Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some oceanographic features of northern Chilean waters in July, 1962 Inostroza Villagra, Hector M. 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A6_7 I5.pdf [ 2.8MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0053292.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0053292-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0053292-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0053292-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0053292-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0053292-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0053292-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0053292-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0053292.ris

Full Text

SOME OCEANOGRAPHIC  F E A T U R E S OF. NORTHERN  " C H I L E A N WATERS  IN J U L Y ,  1962  by  HECTOR M . ^ O S T R O Z A C V I L L A G R A CK.  Engineer,  University  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of Concepcion,  OF  1957  Chile,  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR MASTER  1  THE D E G R E E OF  OF  -  SCIENCE  in the I N S T I T U T E OF  OCEANOGRAPHY  and DEPARTMENT  We  accept  this  thesis  OF  PHYSICS  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A  APRIL,  I966  required  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia, for  I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I further  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  the  British available  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  representatives.  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  financial  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Institute  of Oceanography  and  Phys i c s Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada March Date  1966  Columbia  for  permission  ABSTRACT  A d e s c r i p t i o n i s presented features study  of the n o r t h e r n  narrow close and  band  during  to the coast;  the permanence  properties  low s a l i n i t y  of the Peru  was p r o b a b l y  i n a quiescent  of  this  process  upwelling of  of  upwelling  intense  during  expeditions  i n t h e same a r e a ,  and than  of t h e w o r l d .  i n other  content  are the  the M a r c h i l e  than  A-  t o ^4-00 m  50  state during  being  regions  l a y e r from  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  However  Expedition,  upwelling  less  o f low o x y g e n  The p r o c e s s  current  1962•  Expedition,  - Chile undercurrent  cause  the coast.  much  a s i n d i c a t e d by a  water  of t h e a r e a .  as t h e main near  II  an o x y g e n minimum  features  suggested  waters  of p r o p e r t i e s and of d i r e c t  the Marchile  of c o l d ,  outstanding is  Chilean  of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  measurements  o f some o f t h e o c e a n o g r a p h i c  II  other similar  T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page i i  ABSTRACT LIST  OF F I G U R E S  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  INTRODUCTION  I  Previous  2  work  3  Methods EXPEDITION PHYSICAL  PROGRAMME  k  ..,  F E A T U R E S OF AREA  Coastal  geography  6  and b o t t o m  Meteorology  topography  6 7  ,  9  RESULTS  9  Currents Observed  distribution  and  of temperature  salinity  oxygen  Temperature  lij.  ..,  lij. 17  Salinity Oxygen  . 19  Stabi Iity  20  Distribution of  of p r o p e r t i e s from  a different  point 21  view  Temperature  22  Sa I i n i t y .,  23  23  Oxygen Summary  of p r o p e r t y  DISCUSSION The  water  2J4.  distributions ,  masses  ,  ,  25 25  i v  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  (Contd.) Page  U p w e l l i n g - .' Distribution SUMMARY AND REFERENCES APPENDIX  ,  -  of p r o p e r t i e s  ............  ..  ,. 30  an-d c u r r e n t s  CONCLUSIONS  i ;  26  • 33 35 36  V L I S T OF  FIGURES Page  g.  I:  Station Chart Marchile 1962  July g . 2: g.  3:  g . If.:  Inset Main  in  -  58 58  to S t a t i o n Chart features  Winds  II E x p e d i t i o n  of  during  the bottom  William  Scoresby  1931  •  during  Marchile  in g.  5*  Winds  g.  6:  Dynamic  topography  with  respect  of  39  topography Expedition  ij.0  -  I4.I  II E x p e d i t i o n the s u r f a c e  t o t h e 1000  db  of  the sea  surface  ...  \\Z  g.  7:  Dynamic  topography  at the depth  o f 50  g.  8:  Bynamic  topography  at the depth  of  100  m  ...  lu^  g.  9s  Dynamic  topography  at the depth  o f 250  m  ...,  hfi  Dynamic  topography  at the depth  o f J+00 m  ...  lj.6  10  12 g.  13  g . il+  15 16 g.  17  g.  18 19 20  g . 21: g.  22:  m  ....  I4.3  Currents  off Arica  ii7  Currents  o f f P t e . Patache  J4.8  - Chile Undercurrent  i|-9  Peru Net  of s t a t i o n s f o r g e o s t r o p h i c  Geostrophic  transport  ..  5^  ..........  5'  transport  i n Sverdrups  52  Distribution  in surface  Distribution  of t e m p e r a t u r e  in Profile  I4. . . .  53  Distribution  of  temperature  in Profile  3  ...  53  temperature temperature > temperature  in P r o f i l e 5 ••• at the depth  5^f  D i s t r i b u t i o n of D i s t r i b u t i o n of. o f 100 m D i s t r i b u t i o n of o f 250 m D i s t r i b u t i o n of  of lf.00 m  temperature  55 at the depth  56 temperature  •  at the  depth  57  LIST  OF  FIGURES  (Contd.) Page  Fig.  23:  Distribution  Fig.  2I4.:  D i s t r i b u t i o n of s a l i n i t y o f 50 m •  at  D i s t r i b u t i o n of o f 100 m  salinity  at  D i s t r i b u t i o n of o f 250 m  sa.linity  Distribution  salinity  Fig.  Fig.  Fig.  25:  26:  27:  of  of  of  surface  58  salinity' the  depth  59 the  depth  60 at  the  depth  61 at  the  depth  62  14,00 m ..•  Fig.  28:  Distribution  of  salinity  in Profile  I  63  Fig.  29:  Distribution  of s a l i n i t y  in Profile  5  63  Fig.  30:  Distribution  of  salinity  in Profile  3  &h  Fig.  31:  Distribution  of  oxygen  content at  the 65  surface Fig.  32:  Distribution  of  oxygen  content  in Profile  I.  66  Fig.  33:  Distribution  of  oxygen  content  in Profile  5»  66  Fig.  3lj.:  Distribution  of  oxygen  content at  depth  of  50  67  m  Fig.  3-5:  Distribution  of  oxygen  content  Fig.  36:  Distribution  of  oxygen  content at  depth  of  100  3»  68  the 69  37:  Stability  i n the upper  50  Fig.  38:  Stability  i n the upper  100  Fig.  39:  Depths  mixed  Fig.  I4.O:  Envelopes  of  isotherms  Fig.  I4J :  Envelopes  of  isohalines  Fig.  i|2:  The  masses  Fig.  ij-3:  Three-dimensional  water  in Profile  m  Fig.  of  the  m  70  layer m  layer  ..  71 72  layer  73  •  73 7l\.  diagram  of  the  water  masses a. b.  W a t e r m a s s e s i n t h e u p p e r i+OO m A n t a r c t i c intermediate water  75 75  -  LIST  OF .  Fig. Fig. F i g . J4.6:  2  FIGURES .  v i i  - •  (Contd.) Page  Distribution  of  temperature  Distribution  of  salinity  Distribution  of  oxygen  in Profile  in Profile  content  6  6....  76  .......  76  6.  77  in Profile  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Director  author  as  studies Jose  of B r i t i s h  and g u i d a n c e  well  to thank  of the I n s t i t u t e  University advice  wishes  Stuardo  Columbia,  Pickard, of the  f o rh i s constant  i n the course  of t h i s  support  study,  to f i n i s h h i s  t o D r . H. L . B a r r a l e s a n d  for their  v a l u a b l e help; to  Lisandro  Chuecas  the  and t o h i s w i f e  data  of Oceanography  as f o r h i s m a t e r i a l i n Canada;  D r . G. L .  f o rh i sco-operation in gathering f o rher kind  dedication.  •INTRODUCTION  The second view  was  Marchile  of  a s e r i e s aimed  of  the ocean  In  fact  15  i n t h e summer  Chilean  expedition:  gap  left  primary by  and  zooplankton  were  to  The 30'S the  the  reasons  29°  oceanographic  covering  I  to 10°  57'S  most  Expedition 16 S  latitude  1  of  the  Chilean  and  and  accomplished  F i s h e r i e s Department  German a s s i s t a n c e ,  and  of  this  current also  expedition  i n the area,  measurements.  taken  and  benthic  was  to  fill  the  emphasizing  Samples  of  studies  were  the  phyto-  and  undertaken  coast.  S.  II e x p e d i t i o n  (Fig. I).  