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Temperature-salinity and salinity-depth curves for the north Atlantic and north Pacific Dewar, John Scott 1980

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c.l TEMPERATURE—SALINITY AND SALINITY-DEPTH CURVES FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC AND NORTH PACIFIC • ' by JOHN SCOTT DEWAR B.Sc , Royal Roads M i l i t a r y College, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUTRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE xn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Physics Department of Oceanography We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1930 © John Scott Dewar, 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i rements f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date /f GCTb&££ /ffo i i Mean Temperature-Salinity and Salinity-Depth Curves f o r Selected Areas of the North P a c i f i c and North A t l a n t i c ABSTRACT Using h i s t o r i c a l data from the U.S. NODC Station Data II F i l e , scatter diagrams of Temperature-Salinity [T-S] pair s and Salinity-Depth [S-Z] p a i r s were pl o t t e d for squares of 5° l a t i t u d e by 5° longitude f o r the P a c i f i c and A t l a n t i c Oceans between 10°S and 60°N. Examination of the scatter p l o t s indicates that the s i m i l a r i t y between adjacent 5° squares i s s u f f i c i e n t to allow the combination of the squares into larger areas described by a single T-S curve and a single S-Z curve. In t h i s way, twenty-one T-S and S-Z areas (not coincident) are defined f o r the P a c i f i c ; t h i r t e e n T-S and f i f t e e n S-Z areas are defined for the A t l a n t i c . The data were edited on the basis of scatter p l o t s ; mean curves of the T-S, and S-Z re l a t i o n s h i p s are presented together with standard deviations, i n d i c a t i v e of the tightness of each curve. A discussion i s presented of the uniqueness of each mean curve. The curves are examined i n terms of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the cha r a c t e r i z a t i o n of water masses and to t h e i r use i n i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t i e s f o r use i n further computa-t i o n s . In northern l a t i t u d e s the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes non-single valued, but the S-Z r e l a t i o n s h i p i s well defined. Therefore, depending on the area of the ocean being examined, one method may be superior to the other for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t y . i i i Table, of Contents Page Abstract i i L i s t of Tables i v L i s t of Figures v Acknowledgments v i Introduction 1 Data 5 Method of Computation 6 The North A t l a n t i c 12 The North P a c i f i c 28 Conclusions 37 References 39 Figures 41 Appendix A (Mean T-S Curves) 56 Appendix B (Mean S-Z Curves) 91 Appendix C (Mean T-S Tables) 128 Appendix D (Mean S-Z Tables) 136 i v L i s t of Tables Page Table I Selective Depths for S-Z p r o f i l e s Table II Core Values for Antarctic Intermediate Water Table I II Values for Upper Deep Water 17 18 V L i s t of Figures Page Fig . 1 Canadian 10° Square Numbering System 4 1 F i g . 2 Mean T-S Curves for A t l a n t i c 5° Squares 4 2 F i g . 3 Mean S-Z Curves for A t l a n t i c 5° Squares 4 3 F i g . 4 T-S averaging areas i n the North A t l a n t i c 4 4 F i g . 5 S-Z averaging areas i n the North A t l a n t i c 4 5 F i g . 6 Mean annual values (evaporation-precipitation) over the North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c 4 6 F i g . 7 Mean annual surface s a l i n i t y of the North A t l a n t i c determined from S - Z 5 0 4 7 F i g . 8 Cansq: 1203 5 Sq: 3 (Scatter plot) 4 8 Fig. 9 Cansq: 1306 5 Sq: 4 (Scatter plot) 4 9 F i g . 10 Mean T-S Curves for P a c i f i c 5° Squares 5 0 Fig. 11 Mean S-Z Curves for P a c i f i c 5° Squares 5 1 F i g . 12 T-S averaging areas i n the North P a c i f i c 5 2 Fig. 13 S-Z averaging areas i n the North P a c i f i c 5 3 F i g . 14 Cansq: 1316 5 Sq: 3 (Scatter plot) 5 4 Fig. 15 Cansq: 1420 5 Sq: 4 (Scatter plot) 5 5 v i Acknowledgments I wish to express my gratitude to Dr W.J. Emery, who suggested the project and provided valuable assistance throughout. Sincere thanks are given to the f a c u l t y , s t a f f and students, of the Department of Oceanography for t h e i r support and assistance, and to the Canadian Forces for providing me with the opportunity to undertake t h i s project. I am unable to make an adequate expression of gratitude to my wife, Colleen, who had the hardest job of a l l . CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Since i t s introduction i n the early part of the twentieth century, the temperature-salinity (T-S) diagram has become a valuable tool i n physi c a l oceanography. The f i r s t attempts to construct T-S diagrams showed that the curves produced from many hydrographic casts, taken i n the same region (often an extremely extensive one), possessed a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y . Mamayev (1975) a t t r i b u t e s t h i s s i m i l a r i t y to the mixing processes of turbulent d i f f u s i o n modifying only the v e r t i c a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n of temperature and s a l i n i t y . The modification i s manifested i n a s h i f t of the depth parameter of the temperature or s a l i n i t y obser-vation; but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between temperature and s a l i n i t y i s main-tained along i n v a r i a b l e T-S curves. The modification of the T-S curves themselves i s a secondary process and, hence, the form of the curve i s unchanged over large regions. This constancy of the T-S curve s h a l l be refe r r e d to as the conservation of the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p . Based on the conservation of the T-S curves, these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c diagrams have been used to i d e n t i f y and study water masses: t h e i r boundaries and in t e r a c t i o n s . T-S curves may be used to i n f e r processes of heat and s a l i n i t y exchange between water masses. This empirical technique has contributed greatly to the understanding of the world ocean. Wust (English t r a n s l a t i o n , 1978) and Defant (English t r a n s l a t i o n , 1980) made use of the T-S diagram i n t h e i r investigations of the struc-ture and c i r c u l a t i o n of the A t l a n t i c Ocean based on the Meteor expedi-t i o n , 1925-27. These early oceanographers also used the s a l i n i t y - d e p t h (S-Z) p r o f i l e as a t o o l i n examining water mass d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Sverdrup 1 2 (1942) used the T-S diagram to i l l u s t r a t e the character of water masses, t h e i r regions of formation and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s . He was able to c l a s s i f y six regions of s i m i l a r i t y i n the P a c i f i c Ocean and two i n the A t l a n t i c . A s e r i e s of studies were conducted i n the l a t e 1950s by Montgomery (1958), Cochrane (1958), and Pollack (1958) using volumetric T-S d i a -grams for the A t l a n t i c , P a c i f i c , Indian, and World Oceans. Basic sea water s t a t i s t i c s were determined by examining b i v a r i a t e frequency d i s -t r i b u t i o n s of temperature and s a l i n i t y . The volume of ocean water i n each b i v a r i a t e c l a s s , with p o t e n t i a l temperature range of 0.5°C and sa-l i n i t y range of 0.1 %o, was estimated and the r e s u l t i n g s t a t i s t i c s pre-sented on a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c diagram for each of the oceans l i s t e d above. Several water types (usually defined as a point on a T-S diagram) stand out d i s t i n c t l y as having well-defined temperature and s a l i n i t y param-eters . Worthington and Wright (1970) conducted a more d e t a i l e d volumetric survey on a f i n e r scale by presenting a tabulation of T-S data for the North A t l a n t i c Ocean and six sub-areas of the North A t l a n t i c . The sub-areas were determined p r i m a r i l y on the basis of bathymetry, although some allowance was made for the wedge of saline Mediterranean water which dominates at mid-latitudes. Geographical differences i n the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of T-S c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s become apparent on examination of the sub-areas. Recently, Emery (1975), Emery and Wert (1976), and Emery and O'Brien (1978) have used the conservative nature of the T-S curve to i n -fer s a l i n i t i e s for dynamic height computations by using T-S curves i n 3 conjunction with a temperature-depth (T-Z) p r o f i l e from expendable bath-ythermographs (XBT). In Emery and O'Brien (1978) i t i s shown that i n northern l a t i t u d e s , large temperature v a r i a t i o n s i n the upper layers of the ocean create i n f l e c t i o n s i n the T-S curve which r e s u l t i n non-unique values of s a l i n i t y for a given temperature. It was proposed that, for these regions, the S-Z p r o f i l e be used with T-Z p r o f i l e s to i n f e r s a l i n -i t y and, hence, dynamic height. The mechanisms which contribute to the conservation of the S-Z pro-f i l e are not yet f u l l y understood. The S-Z p r o f i l e has not been widely used for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t i e s . One of the aims of the present work w i l l be to examine the areas of S-Z conservation and to indicate regions where the S-Z p r o f i l e might be more useful than the T-S curve i n s a l i n -i t y p r e d i c t i o n s . Most recently, Stommel and Csanady (1980) have suggested the use of T-S diagrams along v e r t i c a l sections across the oceans to evaluate the meridional fluxes of sensible heat and s a l i n i t y i n the ocean as func-t i o n s of l a t i t u d e . These fluxes can be compared with meteorological bulk formulae. The investigators claim that i n s i g h t may be gained i n t o the probable processes i n operation, i . e . isopycnal mixing versus large-scale advective currents. In spite of the number of uses to which T-S and S-Z diagrams may be put, both an a l y t i c and synoptic, there has been very l i t t l e progress made i n using the wealth of h i s t o r i c a l data a v a i l a b l e to describe T-S and S-Z r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the ocean. The purpose of t h i s study i s to de-f i n e areas of s i m i l a r i t y for the North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c Oceans using as a basis the mean T-S and S-Z curves for 5° squares. This study 4 makes use of a much larger set of hydrographic data than has been used previously.. The improved data set provides improved res o l u t i o n and lends greater s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the mean curves for each area. The curves w i l l be applicable to areas of s i m i l a r i t y which w i l l define regions of consistent water properties. The improved res o l u t i o n i n these mean curves gives new in s i g h t into the d i s t r i b u t i o n of water masses and provides a means to i n f e r s a l i n i t i e s without d i r e c t measurement. 5 CHAPTER 2 DATA The h i s t o r i c a l hydrographic data used to compute the ocean curves produced i n t h i s thesis were taken from the Station Data II Geographic F i l e (SD2GE) of the United States National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). The data, as provided by NODC, are sorted by Ocean Area, Cana-dian 10° square, Canadian 1° square, month, year, and country f or each hydrographic cast. The Canadian 10° square number was used as the basic s o r t i n g unit i n t h i s study. The geographic g r i d numbering system i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1. Due to the paucity of data i n the South P a c i f i c and South A t l a n t i c , i t was decided to l i m i t t h i s study to the equatorial and northern parts of each ocean. Approximately 30,000 hydrographic casts were used to produce the A t l a n t i c curves and 35,000 to produce the P a c i f i c curves. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of stations, by 10° squares, i s shown i n Figure 1. Since i t was anticipated that the f i n a l mean curves would be used p r i m a r i l y i n conjunction with expendable bathythermographs (usual maximum depth of 760 m), the data were l i m i t e d to a depth range between the surface and 2000 metres. No attempt was made to separate the data seasonally. 