a v e r a g e d a t e when mean d a i l y minimum t e m p e r a -  tures  son  by  s m a l l g r a i n growing i s extremely  but does n o t r u l e out completely  s u c c e s s f u l growth.  that  but i t i s hazard-  i n a l l s e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Vanderhoof  area.  Adjustment by t h e f a r m e r s t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s seen i n t h e percentage o f crop l a n d devoted t o hay p r o d u c t i o n , increasing  i m p o r t a n c e , - 39% o f t h e c r o p l a n d  and  57% i n h a y i n 1 9 4 1 .  the  most p r e c a r i o u s  Strangely  and i t s  i n hay i n 1931  i t i s i n the area  c l i m a t e , t h e Vanderhoof d i s t r i c t ,  with that  6.  U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Y e a r b o o k o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1941, U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n D . C , 1 9 4 1 , p. 3 2 3 .  7.  C a n a d a ' s Mew N o r t h w e s t , N o r t h P a c i f i c P l a n n i n g K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 4 $ , p. -151.  Project,  8. R e f e r s t o t h a t a r e a o f C e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e r v e d by t h e n o r t h e r n l i n e o f t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y (C.N.R.), a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 t o 3 0 m i l e s on e i t h e r s i d e of t h e l i n e .  the  percentages c f land a r e devoted t o grain  largest  crops,  over 42% compared t o 15-25% i n the r e s t o f the r e g i o n . I t has always been c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the main obstacles t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n P r i n c e Rupert's h i n t e r l a n d , from the c l i m a t i c s t a n d p o i n t , were t h e hazards of  temperature  and the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d .  added another p e r i l ,  t h a t o f drought.  To t h i s must be  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f  Thornthwaite's new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o s t a t i o n s i n the B u l k l e y V a l l e y bears out t h i s statement^.  At o n l y one s t a t i o n ,  W i s t a r i a , i s the moisture index w e l l above t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e between the humid and dry c l i m a t e s , and even here the moisture index equals o n l y 6 . 3 .  At the other t h r e e s t a t i o n s ,  New Hazelton, Smithers and Telkwa t h e moisture index equals 0.8,  1.5,  and -3«5 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T h i s p l a c e s these  stations  e i t h e r w i t h i n o r extremely c l o s e t o t h e boundary o f t h e d r y climates.  In i t s e l f , the low moisture index does not mean  t h a t drought  i s a constant hazard, but i t does mean t h a t  drought i s a d e f i n i t e  possibility.  Examination of t h e diagrams  c o n s t r u c t e d f o r these  s t a t i o n s o f p o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n and the s o i l moisture regime i n comparison  with the f r o s t - f r e e period  and p e r i o d with mean d a i l y minimums above 32° F i s a l s o i n structive  (Figure 2 ) .  I t can be seen t h a t by the time the  average f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i s reached every s t a t i o n has exhausted a v a i l a b l e s o i l moisture and i s dependent upon r a t h e r  Thornthwaite, C.W., An Approach Toward a R a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C l i m a t e , Geog. Review, V o l . 36% No. 1, 19L&,  PP.  55-94,  nnn^qit __su  Ay_E.RAAE_F-RO.ST_.riR E.E_PER\<0D.  WATER OtFicitrwY IL MOISTURE  UFJ-IZATIOH  SOIL M O I S T U R E  RECMARGE  PERIOD POTENT  O F MEAN DAILX MINIMUMS 3 2. ° R ! A B O V E A L EVAPOT^ANSP*RATION  P R E C i P \ T A T I Oft.  Figure 2 SOIL MOISTURE REGIME FOR  STATIONS  I N THE BULKLEY VALLEY  47.  scanty  p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r whatever moisture i s a v a i l a b l e  to the p l a n t s . ' E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d w i t h a v e r a g e mean d a i l y minimums a b o v e 32° F g i v e s a somewhat b r i g h t e r ture with the f i r s t  t h r e e t o f o u r weeks o f t h i s  pic-  period  c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e t i m e when m o i s t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e a n d potential evapotranspiration  and growth can p r o c e e d as  q u i c k l y as temperatures w i l l a l l o w .  I t must be remembered  t h a t t h i s p e r i o d , t h o u g h more f a v o u r a b l e any  other time of the year,  f r o s t s t h a n any other  f o r growth  i s more s u b j e c t  period o f the year.  than  to k i l l i n g The f a r m e r i s  t h e r e f o r e f o r c e d t o d e l a y h i s p l a n t i n g u n t i l t h e t i m e when moisture i s d e f i n i t e l y d e f i c i e n t . The  d e f i c i e n c y i s r e n d e r e d more h a z a r d o u s b y t h e  v a r i a b i l i t y o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e summer h a l f - y e a r . At New H a z e l t o n ,  the only  station available for this  study,  c o n d i t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o , i f not b e t t e r than the r e s t of the  Bulkley Valley.  Here, d u r i n g a 27-year p e r i o d ,  t a t i o n was a v e r a g e o r above i n 10 y e a r s , b e l o w a v e r a g e i n 17 in  years.^  while  i t was  we have s e e n t h a t t h e s t a t i o n s  t h e v a l l e y , u n l i k e many o t h e r  localities,  are also  d e p e n d e n t upon summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r a v a i l a b l e Any  precipi-  summer w i t h b e l o w a v e r a g e p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i l l  moisture. affect  d i r e c t l y t h e r a t e of crop growth, p o s s i b l y d e l a y i n g  * C a n a d a ' s New N o r t h w e s t , p.  156.  totally  maturity  48. s u f f i c i e n t l y t o cause  c r o p s t o be f r o s t k i l l e d .  ment o f b l a m e f o r c r o p damage i s d i f f i c u l t ,  The a s s e s s -  t h e r e f o r e , but  a s s u r e d l y m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c y must be i n c l u d e d a s a f u r t h e r obstacle to successful u t i l i z a t i o n agricultural  hinterland.  Grain growing throughout d i s t i n c t l y hazardous related hardy  of P r i n c e Rupert's  the area i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f hay c r o p s , w i t h  l i v e s t o c k a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e g r o w i n g o f  v e g e t a b l e s s u c h a s p o t a t o e s , t u r n i p s , c a r r o t s and  cabbage seem t o be t h e b e s t g e n e r a l c l i m a t i c  adaption.  S p e c i a l i z e d s e e d p r o d u c t i o n h a s come i n t o p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e a r e a r e c e n t l y , and c l i m a t i c a l l y t h e a r e a i s w e l l s u i t e d t o t h i s type of p r o d u c t i o n .  With a s p e c i a l t y crop of t h i s  type  r e s t r i c t e d markets r u l e out t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t e v e r bec o m i n g i m p o r t a n t t o more t h a n a f e w f a r m e r s . The B u l k l e y V a l l e y h a s y e t a n o t h e r c l i m a t i c  dis-  advantage o p e r a t i n g a g a i n s t i t , i n t h e l a t e n e s s o f crop maturity. will kets.  E a r l y v e g e t a b l e s , w i t h t h e i r premium p r i c e s ,  a l w a y s be s h i p p e d t o P r i n c e R u p e r t By t h e t i m e t h e f i r s t  from C e n t r a l B r i t i s h in  from  s o u t h e r n mar-  c r o p s a r e r e a d y t o be t a k e n  Columbia,  f a r m p r o d u c t i o n i s a t a peak  t h e s o u t h and t h e n o r t h e r n f a r m e r must a c c e p t p r i c e s f a r  below t h o s e r e c e i v e d by s o u t h e r n f a r m e r s f o r f i r s t There i s another  crops.  a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a v/hich i s a  p o t e n t i a l s u p p l i e r o f t h e P r i n c e R u p e r t m a r k e t whose l i m i t a t i o n s must be l o o k e d i n t o . of  t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e g r o u p ,  climatic  T h i s i s Graham I s l a n d ,  one  90 m i l e s t o t h e w e s t o f P r i n c e  Rupert.  The c l i m a t e here i s c o m p l e t e l y m a r i t i m e  temperatures  and summer  are only s l i g h t l y higher than at P r i n c e Rupert.  The p r e c i p i t a t i o n p i c t u r e i s , however, much b r i g h t e r . T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Masset i s about.40  inches l e s s than  at P r i n c e Rupert, and i n d e e d i s some 3 i n c h e s l e s s t h a n a t Vancouver.  There are no f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r hours o f  b r i g h t sunshine b u t o b s e r v a t i o n o f f o r e s t t y p e s l e a d s t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t the number o f c l o u d y days i s q u i t e h i g h .  1 1  Though i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t g r a i n c u l t i v a t i o n would be s u c c e s s f u l on the i s l a n d a l l o t h e r temperate c r o p s c o u l d be grown w i t h o u t f e a r o f f r o s t damage owing t o the l e n g t h o f the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d .  The 169 day f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d a t  Masset seems t o be a more v a l i d g e n e r a l f i g u r e f o r t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t than does P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s f i g u r e o f 19$ days which i s presumably due t o the s i t u a t i o n of t h e s t a t i o n . (Compare Masset, P o r t Simpson and P r i n c e Rupert i n C l i m a t e Table H.)  C l i m a t i c a l l y Graham I s l a n d seems i d e a l l y  f o r d a i r y i n g and i t s a s s o c i a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s .  suited  A rather  marked comparison may be drawn between e a s t e r n Graham I s l a n d and I r e l a n d w i t h s i m i l a r i t i e s t o be found i n c l i m a t e , s o i l , physiography  and p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e mainland,  though i n t h e i m p o r t a n t  s i m i l a r i t y o f markets t h e i r  relation-  ship i s antipodal.  "an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s t y p e (Western-Heralock-Sitka Spruce Type) i s the r e l a t i v e l a c k of s u n l i g h t due t o the l a r g e amount o f c l o u d y weather which p r e v a i l s , even i n l o c a l i t i e s where the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s not h i g h . The Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s a f f o r d an i n s t a n c e o f t h i s — " F o r e s t s of B.C.. H.N. W h i t f o r d and R.D. C r a i g , Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , Ottawa, 1918, p. 6 4 .  50.  Summary  During the w i n t e r - h a l f - y e a r P r i n c e Rupert's i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an almost  climate  constant p r o g r e s s i o n of  d e p r e s s i o n s b r i n g i n g long continued r a i n and heavy c l o u d cover.  The  number  of d e p r e s s i o n s decrease  d u r i n g the summer  h a l f - y e a r , but t h e i r slow movement compensates f o r the  de-  creased frequency and keeps the number of r a i n y days at a high l e v e l .  Most people would c o n s i d e r P r i n c e  c l i m a t e very dreary and  depressing.  Rupert's  I t would seem t h a t some  k i n d of bonus, i n the form of higher wages or p r o f i t s or a v a i l i b i l i t y of p r e f e r r e d employment i s necessary to most people to stay i n P r i n c e  induce  Rupert.  The most f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n P r i n c e Rupert's  h i n t e r l a n d are found  at T e r r a c e .  T e r r a c e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e to the ocean to have the  ad-  vantages of a marine c l i m a t e - l o n g f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d and h i g h night-time temperatures  d u r i n g the summer, yet i t i s  s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r i n l a n d to experience temperatures  d u r i n g the  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h day-time  summer.  The f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d i n the B u l k l e y V a l l e y i s highest at New frost-free. necessary  Hazelton where 74 days are, on the  average,  T h i s i s 16 days lower than t h e minimum considered  f o r the s u c c e s s f u l c u l t i v a t i o n of small g r a i n crops.  The area i s a l s o marginal b i l i t y of drought  i n moisture  supply, with a p o s s i -  i n below-average y e a r s .  Graham I s l a n d seems c l i m a t i c a l l y  suited f o r dairy  production, with  a long frost-free  well distributed  rainfall.  p e r i o d and  plentiful,  TABLE A  MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURES IN DEGREE P. Year  Jan*  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May  June  July  Aug.  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Prince Rupert  46  35  37  39  43  49  53  56  57  54  48  41  37  Stewart  42  .24  27  32  41  50  56  58  57  51  43  34  27  Ocean Palls  48  34  35  39  45  52  58  61  62  58  50  41  36  Terrace  44  25  29  36  44  51  58  61  62  55  45  36  28  New Hazelton  .40  17  24  32  42  49  55  59  58  51  41  31  20  Telkwa  38  17  21  30  39  46  53  56  56  49  39  28  19  Smithers - 10 yrs. 39  19  21  31  40  49  53  57  56  50  41  28  20  Wistaria  37  16  20  27  39  46  52  56  57  49  39  28  19  Massett .  46  36  37  39  43  48  53  57  58  54  48  41  38  Vancouver  50  37  40  43  49  55  59  64  63  58  51  42 * 39  ro-  TA§LE B MEAN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION IN INCHES Jan*  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May  June  July  Aug.  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Year  Prince Rupert  9.54  7.31  8.57  6.85  5.21  4.08  4.77  5.35  8.50 12.39  12o29  11.00  95.86  Stewart  7.53  5.23  4.95  3.36  2.15  2.03  3.11  4.62  6.17 10.63  8.39  7.84  65.81  14.92 10.72  7.90  6*88  6.79  8.09 12.18 •21.59  22,65  22.27 165.92  Ocean Falls  19.01 12.92  Kitimat  10.01  5.89  6.03  5.46  3.45  3.72  2.99  4.06  6.52 14.62  14.19  12,04  88.98  Terrace  5.06  3.74  3.77  2.51  1.71  1.94  2.17  1.98  3.23  6.54  7.24  6.98  46.87  New Hazelton  1.68  0.99  0.85  0.74  1.06  1.96  2.16  1.54  2.00  2.22  2.04  1.72  18.96  Telkwa  1.43  1.04  0.85  0.72  0.95  1.71  1.99  1.08  1.24  1.52  1.42  1.79  15.74  Smithers  1.91  1.02  0.93  0.96  1.07  1.82  1.90  0.98  1.44  1.94  1.81  2.02  17.80  Wistaria  1.75  1.03  1.31  0.79  0.98  1.67  1.75  0.96  1.39  1.79  2.06  2.52  18.00  Massett  5.77  4.42  4.07  4.55  3.56  2.48  2.99  2.76  4.18  6.79  7.17  6.75  55.49  Vancouver  8.45  5.82  5.29  3.50  2.78  2.40  1.32  1.58  3.58  6.19  8.40  9.25  58.56  TABLE BI-  MONTHLY AND ANNUAL AVERAGES OF SNOWFALL  Jan.  Feb.  Prince Rupert  12.4  7.0  Terrace  17.9  New Hazelton Vancouver  13.4 11.5  Man,  Apr.  May  8.6  3.3  T  13.0  4.7  0.5  6.9  4.1  0.8  6.4  2.7  0.3  T  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct. Nov.  Dec.  Year  0.1  1.9  . 7.3  40.6  1.2  4.8  13.9  56.0  0.7  5.3  12.2  43.4  0.1  2.1  5.7  28.8  TABLE C MONTHLY AVERAGE DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES IN DEGREES F. Jan.  Feb.  Mar*  Apr,  May  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec. Year  Prince Rupert Maximum Minimum  39 30  42 31  45 33  50 37  55 41  60 46  62 49  64 51  60 47  53 42  46 37  40 32  52 40  Terrace Maximum Minimum  28 20  34 23  44 29  54 34  63 40  69 46  73 50  74 50  65 44  52 39  40 32  32 24  52 36  New Hazelton Maximum Minimum  24' 9  31 13  42 22  54 30  63 36  69 43  72 46  72 45  63 39  50 33  37 24  25 13  50 29  Masset Maximum Minimum  41 30  42 31  45 32  49 36  56 40  61 45  64 50  66 51  61 46  54 40  47 35  43 33  52 39  Vancouver Maximum Minimum  40 32  44 33  50 36  57 40  63 46  69 50  74 54  72 53  66 49  56 44  48 38  42 35  57 43  TABLE B MONTHLY AND ANNUAL AVERAGES OF EXTREME HIGHEST AND EXTREME LOWEST TEMPERATURE Jan.  Feb,  Mar#  Apr,  Highest  50  52  55  62  Lowest  14  18  23  Highest  50  52  Lowest  17  21  May  June  July  Aug,  Sept, Oct,  Nov,  Bee, _Year  70  73  74  76  73  63  57  52  80  29  34  40  44  44  39  32  27  17  11  59  68  75  81  84  83  76  67  57  52  86  28  31  37  43  47  46  40  34  27  22  13  Prince Rupert, B,C,  Vancouver, B,C,  TABLE E AVERAGE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL NUMBER OF DAYS WITH MEASURABLE RAIN, SNOW AND PRECIPITATION OF ANY SORT Jan.  Feb*  Mar,  Apr.  May  June  July  Aug.  Rain  18  12  18  19  18  14  16  16  Snow  2  3  3  1  19  15  20  19  18  14  16  16  17  23  Rain  18  15  17  14  12  11  7  8  9  16  Snow  2  3  3  1  20  17  17  14  Prince Rupert, B.C.  Precipitation  Sept. Oct. I:Nov. 17  23  22  Dec.  Year  22  215  2  11  22  23  222  19  22  168  2  11  22  172  Vancouver, B,C,  Precipitation  12  11  7  8  9  16  19  TABLE F AVERAGE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL HOURS OF BRIGHT SUNSHINE Jan.  Feb. Mar. Apr. May  June  July  Aug.  Sept. • Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Prince Rupert  37  60  7 9  104  Prince George  54  90  130  Vancouver  48  82  123  141  125  119  122  98  55  41  32  1013  178  244  232  2 5 7 251  157  98  49  37  1777  168  227  223  285  176  111  54  38  1797  262  Year  TABLE G AVERAGE WIND SPEED IN MILES PER HOUR AND PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY BY DIRECTION FOR PRINCE RUPERT, B. C. Percentage frequency by Direction. * Average Wind Speed i n Miles Per Hour by direction*  Prince Rupert January 1922, December 1S45 Jan.,  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May  June  July  Aug.  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  2*9 15  2.8 15  3.0 16  3*2 12  2.9 11  2.5 11  2.5 10  2.5 9  2.9 13  3.0 13  2.9 13  3.0 16  4.2 8  5.3 6  4.0 5  4.2 4  3.5 2  2.2 2  2.2 2  2.9 2  4.0 3  3.9 4  4.1 6  4.1 8  9.1 8  6.7 7  10.2 5  6.9 4  5.8 4  2.7 2  3.5 2  3.9 3  6.1 3  10.2 6  11.7 10  9.5 8  14.5 42  13.1 40  12.4 42  10.9 40  8.7 35  6.9 26  6.4 27  6.3 30  9.0 31  11.6 47  13.6 44  14.2 44  7.4 4  5.7 4  5.9 4  6.0 6  5.2 8  4.3 8  4.6 10  4.3 12  5.0 10  6*0 5  6«8 4  6.2 3  5.0 3  5.9 4  5.7 5  5.2 5  3.9 7  3.6 10  3.6 8  3.3 7  3.7 4  4.2 2  6.2 4  6.7 3  3.1 4  3.0 4  4.4 4  4.2 6  3.6 7  4.0 10  3.7 10  3.1 7  2.9 4  2.6 2  2.9 2  2.8 2  Northwest  3.8 7  3.8 8  4.4 9  3.6 12  3.8 12  3.3 12  3.5 11  3.4 10  3.2 12  2.0 8  3.9 6  3.2 6  Calm  8.4 11  7.3 12  7.4 10  6.5 11  5.0 14  3.7 19  3.5 20  3.7 20  4.6 20  7.3 13  8.5 11  8.4 10  North Northeast East Southeast South Southwest West  *  #  * *  TABLE H FROST FREE PERIOD  Station  Ht.in Feet  Last Frost i n Spring No. of Date Average Years ' Earliest Latest  No. of Years  First Frost i n Autumn Date Average Earliest Latest  Average F.F. Period Days  Prince Rupert  170  37  Apr. 18 Mar. 1  May  19  38  Nov. 2  Sept 17  Nov. 30  198  Terrace  225  33  May- 20 Apr. 6  June 14  34  Sept 28 Aug. 19  Nov. 11  132  New Hazelton  1150  31  June 18 May  18  July 10  31  Sept 1  July- 25 Sept 19  74  TeUcwa  2000  25  June 18 May  22  July 12  25  Aug. 20  July 20  Sept 12  64  Sraithers  1631  9  June 19 May/ 19  July 4  9  Aug. 13  July 30 Aug. 26  54  Wistaria  2900  21  June 25 May  30  July- 13  21  Aug. 23  July 30  Sept 18  59  Vanderhoof  2226  22  June 30  June 12  July 15  21  Aug. 9  July 19  Sept 9  40  Prince George  1870  32  June 17 May  July- 14  33  Aug. 24  July 24  Sept 27  68  Masset  10  48  May  4  Mar. 29  June 3  48  Oct. 20  Sept 10  Nov. 25  169  Port Simpson  26  15  May  2  Apr. 12 May  14  Oct. 18  Sept 26  Nov. 24  169  14  30  f.  6:i  TABLE I DATE WHEN MEAN MAXIMUM EXCEEDS AND FALLS BELOW 43° F. Station Telkwa  April 2 - October 22  203 days  Terrace  March 20 - November 2  227 days  Wistoria  March 31 - October 23  206 days  Prince George  March 24 - October 30  220 days  St. Walburg, Sask.  April 12 - October 20  191 days  TABLE J AVERAGE DATE WHEN MEAN DAILY MINIMUM TEMPERATURE CROSSES 32 DEGREES F. Terrace  April 6 - November 15  223 days  New Hazelton  April 27 - October 18  174 days  Telkwa  May 13 - October 5  145 days  Wistoria  May 13 - September 26  136 days  Vanderhoof  May 13 - September 20  130 days  Prince George  May 5 - October 7  155 days  St. Walburg, Sask.  May 7 - September 20  136 days  Climate Tables A, B, C, F from B.C. Dept. of Agriculture, Climate of British Columbiaj Victoria, 1949. Tables E, G from Canada, Dept. of Transport, Climatic Summaries,, Vol. l-2 Toronto, 1949. Tables I,J from Canada's New Northwest North Pacific Planning Project, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1948. Table H from Canada, Dept. of Transport, The Frost Free Season i n B.C., A„J. Connor, Toronto, 1949.  f  y  62.  Chapter I I I  SOILS  Local  Soils  The s o i l s o f K a i e n I s l a n d h a v e d e v e l o p e d r e t r e a t of the l a s t  since the  c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i a t i o n from the area  some 15,000 y e a r s a g o .  The l a n d r e - e x p o s e d  by t h e r e t r e a t  o f t h e g l a c i e r s must h a v e c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f b a r e , scoured had  r o c k i n t o w h i c h numerous s h a l l o w  been gouged by t h e i c e .  depressions  The p r e g l a c i a l d r a i n a g e  was e l i m i n a t e d and w a t e r f r o m t h e a b u n d a n t  the mountain core c o l l e c t e d i n t h e d e p r e s s i o n  and  lowland  waters and  These f i l l e d m e r e l y  i n t o the next  depression.  system  precipitation  and  areas.  well-  to s p i l l  pockets their  The m u l t i t u d e o f p o n d s  lakes, i n conjunction with increasingly milder  temperatures  p r o v i d e d a n o p t i m i u m h a b i t a t f o r a q u a t i c p l a n t s and and  the process  organisms,  of converting fresh-water bodies i n t o  known a s a h y d r o s e r e , ponds were f i r s t  progressed  with great r a p i d i t y .  soil, The  i n h a b i t e d b y r o o t l e s s a q u a t i c p l a n t s whose  d e c a y e d r e m a i n s f i n a l l y became s u f f i c i e n t  to allow the es-  t a b l i s h m e n t o f r o o t e d p l a n t s around t h e margins o f t h e ponds. These i n t u r n p r o v i d e d a f o o t i n g f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f reeds  and m o s s e s .  The spagnum m o s s e s were a l s o a b l e t o work  t h e i r way b a c k f r o m t h e p o n d s r e l y i n g upon m o i s t u r e  provided  by f e e d i n g  streams.  They were a l s o  s e l v e s s i n c e t h e spongy courses, large  acted  a s a m i n i a t u r e dam By t h i s  and  small,  that  their marginal portions  p r o c e s s o f moss g r o w i n g upon c o u l d be  d e p t h s o f moss c o v e r .  The  v e g e t a t i v e . s u c c e s s i o n were t h e s m a l l w h i c h grew upon t h e mosses and t w i g s and ing  last  contributed  conifers  their The  undecayed soil  I t h a s no  result-  distinctly  a c o v e r o f moss and l i t t e r  2 t o 3 i n c h e s deep i t s c o l o u r brown d e p e n d i n g  elements of the  s h r u b s and  f r o m t h i s p r o c e s s i s c a l l e d muskeg. Beneath  saturated  c o v e r e d by  r o o t l e t s t o the d e v e l o p i n g s o i l .  developed p r o f i l e .  of  i n which the p r o c e s s c o u l d r e p e a t  moss, s l o p e s up t o t w e n t y d e g r e e s appreciable  upon them-  moss so l o w e r e d t h e v e l o c i t y  water  itself.  able to build  v a r i e s f r o m brown t o d a r k  on t h e s t a g e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f i t s com-  posite materials,  moss and  coarser organic  matter.  The  muskeg v a r i e s i n d e p t h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n underground  terrain  feet  The  deep.  struction  and may  figure  company who  I n one  unable to a t t a i n the  attempt.  after  The  corner of t h i s firm footing  building  after  depth i n  wartime  t h e y had  70 f e e t  and  been  abandoned  reason f o r these great depths w i l l  s i s t e n c y resembles that property  70  o b t a i n e d from a con-  foundation f o r a large  be  clear  3.  Muskeg i s a l w a y s w a t e r  advantageous  was  had d r i v e n p i l i n g s t o t h i s  a study o f F i g u r e  of the  be anywhere f r o m 3 t o o v e r  o f 70 f e e t  order to obtain a firm building.  from  saturated  of a p l a s t i c  solid.  and  i t s con-  Another  o f muskeg i s i t s t e n d a n c y t o  dis-  shrink  HYPOTHETICAL CROSS SECTION OF MUSKEG FORMATION too  r-  ui  ElJi  MUSKEG  BEDROCK  Figure 3 HYPOTHETICAL CROSS SECTION OF MUSKEG FORMATION  and  c r a c k when d r a i n e d .  T h i s may o c c u r d u r i n g o c c a s i o n a l  l o n g d r y s p e l l s when t h e s u r f a c e l e v e l o f t h e muskeg d r o p a f o o t o r more.  The s h r i n k a g e  may  i s due t o t h e l o s s o f  v o l u m e w h i c h o c c u r s when w a t e r i s r e m o v e d . As a n a g r i c u l t u r a l poor.  Unless  s o i l muskeg i s g e n e r a l l y v e r y  i t i s drained the constant  s o i l has a tendency t o r o t seeds.  s a t u r a t i o n of the  I t also suffers  from  v e r y m a r k e d m i n e r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s must be a d d e d i f s u c c e s s f u l g r o w t h i s t o t a k e p l a c e . short time two  one C h i n e s e  gardener  maintained  For a  a farm  o f about  a c r e s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e town.  He  r e l i e d f o r p l a n t n u t r i e n t s on t h e s u r p l u s manure f r o m a d a i r y h e r d w h i c h was i n t u r n m a i n t a i n e d  on i m p o r t e d  When t h e d a i r y went o u t o f b u s i n e s s t h e g a r d e n e r to  do l i k e w i s e , t h u s  utilize  the s o i l  which presents In  was f o r c e d  ending the o n l y commercial attempt  to  of Kaien I s l a n d .  The s o i l on c o n s t r u c t i o n .  feed.  i s , however, very important  i n i t s effect  T h i s i s due t o muskeg's l a c k o f  some v e r y d i f f i c u l t  engineering  stability  problems.  house c o n s t r u c t i o n a t P r i n c e R u p e r t an attempt i s  g e n e r a l l y made t o r e s t t h e f o u n d a t i o n on t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k , e i t h e r b y r e m o v i n g t h e muskeg e n t i r e l y , sufficiently  s h a l l o w , o r by d r i v i n g p i l e s i n t o t h e muskeg  u n t i l bedrock i s reached.  Both  t h e s e methods a r e e x p e n s i v e  e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e muskeg i s o f g r e a t d e p t h . depth  i fi t i s  Since the  o f muskeg c a n v a r y g r e a t l y w i t h i n a f e w f e e t i t i s  necessary  t o take  "soundings"  e v e r y two o r t h r e e f e e t  before  a h o u s e i s c o n s t r u c t e d t o be s u r e t h a t f o o t i n g c a n be obtained  i n t h e a r e a t h e house i s t o occupy.  I f t h e muskeg  i s t o o deep f o r e i t h e r o f t h e s e methods t h e house i s o f t e n p l a c e d o n p i l e s d r i v e n i n t o t h e muskeg o r i s p l a c e d on "pads".  P a d s a r e wooden b o a r d s a b o u t t h r e e b y f o u r f e e t  which a r e p l a c e d under t h e p i l i n g s t o g i v e a g r e a t e r h o l d i n g area.  Neither of these  the houses having time.  methods a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l ,  a tendency t o s e t t l e w i t h t h e passage o f  F o r t h i s reason  the builder prefers to locateh i s  home e i t h e r on r o c k o r w h e r e t h e r o c k i s c o v e r e d cover and  o f muskeg.  This preference  shallow  f o r home s i t e s o n r o c k ,  t h e m i l d c l i m a t e , r e s u l t s i n houses o f t e n l a c k i n g a  basement o f t h e u s u a l t y p e . the  by a  The basement i n many homes i s  space between t h e s u r f a c e o f the ground and t h e l e v e l  of t h e f i r s t  f l o o r , w i t h o n l y a l a y e r o f wooden b o a r d s  f o r p r o t e c t i o n from t h e o u t s i d e . g r a p h 39.)  F o r t h i s reason  (See f o r e g r o u n d  furnace  photo-  heating i s less  i n P r i n c e Rupert t h a n anywhere e l s e i n B r i t i s h I f a h o u s e i s b u i l t o n muskeg a f u r n a c e  common  Columbia.  i s impossible,  because o f u n s t a b l e f o u n d a t i o n s .  I f t h e house i s b u i l t on  rock, excavation i sp r o h i b i t i v e l y  expensive  furnace  and i f a  i s d e s i r e d t h e b a s e m e n t must be b u i l t i n t h e manner  d e s c r i b e d above.  P e n e t r a t i o n o f c o l d through  t h e wooden  basement i s q u i t e e a s y a n d t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f f u r n a c e h e a t i n g a r e e q u a l l e d by t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s house c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Concrete  o f t h i s type o f  w o u l d p e r h a p s be more  satis-  f a c t o r y as a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t the c o l d and i t i s being more a n d more i n new home c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l t h o u g h more e x p e n s i v e  than  used  i t i s  wood.  The p e r c e n t a g e  o f houses w i t h r u n n i n g water and  f l u s h toilers i s a l s o the lowest  i n the province.  i s due i n p a r t t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y  o f c o n s t r u c t i n g sewers  and  water mains i n the c i t y .  This  I n rock, b l a s t i n g i s necessary  t o a c h i e v e ' p r o p e r g r a d i e n t s , w h i l e i n muskeg a l a r g e amount of f i l l  i s needed t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e l i n e s .  of these difficult  operations are expensive  and t h e c i t y f i n d s i t  t o provide the necessary  lines.  owner i s n o t s e r v i c e d b y s e w e r l i n e s , it  I f t h e home  s e p t i c t a n k s make  p o s s i b l e f o r him t o enjoy t h e conveniences  toilet.  Both  of the flush  H o w e v e r , s i n c e many o f t h e h o u s e s a r e b u i l t  on r o c k ,  e v e n t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e becomes i m p o s s i b l e .  Regional  Soils  The l o w l a n d a r e a o f n o r t h e a s t e r n Graham I s l a n d i s a l s o covered  t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by muskeg.  The muskeg i n  t h i s s e c t i o n i s n o t a s much o f a p r o b l e m a s on K a i e n I s l a n d . The muskeg on Graham I s l a n d i s n o w h e r e v e r y d e e p , v a r y i n g f r o m s i x t o e i g h t i n c h e s t o two o r t h r e e f e e t .  I t presents  no p r o b l e m f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d f e w d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a g r i culture.  M i n e r a l s o i l s i n most c a s e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y  c l o s e t o t h e surface t o enable  them t o be m i x e d w i t h t h e  muskeg o r t o p r o v i d e a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r d r a i n s .  These  67.  Map Regional Source:  Transactions  Soils  o f t h e Second R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e ,  B.C.. Department  1949.  8  o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s ,  Victoria,  s o i l s have been farmed  s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r many y e a r s a t  s e v e r a l p l a c e s and good c r o p s have been o b t a i n e d .  The  problems of m a r k e t i n g , however, have been i n s u p e r a b l e to  date. S i n c e p h y s i o g r a p h y has l i m i t e d P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s  a g r i c u l t u r a l hinterland to attenuated s t r i p s along r i v e r v a l l e y s , many s o i l t y p e s a r e encountered The"Kitsumgallum-Lakelse  (See Table 1 3 ) .  V a l l e y , t h e most f a v o u r a b l e a g r i -  c u l t u r a l a r e a i n terms o f c l i m a t e and d i s t a n c e from market,  i s hampered by t h e l i m i t e d amount o f a r a b l e s o i l .  Of 57,500 a c r e s surveyed i n t h i s a r e a 19,300 a c r e s o r 33% were p r i v a t e l y owned o f which o n l y 2,700 a c r e s o r 4% o f the t o t a l were d e v e l o p e d .  Of t h e r e m a i n i n g 38,200 a c r e s  of crown o r r e v e r t e d l a n d , ( i . e . for  l a n d which i s a v a i l a b l e  s e t t l e m e n t ) o n l y 5,090 a c r e s o r 13% were c o n s i d e r e d  a r a b l e , and 1,110 a c r e s o r 3% were c o n s i d e r e d l i m i t e d arable.