planned the  sponsored  the Hunting  expeditions  was  vessel  Islands,  g i v i n g an  open  sea  deep  Juan  Fernandez  covering  the M a r c h i l e  A g r i c u l t u r e , with  purpose  Marchile  t o 35° work  the  Concepcion.  other  oceanography  close  profiles  the Navy,  U n i v e r s i t y of The  I960  of  organizations  t h e M i n i s t r y of  the  i m p l i e s , was  coast.  Three the  i t s name  getting a preliminary  e x t e n d i n g from  oceanographic  mainland  at  as  off Chile.  accomplished,  with  of  II E x p e d i t i o n  most  18°  From  completed.  had  t o go  opportunity  stations.  From  i n 1962  area  20'S  the  distance  t o 20°  50'S  from  most  18°  of  In a d d i t i o n , f o r b a t h y m e t r i c  to San  Felix  t o make a San  Felix  Island bathythermograph of  extended  between  and  San  line  of  and  San  Ambrosio ten  Ambrosio  s t a t i o n s were these  more  islands.  made  to  The and  oceanography  dissolved  phic  observations.  salinity the  Previous  work  The  most  it  This  Pacific  latitude).  This  aspects the  Scoresby" purpose to  work  (2°  S  work  concerned  coastal  account  concerned.  and  phosphate  studies  From off  1931  expeditions  were  by  parachute  of s e r i a l  with  i960  coast.  However  from  accomplished:  (1+8° S  particularly  the "William  System  and i t s main  in its  and i n i t s  Coast 30'S  with  t h e human  s i x oceanographic latitude.  salinity, phyto-  of the d r i f t  i960  relation  relation  affecting  oceanographic in  the Eastern  System,  temperature,  little  one, because  Pacific  i n England  S t o 18°  measurements  from  by  d i s c u s s i o n o f many  Current  combined  exploration  a classic  of t h e area  35°  from  until  the Chilean  Committee  In t h e C h i l e a n  measurements  and a l s o  using  was g i v e n  to the South  environment  population  area  extending  was d o n e  the Peru  to the resources  done,  of t h i s  the Peru Current  ultimately  consisted  and t h e  of C o n c e p c i o n  were measured  latitude)  biological  sections  part  The w o r k  was t o s u r v e y  were  on board  salinity  bathy thermogra-  of the s c i e n t i f i c  survey  of the Discovery  sections  titrated  has an e x t e n s i v e  with  region.  the marine  with  i s considered  systematic  Equatorial  combined  of t h e U n i v e r s i t y  and n o r t h e r n  i s the f i r s t  temperature,  radar.  complete  (1936).  was  The c u r r e n t s  by  the southern  Gunther  The o x y g e n  technique.  tracked  of s e r i a l  measurements,  i n the laboratory  Oxner  drogues  of  oxygen  consisted  three  and  These oxygen zooplankton  of the s h i p .  work  was  important  done  I expedition  The M a r c h i l e covering of  the c e n t r a l  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  and  biological  100  miles  The  waters  temperature, i n 15  expedition  profiles  with  observations  salinity,  sections  of  oxygen  approximately  i n the eastern  in Chilean  part  i960 w i t h s i x  in March-April  I Expedition  Step  Pacific  southern  length.  oceanographic  area  of  studies  Chiper  The  and  i960  i n February-March  which  of  waters.  covered  a very  the S u b t r o p i c a l  extensive  and  Tropical  Ocean.  Methods The usual of  methods  ones  used  in this  the water  i n the M a r c h i l e  sort  being  of work  surveyed  and  II  expedition  consisted  f o r temperature,  were  the  in serial salinity  sampling  and  oxygen  measuremen t s .  The  temperatures  thermometers, measurements  The the  corrected  salinity  was  measured  on b o a r d .  i s estimated  University  following  were  t o be  measured  of C o n c e p c i o n  the Oxner  of  The  with  deep  sea  accuracy  the o r d e r  on s h o r e  using  technique,  with  of  of +  these 0.02°C.  i n the Laboratory  the t i t r a t i o n an  reversing  estimated  method accuracy  of and of  + 0.02°/oo. The to  o x y g e n was  an e s t i m a t e d  titrated  accuracy  on  board  using  o f + 0.05 m l / l .  the W i n k l e r  method,  k EXPEDITION  The The  cruise  plan  oceanography  profiles  drogue  by  No. I .  The with  observations  detect  check were and  long  2 days  minimum  10,  1962,  i n the area  later,  on J u l y  observations.  the best  were sent  be  The  the  indicated  12,  combined  benthonic  layer  w e r e made  convenient  in profiles  depths  fo  10, 100, 250 a n d 600m.  to these  I (stations  profile  profile  5 was f i n i s h e d  6 was s t a r t e d .  idea of the oceanic  fact and of  w e r e made  c u r r e n t s would  the drogues  in s i x  to the coast.  that  w  in profile  on J u l y  c u r r e n t measurements  I t a s thought  distributed  depths,  f o r which  with  a previous  a few s t a t i o n s  A, B a n d C ) a n d s t a t i o n s  D  E i n p r o f i I e 5•  The  an  this,  of the oxygen done  started  and b e n t h o n i c  subsurface  Therefore  I was s t a r t e d ,  were done c l o s e  Following  stations  in Fig. I.  figure.  measurements  oceanography  biological  I a n d 5«  in this  the p r o f i l e  parachute square  o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n i s shown  c o n s i s t e d o f 62  a s shown  Before  PROGRAMME  that  t h e Navy  San Ambrosio a freighter  main  This  26,  after  was d e s i g n e d  conditions,  taking  the rocks survey  ahd',88 b a t h y t h e r m o g r a p h i c  with  of the bottom  comprised ones.  which the  mainly  advantage  h a d t o do some b a t h y m e t r i c  Islands ( i n connection  with  oceanographic  on J u l y  work  to o b t a i n  of t h e i n San F e l i x  the c o l l i s i o n near  them).  5' o c e a n o g r a p h i c  The  stations  5 The data  d e s c r i p t i on  ( F i g . I and  will  F i g . 2).  be  based  almost  entirely  on  this  6 P H Y S I C A L F E A T U R E S OF AREA  Coastal  geography  The in  main  a r e four  being  three of which  are located  close  than  5*000  m  reaching toa  No.  thedeepest.  The b a s i n  No. 3 i s t h e d e e p e s t  maximum.  The b a s i n  m  7f8i|i+m  a  s  a  2 i s m o r e t h a n 6,000m,  b k23 t  m  of a l l ,  N o . lj. r e a c h e s 6,366m  a maximum.  very  continental  narrow  coast the  shelf from  In l e s s  t o more  i s of a uniform depth  land  of about  land  Mejillones average  30 m i l e s f r o m t h e The r e s t o f  m  l|.,000m.  The c o n t i n e n t a l  s o u t h o f I q u i q u e , r e a c h i n g a maximum  18 m i l e s  i n Punta  i s thecoastal  to thesouth  distance  i nwidth,  3»000 «  of about  Labos.  from  i sa desert.  range,  to thesouthern part  Hill  than  than  to the east of thearea  the topography compared  wider  by t h e 200m i s o b a t h i s  5 t o 10 m i l e s  from  increase  i sa l i t t l e  The  as shown  i n some p l a c e s .  thedepths  area  shelf  and averages  disappearing  is  a r e shown  The b a s i n  The  The  topography  5»^-95 «  reaching  low  basins,  No. I i s deeper  basin  maximum o f  of  of t h e bottom  the coast.  The  as  features  topography  F i g . 3» There  to  and bottom  here  of the c o u n t r y .  of Pisagua  thecoast  o f t h e o r d e r o f 80 t o 90 m i l e s .  which  A  feature  i s rather A t 1,600m  i s thehighest  t o t h e L o s Andes  point.  Range  It the  Is i n t e r e s t i n g  Los  Andes  Range  in Chile  with  Argentina) with  less  than  between  Chileans  this  two  have  part  to grab  the h i g h e s t  6,956m,  of  7>8^+  of  of  mountain  that  i s the Aconcagua  a height  t h e maximum d e p t h  Therefore land  to note  the c o u n t r y  ranges,  the Los  that  Andes  Hill  which  just  m  mountain  in  (shared  is  certainly  mentioned.  i s a narrow  band  of  made s o m e o n e s a y :  not  to f a l l  down  "the  into  the  sea".  The to  extension  the Peru Coast  and  of b a s i n s has  i t is certainly  of  the South  been  called  considered  American  sea  2  No.  and  3  No.  towards  the Peru - C h i l e  one  bottom  of  the  the  north  Trench,  important  features  topography.  MeteoroIogy  Previous area.  The  after  workers  most  detailed  the " W i l l i a m  wind  distribution  J+7°  S  2°  an  account  S of  described  studies  f o r every  i n the a r e a the winds  Meteoro I ogica I O f f i c e  coast.  