6 CHAPTER 3 METHODS OF COMPUTATION For the purpose of t h i s study, the North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c Oceans are defined by 10° South l a t i t u d e and 60° North l a t i t u d e . The i r r e g u l a r eastern and western boundaries, defined by c o a s t l i n e s , are approximated by the edges of 5° squares. When defining the meridional boundaries, attempts were made to avoid including any 5° squares which contained land. I t was f e l t that i n t h i s manner the anomalies generated by l o c a l coastal waters could be kept from having a disproportionate ef-fe c t on the mean T-S and S-Z d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the larger offshore areas. Marginal seas have, also, been excluded. The North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c Oceans as defined for t h i s study are showned by the numbered squares i n Figure 1. Starting with a given 10° square number, the hydrographic casts were sorted into 5° squares using the 1° square number as the sorting unit. Scatter diagrams were plotted for the T-S pa i r s and S-Z pairs f o r each of the 5° squares. These scatter p l o t s provided a means whereby the data could be examined v i s u a l l y to i d e n t i f y errors. A count was kept of the number of hydrographic casts a v a i l a b l e i n each 5° square. Examination of the scatter p l o t s indicated that any data points outside an i n t e r v a l of two standard deviations i n s a l i n i t y (about the mean s a l i n i t y at a given depth or temperature) could be c l a s s i f i e d as bad and removed from the set. This method of e d i t i n g the f i l e , by ex-cluding s p e c i f i c T-S or S-Z p a i r s , allowed part of a cast to be kept even i f some observations were outside the allowable i n t e r v a l . Most of the bad data p a i r s , which were d i s c e r n i b l e on the scatter p l o t s , 7 appeared to be the r e s u l t of the misplacing of hydrographic casts i n the 10° f i l i n g system, e.g. North l a t i t u d e being confused for South l a t i t u d e and the cast being assigned the wrong 10° square number. In t h i s case, the ent i r e cast was removed. It i s estimated that only about 2% of the data were removed due to the two standard deviation c r i t e r i o n . A. Mean S-Z P r o f i l e s by 5" Squares The raw data used to produce the S-Z scatter plots were read again and the observed values of s a l i n i t y versus depth were interpolated to 56 selected depths (Z^, i = 1, 56), given i n Table 1. The i n t e r p o l a -t i o n was achieved using the three-point Lagrange i n t e r p o l a t i o n equation for temperature, s a l i n i t y and oxygen c a l c u l a t i o n s described i n the NODC User's Guide (1974). The recommended c r i t e r i a , outlined i n the Guide, were followed for the conditional use of a l i n e a r i n t e r p o l a t i o n , the assignment of surface values and the preclusion of i n t e r p o l a t i o n due to the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of observations. The l a s t c r i t e r i o n was responsible for removing about 1% of the hydrographic casts from the data f i l e . TABLE 1. SELECTED DEPTHS FOR S-Z PROFILES Z 1 — 0 Z 9 — 80 Z 17 160 Z 25 = 280 Z 33 = 440 Z 1+1 = 750 Z 4 9 = 1300 z 2 = 10 Z 10 = 90 Z 18 = 170 Z26 = 300 Z31+ = 460 Zi+2 = 800 Z50 = 1400 Z 3 = 20 Z 11 = 100 Z 19 = 180 Z27 = 320 Z 35 = 480 Z43 = 850 Z51 = 1500 Zit = 30 Z 1 2 = 110 Z20 = 190 Z28 = 340 Z 3 6 = 500 Zi+i* = 900 Z52 = 1600 Z 5 = 40 Z 13 = 120 Z 21 = 200 Z 29 = 360 Z 3 7 = 550 Zi+5 = 950 Z53 = 1700 Z6 = 50 Z in = 130 Z 22 = 220 Z30 = 380 Z38 = 600 Zi+6 = 1000 Z5k = 1800 Z 7 = 60 Z 15 = 140 Z 23 = 240 Z 31 = 400 Z 3 9 = 650 Zi+7 = 1100 Z 55 = 1900 Z8 = 70 Z 16 = 150 Z2i+ = 260 Z32 420 Zi+0 700 Z48 1200 Z56 2000 8 Using the interpolated d i s t r i b u t i o n , the mean s a l i n i t y (S z^) and the standard deviation i n s a l i n i t y (°"z^) were computed for each Z^ using a l l the remaining hydrographic casts i n the 5° square. The mean s a l i n i t y (S z^) and standard deviation i n s a l i n i t y ( o"z^ ) were then recomputed excluding those s a l i n i t y values outside the i n t e r v a l S z^ - 2 . s z^ was then p l o t t e d for each Z^ on diagrams having s a l i n i t y as the abscissa and depth as the ordinate. Each S z^ was bracketed by ° z^- These diagrams w i l l be ref e r r e d to as the mean s a l i n i t y - d e p t h p r o f i l e s for 5° squares ( S - Z 5 0 ) . Each S - Z 5 0 was o v e r l a i d on the S-Z scatter p l o t for the 5° square and examined on a l i g h t table to v e r i f y that the S - Z 5 0 p r o f i l e conformed to the shape indicated on the scatter p l o t and that the S z. appeared reasonable when compared to the concentration of S-Z p a i r s at a given Z^ -B. Mean T-S Curves by 5° Squares In developing the mean T-S curves, i t was f e l t that, since the water column was r e s t r i c t e d to 2000 metres, the Jin s i t u temperature, rather than the p o t e n t i a l temperature, would be s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate for purposes of intercomparison between 5° squares. The use of the i n  s i t u temperature would also f a c i l i t a t e the use of the curves i n i n f e r -r i n g s a l i n i t y . Consideration was given to the p r e c i s i o n of the instruments used to measure temperature. XBTs are considered to be accurate to 0.1°C (Sippican Corp.), however a more r e a l i s t i c estimate would be 0.2°C (Pickard, 1975). Thermometers may be considered accurate to 0.02°C i n routine use (Pickard, 1975). The difference between p o t e n t i a l temper-9 ature and i n s i t u temperature at an i n s i t u temperature of 1 . 8 7 5 ° C , a depth of 2 0 0 0 metres, and a s a l i n i t y of 3 5 . 0 0 i s 0 . 0 1 8 ° C . Since the error introduced by using in s i t u temperature, rather than p o t e n t i a l temperature, i s less than the p r e c i s i o n of the thermometers, i n s i t u temperature has been used throughout. The s t a r t i n g point i n the computations of the 5 ° square T-S curves was, again, the reading of the raw data. The observed temperature and s a l i n i t y p a i r s for each hydrographic cast were assigned to bins defined by temperature i n t e r v a l s of 2 . 0 ° C between 0 ° C and 3 0 ° C . The mean s a l i n i t y for each 2 ° C bin ( S 2 ) and the standard deviation i n s a l i n i t y ('o^ ) were computed. The observed T-S p a i r s were then reassigned to smaller bins defined by temperature i n t e r v a l s of 0 . 2 ° C over the same range from 0 ° C to 3 0 ° C . For each of the smaller bins, the mean s a l i n -i t y (SQ 2^ a n < ^ ^ e standard deviation i n s a l i n i t y (oh .2^ were com-puted using a l l the observed pa i r s i n 0 . 2 ° C i n t e r v a l s , excluding those outside the s a l i n i t y range S 2 - 2 0 2 . This produced 151 S 0.2 a n d OQ 2 f ° r each 5 ° square mean T-S curve (T-Scj 0) over the temperature range from 0 ° C to 3 0 ° C . These 151 Sg .2 A N < ^ ° 0 . 2 v a l u e s were used to produce the T - S 5 0 curves. A f i v e - p o i n t moving average was passed over both the SQ 2 A N D A 0 . 2 v a l u e s to smooth the curves and the T - S 5 0 was then p l o t t e d f o r each 5 ° square with s a l i n i t y as the abscissa and tempera-ture as the ordinate. The curve of Sg. 2 w a s bracketed by the curves °f S 0 . 2 + ° 0 . 2 A N C ^ S 0 . 2 ~ ° 0 . 2 ' T n e v a l i d i t y of the T - S 5 < > were tested against the T-S scatter p l o t s i n the same way as the S-Zc;o had been tested. 10 c • Selection of Averaging Areas for T-S Diagrams The subdivision of the North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c into aver-aging areas was based on the degree of s i m i l a r i t y evident between the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p s of adjacent 5 ° squares. It was o r i g i n a l l y intended to use the T - S 5 0 curves for the purpose of comparison, but as the process progressed i t became increasingly apparent that t h i s would not be s a t i s f a c t o r y . The curve of T - S 5 0 at the high end of the tempera-ture scale i s often established on r e l a t i v e l y few observations. Some doubt, then, exists as to how strongly to consider that part of the curve i n determining the association of contiguous squares. By using the T-S scatter p l o t s for comparison, i t became obvious how r e l i a b l e any part of the T - S 5 0 was. In f a c t , i n most cases, the scatter p l o t was s u f f i c i e n t l y t i g h t (the T-S curve i s well defined with l i t t l e scatter) to be used as the sole means of comparison. The subjective comparisons above led to the establishment of 21 areas of s i m i l a r i t y for the P a c i f i c Ocean and 13 for the A t l a n t i c . Mean curves were produced for each of these areas by taking the average of the T - S 5 0 for each of the 5 ° squares within an area; i . e . , for each 0.2°C temperature i n t e r v a l i n the range from 0°C to 30°C the mean s a l i n i t y was computed using the mean s a l i n i t y of that i n t e r v a l for each n S. 5 ° square; S = I — , where S^  i s the mean s a l i n i t y for a 5 ° i=1 square for a given 0.2°C temperature i n t e r v a l . The T-S curve thus ob-tained for each area was then smoothed using a f i v e - p o i n t moving aver-age. The standard deviation i n s a l i n i t y for each 0.2°C i n t e r v a l was 11 computed using 0" = (l/t'n) "/ n£ ' smoothed curve, together i=1 with the standard deviation for each 0.2°C i n t e r v a l , was then p l o t t e d with s a l i n i t y as the abscissa and temperature as the ordinate to produce the mean area temperature-salinity curve ( T - S A ^ ) . The curve may be considered as the Gaussian mean of the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p which ex i s t s i n each area (Snedecor and Cochrane, 1972, p. 35). The standard deviation i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of s t a t i s t i c a l confidence which may be placed i n the mean curve as well as an i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of v a r i a b i l i t y which e x i s t s i n the s a l i n i t y . D. Selection of Averaging Areas f o r S-Z Diagrams Attempts were made to produce mean area S-Z p r o f i l e s (S-Z A^) to correspond to the areas of s i m i l a r i t y determined on the basis of T-S curves, however i t was found that agreement between the S-Z A^ pro-duced i n t h i s manner and the S - Z 5 0 which made up the area was not p a r t i c u l a r l y good. Separate areas of s i m i l a r i t y were determined for the S-Z A i by comparison of the S - Z 5 0 for the North P a c i f i c and North A t l a n t i c Oceans. When the areas of s i m i l a r i t y had been decided, the mean s a l i n i t y and standard deviation i n s a l i n i t y were computed for each area. Mean values and standard deviations were used from a l l the S - Z 5 0 i n the area for each selected depth i n the same manner as these parameters had been used for the 0.2°C temperature i n t e r v a l s i n the computation of the T-S* . The S-Z a were then p l o t t e d i n the same format as the A i "1 S - Z 5 curves. Again, the mean may be considered as the Gaussian mean of the S-Z d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the area and the standard deviation i s a measure of the v a r i a b i l i t y of the s a l i n i t y at depth. 12 CHAPTER 4 THE NORTH ATLANTIC In t h i s chapter, the mean T-S and S-Z curves for 5° squares and the averaging areas are presented and discussed. The scatter diagrams are used to demonstrate that the s a l i e n t features of the curves are maintained through the averaging process, but some of the f i n e r d e t a i l i s l o s t . Although some of the major de s c r i p t i v e features w i l l be men-tioned i n the discussion of various areas, a de t a i l e d examination of the expository information a v a i l a b l e i n these curves i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . Cross references w i l l be made between the T-S and S-Z averaging areas. Also, regions w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d where one method i s superior to the other for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t y . The curves of T - S 5 0 and S - Z 5 0 for the enti r e North A t l a n t i c are given i n Figures 2 and 3, res p e c t i v e l y . It i s easy to see that there e x i s t s a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y between contiguous squares and that the areas of s i m i l a r i t y are well defined and cover substantial re-gions of the ocean. Figures 4 and 5 show the averaging areas selected f o r T - S ^ and S-Z A^. There are 13 t - S A ^ a n c i f i f t e e n s-z A i> Over the whole ocean, the greatest differences i n the s a l i n i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between areas occur i n the upper layers (Z < 300 m) . This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the zonal arrangement of the averaging areas. The s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n the upper layers i s rela t e d to the l o c a l rate of evaporation and, hence, the zonal v a r i a t i o n i n solar r a d i a t i o n . The purely zonal d i s t r i b u t i o n i s modified, however, by the presence of ocean currents and l o c a l geographic conditions which govern patterns of evaporation and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Figure 6 (from Neumann and Pierson, 13 1966) shows the mean annual difference ( in cm) between evaporation and p r e c i p i t a t i o n for the North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c . It i s apparent that the e f f e c t s of p r e c i p i t a t i o n are more l o c a l i z e d than the near perfect zonal d i s t r i b u t i o n of atmospheric temperature. The e f f e c t of c i r c u l a t i o n on the s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n may be seen i n Figure 7, which shows the surface s a l i n i t y of the North A t l a n t i c , derived from the surface values of S - Z 5 0 • In general, the surface s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n shows a marked correspondence with the c l a s s i c a l North A t l a n t i c gyre. The Gulf Stream i s p a r t i c u l a r l y prominent, having a s a l i n i t y gradient at the surface which approaches 1 /km i n the mean. It i s also possible to i d e n t i f y the Sargasso Sea, the North A t l a n t i c Equatorial Current, the intrusions of the Amazon and St Lawrence Rivers, and the presence of the Labrador Current. Precipitation/evaporation e f f e c t s are also evident i n the pool of fresh water i n the region of Sierra Leone and L i b e r i a and another pool of fresh water i n the region of the Guianas and Venezuela. These features w i l l be discussed further below. The T r o p i c a l Region In the upper layers (Z < 300 m) of the equatorial region, the sa-l i n i t y - d e p t h p r o f i l e renders a better account of the horizontal s a l i n -i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n than does the temperature-salinity r e l a t i o n s h i p . S-Z A^, S-Z^, S - Z A 3 a n d S - Z A 4 (see F i g . 5) have been selected as representative of the major features i n t h i s region. The p r o f i l e s are given i n Appendix B. There i s a pool of low s a l i n i t y water, S - 35%>, which accumulates i n the coastal region o ff L i b e r i a and Sierra Leone (0°-10°N, 0°-30°W, see F i g . 