^"  On the a r a b l e l a n d heavy s t a n d s o f hemlock,  s p r u c e , r e d cedar and a m a b i l i s f i r occur and t o c l e a r t h e 40 t o 60 a c r e s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o form an economical farm u n i t p r e s e n t s a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k f o r the p o t e n t i a l settler.  Other a r e a s o f s u i t a b l e s o i l s may be found i n  the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h i s v a l l e y , between L a k e l s e Lake and K i t i m a t Arm. area.  No s u r v e y s have been made o f t h i s  southern  On t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , a r a b l e s o i l  T. I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from l e t t e r by D. S u t h e r l a n d , D i r e c t o r , Land U t i l i z a t i o n Survey t o J . D e v i s o n , May, 1950.  69.  is distinctly look  limited  i n t h e a r e a and  P r i n c e R u p e r t must  elsewhere f o r future a g r i c u l t u r a l The  Skeena.  g r e y wooded s o i l s b e g i n a t Woodcock on  They f o r m t h e  l a r g e s t s i n g l e group of  n o r t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and, p o c k e t s of degraded b l a c k area.  I n T a b l e 13,  soils,  77,300.'. a c r e s  been c l a s s e d as a r a b l e  some r e s e r v a t i o n s .  leached  occupy the of t h i s  The  o f b a s e s , i r o n and  the  soils  except f o r a  in  few  whole o f  soil  the  zone h a v e  or p o t e n t i a l l y arable,  from Hazelton t o Vanderhoof. with  supplies.  i n the  T h i s f i g u r e must be  treated  g r e y wooded s o i l s a r e  p l a n t n u t r i e n t s and  area  in  strongly general  h a v e i n f e r i o r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and  r a t h e r low  fertility.  b e t t e r types of  To  produce w e l l ,  even the  must be b u i l t up  t h r o u g h t h e use  fertilizer.  minimum f a r m s i z e has  160  acres,  Since  The  coniferous  type i s g e n e r a l l y  cover the  disadvantages. t o remove t h e and  o f l e g u m e s , manure  of which a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  this soil  pioneer  must be  arable.~  fairly  dense  farmer i s faced  by two  grave  expenditure extensive  t h e n must r e t u r n a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n to maintain  c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a r g e i n i t i a l e x p e n s e and  of h i s  fertility. high  t e n d s t o keep t h i s l a n d d i s t i n c t l y m a r g i n a l .  Transactions o f L a n d s and  at  c o v e r e d by  o r i g i n a l f o r e s t c o v e r f r o m an  land i n order  soil  and  been e s t i m a t e d  He must make a l a r g e c a p i t a l  revenue t o the  natural  cost  area farm The  of  upkeep  Extensive  of the Second R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , Department F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , 1949, p. 21.  settlement of these  soils i s , therefore, unlikely  t h e r e a r e g e n e r o u s s u b s i d i e s on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n the form  of l a n d c l e a r i n g ,  The  etc.  s i n c e t h e y have h i g h e r n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y  sparser t r e e cover.  This s o i l  a p a r k - l a n d t y p e o f v e g e t a t i o n and generally rolling  topography.  zone i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h has  developed  I t i s found  climatic  Francois-Ootsa  i n small pockets around Vanderhoof.  The  same  c o n d i t i o n s that permit the formation of t h i s  present problems f o r i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l use. i s l o w and The  on  i n the "Bulkley  V a l l e y from E v e l y n south to Houston, i n the L a k e a r e a and  government  d e g r a d e d b l a c k s o i l s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e  for agriculture and  unless  v a r i a b l e and  rolling  topography  Annual  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t i m o t h y .  affected.  restricts  i n the  q u a l i t i e s are a d v e r s e l y  of Climate Table H w i l l  show t h a t  summer f r o s t s a r e a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t The physiography  importance  area  Unfortunately i f timothy i s  i t s nutritive  Examination  hazard.  soils  t h e c h o i c e o f c r o p s t o be g r o w n , most f a r m e r s  f r o z e n while green  rainfall  f r o s t presents a d i s t i n c t a s s o c i a t e d with these  soil  this  area.  o f t h e f a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e and  are, i n the case  of the B u l k l e y V a l l e y ,  suffi-  c i e n t l y d e t r e m e n t a l t o more t h a n o f f s e t t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f superior  soils.  grey f o r e s t  T h u s we  f i n d t h a t i n P r i n c e George,  s o i l s , t h e m a r g i n a l f a r m c o n s i s t s o f 19  l i v e s t o c k u n i t s and  63  acres of cropland while at  t h e f i g u r e s a r e 29 p r o d u c t i v e l i v e s t o c k u n i t s and  on productive  Smithers 135  acres  71.  of cropland. area,  The  grey f o r e s t s o i l s i n the P r i n c e  though b e t t e r t h a n s i m i l a r s o i l s i n the  Vanderhoof degraded  area,  black  a r e not n a t u r a l l y as f e r t i l e  soils.  George  Hazeltonas t h e  Favourable f a c t o r s of topography  and c l i m a t e , h o w e v e r , make them much more v a l u a b l e cultural  land. The  limit  agri-  Francois-Ootsa  Lake a r e a marks t h e  extreme  of Prince Rupert's a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d .  l i m i t a t i o n i s based subject  t o change,  s o l e l y on a n e c o n o m i c  The  f a c t o r which i s  but which a t p r e s e n t i s e x t r e m e l y im-  portant,  namely t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n of f r e i g h t r a t e s a t  Endako.  T h i s i s t h e p o i n t where t h e c o s t  boat from Vancouver  by  t o P r i n c e R u p e r t and t h e n by r a i l  P r i n c e Rupert equals the cost of s h i p p i n g from Vancouver.  of shipping  from  d i r e c t l y by  Endako i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e boundary  Prince Rupert's non-competitive h i n t e r l a n d .  rail  of  I t should  also  be n o t e d t h a t i t i s c h e a p e r t o s h i p g o o d s i n f r e i g h t c l a s s e s one t o s i x f r o m V a n c o u v e r  to Prince Rupert than i t i s t o  s h i p them f r o m E n d a k o t o P r i n c e R u p e r t . By t a k i n g t h e a r a b l e  and p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e  acreage of P r i n c e Rupert's a g r i c u l t u r a l h i n t e r l a n d listed  i n T a b l e 13  and a p p l y i n g  a r r i v e d at previously , 1  12).  (See T a b l e  t h e minimum f a r m  some i d e a o f t h e a b s o l u t e  as  sizes maximum  ' Canada, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A Study o f Land S e t t l e ment i n t h e P r i n c e G e o r g e - S m i t h e r s A r e a , B.C., W.J. A n d e r s o n , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1947, p. 4 .  number o f f a r m s  i n t h i s s e c t i o n may be d e r i v e d .  Using the  f i g u r e s o f 60 a c r e s on t h e brown p o d s o l i c ( T e r r a c e 135  a c r e s on t h e d e g r a d e d  a c r e s on t h e g r e y f o r e s t total  b l a c k , ( B u l k l e y V a l l e y ) and 160 soils,  ( H a z e l t o n t o Endako) a grand  o f 2,048 m i n i m u m - s i z e d f a r m s  o f a b o u t 2,000 f a r m s  district),  i s obtained.  i s f a r t o o generous,  The f i g u r e  s i n c e i t i s im-  p r o b a b l e t h a t a l l t h e f a r m s w o u l d be m a r g i n a l , a n d a more realistic does,  t o t a l w o u l d be somewhat c l o s e r t o 1500 f a r m s .  however, s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e  It  the paucity of a g r i -  c u l t u r a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d and g i v e s one o f t h e c l u e s t o t h e p r o b l e m  of the  non-develop-.  ment o f P r i n c e R u p e r t . S i n c e no more t h a n 2,000 f a r m s p e o p l e c a n be s u p p o r t e d by a g r i c u l t u r e R u p e r t must t u r n e l s e w h e r e sufficient  i n food.  Graham I s l a n d .  i n t h i s area, Prince  i f i t w i s h e s t o become  The b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e  Surveys  and a b o u t 10,000  of the s o i l  self  i s o f f e r e d by  of the island are  n e c e s s a r y as w e l l a s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e problems o f d r a i n a g e a n d m a r k e t i n g , b e f o r e i t c a n be s a i d that t h i s area can supply P r i n c e Rupert's needs.  On t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e  definitely  agricultural  e v i d e n c e , however, i t  d o e s seem p r o b a b l e .  Summary  P r i n c e Rupert  must r e a l i z e t h a t i n e x p e c t i n g  development a l o n g t h e Canadian  National Railway's  northern  73.  line  i t i s a w a i t i n g something which i s not l i k e l y t o occur.  F a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e , s o i l and physiography p r e c a r i o u s and p l a c e a b s o l u t e l i m i t s ment p o s s i b l e . support  a city  on t h e amount o f d e v e l o p  The l a n d a v a i l a b l e i s p e r h a p s a d e q u a t e t o o f 15 t o 20,000 p o p u l a t i o n b u t i n o r d e r t o  s u p p l y A l a s k a and t h e p o t e n t i a l must be f o u n d .  make d e v e l o p m e n t  city  of K i t i m a t other  The g e n e r a l o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  land i n Prince Rupert's  h i n t e r l a n d h a s b e e n due i n l a r g e  part t o the i n c l u s i o n of the Vanderhoof-Prince i n the h i n t e r l a n d . not  areas  Economically,  George  area  however, t h i s a r e a can  be i n c l u d e d , due l a r g e l y t o h i g h  shipping costs.  FREIGHT RATES TO SELECTED STATIONS FROM PRINCE RUPERT, B.C. CLASSES AS PER CANADIAN FREIGHT CLASSIFICATIONS 1 - 2  3 4 5 6 (Rates i n cents per hundred pounds)  VIA ALL RAIL*  7 1 0  Vancouver, B.C. to Prince Rupert, B.C.  423  353  281  211  189  167  118  96  Prince Rupert to Burns Lake  162  135  108  80  72  59  45  36  Endako  176  147  116  88  79  66  49  41  Hazelton  118  100  79  59  55  42  34  29  Houston  150  125  100  74  66  55  42  34  McBride  253  211  168  126  114  96  67  58  Prince George  202  168  135  101  92  79  55  45  Smithers  133  113  88  66  59  49  38  29  80  67  55  42?  38  34  26  21  180  150  318  92  80  67  51  41  Terrace Vanderhoof  VIA STEAMER; Vancouver, B.C. to Prince Rupert, B.C.  General Merchandise - $12,65 per 2,000 l b s . or 40 cubic feet ships option, including terminal charges at both ends. (640 per 100 lbs.)  TABLE 13 INVENTORY OF SOIL SURVEYED AREAS IN NORTH CENTRAL BRITISH COLOMBIA  CATENA  SOIL SOIL REGION ZONE  Podsolio  SOIL SUB  ZONE  LOCAL  AREA OF SURVEY  Mfc.Podsol Terrace  Glaoial Laous— Till trine ACREAGE  Loam and Sandy Loam  68,900  Hazelton 89,400 50,000  Forest Central  Loam and Silt Loam  Sandy Loam Loamy Sand  Bulkley  24,840  4,000  1,000  5,300 27,200  3,900  Grass- Degraded Central land Black  7,090  Bulkley Valley 139,980 172,240 17,740 Lakes Country  •  INDICATED  USES  Shallow Soils, Rook Arable Ontorop and Recent Eroded PotenOrganic Allu- Land, tially Gravel SoilB rial Etc. Arable Grazing  15,480  hoof 678,460 276*970 273,850 26,800 57,390 Ft.Fraser  Valley 445,490 303,600 Lakes Country  •  A 11 u v i a 1  • VanderGrey Wooded  •  Clays and Silty Clay  AZONAL SOILS  48,350  600 14,280  Other Chiefly Forestry Reoreation Wild-  8,700 39,950  28,950  2,000  33,500  55,900  23,350  20,100 330,190  348,270  43,350  43,100 43,800  401,690  126,060 63,920  Vanderhoof-Ft. Fraser is not within Prince Rupert's non-competitive hinterland. Inoludea for comparison.  Souroe - B.C. Dept. of Land and Forests, Transaction* of the Second Resources Conference, Victoria, 1949, p. 10.  76.  Map 9 Regional Sourcei  F o r e s t Types;  W.E.D. H a l l i d a y , A F o r e s t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. King's Printer-, Ottawa,  1937.  77. Chapter  IV  FORESTRY  The represent and  resources of P r i n c e Rupert's  one o f h e r g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l  one i n w h i c h much e x p a n s i o n  addition  Cellulose  the c o a s t d i s t r i c t  Even the  new f o r e s t r y  Corporation, w i l l  is still  concern,  not b r i n g  up t o t h e e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l  while t h e cut i n the i n t e r i o r  hinterland  sources of wealth  can take p l a c e .  of the operations o f a large  the Columbia in  forest  the cut  yield,  below the annual  increment.  F o r e s t r y on t h e C o a s t  The coast  composition of the f o r e s t s  i s considerably different  from  of the northern  those  of the south,  due  t o t h e more r i g o r o u s c l i m a t e o f t h e summer  The  Douglas  F i r d i s a p p e a r s n o r t h o f Gardner  n o t p r e s e n t on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e of  Red C e d a r  also drops  w e t t e r and c o l d e r a r e a s . of  shade and m o i s t u r e  Islands.  The  and i s  percentage i n the  The W e s t e r n Hemlock i s t o l e r a n t  and becomes t h e dominant  w e t t e r a r e a s and t h e A m a b a l i s Until  Channel  considerably, especially  n o r t h e r n c o a s t , w i t h t h e S i t k a Spruce  colder areas.  half-year.  tree  i n the  a co-dominant i n  F i r t h e co-dominant  r e c e n t l y t h e absence  i n the  of Douglas F i r  i n t h e c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t h a s meant t h a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y  little  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o l o g g i n g f o r lumber, e x c e p t i n g the  special  Islands.  case  The  o f S i t k a S p r u c e on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e  n o r t h e r n c o a s t i s so d i s t a n t f r o m t h e  centres of marketing  and  p r o d u c t i o n , i . e . Vancouver, t h a t  o n l y premium lumber such could  stand the  as t h e Douglas F i r o r S i t k a  c o s t o f s h i p m e n t and  pete w i t h l o g s from f u r t h e r south. o f t h e more v a l u a b l e and increased  still  be  i n the  i n the  115  Charlotte Islands.  million  south unless a  fbm  m i l l i o n fbm The  south,  become p o s s i b l e .  r e o r i e n t a t i o n of l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s o c c u r s .  coastal d i s t r i c t ,  a b l e t o com-  P r i n c e Rupert d i s t r i c t w i l l  dependent upon d e p l e t i o n i n the  o f a t o t a l c u t o f 195  Spruce  With the l o g g i n g - o f f  a c c e s s i b l e timber  c u t t i n g i n t h e n o r t h has Logging  main  f o r the i s being  fundamental  At  present,  entire  north  cut i n the  m a j o r i t y o f t h e cut i s towed  m i l e s t o Vancouver f o r p r o c e s s i n g .  remain  A b o u t 1/3  of the  Queen 400 cut  i s t a k e n t o O c e a n F a l l s where t h e b e s t g r a d e s a r e s e l e c t e d for  lumber and  are e i t h e r  sawn t h e r e o r a r e s e n t  to  Vancouver, w h i l e the remainder i s u t i l i z e d , i n the o f p u l p and  p a p e r a t t h e Ocean F a l l s m i l l .  moves t o w a r d  V a n c o u v e r b e c a u s e i t i s , o r was,  t h e m a r k e t and capital The  investments  moving  toward  w h i c h can n o t be moved o r s h u t down.  northern coast i s , t h e r e f o r e , a marginal  network.  timber  because the Vancouver m i l l s r e p r e s e n t l a r g e  t e n u o u s l y connected tion  The  production  lumber  t o V a n c o u v e r by a 4 0 0 - m i l e  area,  transporta-  The ing  toward  Columbia  the  market  lumber  importance this  movement  of  picture  was  the and  of  logs  when t h e  the  to  large  eastern  markets  are  Rupert  i s much  closer to  coast  than  is If  a  such as  cedar  start of  north  reserve producer and in  these the  from  i t s own labour  climate  production  be  remain  industry  not  can  Logging Forest  on  coast.  the  be  may  the  the  changed  natural  Rupert  from  British  increasing  to  the  Vancouver,  f o r e s t s of  the  and  northern  head  The  i n Prince  high  of  being the  Rupert, be  a  area  the  may  a picture  but  of  a  attracting previously Costs  as  charges  timber  become  i n mind.  Rupert  transport  species  wood,  discussed  borne  to  marginal  difficulties  i n Prince  below the  long to  of as  Vancouver  succeed.  i n the  District The  and  u l t i m a t e l y change  office  right.  logs  decides  made i n t o p u l p  Instead  Forestry  Rupert  same a s  high-grade  s e c t i o n , must  will  costs  can  logging.  miles  in  on  Prince  for  market  C e l l u l o s e Company  handle  made w h i c h  coast  keeping the  to  which  be  400  from  the  Columbia  sawmill  will  longer  proceed-  Vancouver. the  operate  rates  was  The  domestic  i s no  route  Prince  Rail  Kingdom.  States'  Vancouver  Vancouver  l a r g e s t market  United  United  market.  to  i n the  interior  Interior  section  i s considerably  operations  are  o f the  different  smaller  and  Prince from  more  that  numerous,  as may the  be  s e e n i n F o r e s t r y T a b l e 6.  sawmill  c a p a c i t y of the  h a l f a s much a s t h e processed i n the  coast.  l o c a l l y before  interior  profitable.  coast, although  being  shipped,  I f i n t e r i o r m i l l s can  reason f o r the  (See  the  steady  F o r e s t r y T a b l e 4)  coast  and  operate  similar  coast  c a n be t r a c e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t railroad  the  while  s h i p s t o the market v i a Vancouver.  tree i s felled,  and  d i f f e r e n c e i n dimensions  and  specific  then skidded  out w i t h h o r s e s .  of lodgepole area  not  or  no  Clear cutting i s only practised pine.  s e l e c t i v e l y c u t on t h e c o a s t  e n t i r e l y to operations  or In  l a r g e r t r e e s a r e removed w i t h l i t t l e  damage t o r e p r o d u c t i o n .  b e c a u s e t h e y do  interior  g e n e r a l l y c h o s e n t o c o n f o r m t o some s i z e  only the  The  i n the  I n s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g o n l y one  species requirement,  stands  methods  i n the i n -  s t a g n a t i o n on t h e  s h i p s d i r e c t l y t o t h e m a r k e t by  species of t r e e s .  in  be  Indeed i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t  expansion of lumbering  t o s m a l l e r o p e r a t i o n s and  t h i s way  production  successfully,  S e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g i s more i m p o r t a n t due  one  i n t e r i o r cut i s  since  i t seems l i k e l y t h a t  compared w i t h the r e l a t i v e  interior  twice  i t cuts only  Almost a l l of the  would succeed i n P r i n c e Rupert.  terior  i n t e r i o r has  i s i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , i t w o u l d seem t o  shipping v i a railroad,  the  The  o f h a n d l o g g e r s who  cut  is  due  selectively  have t h e m a c h i n e r y t o c l e a r c u t .  s e l e c t i o n i s g o v e r n e d more by a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h a n any  Their other  factor. A l a r g e number, p e r h a p s t h e m a j o r i t y , o f t h e i n -  :  t e r i o r l o g g e r s are a l s o farmers  e i t h e r whole or p a r t  Since the growing season i n t h i s area i s short the  time.  farmer  has a long p e r i o d d u r i n g which he can l o g , without s e r i o u s ly  i m p a i r i n g h i s e f f i c i e n c y as a farmer.  It provides a  v a l u a b l e supplementary source of income to the  The  F o r e s t r y Operations  farmer.  of the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company  The f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s of the Columbia  Cellulose  Company are unique not only on the n o r t h e r n coast but i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole.  T h i s company was  the f i r s t  to  o b t a i n a f o r e s t r y management l i c e n s e , and to attempt  the  use of r i v e r d r i v i n g to b r i n g l o g s from the f o r e s t .  Since  i t s p l a n t i s l o c a t e d at Port Edward, 11 Rupert,  i t w i l l be extremely  the f u t u r e .  important  m i l e s from P r i n c e to P r i n c e Rupert i n  By the terms of the f o r e s t r y management  license  the company agrees to p r a c t i s e s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y on areas l e a s e d .  the  C u t t i n g w i l l proceed  at a r a t e which w i l l  enable the f o r e s t to regenerate and  grow to optimum mer-  chantible  s i z e before i t i s cut a g a i n .  The  l e a s e to the company are not concentrated but are s c a t t e r e d throughout Nass.  (See Map  17,  p. 180) .  areas under  i n one  solid  block  the area between the Skeena and In most cases the company has  been granted areas t h a t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r smaller comp a n i e s to u t i l i z e .  The p r o d u c t i v e area a l l o t t e d t o the  company amounts to approximately  one  p r o d u c t i v e area i n the coast d i s t r i c t  q u a r t e r o f the (668,440  total  acres of a  total ber  o f 2,700,000 a c r e s ) w h i l e t h e volume o f mature t i m -  on t h i s a c r e a g e  amounts t o o n l y one  m a t u r e volume on t h e of  19,780 m i l l i o n  ductive  acreage  accessible,  coast.  fbm.)  fifth  (4,345 m i l l i o n  fbm  i n the Upper Nass R i v e r  coast  s m a l l e r companies.  On million be  the f i r s t  cubic feet  revoked  rotation  of timber  i f i n any  (7 m i l l i o n million  e x p l o i t e d by  year they  specified. and  changed. the  The  boundaries  and  bleached  the  The  t h a n one and  c u t w i t h i n 10%  one  be  turned  The into  half  (21  of the  10-  amount not  government t h e y may the  be  area  Nass i s more s u i t a b l e f o r  land w i l l be  can  half  of the l e a s e d areas are  be  g r a n t e d an  company must m a n u f a c t u r e  pulp per year.  h o l d i n g s may used  company w i l l  14.5  Their license  F o r example i f i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  forestry this  the  Moreover w i t h i n a  with the approval of t h e  farming than  where.  one  amount.  company h o l d s i n t h e m i d d l e  lease  1  cut l e s s  c u b i c f e e t ) o r more t h a n  cubic f e e t ) of t h i s  a r e a s on  company must c u t  per y e a r .  y e a r p e r i o d t h e company must  static  the  pro-  Valley.  accessible  t o be  total  considered i n -  Many o f t h e most p r o d u c t i v e and remain  total  of a  I n a d d i t i o n much o f t h e i r  i s i n a r e a s w h i c h a r e now  especially  o f the  cedar  removed f r o m  the  equal area  else-  80,000 t o n s o f  l o g s on t h e  sawlogs,  s i n c e they  un-  company can n o t  i n the manufacture of p u l p but a l l o t h e r l o g s ,  be  regard-  _ From t h e c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government and t h e C o l u m b i a C e l l u l o s e Company known a s F o r e s t Management L i c e n s e No. 1.  l e s s o f t h e i r q u a l i t y , must be t u r n e d permission The  unless  i s r e c e i v e d f r o g i t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o do  otherwise.  i n t e n t i o n of t h i s clause i s t o insure that a l l logs  will  r e c e i v e the. g r e a t e s t amount o f p r o c e s s i n g  thus adding t o t h e i r ultimate Cutting i s t o begin to  i n t o pulp,  the north o f Terrace  possible,  value. i n the Kitsumgallum Valley  and i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e  company t o d r i v e t h e l o g s down t h e S k e e n a R i v e r t o t h e i r p l a n t a t P o r t Edward.  This i s the f i r s t  common e a s t e r n t e c h n i q u e in  time t h a t t h e  h a s b e e n a t t e m p t e d " on a l a r g e s c a l e  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d i t was c h o s e n p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e  t h e f o r e s t e r s and o f f i c i a l s t r a i n i n g i n the east. questionable British  o f t h e company r e c e i v e d  The s u c c e s s  o f t h e scheme i s  a s t h e S k e e n a R i v e r , i n common w i t h  Columbia r i v e r s ,  n o t met w i t h i n t h e e a s t .  their  other  has a v a r i a t i o n i n f l o w which i s The r a t i o o f f l o w on t h e S k e e n a  a t U s k i s 101 t o 1 a s compared w i t h t h e r a t i o  on most  p  e a s t e r n r i v e r s o f o n l y 10 t o 1. ous  T h i s i s due t o t h e c o p i -  p r e c i p i t a t i o n w h i c h i s h e l d a s snow i n l o f t y  d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r and r e l e a s e d slopes i n the spring. course  s u d d e n l y down p r e c i p i t o u s  Owing t o t h e n a t u r e  o f t h e lower  o f t h e Skeena t h e s e c t i o n from T e r r a c e  mouth a b o u n d s w i t h s a n d b a n k s a n d b a r s filling  i n o f t h e embayed d e l t a .  tothe  which represent the  These b a r s , e s p e c i a l l y  t o w a r d s t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r a r e composed o f 2.  peaks  extremely  B.C. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e S e c o n d R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , V i c t o r i a , 1949, p. 200.  fine  silt.  With the  l a r g e t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s of the  c o a s t , up t o 2 4 f e e t , and  of the northern  r a t e s of f l o w i n the r i v e r the  the w i d e l y  s a n d b a n k s and  t e n d e n c y t o change w i t h b e w i l d e r i n g r a p i d i t y , known t o make a f o r m e r l y course  o f a day.  hazard  i n the  the  scores  of g i l l  an  extremely  s t r a y l o g s from the  during  company w o u l d be without ing  risk.  during  season.  Their  nets  I f these  n e t s w e r e t o be  w o u l d be  damaged  booms  q u i c k t o demand  Since f i s h i n g  reimburse-  i s c l o s e d on t h e  Sunday a s a c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e  able to drive t h e i r  river  the  logs during t h i s  period  A c e r t a i n amount o f e q u i p m e n t w o u l d be  stand-  i d l e d u r i n g a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e week, a d d i n g t o t h e  of the  the  n e t t e r s t h a t c l o g t h e mouth o f  company's booms, o r b y t h e  company.  S a t u r d a y and  have been  v a l u a b l e p i e c e of equipment, g e n e r a l l y  themselves, the fishermen ment f r o m t h e  and  i s added a n o t h e r u n i q u e  salmon f i s h i n g  worth from $600 to $1200. by  varying  b a r s have a  impassible  To t h i s d i f f i c u l t y  Skeena d u r i n g the  represent  safe channel  waters  operation.  The  fishing  season, u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  costs occurs  d u r i n g t h e t i m e when t h e r i v e r i s most s u i t a b l e f o r l o g driving. of the coast  In the  company's f a v o u r  i s the f a c t t h a t the  i n t e r i o r are of smaller dimensions than those and  t h a t t h e y a r e t o be  eastern r i v e r d r i v e r s .  The  b r o u g h t down by  company h a s  on  dragging  operations  a l s o gone t o  I t i s t o be h o p e d t h a t d r e d g i n g will  n o t h a v e t o be  the  experienced  s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e t o c l e a r channels i n the r i v e r to tate log driving.  logs  repeated  confacili-  and  too  often.  If  t h e C o l u m b i a C e l l u l o s e Company i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s a t t e m p t s  it  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s technique  may  be  applied to  other  r i v e r s along the The t h i s new  coast.  q u e s t i o n o f how  many men  may  be employed i n  o p e r a t i o n has been t h e s u b j e c t o f much s p e c u l a t i o n .  U s i n g t h e t a b l e o f l a b o u r requirement  per u n i t of p r o d u c t i o n  found i n the T r a n s a c t i o n s o f . t h e Second Resources Conference 3  a f a i r l y v a l i d f i g u r e may a f i g u r e of 282 men  be o b t a i n e d .  T h i s method g i v e s  i n the woods and 292 men  T h i s means a p p r o x i m a t e l y be r e c e i v i n g year-round  575 new  i n the  mill.  p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s , who  will  wages, which w i l l do much t o make a  s t a b l e and p r o s p e r o u s c i t y . The estimated  outlook for f o r e s t r y i s very hopeful.  The  s u s t a i n e d y i e l d f o r the c o a s t i s 280 m i l l i o n  and c u t t i n g i n 1948  amounted t o 175  m i l l i o n fbm.4  fbm,  The  a d d i t i o n of the c u t of the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company w i l l b r i n g t h i s t o t a l t o 255  m i l l i o n fbm.  P r o d u c t i o n can be i n -  creased by 25 m i l l i o n fbm and p r o b a b l y more w i t h o u t harm t o the f o r e s t s s i n c e much of t h e t i m b e r stand i s mature, and thus r e c e i v e s l i t t l e annual growth increment.  Vancouver  F o r e s t r y D i s t r i c t , the o n l y o t h e r c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t ,  during  the same y e a r , was  c u t t i n g a t 188% o f t h e a n n u a l growth  r a t e and u t i l i z i n g  more hemlock and  It  spruce t h a n ever b e f o r e .  seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i n the not too d i s t a n t f u t u r e  Vancouver w i l l be f o r c e d t o r e l y much more h e a v i l y on t h e 3•  B.C. Department of Lands, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1949,. p. ^' V e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n from the P r i n c e Rupert D i s t r i c t Forester.  150.  f o r e s t s of the northern coast.  At present  o n l y the  and most a c c e s s i b l e t i m b e r s i t e s on t h e n o r t h e r n c a n be u t i l i z e d t o s h i p t o V a n c o u v e r . t i m b e r s i t e s p r o c e e d s f a r t h e r and  farther afield  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Vancouver i n c r e a s e , the  of  the  and  costs  probability  s u c c e s s f u l establishment of sawmills i n Prince  Rupert i n c r e a s e s .  I n d e e d t h e i n d u s t r y c o u l d be  success-  e s t a b l i s h e d at the present time, w i t h i t s f u t u r e  a s s u r e d by t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g d e p l e t i o n o f t h e of  coast  As t h e s e a r c h f o r  of  fully  best  the southern B r i t i s h  Columbia c o a s t .  forests  TABLE 1 INFORMATION SUPPLIED BY DISTRICT FORESTER, PRINCE RUPERT Prince Rupert Forestry District Total Area Coast Interior  Productive Area 1S.1 million acres 20 4 million acres 39.5 million acres 0  2.7 million acres 7.5 million acres 10.2 million acres  Merchantible timber accessible Coast - 66% of the total productive area Interior - 20% of the total productive area.  TABLE 2 MERCHANTIBLE TIMBER VOLUME ON PRODUCTIVE AREA IN MILLIONS OF F.B.M. Coast Cedar  Hemlock Spruce  Balsam  Lodgepole Pine  Misc.  Total  1226  19780  4549  7094  5141  1770  Interior 257  614  1160  592  1052  128  3808  Total 4806  7708  6301  2362  1052  1350  23583  TABLE 3 . ANNUAL LOGGED AREA 5 YEAR AVERAGE 1943-17 Clear Cut Coast Interior  Selectively Cut 4708 acres 2113 acres 6821 acres  5191 acres 4095 acres 9284 acres  TABLE 4 CUT IK MILLIONS OF F.B.M.  Year  Coast  Interior  Total  1943  223  33  256  43  278  1944  -235  1945  191  54  245  1946  125  62  187  1947  187  71.4  272  1948  175  84  259  TABLE 5 MERCHANTABLE TIMBER BY DRAINAGE BASINS Information from Regional Industrial Index of British Columbia Department of Trade & Industry, Victoria, 1948  Drainage-basin  Douglas Fir  Douglas Channel-Kitimat Arm Gardner Canal-Kitlope River 8,500 — Grenville Channel-Banks Island — Lower Skeena River Princess Royal-Hawkesbury Roderick Island-Graham Reach — Work Channel-IQiutzeymateen Graham Island, Q.C.I. —— Moresby Island, Q.C.I, Lower Nass-Observatory Inlet Upper Nass River 2,800 Bulkley River East Middle Skeena River Upper Skeena River 44,800 Francois Lake-Endako River 328,900 Stuart Lake — Takla Lake Upper Nechako River Bulkley River West  Western Red Western Cedar Hemlock 337,700 97,500 125,200 296,900 254,700 295,700 37,800 1512,200 1199,500 25,800 111,600 17,600 436,600  NOTE - i n 1000»s of board feet.  — —  3,800 8.800  1240,600 264,600 172,700 845,900 328,700 354,500 201,600 2037,000 2755,700 329,400 1893,000 271,600 1196,100 1630,200 16,400  Spruce  368,400 133,200 110,600 446,900 177,100 213,700 183,400 1954,700 2201,100 144,600 1197,500 1351,700 424,600 1145,100 434,700 630,500 395,400 75,800 270,900 147.800 431,800  Silver Fir 893,700 153,600 92,400 385,700 239,200 229,200 147,200 —  69,900 1202,800 693,600 505,300 1566,100 60,800 203,800 170,300 215,300 381,000  Lodgepole Pine —  Yellow Cedar  CottonWood  Total  25,600 6,300 2872,300 683,100 20,700 — 300 526,400 25,200 2,700 168,400 2146,500 1047,600 47,900 — 1114,300 21,200 583,000 13,000 24,700 321,500 ?5850,100 — 114,300 6270,600 — 400 39,300 609,400 -—58,300 15,300 4478,500 — 3955,000 1617,700 60,800 31,170 2654,570 — — 4595,700 254,300 — 740,900 184,200 1505,900 342,700 855,900 290,200 — 677,500 111,700 1721,100 751,700 ——  TABLE 6 SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS NOT OPERATING  OPERATING No*  Sawmills  No*  Estimated Cap. M.B.M.  25  Coast  608 *  Shingle Mills  No,  Estimated Cap, M.B.M. 1  5  Sawmills  No.  Estimated Cap. M.B.M.  Shingle Mills Estimated Cap. M.3.M..  5  36  1  5  1  5  Interior  212  1,064  7  32  Totals  237  1,672  12  68  1947  205  1,288  52  1946  149  1,085  67  10  # Of the estimated capacity on the coast 350 M.B.M. i s supplied by one sawmill at Ocean Falls.  O'  Chapter  V  FISHERIES  Unlike the other resources of Prince hinterland the f i s h e r i e s resource utilized  i s almost  at present, since the mainstays  Rupert's  completely-  of t h e i n d u s t r y ,  h a l i b u t a n d s a l m o n , a r e premium f i s h w h i c h command p r i c e s on t h e w o r l d m a r k e t s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e the high t r a n s p o r t a t i o n charges.  them t o overcome  Most o f t h e o t h e r  fish-  e r i e s a r e i n c i d e n t a l t o h a l i b u t and s a l m o n , and a r e e n g a g e d i n d u r i n g p e r i o d s when s a l m o n and h a l i b u t caught.  c a n n o t be  T h u s , t h e o t h e r f i s h e r i e s make u s e o f c a p i t a l  equipment and s k i l l s which t h e y  could not support i n  themselves. The  f i s h i n g industry, especially the halibut  f i s h e r y , has provided t h e major share income . s i n c e t h e c i t y ' s f o u n d i n g .  of Prince  Rupert's  No m a j o r g r o w t h i n t h e  i n d u s t r y c a n be e x p e c t e d  nor f o r t u n a t e l y , a major d e c l i n e .  Since a f i s h e r y resource  c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d o r e q u a t e d i n  t h e u s u a l way t h e most s u i t a b l e t e c h n i q u e gation i s h i s t o r i c a l .  f o ri t s investi-  The o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h a n g e s a n d  trends of the past w i l l t e l l  u s more a b o u t t h e f i s h e r y o f  t h e f u t u r e t h a n a n y o t h e r method s i n c e c h a n g e s i n t h e fishing industry w i l l amounts  caught.  be i n t e c h n i q u e s  rather' than i n  The  The tat  fundamental  the type halibut  Fishery  control  and h a b i t s o f t h e f i s h  late The  Halibut  concerned.  o f boats, the gear  begins l i f e  of a f i s h e r y  These f a c t o r s  deep, from  banks u n t i l  as a p e l a g i c f i s h ,  150 t o 2 0 0 f a t h o m s .  t h e y a r e mature when t h e y  halibut the  move a b o u t  continually;  i s found  areas of the continental are  needed  any  length o f time.  of  They r e m a i n  i n these  seem t o m i g r a t e t o  principally  When m a t u r e ,  shelf,  i n t h e more  the North  t o remain  This i s especially  halibut  developed  fishery  on t h e b a n k s  t r u e i n Area 3 to the f u l l  on t h e A t l a n t i c  coast f i s h e r m e n adopted The P a c i f i c  immediately  coast.  and t h e v e n t u r e s o m e west  them much s o o n e r  than t h e i r  f i s h e r m e n were q u i c k t o a d o p t  Atlantic power  The g u r d i e s  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e goose neck e n a b l e d  be c a r r i e d  from  Improvements i n  w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e u s e o f power g u r d i e s .  when u s e d  sweep  began i n 1 8 9 0 i n t h e w a t e r s  u s i n g t h e l o n g l i n e method f i s h i n g  t e c h n i q u e s came a l m o s t  motors,  size  Pacific.  Cape F l a t t e r y ,  brethren.  exposed  sturdy ships of f a i r  map) where t h e f i s h e r m e n a r e e x p o s e d  dorries  to  are generally  s t o c k w h i c h was t a g g e d i n  i f the fishermen intend  The off  i nthe  G u l f o f A l a s k a was r e c o v e r e d a s f a r s o u t h a s W a s h i n g t o n .  Since the h a l i b u t  (see  floating  40 t o 80 f a t h o m s d e e p .  s h a l l o w e r banks, from  regu-  and t h e manner o f f i s h i n g .  c u r r e n t s above t h e spawning b a n k s , which quite  i s the habi-  fishing  o u t f r o m t h e mother s h i p w i t h a consequent i n -  Map  10  Halibut Fishing  Areas  Source: Report of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l No. 1 4 ,  S e a t t l e , Washington,  Fisheries 1949.  Commission,  crease  i n s p e e d and By 1910  f i s h i n g had  Spencer, A l a s k a . R u p e r t i n 1914, creased  e f f i c i e n c y of  The  spread  as f a r n o r t h as  Gape  opening of the  railway l i n e to  Prince  by p r o v i d i n g q u i c k e r a c c e s s  t h e number o f b o a t s  t h e i r range.  fishing.  By 1925  i n the  h a l i b u t was  to markets, i n -  i n d u s t r y and  extended  b e i n g f i s h e d f r o m Unimak  Pass i n the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s to northern  California.  However, t h e h a l i b u t c a t c h had  begun t o d e c l i n e i n  of ever  F i s h i n g was  year  extending  r o u n d and  operations.  i n areas  spite  c a r r i e d on  the  c l o s e to the ports the catches  had  begun t o d r o p a l a r m i n g l y . I n 1923  a h a l i b u t t r e a t y was  U n i t e d S t a t e s and  s i g n e d between the  Canada a l l o w i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an I n t e r -  n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n and  i n s t i t u t i n g a t h r e e months  closed  This t r e a t y , i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  was  season during the w i n t e r .  the f i r s t  t o be n e g o t i a t e d b y  as a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n .  By 1930  u n l e s s p r o m p t a c t i o n was completely three areas provided  depleted. (Map  10,  f o r each.  t h r e e , and  The  taken  A r e a two  n o r t h end  behalf  the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y would c o a s t was  with separate  be  divided into  catch regulations  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  w i t h i n t h e a r e a t h e most i m p o r t a n t  found between the  own  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s showed t h a t  Pacific  p. 93)  Canada on h e r  banks  o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and  of  the  are Dixon  Entrance. A gurdie - a mechanical device c o n s i s t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y of a r e v o l v i n g drum a r o u n d w h i c h t h e l i n e i s d r a w n i n . A g o o s e n e c k - a s h e e t - m e t a l f r a m e on t h e s t e r n o f a h a l i but boat over which the l i n e i s l e t out.  95. "On e i t h e r s i d e o f t h i s c e n t r a l a r e a t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o d u c t i o n become l e s s f a v o u r a b l e a n d t h e a b u n d a n c e o f many s p e c i e s t a p e r o f f t o t h e s o u t h a n d t o t h e n o r t h . T h i s t a p e r i n g o f f i n h a l i b u t s t o c k s i s n o t so a p p a r e n t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , due t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t f i s h i n g has' h a d on t h e l e v e l l i n g o f f t h e s e o r i g i n a l p e a k s o f maximum a b u n d a n c e . " 2 Prince Rupert i s the port best the f i s h e r y o f t h i s p r o d u c t i v e area. arrival  s i t u a t e d t o serve  Even p r i o r t o t h e  o f t h e r a i l w a y P r i n c e R u p e r t had q u i t e an e x t e n s i v e  f i s h e r y , which t h e r a i l  connection  expanded.  i s located at the point of production  The i n d u s t r y  since high  quality  f i s h must be f r o z e n a s soon a f t e r l a n d i n g a s p o s s i b l e .  PHOTOGRAPH 14  CLEANING HALIBUT PREPARATORY  TO FREEZING  Once t h e e q u i p m e n t f o r f r e e z i n g i s s e t up i t i s l e s s  expensive  U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , F.H. B e l l , I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, S e a t t l e , Washington.  t o add  the  c o l d storage  rooms a t t h e p o i n t o f l a n d i n g  t o e s t a b l i s h them a t t h e m a r k e t .  The  Rupert u n t i l there i s a c a l l f o r i t , i n carload l o t s v i a express. market employs a few  but  the  been the g r e a t e s t  T h e i r o b j e c t has b a n k s by  i s held i n Prince  then i t i s shipped  movement o f f i s h t o  people during the winter  S i n c e 1931 has  The  fish  than  out the  months.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission  s i n g l e c o n t r o l i n the h a l i b u t f i s h e r y . .  been t o prevent  overfishing.  the d e s t r u c t i o n of the  To t h i s  hali-  end t h e y h a v e i m p o s e d  catch r e s t r i c t i o n s s u f f i c i e n t to a l l o w r e g e n e r a t i o n  of  i n a l l areas.  entering  the  W i t h i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f f i s h e r m e n  i n d u s t r y and  of the  fishing  increased  season has  e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e b o a t s the From 1 9 3 5  decreased.  t r e n d t o w a r d an i n c r e a s i n g l y s h o r t f i s h i n g v e n t e d by  the  cooperative  i n g t o a l a y - o v e r o f 10  s e a s o n was  a c t i o n of the f i s h e r m e n  d a y s b e t w e e n t r i p s and  The  l a y - o v e r p e r i o d and  n a t u r a l l y prevented fishermen the  a h i g h e r p r i c e d u r i n g the  the l e n g t h of the  pre-  i n agree-  During  i n c r e a s e d , due  were r e c e i v i n g c o u p l e d  which allowed  deductions  a r e s u l t most f i s h e r m e n  during  the  years.  r e s t r i c t i o n s were c u r t a i l e d  t h e war,  the  that  catch  gave  s e a s o n began t o d r o p r a p i d l y .  F i s h e r i e s Table 1). f i s h boats again  these  depression  the  agreeing  restricted  an o v e r s u p p l i e d m a r k e t and  c o m i n g o f t h e war  fishermen  the  length  1940  e a c h s h i p w o u l d c a t c h no more t h a n 3 5 0 0 l b s . p e r man the t r i p .  stocks  With and  (See  e f f i c i e n c y of  t o the h i g h incomes  the  the  w i t h income t a x r e g u l a t i o n s  f o r improvements t o the boats. p u r c h a s e d n e w e r and  more  powerful  As  d i e s e l e n g i n e s , e c h o - s o u n d i n g d e v i c e s and s h i p - t o - s h o r e radios.  A t t h e end o f t h e war  reimposed, l a r g e l y because Improved halibut the  equipment  c a t c h r e s t r i c t i o n s were n o t  of the h i g h p r i c e s f o r f i s h .  soon r e s u l t e d i n a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e  s e a s o n t o one month i n A r e a Two.  halibut  s e a s o n h a s had t h e e f f e c t  The  shortening  of i n c r e a s i n g the  importance of P r i n c e Rupert as a h a l i b u t p o r t , for  of  especially  Canadian f i s h i n g b o a t s , s i n c e the prime o b j e c t i s t o  r e m a i n a s l o n g on t h e f i s h i n g g r o u n d s a s i s p o s s i b l e n o t w a s t e t i m e t r a v e l l i n g t o and f r o m a d i s t a n t  and  port.  Since P r i n c e - Rupert i s the c l o s e s t p o r t almost a l l Canadian h a l i b u t i s landed there. The  s h o r t n e s s o f t h e s e a s o n and t h e h i g h p r i c e  f i s h has brought about o t h e r developments, the  g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f camps.  particularly  Camps a r e scows  towed  c l o s e t o the f i s h i n g grounds at the s t a r t of the season the  various f i s h buyers.  of  They a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h  by  temporary  s t o r a g e s p a c e f o r f i s h and a r e a b l e t o s e l l g a s , o i l and few o t h e r b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s .  a  Camps e n a b l e s m a l l b o a t s  with r e s t r i c t e d holding capacity to s e l l t h e i r f i s h without t a k i n g the time-consuming other port.  The  t r i p i n t o P r i n c e R u p e r t o r some  camps a r e i n t o u c h w i t h head o f f i c e  by  r a d i o and f a s t f i s h p a c k e r s v i s i t t h e m r e g u l a r l y t o d r o p o f f s u p p l i e s and t a k e t h e f i s h t h e y h a v e p u r c h a s e d i n t o t h e m a i n market.  The  camps a c c o u n t e d f o r 4 m i l l i o n s p o u n d s o f t h e  14 m i l l i o n p o u n d s o f h a l i b u t l a n d e d b y C a n a d i a n f i s h e r m e n f r o m A r e a Two.  The  camps e n a b l e many t y p e s o f s m a l l  boats  9$. to  fish  for halibut, particularly  s a l m o n t r o l l e r s and  gill  netters. These developments t r a d i t i o n a l A r e a Two boats range of  from  h a v e t e n d e d t o make t h e  or small h a l i b u t boats obsolete.  5 t o 10 t o n s i n c a p a c i t y and c a r r y a c r e w  f r o m 3 t o 5 men.  They f i s h  o n l y i n A r e a Two  they are too small t o extend t h e i r fishing A r e a Two  These  i n A r e a Three  waters  since  p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n s by  a f t e r t h e c l o s u r e o f A r e a Two.  The  h a l i b u t b o a t s a r e g e n e r a l l y t o o l a r g e t o engage i n  salmon f i s h i n g ,  and  a r e not s u i t e d t o t h i s  occupation.  As  an a l t e r n a t i v e t h e y a r e o f t e n u s e d f o r b l a c k c o d f i s h i n g , which  i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y  lucrative.  F o r t h e l a s t few y e a r s ,  h o w e v e r , g o o d p r i c e s h a v e p r e v a i l e d f o r b l a c k c o d and use o f h a l i b u t b o a t s has been g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . attempt to f i n d department or tuna.  employment f o r t h e s e boats., t h e  the I n an  fisheries  has been u s i n g scout s h i p s t o hunt f o r a b a l c o r e I n t h r e e y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n t h e y h a v e met  r e a s o n a b l e success but of  .  so l i t t l e  i s known a b o u t  fishery that prediction i s impossible.  with  this  Since a  type  boat  t h a t c a n be u s e d d u r i n g o n l y one month o f t h e y e a r i s ex-, t r e m e l y expensive to operate, the t r a d i t i o n a l  small h a l i -  b u t b o a t may  c a n be  to  s o o n be o b s o l e t e u n l e s s some way  lengthen the season.  It will  more a d a p t a b l e b o a t s o f two of  halibut fishing  trolling  p r o b a b l y be r e p l a c e d by  t y p e s : the s m a l l e r ones c a p a b l e  f r o m t h e camps and  d u r i n g the salmon season.  be a d a p t e d  found  then g i l l  The  netting  l a r g e r boats  f o r purse s e i n i n g or packing d u r i n g the  or  will  salmon  s e a s o n and w i l l  be  t h e s e i n e t a b l e and for halibut  converted to h a l i b u t f i s h i n g a d d i n g the goose neck.  exclusively w i l l  by  Boats  removing fishing  remain, but t h e y w i l l  be  larger  t h a n a t p r e s e n t , a v e r a g i n g a c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f 35 t o t o n s and w i l l be c a p a b l e o f f i s h i n g Pacific.  T h i s tendency  complete  any p a r t o f t h e  50  North  c a n be d i s c e r n e d a l r e a d y , b u t  a  p i c t u r e r e q u i r e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r f o r c e s  operating i n the industry, p a r t i c u l a r l y the cooperative mo veme n t .  F i s h e r i e s and  The depression.  t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Movement  c o o p e r a t i v e movement was  a product of the  I n t h e e a r l y 1930's f i s h e r m e n , i n common w i t h  o t h e r p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s , were f o r c e d t o a c c e p t low p r i c e s f o r t h e i r f i s h .  I n an e f f o r t to  extremely  increase,prices  t h e f i s h e r m e n s e t up a c o o p e r a t i v e t o h a n d l e t h e of f i s h  and t o buy  t h e i r g e a r and  provisions.  g r a d u a l r e t u r n o f p r o s p e r i t y a f t e r 1936  With  and t h e  m a r k e t s o f t h e war y e a r s t h i s v e n t u r e s u c c e e d e d By t h e end o f t h e war t h e c o o p e r a t i v e had two in  marketing  insatiable and  Almost  cooperative.  a l l independent  expanded.  large stores  P r i n c e R u p e r t , a c o l d s t o r a g e p l a n t , b a k e r y and  ant.  the  restaur-  f i s h e r m e n were members o f t h e  A p e r s o n a l c h e c k c o v e r i n g $5%  of the  boats  showed t h a t o f 90 h a l i b u t b o a t s o p e r a t i n g out o f P r i n c e 1  Rupert  o n l y 10 d i d n o t b e l o n g t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e . The  f i s h e r m e n who  a r e members o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e  n a t u r a l l y wish t o s e l l  t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n whenever  possible,  s e l l i n g t o p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s o n l y when t h e c o o p e r a t i v e c a n not handle t h e i r c a t c h . private  T h i s s i t u a t i o n was r e s e n t e d b y t h e  companies s i n c e i t p l a c e d t h e i r  ous p o s i t i o n .  supply i n a p r e c a r i -  I n order t o assure themselves  of a s u p p l y t h e  p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s b e g a n t o p l a c e more camps n e a r t h e g r o u n d s and  a l s o o f f e r e d t o b u i l d or subsidize the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  b o a t s which would  sell  e x c l u s i v e l y t o them.  b o a t s t h e y chose t h e l a r g e type o f boat sufficient  When b u i l d i n g  s i n c e t h e y had  c a p i t a l t o do t h i s and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e l a r g e r  b o a t s would  be more p r o f i t a b l e t o them.  S i n c e t h e head  o f f i c e s o f t h e f i s h i n g companies a r e l o c a t e d i n Vancouver t h e l a r g e b o a t s t e n d t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h a t c i t y . are,  o f c o u r s e , a number o f medium a n d l a r g e s i z e d  l o c a t e d i n Vancouver  There  boats  w h i c h a r e owned b y i n d e p e n d e n t s , b u t  a s u r v e y o f t h e two p r i n c i p a l C a n a d i a n  f l e e t s showed t h e  following Vancouver  P r i n c e Rupert  T o t a l 90 boats 1$ b o a t s w i t h a c r e w o f 8 men o r over (Large) 43 b o a t s w i t h a c r e w o f 6 o r 7 raen (Medium) 66% l a r g e o r medium b o a t s T o t a l 107 boats 4 b o a t s w i t h a c r e w o f 8 men o r over (Large) 42 b o a t s w i t h a c r e w o f 6 o r 7 men (Medium) 4 0 % l a r g e o r medium b o a t s  The  m a j o r i t y o f t h e Vancouver  boats are of the  l a r g e o r medium s i z e w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f f i s h i n g along the P a c i f i c  anywhere  coast, while the m a j o r i t y o f the Prince  R u p e r t f l e e t i s composed o f s m a l l s h i p s c a p a b l e o n l y A r e a Two. Rupert,  Both these  fleets sell  of f i s h i n g  t h e i r catch i n Prince  and a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y t h e i r w i n t e r i n g p l a c e .  V a n c o u v e r o f 48 b o a t s operative.  In  c h e c k e d o n l y 8 were members o f t h e c o -  Since almost a l l independent fishermen  c o a s t a r e members o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e t h a t most o f t h e V a n c o u v e r b o a t s  on t h e  i t i s t o be p r e s u m e d  a r e company owned o r s u b -  sidized. The s t r e n g t h o f t h e . c o o p e r a t i v e may be a t t r i b u t e d  t o two p r i m a r y  causes.  i n Prince Rupert The f i r s t i s t h e  e t h n i c homogeniety o f t h e P r i n c e Rupert fishermen. 90 boats  c h e c k e d o n l y 7 were s k i p p e r e d b y men w i t h B r i t i s h  surnames, t h e r e s t it  were N o r w e g i a n s .  I n a strange  i s natural that t i e s of n a t i o n a l i t y  help weld the fishermen which t h e spread r e l a t i v e l y easy. in  Of t h e  the formation  country  and o c c u p a t i o n  into rather closely-knit  should  groups i n  o f t h e i d e a o f c o o p e r a t i o n w o u l d be The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e c i t y a l s o of the cooperative.  Rupert c o u l d not a v o i d coming i n t o  assisted  Fishermen i n Prince  c o n t a c t w i t h each  other.  A r g u m e n t , d i s c u s s i o n and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e s u l t s  were  e a s y and i n e v i t a b l e .  city,  personal  I n V a n c o u v e r , as i n any l a r g e  c o n t a c t , t h e b a s i s o f c o o p e r a t i o n , i s more  b e c a u s e o f t h e s i z e and a n o n y m i t y o f a c i t y . was, t h e r e f o r e , t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d expansion  difficult,  Prince Rupert  t h e f o r m a t i o n and  o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e movement i n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t  Fisheries. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e members a r e o w n e r s  102 of the medium and small sized boats and i t i s i n t h e i r i n terest to find some way of lengthening the season, i f only to prevent their equipment from becoming obsolete.  Biologi-  cal evidence seems to be i n favour of lengthening the season - "short  seasons are considered b i o l o g i c a l l y unsound  by the Commission because they do not allow the taking of the maximum y i e l d s from the stocks."-^  If some form of  lengthening the season i s adopted i t w i l l have two effects, to preserve the usefulness of the Area Two or small halibut boat and to lower the amount of halibut landed i n Prince Rupert.  I f a lay-over of 10 days i s decided upon the tendency  w i l l be for a l l boats to return to t h e i r home ports to s e l l t h e i r catch, which w i l l mean that only Prince Rupert boats w i l l s e l l at that port, with a consequent reduction i n amount landed.  The Salmon Fishery  Since the salmon has an e n t i r e l y different  habitat  and l i f e cycle than the h a l i b u t , the fishery associated with it  i s also different.  The basis of the salmon industry i s  the habit of the f i s h to return to i t s home stream to spawn after maturing i n the open sea.  The concentration of the  salmon into a r e l a t i v e l y small area, the width of the stream mouth, makes them easy to catch. 3  Three p r i n c i p a l methods are  #  Report of the International Fisheries Commission, No. 14, Regulation and Investigation of the Pacific Halibut Fishery i n 1948, Seattle, Washington, 1948, p. 12.  u s e d , t r o l l i n g , g i l l n e t t i n g and purse s e i n i n g . i s used t o c a t c h h i g h q u a l i t y f i s h oh t h e i r way mouth of the r i v e r , and accounts t i o n of the c a t c h .  Trolling t o the  f o r only a small  propor-  Most o f the c a t c h i n t h e Skeena and  Nass R i v e r s i s accounted f o r by g i l l n e t t e r s , w i t h o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n b e i n g taken by purse s e i n e . T h i s has been t h e case s i n c e b e f o r e the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y when the f i s h e r y began.  The  s a i l b o a t was  supreme i n t h e n o r t h e r n salmon f i s h e r y up u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 192$.  With d e c l i n i n g f i s h s t o c k s i t became i n -  c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o make good catches w i t h a s a i l  boat,  and i n the p e r i o d from 1925-30 almost the whole of the f i s h e r y was  c o n v e r t e d t o gas engine.4  This conversion to  power b o a t s i n c r e a s e d the f l e x i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y of t h e f l e e t s and l a i d the ground f o r many changes. p o r t a n t was in  The most im-  the d e c r e a s e i n the numbers and the i n c r e a s e  the s i z e and e f f i c i e n c y o f the c a n n e r i e s .  I n the days  o f the s a i l b o a t 25 s c a t t e r e d c a n n e r i e s were n e c e s s a r y p r o p e r l y s e r v i c e the f i s h e r i e s on t h e Skeena and Rivers,  how  to  Nass  o n l y s i x are needed.  The number of boats on the two r i v e r s has been s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s i n g from a peak of 3,000 i n 1925. t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y Decreasing 4.  5  *  1,100  In  b o a t s on the Skeena and  1948 Nass  numbers have been accompanied by i n c r e a s i n g  V e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n , D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r , Dominion Depart ment of F i s h e r i e s , Vancouver, B.C. . Ibid.  104.  PHOTOGRAPH 15 LOOKING ACROSS HARBOR AT MT. MORSE FISHERMAN'S FLOAT I N THE FOREGROUND F l o a t s are r e l a t i v e l y since this fishing  was t a k e n d u r i n g  season.  Boats  foreground with t a l l are  empty  in  poles  salmon t r a w l e r s .  Small  boats without poles are netters. the l e f t efficiency  and t h e b o a t s a t p r e s e n t  of h a n d l i n g a l l the a v a i l a b l e fish  fish.  landed declined a p p r e c i a b l y ,  The l a r g e b o a t is a  a r e more t h a n  largely  serious declines  Indians,  was d i v i d e d a b o u t  fishermen.  e q u a l l y between  The J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n ,  of  Ibid,  was  represented  The r e s t white  of  and  removed f r o m  c o a s t d u r i n g t h e w a r , were r e p l a c e d i n p a r t  a l w h i t e and I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n a n d i n p a r t by  *  who  50% o f t h e f i s h e r m e n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t .  Japanese  6  in  landings  war t h e n o r t h e r n s a l m o n f i s h e r y  i n t h e hands of t h e n a t i v e  the f i s h e r y  the  of  and chum. P r i o r to the  about  capable  N o r h a s t h e amount  very  to  seiner.  h i g h q u a l i t y s o c k e y e b e i n g made up by i n c r e a s e d cohoe  gill  by a d d i t i o n -  increasingly  105. e f f i c i e n t g e a r and ous ly  boats.  This poses a p o t e n t i a l l y  s o c i o l o g i c a l problem f o r the post-war p e r i o d . some J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n  former occupations,  will  but t h e y  expanded t o i t s p r o d u c t i v e l i m i t s .  fisherman  who  a l r e a d y employed i n t h e f i s h e r i e s , p r o b a b l y  The c a t c h and  p r i c e t h a t the fisherman  someone  somewhat  receives for h i s  daughter r e c e i v e s f o r  cannery i s the o n l y r e t u r n t h a t P r i n c e Rupert  r e c e i v e s from t h i s f i s h e r y . and  the  Japanese  fisherman.  t h e wage t h a t h i s w i f e and  work i n t h e  Every  r e t u r n s t h r e a t e n s the l i v e l i h o o d of  Indian  their  be r e t u r h i n g t o an i n d u s t r y  w h i c h has  inefficient  Undoubted-  want t o r e t u r n t o  will  danger-  Cannery s u p p l i e s , machinery  a d d i t i o n a l l a b o u r are a l l s u p p l i e d from Vancouver.  l a r l y a l l the  salmon canned i n the n o r t h i s s h i p p e d  Simi-  to  Van-  i n the  pre-  7 couver f o r marketing. war  This p r a c t i c e developed  y e a r s when B r i t a i n f o r m e d t h e m a i n m a r k e t f o r c a n n e d  s a l m o n , and  V a n c o u v e r was  which to ship.  t h e most c o n v e n i e n t  centre  from  As w i t h t i m b e r , t h i s i s no l o n g e r t h e  case  and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c a n n e d s a l m o n p a c k i s s o l d  either  in  new  e a s t e r n Canada o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  o r i e n t a t i o n o f m a r k e t s , c a n n e r y men to  With t h i s  w o u l d be w e l l a d v i s e d  examine t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s h i p p i n g d i r e c t f r o m P r i n c e  Rupert. The  l e n g t h of the  season i n the f i s h e r y i s decided  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s .  7  At present  the  V e r b a l I n f o r m a t i o n , D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r , Dominion Department o f F i s h e r i e s , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  106. season embraces almost the whole duration of the various salmon runs; the problems of escapement and regeneration being met by a two-day closure of the f i s h e r y during every week of the season. Both of the major f i s h e r i e s impose a seasonal rhythm on the fishermen.  Many attempts have been made to  u t i l i z e i d l e equipment and s k i l l s by the development of new f i s h e r i e s .  These have been successful i n p a r t , and  t h r i v i n g black cod, f l a t f i s h , abalcore and h e r r i n g f i s h e r i e s do e x i s t .  At present, however, they employ only a  small number of boats and men, and i t i s u n l i k e l y that they can be expanded s u f f i c i e n t l y to engage a l l the a v a i l a b l e men and equipment of the two major f i s h e r i e s .  As yet  t h i s problem has not become too pressing since the majorit y of fishermen can make enough money during the few months of f i s h i n g to keep them comfortably throughout the r e s t of the year.  The job seekers are those who have had a poor  season and those who wish to work during the winter i n order to add to t h e i r c a p i t a l .  The problem of jobs f o r men i n  these two classes i s d i f f i c u l t but by no means i n s o l u b l e . I f f i s h p r i c e s were to drop and large numbers of men were to seek winter employment the s i t u a t i o n would become impossible.  Summary  The f i s h e r i e s of Prince Rupert are e f f i c i e n t ,  well-  107.  equipped  and w e l l - d e v e l o p e d .  Increased production i n the  more i m p o r t a n t f i s h e r i e s i s now u n l i k e l y , b u t a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i s p o s s i b l e i n many o f t h e m i n o r f i s h e r i e s , market c o n d i t i o n s warrant  development.  shown i t s e l f t o be e x t r e m e l y a l e r t  should  The i n d u s t r y h a s  i n the application of  modern t e c h n o l o g y t o f i s h i n g , p r e s e r v i n g and m a r k e t i n g . I m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e f u t u r e w i l l be a d o p t e d  as q u i c k l y as  in the past. P r i n c e Rupert  i s d e s t i n e d t o p l a y an  p a r t i n t h i s i n d u s t r y by v i r t u e How of  important w i l l  important  of her geographic  position.  d e p e n d upon t h e u n f o r e s e e a b l e d e c i s i o n s  t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e manage-  ment o f t h e s a l m o n c a n n e r i e s .  168. TABLE I DECLARED LANDINGS B7 REGULATORY AREAS A l l poundage i s shorn i n 1000's of pounds — i.e. 000 is omitted (  Area 1  Year  U.S.  U.S.  1931  923  14629  1935  1489  1940  Area 2  Areas 1,2,3  Area 3  Can.  Can.  Total  U.S.  765  21652  36439  7783  44222  22068  22533 ,1251  23784  37135 10206  47341  11102  25498  25396 1582  26978  40571 12684  53255  13230  11750  24980  25605 3551  29156  39364 15301  54665  282  13273  14203  27476  23276 4453  27729  36831 18656  55487  437  12784  13531  26315  23492 5135  28627  36713 18666  55379  Total  U.S.  7018  21647  20887  13113  8955  779  14396  1945  529 .  1948 1949  Can.  Total  TABLE I I LANDINGS BY PORTS FROM AREAS 2 AND 3 BY U.S. AND CANADIAN VESSELS COMBINED Canadian Ports  United States Ports  Year  Vanor. New W.  