He  was  able  two  i n the  Gunther  degrees  of  (I93&)  taking  picture  He  the  points  of  studied  latitude  the c r u i s e .  for different  t o g e t a good  system  t h o s e of G u n t h e r  the coast,  Chilean  wind  i n 1931.  c o v e r e d by  near  the  were  Scoresby" cruise  the  fo  have  from  also  d a t a of on  the winds  gave the  the i n the  region.  Summarizing, possible  to say  Gunther's  that  there  results are  two  about regimes  the  winds  i t is  i n the a r e a  surveyed.  One  of  those  them  regime  southerly  to  the  open  corresponding  coastal  The  is  and  coastal the  where blow  winds  presence  westerly  to  ocean  regime  the  S  - E  trades.  these  S  - E  trades  almost  parallel  in addition,  of  the  components,  where  land,  which  to  and  are  winds  are  second  coast  show  the  to If.).  (Fig.  variations  easterly  influence  mainly  is  deviated  diurnal  often  greatly  The  the  suffer  the  the  due  or  currents  i nshore.  Gunther direction  also  and  noticed  magnitude  some s e a s o n a l  of  the  winds,  variations  especially  in  on  both  the  coastal  region.  Further analysis Tuna  and  the  Cornm i s s i o n  Tropical  wind  indicated 'From not  so  component  have  work }  Pacific  The  and  workers  is  one  and  this  the  as  of  the  during  using  Fig. 5  strong  Bjerknes,  Northern  observed  in F i g . 5 &  of  of  emphasized  the  wind.  of  most  completed  the  the  Tropical  complete  for  the  Gunther  interamerican Eastern  Chile.  the  Marchile  Beaufort  i t i s seen usual,  and  that  featuring  the  II  Expedition  is  scale. winds  chiefly  a  are  variable  southerly  RESULTS  Currents  From in  the  the  very  interesting  second  half  of  Britannica), part  of  Juan  Fernandez  in  the  ocean able the  the  the  open and  to  vessels  th i s  the  been  he  enough  Valdivia  travelled f o r him  the  and  many  problem  much.  made  sail  the  open  his  crew, the  closer  the  to  in  half  this  Essentially  decided  others  of  in  south  and  when s a i l i n g  Humboldt  currents  very  in approximately  took  extensively  surface  to  Fernandez  Century(EncycI opedia  discussed  Lima  Therefore  commonly  the  Juan  he  was  time  that  inshore. I93I  before  surface  Later have  currents  reg i on.  The given  of  from  Valdivia  including  discussed in  going  surprisingly  reach  workers  has  that  Sixteenth  question  Pacific  sea.  the  trip  most  by  complete  Gunther  drift  of  the  account  (1936). ship  of  the  Gunther  currents  observed  simultaneously  taking  the  193'  to  was  currents  careful  through  wind  o b s e r v a t i ons .  As of  the  a  result  surface  clearer.  The  his  work  circulation conspicuous  current  near  current  offshore  west  of  the  approaching  coast also the  and  in  this  feature  flowing to  the  trip  Border.  the  the  ocean  relatively  north  but  the  others, of  the  the  north  to  of  part is  to  Peru-Chile  w h a t made J u a n F e r n a n d e z  that  with  a  deviating (This  South  much  pattern became strong  weaker  toward  was  the  certainly  faster).  . The  Step  I expedition  Chile  and  there  is a separation  The to  Peru  work  an a r e a  Before  taking as  I will  stratified,  done  almost The  to  the  four One  dynamic  centers  Almost 50  m  surface  extent  limited  was direct  current  with  parachute  been  This  calculated,  has  found  been  that  are  taken  the •  horizontally  by  the dynamic height anomaly, s i n c e temperature  illustrates  (near  station  relative  show an 15)  the  density  in this  of t h e sea s u r f a c e  ( F i g . 6)  calculations  with  that  reference  there  eddy-like  i s of a r a t h e r  to the others  the  region.  are  circulation. large  velocity  larger.  t h e same p a t t e r n  ( F i g . 7)  stronger.  and  1,000m d e p t h  the s t r e a m l i n e s  and  that  minima I ,motion.  topography  eddies  t o be  at the  determined  where  these  appears  at  db  was  currents  db s u r f a c e .  the thermosteric  entirely  horizontal  1,000  and  I960)  with  as f o u n d  the geostrophic  be m e n t i o n e d t h a t  using  survey  b e c a u s e i t has  suggesting  1,000  of  surface  part)  along  5«  the c u r r e n t s  the  |0  currents  II E x p e d i t i o n  ( t h e main  I and  .  the c u r r e n t s  (Wooster,  oceanographic  of p r o p e r t i e s  should  them.  miles  describe  as r e f e r e n c e  It  135  describing  a reference  were  x  that  different  i n the M a r c h i l e  in profiles  distribution  is  100  between  a detailed  measurements  drogues,  done  . .  has shown  are e s s e n t i a l l y  of  essentially  .  where  again  to t h a t a t at station  the s u r f a c e 15  i s reproduced  the c u r r e n t s  are  100  At in  the  and  50  m  the  offshore rn t h e r e  At  250 are  layers.  At  present  at  The  ( F i g . 9)  these  direct  geostrophic  10,  100  agreement 10  and  clear.  went  to  would  miles  were  done  The has  region  ones  ( F i g . 10)  lj.00 m are  the  less  undercurrent 25  than  miles  show an  south  seem and  1+00  and  the  this  still  coast.  agreement  with at  the  possibility  of  an  in this  the  finding south,  area  south of  one  be  i s not  so  that  at  250  m  one  of  the  drogues  north.  the  Therefore  agreement with  this  the  12).  (Fig.  of  the  undercurrent  of  the  drogues  I J days a f t e r  to  measurements  agreement  because  to  appears  direct  to n o t e  to d i v e r g e , the  towards  the  was  ( a t 250  Marchile  II  further m  depth)  measurements  13)•  topography  with  calculated for do  m  other  currents  a l s o been  These c h a r t s  100  i t is interesting  drogues  dynamic  is  s e c t i o n o f f A r ' i c a ( F i g . 1,1)  At  (Fig.  the  upper  m.  m.  the  offshore  from  250  to  souith ( F i g . 8 ) .  south  and  the  surface  going  current  by  the  surface  the  i n the  geostrophic  flow  the  than  between  show  at at  the  strong  measurements  i n the  to  there  geostrophic  75  inshore  those  Patache  also  evidenced  to  Punta  the  The  similar  the  less  section off  However  parachute  of  current  250  In t h e  but  depths  distances  and  In  and  repeated  the  at  region.  are  i s a c o u n t e r c u r r e n t > g o i ng  m  currents  currents  not  show s u c h  reference  10,  50,  a  good  '00,  to 250  agreement  the  500  and  lj.00  between  db  surface  m. the  direct 10  at  m  Arica  the  go  same the  measurements  are  As  significant  complicated  (Wooster Gunther  and  from  However whole the  fact  currents  that  the  ;  the  offshore  inshore  500  that  the  the  one,  suggests  that still  Peru-Chile  agreement that  the  The Patache  considered  that  db.  the  area  follow a  Peru-Chile  Brandhorst  currents  Undercurrent  calls  It  is  -  the  also  appear  to  be  pattern  as  ones.  possibility  permanent  Finally  Punta  in this  I96>l) w h i c h  off  section off  is therefore  However  db) ones.  It  below  fact,  direct  (I959)» i s a l w a y s p r e s e n t .  the  is a  the  the  currents  pattern.  to s t a t e  different  the  to  In  t o 500  In  currents  Gilmartin,  current  possible  of  vague.  a conclusion,  rather  a  i s more  m.  currents.  (relative  direction  250  at  geostrophic  currents  opposite  happens  agreement  there  the  geostrophic  i n the  thing  and  this  current  remains  to  be  seen,  is  there.  Undercurrent  between  geostrophic  flow  this  in  area  and is  in  spite  real  mainly  geostrophic.  As  this  i s so  upper  1,000  by  JakhelIn  A.  The itself A. the  m  net  has  of  geostrophic  volume  transport  c a l c u l a t e d f o l l o w i n g the  of  technique  the  given  (I936) . stations  i s shown  in F i g .  been c a l c u l a t e d d i r e c t l y  JakhelIn T - S  was  the  (1936),  diagrams  and for  the each  using  thermosteric station  Ilj.,  and  the  formula  (12)  anomaly  involved  for  taken the  transport of from dynamic  heights. in  The  different  dynamic  cm  following  Montgomery  dynamic  The  t r a n s p o r t between  calculated profile  In  in this  from  way,  calculated  After  and  I t o 5 was  addition, and  perpendicular  then  been  {\95k)»  and W o o s f e r  stations  the next  expressed  pair,  has  been  until  every  completed.  