7) . It i s apparent i n figure 3 that the pool i s r e s t r i c t e d to 14 a very shallow layer (Z < 30 m) . As may be seen i n Figure 6, t h i s i s a region where p r e c i p i t a t i o n exceeds evaporation by as much as 100 cm/ year, hence the s a l i n i t y minimum at the surface may be a t t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y to l o c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n patterns. The pool spreads westward across the equatorial A t l a n t i c , increasing gradually i n s a l i n i t y , r e f l e c t i n g the region where p r e c i p i t a t i o n exceeds evaporation. The rate of increase i n s a l i n i t y corresponds to the decrease i n the excess of p r e c i p i t a t i o n over evaporation. On the western side of the A t l a n t i c , the region where p r e c i p i t a t i o n exceeds evaporation broadens i n extent i n the North-South d i r e c t i o n , but t h i s i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the surface s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . Defant (1980) suggests that t h i s i s because the South Equatorial Current brings saline water northwest from the high evaporation regions of the South A t l a n t i c and t h i s causes the pinching of the low s a l i n i t y L i b e r i a n tongue as i t nears the South Amer-ican coast (Defant, 1980). This horizontal surface gradient i s con-cealed i n the S-ZA^ which has been computed. The average surface value for t h i s tongue i s 35.63%). Below t h i s tongue, at a depth of 60 to 70 metres, there i s a pro-nounced s a l i n i t y maximum which has been associated with the Equatorial Thermohaline Undercurrent which flows equatorward i n the t r o p i c a l region (not to be confused with Equatorial j e t s between 2°S and 2°N, i . e . , the Cromwell Current) (Neumann and Pierson (1966); Sverdrup et a l . (1942)). This subsurface s a l i n i t y maximum may be traced (Fig. 3) as far north as 25°N. In the northern hemisphere, i t i s more pronounced in the western part of the A t l a n t i c than the east, the saline water being d i l u t e d by fresher water i n the d i f f u s e currents of the eastern part of the gyre. The subsurface s a l i n i t y maximum i s a commnon feature of S-ZA^, and S-Z A 3. 15 The surface s a l i n i t y minimum and- the subsurface s a l i n i t y maximum are d i s c e r n i b l e i n the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p for the region 5°S to 20°N (F i g . 2). The curves T-S A l, T-S A 2, T - S A 3 ' a n d ^" SA 4 have been selected as being representative of the t r o p i c a l region. From the sigma-t l i n e s on the T-S A. i t may be seen that the upper layer (Z < 100 m, from S-Z considerations) i s a d i s c o n t i n u i t y layer (Sverdrup, 1942: a region of an extreme density gradient) i n terms of density (Sverdrup, 1942). The heating of the surface water, due to solar r a d i -ation, combined with the low s a l i n i t y water from the high p r e c i p i t a t i o n regions, produces a layer i n which the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n has become so stable that mixing i s i n h i b i t e d by the extreme s t a b i l i t y . The excess heat i s unable to d i f f u s e downward and must be used i n evaporation. It i s l i k e l y , then, that an equilibrium i s achieved over the L i b e r i a n low s a l i n i t y tongue such that the replacement of fresh water i n the tongue i s balanced by evaporation and the equilibrium i s maintained by these mechanisms rather than by mixing with water advected from elsewhere. There i s another well-defined pool of fresh water which occurs o f f the coast of the Guianas (10°N, 50°W, see Fig. 7). This pool can be a t t r i b u t e d to the combination of fresh water from the region where pre-c i p i t a t i o n exceeds evaporation, on the east coast of equatorial South America, and freshwater run-off from the Amazon Basin being pushed north and west by the confluence of the North and South Equatorial Currents. This Venezuela-Guiana pool, l i k e the one i n the Eastern Equatorial A t l a n t i c , has a very l i m i t e d depth range. The e f f e c t s of the surface s a l i n i t y minimum are extremely l o c a l i z e d (see Fig. 7). This l o c a l i z a -t i o n i s probably due to the pool being bounded by the South American coast, the Caribbean Islands, and the well-defined edge of the North A t l a n t i c gyre. 16 At greater depths, the range of v a r i a b i l i t y i s le s s than i n the up-per layers (0.5 °/,o versus 2.0%o)« For depths below approximately 300 m (5 <_ 3 5 ° ^ , T <. 10°C) the T-S A. possess more obvious features than the S-ZA.. The s a l i e n t features of the s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n on the T-S diagrams are marked by two extrema: the s a l i n i t y minimum of the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and the s a l i n i t y maximum of the Upper North A t l a n t i c Deep Water (UDW). The Antaractic Intermediate Water was recognized by Wust (1935) as e x i s t i n g i n the range 4.5°C, 33.95 % 0 to 6.5°C, 34.85%£; the colder, fresher parameters e x i s t i n g i n the region to the south of the confines of the present study. This water mass ori g i n a t e s at the Antarctic Con-vergence (approximately 45°S-55°S) due to the sinking of cold, r e l a t i v e -l y fresh water (2.2°C, 33.8%t>). S a l i n i t y i s the most suitable i n d i c a -t i o n of the presence of t h i s water mass since, i n the formation region, the s a l i n i t y i s uniformly low while the temperature has a meridional gradient caused by d i f f e r e n t i a l solar heating. Wust points out that, i n the Southern A t l a n t i c , the v e r t i c a l structure of the Antarctic Inter-mediate Water i s si m i l a r to the ho r i z o n t a l arrangement of temperature and s a l i n i t y at the surface i n the formation area; the upper portions of the water mass conforming to the northern parts of the formation region while the lower portions conform to the southern. This type of d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t s from sinking along i s e n t r o p i c surfaces with l i t t l e mixing across o t surfaces (Sverdrup et a l . , 1942). The core values for Antarctic Intermediate Water, determined from T-S A^ and S-Z A i # are given i n Table 2 below. 17 TABLE 2 Core Values for AAIW Area S a l i n i t y Temp C O Depth (m) T-S A l 34.542 5.3 725 T - S A z 34.521 5.5 712 T-S A 34.650 5.7 700 T-S* 34.769 6.1 800 A4 T - S A s 34.909 6.5 850 Wust indicated that the d e f l e c t i o n induced by C o r i o l i s force i s r e a d i l y apparent i n the slope of the core layer. To the north of the equator, there i s a deepening of the core layer on the eastern side of the A t l a n t i c , i . e . to the r i g h t of the northerly flow. In Figure 3, the deepening of the core toward the east may be traced (0°-10°N). The deepening of the core layer i n the east i s masked somewhat i n the S-Z A. by the zonal arrangement of the averaging areas. For S-Z A the minimum s a l i n i t y value occurs at 900 m, but e x i s t s at 700-800 m for areas S-Z A z and S-Z^. The freshest s a l i n i t y value i s found i n T-S A 2 and t h i s may be seen as evidence of the westward d e f l e c t i o n due to the C o r i o l i s force i n the southern hemi-sphere. T - S A 2 "*"s a r e 9 " l o n °f a strong northward geostrophic current a t the depth of 800 m (Defant, 1961) which corresponds to the core depth of the Antarctic Intermediate Water. Thus, the Antarctic Intermediate Water flows north from the Antarc-t i c Convergence, being characterized by a s a l i n i t y minimum. As the water mass moves north i t i s deflected westward against the South 18 American coast. At the equator, most of the water mass i s i n the western part of the ocean as i t continues i t s way north. Once across the equator, the flow i s deflected toward the east and the core deepens in the east. However, as the flow moves north and east, the s a l i n i t y minimum i s eroded by mixing. Considerations of continuity imply that there must be a correspond-i n g southward flow to balance the northward excursion of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, described above, and the Antarctic Bottom Water which also flows north, but at a much greater depth. This southward flow i s embedded between the tongues of the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the Antarctic Bottom Water. It consists of a water mass referred to by Wust as Upper North A t l a n t i c Deep Water (UDW). This water mass i s marked by a s a l i n i t y maximum produced by the i n j e c t i o n of s a l t - r i c h Mediterranean Water into the A t l a n t i c through the S t r a i t of G i b r a l t a r . Values for the Upper Deep Water i n the equatorial region are given below (Table 3). The depth of the Upper Deep Water does not stand out sharp-l y i n any S-ZA. or S - Z 5 0 but l i e s i n the range of 1600 - 2000 m i n a l l of the areas. TABLE 3 Values for UDW Area S a l i n i t y Temperature T-S A 1 34.938 3.3 T - S A 2 34.947 3.1 T-S A ; J 34.974 3.7 T - S A 4 34.960 3.7 T-S a_ 35.009 4.5 19 Comparison of the T-S A^ for the equatorial region indicates t h a t the s a l i n i t y minimum of the Antarctic Intermediate Water i s considerably eroded as the flow continues northward, but the s a l i n i t y maximum of the Upper Deep Water suffers much less d e t e r i o r a t i o n as the water mass moves to the south below the Antarctic Intermediate Water. Volumetric considerations by Wright and Worthington (1970) for the Guiana and Guinea Basins indicate that the volumes of Antarctic Inter-mediate Water and Upper Deep Water are not s u f f i c i e n t l y disproportionate for the Upper Deep Water to so completely sublimate the Antarctic Inter-mediate Water by mixing and change so l i t t l e i t s e l f . However, the near surface s a l i n i t y maximum, which has been associated with the Equatorial Thermohaline Undercurrent, does suffe r a pronounced decrease i n the s a l i n i t y value as t h i s s a l t y water moves south. In terms of density, there i s le s s of a difference between the water of the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the Upper Deep Water than there i s between the Antarctic Intermediate Water and the Equatorial Thermohaline Undercurrent Water. This i s c l e a r l y shown i n any of the T-S A^ (e.g., T - S A 2 ) . The S-Z A^ ind i c a t e that the cores of the AAIW and the Undercurrent Water are p h y s i c a l l y closer i n the v e r t i c a l than the AAIW and the UDW. Further, i f one examines Figure 3 i n the northeastern equatorial region, i t seems clear that the bulge of the AAIW has been eroded from the top rather than the bottom. The mixing between the AAIW and the Thermohaline Undercurrent Water may also be argued in terms of a s a l t balance. As w i l l be shown when the mid-latitude region i s discussed, the surface water i n t h i s region i s extremely saline and the s a l i n i t y would be continually increasing due 20 to the excess of evaporation over p r e c i p i t a t i o n (as much as 100 cm/year, F i g . 6) unless the excess s a l t water could be mixed down and advected away. The following process for the system i s suggested: The saline water of the Sargasso Sea i s advected southward by the Undercurrent below the d i s c o n t i n u i t y layer of the equatorial North A t l a n t i c . As i t i s c a r r i e d southward, mixing takes place between the AAIW and the Under-current Water, increasing the s a l i n i t y of the one and decreasing the s a l i n i t y of the other. This process i s consistent with the behaviour of the S - Z 5 0 and T - S 5 0 shown i n Figures 2 and 3. A double d i f f u s i o n process may play a r o l e i n the mixing mechanism. The density difference i s r e l a t i v e l y small (Ao"t = 2.0) and the two water masses are c l o s e l y situated i n the v e r t i c a l (Az between cores = 700 m) . The warm saline water mass overlays the fresher, cooler water mass which i s t y p i c a l of double d i f f u s i o n environments (Pond and Pickard, 1978, p. 29). Shear i n s t a b i l i t i e s and turbulent mixing induced by the presence of the equatorial current structure, provide two more mechanisms by which the AAIW minimum may be eroded by s a l t water from above, without a complementary erosion of the UDW below. E i t h e r T-S A^ or S-Z A^ may be taken as representative curves f o r the t r o p i c a l region. For each area, some of the d e t a i l , such as sloping of core l e v e l s and ho r i z o n t a l gradients within an area, w i l l be l o s t ; however, the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v e r t i c a l s a l i n i t y d i s -t r i b u t i o n w i l l be maintained. Both methods appear to be s a t i s f a c t o r y for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t i e s i n t h i s region, although S-Z i s s l i g h t l y superior near the surface. Comparisons with r e s u l t s compiled from hydrographic samples have not yet been done to investigate what degree of accuracy may be obtained. 21 The Mid-Latitude Region The mid-latitudes of the North A t l a n t i c are dominated by the centre of the North A t l a n t i c gyre, the Sargasso Sea. At l e a s t i n the upper layer, there i s l i t t l e opportunity, because of the c i r c u l a t i o n patterns, for water to be advected out of the area, that which contributes to the thermohaline undercurrent i s small compared to the t o t a l volume. There i s a region overlying the centre of the gyre where evaporation greatly exceeds p r e c i p i t a t i o n (up to 120 cm/year) and the surface waters achieve s a l i n i t i e s i n excess of 37/£o • I s e l i n (1936) pointed out that for the water below the surface layer, the T-S curve for the v e r t i c a l water column i s very s i m i l a r to a horizontal T-S curve for surface waters i n the open North A t l a n t i c i n winter (Neumann and Pierson, 1966). This feature has been explained by the sinking of surface water at conver-gences along isopycnic surfaces, with l i t t l e mixing across isopycnic surfaces, a formation process s i m i l a r to that of the AAIW. The Sargasso Sea corresponds to T-SA,_ and T-S A^ and S-Z A^. For the S-Z p r o f i l e , the s a l i n i t y decreases almost l i n e a r l y with depth from a value of 36.96 at the surface to a value of 35.25 at 800 m. The v e r t i c a l s a l i n i t y gradient i s 0.2^o/100 m. Below 800 m,the s a l i n i t y continues to decrease generally, but the gradient i s reduced to 0.02^/100 m. There i s no d i s t i n c t minimum at depth. This suggests that the AAIW has been mixed away by about 25°N. The T-S curves may be a better i n d i c a t i o n , here, of the movement of the water masses. T" SA5' which l i e s mostly between 15°N and 25°N and extends almost r i g h t across the A t l a n t i c , s t i l l possesses a marked AAIW minimum (6.5°C, 34.909%o )• This minimum has disappeared, however, i n T-S A f ;, which l i e s mainly between 20°N and 30°N, and 22 s l i g h t l y further east than T-S A^. The subsurface s a l i n i t y maximum i n T-S A j . (23.0°C, 36.83%c>) c l e a r l y o r i g i n a t e s very near the surface i n T-S A &. This i s evident i n both the S - Z 5 0 (Fig. 3) and T - S 5 0 ( F i g . 