Prince Rupert  Misc. Ports  Total  S.E. Seattle Alaska  Misc. West Alaska Ports  1931  1066  16792  516  18374  15201  , 8240  1484  1935  2242  12964  1921  17127  22067  6532  1940  1996  18580  3314  23890  1B773  1945  1910  15272  2498  19680  1948  1829  14984  4144  1949  1468  16798  3936  Total  —  24925  12  114  28725  9305  182  326  28586  11951  19060  2181  1264  34456  20957  9013  19226  4742  1267  34248  22202  9180  17766  4698  1097  32741  TABLE m  1949 Astoria Seattle Ketohikan Petersburg Juneau Wrangell Sitka Western Alaska  SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES FLEETS Area 3 Area 2 No. of Boats No. of Men No. of Men No. of Boats 14 62 382 77 109 884 310 96 4 25 267 70 5 27 251 66 60 11 21 13 72 2 30 6 108 1 119 17  Total 1949 Total 1948  374 403  1452 1496  149 139  1134 1095  Total 1931  167  722  76  632  1-09. TABLE H I (Cont'd) SIZE OF CANADIAN FLEETS 1949  Area 2 No. of Boats  No. of Men  Area 3 No. of No. of Boats  —»  Vancouver Is. Vanoouver Prince Rupert  34 86 1G5  118 534 521  Total 1949 Total 1948  225 249  1153 1221  5 5  41 39  Total 1931  83  360  2  17  —  •  .  5  41  —'  —  TABLE IV LENGTH CF HALIBUT FISHING SEASON IN AREAS 2 AND 3 Legal Opening Date A l l Areas 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948  Feb. 16 Feb. 16 Feb. 16 Feb. 16 Feb. 1 Ifer. 1 Mar. 1 Mir. 16 Ibr. 16 Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Apr. 16 Apr. 16 Apr. 16 thy 1 lh.y 1 May 1 Kay 1  Closing Dates: Area 2 Nor. 15  R O T .  Cot, 31 Cot. 22 Ang. 25 Aug. 19 Sept 6 Aug. 10 July 28 July 29 July 29 July 13 June 30 June 29 June 20 July 9 June 15 June 11 June 8 June 1  Area 3 15  Nor. 15 Nov. 15 Cot. 31 Cot. 30 Oct. 26 Oot. 27 Deo. 26 Nov. 3 Oot. 19 0ot.r29 Oct. 28 Sept 26 Sept 14 Sept 25 Sept 28 Nor. 30 Sept 24 Aug. 19 Aug. 17 July 11  Length of Fishing Season Area 2 Mas. Days 9 8 8 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1  8  0  0 6 25 19 6 24 12 29 29 13 0 13 4 18 15 11 8 1  15  Area 3 Hos. Days 9 8 8 8 7 8 7 7* 6 6 5 5 5 4 6 4 3 3 2  8  0  0 15 26 27 25 19 '4' 29 28 26 14 9 23 10 24 19 17 U  Tables I, II, H I from Statistical Memorandum, International Fisheries Conmission, 1949. Table IV from Report of the International Fisheries Commission, No. 14, Regulation and Investigation of the Paoifio Halibut Fishery in 1948. Seattle, 1949, p. 12.  15  Map  11  Water Power Resources Canada's Mew  Northwest.  The North P a c i f i c Planning  P r o j e c t , King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1947,  p. 90.  Chapter  VI  HYDROGRAPHY  Hydropower P o t e n t i a l s  Hydrography i s o f of i t s manifestations, the  o f r u g g e d t e r r a i n and  seen i n t h e  a radius  map  160  of  i n so f a r a s  hydro-electric potential,  development of P r i n c e Rupert.  bination be  concern only  The  result  copious  from P r i n c e Rupert, distance  potential  o f 1 , 9 5 4 , 4 3 0 h o r s e power a t o r d i n a r y  Columbia.  The  area  power i n B r i t i s h power i s t i e d  has  i n with  difficulties hinder  the  2.5% The  *  See  The  and  83.  minimum  s i x months  flow.  British  non-development  terrain  water  of  hydro-  of other  resources, special  which i n t h e m s e l v e s  most i m p o r t a n t  i s the  minimum flow.'''  w h i c h makes p o s s i b l e t h e  Page  is a  developed  non-development  v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n maximum and terrain  o f the  can  Within  There a r e , moreover, c e r t a i n  of hydrology  development.  there  hydro p o t e n t i a l of  only  Columbia.  previously discussed.  1  at present,  o r 2 , 5 4 7 , 0 8 0 h o r s e power a t o r d i n a r y 23% o f the  com-  i . e . within  transmission  This represents  of the  precipitation  practical  flow  influences  of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l s .  miles  one  extreme The  same r u g g e d  h y d r o - p o t e n t i a l makes  utilization difficult.  Power s i t e s t e n d t o b e s i t u a t e d i n  s m a l l p o c k e t s a t stream mouths w h i c h and  rugged  mountains.  v a r i e s from d i f f i c u l t  a r e i s o l a t e d by h i g h  Construction of transmission lines t o i m p o s s i b l e and i n many c a s e s  z a t i o n c a n o n l y t a k e p l a c e a t t h e s o u r c e o f power.  utili-  Only  i n d u s t r i e s t o whom h y d r o - p o w e r r e p r e s e n t s t h e m a j o r r a w m a t e r i a l c o u l d l o c a t e i n such an i s o l a t e d  position.  H y d r o p o w e r P o t e n t i a l s and F u t u r e D e v e l o p m e n t  Of t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s t h e most i m p o r t a n t b y f a r i s t h e aluminum i n d u s t r y . Tweedsrauir  At present i n t e n s i v e  Park area a r e b e i n g conducted  surveys of the  w i t h a view t o t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a l u m i n u m i n d u s t r y on t h e n o r t h e r n British  Columbia  coast.  r e a d i l y understood (Map  17).  The d e t a i l s o f t h e scheme c a n be  b y a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g map  The power p l a n t s a r e t o be b u i l t n e a r t h e h e a d  of a s m a l l a l l u v i a l f a n carved out o f t h e sheer s i d e s o f D o u g l a s C h a n n e l b y t h e Kemano R i v e r .  Unfortunately this  s i t e i s n o t l a r g e enough t o a l l o w t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t o w n s i t e and aluminum p l a n t .  T h e s e a r e t o be b u i l t  a t t h e mouth  of the Lakelse-Kitsumgallum V a l l e y i n the v i c i n i t y of K i t i m a t , where e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f l e v e l l a n d a r e a v a i l a b l e a n d where rail  a n d r o a d l i n k s w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d can.be  built. people  I f plans are carried  out a c i t y o f about  i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d t o u t i l i z e  easily  50,000  the 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0  horse  PHOTOGRAPH 16 B.C.  GOVERNMENT AERIAL  PHOTOGRAPH LOOKING WEST  ALONG GARDENER CANAL Kemano R i v e r i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e r i g h t b e l o w t h e picture. Power s t a t i o n f o r t h e a l u m i n u m com•pany's p r o j e c t w i l l b e l o c a t e d h e r e w i t h t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s l e a d i n g t o K i t i m a t , 40 m i l e s t o the n o r t h . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n t h i s mountainous t e r r a i n i s e a s i l y seen.  PHOTOGRAPH 17 B.C. GOVERNMENT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF THE HEAD OF KITIMAT ARM AND THE KITIMAT RIVER FROM THE SOUTH The r i v e r f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l K i t sumgallum-Lakelse c r o s s v a l l e y . This i s the proj e c t e d s i t e o f t h e aluminum r e f i n e r i e s ; u t i l i z i n g power d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e l a k e s I n T w e e d s m u i r P a r k . N o t e t h e t i d a l f l a t s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e K i t i m a t R i v e r and t h e l i m i t e d . a m o u n t o f water f r o n t a g e available.  power t h a t w i l l be d e v e l o p e d .  The  stated that i t w i l l t r y to attract electricity,  such as f e r t i l i z e r  s i n c e t h e y do n o t c o n t e m p l a t e themselves.  a l u m i n u m company  o t h e r u s e r s o f cheap  p l a n t s and  t h e use  ment o f K i t i m a t , e s p e c i a l l y an a t t e m p t E x t e n s i v e mud  flats  pulp  mills,  of a l l the  Certain d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l  deep-sea p o r t .  has  power  attend the  develop-  t o make i t a  extend  large  out from  the  mouth o f t h e K i t i m a t R i v e r f o r a d i s t a n c e o f a b o u t g t o |  of a mile.  T h i s s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t s t h e amount o f  water-  frontage a v a i l a b l e unless extensive dredging i s undertaken. Another area.  impediment i s the s t r o n g winds r e p o r t e d f o r t h i s The  north-south alignment  great extent of the through  o f t h e m o u n t a i n s and  v a l l e y , from D e v a s t a t i o n  to  t h e Nass R i v e r , a c t s as a n a t u r a l f u n n e l f o r t h e  It  i s t o be  at  K i t i m a t a r e n o r t h and  Channel winds.  suspected t h a t the major d i r e c t i o n s of the s o u t h and t h e y a r e r e p u t e d t o  extremely s t r o n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the w i n t e r . of  the  winds be  Investigation  t h i s p o i n t i s n e c e s s a r y ' , b u t known f a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e and  physiography The  indicate that i t i s probable. importance  o f t h i s new  t r e m e l y f a r r e a c h i n g , and w i l l B r i t i s h Columbia. ment h a s had  industry w i l l  open up a new  be  ex-  era i n c e n t r a l  Already a n t i c i p a t i o n of i t s e s t a b l i s h -  an i n f l u e n c e .  When t h e r e c e n t g r o w t h  R u p e r t made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h  of P r i n c e Columbia  Power Company t o e x p a n d t h e i r g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y t h e y d e c i d e d t o do 2  *  See page  so by means o f d i e s e l u n i t s r a t h e r t h a n 183.  expand-  ing  e x i s t i n g hydro f a c i l i t i e s  Cellulose Corporation  has  P o r t E d w a r d w h i c h w i l l be w a s t e wood. the  d e c i s i o n was  future.  facilities  the be  Columbia  established a generating p o w e r e d by  plant  c o a l from Telkwa  p r o b a b i l i t y of l a r g e a v a i l a b l e at K i t i m a t  I f t h i s occurs the w o u l d be  w h e r e a s s t e a m and c o u l d be  surpluses some f e w  at  and  period  of  to repay the  hydro  maintained  original  d i e s e l p l a n t s have l o w e r  cheap  years i n  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new  u n s o u n d s i n c e t h e y must be  over a considerable  c o s t s and  The  In both these cases a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to  power w h i c h w i l l the  at F a l l s River.  investment,  construction  s c r a p p e d i f c h e a p e r power becomes a v a i l r -  able. The  i n f l u e n c e of the  i n t h i s a r e a w i l l be  discussed  establishment under f u t u r e  s i n c e i t w i l l h a v e a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on region.  o f a new  city  development  a l l aspects of  the  Chapter V I I  FOUNDING OF PRINCE RUPERT  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Grand Trunk P a c i f i c  It i s not d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d founding of Prince Rupert. Pacific  I t was e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e  therefore, into  c a t e d one o f "Why was t h e r a i l r o a d this particular and t h e i r  (G.T.P.R.)  the reason f o r the  Terminus o f t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c  question resolves i t s e l f ,  Railway  s i t e chosen?"  Railway.  The  t h e more c o m p l i -  c o n s t r u c t e d , a n d why was  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s  development l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t  such  r e s o u r c e s a s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a tapped by t h e r a i l r o a d a r e what m i g h t be t e r m e d  secondary  resources, that i s  r e s o u r c e s which, by r e a s o n o f l o w q u a l i t y  or high develop-  ment c o s t s a r e d e s t i n e d t o r e m a i n u n t a p p e d easily  utilized  sources a r e exhausted.  u n t i l o t h e r more  T h i s was n o t , how-  e v e r , t h e v i e w o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e Grand T r u n k Railway. Rupert are  To q u o t e f r o m one o f t h e i r  i s s u r r o u n d e d by a c o u n t y  more r i c h a n d v a r i e d t h a n t h o s e o f a n y o t h e r c o u n t r y  opinion of a railway p u b l i c i s t , *  "Prince  whose n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  known t o t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n " , " ' "  1  publications,  Pacific  T h i s i s no  isolated  I t s t e n o r i s echoed by  P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c M o n t r e a l , 1 9 1 1 , p. 1 7 .  R a i l w a y Co.,  118 almost  a l l who  been b e l i e v e d have  passed by t h e  extension.  c e n t u r y , and one  t h e r e g i o n , and  railway's founders  i t must have  o r t h e y would  s p e n t t h e money t h e y d i d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e  M o r e o v e r t h e whole and  through  of the  L a u r i e r had  expansion  country favoured  c a l l e d the 2 0 t h  w e l l he m i g h t .  of i n c r e d i b l e  table  spirit  The a s an  line. expansion  century, 1901  p e r i o d from examination  Canada's  t o 1911  of the  was  following  shows 1901  Area  Value  of livestock  E x p o r t s o f wood and  1911  63,422,33$  108,968,715  55,572,365  132,077,547  $268,651,026  #615,457,833  o f occupied farms i n a c r e s  P r o d u c t i o n o f wheat i n b u s h e l s  $ 65,797,911  Gross value of products  $431,053,375  Laurier,  of the Canadian  was  incumbent L i b e r a l  p e r p e t u a l l y embarrassed  Pacific  been h i n d e r e d by  $103,220,994  Railway,  a' r a i l r o a d  the previous L i b e r a l  the L i b e r a l s wished  t o be  $1,165,975,639?  p a r t y , l e d by S i r by  the  success  whose c o n s t r u c t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  whose f o r t u n e s were a l i g n e d u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f L a u r i e r and  56,334,695  manufactured  In a d d i t i o n the Wilfred  I  wood p r o d u c t s $ 3 3 , 0 9 9 , 9 1 5  Mineral Production  had  not  Conservatism.  associated with  progress  2. T a l b o t , F.A., The M a k i n g o f a G r e a t C a n a d i a n R a i l r o a d , Musson, T o r o n t o , 1912. "The i n t e r i o r ( o f c e n t r a l B.C.) i s n o t h i n g b u t one huge garden,, where an e q u a b l e c l i m a t e p r e v a i l s and where n a t u r e has bestowed e v e r y t h i n g f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f a g r i c u l t u r e upon t h e most s u c c e s s f u l s c a l e w i t h l a v i s h p r o f u s i o n . " , p . 229. 3• G l a z e b r o o k , G.P., A H i s t o r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Canada, T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1938, p. 260.  and  expansion,  w h i c h a t t h a t t i m e meant a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  pioneering railway.  T h e r e a r e a maze o f p o l i t i c a l  economic p r e s s u r e s Trunk P a c i f i c  surrounding  Railway  the  concern t h i s  S u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t a r a i l w a y was the  difficult  reach  task.  the  Pacific  O n l y two  f o l l o w i n g the  found, but  i n both these  establishment  president of the  Pacific  R a i l r o a d , was  g r a d i e n t s and Railway,  few  the  cases g r a d i e n t s are  G r a n d T r u n k and  Pacific  by way  Skeena.  only three places a f f o r d s u f f i c i e n t j u n c t i o n w i t h good h a r b o u r s t o be terminal of a great K i t i m a t and approach.  S k e e n a was to  Kaien  a p p r o a c h by  railway.  Island.  A l o n g and  necessary  prohibitive  On level  with  decided  low Pacific  to  the lower  Skeena  potential sites for  i t .  the  Simpson, very  difficult  d i v e r s i o n north  I n o r d e r to. r e a c h  strike  l a n d i n con-  P o r t S i m p s o n was  r a i l w a y but  manager  Canadian  These are P o r t  expensive  From t h e  large sections of,  V a n c o u v e r , so i t was of the  can.  Grand Trunk  T h e i r r i v a l , the  a l r e a d y c o n t r o l l e d e n t r y t o , and  other  At  Hays, g e n e r a l  a f i r s t class railroad,  curves.  F r a s e r V a l l e y and  coast.  Squaraish, an*'opening  o b j e c t i v e of Charles M.  and  later  and  one  coast, the  of a f i r s t c l a s s r a i l r o a d .  the  to  to  passageways e x i s t ,  extreme southern  Coola  beginning  to  constructed  Skeena t o the extreme n o r t h e r n  other points, B e l l a  f o r the  the  paper.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a  convenient  f o l l o w i n g the F r a s e r t o the  be  t o be  Grand  west. To  two  and  e a r l y h i s t o r y of the  w h i c h do n o t  a  from  K i t i m a t was  i n a d d i t i o n to having  the easy  a somewhat  120. restricted'harbour,  was f a r o f f t h e r o u t e  to the Orient.  S h i p s would have had t o steam an e x t r a '165 m i l e s waters t o reach t h i s p o r t .  K a i e n I s l a n d was c l o s e t o t h e  mouth o f t h e Skeena, p o s s e s s e d have an e x t e n s i v e restriction. rock  level  harbour,  land,  blocked  entrance  a n d seemed t o  e x c e p t f o r one u n f o r t u n a t e  A l l the existing admiralty  i n the centre  effectively the  natural  i n confined  charts  showed a  of t h e entrance t o the harbour entry  showed t h a t  I s l a n d was i m m e d i a t e l y  to large  ships.  the charts  which  A re-survey  of  were i n e r r o r and K a i e n  chosen as the terminus of t h e r a i l w a y .  T h i s d e c i s i o n was a g r e e d t o .by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government on May  4, 1904.  The d e c i s i o n was t o r e m a i n s e c r e t  siderable period  since  tion  by s q u a t t e r s  complicated  Early  On on  t h e company d i d n o t want - t h e i r and o t h e r  Development  of Prince  November 2 3 , 1906 a P o s t  Kaien Island  posi-  undesirables.  Rupert  O f f i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d  a n d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e town was named.  name was c h o s e n i n a c o m p e t i t i o n Pacific  f o r a con-  The  c o n d u c t e d by t h e Grand  Railway; t h e winner, a Winnipeg g i r l ,  r e c e i v i n g $200  f o r t h e name P r i n c e  Rupert.  did  May 7> 1908, t h o u g h c l e a r i n g o f t h e town-  not begin u n t i l  site  h a d commenced b e f o r e The  Prince be  Rupert  a credit  Construction  Trunk  this  time.  Grand T r u n k P a c i f i c an e f f i c i e n t ,  on t h e r a i l r o a d  well  R a i l w a y w i s h e d t o make functioning  t o them i n t h e f u t u r e .  c i t y w h i c h would  They w i s h e d t o a v o i d  SETTLEMENT PATTERN APRIL IQOO I  WO I  O I  1  IOOO I  i s iqoq 2000 I  FELT  sooo I  4000 I  Booo I  Map  12  Settlement P a t t e r n , A p r i l 13, Source: F i e l d Work.  1909.  s t r a g g l i n g uncoordinated f r o m t h e b e a t y and  development which would  utility  of the  city.  This  s p r a n g i n p a r t f r o m h i g h m i n d e d i d e a l s and sound sense of economic v a l u e s ,  R u p e r t was  d e c i s i o n was  desire  i n part from  since a planned c i t y  u l t i m a t e l y be more v a l u a b l e t o t h e motives, the  detract  company.  would  Whatever  u n i q u e on t h i s c o n t i n e n t .  t o be t h e t e r m i n u s o f a g r e a t  p o r t t o r i v a l V a n c o u v e r , S e a t t l e and  the Prince  railway, a  P o r t l a n d and  a  world  i t  was  t o be p l a n n e d i n a l l i t s p h a s e s .  1909  U n t i l the  c i t y l o t s went on  s a l e on May  29,  an a t t e m p t was  made t o f o r e s t a l l  settlement  while  tensive  s u r v e y s were c o n d u c t e d .  time s i n c e the the  l a n d and  John Houston, founder of  n e w s p a p e r was  d e s i r e s by  staking a mineral  a t e n t and  printing press.  to settlement t o grow  c e a s e d and  able  company's  c l a i m , on w h i c h he After this,  overt  established opposition  a s t r a g g l y c o m m u n i t y was  allowed  up.  the author d u r i n g the  i n Prince Rupert.  ment p a t t e r n  1909  was  found  c o u r s e o f f i e l d work i n a r e a l I t was  signed  H a r b o u r E n g i n e e r a t P r i n c e R u p e r t and  is  Prince  t o t h w a r t the  A b l u e p r i n t , d a t e d A p r i l 13,  office  successful for a  Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y c o n t r o l l e d a l l  docks.  Rupert's f i r s t  T h i s was  ex-  j u s t p r i o r t o the  extremely i n t e r e s t i n g  by J.H.  represents  official  the  settle-  s a l e of l o t s .  s i n c e i t shows t h e f o r m  It  that  c i t y w o u l d h a v e t a k e n i f i t had  t o i t s own  (Map  12).  estate  Bacon,  development of the devices  by  been  E x a m i n a t i o n shows t h a t  left  growth  was c e n t r e d the  at the meeting point  of r a i l  and w a t e r about  G r a n d T r u n k d o c k s and e x t e n d e d i n l a n d i n a t y p i c a l  " r i b b o n " development a t r i g h t s u l t a t i o n with pioneer  angles to t h e shore.  Con-  r e s i d e n t s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e houses  a l o n g t h e m a i n s t r e e t , C e n t e r S t r e e t , were t h e t y p i c a l u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f homes, r e t a i l and  i n d u s t r i a l establishments  settlement.^"  stores  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n f a n t i l e  An i n t e r e s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e l o c a t i o n  o f b e t t e r c l a s s homes u p o n t h e i n l a n d r i d g e , a t e n d e n c y w h i c h was t o r e m a i n a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e  of t h e town.  ' I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y W.J. Raymond, a t t h a t t i m e on and l a t e r e d i t o r o f t h e " E v e n i n g E m p i r e " .  reporter  124. Chapter V I I I  PLANNED DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCE RUPERT  The town, i f l e f t t o i t s e l f , would most l i k e l y have developed an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the w a t e r f r o n t , w i t h the main s t r e e t s d i r e c t e d towards i t wherever phy p e r m i t t e d .  topogra-  Growth would have t a k e n p l a c e from the  w a t e r f r o n t i n l a n d on s e v e r a l f l a n k s w i t h roads p a r a l l e l the water r e m a i n i n g of secondary  to  importance.  What a c t u a l l y happened was almost c o m p l e t e l y different.  D u r i n g 1908 and 1909 the n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n was  removed from the p r o j e c t e d t o w n s i t e .  Gangs of men  under t h e  d i r e c t i o n of F o l e y , Welch and S t e w a r t c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r e d t h e dense t r e e cover o f the n o r t h w e s t e r n s e c t i o n of the island.  A l l t h e t r e e s were burned i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r f e l l i n g  and a c o n t i n u a l p a l l o f smoke covered the c i t y .  Strangely  enough none o f the t r e e cover seems t o have been u t i l i z e d f o r lumber, though q u a n t i t i e s were imported from  Vancouver,  f o r dock c o n s t r u c t i o n , roadways, t i e s and numerous o t h e r uses.  By e a r l y 1909 the whole of the t o w n s i t e was  and the scene was  s e t f o r the f i n a l l a y o u t of the  cleared city.  B a s i s . o f the C i t y P l a n  The a c t u a l c i t y p l a n was d e v i s e d by B r e t t and  Hall,  a - f i r m of l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s from B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s .  125. Map Prince Rupert Source: B l u e p r i n t  200  13 Topography  f e e t t o one i n c h , f r o m t h e C i t y  Engineer's O f f i c e , Prince  Rupert.  126.  T h e i r o b j e c t was t o "  p l a n f o r a model c i t y , capable o f l a r g e e x p a n s i o n f r e e from t h e dangers o f congestion t o t r a f f i c , pres e r v i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w i s e m u n i c i p a l improvements - i n d i c a t i n g s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r c h u r c h e s , s c h o o l s , p a r k s and c e m e t a r y - and l o c a t i n g r a i l w a y y a r d s and w h a r v e s so a s b e s t t o serve the c i t y . " l The  planners  soon r e a l i z e d  that  c i t y w o u l d be c o n d i t i o n e d b y t o p o g r a p h i c "  d e c i s i o n was made, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e n a t u r a l  growth, p r o c e e d i n g  i n l a n d from the waterfront  o f t h e more f a v o u r a b l e taken t o accentuate  long while  cross  businesses  Wall,  distance  topography.  The a x i a l  Ibid,  Every  advantage  opportunity  of the a x i a l  tothe  was  streets  s t r e e t s were made wide a n d  s t r e e t s were made s h o r t a n d n a r r o w so t h a t  would f a c e t h e c r o s s  streets.  I t was f o u n d  George D., "The F u t u r e P r i n c e R u p e r t a s C o n c e i v e d by L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t s " The A r c h i t e c t u a l R e c o r d , V o l . 26, No. 2, August 1909, New Y o r k , p . 1 0 1 . f  *  inland, taking  the importance  p a r a l l e l t o the coast.  2  was t o be r e -  by p l a n n e d growth which would p r o c e e d p a r a l l e l  water, and a c o n s i d e r a b l e  few  controls.  I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e t r e n d o f s e v e r a l p l a n e s , ( t h e c o a s t a l and i n l a n d r i d g e s o f t h e p h y s i o g r a p h i c s e c t i o n ) c o n s t i t u t i n g what i s t o become t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n , were a l l e i t h e r n o r t h e a s t o r s o u t h w e s t , i n o t h e r words, t h a t t h e l o n g a x e s o f t h e s e separate p l a n e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y p a r a l l e l i n d i r e c t i o n . . T h i s d i s c o v e r y was o f f a r r e a c h i n g i m p o r t a n c e , f o r i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e main s t r e e t s o f t h e s e v e r a l p l a n e s s h o u l d be p a r a l l e l , and subsequent' s t u d y convinced the d e s i g n e r s t h a t n o t o n l y would t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n be b e s t s e r v e d b y a r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m o f b l o c k s with considerable v a r i a t i o n , but that the construction of s t r a i g h t avenues would be l e s s c o s t l y t h a n c u r v i n g avenues."2 The  placed  any p l a n f o r t h e  p. 81.  127. i m p o s s i b l e t o connect t h e c o a s t a l w i t h the i n l a n d r i d g e i n more t h a n t h r e e p l a c e s and t h e a u t h o r s  of the plan  suggest t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f an e l e c t r i c l i f t two  s e c t i o n s , should  t h e demand  Criticism  between t h e  arise.  of the City  Plan  I t i s d o u b t f u l whether any o t h e r p l a n  could  have  b e e n more s u c c e s s f u l i n a d j u s t i n g c i t y l a y o u t t o t o p o g r a p h y . S t r e e t s were p l a n n e d favourable road  so t h a t a d v a n t a g e was t a k e n  c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the landscape.  p a t t e r n upon a t o p o g r a p h i c  In c e r t a i n areas considerable t h e . s t r e e t s up t o a r e a s o n a b l e of b l a s t i n g .  A study  map r e v e a l s t h i s  f i l l  o f every  was n e c e s s a r y  of the  very  clearly.  to bring  g r a d e , i n o t h e r s l a r g e amounts  I t i s obvious that these  problems would have  b e e n much w o r s e i f a n y o t h e r p l a n h a d b e e n a t t e m p t e d . The  p l a n h a s b e e n a l m o s t a c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e and h a s  b r o u g h t more d i s a d v a n t a g e s  than advantages t o the c i t y .  B e c a u s e t h e s c a l e o f >the p l a n was w r o n g . whom t h e p l a n was p r e p a r e d way.  I t was i m p o s s i b l e  have b u i l t t h e i r otherwise.  The c l i e n t f o r  was t h e G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c  f o r them t o c o n c e i v e  a p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s t h a n 50,000 p e o p l e .  Why?  o f a town  Railwith  They w o u l d n e v e r  r a i l w a y t o t h i s p o i n t i f they had b e l i e v e d  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r was t h e  l a c k o f a p r o p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the resources  of the r a i l w a y ' s , h i n t e r l a n d , a f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e geo-  graphic  c o n t r o l o f a c i t y ' s growth.  A c i t y i s s e t up t o  p e r f o r m some f u n c t i o n i n i t s r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g . it  i s s t e r i l e and i s dependent f o r i t s w e a l t h  In i t s e l f and  liveli-  h o o d u p o n t h e t a s k s w h i c h t h e r e g i o n c a l l s upon i t t o p e r form.  In a rich  and w e l l d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n t h e s e  tasks are  many - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , m a n u f a c t u r e - a l l t h e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a modern c i t y p e r f o r m s a r e w e l l d e v e l o p e d and  g i v e employment t o t h e c i t y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s .  In a poorly  endowed a n d u n d e r d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n t h e r e i s l i t t l e the  services of a c i t y ,  performs tend  call for  and t h e s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s t h a t i t  t o be r u d i m e n t a r y  and s k e l e t a l .  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g i o n and c i t y  Thus t h e  i s i n t i m a t e and f u n d a -  mental. It  was i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e i v e  of P r i n c e Rupert  as a c i t y o f 50-100,000 p e o p l e when t h e r e s o u r c e s h i n t e r l a n d were c o n s i d e r e d relationships.  i n their  I n themselves they  s p a t i a l and e c o n o m i c are considerable but  when t h e y a r e s e e n i n t h e t o t a l n a t i o n a l and w o r l d picture of resources with other is  and m a r k e t s , t h e i r d i s t a n c e ,  similar resources,  from centres  s u f f i c i e n t t o c l a s s them a s m a r g i n a l .  planning graphic  of her  wide compared  of population, The s c a l e o f  c o u l d h a v e b e e n more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e d i f g e o techniques  had been employed.  d i r e c t o r s o f t h e Grand T r u n k P a c i f i c  Indeed i f t h e Railway  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the geography of t h e country  had a proper their  line  was t o t r a v e r s e t h e y n e v e r w o u l d h a v e b u i l t t h e r a i l r o a d .  W h e r e i n and t o what e x t e n t was t h e p l a n w r o n g ? On t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a map p r e p a r e d Pacific  f o r t h e Grand Trunk  R a i l w a y b y B r e t t and H a l l t h e a r e a w h i c h  c o n t a i n s t h e whole o f t h e c i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t aside as a business d i s t r i c t , modern s t a n d a r d s  sufficient f o ra  On t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e i s l a n d  t h e w h o l e o f s o u t h e a s t e r n l o w l a n d was p r o p o s e d dential  was s e t  1500 a c r e s i n e x t e n t , by  a business d i s t r i c t 3  c i t y o f 150,000 people.  today  as a resi-  a r e a , w h i l e t h e s e c t i o n n o r t h o f W a t s o n I s l a n d was  i n t e n d e d t o be a n i n d u s t r i a l  section.  The w e s t e r n  half of  D i g b y I s l a n d was a l s o i n t e n d e d t o be r e s i d e n t i a l . B r e t t a n d H a l l h a d recommended t h a t " t h e l o t s i n the business frontage  s e c t i o n and w h o l e s a l e  (with every  effort  s e c t i o n be l o t s o f 2 5 '  b e i n g made t o s e l l them i n  p a i r s o r m u l t i p l e s o f 2 5 ' f r o n t a g e ) and t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y be o f 5 0 ' ( o r p r e f e r a b l y 6 0 ' ) f r o n t a g e . " F u r t h e r "the 100 f o o t depth was,  of l o t s f o r the business  i n o u r o p i n i o n , t h e most d e s i r a b l e d e p t h  district  f o r business  i n t e r r a i n where t h e s l o p e s were s t e e p , b u t i n t h e r e s i dential  s e c t i o n at l e a s t 150-foot  depth  was d e s i r a b l e . " ^  I n May, 1 9 0 9 when t h e c i t y l o t s went on s a l e t h e y were a l l i n t h e " b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . "  Presumably the d i r e c t o r s  o f t h e company b e l i e v e d t h a t s i n c e t h i s was t h e b u s i n e s s district,  2 5 - f o o t , l o t s w o u l d be q u i t e a d e q u a t e , t h o u g h i t  3  Applying obtained Tacoma", tecture,  t h e f i g u r e o f 10 acres p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n from "Standards Developed f o r t h e P l a n n i n g o f Mimeographed sheet from Department o f A r c h i U.B.C.  ^' L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r  from  G e o r g e D. H a l l ,  J u l y 8, 1 9 4 9 .  