a r e shown  profile  to the  have  neighbor  two m e r i d i o n a l  they  each  two  heights  was  line  profiles  been  also  1I4..  in F i g .  calculated,  of s t a t i o n s  have  the t r a n s p o r t  was  averaged  f o r each  prof i I e . After two  completing  east-west  showing  ones  the o v e r a l l  As a s u m m a r y  I.7  the f i v e  north-south  profiles  dimensional  diagram  volume  geostrophic  transport ( F i g .I5)»  (I Sverdrup  I million  second) flow  towards  the north  the  west.  results  a l s o w o u l d show a s m a l l  upwards  motion  of  the order  and  =  per  These  the  a three  Sverdrup  has  and  2.2  o f 3 m/month  been  prepared  cubic  Sverdrup  metres  toward  vertical  i n the area  as a  whole.  A study of  this  by  M.  of  area  was  Rattray  negative.  the i n f l u e n c e of a l s o done,  (1959)*  In o t h e r  The  words  significant  i n f l u e n c e of  to  analysed.  the data  internal  following results  of  waves on  the c u r r e n t s  the technique  given  these  were  studies  i t i s not p o s s i b l e to d e t e c t internal  waves,  any  or c u r r e n t s , according  -  -  Observed  distribution  The  temperature  verified  prepared in  profiles  have a l s o  \k  temperature,  and  salinity  way  salinity  have  been  i n the T - S  of t e m p e r a t u r e  In a d d i t i o n  been  temperature  as  •  and  to t h i s  prepared.  or s a l i n i t y  Those  points  For that  salinity  and  purpose  have  the curves  been  profiles  shown 6  for section  the v a l u e s of  f i t the T - S c u r v e s  not f i t t i n g  oxygen  diagram.  the p r o f i l e s  this  and  plotted  c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the oceanographic  F i g . I.  used.  of  i n the usual  Five  -  have  have  been  been d i s r e g a r d e d  u n r e I i ab I e .  The  o x y g e n has been  T - S diagrams similar  way  When  and  of  the v e r t i c a l of  these  surfaces  at  0,  found  the p r o f i l e s  to those  sections  plotted  against temperature have  temperature  profiles  100, 250  50,  and  are discussed separately  and  had  three properties  been  been were  i+00 m  prepared  in a  salinity.  prepared, prepared,  depth.  f o r each  i n the  horizontal f o r the  The  features  property.  Tempera t u r e It this the  are  decided  account,  to reproduce  oceanographic  the t y p i c a l  a l l the s e c t i o n s ones  showing  in  most  clearly  features.  temperature  analysed  not  b u t some o f  oceanographic  The of  was  and  profiles  have  been p r e p a r e d  bathy thermographic s t a t i o n s ,  i n the f o l l o w i n g  pages.  from  data  and  they  •  -  The the of  first  irregular  and  observed close  The  I6°C  to i t , while  offshore,  w h e r e a maximum  area  the  "JO m i l e s  than  show  10 m i l e s  !(. ( F i g . 17)  shows  3 ( F i g . 18)  the coast  again  a t about Profile  about  (10-20 JO  Profiles show a s h a r p  shows  defined there  from  9)  w  a  water  recorded  s  \\.0% o f t h e  that  thermocline but  is a rather  where the  the thermocline  o f 60 m i l e s that  narrow  |6).  there  from  becomes  the coast.  is a small  i t is interrupted  thermocline appearing  miles.  from  shows a the coast  less  and e x t e n d i n g  I (not reproduced), thermocline  distinct  3  a  n  d  o f f the coast  sharp  thermocline  s h o w s a maximum  profile  3 ( F i g . 18)  at a  coast.  t h e warmer  the coast  (Fig.  m i l e s ) , then  5 ( F i g . 19)  10 m i l e s  that  width  established at a distance  near  the  profiles  from  and  I7°C.  i s not so d i s t i n c t  Profile  in  there  i s irregular  Approximately  is a clearly  general,  Profile  This  the c o a s t .  at  to the coast  17•81°C ( s t a t i o n  of  miles)  a minimum  parallel  to shore  water a t 6  (about  shows  isotherm  In  thermocline  at  close  runs  below  of l e s s  well  which  has a temperature  temperature  band  from  of c o l d  to the coast  t h e I7°C  the cold water  about  i s a band  isotherm  separates  at  15  and v a r i a b l e w i d t h ,  Madrid.  close  feature  ( F i g . 16),  surface  Punta  •  little  more  thermocline offshore.  k- ( F i g . 18 a n d at about depth than  5°  m  17)  depth.  o f a b o u t 70 100  miles  m  from  ,  ,  The m i n i m u m 20 -  about  All  -  depth  30 m a t 27  of the t h e r m o c l i n e i s i n p r o f i l e m i l e s from  the p r o f i l e s  from  the s u r f a c e  this  depth  smaller  show  to a  the water  temperature  16  the c o a s t .  an uneven  little  distribution  t h a n lj.00 -  more  becomes  horizontally  gradients,  recorded  i n the upper  Horizontal 10 m  there  surface. The region as  I7°C,  100  from  rather  minimum in  the  with  greater  that  at  as a t t h e  distinct  with  maximum  temperature  v a l u e s as h i g h  '.;  to those at the s u r f a c e .  is still  temperature uniform  Below  m.  the s e c t i o n  distribution  temperature  temperature  shows  that  p r e s e n t b u t i s now  t h e c o a s t and r u n n i n g somewhat The  a  area  show  distribution  shows a v e r y  m ( F i g . 20)  temperature  a t 20  the o u t s i d e  similar  «  i n temperature are  of t e m p e r a t u r e  t h e same  i s true  50 m s e c t i o n  covering  At of  The same  temperature  »  distributions  is essentially  m  d e c r e a s i n g towards  T h e r e f o r e most o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s m  500  of  stratified  depths.  500  I at  region  over  a t about  parallel  a t 250  m  the whole  i n the s o u t h  t h e maximum 30 m i l e s  toi f .  ( F i g . 21) area  shows  with  and a s m a l l  a  small  maximum  north.  A t ij,00 m ( F i g . 22) present offshore  closest border  there  to the c o a s t i n the s o u t h .  is still  a maximum  of  temperature  i n the n o r t h and r e a c h i n g t h e  17 Sal in i ty  The in  maximum s a l i n i t y  near  the  coast  Two  distinct  area  the  coastal  that the  more o c e a n i c area  the  appears  a width  center  r e g i o n and from  by W o o s t e r  near  are  one  of  of  about  I, 2  and  of  high  open  and  higher  inshore  and  distribution  interesting. two  to  higher of  of  high  is a  the  The  salinity, low  salinity  1+,  where  along  the  central  part  salinity  of  water  feature already  noticed  It r e v e a l s a r e g i o n maxima.  i t s width  One  of  constant  of  m  miles; but  3i|..8 /°o. 0  ( F i g . 2ij.)  minimum  maxima  south, at  temperature  band  o f f s h o r e , are  a t 5°  the  i s a b o u t 1+5  0  almost  low  low  ones o f f s h o r e .  salinity  23);  isohaline  lower  i t extends  temperatures  3i|..7 /o° t o 3l4-.8°/oo i n t h e remains  of  the  (Fig.  ( I960) .  shore  and  by  in profile  i s i n the  This  0 0  found  c o n f i g u r a t i o n suggests  a source  the  separating  This  was  surface  salinity.  miles;  3»  corresponding  The  it  60  ocean.  area  offshore  salinity  i t a c t s as  the  higher  35«2I°/  was  ^l\.,6^°/oo  i n the  in half  coastal  to spread  of  surface  1+0).  observed  the  Therefore  salinities  coast  regions  separates  in sections  coming  minimum  1+ ( s t a t i o n  in profile  which  reaches  coast  The  i n the  is divided approximately  0  from  30).  (station  the  3l4-.9 /°o»  St  3  profile  observed  { < *>}±. j /oo) !  is close  i t s value close  is  to  to  0  the  varies the  from  coast  100 m ( F i g . 25) a v e r y  At noticed miles  along  from  At  different  salinity  A tongue  of minimum  part, with  0  in  0 0  with  be 50 m t o 70  of  profile deeper  reaching  »  exists  the value  a  of the core  This  tongue  5  uniform,  region  i n a coastal  i s observed and  of t h i s  i s very  south  (Fig*  the coast  small  area  by  t h e 3^-»8°/°o  in  profiles  of  this  it  influences the s a l i n i t y  isohaline 3 a n d 5*  o f 100  and i t s core  maximum i s e v i d e n t  s  more  also  miles.  a maximum s a l i n i t y  maximum a p p e a r s  It '  extended  where i t c o v e r s t h e  3^-'9°/°° a n d g r e a t e r ( < 3 5 . 