2). Area T-S Ag and area S-Z A^ cover more or les s the same re-gion of the the North A t l a n t i c to the northwest of the ce n t r a l part of the gyre. This region i s bounded on the north by the dramatic s a l i n i t y gradient of the Gulf Stream. As may be seen i n F i g . 6, t h i s i s a region where evaporation exceeds p r e c i p i t a t i o n by as much as 120 cm annually. The excess of evaporation over p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s greater than i n the Sargasso Sea region, however the s a l i n i t y values are lower. This i s considered to be a r e s u l t of the c i r c u l a t i o n northward along the North American coast which advects water away before the high s a l i n i t y values observed i n the Sargasso are achieved. S-Z A 7 shows that the water column i s nearly i s o h a l i n e , at about s = 36.4%,, for the upper 400 m, then decreases r a p i d l y to s = 35.3%° at 800 m, then the s a l i n i t y i s gradually reduced to 35.0%oat 2000 m. This d i s t r i b u t i o n i s p a r a l l e l e d i n T-S Ag. The isohaline feature i s evident between 30°C and 18°C. There i s a rapid decrease i n s a l i n i t y between 18°C and 8°C and a gradual decrease at lower temperatures. Areas T-S Ag and s _ Z A 8 a r e nearly coincident i n the c e n t r a l p a r t of the mid-latitude North A t l a n t i c . The area i s a t r a n s i t i o n region between the water masses of the Eastern and Western North Atlan-t i c . The deeper section of the T - S A q , at about 6°C, shows a s l i g h t influence of Mediterranean water and the upper waters are s i m i l a r to 23 T - S A 9 * S - Z A 8 s h o w s a nearly l i n e a r decrease i n s a l i n i t y (from 36.3%oto 35.4%o) with increasing depth between the surface and 700 m and then a much smaller decrease between 700 and 2000 m from 35.4%> to 35.0%o The Eastern A t l a n t i c The Eastern A t l a n t i c i s represented by t _ S A 6 ' T - S A 7 ' A N D T- SA 1 0'- a n d bY S _ Z A 6 - S- ZAg' S " Z A 1 0 a n d S " Z A 1 4 ' ^ most prominent feature of t h i s part of the A t l a n t i c i s the i n j e c t i o n of saline water from the Mediterranean Sea- The Mediterranean Water has a s a l i n i t y of about 36.5%»and a temperature of 11.9°C. I t i s the main source of Upper Deep Water in the A t l a n t i c . The density (o"t = 27,78) ind i c a t e s that neutral buoyancy i s achieved at a l e v e l of around 1000 m (Neumann and Pierson, 1966). The scatter p l o t (Fig. 8) for the 5° square immediately o f f the S t r a i t of G i b r a l t a r shows that the i n j e c t i o n occurs between 1000 and 1200 metres. S a l i n i t y values may be as high as 36.7 at temperatures of 12.5°C (o f c = 27.83). In the mean, however, the inje c t e d value appears to be 35.96 %o at 10.2°C ( a t = 27.69) at 1200 metres. Of course, the extreme values are concealed by the averaging pro-cess, but the e s s e n t i a l elements of the i n j e c t i o n remain. As may be seen i n the scatter p l o t at the 12°C l e v e l , there are many values of s a l i n i t y , ranging from 36.7%odown to 35.4%o, that have been observed. This indicates that the waters are not well mixed when the i n j e c t i o n occurs. The scatter p l o t for a square 1000 km due west from the s t r a i t shows a much t i g h t e r curve. The spreading of the Mediterranean Water has been well documented and supports the findings of Wust (1935). He shows that the main axes of spreading from the S t r a i t of G i b r a l t a r are to the west and to the 24 north. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the T-S averaging areas. The most pro-nounced e f f e c t s of the Mediterranean s a l i n i t y maximum are observed i n T-S* and T-Sa (see F i g . 4) . These areas are i n good agree-A 7 "10 ment with Wust's 35.5/^isohaline. As Upper Deep Water, the e f f e c t s of the Mediterranean i n j e c t i o n can be detected well into the South A t l a n t i c . With the exception of the s a l i n i t y maximum, caused by the Mediter-ranean water, the T-S and S-Z curves for the Eastern A t l a n t i c are simi-l a r to those observed in the r e s t of the mid-latitude North A t l a n t i c . There i s a r e l a t i v e l y high s a l i n i t y value at the surface which decreases with depth. The s a l i n i t y value at 2000 m (S = 35.1%o) i s s l i g h t l y greater than i t i s elsewhere i n the North A t l a n t i c (S - 35.0%o). The Northern Region of the North A t l a n t i c The northern region of the North A t l a n t i c i s represented by S" ZA11' S" ZA12' S ~ Z a 1 3 ' S _ Z a 1 3 ' T _ S a 1 1 ' T " S a 1 2 and T~S A^3' I n general, i n the northern waters, the S-Z A^ give a more comprehensible d e s c r i p t i o n of the s a l i n i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n than do the T-S A. • The reasons for t h i s w i l l be discussed i n terms of each area. Area S-Z* l i e s i n the region of the strong Gulf Stream s a l i n -A11 i t y gradient; however, the gradient i t s e l f i s concealed even i n the S-Zco which make up S-Z, . The remarkable feature i n t h i s area i s the surface s a l i n i t y minimum caused by fresh water runoff from the voluminous St Lawrence River system. Area S - ZA-| 2' w n i c n l i e s imme-d i a t e l y to the east of S-Z A l^, possesses a d e f i n i t e s a l i n i t y maximum i n the upper layers. The surface value for s - z A i 2 s = ^5.7 compared with s = 33.7 % 0 f o r S-Z A 1 ^. i t may, thus, be concluded 25 that, on the average, the mainstream of the Gulf Stream passes between these two areas. This i s confirmed by an examination of F i g . 7 which was developed from mean 5° surface s a l i n i t y values. The gradient of the Gulf Stream i s maintained by the geostrophic c i r c u l a t i o n which keeps the high s a l i n i t y water from the Sargasso Sea trapped and c i r c u l a t i n g within the gyre and fresh water from the North American continental shelf, the St Lawrence River, and the southward flowing Labrador Current outside the gyre (Worthington, 1976). These lower s a l i n i t y values to the north and west of the Gulf Stream, combined with extremely low winter temperatures, produce i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p which lessen the value of the T-S diagram as a t o o l for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t y . For the t r o p i c a l and mid-latitude A t l a n t i c , there i s an accordance between depth and temperature, such that the greater the depth, the colder the water. In the northern region, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n winter, the temperature of the surface water may be reduced as low or lower than that of the deep water. In T - sA-j2' there i s an i n f l e c t i o n point at approximately 4.0°C, below which there i s a marked decrease i n the s a l i n i t y . The decrease i n s a l i n i t y i s associated with the cooling of surface water. This may be confirmed by an examination of the S-Z and T-S scatter plots for a 5° square i n the northern area (Fig. 9). The S-Z scatter p l o t shows that below approximately 400 m, there are no s a l i n i t y values less than 34.5%o; therefore, the low s a l i n i t y values shown on the T-S scatter p l o t at low temperatures must occur i n the surface; the lowest temperatures must occur r i g h t at the surface (Pickard, 1975). 26 This cooling of the surface water renders the T-S diagram rather less useful as a to o l for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t y for dynamic height or sound v e l o c i t y computations. The mean s a l i n i t y becomes meaningless because the s a l i n i t y values for a given temperature are not dependent on the s a l i n i t y . For example, for an a r b i t r a r i l y chosen temperature of 4.0°C, the mean s a l i n i t y w i l l have components of the r e l a t i v e l y fresh surface water, with s a l i n i t i e s as low as 33.0%0/ and the more saline i n t e r -mediate water, with s a l i n i t i e s of almost 35.0%Q. The mean T-S curve, then, i s not t r u l y representative of any actual water mass which occurs i n the water column. A further, and more dynamically s i g n i f i c a n t , consequence of the cooling of the surface water i s the increase i n density that must occur. Wust (1935) indicates that, at a depth of 1000 m, the temperature i s about 3.5°C i n the waters to the east of Newfoundland; S-ZAl,_ gives a s a l i n i t y at 1000 m of 35.0%o. This produces a sigma-t value of 27.8. For a surface s a l i n i t y of 34.0%oand a temperature of 0.0°C the o t v a l -ue i s 27.3 . This indicates that i n the upper 1000 m of the sub-arctic region of the North A t l a n t i c there i s very l i t t l e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , and exchange between the upper and intermediate waters i s possible. This cooling of surface water becomes e s p e c i a l l y important i n area T - S A ^ . To a large extent, the water column i s r e l a t i v e l y i s o h a l i n e a t 34.9%o, hence, the reduction i n temperature at the surface may pro-duce den s i t i e s greater than those which occur at depth. This region, the Irminger Sea, o f f southern Greenland, has long been i d e n t i f i e d as a formation region of subarctic water (T = 3.0°C, s = 34.95%o) which renews the deep water of the North A t l a n t i c (Sverdrup, 1942). 27 Further to the east, T - S A ^ exhibits a more well-behaved T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t h i s region, either T ~ S A or s - Z A - | 3 could be used to i n f e r s a l i n i t y . A portion of the Gulf Stream branches into t h i s portion of the Norwegian Sea to produce an environment which i s not affec t e d by winter cooling to the same extent as the water to the north and west of the Gulf Stream. 28 CHAPTER 5 THE NORTH PACIFIC The T - S 5 0 and S - Z 5 0 for the North P a c i f i c Ocean from 10°S to 60°N, are shown i n Figures 10 and 11, re s p e c t i v e l y . By comparison with Figures 2 and 3, i t may be seen that the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c Oceans are considerably d i f f e r e n t . Sverdrup (1942) suggests three major reasons for t h i s d i s s i m i l a r i t y . Subantarctic Water, which e x i s t s above the deep water of the P a c i f i c and i s charac-t e r i z e d by s a l i n i t i e s between 34.20%o and 34.40%© and temperatures between 4°C and 8°C, plays a more important r o l e i n the P a c i f i c than i n the A t l a n t i c or Indian Oceans. The South American continent d e f l e c t s large quantities of Subantarctic Water north along the west coast such that t h i s water exercises an influence which extends north beyond the equator. S i m i l a r l y , Subarctic Water masses are present i n the North P a c i f i c where they are c a r r i e d east and south along the coast of North America as far as 25°N. Another important reason for the difference between the A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c Oceans i s that, i n the P a c i f i c , the c i r c u l a t i o n of the water masses i s thought to be more sluggish and, hence, there i s le s s mixing of water masses than there i s i n the A t l a n t i c . Figures 12 and 13 show the averaging areas of s i m i l a r i t y selected f o r the North P a c i f i c . There are 21 areas for both S-ZA^ and T-S A^, however the areas are not coincident. The averaging areas were selected as for the A t l a n t i c as described i n Chap. 3. 29 The T r o p i c a l P a c i f i c The t r o p i c a l region of the P a c i f i c i s represented by S-ZA^ ( F i g . 12). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the S-Z A i i s predominantly zonal, which i s consistent with the equatorial c i r c u l a t i o n . In the t r o p i c a l region, the dominant water type i n the thermocline i s Tro p i c a l Water, which i s formed i n the surface s a l i n i t y maxima of the North and South P a c i f i c and i s characterized by a subsurface s a l i n i t y maximum (Tsuchiya, 1968). This subsurface s a l i n i t y maximum may be seen throughout the t r o p i c a l region, but i t i s more pronounced i n the western P a c i f i c and along the equatorial area, p a r t i c u l a r l y between the equator and 10°S. The T-S averaging areas of concern i n the t r o p i c a l region are T-S* _.. and T-S,, . Again, the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y A1-11 A15 zonal,however the T-S A^ appear to r e f l e c t a dependence on the pre-c i p i t a t i o n pattern ( F i g . 6) which i s more d i s c e r n i b l e than f o r the c-17 . . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the near surface T-S d i s t r i b u t i o n s and the p r e c i p i t a t i o n pattern becomes most apparent i n the region of the Gulf of Panama. Quite c l e a r l y , the low s a l i n i t y values which are observed near the surface are a d i r e c t r e s u l t of high r a i n f a l l i n the l o c a l area. If the 5°N l i n e of l a t i t u d e i s followed across the P a c i f i c from the Gulf of Panama to a point north of New Guinea, i t may be seen that the v a r i a t i o n of the surface s a l i n i t y follows the v a r i a t i o n i n the precipitation/evaporation rate. Below the t r o p i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y layer, which i s also found i n the A t l a n t i c , there e x i s t s an equatorial water mass which extends from east to west, over the ent i r e P a c i f i c (Sverdrup, 1942). The P a c i f i c Equa-t o r i a l Water mass i s characterized by a nearly s t r a i g h t T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p between a temperature of 15°C, s a l i n i t y of 35.15,?oo and a temperature of 30 8°C, s a l i n i t y of 34.6% 0. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r a i g h t l i n e may be seen i n T-S curves (Fig. 10) along the whole band of the t r o p i c a l P a c i f i c but i s most pronounced between the equator and 10°S. Sverdrup (1942) at t r i b u t e s t h i s water mass to the gradual transformation of Subantarctic water as i t spreads to the north and west. Tsuchiya (1968) suggests a more complex formation, i n that below the maximum of t r o p i c a l o r i g i n there are four separate minima which dominate i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the ocean. The f i r s t i s i n agreement with Sverdrup and i s of Antarctic o r i g i n ; t h i s type of water spreads across the equator as far north as 10°N. The second originates i n the Subarctic, North P a c i f i c Intermediate Water (Reid, 1954), and extends farther south than 20°N, west of Hawaii. It merges into the shallower t h i r d minimum to the east of Hawaii. Tsuchiya proposes that the t h i r d minimum i s formed i n the eastern North P a c i f i c and enters the t r o p i c a l region with the C a l i f o r n i a Current east of Hawaii and extends, i n a b e l t from the southern part of the North Equatorial Current to the equator, a l l the way west to the H i i l i p p i n e s . This minimum becomes progressively shallower as i t progresses toward the east. The fourth of Tsuchiya's minima i s of eastern South P a c i f i c o r i g i n . In general, T ~ S A l _ g a l x l i e within the region which Sverdrup designated as P a c i f i c Equatorial Water. t - SA-J -*-s -*-n t n e Gulf °f Panama and i s characterized by a dramatic s a l i n i t y minimum (S = 32.3/jjo), the d i r e c t r e s u l t of an excess of p r e c i p i t a t i o n at the sea surface. S-ZA(. covers almost the same area and i t may be seen that the sur-face s a l i n i t y minimum i s l i m i t e d to depths of l e s s than 50-75 m. Below t h i s , the s a l i n i t y increases rapidy to about 34.9%o at 90-100 m. Below 31 t h i s depth, the T-S curve of T-S A i i s very s i m i l a r to those of T-S A 2_^. These, i n turn, resemble the general curve developed by Sverdrup (1942) for P a c i f i c Equatorial Water. In fa c t , the general shape of the T-S curve between 12°C and 3°C i s rremarkably consistent over most of the t r o p i c a l P a c i f i c . The greatest deviation from t h i s pattern i s to be found i n T-S A^ which shows a secondary s a l i n i t y ' minimum about 15°C This s a l i n i t y minimum at 15°C may be traced from T-S A l and T-S A l and corresponds to the t h i r d s a l i n i t y minimum discussed i n Tsuchiya (1968) which enters the region from the Northeast P a c i f i c by the C a l i f o r n i a Current. Moving eastward from the Gulf of Panama, i . e . from T-S 1 to T-S A^ and T-S A^, we follow the gradual increase i n surface s a l i n i t y previously mentioned. T - S A 4 exhibits an e r r a t i c s a l i n i t y behaviour i n the warmer water between 19°C and 26°C manifested by a s a l i n i t y minimum at approximately 24°C sandwiched between two s a l i n i t y maxima at 26°C and 20°C. The source of t h i s unusual T-S curve may be seen i n S - Z A ^ i n which the s a l i n i t y minimum may be seen embedded i n the water column at a depth of 150 metres. This s a l i n i t y minimum i s an extension of the surface s a l i n i t y minimum along the North American west coast i n the region Sverdrup (1942) s p e c i f i e d as a t r a n s i t i o n area, between coastal and Eastern P a c i f i c Central Water. I f the westward l i n e i s followed farther south through T-S^, T-S^, T-S A > 7 and T-S Ag, i t i s possible to detect the s a l i n -i t y maximum (at a depth of 100-200 m) which has been associated with the Equatorial Undercurrent (Tsuchiya, 1968; Reid, 1965). This maximum i s stronger i n the western P a c i f i c (north of New Zealand) than i n the 32 east. Neumann and Pierson (1966) suggest that the Undercurrent i s driven by the sloping sea surface and maintained by geostrophic balance along the equator, as i n the A t l a n t i c , but that the high s a l i n i t y core i s not as well developed as i n the A t l a n t i c . Figure 11 indicates that the high s a l i n i t y core i s , i n f a c t , well developed i n the west but becomes less well developed as the Undercurrent moves eastward. The Mid-Latitude North P a c i f i c As i n the A t l a n t i c , the North P a c i f i c i s dominated by a large a n t i -c y c l o n i c gyre which covers most of the ocean. The Kiiroshio current, to the east of Japan, i s the P a c i f i c equivalent of the Gulf Stream. The gyre i s bounded on the south by equatorial current, structure, i n p a r t i c -ular the westward flowing North Equatorial Current. To the north, the intense current of the Ruroshio i s moderated and becomes more di f f u s e and i s r e f e r r e d to as the North P a c i f i c Current, the gyre i s closed i n the eastern P a c i f i c by the C a l i f o r n i a Current which flows southward o f f -shore from North America. The ce n t r a l portion of the gyre contains an extensive pool of homo-geneous water which i s represented by T-SAl^# s - z A i 7 a n d S-Z a <_. Sverdrup (1942) i d e n t i f i e d t h i s region, i n f a c t a l l of the 15 western North P a c i f i c south of 45°N and west of 160°W, as the region of Western North P a c i f i c Central Water. As described by Sverdrup, t h i s c e n t r a l water mass covers an area nearly as great as the area of the North A t l a n t i c Ocean. It i s formed i n l a t i t u d e s 30°N to 40°N and l o n g i -tudes 150°E to 160°E where i n February the T-S r e l a t i o n at the surface i s s i m i l a r to the v e r t i c a l T-S r e l a t i o n of the water mass. The Western Central Water mass i s characterized by an almost s t r a i g h t l i n e T-S r e l a -33 t i o n between a temperature of 18°C, s a l i n i t y 34.8%oand a temperature of 9°C, s a l i n i t y 34.2% 0' This r e l a t i o n may be observed i n T - S A l 4 « Below the Central Water mass there e x i s t s an Intermediate Water which i s evident as a s a l i n i t y minimum i n T - S A l 4 (T = 6.0°C, S = 34.05%o). As may be seen i n Figure 11, the core of t h i s intermediate water i s deepest i n the west (800 m) but r i s e s i n the east to about 300 m. Sverdrup (1942) suggested that i t i s formed by sinking near Japan at the convergence of the Oyashio and Kuroshio currents. Reid (1965) i n d i -cates that the s a l i n i t y minimum of the North P a c i f i c Intermediate Water occurs on a surface of constant density ( o t = 26.8; <St - 125 cl/ton) and that water of t h i s density r a r e l y occurs at the surface i n the North P a c i f i c . This density i s found at the surface i n the South P a c i f i c , but there the s a l i n i t y i s higher than that of the North P a c i f i c Intermediate Water s a l i n i t y minimum. Reid concludes that the Intermediate Water at t a i n s i t s properties below the surface by v e r t i c a l mixing i n the west-ern Subarctic region where the density surface i s shallow and the sur-face waters above are co l d and low i n s a l i n i t y . This was considered to be a rare exception to the rule that subsurface water masses acquire t h e i r T-S c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the surface. Further evidence indicates that many other well-recognized water masses are formed below the sur-face by mixing of layers with d i f f e r e n t properties (Pickard, 1975). To the east of Hawaii, Sverdrup had i d e n t i f i e d a separate upper layer water mass, Eastern North P a c i f i c Central Water, which extended across to almost the coast of North America. The amount of data a v a i l -able i n the North P a c i f i c has increased considerably i n the 40-year span since Sverdrup published h i s findings and i t i s no longer simple to i d e n t i f y only two separate water masses. It seems cl e a r that there i s a 34 large homogeneous body which corresponds to Sverdrup's Western North P a c i f i c Central Water; however, as one moves away from t h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the gyre, there i s a continuous and gradual t r a n s i t i o n i n the character of the upper water mass which precludes the d e f i n i t i o n of a separate and i d e n t i f i a b l e homogeneous body. To the northeast of Hawaii, there i s a region where the change i n the nature of the water of the upper layer occurs r a p i d l y . This occurs along the boundary between T-S A and T - s A i 8 (also the boundary between S-Z A^g and S - ZA20^ * This boundary runs along 45°N and to the south of the Aleutian Islands. The region of change i s evident i n Figure 11. Here, the s a l i n i t y maximum at the Surface becomes a s a l i n i t y minimum. This change i n the q u a l i t y of the near surface water marks the northern l i m i t of the North P a c i f i c gyre and the southern l i m i t of the Subarctic gyre. The Subarctic gyre i s a cyclonic gyre which covers the Gulf of Alaska, much of the Bering Sea and portions of the Okhotsk Sea (Reid, 1965). The water of the subarctic gyre, characterized by T - S A ^ , shows a marked s a l i n i t y minimum at the surface which extends to a depth of 100-200 m (see S-ZA^g) . The T-S r e l a t i o n for t h i s upper water i s nearly isohaline (S - 32.5%o) for the temperature range 20°C down to 9.5°C (the higher temperatures occurring only r a r e l y i n summer and then only near the surface) . At 100-200 m there i s a sharp h a l o c l i n e i n which the s a l i n i t y increases r a p i d l y to 34.0%o by 20 m and continues to increase at a rate of approximately 0.06%c,per 100 m, to a depth of 1200 m (S = 34.5%c). Below t h i s the s a l i n i t y increases more slowly to that of the deep water. 35 The shape of the T-S curve i n the Subartic water north of the Sub-a r c t i c front (45°N) presents some d i f f i c u l t y i n the use of t h i s charac-t e r i s t i c diagram: over much of the T-S curve, d i f f e r e n t s a l i n i t i e s correspond to the same temperature. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent i n a scatter p l o t of several hydrographic casts taken i n the same area (see Fig. 14. Note temperature range 4-9°C). This portion of the T-S curve, which appears f l a t with respect to temperature, corresponds to the strong h a l o c l i n e (Tabata, 1960, 1961, 1965; also apparent i n Fig. 13). In t h i s region, the ha l o c l i n e i s frequently the s i t e of temperature inversions (Bennett, 1959; Tabata, 1960, 1961), which appear as i n f l e c -t i o n s i n the T-S curves. Variations i n the depth and strength of these inversions greatly change the shape and appearance of the corresponding T-S curve. An average, then, such as the T-S A^ of the Subarctic gyre, forms an a r t i f i c i a l mean curve which cannot reproduce the various i n f l e c t i o n s . Any computations based on such mean curves may, and prob-ably w i l l , vary widely from s i m i l a r computations based on observed temperature and s a l i n i t y (Emery and O'Brien, 1978). In t h i s same region, studies by Tabata (1960, 1961, 1965) at Sta-t i o n P suggest that a conservative r e l a t i o n s h i p between depth and s a l i n -i t y e x i s t s and t h i s i s confirmed by the tightness of the S-Z scatter p l o t s examined i n the present study. Marked s a l i n i t y v a r i a t i o n s are found mainly i n and above the ha l o c l i n e below which the deviation approaches that due to observational error (Emery and O'Brien, 1978). Examination of T-S and S-Z scatter p l o t s together for the Subarctic gyre brings to l i g h t an i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon i n the region of T _ S a 2 0 ^ t^ i e southwestern Bering Sea, i d e n t i f i e d by Sverdrup (1942) and Reid (1965) as the formation area for North P a c i f i c Intermediate 36 Water). Figure 14 indicates that the water at the surface may achieve, through cooling, densities comparable to those found at depth. This allows convective sinking to occur to augment the formation of Inter-mediate Water by mixing as proposed by Reid (1965). 37 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS The object of t h i s t h e s i s has been to produce the T-S and S-Z curves, herein presented, to characterize the p a r t i c u l a r s a l i n i t y r e l a -tionships exhibited i n s p e c i f i c geographical areas of the North A t l a n t i c and North P a c i f i c . An attempt has been made to l i m i t the number of curves to a convenient quantity, but the number of the curves must be compromised against the amount of d e t a i l which may be l o s t . It i s f e l t that t h i s set of curves represents an acceptable balance. It has been shown that the curves reproduce and support the d e s c r i p t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l water mass boundaries and, i n some cases, the abundance of data incorporated into t h i s work leads to a better r e s o l u -t i o n of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of water proper-t i e s . It i s f e l t that further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the information made av a i l a b l e i n the process of producing the mean curves would contribute to a better understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of water mass character-i s t i c s and the areas defined i n t h i s study. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was not more f u l l y pursued i n t h i s work due to the time constraints under which i t was produced. The curves themselves provide two methods for i n f e r r i n g s a l i n i t y without d i r e c t measurement: inference may be made on either the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p or the S-Z p r o f i l e . It has been shown that the S-Z p r o f i l e possesses the conservative nature of the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p . For much of the ocean, e i t h e r method appears acceptable; however, for northern l a t i -tudes, the S-Z p r o f i l e i s deemed l i k e l y to produce more r e l i a b l e e s t i -mates of s a l i n i t y . As demonstrated for T ~ s A i 9 -*-n t n e North 38 A t l a n t i c , the T-S r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes non-unique due to the e f f e c t s of winter cooling upsetting the usual pattern of decreasing temperature with increasing depth. This e f f e c t i s also noticeable i n the Bering S t r a i t region of the North P a c i f i c . In general, north of 45°N i n the Western North P a c i f i c and north of 40°N i n the Western North A t l a n t i c , the S-Z r e l a t i o n s h i p i s considered to be a more r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r of s a l i n i t y . 