i s t o be  w o n d e r e d where t h e  to l i v e . l o t was  the  25-foot  c h o s e n t o a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r number o f l a n d p a r c e l s ,  sale.  greatest possible p r o f i t Be  t h a t as i t may  entire townsite  2 5 - f o o t l o t s has  was  the important  The  however, b u i l t neighbours,  on  .Housing  and  amenities.  single lots,  c h e e k and  a i r y housing,  of t h i r d  on slumbs  or  on d o u b l e l o t s i n Many h o u s e s jowl with  w h i l e l a r g e t r a c t s o f empty l a n d e x i s t .  situation i s typical  that  l o t s are too narrow to  I n many c a s e s h o u s e s a r e b u i l t  P r i n c e Rupert to a l l o w these  from  r e s u l t was  r e s u l t e d i n d e p r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n s and  garden development, spacious  privacy.  c o u l d be d e r i v e d  s o l d as 2 5 - f o o t l o t s .  i n most N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . permit  purchasers  P e r s i s t e n t rumors have i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e  so t h a t t h e their  company e x p e c t e d t h e  c l a s s housing  i n the  are,  their This city.  Chapter  EARLY EXPANSION OF  Almost a l l p l a n s ment o f P r i n c e e x p a n s i o n was development circa  and  IX  PRINCE RUPERT  phases o f the  R u p e r t were c o n d i t i o n e d inevitable.  by  the  early  feeling  A phrase from a r e p o r t  perhaps t y p i f i e s the  develop-  on  a t m o s p h e r e i n the  that harbour  city  1913. " I t has t o be k e p t i n v i e w t h a t t h e waterfront and r a i l w a y t e r m i n a l a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e f o r one o f t h e most e x t e n s i v e r a i l w a y s y s t e m s o f the world, which, i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e must take care of a vast overseas t r a f f i c i n a d d i t i o n t o an e v e r g r o w i n g c o a s t w i s e commerce...."! T h i s a t m o s p h e r e p r e v a i l e d f r o m 1909  reaching carried for  a height on  in this  probably period,  speculation rather  i n 1913. but  was  the  result  o f the  shaping of the  1915,  Much c o n s t r u c t i o n  more o f t e n l o t s were  was  acquired  than b u i l d i n g .  Situation  The  to  map  in  1915  boom and marked May  construction 1915.  The  period map  i s of  • Bogue, V i r g i l G., C o n s u l t i n g E h g i n e e r , "The Development o f t h e W a t e r f r o n t and R a i l w a y T e r m i n a l s , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C.". G.T.P.R.. March 8. 1913, P. 6 cf. Talbot, "...the port i s destined from i t s s t r a t e g i c a l l y p o w e r f u l c o m m e r c i a l s i t u a t i o n to,assume a p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n on t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t , and m o r e o v e r , w i l l d e v e l o p i n t o a t h r i v i n g i n d u s t r i a l and r a i l w a y c e n t r e . . . " p. 320.  LAND USE M A Y 1915  Large, scole. pork facilities IHi Small boob facilities HUB Industrial IH Retail and commerce - dense 1 I Retail and commerce scabbered Moderate density residential few shacks  Moderate density residetitia many shacks Scattered housing High density residential Segregated area H i Institutions : hospital % church* school • ^overnmeafci  Map Land Source-: F i e l d  Use,  Work.  14  P r i n c e Rupert,  May  1915.  PHOTOGRAPH 18 Copy of postcard - date unknown - p o s s i b l y 1 9 1 0 . Looking northwest toward harbour from }rd Avenue. Comment on r e v e r s e of o r i g i n a l , author unknown "This photo shows one of our l o t s . It i s right i n the heart of the best business q u a r t e r and i f you care t o buy i t , I t h i n k I can o b t a i n i t f o r you f o r v 5 0 , 0 0 0 - the owner very k i n d l y does not charge e x t r a f o r the rock on i t , which w i l l cost about ^ 6 , 0 0 0 to b l a s t o f f - T h i s sort of t h i n g i s taken as a matter of course i n P r i n c e Rupert, but i t s t r i k e s a newcomer as ' f i e r c e ' . " value i n t n a t i t allows us t o compare the  functional  p a t t e r n of the town at t h a t date with a s i m i l a r map  pre  pared f o r the present.^ • A note should be made of the source, which c o u l d be of value i n p l o t t i n g the morphology o f other urban areas. I t i s taken from insurance maps, which presumably are kept f o r a l l urban c e n t r e s . These maps are inteded to a s s i s t i n e v a l u a t i n g f i r e insurance premiums and to t h a t end l i s t s the s i z e of house, i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , the purpose f o r which i t i s used as w e l l as i t s l o c a t i o n with respect t o f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y impossible to give a p r e c i s e q u a l i t y r a t i n g t o r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , though shacks can be separated from o r d i n a r y housing u n i t s . A rough g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l areas can be made by n o t i n g the i n c i d e n c e of shacks as compared to o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s .  134.  The It  heart  of P r i n c e Rupert i s i t s waterfront  i s composed o f f o u r s e p a r a t e u n i t s .  the  o r i g i n a l docks, and c o n t a i n s  on  and c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y  o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government c o a s t w i s e  dock.  The t h i r d  u n d e v e l o p e d i n 1915, b e t w e e n Cow B a y a n d  Hays C r e e k and t h e l a s t t h e S e a l storage  One i s c e n t r e d  the railway station.  Another i s found below Market Place  comprises the area,  area.  Cove a r e a w i t h  the c o l d  plant as i t s f o c a l p o i n t . The  S e a l Cove a n d Hays C r e e k s e c t i o n s o f t h e w a t e r -  f r o n t a r e separated by a p h y s i c a l o b s t a c l e , t h e p r e c i p i t o u s coastal ridge.  The P r o v i n c i a l Government d o c k and t h e G.T.P.R.  dock a r e l i k e w i s e s e p a r a t e d by s t e e p c l i f f s . cases r a i l  connection  has been achieved,  I n both  but nothing  these else,  s i n c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o b l a s t t h e r o a d b e d f r o m t h e s i d e s of t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e . quire  Three o f these u n i t s , t h e r e f o r e , r e -  s e p a r a t e e n t r i e s t o t h e town.  I n two c a s e s use i s  made o f t h e s m a l l v a l l e y s o f f o r m e r w a t e r c o u r s e s , d i s a p p e a r e d s i n c e t h e development o f t h e town.  w h i c h have  The e n t r a n c e  t o t h e G.T.P.R. d o c k s i s b y means o f a n o v e r h e a d b r i d g e  which  r u n s f r o m t h e dock t o t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e a s an i n c l i n e d parallel  with the water. I n 1915 t h e r e  facilities, was with  plane  was a d e f i n i t e l a c k o f s m a l l  except f o r t h e c o l d storage  one o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n  on l a r g e  scale port  l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r small boats.  d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y on t h e p a r t  plant.  boat  The p a t t e r n  facilities  T h i s was t h e r e s u l t o f  of the railway  company.  The  PHOTOGRAPH 19  L o o k i n g n o r t h - e a s t a t t h e r a i l w a y y a r d s and l a r g e s c a l e p o r t facilities. The c o s t a l r i d g e t o t h e r i g h t - l a r g e d o c k on t h e l e f t i s t h e o c e a n d o c k w i t h o v e r h e a d ramp c o n n e c t i n g i t t o w a r e h o u s e c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e A m e r i c a n s d u r i n g t h e war.  PHOTOGRAPH 20 Copy o f p o s t c a r d - date unknown - p o s s i b l y 1910 l o o k i n g west from t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e a t t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c wharf. The overhead ramp l e a d i n g from t h e dock t o t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e p r o v i d i n g the o n l y road l i n k between t h e c i t y and t h e docks i n t h i s s e c t i o n . waterfront  development p l a n s  f o r 1913 e n v i s a g e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of seven p i e r s and 18 quays f o r a t o t a l w a t e r f r e n t a g e o f 35,471 f e e t .  The o n l y s e c t i o n r e s e r v e d  f o r s m a l l b o a t s was  the Cow Bay a r e a . I t was p l a n n e d t o p l a c e seven p i e r s i n t h e F a i r view a r e a where bottom c o n d i t i o n s made i t p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d the normal type o f dockage, a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e s h o r e . The  r e s t o f t h e area from Morse t o Hays Creek was t o be a  c o n t i n u o u s l i n e o f quays except where t h e p r e c i p i t o u s c o a s t a l r i d g e made approach i m p o s s i b l e . was  Quay c o n s t r u c t i o n  t h e only dock t y p e t h a t c o u l d be used between Hays and  137.  Morse Creek s i n c e the d i s t a n c e from the  s e a b o t t o m d r o p s away a b r u p t l y a s h o r t W i t h i n 3 0 - 4 0 f e e t of t h e  shore.  shore,  depths  o f 50 f e e t are r e c o r d e d , w h i l e i n almost  depths  o f 35 f e e t a r e a c h i e v e d w i t h i n t h i s d i s t a n c e .  every  case Since  t h e t i d a l r a n g e i s v e r y h i g h , 2 4 f e e t a t t h e maximum, v e r y l o n g and  expensive  p i l i n g s w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y t h e  docks outwards at r i g h t angles t o the shore.  In the  area  o c c u p i e d b y t h e G.T.P.R. w h a r f t h e p i l e s were d r i v e n down into f i l l  o b t a i n e d by b l a s t i n g .  Filling  served a two-fold  p u r p o s e i n e x t e n d i n g t h e r a i l w a y y a r d s i n l a n d and t h e d o c k s somewhat f a r t h e r o u t . 110  f e e t l o n g h a d t o be  building  N e v e r t h e l e s s , p i l e s up  to  e m p l o y e d on t h e s e a w a r d s i d e s o f  the  wharf.^ Little  a c c u r a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e amount o f  necessary to b u i l d the docks i n P r i n c e Rupert •The P r i n c e R u p e r t y a r d s o f r o c k had house,^ (below 7 t h  paper i n 1909 t o be  took t h r e e steamshovels  obtained.  mentions t h a t 250,000  cubic  round-  Pioneer r e s i d e n t s report that i t  working  t o c l e a r away t h e r o c k f r o m undertaken  can be  removed a t t h e s i t e o f t h e  St.).  blasting  one  i n some c a s e s m e r e l y  2L h o u r s  p e r day,  blast.^  The  blasting  t o cut a ledge  wide t o a l l o w the r a i l w a y t o connect  the  two  years was  sufficiently  scattered pockets  o f l e v e l l a n d , i n o t h e r c a s e s t o expand t h e c o a s t a l  ledge  3  T a l b o t , F.A., The M a k i n g o f a G r e a t C a n a d i a n R a i l w a y . . M u s s o n Book Co., T o r o n t o , 1 9 1 2 , p. 3 2 3 . "The E m p i r e " , J u l y 6 , 1909. I n f o r m a t i o n . s u p p l i e d by A l e x McRae, p i o n e e r p r i n t e r .  138. f o r railway yards or docks.  The m a j o r w a t e r f r o n t  c a n be r e a d i l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a r e a s o f roundhouse  and G.T.P.R. w h a r v e s  small watercourses, able,  where  were b u i l t a t  limited  size.  areas of l e v e l  land. the  mouths  to  to t i d e w a t e r .  However,  of  avail-  e x p a n d them t o  The d r y d o c k was b u i l t on one o f t h e land close  The  a r e a s o f l a n d were  t h o u g h b l a s t i n g was n e c e s s a r y  desired  level  activities  the  largest it  was  not  c±  rau'ruiittArn  C o a s t a l r i d g e t o the l e f t , r a i l y a r d s and l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s t o the r i g h t . sufficient  f o r the  fill  was n e c e s s a r y  f i l l  i n the  a n t i c i p a t e d need. on t h e t i d a l  Hays C r e e k  I n t h i s case  estuary  of  extensive  Hays C r e e k .  s e c t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e  The  blasting  139. which t o o k p l a c e on e i t h e r s i d e t o p r o v i d e l a r g e r r a i l w a y y a r d s o r space f o r d o c k s .  PHOTOGRAPH 22 D r y d o c k a n d s h i p y a r d f r o m t h e n o r t h . F i l l on which i t i s b u i l t v i s i b l e i n l e f t foreground. A f t e r 1915  expansion took place p r i m a r i l y i n the  remaining areas of l e v e l  l a n d , a t Cow B a y a n d M o r s e  Creek.  The town p l a n i s t o be c r i t i c i z e d i n t h e a l l o c a tion  of l e v e l  land c l o s e t o sea l e v e l .  been o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s P r i n c e Rupert  I t should  have  t y p e o f l a n d was e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e i n  and every e f f o r t  serve i t f o r f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l  s h o u l d have b e e n made t o c o n expansion.  A fairly  sizeable  s e c t i o n roughly equal t o s i x c i t y blocks i n area, t ot h e n o r t h e a s t o f Morse Creek, This section flat,  was p e r m a n e n t l y  seems t o be t h e r e m n a n t o f a n o l d r i v e r  f a i r l y wide and n o t v e r y d i f f i c u l t  the sea.  assigned t o housing. terrace,  o f approach  from  I t seems d i s t i n c l y u n w i s e t o h a v e a l l o t t e d  this  area t o housing both because o f the s c a r c i t y  of l e v e l  land  140.  PHOTOGRAPH 23 P r i n c e Rupert from the west. Railway yard i n l e f t foreground. Level area ( i n centre) with scattered h o u s e s i s f o r m e r t e r r a c e o f M o r s e C r e e k . B e h i n d and to the l e f t of the t e r r a c e i s the c o a s t a l ridge with s e v e r a l apartment houses. Beyond i s t h e i n l a n d r i d g e w i t h f i r s t c l a s s h o u s e s . The b a c k d r o p i s p r o v i d e d by the rugged mountains of Tsimpsean p e n i n s u l a .  141. c l o s e t o sea l e v e l and because o f t h e p r o x i m i t y o f the h o u s i n g t o t h e r a i l w a y yards w i t h t h e a t t e n d a n t d i s a d v a n t a g e s of n o i s e , smoke and h a z a r d t o c h i l d r e n . On the r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l a r e a between the c r e s t o f the c o a s t a l r i d g e and t h e f o o t of the i n l a n d r i d g e the commerc i a l core d e v e l o p e d .  I t i s centred  on T h i r d Avenue because  the p r o j e c t e d main s t r e e t , Second Avenue, passed l a r g e l y i n t o the hands o f s p e c u l a t o r s .  They demanded such outrageous p r i c e s  f o r t h i s c h o i c e p r o p e r t y t h a t honest merchants who  really  wished t o b u i l d were f o r c e d t o t a k e l o t s on T h i r d Avenue, where t h e shopping c e n t r e  sprang up.  PHOTOGRAPH  24  L o o k i n g northwest along 2nd Avenue, t h e 9 4 - f o o t wide s t r e e t t h a t was i n t e n d e d t o be the main s t r e e t o f P r i n c e R u p e r t . Note t h e many vacant l o t s , the r e s u l t of s p e c u l a t i o n d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c i t y . Prices were so h i g h f o r these l o t s t h a t merchants who wished t o b u i l d l o c a t e d on 3 r d Avenue. I n 1915  t h e commercial core was c o n c e n t r a t e d  a r e a between F u l t o n and E i g h t h S t r e e t w i t h a l i n e a r  i n the  extension  PHOTOGRAPH 25 B u i l d i n g s on S e c o n d A v e n u e , t h e p r o j e c t e d m a i n s t r e e t . B o t h were b u i l t i n 1910 d u r i n g t h e f i r s t e x p a n s i o n o f P r i n c e Rupert. T h e i r s i t e s were o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i c a l . The b u i l d i n g t o t h e l e f t , t h e C a n a d i a n Bank o f Commerce was c o n s t r u c t e d by a c o n c e r n t o whom c o n v e n i e n c e was a g r e a t a s s e t a n d who c o u l d a f f o r d t o p u r c h a s e a s i t e on t h e m a i n s t r e e t and b l a s t down t o s t r e e t l e v e l . The b u i l d i n g t o t h e r i g h t was a c l u b h o u s e , w h i c h d e s i r e d c o n v e n i e n c e s u f f i c i e n t l y t o p u r c h a s e a l o t on t h e main street. The a d v e r t i s i n g v a l u e o f t h e p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n p l u s t h e c o s t o f b r i n g i n g t h e s i t e down t o s t r e e t l e v e l was s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r them f r o m t h i s p r o j e c t . Today both these b u i l d i n g s l i e s l i g h t l y o f f t h e main c e n t r e o f t h e t o w n and p e o p l e must go o u t o f t h e i r way i f t h e y w i s h t o v i s i t them. The b u i l d i n g t o t h e r i g h t i n t h e p i c t u r e i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d i n c o v e r i n g w a t e r p i p e s l e a d i n g t o homes. a l o n g T h i r d Avenue t o w a r d M c B r i d e S t r e e t .  This  disposition  r e f l e c t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f F u l t o n S t r e e t a s an e n t r y t o the  r e s i d e n t i a l area, w i t h the commercial core  c e n t r e d about  this traffic artery. The s c a r p o f t h e i n l a n d r i d g e r i s e s behind  the commercial core.  The p h y s i o g r a p h i c  immediately break i s  143. accompanied  by a s i m i l a r break i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l  Land u s e changes a b r u p t l y No i n f o r m a t i o n  pattern.  from commercial t o r e s i d e n t i a l .  on t h e q u a l i t y o f h o u s i n g i s a v a i l a b l e f o r  PHOTOGRAPH 26 Looking southwest a l o n g F r a s e r S t r e e t , t h e Scarp o f inland ridge t o t h e l e f t with f i r s t c l a s s residences and a p u b l i c s c h o o l v i s i b l e . Commercial s e c t i o n t o right.  J PHOTOGRAPH 27 View o f i n l a n d r i d g e from t h e west. M c B r i d e S t r e e t a n d l a w n s c f P r o v i n c i a l Government b u i l d i n g i n t h e foreground. F i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s on c r e s t o f c o a s t a l r i d g e i n l e f t and r i g h t background.  1915  but  i t i s significant that  s h a c k s do  numbers u n t i l S i x t h Avenue i s r e a c h e d . drained,  w e l l - l i g h t e d areas at the  r i d g e were o c c u p i e d by the  slope  poorer  toward the  residences  of the  well-  inland  of the b e t t e r type  inland depression  contains  Creek Bridge.  while:  somewhat  represented  w i t h an  even g r e a t e r drop beyond the  t o w n , F u l t o n S t r e e t and  1915  map  dwellings,  - the the  g r o w t h can  l a r g e number o f s h a c k s and  o f h o u s i n g and  In the  be  intricate  street  city  c i t y was  the  operation  moral tone of the town, a  of pioneer  c i t y was  low  cities.  found i n the  l i m i t e d by l a w .  The  P r i n c e Rupert u n t i l the  The  this  pattern.  or segregated area.  i n d i c a t e s the  seen  the  tence of a b r o t h e l d i s t r i c t  tion typical  up  c a s e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , h o w e v e r , much o f  Another i n d i c a t i o n of a pioneer  at the  and  semi-perman-  o f l a r g e open t r a c t s o f l a n d c l o s e t o t h e  i s o b s c u r e d by t h e  was  the  town.  symptoms o f p i o n e e r  scattered pattern  Hays  T h i r d Avenue,  i n e v i t a b l e growth of the  Many t y p i c a l  centre.  land  s u b u r b a n a r e a s w h i c h were e x p e c t e d t o f i l l  s h o r t l y w i t h the  existence  amount o f b u i l t - u p  T h e s e a r e a s were somewhat removed f r o m  main f o c u s of the  i n the  any  housing.  drops considerably,  ent  appear i n  Probably the  height  Beyond M c B r i d e S t r e e t the  i n the  not  highest  exis-  I t s open  housing  situadensity  s e g r e g a t e d a r e a where e x p a n s i o n  segregated d i s t r i c t S e c o n d W o r l d War  survived  when i t was  i n s i s t e n c e of the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s .  The  in closed  combina-  t i o n o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and to t h i s long, esting. •Hill,  The  i f not h o n o u r a b l e , l i f e area  whose s t e e p  was  i n the  separated  city.  i n t e r i o r depression  reserve  area  half-block.  was  w h i c h had The  been s e t a s i d e  only  s t r e e t by  section, although  hidden to the  T h i s meant t h a t t h e  i s o l a t e d f r o m the main p a r t its in  existence the  could  t o w n , and  be  an  the  end  of the  of the pioneer l a s t world  war  was  eye  which  extension  almost  thereby the  of  contour a  In t h i s p o s i t i o n  facilitated.  i t i s only  t h a t P r i n c e R u p e r t has  strenuously  elements Another  town n e v e r since received  that contains a high  would o b j e c t  Fulton  completely  f a c t t h a t the and  of  entry  w i t h i n a space of  town.  stage,  a l a r g e , stable working population  existence.  the  as a park  e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n by r e s p e c t a b l e  i t s s u r v i v a l was  c e n t a g e o f f a m i l i e s who  Acropolis  p l a n n e d on t h e  a r e a was  of the  reason f o r i t s long existence r e a l l y grew o u t  inter-  i t e f f e c t i v e l y from  S t r e e t , a p r i n c i p a l t h r o u g h s t r e e t , was so t h a t t h e  rather  B e l o w i t s t r e t c h e d t h e muskeg  c i t y plan.  c o u l d be made t o t h e  span a r e  contributed  s i t u a t e d at the f o o t of the  slopes  main p o r t i o n of the the  geographic f a c t o r s which  to i t s  per-  Map Land Source:  Field  Use,  Work.  15  Prince Rupert,  Summer,  1949.  Chapter X  THE C I T Y I N 1949  Changes S i n c e  The in The  1915  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l map o f t h e c i t y  1949 on page 146 r e v e a l s  some r a t h e r i m p o r t a n t  map was p r e p a r e d i n J u l y , 1949 a n d , t h e r e f o r e ,  many c h a n g e s w h i c h may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e war. ing  the construction c l a s s i f i e d  accurate  as wartime, a  p i c t u r e o f t h e p r e - w a r s i t u a t i o n may be  the extension  By i g n o r -  obtained. immediately,  o f h o u s i n g b e y o n d M o r s e C r e e k , (2) t h e  a d d i t i o n s t o t h e l a r g e - s c a l e dock f a c i l i t i e s the  includes  fairly  T h r e e d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m t h e 1915 map may be n o t e d (1)  changes.  i n the form of  g r a i n e l e v a t o r a n d l a r g e q u a y s a n d , (3) t h e e x t e n s i o n  s m a l l boat f a c i l i t i e s are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e d r y d o c k .  of several trends,  w h i c h w i l l be  of  They consider-  ed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .  The  R e a s o n s f o r t h e Changes  I n 1915 t h e c i t y h a d r e a c h e d t h e end o f i t s f i r s t e x p a n s i o n b a s e d on r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d s p e c u l a t i o n . Since little  W o r l d War I was c o n f i n e d  almost e n t i r e l y t o Europe,  a t t e n t i o n c o u l d be p a i d t o p l a c e s a s d i s t a n t f r o m t h e  f r o n t l i n e s as the n o r t h e r n coast of B r i t i s h T h e r e was, Rupert. the  t h e r e f o r e , a very severe r e c e s s i o n i n Prince  The m a j o r i t y  of the s e t t l e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t  w o r l d had r i g h t e d i t s e l f  paid t o the P a c i f i c its  own  Columbia.  once  |  and a t t e n t i o n c o u l d a g a i n be  C o a s t , P r i n c e Rupert would  and t h a t p o s t - w a r e x p a n s i o n was  come i n t o  inevitable.  Mean-  w h i l e t h e r a i l w a } ' company w h i c h h a d b e e n t h e f o u n d e r o f Prince Rupert found i t s e l f culties.  i n very serious f i n a n c i a l  A l o n g w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n and  overexpanded  l i n e s i t was  u n i t e d t o form the  several other  Canadian  N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s , under the d i r e c t i o n of the F e d e r a l ment. was  The  b a n k r u p t c y o f t h e Grand Trunk  symptomatic  Prince  s e v e r a l y e a r s , a f t e r t h e war  s h i p p i n g t h e d r y d o c k and  freighters.  t h e p e r i o d 1919  t o 1925.  real  prosperity  shipyard  commenced b u i l d i n g  about e i g h t 1 0 , 0 0 0 - t o n Construction  / /  vessels  was a l s o b e g u n on  g r a i n e l e v a t o r as w e l l as a d d i t i o n a l docks  ocean-going ships.  B o t h o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s were u n d e r t a k e n  w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t P r i n c e R u p e r t was  s h o r t l y t o become  a world p o r t , the North American e n t r e p o t f o r the market,  influence  To meet t h e p o s t - w a r s h o r t a g e  They c o n s t r u c t e d  a 1,250,000-bushel for  Railway  o f c o n d i t i o n s which would e v e n t u a l l y  seemed t o come t o t h e c i t y .  in  Pacific  Govern-  Rupert. For  of  diffi-  Asiatic  N e e d l e s s t o s a y t h i s d i d n o t come a b o u t . T h e r e a r e , a s u s u a l , a number o f r e a s o n s f o r t h e  n o n - m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s d r e a m , and  i t is difficult  to  Minimum density residential district I . J Medium density residential district L _ _ l Moximum density residential aistnctL_] Minimum density commercial ond i n d u s t r i a l district Medium density commerial and i n d u s t r i a l district Moximum density commercial and lytto  tte o  ipoe  industrial district 1000 tape  Map Zoning  16  Districts  Zoning By-Law, C i t y of P r i n c e Rupert.  150.  weigh the importance of each f a c t o r , interrelated.  since they are  closely  I t has been stated that the reason that Prince  Rupert never developed along projected l i n e s was because the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway went i n t o bankruptcy.  But  one of the reasons '.why the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railitfay went bankrupt was the b u i l d i n g of i t s P a c i f i c t e r m i n a l at / Prince Rupert.  The r a i l r o a d was intended o r i g i n a l l y as a  pioneer l i n e , to tap areas unserved by e x i s t i n g l i n e s , i  p r i m a r i l y i n northern and c e n t r a l A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan. At f i r s t i t was intended that the r a i l r o a d would break through the Rockies by way of the Pine Pass route, tapping the Peace River D i s t r i c t . were also p r o j e c t e d ,  Line connections to Dawson, Y . T .  s t a r t i n g from Hazelton.  Much of the  l i n e that was b u i l t went through untapped and undeveloped ^ areas i n Central B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a .  During and  a f t e r World War I the f l o o d of immigration c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the pre-war decade dwindled to a t r i c k l e .  /  This i n t u r n  meant that r a p i d development of pioneer areas was impossible; / the tendency was rather to consolidate settlement that had taken place p r e v i o u s l y .  The h a l t of immigration was not  too serious f o r r a i l w a y s with l i n e s that ran through already s e t t l e d areas, but f o r the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway i t was a serious blow. The Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway a l s o had a very d i f f i c u l t debt structure to handle, due i n part to p o l i c i e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n part to the d i f f i c u l t y of the t e r r a i n . /  151. C h a r l e s M. Hays, g e n e r a l company, i n s i s t e d to  one be  to  constructed  o f t h e l i n e between M o n t r e a l and  a maximum  constructed with  curvature  of 89-lb.  gradients  rails.  Usually pioneer  up t o f o u r p e r c e n t ,  15 d e g r e e s and 6 0 - l b . after  o f f o u r d e g r e e s and was t o  rails,  the theory  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s u p e r i o r l i n e was i n t e n d e d  Grand T r u n k P a c i f i c  F o r example, Railway  heavy a l o a d as i t c o u l d or Union P a c i f i c ,  could  on t h e G r e a t five  in  this  Northern,  i n t h e s e c t i o n from Hazelton  s e c t i o n o v e r 12,000 m i l e s Between T e r r a c e  of eight m i l l i o n was n e c e s s a r y  tons  2. 3.  Railway".  tremendously,  t o Prince  Rupert.  g r a d e s f o r t h e 186 m i l e s  of t r i a l lines  at a cost  and  surveys  grade.^  o f f80,000 p e r m i l e  High c o n s t r u c t i o n  w o u l d n o t h a v e been t o o s e r i o u s i f t h e r a i l w a y 1.  Pacific  and P r i n c e R u p e r t t h e movement  o f rock  t o achieve  Northern  t i m e s a s much a s on t h e S a n t a  t o g a i n t h e most f a v o u r a b l e  were r u n .  t r a i n on  c a r r y f o u r times as  However,' c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s were i n c r e a s e d  In order  t o cut  "a f r e i g h t  and s e v e n t i m e s a s much a s on t h e C a n a d i a n  especially  these  t h e l i n e h a s begun t o p a y f o r i t s e l f .  down c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n .  Fe  o f 12  being that  be r e p l a c e d  Pacific  l i n e s are  curvatures  can  the  of the  I t was t o have a maximum g r a d e o f one q u a r t e r o f  percent,  built  president  t h a t h i s whole m a i n l i n e be  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  Toronto.  manager and l a t e r  Lower, J.A., The G.T.P.R. and B.C., M.A. o f H i s t o r y , U . B . C , 1939, p . 123. Ibid, p . 74T a l b o t , p . 136.  costs  had been  Thesis,  able  Department  152.  PHOTOGRAPH LOOKING RIVER  A C R O S S THE  FROM THE  pay  obtain  the freight  loads  costs  i t was i m p o s s i b l e  with  which One  was of the  world  and one h a l f  In  the trade  and  4. 5.  France  alone  eoualed  could  America  of trade  of the United  c a n be  seen.  paid.  t h e advantage  t o "one f i f t h  appears  very  f i g u r e s proves  States  American  be  i n haulage  d i d not materialize  Superficially  of i t s people"  But an examination  TYEE character of  the savings  costs  i n North  deed. 4 1938  river  why t h e l o a d s  of the Orient. port  the  BANK  i thad a n t i c i p a t e d , f o r without  the construction  the closest  fiord-like  to effect  of the reasons  the poverty being  shipments  The  SKEENA  NORTHERN  NEAR  to  28  trade  with with  of  great i n otherwise.  the United the whole  Kingdom o f Asia.''  C r e s s e y , G., " A s i a ' s L a n d a n d P e o p l e s " , McGraw-Hill, New Y o r k , 1947. L . E . K l i n r n , O t i s P. S t a r k e y , N o r m a n F . H a l l , "Introductory E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y " . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o m p a n y , New Y o r k ,  1940, p . 479-81,  (Statistical  Appendix).  153.  . _ _  • 29  PHOTOGRAPH  SKEENA RIVER FROM T Y E E , LOOKING TOWARD THE MOUTH For t h i s A s i a t i c trade f i v e  p o r t s were  o r two w o u l d have b e e n s u f f i c i e n t . especially dependent  Portland, Seattle f o r the  main p a r t  c o m p e t i n g , where  The P a c i f i c c o a s t  and V a n c o u v e r ,  have  connection  Panama C a n a l .  Only i n  t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c community do we f i n d n a t i o n s w i t h cient  ports,  been  o f t h e i r t r a d e on t h e i r  w i t h t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c by way o f t h e  suffi-  surplus production to form a s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s f o r  I n A s i a t h e m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e who s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e m a r k e t do n o t p r o d u c e  enough o v e r a n d above t h e  l e v e l w i t h w h i c h t o buy t h e p r o d u c t s t h a t  one  trade.  a great  subsistence  N o r t h A m e r i c a can  offer. What h a d P r i n c e R u p e r t t o o f f e r shipper?  t o the  prospective  S e l e c t i o n of cargoes i s u l t i m a t e l y a f u n c t i o n  the p o r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d . be l a n d e d a t  There i s ,  Prince Rupert f o r the  of  course,  same r a t e  wheat, as at  of  which can Vancouver.  I n t h i s c a s e P r i n c e R u p e r t must compete w i t h V a n c o u v e r f o r  the  product.  