0 ) This  appears  i n the border  i t becomes more  29)  in  less  tongue  and t o a d i s t a n c e  i n the entire  o f i t ( F i g . 30) •  2,  distributed  a s l o w a s 3k-»h°/oo  v lues  unti I p r o f i l e from  almost  o f 3^-«7°/o°»  ( F i g . 28)  salinity  I , b u t as i t goes  extent  There  m  i s again  width.  The d e p t h  to  500 m.  3IJ..6 /  than  s e c t i o n s show a c o a s t a l  i s rather uniformly  ( > 3l4-.3°/oo) •  most  t o a b o u t I4.5  i s rather uniform  has a v a l u e  horizontal  10 m i l e s  entire  less  the s a l i n i t y  of about  outer  and  reaches  26) the s a l i n i t y  most o f t h e a r e a  The  the  m,-(Fig.  1|00 m ( F i g . 27)  over  band  5 miles  from  o f 3^-«8°/oo.  value  where  i t . The m i n i m u m  250  At  and  spreading  3 o f f the c o a s t .  profile  a  the coast  maximum o f 3^-«9°/°° i s  clear  covering  t o be  separated  approaches  the coast  noticeable that  the  i n the c o a s t a l r e g i o n  distribution  region  to depths  presence  where  greater  than  The p r e s e n c e depth  of a minimum  is also noticeable.  is  shown  to  1,600 m d e p t h ) .  form  layer  the s a l i n i t y  3h*&°/  1|. a n d 5  station  700  a t about  i s a t 800  this  00  0  minimum  t h e minimum  layer  this  2 v a l u e s o f 3i+»5 /  In s e c t i o n  m and  becomes  500  below  I ( F i g . 28)  In p r o f i l e  t o be d e l i n e a t e d by. t h e i s o h a l i n e  3 ( F i g . 30) At  salinity  00  minimum  (500  m  and  lower  m.  In s e c t i o n  i s of a g r e a t e r  deeper  m  and a l s o  extent'.  thicker.  Oxygen Most  of t h e s u r f a c e  5 m l / l i n oxygen all  content  s e c t i o n s the value This  in  I , ( F i g . 32)  south  a width  5 miles).  than low  with  oxygen At  near miles  0.25  Is  present  but near  of  and e x t e n d s less  values  than  extended  3 ( F i g . 35)  lower  than  wide  towards  ( i n some  the  cases  a n d 3$)  values area  a n d 33)  At t h i s  than  less  this  1+.0 m l / l .  t h e low o x y g e n  ml/l i s present.  was  I a n d 5 ( F i g . 32 lower  o f more  the coast i n  uniformly  10 m i l e s  than  I t o 5 ( F i g . 32  in profile  layer  i s a b o u t 20 m i l e s  low o x y g e n  where a very  in profile  as  of  m ( F i g . 34)  the c o a s t  ( F i g . 31),  In p r o f i l e s  reaches  50  by a  of the oxygen c o n t e n t  offshore. profile  band  i s covered  depth  are noticeable  t o more with  values  a maximum  i n the outer  than  of  50  a s low oxygen  edge of t h e  area.  At  100  extended a maximum  m  ( F i g . 36)  the very  to most of the a r e a . of 2 m l / l i s o b s e r v e d  low v a l u e  However a t 70  o f 0.25  in profile miles  from  m l / l has 3 ( F i g . 35) the c o a s t .  At  250  rn t h e o x y g e n  0.25  I ess than  being I  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  maximum o f 0.5  a small  greater  in profile  ( F i g . $2 a n d  The regions first  profile  to  values  going  I ( F i g . 32)  I. to  n  d  almost  600  show c l e a r l y  a  i t s value  a t 250  that  m,  in a l l sections,  20  0.25  ml/l.  5  in profile  there  exists  the t h i r d  Secondary  .3 a n d I4. a t a b o u t  steep  This  oxygen  1,600  gradient.  l a y e r becomes  deeper  almost  0.07  oxygen  thick  This  in profile  gradually depths  l a y e r where  going o f ij-00  the oxygen  are  observed  m.  Stabi Ii ty  In  a d d i t i o n to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t 50  the  stability  m depth  i n the upper  100  m has been c a l c u l a t e d and c h a r t e d  already  discussed,  l a y e r and t h a t a t  ( F i g . 37  m.  completely  ml/l).  to the coast  i t reaches  60  reaches  l a y e r comes a  becoming  maximain  The  fallen  the depth  -  three  has  layer diminishes 5>  are  i s concerned.  surface  water,  in profile  there  t o 80 m t h e o x y g e n  ( F i g . 33)  oxygenated  of t h i s  that  l a y e r of a very  m and more c l o s e  where  increases.  profiles  as  disappearing  distribution  oxygenated  thickness  U n d e r i+OO m  in  a  i n a number o f s t a t i o n s (0.06  the south,  again  than  the well  reaches  The  5  from  In p r o f i l e  of p o o r l y  depleted layer  less  south.  Below layer  is actually  of  i s t h e same  m l / l i s present  profiles  as f a r as o x y g e n  In  and  33).  different  region  i s uniform  ml/l.  A t ij.00 m but  distribution  and  38).  m.  21 There 25 m i l e s  i s greater  wide),  50 m i s h i g h e r observed was  near  observed  50 m  i n the coastal  and i n the area than  a t 100 m.  that  the coast  as a whole  mixed  layer  has a l s o  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e :  been  ( a ) .no m i x e d  o f a b o u t I4.O m i l e s  layer  i s 20 m d e e p .  In t h e r e s t  layer  i s deeper  i t s maximum v a l u e  As layer  with  a conclusion  i s well  near  at was  stability  instability  at the  ( F i g . 39) •  Some  offshore  width  near the  where  the mixed  the  convection  of the area  i t c a n be s t a t e d  developed  layer  a t s t a t i o n 30* that  the  convection  and i l l - d e f i n e d  or absent  a d i f f e r e n t point  of view  shore.  Distribution To  of p r o p e r t i e s  area,  attempted The change,  a d i f f e r e n t way o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  a n d i s now conditions  or i n other  because  suggests  from  sections  south  words  properties  has been  do n o t s h o w a n y m a j o r  a r e no s t r i k i n g  or oxygen c o n t e n t the d i s t r i b u t i o n  a certain uniformity  altogether  to north  there  i n general  circumstances  of  discussed.  temperature, s a l i n i t y  plane,  from  g e t a mean p i c t u r e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  this  these  was  charted  (b) a region  in  the s t a b i l i t y  t h e minimum  a n c i  there  coastj  in  (about  T h e maximum s t a b i l i t y  a t s t a t i o n 39  a t s t a t i o n 30 w h e r e  area  level.  The of  stability  i t was  of the area  thought  a mean p a t t e r n  that would  differences  in a horizontal of  properties  as a w h o l e .  by t a k i n g be f o u n d ,  In  the f i v e giving  some  idea  To  of t h e g e n e r a l  do t h i s ,  and  oxygen  for  each  this  were  the f i v e  of each  together  A complex  a simplified  distribution  of the a r e a .  s e c t i o n s of t e m p e r a t u r e ,  represented  property.  complex  features  i n one s i n g l e  of i s o l i n e s  diagram  property.  salinity  r e s u l t e d , but from  has been  These  sheet  obtained  are discussed  f o r the separately  Tempera t u r e I n F i g . 1+0 t h e e n v e l o p e drawn  from  I3°C  down  A few f e a t u r e s place  t h e I3°C  i s I3°C  to s e e t h a t  this  suggesting  that  immediately  i n the area  region  rises  the v e r t i c a l  instead  t h e m o t i o n must  The  1 2 ° , 1 1 ° , I0°C r e g i o n s of t h e d i v e r g e n c e  Another of  feature  temperature  best  reference  1,000  db s u r f a c e  suggest  the r e s u l t s  into  convergence  i s the u n i f o r m i t y  suggesting  computations already  f o r geostrophic  others  is a  of u p w e l l i n g .  sight m  i s not l a r g e ,  horizontal.  there  characteristic  t.aken  the coast,  of the water  6 0 0 m and 9 0 0  with  toward  that  where t h e  and i t i s p o s s i b l e  be p r e d o m i n a n t l y  In t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s was  has been  In t h e f i r s t  the region  as a w h o l e ,  motion  f o r geostrophic  8 0 0 m.  shows  slightly  t h a t comes  between  about  compare  become a p p a r e n t .  envelope  but  instead  isotherms  to 3°C.  isotherm  temperature  of d i f f e r e n t  that the  should  presented  be a t the  calculations  i n same a r e a  (Wy'rtki,  to  1963).  SaIi n1ty  The the  salinity  distribution  In Water  envelopes  of t h e water  the f i r s t  lying  place  close  to t h e s u r f a c e  the Subtropical  this  with  60  t o 200  The evident  that  water  minimum  clear  p i c t u r e of  i n the area  as a  whole.  of the S u b - A n t a r c t i c  i s evident  i n F i g . 