39 References Cochrane, J.D. (1958) The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of water c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the P a c i f i c Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 5: 111-127. Defant, A (1961) Physical Oceanography, Vol. I. New York, Pergamon Press. Defant, A (1980) The Troposphere of the A t l a n t i c Ocean ( t r a n s l a t i o n from the German, W.J. Emery). New Delhi, The Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. Emery, W.J. (1975) Dynamic Height from Temperature P r o f i l e s , J . Phys. Oceanogr., 5: 369-375. Emery, W.J. and O'Brien (1978) In f e r r i n g S a l i n i t y from Temperature or Depth for Dynamic Height Computations i n the North P a c i f i c , J . Phys. Oceanogr., Emery, W.J. and Wert (1976) Temperature-Salinity Curves i n the P a c i f i c and t h e i r Applications to Dynamic Height Computations, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6: 613-617. I s e l i n , CO'D. (1936) A study of the c i r c u l a t i o n of the Western North A t l a n t i c , Pap.  Phys. Oceanogr. Meteor IV (4): 1-101. Mamayev, O.I. (1975) Temperature-Salinity Analysis of World Ocean Waters ( t r a n s l a t i o n from Russian, Robert J. Burton). Amsterdam, E l s e v i e r S c i e n t i f i c Publishing Co. Montgomery, R.B. (1958) Water C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A t l a n t i c and World Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 5: 134-148. Neumann, G. and Pierson, W.J. (1966) P r i n c i p l e s of Physical Oceanography. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Pickard, G.L. (1975) Descriptive Physical Oceanography. Toronto, Pergamon of Canada, Ltd. Pollack, M.J. (1958) Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o t e n t i a l temperature and s a l i n i t i e s i n the Indian Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 5: 128-133. Pond, S. and Pickard, G.L. (1978) Introductory Dynamic Oceanography. Toronto, Pergamon of Canada, Ltd. 40 Reid, J.L. (1965) Intermediate Waters of the P a c i f i c Ocean. The Johns Hopkins Ocean-ographic Studies No. 2. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press. Reid, J.L. (1973) Northwest P a c i f i c Ocean Waters i n Winter. The Johns Hopkins Ocean-ographic Studies No. 5. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1967) S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. Ames, Iowa, The Iowa State University Press. Stommel, H. and Csanady (1980) A Relation Between the T-S Curve and Global Heat and Atmospheric Water Transports, J . Geo. Res., 85: 495-501 Sverdrup, H.V., Johnson, M.W. and Fleming, R.H. (1942) The Oceans: t h e i r physics, chemistry and general biology. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc. Tabata, S. (1960) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of water and v a r i a t i o n s of s a l i n i t y , temperature and dissolved oxygen content of the water at Ocean Weather Station "P" i n the Northeast P a c i f i c Ocean, J. F i s h . Res. Bd. Canada, 17: 353-370. Tabata, S. (1961) Temporal changes of s a l i n i t y , temperature and dissolved oxygen content at Station "P" i n the Northeast P a c i f i c Ocean and some of t h e i r determining fac t o r s , J . F i s h . Res. Bd. Canada, 18: 1073-1124. Tabata, S. (1965) V a r i a b i l i t y of oceanographic conditions at Ocean Station "P" i n the Northeast P a c i f i c Ocean, Trans. Royal Soc. Canada, 3: 367-418. Tsuchiya, M. (1968) Upper Waters of the I n t e r t r o p i c a l P a c i f i c Ocean. The Johns Hopkins Oceanographic Studies No. 4. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Univer-s i t y Press. Worthington, L.V. (1976) On the North A t l a n t i c C i r c u l a t i o n . The Johns Hopkins Oceanographic Studies No. 6. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press. Wright, W.R. and Worthington, L.V. (1970) The Water Masses of the North A t l a n t i c Ocean. S e r i a l Atlas of the Marine Environment. Princeton, N.J., American Geographical Society. Wust, G. (1978) The Stratosphere of the A t l a n t i c Ocean (translated from the German, W.J. Emery). New Delhi, The Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. (1974) User's Guide to NODC's Data Services. Washington, National Oceano-grapic Data Center. C (D Figure 2 MEAN T5 CURVES FOR RTLAN 5 DEGREE SQUARES 33 3 7 SCALE — h 3 0 C A™ oc S R L I N I T Y I N P P T T E . M P . [ N D E G R E E S V - ID Figure 3 MERN SZ CURVES FOR R iiMT T P s r p e r - e n ' |. SCALE 35 OM 1000M -2000M S R L I N I T Y IN PPT DEPTH IN METERS Figure 4 r Figure 6 Figure 7 200.0 co-ca i » o Cd O D E P T H ( X 1 0 1 ) 1SD.0 12D.D 80.0 _ J I i 40.0 I O20J3.U 0.0 ™ l — — 1 5 0 . 0 6.0 J " n r — — - r — 1 2 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 (XIQ3 ) TEMP 12.0 1B.Q 40.0 24.0 0.0 • to o ' I—> a CO cur -O.Qa 30.0 Z D C O O ro o CO cn CO o CO CO CO CO CO 12.3 1 8 . 0 24. a 30.© 8 3 J m 6 x . a Figure 9 C*8l CO C M CD CO CO o CO LD CD CD CO CD CO ~ZL CE CJ n i n . • - a . J n . e r r ? CO 0*ZI L_ 0 ' 3 O ' O Q o m o cn. CM 0 ' 0 £ •0*0 r - . m 0>Z 0"*> ! 1 ™ 0"8I O'Zl d W 3 i ( r O I X ) o-*o8 c a z i j J _ CM 0 * 9 t r o 9 i JL_ O ' O U E o cn CM Q ,AT) m ro O'O I 0*01? —I 1 — 0*08 0*021 ( f 0 I X ) H i c G O . cn C M 0*091 0*003 50 MEAN TS CURVES FOR PACIFIC 15 DEGREE SQUARES 30 K0 150 ]G0 no 100 170 f T 7 7, 7"; 7 7 7 I 7 \ L-) ( _ 7 I •c X 7 7i 7 7 k 7 MO ICO 160 '50 ^3 MO 130 120 100 90 1^ A 1 { k i t 4 7 7. K .1 1 ix t 7 ( < 170 180 170 32 36 SCALE -AAj. 60 IM 71 > K \ L/l MO 1L7 " 7 ? f v 1-T i_L._l..L_.L. n n / Tf. 4 .,! -77J 60 40 10 7 1^ 0 1 10 > / 1 10 .71 „ . . ! . ! I i C 30C SRLINITT IN PPT TEMP. IN DEGREES C Figure 10 Figure 11 52 Figure 12 <S"OE G>2 o C \ J C \ j CO 00 00 o CO LO CD "s ! 00 CD CO •CE CD t-n. I—a —Im'. CO a CD . CM G'OE o0"0 0" 0 0>2 0*01? J C'Ot' 0*21 i 0'9 L. in 0*81 O'ZI d W 3 i f rorx) 0-os a-ozr J j _ 0*9 0*091 L 0*08 .0*021 0*091 i corx) Hid3a a m cn i CM 0*0 0*002'o 0*002 <3< H - a) •>-! 200.0 M to 160.0 o Ul CO o o Q 2 0 0 . 0 0.0 to I n * o C3 o 180.0 6.0 D E P T H (X1Q 3 •) 120.0 80.0 — J - - I 120.0 80 0 (X10 ] ) 12.0 TEMP 18,0 40.0 0.0 40.0 24.0 1 ' CO Ul ' I—• o CO uiID uir— Ul tn ca fl.Oo 30.0 ISJ ' CO Ul D CO UiID u i r -ui tn c i ID CO O ro o u i CO o CO CD Ul Ul • - t 56 Appendix A 58 RTLflNTIC 2 a 33.0 34.0 S A L IN J T T 35.0 35.0 37. a 34.0 36.0 59 ATLANTIC 3 S A L I N I T Y 33.3 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 60 ATLANTIC 4 61 ATLANTIC 5 S A L I N I T Y o33.0 34.0 35.3 36.0 37.& T E M P E R A T U R E 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 . 30.0 63 ATLANTIC 7 S A L I N I T Y o33.0 34.0. 35.0 36.0 37.a 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 64 RTLRNT.IC 8 TEMPERATURE 0.0 6.0 .. 12.0 18,0 24.0 .30.0. bQ.o 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30 '0> . T E M P E R A T U R E 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 «=»0.0- 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0> TEMPERATURE 0 . 0 6 . 0 1.2.0 1 8 . 0 2 4 . 0 3 0 . 0 69 ATLANTIC. 13 S A L I N I T Y a 3 3 . 0 3 4 . 0 3 5 . 0 3 6 . 0 3 7 . o> 3 3 . 0 3 4 . 0 3 5 . 0 3 5 . 0 3 7 . 0 70 T E M P E R A T U R E D.O 6 . 0 1 2 . 0 1 8 . 0 2 4 . 0 3 0 . 0 T E M P E R A T U R E 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24,0 30.0 o i - j 1 i i i I y oO.O 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30. ® T E M P E R A T U R E 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 . I i T ^ 1 I p» °0.D 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30. 0 74 P A C I F I C : 5 SALINITY • 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36. ft 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 T E M P E R A T U R E 1 2 . 0 1 8 . 0 ID C l i — i Cl °0.Q T E M P E R A T U R E Q.O 6.0 12.0 . 18.0 24.0 30.0 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.G> 79 P A C I F I C : 10 SALINITY a 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.& 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 T E M P E R A T U R E 0.0 6.0 .12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30. b 8 1 TEMPERATURE 0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 ° 0 . 0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30. b TEMPERATURE 0-0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 °0.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.*6> 8 87 P A C I F I C : 18 39 P A C I F I C : 20 SALINITY a 3 2 . 0 3 3 . 0 3 4 . 0 3 5 . 0 3 5 . a 3 2 . 0 3 3 . 0 3 4 . 0 3 5 . 0 3 6 . 0 90 P A C I F I C : 21 °32.0 o"_I 33.0 I SALINITY 34.0 35.0 35.& 9 1 Appendix B 200.0 — — D E P T H CX101 ) 1 6 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 BO.O 40.D O200.D 1 6 0 . 0 120.0 , 80.0 (X101 ) 4 0 . a o.o O.CP I D — I D i—i < ) ro CO CX1Q1 ) 9 6 ATLANTIC 5 99 ATLANTIC 8 SALINITY 100 ATLANTIC 9 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 102 ATLANTIC 11 SALINITY 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0 2D0.0 D20D.0 D E P T H (X101 ) L6D.D L20.D; 80.0 160.0 120,0 80.0 4 0 . 0 40.0 0.0 O.CP ZD — 1 n ~ ZD I — 1 o H o un (X10-200.0 D E P T H (X101 120.0 80. °20Q.Q 160.0 O.CP ID ID i 1 CD i—•* cn H O 200. D 160, DEPTH . 120.0 ( x i o 1 80.0 40.0 0.0 C J Ui ro LU LO 0 . C P . f - N J 200.0 DEPTH (X103 ) 120.0 ao.o 40.0 a 200.0 Q . O 0 . O o ID n I 1 I - — I CD CO (X10 2DD.0 DEPTH ( X 1 0 ] ) 160.0 * 120.0 80.0 40.0 ° 2 0 0 . Q 160.0 ,20.0 80.0 - ( X 1 0 ] ) 40.0 0.0 0.0^ LTD \——i ~n i—i CD CO 116 P A C I F I C 10 • S A L I N I T Y • 32.0 33.0 34.0 • 35.0 . 36.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0 36.0 200.0 DEPTH (X10] ) 160.0 120.0 80.0 40.0 °200.0 160.0 120.0 • 80.0 (X10] ) 40.0 0.0 0 .Oo' C D i — i C D 118 PACIFIC- 12 3 2 . 3 3 3 . 0 SALINITY 3 4 . 0 3 5 . 0 3 6 . 0 i a . 3 2 . 0 3 3 . 0 3 4 . 3 3 5 . 0 3 6 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 DEPTH ( X 1 0 ] ) 120.0 8 0 . n 4 0 . 0 o 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 ID ID Cl Cl C O 121 125 P A C I F I C 19 123 Appendix C TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY CF ATLANTIC AREAS AREA # : TEMPERATURE 1.5 2. 0 2.5 3.0 3. 5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5. 5 6. 0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9,0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 1.3.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15. 5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17. 5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19. 5 20.0 20.5 21.0 2L. 5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 34. 315 24.861 34.903 34.932 34.928 34.832 34.672 34.563 34.543 34.568 34.601 34.633 34 .680 34.727 34.778 34.829 34.881 34.938 34.995 35 .049 35. 104 35.165 3 5.235 35.309 35.371 35.423 35.480 35.533 35.592 35.643 3 5.693 35.737 35.777 35.615 3 5.849 35.676 35.903 35.931 35.956 35.969 35 .970 35 .970 35.970 35-976 35.983 3 5.946 35.880 35.329 35.817 35.817 35.800 35.756 35.665 3 5.549 35.399 35.161 34 .312 34.364 34.913 34.943 34,934 3-4. 83 5 34.671 34.55 0 34.521 34.543 34.575 34.615 34.659 34.707 34.759 34.807 34.856 34.915 34.979 35.036 35.036 35.143 35.210 35.275 35.344 35.417 35.485 35.555 35.629 35.73 1 35.776 35.841 35.903 35.979 36.047 36.106 36.170 36.22 7 36.284 36.335 36.377 36.427 36.488 36.531 36.544 36.517 36.456 36.376 36.260 36.161 36.141 36.152 36.032 35.367 35.840 35.960 34.£64 34.£78 34.912 34.945 34.969 34.969 34-9C4 34.7 74 34.668 34.644 34.663 34.695 34.738 34.79C 34.849 34.907 34.965 35.030 35.101 35.169 35.236 35.3 29 35.519 35.723 35.749 35.688 35.715 35.792 35.8 72 35,954 36.C30 36.C78 36.125 36. 19 8 36.261 36.305 36 .347 36.401 36.445 36.466 36.492 36.507 36.523 36.531 36.514 36.485 36.441 36.347 36 . 194 36.C22 35.795 35.529 35 .328 35.C51 34.478 33.9£6 34.374 34.910 34.93 8 34.957 34.955 34.917 34.848 34.79 0 34.77 0 34.77 8 34.804 34.841 34.885 24.930 34.970 35.008 35.049 3 5.09 8 35.149 35.199 35.249 3 5.310 35.380 35.439 3 5.49 5 35.556 35.606 35«665 35.726 35.774 35.809 35.829 35.885 35.936 35.953 35.997 35.988 35.977 36.010 36.041 36.046 36.019 35.964 35.952 35.981 35.921 35.860 35.839 35.819 35.790 35.729 35.651 35.482 35.317 35. I l l 34.899 34.903 34.921 34.955 34.983 35.003 35.009 34.991 34.954 34.919 34.909 34.926 34.961 35.009 35.069 35.132 35.195 35.258 35.323 35.395 35.460 35.521 35.590 35.663 35.735 35.807 35.885 35.968 36.056 36 »146 36.231 36.313 36.396 36.469 36.534 36.594 36.645 36.693 36.745 3 6 . 7 7 3 36.786 36.809 36.824 36.826 36.812 36.765 36.709 36.641 36.564 36.468 36.403 36.374 36.237 36.022 35.766 35.298 129 6 34.925 34*960 35.003 35.049 35.094 35.132 35.159 35.185 35.218 35.244 3 5.268 35,299 35.324 35.350 3 5.383 35.421 35.464 35.510 35.566 35.624 35.679 35.740 35.809 35.884 35.959 36.035 3 6c116 36*202 36.289 36.372 36.453 36.534 36.606 36.676 36.758 36.813 36.850 36.903 36.952 3 6.996 37.028 37.052 37.077 37.090 37.089 37.117 37.140 37.222 37.268 37. 115 T E M P E R A T U R E AND S A L I N I T Y C F A T L A N T I C A R E A S 1 3 0 AR EA # : TEMPERATURE 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6. 0 6.5 7.0 7. 5 8.0 8. 5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10. 5 11.0 l i . 5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13*5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15«5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25. 0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 34.SC4 34.931 34.933 34.S25 34.960 34.949 34.947 35.006 34.972 34.S63 35.062 35.007 34.979 35.127 35.052 34.998 35.194 . 35.100 35.C13 35.265 35.150 35.C23 35.339 35.196 35.023 35.415 35.238 35.C47 35.485 35.277 35.C62 35.547 35.313 35.C79 35.603 35.344 35.1C2 35.647 33.367 35.133 35.674 35.382 35.168 35.687 35.397 35.21C 35.632 35.420 35.265 35.666 35.449 35.226 35.647 35.487 35.383 35.645 35.540 35.442 35.672 35.604 35.502 35.723 35.671 35.561 35.792 35.740 35.617 35.869 35.312 35.673 35.947 35.887 35.73C 36.020 35.957 35.797 36.CS5 36.015 35..E71 36.150 36.068 35*952 36.221 36.125 36„C52 36.285 36.175 36.152 36.325 36.199 36.240 36.348 36.212 36.203 36.367 36.221 36.320 36.397 36.216 36.366 36.423 36.201 36.421 36.450 36.190 36.433 36.477 36,195 36.431 36.491 36.207 36.429 36.5C9 36.223 36.428 36.522 36.244 36.425 36.582 36.250 36.419 36.670 36.243 36.395 36.722 36.279 36.248 36.728 36.339 36.321 36.391 36.315 36.715 36.454 36.3C8 36.654 36.279 36.587 36.254 — 36.268 36.295 36.3C7 36.276 36.238 10 34.931 34.95 5 34.987 35.025 35.080 35.146 35.217 35.289 35.363 3 5.43 7 35.510 35.579 35.640 35.682 35.700 35.679 35.6 36 3 5.60 8 35.617 35.643 35.680 35.704 35.72 0 35.725 35.72 0 35.719 35.729 35^73 8 35.740 35.738 35. 741 35.754 35.779 35.809 35.849 35.911 35.964 35.978 11 12 34.251 34.437 34.949 34.660 34.951 34.753 34.956 34.832 34.972 34.850 35.008 34.814 35.050 34.766 35.091 34.729 35.132 34.702 35. 