For  s h i p m e n t t o t h e O r i e n t i t w o u l d seem t h a t 540  P r i n c e R u p e r t w o u l d h a v e an a d v a n t a g e , s i n c e i t i s miles c l o s e r to A s i a t i c I n so c a l l e d t w e e n war  p o r t s , but t h i s i s not the  "normal" times,  in this  case d u r i n g the  c h a r t e r ships p r i m a r i l y f o r the cargo  of a s i n g l e shipment, such as g r a i n .  already p a r t l y loaded  products,  Shipping  companies p r e f e r  i n the  of  For example, s h i p s . c a l l i n g  o p p o r t u n i t y of p r o c u r i n g cargoes of  f r u i t s , metals,  m e n t i o n o n l y a few.  fertilizers  and  i s a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver.  i s not  the  case.  T h e r e i s no  t h a n Edmonton, w h i c h c a n be couver.  regional resources  served  In Prince Rupert  e q u a l l y w e l l f r o m Van-  In the d i s c u s s i o n of  found t h a t the m i n e r a l s  h i n t e r l a n d were t r i b u t a r y t o T r a i l ,  I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by A. P r i n c e Rupert, B.C.  this  v a r i e t y of produce a v a i l a b l e ^  hinterland.  i t was  popula-  large population centre c l o s e r  T h e r e i s , m o r e o v e r , no  from Prince Rupert's  Rupert's  mainland.  a  There i s a l s o  inducement o f s m a l l inbound cargoes f o r the l a r g e southern  timber  ports  immediate v i c i n i t y which o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i f nothing  into  canned goods, t o  M o r e o v e r t h e r e a r e a number o f  t i o n c e n t r e s of the  6.  They a r e more  i n t o a p o r t where t h e y h a v e a g o o d p o s s i b i l i t y  V a n c o u v e r have t h e  the  to  s p a c e on a s h i p w h i c h i s  w i t h cargo.  l o a d i n g a v a r i e t y of cargo.  cargo  capital  purpose of c a r r y i n g a c a p a c i -  l i k e l y t o l e a s e a p o r t i o n of the  t o put  be-  y e a r s , t r a d e i s i n the hands o f p r i v a t e merchants.  T h e s e m e r c h a n t s o n l y r a r e l y have s u f f i c i e n t  ty  case.  and  of  the  Prince  thus i n -  Brooksbank, Shipping  Agent,  155.  directly  to Vancouver.  Vancouver i n the  F i s h e r } ' p r o d u c t s were t r i b u t a r y t o  case o f canned salmon or d i s t r i b u t e d i n  small p e r i o d i c shipments i n the tural  surpluses  competitive hinterland.  species coast,  were n o n - e x i s t e n t  hinterland, only  to those a v a i l a b l e with equal they remained u n u t i l i z e d .  on t h e w h o l e , ease from the  shipper  lishment  summer l o a d l i n e . as  51  The  o f m a r k s on a s h i p ' s t o w h i c h a s h i p may and  d e g r e e s as t h e load l i n e ,  limit  without  s i d e r e g u l a t i n g the be  port  able  a s h i p may  i n the  300  and  by be  The  Pacific,  i s a series  "a v e s s e l l o a d i n g an  water  to vary  from  storminess;  in a  more d e e p l y seas n o r t h  i n c l u d i n g of  laden of  51  course,  sufficiently  ships carry a l i g h t e r load during  result i s that  estab-  depth i n the  of P r i n c e Rupert, are considered  to take  the  f o r year-round  I t i s intended  h a z a r d t h a n i n a- s t o r m y s e a .  to require that The  loaded.  calm sea  degrees North l a t i t u d e the  schedule  o r P l i m s o l mark, i s d e s i g n e d  i s supposedly regulated  calm or r e l a t i v e l y  lacked  shipping from Prince'  a s a f e t y f a c t o r f o r merchant s h i p p i n g ,  sea;to sea,  to  s u p p o s e d g e o g r a p h i c f a c t s , was  of L a t i t u d e  southern  /  Another f a c t o r which hindered R u p e r t , b a s e d on  inferior  Thus P r i n c e R u p e r t  a v a r i e t y of products t o induce the port.  competitive  were a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e  since they represented,  s h i p p i n g to the  Agricul-  i n P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s non-  e x i s t i n g i n the  Forestry exports  q u a n t i t i e s but  case of h a l i b u t .  stormy  winter.  £,0.00-ton c a r g o i s  t o n s more a t V a n c o u v e r t h a n a t t h i s  port  /  ( P r i n c e Rupert)..' I n o t h e r words a g r a i n  ship,  have t o g e t 2 1 0 a t o n more t o h a n d l e  would  cargo  P r i n c e R u p e r t t h a n i f l o a d e d a t Vancouver".'' of  latitude  stormy  5 1 ° North as t h e boundary  seas i s unwarranted. that  Rupert  have a n a l m o s t  and V a n c o u v e r  from  between c a l m and on c l i m a t e i t  during the winter h a l f - y e a r identical  5 1 d e g r e e s N o r t h i s an a r b i t r a r y b o u n d a r y  no  basis  i n climatic  ly  i t s criteria.  fact  that  though  Probably t h i s  the Aleutian  Islands,  climatic  data i s supposed-  coast  meaning i f p l a c e d It failed  of North America the l i n e  is little  wonder t h e n t h a t  as an e n t r e p o t f o r world t r a d e .  have more  Prince  ceased.  latitude.  Rupert  In 1926 the grain  D u r i n g t h e n e x t two y e a r s  After  that  1929 the c h i e f use o f  e l e v a t o r was f o r t h e s t o r a g e o f s u r p l u s g r a i n t h e F e d e r a l  Government was f o r c e d the  would  m i l l i o n b u s h e l s o f g r a i n were s h i p p e d and a f t e r  shipment' p r a c t i c a l l y the  opened.  hazard-  However on  between 5 8 and 60 d e g r e e s N o r t h  e l e v a t o r a t P r i n c e Rupert 13  on t h e  are decidedly  ous t o n a v i g a t e , e x t e n d t o 5 2 d e g r e e s N o r t h . the P a c i f i c  which h a s  d e c i s i o n was b a s e d which  Prince  climate.  Latitude  fact,  here,  The s e l e c t i o n  7  In the s e c t i o n  has been e s t a b l i s h e d  loading  depression years.  t o buy from t h e P r a i r i e The r e c o r d  shipping, l i n e s used t h e p o r t  once  farmers  seems t o i n d i c a t e  during  that  o r t w i c e , f o u n d t h a t i t was  u n p r o f i t a b l e and r e t u r n e d no more.  7.  Memorandum, S u b m i t t e d by P r i n c e R u p e r t I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p ment Committee t o t h e F e d e r a l Government, M a r c h , 1 9 4 6 , p. 4 .  157.  Adjustment t o the  The that the  A c t u a l i t i e s of the  c o l l a p s e of the  realities  small oversea's trade  no  developed t o  b a s i s i n the  t o r e a l i t y was cated  by  the  by  a r r i v a l of the  area of.the  the  great  The  tended t o l i n k the  c i t y was Two  of the  1930's  difficult.  boom t h e  seaward s e c t i o n of the  driven  coastal ridgein-  g r a i n e l e v a t o r to the  pro-  problem of supplying  services to  them.  space P r i n c e Rupert r e q u i r e d area between the  two  c i t y was  to  scattered  faced with  the  Whatever h o u s i n g  The  expansion  especially i n a  s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n b a s e d on t h e  of  sprawling,  b e l i e f t h a t vacant  spaces  as development p r o c e e d e d , i n t e n s i f i e d As was  houses  c o u l d have e a s i l y been f o u n d creeks.  h o u s i n g beyond t h e s e l i m i t s ,  c i t y and  A few  the  e x i s t i n g problems.  resi-  d e v e l o p m e n t b e y o n d M o r s e C r e e k was  s e c t i o n and  filled  compli-  l o n g i t u d i n a l r o a d s were  were l o c a t e d i n t h i s  s t r u c t i o n and  adjustment  I t was  I  had  e x t e n d e d beyond Morse Creek  v i d e a d d i t i o n a l room f o r r e s i d e n c e s .  w o u l d be  The  depression  s h o r t p o s t - W o r l d War  c e n t r a l and  i n t h i s area.  i n the  Prince  p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t e v e n more  means o f a b r i d g e .  along  of t h a t p e r i o d .  extremely d i f f i c u l t .  During the dential  city.  finally-  s e r v e a r e g i o n whose p o t e n t i a l  realities t o be  w h i c h made t h e  meant  o f P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d had  b r o u g h t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o . b e a r upon the R u p e r t was  Environment  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the  m a i n t e n a n c e o f e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s on  already con-  Prince  158. Rupert's p e c u l i a r t e r r a i n c o s t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t had d e n s i t i e s the  i s e x p e n s i v e and t o be b o r n e by  t a s k became i m p o s s i b l e .  o v e r e x t e n d e d s e r v i c e s and too great  low  a burden f o r the  On May  15,  1933  the  of the  c i t y ' s bonded d e b t and  placed  the  The  When  population  combination  of  d e n s i t i e s proved  i t went i n t o b a n k r u p t c y .  P r o v i n c i a l Government assumed payment to p r o t e c t i t s i n t e r e s t s  d i r e c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l  a p r o v i n c i a l l y appointed The  small  population  c i t y and  onerous.  city  a f f a i r s i n t o the  hands  manager.  small settlement  Cove, d a t e s from t h i s p e r i o d .  on D i g b y I s l a n d , a t Dodge I t represents  the  protest  a number o f f o r m e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s , l a r g e l y f i s h e r m e n , moved a c r o s s the  the  city limits.  considered  h a r b o u r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r homes They d i d t h i s  C i t y of P r i n c e Rupert, thus the  settlement its  own  Unfortunately has  outside  t o e s c a p e what t h e y  name o f t h e  i t must be  the  settlement,  reported  that  this  grown s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o impose t a x e s  r i g h t and  t h o s e who  have been f o r c e d t o t a x  c i t y p a t t e r n went on.  moved t h e r e  On  t h e map  extreme n o r t h w e s t e r n t i p of the  t i o n because the  t o escape t a x a t i o n  f u n c t i o n a l adjustments i n o f 1915  c i t y devoted to the f i s h i n g  f i s h i n g company was  in  themselves.  Meanwhile other  of the  i n order  of  who  u n j u s t i f i a b l y h i g h t a x a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f  Dodge C o v e .  of  the  only  i n d u s t r y was  at  the section the  i s l a n d n e a r S e a l Cove.  forced to b u i l d  in this isolated  railway directors believed that  the  The  posi-  more c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d d o c k a r e a s w e r e t o o v a l u a b l e t o A f t e r 1915  l e a s e t o the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y .  d i r e c t o r s came t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e w e r e n o t g o i n g t o be u t i l i z e d commerce and  s e c t i o n s by t h e f i s h i n g facilities Cow  Bay  and  developed  c e n t r a l dock  by o c e a n and  t h e y o p e n e d t h e way  f o r the  industry.  use.of  i n the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s ,  c h a n d l e r i e s and  o i l docks.  o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War  filling  s c a r p of the  storage houses,  i t expanded beyond the was  coastal ridge.  l i m i t e d by The  (See  until  t h e end  Photos).  o f W o r l d War  brought about another  P o i n t , b e i n g the f i r s t  inland  too d i f f i c u l t .  drydock another on  intensely u t i l -  I I when t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e  expansion.  The  s t o r a g e p l a n t between P i l l s b u r y  o f the w a t e r f r o n t .  outbreak  This area served the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y  operative to b u i l d a cold storage plant f o r  t o connect  the  ship  a r e a , bounded  e i t h e r s i d e by p h y s i o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s , was ized.  side  on t h e o t h e r b y  S h o r t l y before the  a r e a t o a p o i n t where e x p a n s i o n  way  these  T h i s s e c t i o n became d e n s e l y p a c k e d w i t h  s m a l l b o a t f l o a t s , f i s h - p a c k i n g and  i n t o the  coastwise  e x t e n d i n g t o t h e l i m i t s p r o v i d e d on one  drydock area.  their  areas  Gradually small boat  by t h e s c a r p o f t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e and  steep  "the r a i l w a y  co-  themselves  cooperative P o i n t and  built  Fairview  industry to establish i n t h i s section  At t h i s p o i n t t h e  d e p r e s s i o n and  coast leads  directly  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a  t h e d o c k s w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c i t y was  roadnot  Since the water shoals g r a d u a l l y i n t h i s  160.  PHOTOGRAPH 30 COPY OF PHOTO CIRCA 1919 LOOKING NORTH PROM COW BAY TOWARD TUCK INLET D r y d o c k and s h i p y a r d i n r i g h t b a c k g r o u n d . er being c o n s t r u c t e d .  Note l a r g e  freight-  PHOTOGRAPH 31 COPY OF PHOTOGRAPH BY J.R. WRATHALL LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM COW BAY Floating'pontoons of drydock v i s i b l e i n background. Compare t h e i n t e n s i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a by s m a l l b o a t s w i t h P h o t o g r a p h 30.  161. section o f the  construction Prince  ment o f t h e scarcity the  of docks i s e a s i e r than i n other  Rupert w a t e r f r o n t .  storage  plant  The  in this  of waterfrontage  i n the  main r e a s o n f o r d e v e l o p -  s e c t i o n was already  changing p a t t e r n  reflection  of  Though t h e  importance  halibut 1931  built  fleet  changes t a k i n g p l a c e  use  1 6 , 7 9 8 , 0 0 0 l b s . i n 1949, these t o t a l s  landed  has  7,783,000  the  up  parts  changed.  of  l b s . of a t o t a l  Canadian f l e e t  increase  the  t h a t has  servation  started.  1931,  p r e s u m a b l y one  and  The  Canadian landings  Prince ships  Rupert  as  operating  increase of the  were t h e  a base p o r t . out  dock s p a c e and  of t h e  t h e i r needs i n a Canadian The S k e e n a and  increased  has  44,222,000  since  con-  increase  advantages obtained  since  almost  place steadily';since  r e a s o n s f o r the  has  landed  approximately  numbers o f  by  in  using  Canadian  meant i n c r e a s i n g demands  Canadian  ships procure a l l  port.  number o f power o p e r a t e d  made e a s y the  rather than the  of  accounts f o r  taken  Larger  fleets  Canadian  i n landings  N a s s salmon f i s h e r i e s a f t e r  m o b i l i t y and supply,  port  supplies  the  for  in  of the  5 5 , 3 7 9 , 0 0 0 l b s . or  taken place  port  Canadian f l e e t  32%.  I t i s clear that  industry.  l b s . landed  catch  the  direct  a landing  1931  In  In 1949  a  character  of  for  growing  fishing  as  1 8 , 6 6 6 , 0 0 0 l b s . of a t o t a l  the  was  i n the  of P r i n c e Rupert  o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17%.  lbs.  of land  r e m a i n e d unchanged, 1 6 , 7 9 2 , 0 0 0  has  and  selling  the  the  city. The  all  parts  use  of  canneries.  1929  Prince  boats i n  meant  Rupert as  the  greater a base  of  162.  W h i l e P r i n c e R u p e r t was b e c o m i n g  an i n c r e a s i n g l y -  i m p o r t a n t f i s h i n g p o r t t h e f u n c t i o n f o r w h i c h i t was d e s i g n e d became a t r o p h i e d . for  The g r a i n e l e v a t o r became a s t o r a g e b i n  s u r p l u s g r a i n bought  by the F e d e r a l Government.  The  o c e a n d o c k s s t o o d empty e x c e p t f o r o c c a s i o n a l s h i p m e n t s o f f i s h p r o d u c t s i n bond f r o m A l a s k a . to ing  b u i l d a n d r e p a i r o c e a n l i n e r s was u t i l i z e d  to repair  b o a t s and t h e c o a s t a l s t e a m s h i p s o f t h e Canadian  Railways. slightly ing  The d r y d o c k , d e s i g n e d fish-  National  The c o m m e r c i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y g r e w o n l y n o r t h - e a s t w a r d a l o n g T h i r d Avenue t o w a r d t h e g r o w -  s m a l l b o a t c e n t r e o f Cow B a y .  PHOTOGRAPH 32 Copy o f p h o t o b y J.R. W r a t h a l . T h i r d Avenue l o o k i n g northeast. T h i s i s the heart of the commercial core. Note t h e wide s t r e e t s . The  p e r i o d b e t w e e n t h e two w a r s was a t i m e o f change  and a d j u s t m e n t f o r P r i n c e R u p e r t , n o t a p e r i o d o f g r o w t h .  The  163. population 1941  of the c i t y  i t was  6,714.  The ably  i n 1915 w a s . s l i g h t l y o v e r 7,000, i n  during  character  this  of the c i t y .  of the population  period,  changed  consider-  i n response t o t h e changing  The S c a n d i n a v i a n  element, m a i n l y  function  Norwegians,  came t o f o r m a n i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . They became t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h e h a l i b u t f i s h i n g ing techniques fisheries  learned  of their  new h o m e l a n d .  the  stock  population  who r e m a i n e d  but there  city,  as F e d e r a l  still  in  Prince  ities  moved e l s e w h e r e once t h e y t o become f i s h e r m e n ment. 1915  five  Prince  Rupert  citizens,  years  middle  administrators which  has i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s  came o f a g e , f o r u n l e s s opportunity  of the c i t y  as i s t y p i c a l  facil-  population they  wished  f o r advance-  g r a d u a l l y changed. entirely  of a pioneer  In  of youthful, city.  Twenty-  was composed m a i n l y o f p e o p l e o f  age, t h e remnant o f t h o s e  7. C e n s u s navians, Census navians,  terminal  Most o f t h e n a t i v e - b o r n  was -made up a l m o s t  later the c i t y  f o r the  R a i l w a y a n d i n t h e 'merchandiz-  t h e r e was l i t t l e  The age c o m p o s i t i o n  vigorous  i n t h e i r numbers.?  R u p e r t , i n t h e r o u n d h o u s e and o t h e r  i n g and s e r v i c i n g t r a d e s .  Those  f u n c t i o n s t h a t remained t o  Columbia a r e a  o f the Canadian N a t i o n a l  of B r i t i s h  formed t h e m a j o r i t y o f  was no i n c r e a s e  or Provincial  North C e n t r a l B r i t i s h  the only  t h e boom c o l l a p s e d .  They were employed i n t h e o t h e r the  They r e p r e s e n t e d  They r e p l a c e d t h o s e  who moved e l s e w h e r e a f t e r  of B r i t i s h  apply-  i n the Norwegian f i s h e r i e s t o t h e  new i m m i g r a n t s t o t h e c i t y . stock  fleet,  who h a d a r r i v e d d u r i n g t h e  1921: E n g l i s h , 2,128; S c o t t i s h , 1,572; 588. 1931: E n g l i s h , 1,682; S c o t t i s h , 1,402; 1,046.  ScandiScandi-  boom  period. The  l a r g e s t s i n g l e r a c i a l element i n P r i n c e  immediate h i n t e r l a n d i s t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n . portant listed  Rupert's  They f o r m a n i m -  and u n i q u e e l e m e n t i n t h e c i t y t h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t a s permanent r e s i d e n t s .  F o r one b l o c k  on T h i r d  Avenue  t o the west o f S i x t h S t r e e t , a t y p e o f g h e t t o has developed for the native  Indian.  E a r l y i n the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y part of  t h i s b l o c k was s e t t l e d b y C h i n e s e . depressed land values avoid  section.  The r e s u l t i s t h a t  h a s become a s e c t i o n o f c h e a p h o t e l s and b e e r  l o u r s , poor cafes the  as white merchants g e n e r a l l y t r i e d t o  s e t t i n g up s t o r e s i n t h i s  the block  O c c u p a t i o n by C h i n e s e  day o r n i g h t  leaning against  and rundown shops.  At a l m o s t any hour o f  i t i s possible to find f a m i l i e s of s t o r e windows, l a u g h i n g ,  watching passersby.  They s t a n d  a b o u t on t h e s t r e e t s b e c a u s e  h o t e l o r rooming house t h a t t h e y a r e f o r c e d i n the c i t y .  Indians  joking or solemnly  t h e y do n o t w i s h t o r e t u r n t o t h e c r a m p e d , f i l t h y  home w h i l e  par-  The I n d i a n ,  room i n a  to call  their  e v e n i f he d o e s p o s s e s s  t h e money c a n n o t g e t a room i n a w e l l a p p o i n t e d h o t e l b e cause o f r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . i n t o t h e town.  He i s n o t s u p p o s e d t o come  He c a n n o t b u y p r o p e r t y  o r r e n t a home  since  he  would l o s e h i s r e s e r v a t i o n r i g h t s .  The l u r e o f t h e c i t y  is  s t r o n g , h o w e v e r , and i n r e t u r n f o r a c h a n c e t o l o o k a t  b r i g h t l i g h t s and s t o r e windows he i s w i l l i n g t o p u t up w i t h whatever hovel realistic  he c a n g e t .  The g o v e r n m e n t c a n n o t t a k e a  a t t i t u d e by p u t t i n g up d e c e n t , l i v a b l e  for the Indians  dormatories  since i ti s t h e i r p o l i c y that they stay  upon  165.  the  reservations.  t u b e r c u l o s i s and the  But other  One l a n d use  conflict, was  Indian  diseases  risking  i n r e t u r n f o r the  other  o f W o r l d War  I I on t h e  s e t o f i n f l u e n c e s has  p a t t e r n shown i n t h e  the  1939-45 war.  t h e d r y d o c k and  The  1949  first  joys  of  City  operated  map;  the  c o u r s e o f t h e war  the  freighter. crew of  Before  some 100  f i s h b o a t s and With f u l l  the  war  there  w o r k e r s who  the  had  had  i n the  ship yards the  i t e m p l o y e d c l o s e t o 2,000 w o r k e r s .  these  p e o p l e had  s t r u c t e d bunk h o u s e s f o r t h e housing u n i t s f o r married t o r n down a f t e r t h e u n i t s , known as  end  The  Since  s c a p e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t and  couples. war  The but  and  siting  steamers.  almost a l l / housing  s e r i e s of  con-  single  bunk h o u s e s were the  /  s i n g l e housing  some e x p l a n a t i o n  In the  ^  skeleton  Government  " w a r t i m e h o u s e s " were a l l o w e d  i s necessary.  coastal  w o r k i n g f o r c e grew  These form a r a t h e r prominent f e a t u r e of t h e  istics  one  coastal  Federal  s i n g l e men  of the  During  fourteen  brought i n from outside the  s i t u a t i o n q u i c k l y became a c u t e .  a f f e c t e d ^'  been engaged i n r e p a i r o f  until  t o be  war.  been a s m a l l  Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway  operations  world  construction  constructed  1 0 , 0 0 0 - t o n f r e i g h t e r s , f o u r mine s w e e p e r s and  produce  second  o u t b r e a k o f the  shipyard  to  i n d u s t r y t o be  s h i p y a r d , w h i c h began t h e  of f r e i g h t e r s s h o r t l y a f t e r the the  comes anyway,  city.  Influence  the  the  of these  to  remain.  cultural of t h e i r  landcharacter-  houses s e v e r a l  J  1  PHOTOGRAPH 3 3 W a r t i m e h o u s e s on v a c a n t l o t s considerations  were o p e r a t i v e .  i n the  1  built  part  of  city.  The}'- w e r e i n t e n d e d  to  serve  d r y d o c k w o r k e r s and,  t h e r e f o r e , were t o be  r e a c h of the  They had  plant.  q u i c k l y w h i c h meant, i d e a l l y , one  s u b d i v i s i o n where t h e  handled with from the  t h a t they should  t r a c t o r s i f the  t o be  They p o i n t e d up  be  site  areas of the  lights,  vacant l o t s  f i n a l r e s u l t was located  unoccu-  o f Hays C r e e k . quite  The  were f i l l e d .  As  a compromise.  The  city the  usual bulk  on a s e c t i o n o f t h e  The  rightly,  c i t y there  etc.  in  be  ideal  c h e a p e r b o t h f o r t h e m s e l v e s and  w a r t i m e h o u s i n g was  located  found i n the  out,  easy  c h e a p l y and  with e s s e n t i a l services already  s t r e e t s , water mains, e l e c t r i c t h a t i t would be  was  The  c o a s t a l r i d g e , east  t h a t w i t h i n t h e more b u i l t numerous v a c a n t l o t s  within  prefabricated parts could  b u i l d e r s ' standpoint  c i t y , however, o b j e c t e d .  placed  constructed  "assembly l i n e " techniques.  p i e d s e c t i o n of the  cases the  t o be  up  were supplied; felt con-  i n such of  the  coastal  ridge  ^ /  167..  e a s t o f Hays C r e e k known a s R u s h b r o o k H e i g h t s . throughout units.  But s c a t t e r e d  t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e c i t y were numerous  During  o f t h e war 522 o f t h e s e  the course  housing  h o u s e s were  c o n s t r u c t e d , w h i c h i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e were o n l y 1 , 5 9 2 i n 1941.  b u i l d i n g s i n P r i n c e Rupert  A f t e r t h e war t h e s h i p y a r d s c l o s e d down a n d i t  a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e c i t y was a b o u t t o r e t u r n t o i t s p r e - w a r stagnation.  For a time  i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e h o u s e s  w o u l d be d e m o l i s h e d  f o r whatever scrap t h e c o n t r a c t o r s could  salvage  The c i t y was a b l e t o p e r s u a d e t h e F e d e r a l  f r o m them.  G o v e r n m e n t t h a t i t w o u l d be b e t t e r t o s e l l for  t h e p r i c e s t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t o r s were w i l l i n g  both veterans occupied  and c i v i l i a n s .  and a r e r e t a i l i n g  At present  f o r $3,000  these  evil  visited  lots,  upon muskeg.  muskeg t h e y were s u p p o r t e d  They s u f f e r f r o m t h e  Since they  been l i t t l e  are i n c l i n e d  They a r e -  a perpetuation of  on "mud  When t h e y were b u i l t sills",  f o u r - f o o t wooden p a d s w h i c h were i n t e n d e d t h e muskeg.  quality-  upon t h e c i t y a g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e , a n d  they, a r e o f t e n s i t e d  were b u i l t  on  t h r e e - f o o t by to "float"  extremely  lightly  upon there  t e n d e n c y f o r them t o s i n k o r warp, b u t t h e y  t o rock i n a high  The l o c a t i o n to  The  o f h a s t e , p r e f a b r i c a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n .  c r o w d e d c l o s e t o g e t h e r on 2 5 - f o o t  has  to give f o r  houses a r e a l l  to $4,000.  o f t h e h o u s e s i s , on t h e w h o l e , p o o r . evils  privately  The h o u s e s were s o l d f o r a s l o w a s $ $ 2 5 t o  them a s s c r a p .  the  the houses  wind.  o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f the wartime  houses  t h e e a s t o f Hays C r e e k has b r o u g h t about an i m p o r t a n t  /  16$.  PHOTOGRAPH 34 Second c l a s s h o u s i n g t o the l e f t , wartime houses to the r i g h t . N o t e how c l o s e l y t h e h o u s e s a r e s p a c e d , due t o t h e 2 5 - f o o t l o t s . change  of population centre.  t i o n of the too  commercial core  It  has n o t a f f e c t e d  since geographic  s t r o n g t o a l l o w i t t o move.  Instead  and S e a l Cove and s e r v e s t o l i n k  concentrations sections  Prince Rupert  city.  T h e s e new h o u s e s  as yet  effect  on t h e  houses  of a t o t a l  occupied. interest very  city.  have  another,  I n the  city  other J  added t o the  incalculable  owned b y t h e  c i t y are  These new o w n e r s w i l l in civic affairs  increased population.  P r i n c e Rupert o f 1941 o n l y 792  o f 1 , 5 9 2 were  r e a l investment  has  A new p u b l i c s c h o o l h a s a l s o b e e n the  will  /'  t h e new p o p u l a t i o n  l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a t o accommodate  5 2 2 new h o u s e s  the  a l o n g H a y s Cove and S i x t h Avenue w i t h  of the  loca-  i n e r t i a was  had t o i n s t i t u t e a bus l i n e w h i c h r u n s between centre  the  occupant.  exclusively  probably take  and b e t t e r m e n t  i n the future  of the  a  ownergreater  since they city.  The  have  a  169;  The use  preceding  of a piece  c h a n g e s may  be t r a c e d t o a  o f l a r g e - s c a l e d o c k e q u i p m e n t w h i c h had  constructed f o r other purposes.  During  war  P r i n c e R u p e r t was  had  dreamed o f , t h a t o f a g r e a t w o r l d  Japan upon t h e U n i t e d occupation  the  port.  o f K i s k a and  port  i n the  of i n d u s t r i a l America.  their 1942  by way  of the  However,  closer to Alaska l a y Prince  At a t i m e when s h i p p i n g was  possibility  scarce  heart at  m i l e s from the round important.  of u s i n g b a r g e s out  a  trip An  of  added  Prince  shipping.  P r i n c e R u p e r t was  a c t i v a t e d as a sub-port  S e a t t l e P o r t o f E m b a r k a t i o n on t h e From t h a t t i m e t o t h e  end  20  o f t h e war  of February, 1,612,783 tons  of  the  1942. of  freight 73,000  t h r o u g h t h e p o r t a s w e l l a s an e s t i m a t e d $  civilian  c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s and  m i l i t a r y personnel.  provement of e x i s t i n g p o r t f a c i l i t i e s 8.  f  I n s i d e P a s s a g e a s f a r a s Skagway, t h u s  further conserving  were s h i p p e d  by  defenses imperative, v  v o y a g e o f a c a r g o s h i p became e x t r e m e l y  Rupert, v i a the  and  r a i l w a y l i n k i n g i t t o the  e l i m i n a t i o n of 1000  the  the  attack  c o n t i n e n t a l U.S.A., S e a t t l e .  Rupert, with a f i r s t - c l a s s  a d v a n t a g e was  of  A t t u i n the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s i n  5 0 0 m i l e s t o t h e n o r t h , 500 m i l e s  premium t h e  The  S t a t e s i n December o f 1 9 4 1  e s t a b l i s h e d means o f s u p p l y i n g A l a s k a was  nearest  course  been  t o assume t h e r o l e t h a t i t s f o u n d e r s  made t h e r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f A l a s k a n The  wartime  and  new  Im-  construction  U n i t e d S t a t e s Army S e r v i c e F o r c e s , P r i n c e R u p e r t Sub P o r t of Embarkation, 1945, p. 12 ( P a m p h l e t p r i n t e d by D i b b Printers, Prince Rupert).  /  PHOTOGRAPH  35  O v e r h e a d ramp c o n n e c t i n g d o c k s ( t o t h e l e f t ) w i t h l a r g e w a r e h o u s e c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e A m e r i c a n A.rmy d u r i n g t h e war ( o u t o f p i c t u r e t o t h e r i g h t ) . brought the port p e r month. of 3 6 7 , 2 4 4  c a p a c i t y up t o 5 0 , 0 0 0 c u b i c t o n s o f f r e i g h t  A l a r g e f o u r - s t o r y warehouse s q . f t . was c o n s t r u c t e d .  The  with a f l o o r  o c e a n d o c k was  tended 400 f t . t o 1240 f e e t g i v i n g a f l o o r  c a p a c i t y o f 75 t o n s .  i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d t h e warehouse  dock  On t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e  an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d w i t h 5 3 , 7 7 6 s q . f t . o f f l o o r On t h e c r e s t o f t h e A c r o p o l i s H i l l  ex-  c a p a c i t y of  3 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . and a m o v a b l e c r a n e was added t o t h i s with a l i f t i n g  space  a miniature  office space.  c i t y , known  171.  PHOTOGRAPH  36  R a i l w a y y a r d s and ocean dock from t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e . B u i l d i n g i n f o r e g r o u n d w i t h smoke s t a c k s i s t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y roundhouse. t o t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s as " L i t t l e America", was e r e c t e d t o house t h e 3,500 o f f i c e r s and men n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n t h e port.  On Watson I s l a n d , about 11 m i l e s by road from P r i n c e  Rupert t h e Americans carved a s t a g i n g area and a m u n i t i o n dump out o f the w i l d e r n e s s o f t h e i s l a n d .  I t included a  s e m i - c i r c u l a r wharf about 3,600 f e e t i n l e n g t h , 1000 f e e t of which was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a c o n c r e t e deck, 60 f e e t wide w i t h a double t r a c k r a i l r o a d spur l i n e .  The remainder o f  t h e wharf was o f t i m b e r c r i b c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e t r a c k r a i l w a y spur l i n e .  D u r i n g t h e war s h i p s up t o 10,000  t o n s b e r t h e d and l o a d e d here.  I n a l l t h e Americans spent  PHOTOGRAPH  37  Copy o f p o s t c a r d b y J.R. W r a t h a l . A e r i a l photograph o f Watson I s l a n d f r o m t h e w e s t , p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f C o l u m b i a C e l l u l o s e Company p l a n t . Semi-circular w h a r f c o n s t r u c t e d b y A m e r i c a n Army i n f o r e g r o u n d . Kaien Island t o l e f t with south-eastern lowland of the i s l a n d i n t h e background. twenty-two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ; supplied  i n r e t u r n t h e y had a p o r t  t h e many n e e d s o f A l a s k a n d e f e n c e , s h i p p e d  s i d e r a b l e amounts o f s u p p l i e s t o o t h e r and  saved v i t a l  shipping  as w e l l .  