1+1.  i s present  and t h e c o r e o f  a maximum s a l i n i t y  m close  i s evident  Below  a t depths of  to the coast.  salinity  l a y e r from  500  t o 1,100  m  i s also  i n F i g . 1+1 .  Possibly is  masses  the presence  th:is.:water water  show a v e r y  t h e most  the presence  i mmed i a t e l y  interesting  of the water  point masses  in this  representation  "in situ" is  evident.  Oxygen  There The it  is a  contrast  The content  The showing lower  are three  upper little  layer  layer  o f 1+0  of high  where  envelopes.  oxygen c o n t e n t  i t s depth  i s 80  and  m in  m.  is a region  with  a very  low oxygen  f r o m 1+0 m t o 5OO-6OO m.  l a y e r shows  eventually  than  offshore  inshore  and i t extends  lower  i n d i c a t e d by t h e  i s a region  deeper  to that  middle  regions  an i n c r e a s i n g oxygen  a maximum  of oxygen  the A n t a r c t i c Intermediate  a t depths Water.  content a  little  These described,  results  can one,  a surface  band  of c o l d  layer,  width,  salinity  and oxygen at depths  in  lay.er,  this The  second  associated of  oxygen  with  a maximum  third  data  shows,  of t h r e e  the surface  o f 50 - 70 m.  which  has a core  reaching than  layer  of o x y g e n ,  layers:  t o 50 - 80  and oxygen  part  might  a higher  m  has a of  temperature, is  i s present distinct.  and a  depletion values.  the f i r s t  salinity  salinity  of temperature  area  content  i s less  of high  and minimum  It lies  from  I4.OO m.  has a minimum being  than  this  The t h e r m o c l i n e  coastal  i t a maximum  f r o m 14.00 m t o m o r e  the oxygen  o f f s h o r e , where a minimum  layer  content,  already  specialists.  the c o a s t , and w i t h  b u t i n -the  50 - 80 m t o m o r e The  from  along  present  the present  of low s a l i n i t y  10 m i l e s  has been  as a whole,  or other  t o be c o m p o s e d  water  what  distributions  t o what  be c o n s i d e r e d  with  of showing  of the area  for biologists  of p r o p e r t y  According  2k  the advantage  "in situ"  of i n t e r e s t  Summary  •  a r e i n agreement  b u t have  distribution be  .  of s a l i n i t y  thermally  2,000  m.  and e v e n t u a l l y  stratified.  It  extends  25 DISCUSSION The  water The  masses water  according In  masses  to the accepted  the area  water masses Near  the s u r f a c e  disappearing  very  close  At of  before  (Fig.  23),  what  100  i s shown This  m where This  0  minimum  layer  almost  and  clearly  less  i n the  salinity  water  the p r o f i l e s  and  water. I , and  i s a one (  i n the o f f s h o r e  of h i g h  2  of t h i s this  distinct  and  3i}..5 /oo  very  i n most of  and h i g h e r  the s u r f a c e ,  advances  Undercurrent  of  salinity  3l|..30 /oo) O  i n the s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n  near  ( F i g . lj.3) .  water.  there  very  salinity  the north  values  in profile  the o r i g i n  t o 300  water  I, with  to the surface  has been found  stations  towards  ( F i g . 1+3).  35.20°'/oo  of  i s a c l e a r minimum  the south  2 a n d 5»  three  i\$l\2).  1+2).  (Fig.  evolution  the s u r f a c e  shown  to  whose  identified  classification  the e x p e d i t i o n  to Sub-Antarctic  profiles  values  from  sections  corresponds  by  there  in profile  ( > 3i+»4°/oo), is  covered  have been  Sverdrup  were o b s e r v e d  wedge e x t e n d i n g  salinity  i n the area  water  (Fig.  at the  but a l s o  appears  maximum s a l i n i t y a t t r i b u t e d  As  surface  lies  According  i n most  at depths  the s a l i n i t y has been found  reaching  1+3).  is subtropical.  s u b t r o p i c a l water  regions  of  t o b e a maximum  to s u b t r o p i c a l  towards  the south  with  the  Peru-Chile  and m i x e s  gradually  with  Sub-Antarctic  overlying  The  third  water  mass  Intermediate  water  being  in profile  5  and  i s an  the  deeper  profiles  area. with  This  at  present  really  l a y e r of  a maximum  depths  varying  area 600  from  ( F i g . 29).  minimum  oxygen  i n the  This  outstanding salinity  l a y e r as  i s the A n t a r c t i c 1,000  to  m  i s present feature  of  is eventually  in profiles  5  lj. a n d  in a l l this  associated (Fig*  36).  Upwe M i n g  So been a  f a r , the  observed  described.  In  the  possible explanation  In  the  water  ©f  along  the  In of  the  of  this  (Gun and  first  coast  the  literature  are  toner,  C u r r i e , 1950)  ship,  the  water the  i s the  coast,  an  attempt  give  the  has  been  Possibly sections  sections and  presented.  why  the  band  low  oxygen  of  is  cold  present/  attributed the  off  upwelling  c l e a r e s t examples  the  off South  1950  to  Chilean West  Africa  respectively.  were  carried  out  that  upwelling  coast (Hart  By  from  the  same  Scoresby",  i t i s probable  other  and  be  to  layer.  expeditions  prime  will  wonder  §aiinity  this  193'  facts  can  upper  two  in  "William  Although  f o l l o w i n g pages  one  i n two  1.9363) a p d  both  have  waters.  given  coincidence  properties  lower  i n the  subsurface  of  of  place  relatively  distributions  cause  of  the  p o s s i b l e causes  cold may  low be  of  subsurface  salinity  band  considered.  along  One of  other possible  the s u r f a c e  wafers  will  lower  t e m p e r a t u r e s , but  higher  s a l i n i t y , which  The  bathy thermographic  band  (less  than  temperature As 75%  is higher  was  C°  low  the  lower  taking but of  salinity  been o b s e r v e d  than  shows  near  that  that  more cause  coasts could  British  be  Columbia  described  higher  must one  be  the  coast  taking but  due  other words,  be  the  of  coast.  the a i r  the  sea.  order  of taking  difference  surface  temperature).  would  not  explain  explain  the h i g h e r s a l i n i t y ,  influence  and  i n the  North  therefore  upwelling.  narrow  In o t h e r w o r d s ,  runoff  the u p l i f t  is a  place this  explain  river  t o a number  the  a  I f some e v a p o r a t i o n w e r e  would  of  near  the  i t will  therefore  produce  temperature  temperature  the p r e s e n c e  must  i s of  than sea  low s a l i n i t y  i s a d e s e r t and  Therefore  decisive  of  and  will  the s u r f a c e  c o n d e n s a t i o n might the  this  there  air-sea  observed.  than  effect  some c o n d e n s a t i o n was  the h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e .  e v a p o r a t i o n and  Evaporation  the c o a s t where  band  coast,  this  that  at  in this  the  time  near  the average  temperature  Another  in  not  data  place offshore,  not  region  has  ( a i r temperature  distribution  the  same  some c o n d e n s a t i o n w e r e  the  a cooling  the  is a possibility  In a d d i t i o n  If  produce  at  humidity  place. 2.5  is evaporation.  10 m i l e s w i d e )  the r e l a t i v e there  cause  cold of  processes  the s a l i n i t y  distribution. low  of  temperature  cold  Pacific, this  will  water  factors  of c o l d  the  water, but  the  not  i n the  be  in  area a  being  cause.  coastal  i n which  water  as  near  from  the  most  below,  or  If be  this  explanation  t o compare  the  survey,  other  with  first  o r the  To  been  three  done  idea  taking toward  in profile rose  rose  1+9 m.  examined of  0.5  account  the c o a s t .  during  areas.  found  193',  in  off Caldera,  In t h i s  I from 37  m  of M a r c h i l e  II E x p e d i t i o n  The u p w a r d  slope  from  i n the upper  of  offshore  i t has been  a b o u t "JO m i l e s  and t h e r e s u l t s  a detailed  of i s o t h e r m s  way  way  were,  the r i s i n g  the coast  In a s i m i l a r  this  Gunther  results rising and  during  has  and  isotherms  water  found,  has been f o r instance,  out to the coast,  the  l a y e r , and the i s o h a l i n e s  the f i v e  profiles  c a n be e x p r e s s e d  have  been  as an a v e r a g e  slope  m/mile.  If the  those  the conditions  sections  into  talke.n. • a s a n i n d e x .  isotherms  i n other  what G u n t h e r  sections,  of what  i s o h a l i n e s towards  that  i n the coast  i n t h e same a r e a  same p r o c e s s  would  Arica.  