172 34.684 35.204 34.682 35.235 34.697 35.270 34.695 35.304 34.689 35.329 34.732 35.355 34.805 35.382 34.833 35.409 34.878 35.435 35.033 35.459 35.198 35.478 35«290 35.497 35.349 35.514 35.380 35.524 35.379 35.525 35.400 35.537 35.402 35.576 35.240 35.615 35.372 35.651 35.467 35.681 3 5.422 35.701 35.511 35.750 35.458 35.771 35.475 35.794 35.539 35.832 35.686 35.844 35.791 35.923 35.808 35.973 35.803 35.955 35.793 35.847 35.905 35.952 35.911 35.849 35.825 35.836 35.869 35.924 X J X TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY CF ATLANTIC AREAS AREA # : 13 TEMPERATURE 1.5 34 .809 2.0 34.£59 2.5 34.392 3.0 34.926 3.5 34.931 4.0 34.923 4. 5 34 .921 5.0 34.921 5.5 34.916 6. 0 34.910 6.5 34.911 7. 0 34.910 7.5 34.900 8.0 34.670 8.5 34.835 9.0 34.8G8 9.5 34.791 10.0 34.781 10.5 34.774 11.0 34.733 11.5 34.726 12.0 34.736 12.5 34.780 13.0 . 34.835 13.5 34.301 14.0 34.846 14.5 35.062 15.0 15.5 16.0 . 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 — 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23 . 5 24.0 24.5 25.0 25.5 • 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY OF PACIFIC AREAS 132 AREA # : TEMPERATURE 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4. 0 4.5 5.0 5. 5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8. 5 9.0 9.5 10.0-10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12. 5 13.0 13.5 14. 0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20. 5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24. 5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 34.667 34.659 34.641 34.621 34.603 34.589 34.580 34 .573 34.530 34.5 89 34.600 34.609 34.624 34.645 34.669 34.691 34.711 34.736 34.765 34.793 34.822 34.854 34.885 34.912 34.936 34.957 34.974 34.933 34.9 81 34.966 34.946 34.919 34.885 34.851 34.814 34.785 34.753 34.699 34.668 34.669 34.650 34.569 34.459 34.339 34 .214 34 .085 33.937 3 3.848 3 3.779 3 3.617 33 .345 3 3.C93 32.856 32.622 32.499 32.353 34.676 34.657 34. 629 34.604 34.588 34.571 34.557 34.551 34.552 34,559 34.573 34.589 34.610 34.636 34.665 34.693 34.72 0 34.746 34.777 34.813 34.840 34.874 34.909 34.938 34.952 34.967 34.999 35.026 35.055 35.100 35.118 35.103 35.106 35.141 35.191 35.217 35.190 35.183 35.220 35.214 35.204 35.206 35.227 35.290 35.267 35.184 35.168 35.202 35.218 35.109 35. 10 1 35.123 34.953 34.669 34.6 56 34.634 34.611 34.591 34.5 74 34.562 34.5 57 34.557 34.563 34.571 34. 5£4 34.6CI 34.619 34.6 39 34.665 34.6 £9 34.714 34.740 34.766 34.796 34.82 2 34.641 34.£53 34.659 34.859 34.656 34.651 34.627 34.792 34.766 34.764 34.779 34.780 34.768 34.74G 34.7C9 34.667 34.678 34.669 34.663 34.669 34.666 34.7C1 34.669 34.631 34.6 52 34.520 34.3 7C 34.219 34.046 33.6 73 33.816 33.810 33.754 33.762 34.673 34.656 34.631 34.606 34.585 34.567 34.554 34.547 34.543 34.544 34.552 34.562 34.577 34.597 34,618 34.642 34.668 34.694 34.722 34.747 34.772 34.789 34.79 8 34.796 34.778 34.760 34.754 34.699 34.63 9 34.668 34.676 34.65? 34.665 34.621 34.585 34.635 34.673 34.690 34.789 34.877 34.904 34.836 34.769 34.716 34.624 34.561 34.547 34.643 34.646 34.443 34.245 34.136 34.063 34.034 34.031 34.074 34.672 34.644 34.615 34.591 34.571 34.552 34.532 34.514 34.500 34.486 34.4 80 34.490 34.499 34.508 34.532 34.546 34.555 34.563 34.566 34.574 34.572 34.560 34.552 34.559 34.566 34.563 34.555 34.560 34.581 34.608 34.655 34.725 34.793 34.821 34.856 34.908 34.942 34.975 34.986 34.981 34.977 34.964 34.939 34.926 34.901 34.857 34.829 34.809 34.790 34.775 34.788 34.755 34.698 34.826 34.919 34.632 34.675 34.654 34.628 34.604 34.585 34.567 34.554 34.547 34.547 34.555 34.566 34.582 34.605 34.631 34.659 34.686 34.715 34.748 34.783 34.817 34.849 34.889 34.933 34.975 35.011 35.053 35.092 35.117 35.160 35.214 35.250 35.294 35.32 7 35.361 35.412 35.460 35.498 35.519 35.569 35.627 35.669 35.660 35.610 35.589 35.557 35.497 35.474 35.473 35.462 35.440 3 5.421 3 5.430 35.415 35.351 35.398 35.483 133 TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY GF PACIFIC AREAS 133 AREA * i TEMPERATURE L.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4. 0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6. 5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9. 5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11. 5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15. 5 16.0 16.5 17. 0 17.5 18.0 18. 5 19.0 19.5 20. 0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27. 5 28.0 28.5 29.0 34.673 3 4.6 50 34.620 34.597 34.580 34.563 34,543 34.542 34.545 34.557 34.568 34.580 34.604 34.633 34.664 34.697 34.728 34.759 34.782 34.808 34.362 34.893 34.898 34.924 34.961 34.965 35.002 35.068 35 .160 35.220 3 5.391 35.551 35.639 35.728 35. £17 35.876 35.961 36.023 36. C76 36.109 36.C79 35.933 35.842 35.789 35.673 35 .652 35.695 35.714 3 5.729 35.750 35.833 34.632 34.65 2 34.624 34.599 34.578 34.561 34.549 34.54-4 34.544 34.549 34.562 34.581 34.602 34.630 34.660 34.691 34.723 34.755 34.790 34.326 34.362 34.896 34.934 34.971 35.013 35.066 35.113 35.157 35.204 35.255 35.303 35.343 35.393 35.440 35.493 35.551 35.592 35.628 35.666 35.697 35.719 35.745 35.803 35.841 35.336 35.841 35. 35 8 35.863 35.832 35.721 35.629 35.622 35.537 35.471 35.308 35.158 34.668 34.629 34.616 34.55£ 34.579 34.56C 34.545 34.535 34.531 34.531 34.536 34.546 34.561 34.578 34.6CC 34.6 2C 34.632 34.635 34.638 34.632 34.624 34.6 07 34.594 34.59C 34.5 65 34.598 34.6C2 34.615 34.679 34.701 34.720 34.768 34.6C2 34.622 34.S27 34. 66 5 34.913 34.913 34.920 34.964 34.955 34.932 34.928 34.939 34.958 34.970 34.966 34.943 34.667 34.6 20 34.613 34.770 34.747 34.762 34.745 34.593 10 34.671 34.642 34.608 34.5 34 34.565 34.540 34.513 34.487 34.462 34.436 34.423 34.421 34.42 0 34.414 34.415 34.410 34.40 3 34.39 8 34.368 34.367 34.334 34.300 34.285 34.298 34.324 34.354 3 4.390 34.43 8 34.485 34.53 8 34.599 34.653 34.705 34.767 34.831 34.891 34.938 34.969 34.986 34.994 34.986 34.936 34.872 34.804 34.698 34.589 34.531 34.520 34.536 34.564 34.559 34.440 34.349 34.306 11 34.654 34.645 34.624 34.596 34.570 34 . 544 34.519 34.499 34.485 34.470 34.452 34.447 34.441 34.431 34.426 34.420 34.410 34.388 34.360 34.356 34.329 34.273 34.222 34.152 34.070 33.996 33.973 33.953 33o936 33.960 33.977 33.999 34.067 34.143 34.206 34.260 34.301 34.354 34.408 34.413 34.427 34.422 34.395 34.403 34.378 34.305 34.272 34.410 34.505 34.786 35.182 34.865 34.263 34.020 12 34.658 34.631 34.593 34.554 34.510 34.449 34.372 34.305 34.252 34.206 34.173 34.i51 34.137 34.135 34.141 34.149 34.158 34.172 34.188 34.198 34.217 34.251 34.291 34.335 34.372 34.409 34.462 34.505 34.546 34.604 34.658 34.720. 34.786 34.841 34.898 34.953 35.001 35.044 35.082 35.104 35. 116 35.124 35.151 35.174 35.176 35.171 35.156 35.137 35.108 35.046 34.986 34.959 34.938 34.919 34.890 34.840 TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY GF PACIFIC AREAS 134 AREA jt : TEMPERATURE 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12. 5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17. 5 18.0 18. 5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23. 5 24.0 24. 5 25.0 25. 5 26.0 26. 5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 13 14 34.637 34.641 34.611 34.588 34.567 34.510 34.5 20 34.423 34.460 34.327 34.3E3 34.227 34.299 34.141 34.226 34.084 34.168 34,058 34.117 34.048 34.073 34.043 34.C38 34.052 34.CG2 34.071 33.944 34.095 33.853 34.122 33.734 34.152 33.612 34.184 33.479 34.218 32.366 34.254 3 3.307 34.281 3 3.285 34.304 33.281 34.330 33.278 34.354 3 2.273 34.37 5 33.269 34.406 33.279 34.434 33.304 34.463 33.331 34.509 23.353 34.554 33.377 34.595 33.396 34.646 33.395 34.630 33.395 34.697 3 3.392 34.731 33.391 34.756 33.416 34.758 33.488 34.770 33.624 34.776 33.746 34.765 33.923 34.785 34.117 34.799 34.475 34.787 34.780 34.792 34*798 35.214 34.799 34.809 34.606 34.801 34.775 34.722 34.755 34.814 34.789 34.755 34.740 15 34.657 34.6 4 2 34.6 14 34.591 34.576 34.56 1 34.545 34.533 34,521 34.507 34.499 34.506 34.510 34.5C8 34.513 34.516 34.5C9 34.497 34.486 34.4S7 34.492 34.497 34.516 34.54 2 34.571 34.603 34.6 26 34.6 48 34*664 34.729 34.759 34.7 64 34.826 34. £65 34.896 34.918 34.941 34.S7C 35.002 35. C26 35.C41 35.C46 35.C5 2 35.C6C 35.058 35.C54 35.C5G 35.033 35.CO 1 34.944 34.671 34.769 34.716 34.656 34.60 3 34.562 16 34.63 0 34.585 34.496 34.393 34.275 34.148 24.045 33.986 33.956 33.939 33.926 33.907 33.87 2 33. 837 33.83 7 33.852 23.858 33.854 33.83 8 33.809 33.74 8 33.683 33.620 33.549 33.526 33.523 33.513 33.510 33.506 33.559 33.627 33.613 33.599 33.605 33.566 33.543 33.512 3 3.537 33.596 33.650 33.659 33.60 6 33.735 34.23 6 34.234 34.184 17 34.621 34.585 34.513 34.430 34.334 34.221 34.108 34.027 33.972 33.918 33.838 33.749 33.610 33.404 33.204 33.031 32.905 32.840 32.793 32.731 32.714 32.714 32.684 32.678 32.684 32.668 32.648 32.62 5 32.603 32.559 32.498 32.492 32.505 32.474 32.567 32.526 32.510 32.381 18 34.614 34.562 34.458 34.311 34.097 33.805 33.514 33.322 33.231 33.173 33.09 8 33.022 32.938 3 2.84 2 32.780 32.756 32.723 32.688 32.663 32.634 32.619 32.623 32.631 32.630 32.613 32.602 32.610 32.628 3 2.61.7 32*592 32.549 32.591 32.684 TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY OF PACIFIC AREAS 135 AREA # : 19 T EMPERATURE 1.5 34.610 2. 0 34 .553 2. 5 34.424 3. 0 34 .244 3. 5 34.012 4. 0 33.697 4.5 32.377 5. 0 3 3.179 5. 5 32.036 6. 0 22.667 6. 5 32.726 7. 0 22.661 7.5 32.640 8. 0 32 . 635 8.5 32.627 9. 0 3 2.602 9.5 32.578 10.0 3 2.592 10.5 32 .616 11.0 32.614 11.5 3 2.607 12. 0 32.611 12.5 32.614 13. 0 3 2.579 13.5 3 2.520 14. 0 22.430 14.5 32.382 15.0 32 .389 15.5 32.358 16. 0 16.5 17.0 17.5 • 18.0 , 18.5 19.0 19.5 20.0 20.5 21. 0. • 21.5 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25. 0 25. 5 26.0 26.5 27. 0 27.5 28.0 28.5 , 29. 0 20 2 1 33 .948 34.614 34 .209 34.5 78 34 .031 34.49 8 33 .933 34.415 33 .762 34.344 33 .490 34.268 33 .249 34.191 33 .146 34.147 33 .100 34. 128 33 .072 34.124 33 .045 34.149 33 .035 34 .15 8 33 .023 34. 152 33 .004 34.176 32 .974 34.206 32 .927 34.23 3 32 .382 34.263 32 .362 34.296 32 .846 34.328 32 .355 34.357 32 .894 34.3S7 32 .921 34.419 32 .96 3 34.453 33 .023 34.489 33.Q00 34 . 5 19 34.550 32 .360 34*589 32 .369 34.622 32 .312 34.650 — • 34«669 — 34.719 32.736 34.727 — 34.733 — 34.735 — 34.7 30 ,_ 34.730 — 34.7 53 34.73C — 34.677 34.654 —. 34.636 — 34.615 — 34.636 — 34.6 15 34.550 — 34.5 25 34.509 34.492 — 34.465 — 34.465 34.451 34.4 28 — 34.429 34.419 — 34.458 — 34.495 136 Appendix D DEPTH AND SALINITY OF ATLANTIC AREAS 137 AREA # : DEPTH(M) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40. 0 50. 0 60. 0 70.0 30.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0 140.0 150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190. 0 200. 0 220. 0 240. 0 26 0. 0 280.0 300. 0 320.0 340.0 360. 0 3 80. 0 400. 0 420.0 440.0 460. 0 480.0 500. 0 550. 0 60 0. 0 650.0 700. 0 750.0 800. 0 850.0 900. 0 950. 0 1000.0 1100. 0 1200.0 1300.0 1400.0 1500.0 1600.0 1700. 0 1800.0 1900.0 2000. 0 1 35.629 35.701 35.769 35.355 35.931 35.990 36.007 36.009 35.989 35.959 35.908 35.840 35.770 35.697 35.625 35.554 35.494 35.433 35.379 3 5.327 3 5.2 83 35.206 35.137 35.077 3 5.020 34.969 34.921 34.87 7 34.836 34.799 34.764 34.732 34.702 34.676 34.651 34.629 34.585 34.552 34.534 34.527 34.527 34.531 3 4.545 34.569 34.599 34.6 33 34.723 3 4.804 34.869 34.914 34.941 34.953 34.953 34.953 34.958 34.955 2 35.649 35.67 7 35.754 35. 847 35.921 35.933 36.040 36.068 36.079 36.061 36.026 35.957 35.889 35.818 35.756 35.69 3 35.632 35.577 35.526 35.479 35.431 35.34 7 35.282 35.222 35.163 35. 123 35.077 35.043 35.011 34.979 34.954 34.930 34.908 34.889 34.870 34.849 34.804 34.765 34.735 34.712 34.702 34.698 34.706 34.723 34.746 34.772 34.837 34.839 34.932 34.955 34.967 34.969 34.971 34.969 34.967 34.965 3 36.083 36.103 36.147 36.212 36.315 36.423 36.527 36.6 26 36.714 36.793 36.340 36.842 36.331 36.310 36.7 75 36.734 36.679 36.621 36.561 36.500 36.441 36.325 36.224 36.128 36.034 35.958 35.881 35.807 35.736 35.6 64 35.601 35.5 34 35.473 35.414 35.361 35.305 35.175 35.070 34.991 34.931 34.383 34.855 34.856 34.866 34.869 34.837 34.936 34.966 34.988 35.000 35.005 35.008 35.000 34.994 34.9 93 34.9 86 4 35.623 35.629 35.654 35.689 35.699 35.636 35.648 35.606 35.574 35.544 35.509 35.480 35.455 35.435 35.412 35.395 35.376 35.362 35.346 35.330 35.314 35.298 35.287 35.275 35.262 35.254 35.245 35.239 35.230 35.221 35.208 35.193 35.175 35.158 35.137 35.115 35.067 35.021 34.972 34.928 34.893 34.874 34.868 34.865 34.874 34.883 34.920 34.954 34.978 34.986 34.987 34.982 34.981 34.976 34.974 34.966 5 36.955 36.952 36.950 36.957 36.957 36.961 36.956 3 6.947 36.936 36.922 36.908 36.835 36.858 36.828 36.799 36.765 36.725 36.690 36.653 36.621 36.593 36.533 36.493 36.445 3 6.398 36.355 36.314 36.272 36.227 36.182 36.135 36.086 36.039 35.991 35.943 35.392 35.772 35.653 35.537 35.437 35.337 35.253 3 5.189 35.143 35.109 35.091 35.083 35.095 35.097 35.092 35.082 35.066 35.066 35.045 35.033 35.022 6 36.633 36.636 36.644 33.651 36.651 36.6 55 36.673 36 .660 36.6 42 36.611 36.571 36.516 36.464 36.415 36.3 66 36.313 36.2 80 36.241 36.205 36.166 36.130 36.053 35.9 86 35.931 35.3 79 35.333 35.790 35.749 35.708 35.668 35.632 35.597 35.565 35.534 35.502 35.472 35.402 35.33 8 35.2 86 35.242 35.2 09 35.184 35.166 35.160 35.158 35.160 35.182 35.192 35.190 35.181 35.162 35.136 35.108 35.084 35.061 35.041 DEPTH AND SALINITY OF ATLANTIC AREAS 138 AREA # : DEPTH IM J 0-0 10.0 20.0 30. 0 40. 0 50. 0 60. 0 70.0 80. 0 90.0 100.0 11.0. 0 120.0 130.0 140.0 150.0 160. 0 170.0 180.0 190. 0 200. 0 220. 0 240. 0 260.0 280.0 300. 0 320. 0 340. 0 360. 0 380. 0 400. 0 420.0 440.0 460.0 430.0 500. 0 550.0 600.0 650.0 700.0 750. 0 800.0 850. C 900. 0 950. 0 1000. 0 1100. 0 1200.0 1300.0 1400.0 1500.0 1600.0 170 0. 0 1800.0 1900.0 2000.0 7 36.392 36.398 36.406 3 6.416 36.430 3 6.444 36.451 36.461 36.468 36.474 36.474 36.474 .36.468 36.465 36.461 36.457 36.450 36.444 36.437 36.431 36.424 36.411 36.397 36.380 36.364 36.345 36.324 36.303 36.277 36.249 36.218 36.185 36.150 36.112 36.073 36.030 35.910 35.786 35.652 35.525 35.409 35.308 35.2 32 35.180 35.139 35.114 35.087 3 5.073 35.052 35.040 35.025 35.012 35.001 34.991 34.9 86 34.983 8 36.277 36.269 36.255 36.247 36.233 36.224 36.218 36.208 36.202 36.194 36.186 36.177 36.162 36.150 36.139 36.124 36.10 3 36.091 36.075 36.059 36.043 36.007 35.976 35.943 35.912 35.878 35.848 35.820 35.790 35-760 35.732 35.703 35.681 35.653 35.624 35.595 35.532 35.478 35.433 35.399 35.378 35.361 35.362 35.355 35.344 35.333 35.308 35.270 35.220 35.164 35.123 35.036 35.054 35.034 35.015 34.998 9 36.513 36.505 36.498 36.439 36.463 36.442 36.413 36.391 36.370 36.352 36.337 36.313 36.304 36.233 36.264 36.246 36.225 36.204 36.182 36.153 36.128 36.077 36.028 35.9 33 35.941 35.903 35.367 35.835 35.803 35-772 3 5.743 35.717 35.692 35.668 35.647 35.626 35.584 35.556 35.542 35.541 35.547 35.559 35.577 35.598 35.615 35.622 35.631 35.615 35.561 35.487 35.390 35.316 35.249 35. 