con-  P a c i f i c war t h e a t r e s ,  With t h i s  increased  a c t i v i t y P r i n c e R u p e r t became a n i m p o r t a n t l i n k  i n North  A m e r i c a n d e f e n c e and u n i t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e s l i s h e d bases t h e r e .  These i n c l u d e d  a t S e a l Cove, t h e n a v a l the  barracks  estab-  the airforce station  on t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y d o c k s and t h e s i g n a l s  on t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e west o f M o r s e C r e e k . height  which  j  near barracks  I n 1945, a t t h e  o f t h e w a r , 20,000 r a t i o n b o o k s were i s s u e d  i n Prince  173. Rupert.^ forces  To t h i s number must be  a d d e d t h e members o f  s t a t i o h e d i n Prince Rupert.  been 2 5 , 0 0 0 people  A t t h e end moved o u t , and  as h i g h as  o f t h e war  resources.  People  felt  its  o l d way  of l i f e ,  ing  port.  ment w o u l d t a k e  30,000.  t h a t P r i n c e R u p e r t would r e t u r n t o  t h a t the  a f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e had  resource  p i c t u r e t h a t was  ^  develop-  I t was  the  necessary.  into  This b a s i c readjustment  s e m i - c i r c u l a r d o c k and  reperex-  more  as w e l l  as  a l r e a d y been  S t a t e s Army s e r v e d t o a t t r a c t t h e  C o r p o r a t i o n of America t o P o r t Edward.  place  enormous w a r t i m e  t h e f a c t t h a t much o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y work had done by t h e U n i t e d  taken  t o have  p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h made e x p a n s i o n  the  fish-  wartime houses  s i n c e few b e l i e v e d t h a t p o s t - w a r  cussions i n P r i n c e Rupert.  and  y  place.  i n the nation-wide  island  people  t h a t i t w o u l d a g a i n become a s m a l l  D u r i n g t h e war  remote a r e a s  and  t h r o w n b a c k u p o n h e r own  f o r t h i s reason  s o l d f o r so l i t t l e ,  at t h i s time,  the m a j o r i t y o f these  P r i n c e R u p e r t was  I t was  I n t o t a l t h e r e must h a v e  i n Prince Rupert  p o s s i b l y t h e f i g u r e was  the  They t o o k  Celanese  over  the  began c o n s t r u c t i o n  of a twenty-five m i l l i o n d o l l a r high alpha pulp p l a n t . T h e i r o p e r a t i o n has and  a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d under  forestry,  w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d , a l o n g w i t h the p r o j e c t o f  t h e A l u m i n u m Company o f C a n a d a i n t h e  section entitled  "The  Future". The 9.  o t h e r wartime i n s t a l l a t i o n s have been put  V e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m H.D.  Thain,  City Clerk.  to  various verted  uses.  The  s e a p l a n e b a s e a t S e a l Cove h a s  t o c i v i l i a n use,  s e r v i c i n g the  l i n e s ' d a i l y f l i g h t s to Sandspit private  provided  w i t h an  i t was  as w e l l a s a number  The  by  converting  Tugwell  of  However, t h e  barracks  has  Of t h e  other  provides  i s l a n d i s eight  water from P r i n c e R u p e r t , making f o r very  shipment problems.  be  Island  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a i r s t r i p s  p h y s i c a l problems.  naval  Air-  suggested that Prince Rupert  airfield  i n t o an a i r s t r i p .  by  Canadian P a c i f i c  lines. I n 1950  few  been con-  miles  complex t r a n -  wartime i n s t a l l a t i o n s  been c o n v e r t e d i n t o a C a n a d i a n  the  Legion  clubhouse, the port a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s i n t o apartment blocks. war  A l a r g e Y.M.C.A. b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t e d  f o r s e r v i c e m e n t has  s e r v i n g as a v a l u a b l e city.  The  d o c k and In the  been t a k e n o v e r as a C i v i c  centre  f o r indoor  i n the be  period  s h a c k s on t h e  i n l a n d r i d g e has  already  end  1949  houses i n P r i n c e Rupert correspond to  P r i n c e R u p e r t c o u l d be  first,  wartime houses.  i n most l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s .  result.  map.  The  was  several The  of the 1915  been n o t e d i n the  have been b r o k e n i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , c l a s s h o u s e s , and  1915-1949  lower i n l a n d slope  T h i s tendency i s emphasized i n the  third  the  development  made o f t h e  f o r c e s t h a t have u n i t e d t o p r o d u c e t h e  and  Centre,  recreation in  course of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the  l e f t untouched u n t i l note could  of  the  warehouse space remains l a r g e l y unused.  of the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s  incidence  during  The  coastal map.  houses  second  and  first-class  s e c o n d - c l a s s houses  O n l y seven or e i g h t  houses i n  compared v/ith f i r s t - c l a s s houses i n  175.  exclusive residential d i s t r i c t s  i n other c i t i e s .  It is  another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t people w i t h s u f f i c i e n t funds are i n c l i n e d t o go e l s e w h e r e  o r save t h e i r money t o b u i l d  f i r s t - c l a s . s home e l s e w h e r e .  With t h i s  a  classification  s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s were f o u n d .  The  first-  c l a s s h o u s i n g was c o n c e n t r a t e d a l m o s t  e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e  c r e s t .or s e a w a r d . s l o p e s o f t h e i n l a n d  or coastal  in  some c a s e s i m m e d i a t e l y b e h i n d t h e c o m m e r c i a l  ridge, core.  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f i r s t - c l a s s h o u s i n g on t h e r i d g e is  due t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  These s i t e s a r e u s u a l l y  tops  solid  r o c k , o r have o n l y a s h a l l o w l a y e r o f muskeg a n d a r e t h u s superior building  sites.  They command a f i n e  h a r b o u r and t e n d , t o r e c e i v e more l i g h t the inland  view of the  t h a n t h e h o u s e s on  slope, a very important consideration i n a place  as gloomy as P r i n c e R u p e r t . c l a s s houses r i s e  I n t h e s e c t i o n s where t h e f i r s t -  immediately behind the commercial  core  t h e y a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r above i t n o t t o be d i s t u r b e d . b y n o i s e and t r a f f i c . communication  M o r e o v e r i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s no d i r e c t '  e x i s t s between the commercial  first-class residential districts,  c o r e and t h e  and t r a f f i c  is.effectively  by-passed. On t h e d o w n s l o p e t o w a r d t h e i n l a n d d e p r e s s i o n . t h e bulk o f t h e houses f a l l c r e a s i n g , numbers depression. are  i n t o the second-class, with i n -  of t h i r d - c l a s s houses toward  These s i t e s a r e l e s s d e s i r a b l e  o f t e n on muskeg  a s much l i g h t .  the inland  since  a n d t h e y do n o t h a v e a f i n e  they  view or  The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n does n o t a p p l y ' e a s t o f  176.  PHOTOGRAPH 3 3 F i r s t - c l a s s house on double l o t .  PHOTOGRAPH 3 9 The g r a i n e l e v a t o r from t h e c o a s t a l r i d g e . The f l a t l a y i n g land i n t h e foreground i s probably a former t e r r a c e o f Morse Creek. S e c o n d - c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s occupy t h e a r e a .  177. Hays Creek s i n c e g r o w t h i n t h i s but  s e c t i o n was n o t n a t u r a l  was t h e r e s u l t o f mass w a r t i m e b u i l d i n g . The  only planning  l e g i s l a t i o n that  Prince  Rupert has a t present t a k e s note of t h i s general The  map o f z o n i n g  pattern  f o l l o w s very  of land use.  with urban centres rural-urban  in The  c l o s e l y the e x i s t i n g  Many o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  connected  such a s c o n f l i c t i n g l a n d use on t h e  f r i n g e and r i b b o n d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g  highways has not occurred will,  pattern.  arterial  as yet i n Prince Rupert.  There  o f c o u r s e , n e v e r be a p r o b l e m o f r u r a l - u r b a n  fringe  P r i n c e Rupert because o f t h e l a c k o f s u i t a b l e f a r m . l a n d . c i t y i n the future w i l l  ribbon  development.  h a v e t o be r e a d y t o combat  T h i s may o c c u r ,  s i n c e t h e town has  b e e n l i n k e d by r o a d w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t particularly  since the establishment  Watson I s l a n d .  o f t h e p u l p p l a n t on  The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e company i s t h a t t h e  workers at the p l a n t and  should  f i n d residences  commute t o t h e p l a n t , e l e v e n  miles  i n Prince  away.  way l e a d i n g t o t h e p l a n t spaces w i t h i n the c i t y  itself.  cit}' should  this will be  should  the high-  i n s t e a d o f i n t h e many v a c a n t  t a k e e v e r y means w i t h i n i t s power  t o b r i n g about a r e - s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a n d . five foot lots  Rupert  T h e r e may b e  a t e n d e n c y f o r many o f t h e w o r k e r s t o l o c a t e a l o n g  The  and more  be e l i m i n a t e d  be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t  The t w e n t y -  completely,  although  i n s e t t l e d areas.  I t should  p o s s i b l e t o stop t h e sale c f s i n g l e l o t s i n the f u t u r e .  A t h o r o u g h r e v i s i o n o f t h e town p l a n  i s necessary, i n l i g h t  178. c f t h e changed f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e town has assumed.  Note s h o u l d  be taken o f t h e ease w i t h which t h e c i t y may be broken i n t o neighbourhood u n i t s , s e p a r a t e d by t h e major streams.  S i t u a t i o n a t Present  V'Jhat i s t h e s i t u a t i o n t o d a y ? c r i b e d as d e p l o r a b l e .  I t can o n l y be des-  The d i f f i c u l t i e s of the s i t e , t h e over  e x p a n s i o n and b a n k r u p t c y o f t h e t h i r t i e s , t h e s t r a i n on f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g t h e war have combined t o b r i n g t h e c i t y t o a r e g r e t t a b l e s t a t e : " w i t h water system i n a d e q u a t e , sewers c o l l a p s i n g , s t r e e t s d i l a p i d a t e d and f a l l i n g t o p i e c e s ,  side-  walks broken down and dangerous o r n o n - e x i s t e n t - t o mention o n l y some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s " - ^ t c quote t h e l o c a l paper.  Add  t o t h i s t h e a t t i t u d e o f many o f t h e r e s i d e n t s t h a t they a r e t h e r e o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y and i t p r e s e n t s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t problem i n d e e d .  PHOTOGRAPH LO T h i r d - c l a s s houses i n f o r e g r o u n d - s e c o n d - c l a s s Rouses b e h i n d . Note outdoor p r i v y on t h e r i g h t . 10.  E d i t o r i a l , P r i n c e Rupert D a i l y Hews, June 19, 1950.  179.  The The  p i c t u r e i s n o t , however, c o m p l e t e l y  c i t y has a f i r m e r and more d i v e r s i f i e d  b e f o r e t h e war.  black.  foundation  than  There i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d i s a s t r o u s  setback s i n c e whatever expansion i s t a k i n g p l a c e a t present i s due e n t i r e l y t o the demands o f e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s , not t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the s p e c u l a t o r .  People coming t o P r i n c e  Rupert i n t h e f u t u r e w i l l be coming t h e r e w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f s e t t l i n g permanently.  Many o f the e a r l y r e s i d e n t s o f the c i t y  came merely because i t was a boom town where they c o u l d g e t r i c h quickly.  The m a j o r i t y o f them never d i d g e t r i c h and so became  very b i t t e r w i t h t h e c i t y and l a c k e d c o n f i d e n c e  i n i t s future.  PHOTOGRAPH 41 F i l l n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g Second Avenue t o grade. The s m a l l stream i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d has t h e appearance and s m e l l o f an open sewer, p r o b a b l y due t o f a u l t y s e p t i c t a n k s .  FUTURE V//J  DEVELOPMENTS  AREAS MUO YOK I"ORI".ST MANACILMLNT b Y COLUMBIA LLUULOSC CO. TRANSMISSION LINL BOUNDARY'OK UKr. CKLATV.D RY DAMMING m t NECHAKO R I V L R BOUNDARY 0 1 PKINCI KUPIRT FOREST DISTRICT 60UNUAUY MTWH'N COAST ANO INTI'.RIOR f O R f y r DISTRICTS  180,  Map Future  17  Developments  S o u r c e : F o r e s t Management A r e a s f r o m t h e B.C.  Department  o f L a n d s ' a n d F o r e s t s , F o r e s t Management No.  1.  *  Licence  Chapter XI  THE FUTURE OF PRINCE RUPERT  Since t h i s t h e s i s has attempted t o e x p l a i n t h e p a s t development o f P r i n c e R u p e r t as i t has been i n f l u e n c e d by  i t s r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g i t i s o n l y f i t t i n g t h a t some  diction  pre-  s h o u l d be made on a s i m i l a r b a s i s .  P o p u l a t i o n on B a s i s o f P r e s e n t  Development  T h e r e i s a b a s e p o p u l a t i o n b e l o w w h i c h P r i n c e Rup e r t i s n o t l i k e l y t o s i n k , somewhere a r o u n d 6 , 5 0 0 . i s t h e number t h a t c a n be s u p p o r t e d  by f i s h i n g ,  t i o n and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y . be  only primary  i n t h e i r pulp producers,  operations.  To t h i s f i g u r e may  s e r v i c e t o these  represents  c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s  supported  w o r k e r s , g i v i n g a minimum p o p u l a t i o n i n  the f u t u r e o f 8 , 3 0 0 t o 8 , 5 0 0 . estimated  Since t h i s  t h e f i g u r e s h o u l d be m u l t i p l i e d  by t h r e e t o a c c o u n t f o r w i v e s ,  is  administra-  a d d e d t h e 6 0 0 w o r k e r s t o be e m p l o y e d b y t h e C e l a n e s e  Corporation  by  This  At present  the population  a t 9-,200 b u t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p u l p  r e q u i r e s many more w o r k e r s t h a n i t s e v e n t u a l  operation.  plant  182. Population  on B a s i s o f D e v e l o p m e n t o f I m m e d i a t e  Hinterland  Beyond t h i s p o i n t a l l p r e d i c t i o n s are p u r e l y lative,  although  resources. of the  t h e y a r e b a s e d on an 2 SO m i l l i o n fbm  Of t h e  Prince Rupert Forest  used i n the  utilized  which the  130  m i l l i o n fbm  economically  m i l l i o n fbm  500  expect a population At present  sus-  will.be  I f the  Should t h i s occur,  of the  order  surveys are  employment f o r the  city  could  10,000.  of  being  conducted' i n C e n t r a l  the  f e a s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an aluminum p l a n t a t  The  scheme i n v o l v e s t h e  establishment r a i s e the  o f a dam  on  l e v e l of the  Kitimat.  the  s e r i e s of  and  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  l a k e s , Matalkuz Lake,  the  source of the  of the  N e c h a k o , and  feet.  L a k e and  would r e q u i r e a l O g - m i l e  s l i g h t l y o v e r one  water w i l l  feet.  be t a p p e d by way t u n n e l and  T h i s w o u l d g i v e a h e a d o f 2 , 5 6 0 f e e t on t h e from t i d e w a t e r  at Gardiner  sufficient  land here f o r the  Canal.  of  Tahtsa  a penstock  m i l e t o b r i n g the water t o the  nine miles  The  the h i g h e s t , E u t s a k Lake i s  o n l y 173  The  300  judge  l a k e s i n Tweedsmuir P a r k between 200 lowest  be  cut were  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e A l u m i n u m Company o f C a n a d a t o  Nechako R i v e r w h i c h w i l l  The  c o u l d , as p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d ,  i n Prince Rupert.  men.  region  Ocean F a l l s .  p r o c e s s e d as r o u g h lumber, i t would p r o v i d e approximately  coastal  p r o d u c e on a  p u l p m i l l s a t Watson I s l a n d and  150  remaining  e v a l u a t i o n o f known  D i s t r i c t can  tained, y i e l d basis approximately  specu-  of  turbines.  Kemano R i v e r There i s  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f power p l a n t s ,  but  not s u f f i c i e n t to allow f o r the establishment  aluminum r e f i n e r y .  The company's p l a n  o f an  i s to locate  r e f i n e r y a t t h e h e a d o f K i t i m a t Arm where t h e r e  i s an  abundance o f l e v e l l a n d and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f easy and  road connection  with the outside.  their  rail  Connection with the  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y a t T e r r a c e c o u l d be a c h i e v e d  by  the construction o f 40 miles  One o f t h e company's g r a v e s t  of r a i l ,  over easy  gradients.  p r o b l e m s w i l l be t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f t h e power l i n e f r o m t h e Kemano R i v e r t o K i t i m a t it  involves construction of transmission  tremely the  rugged t e r r a i n .  since'  l i n e s over ex-  Newspaper r e p o r t s  indicate that  company c o n t e m p l a t e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c i t y o f  5 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e a t Kitimat.-*figure  since Arvida,  high  15,000.  The company h a s a n n o u n c e d  encourage complementary power-using i n d u s t r i e s  to use t h e s u r p l u s population  seems a somewhat  where s i m i l a r a m o u n t s o f power a r e  i n v o l v e d , numbers o n l y that i t w i l l  This  power.  This w i l l probably give  a larger  than u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l l t h e 1 , 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 hp. f o r  aluminum r e f i n i n g .  A more v a l i d  figure f o r the population  o f t h e f u t u r e K i t i m a t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be 2 0 , 0 0 0 . What w i l l  t h i s mean t o P r i n c e R u p e r t ?  Some  people,  i n c l u d i n g many r e s i d e n t s o f P r i n c e R u p e r t f e e l t h a t t h e growth o f K i t i m a t w i l l This  d o e s n o t seem p r o b a b l e .  flicting 1.  prevent the growth of P r i n c e  b u t complementary.  Rupert.  The two c i t i e s a r e n o t con-* The d e v e l o p m e n t o f K i t i m a t a n d  V a n c o u v e r Sun, J u l y 5 t h , 1 9 4 9 , A p r i l  8 t h , 1950.  its  fairly  substantial population  should  bring a  ponding development of a g r i c u l t u r e t o s u p p l y t i o n with produce. I s l a n d was cultural  I t was  considered  If this  t h a t P r i n c e Rupert w i l l duce, s i n c e road and If  Prince Rupert i t s e l f the  journey  i s the  be t h e  transport  this  popula-  p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d why  t h e most p r o m i s i n g  development.  corres-  Graham  section for  agri-  case i t i s p r o b a b l e  landing point f o r the  i s quicker  would supply  than sea  pro-  transport  a considerable  market.  g o o d s were t a k e n t o K i t i m a t i t w o u l d i n v o l v e a o f an  e x t r a $5  m i l e s and  o f them b a c k t o P r i n c e  t h e n transhipment of  part  Rupert.  Prince Rupert's greatest development of t r a d e w i t h A l a s k a  possibility is in  and  development  Instead  the  p o s s i b l y compete.  K i t i m a t would put  Prince Rupert i n a p o s i t i o n to  w i t h S e a t t l e f o r t h i s t r a d e , due i n i t s own  the  in this  K i t i m a t c o u l d not  as a m a r k e t c e n t r e  sea  growth compete  to' t h e g r o w t h o f t h e  right.  of  At p r e s e n t  area  Central  B r i t i s h Columbia purchases almost a l l o f its.- s u p p l i e s  from  :  Vancouver, s i n c e i t forms such a s m a l l market t h a t i t i s worthwhile to e s t a b l i s h the  North.  expensive d i s t r i b u t i o n - centres  I f K i t i m a t grows i t w i l l  establish a distribution will  be  United  centre  become f e a s i b l e  i n t h e N o r t h and  brought i n d i r e c t l y from E a s t e r n States.  States p o i n t s are the  same v i a C a n a d i a n r a i l  R u p e r t as t h e y are t o the  United  States  to  the  eastern  l i n e s to  Pacific  in  supplies  Canada and  R a i l r a t e s f r o m m i d w e s t e r n and  not  Coast  United Prince ports.  185. S i n c e P r i n c e R u p e r t i s 64O m i l e s c l o s e r t o A l a s k a t h a n t h e nearest  United States port considerable  savings  i n trans-  p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s c o u l d be made i f P r i n c e R u p e r t were u s e d t o s h i p g o o d s f r o m t h e i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s o f t h e e a s t and mid-west.  The same c i r c u m s t a n c e s  direction.~  apply  i n the reverse  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , have, i n t h e p a s t , been  the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e t o development o f A l a s k a .  The  only  i t e m s w h i c h c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d p r o f i t a b l y were s a l m o n , b u t , g o l d and f u r s ; h i g h c o s t i t e m s w h i c h c o u l d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n charges. f o r e s t s of southeastern  Many known r e s o u r c e s ,  hali-  stand the such a s t h e  A l a s k a , were l e f t u n t o u c h e d b e c a u s e  of h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . At p r e s e n t  trans-shipment  o f goods f r o m P r i n c e  R u p e r t t o A l a s k a i n C a n a d i a n v e s s e l s i s p r o h i b i t e d by t h e "Jones A c t " , although Alaskan  C a n a d i a n s h i p s make r e g u l a r c a l l s a t  p o r t s c a r r y i n g p a s s e n g e r s and m a i l .  to achieve  statehood  on O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 4 6 ,  i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d .  already  were  t h e J o n e s A c t w o u l d become i n o p e r a t i v e .  In the referendum v o t i n g f o r statehood  seacoast,  I f Alaska  an  The c i t i e s on t h e  i n c l u d i n g almost a l l o f the panhandle o f A l a s k a ,  served by Canadian steamship l i n e s and, t h e r e f o r e , i n  a p o s i t i o n t o b e n e f i t most r e a d i ! } ' by t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e Jones Act, voted Ketchikan,  overwhelmingly i n favour  statehood.  o n l y 94 m i l e s n o r t h o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , showed t h e  l a r g e s t m a j o r i t y f o r statehood 2.  of  i n t h e t e r r i t o r y , o v e r 3 t o 1.  A d e t a i l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n may be f o u n d i n "Canada's Mew N o r t h w e s t " , N o r t h P a c i f i c P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1947, pp. 92-98.  186. The  p a n h a n d l e a s a whole v o t e d  o f 2 t o 1.  The  f o r statehood  other d i s t r i c t s ,  especially  o f A l a s k a , where b e n e f i t s o f s t a t e h o o d transportation  c o s t s were n o t  territory  a s a whole  The  a ratio  lower than  the m a j o r i t i e s obtained  passed  House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  to Alaska. watchful passage  of approximately  Opposition  of t h e  count  of the  interests  3 t o 2, i n the  of S e a t t l e ,  lower  vote  so  f o r the  6,822 a g a i n s t considerably  panhandle.-^  i n 1950  Senators  interior  form of  d i d not  s t o o d a t 9,630 f o r and  statehood,  the  final  a majority  i n the  i n the  so o b v i o u s ,  overwhelmingly f o r statehood.  by  A  granting  bill  statehood  from Washington S t a t e , will  make S e n a t e  difficult. Trade w i t h A l a s k a under p r e s e n t  possible, with  or w i t h o u t  the  of t h e goods e n t e r i n g A l a s k a present  P r i n c e Rupert imports  Jones Act.  conditions i s Sixty-five  im-  percent  c o n s i s t s of foodstuffs."*  At  the m a j o r i t y of her foods  V a n c o u v e r , and  i s thus  Since Alaska's  100,000 p o p u l a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d i n many s m a l l  pockets  throughout  the  f r o m the  east  articles g o o d s can a r e no on t h i s the  o n l y be  i n somewhat t h e  territory  as  Alaska.  even.shipment o f manufactured  is difficult.  done s u c c e s s f u l l y  Shipment o f m a n u f a c t u r e d i n c a r l o a d l o t s and  there  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n i n A l a s k a t o demand goods scale.  selection  P r i n c e Rupert at present o f m e r c h a n d i s e on  to purchase . d i r e c t l y from the  3. 4.  same p o s i t i o n  from  i s too  small to  i n v e n t o r y to enable  have  Alaskans  P r i n c e Rupert merchants.  The  K e t c h i k a n A l a s k a C h r o n i c l e , March 29th, 1947. V e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n from P e t e r L a k i e , D i s t r i c t F r e i g h t Agent, C.N.R., P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C.  187. d e a d l o c k can place.  o n l y be  broken i f l a r g e s c a l e development  I t matters l i t t l e  Prince Rupert. Stable,  whether i t o c c u r s at K i t i m a t  or  I n e i t h e r case P r i n c e Rupert stands t o  well-organized  Central British g o o d s and  takes  production  at  benefit.  f o r a l a r g e market i n  Columbia w i l l enable Prince Rupert t o  services i n s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y to  compete  offer  with  Seattle. What w o u l d be Alaskan trade  the  were t o d e v e l o p ?  20,000 to 25,000 i n order to Alaska. use  I t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be  to provide  a l l a v a i l a b l e waterfront  ever,  of P r i n c e Rupert i f  the  necessary  Development of t h i s magnitude would  as u t i l i z i n g  for  population  space i n the  i n d u s t r y i n the  low,  vicinity  flat  probably  square m i l e s  coastal land  o f Watson I s l a n d .  20.0 f e e t .  The  i n a r e a and  l e n g t h , i s s h e l t e r e d from the depth off-shore  of docks would not Rupert  open sea  t o accommodate a n y be  as d i f f i c u l t  available  Ridley  and  s i z e of  o v e r two has  than  miles  in  sufficient  ship.  a problem as  Island,  channel, i s  i s nowhere h i g h e r  whole of i t s western c o a s t ,  well  T h e r e a r e , how-  w h i c h i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m K a i e n I s l a n d by a t i d a l over three  services  c i t y i t s e l f as  f a c i l i t i e s at p r e s e n t unused.  large areas of f a i r l y  from  Construction in  Prince  itself.  Population  The  on B a s i s  final  of Development of O r i e n t a l Trade  p r o b l e m t o be  f u t u r e r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o the P r i n c e R u p e r t can  become an  considered  countries  entrepot  i s Prince  of the  f o r the  Pacific  Orient  Rupert's Basin.  i f Central  18$.  British  Columbia can p r o v i d e  f o r export  and  purchasing  power.  and  a sufficient diversity  i f developments i n A s i a provide  p o s s i b l y low grade bottom f i s h .  G r a i n c o u l d be  the port with e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  provide  refined metal,  i t develops.  The  fertilizer  and  pulp shipped  K i t i m a t would  p o s s i b l y other  q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , why  a s s e m b l e a l l t h e s e g o o d s and  couldn't  items,  Kitimat  serve as t h e O r i e n t a l p o r t ?  T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h must be connection.  increased  P r i n c e Rupert could supply timber,  through  if  of goods  remembered i n t h i s  K i t i m a t i s a t the head of a f i o r d  and  has  only  a l i m i t e d amount o f w a t e r f r o n t a g e a v a i l a b l e , b e t w e e n 4 5 miles. dredging  Somewhat o v e r h a l f o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t a g e or very l o n g p i e r s , because of t h e very  tidal flats, The  i f ocean going  s h i p s a r e t o be  will/require  extensive  accommodated.  s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Squamish.  There i s ample,  s p a c e t o p r o v i d e d o c k a g e f o r t h e p r o j e c t e d p l a n t and o f 15  t o 20,000, b u t t h e r e h a r d l y seems enough t o  for extensive trans-Pacific therefore,  t r a d e as w e l l .  c o u l d have a l u m b e r e x p o r t  grain trade, without  probably  a  favourable.  of t h e development of her  e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d e w i t h A l a s k a and  g r o w t h o f O r i e n t a l commerce. a probable  Rupert,  s e r i e s of s p e c u l a t i o n s envisonages growth  o f P r i n c e R u p e r t by r e a s o n h i n t e r l a n d , by: t h e  city  provide  Prince  t r a d e and  a  f e a r of c o m p e t i t i o n from K i t i m a t , i f  c o n d i t i o n s i n the Orient are This l a s t  and  To  f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n has  o f 10,000 f o r t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  each o f these  the  developments  been a s s i g n e d , a  of the  immediate  population  immediate h i n t e r l a n d , a  189. p o p u l a t i o n of 20-25,000 f o r t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of the hinterland plus extension  of trade  two  i s a d d e d , g r o w t h o f commerce w i t h  possibilities a third  with Alaska.  immediate  t h e O r i e n t , a f u r t h e r upward r e v i s i o n of c i t y probably may  50,000.  to  At e a c h o f t h e s e  remain f o r a long, time,  as the  stages  s i n c e each stage  I f to  s i z e i s needed, Prince  Rupert's  I f an e x p e c t e d development does not  as e s t a b l i s h m e n t result will  be  o f an  Rupert  i s envisioned:  r e s u l t o f some d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n P r i n c e  hinterland.  occur,  aluminum r e f i n e r y a t K i t i m a t ,  a smaller t o t a l  these  population i n Prince  such  the Rupert.  A p o p u l a t i o n o f 50,000 p e o p l e i s t h e number t h a t the  founders of the  Grand Trunk P a c i f i c pointed the  r a i l w a y assumed when t h e y b u i l t Railway.into Prince Rupert.  out t h a t t h i s  nature  of the  the r a i l w a y . resources  resources  f a r too high,  been  considering  a v a i l a b l e i n the.area  i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada has  production  farther afield. t h a t were not  I t has  tapped  by  E x p l o i t a t i o n o f more f a v o u r a b l y s i t u a t e d  s i n c e t h e r a i l w a y was crease  f i g u r e was  the  proceeded  commenced i n 1910.  steadily  To m a i n t a i n  or i n -  i n t h e f u t u r e Canada must move f a r t h e r The  resources  sufficiently  of C e n t r a l B r i t i s h  v a l u a b l e and  Columbia  too d i s t a n t from  m a r k e t t o e x p l o i t i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1910  t o 1940  r e c e n t l y come i n t o demand on w o r l d m a r k e t s .  and  the  have  They w i l l  be  i n c r e a s i n g l y i n demand as d e p l e t i o n o f more a c c e s s i b l e resources  continues. P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s p a s t has  at present  been f i l l e d w i t h  i t s c o n d i t i o n i s d e p l o r a b l e , but  misfortune;  i t s f u t u r e is,.  190. bright.  The  Corporation  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the  hinterland.  o f the  timber resources of P r i n c e  I t i s p r o b a b l y the  d u s t r i e s which w i l l  utilize  aluminum p l a n t  l a r g e - s c a l e use potential.  forerunner  of  world markets during  Prince  the  a new  sustained  e r a has  l a s t decade.  speculation.  t i m e on  first  hydro-electric  opened i n  development  h i n t e r l a n d concomitant increase Rupert, based t h i s  Establish-  a t K i t i m a t w o u l d mark t h e  I t w o u l d seem t h a t  large-  Rupert's  the f o r e s t resources.  