of a l l f i v e  isohalines and  and  g e t an  analysis  the u p w e l i i n g  comparison,with  b e e n made w i t h  Antofagasta  way  t h e same p r o c e s s  expeditions  The has  i n some  i s c o r r e c t , one f u r t h e r s t e p  index  sections  would  off Arica  Marchile because  be:  at a rate  These  i s taken  off Caldera,  i n Caldera o f 2.5  a t 1.1+  results  Antofagasta  the upper  m/mile,  measure, i n and A r i c a ,  l a y e r o f 100  o f f Antofagasta  the  m was  a t I .3  m/mile  m/mile.  would  II e x p e d i t i o n the winds  as a c o m p a r a t i v e  were  show  was also  that  less less  the upweliing  intense intense  than  in  during  during  I93'»  possibly  Marchile I I .  29 In A r i c a be  the  almost  comparison  three  Gunther together  presence  off  the  do  not  agree  upwelling  To  he  are  than  that  from  the fact  there  was  involved  In in  the  two  100  m  that  and  observed  River  section  layer  and area  other  River  Another regions  would  two  important is that  his  the  the  the  newly  of  index  off  this  A^ore  i n the and  sections  2i|.0  m/mile  m/mile, more  intense  examples  come  are  concerned  sections  also  that  with  mentioned  the  upwelling  m.  account,  I m / m i l e , and showing  South  These  1.2 was  these  into  South  0.7  was  Hill  II.  and  positive,  ones.  upwelling  reaching  off  sections  conclusions  sections  in Sylvia  reason  phosphates,  something  Hi!Ii  Marchile  taking be  mentioned  shows  layer present,  words,  and  clear.  West A f r i c a  depths,  oxygen  sections,  pattern  that  mixing  salinity  193'),  mentioned  no  layer.  ( s i n k i n g of  A f r i c a n coast i n South  upper  "William Scoresby".  Sylvia  during  the  would  principles  index  the  in this  greater  Orange  Hill.  from  upwelling  and  some of  (Gunther,  the  as  three  b e e n made w i t h  Orange  upper  suggesting  the  has  taken  the  i n the  is quite  that  Orange R i v e r  In  such  Although  describes  the  temperature  oceanographic  make s u r e  the  the  coast.  that  I9&2 f o r  in  properties  Caldera)  comparison  show  one  upwelling  with at  West A f r i c a  in  of  the  shown w i t h  other  Chilean  mtfcxed w a t e r  the  has  with  the  times  would  I.3 the  the  m/mile  index in  Sylvia  differences  West A f r i c a  the  slope  between of  , . -.. v  - .  v ;  isotherms but  was  of  the  ,  and not  isohalines in  so  the  coast  in  and  with  maximum the  It during the  two  should  down  divergence  of  higher  core  the  with  of  an  the  isolines  offshore  and  to  (19^0)  Currie  upweliing  would  layers middle  have  100  suggest in  middle  was  at  the  i+OO - 500  but  the  taken  three  as  southerly  and  that  a  up  in  the  is  northerly i n the  upper  m,  isohalines  there  that  i n both  layer  and  profiles  l a y e r , and  t o be two  i n the  average,  northerly  properties  maximum can  sections,  could  area.  that  is divergence  i n the  middle  evolution  the  i n the  would  from  the  and  profiles southerly  lower  comparatively  than  i n the  three  ones.  Distribution In  upper  there  positive,  mentioned, e s p e c i a l l y  between  down a s  This  upweliing  northerly  already  mentioned  ones.  profiles which  be  three  two  words  where H a r t that  always  some f l u c t u a t i o n s  other  steadily  arguments  i n the  convergence  l a y e r was were  In  30  one.  trended  and  up.  I I , i . e . that  the  there  rose  sections  also  upper  West A f r i c a ,  dynamic  Marchile  way  salinity)  Orange R i v e r  southerly  layers,  their  i n the  Isotherms  trended  in  for South  have shown its  o f f C h i l e where  isolines  (temperature  the  .  be  and  l a y e r , the temperature  traced be  from  associated  currents presence and  North with  of  minimum  a maximum oxygen,  to S o u t h the  i n the  currents  salinity  whose five  present  in  It are to  has been shown  mainly  g e o s t r o p h i c on t h e a v e r a g e ,  the south  Now  these  bring  high  is also  c u r r e n t s coming  the  presence  the  Peru  - Chile  Now  of p r o p e r t i e s  -  1,000  classification  right be,  with  miles  of  current.  this  of a minimum  i s due t o  explain  i t belongs  the a d d i t i o n a l  fact  length covered  by  the  500  m down  to  salinity  layer  at  with  by  layer.  2,000 depths  minimum  layer  In o t h e r i s quite  to o r where i s e x p e c t e d  that  m  the general  m a s s e s g i v e n by S v e r d r u p .  of the s a l i n i t y  c o r e of  to the area  i n the m i d d l e i^OO -  studied  i.e. subtropical.  oxygen  brought  m is consistent  i t i s where  that  T h i s would  from  these  that the undercurrent  origin;  and minimum  found  that  to the r e g i o n  expected  water  layer  of water  the presence and  to t h e i r  Undercurrent.  the presence  b e t w e e n 800  words,  temperature  f o r the lower  more,  the North  i t i s t o be  of S u b t r o p i c a l  distribution  and  and  from  belonging  other words,  salinity  and  a geostrophic compensation  the p r o p e r t i e s In  i n the c u r r e n t d e s c r i p t i o n  i t smixture  i n the  t h e e x p e d i t i o n c o u l d be  to  135  certainly  traced.  It in  should  temperature  middle  layer  in  be m e n t i o n e d  and s a l i n i t y  i s also  suggesting a  also  present  t h a t the P e r u  d i s t a n c e o f I4.OO m i l e s  from  and  that  the presence  t h e minimum  in profile - Chile  6  oxygen  (Fig.  Undercurrent  t h e c o a s t , as  F i g . iuj., F i g . i j . 5 , F i g . J4.6 a t s t a t i o n  59.  o f maxima i n the [4,5 a n d might  reach  i t i s evidenced  . The 10 a n d remains  deeper  - ...  waters  II of M a r c h i l e almost  temperature  at  32  i n the a r e a II and  i t was  were  traced  found  that  in stations the  c o n s t a n t a t 3^-*67°/oo - 3I4..69 °/oo l.82°C.  salinity  and  the  35 SUMMARY AND  Summarizing oceanography analysis  1. -  the main  of this  of t h e data  The p r e s e n c e thickness content The  or  features characterizing the  r e g i o n , which  i n the area  near  water  the coast  presence  of this  although  condensation  have  of the M a r c h i l e  of c o l d  upweliing,  CONCLUSIONS  with  as found  quiescent  stage  band  some o t h e r  would  during  layer  low s a l i n i t y  o f 50 ~ 80 m a n d low o x y g e n  of 5 m i l e s  width.  i s due m a i n l y  tothe  of t h e order  narrow  from the  II E x p e d i t i o n :  of an upper  may a l s o  upweliing  resulted  processes  as e v a p o r a t i o n  contribute.  The p r o c e s s o f  suggest  i t was i n a  that  t h e p e r i o d of the M a r c h i l e II  Exped i t i on.  2. -  The p r e s e n c e with  a core  temperature Peru  of a middle of h i g h  Undercurrent,  although  Undercurrent  3. -  A deeper layer with  1+.-  layer  a maximum  from  temperature  from  has been  with the  close  sea should  1,000  to the  o f an e x t e n s i o n of be k e p t  500 m c o n t a i n i n g a s a l i n i t y  o f 600 oxygen  found  depth,  high  associated mainly  the open  below  50 ** 500 m  of r e l a t i v e l y  the p o s s i b i l i t y  toward  to depths  Evidence  salinity,  and low o x y g e n ,  - Chile  coast,  layer  this  i n mind.  minimum  m associated eventually  content.  deep s t a t i o n s  and s a l i n i t y ,  shows  I ,82°C  the u n i f o r m and 31+.69 / 0  values of 00  respective!  The  presence  Subantarctic Water  of t h r e e Water  well  mainly  differentiated i n the upper  i n t h e o f f s h o r e and n o r t h e r n  associated Antarctic minimum  with  the Peru  Intermediate  layer  The c u r r e n t s  Water  described  geostrophic  1.7  Sverdrup  and  voJume that  are mainly  transport toward  of the area  Undercurrent;  contained  t h e West  and  and t h e  i n the  salinity  3»  geostrophic  toward  masses:  layer; Subtropical  part  in conclusion  i n the area  the  - Chile  water  and  the North i s 2.2  is  Sverdrup.  35 REFERENCES  Bjerknes,  J . , I96I: " E l N i n o Study based on a n a l y s i s of o c e a n s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s 1935-57". i n t e r a m e r i c a n T r o p i c a l T u n a C o m m i s s i o n , V o l . V, N o . 