188 35.131 35.093 10 36.120 36.116 36*110 36.037 36.066 36-053 36.041 3 6.029 36.017 36.005 35.992 35.974 35.958 35.944 35.928 35.915 35.901 35.8 86 35.869 35.857 35.845 35.816 35.788 35.764 35.741 35.721 35.702 35.683 35.664 35.649 35.634 35.622 35.614 35.607 35.602 35.602 35.611 35.635 35.688 35.737 35.798 35.844 35.880 35.906 35.932 35.956 35.973 35.950 35.844 35.705 35.545 35.406 35.287 35.213 35.104 35.065 11 3 3. 736 33.321 33.904 34.00? 34.117 34.225 34.310 34.396 34.461 34.514 34.556 34.593 34.612 34.642 34.666 34.693 34.714 34.733 34.755 34.771 34.783 34.806 34.822 34.834 34. 856 34.859 34.871 34.882 34.887 34.891 34.898 34.903 34.907 34.909 34.913 34.914 34.921 34.930 34.936 34.936 34.935 34.935 34.934 34.933 34.932 34.931 34.929 34.929 34.929 34.93 0 34.936 34.944 34.941 34.933 3 4.941 34.944 12 35.695 35.710 35.725 35.742 35.773 35.801 35.321 35.832 35.833 35.839 35.839 35.332 35.828 35.3 24 35.813 35.809 35.799 35.792 35.782 35.772 35.762 35.740 35.723 35.704 35.632 35.653 35.630 35.5 97 35.5 64 35-529 35.4 83 35.436 35.3 95 35.353 35.311 35.270 35.180 35.120 35.077 35.0 52 35.040 35.030 35.027 35.018 35.011 35.007 34.992 34.981 34.?71 34.959 34.951 34.943 34.941 34.936 34.935 34.938 i.0 3 DEPTH AND SALINITY OF ATLANTIC AREAS 139 AREA # : 13 14 15 DEPTH(M) 0.0 . 35.371 35.690 34.773 10.0 35.375 35.685 34.800 20.0 35.379 35.684 34.829 30.0 35.386 35.631 34.354 40.0 35.392 35.678 34.882 50.0 35.397 35.679 34.903 60.0 35.404 35.678 34.925 70.0 35.409 35.677 34.938 80.0 35.412 35.674 34.951 90.0 35.414 35.671 34.961 100.0 35.417 35.667 34.970 110.0 35.416 35.664 34.976 120.0 35.413 35.660 34.979 130.0 35.411 35.655 34.984 140.0 35.408 35.651 34.989 150.0 35.405 35.646 34.992 160.0 35.403 35.642 34.994 170.0 35.400 35.637 34.996 180.0 35.396 35.634 35.000 190.0 35,393 35.631 35.002 200.0 35.389 35.626 35.004 220.0 35.379 35.619 35.007 240.0 35.371 35.611 35.009 260.0 35.361 35.604 35.011 280.0 35.352 35.596 35.011 300.0 35.340 35.588 35.011 320.0 35.330 35.581 35.012 340.0 35.320 35.574 35.012 360.0 35.311 35.567 35.012 380.0 35.303 35.561 35.OIL 400.0 35.294 35.553 35.010 420.0 35.286 35.547 35.009 440.0 3 5.278 35.541 35.007 460.0 35.270 35.535 35.005 480.0 35.261 35.531 35.002 500.0 35.254 35.525 35.000 550.0 35.233 35.515 34.992 600.0 35.218 35.510 34.987 650.0 35.199 35.514 34.984 700.0 35.187 35.522 34.984 750.0 35.173 35.531 34.983 800.0 3 5.156 35.547 34.9 82 850.0 35.140 35.567 34.982 900.0 35.125 35.580 34.983 950.0 35.109 35.586 34.983 1000.0 35.093 35.580 34.979 1100.0 35.059 35.532 34.974 1200.0 35.027 35.455 34.967 1300.0 34.999 35.352 34.957 1400.0 34.975 35.247 34.950 1500.0 34.960 35.150 34.947 1600.0 34.954 35.090 34.944 1700.0 34.943 35.045 34.942 1800.0 34.946 35.013 34.942 1900.0 34.946 35.007 34.945 2000.0 34.947 34.975 34.944 DEPTH AND SALINITY OF PACIFIC AREA # : DEPTH(M) 0. 0 10. 0 20.0 30. 0 40.0 50. 0 60. 0 70. 0 80.0 90. 0 100.0 ilO.O 120.0 130.0 140. 0 150. 0 160. 0 170. 0 180.0 190. 0 200. 0 220. 0 240. 0 260. 0 280.0 300. 0 320.0 340. 0 36 0.0 380. 0 400.0 420.0 440. 0 460. 0 480.0 500. 0 55 0.0 60 0. 0 650. 0 70 0.0 750.0 800.0 850. 0 900.0 95 0. 0 1000.0 1100. 0 1200. 0 1300. 0 1400. 0 1500.0 160 0.0 1700. 0 1800. 0 190Q.0 2000. 0 1 33.761 33.868 34.072 34.309 34.593 34.799 34.874 34.904 34.920 34.923 34.929 34.926 34.928 34.925 34.923 34.918 34.915 34.912 34.909 34.905 34.902 34.892 34.879 34.863 34.842 34.819 34.793 34.772 34.751 34.731 34.715 34.699 34.685 34.672 34.661 34.651 34.629 34.612 34.601 34.592 34.585 34.582 34.5 81 34.5 77 34.576 34.573 34.580 34.5 32 34.600 34.608 34.616 34.623 34.631 34.637 34.643 34.648 2 35.149 35.153 35.156 35.173 35.206 35.226 35.248 35.258 35.246 35.222 35.194 35.158 35.125 35.090 35.059 35.032 35.002 34.975 34.950 34.930 34.913 34.890 34.871 34.854 34.836 34.817 34.799 34.780 34.761 34.741 34.722 34.702 34.684 34.667 34.651 34.633 34.610 34.589 34.574 34.563 34.556 34.552 34.550 34.549 34.551 34.554 34.562 34.572 34.585 34.595 34.604 34.613 34.624 34.629 34.63 5 34.642 3 34.2 55 34.284 34« 344 34.415 34.493 34.567 34.639 34.6 78 34.729 34.754 34.7 80 34.7 89 34.794 34.604 34.308 34.811 34.811 34.812 34.812 34.812 34.813 34.809 34.806 34.799 34.783 34.774 34.753 34.741 34.723 34.707 34.691 34.676 34.662 34.649 34.636 34.624 34.601 34.583 34.572 34.562 34.5 57 34.556 34.555 34.555 34.557 34.560 34.565 34.5 81 34.590 34.599 34.607 34.620 34.625 34.633 34.641 34.647 4 34.200 34.224 34.262 34.323 34.421 34.499 34.541 34.565 34.582 34.611 34.637 34.668 34.694 34.717 34.735 34.747 34.753 34.760 34.762 34.765 34.766 34.765 34.762 34.755 34.746 34.735 34.721 34.706 34.691 34.675 34.659 34.646 34.632 34.620 34.609 34.599 34.576 34.562 34.554 34.551 34.548 34.547 34.547 34.548 34.552 34.553 .34.564 34.5 76 34.585 34.594 34.605 34.614 34.623 34.634 34.641 34.647 AREAS 5 34.813 34.315 34.32 7 34.8 51 34.375 34.897 34.931 34.942 34.947 34.955 34.935 34.928 34.920 34.910 34.894 34.871 34.845 34.826 34.314 34.799 34.792 34.730 34.773 34.766 34.757 34.745 34.735 34.723 34.710 34.698 34.685 34.671 34.659 34.646 34.635 34.625 34.598 34.578 34.561 34.553 34.548 34.548 34.550 34.553 34.556 34.558 34.567 34.583 34.538 34.596 34.601 34.620 34.619 34.627 34.634 34.641 140 6 35.369 35.3 62 35.363 35.367 35.3 71 35.377 35.3 37 35.401 35.417 35.436 35.456 35.475 35.480 35.497 35.507 35.439 35.436 35.383 35.325 35.258 35.202 35.074 34.985 34.920 34.873 34.839 34.812 34.788 34=766 34.746 34.726 34.706 34.6 83 34.6 72 34.6 57 34.643 34.612 34.588 34.571 34.560 34.552 34.548 34.547 34.546 34.548 34.551 34.559 34.569 34.5 85 34.599 34.608 34.615 34.622 34.628 34.636 34.643 141 DEPTH AMD SALINITY OF PACIFIC AREAS 141 AREA # : DhPTHfM) 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 10 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 15 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 44 0 . 0 46 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 0 6 0 0 . 0 6 5 0 . 0 7 0 0 . 0 7 5 0 . 0 8 0 0 . 0 85 0 . 0 9 0 0 . 0 9 5 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 1 0 0 . 0 1 2 0 0 . 0 1 3 0 0 . 0 1 4 0 0 . 0 1 5 0 0 . 0 1 6 0 0 . 0 1 7 0 0 . 0 1 8 0 0 . 0 1 9 0 0 . 0 2 0 0 0 . 0 7 3 5 . 5 7 5 3 5 . 5 7 3 3 5 . 5 7 9 3 5 . 5 85 3 5 . 5 8 5 3 5 . 5 9 1 3 5 . 6 0 9 3 5 . 6 2 4 3 5 . 6 5 9 3 5 . 6 3 7 3 5 . 7 5 8 3 5 . 8 5 6 3 5 . 9 2 7 3 5 . 9 7 7 3 6 . 0 0 3 3 5 . 9 8 9 3 5 . 9 5 9 3 5 . 9 1 1 3 5 . 8 4 6 3 5 . 7 7 1 3 5 . 6 4 7 3 5 . 4 1 9 3 5 . 2 0 1 3 5 . 0 4 1 3 4 . 9 2 7 3 4 . 8 5 5 3 4 . 8 1 7 3 4 . 7 32 3 4 . 7 5 4 3 4 . 7 2 7 3 4 . 7 0 4 3 4 . 6 3 2 3 4 . 6 6 4 3 4 . 6 4 3 3 4 . 6 3 5 3 4 . 6 2 5 3 4 . 5 9 8 3 4 . 5 7 9 3 4 . 5 6 2 ' 3 4 . 5 53 3 4 . 5 4 7 3 4 . 5 4 2 3 4 . 5 4 0 3 4 . 5 4 2 3 4 . 5 4 5 3 4 . 5 4 8 3 4 . 5 6 6 3 4 . 5 7 9 3 4 . 5 3 9 3 4 . 6 0 6 3 4 . 6 1 2 3 4 . 6 1 9 3 4 . 6 2 9 3 4 . 6 3 7 3 4 . 6 5 1 3 4 . 6 4 9 8 35.023 35.044 3 5 . 0 7 6 35.105 35.133 35.189 35.2a3 35.336 35.403 35.476 35.541 35.602 35.671 35.738 35.785 35.819 35.824 35.818 35.797 35.752 35.690 35.511 35.336 35.179 35.048 34.948 34.8 78 34.82 7 34.785 34.750 34.719 34.693 34.674 34.655 34.639 34.625 34.598 34.572 34.558 34.549 34.543 34.541 34.542 34.544 34.546 34.548 34.557 34.565 34.5 SO 34.592 34.604 34.607 34.618 3 4 . 6 2 6 34.633 34.640 9 3 4 . 4 7 4 3 4 . 4 9 4 3 4 . 5 1 7 3 4 . 5 53 3 4 . 6 0 5 3 4 . 6 4 6 3 4 . 6 9 6 3 4 . 7 4 5 3 4 . 7 9 0 3 4 . 3 2 3 . 3 4 . 8 4 1 3 4 . 8 3 7 3 4 . 8 3 2 3 4 . 8 1 0 3 4 . 7 8 0 3 4 . 7 5 1 3 4 . 7 1 5 3 4 . 6 8 9 3 4 . 6 6 5 3 4 . 6 4 4 3 4 . 6 3 0 3 4 . 6 2 8 3 4 . 6 3 1 3 4 . 6 3 5 3 4 . 6 3 5 3 4 . 6 3 5 3 4 , 6 3 0 3 4 . 6 2 4 3 4 o 6 1 7 3 4 . 6 1 1 3 4 . 6 0 4 3 4 . 5 9 6 3 4 . 5 83 3 4 . 5 3 1 3 4 . 5 7 3 3 4 . 5 6 5 3 4 . 5 5 0 3 4 . 3 3 9 3 4 . 5 3 5 3 4 . 5 3 3 3 4 . 5 3 3 3 4 . 5 3 2 3 4 . 5 3 6 3 4 . 5 3 9 3 4 . 5 4 4 3 4 . 5 4 7 3 4 . 5 5 3 3 4 . 5 6 3 3 4 . 5 8 0 3 4 . 5 36 3 4 . 5 95 3 4 . 6 0 9 3 4 . 6 1 0 3 4 . 6 3 0 3 4 . 6 2 2 3 4 . 6 3 0 10 3 4 . 5 2 9 3 4 . 5 3 3 3 4 . 5 5 1 3 4 . 5 8 2 3 4 . 6 0 9 3 4 . 6 4 3 3 4 . 6 8 7 3 4 . 7 3 2 3 4 . 7 7 4 3 4 . 8 1 6 3 4 . 8 4 5 3 4 , 8 5 3 3 4 . 8 4 6 3 4 . 8 2 6 3 4 . 7 9 6 3 4 . 7 6 1 3 4 . 7 1 9 3 4 . 6 7 5 3 4 . 6 3 4 3 4 . 5 9 1 3 4 . 5 5 2 3 4 . 4 8 7 3 4 . 4 4 1 3 4 . 4 1 5 3 4 . 4 0 5 3 4 . 3 9 7 3 4 . 3 9 7 3 4 . 3 9 9 3 4 . 4 0 3 3 4 . 4 0 8 3 4 . 4 1 1 3 4 . 4 1 5 3 4 . 4 2 0 3 4 . 4 2 3 3 4 . 4 2 7 3 4 . 4 3 0 3 4 . 4 3 5 3 4 . 4 5 7 3 4 . 4 5 9 3 4 . 4 7 0 3 4 . 4 8 2 3 4 . 4 9 4 3 4 . 5 0 3 3 4 . 5 1 0 3 4 . 5 1 8 3 4 . 5 2 6 3 4 . 5 4 3 3 4 . 5 5 7 3 4 . 5 7 4 3 4 . 5 8 4 3 4 . 5 9 6 3 4 . 6 0 1 3 4 . 6 1 2 3 4 . 6 2 5 3 4 . 6 3 3 3 4 . 6 3 5 11 3 4 . 2 7 2 3 4 . 2 6 0 3 4 . 2 5 5 3 4 . 2 6 8 3 4 . 2 7 3 3 4 . 2 6 0 3 4 . 2 4 8 3 4 . 2 2 7 3 4 . 1 9 2 3 4 . 1 6 3 3 4 . 1 3 7 3 4 . 1 3 8 3 4 . 143 3 4 . 1 3 7 3 4 . 1 3 8 3 4 . 1 3 9 3 4 . 1 6 9 3 4 . 1 9 5 3 4 . 2 2 2 3 4 . 2 5 5 3 4 . 2 7 9 3 4 . 3 3 7 3 4 . 3 9 8 3 4 . 4 3 0 3 4 . 4 6 0 3 4 . 4 6 5 3 4 . 4 6 4 3 4 . 4 6 4 3 4 . 4 6 8 3 4 . 4 6 6 3 4 . 4 6 3 3 4 . 4 6 2 3 4 . 4 6 1 3 4 . 4 6 1 3 4 . 4 6 3 3 4 . 4 6 3 3 4 . 4 6 4 3 4 . 4 6 8 3 4 . 4 7 8 3 4 . 4 8 3 3 4 . 4 8 9 3 4 . 4 9 7 3 4 . 5 0 7 3 4 . 5 1 4 3 4 . 5 2 3 3 4 . 5 2 8 3 4 . 5 4 6 3 4 . 5 6 2 3 4 . 5 7 7 3 4 . 5 8 7 3 4 . 5 9 9 3 4 . 6 1 0 3 4 . 6 2 0 3 4 . 6 2 9 3 4 . 6 3 3 3 4 . 6 4 6 12 3 4 . 9 5 0 3 4 . 9 53 3 4 . 9 6 1 3 4 . 9 7 2 3 4 . 9 82 3 4 . 9 9 4 3 5 . 0 1 1 3 5 . 0 2 7 3 5 . 0 3 9 3 5 . 0 4 5 3 5 . 0 4 4 3 5 . 0 3 7 3 5 . 0 2 6 3 5 . 0 08 3 4 . 9 86 3 4 . 9 5 5 3 4 . 9 1 0 3 4 . 3 6 2 3 4 . 8 1 5 3 4 . 7 6 6 3 4 . 7 1 9 3 4 . 6 2 6 3 4 . 5 4 6 3 4 . 4 7 7 3 4 . 4 2 0 3 4 . 3 7 4 3 4 . 3 3 3 3 4 . 2 9 9 3 4 . 2 6 3 3 4 . 2 4 2 3 4 . 2 20 3 4 . 2 0 2 3 4 . 1 8 8 3 4 . 1 7 7 3 4 . 1 7 2 3 4 . 1 6 9 3 4 . 1 8 3 3 4 . 2 1 0 3 4 . 2 50 3 4 . 2 9 0 3 4 . 3 2 8 3 4 . 3 6 5 3 4 . 3 9 3 3 4 . 4 2 3 3 4 . 4 5 4 3 4 . 4 76 3 4 . 5 0 9 3 4 . 5 34 3 4 . 5 50 3 4 . 5 6 5 3 4 . 5 79 3 4 . 5 9 3 3 4 . 6 1 1 3 4 . 6 1 0 3 4 . 6 1 8 3 4 . 6 2 6 DEPTH AND SALINITY OF PACIFIC AREAS AREA # : DEPTHCM) 0.0 10. 0 20. 0 30. 0 40. 0 50.0 60. 0 70. 0 8 0. 0 9 0. 0 100. 0 110. 0 120.0 130. 0 140. 0 150.0 160. 0 170. 0 180. 0 190. 0 200.0 220. 0 240.0 260.0 280. 0 300. 0 320.0 340.0 360. 0 380.0 400.0 42 0.0 440. 0 460. 0 480. 0 500. 0 550. 0 600.0 650.0 700.0 750. 0 800.0 850. 0 900. 0 950. 0 1000.0 i 100. 0 1200. 0 1300.0 1400. 0 1500. 0 1600. 0 1700. 0 1800.0 1900.0 2000.0 13 33.305 33.302 33.311 33.320 33.327 33.328 33.329 33.33 7 33.354 33.379 33.407 33.444 33.481 33.522 33.564 33.603 33.653 33.693 33.745 33.786 33.826 33.388 33.937 33.975 34.004 34.023 34.036 34.048 34.059 34.070 34.083 34.096 34.110 34.124 34.139 34.153 34.193 34.2 32 34.267 34.300 34.331 34.359 34.336 34.409 34.429 34.446 34.477 34.502 34.524 34.53 3 34.544 34.571 34.586 3 4.5 95 34.599 34.619 14 34.647 34.646 34.656 34.666 34.675 34.680 34.6 32 34.67 8 34.672 34.663 34.653 34.641 34.62 8 34.616 34.607 34.595 34.582 34.56 9 34.556 34.545 34.534 34.509 34.485 34.461 34.43 7 34.411 34.3 83 34.3 54 34.326 34.299 34.272 34.243 34.217 34.192 34.169 34.143 34.112 34.095 34.104 34.126 34.153 34.183 34.221 34.258 34.293 34.324 34.3 80 34.424 34.460 34.491 34.516 34.53 9 34.556 34.573 34.587 34.599 15 34.538 34.542 34.356 34.585 34.626 34.676 34.746 34.3G3 34.868 34.919 34.959 34.983 34.9 96 34.999 34.999 34.9 89 34.945 34.393 34.352 34.8 07 34.765 34.690 34.632 34.586 34.5 50 34.522 34.514 34.509 34.505 34.502 34.500 34.49 9 34.501 34.502 34.503 34.504 34.5 03 34.507 34.512 34.518 34.523 34.529 34.534 34.539 34.545 34.551 34.5 59 34.569 34.575 34.585 34.595 34.600 34.609 34.620 34.625 34.632 16 33.508 33.504 33.520 33.545 33.564 33.586 33.609 33.621 33.638 33.661 33.682 33.717 33.762 33.802 33.837 33.872 33.902 33.929 33.950 33.970 33.984 33.997 33.999 33.999 33.993 33.993 33.985 33.978 33.973 33.968 33.966 33.965 33.967 33.972 33.977 33.985 34.017 34.058 34.104 34.147 34.183 34.225 34.259 34.291 34.319 34.345 34.389 34.423 34.461 34.488 34.513 34.534 34.552 34.568 34.591 34.603 17 32.639 32.650 32.673 32.703 32.738 32.767 3 2.804 32.842 32.913 32.934 33.070 33.173 33.2 30 33.397 33.502 33.594 33.674 33.740 33.794 33.837 33.86 8 33.898 33.917 33.931 33.940 33.950 3 3.957 33.964 33.972 33.982 33.992 34.004 34.017 34.030 34.045 34.061 34.103 34.143 34.182 34.219 34.253 34.285 34.312 34.337 34.361 34.382 34.419 34.450 34.479 34.502 34.523 34.542 34.560 34.575 34.539 34.602 1 4 2 34.633 34.637 34.652 34.6 73 34.710 34.733 34.758 34.7 76 34.790 34.801 34.808 34.810 34.812 34.811 34.611 34.809 34.304 34.799 34.794 34.789 34.7 82 34.7 65 34.745 34.724 34.7 00 34.676 34.648 34.619 34.5 90 34.5 59 34.526 34.4 87 34.451 34.414 34.380 34.348 34.279 34.229 34.208 34.203 34.209 34.220 34.248 34.277 34.305 34.335 34.3 86 34.432 34.462 34.491 34.515 34.533 34.554 34.572 34.587 34.600 DEPTH AND SALINITY OF PACIFIC AREAS 143 AREA # : DEPTHIM ) 0.0 10. 0 20. 0 30. 0 40.0 50. 0 60.0 70. 0 80.0 90. 0 100.0 110. 0 120.0 130.0 140. 0 150. 0 160. 0 170. 0 180.0 190. 0 200.0 220. 0 240. 0 260. 0 280.0 300. 0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380. 0 400. 0 420.0 440.0 46 0.0 480.0 500. 0 550.0 600.0 650.0 700.0 750.0 800.0 850. 0 900.0 950.0 1000.0 110 0. 0 1200.0 1300.0 1400. 0 1500.0 160 0. 0 1700.0 1800. 0 1900.0 2000. 0 19 32.636 32.631 32.650 32.634 32.719 32.751 32.779 32.811 32.874 32.955 33.056 33.212 33.349 33.475 33.531 33.659 33.709 3 3.755 33.785 33.815 33.840 33.8 72 33.900 33.925 33.948 33.971 33.994 34.015 34.035 34.055 34.074 34.092 34.109 34.125 34.141 34.157 34.190 34.222 34.251 34.277 34.301 3 4.323 34.343 34.362 34.379 34.395 34.426 34.453 34.477 34.497 34.513 34.537 34.554 34.569 34.532 34.595 20 32.994 32.983 33.024 33.076 33.13 8 33.185 33.217 33.246 33.277 33.309 33.344 33.333 33.422 33.465 33.5 07 33.551 33.599 33.642 33.68G 33.716 33.749 33.790 33.83 0 33.865 33.897 33.926 33.952 33.976 33.998 34.020 34.040 34.058 34.076 34.093 34.103 34.123 34.155 34.183 34.2 07 34.231 34.253 34.305 34.326 34.346 34.364 34.381 34.413 34.443 34.470 34.492 34.516 34.536 34.552 34.566 34.5 85 34.593 21 34.535 34.525 34.537 34.569 34.601 34.626 34.644 34.653 34.667 34.673 34.675 34.6 73 34.670 34.665 34.6 60 34.653 34.645 34.636 34.623 34.617 34.603 34.5 80 34.551 34.524 34.501 34.480 34.458 34.441 34.427 34«409 34.390 34.363 34.348 34.329 34.309 34.291 34.253 34.2 28 34.213 34.212 34.218 34.232 34.254 34.279 34.303 34.330 34.376 34.417 34.447 34.477 34.502 34.525 34.543 34.559 34.575 34.5 86 

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