r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the a r e a t h a t have o n l y  the  Celanese  of s e v e r a l i n -  of another p l e n t i f u l resource,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , one  in  of the  o f A m e r i c a at Watson I s l a n d marks t h e f i r s t  s c a l e l o c a l use  ment o f an  pulp plant  Central  utilizing  come i n t o demand  With steady growth can  be  actualities,  expected not  on  in  on  191.  Chapter X I I  CONCLUSION  P r i n c e R u p e r t i s s i t u a t e d on K a i e n  Island,  part  o f a s e d i m e n t a r y p e n d a n t on t h e w e s t e r n m a r g i n o f t h e C o a s t Batholith. the  Here s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l l a n d i s f o u n d t o a l l o w  construction of a city.  building  difficult,  of land use.  h o w e v e r , and h a s a f f e c t e d t h e p a t t e r n  Topography a l s o imposes c o n t r o l s upon t h e  amount o f l a n d  suitable f o ragriculture i n Prince  F o r 90  hinterland.  Rugged m i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y makes  miles  i n any d i r e c t i o n from  Rupert t h e land i s u n s u i t a b l e f o r l a r g e scale  Rupert's  Prince  agricultural  production. Prince Rupert's climate, although considered the  m i l d , w o u l d be  d i s t i n c t l y u n p l e a s a n t b y most p e o p l e .  y e a r o n l y one d a y i n 3 i s w i t h o u t  Throughout  p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f some  k i n d and t h e h o u r s o f b r i g h t s u n s h i n e a r e t h e l o w e s t by a n y w e a t h e r s t a t i o n i n t h e s e t t l e d p a r t o f C a n a d a . unpleasant climate discourages  settlement  ticement i s o f f e r e d i n terms of higher or f a v o u r a b l e  last  felt.  place  The  some e n -  wages, l a r g e r p r o f i t s  employment.  Terrace, the  unless  recorded  90  miles  i n l a n d on t h e Skeena R i v e r , i s  where t h e m a r i t i m e I n f l u e n c e  At t h i s point the f r o s t - f r e e period  is distinctly i s sufficiently  192. long t o permit the Bulkley  growth of a l l temperate crops.  V a l l e y , the  largest single area  s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the Prince  R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d , has  climate. cool. New  Winters are  The  longest  grains.  and  frost-free  H a z e l t o n , i s 14  sidered  long  topographically  mainland s e c t i o n  a distinctly  period  i n the  of t h e  successful  valley,  and  valley,  at  minimum o f 90' c o n production  Moisture deficiency also presents a  throughout the  of  continental  c o l d , summers s h o r t  days s h o r t  n e c e s s a r y f o r the  The  e s p e c i a l l y during  of  small  problem  the below average  years. The  soil  on K a i e n I s l a n d  consists entirely  a s u b - m a t u r e s o i l known a s muskeg.. presents serious and  homes and  difficulties  the  i n the  As  i t i s almost completely l a c k i n g i n plant  a problem i n t h i s area since  i t d o e s not i t i s quite  Three main s o i l t y p e s are s e c t i o n of Prince  g r e y wooded, and not  the  p r e s e n t as  great  shallow.  represented i n the  soils.  main-  podsolic,  In t o t a l these  soils  t o s u p p o r t more t h a n 2-,000 f a r m s w i t h i n  economical shipping a g r i c u l t u r a l land  nutrients.  northeastern  R u p e r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d , brown  degraded black  seem l i k e l y  roads  an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l i t i s e x t r e m e l y  l o w l a n d s o f Graham I s l a n d but  do  of  b u i l d i n g on i t  Muskeg i s a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d i n the  land  stability  construction  tendency i s to avoid  whenever p o s s i b l e . poor since  I t s l a c k of  of  distance  has  of P r i n c e  Rupert.  The  lack  been a h i n d r a n c e t o development  C.N.R.'s n o r t h e r n l i n e and  has  i n turn prevented  of  along growth  i n P r i n c e Rupert.  Graham I s l a n d  seems t o o f f e r t h e b e s t  possibilities f o r large-scale agricultural the  settlement i n  future. The P r i n c e R u p e r t  F o r e s t D i s t r i c t has a t o t a l of  2 3 , 5 $ 3 m i l l i o n fbm o f t i m b e r on p r o d u c t i v e a r e a s o f w h i c h 1 9 , 7 $ 0 m i l l i o n fbm i s found The e s t i m a t e d  w i t h i n the c o a s t a l  sustained annual  yield  section.  on t h e c o a s t i s 2 8 0  m i l l i o n fbm o f w h i c h 1 9 5 m i l l i o n fbm i s b e i n g c u t a t p r e s e n t , l a r g e l y i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . ity  The m a j o r -  o f t h e c u t moves t o V a n c o u v e r f o r p r o c e s s i n g o v e r  tenuous 400-mile t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. that the establishment  of s a w m i l l s near  a  I t i s suggested P r i n c e Rupert  would  p r o b a b l y be s u c c e s s f u l s i n c e h i g h p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s a t t h i s p o i n t would probably  be b a l a n c e d  by l o w e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  costs. The o u t l o o k f o r i n c r e a s e d f o r e s t r y seems f a v o u r a b l e . Forest D i s t r i c t  The c o a s t a l  production  section of the Prince  i s being undercut  by 3 0 $ o f t h e a n n u a l  growth r a t e w h i l e the o n l y other c o a s t a l f o r e s t the Vancouver D i s t r i c t , The f i s h i n g  i s being  Rupert  o v e r c u t by  district,  88%.  i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y the h a l i b u t  f i s h e r y , h a s p r o v i d e d t h e ma. i n s t a y f o r P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s my  since the c i t y ' s inception.  tremely w e l l developed, probably  although  c o u l d be e x p a n d e d .  tion i n relation  The m a j o r f i s h e r i e s a r e e x s e v e r a l minor  Prince Rupert's  fisheries  favourable  t o t h e f i s h i n g grounds has probably  Canadian fishermen t o take  econo-  posi-  allowed  over whatever i n c r e a s e has r e s u l t e d  from the  conservation  e r i e s Commission.  p r a c t i c e s of the  International Fish-  D e c i s i o n s of the Commission w i t h  t o the l e n g t h of the  season w i l l  probably  regard  govern the  part  F r i n c e Rupert i s t o p l a y i n the f u t u r e of the h a l i b u t fishery. The  salmon f i s h e r i e s of the  S k e e n a and  h a v e become i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d a s t h e have i n c r e a s e d t h e i r m o b i l i t y . power b o a t s 25  canneries  f l e e t s on t h e two  canneries  due  resources  f u r t h e r r e d u c e d and  of the  the  remaining  o f h y d r o power a v a i l a b l e i s developed,  The  f o r an a l u m i n u m p l a n t t o be  e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e  P r i n c e R u p e r t was  1,500,000  city  northern  founded t o serve  as the  Grand Trunk P a c i f i c  Railway,  transcontinental r a i l  line.  t o be  all  i t s p h a s e s and  the  c i t y was  r a i l w a y procured  the  I f the of  coast.  coast t e r m i n a l of the  The  Canada,  located at Kitimat.  p l a n p r o c e e d s a s a n n o u n c e d i t means t h a t a new be  other  A l u m i n u m Company o f  announced t h a t i t i n t e n d s t o d e v e l o p  15,000 people w i l l  Probably  l a c k o f development of the  district.  fishing  Rupert.  m i l e s of P r i n c e Rupert only 2.5$  h o w e v e r , has h.p.  o n l y s i x are needed.  1 , 9 5 4 , 4 3 0 h.p.  i n large part to the  fishermen  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  c e n t r a l i z e d at or near Prince Of t h e  w i t h i n 160  still  salmon  were r e q u i r e d t o s e r v i c e t h e  r i v e r s , now  t h e number w i l l be  Before  Nass R i v e r s  Pacific a major  planned i n  s e r v i c e s of  f i r m of landscape a r c h i t e c t s to prepare plans f o r a c i t y a minimum o f 5 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . recognized  The  p l a n t h a t they  the fundamental topographic  a of  prepared  d i v i s i o n s i n the  town-  195. s i t e and  the  s t r e e t p l a n was  laid  out  so t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t  a d v a n t a g e c o u l d be t a k e n o f f a v o u r a b l e t o p o g r a p h i c Although  t h e p l a n has u n d o u b t e d l y  c o s t s of road beneficial.  c o n s t r u c t i o n i t has The  50,000 p e o p l e .  p l a n was  succeeded i n r e d u c i n g b e e n more h a r m f u l  prepared  The  f o r a great port c i t y  whole of the  c i t y was  i n t e n d e d t o be-a  l o t s w e r e o n l y 25 f e e t w i d e by 100  business  port  district.  district  which  for a  area.  From 1909  t o 1925  construction of various pieces  o f l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t e q u i p m e n t went on. a drydock capable  During t h i s  period  of h a n d l i n g s h i p s up t o 20,000 t o n s , a  g r a i n e l e v a t o r w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 1,250,000 b u s h e l s s e v e r a l l a r g e d o c k s were e r e c t e d .  These w e r e t o  and  provide  f o r t h e t r a d e o f t h e O r i e n t w h i c h P r i n c e R u p e r t was to capture any  s i n c e i t was  500  The  sources  of t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c  of the resources tapped are  Railway  by t h e r a i l w a y .  s u b s t a n t i a l i n themselves  but  settlement and  the  These r e -  t h e y were t o o  t a n t f r o m m a r k e t s t o compete w i t h more r e a d i l y resources.  than  trade never m a t e r i a l i z e d  because of the p o v e r t y of the O r i e n t , the l a c k of along the l i n e  expected  m i l e s c l o s e r to the Orient  other North American p o r t .  nature  the  f e e t deep, a s i z e  small to provide the amenities necessary  residential  of  contained i n  set a s i d e i n the p l a n as t h e b u s i n e s s  S i n c e t h e a r e a was  i s too  than  P r i n c e R u p e r t became a s m a l l f i s h i n g  o f 5,000 p e o p l e . the area  features.  available  dis-  196.  O v e r e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c i t y and t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n on d i f f i c u l t i n 1933.  ruptcy  This  t e r r a i n f o r c e d t h e c i t y i n t o bankrepresented  a disasterous  readjust-  ment o f t h e c i t y t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f i t s e n v i r o n m e n t . A n o t h e r more p e a c e f u l  a d j u s t m e n t t o a c t u a l i t i e s was t h e e x -  p a n s i o n o f s m a l l boat f a c i l i t i e s Bay t o l i m i t s p r o v i d e d coastal  from t h e i r  by t h e t o p o g r a p h i c  c e n t r e a t Cow  b a r r i e r s of the  ridge. From 1925  remained  stagnant.  t o 1940 t h e o t h e r  sections of the c i t y  The c o m m e r c i a l c o r e  was c e n t r e d  A v e n u e and F u l t o n S t r e e t , f i r s t - c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s  stretched  along t h e c r e s t o f the c o a s t a l o r i n l a n d r i d g e w i t h and t h i r d - c l a s s r e s i d e n c e s the  r i d g e and t h e i n l a n d  at Third  second  s i t u a t e d between t h e c r e s t o f depression.  W o r l d War I I b r o u g h t many c h a n g e s t o t h e c i t y . cause P r i n c e Rupert i s c l o s e r t o A l a s k a . t h a n coast  any o t h e r  Be-  Pacific  r a i l w a y t e r m i n u s i n t e n s i v e u s e was made o f t h e p o r t i n  transporting  s u p p l i e s and men t o t h e t e r r i t o r y .  Peace l e f t  a twofold  legacy  i n the form of a d d i t i o n s  and improvements t o t h e l a r g e - s c a l e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s  and t h e  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t Prince Rupert i s the l o g i c a l p o i n t  from  which t o s e r v i c e A l a s k a . dustrial  east  and m i d - w e s t t o P r i n c e R u p e r t f o r t h e same  cost as t o S e a t t l e . to Alaska  Goods c a n be b r o u g h t f r o m t h e i n -  Since  P r i n c e R u p e r t i s 640 m i l e s  than i s S e a t t l e s u b s t a n t i a l savings  c o s t s w o u l d be a f f e c t e d by u s e o f t h e p o r t . factors hindering t h i s at present,  closer  i n transport There a r e s e v e r a l  One i s t h e J o n e s A c t w h i c h  197 prohibits Alaska.  t h e use o f Canadian The o t h e r s  production stuffs and  ships  are the l a c k  i n freight  of large-scale  that  represent  the bulk  centres  which would p e r m i t t h e  of a large-scale d i s t r i b u t i o n  its  advantages o f wider  ments a n d l o w e r The  increased  o f 8-10,000.  Columbia  population  attendant  Prince Rupert  will  of a d i s t r i b u t i n g  upon t h e d e v e l o p deadlock.  probably  centre  and c a u s e s t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  t o be p u t i n t o p r o d u c t i o n  remain a  o f 25-30,000.  Prince  land  even h i g h e r  on Graham  Rupert w i l l  is  f a r i n the future.  probably  The a d d i t i o n o f O r i e n t a l  and C e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  population,  brings  i n Central  d e p e n d e n t upon p e a c e i n A s i a a s w e l l a s t h e g e n e r a l ment o f A l a s k a  ship-  I f , however, t h e g r o w t h o f K i t i m a t  about t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  grow t o a c i t y  with  selections, carload  may be s u f f i c i e n t t o b r e a k t h i s  I f t h i s does n o t occur  Island  centre,  costs.  ment o f K i t i m a t  British  the food-  o f t h e shipment t o A l a s k a ,  establishment attendant  with  agricultural  i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia t o supply  the lack of population  city  trade  could  trade,  develop-  b r i n g an  p o s s i b l y 50,000 p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h  this  BIBLIOGRAPHY  199.  Books  F l e m i n g , S a n d f o r t h , • R e p o r t s and Documents i n R e f e r e n c e t o the L o c a t i o n o f t h e L i n e and a Western T e r m i n a l Harbour, 1878, Ottawa, 1878. : G l a z e b r o o k , G.P., A H i s t o r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a n a d a , Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 1938. K i z e r , B.H., The U.S. C a n a d i a n N o r t h w e s t , R y e r s o n T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 1943.  Press,  T a l b o t , F.A., The M a k i n g o f a G r e a t C a n a d i a n R a i l w a y , Musson, Toronto, 1912. The  N o r t h P a c i f i c P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t , C a n a d a ' s New N o r t h w e s t , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1948.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Army S e r v i c e F o r c e s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o r p s , P r i n c e Rupert Sub-Port o f Embarkation, Souvenir Booklet, Dibb P r i n t e r s , P r i n c e Rupert, 1945. W h i t f o r d , H.N., and C r a i g , R.D., F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1918.  Periodicals  Adams, J.Q., " P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C.", E c o n o m i c 14, A p r i l , 1 9 3 8 , p p . 1 6 7 - 1 8 3 . Hall,  Geography, V o l .  G e o r g e D.,"The F u t u r e o f P r i n c e R u p e r t a s C o n c e i v e d by L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t s " , The A r c h i t e c t u a l R e o o r d , V o l . 2 6 , No. 2 , New Y o r k , A u g u s t , 1 9 0 9 , pp.. 9 7 - 1 0 6 .  L o w e r , J.A.,"The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e - G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c Railway i n B r i t i s h Columbia", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 4, 1 9 4 0 , p p . 1 6 3 - 1 9 6 . P r i t c h a r d , A.L., "The S k e e n a R i v e r Salmon I n v e s t i g a t i o n " , C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . 3 9 , No. 2 , A u g u s t , 1 9 4 9 , PP. 6 0 - 6 7 . T a y l o r , G., " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A S t u d y i n T o p o g r a p h i c C o n t r o l " , G e o g r a p h i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . 2 2 , No. 3 , 1 9 4 2 , pp.  372-402.  200.  T h o r n t h w a i t e , C.W., "An A p p r o a c h t o w a r d .a R a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C l i m a t e " , The G e o g r a p h i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . 3 8 , No.  1,  T o w e r , W.S., Review,  1948,  pp.  55-94.  " W e s t e r n Canada a n d t h e P a c i f i c " , G e o g r a p h i c a l V o l . 9 , 1 9 1 7 , p. 2 8 4 - 9 6 .  Government  Publications  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B u r e a u o f I n d u s t r i a l and T o u r i s t D e v e l o p ment, B u l l e t i n No. 1 5 , Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , . K i n g s Printer, V i c t o r i a , 1938. T  B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau o f P r o v i n c i a l Information, B u l l e t i n No. 2 4 , S m i t h e r s L a n d R e c o r d i n g D i v i s i o n , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1937. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , C l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 194$, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 9 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Department o f F i s h e r i e s , G.J. A l e x a n d e r , The C o m m e r c i a l Salmon F i s h e r i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1947. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s , F o r e s t Management L i c e n s e s , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 $ . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s , R e p o r t o f the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Lands, 1 9 4 7 , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Victoria, 1948. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s , T r a n s a c t i o n s of t h e Second R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 4 9 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e and. I n d u s t r y , R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia,.King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1948. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e and I n d u s t r y , T r a v e l B u r e a u , B u l l e t i n No. 2 2 , P r i n c e R u p e r t L a n d R e c o r d i n g D i s t r i c t , . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1943: B r i t i s h Columbia, L i q u o r C o n t r o l Board, 2$th Annual Report, A p r i l 1 s t , 1 9 4 $ , t o March 3 1 s t , 1 9 4 9 , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1949. C a n a d a , • C o m m i s s i o n o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , A.V. W h i t e , W a t e r P o w e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 9 1 9 .  201. C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , W.J. A n d e r s o n , A S t u d y o f Land Settlement i n the P r i n c e George-Smithers Area, , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1947. Canada, Department o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Economic G e o l o g y S e r i e s No. 3, V o l . 1, G.A. Young and W.L. U g l o w , The I r o n O r e s o f C a n a d a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d Y u k o n , pp.  16-51.  C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Summary R e p o r t , 1912, R.G. M c C o n n e l l , " G e o l o g i c a l S e c t i o n A l o n g t h e Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y f r o m P r i n c e R u p e r t t o A l d e r m e r e , B.C.", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1912, pp. 55-62. C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Summary R e p o r t , 1922, P a r t A, V. D o l m a g e , " C o a s t and I s l a n d s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Between D o u g l a s C h a n n e l and t h e A l a s k a n B o u n d a r y " , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , p p . 9-34. C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 2 3 , P a r t A, G. H a n s o n , " R e c o n n a i s s a n c e B e t w e e n S k e e n a R i v e r a n d S t e w a r t , B.C.", K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1924, p p . 38-43. C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Summary R e p o r t , 1924, P a r t A, G. H a n s o n , " P r i n c e R u p e r t t o B u r n s L a k e " , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1925, pp. 39-43. Canada,. D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Summary R e p o r t , 1936, P a r t A, F.A. K e r r , " M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s Along t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y Between P r i n c e R u p e r t and P r i n c e G e o r g e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 193.7. Canada, D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s , S u r v e y s a n d E n g i n e e r i n g B r a n c h , W a t e r R e s o u r c e s P a p e r No. 90, S u r f a c e Water S u p p l y o f Canada, P a c i f i c D r a i n a g e , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1944. C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e and Commerce, D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , E i g h t h C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 1941, V o l . I I , P o p u l a t i o n b y L o c a l S u b d i v i s i o n s , V o l . X, C e n s u s o f M e r c h a n d i s i n g and S e r v i c e E s t a b l i h h m e n t s , K i n g ' s . P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Canada, D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a d e and Commerce, D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s o f C a n a d a , 1946, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1949. Canada, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , C l i m a t i c Summaries f o r S e l e c t e d S t a t i o n s , V o l . 1 and 2, T o r o n t o , 1949.  202.  C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , A. J . Connor, The F r o s t - F r e e S e a s o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , T o r o n t o , 1949. R e p o r t o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n , No. 14, R e g u l a t i o n and I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y i n 1949, S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 1949. U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Yearbook o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1949, C l i m a t e a n d Man, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , 1941.  P u b l i c a t i o n s of Learned S o c i e t i e s  P r o c e e d i n g o f t h e 5 t h P a c i f i c S c i e n t i f i c C o n g r e s s , C a n a d a , 1933, ' P e a c o c k , M.A., "The F i o r d L a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , pp.  709-720,  T r a n s a c t i o n s , R o y a l S o c i e t y , Canada, 4 t h S e r i e s , S e c t i o n I V , K e r r , F . A . , " G l a c i a t i o n i n Northern B r i t i s h Columbia", pp.  17-31.  Unpublished  Bell,  Material  F.H., P r i n c e R u p e r t a n d t h e P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y , typed m a n u s c r i p t , I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, U n i v e r s i t y o f 'Washington, S e a t t l e , u n d a t e d .  B o g u e , V i r g i l , G., C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r , G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , P l a n s and R e p o r t , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e W a t e r f r o n t a n d R a i l w a y T e r m i n a l , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C., M a r c h 8, 1913. B r i e f , S u b m i t t e d by Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , L i m i t e d , t o A i r T r a n s p o r t B o a r d , m i m e o g r a p h e d , 1946. C i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , Z o n i n g B y - l a w s , 1941. Copy o f r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d b y B r e t t and H a l l o n A p r i l 14, 190$ t o F r a n k W. M o r s e , V i c e P r e s i d e n t and G e n e r a l M a n a g e r , Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , M o n t r e a l . I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n , S t a t i s t i c a l Memorandum, 1949.  203.  L o w e r , J.A., 'The G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c R a i l w a y a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M.A. T h e s i s , D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939. L e t t e r t o a u t h o r f r o m G e o r g e D. H a l l , 1 1 9 0 S o u t h P a s a d e n a A v e n u e , P a s a d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y 8, 1 9 4 9 . Memorandum, S u b m i t t e d t o t h e . F e d e r a l Government by P r i n c e R u p e r t I n d u s t r i a l Development Committee, March, 1 9 4 6 . P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C., The G r a n d T r u n k P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 1 1 . P r i n c e R u p e r t F o r e s t D i s t r i c t Management R e p o r t , 1 9 4 8 , o f D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C.  Office  P r o s p e c t u s o f C o l u m b i a C e l l u l o s e Company, L i m i t e d , i s s u e d b y N e s b i t t , Thomson a n d Company, L t d . , M o n t r e a l , July 6, 1948. R e p o r t f o r t h e Development o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , B r i t i s h Columbia, B r e t t and H a l l , Landscape A r c h i t e c t s , B o s t o n , Mass., March 2 8 , 1 9 0 8 .  Newspapers  K e t c h i k a n A l a s k a C h r o n i c l e , A l a s k a S t a t e h o o d and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development E d i t i o n , K e t c h i k a n , A l a s k a , March 2 9 , 1 9 4 7 . P r i n c e R u p e r t D a i l y News, M a r c h 1 0 , 1 9 4 9 t o J u l y 3 0 , 1950, inclusive. The E m p i r e , ( P r i n c e R u p e r t ) , J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 t o A p r i l  1910.  I30°OO'  1 3 0 ° 25'  I30°*>' South  Trenham  Pi  1 54  54°25'-j-  0  25'  54°20'  54°20  54°05'  54°oo'l I30°30'  1 3 0 ° 25'  I30°20'  130° io'  I30°05'  54°oo'  130° o o '  (Cancel department flf jMines S U R V E Y S  NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES  The declination of the compass needle at any place along a dotted line is the declination given on that dotted line. At other places the declination is between those given on the neighbouring dotted lines; thus at the place marked A. the declination is Itetween N. 29° E. and N. 30* £, because the place A lies between the lines marked N.29" £ and N. 30° E. The declination of the compass needle is decreasing 3 minutes annually. Areas accurately  mapped and contoured shown thus  1  Lighthouse Mine Height in feet  *itft  ENGINEERING  Jlesourccs  S H E E T 103 N . E  B R A N C H  HYDROGRAPHIC AND MAP SERVICE  Town or village Settlement  A N D  Q  uh post office  w  92  0  NOTE:  P. 0  ^ 1 4 5  J—f  Price 25 cents  On the above index the sheets published are shown in colour.  133*  124°  123°  13r  132*  J 9  5  ^  121  120°  7  119°  118°  117°  Osoor1> Kvy.1  •r  <3^  X.  Gi-al  r-—  • A*VC|A d«po/ir' e.Mics  J  /darr iSbirl  3€1  irewst'eA k Mt. , Burden*; Ca ny^Jj^  3 Hii'-  ;  Ol  77  Con^lomerat °Mtn.  Holla/' •3  canyon  2nd.  on. Cr-.  •Watino  Ca  V\ 2  -  VV|.Sw(i."  1  -  Mi  5  •Hud.tte  Wusk-eg  BecWrlodgeJ  I  "X Br'  •on.i.0  3V Hd Friend >  latiine iH.BCe -.5  S3**  -^Priest lx  'TOc§  K  0  r,5l  r-J*  a:  V  ^^az^lLi:  \  Or.  kMtn..'  l ^.t-  Woodcoct  ->4n.t Klocr^JL.  ST-  ntatt.'  Falls  Irs  N'7  Firtl  ^ J g f r  Lachballach  Nelspr  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ j j w t o R i .  ^  ^ i  e  t  j  ; ^  r  M  f  F  PjrKrhl^JoO  1  M '«St?--^J>'Gable Mtn. \ , ' s  hVM-terlLsh-  ••Hex SI. •A  IN  Tl  6  iAveril BarrettS  akejlse  .Cr.  to  sphPt. l-HTitado. £,. I;iklc.ii ?njie\djr|Ifeced>  |*>Meri c  1  ' Johnston.  ZJ. Giltioyee.  Atna Pl?-  ///Mission  90I4Q'' -Laj  ~-y /  .•A  0.  /Simpson 'OvreL.\  L. jj.  ^SCubtTT.CL  l.O  'Deerhorn Hill  ibtail Mtr  ~v  ±ata.  \,CrdefXoi4B^  M ~*f-spooeeroot S  -Steep 331  U ^  ialtennasn.  Peak  occasional  47':-  s  piattwm^n  w  .Sti-atnTiav-eft  r „i „  .^1 R  Inlet  ..'«,Su3ch.Q i .  K  CTa.hij.ntes'k.o  L,.  '[GVeen.  c  rgiie Jaune  ^„ TsachaMt.  Mill i pn  Will-Ls  ser  CT4»  Wright  pn Cove  /I. 7 >  Mt.Baldface 6090  thysi  Kangdr-so^ 5/  "Mboto i .  Pass.  6V  B.  —r  '*  '-'•  r ,  lrfiy  )(5  Is. JJ  Inlet ,  ^ • t o  ;  |r«,  |^ko ^ 7 x P  r dv  ^« C,  oW  Smyth /  Anth .-\'FCE  *Q Group • Sti-yker I.' Brokenfc' * ^4 Group o  o  Bentinck  fi l\\ D e i x H  Goose Ij/ /  T  <n  i n d e f i n i  QUEENS  3  .? ^. / •  L.  I  5t.  ser Jy.  Mc Cltnely -  rch Mtn —^T—S  0  ?  11,714'  'take  1  V>5<  /  /  Sprinj  .eg3  LittteS <L-a.rtg=iJ: .Tlmoihy  Wkeri. .ChATn.r  >  V c \ V - ^  >  *i  IU.IIII'Ii  'AOOO  /  /Raft i^Mtn  forest/  •**••' /V..  B. .O ! Mile HQ o  iV^ He  '••wO'l*l'->Y !  ,;: <  T,,  orroivs  1  Mtflegbie*  /2» CONTINENT  POSITION  O F  M A P  °^4>,  The TueadJ of rutarXy all present rarouraiHM  A R E A  A»°3 T  „  Mt.Waddington  132 ,60'  CC&JTA.CT.  N O H IH AMERICA,  Muun nd daay yMtn  11,000'  C . G R E E N ,  S U R V E Y O R  ( W  ( Bi* Bar Mt") -  ^Or,\  HONOURABLE A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER F\  " t;;  ^P ^  fit--I'-di/H.  S p i d e r  a^  JMcI-rttoan. \LcOt-es  Redstoi  V;  \ W n ^  Tt^do-l-L  Punti\  '<°/T ''' /  / 7  » » t C M l ) ^ Mt Palme/  •Sky  Mons  /  ^3 /Ou  a  V™ Duck 1.0 jjGosling  /  Mt.  / Miltor  ^Cu-i-ss ory J--j ill  —>  Sto  fte  mBs I  urei_  / ^ ^ ^  a)  r  ^  CKcxntsIcir X,.  South  BardsweB  n^m^.  dria;  J v>  Mt.ArcV soeo'  alte  a.bo7j.c[h.eT(? | C7T.OTL.  .Ii. \  /  Frva*-*-  lUd  I  Mil  - .U  % Abbott n ^ ' ^ j ^ l W  0  GrifTlr >~l\Pass.  iarVBy  •  \ 4  Sc.*  "|  Clifford.  'A  v-trtrtujy wairt  MVfcirMaC^ A WO  1  Moore Is.ftI  QZZEj;\l  nv,e"J '  V<,/"  Cornice FJb^f}i!'i?J  Inlet  Cliff Rennison" I :Ulri Parser Anderson  y M u r c h J . c n ,.  itcLearyL.  iV—Z-~*-~  M t Da v id son  CoXLdarL.^a'  Goocl»-  l o m e r a t(e  I  Tit  r  d5. 5603'  Macdonald 1.  f  ij  (Mtns.OU'?  Islands  Ja  -CkertatfJet^er'to  discovwry, W ' the important . •Trapping L.. of placer goitT^ partlcxdmrlgr bmtwwen Aoda. Crttk and JV«f»»i Otorgt -  Sd.  Shrub'  St. JanS"  and hervches on Fraser jfttvir  IPun<  -' W O O .  Gil  ..  Z..  -TV Eu|  fr  f oj^e^.^^'ot  lock: 'r-fbufar-U* ruv« i  'oodpec  ^) Necha kpri'I.  t/T>ioTl i  «1  c  33  Halibut  e  ,.  Vis  '•tlheslatta L^%y  South Rks.  1^ E IVJ TU> 0ro-W, Cities (population 1931 census In red! 6167 Government Agent Offices Wells' Mining Recording Offices (rood lid fbr. Sub-mining Recording Offices Post Offices SOLE. SIZ.VK&. Villages International Boundaries Interprovincial Boundaries Park Boundaries Game Reserves Customs Posts Hospitals • Hudsons Bay Coy. Posts Ferries Ferry Seaplane Port CD Seaplane Anchorage J Iwith limited facil.tiesl t Airports ^> < with or without beacon I 0 Radio Stations IcommercialI 1-1 Power Sites ideAped and undeObpedl 'S MoraePower Trunk Highways Main Highways ~ — — — — Local Roads ., /well defined vTWW ( ,e Railways I I I I Telegraph Lines (other than along railways! —•— —•— — Steamship Routes distances in nautical miles: I nautical mile 6080 feet I statute mile 5280 feet Relief Contours Shewing land forms and elevations above sea level j-i$$lO^X\ 1000 feet interval ) CJP ^, Figures shew height in feet P^fl'S above sea level. Falls and Rapids -*+-^"~^ Precipitation shown in inches, annual average 10 yrs Preclp. 122'  JVlTj.d. rjVadbtZifeic?  Mtn  (  Bearert  Larsen I. Marians Pt^  • >'I I If  LGuQford  X  TaJ-LLlltZT-L-  CroS4  ^Agg  LOI  8  o WISTITSTG  Sonilla  o  Tabor Z-y— #  Pierre  'aJtmr- Ii-LLet /J  VAX L- I  'Eaglet  VMIUJV  &r Arm  • K'  C  Saactori »  'Jesse  3 elvesen Pt.  < r  XCrT: » b£^r_^CV  v*<^'  S.8«"  °  e  M&Jfijiret  7'  "Ifohfcsjrt^iit" 3(  s  :o»i «4  ,Gordon L.  >t -V«£»har 54°  p.  Canyon  0  G E N E R A L .  Mt-Queen He*  r~rco&&l  TRY .. -  B R I T SIc S H ale, io  » io  1st.  May 1940  p s o  C OL-UMBIA 1: 1,000,000  Slings  ox C  Costell Pk.  Rapids  I  l6^S.'lll"°"  15.78 m i l e s t o 1 i n c h io  Kilo m so  eters *o  Compiled and drawn by Geographic Division.  <y^hhash Pt.  Scott hgie Islands  «Haycock f^" '• d ",Co, I. 0 Cape,. l29t.Haycock° \PScott  i Mt.trdas  2  131°  130°  UJSlCiHT'  r  -1_  Herrlesl  INLXT  JfurrxMro^s  Ha milton  S L7 / 12S  t  proptrt 12*  123  1-0 i.5")'«ji'so  MAP  NO.l L  

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