3 . L a J 0 i l a , Ca I i f o r n i a .  B r a n d h o r s t , W., 1959: " R e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Hake F i s h e r y and a S o u t h e r n l y R e t u r n F l o w below t h e P e r u ' C u r r e n t o f f t h e C h i l e a n C o a s t " . . N a t u r e , V o l . 183, p p . 1832-3, London. E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1910: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y E l e v e n t h E d i t i o n , V o l . . 1 0 , p . 279.  E . R.,. 1936: " r e p o r t on o c e a n o g r a p h i ca I i n v e s t i g a t ions i n the Peru C o a s t a l C u r r e n t " . D i s c o v e r y R e p o r t s , V o l . 13, p p . I O 7 - 2 7 6 , C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Gunther,  Hart,  Press,  A  T. J . , a n d R. I . C u r r i e , 196O: "The B e n g u e l a C u r r e n t " . . D i s c o v e r y R e p o r t s , V o l . 3'« PP« 123-298, C a m b r i d g e Uni v e r s i ty P r e s s .  J a k h e l I n , A., 1936: Geofysiske  "The w a t e r t r a n s p o r t o f g r a d i e n t c u r r e n t s ' ! . P u b I i k a s j o n e r V o l . XI N o . I I .  M o n t o g o m e r y , R. B., a n d W. S. W o o s t e r , 195I+: " T h e r m o s t e r i c Anomaly and t h e a n a l y s i s of s e r i a l oceanographic data". Deep-Sea R e s . , 2, p p . 6 3 - 7 O . Rattray,  J r . , M., .Tides".  Sverdrup,  Wooster,  Wyrtki,  "On t h e C o a s t a l G e n e r a t i o n o f I n t e r n a l T e l l u s . N o . I , i960.  H. U., M. W. J o h n s o n , a n d R. H. F l e m i n g , 19^2: "The O c e a n s , f h e i r . P h y s i c s , C h e m i s t r y .and G e n e r a l B i o l o g y " . P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . W. S., a n d M. G i l m a r t i n , 1961: "The P e r u - C h i l e Undercurrent". Journal o f Marine Research, V o l .  No.  Wooster,  I95O:  3, November  15,  1961, p p . 9 7 - 1 2 2 .  19,  W. S., I 9 6 O : " P r e l i m i n a r y Report Step I E x p e d i t i o n " . .Part I , P h y s i c a l and Chemical D a t a . S c r i p p s I n s t i t u t i o n o f O c e a n o g r a p h y R e f e r e n c e 61-9, J a n u a r y 16, I 96 I . K., I 9 6 3 : "The H o r i z o n t a l and V e r t i c a l F i e l d o f . Motion in.the Peru C u r r e n t " . B u l l . S c r i p p s I n s t i t u t i o n o f O c e a n o g r a p h y . 8, 3 ' 3 ~ 3 4 6 .  36 APPEND I X  I  think  northern  that  Chilean  II  Expedition  to  be  using in  data,  parachute  i t will  features Profile  that  also  are.  should found.  an i d e a  I suggest  2, w h e r e  intermediate  give  values  improving  a r e a few  current  of the  This  will  current  was  improvements  area.  measurements,  be e x t e n d e d  o f how  eddy  features  i n t h e same  t o do t h e s e  the large  also  there  studies  of the c o m p l i c a t e d  I suggest  more  were  o f some  the a n a l y s i s of the M a r c h i l e  the d i r e c t  drogues,  the eddies  understanding  suggests  place  study  through  i n future  the f i r s t  which  and  waters,  introduced  In  the present  to those give  a better  pattern  permanent  areas  in this  area  the described  measurements  mainly  in  found.  the c r u i s e plan,  of the p r o p e r t i e s ,  t o make  so as t o g e t the  interpolati  reIi abIe.  As  upweliing  nutrients better  i s an o u t s t a n d i n g  i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s  idea  of i t s i n t e n s i t y  would  feature^  to include  certainly  and e x t e n t ,  give  especially  a much i n the  coas ta I reg i on.  As  there  a r e some  internal  waves m i g h t  it  would  be v e r y  or  two o f t h e p r o f i l e s  th i s i s s o .  indications  influence  interesting  that  the currents  to repeat  (Profile  the p r e s e n c e of near  the coast,  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y one  2, f o r e x a m p l e ) a n d s e e i f  37 A give  well  designed  anchored  a very  valuable  information,  other  p r o p e r t i e s are  A would the on  further include  drogues  as  this  area  f a r as  would  also  periodical  and  use  of  permit  in parachute  simple  their  radio  detection  drogue  measurements  transmitters attached from  simple  to  stations  land.  The the  to  in  concerned.  improvement the  buoy  wind  surface  There biologists, these  observations  currents  i s no due  features  are  doubt to  the  occur  so  that  this  features  in other could  be  also  largely  The  designed  plan  of  observations.  obtained  from  an  anchored  area  of  be  on  the  of  wind.  interesting  year  with  the  because  the  described.  only  Possibly would  improved,  i s very  already  obtained  buoy  be  dependent  seasons  extent?  importance.  answer  could  a  Now and  do in  well  information  fundamental  for  what  38  7?"  74« PROFILE  1  JO .11  PROFILE  2  PROFILE  3  PROFILE  4  .31  P R O F I L E  5  .51  .30  70'W E3-4 ARICA N'l . . ...20 IP M A D R I D -21 P PICHALOl ..  . 41 "jlQUIQUE trz  20°  PPATAOHEl  .52 .53 22*  .54  24'  ) ANTOFA-  FIO 2 B ATHYT HER MOOR APHIC  STATIONS y__ .59  GASTA!  <i  24*  <?  .60 .61 26" SAN  FIG.  FELIX  I  I.* . 6  STATION  2  SAN  AMBROSIO  C H A R T  26°  I  MARCHILE  II E X P E D I T I O N  IN J U L Y  1962. ( I N S E T '  FIG.2.  )  39  14-0  8 0°  70°  70°  80°  S Arte a  a  2C  If  \]  1 ffogas4|[; to i  o  1 1I  3C  August and September 80°  $t 70°  May, June and July  eo°  Jvipo. 70°  FIG.4. WINDS DURING WILLIAM SCORESBY EXPEDITION IN 1931.  o  20  o  30  FIG. 5.  WINDS  DURING  M A R C H I L E II  EXPEDITION.  1+2  FIG.  6.  DYNAMIC  TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE  IOOO db.  S U R F A C E . (Anomalies  SURFACE in  Dynamic  OF  THE  Meters.)  SEA  WITH  RESPECT  TO  THE  FIG  8  DYNAMIC  TOPOGRAPHY  AT  THE  OCPTH  OF  100m  I  l O O O A l  FIC  II  C U R R E N T S  OFF  ARICA  •  I On ,  O.J Knoll ,  100m,  0 S Knot, ,  2  S  0 « ,  0.4 K n o t .  n u t . cwmitim err M  n » m ' io«,»iifc*ti n o * », OJIMN.  k9  I9«-  20»-  2I  . FIG.  14.  N E T  OF  S T A T I O N S  FOR  G E O S T R O P H I C  T R A N S P O R T  51  NORTHERN  * — SOUTHERN  F l S.  15.  PROFILE  GEOSTROPHIC  PRO  FILE  HOOOdb  TRANSPORT  IN  SVERORUR  52 72«  F I G . 16.  DISTRIBUTION  71*  OF  SURFACE  TEMPERATURE  70*  IN  *C  53  FIG  17  100  Dlttribution  90  Fie  of  Tompuraturo  (*C)  SO  IS.  Distribution  70  of  in  Profllt 4 ,  60  Tomporaturo  CC) In  I 8 ' I 9 of  July, 1962  SO  40  P r o t l l o 3 , 16-18  30  July,  1962.  20  10  0  Milti  5k  F I S . 19.  Dlatrlbvtlon  of  Ttmparotart  <"C) In  Profila 8,  86-26  July,  IM2.  55  FIG. 2 0 .  DISTRIBUTION  OF  TEMPERATURE  CCl.AT  THE  OEPTH  OF  100m.  56  57  58  59  72«  60  F I G . I  *  •  25  DISTRIBUTION  OF  S A L I N I T Y (%«)  AT  THE  DEPTH  OF  lOOm  61  FIG  ?6  DISTRIBUTION  OF  S A L I N l T Y <%.)  AT  THE  OEPTH  OF  250m  63 90  SO  Fio 100  28  TO  Distribution  90  SO  F10.29.  60  ol  50  Salinity O J 70  Distribution  ol  in  40  P r o tin  l,  60  30  Salinity ( X J In  Pro l i l t  30  12-14  10  0  fcUloo  J u l y , 1962. 40  5,  20  25-26 Joly,  SO  1962  20  10  O  Mllot  Sk  FIO  30  Olatrlbatlon  of  Salinity (%J  kl  Pro t i l t  3 , 16-18  July,  1962.  65  FIG.  31.  DISTRIBUTION  OF  O X Y G E N  CO N T E N T (ml/l)  AT  THE  SURFACE.  66  8. S3.  Olitrlftgiloa e l  Oaigtn  Oaattat (rnlrQ la Pro l i l t  S, U - M  Mf,  67  FIG.  34.  DISTRIBUTION  OF  O X Y G E N  C O N T E N T (ml/l),  AT  THE  DEPTH  OF  90m.  68  fiese  Dlitrlaallon  o»  Oi»«.n  C o n K n l (ml/l) In P r o t l l t  8,  18-18  Jail,  1982.  FIG. 3 6 .  DISTRIBUTION  OF  OXYGEN  CONTENT  (ml/l),  AT  THE  DEPTH  OF  100m.  70  71  72  72*  7}»  r I 0. 39.  DEPTHS  OP  MIXEO  70»  LAYER(m).  73  FIG.  42.  THE  WATER  M A S S E S  75  76  FIS 800  480  44 400  •10.  4B.  OUtrlBntlori  ol  380  •t.trliatiM  T t m p t r o l o r * C O I" 300  of  Pralllt 6,  290  AM  *  26-29 July,  200  "reflla  6,  ISO  M*M  1962 100  i»tt, W t .  SO  O  "lit«  77  no.  48.  Olitrloallon  of  <>••«••  CooHaf  In  P r o f Ho 6, 28-i» J o l t ,  1*81.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0053292/manifest

Comment

Related Items